Science.gov

Sample records for intergroup consulting economists

  1. What Led Eminent Economists to Become Economists?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Brent A.; Grimes, Paul W.; Becker, William E.

    2012-01-01

    The authors analyze the various factors that highly recognized economists cite as reasons for pursuing a career in economics. They obtained data for 62 of the 67 Nobel Laureates in economics and included another 22 prominent economists who have made significant contributions in economic research. The authors' basic quest was to discover how these…

  2. What Led Eminent Economists to Become Economists?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Brent A.; Grimes, Paul W.; Becker, William E.

    2012-01-01

    The authors analyze the various factors that highly recognized economists cite as reasons for pursuing a career in economics. They obtained data for 62 of the 67 Nobel Laureates in economics and included another 22 prominent economists who have made significant contributions in economic research. The authors' basic quest was to discover how these…

  3. Diversifying the Economists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2006-01-01

    The American Economists Association's (AEA's) summer and minority scholarship program at Duke University is an academic pipeline program that has been in operation for 33 years. The eight-week summer experience prepares its participants for the rigors of first- and second-year study in master's and doctorate programs in economics. The program also…

  4. Intergroup bias.

    PubMed

    Hewstone, Miles; Rubin, Mark; Willis, Hazel

    2002-01-01

    This chapter reviews the extensive literature on bias in favor of in-groups at the expense of out-groups. We focus on five issues and identify areas for future research: (a) measurement and conceptual issues (especially in-group favoritism vs. out-group derogation, and explicit vs. implicit measures of bias); (b) modern theories of bias highlighting motivational explanations (social identity, optimal distinctiveness, uncertainty reduction, social dominance, terror management); (c) key moderators of bias, especially those that exacerbate bias (identification, group size, status and power, threat, positive-negative asymmetry, personality and individual differences); (d) reduction of bias (individual vs. intergroup approaches, especially models of social categorization); and (e) the link between intergroup bias and more corrosive forms of social hostility.

  5. Who Are These Economists, Anyway?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galbraith, James K.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the author ventures into the nether wastes of economics, and attempts a brief survey of the main currents that didn't get it wrong. He looks at the failure of the nation's leading academic economists to understand the current financial crisis or the shaky underpinnings of the nation's financial system. The author's method consists…

  6. The Economist as Public Intellectual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, R. Glenn

    2004-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the rising number of outlets for communication through cable networks and electronic broadcasting (not to mention self-promoting Web "blogs") has stimulated the demand for economic commentary. Only the academic economist, as "public intellectual," can provide this commentary in a coherent and rigorous way via the three…

  7. The Economist as Public Intellectual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, R. Glenn

    2004-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the rising number of outlets for communication through cable networks and electronic broadcasting (not to mention self-promoting Web "blogs") has stimulated the demand for economic commentary. Only the academic economist, as "public intellectual," can provide this commentary in a coherent and rigorous way via the three…

  8. HANDBOOK ON INTERGROUP EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District of Columbia Public Schools, Washington, DC.

    THE AIM OF INTERGROUP EDUCATION IS TO DEVELOP A CONSCIOUSNESS AND APPRECIATION OF THE DIGNITY, CONTRIBUTIONS, AND BASIC UNITY OF ALL ETHNIC, RELIGIOUS, SOCIAL, AND ECONOMIC GROUPS WHICH ENRICH THE AMERICAN WAY OF LIFE. SCHOOL PERSONNEL AT ALL LEVELS HAVE A RESPONSIBILITY TO PROMOTE A PROGRAM OF INTERGROUP RELATIONS. THE CENTRAL ADMINISTRATIVE…

  9. Energy policy: an economist's confessions

    SciTech Connect

    Schlesinger, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    Dr. Schlesinger, former Secretary of Energy, feels that energy policy will determine how the industrial economies perform and whether the western political institutions survive. He says that energy policy does not, however, respond to traditional economic analysis in that there is no economic theory to adequately cover depleting resources. Economists gain strength by approaching energy problems in the context of supply and the price mechanism, with attention to arithmetic rather than emotion. Dr. Schlesinger believes, however, that there are weaknesses in the economists' view in the curative powers granted to the marketplace, which are better at making small adjustments over a long period of time than large adjustments in a short time. He notes that tendency to use inappropriate syllogisms obscures the problem of a rapidly diminishing lead time to solving the energy problem. He observes that total reliance on the marketplace will have to give way to government subsidies to research, develop, and commercialize fuels. (DCK)

  10. Home Economists and Hospice: A Needed Combination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Story, Marilyn D.

    1983-01-01

    Hospice is a family-centered concept of care which needs home economists from all subject-matter areas in volunteer or paid professional roles. In turn, home economists can grow personally as well as professionally through their involvement with hospice. (Author)

  11. Incomes of Home Economists Employed Full Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsley, Carolyn J.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Presents data from the 1979 American Home Economics Association survey on 11,229 home economists employed full time (68 percent of all respondents). Illustrates how education, sex, minority status, academic major, and type of employer affect home economists' incomes. (SK)

  12. Needed: Home Economists in the Peace Corps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Frances J.

    1978-01-01

    The primary reason home economists, nutritionists, and dietitians are being recruited by the Peace Corps is the national priority goal for achieving improved nutritional status in impoverished countries such as Costa Rica. However, several ways in which a home economist can contribute to Peace Corps activities and the role of this professional in…

  13. Emotion and Intergroup

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-02

    September). Emotions and intergroup relations: Emotion-based content analysis of justifications of war from the written record in modern and... postmodern history. Paper presented in poster at the 2nd Annual MINERVA Conference: Developing Foundational Knowledge for Present and Future Conflict

  14. Children's Intergroup Relations and Attitudes.

    PubMed

    Bigler, Rebecca S; Rohrbach, John M; Sanchez, Kiara L

    The existence of warm, intimate, supportive, and egalitarian relationships between members of differing social outgroups is likely, at the societal level, to facilitate cooperation and cohesion, and at the individual level, to promote positive social, educational, and occupational outcomes. The developmental pathway from intergroup contact to intergroup attitudes as it operates among children is not, however, well understood. In our chapter, we review and integrate selected social and developmental science related to intergroup relations and attitudes with the goal of proposing a conceptual model of the pathway from intergroup contact to positive intergroup attitudes among youth. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. What Futurists Believe: Implications for Home Economists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berenbaum, Shawna

    1992-01-01

    The challenges that the future will present to the home economist will be many. Technological, scientific, economic, environmental, climatic, social, political, institutional, and personal pressures will cause changes that will be favorable and unfavorable. (JOW)

  16. Reducing aggressive intergroup action tendencies: effects of intergroup contact via perceived intergroup threat.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Katharina; Hewstone, Miles; Küpper, Beate; Zick, Andreas; Tausch, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Two studies tested the prediction that more positive intergroup contact would be associated with reduced aggressive intergroup action tendencies, an effect predicted to occur indirectly via reduced intergroup threat perceptions, and over and above well-established effects of contact on intergroup attitudes. Study 1, using data based on a cross-section of the general population of eight European countries (France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, and the UK; N = 7,042), examined this hypothesis in the context of aggressive action tendencies towards immigrants. Study 2, using longitudinal data obtained from a general population sample in Northern Ireland, considered effects on aggressive action tendencies between ethno-religious groups in conflict. Both studies confirmed our predictions, showing that while perceived threat was associated with greater intergroup aggressive tendencies, positive intergroup contact was indirectly associated with reduced aggressive action tendencies, via reduced intergroup threat. Findings are discussed in terms of the theoretical contributions of this research for understanding the relationship between intergroup contact and intergroup aggression. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Ethnolinguistic Vitality and Intergroup Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehala, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The paper argues that ethnolinguistic vitality depends on four crucial social psychological factors: perceived strength differential, intergroup distance, utilitarianism and intergroup discordance. The influence of these factors on the vitality of subordinate and dominant groups is outlined. It is proposed that the vitality of both types of groups…

  18. Ethnolinguistic Vitality and Intergroup Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehala, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The paper argues that ethnolinguistic vitality depends on four crucial social psychological factors: perceived strength differential, intergroup distance, utilitarianism and intergroup discordance. The influence of these factors on the vitality of subordinate and dominant groups is outlined. It is proposed that the vitality of both types of groups…

  19. Consensus among Economists--An Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Dan; Geide-Stevenson, Doris

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore consensus among economists on specific propositions based on a fall 2011 survey of American Economic Association members. Results are based on 568 responses and provide evidence of changes in opinion over time by including propositions from earlier studies in 2000 (Fuller and Geide-Stevenson 2003) and 1992…

  20. Professional Training of Economists at Polish Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogienko, Olena

    2016-01-01

    Polish experience in professional training of economists at university has been generalized. Structural, content and procedural peculiarities of the training have been defined. It has been proved that key factors for reforming economic education in Poland are globalization, internationalization, integration, technologization and informatization.…

  1. Consensus among Economists--An Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Dan; Geide-Stevenson, Doris

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore consensus among economists on specific propositions based on a fall 2011 survey of American Economic Association members. Results are based on 568 responses and provide evidence of changes in opinion over time by including propositions from earlier studies in 2000 (Fuller and Geide-Stevenson 2003) and 1992…

  2. Professional Training of Economists at Polish Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogienko, Olena

    2016-01-01

    Polish experience in professional training of economists at university has been generalized. Structural, content and procedural peculiarities of the training have been defined. It has been proved that key factors for reforming economic education in Poland are globalization, internationalization, integration, technologization and informatization.…

  3. Intergroup Anxiety: A Person X Situation Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britt, Thomas W.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Offers a person X situation approach to the study of intergroup anxiety in which anxiety in intergroup encounters is viewed as a transaction between the individual and the environment. An individual difference measure of intergroup anxiety toward African Americans is developed. Presents studies assessing the scale's reliability and validity.…

  4. Job Corps Intergroup Relations Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Job Corps (DOL), Washington, DC.

    The Job Corps Intergroup Relations Program provides an integrated curriculum involving orientation, residential living, education, and vocational training. These instructional materials for the program provide guidelines and materials emphasizing ethnic contributions in order to improve human relations among ethnic groups and between women and…

  5. Cognitive Differentiation in Intergroup Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephan, Walter G.

    1977-01-01

    Black, Chicano, and Anglo students from segregated and integrated schools perceived their ethnic groups as being less differentiated than outgroups. Students in integrated schools perceived outgroups as somewhat less differentiated than students in segregated schools. Intergroup contact, except between highly dissimilar groups, was not an…

  6. RESEARCH BULLETIN ON INTERGROUP RELATIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ROSE, PETER I.

    IN APRIL 1961, QUESTIONNAIRES WERE MAILED TO MEMBERS OF MANY ACADEMIC AND PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATIONS TO DISCOVER RESEARCH IN THE FIELD OF INTERGROUP RELATIONS. APPROXIMATELY 200 PERSONS WROTE OF RESEARCH UNDERTAKEN. ABSTRACTS OF THE REPORTED RESEARCH ARE PRESENTED UNDER ONE OF THREE HEADINGS--COMPLETED, CURRENT, AND PLANNED. COMPLETED AND CURRENT…

  7. Have agricultural economists neglected poverty issues?

    PubMed

    Thiesenhusen, W C

    1991-01-01

    Agricultural economists concerned with development issues devote effort to researching agriculture's inputs to produce a surplus and transfer it to nonagriculture, to provide markets for urban-based industry, to maintain a labor reservoir, to assist in capital formation, and to accumulate foreign exchange. Little attention is focused on broader and more sweeping economic problems. Discussion is directed toward answering some questions about why agricultural economists neglect rural poverty. Also, attention is given to why the extent of rural poverty imperils development, in what location should poverty be addressed, what are the issues in the agricultural growth and inequality debate as it affects rural poverty, and whether there are any new or promising ways to combat rural poverty. The extent of poverty is measured by the World Bank as 20% of world population, or 1 billion people, Rural poverty accounts for 60% of the hungry poor in Latin America, 80% in Asia, and 90% in Africa. 11 items are used to define the rural poor, such as a heterogeneous population of primarily small-scale farmers, the landless, nomads, pastoralists, and fisherfolk. 5 reasons are given why economists avoid rural poverty, including the difficulty in modeling the complex problems of rural poverty and the political considerations of free market vs. socialist economies. Other reasons involve land reform which reduces labor needs and a commitment to commercial farming rather than small-scale, labor-intensive farming; the rural agricultural poor's contributions to development are underrated. East Asian countries have been successful in linking growth, distribution, and amelioration of poverty among the peasantry. Environmental degradation may be encouraged by inequalities and unequal access to resources. The example is given of Brazil which has promoted migration to cities due to commercialization of rural agriculture and created urban poverty instead of dealing directly with rural poverty by

  8. Problems of intergroup behavior in human spaceflight operations.

    PubMed

    Penwell, L W

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses intergroup dynamics in human spaceflight operations. A definition of intergroup behavior is presented and prerequisite conditions for intergroup conflict are explored. Research and anecdotal evidence of intergroup conflict between groups and subgroups in exotic environments and space operations is presented. Concepts from the literature on intergroup conflicts are discussed in the context of possible conflict resolution interventions. Factors that may affect intergroup dynamics in human spaceflight operations and the need for intergroup research are highlighted.

  9. Economists' Group Adjusts Policy on Discriminatory Language in Job Ads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, David

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how an economists' group brought forth policy adjustments on advertising issues. Since 1986 the association has banned advertisements in its newsletter, Job Openings for Economists, that discriminate "on the basis of race, color, religion, gender, national origin, sexual preference, or physical handicap." Facing…

  10. Economists' Group Adjusts Policy on Discriminatory Language in Job Ads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, David

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how an economists' group brought forth policy adjustments on advertising issues. Since 1986 the association has banned advertisements in its newsletter, Job Openings for Economists, that discriminate "on the basis of race, color, religion, gender, national origin, sexual preference, or physical handicap." Facing…

  11. Managing Consultants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malinconico, S. Michael

    1983-01-01

    Guidelines for managing library consulting engagements effectively cover the decision to use a consultant, definition of the problem area, finding the consultant, interviewing and evaluating the consultant, the psychological contract, the formal contract, and abdication of responsibility for the consulting project by the client. Seventeen sources…

  12. Collective Psychological Ownership and Intergroup Relations.

    PubMed

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Martinovic, Borja

    2017-09-01

    Whereas much social psychological research has studied the in-group and out-group implications of social categorization and collective identity ("we"), little research has examined the nature and relevance of collective psychological ownership ("ours") for intergroup relations. We make a case for considering collective psychological ownership as an important source of intergroup tensions. We do so by integrating theory and research from various social sciences, and we draw out implications for future social psychological research on intergroup relations. We discuss collective psychological ownership in relation to the psychology of possessions, marking behavior, intergroup threats, outgroup exclusion, and in-group responsibility. We suggest that the social psychological processes discussed apply to a range of ownership objects (territory, buildings, cultural artifacts) and various intergroup settings, including international, national, and local contexts, and in organizations and communities. We conclude by providing directions for future research in different intergroup contexts.

  13. Intergroup Biases in Fear-induced Aggression.

    PubMed

    Mifune, Nobuhiro; Simunovic, Dora; Yamagishi, Toshio

    2017-01-01

    Using a recently created preemptive strike game (PSG) with 176 participants, we investigated if the motivations of spite and/or fear promotes aggression that requires a small cost to the aggressor and imposes a larger cost on the opponent, and confirmed the earlier finding that fear does but spite does not promote intergroup aggression when the groups are characterized as minimal groups; additionally, the rate of intergroup aggression did not vary according to the group membership of the opponent. The PSG represents a situation in which both the motivations of spite and of fear can logically drive players to choose an option of aggression against an opponent. Participants decide whether or not to attack another participant, who also has the same capability. The decision is made in real time, using a computer. We discuss theoretical implications of our findings on the evolutionary foundations of intragroup cooperation and intergroup aggression. The evolutionary model of intergroup aggression, or the parochial altruism model, posits that intragroup cooperation and intergroup aggression have co-evolved, and thus it predicts both intragroup cooperation and intergroup aggression to emerge even in a minimal group devoid of a history of intergroup relationships. The finding that only intragroup cooperation but not intergroup aggression emerged in the minimal group experiments strongly suggests that intergroup aggression involves a psychological mechanism that is independent from that of intragroup cooperation. We further discuss the implications of these findings on real-world politics and military strategy.

  14. Intergroup Biases in Fear-induced Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Mifune, Nobuhiro; Simunovic, Dora; Yamagishi, Toshio

    2017-01-01

    Using a recently created preemptive strike game (PSG) with 176 participants, we investigated if the motivations of spite and/or fear promotes aggression that requires a small cost to the aggressor and imposes a larger cost on the opponent, and confirmed the earlier finding that fear does but spite does not promote intergroup aggression when the groups are characterized as minimal groups; additionally, the rate of intergroup aggression did not vary according to the group membership of the opponent. The PSG represents a situation in which both the motivations of spite and of fear can logically drive players to choose an option of aggression against an opponent. Participants decide whether or not to attack another participant, who also has the same capability. The decision is made in real time, using a computer. We discuss theoretical implications of our findings on the evolutionary foundations of intragroup cooperation and intergroup aggression. The evolutionary model of intergroup aggression, or the parochial altruism model, posits that intragroup cooperation and intergroup aggression have co-evolved, and thus it predicts both intragroup cooperation and intergroup aggression to emerge even in a minimal group devoid of a history of intergroup relationships. The finding that only intragroup cooperation but not intergroup aggression emerged in the minimal group experiments strongly suggests that intergroup aggression involves a psychological mechanism that is independent from that of intragroup cooperation. We further discuss the implications of these findings on real-world politics and military strategy. PMID:28174553

  15. Breaking Barriers: Can Student Journalists and Economists Learn Together?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsay, Glenworth; Silvia, Antone

    1993-01-01

    Two University of Rhode Island teachers, of journalism and economics, designed student projects simulating real interactions between professional journalists and economists. The projects increased both groups' ability to communicate, awareness of communication needs, interdisciplinary understanding, and mutual respect. (MSE)

  16. Breaking Barriers: Can Student Journalists and Economists Learn Together?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsay, Glenworth; Silvia, Antone

    1993-01-01

    Two University of Rhode Island teachers, of journalism and economics, designed student projects simulating real interactions between professional journalists and economists. The projects increased both groups' ability to communicate, awareness of communication needs, interdisciplinary understanding, and mutual respect. (MSE)

  17. Meet EPA Natural Resource Economist Marisa Mazzotta, Ph.D.

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Marisa Mazzotta, Ph.D. currently works as an Economist at EPA's Atlantic Ecology Division. Her research focuses on the public's valuation and prioritization of natural resources, and the relationship between ecological changes and economic benefits.

  18. The fragility of intergroup relations: divergent effects of delayed audiovisual feedback in intergroup and intragroup interaction.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Adam R; West, Tessa V; Dovidio, John F; Powers, Stacie Renfro; Buck, Ross; Henning, Robert

    2008-12-01

    Intergroup interactions between racial or ethnic majority and minority groups are often stressful for members of both groups; however, the dynamic processes that promote or alleviate tension in intergroup interaction remain poorly understood. Here we identify a behavioral mechanism-response delay-that can uniquely contribute to anxiety and promote disengagement from intergroup contact. Minimally acquainted White, Black, and Latino participants engaged in intergroup or intragroup dyadic conversation either in real time or with a subtle temporal disruption (1-s delay) in audiovisual feedback. Whereas intergroup dyads reported greater anxiety and less interest in contact after engaging in delayed conversation than after engaging in real-time conversation, intragroup dyads reported less anxiety in the delay condition than they did after interacting in real time. These findings have theoretical and practical implications for understanding intergroup communication and social dynamics and for promoting positive intergroup contact.

  19. The Idea Factory: An Interactive Intergroup Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosh, Lisa; Leach, Evan

    2011-01-01

    This article outlines the Idea Factory exercise, an interactive exercise designed to help participants examine group, individual, and organizational factors that affect intergroup conflict. Specific emphasis is placed on exploring the relationship between intra- and intergroup dynamics and identifying managerial practices that foster effective…

  20. The Idea Factory: An Interactive Intergroup Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosh, Lisa; Leach, Evan

    2011-01-01

    This article outlines the Idea Factory exercise, an interactive exercise designed to help participants examine group, individual, and organizational factors that affect intergroup conflict. Specific emphasis is placed on exploring the relationship between intra- and intergroup dynamics and identifying managerial practices that foster effective…

  1. Women and Men: An Intergroup Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tortu, Stephanie

    Henri Tajfel's theory on intergroup relations is used as a model for thinking about men and women on a group level and discussing the differences between intergroup and interpersonal behavior to integrate the study of the individual within the larger social system. Strategies are described to help women challenge the imbalance of power between the…

  2. Steeling Ourselves: Intragroup Communication while Anticipating Intergroup Contact Evokes Defensive Intergroup Perceptions.

    PubMed

    Greijdanus, Hedy; Postmes, Tom; Gordijn, Ernestine H; van Zomeren, Martijn

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the role of intragroup communication in intergroup conflict (de-)escalation. Experiment 1 examined the effects of intragroup communication (vs. individual thought) and anticipated face-to-face intergroup contact (vs. no anticipated face-to-face intergroup contact). The group discussions of stigmatized group members who anticipated face-to-face intergroup contact revolved more around intergroup hostility. This boosted ingroup identification and increased social creativity but also led to steeling (a hardening of perceived intergroup relations). In Experiment 2, new participants listened to the taped group discussions. The discussions of groups anticipating face-to-face intergroup contact evoked more intergroup anxiety-related discomfort than discussions of groups not anticipating face-to-face intergroup encounters. Together, these results support the idea that steeling is a defensive reaction to prepare for an anxiety-arousing intergroup confrontation. Although steeling is also associated with positive consequences such as increased ingroup solidarity and social creativity, this hardened stance may be an obstacle to conflict de-escalation.

  3. Steeling Ourselves: Intragroup Communication while Anticipating Intergroup Contact Evokes Defensive Intergroup Perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Greijdanus, Hedy; Postmes, Tom; Gordijn, Ernestine H.; van Zomeren, Martijn

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the role of intragroup communication in intergroup conflict (de-)escalation. Experiment 1 examined the effects of intragroup communication (vs. individual thought) and anticipated face-to-face intergroup contact (vs. no anticipated face-to-face intergroup contact). The group discussions of stigmatized group members who anticipated face-to-face intergroup contact revolved more around intergroup hostility. This boosted ingroup identification and increased social creativity but also led to steeling (a hardening of perceived intergroup relations). In Experiment 2, new participants listened to the taped group discussions. The discussions of groups anticipating face-to-face intergroup contact evoked more intergroup anxiety-related discomfort than discussions of groups not anticipating face-to-face intergroup encounters. Together, these results support the idea that steeling is a defensive reaction to prepare for an anxiety-arousing intergroup confrontation. Although steeling is also associated with positive consequences such as increased ingroup solidarity and social creativity, this hardened stance may be an obstacle to conflict de-escalation. PMID:26098741

  4. Critical consulting

    SciTech Connect

    Hocker, C.

    1993-02-01

    With increasing complexity in the power industry, consultants have become an indispensible element of any project development team. Top engineers and consultants today bring added value to their clients' projects.

  5. Affective Dimensions of Intergroup Humiliation

    PubMed Central

    Leidner, Bernhard; Sheikh, Hammad; Ginges, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Despite the wealth of theoretical claims about the emotion of humiliation and its effect on human relations, there has been a lack of empirical research investigating what it means to experience humiliation. We studied the affective characteristics of humiliation, comparing the emotional experience of intergroup humiliation to two other emotions humiliation is often confused with: anger and shame. The defining characteristics of humiliation were low levels of guilt and high levels of other-directed outrage (like anger and unlike shame), and high levels of powerlessness (like shame and unlike anger). Reasons for the similarities and differences of humiliation with anger and shame are discussed in terms of perceptions of undeserved treatment and injustice. Implications for understanding the behavioral consequences of humiliation and future work investigating the role of humiliation in social life are discussed. PMID:23029499

  6. Can intergroup contact improve humanity attributions?

    PubMed

    Capozza, Dora; Trifiletti, Elena; Vezzali, Loris; Favara, Irene

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, intergroup contact was evaluated as a strategy to favor outgroup humanization. We tested a double-mediation model, in which contact is associated with both decreased salience of intergroup boundaries and the adoption of a common identity. These recategorizations, in turn, are related to lower levels of anxiety and higher levels of empathy, both emotions being proximal predictors of outgroup humanization. The model was tested using structural equation modeling in the context of different intergroup relations: Italians versus immigrants (Study 1); Northern Italians versus Southern Italians (Study 2). Supporting the hypotheses, group representations and emotions mediated the relationship between contact and humanity attributions. The practical implications of results are discussed.

  7. Promoting intergroup contact by changing beliefs: group malleability, intergroup anxiety, and contact motivation.

    PubMed

    Halperin, Eran; Crisp, Richard J; Husnu, Shenel; Trzesniewski, Kali H; Dweck, Carol S; Gross, James J

    2012-12-01

    Intergroup contact plays a crucial role in moderating long-term conflicts. Unfortunately, the motivation to make contact with outgroup members is usually very low in such conflicts. We hypothesized that one limiting factor is the belief that groups cannot change, which leads to increased intergroup anxiety and decreased contact motivation. To test this hypothesis, we experimentally manipulated beliefs about group malleability in the context of the conflict between Greek and Turkish Cypriots and then assessed intergroup anxiety and motivation to engage in intergroup contact. Turkish Cypriots who were led to believe that groups can change (with no mention of the specific groups involved) reported lower levels of intergroup anxiety and higher motivation to interact and communicate with Greek Cypriots in the future, compared with those who were led to believe that groups cannot change. This effect of group malleability manipulation on contact motivation was mediated by intergroup anxiety. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Status-based asymmetry in intergroup responses: Implications for intergroup reconciliation.

