Science.gov

Sample records for intergroup consulting economists

  1. What Led Eminent Economists to Become Economists?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Brent A.; Grimes, Paul W.; Becker, William E.

    2012-01-01

    The authors analyze the various factors that highly recognized economists cite as reasons for pursuing a career in economics. They obtained data for 62 of the 67 Nobel Laureates in economics and included another 22 prominent economists who have made significant contributions in economic research. The authors' basic quest was to discover how these…

  2. Intergroup bias.

    PubMed

    Hewstone, Miles; Rubin, Mark; Willis, Hazel

    2002-01-01

    This chapter reviews the extensive literature on bias in favor of in-groups at the expense of out-groups. We focus on five issues and identify areas for future research: (a) measurement and conceptual issues (especially in-group favoritism vs. out-group derogation, and explicit vs. implicit measures of bias); (b) modern theories of bias highlighting motivational explanations (social identity, optimal distinctiveness, uncertainty reduction, social dominance, terror management); (c) key moderators of bias, especially those that exacerbate bias (identification, group size, status and power, threat, positive-negative asymmetry, personality and individual differences); (d) reduction of bias (individual vs. intergroup approaches, especially models of social categorization); and (e) the link between intergroup bias and more corrosive forms of social hostility.

  3. Diversifying the Economists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2006-01-01

    The American Economists Association's (AEA's) summer and minority scholarship program at Duke University is an academic pipeline program that has been in operation for 33 years. The eight-week summer experience prepares its participants for the rigors of first- and second-year study in master's and doctorate programs in economics. The program also…

  4. HANDBOOK ON INTERGROUP EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District of Columbia Public Schools, Washington, DC.

    THE AIM OF INTERGROUP EDUCATION IS TO DEVELOP A CONSCIOUSNESS AND APPRECIATION OF THE DIGNITY, CONTRIBUTIONS, AND BASIC UNITY OF ALL ETHNIC, RELIGIOUS, SOCIAL, AND ECONOMIC GROUPS WHICH ENRICH THE AMERICAN WAY OF LIFE. SCHOOL PERSONNEL AT ALL LEVELS HAVE A RESPONSIBILITY TO PROMOTE A PROGRAM OF INTERGROUP RELATIONS. THE CENTRAL ADMINISTRATIVE…

  5. The Economist as Public Intellectual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, R. Glenn

    2004-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the rising number of outlets for communication through cable networks and electronic broadcasting (not to mention self-promoting Web "blogs") has stimulated the demand for economic commentary. Only the academic economist, as "public intellectual," can provide this commentary in a coherent and rigorous way via the three…

  6. Energy policy: an economist's confessions

    SciTech Connect

    Schlesinger, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    Dr. Schlesinger, former Secretary of Energy, feels that energy policy will determine how the industrial economies perform and whether the western political institutions survive. He says that energy policy does not, however, respond to traditional economic analysis in that there is no economic theory to adequately cover depleting resources. Economists gain strength by approaching energy problems in the context of supply and the price mechanism, with attention to arithmetic rather than emotion. Dr. Schlesinger believes, however, that there are weaknesses in the economists' view in the curative powers granted to the marketplace, which are better at making small adjustments over a long period of time than large adjustments in a short time. He notes that tendency to use inappropriate syllogisms obscures the problem of a rapidly diminishing lead time to solving the energy problem. He observes that total reliance on the marketplace will have to give way to government subsidies to research, develop, and commercialize fuels. (DCK)

  7. Home Economists and Hospice: A Needed Combination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Story, Marilyn D.

    1983-01-01

    Hospice is a family-centered concept of care which needs home economists from all subject-matter areas in volunteer or paid professional roles. In turn, home economists can grow personally as well as professionally through their involvement with hospice. (Author)

  8. Needed: Home Economists in the Peace Corps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Frances J.

    1978-01-01

    The primary reason home economists, nutritionists, and dietitians are being recruited by the Peace Corps is the national priority goal for achieving improved nutritional status in impoverished countries such as Costa Rica. However, several ways in which a home economist can contribute to Peace Corps activities and the role of this professional in…

  9. Incomes of Home Economists Employed Full Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsley, Carolyn J.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Presents data from the 1979 American Home Economics Association survey on 11,229 home economists employed full time (68 percent of all respondents). Illustrates how education, sex, minority status, academic major, and type of employer affect home economists' incomes. (SK)

  10. Reducing aggressive intergroup action tendencies: effects of intergroup contact via perceived intergroup threat.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Katharina; Hewstone, Miles; Küpper, Beate; Zick, Andreas; Tausch, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Two studies tested the prediction that more positive intergroup contact would be associated with reduced aggressive intergroup action tendencies, an effect predicted to occur indirectly via reduced intergroup threat perceptions, and over and above well-established effects of contact on intergroup attitudes. Study 1, using data based on a cross-section of the general population of eight European countries (France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, and the UK; N = 7,042), examined this hypothesis in the context of aggressive action tendencies towards immigrants. Study 2, using longitudinal data obtained from a general population sample in Northern Ireland, considered effects on aggressive action tendencies between ethno-religious groups in conflict. Both studies confirmed our predictions, showing that while perceived threat was associated with greater intergroup aggressive tendencies, positive intergroup contact was indirectly associated with reduced aggressive action tendencies, via reduced intergroup threat. Findings are discussed in terms of the theoretical contributions of this research for understanding the relationship between intergroup contact and intergroup aggression.

  11. What Futurists Believe: Implications for Home Economists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berenbaum, Shawna

    1992-01-01

    The challenges that the future will present to the home economist will be many. Technological, scientific, economic, environmental, climatic, social, political, institutional, and personal pressures will cause changes that will be favorable and unfavorable. (JOW)

  12. Ethnolinguistic Vitality and Intergroup Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehala, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The paper argues that ethnolinguistic vitality depends on four crucial social psychological factors: perceived strength differential, intergroup distance, utilitarianism and intergroup discordance. The influence of these factors on the vitality of subordinate and dominant groups is outlined. It is proposed that the vitality of both types of groups…

  13. Consensus among Economists--An Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Dan; Geide-Stevenson, Doris

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore consensus among economists on specific propositions based on a fall 2011 survey of American Economic Association members. Results are based on 568 responses and provide evidence of changes in opinion over time by including propositions from earlier studies in 2000 (Fuller and Geide-Stevenson 2003) and 1992…

  14. Professional Training of Economists at Polish Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogienko, Olena

    2016-01-01

    Polish experience in professional training of economists at university has been generalized. Structural, content and procedural peculiarities of the training have been defined. It has been proved that key factors for reforming economic education in Poland are globalization, internationalization, integration, technologization and informatization.…

  15. Intergroup Anxiety: A Person X Situation Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britt, Thomas W.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Offers a person X situation approach to the study of intergroup anxiety in which anxiety in intergroup encounters is viewed as a transaction between the individual and the environment. An individual difference measure of intergroup anxiety toward African Americans is developed. Presents studies assessing the scale's reliability and validity.…

  16. Cognitive Differentiation in Intergroup Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephan, Walter G.

    1977-01-01

    Black, Chicano, and Anglo students from segregated and integrated schools perceived their ethnic groups as being less differentiated than outgroups. Students in integrated schools perceived outgroups as somewhat less differentiated than students in segregated schools. Intergroup contact, except between highly dissimilar groups, was not an…

  17. Problems of intergroup behavior in human spaceflight operations.

    PubMed

    Penwell, L W

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses intergroup dynamics in human spaceflight operations. A definition of intergroup behavior is presented and prerequisite conditions for intergroup conflict are explored. Research and anecdotal evidence of intergroup conflict between groups and subgroups in exotic environments and space operations is presented. Concepts from the literature on intergroup conflicts are discussed in the context of possible conflict resolution interventions. Factors that may affect intergroup dynamics in human spaceflight operations and the need for intergroup research are highlighted.

  18. Studying Intergroup Relations in Organizations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-10

    23, 137-149. Sumner, W.G.: Folkways. New York; Ginn, 1906. Tajfel , H.: Experiments in Intergroup Discrimination . Scientific American, 1970, 223, 96-102...Shepard and Mouton’s (1964) subsequent studies and application to managerial behavior. Tajfel (1971) has carried out an extensive series of experiments on...and to influ- ence relations with other groups (Sherif and Sherif, 1969; Blake, Shepard, and Mouton, 1964; Tajfel , 1971; Billig, 1976). e. Leadership

  19. Intergroup Biases in Fear-induced Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Mifune, Nobuhiro; Simunovic, Dora; Yamagishi, Toshio

    2017-01-01

    Using a recently created preemptive strike game (PSG) with 176 participants, we investigated if the motivations of spite and/or fear promotes aggression that requires a small cost to the aggressor and imposes a larger cost on the opponent, and confirmed the earlier finding that fear does but spite does not promote intergroup aggression when the groups are characterized as minimal groups; additionally, the rate of intergroup aggression did not vary according to the group membership of the opponent. The PSG represents a situation in which both the motivations of spite and of fear can logically drive players to choose an option of aggression against an opponent. Participants decide whether or not to attack another participant, who also has the same capability. The decision is made in real time, using a computer. We discuss theoretical implications of our findings on the evolutionary foundations of intragroup cooperation and intergroup aggression. The evolutionary model of intergroup aggression, or the parochial altruism model, posits that intragroup cooperation and intergroup aggression have co-evolved, and thus it predicts both intragroup cooperation and intergroup aggression to emerge even in a minimal group devoid of a history of intergroup relationships. The finding that only intragroup cooperation but not intergroup aggression emerged in the minimal group experiments strongly suggests that intergroup aggression involves a psychological mechanism that is independent from that of intragroup cooperation. We further discuss the implications of these findings on real-world politics and military strategy. PMID:28174553

  20. Economists' Group Adjusts Policy on Discriminatory Language in Job Ads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, David

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how an economists' group brought forth policy adjustments on advertising issues. Since 1986 the association has banned advertisements in its newsletter, Job Openings for Economists, that discriminate "on the basis of race, color, religion, gender, national origin, sexual preference, or physical handicap." Facing…

  1. Critical consulting

    SciTech Connect

    Hocker, C.

    1993-02-01

    With increasing complexity in the power industry, consultants have become an indispensible element of any project development team. Top engineers and consultants today bring added value to their clients' projects.

  2. Women and Men: An Intergroup Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tortu, Stephanie

    Henri Tajfel's theory on intergroup relations is used as a model for thinking about men and women on a group level and discussing the differences between intergroup and interpersonal behavior to integrate the study of the individual within the larger social system. Strategies are described to help women challenge the imbalance of power between the…

  3. The Idea Factory: An Interactive Intergroup Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosh, Lisa; Leach, Evan

    2011-01-01

    This article outlines the Idea Factory exercise, an interactive exercise designed to help participants examine group, individual, and organizational factors that affect intergroup conflict. Specific emphasis is placed on exploring the relationship between intra- and intergroup dynamics and identifying managerial practices that foster effective…

  4. Steeling Ourselves: Intragroup Communication while Anticipating Intergroup Contact Evokes Defensive Intergroup Perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Greijdanus, Hedy; Postmes, Tom; Gordijn, Ernestine H.; van Zomeren, Martijn

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the role of intragroup communication in intergroup conflict (de-)escalation. Experiment 1 examined the effects of intragroup communication (vs. individual thought) and anticipated face-to-face intergroup contact (vs. no anticipated face-to-face intergroup contact). The group discussions of stigmatized group members who anticipated face-to-face intergroup contact revolved more around intergroup hostility. This boosted ingroup identification and increased social creativity but also led to steeling (a hardening of perceived intergroup relations). In Experiment 2, new participants listened to the taped group discussions. The discussions of groups anticipating face-to-face intergroup contact evoked more intergroup anxiety-related discomfort than discussions of groups not anticipating face-to-face intergroup encounters. Together, these results support the idea that steeling is a defensive reaction to prepare for an anxiety-arousing intergroup confrontation. Although steeling is also associated with positive consequences such as increased ingroup solidarity and social creativity, this hardened stance may be an obstacle to conflict de-escalation. PMID:26098741

  5. Steeling Ourselves: Intragroup Communication while Anticipating Intergroup Contact Evokes Defensive Intergroup Perceptions.

    PubMed

    Greijdanus, Hedy; Postmes, Tom; Gordijn, Ernestine H; van Zomeren, Martijn

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the role of intragroup communication in intergroup conflict (de-)escalation. Experiment 1 examined the effects of intragroup communication (vs. individual thought) and anticipated face-to-face intergroup contact (vs. no anticipated face-to-face intergroup contact). The group discussions of stigmatized group members who anticipated face-to-face intergroup contact revolved more around intergroup hostility. This boosted ingroup identification and increased social creativity but also led to steeling (a hardening of perceived intergroup relations). In Experiment 2, new participants listened to the taped group discussions. The discussions of groups anticipating face-to-face intergroup contact evoked more intergroup anxiety-related discomfort than discussions of groups not anticipating face-to-face intergroup encounters. Together, these results support the idea that steeling is a defensive reaction to prepare for an anxiety-arousing intergroup confrontation. Although steeling is also associated with positive consequences such as increased ingroup solidarity and social creativity, this hardened stance may be an obstacle to conflict de-escalation.

  6. Affective Dimensions of Intergroup Humiliation

    PubMed Central

    Leidner, Bernhard; Sheikh, Hammad; Ginges, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Despite the wealth of theoretical claims about the emotion of humiliation and its effect on human relations, there has been a lack of empirical research investigating what it means to experience humiliation. We studied the affective characteristics of humiliation, comparing the emotional experience of intergroup humiliation to two other emotions humiliation is often confused with: anger and shame. The defining characteristics of humiliation were low levels of guilt and high levels of other-directed outrage (like anger and unlike shame), and high levels of powerlessness (like shame and unlike anger). Reasons for the similarities and differences of humiliation with anger and shame are discussed in terms of perceptions of undeserved treatment and injustice. Implications for understanding the behavioral consequences of humiliation and future work investigating the role of humiliation in social life are discussed. PMID:23029499

  7. Meet EPA Natural Resource Economist Marisa Mazzotta, Ph.D.

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Marisa Mazzotta, Ph.D. currently works as an Economist at EPA's Atlantic Ecology Division. Her research focuses on the public's valuation and prioritization of natural resources, and the relationship between ecological changes and economic benefits.

  8. Breaking Barriers: Can Student Journalists and Economists Learn Together?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsay, Glenworth; Silvia, Antone

    1993-01-01

    Two University of Rhode Island teachers, of journalism and economics, designed student projects simulating real interactions between professional journalists and economists. The projects increased both groups' ability to communicate, awareness of communication needs, interdisciplinary understanding, and mutual respect. (MSE)

  9. The Social Psychology of Intergroup Toleration.

    PubMed

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Yogeeswaran, Kumar

    2017-02-01

    The global increase in cultural and religious diversity has led to calls for toleration of group differences to achieve intergroup harmony. Although much social-psychological research has examined the nature of stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination, and its impact on targets of these biases, little research has examined the nature and impact of toleration for intergroup relations. Toleration does not require that people give up their objections to out-group norms and practices but rather mutual accommodation. Integrating research from various social sciences, we explore the nature of intergroup tolerance including its three components-objection, acceptance, and rejection-while drawing out its implications for future social-psychological research. We then explore some psychological consequences to social groups that are the object of toleration. By doing so, we consider the complex ways in which intergroup tolerance impacts both majority and minority groups and the dynamic interplay of both in pluralistic societies.

  10. Intergroup Contact as a Tool for Reducing, Resolving, and Preventing Intergroup Conflict: Evidence, Limitations, and Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Ramiah, Ananthi; Hewstone, Miles

    2013-01-01

    We propose that intergroup contact provides an effective means by which to reduce, resolve, and prevent conflict of all kinds, including violent conflict. We review the vast literature on the effectiveness of intergroup contact and discuss when and how it reduces prejudice. We also discuss key features of successful interventions, highlighting …

  11. Lactation Consultant

    MedlinePlus

    ... human lactation. Job description Lactation consultants educate women, families, health professionals, and the community about breast feeding and human lactation; facilitate the development of policies which protect, promote, and support breastfeeding; ...

  12. Intergroup Conflict and Rational Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Tur, Vicente; Peñarroja, Vicente; Serrano, Miguel A.; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Moliner, Carolina; Salvador, Alicia; Alacreu-Crespo, Adrián; Gracia, Esther; Molina, Agustín

    2014-01-01

    The literature has been relatively silent about post-conflict processes. However, understanding the way humans deal with post-conflict situations is a challenge in our societies. With this in mind, we focus the present study on the rationality of cooperative decision making after an intergroup conflict, i.e., the extent to which groups take advantage of post-conflict situations to obtain benefits from collaborating with the other group involved in the conflict. Based on dual-process theories of thinking and affect heuristic, we propose that intergroup conflict hinders the rationality of cooperative decision making. We also hypothesize that this rationality improves when groups are involved in an in-group deliberative discussion. Results of a laboratory experiment support the idea that intergroup conflict –associated with indicators of the activation of negative feelings (negative affect state and heart rate)– has a negative effect on the aforementioned rationality over time and on both group and individual decision making. Although intergroup conflict leads to sub-optimal decision making, rationality improves when groups and individuals subjected to intergroup conflict make decisions after an in-group deliberative discussion. Additionally, the increased rationality of the group decision making after the deliberative discussion is transferred to subsequent individual decision making. PMID:25461384

  13. Opportunity Cost and the Intelligence of Economists: A Comment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arce, Daniel G.

    2016-01-01

    In "Opportunity Cost: A Reexamination," Professor Parkin contrasts forgone physical quantities with forgone values as measures of the opportunity cost of basic economic decisions. The impetus for his study stems from an experiment conducted by Ferraro and Taylor (2005), in which professional economists could not reach a consensus over…

  14. Robert Michels (1876-1936), Political Sociologist and Economist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Franklin

    A biographical sketch of Robert Michels (1876-1936), a political sociologist and economist who taught in Germany, Switzerland, Italy, and the United States is presented. In his best known work, "Political Parties: A Sociological Study of Oligarchical Tendencies of Modern Democracy," he put forth his "iron law of oligarchy"…

  15. Gender Differences in Research Patterns among PhD Economists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbezat, Debra A.

    2006-01-01

    This study is based on a 1996 survey of PhD economists working in the academic and nonacademic sectors since 1989. Despite a raw gender difference in all types of research output, the male dummy variable proves statistically significant in predicting only one publication measure. In a full sample and faculty subsample, number of years since…

  16. Football experts versus sports economists: Whose forecasts are better?

    PubMed

    Frick, Bernd; Wicker, Pamela

    2016-08-01

    Given the uncertainty of outcome in sport, predicting the outcome of sporting contests is a major topic in sport sciences. This study examines the accuracy of expert predictions in the German Bundesliga and compares their predictions to those of sports economists. Prior to the start of each season, a set of distinguished experts (head coaches and players) express their subjective evaluations of the teams in school grades. While experts may be driven by irrational sentiments and may therefore systematically over- or underestimate specific teams, sports economists use observable characteristics to predict season outcomes. The latter typically use team wage bills given the positive pay-performance relationship as well as other factors (average team age, tenure, appearances on national team, and attendance). Using data from 15 consecutive Bundesliga seasons, the predictive accuracy of expert evaluations and sports economists is analysed. The results of separate estimations show that relative grade and relative wage bill significantly affect relative points, while age, tenure, appearances, and attendance are insignificant. In a joint model, relative grade and relative wage bill are still statistically significant, suggesting that the two types of predictions are complements rather than substitutes. Consequently, football experts and sports economists seem to rely on completely different sources of information when making their predictions.

  17. An Economist's Approach to Reforming the Uniform Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Gary T.

    1977-01-01

    The standardized approach (Uniform Methodology) to estimating the expected parental contribution for dependent students is evaluated from an economist's perspective. The UM model is shown to fail to treat assets and income in a consistent manner, and recommendations for improvement are offered. (LBH)

  18. Economists Concoct New Method for Comparing Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, David

    2007-01-01

    A pair of economists at the College of William and Mary have devised a new way of comparing colleges' graduation rates--a method, borrowed from business analysis, that they believe is fairer and more useful than the techniques used by "U.S. News & World Report" and the Education Trust. That general technique of regression analysis underlies the…

  19. Environmental Economics for Watershed Restoration: Valuation for Non-Economists

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA economists completed research projects and summarized related valuation methods and case studies, mostly dealing with acid mine drainage. Their recent book (edited by Thurston, et al.) is intended to make stakeholders more comfortable talking about economic jargon and to info...

  20. [Teledermatological consultation].

    PubMed

    Knol, A; Damstra, R J; van den Akker, Th W; de Haan, J

    2004-02-14

    Teledermatological consultation can be effected in two ways. One is 'store-and-forward' which involves storing photographic digital images and sending them to a consultant dermatologist who then replies by e-mail, and the other is by videoconferencing using a real time interactive audiovisual link. In daily general practice the first method is the easiest to implement. In 76-90% of cases, a diagnosis or differential diagnosis made in this way corresponds with the diagnosis made at the more usual face-to-face examination. The advantage of teledermatological consultation is that diagnosis and therapy take place faster than after regular referral and it is better than no referral at all. The referring physician should deliver data on the patient's history and physical examination in a standardized format. The same is true for the encoded personal data, the working diagnosis, and referral request. One overview and 2 detailed photos from two angles are normally taken. The overview shows the extent and localization of the skin abnormality. The patient has to consent to a teledermatological consultation. The responsibility for the treatment lies with the doctor who sees the patient face-to-face. The data that is transmitted must be encrypted or coded in such a way that it cannot be traced back to one particular person.

  1. After Culture: Intergroup Encounters in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Oord, Lodewijk

    2008-01-01

    This article analyses intergroup differences in education, with particular emphasis on schools offering one or more of the International Baccalaureate programmes ("IB World schools"). Experiences of human difference are often interpreted in terms of culture, and the notion of intercultural understanding is valued in many international schools. Yet…

  2. Human Intergroup Relations. Certification Requirement #69.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northcentral Technical Coll., Wausau, WI.

    This document provides materials for a course in human intergroup relations for preservice or inservice teachers preparing to work with a diverse, disadvantaged group of students. The information in the guide is drawn from the faculty and student support staff of Northcentral Technical College (NTC) in Wausau, Wisconsin, which serves a variety of…

  3. The evolution of lethal intergroup violence.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Raymond C

    2005-10-25

    Recent findings and analyses in evolutionary biology, archaeology, and ethnology provide a favorable conjuncture for examining the evolution of lethal intergroup violence among hominids during the 2.9-million-year Paleolithic time span. Here, I seek to identify and investigate the main turning points in this evolutionary trajectory and to delineate the periodization that follows from this inquiry.

  4. Intergroup time bias and racialized social relations.

    PubMed

    Vala, Jorge; Pereira, Cícero Roberto; Oliveira Lima, Marcus Eugênio; Leyens, Jacques-Philippe

    2012-04-01

    Within the framework of intergroup relations, the authors analyzed the time people spent evaluating ingroup and outgroup members. They hypothesized that White participants take longer to evaluate White targets than Black targets. In four experiments, White participants were slower to form impressions of White than of Black people; that is, they showed an intergroup time bias (ITB). In Study 1 (N = 60), the ITB correlated with implicit prejudice and homogeneity. Study 2 (N = 60) showed that the ITB was independent of the type of trait in question (nonstereotypical vs. stereotypical). Study 3 (N = 100) demonstrated that ITB correlates with racism measured 3 months beforehand, is independent of motivation to control prejudice, and is not an epiphenomenon of homogeneity. In Study 4 (N = 40) participants not only showed the ITB in a racialized social context but also displayed it following a minimal group manipulation.

  5. An Intergroup Perspective on Group Dynamics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    each other in the realm of international conflict. A central feature of virtually all intergroup analysis is the persistently problematic relationship...the words ’democracy’ and ’socialism’ in such frequent use nowadays. In reality they correspond to quite contrary ideas and images in the Latin and...group ideal which governs the group in place of the ego ideal. Hypnosis has a qood claim to being described as a group of two (emphasis mine); there

  6. How Can Intergroup Interaction Be Bad If Intergroup Contact Is Good? Exploring and Reconciling an Apparent Paradox in the Science of Intergroup Relations

    PubMed Central

    Page-Gould, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The outcomes of social interactions among members of different groups (e.g., racial groups, political groups, sexual orientation groups) have long been of interest to psychologists. Two related literatures on the topic have emerged—the intergroup interaction literature and the intergroup contact literature—in which divergent conclusions have been reported. Intergroup interaction is typically found to have negative effects tied to intergroup bias, producing heightened stress, intergroup anxiety, or outgroup avoidance, whereas intergroup contact is typically found to have positive effects tied to intergroup bias, predicting lower intergroup anxiety and lower prejudice. We examine these paradoxical findings, proposing that researchers contributing to the two literatures are examining different levels of the same phenomenon and that methodological differences can account for the divide between the literatures. Further, we introduce a mathematical model by which the findings of the two literatures can be reconciled. We believe that adopting this model will streamline thinking in the field and will generate integrative new research in which investigators examine how a person’s experiences with diversity unfold. PMID:25987510

  7. Overview of the InterGroup protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Berket, Karlo; Agarwal, Deborah A.; Melliar-Smith, P. Michael; Moser, Louise E.

    2001-03-01

    Existing reliable ordered group communication protocols have been developed for local-area networks and do not, in general, scale well to large numbers of nodes and wide-area networks. The InterGroup suite of protocols is a scalable group communication system that introduces a novel approach to handling group membership, and supports a receiver-oriented selection of service. The protocols are intended for a wide-area network, with a large number of nodes, that has highly variable delays and a high message loss rate, such as the Internet. The levels of the message delivery service range from unreliable unordered to reliable group timestamp ordered.

  8. Consulting in Collection Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ash, Lee

    1980-01-01

    Considers the role of the consultant in the areas of library collection development and weeding, and offers suggestions on determining the need for a consultant, obtaining one, and what to do when the consultant arrives. (FM)

  9. Skills for Effective Consultation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dustin, Dick; Ehly, Stewart

    1984-01-01

    Discusses counselor skills that promote effective consultation. Reviews research on effective school consultation and presents a five-stage model which involves phasing in, problem identification, implementation, evaluation, and termination. Provides recommendations for the process and products of consultation. (JAC)

  10. The Effects of Prevalent Social Stereotypes on Intergroup Attribution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Ari, Rachel; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Tested three alternative hypotheses regarding intergroup attribution patterns derived from the ethnocentric, the asymmetrical, and the stereotype-based models of intergroup attribution. Results from 582 junior high students in Israel show that members of majority and minority groups made internal attributions for stereotype-consistent positive…

  11. Using Intergroup Dialogue to Promote Social Justice and Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessel, Adrienne; Rogge, Mary E.; Garlington, Sarah B.

    2006-01-01

    Intergroup dialogue is a public process designed to involve individuals and groups in an exploration of societal issues such as politics, racism, religion, and culture that are often flashpoints for polarization and social conflict. This article examines intergroup dialogue as a bridging mechanism through which social workers in clinical, other…

  12. Intergroup Dialogue: Education for a Broad Conception of Civic Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurin, Patricia; Nagda, Biren A.; Sorensen, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    Intergroup dialogue provides what students need in order to relate and collaborate across differences, something they have to do in community projects that usually involve interactions across racial, social class, religious, and geographical divides. In this article, the authors demonstrate the efficacy of intergroup dialogue, drawing from a…

  13. 3 CFR - Tribal Consultation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... in regular and meaningful consultation and collaboration with tribal officials in the development of... is committed to regular and meaningful consultation and collaboration with tribal officials in...

  14. Using intergroup dialogue to promote social justice and change.

    PubMed

    Dessel, Adrienne; Rogge, Mary E; Garlington, Sarah B

    2006-10-01

    Intergroup dialogue is a public process designed to involve individuals and groups in an exploration of societal issues such as politics, racism, religion, and culture that are often flashpoints for polarization and social conflict. This article examines intergroup dialogue as a bridging mechanism through which social workers in clinical, other direct practice, organizer, activist, and other roles across the micro-macro practice spectrum can engage with people in conflict to advance advocacy, justice, and social change. We define intergroup dialogue and provide examples in not-for-profit or community-based and academic settings of how intergroup dialogue has been applied to conflicts around topics of race and ethnic nationality, sexual orientation, religion, and culture. We recommend practice-, policy-, and research-related actions that social workers can take to understand and use intergroup dialogue.

  15. Determinants among PhD Economists of Membership in a Professional Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Arthur M., Jr.; Haurin, Donald R.

    1994-01-01

    Tested hypotheses about the value of American Economic Association (AEA) membership. An AEA economist is likely to be male, from a highly ranked PhD school, active in publishing research, highly cited for publications, and not in either the business administration or the agriculture subfields. The study involved 913 economists who received their…

  16. Educational Insights of the Economist: Tibor Scitovsky on Education, Production and Creative Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilead, Tal

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades education is increasingly perceived as an instrument for generating economic growth and enhancing production. Unexpectedly, however, many prominent economists, throughout history, have rejected this view of education. This article examines the grounds on which Tibor Scitovsky, who was one of the leading economists of twentieth…

  17. A Brief Look at What Economists Are Saying about the Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    This essay canvasses selected studies undertaken by economists on the community college. Key authors and journals are noted, followed by an examination of what economists contribute to our understanding of the community college in terms of costs, price and financial aid, economic and social benefits, and the institution's role in furthering…

  18. Coverage of Major Topics in Economics in the Undergraduate Curriculum: Economists as Gatekeepers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prescott, Suzanne

    Over the last 25 years, less attention has been devoted to the role of the economist as teacher or professor than to the role of economist as scholar or researcher. Teachers have been seen as passive recipients of advances in economics research that they simply hand on to their students. Yet teachers perform an important gatekeeping function when…

  19. Computational models of intergroup competition and warfare.

    SciTech Connect

    Letendre, Kenneth; Abbott, Robert G.

    2011-11-01

    This document reports on the research of Kenneth Letendre, the recipient of a Sandia Graduate Research Fellowship at the University of New Mexico. Warfare is an extreme form of intergroup competition in which individuals make extreme sacrifices for the benefit of their nation or other group to which they belong. Among animals, limited, non-lethal competition is the norm. It is not fully understood what factors lead to warfare. We studied the global variation in the frequency of civil conflict among countries of the world, and its positive association with variation in the intensity of infectious disease. We demonstrated that the burden of human infectious disease importantly predicts the frequency of civil conflict and tested a causal model for this association based on the parasite-stress theory of sociality. We also investigated the organization of social foraging by colonies of harvester ants in the genus Pogonomyrmex, using both field studies and computer models.

  20. Oxytocin modulates selection of allies in intergroup conflict.

    PubMed

    De Dreu, Carsten K W; Greer, Lindred L; Handgraaf, Michel J J; Shalvi, Shaul; Van Kleef, Gerben A

    2012-03-22

    In intergroup competition and conflict, humans benefit from coalitions with strong partners who help them to protect their in-group and prevail over competing out-groups. Here, we link oxytocin, a neuropeptide produced in the hypothalamus, to ally selection in intergroup competition. In a double-blind placebo-controlled experiment, males self-administered oxytocin or placebo, and made selection decisions about six high-threat and six low-threat targets as potential allies in intergroup competition. Males given oxytocin rather than placebo viewed high-threat targets as more useful allies and more frequently selected them into their team than low-threat targets.

  1. The biologist and the economist: is dialogue possible?

    PubMed

    Keyfitz, N

    1992-06-01

    There is a need for demography to be brought into policy-making discussions. In the time of Malthus, both economists and ecologists spoke the same language and each group was receptive to and supportive of the ideas of the other. The present organization of academic life precludes interdisciplinary communication. Malthus saw the limit as food supply; today, technology seems to be the defining criteria, although access to world supplies is also unevenly distributed. Minerals were once thought to present limits, but again technology was able to generate replacements as the Green Revolution provided an option for expanding food supply. During the 1950s and 1960s, limits were perceived by Arthur Lewis, Coale, and Hoover to be in shortages of capital. Now capital is seen as a result of development and not a cause. The strongest argument for limiting population growth appears to be the stability of planetary support systems (species diversity, ozone layer, global climate, and others). Knowledge of these support systems is limited and it would be wise not to press the world's carrying capacity under such conditions. Ignorance of planetary support systems may mean that the circle may be tightening closer than we know, or that a sudden disaster is possible. It is a complex task to circumscribe boundaries to various essentials for human life. Regardless of whether there is a solution to various essentials for human life. Regardless of whether there is a solution to the known or unknown environmental problems, it is possible, easy, and reliable to reduce the population by having fewer births than deaths. Economists argue that the vagaries and uncertainties of environmental damage prevent taking environmental constraints into account, when uncertainties have always been with us. A real debate on the issues instead of disciplines talking past each other would occur if all facts and conclusions were accepted by all parties. The conclusion should be that population increases must

  2. The neural basis of intergroup threat effect on social attention

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yujie; Zhao, Yufang; Song, Hongwen; Guan, Lili; Wu, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Previous gaze-cuing studies found that intergroup threat is one of the modulators of gaze cuing. These findings indicate that intergroup threat would gate social attention by activating a network resembling that is thought to be involved in drawing or/and holding attention. The present study tested this hypothesis using a gaze-cuing task in which a particular in-group participants observed threatening out-group and nonthreatening out-group gazes, while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. As expected, greater gaze cuing effect only emerged for threatening out-group when the in-group participants only felt inergroup threat from that out-group. Behaviorally, we found intergroup threatening out-group gazes did not draw attention faster than nonthreatening in-group gazes does. However, participants took more time to suppress the influence of the gaze direction of threatening out-group gazes, compared to nonthreatening in-group gazes, in the incongruent condition, which means intergroup threatening gaze holds attention longer than nonthreatening gaze does. Imaging results demonstrated that threatening cues recruited a fronto-parietal network, previously implicated in holding attention and execution functions. Our results, therefore, suggest that the mechanisms underpinning gaze cuing evolved to be sensitive to intergroup threatening stimuli, possibly because it is hard to disengage from such intergroup threatening cues once they are detected. PMID:28120864

  3. Managing the Consultation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enteman, Willard F.

    1991-01-01

    The college administration should use some simple procedures to manage a consultation actively, improving the likelihood of success. Issues to be addressed include focused administrative responsibility for the consultation, communication, information availability, campus constituency involvement, need identification, confidentiality, private and…

  4. Inpatient Consultative Dermatology.

    PubMed

    Biesbroeck, Lauren K; Shinohara, Michi M

    2015-11-01

    Dermatology consultation can improve diagnostic accuracy in the hospitalized patient with cutaneous disease. Dermatology consultation can streamline and improve treatment plans, and potentially lead to cost savings. Dermatology consultants can be a valuable resource for education for trainees, patients, and families. Inpatient consultative dermatology spans a breadth of conditions, including inflammatory dermatoses,infectious processes, adverse medication reactions, and neoplastic disorders, many of which can be diagnosed based on dermatologic examination alone, but when necessary, bedside skin biopsies can contribute important diagnostic information.

  5. Modeling the Teaching Consultant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Brian L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the teaching consultant process in computer programing courses, describes a teaching consultant model from both the teachers' and students' perspectives, and shows how this model can be used to develop an intelligent teaching consultant (ITC). Differences between this collection of expert systems and conventional intelligent tutoring…

  6. Optimizing Consulting Delivery Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spottswood, Curran

    1980-01-01

    Summarizes a study of several types of consulting groups in the Bell System and describes characteristics which are associated with high-impact consulting. A strategy which is designed for internal consulting organizations to maximize the likelihood of both initial success and long-term survival of the group is proposed. (Author/MER)

  7. Costly punishment prevails in intergroup conflict.

    PubMed

    Sääksvuori, Lauri; Mappes, Tapio; Puurtinen, Mikael

    2011-11-22

    Understanding how societies resolve conflicts between individual and common interests remains one of the most fundamental issues across disciplines. The observation that humans readily incur costs to sanction uncooperative individuals without tangible individual benefits has attracted considerable attention as a proximate cause as to why cooperative behaviours might evolve. However, the proliferation of individually costly punishment has been difficult to explain. Several studies over the last decade employing experimental designs with isolated groups have found clear evidence that the costs of punishment often nullify the benefits of increased cooperation, rendering the strong human tendency to punish a thorny evolutionary puzzle. Here, we show that group competition enhances the effectiveness of punishment so that when groups are in direct competition, individuals belonging to a group with punishment opportunity prevail over individuals in a group without this opportunity. In addition to competitive superiority in between-group competition, punishment reduces within-group variation in success, creating circumstances that are highly favourable for the evolution of accompanying group-functional behaviours. We find that the individual willingness to engage in costly punishment increases with tightening competitive pressure between groups. Our results suggest the importance of intergroup conflict behind the emergence of costly punishment and human cooperation.