    PubMed

    Malloy, Thomas E; Ristikari, Tiina; Berrios-Candelaria, Rosalie; Lewis, Beth; Agatstein, Fredric

    2011-01-01

    We studied intergroup responses as a function of relative intergroup status and familiarity. In Study 1, 34 African Americans and 34 European Americans interacted with two members of the out-group in separate, 20-min dyadic interactions. Intergroup perception, affect, and behavior were asymmetric; Blacks differentiated the traits of and the quality of interactions with Whites, whereas Whites did not make these differentiations. Blacks and Whites predicted that different out-group partners perceived them similarly. Study 2 showed that the failure to differentiate an out-group member is due to intergroup status differences. Asymmetric intergroup responses pose a barrier to intergroup reconciliation and explain, in part, why increased interracial contact has not eradicated disparities in life outcomes for Black Americans.

  9. Status-Based Asymmetry in Intergroup Responses: Implications for Intergroup Reconciliation

    PubMed Central

    Malloy, Thomas E.; Ristikari, Tiina; Berrios-Candelaria, Rosalie; Lewis, Beth; Agatstein, Fredric

    2011-01-01

    We studied intergroup responses as a function of relative intergroup status and familiarity. In Study 1, 34 African Americans and 34 European Americans interacted with two members of the out-group in separate, 20 minute dyadic interactions. Intergroup perception, affect, and behavior were asymmetric; Blacks differentiated the traits of and the quality of interactions with Whites, whereas Whites did not make these differentiations. Blacks and Whites predicted that different out-group partners perceived them similarly. Study 2 showed that the failure to differentiate an out-group member is due to intergroup status differences. Asymmetric intergroup responses pose a barrier to intergroup reconciliation and explain, in part, why increased interracial contact has not eradicated disparities in life outcomes for Black Americans. PMID:21341895

  10. The Social Psychology of Intergroup Toleration.

    PubMed

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Yogeeswaran, Kumar

    2017-02-01

    The global increase in cultural and religious diversity has led to calls for toleration of group differences to achieve intergroup harmony. Although much social-psychological research has examined the nature of stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination, and its impact on targets of these biases, little research has examined the nature and impact of toleration for intergroup relations. Toleration does not require that people give up their objections to out-group norms and practices but rather mutual accommodation. Integrating research from various social sciences, we explore the nature of intergroup tolerance including its three components-objection, acceptance, and rejection-while drawing out its implications for future social-psychological research. We then explore some psychological consequences to social groups that are the object of toleration. By doing so, we consider the complex ways in which intergroup tolerance impacts both majority and minority groups and the dynamic interplay of both in pluralistic societies.

  11. Interview Scheduling Strategies of New Ph.D. Economists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    List, John A.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the factors that affect procuring job interviews for new Ph.D. economists. Used a data set from the personal surveys of a cohort of first-time job seekers who attended the 1997 American Economic Association (AEA) meeting in New Orleans (Louisiana). States that estimation results suggest a heterogeneity in the interview decision across…

  12. Gender Differences in Research Patterns among PhD Economists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbezat, Debra A.

    2006-01-01

    This study is based on a 1996 survey of PhD economists working in the academic and nonacademic sectors since 1989. Despite a raw gender difference in all types of research output, the male dummy variable proves statistically significant in predicting only one publication measure. In a full sample and faculty subsample, number of years since…

  13. Economists Concoct New Method for Comparing Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, David

    2007-01-01

    A pair of economists at the College of William and Mary have devised a new way of comparing colleges' graduation rates--a method, borrowed from business analysis, that they believe is fairer and more useful than the techniques used by "U.S. News & World Report" and the Education Trust. That general technique of regression analysis underlies the…

  14. An Economist's Approach to Reforming the Uniform Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Gary T.

    1977-01-01

    The standardized approach (Uniform Methodology) to estimating the expected parental contribution for dependent students is evaluated from an economist's perspective. The UM model is shown to fail to treat assets and income in a consistent manner, and recommendations for improvement are offered. (LBH)

  15. Football experts versus sports economists: Whose forecasts are better?

    PubMed

    Frick, Bernd; Wicker, Pamela

    2016-08-01

    Given the uncertainty of outcome in sport, predicting the outcome of sporting contests is a major topic in sport sciences. This study examines the accuracy of expert predictions in the German Bundesliga and compares their predictions to those of sports economists. Prior to the start of each season, a set of distinguished experts (head coaches and players) express their subjective evaluations of the teams in school grades. While experts may be driven by irrational sentiments and may therefore systematically over- or underestimate specific teams, sports economists use observable characteristics to predict season outcomes. The latter typically use team wage bills given the positive pay-performance relationship as well as other factors (average team age, tenure, appearances on national team, and attendance). Using data from 15 consecutive Bundesliga seasons, the predictive accuracy of expert evaluations and sports economists is analysed. The results of separate estimations show that relative grade and relative wage bill significantly affect relative points, while age, tenure, appearances, and attendance are insignificant. In a joint model, relative grade and relative wage bill are still statistically significant, suggesting that the two types of predictions are complements rather than substitutes. Consequently, football experts and sports economists seem to rely on completely different sources of information when making their predictions.

  16. Environmental Economics for Watershed Restoration: Valuation for Non-Economists

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA economists completed research projects and summarized related valuation methods and case studies, mostly dealing with acid mine drainage. Their recent book (edited by Thurston, et al.) is intended to make stakeholders more comfortable talking about economic jargon and to info...

  17. Opportunity Cost and the Intelligence of Economists: A Comment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arce, Daniel G.

    2016-01-01

    In "Opportunity Cost: A Reexamination," Professor Parkin contrasts forgone physical quantities with forgone values as measures of the opportunity cost of basic economic decisions. The impetus for his study stems from an experiment conducted by Ferraro and Taylor (2005), in which professional economists could not reach a consensus over…

  18. Economists Concoct New Method for Comparing Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, David

    2007-01-01

    A pair of economists at the College of William and Mary have devised a new way of comparing colleges' graduation rates--a method, borrowed from business analysis, that they believe is fairer and more useful than the techniques used by "U.S. News & World Report" and the Education Trust. That general technique of regression analysis underlies the…

  19. Gender Differences in Research Patterns among PhD Economists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbezat, Debra A.

    2006-01-01

    This study is based on a 1996 survey of PhD economists working in the academic and nonacademic sectors since 1989. Despite a raw gender difference in all types of research output, the male dummy variable proves statistically significant in predicting only one publication measure. In a full sample and faculty subsample, number of years since…

  20. Robert Michels (1876-1936), Political Sociologist and Economist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Franklin

    A biographical sketch of Robert Michels (1876-1936), a political sociologist and economist who taught in Germany, Switzerland, Italy, and the United States is presented. In his best known work, "Political Parties: A Sociological Study of Oligarchical Tendencies of Modern Democracy," he put forth his "iron law of oligarchy"…

  1. Opportunity Cost and the Intelligence of Economists: A Comment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arce, Daniel G.

    2016-01-01

    In "Opportunity Cost: A Reexamination," Professor Parkin contrasts forgone physical quantities with forgone values as measures of the opportunity cost of basic economic decisions. The impetus for his study stems from an experiment conducted by Ferraro and Taylor (2005), in which professional economists could not reach a consensus over…

  2. Environmental Economics for Watershed Restoration: Valuation for Non-Economists

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA economists completed research projects and summarized related valuation methods and case studies, mostly dealing with acid mine drainage. Their recent book (edited by Thurston, et al.) is intended to make stakeholders more comfortable talking about economic jargon and to info...

  3. Intergroup contact and team functioning among nursing students: the mediation role of intergroup anxiety.

    PubMed

    Marletta, Giuseppe; Sarli, Leopoldo; Caricati, Luca; Mancini, Tiziana

    2017-07-18

    The improvement of team effectivity is one of the main concerns for healthcare organizations. Moreover, healthcare organizations must cope with increasing multicultural composition of both workforce and patients. The intergroup contact theory suggests that frequent and positive face-to-face contact among professionals or students with different cultural heritage can help to reach both increasing team effectiveness and adequate care in a multicultural setting. The aim was then to verify whether intergroup contact during practical training would decrease intergroup anxiety and then increase team functioning. A cross-sectional design was used in which a questionnaire was delivered to 83 nursing students. According to the intergroup contact theory, frequent and positive contact with non-native professionals decreased the intergroup anxiety which, in turn, increased prejudice and, more importantly, decreased team functioning. Moreover, intergroup anxiety showed a complete mediation effect on the relations between intergroup contact during practical training and both negative attitude toward immigrants and team functioning. Intergroup contact with non-native professionals or students during practical training is able to indirectly decrease prejudice and improve team functioning by lowering the anxiety that is aroused by encounter with non-native individuals.

  4. Intergroup Contact as a Tool for Reducing, Resolving, and Preventing Intergroup Conflict: Evidence, Limitations, and Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Ramiah, Ananthi; Hewstone, Miles

    2013-01-01

    We propose that intergroup contact provides an effective means by which to reduce, resolve, and prevent conflict of all kinds, including violent conflict. We review the vast literature on the effectiveness of intergroup contact and discuss when and how it reduces prejudice. We also discuss key features of successful interventions, highlighting …

  5. Improving Intergroup Attitudes via Mediated Intergroup Contact in a Bilingual Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincze, Laszlo; Harwood, Jake

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the role of mediated intergroup contact in improving intergroup attitudes between Italian speakers and German speakers in South Tyrol, Italy. Specifically, we examine how German-language television consumption affects attitudes towards the German-speaking group among Italian- speaking youth. The data ("N" = 229) were…

  6. Intergroup Contact as a Tool for Reducing, Resolving, and Preventing Intergroup Conflict: Evidence, Limitations, and Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Ramiah, Ananthi; Hewstone, Miles

    2013-01-01

    We propose that intergroup contact provides an effective means by which to reduce, resolve, and prevent conflict of all kinds, including violent conflict. We review the vast literature on the effectiveness of intergroup contact and discuss when and how it reduces prejudice. We also discuss key features of successful interventions, highlighting …

  7. Ecological Consultancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Scott McG.; Tattersfield, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This is the first of a new regular feature on careers, designed to provide those who teach biology with some inspiration when advising their students. In this issue, two consultant ecologists explain how their career paths developed. It is a misconception that there are few jobs in ecology. Over the past 20 or 30 years ecological consultancy has…

  8. Situational Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimehaug, Tormod; Helmersberg, Ingunn

    2010-01-01

    Situational Consultation (SC) is presented as a framework for flexible integration of several models and methodologies in consultation practice by choosing an approach adapted to the specific situation. In SC, models and their characteristic role positions are considered interchangeable tools with qualitative differences in strengths and…

  9. Intergroup Conflict and Rational Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Tur, Vicente; Peñarroja, Vicente; Serrano, Miguel A.; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Moliner, Carolina; Salvador, Alicia; Alacreu-Crespo, Adrián; Gracia, Esther; Molina, Agustín

    2014-01-01

    The literature has been relatively silent about post-conflict processes. However, understanding the way humans deal with post-conflict situations is a challenge in our societies. With this in mind, we focus the present study on the rationality of cooperative decision making after an intergroup conflict, i.e., the extent to which groups take advantage of post-conflict situations to obtain benefits from collaborating with the other group involved in the conflict. Based on dual-process theories of thinking and affect heuristic, we propose that intergroup conflict hinders the rationality of cooperative decision making. We also hypothesize that this rationality improves when groups are involved in an in-group deliberative discussion. Results of a laboratory experiment support the idea that intergroup conflict –associated with indicators of the activation of negative feelings (negative affect state and heart rate)– has a negative effect on the aforementioned rationality over time and on both group and individual decision making. Although intergroup conflict leads to sub-optimal decision making, rationality improves when groups and individuals subjected to intergroup conflict make decisions after an in-group deliberative discussion. Additionally, the increased rationality of the group decision making after the deliberative discussion is transferred to subsequent individual decision making. PMID:25461384

  10. Lactation Consultant

    MedlinePlus

    ... human lactation. Job description Lactation consultants educate women, families, health professionals, and the community about breast feeding and human lactation; facilitate the development of policies which protect, promote, and support breastfeeding; ...

  11. (Bad) Feelings about Meeting Them? Episodic and Chronic Intergroup Emotions Associated with Positive and Negative Intergroup Contact As Predictors of Intergroup Behavior.

    PubMed

    Kauff, Mathias; Asbrock, Frank; Wagner, Ulrich; Pettigrew, Thomas F; Hewstone, Miles; Schäfer, Sarina J; Christ, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Based on two cross-sectional probability samples (Study 1: N = 1,382, Study 2: N = 1,587), we studied the interplay between positive and negative intergroup contact, different types of intergroup emotions (i.e., episodic intergroup emotions encountered during contact and more general chronic intergroup emotions), and outgroup behavior in the context of intergroup relations between non-immigrant Germans and foreigners living in Germany. In Study 1, we showed that positive and negative contact are related to specific episodic intergroup emotions (i.e., anger, fear and happiness). Results of Study 2 indicate an indirect effect of episodic intergroup emotions encountered during contact experiences on specific behavioral tendencies directed at outgroup members via more chronic situation-independent intergroup emotions. As expected, anger predicted approaching (discriminatory) behavioral tendencies (i.e., aggression) while fear predicted avoidance. The results extend the existing literature on intergroup contact and emotions by addressing positive and negative contact simultaneously and differentiating between situation-specific episodic and chronic intergroup emotions in predicting discriminatory behavioral tendencies.

  12. The evolution of lethal intergroup violence.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Raymond C

    2005-10-25

    Recent findings and analyses in evolutionary biology, archaeology, and ethnology provide a favorable conjuncture for examining the evolution of lethal intergroup violence among hominids during the 2.9-million-year Paleolithic time span. Here, I seek to identify and investigate the main turning points in this evolutionary trajectory and to delineate the periodization that follows from this inquiry.

  13. Human Intergroup Relations. Certification Requirement #69.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northcentral Technical Coll., Wausau, WI.

    This document provides materials for a course in human intergroup relations for preservice or inservice teachers preparing to work with a diverse, disadvantaged group of students. The information in the guide is drawn from the faculty and student support staff of Northcentral Technical College (NTC) in Wausau, Wisconsin, which serves a variety of…

  14. The evolution of lethal intergroup violence

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Raymond C.

    2005-01-01

    Recent findings and analyses in evolutionary biology, archaeology, and ethnology provide a favorable conjuncture for examining the evolution of lethal intergroup violence among hominids during the 2.9-million-year Paleolithic time span. Here, I seek to identify and investigate the main turning points in this evolutionary trajectory and to delineate the periodization that follows from this inquiry. PMID:16129826

  15. After Culture: Intergroup Encounters in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Oord, Lodewijk

    2008-01-01

    This article analyses intergroup differences in education, with particular emphasis on schools offering one or more of the International Baccalaureate programmes ("IB World schools"). Experiences of human difference are often interpreted in terms of culture, and the notion of intercultural understanding is valued in many international schools. Yet…

  16. After Culture: Intergroup Encounters in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Oord, Lodewijk

    2008-01-01

    This article analyses intergroup differences in education, with particular emphasis on schools offering one or more of the International Baccalaureate programmes ("IB World schools"). Experiences of human difference are often interpreted in terms of culture, and the notion of intercultural understanding is valued in many international schools. Yet…

  17. Youth Leadership, Racism, and Intergroup Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulden, Walter T.

    2006-01-01

    The National Conference for Community and Justice--Greater Kansas City's Youth Leadership Institute (Anytown) for high school-aged youth--is designed to expose young people to multicultural issues and topics and facilitate purposeful intergroup dialogue on addressing systemic oppression and privilege. An evaluation was conducted over a three-year…

  18. Intergroup forgiveness of race-related offenses.

    PubMed

    Davis, Don E; DeBlaere, Cirleen; Hook, Joshua N; Burnette, Jeni; Van Tongeren, Daryl R; Rice, Kenneth G; Worthington, Everett L

    2015-07-01

    We developed a new intergroup forgiveness measure in the context of identity-related offenses, with a focus on racial conflicts. In Study 1 (N = 384), we adapted a widely used measure of interpersonal forgiveness to develop the Group Forgiveness Scale (GFS) within the context of an identity-related offense. In Study 2, we replicated the 3-factor structure of the GFS (i.e., Avoidance, Revenge, Decision to Forgive) and examined evidence for its construct validity in a sample of African American/Black university students (N = 225). As evidence of convergent validity, intergroup forgiveness correlated with appraising greater relationship value as well as appraising lower likelihood of being exploited in the future. As evidence of discriminant validity, the newly developed intergroup forgiveness scale (i.e., the GFS) correlated only moderately with interpersonal forgiveness and perceived microaggressions. In Study 3, in another sample of racial/ethnic minority individuals (N = 352), we examined the predictive validity of the scale. More specifically, we examined relations of the GFS subscales with religious commitment and racial/ethnic identity. The Decision to Forgive subscale uniquely correlated with religious commitment controlling for the Avoidance and Revenge subscales. Lower revenge correlated with stronger racial/ethnic identity. We conclude with implications of the current findings for the development of intergroup forgiveness measurement and for understanding the nature of forgiveness within marginalized groups. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. [Teledermatological consultation].

    PubMed

    Knol, A; Damstra, R J; van den Akker, Th W; de Haan, J

    2004-02-14

    Teledermatological consultation can be effected in two ways. One is 'store-and-forward' which involves storing photographic digital images and sending them to a consultant dermatologist who then replies by e-mail, and the other is by videoconferencing using a real time interactive audiovisual link. In daily general practice the first method is the easiest to implement. In 76-90% of cases, a diagnosis or differential diagnosis made in this way corresponds with the diagnosis made at the more usual face-to-face examination. The advantage of teledermatological consultation is that diagnosis and therapy take place faster than after regular referral and it is better than no referral at all. The referring physician should deliver data on the patient's history and physical examination in a standardized format. The same is true for the encoded personal data, the working diagnosis, and referral request. One overview and 2 detailed photos from two angles are normally taken. The overview shows the extent and localization of the skin abnormality. The patient has to consent to a teledermatological consultation. The responsibility for the treatment lies with the doctor who sees the patient face-to-face. The data that is transmitted must be encrypted or coded in such a way that it cannot be traced back to one particular person.

  20. Intergroup time bias and racialized social relations.

    PubMed

    Vala, Jorge; Pereira, Cícero Roberto; Oliveira Lima, Marcus Eugênio; Leyens, Jacques-Philippe

    2012-04-01

    Within the framework of intergroup relations, the authors analyzed the time people spent evaluating ingroup and outgroup members. They hypothesized that White participants take longer to evaluate White targets than Black targets. In four experiments, White participants were slower to form impressions of White than of Black people; that is, they showed an intergroup time bias (ITB). In Study 1 (N = 60), the ITB correlated with implicit prejudice and homogeneity. Study 2 (N = 60) showed that the ITB was independent of the type of trait in question (nonstereotypical vs. stereotypical). Study 3 (N = 100) demonstrated that ITB correlates with racism measured 3 months beforehand, is independent of motivation to control prejudice, and is not an epiphenomenon of homogeneity. In Study 4 (N = 40) participants not only showed the ITB in a racialized social context but also displayed it following a minimal group manipulation.

  1. Intergroup relationships and quality improvement in healthcare

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Intergroup problems among physicians, nurses and administrators in healthcare settings sometimes retard such settings' ability to foster enhanced quality of care. Without knowledge of the social dynamics that generate the difficulties, it is impossible to address some crucial issues that may affect quality initiatives. Methods This paper reviews three types of dynamics, social identity, communities of practice and socialisation into particular professional identities that affect relationships among professional groups in healthcare settings. Recommendations A suggestion is made for the creation of cross-boundary communities of practice, socialisation into them and dual, superordinate identities as a means to foster more effective intergroup dynamics and, thus, contribute to a greater quality of care. PMID:21450775

  2. Affective and Cognitive Orientations in Intergroup Perception

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Lukas J.; von Hecker, Ulrich; Maio, Gregory R.

    2017-01-01

    Three studies examined the role of need for affect (NFA) and need for cognition (NFC) in intergroup perception. We hypothesized that NFA predicts a preference for stereotypically warm groups over stereotypically cold groups, whereas NFC predicts a preference for stereotypically competent groups over stereotypically incompetent groups. Study 1 supported these hypotheses for attitudes toward stereotypically ambivalent groups, which are stereotyped as high on one of the trait dimensions (e.g., high warmth) and low on the other (e.g., low competence), but not for stereotypically univalent groups, which are seen as high or low on both dimensions. Studies 2 and 3 replicated this pattern for stereotypically ambivalent groups, and yielded provocative evidence regarding several putative mechanisms underlying these associations. Together, these findings help integrate and extend past evidence on attitude-relevant individual differences with research on intergroup perception. PMID:28903673

  3. How Can Intergroup Interaction Be Bad If Intergroup Contact Is Good? Exploring and Reconciling an Apparent Paradox in the Science of Intergroup Relations

    PubMed Central

    Page-Gould, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The outcomes of social interactions among members of different groups (e.g., racial groups, political groups, sexual orientation groups) have long been of interest to psychologists. Two related literatures on the topic have emerged—the intergroup interaction literature and the intergroup contact literature—in which divergent conclusions have been reported. Intergroup interaction is typically found to have negative effects tied to intergroup bias, producing heightened stress, intergroup anxiety, or outgroup avoidance, whereas intergroup contact is typically found to have positive effects tied to intergroup bias, predicting lower intergroup anxiety and lower prejudice. We examine these paradoxical findings, proposing that researchers contributing to the two literatures are examining different levels of the same phenomenon and that methodological differences can account for the divide between the literatures. Further, we introduce a mathematical model by which the findings of the two literatures can be reconciled. We believe that adopting this model will streamline thinking in the field and will generate integrative new research in which investigators examine how a person’s experiences with diversity unfold. PMID:25987510

  4. Eliciting probabilistic expectations: Collaborations between psychologists and economists

    PubMed Central

    Bruine de Bruin, Wändi

    2017-01-01

    We describe two collaborations in which psychologists and economists provided essential support on foundational projects in major research programs. One project involved eliciting adolescents’ expectations regarding significant future life events affecting their psychological and economic development. The second project involved eliciting consumers’ expectations regarding inflation, a potentially vital input to their investment, saving, and purchasing decisions. In each project, we sought questions with the precision needed for economic modeling and the simplicity needed for lay respondents. We identify four conditions that, we believe, promoted our ability to sustain these transdisciplinary collaborations and coproduce the research: (i) having a shared research goal, which neither discipline could achieve on its own; (ii) finding common ground in shared methodology, which met each discipline’s essential evidentiary conditions, but without insisting on its culturally acquired tastes; (iii) sharing the effort throughout, with common language and sense of ownership; and (iv) gaining mutual benefit from both the research process and its products. PMID:28270610

  5. Educational Insights of the Economist: Tibor Scitovsky on Education, Production and Creative Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilead, Tal

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades education is increasingly perceived as an instrument for generating economic growth and enhancing production. Unexpectedly, however, many prominent economists, throughout history, have rejected this view of education. This article examines the grounds on which Tibor Scitovsky, who was one of the leading economists of twentieth…

  6. Coverage of Major Topics in Economics in the Undergraduate Curriculum: Economists as Gatekeepers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prescott, Suzanne

    Over the last 25 years, less attention has been devoted to the role of the economist as teacher or professor than to the role of economist as scholar or researcher. Teachers have been seen as passive recipients of advances in economics research that they simply hand on to their students. Yet teachers perform an important gatekeeping function when…

  7. Educational Insights of the Economist: Tibor Scitovsky on Education, Production and Creative Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilead, Tal

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades education is increasingly perceived as an instrument for generating economic growth and enhancing production. Unexpectedly, however, many prominent economists, throughout history, have rejected this view of education. This article examines the grounds on which Tibor Scitovsky, who was one of the leading economists of twentieth…

  8. Determinants among PhD Economists of Membership in a Professional Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Arthur M., Jr.; Haurin, Donald R.

    1994-01-01

    Tested hypotheses about the value of American Economic Association (AEA) membership. An AEA economist is likely to be male, from a highly ranked PhD school, active in publishing research, highly cited for publications, and not in either the business administration or the agriculture subfields. The study involved 913 economists who received their…

  9. Coverage of Major Topics in Economics in the Undergraduate Curriculum: Economists as Gatekeepers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prescott, Suzanne

    Over the last 25 years, less attention has been devoted to the role of the economist as teacher or professor than to the role of economist as scholar or researcher. Teachers have been seen as passive recipients of advances in economics research that they simply hand on to their students. Yet teachers perform an important gatekeeping function when…

  10. A Brief Look at What Economists Are Saying about the Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    This essay canvasses selected studies undertaken by economists on the community college. Key authors and journals are noted, followed by an examination of what economists contribute to our understanding of the community college in terms of costs, price and financial aid, economic and social benefits, and the institution's role in furthering…

  11. Overview of the InterGroup protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Berket, Karlo; Agarwal, Deborah A.; Melliar-Smith, P. Michael; Moser, Louise E.

    2001-03-01

    Existing reliable ordered group communication protocols have been developed for local-area networks and do not, in general, scale well to large numbers of nodes and wide-area networks. The InterGroup suite of protocols is a scalable group communication system that introduces a novel approach to handling group membership, and supports a receiver-oriented selection of service. The protocols are intended for a wide-area network, with a large number of nodes, that has highly variable delays and a high message loss rate, such as the Internet. The levels of the message delivery service range from unreliable unordered to reliable group timestamp ordered.

  12. Intergroup Dialogue: Education for a Broad Conception of Civic Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurin, Patricia; Nagda, Biren A.; Sorensen, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    Intergroup dialogue provides what students need in order to relate and collaborate across differences, something they have to do in community projects that usually involve interactions across racial, social class, religious, and geographical divides. In this article, the authors demonstrate the efficacy of intergroup dialogue, drawing from a…

  13. The Effects of Prevalent Social Stereotypes on Intergroup Attribution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Ari, Rachel; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Tested three alternative hypotheses regarding intergroup attribution patterns derived from the ethnocentric, the asymmetrical, and the stereotype-based models of intergroup attribution. Results from 582 junior high students in Israel show that members of majority and minority groups made internal attributions for stereotype-consistent positive…

  14. Using Intergroup Dialogue to Promote Social Justice and Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessel, Adrienne; Rogge, Mary E.; Garlington, Sarah B.

    2006-01-01

    Intergroup dialogue is a public process designed to involve individuals and groups in an exploration of societal issues such as politics, racism, religion, and culture that are often flashpoints for polarization and social conflict. This article examines intergroup dialogue as a bridging mechanism through which social workers in clinical, other…

  15. Social Exclusion in Childhood: A Developmental Intergroup Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killen, Melanie; Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Hitti, Aline

    2013-01-01

    "Interpersonal" rejection and "intergroup" exclusion in childhood reflect different, but complementary, aspects of child development. Interpersonal rejection focuses on individual differences in personality traits, such as wariness and being fearful, to explain bully-victim relationships. In contrast, intergroup exclusion focuses on how in-group…

  16. Intergroup Dialogue: Education for a Broad Conception of Civic Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurin, Patricia; Nagda, Biren A.; Sorensen, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    Intergroup dialogue provides what students need in order to relate and collaborate across differences, something they have to do in community projects that usually involve interactions across racial, social class, religious, and geographical divides. In this article, the authors demonstrate the efficacy of intergroup dialogue, drawing from a…

  17. Social Exclusion in Childhood: A Developmental Intergroup Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killen, Melanie; Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Hitti, Aline

    2013-01-01

    "Interpersonal" rejection and "intergroup" exclusion in childhood reflect different, but complementary, aspects of child development. Interpersonal rejection focuses on individual differences in personality traits, such as wariness and being fearful, to explain bully-victim relationships. In contrast, intergroup exclusion focuses on how in-group…

  18. Using intergroup dialogue to promote social justice and change.

    PubMed

    Dessel, Adrienne; Rogge, Mary E; Garlington, Sarah B

    2006-10-01

    Intergroup dialogue is a public process designed to involve individuals and groups in an exploration of societal issues such as politics, racism, religion, and culture that are often flashpoints for polarization and social conflict. This article examines intergroup dialogue as a bridging mechanism through which social workers in clinical, other direct practice, organizer, activist, and other roles across the micro-macro practice spectrum can engage with people in conflict to advance advocacy, justice, and social change. We define intergroup dialogue and provide examples in not-for-profit or community-based and academic settings of how intergroup dialogue has been applied to conflicts around topics of race and ethnic nationality, sexual orientation, religion, and culture. We recommend practice-, policy-, and research-related actions that social workers can take to understand and use intergroup dialogue.

  19. The biologist and the economist: is dialogue possible?

    PubMed

    Keyfitz, N

    1992-06-01

    There is a need for demography to be brought into policy-making discussions. In the time of Malthus, both economists and ecologists spoke the same language and each group was receptive to and supportive of the ideas of the other. The present organization of academic life precludes interdisciplinary communication. Malthus saw the limit as food supply; today, technology seems to be the defining criteria, although access to world supplies is also unevenly distributed. Minerals were once thought to present limits, but again technology was able to generate replacements as the Green Revolution provided an option for expanding food supply. During the 1950s and 1960s, limits were perceived by Arthur Lewis, Coale, and Hoover to be in shortages of capital. Now capital is seen as a result of development and not a cause. The strongest argument for limiting population growth appears to be the stability of planetary support systems (species diversity, ozone layer, global climate, and others). Knowledge of these support systems is limited and it would be wise not to press the world's carrying capacity under such conditions. Ignorance of planetary support systems may mean that the circle may be tightening closer than we know, or that a sudden disaster is possible. It is a complex task to circumscribe boundaries to various essentials for human life. Regardless of whether there is a solution to various essentials for human life. Regardless of whether there is a solution to the known or unknown environmental problems, it is possible, easy, and reliable to reduce the population by having fewer births than deaths. Economists argue that the vagaries and uncertainties of environmental damage prevent taking environmental constraints into account, when uncertainties have always been with us. A real debate on the issues instead of disciplines talking past each other would occur if all facts and conclusions were accepted by all parties. The conclusion should be that population increases must

  20. Computational models of intergroup competition and warfare.

    SciTech Connect

    Letendre, Kenneth; Abbott, Robert G.

    2011-11-01

    This document reports on the research of Kenneth Letendre, the recipient of a Sandia Graduate Research Fellowship at the University of New Mexico. Warfare is an extreme form of intergroup competition in which individuals make extreme sacrifices for the benefit of their nation or other group to which they belong. Among animals, limited, non-lethal competition is the norm. It is not fully understood what factors lead to warfare. We studied the global variation in the frequency of civil conflict among countries of the world, and its positive association with variation in the intensity of infectious disease. We demonstrated that the burden of human infectious disease importantly predicts the frequency of civil conflict and tested a causal model for this association based on the parasite-stress theory of sociality. We also investigated the organization of social foraging by colonies of harvester ants in the genus Pogonomyrmex, using both field studies and computer models.

  1. Consulting in Collection Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ash, Lee

    1980-01-01

    Considers the role of the consultant in the areas of library collection development and weeding, and offers suggestions on determining the need for a consultant, obtaining one, and what to do when the consultant arrives. (FM)

  2. Skills for Effective Consultation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dustin, Dick; Ehly, Stewart

    1984-01-01

    Discusses counselor skills that promote effective consultation. Reviews research on effective school consultation and presents a five-stage model which involves phasing in, problem identification, implementation, evaluation, and termination. Provides recommendations for the process and products of consultation. (JAC)

  3. Skills for Effective Consultation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dustin, Dick; Ehly, Stewart

    1984-01-01

    Discusses counselor skills that promote effective consultation. Reviews research on effective school consultation and presents a five-stage model which involves phasing in, problem identification, implementation, evaluation, and termination. Provides recommendations for the process and products of consultation. (JAC)

  4. Oxytocin modulates selection of allies in intergroup conflict.

    PubMed

    De Dreu, Carsten K W; Greer, Lindred L; Handgraaf, Michel J J; Shalvi, Shaul; Van Kleef, Gerben A

    2012-03-22

    In intergroup competition and conflict, humans benefit from coalitions with strong partners who help them to protect their in-group and prevail over competing out-groups. Here, we link oxytocin, a neuropeptide produced in the hypothalamus, to ally selection in intergroup competition. In a double-blind placebo-controlled experiment, males self-administered oxytocin or placebo, and made selection decisions about six high-threat and six low-threat targets as potential allies in intergroup competition. Males given oxytocin rather than placebo viewed high-threat targets as more useful allies and more frequently selected them into their team than low-threat targets.

  5. The Role of the Home Economist as a Financial Counsellor in Transition Shelters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quackenbush, Romy

    1991-01-01

    The role of the home economist as a financial counselor is essential to providing victims of wife abuse with a means of financial stability. The counselor can assist the victim with everything from financial stability to budgeting. (Author)

  6. Completing the implicit association test reduces positive intergroup interaction behavior.

    PubMed

    Vorauer, Jacquie D

    2012-10-01

    It is frequently suggested that increasing awareness of intergroup bias and limited control over biased responses can improve intergroup interaction behavior. Some uses of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) epitomize this approach to improving intergroup relations. However, if completing the IAT enhances caution and inhibition, reduces self-efficacy, or primes categorical thinking, the test may instead have negative effects. Two experiments demonstrated that when White individuals completed a race-relevant IAT prior to an intergroup interaction (as compared with when they did not), their interaction partner left the exchange feeling less positively regarded. No such effect was evident when White individuals completed a race-irrelevant IAT (Study 1) or an explicit prejudice measure (Study 2) before the exchange, or when their interaction partner was White (Study 1). Mediation analyses (Study 2) suggested that White participants who completed the IAT communicated less positive regard because they adopted a cautious approach to the interaction, limiting their self-disclosure.

  7. The neural basis of intergroup threat effect on social attention

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yujie; Zhao, Yufang; Song, Hongwen; Guan, Lili; Wu, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Previous gaze-cuing studies found that intergroup threat is one of the modulators of gaze cuing. These findings indicate that intergroup threat would gate social attention by activating a network resembling that is thought to be involved in drawing or/and holding attention. The present study tested this hypothesis using a gaze-cuing task in which a particular in-group participants observed threatening out-group and nonthreatening out-group gazes, while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. As expected, greater gaze cuing effect only emerged for threatening out-group when the in-group participants only felt inergroup threat from that out-group. Behaviorally, we found intergroup threatening out-group gazes did not draw attention faster than nonthreatening in-group gazes does. However, participants took more time to suppress the influence of the gaze direction of threatening out-group gazes, compared to nonthreatening in-group gazes, in the incongruent condition, which means intergroup threatening gaze holds attention longer than nonthreatening gaze does. Imaging results demonstrated that threatening cues recruited a fronto-parietal network, previously implicated in holding attention and execution functions. Our results, therefore, suggest that the mechanisms underpinning gaze cuing evolved to be sensitive to intergroup threatening stimuli, possibly because it is hard to disengage from such intergroup threatening cues once they are detected. PMID:28120864

  8. Consultation in Family Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Elwin; Kaslow, Florence

    1980-01-01

    Discusses need for consultation and reviews a number of models currently being utilized. Emphasis is on preparing clients for consultation, providing background information and preparing with consultant for the session(s), and transferring "power" to the consultant and back again to the primary therapist. (Author)

  9. Mindful attention reduces linguistic intergroup bias

    PubMed Central

    Tincher, Moses M.; Lebois, Lauren A. M.; Barsalou, Lawrence W.

    2015-01-01

    A brief mindfulness intervention diminished bias in favor of one’s in-group and against one’s out-group. In the linguistic intergroup bias (LIB), individuals expect in-group members to behave positively, and out-group members to behave negatively. Consequently, individuals choose abstract language beset with character inferences to describe these expected behaviors, and in contrast, choose concrete, objective language to describe unexpected behaviors. Eighty-four participants received either mindful attention instructions (observe their thoughts as fleeting mental states) or immersion instructions (become absorbed in the vivid details of thoughts). After instruction, participants viewed visual depictions of an imagined in-group or out-group member’s positive or negative behavior, selecting the best linguistic description from a set of four descriptions that varied in abstractness. Immersion groups demonstrated a robust LIB. Mindful attention groups, however, exhibited a markedly tempered LIB, suggesting that even a brief mindfulness-related instruction can implicitly reduce the propensity to perpetuate stereotypical thinking through language. These results contribute to understanding the mechanisms that facilitate unprejudiced thinking. PMID:27200110

  10. Costly punishment prevails in intergroup conflict

    PubMed Central

    Sääksvuori, Lauri; Mappes, Tapio; Puurtinen, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how societies resolve conflicts between individual and common interests remains one of the most fundamental issues across disciplines. The observation that humans readily incur costs to sanction uncooperative individuals without tangible individual benefits has attracted considerable attention as a proximate cause as to why cooperative behaviours might evolve. However, the proliferation of individually costly punishment has been difficult to explain. Several studies over the last decade employing experimental designs with isolated groups have found clear evidence that the costs of punishment often nullify the benefits of increased cooperation, rendering the strong human tendency to punish a thorny evolutionary puzzle. Here, we show that group competition enhances the effectiveness of punishment so that when groups are in direct competition, individuals belonging to a group with punishment opportunity prevail over individuals in a group without this opportunity. In addition to competitive superiority in between-group competition, punishment reduces within-group variation in success, creating circumstances that are highly favourable for the evolution of accompanying group-functional behaviours. We find that the individual willingness to engage in costly punishment increases with tightening competitive pressure between groups. Our results suggest the importance of intergroup conflict behind the emergence of costly punishment and human cooperation. PMID:21450740

  11. Costly punishment prevails in intergroup conflict.

    PubMed

    Sääksvuori, Lauri; Mappes, Tapio; Puurtinen, Mikael

    2011-11-22

    Understanding how societies resolve conflicts between individual and common interests remains one of the most fundamental issues across disciplines. The observation that humans readily incur costs to sanction uncooperative individuals without tangible individual benefits has attracted considerable attention as a proximate cause as to why cooperative behaviours might evolve. However, the proliferation of individually costly punishment has been difficult to explain. Several studies over the last decade employing experimental designs with isolated groups have found clear evidence that the costs of punishment often nullify the benefits of increased cooperation, rendering the strong human tendency to punish a thorny evolutionary puzzle. Here, we show that group competition enhances the effectiveness of punishment so that when groups are in direct competition, individuals belonging to a group with punishment opportunity prevail over individuals in a group without this opportunity. In addition to competitive superiority in between-group competition, punishment reduces within-group variation in success, creating circumstances that are highly favourable for the evolution of accompanying group-functional behaviours. We find that the individual willingness to engage in costly punishment increases with tightening competitive pressure between groups. Our results suggest the importance of intergroup conflict behind the emergence of costly punishment and human cooperation.

  12. Beyond the dyadic perspective: 10 Reasons for using social network analysis in intergroup contact research.

    PubMed

    Wölfer, Ralf; Hewstone, Miles

    2017-09-01

    This article presents 10 reasons why social network analysis, a novel but still surprisingly underused approach in social psychology, can advance the analysis of intergroup contact. Although intergroup contact has been shown to improve intergroup relations, conventional methods leave some questions unanswered regarding the underlying social mechanisms that facilitate social cohesion between different groups in increasingly diverse societies. We will therefore explain the largely unknown conceptual and methodological advantages of social network analysis for studying intergroup contact in naturally existing groups, which are likely to help contact researchers to gain a better understanding of intergroup relations and guide attempts to overcome segregation, prejudice, discrimination, and intergroup conflict. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  13. Asymmetries in altruistic behavior during violent intergroup conflict.

    PubMed

    Rusch, Hannes

    2013-10-23

    Recent theoretical and experimental investigations of altruistic behavior in intergroup conflict in humans frequently make use of the assumption that warfare can be modeled as a symmetrical n-person prisoner's dilemma, abstracting away the strategic differences between attack and defense. In contrast, some empirical studies on intergroup conflict in hunter-gatherer societies and chimpanzees indicate that fitness relevant risks and potential benefits of attacks and defenses might have differed substantially under ancestral conditions. Drawing on these studies, it is hypothesized that the success of defenses was much more important for individual and kin survival and that a disposition to act altruistically during intergroup conflict is thus more likely to evolve for the strategic situation of defense. It is then investigated empirically if such asymmetries in the occurrence of altruistic behavior during intergroup conflict can be found. Analyzing detailed historical case data from 20th century wars, this study finds that altruistic behavior towards members of the in-group indeed seems to occur more frequently when soldiers are defending themselves and their comrades against enemy attacks. It is proposed that this asymmetry reflects adaptive behavioral responses to the materially different strategic character of attacks and defenses under ancestral conditions. If true, this would call for a refinement of theories of the evolutionary interaction of intergroup conflict and altruism.

  14. Causal effect of intergroup contact on exclusionary attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Enos, Ryan D.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of intergroup contact has long been a question central to social scientists. As political and technological changes bring increased international migration, understanding intergroup contact is increasingly important to scientific and policy debates. Unfortunately, limitations in causal inference using observational data and the practical inability to experimentally manipulate demographic diversity has limited scholars’ ability to address the effects of intergroup contact. Here, I report the results of a randomized controlled trial testing the causal effects of repeated intergroup contact, in which Spanish-speaking confederates were randomly assigned to be inserted, for a period of days, into the daily routines of unknowing Anglo-whites living in homogeneous communities in the United States, thus simulating the conditions of demographic change. The result of this experiment is a significant shift toward exclusionary attitudes among treated subjects. This experiment demonstrates that even very minor demographic change causes strong exclusionary reactions. Developed nations and politically liberal subnational units are expected to experience a politically conservative shift as international migration brings increased intergroup contact. PMID:24567394

  15. Intergroup Relations and Health Disparities: A Social Psychological Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Major, Brenda; Mendes, Wendy Berry; Dovidio, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This article considers how the social psychology of intergroup processes helps to explain the presence and persistence of health disparities between members of socially advantaged and disadvantaged groups. Method Social psychological theory and research on intergroup relations, including prejudice, discrimination, stereotyping, stigma, prejudice concerns, social identity threat, and the dynamics of intergroup interactions, is reviewed and applied to understand group disparities in health and health care. Potential directions for future research are considered. Results Key features of group relations and dynamics, including social categorization, social hierarchy, and the structural positions of groups along dimensions of perceived warmth and competence, influence how members of high status groups perceive, feel about, and behave toward members of low status groups, how members of low status groups construe and cope with their situation, and how members of high and low status groups interact with each other. These intergroup processes, in turn, contribute to health disparities by leading to differential exposure to and experiences of chronic and acute stress, different health behaviors, and different quality of health care experienced by members of advantaged and disadvantaged groups. Within each of these pathways, social psychological theory and research identifies mediating mechanisms, moderating factors, and individual differences that can affect health. Conclusions A social psychological perspective illuminates the intergroup, interpersonal, and intrapersonal processes by which structural circumstances which differ between groups for historical, political, and economic reasons can lead to group differences in health. PMID:23646834

  16. Intergroup anxiety effects on implicit racial evaluation and stereotyping.

    PubMed

    Amodio, David M; Hamilton, Holly K

    2012-12-01

    How does intergroup anxiety affect the activation of implicit racial evaluations and stereotypes? Given the common basis of social anxiety and implicit evaluative processes in memory systems linked to classical conditioning and affect, we predicted that intergroup anxiety would amplify implicit negative racial evaluations. Implicit stereotyping, which is associated primarily with semantic memory systems, was not expected to increase as a function of intergroup anxiety. This pattern was observed among White participants preparing to interact with Black partners, but not those preparing to interact with White partners. These findings shed new light on how anxiety, often elicited in real-life intergroup interactions, can affect the operation of implicit racial biases, suggesting that intergroup anxiety has more direct implications for affective and evaluative forms of implicit bias than for implicit stereotyping. These findings also support a memory-systems model of the interplay between emotion and cognition in the context of social behavior. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. The ideal consultation.

    PubMed

    Nicola, Davies

    2012-09-19

    The consulting room used to be regarded as the doctor's preserve. Not any longer. Patients are increasingly consulting nurses for advice and treatment, especially in community settings or in the patient's home.

  18. Managing the Consultation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enteman, Willard F.

    1991-01-01

    The college administration should use some simple procedures to manage a consultation actively, improving the likelihood of success. Issues to be addressed include focused administrative responsibility for the consultation, communication, information availability, campus constituency involvement, need identification, confidentiality, private and…

  19. Inpatient Consultative Dermatology.

    PubMed

    Biesbroeck, Lauren K; Shinohara, Michi M

    2015-11-01

    Dermatology consultation can improve diagnostic accuracy in the hospitalized patient with cutaneous disease. Dermatology consultation can streamline and improve treatment plans, and potentially lead to cost savings. Dermatology consultants can be a valuable resource for education for trainees, patients, and families. Inpatient consultative dermatology spans a breadth of conditions, including inflammatory dermatoses,infectious processes, adverse medication reactions, and neoplastic disorders, many of which can be diagnosed based on dermatologic examination alone, but when necessary, bedside skin biopsies can contribute important diagnostic information.

  20. Heterosexual students' experiences in sexual orientation intergroup dialogue courses.

    PubMed

    Dessel, Adrienne B; Woodford, Michael R; Routenberg, Robbie; Breijak, Duane P

    2013-01-01

    Heterosexism contributes to an unsafe campus climate for lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) college students. Intergroup dialogue courses about sexual orientation seek to build awareness, cross-group relationships, and commitment to social action to address anti-LGB prejudice and discrimination. Although dialogue courses are growing in popularity, few courses address sexual orientation. To advance knowledge of these dialogues, this qualitative study explores heterosexual students' motivations and expectations, challenges, and learning outcomes related to their participation in intergroup dialogue courses on sexual orientation. Core themes include desire to learn about the LGB community, concerns about offending classmates, anxiety around LGB stigma, conflict with classmates around controversial topics, affirming LGB people, and learning about heterosexism, privilege, and intersectionality of identity. Implications for intergroup dialogue pedagogy and research are discussed.

  1. Library Consultants: Client Views.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins-Carter, Jane

    1984-01-01

    Reviews the consulting process (two-way interaction focused on seeking, giving, and receiving of help) as it applies to library science and identifies nine process roles of the consultant as teacher, student, detective, barbarian, timekeeper, monitor, talisman, advocate, and ritual pig. Common errors in classifying consultant roles are noted. (9…

  2. Modeling the Teaching Consultant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Brian L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the teaching consultant process in computer programing courses, describes a teaching consultant model from both the teachers' and students' perspectives, and shows how this model can be used to develop an intelligent teaching consultant (ITC). Differences between this collection of expert systems and conventional intelligent tutoring…

  3. Optimizing Consulting Delivery Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spottswood, Curran

    1980-01-01

    Summarizes a study of several types of consulting groups in the Bell System and describes characteristics which are associated with high-impact consulting. A strategy which is designed for internal consulting organizations to maximize the likelihood of both initial success and long-term survival of the group is proposed. (Author/MER)

  4. [The role of collective victimhood in intergroup aggression: Japan-China relations].

    PubMed

    Nawata, Kengo; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki

    2012-12-01

    This study examines an effect of collective victimhood in intergroup relations. Collective victimhood is the belief that an ingroup has been harmed by an outgroup. Previous studies focusing on collective victimhood have shown that collective victimhood escalates intergroup conflict. We predicted that the effect of collective victimhood on intergroup aggression would involve two different emotional processes: anger and fear. To test this hypothesis, Japanese attitudes toward the Chinese were examined in the context of Japan-China relations. The results of structural equation modeling showed that collective victimhood enhanced both anger and fear. However, intergroup emotions had converse effects on intergroup aggression. While anger promoted intergroup aggression, fear inhibited it. Nationalism promoted collective victimhood. These findings suggest that, in intergroup conflict, collective victimhood affects intergroup aggression through two emotional processes, which have inverse effects on the aggression.

  5. Bridging intragroup processes and intergroup relations: needing the twain to meet.

    PubMed

    Dovidio, John F

    2013-03-01

    Despite their shared focus on groups, research bridging intragroup processes and intergroup relations is surprisingly rare. The goal of the present article is to highlight how understanding the reciprocal relationship between intragroup processes and intergroup relations offers valuable new insights into both topics and suggests new, productive avenues for research and theory development - particularly for understanding and improving intergroup relations. The article next briefly reviews key findings from three dominant frameworks in the field of intergroup relations: social cognition, social identity, and functional relations. It then discusses the complementary role of intergroup and intragroup dynamics, reviewing how intergroup relations can affect intragroup processes and then discussing how intragroup dynamics can shape intergroup relations. The final section considers the implications, theoretical and practical, of the proposed reciprocal relationships between intragroup and intergroup processes. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  6. Moving while Black: Intergroup attitudes influence judgments of speed.

    PubMed

    Kenrick, Andreana C; Sinclair, Stacey; Richeson, Jennifer; Verosky, Sara C; Lun, Janetta

    2016-02-01

    Four experiments examined whether intergroup attitudes shape the speed with which Blacks are thought to be moving. When participants rated the speed of Black and White faces that appeared to be moving toward them, greater intergroup anxiety was associated with judging Black targets as moving more slowly relative to White targets (Experiments 1a and 1b). Experiment 2 demonstrated that this effect occurs only for approaching targets. Experiment 3 showed that this slowing bias occurs, at least in part, because of the perceived duration of time each image was moving. Such a slowing bias is consistent with the time expansion and perceptual slowing reported by people who experienced threatening events.