  8. Beyond the dyadic perspective: 10 Reasons for using social network analysis in intergroup contact research.

    PubMed

    Wölfer, Ralf; Hewstone, Miles

    2017-03-23

    This article presents 10 reasons why social network analysis, a novel but still surprisingly underused approach in social psychology, can advance the analysis of intergroup contact. Although intergroup contact has been shown to improve intergroup relations, conventional methods leave some questions unanswered regarding the underlying social mechanisms that facilitate social cohesion between different groups in increasingly diverse societies. We will therefore explain the largely unknown conceptual and methodological advantages of social network analysis for studying intergroup contact in naturally existing groups, which are likely to help contact researchers to gain a better understanding of intergroup relations and guide attempts to overcome segregation, prejudice, discrimination, and intergroup conflict.

  9. Causal effect of intergroup contact on exclusionary attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Enos, Ryan D.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of intergroup contact has long been a question central to social scientists. As political and technological changes bring increased international migration, understanding intergroup contact is increasingly important to scientific and policy debates. Unfortunately, limitations in causal inference using observational data and the practical inability to experimentally manipulate demographic diversity has limited scholars’ ability to address the effects of intergroup contact. Here, I report the results of a randomized controlled trial testing the causal effects of repeated intergroup contact, in which Spanish-speaking confederates were randomly assigned to be inserted, for a period of days, into the daily routines of unknowing Anglo-whites living in homogeneous communities in the United States, thus simulating the conditions of demographic change. The result of this experiment is a significant shift toward exclusionary attitudes among treated subjects. This experiment demonstrates that even very minor demographic change causes strong exclusionary reactions. Developed nations and politically liberal subnational units are expected to experience a politically conservative shift as international migration brings increased intergroup contact. PMID:24567394

  10. [The role of collective victimhood in intergroup aggression: Japan-China relations].

    PubMed

    Nawata, Kengo; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki

    2012-12-01

    This study examines an effect of collective victimhood in intergroup relations. Collective victimhood is the belief that an ingroup has been harmed by an outgroup. Previous studies focusing on collective victimhood have shown that collective victimhood escalates intergroup conflict. We predicted that the effect of collective victimhood on intergroup aggression would involve two different emotional processes: anger and fear. To test this hypothesis, Japanese attitudes toward the Chinese were examined in the context of Japan-China relations. The results of structural equation modeling showed that collective victimhood enhanced both anger and fear. However, intergroup emotions had converse effects on intergroup aggression. While anger promoted intergroup aggression, fear inhibited it. Nationalism promoted collective victimhood. These findings suggest that, in intergroup conflict, collective victimhood affects intergroup aggression through two emotional processes, which have inverse effects on the aggression.

  11. Heterosexual students' experiences in sexual orientation intergroup dialogue courses.

    PubMed

    Dessel, Adrienne B; Woodford, Michael R; Routenberg, Robbie; Breijak, Duane P

    2013-01-01

    Heterosexism contributes to an unsafe campus climate for lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) college students. Intergroup dialogue courses about sexual orientation seek to build awareness, cross-group relationships, and commitment to social action to address anti-LGB prejudice and discrimination. Although dialogue courses are growing in popularity, few courses address sexual orientation. To advance knowledge of these dialogues, this qualitative study explores heterosexual students' motivations and expectations, challenges, and learning outcomes related to their participation in intergroup dialogue courses on sexual orientation. Core themes include desire to learn about the LGB community, concerns about offending classmates, anxiety around LGB stigma, conflict with classmates around controversial topics, affirming LGB people, and learning about heterosexism, privilege, and intersectionality of identity. Implications for intergroup dialogue pedagogy and research are discussed.

  12. The art of consultation

    PubMed Central

    Bhangoo, Kulwant S.

    2014-01-01

    Sophisticated marketing and practice-enhancing strategies can help bring patients to a surgeon's practice. However, the ability to retain these patients and also convert the consultations into surgical procedures depends on the art of consultation. This very important aspect of clinical practice is seldom taught in the medical school. In this paper, the author discusses many aspects of the art of consultation, which he has learned in his practice over the years. PMID:25190910

  13. Accountability Accentuates Interindividual-Intergroup Discontinuity by Enforcing Parochialism

    PubMed Central

    Wildschut, Tim; van Horen, Femke; Hart, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Interindividual-intergroup discontinuity is the tendency for relations between groups to be more competitive than relations between individuals. We examined whether the discontinuity effect arises in part because group members experience normative pressure to favor the ingroup (parochialism). Building on the notion that accountability enhances normative pressure, we hypothesized that the discontinuity effect would be larger when accountability is present (compared to absent). A prisoner’s dilemma game experiment supported this prediction. Specifically, intergroup (compared to interindividual) interaction activated an injunctive ingroup-favoring norm, and accountability enhanced the influence of this norm on competitive behavior. PMID:26635691

  14. Moving while Black: Intergroup attitudes influence judgments of speed.

    PubMed

    Kenrick, Andreana C; Sinclair, Stacey; Richeson, Jennifer; Verosky, Sara C; Lun, Janetta

    2016-02-01

    Four experiments examined whether intergroup attitudes shape the speed with which Blacks are thought to be moving. When participants rated the speed of Black and White faces that appeared to be moving toward them, greater intergroup anxiety was associated with judging Black targets as moving more slowly relative to White targets (Experiments 1a and 1b). Experiment 2 demonstrated that this effect occurs only for approaching targets. Experiment 3 showed that this slowing bias occurs, at least in part, because of the perceived duration of time each image was moving. Such a slowing bias is consistent with the time expansion and perceptual slowing reported by people who experienced threatening events.

  15. Secondary Transfer Effects of Intergroup Contact: A Cross-National Comparison in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmid, Katharina; Hewstone, Miles; Kupper, Beate; Zick, Andreas; Wagner, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    This article examines so-called secondary transfer effects of intergroup contact, a phenomenon whereby positive intergroup contact experiences can influence attitudes not only toward encountered (primary) outgroups but also toward other (secondary) outgroups that were not initially involved in the intergroup encounter. The current study relies on…

  16. The Search Consultant's Obligations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Kenneth

    1994-01-01

    The superintendent search consultant is employed by the board of education and must always act in the board's best interest. Boards want consultants to be friendly and courteous, provide information, and foster an aura of good feeling with candidates and the board. Candidates should receive accurate information, selection criteria briefings,…

  17. Bring in the Consultants!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haviland, Joseph E.

    1995-01-01

    To improve its reading program, a Pennsylvania district involved its teachers in retaining consultants who would work collaboratively with them. This model has been used in each of four elementary schools for the past seven years. The district allocates $1,800 per school for consultants, instructional materials, and substitutes who release…

  18. Directory of Environmental Consultants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cate, Bill, Ed.

    Over 400 inter-field professionals are named as environmental consultants in this 1972 annual directory. Primarily, they are faculty members at colleges and universities in Canada, Puerto Rico, and the United States who will provide free environmental consulting services to interested government, industry, and citizen organizations, but are not…

  19. Architectural-acoustics consulting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, Anthony K.

    2004-05-01

    Consulting involves both the science of acoustics and the art of communication, requiring an array of inherent and created skills. Perhaps because consulting on architectural acoustics is a relatively new field, there is a remarkable variety of career paths, all influenced by education, interest, and experience. Many consultants juggle dozens of chargeable projects at a time, not to mention proposals, seminars, teaching, articles, business concerns, and professional-society activities. This paper will discuss various aspects of career paths, projects, and clients as they relate to architectural-acoustics consulting. The intended emphasis will be considerations for those who may be interested in such a career, noting that consultants generally seem to thrive on the numerous challenges.

  20. Intergroup Contact and Beliefs about Homosexuality in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinze, Justin E.; Horn, Stacey S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between intergroup contact and adolescents' attitudes regarding homosexuality and the treatment of lesbian and gay (LG) peers. Fourteen- through 18-year-olds (n = 1,069, 59.7% females) completed self-report attitude and judgment questionnaires about the acceptability of homosexuality, levels of comfort around…

  1. The Dynamics of Intragroup Differentiation in an Intergroup Social Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Scott A.; Ng, Sik Hung

    2006-01-01

    Status hierarchies typically emerge when groups of strangers interact. Relatively little work tests explanations for this process in homogenous groups, and the majority has been conducted in intragroup settings. We test an expectation-states explanation in an intergroup context using the multilevel application of the actor-partner interdependence…

  2. A Vision of Social Justice in Intergroup Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Jessica Belue; Quaye, Stephen John

    2016-01-01

    Intergroup dialogues (IGD)--face-to-face, structured interactions between people of different social identities--is one educational intervention used to foster engagement across differences and to promote social justice. Using an 18-month case study methodology, we examined the experiences of IGD students and facilitators at one campus to gain a…

  3. A Developmental Sequence of Skills in Adolescents' Intergroup Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karcher, Michael, J.; Fischer, Kurt, W.

    2004-01-01

    This study explores the psychometric properties of a proposed sequence of socioemotional cognitive skills in the domain of intergroup understanding as assessed by interview and questionnaire data from 91 Caucasian and Hispanic adolescents. The proposed sequence of skills was measured under two support conditions to test hypotheses about a…

  4. The intergroup protocols: Scalable group communication for the internet

    SciTech Connect

    Berket, Karlo

    2000-12-04

    Reliable group ordered delivery of multicast messages in a distributed system is a useful service that simplifies the programming of distributed applications. Such a service helps to maintain the consistency of replicated information and to coordinate the activities of the various processes. With the increasing popularity of the Internet, there is an increasing interest in scaling the protocols that provide this service to the environment of the Internet. The InterGroup protocol suite, described in this dissertation, provides such a service, and is intended for the environment of the Internet with scalability to large numbers of nodes and high latency links. The InterGroup protocols approach the scalability problem from various directions. They redefine the meaning of group membership, allow voluntary membership changes, add a receiver-oriented selection of delivery guarantees that permits heterogeneity of the receiver set, and provide a scalable reliability service. The InterGroup system comprises several components, executing at various sites within the system. Each component provides part of the services necessary to implement a group communication system for the wide-area. The components can be categorized as: (1) control hierarchy, (2) reliable multicast, (3) message distribution and delivery, and (4) process group membership. We have implemented a prototype of the InterGroup protocols in Java, and have tested the system performance in both local-area and wide-area networks.

  5. Inter-group cooperation in humans and other animals.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Elva J H; Barker, Jessica L

    2017-03-01

    Social interactions are often characterized by cooperation within groups and conflict or competition between groups. In certain circumstances, however, cooperation can arise between social groups. Here, we examine the circumstances under which inter-group cooperation is expected to emerge and present examples with particular focus on groups in two well-studied but dissimilar taxa: humans and ants. Drivers for the evolution of inter-group cooperation include overarching threats from predators, competitors or adverse conditions, and group-level resource asymmetries. Resources can differ between groups in both quantity and type. Where the difference is in type, inequalities can lead to specialization and division of labour between groups, a phenomenon characteristic of human societies, but rarely seen in other animals. The ability to identify members of one's own group is essential for social coherence; we consider the proximate roles of identity effects in shaping inter-group cooperation and allowing membership of multiple groups. Finally, we identify numerous valuable avenues for future research that will improve our understanding of the processes shaping inter-group cooperation.

  6. Assessment of an Intervention Curriculum Unit in Intergroup Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glick, Irvin David; Meinke, Dean L.

    While materials for teaching for intergroup understandings in the form of books, curriculum guides, and articles are widely available for direct implementation into ongoing curricula, the actual development and implementation of this type of material into school programs has usually been reserved for specifically designated national dates.…

  7. Intergroup Conflict in Russia: Testing the Group Position Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minescu, Anca; Poppe, Edwin

    2011-01-01

    The group position model (Blumer 1958; Bobo and Tuan 2006) assumes that attempting to secure a privileged position for the ingroup is a main determinant of perceived intergroup conflict. This assumption is tested with survey data collected in 1999 and 2000 among eight titular groups in autonomous republics of the Russian Federation. The survey…

  8. 20 CFR 638.518 - Intergroup relations program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intergroup relations program. 638.518 Section 638.518 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR JOB CORPS PROGRAM UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.518...

  9. Journey to the Edges: Social Structures and Neural Maps of Intergroup Processes

    PubMed Central

    Fiske, Susan T.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores boundaries of the intellectual map of intergroup processes, going to the macro (social structure) boundary and the micro (neural systems) boundary. Both are illustrated by with my own and others’ work on social structures and on neural structures related to intergroup processes. Analyzing the impact of social structures on intergroup processes led to insights about distinct forms of sexism and underlies current work on forms of ageism. The stereotype content model also starts with the social structure of intergroup relations (interdependence and status) and predicts images, emotions, and behaviors. Social structure has much to offer the social psychology of intergroup processes. At the other, less explored boundary, social neuroscience addresses the effects of social contexts on neural systems relevant to intergroup processes. Both social structural and neural analyses circle back to traditional social psychology as converging indicators of intergroup processes. PMID:22435843

  10. From Cosmology to Consulting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, William

    2014-03-01

    I will discuss my transition from Quantum Gravity and Cosmology to the world of consulting and describe the differences and similarities between academia and industry. I will give some dos and don'ts for industry interviews and jobs searches.

  11. Maximizing the Substance in the Soundbite: A Media Guide for Economists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamermesh, Daniel S.

    2004-01-01

    With this guide, the author aims to induce more economists to talk to people in the media as a means of expanding educational outreach. The guide provides discussions of "do's" and "don'ts" and offers advice on which kinds of research are likely to interest reporters. The author suggests specific approaches to dealing with reporters in different…

  12. Opportunities for the Advancement of Home Economists in the Food Manufacturing Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Carol M.

    1999-01-01

    Responses from 133 home economists employed by food manufacturers showed that many have high aspirations but few have advanced to upper-level management. Factors influencing business success included years with company and in career and mentor/sponsor relationships. Many felt limited by lack of business background and the service orientation of…

  13. How Do Economists Respond to the Storytellers? A Look at "The Rhetoric of Economics."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baake, Ken

    Teachers of college writing have a vested interest in the tremors of rhetoric surfacing from within the discipline of economics. In the past 15 years, some economists, philosophers of science, and humanists have challenged the positivist mantel of economics. They argue that economic methodology would be more ethical, more honest to the profession…

  14. Facing up to Realities: Harvard Economist Investigates the Racial Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    As an economist, Dr. Ronald F. Ferguson often applies quantitative analysis to public policy dilemmas, which yields data models and quantitative measures of complex issues. In tackling the racial achievement gap, the Harvard-based social policy expert has added investigation techniques from sociology and psychology to explore what might seem a…

  15. Interrelationships of a Home Economist: Legacy of an Extension Agent in New Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makela, Carole J.

    2012-01-01

    Many pioneers in family and consumer sciences (FCS) are not recognized for what they accomplished. How evident this became as the author learned of a home economist who preceded many members and did so much for her state and its people during much of the 1900s. The author read an article from "New Mexico Magazine" which features three…

  16. The Interaction of Publications and Appointments: New Evidence on Academic Economists in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckmann, Klaus; Schneider, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Using a new panel data set comprising publication and appointment data for 889 German academic economists over a quarter of a century, we confirm the familiar hypothesis that publications are important for professorial appointments, but find only a small negative effect of appointments on subsequent research productivity, in particular if one…

  17. Health Care, Hospice, and Home Economists: A Programmatic Response to Demographic Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balkwell, Carolyn; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Suggests ways that teams of home economists, integrating information from constituent fields of the discipline, may provide important services to hospices. Suggestions are included from the areas of human development and family relations, foods and nutrition, housing and interior design, clothing and textiles, and financial management and decision…

  18. The Linguistic Representation of Rhetorical Function: A Study of How Economists Present Their Knowledge Claims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahl, Trine

    2009-01-01

    This article deals with how economists present their new knowledge claim in the genre of the research article. In the discipline of economics today, the claim is typically included not only in the obvious results/discussion section(s) but also in three other locations of the article: the abstract, the introduction, and the conclusion. The present…

  19. Knowledge and Attitudes of Selected Home Economists toward Irradiation in Food Preservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Faye C. Stucy

    1990-01-01

    A survey of the knowledge and attitudes of 485 California home economists toward the use of irradiation to preserve food revealed that they lacked the knowledge although they had a positive attitude toward it. An interactive teleconference on irradiation increased positive attitudes and improved knowledge. (JOW)

  20. How to Support a One-Handed Economist: The Role of Modalisation in Economic Forecasting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohue, James P.

    2006-01-01

    Economic forecasting in the world of international finance confronts economists with challenging cross-cultural writing tasks. Producing forecasts in English which convey confidence and credibility entails an understanding of linguistic conventions which typify the genre. A typical linguistic feature of commercial economic forecasts produced by…

  1. NCTQ Square-Off: Are Teachers Underpaid? Two Economists Tackle an Intractable Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podgursky, Michael; Mishel, Lawrence

    2005-01-01

    Over the past year, two economists--Michael Podgursky, currently Middlebush Professor and Chairman in the Departmentof Economics at the University of Missouri-Columbia, and Lawrence Mishel, President of the Economic Policy Institute in Washington, D.C.--have been debating whether or not teachers are adequately paid, at least compared to other…

  2. Experience of Future Economists' Self-Study Organization in Foreign Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aliyev, Oktay

    2016-01-01

    The article consolidates information sources on the issues of future economists' self-study organization at foreign universities. There has been carried out the study of approaches to the interpretation of the term "self-study process" in the contemporary scientific thought abroad. There have been specified the productive ideas of…

  3. Intergroup contact and beliefs about homosexuality in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Heinze, Justin E; Horn, Stacey S

    2009-08-01

    This study examines the relationship between intergroup contact and adolescents' attitudes regarding homosexuality and the treatment of lesbian and gay (LG) peers. Fourteen- through 18-year-olds (n = 1,069, 59.7% females) completed self-report attitude and judgment questionnaires about the acceptability of homosexuality, levels of comfort around LG peers, and the acceptability of excluding or teasing an LG peer. The results suggest that having an LG friend is related to more positive attitudes toward homosexuals/homosexuality and less tolerance toward the unfair treatment of LG peers. The findings lend further support to intergroup contact theory and provide evidence that the intimacy of contact is related to prejudice reduction, and offer general support that age is related to prejudicial attitudes, but less so to prejudicial behaviors.

  4. Beyond contact: intergroup contact in the context of power relations.

    PubMed

    Saguy, Tamar; Dovidio, John F; Pratto, Felicia

    2008-03-01

    This work investigated how group-based power affects the motivations and preferences that members of advantaged and disadvantaged groups bring to situations of contact. To measure the preferred content of interactions, desires to address particular topics in intergroup contact were assessed for both experimental groups (Study 1) and real groups (Study 2). As predicted, across both studies, the desire to talk about power was greater among members of disadvantaged than of advantaged groups. This difference was mediated by motivation for change in group-based power. Study 2 further demonstrated that more highly identified members of disadvantaged groups wanted to talk about power more. Members of advantaged groups generally preferred to talk about commonalities between the groups more than about group-based power, and this desire was greater with higher levels of identification. However, perceiving that their group's advantage was illegitimate increased the desire of advantaged group members to address power in intergroup interactions.

  5. Intergroup contact and prejudice against people with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    West, Keon; Hewstone, Miles; Lolliot, Simon

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing awareness that responses to mental health disorders differ according to the label. Still, research on contact and prejudice against people with mental health disorders has generally focused on the broader label, "mental illness," as though various disorders were interchangeable. The present research specifically investigated the relationship between intergroup contact and avoidance of people with schizophrenia--a particularly stigmatized and challenging group--as well as mediators of that relationship. In Study 1, 78 students completed measures of their prior contact with and prejudice against people with schizophrenia. Prior contact predicted less desired avoidance of people with schizophrenia, and this relationship was mediated by more favorable attitudes. Study 2 (N = 122) replicated the results of Study 1, and also found that less fear and less intergroup anxiety mediated the relationship between contact and avoidance. This suggests that contact may effectively reduce prejudice, even against this highly stigmatized group.

  6. An In–Group Advantage in Detecting Intergroup Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Heather M.; Mendes, Wendy Berry; Denny-Brown, Carrigan

    2009-01-01

    We examined the possibility of an in-group advantage in detecting intergroup anxiety. Specifically, we videotaped White and Black participants while they engaged in same-race or interrace interactions. Then we asked White and Black observers to view these videotapes (unaware of the racial context) and provide their impressions of participants' anxiety. Two results pointed to an in-group advantage in detecting intergroup anxiety. First, only same-race observers perceived a modulation of participants' anxious behavior as a function of racial context. This held true not only for relatively subjective perceptions of global anxiety, but also for perceptions of single, discrete behaviors tied to anxiety. Second, we found that only same-race observers provided descriptions of anxiety that tracked reliably with participants' cortisol changes during the task. These results suggest that White and Black Americans may have difficulty developing a sense of shared emotional experience. PMID:19121129

  7. Conservatism, institutionalism, and the social control of intergroup conflict.

    PubMed

    King, Ryan D

    2008-03-01

    This research investigates the state social control of intergroup conflict by assessing the sociopolitical determinants of hate crime prosecutions. Consistent with insights from the political sociology of punishment, group-threat accounts of intergroup relations and the state, and neoinstitutional theory, the findings suggest that hate crime prosecutions are fewer where political conservatism, Christian fundamentalism, and black population size are higher, although this last effect is nonlinear. Linkages between district attorneys' offices and communities, on the other hand, increase hate crime prosecutions and the likelihood of offices' creating hate crime policies. Yet these policies are sometimes decoupled from actual enforcement, and such decoupling is more likely in politically conservative districts. The results indicate that common correlates of criminal punishment have very different effects on types of state social control that are protective of minority groups, and also suggest conditions under which policy and practice become decoupled in organizational settings.

  8. A practical approach to the interGroup protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Berket, Karlo; Agarwal, Deborah A.; Chevassut, Olivier

    2001-11-12

    Existing reliable ordered group communication protocols have been developed for local-area networks and do not, in general, scale well to large numbers of nodes and wide-area networks. The InterGroup suite of protocols is a scalable group communication system that introduces an unusual approach to handling group membership, and supports a receiver-oriented selection of service. The protocols are intended for a wide-area network, with a large number of nodes, that has highly variable delays and a high message loss rate, such as the Internet. The levels of the message delivery service range from unreliable unordered to reliable timestamp ordered. We also present a secure group layer that builds on InterGroup to provide SSL-like security for groups.

  9. A citation analysis of Henri Tajfel's work on intergroup relations.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Kitty; Louw, Johann

    2009-02-01

    The late Henri Tajfel (1919-1982) is one of the central figures who shaped the development of post-war European social psychology. His contributions range from the establishment of an infrastructure for a European social psychology, and the start of a new intellectual movement within social psychology, to the formulation of a set of concepts addressing intergroup relations that were finally integrated into Social Identity Theory. The present study provides an empirical examination of Tajfel's contribution to intergroup research over the last 30 years via a citation analysis of five journals: the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, the British Journal of Social Psychology, the European Journal of Social Psychology, the South African Journal of Psychology, and the German Journal of Social Psychology (Zeitschrift für Sozialpsychologie). The results indicate that Tajfel's work on intergroup relations is increasingly cited, especially since the 1990s, and the international recognition of his work is substantial. Three possible reasons for the recognition his work still enjoys are proposed: its potential to generate theoretical and empirical controversies; its explanatory power; and the extent to which his work is used as a referential framework.

  10. Contextual effect of positive intergroup contact on outgroup prejudice.

    PubMed

    Christ, Oliver; Schmid, Katharina; Lolliot, Simon; Swart, Hermann; Stolle, Dietlind; Tausch, Nicole; Al Ramiah, Ananthi; Wagner, Ulrich; Vertovec, Steven; Hewstone, Miles

    2014-03-18

    We assessed evidence for a contextual effect of positive intergroup contact, whereby the effect of intergroup contact between social contexts (the between-level effect) on outgroup prejudice is greater than the effect of individual-level contact within contexts (the within-level effect). Across seven large-scale surveys (five cross-sectional and two longitudinal), using multilevel analyses, we found a reliable contextual effect. This effect was found in multiple countries, operationalizing context at multiple levels (regions, districts, and neighborhoods), and with and without controlling for a range of demographic and context variables. In four studies (three cross-sectional and one longitudinal) we showed that the association between context-level contact and prejudice was largely mediated by more tolerant norms. In social contexts where positive contact with outgroups was more commonplace, norms supported such positive interactions between members of different groups. Thus, positive contact reduces prejudice on a macrolevel, whereby people are influenced by the behavior of others in their social context, not merely on a microscale, via individuals' direct experience of positive contact with outgroup members. These findings reinforce the view that contact has a significant role to play in prejudice reduction, and has great policy potential as a means to improve intergroup relations, because it can simultaneously impact large numbers of people.

  11. INTER-GROUP IMAGE REGISTRATION BY HIERARCHICAL GRAPH SHRINKAGE.

    PubMed

    Ying, Shihui; Wu, Guorong; Liao, Shu; Shen, Dinggang

    2013-12-31

    In this paper, we propose a novel inter-group image registration method to register different groups of images (e.g., young and elderly brains) simultaneously. Specifically, we use a hierarchical two-level graph to model the distribution of entire images on the manifold, with intra-graph representing the image distribution in each group and the inter-graph describing the relationship between two groups. Then the procedure of inter-group registration is formulated as a dynamic evolution of graph shrinkage. The advantage of our method is that the topology of entire image distribution is explored to guide the image registration. In this way, each image coordinates with its neighboring images on the manifold to deform towards the population center, by following the deformation pathway simultaneously optimized within the graph. Our proposed method has been also compared with other state-of-the-art inter-group registration methods, where our method achieves better registration results in terms of registration accuracy and robustness.

  12. Contextual effect of positive intergroup contact on outgroup prejudice

    PubMed Central

    Christ, Oliver; Schmid, Katharina; Lolliot, Simon; Swart, Hermann; Stolle, Dietlind; Tausch, Nicole; Al Ramiah, Ananthi; Wagner, Ulrich; Vertovec, Steven; Hewstone, Miles

    2014-01-01

    We assessed evidence for a contextual effect of positive intergroup contact, whereby the effect of intergroup contact between social contexts (the between-level effect) on outgroup prejudice is greater than the effect of individual-level contact within contexts (the within-level effect). Across seven large-scale surveys (five cross-sectional and two longitudinal), using multilevel analyses, we found a reliable contextual effect. This effect was found in multiple countries, operationalizing context at multiple levels (regions, districts, and neighborhoods), and with and without controlling for a range of demographic and context variables. In four studies (three cross-sectional and one longitudinal) we showed that the association between context-level contact and prejudice was largely mediated by more tolerant norms. In social contexts where positive contact with outgroups was more commonplace, norms supported such positive interactions between members of different groups. Thus, positive contact reduces prejudice on a macrolevel, whereby people are influenced by the behavior of others in their social context, not merely on a microscale, via individuals’ direct experience of positive contact with outgroup members. These findings reinforce the view that contact has a significant role to play in prejudice reduction, and has great policy potential as a means to improve intergroup relations, because it can simultaneously impact large numbers of people. PMID:24591627

  13. The joint effect of bias awareness and self-reported prejudice on intergroup anxiety and intentions for intergroup contact.

    PubMed

    Perry, Sylvia P; Dovidio, John F; Murphy, Mary C; van Ryn, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Two correlational studies investigated the joint effect of bias awareness-a new individual difference measure that assesses Whites' awareness and concern about their propensity to be biased-and prejudice on Whites' intergroup anxiety and intended intergroup contact. Using a community sample (Study 1), we found the predicted Bias Awareness × Prejudice interaction. Prejudice was more strongly related to interracial anxiety among those high (vs. low) in bias awareness. Study 2 investigated potential behavioral consequences in an important real world context: medical students' intentions for working primarily with minority patients. Study 2 replicated the Bias Awareness × Prejudice interaction and further demonstrated that interracial anxiety mediated medical students' intentions to work with minority populations.

  14. Intergroup dialogue courses on sexual orientation: lesbian, gay and bisexual student experiences and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Dessel, Adrienne B; Woodford, Michael R; Warren, Naomi

    2011-01-01

    Intergroup dialogue is a method of social justice education. Most intergroup dialogue research explores race and gender identities. Sexual orientation dialogues are uncommon and not yet examined empirically. This qualitative study explores sexual orientation dialogue courses from the perspective of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) student participants. Understanding target, or marginalized, group perspective of planned intergroup experiences is important given concerns raised in the literature. We document student motivations for participating in dialogues, core outcomes, and main challenges that arose in dialogue. Core outcomes include learning about and accepting one's sexual identity and empowerment. Challenges include those stemming from invisibility of sexual orientation identity. Recommendations are made for intergroup dialogue practice and research.

  15. It is Who You Know That Counts: Intergroup Contact and Judgments about Race-Based Exclusion

    PubMed Central

    Crystal, David S.; Killen, Melanie; Ruck, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Intergroup contact and evaluations about race-based exclusion were assessed for majority and minority students in fourth, seventh, and tenth grades (N = 685). Students were presented with scenarios depicting cross-race relations in contexts of dyadic friendship, parental discomfort, and peer group disapproval. Participants reporting higher levels of intergroup contact gave higher ratings of wrongfulness of exclusion and lower frequency estimations of race-based exclusion than did participants reporting lower levels of such contact. Intergroup contact also predicted students’ attributions of motives in two out of three scenarios. Findings are discussed in terms of the extant literature on peer relations, moral reasoning, and intergroup contact. PMID:25505355

  16. Consultancy pay for nurses.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    Nurses working for NHS Direct could be paid at medical consultant level based on equal pay for equal work initiatives, according to Rob Crouch, Deputy Director and Research Fellow (A&E), Centre for the Advancement of Clinical Practice, University of Surrey.

  17. Community Consultation Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulder Area Growth Study Commission, CO.

    This kit, designed for leaders and participants, provides a model for organizing and taking part in Community Consultation Groups. The kit was designed to be used in connection with community concerns about growth in Boulder, Colorado. These groups build upon a previous survey to assist the Commission in determining specific growth concerns in the…

  18. Consultants, Consultancy and Consultocracy in Education Policymaking in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Helen M.; Hall, David; Mills, Colin

    2015-01-01

    The role and contribution of consultants and consultancy in public services has grown rapidly and the power of consultants suggests the emergence of a "consultocracy". We draw on research evidence from the social sciences and critical education policy (CEP) studies to present an examination of the state of the field. We deploy a…

  19. 77 FR 16120 - Tribal Consultations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-19

    ... President Obama's Memorandum on Tribal Consultation, `` he United States has a unique legal and political... conditions, as grants to States. VA will consult with Tribes on recommendations for increasing outreach...

  20. How Intergroup Dialogue Facilitators Understand Their Role in Promoting Student Development and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quaye, Stephen John; Johnson, Matthew R.

    2016-01-01

    Intergroup dialogues are co-facilitated, face-to-face dialogues between two groups that have a history of conflict (for example, White people and people of color). Although researchers have explored the outcomes of these dialogues among students, little is known about the role of facilitators. Drawing from a case study of an intergroup dialogue…

  1. The Road to Empathy: Dialogic Pathways for Engaging Diversity and Improving Intergroup Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Nicholas A.

    2010-01-01

    This three paper dissertation presents and tests a model for effective intergroup communication. The first paper reviews evidence of positive and negative consequences of interracial contact and presents a theoretical model of intergroup dialogue (IGD) focused on promoting positive and avoiding negative outcomes. The second paper tests the…

  2. Intergroup Relations in Integrated Schools: A Glimpse inside Interdistrict Magnet Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bifulco, Robert; Buerger, Christian; Cobb, Casey

    2012-01-01

    The frequency and quality of intergroup contact within racially and ethnically diverse schools has potentially important implications for the achievement of desegregation goals. The analyses presented here use survey data to assess intergroup contact within a sample of ten interdistrict magnet schools in Connecticut. Findings indicate frequent…

  3. Gene × environment interaction on intergroup bias: the role of 5-HTTLPR and perceived outgroup threat.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Bobby K; Livingston, Robert W; Hong, Ying-Yi; Chiao, Joan Y

    2014-09-01

    Perceived threat from outgroups is a consistent social-environmental antecedent of intergroup bias (i.e. prejudice, ingroup favoritism). The serotonin transporter gene polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) has been associated with individual variations in sensitivity to context, particularly stressful and threatening situations. Here, we examined how 5-HTTLPR and environmental factors signaling potential outgroup threat dynamically interact to shape intergroup bias. Across two studies, we provide novel evidence for a gene-environment interaction on the acquisition of intergroup bias and prejudice. Greater exposure to signals of outgroup threat, such as negative prior contact with outgroups and perceived danger from the social environment, were more predictive of intergroup bias among participants possessing at least one short allele (vs two long alleles) of 5-HTTLPR. Furthermore, this gene x environment interaction was observed for biases directed at diverse ethnic and arbitrarily-defined outgroups across measures reflecting intergroup biases in evaluation and discriminatory behavior. These findings reveal a candidate genetic mechanism for the acquisition of intergroup bias, and suggest that intergroup bias is dually inherited and transmitted through the interplay of social (i.e. contextual cues of outgroup threat) and biological mechanisms (i.e. genetic sensitivity toward threatening contexts) that regulate perceived intergroup threats.

  4. Inter-Group and Intra-Group Assertiveness: Adolescents' Social Skills Following Cultural Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korem, Anat; Horenczyk, Gabriel; Tatar, Moshe

    2012-01-01

    The goals of this study were to examine intra-group and inter-group assertiveness among adolescents, and to compare these two domains of assertiveness between cultural groups in Israel. Measures of intra-group and inter-group assertiveness were developed, and questionnaires were administrated to 441 immigrants from the Former Soviet Union (FSU),…

  5. The Process of Psychological Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, Anna; Moreland, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Consultation is a key means of service delivery in many psychological services. However, the "process" of consultation is little explored in Educational Psychology literature, particularly in the United Kingdom (UK). This paper focuses on a small-scale qualitative research study of psychological consultation provided by educational…

  6. Management Consulting: Planning, Entry, Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosier, Richard A.; Dalton, Dan R.

    1993-01-01

    Contends that counseling has much in common with organizational consulting. Provides overview of consulting practices that counselors might find useful should they decide to investigate organizational consulting. Includes aspects of market research, gauging competition, and target markets. Considers promotion, networking, and elements of…

  7. NATO Politico-Military Consultation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    General Manlio Brosio has observed that for the larger allies, consultation is "a way to legitimize and rein- force their foreign policy initiatives...ested in the experiences of a skillful practitioner of consultation. 21. Manlio Brosio, "Consultation and the Atlantic Alliance," Survival 16 (May

  8. The Consultant from Oz Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Garnett J.

    1998-01-01

    School leaders should realize that consultants cannot substitute for developing collective actions within the organization. The "Consultant from Oz Syndrome" stems from placing undue confidence in external sources, confusing consultants with magicians, and denying their limitations. While journeying down the yellow brick road of…

  9. "Systematizing" ethics consultation services.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Courtenay R; Eves, Margot M; Allen, Nathan G; Smith, Martin L; Peña, Adam M; Cheney, John R; Majumder, Mary A

    2015-03-01

    While valuable work has been done addressing clinical ethics within established healthcare systems, we anticipate that the projected growth in acquisitions of community hospitals and facilities by large tertiary hospitals will impact the field of clinical ethics and the day-to-day responsibilities of clinical ethicists in ways that have yet to be explored. Toward the goal of providing clinical ethicists guidance on a range of issues that they may encounter in the systematization process, we discuss key considerations and potential challenges in implementing system-wide ethics consultation services. Specifically, we identify four models for organizing, developing, and enhancing ethics consultation activities within a system created through acquisitions: (1) train-the-trainer, (2) local capacity-building, (3) circuit-riding, and (4) consolidated accountability. We note each model's benefits and challenges. To our knowledge, this is the first paper to consider the broader landscape of issues affected by consolidation. We anticipate that clinical ethicists, volunteer consultants, and hospital administrators will benefit from our recommendations.