  7. Accountability Accentuates Interindividual-Intergroup Discontinuity by Enforcing Parochialism

    PubMed Central

    Wildschut, Tim; van Horen, Femke; Hart, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Interindividual-intergroup discontinuity is the tendency for relations between groups to be more competitive than relations between individuals. We examined whether the discontinuity effect arises in part because group members experience normative pressure to favor the ingroup (parochialism). Building on the notion that accountability enhances normative pressure, we hypothesized that the discontinuity effect would be larger when accountability is present (compared to absent). A prisoner’s dilemma game experiment supported this prediction. Specifically, intergroup (compared to interindividual) interaction activated an injunctive ingroup-favoring norm, and accountability enhanced the influence of this norm on competitive behavior. PMID:26635691

  8. Consultant survival guide.

    PubMed

    Haque, Sahena

    2014-04-01

    Taking up a new consultant post can be both exciting and daunting. Once the elation of completing years of training and successfully securing a valued position has subsided, the reality of the task ahead becomes apparent. A new consultant needs to develop a number of skills to develop as a clinical leader and understand the processes within the National Health Service (NHS) that enable service development and innovation. In a programme packed with esteemed speakers, the Royal College of Physicians' one-day conference, Consultants' survival guide: how to succeed as a new consultant provided practical tips and advice for senior trainees and new consultants.

  9. Secondary Transfer Effects of Intergroup Contact: A Cross-National Comparison in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmid, Katharina; Hewstone, Miles; Kupper, Beate; Zick, Andreas; Wagner, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    This article examines so-called secondary transfer effects of intergroup contact, a phenomenon whereby positive intergroup contact experiences can influence attitudes not only toward encountered (primary) outgroups but also toward other (secondary) outgroups that were not initially involved in the intergroup encounter. The current study relies on…

  10. Secondary Transfer Effects of Intergroup Contact: A Cross-National Comparison in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmid, Katharina; Hewstone, Miles; Kupper, Beate; Zick, Andreas; Wagner, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    This article examines so-called secondary transfer effects of intergroup contact, a phenomenon whereby positive intergroup contact experiences can influence attitudes not only toward encountered (primary) outgroups but also toward other (secondary) outgroups that were not initially involved in the intergroup encounter. The current study relies on…

  11. Seeing Eye-to-Eye: Do Intergroup Biases Operate Similarly for Younger and Older Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chasteen, Alison L.

    2005-01-01

    Because of their relatively temporary group memberships, age groups represent an intriguing test of theories of intergroup relations. In spite of this unique feature, virtually no research has examined age group relations from an intergroup perspective. The present study investigated the role of two influential intergroup factors, degree of group…

  12. Opportunities for the Advancement of Home Economists in the Food Manufacturing Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Carol M.

    1999-01-01

    Responses from 133 home economists employed by food manufacturers showed that many have high aspirations but few have advanced to upper-level management. Factors influencing business success included years with company and in career and mentor/sponsor relationships. Many felt limited by lack of business background and the service orientation of…

  13. Health Care, Hospice, and Home Economists: A Programmatic Response to Demographic Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balkwell, Carolyn; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Suggests ways that teams of home economists, integrating information from constituent fields of the discipline, may provide important services to hospices. Suggestions are included from the areas of human development and family relations, foods and nutrition, housing and interior design, clothing and textiles, and financial management and decision…

  14. The Interaction of Publications and Appointments: New Evidence on Academic Economists in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckmann, Klaus; Schneider, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Using a new panel data set comprising publication and appointment data for 889 German academic economists over a quarter of a century, we confirm the familiar hypothesis that publications are important for professorial appointments, but find only a small negative effect of appointments on subsequent research productivity, in particular if one…

  15. Experience of Future Economists' Self-Study Organization in Foreign Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aliyev, Oktay

    2016-01-01

    The article consolidates information sources on the issues of future economists' self-study organization at foreign universities. There has been carried out the study of approaches to the interpretation of the term "self-study process" in the contemporary scientific thought abroad. There have been specified the productive ideas of…

  16. A 2004 unanswered letter to the Economist magazine requesting a retraction (and apology).

    PubMed

    Ling, Gilbert N

    2012-01-01

    This is a copy of (the bulk of) a letter I mailed on May 13, 2004 to Sir Robert P. Wilson, President, and three editors of the magazine, the Economist. With the letter, I also sent each recipient a copy of my latest book, "Life at the Cell and Below-Cell Level" as a gesture of good will.

  17. How to Support a One-Handed Economist: The Role of Modalisation in Economic Forecasting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohue, James P.

    2006-01-01

    Economic forecasting in the world of international finance confronts economists with challenging cross-cultural writing tasks. Producing forecasts in English which convey confidence and credibility entails an understanding of linguistic conventions which typify the genre. A typical linguistic feature of commercial economic forecasts produced by…

  18. Interrelationships of a Home Economist: Legacy of an Extension Agent in New Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makela, Carole J.

    2012-01-01

    Many pioneers in family and consumer sciences (FCS) are not recognized for what they accomplished. How evident this became as the author learned of a home economist who preceded many members and did so much for her state and its people during much of the 1900s. The author read an article from "New Mexico Magazine" which features three…

  19. Opportunities for the Advancement of Home Economists in the Food Manufacturing Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Carol M.

    1999-01-01

    Responses from 133 home economists employed by food manufacturers showed that many have high aspirations but few have advanced to upper-level management. Factors influencing business success included years with company and in career and mentor/sponsor relationships. Many felt limited by lack of business background and the service orientation of…

  20. NCTQ Square-Off: Are Teachers Underpaid? Two Economists Tackle an Intractable Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podgursky, Michael; Mishel, Lawrence

    2005-01-01

    Over the past year, two economists--Michael Podgursky, currently Middlebush Professor and Chairman in the Departmentof Economics at the University of Missouri-Columbia, and Lawrence Mishel, President of the Economic Policy Institute in Washington, D.C.--have been debating whether or not teachers are adequately paid, at least compared to other…

  1. How to Support a One-Handed Economist: The Role of Modalisation in Economic Forecasting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohue, James P.

    2006-01-01

    Economic forecasting in the world of international finance confronts economists with challenging cross-cultural writing tasks. Producing forecasts in English which convey confidence and credibility entails an understanding of linguistic conventions which typify the genre. A typical linguistic feature of commercial economic forecasts produced by…

  2. Experience of Future Economists' Self-Study Organization in Foreign Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aliyev, Oktay

    2016-01-01

    The article consolidates information sources on the issues of future economists' self-study organization at foreign universities. There has been carried out the study of approaches to the interpretation of the term "self-study process" in the contemporary scientific thought abroad. There have been specified the productive ideas of…

  3. The Interaction of Publications and Appointments: New Evidence on Academic Economists in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckmann, Klaus; Schneider, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Using a new panel data set comprising publication and appointment data for 889 German academic economists over a quarter of a century, we confirm the familiar hypothesis that publications are important for professorial appointments, but find only a small negative effect of appointments on subsequent research productivity, in particular if one…

  4. The Linguistic Representation of Rhetorical Function: A Study of How Economists Present Their Knowledge Claims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahl, Trine

    2009-01-01

    This article deals with how economists present their new knowledge claim in the genre of the research article. In the discipline of economics today, the claim is typically included not only in the obvious results/discussion section(s) but also in three other locations of the article: the abstract, the introduction, and the conclusion. The present…

  5. Knowledge and Attitudes of Selected Home Economists toward Irradiation in Food Preservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Faye C. Stucy

    1990-01-01

    A survey of the knowledge and attitudes of 485 California home economists toward the use of irradiation to preserve food revealed that they lacked the knowledge although they had a positive attitude toward it. An interactive teleconference on irradiation increased positive attitudes and improved knowledge. (JOW)

  6. Facing up to Realities: Harvard Economist Investigates the Racial Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    As an economist, Dr. Ronald F. Ferguson often applies quantitative analysis to public policy dilemmas, which yields data models and quantitative measures of complex issues. In tackling the racial achievement gap, the Harvard-based social policy expert has added investigation techniques from sociology and psychology to explore what might seem a…

  7. Interrelationships of a Home Economist: Legacy of an Extension Agent in New Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makela, Carole J.

    2012-01-01

    Many pioneers in family and consumer sciences (FCS) are not recognized for what they accomplished. How evident this became as the author learned of a home economist who preceded many members and did so much for her state and its people during much of the 1900s. The author read an article from "New Mexico Magazine" which features three…

  8. How Do Economists Respond to the Storytellers? A Look at "The Rhetoric of Economics."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baake, Ken

    Teachers of college writing have a vested interest in the tremors of rhetoric surfacing from within the discipline of economics. In the past 15 years, some economists, philosophers of science, and humanists have challenged the positivist mantel of economics. They argue that economic methodology would be more ethical, more honest to the profession…

  9. Maximizing the Substance in the Soundbite: A Media Guide for Economists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamermesh, Daniel S.

    2004-01-01

    With this guide, the author aims to induce more economists to talk to people in the media as a means of expanding educational outreach. The guide provides discussions of "do's" and "don'ts" and offers advice on which kinds of research are likely to interest reporters. The author suggests specific approaches to dealing with reporters in different…

  10. A Developmental Sequence of Skills in Adolescents' Intergroup Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karcher, Michael, J.; Fischer, Kurt, W.

    2004-01-01

    This study explores the psychometric properties of a proposed sequence of socioemotional cognitive skills in the domain of intergroup understanding as assessed by interview and questionnaire data from 91 Caucasian and Hispanic adolescents. The proposed sequence of skills was measured under two support conditions to test hypotheses about a…

  11. Inter-group cooperation in humans and other animals.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Elva J H; Barker, Jessica L

    2017-03-01

    Social interactions are often characterized by cooperation within groups and conflict or competition between groups. In certain circumstances, however, cooperation can arise between social groups. Here, we examine the circumstances under which inter-group cooperation is expected to emerge and present examples with particular focus on groups in two well-studied but dissimilar taxa: humans and ants. Drivers for the evolution of inter-group cooperation include overarching threats from predators, competitors or adverse conditions, and group-level resource asymmetries. Resources can differ between groups in both quantity and type. Where the difference is in type, inequalities can lead to specialization and division of labour between groups, a phenomenon characteristic of human societies, but rarely seen in other animals. The ability to identify members of one's own group is essential for social coherence; we consider the proximate roles of identity effects in shaping inter-group cooperation and allowing membership of multiple groups. Finally, we identify numerous valuable avenues for future research that will improve our understanding of the processes shaping inter-group cooperation.

  12. The rules of engagement: physician engagement strategies in intergroup contexts.

    PubMed

    Kreindler, Sara A; Larson, Bridget K; Wu, Frances M; Gbemudu, Josette N; Carluzzo, Kathleen L; Struthers, Ashley; Van Citters, Aricca D; Shortell, Stephen M; Nelson, Eugene C; Fisher, Elliott S

    2014-01-01

    Recognition of the importance and difficulty of engaging physicians in organisational change has sparked an explosion of literature. The social identity approach, by considering engagement in terms of underlying group identifications and intergroup dynamics, may provide a framework for choosing among the plethora of proposed engagement techniques. This paper seeks to address this issue. The authors examined how four disparate organisations engaged physicians in change. Qualitative methods included interviews (109 managers and physicians), observation, and document review. Beyond a universal focus on relationship-building, sites differed radically in their preferred strategies. Each emphasised or downplayed professional and/or organisational identity as befit the existing level of inter-group closeness between physicians and managers: an independent practice association sought to enhance members' identity as independent physicians; a hospital, engaging community physicians suspicious of integration, stressed collaboration among separate, equal partners; a developing integrated-delivery system promoted alignment among diverse groups by balancing "systemness" with subgroup uniqueness; a medical group established a strong common identity among employed physicians, but practised pragmatic co-operation with its affiliates. The authors cannot confirm the accuracy of managers perceptions of the inter-group context or the efficacy of particular strategies. Nonetheless, the findings suggested the fruitfulness of social identity thinking in approaching physician engagement. Attention to inter-group dynamics may help organisations engage physicians more effectively. This study illuminates and explains variation in the way different organisations engage physicians, and offers a theoretical basis for selecting engagement strategies.

  13. Assessment of an Intervention Curriculum Unit in Intergroup Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glick, Irvin David; Meinke, Dean L.

    While materials for teaching for intergroup understandings in the form of books, curriculum guides, and articles are widely available for direct implementation into ongoing curricula, the actual development and implementation of this type of material into school programs has usually been reserved for specifically designated national dates.…

  14. Intergroup Conflict in Russia: Testing the Group Position Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minescu, Anca; Poppe, Edwin

    2011-01-01

    The group position model (Blumer 1958; Bobo and Tuan 2006) assumes that attempting to secure a privileged position for the ingroup is a main determinant of perceived intergroup conflict. This assumption is tested with survey data collected in 1999 and 2000 among eight titular groups in autonomous republics of the Russian Federation. The survey…

  15. 20 CFR 638.518 - Intergroup relations program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intergroup relations program. 638.518 Section 638.518 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR JOB CORPS PROGRAM UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.518...

  16. The intergroup protocols: Scalable group communication for the internet

    SciTech Connect

    Berket, Karlo

    2000-12-04

    Reliable group ordered delivery of multicast messages in a distributed system is a useful service that simplifies the programming of distributed applications. Such a service helps to maintain the consistency of replicated information and to coordinate the activities of the various processes. With the increasing popularity of the Internet, there is an increasing interest in scaling the protocols that provide this service to the environment of the Internet. The InterGroup protocol suite, described in this dissertation, provides such a service, and is intended for the environment of the Internet with scalability to large numbers of nodes and high latency links. The InterGroup protocols approach the scalability problem from various directions. They redefine the meaning of group membership, allow voluntary membership changes, add a receiver-oriented selection of delivery guarantees that permits heterogeneity of the receiver set, and provide a scalable reliability service. The InterGroup system comprises several components, executing at various sites within the system. Each component provides part of the services necessary to implement a group communication system for the wide-area. The components can be categorized as: (1) control hierarchy, (2) reliable multicast, (3) message distribution and delivery, and (4) process group membership. We have implemented a prototype of the InterGroup protocols in Java, and have tested the system performance in both local-area and wide-area networks.

  17. The Dynamics of Intragroup Differentiation in an Intergroup Social Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Scott A.; Ng, Sik Hung

    2006-01-01

    Status hierarchies typically emerge when groups of strangers interact. Relatively little work tests explanations for this process in homogenous groups, and the majority has been conducted in intragroup settings. We test an expectation-states explanation in an intergroup context using the multilevel application of the actor-partner interdependence…

  18. A Vision of Social Justice in Intergroup Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Jessica Belue; Quaye, Stephen John

    2016-01-01

    Intergroup dialogues (IGD)--face-to-face, structured interactions between people of different social identities--is one educational intervention used to foster engagement across differences and to promote social justice. Using an 18-month case study methodology, we examined the experiences of IGD students and facilitators at one campus to gain a…

  19. Intergroup Contact and Beliefs about Homosexuality in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinze, Justin E.; Horn, Stacey S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between intergroup contact and adolescents' attitudes regarding homosexuality and the treatment of lesbian and gay (LG) peers. Fourteen- through 18-year-olds (n = 1,069, 59.7% females) completed self-report attitude and judgment questionnaires about the acceptability of homosexuality, levels of comfort around…

  20. The Dynamics of Intragroup Differentiation in an Intergroup Social Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Scott A.; Ng, Sik Hung

    2006-01-01

    Status hierarchies typically emerge when groups of strangers interact. Relatively little work tests explanations for this process in homogenous groups, and the majority has been conducted in intragroup settings. We test an expectation-states explanation in an intergroup context using the multilevel application of the actor-partner interdependence…

  1. Social Integration in Employment Settings: Application of Intergroup Contact Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Jeanne A.; Rogan, Patricia M.

    2010-01-01

    This study used a survey of 106 employment specialists to test the ability of intergroup contact theory to explain social integration outcomes of employees with disabilities. Contact theory suggests that coworkers are more accepting of employees with disabilities if they have sufficient opportunities to interact with them, equal status and…

  2. A Vision of Social Justice in Intergroup Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Jessica Belue; Quaye, Stephen John

    2016-01-01

    Intergroup dialogues (IGD)--face-to-face, structured interactions between people of different social identities--is one educational intervention used to foster engagement across differences and to promote social justice. Using an 18-month case study methodology, we examined the experiences of IGD students and facilitators at one campus to gain a…

  3. Intergroup Contact and Beliefs about Homosexuality in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinze, Justin E.; Horn, Stacey S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between intergroup contact and adolescents' attitudes regarding homosexuality and the treatment of lesbian and gay (LG) peers. Fourteen- through 18-year-olds (n = 1,069, 59.7% females) completed self-report attitude and judgment questionnaires about the acceptability of homosexuality, levels of comfort around…

  4. Is it not time for health economists to rethink equity and access?

    PubMed

    Mooney, Gavin

    2009-04-01

    This article considers two key issues in health economics regarding the question of equity. First, why have health economists not resolved better the issue of what are equity and access? Second, the paper draws attention to the relative lack of analyses of equity concerns outside of health care. The question of whose values should prevail in equity is also addressed. On the first issue, there is an obsession with quantification in economics with the result that in analysing equity, in practice often 'use' has been substituted for 'access'. The problem of defining access has thereby been by-passed. This has taken the pressure off trying to research access per se. Second, what is meant by equity and access are in part culturally determined. The continued efforts of health economists to treat equity as some universal construct are misplaced. The lack of effort on the part of health economists to look at equity more broadly than health care equity is concerning. Certainly, to be pursued in practice, equity in both health and health care need a shift in resources, which will be opposed by those who exercise power over decision making in health care and in society more generally. Currently health economists' analyses say all too little about power and property rights in health care and in society. It is argued that the relevant citizens or communities which a health service serves are best placed to judge the access barriers they face and their relative heights. A useful definition of equity established by a citizens' jury in Perth, Australia is used to exemplify this point. It is concluded that the often all too simplistic equity goals adopted in health economics (and sometimes public health discourse) need to be challenged. For health economists, there is a need for more of us to get involved in the issues around inequalities, class and power and the impact of these on health.

  5. The art of consultation

    PubMed Central

    Bhangoo, Kulwant S.

    2014-01-01

    Sophisticated marketing and practice-enhancing strategies can help bring patients to a surgeon's practice. However, the ability to retain these patients and also convert the consultations into surgical procedures depends on the art of consultation. This very important aspect of clinical practice is seldom taught in the medical school. In this paper, the author discusses many aspects of the art of consultation, which he has learned in his practice over the years. PMID:25190910

  6. Journey to the Edges: Social Structures and Neural Maps of Intergroup Processes

    PubMed Central

    Fiske, Susan T.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores boundaries of the intellectual map of intergroup processes, going to the macro (social structure) boundary and the micro (neural systems) boundary. Both are illustrated by with my own and others’ work on social structures and on neural structures related to intergroup processes. Analyzing the impact of social structures on intergroup processes led to insights about distinct forms of sexism and underlies current work on forms of ageism. The stereotype content model also starts with the social structure of intergroup relations (interdependence and status) and predicts images, emotions, and behaviors. Social structure has much to offer the social psychology of intergroup processes. At the other, less explored boundary, social neuroscience addresses the effects of social contexts on neural systems relevant to intergroup processes. Both social structural and neural analyses circle back to traditional social psychology as converging indicators of intergroup processes. PMID:22435843

  7. Directory of Environmental Consultants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cate, Bill, Ed.

    Over 400 inter-field professionals are named as environmental consultants in this 1972 annual directory. Primarily, they are faculty members at colleges and universities in Canada, Puerto Rico, and the United States who will provide free environmental consulting services to interested government, industry, and citizen organizations, but are not…

  8. Bring in the Consultants!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haviland, Joseph E.

    1995-01-01

    To improve its reading program, a Pennsylvania district involved its teachers in retaining consultants who would work collaboratively with them. This model has been used in each of four elementary schools for the past seven years. The district allocates $1,800 per school for consultants, instructional materials, and substitutes who release…

  9. The Search Consultant's Obligations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Kenneth

    1994-01-01

    The superintendent search consultant is employed by the board of education and must always act in the board's best interest. Boards want consultants to be friendly and courteous, provide information, and foster an aura of good feeling with candidates and the board. Candidates should receive accurate information, selection criteria briefings,…

  10. Directory of Environmental Consultants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cate, Bill, Ed.

    Over 400 inter-field professionals are named as environmental consultants in this 1972 annual directory. Primarily, they are faculty members at colleges and universities in Canada, Puerto Rico, and the United States who will provide free environmental consulting services to interested government, industry, and citizen organizations, but are not…

  11. The Search Consultant's Obligations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Kenneth

    1994-01-01

    The superintendent search consultant is employed by the board of education and must always act in the board's best interest. Boards want consultants to be friendly and courteous, provide information, and foster an aura of good feeling with candidates and the board. Candidates should receive accurate information, selection criteria briefings,…

  12. Architectural-acoustics consulting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, Anthony K.

    2004-05-01

    Consulting involves both the science of acoustics and the art of communication, requiring an array of inherent and created skills. Perhaps because consulting on architectural acoustics is a relatively new field, there is a remarkable variety of career paths, all influenced by education, interest, and experience. Many consultants juggle dozens of chargeable projects at a time, not to mention proposals, seminars, teaching, articles, business concerns, and professional-society activities. This paper will discuss various aspects of career paths, projects, and clients as they relate to architectural-acoustics consulting. The intended emphasis will be considerations for those who may be interested in such a career, noting that consultants generally seem to thrive on the numerous challenges.

  13. Which patients do I treat? An experimental study with economists and physicians

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This experiment investigates decisions made by prospective economists and physicians in an allocation problem which can be framed either medically or neutrally. The potential recipients differ with respect to their minimum needs as well as to how much they benefit from a treatment. We classify the allocators as either 'selfish', 'Rawlsian', or 'maximizing the number of recipients'. Economists tend to maximize their own payoff, whereas the physicians' choices are more in line with maximizing the number of recipients and with Rawlsianism. Regarding the framing, we observe that professional norms surface more clearly in familiar settings. Finally, we scrutinize how the probability of being served and the allocated quantity depend on a recipient's characteristics as well as on the allocator type. JEL Classification: A13, I19, C91, C72 PMID:22827912

  14. Intergroup contact and prejudice between Dutch majority and Muslim minority youth in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Vedder, Paul; Wenink, Erlijn; van Geel, Mitch

    2017-10-01

    This study deals with three relatively understudied issues in intergroup contact: negative contact, mediating mechanisms, and the minority perspective. Both direct and extended positive and negative contact experiences are included in the design. Intergroup anxiety is tested as a mediator between different forms of contact and prejudice, and status as Dutch majority or Muslim minority is used as a moderator. A sample of 317 Dutch majority (47.6% female) and 369 Muslim minority (52.0% female) youth, ranging in age from 12 to 19 years completed self-reports about contact experiences, intergroup threat, and prejudice. Results show that status as a Dutch majority or Muslim minority is a moderator in the relations between contact, intergroup anxiety, and prejudice. In the majority sample, all forms of direct and extended contact were related to prejudice and mediated by intergroup anxiety in the expected directions. In the Muslim minority sample, only positive contact was related to prejudice and mediated by intergroup anxiety in the expected direction. These findings underline that studies on intergroup relations should take both positive and negative contact experiences for intergroup attitudes into account as well as the majority or minority status of the groups involved. Moreover, the study suggests that partly different explanations may be needed for minority and majority groups for the role of intergroup contact in intergroup attitudes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. An In–Group Advantage in Detecting Intergroup Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Heather M.; Mendes, Wendy Berry; Denny-Brown, Carrigan

    2009-01-01

    We examined the possibility of an in-group advantage in detecting intergroup anxiety. Specifically, we videotaped White and Black participants while they engaged in same-race or interrace interactions. Then we asked White and Black observers to view these videotapes (unaware of the racial context) and provide their impressions of participants' anxiety. Two results pointed to an in-group advantage in detecting intergroup anxiety. First, only same-race observers perceived a modulation of participants' anxious behavior as a function of racial context. This held true not only for relatively subjective perceptions of global anxiety, but also for perceptions of single, discrete behaviors tied to anxiety. Second, we found that only same-race observers provided descriptions of anxiety that tracked reliably with participants' cortisol changes during the task. These results suggest that White and Black Americans may have difficulty developing a sense of shared emotional experience. PMID:19121129

  16. Increasing Intergroup Distinctiveness: The Benefits of Third Party Helping.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Esther; Harinck, Fieke

    2016-10-01

    Discrimination is often used to increase public perceptions of group distinctiveness. The current research studied the effectiveness of third party helping as an alternative, more benign strategy to this end. Across four studies, we examined whether helping a third party can position the helping group as more distinct from, or more similar to, a comparison group, depending on the nature of the comparison group's relationship with the third party. Results from three studies showed that third party helping was as effective as discrimination of the comparison group, but third party helping elicited a more positive public image of the group compared with discrimination. Study 4 provided evidence for the spontaneous use of third party helping in response to distinctiveness threat. These findings extend insights from classic balance theories and research on strategic intergroup helping to the domain of intergroup differentiation, and highlight a benign strategy to achieve positive group distinctiveness. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  17. Intergroup contact and beliefs about homosexuality in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Heinze, Justin E; Horn, Stacey S

    2009-08-01

    This study examines the relationship between intergroup contact and adolescents' attitudes regarding homosexuality and the treatment of lesbian and gay (LG) peers. Fourteen- through 18-year-olds (n = 1,069, 59.7% females) completed self-report attitude and judgment questionnaires about the acceptability of homosexuality, levels of comfort around LG peers, and the acceptability of excluding or teasing an LG peer. The results suggest that having an LG friend is related to more positive attitudes toward homosexuals/homosexuality and less tolerance toward the unfair treatment of LG peers. The findings lend further support to intergroup contact theory and provide evidence that the intimacy of contact is related to prejudice reduction, and offer general support that age is related to prejudicial attitudes, but less so to prejudicial behaviors.