  10. Ethnic identity, intergroup contact, and outgroup orientation among diverse groups of adolescents on the Internet.

    PubMed

    Tynes, Brendesha M; Giang, Michael T; Thompson, Geneene N

    2008-08-01

    The relationship among adolescents' (N = 228) ethnic identity, outgroup orientation, and online intergroup experiences was examined across three groups: European Americans, ethnic minorities (i.e., Latino and African Americans), and multiracials. Similar to previous studies, ethnic minorities reported significantly higher ethnic identity than European Americans and multiracials. Although outgroup orientation did not differ among ethnic groups, European Americans reported that they had more online intergroup contact than the other ethnic groups; greater intergroup contact was also related to higher outgroup orientation for this group. These results show that ethnic identity remains stronger for ethnic minorities, but intergroup interaction has become a salient and influential aspect of the online experience for European Americans. Implications are drawn for understanding and improving online and offline intergroup relations.

  11. The Nonverbal Transmission of Intergroup Bias: A Model of Bias Contagion with Implications for Social Policy

    PubMed Central

    Weisbuch, Max; Pauker, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    Social and policy interventions over the last half-century have achieved laudable reductions in blatant discrimination. Yet members of devalued social groups continue to face subtle discrimination. In this article, we argue that decades of anti-discrimination interventions have failed to eliminate intergroup bias because such bias is contagious. We present a model of bias contagion in which intergroup bias is subtly communicated through nonverbal behavior. Exposure to such nonverbal bias “infects” observers with intergroup bias. The model we present details two means by which nonverbal bias can be expressed—either as a veridical index of intergroup bias or as a symptom of worry about appearing biased. Exposure to this nonverbal bias can increase perceivers’ own intergroup biases through processes of implicit learning, informational influence, and normative influence. We identify critical moderators that may interfere with these processes and consequently propose several social and educational interventions based on these moderators. PMID:23997812

  12. Fostering a Commitment to Social Action: How Talking, Thinking, and Feeling Make a Difference in Intergroup Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurin-Sands, Chloe; Gurin, Patricia; Nagda, Biren A.; Osuna, Shardae

    2012-01-01

    Intergroup dialogue is designed to foster commitment to action. This article analyzes papers written by students in 52 intergroup dialogue courses (N = 739) to test a theoretical model of how intergroup dialogue is expected to encourage frequency of acting to educate others and to collaborate with others. The theoretical model posits that dialogue…

  13. Multicultural experiences reduce intergroup bias through epistemic unfreezing.

    PubMed

    Tadmor, Carmit T; Hong, Ying-Yi; Chao, Melody M; Wiruchnipawan, Fon; Wang, Wei

    2012-11-01

    In 6 studies, we systematically explored for the 1st time the ameliorative effects of multicultural experience on intergroup bias and investigated the role of epistemic unfreezing as the motivational mechanism underlying these effects. We found that multicultural exposure led to a reduction in stereotype endorsement (Studies 1, 4, and 6), symbolic racism (Study 5), and discriminatory hiring decisions (Study 2). We further demonstrated that experimental exposure to multicultural experience caused a reduction in need for cognitive closure (NFCC; Studies 3 and 6) and that the ameliorative effects of multiculturalism experience on intergroup bias were fully mediated by lower levels of NFCC (Studies 4, 5, and 6). The beneficial effects of multiculturalism were found regardless of the targeted stereotype group (African Americans, Ethiopians, homosexuals, and native Israelis), regardless of whether multicultural experience was measured or manipulated, and regardless of the population sampled (Caucasian Americans or native Israelis), demonstrating the robustness of this phenomenon. Overall, these results demonstrate that multicultural experience plays a critical role in increasing social tolerance through its relationship to motivated cognitive processes.

  14. Conceptualizing intragroup and intergroup dynamics within a controlled crowd evacuation.

    PubMed

    Elzie, Terra; Frydenlund, Erika; Collins, Andrew J; Robinson, R Michael

    2015-01-01

    Social dynamics play a critical role in successful pedestrian evacuations. Crowd modeling research has made progress in capturing the way individual and group dynamics affect evacuations; however, few studies have simultaneously examined how individuals and groups interact with one another during egress. To address this gap, the researchers present a conceptual agent-based model (ABM) designed to study the ways in which autonomous, heterogeneous, decision-making individuals negotiate intragroup and intergroup behavior while exiting a large venue. A key feature of this proposed model is the examination of the dynamics among and between various groupings, where heterogeneity at the individual level dynamically affects group behavior and subsequently group/group interactions. ABM provides a means of representing the important social factors that affect decision making among diverse social groups. Expanding on the 2013 work of Vizzari et al., the researchers focus specifically on social factors and decision making at the individual/group and group/group levels to more realistically portray dynamic crowd systems during a pedestrian evacuation. By developing a model with individual, intragroup, and intergroup interactions, the ABM provides a more representative approximation of real-world crowd egress. The simulation will enable more informed planning by disaster managers, emergency planners, and other decision makers. This pedestrian behavioral concept is one piece of a larger simulation model. Future research will build toward an integrated model capturing decision-making interactions between pedestrians and vehicles that affect evacuation outcomes.

  15. Inter-country consultation.

    PubMed

    Reid, E

    1993-01-01

    In December 1991, the UN Development Program (UNDP) organized the African Informal Consultation on Behavior Change as it relates to the HIV pandemic. Community-based organization and government representatives attended from Australia, Ghana, India, Jamaica, Malawi, Malaysia, Norway, Senegal, Sweden, Tanzania, Thailand, Uganda, the United Kingdom, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Participants strongly endorsed the possibility for individuals and communities to change their attitudes and behaviors in response to HIV and AIDS, and stressed the importance of evaluating and documenting these changes and sharing lessons learned. The group concluded that research in the field of HIV should be action-oriented and participatory; new research methods and ways of presenting data are called for. Participants in the 2nd consultation held in the Asia/Pacific region in November 1992 also stressed the importance of developing community-based monitoring, evaluation, and program development methodologies. The UNDP responded by launching a number of initiatives in Africa, Asia and Central America to explore ways in which communities may be helped to document ongoing changes, assess their impact and efficacy, and share them with others. New approaches to evaluation are also being explored based upon processes of assessment and redesign already occurring in the communities.

  16. Testing the limits of tolerance: how intergroup anxiety amplifies negative and offensive responses to out-group-initiated contact.

    PubMed

    Van Zomeren, Martijn; Fischer, Agneta H; Spears, Russell

    2007-12-01

    Three studies examine the amplifying effects of intergroup anxiety on individuals' negative and offensive responses to out-group-initiated contact. Because intergroup anxiety typically results in avoidance of the initiation of intergroup contact, these studies explored how intergroup anxiety affected individuals' interpretation of and responses to out-group-initiated contact. The authors hypothesized that intergroup anxiety amplifies individuals' threat appraisal of out-group-initiated contact as well as their feelings of anger and offensive action tendencies toward the out-group. Results showed consistent support for these hypotheses by demonstrating that intergroup anxiety amplified individuals' threat appraisal (Studies 2 and 3), anger (Studies 1-3), and offensive action tendencies toward the out-group (Study 2). Anger consistently predicted offensive action tendencies (Studies 2-3). Thus, intergroup anxiety decreased individuals' limits of tolerance by increasing their threat appraisal of out-group-initiated contact. The results are discussed in relation to theories of threat, emotion, and tolerance.

  17. Feeling (Mis)Understood and Intergroup Friendships in Interracial Interactions.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Nicole; Douglass, Sara; Garcia, Randi L; Yip, Tiffany; Trail, Thomas E

    2014-09-01

    The present research investigated whether having out-group friends serves as a buffer for feeling misunderstood in interracial interactions. Across three experience sampling studies, we found that among ethnic minorities who have few White friends or are not interacting with White friends, daily interracial interactions are associated with feeling less understood. By contrast, we found that among ethnic minorities who have more White friends or are interacting with White friends, the relationship between daily interracial interactions and feeling understood is not significant. We did not find similar results for Whites; that is, having ethnic minority friends did not play a role in the relationship between daily interracial interactions and feeling understood. Together, these studies demonstrate the beneficial effects of intergroup friendships for ethnic minorities.

  18. The nondiscriminating heart: lovingkindness meditation training decreases implicit intergroup bias.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yoona; Gray, Jeremy R; Dovidio, John F

    2014-06-01

    Although meditation is increasingly accepted as having personal benefits, less is known about the broader impact of meditation on social and intergroup relations. We tested the effect of lovingkindness meditation training on improving implicit attitudes toward members of 2 stigmatized social outgroups: Blacks and homeless people. Healthy non-Black, nonhomeless adults (N = 101) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: 6-week lovingkindness practice, 6-week lovingkindness discussion (a closely matched active control), or waitlist control. Decreases in implicit bias against stigmatized outgroups (as measured by Implicit Association Test) were observed only in the lovingkindness practice condition. Reduced psychological stress mediated the effect of lovingkindness practice on implicit bias against homeless people, but it did not mediate the reduced bias against Black people. These results suggest that lovingkindness meditation can improve automatically activated, implicit attitudes toward stigmatized social groups and that this effect occurs through distinctive mechanisms for different stigmatized social groups.

  19. Perspective-Taking Increases Willingness to Engage in Intergroup Contact

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cynthia S.; Kenneth, Tai; Ku, Gillian; Galinsky, Adam D.

    2014-01-01

    The current research explored whether perspective-taking increases willingness to engage in contact with stereotyped outgroup members. Across three studies, we find that perspective-taking increases willingness to engage in contact with negatively-stereotyped targets. In Study 1, perspective-takers sat closer to, whereas stereotype suppressors sat further from, a hooligan compared to control participants. In Study 2, individual differences in perspective-taking tendencies predicted individuals' willingness to engage in contact with a hooligan, having effects above and beyond those of empathic concern. Finally, Study 3 demonstrated that perspective-taking's effects on intergroup contact extend to the target's group (i.e., another homeless man), but not to other outgroups (i.e., a man of African descent). Consistent with other perspective-taking research, our findings show that perspective-taking facilitates the creation of social bonds by increasing contact with stereotyped outgroup members. PMID:24465648

  20. Inferring Identity From Language: Linguistic Intergroup Bias Informs Social Categorization.

    PubMed

    Porter, Shanette C; Rheinschmidt-Same, Michelle; Richeson, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    The present research examined whether a communicator's verbal, implicit message regarding a target is used as a cue for inferring that communicator's social identity. Previous research has found linguistic intergroup bias (LIB) in individuals' speech: They use abstract language to describe in-group targets' desirable behaviors and concrete language to describe their undesirable behaviors (favorable LIB), but use concrete language for out-group targets' desirable behaviors and abstract language for their undesirable behaviors (unfavorable LIB). Consequently, one can infer the type of language a communicator is likely to use to describe in-group and out-group targets. We hypothesized and found evidence for the reverse inference. Across four studies, individuals inferred a communicator's social identity on the basis of the communicator's use of an LIB. Specifically, participants more strongly believed that a communicator and target shared a social identity when the communicator used the favorable, rather than the unfavorable, LIB in describing that target.

  1. Sex differences in intergroup competition, aggression, and warfare: the male warrior hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Van Vugt, Mark

    2009-06-01

    The social science literature abounds with examples of human tribalism, the tendency to categorize individuals on the basis of their group membership and treat in-group members benevolently and out-group members malevolently. I argue that this tribal inclination is an evolved response to the threat of intergroup violence and warfare that was endemic in ancestral human environments (and is still common today). Here I hypothesize that intergroup conflict has profoundly affected the social psychology of human males in particular--the male warrior hypothesis--and present evidence consistent with this claim. I also discuss implications of this hypothesis for managing intergroup relations in our society.

  2. Perceptions of interpersonal versus intergroup violence: the case of sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Droogendyk, Lisa; Wright, Stephen C

    2014-01-01

    The social identity approach makes a distinction between behavior motivated by intergroup versus interpersonal identities, which may be relevant to victim blaming in the case of rape. Using a mock jury paradigm, we examined the impact of defining rape as an act of interpersonal violence (personal assault) versus intergroup violence (a "hate crime"), crossed with a manipulation describing the attacker as either an acquaintance or stranger. Defining rape in intergroup terms led to less victim blame than when it was defined in interpersonal terms, and participants blamed the victim more when she was assaulted by an acquaintance than a stranger.

  3. Responsive Systems Consultation: A Model for Conjoint Consultation Preliminary Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasad-Gaur, Archna; And Others

    Responsive Systems Consultation (RSC) is an approach for enhancing children's developmental outcomes and involves a psychological or educational consultant working jointly with a child's parents and teachers. The impact of the RSC on parent and teacher consultees' attitudes toward home-school collaboration and their evaluation of the consultation…

  4. In Pursuit of Three Theories: Authoritarianism, Relative Deprivation, and Intergroup Contact.

    PubMed

    Pettigrew, Thomas F

    2016-01-01

    Throughout my career, I have pursued three theories related to intergroup prejudice--each with a different mentor. Each theory and its supporting research help us to understand prejudice and ways to ameliorate the problem. This autobiographical review article summarizes some of the advances in these three areas during the past six decades. For authoritarianism, the article advocates removing political content from its measurement, linking it with threat and dismissive-avoidant attachment, and studying how authoritarians avoid intergroup contact. Increased work on relative deprivation made possible an extensive meta-analysis that shows the theory, when appropriately measured, has far broader effects than previously thought. Increased research attention to intergroup contact similarly made possible a meta-analysis that established the pervasive effectiveness of intergroup contact to reduce prejudice under a wide range of conditions. The article closes by demonstrating how the three theories relate to each other and contribute to our understanding of prejudice and its reduction.

  5. A two-dimensional model of intergroup leadership: the case of national diversity.

    PubMed

    Pittinsky, Todd L

    2010-04-01

    The model presented argues that leadership involves bringing together not only diverse individuals but also the subgroups to which they belong. The model further argues that this does not require replacing people's subgroup identities with a superordinate group identity (turning "us" and "them" into "we"); bringing together diverse individuals and their subgroups can be accomplished by promoting positive relations among subgroups, even as their distinctive identities (their senses of "us" and "them") remain. The model conceptualizes positive and negative intergroup attitudes as two independent dimensions of intergroup relations, each with distinct antecedents and distinct associated outcomes. Leaders seeking to create a collective from diverse subgroups must therefore (a) reduce negative intergroup attitudes and (b) increase positive intergroup attitudes. The author applies the model to organizational contexts of national diversity, but it can be applied to leadership across other forms of diversity.

  6. Prejudice from thin air: The effect of emotion on automatic intergroup attitudes.

    PubMed

    DeSteno, David; Dasgupta, Nilanjana; Bartlett, Monica Y; Cajdric, Aida

    2004-05-01

    Two experiments provide initial evidence that specific emotional states are capable of creating automatic prejudice toward outgroups. Specifically, we propose that anger should influence automatic evaluations of outgroups because of its functional relevance to intergroup conflict and competition, whereas other negative emotions less relevant to intergroup relations (e.g., sadness) should not. In both experiments, after minimal ingroups and outgroups were created, participants were induced to experience anger, sadness, or a neutral state. Automatic attitudes toward the in- and outgroups were then assessed using an evaluative priming measure (Experiment 1) and the Implicit Association Test (Experiment 2). As predicted, results showed that anger created automatic prejudice toward the outgroup, whereas sadness and neutrality resulted in no automatic intergroup bias. The implications of these findings for emotion-induced biases in implicit intergroup cognition in particular, and in social cognition in general, are considered.

  7. An analysis of intergroup rivalry using Ising model and reinforcement learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Feng-Fei; Qin, Zheng; Shao, Zhuo

    2014-01-01

    Modeling of intergroup rivalry can help us better understand economic competitions, political elections and other similar activities. The result of intergroup rivalry depends on the co-evolution of individual behavior within one group and the impact from the rival group. In this paper, we model the rivalry behavior using Ising model. Different from other simulation studies using Ising model, the evolution rules of each individual in our model are not static, but have the ability to learn from historical experience using reinforcement learning technique, which makes the simulation more close to real human behavior. We studied the phase transition in intergroup rivalry and focused on the impact of the degree of social freedom, the personality of group members and the social experience of individuals. The results of computer simulation show that a society with a low degree of social freedom and highly educated, experienced individuals is more likely to be one-sided in intergroup rivalry.

  8. Collaborative Relationships in Evaluation Consulting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maack, Stephen C.; Upton, Jan

    2006-01-01

    People are often driven to become "independent" as part of the desire to go out on their own. Independent evaluation consultants, however, frequently collaborate with others on evaluation projects. This chapter explores such collaborative relationships from both sides: those leading evaluations with subcontracted consultants and those who work as…

  9. Longitudinal intergroup contact effects on prejudice using self- and observer-reports.

    PubMed

    Dhont, Kristof; Van Hiel, Alain; De Bolle, Marleen; Roets, Arne

    2012-06-01

    Longitudinal effects of intergroup contact on prejudice were investigated in a sample of 65 young adults (Sample 1) and a sample of their close friends (Sample 2, N= 172), adopting a full cross-lagged panel design. We first validated the self-report measure of intergroup contact from Sample 1 with observer ratings from Sample 2 by demonstrating that self-reports and observer ratings of contact were highly correlated. Moreover, we obtained significant cross-lagged effects of intergroup contact on prejudice with both contact measures, thereby providing a second validation for the use of self-reports of intergroup contact. Finally, by the use of latent change modelling, we demonstrated that, although no overall significant change in contact and prejudice over time was found, there was meaningful variation in absolute change in the individual levels of intergroup contact and prejudice. In particular, some individuals showed increases while others showed decreases in contact or prejudice across time. Moreover, higher levels of intergroup contact at Time 1 were followed by larger subsequent decreases in prejudice between Time 1 and Time 2, and changes in contact were significantly and negatively related to changes in prejudice. Methodological implications of the findings are discussed.

  10. Moral judgments about Jewish-Arab intergroup exclusion: the role of cultural identity and contact.

    PubMed

    Brenick, Alaina; Killen, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Prejudice and discrimination as justifications for social exclusion are often viewed as violations of the moral principles of welfare, justice, and equality, but intergroup exclusion can also often be viewed as a necessary and legitimate means to maintain group identity and cohesion (Rutland, Killen, & Abrams, 2010). The current study was guided by the social reasoning developmental perspective (Killen & Rutland, 2011) to examine the moral judgments of social exclusion encounters, and the degree to which cultural identity and actual contact with members of other cultural groups is related to social evaluations. Surprisingly, no research has examined how intergroup contact bears on moral judgments about Jewish-Arab encounters in the United States. The current study surveyed 241 Jewish and 249 non-Arab/non-Jewish (comparison group) 14- and 17-year-olds to assess their cultural identification, intergroup contact, and moral judgments regarding intergroup peer social exclusion situations between Jewish and Arab youth in peer, home, and community contexts. Participants overwhelmingly rejected exclusion of an outgroup member explicitly because of their group membership. Context effects emerged, and exclusion was rated as most acceptable in the community context and least acceptable in the peer context. Three factors of identity (i.e., exploration, commitment, and concern for relationships) were explored. Generally, higher identity commitment and lower identity concern for relationships were related to more inclusive evaluations. Interactions between the identity factors and intergroup contact and cultural group, however, differentially predicted evaluations of intergroup exclusion.

  11. Proximity under Threat: The Role of Physical Distance in Intergroup Relations

    PubMed Central

    Wohl, Michael J. A.; Van Bavel, Jay J.

    2016-01-01

    Throughout human history, social groups have invested immense amounts of wealth and time to keep threatening out-groups at a distance. In the current research, we explored the relationship between intergroup threat, physical distance, and discrimination. Specifically, we examined how intergroup threat alters estimates of physical distance to out-groups and how physical proximity affects intergroup relations. Previous research has found that people judge threatening out-groups as physically close. In Studies 1 and 2, we examined ways to attenuate this bias. In Study 1 a secure (vs. permeable) US-Mexico border reduced the estimated proximity to Mexico City among Americans who felt threatened by Mexican immigration. In Study 2, intergroup apologies reduced estimates of physical proximity to a threatening cross-town rival university, but only among participants with cross-group friendships. In Study 3, New York Yankees fans who received an experimental induction of physical proximity to a threatening out-group (Boston Red Sox) had a stronger relationship between their collective identification with the New York Yankees and support for discriminatory policies toward members of the out-group (Red Sox fans) as well as how far they chose to sit from out-group members (Red Sox fans). Together, these studies suggest that intergroup threat alters judgment of physical properties, which has important implications for intergroup relations. PMID:27467267

  12. The ethics of data and of data science: an economist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Cave, Jonathan

    2016-12-28

    Data collection and modelling are increasingly important in social science and science-based policy, but threaten to crowd out other ways of thinking. Economists recognize that markets embody and shed light on human sentiments. However, their ethical consequences have been difficult to interpret, let alone manage. Although economic mechanisms are changed by data intensity, they can be redesigned to restore their benefits. We conclude with four cautions: if data are good, more may not be better; scientifically desirable data properties may not help policy; consent is a double-edged tool; and data exist only because someone thought to capture and codify them.This article is part of the themed issue 'The ethical impact of data science'.

  13. Economists, capitalists, and the making of globalization: North American free trade in comparative-historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Fairbrother, Malcolm

    2014-03-01

    Why did globalization happen? Current explanations point to a variety of conditions under which states have made the free market policy changes driving international economic integration since the 1980s. Such accounts disagree, however, about the key actors involved. This article provides a reconciliation, showing how two different combinations of actors, and two different political economic pathways, have led to globalization in recent decades. In developed countries, mobilization by business has been central; elsewhere, technocrats both constrained and empowered by international finance have pursued globalization more independently of business. In both contexts, economists' technical authority has helped legitimate liberalization, despite the limited diffusion of their ideas. The article validates and elaborates this model using a comparative-historical study of how the United States, Canada, and Mexico proposed, negotiated, and ratified agreements for free trade in North America.

  14. Common cent$ 1: One-armed economists and the invisible hand.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, I

    2001-01-01

    This article is the first in a series called Common Cent$. There is a need for leaders and managers to have a basic understanding--Common Cent$--of elementary economics. The limited, retrospective view of the accountant must be supplemented by the broader, prospective view of the economist. The limits and scope of economics are defined. The First and Second Fundamental Theorems of Welfare Economics are introduced. The mythology behind the mechanism of action of Adam Smith's Invisible Hand is dissected, and the mechanism of the free market is explained in terms of the effect of marginal cost on net market efficiency. The apparently simple case of the effect of legislating a minimum wage on a free market is discussed. This provides an example of the real-world complexity of economies and of applying economic concepts to the business world.

  15. Scientific authority in policy contexts: Public attitudes about environmental scientists, medical researchers, and economists.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Timothy L

    2013-10-01

    This paper uses data from the US General Social Survey to examine public support for scientists in policy contexts and its link to scientific disciplines. An analysis of attitudes about the amount of influence that environmental scientists, two kinds of medical researchers, and economists should have over policy decisions reveals that in each discipline the extent to which scientists are thought to serve the nation's best interests is the strongest determinant of attitudes about scientists as policy advisors. Perceptions of scientists' technical knowledge and the level of consensus in the scientific community also have direct, albeit weaker effects on opinions about scientists' appropriate roles in policy settings. Whereas previous research has stressed the importance of local variability in understanding the transfer of scientific authority across institutional boundaries, these results point to considerable homogeneity in the social bases of scientific authority in policy contexts.

  16. Beyond the two-group paradigm in studies of intergroup conflict and inequality: Third parties and intergroup alliances in xenophobic violence in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Philippa; Durrheim, Kevin; Dixon, John

    2017-03-01

    Social psychologists typically conceptualize intergroup processes in terms of unequal pairs of social categories, such as an advantaged majority (e.g., 'Whites') and a disadvantaged minority (e.g., 'Blacks'). We argue that this two-group paradigm may obscure the workings of intergroup power by overlooking: (1) the unique dynamics of intergroup relations involving three or more groups, and (2) the way some two-group relationships function as strategic alliances that derive meaning from their location within a wider relational context. We develop this argument through a field study conducted in a grape-farming town in South Africa in 2009, focusing on an episode of xenophobic violence in which a Zimbabwean farm worker community was forcibly evicted from their homes by their South African neighbours. Discursive analysis of interview accounts of the nature and origins of this violence shows how an ostensibly binary 'xenophobic' conflict between foreign and South African farm labourers was partially constituted through both groups' relationship with a third party who were neither victims nor perpetrators of the actual violence, namely White farmers. We highlight some potential political consequences of defaulting to a two-group paradigm in intergroup conflict studies.

  17. When the CNS needs a consultant.

    PubMed

    Norwood, S L

    1998-03-01

    Although advanced practice nurses (APNs) are accustomed to providing consultation about patient care issues, they may be less comfortable seeking consultation and working with consultants. Being a savvy consumer of consultation services, however, is an essential skill for APNs and can help them avoid problems that may arise when practicing outside their realm of expertise. Consultants can also help APNs develop intra- and entrepreneurial practice opportunities. This article describes how to determine the necessity of a consultation, how to choose a consultant, and how to get the most out of a consulting relationship.

  18. Training programs in school consultation.

    PubMed

    Berkovitz, I H; Sinclair, E

    2001-01-01

    The need to train psychiatrists in school consultation is important to approach mental health and psychosocial concerns from the broad perspective of addressing barriers to learning and promoting healthy development. There is a major national impetus to improve academic achievement and literacy, which can be amplified by addressing the social, emotional, and mental health needs of children and youth. Training in school consultation allows the psychiatrist to better understand a critical institution in each child's life and also provides technical assistance and training to school personnel, which facilitates networking between programs and individuals involved in or interested in school mental health. Each of the described programs approaches consultation from a specific focus that varies in time commitment, placement options, and frequency and order of didactic presentations. There is no conclusive available evidence as to which program is most effective, since such evaluation depends on the overall goals of the consultation program itself.

  19. Asymmetric intergroup bullying: The enactment and maintenance of societal inequality at work

    PubMed Central

    Soylu, Soydan; Sheehy-Skeffington, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    What does inequality mean for dysfunctional organizational behaviours, such as workplace bullying? This article argues that workplace bullying can be understood as a manifestation of intergroup dynamics originating beyond the organization. We introduce the construct of asymmetric intergroup bullying: the disproportionate mistreatment of members of low status groups, with the intended effect of enhancing the subordination of that group in society at large. Analysis of data from 38 interviews with public and private sector workers in Turkey depicts a pattern of asymmetric intergroup bullying, undertaken to achieve organizational and broader sociopolitical goals. Respondents reported bullying acts used to get rid of unwanted personnel, with the goal of avoiding severance pay, or of removing supporters of the former government from positions of political and economic influence. Bullying was also described as working towards the dominance of the sociocultural worldview of one political group over another. We discuss asymmetric intergroup bullying as one mechanism through which acute intergroup hierarchy in the broader society corrupts management practice and employee interactions, in turn exacerbating economic inequality along group lines. PMID:26819482

  20. Collective narcissism moderates the effect of in-group image threat on intergroup hostility.

    PubMed

    Golec de Zavala, Agnieszka; Cichocka, Aleksandra; Iskra-Golec, Irena

    2013-06-01

    Results of 4 experiments demonstrated that under in-group image threat collective narcissism predicts retaliatory intergroup hostility. Under in-group criticism (vs. praise) collective narcissists expressed intention to harm the offending out-group but not other, nonoffending out-groups. This effect was specific to collective narcissism and was replicated in studies that accounted for the overlap between collective narcissism and individual narcissism, in-group positivity (in-group identification, blind and constructive patriotism), social dominance orientation, and right wing authoritarianism. The link between collective narcissism and retaliatory intergroup hostility under in-group image threat was found in the context of national identity and international relations and in the context of a social identity defined by university affiliation. Study 4 demonstrated that the relationship between collective narcissism and intergroup hostility was mediated by the perception of in-group criticism as personally threatening. The results advance our understanding of the mechanism driving the link between collective narcissism and intergroup hostility. They indicate that threatened egotism theory can be extended into the intergroup domain.

  1. When trying to understand detracts from trying to behave: effects of perspective taking in intergroup interaction.

    PubMed

    Vorauer, Jacquie D; Martens, Verena; Sasaki, Stacey J

    2009-04-01

    Four studies demonstrate that perspective taking can backfire in intergroup interaction, leading lower prejudice individuals to treat an outgroup member less positively than they do when they adopt alternative mind-sets; for higher prejudice individuals, perspective taking instead had a positive, albeit less consistent, effect on behavior. The net result was behavior disruption, whereby individuals' treatment of an outgroup member became incongruent with their inner attitudes. This disruption effect was evident for cognitive and affective forms of perspective taking, in ostensible and real face-to-face intergroup interactions, and for feelings of happiness experienced by individuals' interaction partner as well as outside observers' behavior assessments. Results further suggested that self-regulatory effort mediated the effect of perspective taking on intergroup interaction behavior, with the negative consequences of perspective taking for lower prejudice individuals' behavior appearing to stem from complacency rather than trying too hard. Overall, the findings reveal that perspective taking rather than self-focus accounts for the cognitive resource depletion and behavior disruption effects previously demonstrated to stem from evaluative concern in intergroup interaction and indicate that perspective taking may be more reliably helpful outside of intergroup interaction situations than within them.

  2. Mortality in the randomized, controlled lung intergroup trial of isotretinoin.

    PubMed

    Lee, J Jack; Feng, Lei; Reshef, Daniel S; Sabichi, Anita L; Williams, Brendell; Rinsurongkawong, Waree; Wistuba, Ignacio I; Lotan, Reuben; Lippman, Scott M

    2010-06-01

    In 2001, we reported that mortality may have been higher with isotretinoin (30 mg/d for 3 years) than with placebo in the subgroup of current smokers among the 1,166 patients with definitively resected early-stage non-small cell lung cancer who participated in the randomized, controlled Lung Intergroup Trial. We report the overall and cause (cancer, cardiovascular disease, or other)-specific mortality associated with long-term isotretinoin after an extended median follow-up of 6.2 years that included the capture of cause-of-death data from 428 deceased patients. Overall mortality was 36.7% in each of the two trial arms, about two thirds related to cancer and one third to other or unknown causes. Overall and cancer deaths increased in current smokers in the isotretinoin arm during the treatment and the extended follow-up period. No mortality end point increased among never smokers and former smokers taking isotretinoin, and cancer deaths decreased marginally in this combined subgroup. Isotretinoin also increased deaths from cardiovascular disease in current smokers. The present analysis supports the safety of protracted isotretinoin use in the combined group of never smokers and former smokers, which has important public health implications, for example, for treating acne in young people. The increased mortality in current smokers in this study is further evidence of the multifaceted danger of active smoking. The overall indications of this study have public health implications for treating acne in young people and other uses of retinoids in smokers.

  3. Consults for conflict: the history of ethics consultation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The very existence of ethics consultation reflects both the increasing complexity of modern medicine's ethical questions and our discomfort with the prospect of answering them alone. Two developments in the past century were instrumental in driving the development of ethics consultation—organ replacement therapy and intensive care. With the proliferation of extreme life-prolonging measures came the thorny difficulties in the withdrawal of such services or rationing when resources were poor. Insofar as “someone must,” lamented Dr. Karen Teel (a pioneer of ethics consultation), the physician “is charged with the responsibility of making ethical judgments which we are sometimes ill-equipped to make.” More than anything, ethics consultation has come to best satisfy a central desire of American health care—sharing the responsibility for tough decisions. PMID:24082425

  4. Practice Parameter for Psychiatric Consultation to Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This practice parameter reviews the topic of psychiatric consultation to schools. The review covers the history of school consultation and current consultative models; the process of developing a consultative relationship; school administrative procedures, personnel, and milieu; legal protections for students with mental disabilities; and issues…

  5. Trust and the Client-Consultant Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomonson, William L.

    2012-01-01

    This study seeks to improve the contributions of performance consultants, instructional design consultants, and training consultants by explaining the effect that several variables have on trust as a mediator to relationship commitment within the context of the client-consultant relationship. The participants were 228 college students from two…

  6. Nephropathology consultation via digitized images.

    PubMed

    Cronenberger, J H; Hsiao, H; Falk, R J; Jennette, J C

    1992-12-17

    Investigations into a digitized image communications system were prompted by a need to bring expert consultation to physicians in community practice. Pathologists desired the capability to concomitantly view, annotate, and discuss images with referring physicians at distant sites. Methods included evaluation of the human and procedural domain into which the system was to be integrated. The GDCN computer consultation system has the consultant nephropathologist first evaluate the processed biopsy slides, digitize representative images, transmit them with the diagnosis to referring nephrologist, and, finally, conduct an interactive consultation and review of the biopsy and case. Image resolution and compression variables must be set for each individual medical consulting application. For the GDCN, it was found that the 640 x 496 x unlimited color with compression ratios not exceeding 1:32 are acceptable. An obvious improvement of this computerized system over the noncomputerized review sessions is the ability to immediately share and discuss a new image that had not been previously sent. In the old noncomputerized consultation, only images that had been mailed could be discussed. The computerized sessions allow transmission (10 sec) of a new image that the consultation might demand. The computerized sessions also provide the ability to show the referring nephrologist an area of biopsy interest that the pathologist had not previously transmitted. Biopsy slides can be viewed during the consultation, an area digitized, and that image transmitted to the nephrologist during the consultation. Hardware and costs for the sending station were: [table: see text] This system far exceeds the requirements for this particular application; however, it is sufficient to support future, higher-technology computer applications. If necessary, this same system could be used with a less expensive computer, a less expensive camera, software compression, and a single monitor. These

  7. Circumplex Scales of Intergroup Goals: an interpersonal circle model of goals for interactions between groups.

    PubMed

    Locke, Kenneth D

    2014-04-01

    Six studies (N = 1,682) used the Circumplex Scales of Intergroup Goals (CSIG)--an inventory based on the interpersonal circle-to assess individuals' agentic and communal goals for interactions between groups (nations in Studies 1-4, organizations in Study 5, political parties in Study 6). Noteworthy findings included the following: People with stronger unagentic-and-uncommunal goals perceived other groups as dangers, were wary of intergroup negotiations, and sanctioned authoritarianism and inequality. People with stronger agentic-and-uncommunal goals proudly identified with their country and compatriots, disapproved of nations unlike their own, and preferred the conservative candidate in a national election. People with stronger communal-and-unagentic goals identified with people beyond their ingroup, and wanted their group to resolve intergroup conflicts by behaving cooperatively rather than competitively or aggressively. By providing an encompassing framework capable of organizing and integrating these types of diverse findings, the circumplex model can facilitate cumulative scientific progress.

  8. Cross-ethnic friendships and intergroup attitudes among asian american adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaochen; Graham, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    This study examined cross-ethnic friendship choices and intergroup attitudes in a sample of 762 sixth-grade Asian American students (Mage  = 11.5 years) attending 1 of 19 middle schools that varied in ethnic composition. Multiple measures of friendship (quantity and quality) and intergroup attitudes (affective, cognitive, behavioral) toward White, Latino, and Black grademates were assessed. The results showed that Asian American students overnominated White students and undernominated Latino and Black students as their friends when school availability of each ethnic group was accounted for. Cross-ethnic friendships were related to better intergroup attitudes, especially the behavioral dimension of attitudes. Cross-ethnic friendships were least likely to change attitudes toward Blacks. Implications for future research, educational practice, and attitude intervention programs were discussed.