  18. Intergroup contact and prejudice against people with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    West, Keon; Hewstone, Miles; Lolliot, Simon

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing awareness that responses to mental health disorders differ according to the label. Still, research on contact and prejudice against people with mental health disorders has generally focused on the broader label, "mental illness," as though various disorders were interchangeable. The present research specifically investigated the relationship between intergroup contact and avoidance of people with schizophrenia--a particularly stigmatized and challenging group--as well as mediators of that relationship. In Study 1, 78 students completed measures of their prior contact with and prejudice against people with schizophrenia. Prior contact predicted less desired avoidance of people with schizophrenia, and this relationship was mediated by more favorable attitudes. Study 2 (N = 122) replicated the results of Study 1, and also found that less fear and less intergroup anxiety mediated the relationship between contact and avoidance. This suggests that contact may effectively reduce prejudice, even against this highly stigmatized group.

  19. Conservatism, institutionalism, and the social control of intergroup conflict.

    PubMed

    King, Ryan D

    2008-03-01

    This research investigates the state social control of intergroup conflict by assessing the sociopolitical determinants of hate crime prosecutions. Consistent with insights from the political sociology of punishment, group-threat accounts of intergroup relations and the state, and neoinstitutional theory, the findings suggest that hate crime prosecutions are fewer where political conservatism, Christian fundamentalism, and black population size are higher, although this last effect is nonlinear. Linkages between district attorneys' offices and communities, on the other hand, increase hate crime prosecutions and the likelihood of offices' creating hate crime policies. Yet these policies are sometimes decoupled from actual enforcement, and such decoupling is more likely in politically conservative districts. The results indicate that common correlates of criminal punishment have very different effects on types of state social control that are protective of minority groups, and also suggest conditions under which policy and practice become decoupled in organizational settings.

  20. Beyond contact: intergroup contact in the context of power relations.

    PubMed

    Saguy, Tamar; Dovidio, John F; Pratto, Felicia

    2008-03-01

    This work investigated how group-based power affects the motivations and preferences that members of advantaged and disadvantaged groups bring to situations of contact. To measure the preferred content of interactions, desires to address particular topics in intergroup contact were assessed for both experimental groups (Study 1) and real groups (Study 2). As predicted, across both studies, the desire to talk about power was greater among members of disadvantaged than of advantaged groups. This difference was mediated by motivation for change in group-based power. Study 2 further demonstrated that more highly identified members of disadvantaged groups wanted to talk about power more. Members of advantaged groups generally preferred to talk about commonalities between the groups more than about group-based power, and this desire was greater with higher levels of identification. However, perceiving that their group's advantage was illegitimate increased the desire of advantaged group members to address power in intergroup interactions.

  1. Political ideology and American intergroup discrimination: A patriotism perspective.

    PubMed

    L Hoyt, Crystal; Goldin, Aleah

    2016-01-01

    In this research we demonstrate the powerful role of ingroup favoritism, rather than hostility, in American intergroup biases. Specifically, we take a novel perspective to understanding the relationship between political ideology and discrimination against ethnic-minority Americans by focusing on the role of patriotism. Across three studies, we show that political ideology is a strong predictor of resource allocation biases, and this effect is mediated by American patriotism and not by prejudice or nationalism. Conservatives report greater levels of patriotism than liberals, and patriotism is associated with donating more to American, as opposed to ethnic-minority American, organizations. We further show that the link between patriotism and partiality to the national group is mediated by stronger "American = White" associations. These findings have important implications for intergroup relations and diversity-related policy issues in the United States.

  2. A practical approach to the interGroup protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Berket, Karlo; Agarwal, Deborah A.; Chevassut, Olivier

    2001-11-12

    Existing reliable ordered group communication protocols have been developed for local-area networks and do not, in general, scale well to large numbers of nodes and wide-area networks. The InterGroup suite of protocols is a scalable group communication system that introduces an unusual approach to handling group membership, and supports a receiver-oriented selection of service. The protocols are intended for a wide-area network, with a large number of nodes, that has highly variable delays and a high message loss rate, such as the Internet. The levels of the message delivery service range from unreliable unordered to reliable timestamp ordered. We also present a secure group layer that builds on InterGroup to provide SSL-like security for groups.

  3. Contextual effect of positive intergroup contact on outgroup prejudice.

    PubMed

    Christ, Oliver; Schmid, Katharina; Lolliot, Simon; Swart, Hermann; Stolle, Dietlind; Tausch, Nicole; Al Ramiah, Ananthi; Wagner, Ulrich; Vertovec, Steven; Hewstone, Miles

    2014-03-18

    We assessed evidence for a contextual effect of positive intergroup contact, whereby the effect of intergroup contact between social contexts (the between-level effect) on outgroup prejudice is greater than the effect of individual-level contact within contexts (the within-level effect). Across seven large-scale surveys (five cross-sectional and two longitudinal), using multilevel analyses, we found a reliable contextual effect. This effect was found in multiple countries, operationalizing context at multiple levels (regions, districts, and neighborhoods), and with and without controlling for a range of demographic and context variables. In four studies (three cross-sectional and one longitudinal) we showed that the association between context-level contact and prejudice was largely mediated by more tolerant norms. In social contexts where positive contact with outgroups was more commonplace, norms supported such positive interactions between members of different groups. Thus, positive contact reduces prejudice on a macrolevel, whereby people are influenced by the behavior of others in their social context, not merely on a microscale, via individuals' direct experience of positive contact with outgroup members. These findings reinforce the view that contact has a significant role to play in prejudice reduction, and has great policy potential as a means to improve intergroup relations, because it can simultaneously impact large numbers of people.

  4. A citation analysis of Henri Tajfel's work on intergroup relations.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Kitty; Louw, Johann

    2009-02-01

    The late Henri Tajfel (1919-1982) is one of the central figures who shaped the development of post-war European social psychology. His contributions range from the establishment of an infrastructure for a European social psychology, and the start of a new intellectual movement within social psychology, to the formulation of a set of concepts addressing intergroup relations that were finally integrated into Social Identity Theory. The present study provides an empirical examination of Tajfel's contribution to intergroup research over the last 30 years via a citation analysis of five journals: the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, the British Journal of Social Psychology, the European Journal of Social Psychology, the South African Journal of Psychology, and the German Journal of Social Psychology (Zeitschrift für Sozialpsychologie). The results indicate that Tajfel's work on intergroup relations is increasingly cited, especially since the 1990s, and the international recognition of his work is substantial. Three possible reasons for the recognition his work still enjoys are proposed: its potential to generate theoretical and empirical controversies; its explanatory power; and the extent to which his work is used as a referential framework.

  5. Contextual effect of positive intergroup contact on outgroup prejudice

    PubMed Central

    Christ, Oliver; Schmid, Katharina; Lolliot, Simon; Swart, Hermann; Stolle, Dietlind; Tausch, Nicole; Al Ramiah, Ananthi; Wagner, Ulrich; Vertovec, Steven; Hewstone, Miles

    2014-01-01

    We assessed evidence for a contextual effect of positive intergroup contact, whereby the effect of intergroup contact between social contexts (the between-level effect) on outgroup prejudice is greater than the effect of individual-level contact within contexts (the within-level effect). Across seven large-scale surveys (five cross-sectional and two longitudinal), using multilevel analyses, we found a reliable contextual effect. This effect was found in multiple countries, operationalizing context at multiple levels (regions, districts, and neighborhoods), and with and without controlling for a range of demographic and context variables. In four studies (three cross-sectional and one longitudinal) we showed that the association between context-level contact and prejudice was largely mediated by more tolerant norms. In social contexts where positive contact with outgroups was more commonplace, norms supported such positive interactions between members of different groups. Thus, positive contact reduces prejudice on a macrolevel, whereby people are influenced by the behavior of others in their social context, not merely on a microscale, via individuals’ direct experience of positive contact with outgroup members. These findings reinforce the view that contact has a significant role to play in prejudice reduction, and has great policy potential as a means to improve intergroup relations, because it can simultaneously impact large numbers of people. PMID:24591627

  6. INTER-GROUP IMAGE REGISTRATION BY HIERARCHICAL GRAPH SHRINKAGE.

    PubMed

    Ying, Shihui; Wu, Guorong; Liao, Shu; Shen, Dinggang

    2013-12-31

    In this paper, we propose a novel inter-group image registration method to register different groups of images (e.g., young and elderly brains) simultaneously. Specifically, we use a hierarchical two-level graph to model the distribution of entire images on the manifold, with intra-graph representing the image distribution in each group and the inter-graph describing the relationship between two groups. Then the procedure of inter-group registration is formulated as a dynamic evolution of graph shrinkage. The advantage of our method is that the topology of entire image distribution is explored to guide the image registration. In this way, each image coordinates with its neighboring images on the manifold to deform towards the population center, by following the deformation pathway simultaneously optimized within the graph. Our proposed method has been also compared with other state-of-the-art inter-group registration methods, where our method achieves better registration results in terms of registration accuracy and robustness.

  7. The joint effect of bias awareness and self-reported prejudice on intergroup anxiety and intentions for intergroup contact.

    PubMed

    Perry, Sylvia P; Dovidio, John F; Murphy, Mary C; van Ryn, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Two correlational studies investigated the joint effect of bias awareness-a new individual difference measure that assesses Whites' awareness and concern about their propensity to be biased-and prejudice on Whites' intergroup anxiety and intended intergroup contact. Using a community sample (Study 1), we found the predicted Bias Awareness × Prejudice interaction. Prejudice was more strongly related to interracial anxiety among those high (vs. low) in bias awareness. Study 2 investigated potential behavioral consequences in an important real world context: medical students' intentions for working primarily with minority patients. Study 2 replicated the Bias Awareness × Prejudice interaction and further demonstrated that interracial anxiety mediated medical students' intentions to work with minority populations.

  8. Consultants around the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vickers, Peter; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Three articles discuss information brokering in the United Kingdom, Canada, and Argentina. A sidebar describes the Working from Home Forum on CompuServe, which is available to information consultants/brokers worldwide. (MES)

  9. From Cosmology to Consulting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, William

    2014-03-01

    I will discuss my transition from Quantum Gravity and Cosmology to the world of consulting and describe the differences and similarities between academia and industry. I will give some dos and don'ts for industry interviews and jobs searches.

  10. Prevention Through Teacher Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, James C.

    1977-01-01

    A program of cooperation between teachers and professional consultants in the field of mental health made possible the identification of children with problems and the successful modification of their behavior. (JD)

  11. It is Who You Know That Counts: Intergroup Contact and Judgments about Race-Based Exclusion

    PubMed Central

    Crystal, David S.; Killen, Melanie; Ruck, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Intergroup contact and evaluations about race-based exclusion were assessed for majority and minority students in fourth, seventh, and tenth grades (N = 685). Students were presented with scenarios depicting cross-race relations in contexts of dyadic friendship, parental discomfort, and peer group disapproval. Participants reporting higher levels of intergroup contact gave higher ratings of wrongfulness of exclusion and lower frequency estimations of race-based exclusion than did participants reporting lower levels of such contact. Intergroup contact also predicted students’ attributions of motives in two out of three scenarios. Findings are discussed in terms of the extant literature on peer relations, moral reasoning, and intergroup contact. PMID:25505355

  12. Intergroup dialogue courses on sexual orientation: lesbian, gay and bisexual student experiences and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Dessel, Adrienne B; Woodford, Michael R; Warren, Naomi

    2011-01-01

    Intergroup dialogue is a method of social justice education. Most intergroup dialogue research explores race and gender identities. Sexual orientation dialogues are uncommon and not yet examined empirically. This qualitative study explores sexual orientation dialogue courses from the perspective of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) student participants. Understanding target, or marginalized, group perspective of planned intergroup experiences is important given concerns raised in the literature. We document student motivations for participating in dialogues, core outcomes, and main challenges that arose in dialogue. Core outcomes include learning about and accepting one's sexual identity and empowerment. Challenges include those stemming from invisibility of sexual orientation identity. Recommendations are made for intergroup dialogue practice and research.

  13. Perceiving intergroup conflict: from game models to mental templates.

    PubMed

    Halevy, Nir; Sagiv, Lilach; Roccas, Sonia; Bornstein, Gary

    2006-12-01

    This article puts forward a parsimonious framework for studying subjective perceptions of real-life intergroup conflicts. Four studies were conducted to explore how individuals perceive the strategic properties of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Studies 1 and 2 found theory-driven associations between people's subjective perception of the conflict's structure as a Chicken, Assurance, or Prisoner's Dilemma game and their ingroup/outgroup perceptions, national identification, religiosity, political partisanship, voting behavior, and right-wing authoritarianism. Studies 3 and 4 manipulated the saliency of the needs for cognitive closure and security, respectively, demonstrating that these needs affect people's endorsement of the game models as descriptions of the conflict.

  14. Addressing the challenge of intergroup studies in oncology: the EORTC experience. European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zurlo, A; Therasse, P

    2002-03-01

    Intergroup studies are conducted by more than one clinical research group. There are several difficulties that hamper in practice the possibility of conducting such trials, as all interested parties will have to address unusual and complex issues. These are mainly related to differences in size, interests, motivations and means among different research organisations. The EORTC recognises the importance to promote intergroup collaboration providing to all interested groups the necessary expertise and organisational support to conduct intergroup studies. The role of the EORTC evolved from the spontaneous organisations of intergroup trials to the definition of a basic set of principles and criteria that groups have to fulfil to participate in intergroup trials. Recently, a specific EORTC Intergroup Office started its activity devoted to solve the issues related to the intergroup co-operation. This office will have an increasing role to promote and help in conducting intergroup studies.

  15. Gene × environment interaction on intergroup bias: the role of 5-HTTLPR and perceived outgroup threat.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Bobby K; Livingston, Robert W; Hong, Ying-Yi; Chiao, Joan Y

    2014-09-01

    Perceived threat from outgroups is a consistent social-environmental antecedent of intergroup bias (i.e. prejudice, ingroup favoritism). The serotonin transporter gene polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) has been associated with individual variations in sensitivity to context, particularly stressful and threatening situations. Here, we examined how 5-HTTLPR and environmental factors signaling potential outgroup threat dynamically interact to shape intergroup bias. Across two studies, we provide novel evidence for a gene-environment interaction on the acquisition of intergroup bias and prejudice. Greater exposure to signals of outgroup threat, such as negative prior contact with outgroups and perceived danger from the social environment, were more predictive of intergroup bias among participants possessing at least one short allele (vs two long alleles) of 5-HTTLPR. Furthermore, this gene x environment interaction was observed for biases directed at diverse ethnic and arbitrarily-defined outgroups across measures reflecting intergroup biases in evaluation and discriminatory behavior. These findings reveal a candidate genetic mechanism for the acquisition of intergroup bias, and suggest that intergroup bias is dually inherited and transmitted through the interplay of social (i.e. contextual cues of outgroup threat) and biological mechanisms (i.e. genetic sensitivity toward threatening contexts) that regulate perceived intergroup threats.

  16. Inter-Group and Intra-Group Assertiveness: Adolescents' Social Skills Following Cultural Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korem, Anat; Horenczyk, Gabriel; Tatar, Moshe

    2012-01-01

    The goals of this study were to examine intra-group and inter-group assertiveness among adolescents, and to compare these two domains of assertiveness between cultural groups in Israel. Measures of intra-group and inter-group assertiveness were developed, and questionnaires were administrated to 441 immigrants from the Former Soviet Union (FSU),…

  17. The Road to Empathy: Dialogic Pathways for Engaging Diversity and Improving Intergroup Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Nicholas A.

    2010-01-01

    This three paper dissertation presents and tests a model for effective intergroup communication. The first paper reviews evidence of positive and negative consequences of interracial contact and presents a theoretical model of intergroup dialogue (IGD) focused on promoting positive and avoiding negative outcomes. The second paper tests the…

  18. Intergroup Relations in Integrated Schools: A Glimpse inside Interdistrict Magnet Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bifulco, Robert; Buerger, Christian; Cobb, Casey

    2012-01-01

    The frequency and quality of intergroup contact within racially and ethnically diverse schools has potentially important implications for the achievement of desegregation goals. The analyses presented here use survey data to assess intergroup contact within a sample of ten interdistrict magnet schools in Connecticut. Findings indicate frequent…

  19. How Intergroup Dialogue Facilitators Understand Their Role in Promoting Student Development and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quaye, Stephen John; Johnson, Matthew R.

    2016-01-01

    Intergroup dialogues are co-facilitated, face-to-face dialogues between two groups that have a history of conflict (for example, White people and people of color). Although researchers have explored the outcomes of these dialogues among students, little is known about the role of facilitators. Drawing from a case study of an intergroup dialogue…

  20. How Intergroup Dialogue Facilitators Understand Their Role in Promoting Student Development and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quaye, Stephen John; Johnson, Matthew R.

    2016-01-01

    Intergroup dialogues are co-facilitated, face-to-face dialogues between two groups that have a history of conflict (for example, White people and people of color). Although researchers have explored the outcomes of these dialogues among students, little is known about the role of facilitators. Drawing from a case study of an intergroup dialogue…

  1. The Road to Empathy: Dialogic Pathways for Engaging Diversity and Improving Intergroup Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Nicholas A.

    2010-01-01

    This three paper dissertation presents and tests a model for effective intergroup communication. The first paper reviews evidence of positive and negative consequences of interracial contact and presents a theoretical model of intergroup dialogue (IGD) focused on promoting positive and avoiding negative outcomes. The second paper tests the…

  2. Inter-Group and Intra-Group Assertiveness: Adolescents' Social Skills Following Cultural Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korem, Anat; Horenczyk, Gabriel; Tatar, Moshe

    2012-01-01

    The goals of this study were to examine intra-group and inter-group assertiveness among adolescents, and to compare these two domains of assertiveness between cultural groups in Israel. Measures of intra-group and inter-group assertiveness were developed, and questionnaires were administrated to 441 immigrants from the Former Soviet Union (FSU),…

  3. To know you is to love you: Effects of intergroup contact and knowledge on intergroup anxiety and prejudice among indigenous Chileans.

    PubMed

    Zagefka, Hanna; González, Roberto; Brown, Rupert; Lay, Siugmin; Manzi, Jorge; Didier, Nicolás

    2017-08-01

    Two surveys were conducted in Chile with indigenous Mapuche participants (N study 1: 573; N study 2: 198). In line with previous theorising, it was predicted that intergroup contact with the non-indigenous majority reduces prejudice. It was expected that this effect would be because of contact leading to more knowledge about the outgroup, which would then lead to less intergroup anxiety. The two studies yielded converging support for these predictions. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  4. The Nonverbal Transmission of Intergroup Bias: A Model of Bias Contagion with Implications for Social Policy

    PubMed Central

    Weisbuch, Max; Pauker, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    Social and policy interventions over the last half-century have achieved laudable reductions in blatant discrimination. Yet members of devalued social groups continue to face subtle discrimination. In this article, we argue that decades of anti-discrimination interventions have failed to eliminate intergroup bias because such bias is contagious. We present a model of bias contagion in which intergroup bias is subtly communicated through nonverbal behavior. Exposure to such nonverbal bias “infects” observers with intergroup bias. The model we present details two means by which nonverbal bias can be expressed—either as a veridical index of intergroup bias or as a symptom of worry about appearing biased. Exposure to this nonverbal bias can increase perceivers’ own intergroup biases through processes of implicit learning, informational influence, and normative influence. We identify critical moderators that may interfere with these processes and consequently propose several social and educational interventions based on these moderators. PMID:23997812

  5. Ethnic identity, intergroup contact, and outgroup orientation among diverse groups of adolescents on the Internet.

    PubMed

    Tynes, Brendesha M; Giang, Michael T; Thompson, Geneene N

    2008-08-01

    The relationship among adolescents' (N = 228) ethnic identity, outgroup orientation, and online intergroup experiences was examined across three groups: European Americans, ethnic minorities (i.e., Latino and African Americans), and multiracials. Similar to previous studies, ethnic minorities reported significantly higher ethnic identity than European Americans and multiracials. Although outgroup orientation did not differ among ethnic groups, European Americans reported that they had more online intergroup contact than the other ethnic groups; greater intergroup contact was also related to higher outgroup orientation for this group. These results show that ethnic identity remains stronger for ethnic minorities, but intergroup interaction has become a salient and influential aspect of the online experience for European Americans. Implications are drawn for understanding and improving online and offline intergroup relations.

  6. Conceptualizing intragroup and intergroup dynamics within a controlled crowd evacuation.

    PubMed

    Elzie, Terra; Frydenlund, Erika; Collins, Andrew J; Robinson, R Michael

    2015-01-01

    Social dynamics play a critical role in successful pedestrian evacuations. Crowd modeling research has made progress in capturing the way individual and group dynamics affect evacuations; however, few studies have simultaneously examined how individuals and groups interact with one another during egress. To address this gap, the researchers present a conceptual agent-based model (ABM) designed to study the ways in which autonomous, heterogeneous, decision-making individuals negotiate intragroup and intergroup behavior while exiting a large venue. A key feature of this proposed model is the examination of the dynamics among and between various groupings, where heterogeneity at the individual level dynamically affects group behavior and subsequently group/group interactions. ABM provides a means of representing the important social factors that affect decision making among diverse social groups. Expanding on the 2013 work of Vizzari et al., the researchers focus specifically on social factors and decision making at the individual/group and group/group levels to more realistically portray dynamic crowd systems during a pedestrian evacuation. By developing a model with individual, intragroup, and intergroup interactions, the ABM provides a more representative approximation of real-world crowd egress. The simulation will enable more informed planning by disaster managers, emergency planners, and other decision makers. This pedestrian behavioral concept is one piece of a larger simulation model. Future research will build toward an integrated model capturing decision-making interactions between pedestrians and vehicles that affect evacuation outcomes.

  7. Multicultural experiences reduce intergroup bias through epistemic unfreezing.

    PubMed

    Tadmor, Carmit T; Hong, Ying-Yi; Chao, Melody M; Wiruchnipawan, Fon; Wang, Wei

    2012-11-01

    In 6 studies, we systematically explored for the 1st time the ameliorative effects of multicultural experience on intergroup bias and investigated the role of epistemic unfreezing as the motivational mechanism underlying these effects. We found that multicultural exposure led to a reduction in stereotype endorsement (Studies 1, 4, and 6), symbolic racism (Study 5), and discriminatory hiring decisions (Study 2). We further demonstrated that experimental exposure to multicultural experience caused a reduction in need for cognitive closure (NFCC; Studies 3 and 6) and that the ameliorative effects of multiculturalism experience on intergroup bias were fully mediated by lower levels of NFCC (Studies 4, 5, and 6). The beneficial effects of multiculturalism were found regardless of the targeted stereotype group (African Americans, Ethiopians, homosexuals, and native Israelis), regardless of whether multicultural experience was measured or manipulated, and regardless of the population sampled (Caucasian Americans or native Israelis), demonstrating the robustness of this phenomenon. Overall, these results demonstrate that multicultural experience plays a critical role in increasing social tolerance through its relationship to motivated cognitive processes.

  8. Secondary transfer effects of intergroup contact via social identity complexity.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Katharina; Hewstone, Miles; Tausch, Nicole

    2014-09-01

    Secondary transfer effects (STEs) of intergroup contact refer to the generalization of contact effects from a primary encountered outgroup to attitudes towards secondary outgroups (Pettigrew, 2009). Using two large, cross-sectional data sets from Germany (N = 1,381) and Northern Ireland (N = 1,948), this article examined the extent to which STEs of intergroup contact on attitudes towards a range of secondary outgroups occur via a previously unexplored psychological construct, social identity complexity (operationalized as similarity complexity and overlap complexity). Study 1 found primary outgroup contact to be associated with greater similarity complexity, but no indirect effects on secondary outgroup attitudes via complexity emerged. Study 2, however, revealed indirect positive relationships between primary outgroup contact and secondary outgroup attitudes via increased similarity complexity and overlap complexity. These relationships were obtained while controlling for two previously tested mediating mechanisms, attitude generalization (operationalized as primary outgroup attitude) and deprovincialization (operationalized as ingroup attitude and identification). We discuss the theoretical implications of these findings and the contribution of social identity complexity to understanding processes underlying STEs of contact. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Preparing for School Desegregation: A Training Program for Intergroup Educators. Western Regional School Desegregation Projects, Volume 1, June 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesler, Mark; And Others

    In 1970, the Western Regional School Desegregation Projects (WRSDP) was requested by the Association of California Intergroup Relations Educators (ACIRE) and the Bureau of Intergroup Relations (BIR), California Department of Education to prepare a training program for intergroup educators in the Western region served by the Health, Education, and…

  10. Fostering a Commitment to Social Action: How Talking, Thinking, and Feeling Make a Difference in Intergroup Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurin-Sands, Chloe; Gurin, Patricia; Nagda, Biren A.; Osuna, Shardae

    2012-01-01

    Intergroup dialogue is designed to foster commitment to action. This article analyzes papers written by students in 52 intergroup dialogue courses (N = 739) to test a theoretical model of how intergroup dialogue is expected to encourage frequency of acting to educate others and to collaborate with others. The theoretical model posits that dialogue…

  11. Resistance, Reactance, and Consultation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Jan N.; Falk, Robert S.

    1981-01-01

    Presents a review of techniques for dealing with consultee resistance. Suggests the social psychological theory of reactance is a useful conceptual framework for considering resistance in consultation. Discusses examples of its application, variables that predict the likely effectiveness of a reactance utilization intervention, and ethical issues.…

  12. Consultation in Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiester, Dorothy J.

    This handbook clarifies the responsibility, role and functions of the day care consultant. A chapter on the philosophy of day care is intended to stimulate thoughtful consideration of how existing patterns of day care affect children, parents, and the family. A variety of methods and strategies for translating day care philosophy into practice are…

  13. Consultancy pay for nurses.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    Nurses working for NHS Direct could be paid at medical consultant level based on equal pay for equal work initiatives, according to Rob Crouch, Deputy Director and Research Fellow (A&E), Centre for the Advancement of Clinical Practice, University of Surrey.