  9. Cross-group friendships and intergroup attitudes: a meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Davies, Kristin; Tropp, Linda R; Aron, Arthur; Pettigrew, Thomas F; Wright, Stephen C

    2011-11-01

    This work identifies how cross-group friendships are conceptualized and measured in intergroup research, investigates which operationalizations yield the strongest effects on intergroup attitudes, explores potential moderators, and discusses the theoretical importance of the findings. Prior meta-analyses have provided initial evidence that cross-group friendships are especially powerful forms of intergroup contact. Although studies of cross-group friendship have grown considerably in recent years, varied assessments leave us without a clear understanding of how different operationalizations affect relationships between friendship and attitudes. With a greatly expanded database of relevant studies, the authors compared friendship-attitude associations across a wide range of specific conceptualizations. Time spent and self-disclosure with outgroup friends yielded significantly greater associations with attitudes than other friendship measures, suggesting that attitudes are most likely to improve when cross-group friendships involve behavioral engagement. Processes underlying cross-group friendships are discussed, as are implications for future research and application.

  10. Social identity complexity, cross-ethnic friendships, and intergroup attitudes in urban middle schools.

    PubMed

    Knifsend, Casey A; Juvonen, Jaana

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated contextual antecedents (i.e., cross-ethnic peers and friends) and correlates (i.e., intergroup attitudes) of social identity complexity in seventh grade. Social identity complexity refers to the perceived overlap among social groups with which youth identify. Identifying mostly with out-of-school sports, religious affiliations, and peer crowds, the ethnically diverse sample (N = 622; Mage in seventh grade = 12.56) showed moderately high complexity. Social identity complexity mediated the link between cross-ethnic friendships and ethnic intergroup attitudes, but only when adolescents had a high proportion of cross-ethnic peers at school. Results are discussed in terms of how school diversity can promote complex social identities and positive intergroup attitudes.

  11. Inter-group violence among early Holocene hunter-gatherers of West Turkana, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mirazón Lahr, M; Rivera, F; Power, R K; Mounier, A; Copsey, B; Crivellaro, F; Edung, J E; Maillo Fernandez, J M; Kiarie, C; Lawrence, J; Leakey, A; Mbua, E; Miller, H; Muigai, A; Mukhongo, D M; Van Baelen, A; Wood, R; Schwenninger, J-L; Grün, R; Achyuthan, H; Wilshaw, A; Foley, R A

    2016-01-21

    The nature of inter-group relations among prehistoric hunter-gatherers remains disputed, with arguments in favour and against the existence of warfare before the development of sedentary societies. Here we report on a case of inter-group violence towards a group of hunter-gatherers from Nataruk, west of Lake Turkana, which during the late Pleistocene/early Holocene period extended about 30 km beyond its present-day shore. Ten of the twelve articulated skeletons found at Nataruk show evidence of having died violently at the edge of a lagoon, into which some of the bodies fell. The remains from Nataruk are unique, preserved by the particular conditions of the lagoon with no evidence of deliberate burial. They offer a rare glimpse into the life and death of past foraging people, and evidence that warfare was part of the repertoire of inter-group relations among prehistoric hunter-gatherers.

  12. Raising Ethnic-Racial Consciousness: The Relationship between Intergroup Dialogues and Adolescents' Ethnic-Racial Identity and Racism Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldana, Adriana; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Checkoway, Barry; Richards-Schuster, Katie

    2012-01-01

    Empirical evidence shows that intergroup dialogue programs promote changes in ethnic-racial identity and racism awareness among college students. Expanding on this research, this study examines the effects of intergroup dialogues on adolescents' racial consciousness. Self-reports of 147 adolescents (13-19 years old), of various racial and ethnic…

  13. Improving Ethnic Balance and Intergroup Relations; An Advisory Report to the Board of Education, Corona Unified School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Intergroup Relations.

    This report contains the findings of a field study of the ethnic and racial composition and intergroup relations in the schools in the Corona Unified School District, California. These findings are information on (1) the district's approaches to desegregation and its policy on intergroup relations, (2) students' achievement differences, (3)…

  14. Psychological consultation with substance abusers.

    PubMed

    Rogalski, C J

    1987-05-01

    Previous work has documented that compliance rates of substance abusers undergoing inpatient detoxification could be influenced by professional psychological consultation. The administrative structure has been previously described as well as a clinical/humanistic component within the administrative structure. This report describes the individualized psychological consultation. This consultative intervention is in accord with the tripartite model of mental health which views the assessment of pathology from the perspectives of the mental health practitioner, the patient, and the culture; and the recent advances within self-psychology. A self-psychological model is suggested to understand the detoxifying substance abuser, from a stage of loss of cohesiveness to one of personality stabilization. The hospital environment and persons within the environment provide both a framework and self-object functions (mirroring, idealizing, and alter ego) during detoxification. Research recommendations are made to collect empirical data on the psychology of the detoxifying addict.

  15. Empathy-related Responding: Associations with Prosocial Behavior, Aggression, and Intergroup Relations

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Eggum, Natalie D.; Di Giunta, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Empathy-related responding, including empathy, sympathy, and personal distress, has been implicated in conceptual models and theories about prosocial behavior and altruism, aggression and antisocial behavior, and intergroup relationships. Conceptual arguments and empirical findings related to each of these topics are reviewed. In general, there is evidence that empathy and/or sympathy are important correlates of, and likely contributors to, other-oriented prosocial behavior, the inhibition of aggression and antisocial behavior, and the quality of intergroup relationships. Applied implications of these findings, including preventative studies, are discussed, as are possible future directions. PMID:21221410

  16. Minority group members' theories of intergroup contact: a case study of British Muslims' conceptualizations of 'Islamophobia' and social change.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Nick; Kahani-Hopkins, Vered

    2006-06-01

    Much research in intergroup relations concerns the potential for interventions (e.g. intergroup contact) to reduce majorities' discrimination against minorities. In this paper we focus on how minority group members construe such interventions, especially as they affect their abilities to act in terms of their collective identity to realize social change. In addressing this issue, we focus on a minority's beliefs and theories concerning the intergroup dynamics lying behind their marginalization. Our data are qualitative and concern British Muslims' analyses of the dynamics of Islamophobia. Specifically, we explore two theorizations of Muslims' marginalization. Both share a concern with improving Muslims' collective position in Britain. However, they construe the dynamics to Islamophobia in very different ways, and this shapes their approach to intergroup contact and dialogue. Our analysis is informed by, and seeks to complement, social psychological theorizing on social change and intergroup contact.

  17. Special Education Consultation: Interactive Video Simulation: Adults, Teachers & Consultants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Robert J.

    A microcomputer controlled interactive videotape program is described as one way to supply special education teachers with inservice and/or consultation services. The approach allows inservice teachers to strengthen classroom teaching skills outside of the classroom. Programing directions are offered written in the SuperPILOT Authoring Language on…

  18. Faculty Consulting: Responsibility or Promiscuity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Carol M; Lewis, Darrell R.

    1984-01-01

    The potential benefits--to the individual, the institution, and society--and the potential costs of faculty consulting are examined. A review of the relevant literature and data precedes a presentation of new findings and a taxonomy for developing institutional guidelines. (Author/MLW)

  19. The Consultants' Corner: Vendor Viability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drabenstott, Jon, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Three library consultants--Rick Richmond, Wilson Stahl, and Jose-Marie Griffiths--discuss the implications of six issues for the success and stability of library automation vendors: (1) vendor business characteristics; (2) competitive advantage; (3) the library marketplace; (4) system selection; (5) corporate planning; and (6) library interests.…

  20. Educational Consulting: Justification to Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sklarow, Mark H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a response to Steven R. Antonoff's article, "Educational Consulting: A Focus for the Profession." More than 20 years ago, when this article first appeared in "The Journal of College Admission," "for profit counselors" (as they were then called by NACAC) were not welcome partners. It was acceptable practice to publicly denigrate the…

  1. Consultative Instructor Supervision and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, William W.

    2010-01-01

    Organizations vary greatly in how they monitor training instructors. The methods used in monitoring vary greatly. This article presents a systematic process for improving instructor skills that result in better teaching and better learning, which results in better-prepared employees for the workforce. The consultative supervision and evaluation…

  2. Pharmacy Program Review. Consultant's Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Robert D.; And Others

    Site visits were made by a team of consultants to Florida A&M University (FAMU) and the University of Florida (UF), the two institutions providing pharmacy education in Florida, to review programs and assess issues relating to entry-level degrees, manpower needs, and delivery systems. After a brief history of academic programs in pharmacy, the…

  3. Consultancy on Strategic Information Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pejova, Zdravka, Ed.; Horton, Forest W., Ed.

    At the workshop, better management through strategic planning of information and consultancy was discussed as one way in which developing and Eastern European countries could tackle the complex information problems they are facing during the transition to a market economy. The sixteen papers in this volume are grouped into three basic categories:…

  4. Narrative and Structure in Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadley, David

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the process of consultation to professional networks, teams, groups and individuals concerned with the mental health of children and young people in the care system, and those adopted. Frequently there are significant elements of early trauma suffered by the young people and disruption in the professional organisation. The…

  5. Cohesion from Conflict: Does Intergroup Conflict Motivate Intragroup Norm Enforcement and Support for Centralized Leadership?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benard, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Classic work suggests that intergroup conflict increases intragroup cohesion and cooperation. But how do group members respond when their peers refuse to cooperate? Simmel ([1908] 1955) argued that groups in conflict quell dissent by sanctioning group members and supporting centralized leadership systems. This claim has important implications, but…

  6. The development of bystander intentions and social-moral reasoning about intergroup verbal aggression.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Sally B; Rutland, Adam; Cameron, Lindsey

    2015-11-01

    A developmental intergroup approach was taken to examine the development of prosocial bystander intentions among children and adolescents. Participants as bystanders (N = 260) aged 8-10 and 13-15 years were presented with scenarios of direct aggression between individuals from different social groups (i.e., intergroup verbal aggression). These situations involved either an ingroup aggressor and an outgroup victim or an outgroup aggressor and an ingroup victim. This study focussed on the role of intergroup factors (group membership, ingroup identification, group norms, and social-moral reasoning) in the development of prosocial bystander intentions. Findings showed that prosocial bystander intentions declined with age. This effect was partially mediated by the ingroup norm to intervene and perceived severity of the verbal aggression. However, a moderated mediation analysis showed that only when the victim was an ingroup member and the aggressor an outgroup member did participants become more likely with age to report prosocial bystander intentions due to increased ingroup identification. Results also showed that younger children focussed on moral concerns and adolescents focussed more on psychological concerns when reasoning about their bystander intention. These novel findings help explain the developmental decline in prosocial bystander intentions from middle childhood into early adolescence when observing direct intergroup aggression.

  7. Intergroup Contact and Evaluations of Race-Based Exclusion in Urban Minority Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruck, Martin D.; Park, Henry; Killen, Melanie; Crystal, David S.

    2011-01-01

    There is a dearth of published research on the role of intergroup contact on urban US ethnic minority children's and adolescents' evaluations of racial exclusion. The current investigation examined these issues in a sample of low-income minority 4th, 7th, and 10th grade (N = 129, 60% female) African American and Latino/a students attending…

  8. Athletes and Sedentary Individuals: An Intergroup Comparison Utilizing a Pulmonary Function Ratio Obtained During Submaximal Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maud, Peter J.

    A pulmonary function ratio describing oxygen extraction from alveolar ventilation was used for an intergroup comparison between three groups of athletes (rugby, basketball, and football players) and one group of sedentary subjects during steady-state submaximal exercise. The ratio and its component parts are determined from only three gas…

  9. Preschool Children's Attention to Environmental Messages about Groups: Social Categorization and the Origins of Intergroup Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Meagan M.; Bigler, Rebecca S.

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of adults' labeling and use of social groups on preschool children's intergroup attitudes. Children (N=87, aged 3-5) attending day care were given measures of classification skill and self-esteem and assigned to membership in a novel ("red" or "blue") social group. In experimental classrooms, teachers…

  10. Peer Group Norms and Accountability Moderate the Effect of School Norms on Children's Intergroup Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Luke; Rutland, Adam; Nesdale, Drew

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the interactive effects of school norms, peer norms, and accountability on children's intergroup attitudes. Participants (n = 229) aged 5-11 years, in a between-subjects design, were randomly assigned to a peer group with an inclusion or exclusion norm, learned their school either had an inclusion norm or not, and were…

  11. Shared Features of L2 Writing: Intergroup Homogeneity and Text Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Scott A.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates intergroup homogeneity within high intermediate and advanced L2 writers of English from Czech, Finnish, German, and Spanish first language backgrounds. A variety of linguistic features related to lexical sophistication, syntactic complexity, and cohesion were used to compare texts written by L1 speakers of English to L2…

  12. Intergroup Dialogue: A Critical-Dialogic Approach to Learning about Difference, Inequality, and Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagda, Biren A.; Gurin, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Intergroup dialogue (IGD) is an educational endeavor that brings together students from two or more social identity groups to build relationships across cultural and power differences, to raise consciousness of inequalities, to explore the similarities and differences in experiences across identity groups, and to strengthen individual and…

  13. Cognitive Cultural Learning, Intergroup Contact and Change in Ethnic Attitudes and Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amir, Yehuda; Ben-Ari, Rachel

    This study was designed to test the assumption that intergroup contact will lead to changes in attitudes. The objectives were to assess the attitudes and perceptions held by Israelis regarding Eqypt and Eqyptians, and to evaluate the pattern of change occurring in these attitudes and perceptions following an intervention program and subsequent…

  14. Engaged Listening in Race/Ethnicity and Gender Intergroup Dialogue Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuniga, Ximena; Mildred, Jane; Varghese, Rani; DeJong, Keri; Keehn, Molly

    2012-01-01

    Although the importance of engaged listening in intergroup dialogue (IGD) is recognized, we know relatively little about when or why participants in IGD actually listen or what they gain from listening. Using qualitative analyses of interviews conducted with undergraduates who had recently completed a race/ethnicity or gender focused IGD course,…

  15. Diversity Initiatives in Higher Education: Intergroup Dialogue as Pedagogy across the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Christine

    2005-01-01

    The idea for the Intergroup Dialogue as Pedagogy Across the Curriculum (INTERACT) Pilot Project emerged, quite organically, from the cross-pollination of two major initiatives of the Office of Human Relations Programs (OHRP), the equity compliance and multicultural education arm of the Office of the President at the University of Maryland, College…

  16. Children's Intergroup Empathic Processing: The Roles of Novel Ingroup Identification, Situational Distress, and Social Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masten, Carrie L.; Gillen-O'Neel, Cari; Brown, Christia Spears

    2010-01-01

    Individuals often feel more empathy toward members of their own social groups than toward members of other social groups. However, individual factors contributing to this empathy bias remain largely unexplored among children. This study examined intergroup empathic processing among 94 children (mean age = 8.74 years, SD = 1.76) assigned to novel…

  17. Effects of Physical Atypicality on Children's Social Identities and Intergroup Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Meagan M.; Bigler, Rebecca S.

    2007-01-01

    Individuals vary in the degree to which they are representative, or typical, of their social groups. To investigate the effects of atypicality on intergroup attitudes, elementary-school-age children (N = 97) attending a summer school program were assigned to novel color groups that included typical (blue or green) and atypical (light blue or light…

  18. Moral Judgments about Jewish-Arab Intergroup Exclusion: The Role of Cultural Identity and Contact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenick, Alaina; Killen, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Prejudice and discrimination as justifications for social exclusion are often viewed as violations of the moral principles of welfare, justice, and equality, but intergroup exclusion can also often be viewed as a necessary and legitimate means to maintain group identity and cohesion (Rutland, Killen, & Abrams, 2010). The current study was…

  19. It Is Who You Know that Counts: Intergroup Contact and Judgments about Race-Based Exclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crystal, David S.; Killen, Melanie; Ruck, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Intergroup contact and evaluations about race-based exclusion were assessed for majority and minority students in grades 4, 7 and 10 (N=685). Scenarios depicting cross-race relations in contexts of dyadic friendship, parental discomfort and peer group disapproval were described to participants. Participants reporting higher levels of intergroup…

  20. Social Identity Complexity, Cross-Ethnic Friendships, and Intergroup Attitudes in Urban Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knifsend, Casey A.; Juvonen, Jaana

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated contextual antecedents (i.e., cross-ethnic peers and friends) and correlates (i.e., intergroup attitudes) of social identity complexity in seventh grade. Social identity complexity refers to the perceived overlap among social groups with which youth identify. Identifying mostly with out-of-school sports, religious…

  1. The Role of Mass Media and Intergroup Relations in the Process of Newcomers' Assimilation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shim, Jae Chul

    This paper reviews the group-related literature of intergroup relations and combines it with the existing theory of communications. Noting that communication scholars have recently entered this realm of intergoup relations and searched for the role of mass media in the process of ethnic newcomers' socialization, the paper conceptualizes…

  2. Interaction location outweighs the competitive advantage of numerical superiority in Cebus capucinus intergroup contests.

    PubMed

    Crofoot, Margaret C; Gilby, Ian C; Wikelski, Martin C; Kays, Roland W

    2008-01-15

    Numerical superiority confers a competitive advantage during contests among animal groups, shaping patterns of resource access, and, by extension, fitness. However, relative group size does not always determine the winner of intergroup contests. Smaller, presumably weaker social groups often defeat their larger neighbors, but how and when they are able to do so remains poorly understood. Models of competition between individuals suggest that location may influence contest outcome. However, because of the logistical difficulties of studying intergroup interactions, previous studies have been unable to determine how contest location and group size interact to shape relationships among groups. We address this question by using an automated radio telemetry system to study intergroup interactions among six capuchin monkey (Cebus capucinus) social groups of varying sizes. We find that the odds of winning increase with relative group size; one additional group member increases the odds of winning an interaction by 10%. However, this effect is not uniform across space; with each 100 m that a group moves away from the center of its home range, its odds of winning an interaction decrease by 31%. We demonstrate that contest outcome depends on an interaction between group size and location, such that small groups can defeat much larger groups near the center of their home range. The tendency of resident groups to win contests may help explain how small groups persist in areas with intense intergroup competition.

  3. Transforming Negative Emotions: A Case Study of Intergroup Conflict among Conflict Resolution Practitioners of Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvalho, Millicent

    2003-01-01

    Examined how conflict affected internalized oppression and conflict-handling methods utilized during a facilitated meeting that attempted to resolve or manage intergroup conflict. Data on diverse conflict-resolution practitioners and mentors at a training session on how to overcome the effects of oppression in the writing process illuminated how…

  4. Social Groups and Children's Intergroup Attitudes: Can School Norms Moderate the Effects of Social Group Norms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesdale, Drew; Lawson, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of social group norms (inclusion vs. exclusion vs. exclusion-plus-relational aggression) and school norms (inclusion vs. no norm) on 7- and 10-year-old children's intergroup attitudes were examined. Children (n = 383) were randomly assigned to a group with an inclusion or exclusion norm, and to 1 of the school norm conditions. Findings…

  5. Diversity and Intergroup Contact in Higher Education: Exploring Possibilities for Democratization through Social Justice Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Sabrina N.

    2014-01-01

    This study contributes to research linking diversity and higher education teaching to democratic learning outcomes. It explores processes and outcomes associated with the intergroup contact of Black and White students enrolled in two sections of a diversity education course at a public university in the southeastern United States. The goals of…

  6. Intergroup communication between hospital doctors: implications for quality of patient care.

    PubMed

    Hewett, David G; Watson, Bernadette M; Gallois, Cindy; Ward, Michael; Leggett, Barbara A

    2009-12-01

    Hospitals involve a complex socio-technical health system, where communication failures influence the quality of patient care. Research indicates the importance of social identity and intergroup relationships articulated through power, control, status and competition. This study focused on interspecialty communication among doctors for patients requiring the involvement of multiple specialist departments. The paper reports on an interview study in Australia, framed by social identity and communication accommodation theories of doctors' experiences of managing such patients, to explore the impact of communication. Interviews were undertaken with 45 doctors working in a large metropolitan hospital, and were analysed using Leximancer (text mining software) and interpretation of major themes. Findings indicated that intergroup conflict is a central influence on communication. Contested responsibilities emerged from a model of care driven by single-specialty ownership of the patient, with doctors allowed to evade responsibility for patients over whom they had no sense of ownership. Counter-accommodative communication, particularly involving interpersonal control, appeared as important for reinforcing social identity and winning conflicts. Strategies to resolve intergroup conflict must address structural issues generating an intergroup climate and evoke interpersonal salience to moderate their effect.

  7. Ethnic Composition of School Classes, Majority-Minority Friendships, and Adolescents' Intergroup Attitudes in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vervoort, Miranda H. M.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Scheepers, Peer L. H.

    2011-01-01

    The relationships between the proportion of ethnic minority adolescents in school classes, the proportion and quality of majority-minority friendships and intergroup attitudes were examined using multi-level analysis (N = 2386 adolescents in 117 school classes in the Netherlands). In school classes with high proportions of ethnic minority…

  8. Interaction location outweighs the competitive advantage of numerical superiority in Cebus capucinus intergroup contests

    PubMed Central

    Crofoot, Margaret C.; Gilby, Ian C.; Wikelski, Martin C.; Kays, Roland W.

    2008-01-01

    Numerical superiority confers a competitive advantage during contests among animal groups, shaping patterns of resource access, and, by extension, fitness. However, relative group size does not always determine the winner of intergroup contests. Smaller, presumably weaker social groups often defeat their larger neighbors, but how and when they are able to do so remains poorly understood. Models of competition between individuals suggest that location may influence contest outcome. However, because of the logistical difficulties of studying intergroup interactions, previous studies have been unable to determine how contest location and group size interact to shape relationships among groups. We address this question by using an automated radio telemetry system to study intergroup interactions among six capuchin monkey (Cebus capucinus) social groups of varying sizes. We find that the odds of winning increase with relative group size; one additional group member increases the odds of winning an interaction by 10%. However, this effect is not uniform across space; with each 100 m that a group moves away from the center of its home range, its odds of winning an interaction decrease by 31%. We demonstrate that contest outcome depends on an interaction between group size and location, such that small groups can defeat much larger groups near the center of their home range. The tendency of resident groups to win contests may help explain how small groups persist in areas with intense intergroup competition. PMID:18184811

  9. Inter-Group Contact at School and Social Attitudes: Evidence from Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Joanne; Campbell, Andrea; Lolliot, Simon; Hewstone, Miles; Gallagher, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Debate continues about the relationship between schools divided on ethno-religious lines and their implications for social cohesion. One argument against the existence of separate schools is that they limit opportunities for children from different groups to engage with each other, promoting intergroup suspicion and sectarianism. Using intergroup…

  10. Consultation Barriers between Teachers and External Consultants: A Grounded Theory of Change Resistance in School Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornberg, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study, conducted in Sweden, was to investigate the cultural barriers between school personnel (teachers and principals) and nonschool personnel (a resource team), who were external to the school system, regarding consultation about challenging or difficult-to-teach students. Focus groups with teachers, principals, and the resource…

  11. Intragroup and intergroup conflict at work, psychological distress, and work engagement in a sample of employees in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsuno, Kanami; Kawakami, Norito; Inoue, Akiomi; Ishizaki, Masao; Tabata, Masaji; Tsuchiya, Masao; Akiyama, Miki; Kitazume, Akiko; Kuroda, Mitsuyo; Shimazu, Akihito

    2009-12-01

    The possible associations of intragroup and intergroup conflict at work with psychological distress and work engagement were investigated in a cross-sectional study in a manufacturing factory in Japan. A self-administered questionnaire was sent to all employees, and 255 responses were returned (a response rate of 84%). Data from 247 workers (187 males and 60 females) with no missing values were analyzed. Intragroup and intergroup conflict at work, psychological distress, and work engagement were measured by the NIOSH-GJSQ, K6, and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9), respectively. An ANCOVA was conducted to compare K6 and UWES-9 scores among the tertiles on intragroup conflict or intergroup conflict scores, adjusting for demographic and occupational variables as well as worksite social support, separately for males and females. Intragroup conflict was associated with greater psychological distress for males (p for trend=0.009). Intergroup conflict was marginally significantly associated with psychological distress for both males and females (p for trend=0.050 and 0.051, respectively). Contrary to expectation, intergroup conflict was significantly associated with greater work engagement for females (p for trend=0.024). For males, intragroup and intergroup conflict at work may increase psychological distress; for females, intergroup conflict may increase both psychological distress and work engagement.

  12. Their pain gives us pleasure: How intergroup dynamics shape empathic failures and counter-empathic responses

    PubMed Central

    Cikara, M.; Bruneau, E.; Van Bavel, J. J.; Saxe, R.

    2014-01-01

    Despite its early origins and adaptive functions, empathy is not inevitable; people routinely fail to empathize with others, especially members of different social or cultural groups. In five experiments, we systematically explore how social identity, functional relations between groups, competitive threat, and perceived entitativity contribute to intergroup empathy bias: the tendency not only to empathize less with out-group relative to in-group members, but also feel pleasure in response to their pain (and pain in response to their pleasure). When teams are set in direct competition, affective responses to competition-irrelevant events are characterized not only by less empathy toward out-group relative to in-group members, but also by increased counter-empathic responses: Schadenfreude and Glückschmerz (Experiment 1). Comparing responses to in-group and out-group targets against responses to unaffiliated targets in this competitive context suggests that intergroup empathy bias may be better characterized by out-group antipathy rather than extraordinary in-group empathy (Experiment 2). We find also that intergroup empathy bias is robust to changes in relative group standing—feedback indicating that the out-group has fallen behind (Experiment 3a) or is no longer a competitive threat (Experiment 3b) does not reduce the bias. However, reducing perceived in-group and out-group entitativity can significantly attenuate intergroup empathy bias (Experiment 4). This research establishes the boundary conditions of intergroup empathy bias and provides initial support for a more integrative framework of group-based empathy. PMID:25082998

  13. Affective mediators of intergroup contact: a three-wave longitudinal study in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Swart, Hermann; Hewstone, Miles; Christ, Oliver; Voci, Alberto

    2011-12-01

    Intergroup contact (especially cross-group friendship) is firmly established as a powerful strategy for combating group-based prejudice (Pettigrew & Tropp, 2006). Great advances have been made in understanding how contact reduces prejudice (Brown & Hewstone, 2005), highlighting the importance of affective mediators (Pettigrew & Tropp, 2008). The present study, a 3-wave longitudinal study undertaken among minority-status Colored high school children in South Africa (N = 465), explored the full mediation of the effects of cross-group friendships on positive outgroup attitudes, perceived outgroup variability, and negative action tendencies via positive (affective empathy) and negative (intergroup anxiety) affective mediators simultaneously. The target group was the majority-status White South African outgroup. As predicted, a bidirectional model described the relationship between contact, mediators, and prejudice significantly better over time than either autoregressive or unidirectional longitudinal models. However, full longitudinal mediation was only found in the direction from Time 1 contact to Time 3 prejudice (via Time 2 mediators), supporting the underlying tenet of the contact hypothesis. Specifically, cross-group friendships were positively associated with positive outgroup attitudes (via affective empathy) and perceived outgroup variability (via intergroup anxiety and affective empathy) and were negatively associated with negative action tendencies (via affective empathy). Following Pettigrew and Tropp (2008), we compared two alternative hypotheses regarding the relationship between intergroup anxiety and affective empathy over time. Time 1 intergroup anxiety was indirectly negatively associated with Time 3 affective empathy, via Time 2 cross-group friendships. We discuss the theoretical and empirical contributions of this study and make suggestions for future research.

  14. CRP for Pesticides - Child Resistant Packaging Consultants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This list includes consultants who have indicated an expertise in the area of child-resistant packaging. This list is not intended to indicate EPA approval, certification, or endorsement of these consultants, nor is it necessarily comprehensive.

  15. 34 CFR 75.191 - Consultation costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Development of Curricula Or Instructional Materials § 75.191 Consultation costs. An applicant may budget reasonable consultation fees or planning costs in connection with the development of curricula...

  16. Recovery of Utility Fixed Costs: Utility, Consumer, Environmental and Economist Perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Lisa; Hemphill, Ross; Howat, John; Cavanagh, Ralph; Borenstein, Severin; Deason, Jeff; Schwartz, Lisa; Schwartz, Lisa

    2016-06-14

    Utilities recover costs for providing electric service to retail customers through a combination of rate components that together comprise customers’ monthly electric bills. Rates and rate designs are set by state regulators and vary by jurisdiction, utility and customer class. In addition to the fundamental tenet of setting fair and reasonable rates, rate design balances economic efficiency, equity and fairness, customer satisfaction, utility revenue stability, and customer price and bill stability.1 At the most basic level, retail electricity bills in the United States typically include a fixed monthly customer charge — a set dollar amount regardless of energy usage — and a volumetric energy charge for each kilowatt-hour consumed.2 The energy charge may be flat across all hours, vary by usage level (for example, higher rates at higher levels of usage), or vary based on time of consumption.3 While some utility costs, such as fuel costs, clearly vary according to electricity usage, other costs are “fixed” over the short run — generally, those that do not vary over the course of a year. Depending on your point of view, and whether the state’s electricity industry has been restructured or remains vertically integrated, the set of costs that are “fixed” may be quite limited. Or the set may extend to all capacity costs for generation, transmission and distribution. In the long run, all costs are variable. In the context of flat or declining loads in some regions, utilities are proposing a variety of changes to retail rate designs, particularly for residential customers, to recover fixed costs. In this report, authors representing utility (Chapter 1), consumer (Chapter 2), environmentalist (Chapter 3) and economist (Chapter 4) perspectives discuss fixed costs for electric utilities and set out their principles for recovering those costs. The table on the next page summarizes each author’s relative preferences for various options for fixed cost

  17. Biostatistical consultation for dental research.

    PubMed

    Clive, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    Dental science researchers do not really need a detailed, ready-at-hand knowledge of statistics to design and perform high quality scientific research. Although the acquisition and utilization of such knowledge by dental researchers is not discouraged, it is proposed that it is more important for dental researchers to be committed to developing and maintaining a long term, ongoing, interactive consulting relationship with a biostatistician. The nature of this relationship will depend in large part on the complexity of the dental research being conducted. While the statistical consultant will assist in interpreting analytic results for the dental researcher, the latter will need to provide extensive input in assisting in the estimation of sample size and power, and for expressing scientific hypotheses in statistical terms so that the appropriate data analytic methodology can be specified.

  18. [Teenagers' drawings in transcultural consultations].

    PubMed

    Simon, Amalini; Titia Rizzi, Alice

    The place of teenagers' drawings has been studied as part of a transcultural consultation, based on the creativity of the children of migrants. When speaking is difficult, drawings enable teenagers to show another dimension of their internal world. Aravin, a young Tamil boy, who lacked the necessary words, was able to express all the complexity of his thoughts through his drawings, finally being able to formulate in the group the difficult situations which he was drawing.

  19. Ultrasound for the Pulmonary Consultant

    PubMed Central

    Chichra, Astha; Makaryus, Mina; Chaudhri, Parag; Narasimhan, Mangala

    2016-01-01

    Bedside ultrasonographic assessment of the lung and pleura provides rapid, noninvasive, and essential information in diagnosis and management of various pulmonary conditions. Ultrasonography helps in diagnosing common conditions, including consolidation, interstitial syndrome, pleural effusions and masses, pneumothorax, and diaphragmatic dysfunction. It provides procedural guidance for various pulmonary procedures, including thoracentesis, chest tube insertion, transthoracic aspiration, and biopsies. This article describes major applications of ultrasonography for the pulmonary consultant along with illustrative figures and videos. PMID:27398039

  20. [Cognitive methods during medical consultation].

    PubMed

    Lähteenmäki, Antti

    2012-01-01

    An essential method of cognitive psychotherapy is a precise, situation-focused interview, during which interpretations, emotions and behavior are taken into account. This work mode is also suited for medical consultation. In cognitive psychology, schemes and modes are identified that may be helpful for analyzing the patient-doctor relationship. Empathy may improve patient outcome. Properly applied cognitive methods facilitate the evolution of empathy.

  1. 34 CFR 75.191 - Consultation costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Consultation costs. 75.191 Section 75.191 Education... Development of Curricula Or Instructional Materials § 75.191 Consultation costs. An applicant may budget reasonable consultation fees or planning costs in connection with the development of curricula...

  2. 22 CFR 401.21 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Consultation. 401.21 Section 401.21 Foreign Relations INTERNATIONAL JOINT COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND CANADA RULES OF PROCEDURE Applications § 401.21 Consultation. The Commission may meet or consult with the applicant, the Governments and other persons or...

  3. 22 CFR 401.21 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Consultation. 401.21 Section 401.21 Foreign Relations INTERNATIONAL JOINT COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND CANADA RULES OF PROCEDURE Applications § 401.21 Consultation. The Commission may meet or consult with the applicant, the Governments and other persons or...

  4. 22 CFR 401.21 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Consultation. 401.21 Section 401.21 Foreign Relations INTERNATIONAL JOINT COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND CANADA RULES OF PROCEDURE Applications § 401.21 Consultation. The Commission may meet or consult with the applicant, the Governments and other persons or...

  5. 22 CFR 401.21 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Consultation. 401.21 Section 401.21 Foreign Relations INTERNATIONAL JOINT COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND CANADA RULES OF PROCEDURE Applications § 401.21 Consultation. The Commission may meet or consult with the applicant, the Governments and other persons or...

  6. 22 CFR 401.21 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Consultation. 401.21 Section 401.21 Foreign Relations INTERNATIONAL JOINT COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND CANADA RULES OF PROCEDURE Applications § 401.21 Consultation. The Commission may meet or consult with the applicant, the Governments and other persons or...

  7. 50 CFR 402.11 - Early consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.11 Early consultation. (a) Purpose. Early consultation is designed to reduce the likelihood of conflicts between listed species or...

  8. 50 CFR 402.11 - Early consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.11 Early consultation. (a) Purpose. Early consultation is designed to reduce the likelihood of conflicts between listed species or...

  9. 50 CFR 402.11 - Early consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.11 Early consultation. (a) Purpose. Early consultation is designed to reduce the likelihood of conflicts between listed species or...

  10. 50 CFR 402.11 - Early consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.11 Early consultation. (a) Purpose. Early consultation is designed to reduce the likelihood of conflicts between listed species or...

  11. 50 CFR 402.11 - Early consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.11 Early consultation. (a) Purpose. Early consultation is designed to reduce the likelihood of conflicts between listed species or...

  12. The Consultation Role of a Nurse Educator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsyth, Diane McNally; Rhudy, Lori; Johnson, LeAnn M.

    2002-01-01

    In educational consultation, responsibility for identifying and refining problems and modifying solutions remains with the consultee. Five steps of consultation are gaining entry, identifying the problem, engaging in action planning, evaluating, and disengaging. Consultant and consultee are in a nonhierarchical relationship. (SK)

  13. Observed Consultation: Confidence and Accuracy of Assessors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tweed, Mike; Ingham, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Judgments made by the assessors observing consultations are widely used in the assessment of medical students. The aim of this research was to study judgment accuracy and confidence and the relationship between these. Assessors watched recordings of consultations, scoring the students on: a checklist of items; attributes of consultation; a…

  14. Entry-Level Activities in System Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hylander, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    System-level consultation or organizational development in schools is an area in great need of theoretical models and definitions. The three articles in this special issue provide a unique learning opportunity not only for consultation across borders but also for consultation within the same nation. In my commentary, I limit my remarks to a few…

  15. Psychiatric consultation in problem employee situations.

    PubMed

    Schouten, Ronald

    2012-12-01

    This article focuses on psychiatric consultation in "problem employee situations," a broad term that refers to any situation in which there is conflict between an employee and the employer or coworkers. It summarizes key principles and observations that are common to psychiatric consultations in the workplace and then offers case examples that are representative of such consultations and highlights those principles. Although the focus is on psychiatric consultation to employers, an employee may seek consultation himself or herself, especially when prospects for adversarial proceedings arise. The principles described here apply in both sets of circumstances.

  16. The importance of social identity content in a setting of chronic social conflict: understanding intergroup relations in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, Andrew; Haslam, S Alexander

    2008-03-01

    Two studies (N=117, 112) were conducted with school students in Northern Ireland to investigate the neglected relationship between social identity content and intergroup relations. Study 1 tested and found support for two hypotheses. The first was that the association between in-group identification and negative behavioural intentions would be moderated by antagonistic identity content. The second was that the antagonistic identity content mediates the relationship between the experience of intergroup antagonism and negative behavioural intentions. Study 2 replicated these findings at a time of reduced intergroup violence, and supplemented them with a qualitative-quantitative analysis of participants' written responses. In addition, findings demonstrate the importance of appreciating the content and meaning of social identities when theorizing about intergroup relations and developing conflict management interventions.

  17. The psychology of diaspora experiences: intergroup contact, perceived discrimination, and the ethnic identity of Koreans in China.

    PubMed

    Lee, Richard M; Noh, Chi-Young; Yoo, Hyung Chol; Doh, Hyun-Sim

    2007-04-01

    The moderating role of intergroup contact on the relationship between perceived discrimination and ethnic identity was examined in a diaspora community of Koreans living in China. It was hypothesized that Koreans with higher intergroup contact would have a lower ethnic identity under higher discrimination, whereas Koreans with lower intergroup contact would have a higher ethnic identity. Across two separate college samples, Koreans who were more willing to interact with Han Chinese had a lower ethnic identity when discrimination was higher, but this finding was not replicated within one college setting. These findings challenge the linear rejection-identification model and suggest displaced people may minimize ingroup-outgroup differences, depending on their willingness to seek intergroup contact.

  18. Development of anti-immigrant attitudes in adolescence: The role of parents, peers, intergroup friendships, and empathy.

    PubMed

    Miklikowska, Marta

    2017-01-20

    Ethnic and racial intergroup attitudes are assumed to develop due to the influence of socialization contexts. However, there is still little longitudinal evidence supporting this claim. We also know little about the relative importance of socialization contexts, the possible interplay between them as well as about the conditions and mechanisms that might underlie socialization effects. This longitudinal study of adolescents (N = 517) examined the effects of parents and peers' anti-immigrant attitudes as well as intergroup friendships on relative changes in adolescents' anti-immigrant prejudice, controlling for the effects of socioeconomic background. It also examined whether the effects of parents or peers would depend on adolescents' intergroup friendships. In addition, it explored whether the effects of parents, peers, and intergroup friendships would be mediated or moderated by adolescents' empathy. Results showed significant effects of parents, peers, intergroup friendships, and socioeconomic background on changes in youth attitudes, highlighting the role of parental prejudice. They also showed adolescents with immigrant friends to be less affected by parents and peers' prejudice than youth without immigrant friends. In addition, results showed the effects of parents, peers, and intergroup friendships to be mediated by adolescents' empathic concern. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  19. Predicting community opposition to inclusion in schools: the role of social dominance, contact, intergroup anxiety, and economic conservatism.

    PubMed

    Crowson, H Michael; Brandes, Joyce A

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses community members' attitudes toward inclusion, the practice of including students with disabilities in regular education classroom settings. Participants in Study 1 were 271 community adults, completing measures of prior contact with people with disabilities, social dominance orientation (SDO), economic conservatism, intergroup anxiety, prejudice, and opposition to inclusion. Results from structural equation modeling indicated that amount of intergroup anxiety predicted opposition to inclusion via the mediator, prejudice toward people with disabilities, and that amount of prior contact indirectly predicted prejudice toward people with disabilities through intergroup anxiety. SDO positively predicted both intergroup anxiety and prejudice in the model, with prejudice also mediating between SDO and opposition to inclusion. Both SDO and economic conservatism failed to exhibit direct predictive relationships with opposition to inclusion. Participants in Study 2 were 161 community adults. Contact was shown to exert an indirect effect on prejudice via intergroup anxiety, whereas intergroup anxiety impacted inclusive attitudes via prejudice. SDO exerted both direct and indirect (via prejudice) effects on opposition to inclusion.

  20. Evolution and the psychology of intergroup conflict: the male warrior hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Melissa M.; Navarrete, Carlos David; Van Vugt, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The social science literature contains numerous examples of human tribalism and parochialism—the tendency to categorize individuals on the basis of their group membership, and treat ingroup members benevolently and outgroup members malevolently. We hypothesize that this tribal inclination is an adaptive response to the threat of coalitional aggression and intergroup conflict perpetrated by ‘warrior males’ in both ancestral and modern human environments. Here, we describe how male coalitional aggression could have affected the social psychologies of men and women differently and present preliminary evidence from experimental social psychological studies testing various predictions from the ‘male warrior’ hypothesis. Finally, we discuss the theoretical implications of our research for studying intergroup relations both in humans and non-humans and discuss some practical implications. PMID:22271783

  1. The two sides of warfare: an extended model of altruistic behavior in ancestral human intergroup conflict.

    PubMed

    Rusch, Hannes

    2014-09-01

    Building on and partially refining previous theoretical work, this paper presents an extended simulation model of ancestral warfare. This model (1) disentangles attack and defense, (2) tries to differentiate more strictly between selfish and altruistic efforts during war, (3) incorporates risk aversion and deterrence, and (4) pays special attention to the role of brutality. Modeling refinements and simulation results yield a differentiated picture of possible evolutionary dynamics. The main observations are: (a) Altruism in this model is more likely to evolve for defenses than for attacks. (b) Risk aversion, deterrence, and the interplay of migration levels and brutality can change evolutionary dynamics substantially. (c) Unexpectedly, one occasional simulation outcome is a dynamically stable state of "tolerated intergroup theft," raising the question as to whether corresponding patterns also exist in real intergroup conflicts. Finally, possible implications for theories of the coevolution of bellicosity and altruism in humans are discussed.

  2. Perpetuating one's own disadvantage: intergroup contact enables the ideological legitimation of inequality.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Nikhil K; Sibley, Chris G

    2013-11-01

    Contact with the dominant group can increase opposition, among the disadvantaged, to social policies that would benefit their group. This effect can be explained in terms of contact promoting support for an ideology of meritocracy, which privileges the distribution of societal resources based on individual merit, rather than group-level disadvantage. We tested this ideological mechanism in a large, nationally representative sample of Māori (a disadvantaged group in New Zealand; N = 1,008). Positive intergroup contact with the dominant group (New Zealand Europeans) predicted increased opposition to a topical reparative policy (Māori ownership of the foreshore), and this was fully mediated by increased support for the ideology of meritocracy. Intergroup contact may enable the ideological legitimation of inequality among members of disadvantaged groups, engendering political attitudes that are detrimental to their group's interests. Contact with ingroup members had the opposite effect, increasing support for reparative policy by reducing subscription to meritocratic ideology.

  3. Antecedents of intra/intergroup friendships and stress levels among ethnic and religious minority members.

    PubMed

    Zagefka, Hanna; Mohamed, Abdinasir; Mursi, Gehad; Lay, Siugmin

    2016-12-01

    Two studies tested a model, whereby, identification with the minority group was predicted to impact on acculturation preferences, which in turn were proposed to impact involvement in intragroup friendships with other minority members, intergroup friendships with majority members and stress experienced by minority members. A direct path from minority identification to stress was also included in the model. The model was tested using structural equation modelling on survey data collected from Muslim women (N = 250) and from Somali minority members (N = 198) in Britain. Results supported predictions and revealed that identification was associated with more culture maintenance preference and less culture adoption preference. Culture maintenance preference was associated with involvement in intragroup friendships, and culture adoption preference was associated with involvement in intergroup friendships and increased stress. Practical applications of the findings are discussed.

  4. Children's intergroup empathic processing: the roles of novel ingroup identification, situational distress, and social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Masten, Carrie L; Gillen-O'Neel, Cari; Brown, Christia Spears

    2010-01-01

    Individuals often feel more empathy toward members of their own social groups than toward members of other social groups. However, individual factors contributing to this empathy bias remain largely unexplored among children. This study examined intergroup empathic processing among 94 children (mean age=8.74years, SD=1.76) assigned to novel color groups. After 1week in their group, children were interviewed to assess their ingroup identification and trait levels of social anxiety. Subsequently, a social threat was simulated, and children's feelings of situational distress and empathy bias for others who experienced the same threat were assessed. Findings indicated that, among children who reported more social anxiety and situational distress, those with a stronger ingroup identity displayed more empathy bias favoring their ingroup. Given that empathy is an important contributor to prosocial behavior, implications for children's intergroup relations are discussed.

  5. Dehumanization, retributive and restorative justice, and aggressive versus diplomatic intergroup conflict resolution strategies.

    PubMed

    Leidner, Bernhard; Castano, Emanuele; Ginges, Jeremy

    2013-02-01

    The desire for justice can escalate or facilitate resolution of intergroup conflicts. Two studies investigated retributive and restorative notions of justice as the mediating factor of the effect of perceived outgroup sentience-an aspect of (mechanistic) dehumanization referring to the emotional depth attributed to others-on intergroup conflict resolution. Study 1 showed that for Palestinians, who see themselves as victims, perceived sentience of Israelis decreased retributive but increased restorative notions of justice, which, ultimately, increased support for conflict resolution by negotiation rather than political violence. Study 2 partially replicated Study 1's findings with Jewish Israelis. The role of perceived sentience and its relationship to retributive and restorative notions of justice in protracted and nonprotracted conflicts and their resolution is discussed.

  6. Intergroup conflict, out-group derogation, and self-directed negative affect among Italian South Tyroleans.

    PubMed

    Costarelli, Sandro; Colloca, Pasquale

    2004-04-01

    In South Tyrol, a multiethnic Italian province, the authors examined the self-directed negative affect that members of an Italian group experienced after they evaluated members of the German and Albanian groups. The authors examined the affect as a function of out-group derogation. The authors argued that to the extent that out-group derogation may run counter to norms toward intergroup fairness, such normative nonconformity will elicit negative affect directed at the self as a function of perceived intergroup conflict. The findings support the authors' line of reasoning: among Italian South Tyroleans, those who expressed greater out-group derogation were led to experience stronger negative self-directed affect when they rated a low-conflict out-group, but not when they rated a high-conflict out-group, compared to participants whose out-group derogation was less.

  7. When contact counts: Intergroup contact on business and intermarriage resistance in the Caucasus region.

    PubMed

    Gurrentz, Benjamin T; Finke, Roger

    2017-03-01

    Intergroup contact theory has been empirically supported in a variety of social contexts, but few samples have been drawn from rapidly developing nations undergoing severe political and sociocultural conflict. Using 2012 Caucasus Barometer data from the three nations of the South Caucasus - Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia - we test the effect of interreligious contact on various forms of out-group resistance in a region of the world that is both historically and presently marked with severe religious and ethnic conflict. Additionally, we take into account self-selection effects using propensity score matching. Results overwhelmingly support intergroup contact theory in all three countries, but objections toward intermarriage still remain high for treated groups. In addition, there exist significant differences based on the out-group studied, with the contact effects being the strongest for groups posing little religio-cultural or organized threat. Weaker contact effects, though, appear less related to threat and more contextual/out-group specific.

  8. Wherein lies children's intergroup bias? Egocentrism, social understanding, and social projection.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Dominic

    2011-01-01

    Does children's bias toward their own groups reflect egocentrism or social understanding? After being categorized as belonging to 1 of 2 fictitious groups, 157 six- to ten-year-olds evaluated group members and expressed preferences among neutral items. Children who expected the in-group to share their item preferences (egocentric social projection) showed intergroup bias. However, most bias was expressed by children who expected their in-group to share, but the out-group to oppose, their own evaluations of members. These oppositional expectations were associated with better social perspective taking, and better understanding that groups expect loyalty from their members. Consistent with the developmental model of subjective group dynamics (D. Abrams, A. Rutland, J. Pelletier, & J. M. Ferrell, 2009), social understanding, rather than egocentrism, provides a more parsimonious explanation of children's intergroup bias.

  9. The downsides of national identification for minority groups in intergroup conflicts in assimilationist societies.

    PubMed

    Bilali, Rezarta

    2014-03-01

    The current study considered the downsides of national identification for minority groups in intergroup conflicts in assimilationist societies. This study examined how, in the Turkish national context, the national and ethnic identifications of ethnic Turks (N = 103) and ethnic Kurds (N = 58) predict construals (i.e., conflict frames, attributions of responsibility, and severity of harm) of Turkish-Kurdish conflict. The results indicated that, across groups, a shared national identification was associated with similar conflict construals in line with the official Turkish narrative, whereas ethnic identification was associated with opposing conflict construals that might help maintain the conflict. However, the conflict narrative related to national identification might produce a shared understanding of the conflict (i.e., more intergroup harmony) at the cost of neglecting the minority group's grievances in the conflict and legitimizing the status-quo, thus hindering efforts to enhance the minority group's disadvantaged status.

  10. Evolution and the psychology of intergroup conflict: the male warrior hypothesis.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Melissa M; Navarrete, Carlos David; Van Vugt, Mark

    2012-03-05

    The social science literature contains numerous examples of human tribalism and parochialism-the tendency to categorize individuals on the basis of their group membership, and treat ingroup members benevolently and outgroup members malevolently. We hypothesize that this tribal inclination is an adaptive response to the threat of coalitional aggression and intergroup conflict perpetrated by 'warrior males' in both ancestral and modern human environments. Here, we describe how male coalitional aggression could have affected the social psychologies of men and women differently and present preliminary evidence from experimental social psychological studies testing various predictions from the 'male warrior' hypothesis. Finally, we discuss the theoretical implications of our research for studying intergroup relations both in humans and non-humans and discuss some practical implications.

  11. Reducing intergroup prejudice and conflict using the media: a field experiment in Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Paluck, Elizabeth Levy

    2009-03-01

    Can the media reduce intergroup prejudice and conflict? Despite the high stakes of this question, understanding of the mass media's role in shaping prejudiced beliefs, norms, and behavior is limited. A yearlong field experiment in Rwanda tested the impact of a radio soap opera featuring messages about reducing intergroup prejudice, violence, and trauma in 2 fictional Rwandan communities. Compared with a control group who listened to a health radio soap opera, listeners' perceptions of social norms and their behaviors changed with respect to intermarriage, open dissent, trust, empathy, cooperation, and trauma healing. However, the radio program did little to change listeners' personal beliefs. Group discussion and emotion were implicated in the process of media influence. Taken together, the results point to an integrated model of behavioral prejudice and conflict reduction that prioritizes the communication of social norms over changes in personal beliefs.

  12. How does social essentialism affect the development of inter-group relations?

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Marjorie; Leslie, Sarah-Jane; Saunders, Katya; Dunham, Yarrow; Cimpian, Andrei

    2017-02-22

    Psychological essentialism is a pervasive conceptual bias to view categories as reflecting something deep, stable, and informative about their members. Scholars from diverse disciplines have long theorized that psychological essentialism has negative ramifications for inter-group relations, yet little previous empirical work has experimentally tested the social implications of essentialist beliefs. Three studies (N = 127, ages 4.5-6) found that experimentally inducing essentialist beliefs about a novel social category led children to share fewer resources with category members, but did not lead to the out-group dislike that defines social prejudice. These findings indicate that essentialism negatively influences some key components of inter-group relations, but does not lead directly to the development of prejudice.

  13. “Ingroup love” and “outgroup hate” in intergroup conflict between natural groups

    PubMed Central

    Weisel, Ori; Böhm, Robert

    2015-01-01

    We report on two studies investigating the motivations (“ingroup love” and “outgroup hate”) underlying individual participation in intergroup conflict between natural groups (fans of football clubs, supporters of political parties), by employing the Intergroup Prisoner's Dilemma Maximizing-Difference (IPD-MD) game. In this game group members can contribute to the ingroup (at a personal cost) and benefit ingroup members with or without harming members of an outgroup. Additionally, we devised a novel version of the IPD-MD in which the choice is between benefiting ingroup members with or without helping members of the outgroup. Our results show an overall reluctance to display outgroup hate by actively harming outgroup members, except when the outgroup was morality-based. More enmity between groups induced more outgroup hate only when it was operationalized as refraining from help. PMID:26339099

  14. From science to popularization, and back--the science and journalism of the Belgian economist Gustave de Molinari.

    PubMed

    Van Dijck, Maarten

    2008-09-01

    Sociologists and historians of science, such as Richard Whitley and Stephen Hilgartner, identified a culturally dominant discourse of science popularization in the broader society. In this dominant view, a clear distinction is maintained between scientific knowledge and popularized knowledge. Popularization of science is seen as the process of transmitting real science to a lay public. This discourse on science popularization was criticized by Whitley and Hilgartner as an inadequate simplification. Yet, the battered traditional model of popularization remains remarkably resistant to these theoretical attacks. In this paper I will argue, based on research of the output of the Belgian economist Gustave de Molinari (1819-1912), and more specifically, his opinion on the role of government in economic life, that the boundary between science and popularization in political economy is not clear and that the status of scientists fluctuates over time and in different contexts. It is therefore impossible for historians or economists to distinguish science from popularization based on the essential characteristics or intrinsic quality of the work. De Molinari's ideas are followed through the different media of science and journalism. Although de Molinari himself differentiated between his scientific and "popular" work, the boundary between science and popularization proves to be highly permeable, in both directions.

  15. Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup (GCIG) consensus review for cervical adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Hiroyuki; Yokota, Harushige; Monk, Bradley; Treilleux, Isabelle; Devouassoux-Shisheboran, Mojgan; Davis, Alison; Kim, Jae-Weon; Mahner, Sven; Stany, Michael; Pignata, Sandro; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle; Fujiwara, Keiichi

    2014-11-01

    Cervical adenocarcinoma is known to be less common than squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix comprising approximately 25% of all cervical carcinomas. Differences in associated human papillomavirus types, patterns of spread, and prognosis call for treatments that are not always like those for squamous cancers. In this review, we report a consensus developed by the Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup surrounding cervical adenocarcinoma for epidemiology, pathology, treatment, and unanswered questions. Prospective clinical trials are needed to help develop treatment guidelines.

  16. Effects of minority status in the classroom on children's intergroup attitudes.

    PubMed

    Brown, Christia Spears; Bigler, Rebecca S

    2002-10-01

    Three studies examined the effects of relative group size on the development of children's intergroup attitudes. The studies employed a novel group paradigm in which elementary school children attending a summer school program were assigned to larger (i.e., majority) or smaller (i.e., minority) novel groups in their classroom (denoted by colored tee-shirts). In each study, relative group size was situated within a different classroom context. Study 1 examined the effects of relative group size when teachers made functional use of the novel groups and were themselves members of the novel groups. Study 2 examined the effects of relative group size in the absence of functional use. Study 3 examined the effects of relative group size when the classroom environment contained implicit messages about group status. In each study, children's intergroup attitudes (e.g., trait ratings, group evaluations) were assessed following several weeks in the classroom. The effect of relative group size on in-group bias was complex, varying as a function of (a) the relative size and salience of groups, (b) the measure used to assess intergroup attitudes, (c) group status (higher or lower), and (d) children's age.

  17. Enhanced Memory for both Threat and Neutral Information Under Conditions of Intergroup Threat

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yong; Zhao, Yufang; Ybarra, Oscar; Stephan, Walter G.; Yang, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the effect of intergroup threat on cognitive outcomes such as memory. Different theoretical perspectives can inform how intergroup threat should affect memory for threat-relevant and neutral information, such as the mood-congruency approach, Yerkes–Dodson law, Easterbrook’s theory, and also evolutionary perspectives. To test among these, we conducted two experiments to examine how exposure to intergroup threats affected memory compared to control conditions. In study 1, we manipulated symbolic threat and examined participants’ memory for threat and neutral words. In study 2, memory performance was assessed following the induction of realistic threat. Across the studies, in the control condition participants showed better memory for threat-related than neutral information. However, participants under threat remembered neutral information as well as threat-related information. In addition, participants in the threat condition remembered threat-related information as well as participants in the control condition. The findings are discussed in terms of automatic vigilance processes but also the effects of threat on arousal and its effect on information processing. This latter perspective, suggests paradoxically, that under some circumstances involving an outgroup threat, non-threatening information about outgroups can be extensively processed. PMID:26635669

  18. The role of the residence-effect on the outcome of intergroup encounters in Verreaux's sifakas.

    PubMed

    Koch, Flávia; Signer, Johannes; Kappeler, Peter M; Fichtel, Claudia

    2016-06-22

    Intergroup competition has an important impact on the survival and fitness of individuals in group-living species. However, factors influencing the probability of winning an encounter are not fully understood. We studied the influence of numerical advantage and location of the encounter on the chances of winning in eight neighboring groups of Verreaux's sifakas (Propithecus verreauxi), in Kirindy Forest, western Madagascar. Intergroup encounters were inferred from spatial data collected via GPS loggers over a period of two years. Location, i.e., the proximity to the respective core area, rather than the numerical advantage of a group in a given encounter, influenced the probability of winning. Accordingly, the high value that resident groups attribute to exclusive and intensively used areas increased their motivation in defending these locations against intruders. Moreover, losers used the encounter area less often than winners within a month after the encounter, suggesting that losing also entails long-term costs. Thus, our results suggest that in gregarious animals the particular circumstances of each encounter, such as the location, can outweigh group characteristics and predict the chances of winning an intergroup encounter.

  19. On being peripheral and paying attention: prototypicality and information processing in intergroup conflict.

    PubMed

    Van Kleef, Gerben A; Steinel, Wolfgang; Homan, Astrid C

    2013-01-01

    Intergroup conflicts are ubiquitous-they occur, for instance, between (work)groups, departments, organizations, political parties, or nations. Such conflicts are commonly addressed through negotiations, in which representatives negotiate on behalf of their constituency. Intergroup negotiations are complex, as representatives need to navigate between the interests of their own constituency and the other party. This implies that negotiation success requires careful processing of information about both parties' interests. Here, we examine how representative negotiators' motivation to engage in such thorough information processing is influenced by their position in the group. Whereas prototypical representatives feel secure about their membership, peripheral representatives have a less certain position. We propose that peripheral representatives are therefore more attentive and responsive to information that may be relevant to the negotiation than prototypical representatives, but only when they are accountable to their constituents. Data from 4 experiments showed that peripheral representatives reported higher information-processing motivation (Experiment 1), bought and recalled more information (Experiment 2), exhibited greater sensitivity to emotional expressions of the outgroup representative (Experiment 3), and attained more integrative ("win-win") agreements (Experiment 4) than prototypical representatives, but only when they were accountable. The findings are discussed in relation to theorizing on group dynamics, motivated information processing, emotion, and intergroup conflict, and practical implications are considered.

  20. [Systemic consultation--about possibilities and limitations].

    PubMed

    Rostworowska, Maria; Opoczyńska, Małgorzata; de Barbaro, Bogdan

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents the role of systemic consultation in the diagnostic and therapeutic process of the people hospitalised for the first time because of a psychotic episode. The following questions are going to be put: What is the role of systemic family consultation in the diagnostic and therapeutic process on the inpatient ward? What are the differences between systemic consultation and others forms of family interventions f.e. family interviews, psycho--education, systemic therapy? What are possibilities and limitations of consultation? What does it invite to? These are only some of those questions, which are typical for daily clinical practice, in which the family consultation takes an important part. In this paper according to our clinical experience, we would like to share some of our thoughts on the questions put. In spite of difficulties the family consultation confronts us with, we are deeply convinced that it has an important part in therapeutic and diagnostic process.

  1. Consultation to residential psychosocial rehabilitation agencies.

    PubMed

    Kupers, T A

    1996-08-01

    As non-profit psychosocial rehabilitation agencies take over providing many of the services once provided by governmental facilities in some locales, consultation to the staff of these agencies can be very productive. Using a revised community consultation model, the author lists some of the issues that are regularly raised by staff, and discusses the functions that this kind of consultation can fulfill in this important sector of community mental health services.

  2. How to write a psychiatric consultation.

    PubMed

    Garrick, T R; Stotland, N L

    1982-07-01

    The written psychiatric consultation is the distillation, the official permanent record, and the one universal element of the consultation process. Both the document and process present a good and growing opportunity for service and teaching. The authors offer a conceptual and practical scheme to help potential consultants make decisions about the content, style, and wording of their written communications. Each of the components of the consultation document, including headings, openings, history, examination, and formulations, is considered in terms of its effects on the liaison with the consultee and the care of the patient.

  3. 15 CFR 286.6 - Public consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACCREDITATION AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAMS NATIONAL VOLUNTARY CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT SYSTEM EVALUATION (NVCASE) PROGRAM § 286.6 Public consultation. NIST...

  4. 15 CFR 286.6 - Public consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACCREDITATION AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAMS NATIONAL VOLUNTARY CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT SYSTEM EVALUATION (NVCASE) PROGRAM § 286.6 Public consultation. NIST...

  5. 15 CFR 286.6 - Public consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACCREDITATION AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAMS NATIONAL VOLUNTARY CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT SYSTEM EVALUATION (NVCASE) PROGRAM § 286.6 Public consultation. NIST...

  6. 15 CFR 286.6 - Public consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACCREDITATION AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAMS NATIONAL VOLUNTARY CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT SYSTEM EVALUATION (NVCASE) PROGRAM § 286.6 Public consultation. NIST...

  7. 15 CFR 286.6 - Public consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACCREDITATION AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAMS NATIONAL VOLUNTARY CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT SYSTEM EVALUATION (NVCASE) PROGRAM § 286.6 Public consultation. NIST...

  8. The accountant as triage master: an economist's perspective on voluntary euthanasia and the value of life debate.

    PubMed

    Richardson, J

    1987-07-01

    The author, an economist, rebuts the contention that human life cannot and should not be economically evaluated and argues that such evaluations are made implicitly and inconsistently, resulting in a reduction of human welfare. He presents an economic framework for the analysis of costs and benefits in which the focal point, as in most value systems, is the tradeoff between life and quality of life. Therefore, as the quality of life decreases, society's efforts to preserve life should decrease. If the valuation of life includes self evaluation, then there should be less effort to preserve the life of an individual who wishes to die. Richardson concludes that voluntary euthanasia is a limiting case in which society accepts the individual's valuation of life.

  9. Competency-Based Behavior Consultation Training: An Evaluation of Consultant Outcomes, Treatment Effects, and Consumer Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lepage, Kathy; Kratochwill, Thomas R.; Elliott, Stephen N.

    2004-01-01

    Assessments of consultants, clients, and consumer satisfaction were used to examine the effects of a competency-based consultation training program conducted over 4 years. Using a multiple-baseline framework to assess training effects on consultants and single-case study designs to evaluate changes in client behavior, a number of significant…

  10. Finalizing the Consultant Effectiveness Scale: An Analysis and Validation of the Characteristics of Effective Consultants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoff, Howard M.; Hines, Constance V.; Kromrey, Jeffrey D.

    1995-01-01

    Proposes that as consultation becomes a larger part of the school psychologist's role and function, the need to empirically identify characteristics of effective consultants is increasingly important. Describes the Consultant Effectiveness Scale (CES) and reexamines it with a national sample of school psychologists. Evaluates discriminate validity…

  11. The Consulting Role in a Response-to-Intervention Context: An Exploratory Study of Instructional Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Daniel S.; Salmon, Diane; Cavanaugh, Kate; Schneider, Mary Frances

    2014-01-01

    Response to intervention (RtI) is an influential system of service delivery in contemporary schools, but the specific role of school consultation in RtI implementation is not clearly defined. Instructional consultation provides a potential meeting point between consultation and RtI practices. Through a mixed-methods approach, this study explored…

  12. Developing Knowledge and Value in Management Consulting. Research in Management Consulting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buono, Anthony F., Ed.

    This document contains 11 papers that explore knowledge and value development in the field of management consulting, with particular emphasis on trends and techniques in the practice of management consulting and the current theory and dynamics of management consulting. The following papers are included: "Introduction" (Anthony F. Buono);…

  13. Intensive Consulting: Watching Your Vegetables Grow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeiffer, William S.

    1985-01-01

    Describes five consulting activities developed over several years association with a business firm in order to show that intensive work for one company can be an interesting option for consultants who want to address a firm's many communication problems and who want to see long-term results. (FL)

  14. Faculty Consulting and Supplemental Income. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Carol M.; Lewis, Darrell R.

    Although consulting has long been recognized as a legitimate faculty role in most colleges, concern has arisen about the appropriateness of "double dipping," and particularly whether consulting and other supplemental income activities result in shirking other university responsibilities. The debate centers on six basic issues: who…

  15. 30 CFR 35.3 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Consultation. 35.3 Section 35.3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS FIRE-RESISTANT HYDRAULIC FLUIDS General Provisions § 35.3 Consultation. By...

  16. 30 CFR 35.3 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Consultation. 35.3 Section 35.3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS FIRE-RESISTANT HYDRAULIC FLUIDS General Provisions § 35.3 Consultation. By...

  17. 30 CFR 35.3 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consultation. 35.3 Section 35.3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS FIRE-RESISTANT HYDRAULIC FLUIDS General Provisions § 35.3 Consultation. By...

  18. 30 CFR 35.3 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Consultation. 35.3 Section 35.3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS FIRE-RESISTANT HYDRAULIC FLUIDS General Provisions § 35.3 Consultation. By...

  19. 30 CFR 35.3 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Consultation. 35.3 Section 35.3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS FIRE-RESISTANT HYDRAULIC FLUIDS General Provisions § 35.3 Consultation. By...

  20. Tribal Consultation Booklet: January 1991-March 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC. Office of Indian Education Programs.

    "Tribal Consultation Booklets" are the records and background materials of the meetings between Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) staff and tribal representatives, parents, school boards, and other interested parties in ten states, concerning potential changes or issues relating to Indian Education Programs. Such consultation meetings are…

  1. 18 CFR 806.11 - Preliminary consultations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... COMMISSION REVIEW AND APPROVAL OF PROJECTS Application Procedure § 806.11 Preliminary consultations. (a) Any... Commission staff for an informal discussion of preliminary plans for the proposed project. To facilitate preliminary consultations, it is suggested that the project sponsor provide a general description of...

  2. 18 CFR 806.11 - Preliminary consultations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... COMMISSION REVIEW AND APPROVAL OF PROJECTS Application Procedure § 806.11 Preliminary consultations. (a) Any... Commission staff for an informal discussion of preliminary plans for the proposed project. To facilitate preliminary consultations, it is suggested that the project sponsor provide a general description of...

  3. Consulting Careers: A Profile of Three Occupations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullins, John

    2011-01-01

    Choosing an industry in which to work is often as important as choosing an occupation. And over the next several years, the best advice for some workers may be to choose an industry that sells advice: consulting. The management, scientific, and technical consulting services industry comprises businesses that offer specialized advice to other…

  4. The Consulting Challenge: A Case Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachau, Daniel A.; Naas, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01

    The Consulting Challenge is a yearly case competition in which teams of graduate students respond to a request for proposals (RFP) for consulting services. The case and RFP are based on a problem that a host organization has experienced. Over 3 days, students meet with representatives of the host organization, analyze data, prepare a proposal for…

  5. Consulting Foresters' View of Professional Forestry Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straka, Thomas J.; Childers, Christopher J.

    2006-01-01

    Consulting forestry is an attractive professional specialization and expanding employment opportunities have made it a popular option for forestry students. Association of Consulting Foresters members were asked to rank the importance of the traditional forestry and other courses in the standard accredited forestry curriculum, where additional…

  6. Linking Knowledge and Action: PRI's Community Consultant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Gregory P.

    Within the Partnership for Rural Improvement (PRI), community consultants operate within three complex sets of relationships: client groups, the organizational structure of PRI, and the local operational base. Community consultants are responsible for developing and facilitating rural development and for providing assistance in community and…

  7. Utilization of Consultants in Inservice Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theimer, William C., Jr.

    The misuse of outside consultants by most school districts has led to a disenchantment with inservice training in general. By using careful planning and evaluation techniques, the problems which have been caused by the inappropriate use of consultants and the unreal expectations of local school district personnel can be avoided. The process model…

  8. Consultant/Linker Knowledge and Skills Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smink, Jay

    The Consultant/Linker Knowledge and Skills Inventory is used to assess both existing and needed levels of knowledge and skills for consulting with school staff. The inventory is self-administered, and requires 20 to 30 minutes to complete. For each item, knowledge and skill are rated low, medium, or high; and need for improvement is rated none,…

  9. Using Technology in Consultation: Enhancing Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pease, Terrie; Copa, Annette; Proulx, Gregory A.; Boss, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    Jennifer Boss, Senior Program Associate at ZERO TO THREE, spoke with three infant mental health consultants who worked with three different Early Head Start programs as part of the Pathways to Prevention (PTP) initiative. The interviews particularly focused on how to infuse technology into consultation arrangements that center around building and…

  10. 50 CFR 402.13 - Informal consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.13 Informal consultation. (a..., that the action is not likely to adversely affect listed species or critical habitat, the...

  11. 50 CFR 402.14 - Formal consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.14 Formal consultation. (a... time to determine whether any action may affect listed species or critical habitat. If such...

  12. 50 CFR 402.14 - Formal consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.14 Formal consultation. (a... time to determine whether any action may affect listed species or critical habitat. If such...

  13. 50 CFR 402.13 - Informal consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.13 Informal consultation. (a..., that the action is not likely to adversely affect listed species or critical habitat, the...

  14. 50 CFR 402.13 - Informal consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.13 Informal consultation. (a..., that the action is not likely to adversely affect listed species or critical habitat, the...

  15. 50 CFR 402.14 - Formal consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.14 Formal consultation. (a... time to determine whether any action may affect listed species or critical habitat. If such...

  16. 50 CFR 402.14 - Formal consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.14 Formal consultation. (a... time to determine whether any action may affect listed species or critical habitat. If such...

  17. 50 CFR 402.13 - Informal consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.13 Informal consultation. (a..., that the action is not likely to adversely affect listed species or critical habitat, the...

  18. 50 CFR 402.13 - Informal consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.13 Informal consultation. (a..., that the action is not likely to adversely affect listed species or critical habitat, the...

  19. 50 CFR 402.14 - Formal consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.14 Formal consultation. (a... time to determine whether any action may affect listed species or critical habitat. If such...

  20. Review of Research: Report on Consultation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Funding Council for England, Bristol.

    This document reports the results of the consultation (questionnaire responses from higher education institutions) on a review of research policy and funding by the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) published in September 2000 and outlines the HEFCE response to the review and the consultation. Responses were received from 164…

  1. 10 CFR 960.3-3 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consultation. 960.3-3 Section 960.3-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-3 Consultation. The DOE shall provide to designated officials of the...

  2. 10 CFR 960.3-3 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Consultation. 960.3-3 Section 960.3-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-3 Consultation. The DOE shall provide to designated officials of the...

  3. 10 CFR 960.3-3 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Consultation. 960.3-3 Section 960.3-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-3 Consultation. The DOE shall provide to designated officials of the...

  4. 10 CFR 960.3-3 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Consultation. 960.3-3 Section 960.3-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-3 Consultation. The DOE shall provide to designated officials of the...

  5. 10 CFR 960.3-3 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Consultation. 960.3-3 Section 960.3-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-3 Consultation. The DOE shall provide to designated officials of the...

  6. 10 CFR 110.91 - Commission consultations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commission consultations. 110.91 Section 110.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Public Participation Procedures Concerning License Applications § 110.91 Commission consultations. The Commission...