  14. Sharing Expertise: Consulting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Bill

    2011-01-01

    A special breed of superintendents who have developed expertise in a particular area find ways of sharing it in other venues as outside consultants. They pull extra duty to put their special skills into practice, to give back to their communities, to stay current and grounded in the field, or to enhance their professional reputations. They teach…

  15. Community Consultation Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulder Area Growth Study Commission, CO.

    This kit, designed for leaders and participants, provides a model for organizing and taking part in Community Consultation Groups. The kit was designed to be used in connection with community concerns about growth in Boulder, Colorado. These groups build upon a previous survey to assist the Commission in determining specific growth concerns in the…

  16. The AV Consultant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, Raymond H.

    1976-01-01

    An audiovisual communications consultant involved in planning a new facility is able to translate the needs of educators into integrated systems, and relate these to the architects and engineers in terms of working drawings, specifications, system descriptions, functional schematics, and block diagrams. (Author/MLF)

  17. Consultants, Consultancy and Consultocracy in Education Policymaking in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Helen M.; Hall, David; Mills, Colin

    2015-01-01

    The role and contribution of consultants and consultancy in public services has grown rapidly and the power of consultants suggests the emergence of a "consultocracy". We draw on research evidence from the social sciences and critical education policy (CEP) studies to present an examination of the state of the field. We deploy a…

  18. Consultants, Consultancy and Consultocracy in Education Policymaking in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Helen M.; Hall, David; Mills, Colin

    2015-01-01

    The role and contribution of consultants and consultancy in public services has grown rapidly and the power of consultants suggests the emergence of a "consultocracy". We draw on research evidence from the social sciences and critical education policy (CEP) studies to present an examination of the state of the field. We deploy a…

  19. Accompanied consultations in occupational health.

    PubMed

    Hobson, J; Hobson, H; Sharp, R

    2016-04-01

    Accompanied consultations are often reported as difficult by occupational physicians but have not been studied in the occupational health setting. To collect information about accompanied consultations and the impact of the companion on the consultation. We collected data on all accompanied consultations by two occupational physicians working in a private sector occupational health service over the course of 16 months. Accompanied consultations were matched to non-accompanied consultations for comparison. We collected data on 108 accompanied consultations. Accompanied consultations were more likely to be connected with ill health retirement (P < 0.01), have a neurological diagnosis or multiple diagnoses (P < 0.01), be rated as complex (P < 0.01) and take longer than 30 minutes (P < 0.01) than non-accompanied consultations. Over half of the companions (54%) were a spouse or partner. An impact by the companion was recorded in 81% of consultations but this was most frequently that they had provided information (56%) and in over a quarter the impact was recorded as helpful. Interruptions were recorded in 28% of accompanied consultations but only 6% of consultations had free text suggesting that the consultation or companion was difficult. Accompanied consultations are likely to be more challenging in terms of the reason for referral, the presenting medical problems, the complexity of the case and the duration of the consultation. However, the companion is more likely to be of benefit than cause difficulty. Occupational health practitioners may benefit from better understanding of accompanied consultations and guidance on their management. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Mentoring for new consultants.

    PubMed

    Ackroyd, R; Adamson, K A

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence of the benefits of having a mentor during the early years as a consultant. Mentoring encourages and provides support to an individual in their professional development. Although there are different forms of mentoring there is recognition that developing a formal mentoring scheme can provide a consistent approach and support within a framework. The Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh has introduced a mentoring scheme for new consultants that provides a forum for supporting them in their ongoing professional wellbeing. There is potential that the process of mentoring can improve an individual's development, and motivate and encourage them to develop the skills needed to achieve their goals, thus having an impact on ultimately improving their ability to deliver an effective patient-centred service.

  1. Corrosion consultant expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Mo, Y.L.

    1994-12-31

    The development and use of an expert system to recommend coatings for flue gas desulfurization (FGD) plant is described. The system ranks coatings by their material properties, experimental test and plant performance scores when the component to be coated and its working environment are specified. The user interface, the inference engine, the knowledge base and the implementation of the expert system are presented with comments on its suitability and application for corrosion consultations.

  2. Economists, capitalists, and the making of globalization: North American free trade in comparative-historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Fairbrother, Malcolm

    2014-03-01

    Why did globalization happen? Current explanations point to a variety of conditions under which states have made the free market policy changes driving international economic integration since the 1980s. Such accounts disagree, however, about the key actors involved. This article provides a reconciliation, showing how two different combinations of actors, and two different political economic pathways, have led to globalization in recent decades. In developed countries, mobilization by business has been central; elsewhere, technocrats both constrained and empowered by international finance have pursued globalization more independently of business. In both contexts, economists' technical authority has helped legitimate liberalization, despite the limited diffusion of their ideas. The article validates and elaborates this model using a comparative-historical study of how the United States, Canada, and Mexico proposed, negotiated, and ratified agreements for free trade in North America.

  3. Common cent$ 1: One-armed economists and the invisible hand.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, I

    2001-01-01

    This article is the first in a series called Common Cent$. There is a need for leaders and managers to have a basic understanding--Common Cent$--of elementary economics. The limited, retrospective view of the accountant must be supplemented by the broader, prospective view of the economist. The limits and scope of economics are defined. The First and Second Fundamental Theorems of Welfare Economics are introduced. The mythology behind the mechanism of action of Adam Smith's Invisible Hand is dissected, and the mechanism of the free market is explained in terms of the effect of marginal cost on net market efficiency. The apparently simple case of the effect of legislating a minimum wage on a free market is discussed. This provides an example of the real-world complexity of economies and of applying economic concepts to the business world.

  4. The ethics of data and of data science: an economist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Cave, Jonathan

    2016-12-28

    Data collection and modelling are increasingly important in social science and science-based policy, but threaten to crowd out other ways of thinking. Economists recognize that markets embody and shed light on human sentiments. However, their ethical consequences have been difficult to interpret, let alone manage. Although economic mechanisms are changed by data intensity, they can be redesigned to restore their benefits. We conclude with four cautions: if data are good, more may not be better; scientifically desirable data properties may not help policy; consent is a double-edged tool; and data exist only because someone thought to capture and codify them.This article is part of the themed issue 'The ethical impact of data science'.

  5. Scientific authority in policy contexts: Public attitudes about environmental scientists, medical researchers, and economists.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Timothy L

    2013-10-01

    This paper uses data from the US General Social Survey to examine public support for scientists in policy contexts and its link to scientific disciplines. An analysis of attitudes about the amount of influence that environmental scientists, two kinds of medical researchers, and economists should have over policy decisions reveals that in each discipline the extent to which scientists are thought to serve the nation's best interests is the strongest determinant of attitudes about scientists as policy advisors. Perceptions of scientists' technical knowledge and the level of consensus in the scientific community also have direct, albeit weaker effects on opinions about scientists' appropriate roles in policy settings. Whereas previous research has stressed the importance of local variability in understanding the transfer of scientific authority across institutional boundaries, these results point to considerable homogeneity in the social bases of scientific authority in policy contexts.

  6. "Systematizing" ethics consultation services.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Courtenay R; Eves, Margot M; Allen, Nathan G; Smith, Martin L; Peña, Adam M; Cheney, John R; Majumder, Mary A

    2015-03-01

    While valuable work has been done addressing clinical ethics within established healthcare systems, we anticipate that the projected growth in acquisitions of community hospitals and facilities by large tertiary hospitals will impact the field of clinical ethics and the day-to-day responsibilities of clinical ethicists in ways that have yet to be explored. Toward the goal of providing clinical ethicists guidance on a range of issues that they may encounter in the systematization process, we discuss key considerations and potential challenges in implementing system-wide ethics consultation services. Specifically, we identify four models for organizing, developing, and enhancing ethics consultation activities within a system created through acquisitions: (1) train-the-trainer, (2) local capacity-building, (3) circuit-riding, and (4) consolidated accountability. We note each model's benefits and challenges. To our knowledge, this is the first paper to consider the broader landscape of issues affected by consolidation. We anticipate that clinical ethicists, volunteer consultants, and hospital administrators will benefit from our recommendations.

  7. NATO Politico-Military Consultation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    General Manlio Brosio has observed that for the larger allies, consultation is "a way to legitimize and rein- force their foreign policy initiatives...ested in the experiences of a skillful practitioner of consultation. 21. Manlio Brosio, "Consultation and the Atlantic Alliance," Survival 16 (May

  8. The Process of Psychological Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, Anna; Moreland, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Consultation is a key means of service delivery in many psychological services. However, the "process" of consultation is little explored in Educational Psychology literature, particularly in the United Kingdom (UK). This paper focuses on a small-scale qualitative research study of psychological consultation provided by educational…

  9. The Process of Psychological Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, Anna; Moreland, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Consultation is a key means of service delivery in many psychological services. However, the "process" of consultation is little explored in Educational Psychology literature, particularly in the United Kingdom (UK). This paper focuses on a small-scale qualitative research study of psychological consultation provided by educational…

  10. Management Consulting: Planning, Entry, Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosier, Richard A.; Dalton, Dan R.

    1993-01-01

    Contends that counseling has much in common with organizational consulting. Provides overview of consulting practices that counselors might find useful should they decide to investigate organizational consulting. Includes aspects of market research, gauging competition, and target markets. Considers promotion, networking, and elements of…

  11. The Consultant from Oz Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Garnett J.

    1998-01-01

    School leaders should realize that consultants cannot substitute for developing collective actions within the organization. The "Consultant from Oz Syndrome" stems from placing undue confidence in external sources, confusing consultants with magicians, and denying their limitations. While journeying down the yellow brick road of…

  12. Perspective-Taking Increases Willingness to Engage in Intergroup Contact

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cynthia S.; Kenneth, Tai; Ku, Gillian; Galinsky, Adam D.

    2014-01-01

    The current research explored whether perspective-taking increases willingness to engage in contact with stereotyped outgroup members. Across three studies, we find that perspective-taking increases willingness to engage in contact with negatively-stereotyped targets. In Study 1, perspective-takers sat closer to, whereas stereotype suppressors sat further from, a hooligan compared to control participants. In Study 2, individual differences in perspective-taking tendencies predicted individuals' willingness to engage in contact with a hooligan, having effects above and beyond those of empathic concern. Finally, Study 3 demonstrated that perspective-taking's effects on intergroup contact extend to the target's group (i.e., another homeless man), but not to other outgroups (i.e., a man of African descent). Consistent with other perspective-taking research, our findings show that perspective-taking facilitates the creation of social bonds by increasing contact with stereotyped outgroup members. PMID:24465648

  13. Inferring Identity From Language: Linguistic Intergroup Bias Informs Social Categorization.

    PubMed

    Porter, Shanette C; Rheinschmidt-Same, Michelle; Richeson, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    The present research examined whether a communicator's verbal, implicit message regarding a target is used as a cue for inferring that communicator's social identity. Previous research has found linguistic intergroup bias (LIB) in individuals' speech: They use abstract language to describe in-group targets' desirable behaviors and concrete language to describe their undesirable behaviors (favorable LIB), but use concrete language for out-group targets' desirable behaviors and abstract language for their undesirable behaviors (unfavorable LIB). Consequently, one can infer the type of language a communicator is likely to use to describe in-group and out-group targets. We hypothesized and found evidence for the reverse inference. Across four studies, individuals inferred a communicator's social identity on the basis of the communicator's use of an LIB. Specifically, participants more strongly believed that a communicator and target shared a social identity when the communicator used the favorable, rather than the unfavorable, LIB in describing that target.

  14. Feeling (Mis)Understood and Intergroup Friendships in Interracial Interactions.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Nicole; Douglass, Sara; Garcia, Randi L; Yip, Tiffany; Trail, Thomas E

    2014-09-01

    The present research investigated whether having out-group friends serves as a buffer for feeling misunderstood in interracial interactions. Across three experience sampling studies, we found that among ethnic minorities who have few White friends or are not interacting with White friends, daily interracial interactions are associated with feeling less understood. By contrast, we found that among ethnic minorities who have more White friends or are interacting with White friends, the relationship between daily interracial interactions and feeling understood is not significant. We did not find similar results for Whites; that is, having ethnic minority friends did not play a role in the relationship between daily interracial interactions and feeling understood. Together, these studies demonstrate the beneficial effects of intergroup friendships for ethnic minorities.

  15. Intergroup interactions in Tibetan macaques at Mt. Emei, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Q K

    1997-12-01

    Data on intergroup-interactions (I-I) were collected in 5 seasonally provisioned groups (A, B, D, D1, and E) of Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Mt. Emei in three 70-day periods between 1991 April-June (P1), September-November (P2), December-1992 February (P3). The I-I were categorized as forewarning made by high-ranking males (including Branch Shaking and/or Loud Calls), long-distance interactions in space (specified by changes in their foraging movements), and close encounters (with Affinitive Behavior, Male's Herding Female, Sexual Interaction, Severe Conflict, Adult Male-male Conflict, Opportunistic Advance and Retreat, etc. performed by different age-sex classes). From periods P1 to P3, the I-I rate decreased with reduction in population density as a positive correlate of food clumpedness or the number of potential feeders along a pedestrian trail. On the other hand, from the birth season (BS, represented by P1 and P3) to the mating season (MS, represented by P2) the dominance relation between groups, which produced a winner and a loser in the encounters, became obscure; the proportion of close encounters in the I-I increased; the asymmetry (local groups over intruders) of forewarning signals disappeared; the rate of branch shaking decreased; and sometimes intergroup cohesion appeared. Considering that sexual interactions also occurred between the encountering groups, above changes in intergroup behaviors may be explained with a model of the way in which the competition for food (exclusion) and the sexual attractiveness between opposite sexes were in a dynamic equilibrium among the groups, with the former outweighing the latter in the BS, and conversely in the MS. Females made 93% of severe conflicts, which occurred in 18% of close encounters. Groups fissioned in the recent past shared the same home range, and showed the highest hostility to each other by females. In conspicuous contrast with females' great interest in intergroup food/range competition

  16. Social integration in employment settings: application of intergroup contact theory.

    PubMed

    Novak, Jeanne A; Rogan, Patricia M

    2010-02-01

    This study used a survey of 106 employment specialists to test the ability of intergroup contact theory to explain social integration outcomes of employees with disabilities. Contact theory suggests that coworkers are more accepting of employees with disabilities if they have sufficient opportunities to interact with them, equal status and interdependent working relationships, and supervisors who support equality and acceptance. The contact model and an expanded model that includes workplace culture significantly predicted not only coworker attitudes toward employees with disabilities but also the employees' level of social participation and feelings of social support. In addition, outcome dependency moderated the relation between the vocational competence of employees with disabilities and coworker attitudes toward them. Study findings have practical implications for facilitating social relationships in the supported workplace.

  17. What Guidance are Economists Given on How to Present Economic Evaluations for Policymakers? A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Shannon M; Wells, George; Coyle, Doug

    2015-09-01

    To systematically review health economic guidelines for information on how to present health economic evaluations and consider implications for nontechnical audiences such as policymakers. Electronic databases and supplementary sources were searched for economic evaluation guidelines. Guidelines were critically appraised. Descriptive characteristics, standard formats, supports for nontechnical audiences, presentation approaches, and common reporting recommendations were extracted. Frequencies were tabulated and trends identified. Thirty-one guidelines were included. Twenty-two guidelines include a standard reporting format with some sample tables and graphs. Common presentation approaches include well-cited tables of data sources, transparent model diagrams and descriptions, disaggregated results, and tabular and graphical displays of sensitivity analyses. Despite most guidelines being funded by policymakers, only five guidelines provided advice on presenting economic evaluations to noneconomists. However, 11 guidelines included a glossary of economic terminology for nontechnical readers. Common concepts that may require further explanation include differences in economic perspectives, appropriateness of time horizons, how economic outcomes such as quality-adjusted life-years relate to their component clinical outcomes, and choice of sensitivity analyses. Health economists have consistent presentation formats and common reporting elements that should be considered when developing user-friendly explanations for general audiences. These overlap with policymakers' informational needs but may not be sufficient for understanding by nontechnical audiences. Developing presentation formats and tools that incorporate viewpoints of both economists and noneconomists will allow for better application of the results of economic evaluations and enhance the transparency and legitimacy of decision-making processes that are informed by economic evaluations. Copyright © 2015

  18. Testing the limits of tolerance: how intergroup anxiety amplifies negative and offensive responses to out-group-initiated contact.

    PubMed

    Van Zomeren, Martijn; Fischer, Agneta H; Spears, Russell

    2007-12-01

    Three studies examine the amplifying effects of intergroup anxiety on individuals' negative and offensive responses to out-group-initiated contact. Because intergroup anxiety typically results in avoidance of the initiation of intergroup contact, these studies explored how intergroup anxiety affected individuals' interpretation of and responses to out-group-initiated contact. The authors hypothesized that intergroup anxiety amplifies individuals' threat appraisal of out-group-initiated contact as well as their feelings of anger and offensive action tendencies toward the out-group. Results showed consistent support for these hypotheses by demonstrating that intergroup anxiety amplified individuals' threat appraisal (Studies 2 and 3), anger (Studies 1-3), and offensive action tendencies toward the out-group (Study 2). Anger consistently predicted offensive action tendencies (Studies 2-3). Thus, intergroup anxiety decreased individuals' limits of tolerance by increasing their threat appraisal of out-group-initiated contact. The results are discussed in relation to theories of threat, emotion, and tolerance.

  19. Perceptions of Interpersonal Versus Intergroup Violence: The Case of Sexual Assault

    PubMed Central

    Droogendyk, Lisa; Wright, Stephen C.

    2014-01-01

    The social identity approach makes a distinction between behavior motivated by intergroup versus interpersonal identities, which may be relevant to victim blaming in the case of rape. Using a mock jury paradigm, we examined the impact of defining rape as an act of interpersonal violence (personal assault) versus intergroup violence (a “hate crime”), crossed with a manipulation describing the attacker as either an acquaintance or stranger. Defining rape in intergroup terms led to less victim blame than when it was defined in interpersonal terms, and participants blamed the victim more when she was assaulted by an acquaintance than a stranger. PMID:25419567

  20. Sex differences in intergroup competition, aggression, and warfare: the male warrior hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Van Vugt, Mark

    2009-06-01

    The social science literature abounds with examples of human tribalism, the tendency to categorize individuals on the basis of their group membership and treat in-group members benevolently and out-group members malevolently. I argue that this tribal inclination is an evolved response to the threat of intergroup violence and warfare that was endemic in ancestral human environments (and is still common today). Here I hypothesize that intergroup conflict has profoundly affected the social psychology of human males in particular--the male warrior hypothesis--and present evidence consistent with this claim. I also discuss implications of this hypothesis for managing intergroup relations in our society.

  1. Perceptions of interpersonal versus intergroup violence: the case of sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Droogendyk, Lisa; Wright, Stephen C

    2014-01-01

    The social identity approach makes a distinction between behavior motivated by intergroup versus interpersonal identities, which may be relevant to victim blaming in the case of rape. Using a mock jury paradigm, we examined the impact of defining rape as an act of interpersonal violence (personal assault) versus intergroup violence (a "hate crime"), crossed with a manipulation describing the attacker as either an acquaintance or stranger. Defining rape in intergroup terms led to less victim blame than when it was defined in interpersonal terms, and participants blamed the victim more when she was assaulted by an acquaintance than a stranger.

  2. In Pursuit of Three Theories: Authoritarianism, Relative Deprivation, and Intergroup Contact.

    PubMed

    Pettigrew, Thomas F

    2016-01-01

    Throughout my career, I have pursued three theories related to intergroup prejudice--each with a different mentor. Each theory and its supporting research help us to understand prejudice and ways to ameliorate the problem. This autobiographical review article summarizes some of the advances in these three areas during the past six decades. For authoritarianism, the article advocates removing political content from its measurement, linking it with threat and dismissive-avoidant attachment, and studying how authoritarians avoid intergroup contact. Increased work on relative deprivation made possible an extensive meta-analysis that shows the theory, when appropriately measured, has far broader effects than previously thought. Increased research attention to intergroup contact similarly made possible a meta-analysis that established the pervasive effectiveness of intergroup contact to reduce prejudice under a wide range of conditions. The article closes by demonstrating how the three theories relate to each other and contribute to our understanding of prejudice and its reduction.

  3. An analysis of intergroup rivalry using Ising model and reinforcement learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Feng-Fei; Qin, Zheng; Shao, Zhuo

    2014-01-01

    Modeling of intergroup rivalry can help us better understand economic competitions, political elections and other similar activities. The result of intergroup rivalry depends on the co-evolution of individual behavior within one group and the impact from the rival group. In this paper, we model the rivalry behavior using Ising model. Different from other simulation studies using Ising model, the evolution rules of each individual in our model are not static, but have the ability to learn from historical experience using reinforcement learning technique, which makes the simulation more close to real human behavior. We studied the phase transition in intergroup rivalry and focused on the impact of the degree of social freedom, the personality of group members and the social experience of individuals. The results of computer simulation show that a society with a low degree of social freedom and highly educated, experienced individuals is more likely to be one-sided in intergroup rivalry.

  4. How Moral Perceptions Influence Intergroup Tolerance: Evidence From Lebanon, Morocco, and the United States.

    PubMed

    Obeid, Nadine; Argo, Nichole; Ginges, Jeremy

    2017-03-01

    Intergroup boundaries are often associated with differences in moral codes. How does the perception of similarity and dissimilarity in moral worldviews influence tolerant relationships between members of different groups? We theorized that the relationship between perceived moral similarity and intergroup tolerance is domain specific. Specifically, because people treat autonomy values (e.g., caring for others, being fair) as denoting universal rights and obligations, but binding values (e.g., purity) as denoting rights and obligations that apply preferentially for their own group, perceived similarity on autonomy values should be more relevant than perceived similarity on binding values to intergroup tolerance. Here, we describe correlational and experimental evidence to support these predictions from studies carried out in Lebanon (with sectarian groups), in Morocco (with ethnic groups), and in the United States (with ideological groups). Implications for understanding intergroup relations and theories of morality are discussed.

  5. Examining the role of positive and negative intergroup contact and anti-immigrant prejudice in Brexit.

    PubMed

    Meleady, Rose; Seger, Charles R; Vermue, Marieke

    2017-06-21

    This study examined the interplay of anti-immigrant prejudice and intergroup contact experience on voting intentions within Britain's 2016 referendum on its membership in the European Union. In the days before the referendum, we asked more than 400 British people how they planned to vote. We measured a number of demographic factors expected to predict voting intentions as well as individuals' prejudice towards and intergroup contact experience (positive and negative) with EU immigrants. Anti-immigrant prejudice was a strong correlate of support for Brexit. Negative intergroup contact experience was associated with higher anti-immigrant prejudice and, in turn, increased support for 'Leave'. Positive intergroup contact, on the other hand, seemed to play a reparative role, predicting lower prejudice and increasing support for 'Remain'. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  6. Prejudice from thin air: The effect of emotion on automatic intergroup attitudes.

    PubMed

    DeSteno, David; Dasgupta, Nilanjana; Bartlett, Monica Y; Cajdric, Aida

    2004-05-01

    Two experiments provide initial evidence that specific emotional states are capable of creating automatic prejudice toward outgroups. Specifically, we propose that anger should influence automatic evaluations of outgroups because of its functional relevance to intergroup conflict and competition, whereas other negative emotions less relevant to intergroup relations (e.g., sadness) should not. In both experiments, after minimal ingroups and outgroups were created, participants were induced to experience anger, sadness, or a neutral state. Automatic attitudes toward the in- and outgroups were then assessed using an evaluative priming measure (Experiment 1) and the Implicit Association Test (Experiment 2). As predicted, results showed that anger created automatic prejudice toward the outgroup, whereas sadness and neutrality resulted in no automatic intergroup bias. The implications of these findings for emotion-induced biases in implicit intergroup cognition in particular, and in social cognition in general, are considered.

  7. A two-dimensional model of intergroup leadership: the case of national diversity.

    PubMed

    Pittinsky, Todd L

    2010-04-01

    The model presented argues that leadership involves bringing together not only diverse individuals but also the subgroups to which they belong. The model further argues that this does not require replacing people's subgroup identities with a superordinate group identity (turning "us" and "them" into "we"); bringing together diverse individuals and their subgroups can be accomplished by promoting positive relations among subgroups, even as their distinctive identities (their senses of "us" and "them") remain. The model conceptualizes positive and negative intergroup attitudes as two independent dimensions of intergroup relations, each with distinct antecedents and distinct associated outcomes. Leaders seeking to create a collective from diverse subgroups must therefore (a) reduce negative intergroup attitudes and (b) increase positive intergroup attitudes. The author applies the model to organizational contexts of national diversity, but it can be applied to leadership across other forms of diversity.