  7. Lessons Learned from a Consultation Process Overseas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merino-Soto, César

    2014-01-01

    In this commentary I discuss three international school consultation experiences, highlighting aspects that serve as lessons for professional development and the implementation of effective and helpful strategies that meet the needs of children and youth in school systems. Relationships developed and maintained between the consulting teams and the…

  8. Counselors as Consultants during a National Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Leslie S.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes how counselors served as consultants to school division that had large student population of military dependents during Persian Gulf War. Examines impact of Persian Gulf War on the school division and its students and presents model for counselors who serve as consultants during crisis. Discusses counselors working as team with teachers,…

  9. Individual participation in intergroup contests is mediated by numerical assessment strategies in black howler and tufted capuchin monkeys.

    PubMed

    Van Belle, Sarie; Scarry, Clara J

    2015-12-05

    Asymmetries in resource-holding potential between opposing groups frequently determine outcomes of intergroup contests. Since both numerical superiority and high intergroup dominance rank may confer competitive advantages, group members should benefit from assessing the relative strength of rivals prior to engaging in defensive displays. However, differences in individual assessment may emerge when cost-benefit trade-offs differ among group members. We examine the influence of numerical superiority and intergroup dominance relationships on individual participation in intergroup encounters in black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) and tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus nigritus). Black howlers responded with longer vocal displays during encounters with neighbours with an equal number of resident males, while tufted capuchins increased their participation with increasing relative male group size. Within each species, males and females responded similarly to varying numerical odds, suggesting that despite pay-off asymmetries between males and females, both sexes were similarly influenced by numerical asymmetries in deciding to participate in collective group defence. Whereas the outcome of contests among tufted capuchins was determined by relative male group size, reflected in a pronounced intergroup dominance hierarchy, the absence of dominance relationships among black howler groups may have provoked prolonged vocal displays in order to assess rival groups with matching competitive abilities.

  10. Individual participation in intergroup contests is mediated by numerical assessment strategies in black howler and tufted capuchin monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Van Belle, Sarie; Scarry, Clara J.

    2015-01-01

    Asymmetries in resource-holding potential between opposing groups frequently determine outcomes of intergroup contests. Since both numerical superiority and high intergroup dominance rank may confer competitive advantages, group members should benefit from assessing the relative strength of rivals prior to engaging in defensive displays. However, differences in individual assessment may emerge when cost–benefit trade-offs differ among group members. We examine the influence of numerical superiority and intergroup dominance relationships on individual participation in intergroup encounters in black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) and tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus nigritus). Black howlers responded with longer vocal displays during encounters with neighbours with an equal number of resident males, while tufted capuchins increased their participation with increasing relative male group size. Within each species, males and females responded similarly to varying numerical odds, suggesting that despite pay-off asymmetries between males and females, both sexes were similarly influenced by numerical asymmetries in deciding to participate in collective group defence. Whereas the outcome of contests among tufted capuchins was determined by relative male group size, reflected in a pronounced intergroup dominance hierarchy, the absence of dominance relationships among black howler groups may have provoked prolonged vocal displays in order to assess rival groups with matching competitive abilities. PMID:26503680

  11. Consulting by Business College Academics: Lessons for Business Communication Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dave, Anish

    2009-01-01

    Business communication (BC) is a crucial aspect of management consulting. BC scholars have widely studied the relationship between BC and management consulting, including consulting by BC academics. A limited review of the studies of management consulting, including consulting done by business college academics, hereafter referred to simply as…

  12. 40 CFR 725.17 - Consultation with EPA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Consultation with EPA. 725.17 Section... Applicability § 725.17 Consultation with EPA. Persons may consult with EPA, either in writing or by telephone..., ATTN: Biotechnology Notice Consultation. Persons wishing to consult with EPA by telephone should...

  13. 40 CFR 725.17 - Consultation with EPA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consultation with EPA. 725.17 Section... Applicability § 725.17 Consultation with EPA. Persons may consult with EPA, either in writing or by telephone..., ATTN: Biotechnology Notice Consultation. Persons wishing to consult with EPA by telephone should...

  14. 40 CFR 725.17 - Consultation with EPA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Consultation with EPA. 725.17 Section... Applicability § 725.17 Consultation with EPA. Persons may consult with EPA, either in writing or by telephone..., ATTN: Biotechnology Notice Consultation. Persons wishing to consult with EPA by telephone should...

  15. 40 CFR 725.17 - Consultation with EPA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Consultation with EPA. 725.17 Section... Applicability § 725.17 Consultation with EPA. Persons may consult with EPA, either in writing or by telephone..., ATTN: Biotechnology Notice Consultation. Persons wishing to consult with EPA by telephone should...

  16. Testosterone is associated with cooperation during intergroup competition by enhancing parochial altruism

    PubMed Central

    Reimers, Luise; Diekhof, Esther K.

    2015-01-01

    The steroid hormone testosterone is widely associated with negative behavioral effects, such as aggression or dominance. However, recent studies applying economic exchange tasks revealed conflicting results. While some point to a prosocial effect of testosterone by increasing altruistic behavior, others report that testosterone promotes antisocial tendencies. Taking into account additional factors such as parochial altruism (i.e., ingroup favoritism and outgroup hostility) might help to explain this contradiction. First evidence for a link between testosterone and parochial altruism comes from recently reported data of male soccer fans playing the ultimatum game. In this study high levels of endogenous testosterone predicted increased altruistic punishment during outgroup interactions and at the same time heightened ingroup generosity. Here, we report findings of another experimental task, the prisoner's dilemma, applied in the same context to examine the role of testosterone on parochial tendencies in terms of cooperation. In this task, 50 male soccer fans were asked to decide whether or not they wanted to cooperate with partners marked as either fans of the subject's own favorite team (ingroup) or fans of other teams (outgroups). Our results show that high testosterone levels were associated with increased ingroup cooperation during intergroup competition. In addition, subjects displaying a high degree of parochialism during intergroup competition had significantly higher levels of testosterone than subjects who did not differentiate much between the different groups. In sum, the present data demonstrate that the behavioral effects of testosterone are not limited to aggressive and selfish tendencies but may imply prosocial aspects depending on the context. By this means, our results support the previously reported findings on testosterone-dependent intergroup bias and indicate that this social hormone might be an important factor driving parochial altruism. PMID

  17. CONSULTATION ON UPDATED METHODOLOGY FOR ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) expects to publish the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) committee's report (BEIR VII) on risks from ionizing radiation exposures in calendar year 2005. The committee is expected to have analyzed the most recent epidemiology from the important exposed cohorts and to have factored in any changes resulting from the updated analysis of dosimetry for the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. To the extent practical, the Committee will also consider any relevant radiobiological data, including those from the Department of Energy's low dose effects research program. Based on their evaluation of relevant information, the Committee is then expected to propose a set of models for estimating risks from low-dose ionizing radiation. ORIA will review the BEIR VII report and consider revisions to the Agency's methodology for estimating cancer risks from exposure to ionizing radiation in light of this report and other relevant information. This will be the subject of the Consultation. This project supports a major risk management initiative to improve the basis on which radiation risk decisions are made. This project, funded by several Federal Agencies, reflects an attempt to characterize risks where there are substantial uncertainties. The outcome will improve our ability to assess risks well into the future and will strengthen EPAs overall capability for assessing and managing radiation risks. the BEIR VII report is funde

  18. An automated consultant for MACSYMA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genesereth, M. R.

    1977-01-01

    A consultant is necessary whenever on is faced with a problem solving situation in a domain one does not fully understand. The lack of knowledge may be incidental, as it is when the domain or device is fairly simple but time constraints make it impossible for the user to learn all that is necessary. Computer systems like MACSYMA in which the level of commands is so close to the level of the task environment that the user is apt to confuse a simply defined procedure (like COEFF) with its mathematical counterpart (here coefficient) that it at best approximates. A computer program is described which has the capability of conversing with its user in English about a difficulty he has encountered, and providing information tailored to his need. The MACSYMA Advisor is a program distinct from MACSYMA with its own separate data base and expertise. For convenience the program can be called directly from MACSYMA and can access the user's data structures contained therein. The Advisor described here deals only with the "straightline" or nested use of MACSYMA commands and not loops or user-defined functions. The implementation of the Advisor relies heavily on an explict, internal "model" of the user's state of knowledge, his goals, and his "plan" for achieving them.

  19. Readings in the Economics of Education. A Selection of Articles, Essays, and Texts from the Works of Economists, Past and Present, on the Relationships between Economics and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This publication consists of selected articles, essays and texts from the works of economists on the relationships between economics and education. These selections, representing the range of orientations, methods and findings believed to be most significant, are organized into the following topics: 1) Perspectives on Education and Development in…

  20. Intergroup contact, attitudes toward homosexuality, and the role of acceptance of gender non-conformity in young adolescents.

    PubMed

    Collier, Kate L; Bos, Henny M W; Sandfort, Theo G M

    2012-08-01

    This study explored how contact with gay and lesbian persons affects adolescents' attitudes toward them, and whether this association is mediated or moderated by one's acceptance of gender non-conformity. We analyzed survey responses from 456 Dutch adolescents aged 12-15 who reported having no same-sex attractions. Data were collected in 2008 at 8 schools in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Preliminary analyses showed that contact with lesbian/gay persons outside of school was positively associated with attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. Multilevel analyses showed that acceptance of gender non-conformity mediated rather than moderated the relationship between intergroup contact and sexual prejudice in males. The effect of intergroup contact on females' attitudes toward lesbian women was no longer significant in multilevel analyses. The findings suggest that attention to both intergroup contact and acceptance of gender non-conformity would enhance our understanding of attitudes toward homosexuality in adolescents.

  1. No effect of inter-group conflict on within-group harmony in non-human primates

    PubMed Central

    Grueter, Cyril C

    2013-01-01

    It has been a longstanding assumption that the threat of extra-group conflict can promote the expression of socio-positive behavior and cohesion within animal groups. I conducted a comparative analysis on the effect of inter-group conflict (indexed by home range overlap) on within-group affiliation levels (indexed by time engaged in allogrooming) in a sample of 48 primate species. There was no association between the 2 variables in a phylogenetic generalized least squares regression. I conclude that inter-group conflict may at best elicit short-term immediate changes in affiliation levels, but permanently elevated cohesion appears unique to humans with their large-scale social integration and scaled up inter-group conflict. PMID:24563713

  2. Perceiving expatriate coworkers as foreigners encourages aid: social categorization and procedural justice together improve intergroup cooperation and dual identity.

    PubMed

    Leonardelli, Geoffrey J; Toh, Soo Min

    2011-01-01

    We propose that social categorization can encourage particular forms of intergroup cooperation because it differentiates a group in need from a group that can give aid. Moreover, social categorization is most likely to occur when individuals perceive procedural justice (i.e., fair treatment) from authorities in a superordinate group that includes the individuals' subgroup. Two field studies investigating relations between local and foreign coworkers tested not only this prediction, but also whether high social categorization and procedural justice would yield a dual identity, in which group members identify simultaneously with their social category and the superordinate group. Both studies supported our predictions: Local employees engaged a dual identity and offered knowledge to aid a foreign coworker's adjustment more often when local-foreign categorization and procedural justice from organizational authorities were high than when these variables were low. These discoveries point to controllable mechanisms that enable intergroup cooperation, and our findings have important implications for intergroup aid, expatriate adjustment, immigration, and multiculturalism.

  3. Intergroup contact, attitudes toward homosexuality, and the role of acceptance of gender non-conformity in young adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Kate L.; Bos, Henny M.W.; Sandfort, Theo G.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored how contact with gay and lesbian persons affects adolescents' attitudes toward them, and whether this association is mediated or moderated by one's acceptance of gender non-conformity. We analyzed survey responses from 456 Dutch adolescents aged 12 to 15 who reported having no same-sex attractions. Data were collected in 2008 at 8 schools in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Preliminary analyses showed that contact with lesbian/gay persons outside of school was positively associated with attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. Multilevel analyses showed that acceptance of gender non-conformity mediated rather than moderated the relationship between intergroup contact and sexual prejudice in males. The effect of intergroup contact on females' attitudes toward lesbian women was no longer significant in multilevel analyses. The findings suggest that attention to both intergroup contact and acceptance of gender non-conformity would enhance our understanding of attitudes toward homosexuality in adolescents. PMID:22243627

  4. Building Authentic Intergroup Dialogue on Campus: Living a Commitment to Shared Governance and Career Path Development through the Full Inclusion of All Members of the University Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Christine

    2003-01-01

    The University of Maryland's Intergroup Dialogue and Leadership Program (IDLP) is coordinated by the Office of Human Relations Programs (OHRP), an arm of the Office of the President. Because of this organizational location, OHRP has campus-wide scope which has been foundational to its ability to adapt the Intergroup Dialogue Program (IDP)…

  5. Postpartum consultation: Occurrence, requirements and expectations

    PubMed Central

    Carlgren, Ingrid; Berg, Marie

    2008-01-01

    Background As a matter of routine, midwives in Sweden have spoken with women about their experiences of labour in a so-called 'postpartum consultation'. However, the possibility of offering women this kind of consultation today is reduced due to shortage of both time and resources. The aim of this study was to explore the occurrence, women's requirements of, and experiences of a postpartum consultation, and to identify expectations from women who wanted but did not have a consultation with the midwife assisting during labour. Methods All Swedish speaking women who gave birth to a live born child at a University Hospital in western Sweden were consecutively included for a phone interview over a three-week period. An additional phone interview was conducted with the women who did not have a postpartum consultation, but who wanted to talk with the midwife assisting during labour. Data from the interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results Of the 150 interviewed women, 56% (n = 84) had a postpartum consultation of which 61.9% (n = 52) had this with the midwife assisting during labour. Twenty of the 28 women who did not have a consultation with anyone still desired to talk with the midwife assisting during labour. Of these, 19 were interviewed. The content the women wanted to talk about was summarized in four categories: to understand the course of events during labour; to put into words, feelings about undignified management; to describe own behaviour and feelings, and to describe own fear. Conclusion The survey shows that the frequency of postpartum consultation is decreasing, that the majority of women who give birth today still require it, but only about half of them receive it. It is crucial to develop a plan for these consultations that meets both the women's needs and the organization within current maternity care. PMID:18651967

  6. Overcoming Barriers to Palliative Care Consultation.

    PubMed

    Perrin, Kathleen Ouimet; Kazanowski, Mary

    2015-10-01

    Palliative care consultations for patients with life-threatening illnesses provide benefits for the patients and their families as well as for the health care team. Patients have better quality of life and live longer but cost the health care system less. Still, many patients are not offered the opportunity to receive a palliative care consultation. Barriers to palliative care consultation for patients in critical care units include misunderstandings about palliative care and not having agreed upon criteria for referral. Critical care nurses can assist in overcoming these barriers.

  7. Electronic Medical Consultation: A New Zealand Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Brebner, Campbell; Jones, Raymond; Marshall, Wendy; Parry, Graham

    2001-01-01

    Electronic medical consultation is available worldwide through access to the World Wide Web (WWW). This article outlines a research study on the adoption of electronic medical consultation as a means of health delivery. It focuses on the delivery of healthcare specifically for New Zealanders, by New Zealanders. It is acknowledged that the WWW is a global marketplace and that it is therefore difficult to identify New Zealanders' use of such a global market; nevertheless, we attempt to provide a New Zealand perspective on electronic medical consultation. PMID:11720955

  8. [Structured electronic consultation letter for shoulder disorders].

    PubMed

    Paloneva, Juha; Oikari, Marjo; Ylinen, Jari; Ingalsuo, Minna; Ilkka, Kunnamo; Ilkka, Kiviranta

    2012-01-01

    Referral to a specialist has a significant influence on management of the patient and costs associated with the treatments. However, development and research of the process by which patients are referred has been almost neglected. Expectations considering the purpose, contents, and timing of the referral of the consulting physician and the consultant do not always meet. A structured, electronic consultation letter was developed to respond this need. Functionality and interactivity are the key elements of the referral, including (1) an electronic referral letter to a specialist, (2) interactive education in clinical examination and management of shoulder disorders, and (3) an instrument of clinical examination and documentation of shoulder disorders.

  9. Negotiating power: agenda ordering and the willingness to negotiate in asymmetric intergroup conflicts.

    PubMed

    Kteily, Nour; Saguy, Tamar; Sidanius, James; Taylor, Donald M

    2013-12-01

    In this research, we investigated how group power influences the way members of groups in asymmetrical conflict approach intergroup negotiations. Drawing on theories of negotiations and of intergroup power, we predicted that group power would interact with features of the proposed negotiating agenda to influence willingness to come to the table. Based on the negotiation literature, we focused on 2 types of sequential negotiation agendas: 1 beginning with the discussion of consequential issues before less consequential issues (consequential first) and 1 leaving the discussion of consequential issues until after less consequential issues are discussed (consequential later). Because they are motivated to advance changes to their disadvantaged status quo, we expected low-power group members to favor consequential first over consequential later invitations to negotiate. High-power group members, motivated to protect their advantage, were expected to show the reverse preference. Converging evidence from 5 experiments involving real-world and experimental groups supported these predictions. Across studies, participants received an invitation to negotiate from the other group involving either a consequential first or consequential later agenda. Low-power group members preferred consequential first invitations because these implied less stalling of change to the status quo, and high-power group members preferred consequential later invitations because these invitations seemed to pose less threat to their position. Theoretical and practical implications for negotiations research and conflict resolution are discussed.

  10. Intra- and intergroup vocal behavior in resident killer whales, Orcinus orca.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Brigitte M; Symonds, Helena; Spong, Paul; Ladich, Friedrich

    2007-12-01

    Vocal communication within and between groups of individuals has been described extensively in birds and terrestrial mammals, however, little is known about how cetaceans utilize their sounds in their natural environment. Resident killer whales, Orcinus orca, live in highly stable matrilines and exhibit group-specific vocal dialects. Single call types cannot exclusively be associated with particular behaviors and calls are thought to function in group identification and intragroup communication. In the present study call usage of three closely related matrilines of the Northern resident community was compared in various intra- and intergroup contexts. In two out of the three matrilines significant changes in vocal behavior depending both on the presence and identity of accompanying whales were found. Most evidently, family-specific call subtypes, as well as aberrant and variable calls, were emitted at higher rates, whereas "low arousal" call types were used less in the presence of matrilines from different pods, subclans, or clans. Ways in which the observed changes may function both in intra- and intergroup communication.

  11. Early Neural Markers of Implicit Attitudes: N170 Modulated by Intergroup and Evaluative Contexts in IAT

    PubMed Central

    Ibáñez, Agustín; Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Hurtado, Esteban; González, Ramiro; Haye, Andrés; Manes, Facundo F.

    2010-01-01

    The Implicit Association Test (IAT) is the most popular measure to evaluate implicit attitudes. Nevertheless, its neural correlates are not yet fully understood. We examined event related potentials (ERPs) in response to face- and word processing while indigenous and non-indigenous participants performed an IAT displaying faces (ingroup and outgroup members) and words (positive and negative valence) as targets of category judgments. The N170 component was modulated by valence of words and by ingroup/outgroup face categorization. Contextual effects (face–words implicitly associated in the task) had an influence on the N170 amplitude modulation. On the one hand, in face categorization, right N170 showed differences according to the association between social categories of faces and affective valence of words. On the other, in word categorization, left N170 presented a similar modulation when the task implied a negative-valence associated with ingroup faces. Only indigenous participants showed a significant IAT effect and N170 differences. Our results demonstrate an early ERP blending of stimuli processing with both intergroup and evaluative contexts, suggesting an integration of contextual information related to intergroup attitudes during the early stages of word and face processing. To our knowledge, this is the first report of early ERPs during an ethnicity IAT, opening a new branch of exchange between social neuroscience and social psychology of attitudes. PMID:21079750

  12. Compensation in intergroup relations: an investigation of its structural and strategic foundations.

    PubMed

    Cambon, Laurent; Yzerbyt, Vincent; Yakimova, Sonya

    2015-03-01

    Recent work in intergroup relations stresses the role of two fundamental dimensions, competence and warmth, which organize the perception of social groups. A pattern often encountered in people's ratings is one of compensation in that a group that is evaluated higher than another group on one of the two fundamental dimensions is also judged lower on the other fundamental dimension. Based on Social Identity Theory, the present work extends previous research on compensation by examining boundary conditions as well as underlying psychological processes. Two studies involving experimental and correlational evidence, minimal and real groups, and different kinds of conflict, reveal that compensation is more likely when the groups are in asymmetrical relation and share a cooperative view of the intergroup setting. Our data also suggest that, among members of low status groups, compensation is associated with social creativity. In contrast, and in line with the 'noblesse oblige' effect, members of the high status group would seem to rely on compensation as a means to appear non-discriminatory.

  13. The Process Model of Group-Based Emotion: Integrating Intergroup Emotion and Emotion Regulation Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, Amit; Halperin, Eran; van Zomeren, Martijn; Gross, James J

    2016-05-01

    Scholars interested in emotion regulation have documented the different goals and strategies individuals have for regulating their emotions. However, little attention has been paid to the regulation of group-based emotions, which are based on individuals' self-categorization as a group member and occur in response to situations perceived as relevant for that group. We propose a model for examining group-based emotion regulation that integrates intergroup emotions theory and the process model of emotion regulation. This synergy expands intergroup emotion theory by facilitating further investigation of different goals (i.e., hedonic or instrumental) and strategies (e.g., situation selection and modification strategies) used to regulate group-based emotions. It also expands emotion regulation research by emphasizing the role of self-categorization (e.g., as an individual or a group member) in the emotional process. Finally, we discuss the promise of this theoretical synergy and suggest several directions for future research on group-based emotion regulation.

  14. Intergroup Contact Effects via Ingroup Distancing among Majority and Minority Groups: Moderation by Social Dominance Orientation.

    PubMed

    Kauff, Mathias; Schmid, Katharina; Lolliot, Simon; Al Ramiah, Ananthi; Hewstone, Miles

    2016-01-01

    Five studies tested whether intergroup contact reduces negative outgroup attitudes through a process of ingroup distancing. Based on the deprovincialization hypothesis and Social Dominance Theory, we hypothesized that the indirect effect of cross-group friendship on outgroup attitudes via reduced ingroup identification is moderated by individuals' Social Dominance Orientation (SDO), and occurs only for members of high status majority groups. We tested these predictions in three different intergroup contexts, involving conflictual relations between social groups in Germany (Study 1; N = 150; longitudinal Study 2: N = 753), Northern Ireland (Study 3: N = 160; Study 4: N = 1,948), and England (Study 5; N = 594). Cross-group friendship was associated with reduced ingroup identification and the link between reduced ingroup identification and improved outgroup attitudes was moderated by SDO (the indirect effect of cross-group friendship on outgroup attitudes via reduced ingroup only occurred for individuals scoring high, but not low, in SDO). Although there was a consistent moderating effect of SDO in high-status majority groups (Studies 1-5), but not low-status minority groups (Studies 3, 4, and 5), the interaction by SDO was not reliably stronger in high- than low-status groups. Findings are discussed in terms of better understanding deprovincialization effects of contact.

  15. Multiple emotions: a person-centered approach to the relationship between intergroup emotion and action orientation.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Julian W; Kashima, Yoshihisa; Laham, Simon M

    2014-08-01

    Although a great deal of research has investigated the relationship between emotions and action orientations, most studies to date have used variable-centered techniques to identify the best emotion predictor(s) of a particular action. Given that people frequently report multiple or blended emotions, a profitable area of research may be to adopt person-centered approaches to examine the action orientations elicited by a particular combination of emotions or "emotion profile." In two studies, across instances of intergroup inequality in Australia and Canada, we examined participants' experiences of six intergroup emotions: sympathy, anger directed at three targets, shame, and pride. In both studies, five groups of participants with similar emotion profiles were identified by cluster analysis and their action orientations were compared; clusters indicated that the majority of participants experienced multiple emotions. Each action orientation was also regressed on the six emotions. There were a number of differences in the results obtained from the person-centered and variable-centered approaches. This was most apparent for sympathy: the group of participants experiencing only sympathy showed little inclination to perform prosocial actions, yet sympathy was a significant predictor of numerous action orientations in regression analyses. These results imply that sympathy may only prompt a desire for action when experienced in combination with other emotions. We suggest that the use of person-centered and variable-centered approaches as complementary analytic strategies may enrich research into not only the affective predictors of action, but emotion research in general.

  16. Formation of raiding parties for intergroup violence is mediated by social network structure

    PubMed Central

    Glowacki, Luke; Isakov, Alexander; Wrangham, Richard W.; McDermott, Rose; Fowler, James H.; Christakis, Nicholas A.

    2016-01-01

    Intergroup violence is common among humans worldwide. To assess how within-group social dynamics contribute to risky, between-group conflict, we conducted a 3-y longitudinal study of the formation of raiding parties among the Nyangatom, a group of East African nomadic pastoralists currently engaged in small-scale warfare. We also mapped the social network structure of potential male raiders. Here, we show that the initiation of raids depends on the presence of specific leaders who tend to participate in many raids, to have more friends, and to occupy more central positions in the network. However, despite the different structural position of raid leaders, raid participants are recruited from the whole population, not just from the direct friends of leaders. An individual’s decision to participate in a raid is strongly associated with the individual’s social network position in relation to other participants. Moreover, nonleaders have a larger total impact on raid participation than leaders, despite leaders’ greater connectivity. Thus, we find that leaders matter more for raid initiation than participant mobilization. Social networks may play a role in supporting risky collective action, amplify the emergence of raiding parties, and hence facilitate intergroup violence in small-scale societies. PMID:27790996

  17. Oxytocin Motivates Non-Cooperation in Intergroup Conflict to Protect Vulnerable In-Group Members

    PubMed Central

    De Dreu, Carsten K. W.; Shalvi, Shaul; Greer, Lindred L.; Van Kleef, Gerben A.; Handgraaf, Michel J. J.

    2012-01-01

    Intergroup conflict is often driven by an individual's motivation to protect oneself and fellow group members against the threat of out-group aggression, including the tendency to pre-empt out-group threat through a competitive approach. Here we link such defense-motivated competition to oxytocin, a hypothalamic neuropeptide involved in reproduction and social bonding. An intergroup conflict game was developed to disentangle whether oxytocin motivates competitive approach to protect (i) immediate self-interest, (ii) vulnerable in-group members, or (iii) both. Males self-administered oxytocin or placebo (double-blind placebo-controlled) and made decisions with financial consequences to themselves, their fellow in-group members, and a competing out-group. Game payoffs were manipulated between-subjects so that non-cooperation by the out-group had high vs. low impact on personal payoff (personal vulnerability), and high vs. low impact on payoff to fellow in-group members (in-group vulnerability). When personal vulnerability was high, non-cooperation was unaffected by treatment and in-group vulnerability. When personal vulnerability was low, however, in-group vulnerability motivated non-cooperation but only when males received oxytocin. Oxytocin fuels a defense-motivated competitive approach to protect vulnerable group members, even when personal fate is not at stake. PMID:23144787

  18. Intergroup Contact Effects via Ingroup Distancing among Majority and Minority Groups: Moderation by Social Dominance Orientation

    PubMed Central

    Kauff, Mathias; Schmid, Katharina; Lolliot, Simon; Al Ramiah, Ananthi; Hewstone, Miles

    2016-01-01

    Five studies tested whether intergroup contact reduces negative outgroup attitudes through a process of ingroup distancing. Based on the deprovincialization hypothesis and Social Dominance Theory, we hypothesized that the indirect effect of cross-group friendship on outgroup attitudes via reduced ingroup identification is moderated by individuals’ Social Dominance Orientation (SDO), and occurs only for members of high status majority groups. We tested these predictions in three different intergroup contexts, involving conflictual relations between social groups in Germany (Study 1; N = 150; longitudinal Study 2: N = 753), Northern Ireland (Study 3: N = 160; Study 4: N = 1,948), and England (Study 5; N = 594). Cross-group friendship was associated with reduced ingroup identification and the link between reduced ingroup identification and improved outgroup attitudes was moderated by SDO (the indirect effect of cross-group friendship on outgroup attitudes via reduced ingroup only occurred for individuals scoring high, but not low, in SDO). Although there was a consistent moderating effect of SDO in high-status majority groups (Studies 1–5), but not low-status minority groups (Studies 3, 4, and 5), the interaction by SDO was not reliably stronger in high- than low-status groups. Findings are discussed in terms of better understanding deprovincialization effects of contact. PMID:26751203

  19. 77 FR 23283 - Tribal Consultation Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... things, internal communications on the development of proposed legislation, enforcement policy, and other...- Determination B. Open Communications and Respect for Cultural Values and Traditions C. Ensuring Consultation Is... subcontractors through linkages, referrals, training, regular communication, and sharing of information...

  20. 31 CFR 561.803 - Consultations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Consultations. In implementing sections 104 and 104A of the Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment Act of 2010 (Pub. L. 111-195) (22 U.S.C. 8501-8551), as amended by the Iran Threat Reduction...

  1. 31 CFR 561.803 - Consultations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Consultations. In implementing sections 104 and 104A of the Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment Act of 2010 (Pub. L. 111-195) (22 U.S.C. 8501-8551), as amended by the Iran Threat Reduction...

  2. 30 CFR 27.3 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MINING PRODUCTS METHANE-MONITORING SYSTEMS General Provisions § 27.3 Consultation. By appointment... qualified MSHA personnel proposed methane-monitoring systems to be submitted in accordance with...

  3. 29 CFR 1691.12 - Interagency consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... enforcement procedures on that basis, an agency shall, to the extent practical, consult with the Chairman of... unlawful employment practices, the Department of Justice and/or EEOC shall, to the extent practical,...

  4. 34 CFR 75.190 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Curricula Or Instructional Materials § 75.190 Consultation. Each applicant that intends to develop curricula or instructional materials under a grant is encouraged to assure that the curricula or materials...

  5. 30 CFR 27.3 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MINING PRODUCTS METHANE-MONITORING SYSTEMS General Provisions § 27.3 Consultation. By appointment... qualified MSHA personnel proposed methane-monitoring systems to be submitted in accordance with...

  6. From staff nurse to nurse consultant.

    PubMed

    Fowler, John

    John Fowler Independent education consultant, continues his series for clinical nurses hoping to share their experiences with a wider audience, with advice on developing a potential article for a professional journal.

  7. 7 CFR 372.7 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Consultation. 372.7 Section 372.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Endangered Species Act....

  8. 7 CFR 372.7 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consultation. 372.7 Section 372.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Endangered Species Act....

  9. 7 CFR 372.7 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Consultation. 372.7 Section 372.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Endangered Species Act....

  10. Technical Consulting: The African-American Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield, Tracy N.

    2010-01-01

    The qualitative research study explored the organizational characteristics necessary in addressing the low concentration of African American technical consultants employed in the information technology industry. Using research participants' professional experience, participants responded to a developed questionnaire. African American technical…

  11. 24 CFR 91.110 - Consultation; states.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of homelessness, the State must consult with: (1) Each Continuum of Care within the state; (2) Public... systems of care that may discharge persons into homelessness (such as health-care facilities,...

  12. 24 CFR 91.110 - Consultation; States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of homelessness, the State must consult with: (1) Each Continuum of Care within the state; (2) Public... systems of care that may discharge persons into homelessness (such as health-care facilities,...

  13. 24 CFR 91.110 - Consultation; States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of homelessness, the State must consult with: (1) Each Continuum of Care within the state; (2) Public... systems of care that may discharge persons into homelessness (such as health-care facilities,...

  14. US--Japan energy policy consultations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    These papers, from the US--Japan Energy Policy Consultations Meeting in Hawaii, deal with topics relating to: energy outlook; electric utilities; nuclear energy; coal and petroleum based energies; and new energy source development. (JF)

  15. Global Grid Telemedicine System: Expert Consult Manager

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-10-01

    system, and the Consult Broker has to use its knowledge of dental procedures to identify patients most 9 similar to the new consultation (case-based...contains a specific set of functionality that helps enable the GGTS to manage the communications network. 19 Forward Health Care Patient Movement...Form 513). The fields of the dentistry system contain patient demographic data, patient location, referring physician data and location, 37

  16. Verbal prescribing in general practice consultations.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Mark; Neil Jenkings, K; Wilson, Rob; Purves, Ian

    2006-09-01

    This paper looks at aspects of doctor-patient communication and focuses on how prescribing decisions fit into the consultation within the context of the use (and non-use) of a technological clinical decision support system (CDSS) in the UK. Analysis of 6 simulated consultations filmed as part of the evaluation of a CDSS system indicated that the general practitioners (GPs) used their computers for a short time during consultations. The data showed that doctors' utterances, occurring at an early stage of the consultations, signalled the prescribing decision and eventual outcome of the consultation. The concept of 'verbal prescriptions' is used to describe these utterances of the GPs, and facilitates an understanding of how prescribing decisions are routinely achieved. Prescribing decisions can occur in the relatively early stages of the consultation, and both prior to and independently of the CDSS. Consequently, we suggest that the pattern of GP decision-making needs to be taken into account in CDSS design. However, this is not just an issue for CDSS design and implementation, as the verbal prescription phenomenon may impact upon patient involvement in decision-making, and even the appropriate use of evidence based medicine.

  17. Postconflict History Curriculum Revision as an "Intergroup Encounter" Promoting Interethnic Reconciliation among Burmese Migrants and Refugees in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metro, Rosalie

    2013-01-01

    Recent literature shows that revising history curricula in postconflict settings can either worsen or ameliorate identity conflict. I conceptualize history curriculum revision workshops as intergroup encounters (IGEs) and analyze the conditions under which reconciliation emerges. I conducted participant observation with multiethnic groups of…

  18. Intergroup Discrimination in Positive and Negative Outcome Allocations: Impact of Stimulus Valence, Relative Group Status, and Relative Group Size.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otten, Sabine; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Three studies investigated the determination of social discrimination by the valence of stimuli that are allocated between groups. The studies were based on either the minimal group paradigm or a more reality-based laboratory intergroup setting, with stimulus valence, group status, and group size as factors and with pull scores on Tajfel matrices…

  19. Intergroup Dialogue in Higher Education: Meaningful Learning about Social Justice. ASHE Higher Education Report, Volume 32, Number 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuniga, Ximena, Ed.; Nagda, Biren A., Ed.; Chesler, Mark, Ed.; Cytron-Walker, Adena, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Intergroup dialogue (IGD), the focus of this monograph, is one of several dialogue and deliberation practices currently being used on college and university campuses in the United States. The introductory chapter introduces IGD, its historical roots, its location among similar diversity education practices, and its core components. The subsequent…

  20. Collectively coping with contact: The role of intragroup support in dealing with the challenges of intergroup mixing in residential contexts.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Clifford; Sagherian-Dickey, Thia

    2016-12-01

    The social identity approach to stress has shown how intragroup support processes shape individuals' responses to stress across health care, workplace, and community settings. However, the issue of how these 'social cure' processes can help cope with the stress of intergroup contact has yet to be explored. This is particularly important given the pivotal role of intergroup threat and anxiety in the experience of contact as well as the effect of contact on extending the boundaries of group inclusion. This study applies this perspective to a real-life instance of residential contact in a divided society. Semi-structured interviews with 14 Catholic and 13 Protestant new residents of increasingly mixed areas of Belfast city, Northern Ireland, were thematically analysed. Results highlight that transitioning to mixed communities was fraught with intergroup anxiety, especially for those coming from 'single identity' areas. Help from existing residents, especially when offered by members of other religious denominations, signalled a 'mixed community ethos' to new residents, which facilitated adopting and sharing this identity. This shared identity then enabled them to deal with unexpected intergroup threats and provided resilience to future sectarian division. New residents who did not adopt this shared identity remained isolated, fearful, and prone to negative contact.

  1. The inter-group comparison-intra-group cooperation hypothesis: comparisons between groups increase efficiency in public goods provision.

    PubMed

    Böhm, Robert; Rockenbach, Bettina

    2013-01-01

    Identifying methods to increase cooperation and efficiency in public goods provision is of vital interest for human societies. The methods that have been proposed often incur costs that (more than) destroy the efficiency gains through increased cooperation. It has for example been shown that inter-group conflict increases intra-group cooperation, however at the cost of collective efficiency. We propose a new method that makes use of the positive effects associated with inter-group competition but avoids the detrimental (cost) effects of a structural conflict. We show that the mere comparison to another structurally independent group increases both the level of intra-group cooperation and overall efficiency. The advantage of this new method is that it directly transfers the benefits from increased cooperation into increased efficiency. In repeated public goods provision we experimentally manipulated the participants' level of contribution feedback (intra-group only vs. both intra- and inter-group) as well as the provision environment (smaller groups with higher individual benefits from cooperation vs. larger groups with lower individual benefits from cooperation). Irrespective of the provision environment groups with an inter-group comparison opportunity exhibited a significantly stronger cooperation than groups without this opportunity. Participants conditionally cooperated within their group and additionally acted to advance their group to not fall behind the other group. The individual efforts to advance the own group cushion the downward trend in the above average contributors and thus render contributions on a higher level. We discuss areas of practical application.

  2. The communication of "pure" group-based anger reduces tendencies toward intergroup conflict because it increases out-group empathy.

    PubMed

    de Vos, Bart; van Zomeren, Martijn; Gordijn, Ernestine H; Postmes, Tom

    2013-08-01

    The communication of group-based anger in intergroup conflict is often associated with destructive conflict behavior. However, we show that communicating group-based anger toward the out-group can evoke empathy and thus reduce intergroup conflict. This is because it stresses the value of maintaining a positive long-term intergroup relationship, thereby increasing understanding for the situation (in contrast to the communication of the closely related emotion of contempt). Three experiments demonstrate that the communication of group-based anger indeed reduces destructive conflict intentions compared with (a) a control condition (Experiments 1-2), (b) the communication of group-based contempt (Experiment 2), and (c) the communication of a combination of group-based anger and contempt (Experiments 2-3). Moreover, results from all three experiments reveal that empathy mediated the positive effect of communicating "pure" group-based anger. We discuss the implications of these findings for the theory and practice of communicating emotions in intergroup conflicts.

  3. Political Violence and Adolescent Out-group Attitudes and Prosocial Behaviors: Implications for Positive Inter-group Relations.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Laura K; Merrilees, Christine E; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed; Cummings, E Mark

    2014-11-01

    The negative impact of political violence on adolescent adjustment is well-established. Less is known about factors that affect adolescents' positive outcomes in ethnically-divided societies, especially influences on prosocial behaviors toward the outgroup, which may promote constructive relations. For example, understanding how intergroup experiences and attitudes motivate outgroup helping may foster intergroup cooperation and help to consolidate peace. The current study investigated adolescents' overall and outgroup prosocial behaviors across two time points in Belfast, Northern Ireland (N = 714 dyads; 49% male; Time 1: M = 14.7, SD = 2.0, years old). Controlling for Time 1 prosocial behaviors, age and gender, multivariate structural equation modeling showed that experience with intergroup sectarian threat predicted fewer outgroup prosocial behaviors at Time 2 at the trend level. On the other hand, greater experience of intragroup nonsectarian threat at Time 1 predicted more overall and outgroup prosocial behaviors at Time 2. Moreover, positive outgroup attitudes strengthened the link between intragroup threat and outgroup prosocial behaviors one year later. Finally, experience with intragroup nonsectarian threat and outgroup prosocial behaviors at Time 1 was related to more positive outgroup attitudes at Time 2. The implications for youth development and intergroup relations in post-accord societies are discussed.

  4. Interdependent Construal of Self and the Endorsement of Conflict Resolution Strategies in Interpersonal, Intergroup, and International Disputes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derlega, Valerian J.; Cukur, Cem Safak; Kuang, Jenny C. Y.; Forsyth, Donelson R.

    2002-01-01

    College students from countries with collectivistic and individualistic cultures completed a self-construal measure, then identified how they would respond to conflicts with another individual between their group and another group, or between their country and another country. Participants responded more negatively to intergroup and international…

  5. Developing Levels of Consultation in an Inner London Borough

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowd, Rose; Thorne, Hilary

    2007-01-01

    Many educational psychology services across the country have changed or are in the process of changing to a consultation approach to service delivery. This paper outlines the experiences of an inner city service in the development of consultation particularly in the area of group consultation. Group consultation involves a pair of educational…

  6. School Consultation Research: Methodological Critique and Future Research Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresham, Frank M.; Kendell, Ginger K.

    1987-01-01

    This article reviews the current status of school consultation research and critiques the research methodologies used in consultation research. Major theoretical models in which consultation research has been conducted are briefly described. Consultation research is reviewed in three primary areas of investigation: (1) outcome research; (2)…

  7. Integrative Learning at Work: Theory into Practice at Andersen Consulting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Joel R.

    Andersen Consulting is a global training firm with more than 20,000 consultants serving clients from 151 officers in 46 countries. In 1995, Andersen Consulting introduced a career development model (CDM) as a new organizing structure for its consultants in North and South America. The CDM, which translates the findings of research on integrative…

  8. Consultation: Enhancing Leisure Service Delivery to Handicapped Children and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Judith E., Ed.

    The document provides guidelines for consultants in the area of consultation in delivery of leisure services for handicapped children and youth. Included are chapters with the following titles and authors: "The Consultant-Consultee Relationship" (G. O'Morrow), "A Special Education Viewpoint: Consultation in the Public Schools" (S. Brannan),…

  9. 42 CFR 493.1457 - Standard; Clinical consultant responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard; Clinical consultant responsibilities. 493... Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1457 Standard; Clinical consultant responsibilities. The clinical consultant provides consultation regarding the appropriateness of the...

  10. 42 CFR 493.1419 - Standard; Clinical consultant responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard; Clinical consultant responsibilities. 493... Testing Laboratories Performing Moderate Complexity Testing § 493.1419 Standard; Clinical consultant responsibilities. The clinical consultant provides consultation regarding the appropriateness of the...

  11. Educational Consultation: A Summary of Four Alberta Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdaway, Edward A.; Millikan, Ross H.

    1980-01-01

    Evaluates the effectiveness of the consultative process, as determined by four reviewed studies. Discusses consultative needs and practices of teachers in schools of different grade levels, and stresses the importance of peer consultation. Suggests recommendations for improving the practice of educational consultation. (JD)

  12. Participants' Evaluation of Consultation: Implications for Training in School Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klose, Laurie McGarry; Plotts, Cynthia; Lasser, Jon

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation of graduate students' consultation skills is essential to competent practice in school settings. Congruence of evaluation of the consultation experience has been shown as an important factor in the development of competent consultants in other, related disciplines. The current study analysed student consultant and teacher consultee…

  13. Therapists’ Perspectives on the Effective Elements of Consultation Following Training

    PubMed Central

    Beidas, Rinad S.; Edmunds, Julie M.; Cannuscio, Carolyn C.; Gallagher, Mark; Downey, Margaret Mary; Kendall, Philip C.

    2013-01-01

    Consultation is an effective implementation strategy to improve uptake of evidence-based practices for youth. However, little is known about what makes consultation effective. The present study used qualitative methods to explore therapists’ perspectives about consultation. We interviewed 50 therapists who had been trained 2 years prior in cognitive-behavioral therapy for child anxiety. Three themes emerged regarding effective elements of consultation: (1) connectedness with other therapists and the consultant, (2) authentic interactions around actual cases, and (3) the responsiveness of the consultant to the needs of individual therapists. Recommendations for the design of future consultation endeavors are offered. PMID:23435832

  14. The Relationship between Gender of Consultant and Social Power Perceptions within School Consultation. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erchul, William P.; Raven, Bertram H.; Wilson, Kristen E.

    2004-01-01

    This study's focus was on school psychologists' perceived effectiveness of 11 social power bases (Raven, 1993) that may be drawn upon when consulting with initially resistant teachers. Specifically, the relationship between consultant gender and perceptions of power base effectiveness was examined. The Interpersonal Power Inventory-Form CT…

  15. Assessment of Consultation and Intervention Implementation: A Review of Conjoint Behavioral Consultation Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collier-Meek, Melissa A.; Sanetti, Lisa M. H.

    2014-01-01

    Reviews of treatment outcome literature indicate treatment integrity is not regularly assessed. In consultation, two levels of treatment integrity (i.e., consultant procedural integrity [CPI] and intervention treatment integrity [ITI]) provide relevant implementation data. Specifically, assessment of CPI and ITI are necessary to conclude (a)…

  16. The effects of intrapersonal, intragroup, and intergroup conflict on team performance effectiveness and work satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Cox, Kathleen B

    2003-01-01

    Although numerous studies have focused on conflict management, few have considered the effects of unit technology and intrapersonal, intragroup, and intergroup conflict on team performance effectiveness and work satisfaction. The model was tested using a nonexperimental design. Path analysis using multiple regression was used to test the model. The nonrandom sample consisted of 141 nurses employed on 13 inpatient units at a state-supported, 597-bed academic medical center in a southeastern city. Findings indicated that intrapersonal conflict had a direct negative impact on intragroup conflict and work satisfaction. Intragroup conflict had direct negative effects on work satisfaction and team performance effectiveness. Unit technology had a direct negative impact on work satisfaction. Findings have implications for administrators to implement strategies to decrease a stressful work environment and increase team-building activities.

  17. Religion insulates ingroup evaluations: the development of intergroup attitudes in India.

    PubMed

    Dunham, Yarrow; Srinivasan, Mahesh; Dotsch, Ron; Barner, David

    2014-03-01

    Research on the development of implicit intergroup attitudes has placed heavy emphasis on race, leaving open how social categories that are prominent in other cultures might operate. We investigate two of India's primary means of social distinction, caste and religion, and explore the development of implicit and explicit attitudes towards these groups in minority-status Muslim children and majority-status Hindu children, the latter drawn from various positions in the Hindu caste system. Results from two tests of implicit attitudes find that caste attitudes parallel previous findings for race: higher-caste children as well as lower-caste children have robust high-caste preferences. However, results for religion were strikingly different: both lower-status Muslim children and higher-status Hindu children show strong implicit ingroup preferences. We suggest that religion may play a protective role in insulating children from the internalization of stigma.

  18. The political solidarity model of social change: dynamics of self-categorization in intergroup power relations.

    PubMed

    Subasic, Emina; Reynolds, Katherine J; Turner, John C

    2008-11-01

    Social and political change involves a challenge to the status quo in intergroup power relations. Traditionally, the social psychology of social change has focused on disadvantaged minority groups collectively challenging the decisions, actions, and policies of those in positions of established authority. In contrast, this article presents a political solidarity model of social change that explores the process by which members of the majority challenge the authority in solidarity with the minority. It is argued that political solidarity as a social change process involves a contest between the authority and the minority over the meaning of a shared (higher order) identity with the majority. When identity ceases to be shared with the authority and becomes shared with the minority, majority challenge to authority in solidarity with the minority becomes possible. The model's contributions to existing social psychological approaches to social change are also discussed.

  19. Positive expectations encourage generalization from a positive intergroup interaction to outgroup attitudes.

    PubMed

    Deegan, Matthew P; Hehman, Eric; Gaertner, Samuel L; Dovidio, John F

    2015-01-01

    The current research reveals that while positive expectations about an anticipated intergroup interaction encourage generalization of positive contact to outgroup attitudes, negative expectations restrict the effects of contact on outgroup attitudes. In Study 1, when Blacks and Whites interacted with positive expectations, interaction quality predicted outgroup attitudes to a greater degree than when groups interacted with negative expectations. When expectations (Studies 2 and 3) and the actual interaction quality (Study 4) were manipulated orthogonally, negative expectations about the interaction predicted negative outgroup attitudes, regardless of actual interaction quality. By contrast, participants holding positive expectations who experienced a positive interaction expressed positive outgroup attitudes, whereas when they experienced a negative interaction, they expressed outgroup attitudes as negative as those with negative expectations. Across all four studies, positive expectations encouraged developing outgroup attitudes consistent with interaction quality.

  20. Identity motives and in-group favouritism: a new approach to individual differences in intergroup discrimination.

    PubMed

    Vignoles, Vivian L; Moncaster, Natalie J

    2007-03-01

    Theories suggest that identity motives for self-esteem, meaning, distinctiveness and belonging are implicated in intergroup discrimination. Experimental studies have supported predictions, but correlational tests have been hindered by methodological problems. Using a new approach to measuring identity motives, we compared predictions of individual differences in in-group favouritism. Seventy British adults completed measures of identity motives, British identification and positive and negative trait typicality ratings of British and German nationalities. With greater identification, the strength of motives for distinctiveness and belonging increasingly predicted in-group favouritism: consistent with optimal distinctiveness theory, the belonging motive predicted positive ratings of the national in-group, whereas the distinctiveness motive predicted negative ratings of the national out-group. Results show the value of disentangling measures of motive strength from measures of motive satisfaction.

  1. Democracy justifies the means: political group structure moderates the perceived legitimacy of intergroup aggression.

    PubMed

    Falomir-Pichastor, Juan M; Staerklé, Christian; Depuiset, Marie-Aude; Butera, Fabrizio

    2005-12-01

    The present research tested the hypothesis that the political structure of conflicting groups moderates perceived legitimacy of intergroup aggression. In two experiments, participants read scenarios of fictitious summer camps in which members of one group aggressed members of another group. The political structure of both the perpetrator and the victim groups was described as either egalitarian (defined with democratic decision-making procedures) or hierarchical (authoritarian decision-making procedures). Results of both experiments showed that aggressions perpetrated by members of egalitarian groups at the expense of members of hierarchical groups were evaluated as less illegitimate than aggressions committed in the three remaining conditions. This effect is discussed as a function of the higher social value attributed to democratic groups.

  2. Fifty-odd years of inter-group contact: from hypothesis to integrated theory.

    PubMed

    Hewstone, Miles; Swart, Hermann

    2011-09-01

    We review 50-odd years of research on Allport's (1954)'contact hypothesis', to assess progress, problems, and prospects. We chart the progress that has been made in understanding two distinct forms of contact: direct and indirect. We highlight the progress made in understanding the effects of each type of contact, as well as both moderating and mediating factors, and emphasize the multiple impacts of direct contact, especially. We then consider some of the main critiques of inter-group contact, focusing on empirical issues and whether contact impedes social change, and provide a research agenda for the coming years. We conclude that this body of work no longer merits the modest title of 'hypothesis', but fully deserves acknowledgement as an integrated and influential theory.

  3. Cooperation Improves Success during Intergroup Competition: An Analysis Using Data from Professional Soccer Tournaments

    PubMed Central

    David, Gwendolyn Kim; Wilson, Robbie Stuart

    2015-01-01

    The benefit mutually gained by cooperators is considered the ultimate explanation for why cooperation evolved among non-relatives. During intergroup competition, cooperative behaviours within groups that provide a competitive edge over their opposition should be favoured by selection, particularly in lethal human warfare. Aside from forming larger groups, three other ways that individuals within a group can cooperate to improve their chances of gaining a mutual benefit are: (i) greater networking, (ii) contributing more effort, and (iii) dividing labour. Greater cooperation is expected to increase the chances of gaining a group benefit by improving proficiency in the tasks critical to success—yet empirical tests of this prediction using real-world cases are absent. In this study, we used data derived from 12 international and professional soccer competitions to test the predictions that: 1) greater levels of cooperative behaviour are associated with winning group contests, 2) the three forms of cooperation differ in relative importance for winning matches, 3) competition and tournament-type affect the levels of cooperation and shooting proficiency in matches, and 4) greater levels of networking behaviour are associated with increased proficiency in the most critical task linked with winning success in soccer—shooting at goal. Winners were best predicted by higher shooting proficiency, followed by greater frequencies of networking interactions within a team but unexpectedly, fewer networking partners and less division of labour. Although significant variation was detected across competitions and tournament-types, greater levels of networking behaviour were consistently associated with increased proficiency in shooting at goal, which in turn was linked with winning success. This study empirically supports the idea that intergroup competition can favour cooperation among non-relatives. PMID:26313929

  4. Cooperation Improves Success during Intergroup Competition: An Analysis Using Data from Professional Soccer Tournaments.

    PubMed

    David, Gwendolyn Kim; Wilson, Robbie Stuart

    2015-01-01

    The benefit mutually gained by cooperators is considered the ultimate explanation for why cooperation evolved among non-relatives. During intergroup competition, cooperative behaviours within groups that provide a competitive edge over their opposition should be favoured by selection, particularly in lethal human warfare. Aside from forming larger groups, three other ways that individuals within a group can cooperate to improve their chances of gaining a mutual benefit are: (i) greater networking, (ii) contributing more effort, and (iii) dividing labour. Greater cooperation is expected to increase the chances of gaining a group benefit by improving proficiency in the tasks critical to success-yet empirical tests of this prediction using real-world cases are absent. In this study, we used data derived from 12 international and professional soccer competitions to test the predictions that: 1) greater levels of cooperative behaviour are associated with winning group contests, 2) the three forms of cooperation differ in relative importance for winning matches, 3) competition and tournament-type affect the levels of cooperation and shooting proficiency in matches, and 4) greater levels of networking behaviour are associated with increased proficiency in the most critical task linked with winning success in soccer-shooting at goal. Winners were best predicted by higher shooting proficiency, followed by greater frequencies of networking interactions within a team but unexpectedly, fewer networking partners and less division of labour. Although significant variation was detected across competitions and tournament-types, greater levels of networking behaviour were consistently associated with increased proficiency in shooting at goal, which in turn was linked with winning success. This study empirically supports the idea that intergroup competition can favour cooperation among non-relatives.

  5. Consulting as a Strategy for Knowledge Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Nora; Butterill, Dale; Goering, Paula

    2005-01-01

    Academic researchers who work on health policy and health services are expected to transfer knowledge to decision makers. Decision makers often do not, however, regard academics’ traditional ways of doing research and disseminating their findings as relevant or useful. This article argues that consulting can be a strategy for transferring knowledge between researchers and decision makers and is effective at promoting the “enlightenment” and “interactive” models of knowledge use. Based on three case studies, it develops a model of knowledge transfer–focused consulting that consists of six stages and four types of work. Finally, the article explores how knowledge is generated in consulting and identifies several classes of factors facilitating its use by decision makers. PMID:15960773

  6. [Participated observation of nursing child health consultation].

    PubMed

    Loureiro, Fernanda Manuela; da Silva, José António Neto Ferreira; Quitério, Margarida Maria de Sousa Lourenço; Charepe, Zaida Borges

    2012-12-01

    Situation diagnosis using exploratory and descriptive scientific methodology (participant observation with descriptive statistical treatment) in order to identify nursing' practices in the area of health promotion during a nursing child health consultation. The 31 consultations observed (n = 31) showed that the majority of observations occurred in children younger than 2 years being the most discussed topic feed with predominant use of expository methodology. There was also little use of informational support and when used relate to the themes of security and nutrition. Most providers raised questions and there was limited registration of the interaction between provider and child with an expenditure averaging of 23 minutes per consultation. Given the results and reflecting about them stands out as intervention the construction of a health promotion manual with the integration of theory and evidence of good practice in this area.

  7. Consulting as a strategy for knowledge transfer.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Nora; Butterill, Dale; Goering, Paula

    2005-01-01

    Academic researchers who work on health policy and health services are expected to transfer knowledge to decision makers. Decision makers often do not, however, regard academics' traditional ways of doing research and disseminating their findings as relevant or useful. This article argues that consulting can be a strategy for transferring knowledge between researchers and decision makers and is effective at promoting the "enlightenment" and "interactive" models of knowledge use. Based on three case studies, it develops a model of knowledge transfer-focused consulting that consists of six stages and four types of work. Finally, the article explores how knowledge is generated in consulting and identifies several classes of factors facilitating its use by decision makers.

  8. Otolaryngology consultations by real-time telemedicine.

    PubMed Central

    Ullah, R.; Gilliland, D.; Adams, D.

    2002-01-01

    We aimed to assess the value of real-time telemedicine using low cost videoconferencing equipment for otorhinolaryngology consultations. A general practitioner, using low cost videoconferencing equipment, presented patients to an otorhinolaryngologist. After history taking and clinical examination, investigations were requested if required and a diagnosis and management plan formulated. The patients were then seen, by the same otorhinolaryngologist, for a conventional face-to-face consultation. Differences in the history, clinical examination and investigation requests were reported. The accuracy of diagnosis and correlation of management plans between the two consultations were analysed. Forty-three patients were admitted to the study but one, a young child, refused examination either by tele-link or the conventional approach and had to be excluded. There were thus 42 patients with 55 diagnoses included in the trial, 26 (62%) females and 16 (38%) males. Age range was 5 months to 70 years. There was no difficulty with any of the patients in obtaining an accurate history and ordering investigations, if required, via the telelink. Clinical examination during the tele-link consultation was inadequate for eight out of the first 20 patients, resulting in a wrong diagnosis in three patients and a missed diagnosis in five patients. All of the next 22 patients had a correct diagnosis and management plan. Comparison of data from the two types of consultation showed that a correct diagnosis and management plan was made in 34 patients. Low cost real-time telemedicine is a useful technique, providing reliable otorhinolaryngology consultations in a general practice setting. However initial difficulties due to inexperience in using the equipment need to be overcome. PMID:12137160

  9. Childhood adversity and frequent medical consultations.

    PubMed

    Fiddler, Maggie; Jackson, Judy; Kapur, Navneet; Wells, Adrian; Creed, Francis

    2004-01-01

    We assessed possible psychological mediators of the relationship between childhood adversity and frequent medical consultations among new outpatients at neurology, cardiology, and gastroenterology clinics. We assessed whether these differed in patients with and without organic disease that explained their symptoms. At first clinic visit we recorded Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS--anxiety and depression subscale scores), Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ--four subscales: consequences, cure, identity, timeline), Health Anxiety Questionnaire (total score), and Symptom Amplification Scale (total score). Subjects were divided into two groups according to whether they had experienced any type of childhood adversity using the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Schedule. Outcome was the (log) number of medical consultations for 12 months before and 6 months after the index clinic visits. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine mediators; this was performed separately for patients with symptoms explained and not explained by organic disease. One-hundred and twenty-nine patients (61% response) were interviewed. Fifty-two (40.3%) had experienced childhood adversity; they made a median of 16 doctor visits compared with 10 for those without adversity (adjusted P=.026). IPQ identity score (number of symptoms attributed to the illness) and HAD depression scores were significantly associated with both childhood adversity and number of medical consultations and these variables acted as mediators between childhood adversity and frequency of consultation in the multiple regression analyses. This association was limited to patients with medically unexplained symptoms and was mediated by IPQ Identity Score (number of symptoms attributed to the patient's illness) and HAD depression score. Sexual abuse and overt neglect were the adversities most closely associated with frequent consultations. In patients with medically unexplained symptoms the association

  10. Telehematopathology in a clinical consultative practice.

    PubMed

    Fisher, S I; Nandedkar, M A; Williams, B H; Abbondanzo, S L

    2001-12-01

    We studied a series of 60 telepathology cases sent in consultation to the Department of Hematopathology from January 1, 1995, through July 31, 2000. Cases from the United States and the world representing academic, private, military, and federal sectors were reviewed. Ninety percent of patients were adults (54 of 60), and male patients outnumbered female patients 2 to 1. Ages were from 1 to 79 years (mean, 42 years). Forty-three cases were lymph nodes (72%), 14 were bone marrow or peripheral blood (23%), and 3 were from other sites (5%). Twenty-seven of the consultant diagnoses were benign (27 of 60). Twenty-nine were malignant (non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Hodgkin disease, and "other malignancy" groups), and 4 were nondiagnostic. Glass slide/paraffin tissue blocks were available in only 35 (58%) of 60 cases. The concordance rate for diagnostic telehematopathology cases with subsequent glass slide/paraffin block follow-up was 91% (29 of 32 cases). The discordance rate was 9% (3 of 32). This finding shows a high degree of diagnostic accuracy for consultative telehematopathology. Of 118 images analyzed, 58 were considered very good/good (49%), 32 were poor/very poor (27%), and 28 were fair (24%). Poor images had suboptimal resolution, color, or technical quality of transmission, and most poor images were low-power images. Additional case problems included insufficient immunoperoxidase stain availability, selection, and labeling; transmitted field selection; specimen preparation and staining; presence or absence of accompanying clinical data; and availability of ancillary studies such as flow cytometric, cytogenetic, and molecular data. From this analysis, the following recommendations are offered. To optimize telehematopathology consultation, include any additional information that have a significant influence on the final consultant diagnosis. Include any pertinent clinical information, laboratory data, special stains, immunoperoxidase stains, and molecular data. Select

  11. Energy Efficient Economists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Judy; Lamp, Nancy

    This interdisciplinary economics project helped first and second graders learn how to conserve energy and save money. The project started because of an announcement by the elementary school principal that, if school utility bills could be lowered, the Board of Education would give the school half the money saved. Students were first introduced to…

  12. Three models of child abuse consultations: A qualitative study of inpatient child abuse consultation notes.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Heather T; Campbell, Kristine A

    2015-05-01

    Child abuse pediatricians have multiple roles in caring for abused children, including prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and, when needed, expert legal opinion. The child physical abuse consultation differs from the traditional medical consultation in that it has medical, investigative and legal audiences, all of whom have different information needs. How child abuse pediatricians approach their cases and how they document their initial inpatient consultations that will be used by such a diverse audience is currently unexplored. We used content analysis to examine 37 child physical abuse consultation notes from a national sample of child abuse pediatricians in order to understand physicians' approaches to these consultations. Three commonly used models of child physical abuse consultation were identified in the data that we named the base model, the investigative model, and the family-dynamic model. While model types overlap, each is distinguished by key features including the approach used to gather information, the information recorded, and the language used in documentation. The base model most closely mirrors the traditional medical approach; the investigative model concentrates on triangulation of sources of information; and, the family-dynamic model concentrates on physician perceptions of family relationships. The three models of consultations for child physical abuse mirror the areas of child abuse pediatrics: diagnostic, forensic and therapeutic. These models are considered in relationship to best practice from other medical specialties with forensic components.

  13. 21 CFR 211.34 - Consultants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consultants. 211.34 Section 211.34 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Organization and Personnel §...

  14. Teacher Utilization of Instructional Consultation Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Jill; Yiu, Ho Lam; Nelson, Deborah; Vaganek, Megan; Rosenfield, Sylvia; Gravois, Todd; Gottfredson, Gary; Vu, Phuong; Shanahan, Kate; Hong, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Data regarding intervention utilization among the target population are critical to interpret evidence from efficacy trials for school-based interventions. When use of the intervention is voluntary, intervention diffusion becomes a particularly critical variable. We examined the use of Instructional Consultation Teams (IC Teams), a voluntary…

  15. The Psychologist Consultant in Educational Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, John M.; Moon, Jeanne P.

    The technology of educational design includes skills in solving performance problems, establishing training objectives, appropriate teaching strategies, course content, best teaching sequence(s), appropriate presentation mode, and type of feedback to give and when. A consulting psychologist can, through application of behavioral science, assist in…

  16. 20 CFR 410.472 - Consultative examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Consultative examinations. 410.472 Section 410.472 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Total Disability or Death Due to Pneumoconiosis §...

  17. 30 CFR 33.3 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Consultation. 33.3 Section 33.3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES General...

  18. 30 CFR 33.3 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Consultation. 33.3 Section 33.3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES General...

  19. 30 CFR 33.3 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consultation. 33.3 Section 33.3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES General...

  20. 30 CFR 33.3 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Consultation. 33.3 Section 33.3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES General...

  1. 30 CFR 33.3 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Consultation. 33.3 Section 33.3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES General...

  2. Consultation in the Inner-City School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Alice Foster

    1976-01-01

    The urban ghetto experience can play havoc with the educational process unless teachers understand the effect this experience has on their students. The author presents a framework by which the social work consultant can help teachers recognize their students' problems and create an environment that supports learning and growth. (Author)

  3. 44 CFR 206.348 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Consultation. 206.348 Section 206.348 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FEDERAL DISASTER ASSISTANCE Coastal Barrier Resources Act §...

  4. 44 CFR 206.348 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Consultation. 206.348 Section 206.348 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FEDERAL DISASTER ASSISTANCE Coastal Barrier Resources Act §...

  5. 44 CFR 206.348 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Consultation. 206.348 Section 206.348 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FEDERAL DISASTER ASSISTANCE Coastal Barrier Resources Act §...

  6. 44 CFR 206.348 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Consultation. 206.348 Section 206.348 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FEDERAL DISASTER ASSISTANCE Coastal Barrier Resources Act §...

  7. 44 CFR 206.348 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Consultation. 206.348 Section 206.348 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FEDERAL DISASTER ASSISTANCE Coastal Barrier Resources Act §...

  8. 76 FR 18583 - Draft Tribal Consultation Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... coordinating drug control policies, ONDCP is also a central organizing body, managing the anti-drug efforts and... drug control policies, ONDCP is also a central organizing body, managing the anti-drug efforts and... PRESIDENT Office of National Drug Control Policy Draft Tribal Consultation Policy AGENCY: Executive...

  9. 34 CFR 200.63 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... children from low-income families residing in participating public school attendance areas, including... to teachers and families of participating private school children. (c)(1) Consultation by the LEA... Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Participation of Eligible Children in Private Schools §...

  10. The Role of the Organisational Development Consultant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Mike

    1972-01-01

    The consultant's concern is to increase an organization's capacity to initiate and manage change through an integrated approach to the company's social, economic, technical, and organizational systems, and to improve the performance and value of its human resources, using measurable criteria whenever possible. (Author/JB)

  11. Writing Comprehensive Behavioral Consultation Reports: Critical Elements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinkman, Tara M.; Segool, Natasha K.; Pham, Andy V.; Carlson, John S.

    2007-01-01

    The accountability movement in psychology has resulted in practitioners increasingly using evidence-based interventions and treatment modalities to treat client problems. Behavioral consultation is one framework that practitioners can utilize in providing empirically supported services. In order to demonstrate the use of effective, evidence-based…

  12. 18 CFR 806.11 - Preliminary consultations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... any proposed structures, anticipated water needs, and the environmental impacts. (b) Preliminary... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Preliminary consultations. 806.11 Section 806.11 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER...

  13. 18 CFR 806.11 - Preliminary consultations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... any proposed structures, anticipated water needs, and the environmental impacts. (b) Preliminary... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Preliminary consultations. 806.11 Section 806.11 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER...

  14. 18 CFR 806.11 - Preliminary consultations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... any proposed structures, anticipated water needs, and the environmental impacts. (b) Preliminary... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Preliminary consultations. 806.11 Section 806.11 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER...

  15. National Consultation on National Directory for Catechesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulhall, Daniel S.; Shaughnessy, Maureen

    2002-01-01

    Describes the revision of the National Catechetical Directory (NCD), an ongoing project of the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops Committee on Education, in conjunction with a bishops' editorial oversight board (EOB). States that writing is underway and will be completed following consultations with Catholic communities and organizations. (NB)

  16. Science Consultants, Fictional Films, and Scientific Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, David A.

    2003-01-01

    Proposes films to be successful communicative devices within the scientific community by showing that other scientists respond to depictions in films and how they respond. Demonstrates that science consultants use fictional films as promotional devices for their research fields. (Author/NB)

  17. The art of the successful consultation.

    PubMed

    Haggerty, Lou

    2010-11-01

    The current trends in the patients options for making decisions to have cosmetic surgeries have made the provider-closing process more intense and complicated. These trends include, but are not limited to, increased price shopping, more comparison shopping, increased use of the internet versus word of mouth and more knowledge available in conventional media. This discussion focuses on the process that takes place in the practice after the first ringing of the phone and after having successfully gotten the word out. After the deployment of positive and result-oriented advertisements, staff consultation closure skills determine your economic success. Included are discussions of major challenges in executing successful consultations related to getting the entire practice, including the doctor, to accept and employ a wellexecuted consultation. Four essentials of the successful and artful consultation are discussed: the phone inquiry, the follow-up after the phone call, the in-person contact, and the follow-up after the in-person contact, with the ultimate goal of a continual flow of paying patients.

  18. School Neuropsychology Consultation in Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Scott L.

    2008-01-01

    The role of school psychologists with training in neuropsychology is examined within the context of multitiered models of service delivery and educational reform policies. An expanded role is suggested that builds on expertise in the assessment of neurodevelopmental disorders and extends to broader tiers through consultation practice. Changes in…

  19. 43 CFR 10.5 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Consultation. 10.5 Section 10.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or Objects of Cultural Patrimony...

  20. 43 CFR 10.5 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Consultation. 10.5 Section 10.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or Objects of Cultural Patrimony...

  1. 43 CFR 10.5 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Consultation. 10.5 Section 10.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or Objects of Cultural Patrimony...

  2. 43 CFR 10.5 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Consultation. 10.5 Section 10.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or Objects of Cultural Patrimony...

  3. 43 CFR 10.5 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Consultation. 10.5 Section 10.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or Objects of Cultural Patrimony...

  4. 18 CFR 5.7 - Tribal consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tribal consultation. 5.7 Section 5.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS §...

  5. 18 CFR 5.7 - Tribal consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tribal consultation. 5.7 Section 5.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS §...

  6. 18 CFR 5.7 - Tribal consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tribal consultation. 5.7 Section 5.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS §...

  7. 77 FR 71833 - Tribal Consultation Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    .... The Department already addresses the impact of its proposed regulations on Indian tribes consistent... members prior to the consultation. Another commenter suggested revising, from ``no unique impacts on... minor or tangential impact on a particular Indian tribe would impose an unrealistic burden on...

  8. Behavioral Consultant Application. PRISM Project Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jesse

    This brief paper describes the Peer Coaching Rural In-Service Model (PRISM) Behavioral Consultant (PBC) program, an online tool for teachers that provides advice on handling simple classroom behavior problems. PBC's advice is based on a series of rules and expressions used by the computer program to make inferences and eliminate inappropriate…

  9. 77 FR 19020 - Tribal Consultation Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-29

    ... Act of 2007, Public Law 110-134, notice is hereby given of a one-day Tribal Consultation Session to be... into consideration funding allocations, distribution formulas, and other issues affecting the delivery... children and families, taking into consideration funding allocations, distribution formulas, and...

  10. 76 FR 12967 - Tribal Consultation Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... School Readiness Act of 2007, Public Law 110-134, notice is hereby given of one-day Tribal Consultation... needs of American Indian and Alaska Native children and their families, taking into consideration... Native children and families, taking into consideration funding allocations, distribution formulas,...

  11. Behavior Analytic Consultation for Academic Referral Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufrene, Brad A.; Zoder-Martell, Kimberly A.; Dieringe, Shannon Titus; Labrot, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    Applied behavior analysis provides a technology of human behavior that demonstrates great potential for improving socially important outcomes for individuals. School-based consultation may provide a vehicle for delivering applied behavior analysis services in schools to address academic referral concerns. In this article, we propose that…

  12. 29 CFR 1908.4 - Offsite consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... on occupational safety and health issues by telephone and correspondence, and at locations other than... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offsite consultation. 1908.4 Section 1908.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  13. 29 CFR 1908.4 - Offsite consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... on occupational safety and health issues by telephone and correspondence, and at locations other than... 29 Labor 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Offsite consultation. 1908.4 Section 1908.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  14. 29 CFR 1908.4 - Offsite consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... on occupational safety and health issues by telephone and correspondence, and at locations other than... 29 Labor 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Offsite consultation. 1908.4 Section 1908.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  15. 29 CFR 1908.4 - Offsite consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... on occupational safety and health issues by telephone and correspondence, and at locations other than... 29 Labor 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Offsite consultation. 1908.4 Section 1908.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  16. 29 CFR 1908.4 - Offsite consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... on occupational safety and health issues by telephone and correspondence, and at locations other than... 29 Labor 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Offsite consultation. 1908.4 Section 1908.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  17. Psychiatric consultation of patients with hyperemesis gravidarum.