  8. When does activating diversity alleviate, when does it increase intergroup bias? An ingroup projection perspective

    PubMed Central

    Steffens, Melanie C.; Reese, Gerhard; Ehrke, Franziska; Jonas, Kai J.

    2017-01-01

    The question how intergroup bias can be alleviated is of much theoretical and practical interest. Whereas diversity training and the multiculturalism ideology are two approaches prominent in practice, most theoretical models on reducing intergroup bias are based on social-identity theory and self-categorization theory. This social-identity perspective assumes that similar processes lead to intergroup bias in very different intergroup contexts if people identify with the respective social groups. A recent prominent model based on these theories is the ingroup-projection model. As this model assumes, an ingroup’s norms and standards are applied to outgroups included in a common superordinate category (this is called ingroup projection). Intergroup bias results because the outgroup fulfils these norms and standards less than the ingroup. Importantly, if the diversity of the superordinate category is induced as the norm, ingroup projection and thus intergroup bias should be reduced. The present research delineates and tests how general this process is. We propose that ingroup prototypicality is not only an outcome variable, as the ingroup-projection model originally assumes, but can also be an important moderator. We hypothesize that for members considering their ingroup highly prototypical (“pars pro toto”, large majorities), the superordinate group’s diversity may question their ingroup’s position and thus elicit threat and intergroup bias. In contrast, for members who consider their group as less prototypical (one among several, or “una inter pares” groups), activating diversity should, as originally assumed in the ingroup-projection model, reduce intergroup bias. Three experiments (total N = 345) supported these predictions in the contexts of groups defined by gender or nationality. Taken together, the ingroup-projection model can explain under which conditions activating superordinate-category diversity induces tolerance, and when it may backfire. We

  9. The Pretravel Consultation.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Christopher; McConnell, Adam; Osborn, Justin

    2016-10-15

    Key components of the pretravel consultation include intake questions regarding the traveler's anticipated itinerary and medical history; immunizations; malaria prophylaxis; and personal protection measures against arthropod bites, traveler's diarrhea, and injury. Most vaccinations that are appropriate for international travelers are included in the routine domestic immunization schedule; only a few travel-specific vaccines must also be discussed. The most common vaccine-preventable illnesses in international travelers are influenza and hepatitis A. Malaria prophylaxis should be offered to travelers to endemic regions. Personal protection measures, such as applying an effective insect repellent to exposed skin and permethrin to clothing and using a permethrin-impregnated bed net, should be advised for travelers to the tropics. Clinicians should offer an antibiotic prescription that travelers can take with them in case of traveler's diarrhea. Additional topics to address during the pretravel consultation include the risk of injury from motor vehicle crashes and travel-specific risks such as altitude sickness, safe sex practices, and emergency medical evacuation insurance.

  10. Inter-country consultation.

    PubMed

    Reid, E

    1993-01-01

    In December 1991, the UN Development Program (UNDP) organized the African Informal Consultation on Behavior Change as it relates to the HIV pandemic. Community-based organization and government representatives attended from Australia, Ghana, India, Jamaica, Malawi, Malaysia, Norway, Senegal, Sweden, Tanzania, Thailand, Uganda, the United Kingdom, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Participants strongly endorsed the possibility for individuals and communities to change their attitudes and behaviors in response to HIV and AIDS, and stressed the importance of evaluating and documenting these changes and sharing lessons learned. The group concluded that research in the field of HIV should be action-oriented and participatory; new research methods and ways of presenting data are called for. Participants in the 2nd consultation held in the Asia/Pacific region in November 1992 also stressed the importance of developing community-based monitoring, evaluation, and program development methodologies. The UNDP responded by launching a number of initiatives in Africa, Asia and Central America to explore ways in which communities may be helped to document ongoing changes, assess their impact and efficacy, and share them with others. New approaches to evaluation are also being explored based upon processes of assessment and redesign already occurring in the communities.

  11. Proximity under Threat: The Role of Physical Distance in Intergroup Relations

    PubMed Central

    Wohl, Michael J. A.; Van Bavel, Jay J.

    2016-01-01

    Throughout human history, social groups have invested immense amounts of wealth and time to keep threatening out-groups at a distance. In the current research, we explored the relationship between intergroup threat, physical distance, and discrimination. Specifically, we examined how intergroup threat alters estimates of physical distance to out-groups and how physical proximity affects intergroup relations. Previous research has found that people judge threatening out-groups as physically close. In Studies 1 and 2, we examined ways to attenuate this bias. In Study 1 a secure (vs. permeable) US-Mexico border reduced the estimated proximity to Mexico City among Americans who felt threatened by Mexican immigration. In Study 2, intergroup apologies reduced estimates of physical proximity to a threatening cross-town rival university, but only among participants with cross-group friendships. In Study 3, New York Yankees fans who received an experimental induction of physical proximity to a threatening out-group (Boston Red Sox) had a stronger relationship between their collective identification with the New York Yankees and support for discriminatory policies toward members of the out-group (Red Sox fans) as well as how far they chose to sit from out-group members (Red Sox fans). Together, these studies suggest that intergroup threat alters judgment of physical properties, which has important implications for intergroup relations. PMID:27467267

  12. Longitudinal intergroup contact effects on prejudice using self- and observer-reports.

    PubMed

    Dhont, Kristof; Van Hiel, Alain; De Bolle, Marleen; Roets, Arne

    2012-06-01

    Longitudinal effects of intergroup contact on prejudice were investigated in a sample of 65 young adults (Sample 1) and a sample of their close friends (Sample 2, N= 172), adopting a full cross-lagged panel design. We first validated the self-report measure of intergroup contact from Sample 1 with observer ratings from Sample 2 by demonstrating that self-reports and observer ratings of contact were highly correlated. Moreover, we obtained significant cross-lagged effects of intergroup contact on prejudice with both contact measures, thereby providing a second validation for the use of self-reports of intergroup contact. Finally, by the use of latent change modelling, we demonstrated that, although no overall significant change in contact and prejudice over time was found, there was meaningful variation in absolute change in the individual levels of intergroup contact and prejudice. In particular, some individuals showed increases while others showed decreases in contact or prejudice across time. Moreover, higher levels of intergroup contact at Time 1 were followed by larger subsequent decreases in prejudice between Time 1 and Time 2, and changes in contact were significantly and negatively related to changes in prejudice. Methodological implications of the findings are discussed.

  13. Moral judgments about Jewish-Arab intergroup exclusion: the role of cultural identity and contact.

    PubMed

    Brenick, Alaina; Killen, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Prejudice and discrimination as justifications for social exclusion are often viewed as violations of the moral principles of welfare, justice, and equality, but intergroup exclusion can also often be viewed as a necessary and legitimate means to maintain group identity and cohesion (Rutland, Killen, & Abrams, 2010). The current study was guided by the social reasoning developmental perspective (Killen & Rutland, 2011) to examine the moral judgments of social exclusion encounters, and the degree to which cultural identity and actual contact with members of other cultural groups is related to social evaluations. Surprisingly, no research has examined how intergroup contact bears on moral judgments about Jewish-Arab encounters in the United States. The current study surveyed 241 Jewish and 249 non-Arab/non-Jewish (comparison group) 14- and 17-year-olds to assess their cultural identification, intergroup contact, and moral judgments regarding intergroup peer social exclusion situations between Jewish and Arab youth in peer, home, and community contexts. Participants overwhelmingly rejected exclusion of an outgroup member explicitly because of their group membership. Context effects emerged, and exclusion was rated as most acceptable in the community context and least acceptable in the peer context. Three factors of identity (i.e., exploration, commitment, and concern for relationships) were explored. Generally, higher identity commitment and lower identity concern for relationships were related to more inclusive evaluations. Interactions between the identity factors and intergroup contact and cultural group, however, differentially predicted evaluations of intergroup exclusion.

  14. Clinical ethics consultation in oncology.

    PubMed

    Shuman, Andrew G; Montas, Sacha M; Barnosky, Andrew R; Smith, Lauren B; Fins, Joseph J; McCabe, Mary S

    2013-09-01

    There is limited empirical research exploring the nature of clinical ethical consultations within the oncology population. Our objective was to review and describe clinical ethics consultations at two National Cancer Institute-designated comprehensive cancer centers to identify opportunities for systems improvement in clinical care and opportunities for staff education. This case series is derived from two institutional prospectively maintained clinical ethics consultation databases. All ethics consultations from 2007 through 2011 that related to adult patients with cancer were included. A total of 208 eligible patient cases were identified. The most common primary issues leading to ethics consultation were code status and advance directives (25%), surrogate decision making (17%), and medical futility (13%). Communication lapses were identified in 45% of patient cases, and interpersonal conflict arose in 51%. Before ethics consultation, 26% of patients had do-not-resuscitate orders, which increased to 60% after ethics consultation. Palliative care consultation occurred in 41% of patient cases. Ethics consultations among patients with cancer reflect the complexities inherent to their clinical management. Appropriately honoring patients' wishes within the context of overall goals of care is crucial. Thoughtful consideration of the role of and relationship with palliative care experts, communication barriers, sources of interpersonal conflict, symptom control, and end-of-life care is paramount to optimal management strategies in this patient population.

  15. Economist intelligence unit democracy index in relation to health services accessibility: a regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Walker, Mary Ellen; Anonson, June; Szafron, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between political environment and health services accessibility (HSA) has not been the focus of any specific studies. The purpose of this study was to address this gap in the literature by examining the relationship between political environment and HSA. This relationship that HSA indicators (physicians, nurses and hospital beds per 10 000 people) has with political environment was analyzed with multiple least-squares regression using the components of democracy (electoral processes and pluralism, functioning of government, political participation, political culture, and civil liberties). The components of democracy were represented by the 2011 Economist Intelligence Unit Democracy Index (EIUDI) sub-scores. The EIUDI sub-scores and the HSA indicators were evaluated for significant relationships with multiple least-squares regression. While controlling for a country's geographic location and level of democracy, we found that two components of a nation's political environment: functioning of government and political participation, and their interaction had significant relationships with the three HSA indicators. These study findings are of significance to health professionals because they examine the political contexts in which citizens access health services, they come from research that is the first of its kind, and they help explain the effect political environment has on health. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Retrospective analysis of attitudes to ageing in the Economist: apocalyptic demography for opinion formers.

    PubMed

    Martin, Ruth; Williams, Caroline; O'Neill, Desmond

    2009-12-08

    To investigate the description of older people and ageing in a major weekly newspaper, influential in political and financial circles, to see whether it reflected ageing in a balanced manner, and to what extent it indulged in apocalyptic demography-the portrayal of population ageing as a financial burden rather than a scientific advance. Electronic search of the digital archive of the Economist of articles published between January 1997 and April 2008. Main outcomes measures Categorisation of articles as portraying population ageing as a burden or a benefit or with a balanced view. Of 6306 identified articles, 262 were relevant. Most featured pensions, demography, and politics. Of these 262, 64% portrayed population ageing as a burden and 12% as a benefit; 24% had a balanced view. Most articles therefore showed a predominantly ageist view of older people as a burden on society, often portraying them as frail non-contributors. Recurrent themes included pension and demographic "time bombs" and future unsustainable costs of health care for older people. This negative view of older people might be influential in shaping the attitudes of readers, who include opinion formers in political and economic circles. Gerontologists (including geriatricians) need to engage with influential media, as well as helping to promote a professional development of journalists that is informed and knowledgeable about the negative impact of ageism on the wellbeing of older people.

  17. The nondiscriminating heart: lovingkindness meditation training decreases implicit intergroup bias.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yoona; Gray, Jeremy R; Dovidio, John F

    2014-06-01

    Although meditation is increasingly accepted as having personal benefits, less is known about the broader impact of meditation on social and intergroup relations. We tested the effect of lovingkindness meditation training on improving implicit attitudes toward members of 2 stigmatized social outgroups: Blacks and homeless people. Healthy non-Black, nonhomeless adults (N = 101) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: 6-week lovingkindness practice, 6-week lovingkindness discussion (a closely matched active control), or waitlist control. Decreases in implicit bias against stigmatized outgroups (as measured by Implicit Association Test) were observed only in the lovingkindness practice condition. Reduced psychological stress mediated the effect of lovingkindness practice on implicit bias against homeless people, but it did not mediate the reduced bias against Black people. These results suggest that lovingkindness meditation can improve automatically activated, implicit attitudes toward stigmatized social groups and that this effect occurs through distinctive mechanisms for different stigmatized social groups. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. White and Black American Children’s Implicit Intergroup Bias

    PubMed Central

    Newheiser, Anna-Kaisa; Olson, Kristina R.

    2011-01-01

    Despite a decline in explicit prejudice, adults and children from majority groups (e.g., White Americans) often express bias implicitly, as assessed by the Implicit Association Test. In contrast, minority-group (e.g., Black American) adults on average show no bias on the IAT. In the present research, representing the first empirical investigation of whether Black children’s IAT responses parallel those of Black adults, we examined implicit bias in 7–11-year-old White and Black American children. Replicating previous findings with adults, whereas White children showed a robust ingroup bias, Black children showed no bias. Additionally, we investigated the role of valuing status in the development of implicit bias. For Black children, explicit preference for high status predicted implicit outgroup bias: Black children who explicitly expressed high preference for rich (vs. poor) people showed an implicit preference for Whites comparable in magnitude to White children’s ingroup bias. Implications for research on intergroup bias are discussed. PMID:22184478

  19. Educating Consultants for Multicultural Practice of Consultee-Centered Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingraham, Colette L.

    2017-01-01

    Literature about educating consultants with knowledge, skills, and dispositions to work effectively within culturally and linguistically diverse schools is scarce. Research suggests that additional attention is needed on the preparation of consultants to practice with multicultural competence. This article reviews theories and research and…

  20. Responsive Systems Consultation: A Model for Conjoint Consultation Preliminary Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasad-Gaur, Archna; And Others

    Responsive Systems Consultation (RSC) is an approach for enhancing children's developmental outcomes and involves a psychological or educational consultant working jointly with a child's parents and teachers. The impact of the RSC on parent and teacher consultees' attitudes toward home-school collaboration and their evaluation of the consultation…

  1. Beyond the two-group paradigm in studies of intergroup conflict and inequality: Third parties and intergroup alliances in xenophobic violence in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Philippa; Durrheim, Kevin; Dixon, John

    2017-03-01

    Social psychologists typically conceptualize intergroup processes in terms of unequal pairs of social categories, such as an advantaged majority (e.g., 'Whites') and a disadvantaged minority (e.g., 'Blacks'). We argue that this two-group paradigm may obscure the workings of intergroup power by overlooking: (1) the unique dynamics of intergroup relations involving three or more groups, and (2) the way some two-group relationships function as strategic alliances that derive meaning from their location within a wider relational context. We develop this argument through a field study conducted in a grape-farming town in South Africa in 2009, focusing on an episode of xenophobic violence in which a Zimbabwean farm worker community was forcibly evicted from their homes by their South African neighbours. Discursive analysis of interview accounts of the nature and origins of this violence shows how an ostensibly binary 'xenophobic' conflict between foreign and South African farm labourers was partially constituted through both groups' relationship with a third party who were neither victims nor perpetrators of the actual violence, namely White farmers. We highlight some potential political consequences of defaulting to a two-group paradigm in intergroup conflict studies. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  2. 77 FR 16120 - Tribal Consultations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-19

    ... Tribal Consultation on the following VA programs: Native American Direct Loan Program, Tribal Cemetery... discussed during consultation: National Cemetery Administration: In January 2012, VA issued a final rule, 77... improvement of veterans cemeteries. This final rule implemented through regulation section 403 of...

  3. Collaborative Relationships in Evaluation Consulting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maack, Stephen C.; Upton, Jan

    2006-01-01

    People are often driven to become "independent" as part of the desire to go out on their own. Independent evaluation consultants, however, frequently collaborate with others on evaluation projects. This chapter explores such collaborative relationships from both sides: those leading evaluations with subcontracted consultants and those who work as…

  4. Caveats in the Consultation Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Doryn Z.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Discusses potential problems in the application of mental health consultation to other departments within an umbrella institution such as a university. Highlights possible hazardous consequences to the consultee, to the consultant, and to the organizational systems. Presents some remedies and precautionary measures. (Author/RC)

  5. The new consultant survey 2005

    PubMed Central

    Beckett, M; Hulbert, D

    2006-01-01

    Background Consultants in emergency medicine have to deal with a wide range of problems, many of which they will not have encountered during their training. One way to assess the adequacy of specialist training is to ask recently appointed consultants whether or not they feel adequately prepared for their role. Methods A questionnaire was sent out to 60 newly appointed consultants in emergency medicine in January and February 2005 and the results analysed. Results Many respondents feel that there should be greater emphasis on acquiring clinical skills, partly by greater consultant supervision and partly by providing more experience of anaesthetics and intensive care. New consultants also feel inadequately prepared for their management responsibilities, and this is a source of great stress. Conclusions Specialist training in emergency medicine needs to pay more attention to the acquisition of clinical skills and to preparation for management responsibility. PMID:16714509

  6. 29 CFR 1908.8 - Consultant specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Consultant specifications. 1908.8 Section 1908.8 Labor... CONSULTATION AGREEMENTS § 1908.8 Consultant specifications. (a) Number. (1) The number of consultant positions... may be adjusted periodically. (2) States shall make efforts to utilize consultants with the safety and...

  7. 29 CFR 1908.8 - Consultant specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Consultant specifications. 1908.8 Section 1908.8 Labor... CONSULTATION AGREEMENTS § 1908.8 Consultant specifications. (a) Number. (1) The number of consultant positions... may be adjusted periodically. (2) States shall make efforts to utilize consultants with the safety and...

  8. 29 CFR 1908.8 - Consultant specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Consultant specifications. 1908.8 Section 1908.8 Labor... CONSULTATION AGREEMENTS § 1908.8 Consultant specifications. (a) Number. (1) The number of consultant positions... may be adjusted periodically. (2) States shall make efforts to utilize consultants with the safety and...

  9. 29 CFR 1908.8 - Consultant specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Consultant specifications. 1908.8 Section 1908.8 Labor... CONSULTATION AGREEMENTS § 1908.8 Consultant specifications. (a) Number. (1) The number of consultant positions... may be adjusted periodically. (2) States shall make efforts to utilize consultants with the safety and...

  10. US Intergroup Anal Carcinoma Trial: Tumor Diameter Predicts for Colostomy

    PubMed Central

    Ajani, Jaffer A.; Winter, Kathryn A.; Gunderson, Leonard L.; Pedersen, John; Benson, Al B.; Thomas, Charles R.; Mayer, Robert J.; Haddock, Michael G.; Rich, Tyvin A.; Willett, Christopher G.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The US Gastrointestinal Intergroup Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 98-11 anal carcinoma trial showed that cisplatin-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy resulted in a significantly higher rate of colostomy compared with mitomycin-based therapy. Established prognostic variables for patients with anal carcinoma include tumor diameter, clinical nodal status, and sex, but pretreatment variables that would predict the likelihood of colostomy are unknown. Methods A secondary analysis was performed by combining patients in the two treatment arms to evaluate whether new predictive and prognostic variables would emerge. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to correlate overall survival (OS), disease-free survival, and time to colostomy (TTC) with pretreatment and treatment variables. Results Of 682 patients enrolled, 644 patients were assessable and analyzed. In the multivariate analysis, tumor-related prognosticators for poorer OS included node-positive cancer (P ≤ .0001), large (> 5 cm) tumor diameter (P = .01), and male sex (P = .016). In the treatment-related categories, cisplatin-based therapy was statistically significantly associated with a higher rate of colostomy (P = .03) than was mitomycin-based therapy. In the pretreatment variables category, only large tumor diameter independently predicted for TTC (P = .008). Similarly, the cumulative 5-year colostomy rate was statistically significantly higher for large tumor diameter than for small tumor diameter (Gray's test; P = .0074). Clinical nodal status and sex were not predictive of TTC. Conclusion The combined analysis of the two arms of RTOG 98-11, representing the largest prospective database, reveals that tumor diameter (irrespective of the nodal status) is the only independent pretreatment variable that predicts TTC and 5-year colostomy rate in patients with anal carcinoma. PMID:19139424

  11. Mortality in the randomized, controlled lung intergroup trial of isotretinoin.

    PubMed

    Lee, J Jack; Feng, Lei; Reshef, Daniel S; Sabichi, Anita L; Williams, Brendell; Rinsurongkawong, Waree; Wistuba, Ignacio I; Lotan, Reuben; Lippman, Scott M

    2010-06-01

    In 2001, we reported that mortality may have been higher with isotretinoin (30 mg/d for 3 years) than with placebo in the subgroup of current smokers among the 1,166 patients with definitively resected early-stage non-small cell lung cancer who participated in the randomized, controlled Lung Intergroup Trial. We report the overall and cause (cancer, cardiovascular disease, or other)-specific mortality associated with long-term isotretinoin after an extended median follow-up of 6.2 years that included the capture of cause-of-death data from 428 deceased patients. Overall mortality was 36.7% in each of the two trial arms, about two thirds related to cancer and one third to other or unknown causes. Overall and cancer deaths increased in current smokers in the isotretinoin arm during the treatment and the extended follow-up period. No mortality end point increased among never smokers and former smokers taking isotretinoin, and cancer deaths decreased marginally in this combined subgroup. Isotretinoin also increased deaths from cardiovascular disease in current smokers. The present analysis supports the safety of protracted isotretinoin use in the combined group of never smokers and former smokers, which has important public health implications, for example, for treating acne in young people. The increased mortality in current smokers in this study is further evidence of the multifaceted danger of active smoking. The overall indications of this study have public health implications for treating acne in young people and other uses of retinoids in smokers.

  12. A developmental intergroup theory of social stereotypes and prejudice.

    PubMed

    Bigler, Rebecca S; Liben, Lynn S

    2006-01-01

    Developmental intergroup theory specifies the mechanisms and rules that govern the processes by which children single out groups as targets of stereotyping and prejudice, and by which children learn and construct both the characteristics (i.e., stereotypes) and affective responses (i.e., prejudices) that are associated with these groups in their culture. Specifically, we argue that children have a drive to understand their world, and that this drive is manifested in their tendency to classify natural and non-natural stimuli into categories, and to search the environment for cues about which of the great number of potential bases for categorization are important. The first step in the process of stereotype and prejudice formation is, therefore, the establishment of the psychological salience of some particular set of dimensions. Four factors are hypothesized to affect the establishment of the psychological salience of person attributes: (1) perceptual discriminability of social groups, (2) proportional group size, (3) explicit labeling and use of social groups, and (4) implicit use of social groups. We argue that person characteristics that are perceptually discriminable are more likely than other characteristics to become the basis of stereotyping, but that perceptual discriminability alone is insufficient to trigger psychological salience. Thus, for example, young children's ability to detect race or gender does not mean that these distinctions will inevitably become the bases of stereotypes and prejudice. Instead, for perceptually salient groups to become psychologically salient, one or more additional circumstances must hold, including being characterized by minority status, by adults' use of different labels for different groups, by adults using group divisions functionally, or by segregation. After a particular characteristic that may be used to differentiate among individuals becomes salient, we propose that children who have the ability to sort consistently

  13. Inter-group and intra-group assertiveness: adolescents' social skills following cultural transition.

    PubMed

    Korem, Anat; Horenczyk, Gabriel; Tatar, Moshe

    2012-08-01

    The goals of this study were to examine intra-group and inter-group assertiveness among adolescents, and to compare these two domains of assertiveness between cultural groups in Israel. Measures of intra-group and inter-group assertiveness were developed, and questionnaires were administrated to 441 immigrants from the Former Soviet Union (FSU), 242 immigrants from Ethiopia and 333 non-immigrants. Compared to non-immigrants, FSU and Ethiopian immigrants' inter-group assertiveness was lower. Girls reported higher levels of inter-group assertiveness than boys. Each of the immigrant groups rates itself as equally assertive as the non-immigrant group and more assertive than the other immigrant group. Also, a difference between inter-group and intra-group assertiveness was found among the FSU immigrants. It is argued that adolescents' assertiveness following cultural transition is associated with socio-cultural context, and the implications of this conclusion are discussed. Copyright © 2011 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Asymmetric intergroup bullying: The enactment and maintenance of societal inequality at work

    PubMed Central

    Soylu, Soydan; Sheehy-Skeffington, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    What does inequality mean for dysfunctional organizational behaviours, such as workplace bullying? This article argues that workplace bullying can be understood as a manifestation of intergroup dynamics originating beyond the organization. We introduce the construct of asymmetric intergroup bullying: the disproportionate mistreatment of members of low status groups, with the intended effect of enhancing the subordination of that group in society at large. Analysis of data from 38 interviews with public and private sector workers in Turkey depicts a pattern of asymmetric intergroup bullying, undertaken to achieve organizational and broader sociopolitical goals. Respondents reported bullying acts used to get rid of unwanted personnel, with the goal of avoiding severance pay, or of removing supporters of the former government from positions of political and economic influence. Bullying was also described as working towards the dominance of the sociocultural worldview of one political group over another. We discuss asymmetric intergroup bullying as one mechanism through which acute intergroup hierarchy in the broader society corrupts management practice and employee interactions, in turn exacerbating economic inequality along group lines. PMID:26819482

  15. Asymmetric intergroup bullying: The enactment and maintenance of societal inequality at work.

    PubMed

    Soylu, Soydan; Sheehy-Skeffington, Jennifer

    2015-07-01

    What does inequality mean for dysfunctional organizational behaviours, such as workplace bullying? This article argues that workplace bullying can be understood as a manifestation of intergroup dynamics originating beyond the organization. We introduce the construct of asymmetric intergroup bullying: the disproportionate mistreatment of members of low status groups, with the intended effect of enhancing the subordination of that group in society at large. Analysis of data from 38 interviews with public and private sector workers in Turkey depicts a pattern of asymmetric intergroup bullying, undertaken to achieve organizational and broader sociopolitical goals. Respondents reported bullying acts used to get rid of unwanted personnel, with the goal of avoiding severance pay, or of removing supporters of the former government from positions of political and economic influence. Bullying was also described as working towards the dominance of the sociocultural worldview of one political group over another. We discuss asymmetric intergroup bullying as one mechanism through which acute intergroup hierarchy in the broader society corrupts management practice and employee interactions, in turn exacerbating economic inequality along group lines.