    PubMed

    Kim, Deborah R; Connolly, K R; Cristancho, Pilar; Zappone, Mark; Weinrieb, Robert M

    2009-04-01

    The request for a psychiatric examination of patients with hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) is a unique challenge for the psychiatric consultant. Unfortunately, there are little data in the psychosomatic medicine literature to guide diagnostic evaluations and treatment of patients with HG. In this article, we summarize the existing literature and propose a practical approach to such patients based on the literature and our clinical experience.

  18. Service Learning In Physics: The Consultant Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, David

    2005-04-01

    Each year thousands of students across the country and across the academic disciplines participate in service learning. Unfortunately, with no clear model for integrating community service into the physics curriculum, there are very few physics students engaged in service learning. To overcome this shortfall, a consultant based service-learning program has been developed and successfully implemented at Saint Anselm College (SAC). As consultants, students in upper level physics courses apply their problem solving skills in the service of others. Most recently, SAC students provided technical and managerial support to a group from Girl's Inc., a national empowerment program for girls in high-risk, underserved areas, who were participating in the national FIRST Lego League Robotics competition. In their role as consultants the SAC students provided technical information through brainstorming sessions and helped the girls stay on task with project management techniques, like milestone charting. This consultant model of service-learning, provides technical support to groups that may not have a great deal of resources and gives physics students a way to improve their interpersonal skills, test their technical expertise, and better define the marketable skill set they are developing through the physics curriculum.

  19. 30 CFR 18.3 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consultation. 18.3 Section 18.3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES General Provisions §...

  20. 7 CFR 372.7 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Consultation. 372.7 Section 372.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Endangered Species Act. [60 FR 6002, Feb. 1, 1995; 60 FR 13212, Mar. 10, 1995]...

  1. A Database Model for Medical Consultation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anvari, Morteza

    1991-01-01

    Describes a relational data model that can be used for knowledge representation and manipulation in rule-based medical consultation systems. Fuzzy queries or attribute values and fuzzy set theory are discussed, functional dependencies are described, and an example is presented of a system for diagnosing causes of eye inflammation. (15 references)…

  2. 15 CFR 923.57 - Continuing consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... program must establish a procedure whereby local governments with zoning authority are notified of State management program decisions which would conflict with any local zoning ordinance decision. (1) “Management... consultation mechanisms. A State management program decision is in conflict with a local zoning ordinance...

  3. FICS: An Expanded View of Counselor Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Judith E.; Dobson, Russell L.

    1973-01-01

    The Family Involvement Communication System (FICS) model provides a human relations umbrella'' approach for parent and teacher input and participation in a school's elementary guidance program. FICS is designed as an ongoing consultative services program in which the counselor functions as the initial trainer of paraprofessionals and as…

  4. Graduate Students Serve Extension as Evaluation Consultants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Megan; Fuhrman, Nicholas E.

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to provide graduate students at a distance with field-based learning experiences and evaluation resources to statewide Extension programs, 24 Master's students participating in a distance-delivered program evaluation course served as evaluation consultants for Extension programs. State evaluation specialists unable to conduct…

  5. 20 CFR 410.472 - Consultative examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consultative examinations. 410.472 Section 410.472 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Total Disability or Death Due to Pneumoconiosis §...

  6. Consulting Secondary School Pupils about Their Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of a research project which explored the value for secondary school teachers of consulting with pupils about the curriculum. Twenty volunteer teachers across a range of subject areas in an 11-18 and three 11-16 secondary schools in a city in the East Midlands of England were given an open-ended remit to…

  7. Negotiating the Dance: Consulting with Adoptive Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Kent W.; Carson, David K.; Seto, Atsuko; Becker, Carol A.

    2002-01-01

    For marriage and family therapists and educators who train future marriage and family therapists, families formed by means of adoption offer an abundance of learning opportunities in both the areas of assessment and intervention. The following consultation case represents a composite family designed to highlight the unique features of adoptive…

  8. Educational Consulting: A Focus for the Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antonoff, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    The role of the educational consultant in the college admission scene warrants discussion and analysis. Although several recent national and local ACAC meetings have included discussions of the role's parameters, the writing in professional journals is quite limited. Boothroyd, Chapman, and Kaufman (1987) presented the results of a survey about…

  9. Working Together: The Art of Consulting & Communicating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBoer, Anita

    Productive learning occurs when educators work together to create new visions, analyze important issues, and evaluate outcomes. This book explores how educators can effectively engage in peer problem solving, focusing on three aspects of the process: (1) models for consulting with colleagues in problem solving; (2) communication skills necessary…

  10. 48 CFR 32.108 - Financial consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Financial consultation. 32... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Non-Commercial Item Purchase Financing 32.108 Financial... personnel competent to evaluate credit and financial problems. In resolving any questions concerning (a)...

  11. 48 CFR 32.108 - Financial consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Financial consultation. 32... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Non-Commercial Item Purchase Financing 32.108 Financial... personnel competent to evaluate credit and financial problems. In resolving any questions concerning (a)...

  12. 48 CFR 32.108 - Financial consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Financial consultation. 32... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Non-Commercial Item Purchase Financing 32.108 Financial... personnel competent to evaluate credit and financial problems. In resolving any questions concerning (a)...

  13. 48 CFR 32.108 - Financial consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Financial consultation. 32... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Non-Commercial Item Purchase Financing 32.108 Financial... personnel competent to evaluate credit and financial problems. In resolving any questions concerning (a)...

  14. 48 CFR 32.108 - Financial consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Financial consultation. 32... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Non-Commercial Item Purchase Financing 32.108 Financial... personnel competent to evaluate credit and financial problems. In resolving any questions concerning (a)...

  15. The Role of Consultants in Institutional Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milam, John

    2008-01-01

    Institutional research (IR) is a multifaceted function, occurring at many levels and in many types of settings, addressing numerous audiences, and embracing an almost infinite array of topics. The IR community is well served by understanding the role that consultants play in the panoply of postsecondary education. With the growing complexity and…

  16. [Paediatric emergency: creation of an independent nurse practitioner consultation].

    PubMed

    Rey-Bellet Gasser, C; Gehri, M; Yersin, C

    2015-01-14

    Consultations in the Paediatric Emergency Department (PED) continue to climb regularly. Emergency Nurse Practitioner consultations have long been created in the English speaking countries. Since January 2013, an indepen- dent nurse consultation, under delegated medical responsibility, exists in the multidisciplinary PED of the Children's Hospital of Lausanne. The mean consultation time is the same as the medical consultation and the overall waiting time hasn't decreased yet. But a well definite working frame, a systematic approach, as well as the continual medical supervision possibility, make it a safe, efficient and appreciated consultation, by both patients and professionals.

  17. The balanced ideological antipathy model: explaining the effects of ideological attitudes on inter-group antipathy across the political spectrum.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Jarret T; Mallinas, Stephanie R; Furman, Bryan J

    2015-12-01

    We introduce the balanced ideological antipathy (BIA) model, which challenges assumptions that right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) and social dominance orientation (SDO) predict inter-group antipathy per se. Rather, the effects of RWA and SDO on antipathy should depend on the target's political orientation and political objectives, the specific components of RWA, and the type of antipathy expressed. Consistent with the model, two studies (N = 585) showed that the Traditionalism component of RWA positively and negatively predicted both political intolerance and prejudice toward tradition-threatening and -reaffirming groups, respectively, whereas SDO positively and negatively predicted prejudice (and to some extent political intolerance) toward hierarchy-attenuating and -enhancing groups, respectively. Critically, the Conservatism component of RWA positively predicted political intolerance (but not prejudice) toward each type of target group, suggesting it captures the anti-democratic impulse at the heart of authoritarianism. Recommendations for future research on the relationship between ideological attitudes and inter-group antipathy are discussed.

  18. Us versus Them in Context: Meta-Analysis as a Tool for Geotemporal Trends in Intergroup Relations

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Judy Y.; Huedo-Medina, Tania B.; Lennon, Carter A.; White, Angela C.; Johnson, Blair T.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing availability of studies from many nations offers important potential insights into group-based psychology and behavior, conflict, and violence. Nonetheless, to date, few cross-national or cultural comparisons of study findings have been made, representing a gap in our understanding of the historical causes and courses of intergroup conflict in current comparative approaches. Meta-analytic methods offer researchers the ability to combine data from studies with groups as well as across time. Our review of statistical methods available for comparative analyses in intergroup research found strengths and limitations for understanding group differences, conflict, and violence, and meta-analytic methods address these limitations by exploring potential structural-level moderators and by identifying how temporal and geographical variations may relate directly to group-based variables. Such methods can contribute to our understanding of broad structural effects on group-based variables by elucidating the mechanisms underlying them. PMID:24910718

  19. From outgroups to allied forces: Effect of intergroup cooperation in violent and nonviolent video games on boosting favorable outgroup attitudes.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Paul J C; Hodson, Gordon; Willoughby, Teena; Blank, Carolyn; Ha, Alexandra

    2016-03-01

    Here we addressed whether even violent video games can improve intergroup attitudes if played cooperatively with an outgroup, in keeping with the Contact Hypothesis. In addition, we examined potential mechanisms of this effect. In Experiment 1 (N = 77), Canadians played a violent video game (Call of Duty: Black Ops) against zombies, either cooperatively or independently (i.e., at the same time but solo) with a (supposed) University of Buffalo participant. As expected, cooperative (vs. solo) play significantly improved outgroup attitudes and pro-outgroup participant behavior, effects explained by heightened 1-group recategorization (i.e., feeling psychologically on the same team and connected with the outgroup member). In Experiment 2 (N = 239), effects of cooperation (vs. solo play) held whether playing a violent or nonviolent video game. Importantly, our findings offer an engaging and pragmatic solution to the pervasive issue of setting up and negotiating opportunities for successful intergroup cooperation.

  20. Two forms of intergroup discrimination with positive and negative outcomes: explaining the positive-negative asymmetry effect.

    PubMed

    Gardham, K; Brown, R

    2001-03-01

    The minimal group paradigm is widely used for the study of intergroup discrimination. Reliably, group members show in-group favouritism in the allocation of positive outcomes but not in the allocation of negative outcomes. Less frequently investigated has been the withdrawal of positive and negative outcomes in the minimal paradigm. In this minimal group experiment the method of discrimination (allocation vs. withdrawal) and valence of outcomes (positive vs. negative) were combined in a 2 x 2 design (N = 57). Participants showed significant in-group favouritism only in the allocate (+) condition, less in withdrawal (-), and none at all in the remaining two cells (where parity predominated). Measures of subgroup and superordinate category identification paralleled these findings, and their inclusion as covariates in the analyses of favouritism and parity measures eliminated the previously significant interactions, thus implicating recategorization as the process mediating positive-negative asymmetry effects in intergroup discrimination.

  1. Culture and Inter-Group Relations Theory as a Pathway to Improve Decision Making in Coalition Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    Theory Social identity theory, developed by Tajfel and Turner [1979, 1986], has been a key theory in social psychology for 20 years. Social identity...theory attempts to explain inter-group bias, discrimination , and conflict using the social identity construct. Social identity means that individuals...for resources. Thus, prejudice and discrimination result from a conflict for resources between groups. Each group has a developmental cycle. First

  2. The role of the residence-effect on the outcome of intergroup encounters in Verreaux’s sifakas

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Flávia; Signer, Johannes; Kappeler, Peter M.; Fichtel, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Intergroup competition has an important impact on the survival and fitness of individuals in group-living species. However, factors influencing the probability of winning an encounter are not fully understood. We studied the influence of numerical advantage and location of the encounter on the chances of winning in eight neighboring groups of Verreaux’s sifakas (Propithecus verreauxi), in Kirindy Forest, western Madagascar. Intergroup encounters were inferred from spatial data collected via GPS loggers over a period of two years. Location, i.e., the proximity to the respective core area, rather than the numerical advantage of a group in a given encounter, influenced the probability of winning. Accordingly, the high value that resident groups attribute to exclusive and intensively used areas increased their motivation in defending these locations against intruders. Moreover, losers used the encounter area less often than winners within a month after the encounter, suggesting that losing also entails long-term costs. Thus, our results suggest that in gregarious animals the particular circumstances of each encounter, such as the location, can outweigh group characteristics and predict the chances of winning an intergroup encounter. PMID:27328940

  3. Inter-Group Conflict and Cooperation: Field Experiments Before, During and After Sectarian Riots in Northern Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Antonio S.; Mace, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The idea that cooperative groups out-compete less cooperative groups has been proposed as a theoretical possibility for the evolution of cooperation through cultural group selection. Previous studies have found an association between increased cooperation and exposure to inter-group violence, but most have not been able to identify the specific target of cooperation and are based on correlational data making it difficult to establish causality. In this study we test the hypothesis that inter-group conflict promotes parochial altruism (i.e., in-group altruism and out-group hostility) by using longitudinal data of a real-world measure of cooperation—charity and school donations—sampled before, during and after violent sectarian riots between Catholics and Protestants in Belfast, Northern Ireland. We find that conflict is associated with reductions in all types of cooperation, with reduced donations to a neutral charity, and both in-group and out-group primary schools. After the conflict, both in-group and out-group donations increased again. In this context we find no evidence that inter-group conflict promotes parochial altruism. PMID:26640449

  4. Inter-Group Conflict and Cooperation: Field Experiments Before, During and After Sectarian Riots in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Silva, Antonio S; Mace, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The idea that cooperative groups out-compete less cooperative groups has been proposed as a theoretical possibility for the evolution of cooperation through cultural group selection. Previous studies have found an association between increased cooperation and exposure to inter-group violence, but most have not been able to identify the specific target of cooperation and are based on correlational data making it difficult to establish causality. In this study we test the hypothesis that inter-group conflict promotes parochial altruism (i.e., in-group altruism and out-group hostility) by using longitudinal data of a real-world measure of cooperation-charity and school donations-sampled before, during and after violent sectarian riots between Catholics and Protestants in Belfast, Northern Ireland. We find that conflict is associated with reductions in all types of cooperation, with reduced donations to a neutral charity, and both in-group and out-group primary schools. After the conflict, both in-group and out-group donations increased again. In this context we find no evidence that inter-group conflict promotes parochial altruism.

  5. 43 CFR 3141.4-1 - Consultation with the Governor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.4-1 Consultation with the Governor. The Secretary shall consult...

  6. 43 CFR 3141.4-1 - Consultation with the Governor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.4-1 Consultation with the Governor. The Secretary shall consult...

  7. 43 CFR 3141.4-1 - Consultation with the Governor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.4-1 Consultation with the Governor. The Secretary shall consult...

  8. 43 CFR 3141.4-1 - Consultation with the Governor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.4-1 Consultation with the Governor. The Secretary shall consult...

  9. An Alternative Teacher Consultation Model: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langhorne, John E., Jr.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    This case history describes intervention techniques used with a nine-year-old male with behavior problems. The procedures used were classroom observation and teacher consultation; drug (Ritalin) withdrawal; direct consultant intervention; and class change and follow-up. (MH)

  10. 75 FR 72838 - Notice of Tribal Consultations; Schedule Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Indian Gaming Commission Notice of Tribal Consultations; Schedule Update AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission, Department of Interior. ACTION: Notice of tribal consultations; schedule...

  11. International Nursing Consultation: A Perspective on Ethical Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Margaret M.; Fargotstein, Barbara P.

    1986-01-01

    The ethical issues faced by international nurse consultants are examined, and the ways in which ethical theories can be useful to nurses dealing with ethical conflicts while serving as consultants of other countries are explored. (Author/MLW)

  12. Consultation and Decision Processes in a Research and Development Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Clagett G.

    1970-01-01

    Study of relationship between consultation and decision processes in an industrial research laboratory showed the efficacy of multidirectional consultation coupled with a pattern of shared, decentralized decision making. (Author/KJ)

  13. Defining the Role of the Professional Security Consultant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Jim

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the skill set that should be available in security consultants to higher education, including the ability to work with mechanical, architectural, electrical, landscaping, and telecommunications systems. Addresses the need to bring consultants into the building design phase. (EV)

  14. 30 CFR 256.19 - Periodic consultation with interested parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... consultation with State and local governments, existing and potential oil and gas lessees and permittees, and... involved in fish and shellfish recovery, and recreational activities. This consultation shall take...

  15. Reduced self-referential neural response during intergroup competition predicts competitor harm

    PubMed Central

    Cikara, M.; Jenkins, A. C.; Dufour, N.; Saxe, R.

    2014-01-01

    Why do interactions become more hostile when social relations shift from “me versus you” to “us versus them”? One possibility is that acting with a group can reduce spontaneous self-referential processing in the moral domain and, in turn, facilitate competitor harm. We tested this hypothesis in an fMRI experiment in which (i) participants performed a competitive task once alone and once with a group; (ii) spontaneous self-referential processing during competition was indexed unobtrusively by activation in an independently localized region of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) associated with self-reference; and (iii) we assessed participants’ willingness to harm competitors versus teammates. As predicted, participants who showed reduced mPFC activation in response to descriptions of their own moral behaviors while competing in a group were more willing to harm competitors. These results suggest that intergroup competition (above and beyond inter-personal competition) can reduce self-referential processing of moral information, enabling harmful behaviors towards members of a competitive group. PMID:24726338

  16. Political disagreement in intergroup terms: contextual variation and the influence of power.

    PubMed

    OBrien, Léan V; McGarty, Craig

    2009-03-01

    In two studies we examined justified attributions made in the face of political disagreement. Study 1 showed that Australian supporters and opponents of Australian involvement in the 2003 invasion of Iraq made stereotypical attributions that justified the superiority of the in-group over the out-group. Stereotypical attributions were consistent with the justification that the supporters of the war had been misled by dishonest political leaders. Study 2 replicated this pattern with supporters and opponents of Australia's policy of mandatory detention of asylum seekers. It also identified pragmatism as a dimension that dominant, government-aligned, groups may use to justify the superiority of the in-group over the out-group. In both studies political leaders were seen as more competent than members of the public. The results show the influence of intergroup power and within-group leader/supporter distinctions on people's attributions about political disagreement. They point to the power of social psychological theory to help analyse important contemporary political concerns.

  17. Predictors of Beliefs in Intergroup Forgiveness in a Chilean General Population Sample.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, Manuel; Arnoso, Maitane; Páez, Darío

    2015-06-15

    Original survey data from a Chilean sample (N = 1267) are used to study the socio-demographic and psychosocial determinants of belief in forgiveness attitudes in the context of measuring the impact of truth and reconciliation reports (NTRC, 1991) and Political Imprisonment and Torture (NPIC, 2004) commissions. A linear multiple regression analysis (R 2 = .15; F(8, 1269) = 14.65; p < .001; effect size f 2 = .18) revealed the positive effect of perceived apology sincerity (β = 0.22; p < .001), emotions of anger (β = -0.08; p < .05), and positive social climate (β = 0.08; p < .05). People who believe in the victims' forgiveness feel less anger, have more positive perceptions of the sincerity and efficacy of the apologies, agree to a greater extent that the commission helped to find out the truth about what happened to the victims, and have a greater perception of the social climate as positive. The results show the importance of psychosocial and institutional variables in beliefs about forgiveness, and they suggest differences between interpersonal and intergroup forgiveness processes.

  18. Oxytocin Conditions Intergroup Relations Through Upregulated In-Group Empathy, Cooperation, Conformity, and Defense.

    PubMed

    De Dreu, Carsten K W; Kret, Mariska E

    2016-02-01

    Humans live in, rely on, and contribute to groups. Evolution may have biologically prepared them to quickly identify others as belonging to the in-group (vs. not), to decode emotional states, and to empathize with in-group members; to learn and conform to group norms and cultural practices; to extend and reciprocate trust and cooperation; and to aggressively protect the in-group against outside threat. We review evidence that these components of human group psychology rest on and are modulated by the hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin. It appears that oxytocin motivates and enables humans to 1) like and empathize with others in their groups, 2) comply with group norms and cultural practices, and 3) extend and reciprocate trust and cooperation, which may give rise to intergroup discrimination and sometimes defensive aggression against threatening (members of) out-groups. We explore the possibility that deficiencies in (components of) group psychology, seen in autistic spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, and borderline personality and social anxiety disorders, may be reduced by oxytocin administration. Avenues for new research are highlighted, and implications for the role of oxytocin in cooperation and competition within and between groups are discussed.

  19. Young children's responses to media representations of intergroup threat and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Durkin, Kevin; Nesdale, Drew; Dempsey, Gemma; McLean, Amanda

    2012-09-01

    Two studies are reported in which ethnic majority children's reactions to media representations of ethnic minorities are examined. In Study 1, 20 white Scottish 6-year-olds viewed short television stories in which white or ethnic minority children were depicted as hostile to the participants' in-group (threat present) or not (threat absent). A strong effect of threat on liking was obtained but no effect of ethnicity of target and no interaction. In Study 2, 4- and 6-year-old white Scottish children viewed PowerPoint displays in which Scottish people were shown only as white (traditional version) or as ethnically diverse (multicultural version). Intergroup threat was manipulated. Again, a strong effect of threat was obtained. However, when threat was absent, participants exposed to the traditional condition liked the white out-group more than the multi-ethnic out-group, while participants exposed to the multicultural condition liked the multi-ethnic out-group more than the white out-group. The results are interpreted as consistent with the predictions of Social Identity Development Theory.

  20. The implicit power motive in intergroup dialogues about the history of slavery.

    PubMed

    Ditlmann, Ruth K; Purdie-Vaughns, Valerie; Dovidio, John F; Naft, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    This research demonstrates that individual differences in the implicit power motive (i.e., the concern with impact, influence, and control) moderate how African Americans communicate with White Americans in challenging intergroup dialogues. In a study with African American participants we find that the higher their implicit power motive, the more they use an affiliation strategy to communicate with a White American partner in a conversation context that evokes the history of slavery (Study 1). In a study with White American participants we find that, in the same conversation context, they are more engaged (i.e., open, attentive, and motivated) if they receive an affiliation message rather than a no-affiliation message from an African American partner (Study 2). In interracial dyads we find that African American participants' implicit power motives moderate how much they intend to signal warmth to a White American discussion partner, how much they display immediacy behaviors and use affiliation imagery in the discussion, and with what level of engagement White American participants respond (Study 3). High but not low implicit power African Americans thus employ a communication strategy-expressing affiliation and warmth-that can be effective for engaging White Americans with uncomfortable, race-identity-relevant topics. (PsycINFO Database Record

  1. Diminishing parochialism in intergroup conflict by disrupting the right temporo-parietal junction.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Thomas; Schiller, Bastian; Rieskamp, Jörg; Gianotti, Lorena R R; Knoch, Daria

    2014-05-01

    Individuals react to violation of social norms by outgroup members differently than to transgressions of those same norms by ingroup members: namely outgroup perpetrators are punished much more harshly than ingroup perpetrators. This parochial punishment pattern has been observed and extensively studied in social psychology and behavioral economics. Despite progress in recent years, however, little is known about the neural underpinnings of this intergroup bias. Here, we demonstrate by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) that the transient disruption of the right, but not the left temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), reduces parochial punishment in a third-party punishment paradigm with real social groups. Moreover, we show that this observed TMS effect on parochial punishment is mediated by a classical punishment motive, i.e. retaliation. Finally, our data suggests that a change in perspective-taking might be the underlying mechanism that explains the impact of right TPJ disruption on retaliation motivation and parochial punishment. These findings provide the first causal evidence that the right TPJ plays a pivotal role in the implementation of parochial behaviors.

  2. Intergroup conflict: Ecological predictors of winning and consequences of defeat in a wild primate population.

    PubMed

    Markham, A Catherine; Alberts, Susan C; Altmann, Jeanne

    2012-08-01

    In many social species, competition between groups is a major factor proximately affecting group-level movement patterns and space use and ultimately shaping the evolution of group living and complex sociality. Here we evaluated the factors influencing group-level dominance among 5 social groups of wild baboons (Papio cynocephalus), in particular focusing on the spatial determinants of dominance and the consequences of defeat. When direct conflict occurred between conspecific baboon groups, the winning group was predicted by differences in the number of adult males in each group and/or groups that had used the areas surrounding the encounter location more intensively than their opponent in the preceding 9 or 12 months. Relative intensity of space use over shorter timescales examined (3 and 6 months) was a poor predictor of the interaction's outcome. Losing groups but not winning groups experienced clear short-term costs. Losing groups used the area surrounding the interaction less following an agonistic encounter (relative to their intensity of use of the area prior to the interaction). These findings offer insight into the influences and consequences of intergroup competition on group-level patterns of space use.

  3. How Is Existential Threat Related to Intergroup Conflict? Introducing the Multidimensional Existential Threat (MET) Model

    PubMed Central

    Hirschberger, Gilad; Ein-Dor, Tsachi; Leidner, Bernhard; Saguy, Tamar

    2016-01-01

    Existential threat lies at the heart of intergroup conflict, but the literature on existential concerns lacks clear conceptualization and integration. To address this problem, we offer a new conceptualization and measurement of existential threat. We establish the reliability and validity of our measure, and to illustrate its utility, we examine whether different existential threats underlie the association between political ideology and support for specific political policies. Study 1 (N = 798) established the construct validity of the scale, and revealed four distinct existential threats: personal death (PD), physical collective annihilation (PA), symbolic collective annihilation (SA), and past victimization (PV). Study 2 (N = 424) confirmed the 4-factor structure, and the convergent and discriminant validity of the scale. Study 3 (N = 170) revealed that the association between a hawkish political ideology and support for hardline policies was mediated by PV, whereas the association between a dovish political ideology and conciliatory policies was mediated by concerns over collective symbolic annihilation. Study 4 (N = 503) conceptually replicated the pattern of findings found in Study 3, and showed that at times of conflict, PA concerns also mediate the relationship between hawkish ideologies and support for hardline policies. In both Studies 3 and 4, when controlling for other threats, PD did not play a significant role. These results underscore the need to consider the multidimensional nature of existential threat, especially in the context of political conflict. PMID:27994561

  4. Identifiability and self-presentation: computer-mediated communication and intergroup interaction.

    PubMed

    Douglas, K M; McGarty, C

    2001-09-01

    This research investigated the intergroup properties of hostile 'flaming' behaviour in computer-mediated communication and how flaming language is affected by Internet identifiability, or identifiability by name and e-mail address/geographical location as is common to Internet communication. According to the Social Identity Model of Deindividuation Effects (SIDE; e.g. Reicher, Spears, & Postmes, 1995) there may be strategic reasons for identifiable groups members to act in a more group-normative manner in the presence of an audience, to gain acceptance from the in-group, to avoid punishment from the out-group, or to assert their identity to the out-group. For these reasons, it was predicted that communicators would produce more stereotype-consistent (group-normative) descriptions of out-group members' behaviours when their descriptions were identifiable to an audience. In one archival and three experimental studies, it was found that identifiability to an in-group audience was associated with higher levels of stereotype-consistent language when communicators described anonymous out-group targets. These results extend SIDE and suggest the importance of an in-group audience for the expression of stereotypical views.

  5. The devil is in the details: abstract versus concrete construals of multiculturalism differentially impact intergroup relations.

    PubMed

    Yogeeswaran, Kumar; Dasgupta, Nilanjana

    2014-05-01

    Three experiments integrated several theories in psychology and sociology to identify the conditions under which multiculturalism has positive versus negative effects on majority group members' attitudes and behavioral intentions toward ethnic minorities. On the basis of social cognitive construal theories, we predicted and found that construing multiculturalism in abstract terms by highlighting its broad goals reduced White Americans' prejudice toward ethnic minorities relative to a control condition, whereas construing multiculturalism in concrete terms by highlighting specific ways in which its goals can be achieved increased White Americans' prejudice relative to the same control (Experiments 1 and 2). Using social identity threat research, we found that construing multiculturalism in abstract terms decreased the extent to which diversity was seen as threatening national identity, whereas construing it in concrete terms increased the extent to which diversity was seen as threatening national identity; threat in turn fueled prejudice (Experiments 2 and 3). Perceivers' political orientation moderated the effects of multiculturalism construals on prejudicial attitudes and social distancing behavioral intentions (Experiment 3). Symbolic threat to national identity but not realistic threat to national resources mediated these effects. Collectively, these experiments demonstrate when multiculturalism leads to positive versus negative intergroup outcomes, why, and how political orientation shapes prejudice and behavioral intentions toward ethnic minorities.

  6. Intergroup cannibalism in the European Early Pleistocene: the range expansion and imbalance of power hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Saladié, Palmira; Huguet, Rosa; Rodríguez-Hidalgo, Antonio; Cáceres, Isabel; Esteban-Nadal, Montserrat; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Carbonell, Eudald

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, we compare cannibalism in chimpanzees, modern humans, and in archaeological cases with cannibalism inferred from evidence from the Early Pleistocene assemblage of level TD6 of Gran Dolina (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain). The cannibalism documented in level TD6 mainly involves the consumption of infants and other immature individuals. The human induced modifications on Homo antecessor and deer remains suggest that butchering processes were similar for both taxa, and the remains were discarded on the living floor in the same way. This finding implies that a group of hominins that used the Gran Dolina cave periodically hunted and consumed individuals from another group. However, the age distribution of the cannibalized hominins in the TD6 assemblage is not consistent with that from other cases of exo-cannibalism by human/hominin groups. Instead, it is similar to the age profiles seen in cannibalism associated with intergroup aggression in chimpanzees. For this reason, we use an analogy with chimpanzees to propose that the TD6 hominins mounted low-risk attacks on members of other groups to defend access to resources within their own territories and to try and expand their territories at the expense of neighboring groups.

  7. Real or Artificial? Intergroup Biases in Mind Perception in a Cross-Cultural Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Krumhuber, Eva G.; Swiderska, Aleksandra; Tsankova, Elena; Kamble, Shanmukh V.; Kappas, Arvid

    2015-01-01

    Recent research suggests that attributions of aliveness and mental capacities to faces are influenced by social group membership. In this article, we investigated group related biases in mind perception in participants from a Western and Eastern culture, employing faces of varying ethnic groups. In Experiment 1, Caucasian faces that ranged on a continuum from real to artificial were evaluated by participants in the UK (in-group) and in India (out-group) on animacy, abilities to plan and to feel pain, and having a mind. Human features were found to be assigned to a greater extent to faces when these belonged to in-group members, whereas out-group faces had to appear more realistic in order to be perceived as human. When participants in India evaluated South Asian (in-group) and Caucasian (out-group) faces in Experiment 2, the results closely mirrored those of the first experiment. For both studies, ratings of out-group faces were significantly predicted by participants’ levels of ethnocultural empathy. The findings highlight the role of intergroup processes (i.e., in-group favoritism, out-group dehumanization) in the perception of human and mental qualities and point to ethnocultural empathy as an important factor in responses to out-groups. PMID:26360588

  8. Situation-based social anxiety enhances the neural processing of faces: evidence from an intergroup context.

    PubMed

    Ofan, Renana H; Rubin, Nava; Amodio, David M

    2014-08-01

    Social anxiety is the intense fear of negative evaluation by others, and it emerges uniquely from a social situation. Given its social origin, we asked whether an anxiety-inducing social situation could enhance the processing of faces linked to the situational threat. While past research has focused on how individual differences in social anxiety relate to face processing, we tested the effect of manipulated social anxiety in the context of anxiety about appearing racially prejudiced in front of a peer. Visual processing of faces was indexed by the N170 component of the event-related potential. Participants viewed faces of Black and White males, along with nonfaces, either in private or while being monitored by the experimenter for signs of prejudice in a 'public' condition. Results revealed a difference in the N170 response to Black and Whites faces that emerged only in the public condition and only among participants high in dispositional social anxiety. These results provide new evidence that anxiety arising from the social situation modulates the earliest stages of face processing in a way that is specific to a social threat, and they shed new light on how anxiety effects on perception may contribute to the regulation of intergroup responses.

  9. Introducing Farouk's Process Consultation Group Approach in Irish Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Marie; Stringer, Phil

    2016-01-01

    Research has shown that teacher consultation groups increase teachers' behaviour management skills through discussion and collaborative problem-solving. Unlike the United Kingdom, at the time of this research consultation groups were not widely used in Irish schools. This research introduced Farouk's process consultation approach in three Irish…

  10. 45 CFR 400.57 - Planning and consultation process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Planning and consultation process. 400.57 Section... Refugee Cash Assistance § 400.57 Planning and consultation process. A State that wishes to establish a public/private RCA program must engage in a planning and consultation process with the local...

  11. Collaborative Consultation: International Applications of a Multicultural Feminist Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horne, Sharon G.; Mathews, Susan S.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a multicultural feminist collaborative consultation international approach in postcommunist societies in transition. The authors address how Western and Eastern divergent values can impact the consultation process. Development of collaborative consultation and the contributions of multicultural and feminist theories are…

  12. Consultancy as Temporary Leadership: Negotiating Power in Everyday Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowles, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Orthodox theories of consultancy address power relations between the consultant and their contractors. However, they can suggest that either the consultant should manipulate those they work with "for the good", or they should give up their power "for the good". This article offers an ethical critique of these points of view and argues for an…

  13. Practically Speaking: A Sourcebook for Instructional Consultants in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinko, Kathleen T., Ed.; Menges, Robert J., Ed.

    The selections in this sourcebook offer a blend of research-based principles and practical advice to the instructional consultant. The first section, Skills and Techniques of Instructional Consultation, contains: (1) The Interactions of Teaching Improvement (Kathleen T. Brink); (2) Instructional Consulting: A Guide for Developing Professional…

  14. The Teacher Consultant Role: Impact on the Profession.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godley, Larry B.; And Others

    This study examined perceptions held by teacher consultants, or mentors, of their role in a state-mandated Entry Year Assistance program in Oklahoma. Twenty-six teacher consultants participated in the study, responding to open-ended questions in interviews which sought their views on their roles as consultants to beginning teachers and their…

  15. The Development of Behaviorally Based Public School Consultation Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, Robert F.; Handler, Marcie W.; Rey, Jannette; McCarty, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the development of behavioral school care consultation services to public schools within a not-for-profit community behavioral health organization. An overview of the process of behavior consultation is presented. A description of the growth of behavioral school consultation services is outlined in regard to (a) the types of…

  16. Consulting with Media for Health Education: Some New Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Foe, James R.; Breed, Warren

    A case study examined the cooperative consultation between a writer for the television serial "All My Children" and a health educator. The consultation spanned six years. The story of the alcoholic "Arlene" began to air on the serial in January 1991. Scenes involving Arlene were recorded. Consultation between the health…

  17. Negotiating Post-Consultation "Homework" Tasks between Counselors and Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Tom; Massfeller, Helen F.

    2010-01-01

    Counselors frequently conclude consultations with clients with suggestions or prescriptions for clients to follow up on, post-consultation. In this paper, we conceptualize the discussion regarding such post-consultation tasks as negotiations between counselor and client, focusing in particular on what observably occurs and is "talked into being"…

  18. Developing a Consulting Practice. Survival Skills for Scholars. Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Robert O.

    This book discusses the content consultation process as undertaken by scholars (professors or advanced graduate students) in all fields to be performed as a regular activity and run as a business. Chapter 1 offers an overview and description of consultation practice. Chapter 2 discusses indirect marketing of consultation services for scholars.…

  19. Competencies for Systems-Level Consultants within Diverse Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingraham, Colette

    2015-01-01

    The authors in this special issue on systems-level consultation provide an excellent range of models for how school psychologists can work as system-level consultants within the various communities they serve. This article (a) provides commentary on the four articles in this special issue focused on systems-level consultation to serve diverse…

  20. 42 CFR 431.105 - Consultation to medical facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Consultation to medical facilities. 431.105 Section... Administrative Requirements: Provider Relations § 431.105 Consultation to medical facilities. (a) Basis and... State agencies furnish consultative services to hospitals, nursing homes, home health agencies,...