  16. Collective narcissism moderates the effect of in-group image threat on intergroup hostility.

    PubMed

    Golec de Zavala, Agnieszka; Cichocka, Aleksandra; Iskra-Golec, Irena

    2013-06-01

    Results of 4 experiments demonstrated that under in-group image threat collective narcissism predicts retaliatory intergroup hostility. Under in-group criticism (vs. praise) collective narcissists expressed intention to harm the offending out-group but not other, nonoffending out-groups. This effect was specific to collective narcissism and was replicated in studies that accounted for the overlap between collective narcissism and individual narcissism, in-group positivity (in-group identification, blind and constructive patriotism), social dominance orientation, and right wing authoritarianism. The link between collective narcissism and retaliatory intergroup hostility under in-group image threat was found in the context of national identity and international relations and in the context of a social identity defined by university affiliation. Study 4 demonstrated that the relationship between collective narcissism and intergroup hostility was mediated by the perception of in-group criticism as personally threatening. The results advance our understanding of the mechanism driving the link between collective narcissism and intergroup hostility. They indicate that threatened egotism theory can be extended into the intergroup domain.

  17. Starting a nursing consultation practice.

    PubMed

    Schulmeister, L

    1999-03-01

    Because the clinical nurse specialist (CNS) role has been changed or eliminated in many hospital organizations, many CNSs in career transition are considering establishing collaborative or independent nursing consultation practices. Opportunities for consultants exist in diverse practice settings and specialties. Before starting a consultation practice, the CNS should carefully examine goals, identify resources, and begin contacting potential referral sources. He or she must also decide what form of business organization to establish and write a business plan to solidify ideas and prepare for the unexpected. Most CNS consultants rely on personal savings to cover initial business and personal expenses, and many continue working as a CNS until the consultation practice is established. Fees can be set based on community standards, what the market will bear, desired projected income, or a third-party payor's fee schedule. The consultation practice can be marketed by word of mouth, inexpensive advertising techniques such as distributing flyers and business cards, direct mall, and media advertising. In today's healthcare marketplace, opportunities abound for the CNS risk-taker interested in starting a nursing consultation practice.

  18. 34 CFR 200.63 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....63 Consultation. (a) In order to have timely and meaningful consultation, an LEA must consult with... the right to complain to the SEA that the LEA did not— (1) Engage in timely and meaningful...

  19. Circumplex Scales of Intergroup Goals: an interpersonal circle model of goals for interactions between groups.

    PubMed

    Locke, Kenneth D

    2014-04-01

    Six studies (N = 1,682) used the Circumplex Scales of Intergroup Goals (CSIG)--an inventory based on the interpersonal circle-to assess individuals' agentic and communal goals for interactions between groups (nations in Studies 1-4, organizations in Study 5, political parties in Study 6). Noteworthy findings included the following: People with stronger unagentic-and-uncommunal goals perceived other groups as dangers, were wary of intergroup negotiations, and sanctioned authoritarianism and inequality. People with stronger agentic-and-uncommunal goals proudly identified with their country and compatriots, disapproved of nations unlike their own, and preferred the conservative candidate in a national election. People with stronger communal-and-unagentic goals identified with people beyond their ingroup, and wanted their group to resolve intergroup conflicts by behaving cooperatively rather than competitively or aggressively. By providing an encompassing framework capable of organizing and integrating these types of diverse findings, the circumplex model can facilitate cumulative scientific progress.

  20. Inter-group violence among early Holocene hunter-gatherers of West Turkana, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mirazón Lahr, M; Rivera, F; Power, R K; Mounier, A; Copsey, B; Crivellaro, F; Edung, J E; Maillo Fernandez, J M; Kiarie, C; Lawrence, J; Leakey, A; Mbua, E; Miller, H; Muigai, A; Mukhongo, D M; Van Baelen, A; Wood, R; Schwenninger, J-L; Grün, R; Achyuthan, H; Wilshaw, A; Foley, R A

    2016-01-21

    The nature of inter-group relations among prehistoric hunter-gatherers remains disputed, with arguments in favour and against the existence of warfare before the development of sedentary societies. Here we report on a case of inter-group violence towards a group of hunter-gatherers from Nataruk, west of Lake Turkana, which during the late Pleistocene/early Holocene period extended about 30 km beyond its present-day shore. Ten of the twelve articulated skeletons found at Nataruk show evidence of having died violently at the edge of a lagoon, into which some of the bodies fell. The remains from Nataruk are unique, preserved by the particular conditions of the lagoon with no evidence of deliberate burial. They offer a rare glimpse into the life and death of past foraging people, and evidence that warfare was part of the repertoire of inter-group relations among prehistoric hunter-gatherers.

  1. Two signatures of implicit intergroup attitudes: developmental invariance and early enculturation.

    PubMed

    Dunham, Yarrow; Chen, Eva E; Banaji, Mahzarin R

    2013-06-01

    Long traditions in the social sciences have emphasized the gradual internalization of intergroup attitudes and the putatively more basic tendency to prefer the groups to which one belongs. In four experiments (N = 883) spanning two cultures and two status groups within one of those cultures, we obtained new evidence that implicit intergroup attitudes emerge in young children in a form indistinguishable from adult attitudes. Strikingly, this invariance from childhood to adulthood holds for members of socially dominant majorities, who consistently favor their in-group, as well as for members of a disadvantaged minority, who, from the early moments of race-based categorization, do not show a preference for their in-group. Far from requiring a protracted period of internalization, implicit intergroup attitudes are characterized by early enculturation and developmental invariance.

  2. Cross-Ethnic Friendships and Intergroup Attitudes Among Asian American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaochen; Graham, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    This study examined cross-ethnic friendship choices and intergroup attitudes in a sample of 762 sixth grade Asian American students (Mage=11.5 years) attending one of 19 middle schools that varied in ethnic composition. Multiple measures of friendship (quantity and quality) and intergroup attitudes (affective, cognitive, behavioral) toward White, Latino, and Black grademates were assessed. The results showed that Asian American students over-nominated White students and under-nominated Latino and Black students as their friends when school availability of each ethnic group was accounted for. Cross-ethnic friendships were related to better intergroup attitudes, especially the behavioral dimension of attitudes. Cross-ethnic friendships were least likely to change attitudes towards Blacks. Implications for future research, educational practice, and attitude intervention programs were discussed. PMID:25626492

  3. Social identity complexity, cross-ethnic friendships, and intergroup attitudes in urban middle schools.

    PubMed

    Knifsend, Casey A; Juvonen, Jaana

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated contextual antecedents (i.e., cross-ethnic peers and friends) and correlates (i.e., intergroup attitudes) of social identity complexity in seventh grade. Social identity complexity refers to the perceived overlap among social groups with which youth identify. Identifying mostly with out-of-school sports, religious affiliations, and peer crowds, the ethnically diverse sample (N = 622; Mage in seventh grade = 12.56) showed moderately high complexity. Social identity complexity mediated the link between cross-ethnic friendships and ethnic intergroup attitudes, but only when adolescents had a high proportion of cross-ethnic peers at school. Results are discussed in terms of how school diversity can promote complex social identities and positive intergroup attitudes. © 2013 The Authors. Child Development © 2013 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  4. Social Identity Complexity, Cross-ethnic Friendships, and Intergroup Attitudes in Urban Middle Schools

    PubMed Central

    Knifsend, Casey A.; Juvonen, Jaana

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated contextual antecedents (i.e., cross-ethnic peers and friends) and correlates (i.e., intergroup attitudes) of social identity complexity in seventh grade. Social identity complexity refers to the perceived overlap among social groups with which youth identify. Identifying mostly with out-of-school sports, religious affiliations, and peer crowds, the ethnically diverse sample (N = 622; Mage in seventh grade = 12.56) showed moderately high complexity. Social identity complexity mediated the link between cross-ethnic friendships and ethnic intergroup attitudes, but only when adolescents had a high proportion of cross-ethnic peers at school. Results are discussed in terms of how school diversity can promote complex social identities and positive intergroup attitudes. PMID:24032401

  5. Antecedents and consequences of social identity complexity: intergroup contact, distinctiveness threat, and outgroup attitudes.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Katharina; Hewstone, Miles; Tausch, Nicole; Cairns, Ed; Hughes, Joanne

    2009-08-01

    Social identity complexity defines people's more or less complex cognitive representations of the interrelationships among their multiple ingroup identities. Being high in complexity is contingent on situational, cognitive, or motivational factors, and has positive consequences for intergroup relations. Two survey studies conducted in Northern Ireland examined the extent to which intergroup contact and distinctiveness threat act as antecedents, and outgroup attitudes as consequences, of social identity complexity. In both studies, contact was positively, and distinctiveness threat negatively, associated with complex multiple ingroup perceptions, whereas respondents with more complex identity structures also reported more favorable outgroup attitudes. Social identity complexity also mediated the effects of contact and distinctiveness threat on attitudes. This research highlights that the extent to which individuals perceive their multiple ingroups in more or less complex and differentiated ways is of central importance to understanding intergroup phenomena.

  6. Consulting about consulting: challenges to effective consulting about public health research

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Janne; Broom, Dorothy; Whittaker, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Objective To understand barriers to obtaining input from consumers in developing public health research. Methods Documentation of a failed attempt at consumer consultation supplies information on barriers to effective involvement and conditions that must prevail to improve consultation. Results People are keen to be heard in the formulation of health research. However, competing demands and limited resources make it difficult for community groups to allocate scarce resources to consultation. Sometimes research issues may seem ‘academic’ and thus remote from the urgent priorities of the people with whom researchers wish to consult. Consultation may require more time than researchers on limited budgets can afford. Conclusions Despite a general public health commitment to involving consumers in research development, obstacles to consultation make it difficult to incorporate it into the research agenda. Implications Researchers and funding bodies will need to allocate resources to consumer consultation if it is to become the rule rather than the exception in public health research. PMID:11703494

  7. Improving Ethnic Balance and Intergroup Relations; An Advisory Report to the Board of Education, Corona Unified School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Intergroup Relations.

    This report contains the findings of a field study of the ethnic and racial composition and intergroup relations in the schools in the Corona Unified School District, California. These findings are information on (1) the district's approaches to desegregation and its policy on intergroup relations, (2) students' achievement differences, (3)…

  8. Raising Ethnic-Racial Consciousness: The Relationship between Intergroup Dialogues and Adolescents' Ethnic-Racial Identity and Racism Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldana, Adriana; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Checkoway, Barry; Richards-Schuster, Katie

    2012-01-01

    Empirical evidence shows that intergroup dialogue programs promote changes in ethnic-racial identity and racism awareness among college students. Expanding on this research, this study examines the effects of intergroup dialogues on adolescents' racial consciousness. Self-reports of 147 adolescents (13-19 years old), of various racial and ethnic…

  9. Raising Ethnic-Racial Consciousness: The Relationship between Intergroup Dialogues and Adolescents' Ethnic-Racial Identity and Racism Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldana, Adriana; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Checkoway, Barry; Richards-Schuster, Katie

    2012-01-01

    Empirical evidence shows that intergroup dialogue programs promote changes in ethnic-racial identity and racism awareness among college students. Expanding on this research, this study examines the effects of intergroup dialogues on adolescents' racial consciousness. Self-reports of 147 adolescents (13-19 years old), of various racial and ethnic…

  10. When the CNS needs a consultant.

    PubMed

    Norwood, S L

    1998-03-01

    Although advanced practice nurses (APNs) are accustomed to providing consultation about patient care issues, they may be less comfortable seeking consultation and working with consultants. Being a savvy consumer of consultation services, however, is an essential skill for APNs and can help them avoid problems that may arise when practicing outside their realm of expertise. Consultants can also help APNs develop intra- and entrepreneurial practice opportunities. This article describes how to determine the necessity of a consultation, how to choose a consultant, and how to get the most out of a consulting relationship.

  11. Empathy-related Responding: Associations with Prosocial Behavior, Aggression, and Intergroup Relations

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Eggum, Natalie D.; Di Giunta, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Empathy-related responding, including empathy, sympathy, and personal distress, has been implicated in conceptual models and theories about prosocial behavior and altruism, aggression and antisocial behavior, and intergroup relationships. Conceptual arguments and empirical findings related to each of these topics are reviewed. In general, there is evidence that empathy and/or sympathy are important correlates of, and likely contributors to, other-oriented prosocial behavior, the inhibition of aggression and antisocial behavior, and the quality of intergroup relationships. Applied implications of these findings, including preventative studies, are discussed, as are possible future directions. PMID:21221410

  12. Empathy-related Responding: Associations with Prosocial Behavior, Aggression, and Intergroup Relations.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Eggum, Natalie D; Di Giunta, Laura

    2010-12-01

    Empathy-related responding, including empathy, sympathy, and personal distress, has been implicated in conceptual models and theories about prosocial behavior and altruism, aggression and antisocial behavior, and intergroup relationships. Conceptual arguments and empirical findings related to each of these topics are reviewed. In general, there is evidence that empathy and/or sympathy are important correlates of, and likely contributors to, other-oriented prosocial behavior, the inhibition of aggression and antisocial behavior, and the quality of intergroup relationships. Applied implications of these findings, including preventative studies, are discussed, as are possible future directions.

  13. [Relation between perception of differences and intergroup anxiety: moderator and mediator variables].

    PubMed

    Quiles, María N; Rodríguez, Armando; Navas, Marisol; Rodríguez, Ramón; Betancor, Verónica; Coello, Efrén

    2006-02-01

    This research has two aims: first, to determine the relationship between the intergroup differences perceived and the anxiety experienced by ingroup members in their contact with members of the outgroup. Second, to examine the moderator and/or mediator role of a series of variables considered relevant in the literature on intergroup prejudice, take into account Baron and Kenny's (1986) requeriments. This analysis is carried out from the perspective of the minority group, in this case Moroccan inmigrants to Almería. The results confirm the moderating role of the variables pressure to assimilate and perception of xenophobia and the mediating role of inmigrants' attitude towards local people and social paranoia.

  14. Understanding interprofessional education as an intergroup encounter: The use of contact theory in programme planning.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, John; Dickinson, Claire

    2016-01-01

    A key underlying assumption of interprofessional education (IPE) is that if the professions are brought together they have the opportunity to learn about each other and dispel the negative stereotypes which are presumed to hamper interprofessional collaboration in practice. This article explores the application of contact theory in IPE with reference to eight evaluation studies (1995-2012) which adopted this theoretical perspective. It proposes that educators should pay explicit attention to an intergroup perspective in designing IPE programmes and specifically to the "contact variables" identified by social psychologists studying intergroup encounters. This would increase the chances of the planned contact having a positive effect on attitude change.

  15. Recovery of Utility Fixed Costs: Utility, Consumer, Environmental and Economist Perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Lisa; Hemphill, Ross; Howat, John; Cavanagh, Ralph; Borenstein, Severin; Deason, Jeff; Schwartz, Lisa; Schwartz, Lisa

    2016-06-14

    Utilities recover costs for providing electric service to retail customers through a combination of rate components that together comprise customers’ monthly electric bills. Rates and rate designs are set by state regulators and vary by jurisdiction, utility and customer class. In addition to the fundamental tenet of setting fair and reasonable rates, rate design balances economic efficiency, equity and fairness, customer satisfaction, utility revenue stability, and customer price and bill stability.1 At the most basic level, retail electricity bills in the United States typically include a fixed monthly customer charge — a set dollar amount regardless of energy usage — and a volumetric energy charge for each kilowatt-hour consumed.2 The energy charge may be flat across all hours, vary by usage level (for example, higher rates at higher levels of usage), or vary based on time of consumption.3 While some utility costs, such as fuel costs, clearly vary according to electricity usage, other costs are “fixed” over the short run — generally, those that do not vary over the course of a year. Depending on your point of view, and whether the state’s electricity industry has been restructured or remains vertically integrated, the set of costs that are “fixed” may be quite limited. Or the set may extend to all capacity costs for generation, transmission and distribution. In the long run, all costs are variable. In the context of flat or declining loads in some regions, utilities are proposing a variety of changes to retail rate designs, particularly for residential customers, to recover fixed costs. In this report, authors representing utility (Chapter 1), consumer (Chapter 2), environmentalist (Chapter 3) and economist (Chapter 4) perspectives discuss fixed costs for electric utilities and set out their principles for recovering those costs. The table on the next page summarizes each author’s relative preferences for various options for fixed cost

  16. Minority group members' theories of intergroup contact: a case study of British Muslims' conceptualizations of 'Islamophobia' and social change.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Nick; Kahani-Hopkins, Vered

    2006-06-01

    Much research in intergroup relations concerns the potential for interventions (e.g. intergroup contact) to reduce majorities' discrimination against minorities. In this paper we focus on how minority group members construe such interventions, especially as they affect their abilities to act in terms of their collective identity to realize social change. In addressing this issue, we focus on a minority's beliefs and theories concerning the intergroup dynamics lying behind their marginalization. Our data are qualitative and concern British Muslims' analyses of the dynamics of Islamophobia. Specifically, we explore two theorizations of Muslims' marginalization. Both share a concern with improving Muslims' collective position in Britain. However, they construe the dynamics to Islamophobia in very different ways, and this shapes their approach to intergroup contact and dialogue. Our analysis is informed by, and seeks to complement, social psychological theorizing on social change and intergroup contact.

  17. Consults for conflict: the history of ethics consultation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The very existence of ethics consultation reflects both the increasing complexity of modern medicine's ethical questions and our discomfort with the prospect of answering them alone. Two developments in the past century were instrumental in driving the development of ethics consultation—organ replacement therapy and intensive care. With the proliferation of extreme life-prolonging measures came the thorny difficulties in the withdrawal of such services or rationing when resources were poor. Insofar as “someone must,” lamented Dr. Karen Teel (a pioneer of ethics consultation), the physician “is charged with the responsibility of making ethical judgments which we are sometimes ill-equipped to make.” More than anything, ethics consultation has come to best satisfy a central desire of American health care—sharing the responsibility for tough decisions. PMID:24082425

  18. Communication Consulting as Persuasion: Issues and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Roseanna G.

    Focusing on the issue of the training and preparation of the communication specialist in communication consulting, an investigation of the persuasive elements in the client-consulting relationship suggests that more direct focus on consulting as persuasion can lead to more responsible and effective enactment of the role of both consultant and…

  19. Trust and the Client-Consultant Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomonson, William L.

    2012-01-01

    This study seeks to improve the contributions of performance consultants, instructional design consultants, and training consultants by explaining the effect that several variables have on trust as a mediator to relationship commitment within the context of the client-consultant relationship. The participants were 228 college students from two…

  20. 7 CFR 1789.157 - Consultant contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Consultant contract. 1789.157 Section 1789.157... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) USE OF CONSULTANTS FUNDED BY BORROWERS Policy and Procedures With Respect to Consultant Services Funded by Borrowers-General § 1789.157 Consultant contract. (a) The Federal Acquisition...

  1. 7 CFR 1789.157 - Consultant contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Consultant contract. 1789.157 Section 1789.157... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) USE OF CONSULTANTS FUNDED BY BORROWERS Policy and Procedures With Respect to Consultant Services Funded by Borrowers-General § 1789.157 Consultant contract. (a) The Federal Acquisition...

  2. 7 CFR 1789.157 - Consultant contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Consultant contract. 1789.157 Section 1789.157... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) USE OF CONSULTANTS FUNDED BY BORROWERS Policy and Procedures With Respect to Consultant Services Funded by Borrowers-General § 1789.157 Consultant contract. (a) The Federal Acquisition...

  3. 21 CFR 211.34 - Consultants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Consultants. 211.34 Section 211.34 Food and Drugs... Consultants. Consultants advising on the manufacture, processing, packing, or holding of drug products shall... qualifications of any consultants and the type of service they provide. ...

  4. 7 CFR 1789.157 - Consultant contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consultant contract. 1789.157 Section 1789.157... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) USE OF CONSULTANTS FUNDED BY BORROWERS Policy and Procedures With Respect to Consultant Services Funded by Borrowers-General § 1789.157 Consultant contract. (a) The Federal Acquisition...

  5. 7 CFR 1789.157 - Consultant contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Consultant contract. 1789.157 Section 1789.157... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) USE OF CONSULTANTS FUNDED BY BORROWERS Policy and Procedures With Respect to Consultant Services Funded by Borrowers-General § 1789.157 Consultant contract. (a) The Federal Acquisition...

  6. 21 CFR 211.34 - Consultants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Consultants. 211.34 Section 211.34 Food and Drugs... Consultants. Consultants advising on the manufacture, processing, packing, or holding of drug products shall... qualifications of any consultants and the type of service they provide. ...

  7. Trust and the Client-Consultant Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomonson, William L.

    2012-01-01

    This study seeks to improve the contributions of performance consultants, instructional design consultants, and training consultants by explaining the effect that several variables have on trust as a mediator to relationship commitment within the context of the client-consultant relationship. The participants were 228 college students from two…

  8. 21 CFR 211.34 - Consultants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Consultants. 211.34 Section 211.34 Food and Drugs... Consultants. Consultants advising on the manufacture, processing, packing, or holding of drug products shall... qualifications of any consultants and the type of service they provide. ...

  9. Practice Parameter for Psychiatric Consultation to Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This practice parameter reviews the topic of psychiatric consultation to schools. The review covers the history of school consultation and current consultative models; the process of developing a consultative relationship; school administrative procedures, personnel, and milieu; legal protections for students with mental disabilities; and issues…

  10. Prospective comparison of curbside versus formal consultations.

    PubMed

    Burden, Marisha; Sarcone, Ellen; Keniston, Angela; Statland, Barbara; Taub, Julie A; Allyn, Rebecca L; Reid, Mark B; Cervantes, Lilia; Frank, Maria G; Scaletta, Nicholas; Fung, Philip; Chadaga, Smitha R; Mastalerz, Katarzyna; Maller, Nancy; Mascolo, Margherita; Zoucha, Jeff; Campbell, Jessica; Maher, Mary P; Stella, Sarah A; Albert, Richard K

    2013-01-01

    Curbside consultations are commonly requested during the care of hospitalized patients, but physicians perceive that the recommendations provided may be based on inaccurate or incomplete information. To compare the accuracy and completeness of the information received from providers requesting a curbside consultation of hospitalists with that obtained in a formal consultation on the same patients, and to examine whether the recommendations offered in the 2 consultations differed. Prospective cohort. University-affiliated, urban safety net hospital. Proportion of curbside consultations with inaccurate or incomplete information; frequency with which recommendations in the formal consultation differed from those in the curbside consultation. Curbside consultations were requested for 50 patients, 47 of which were also evaluated in a formal consultation performed on the same day by a hospitalist other than the one performing the curbside consultation. Based on information collected in the formal consultation, information was either inaccurate or incomplete in 24/47 (51%) of the curbside consultations. Management advice after formal consultation differed from that given in the curbside consultation for 28/47 patients (60%). When inaccurate or incomplete information was received, the advice provided in the formal versus the curbside consultation differed in 22/24 patients (92%, P < 0.0001). Information presented during inpatient curbside consultations of hospitalists is often inaccurate or incomplete, and this often results in inaccurate management advice. Copyright © 2012 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  11. Academic Development for Careers in Management Consulting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Susan M.; Zanzi, Alberto

    2004-01-01

    Explores the extent to which academic offerings are serving the consulting industry and identifies ways that academia can help. The numbers of management consulting courses, field experiences in consulting and consulting concentrations by graduate business schools were tracked over a three-year period to assess the current state of offerings. A…

  12. From Awareness to Action: College Students' Skill Development in Intergroup Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Larissa E.; Domingue, Andrea D.

    2015-01-01

    A central goal of intergroup dialogue (IGD) is to strengthen individual and collective capacities to foster social justice commitments by supporting new ways of thinking about oneself, others, and the social structures in which we live. Relatedly, IGD assists individuals with building multicultural competencies and skill sets that support peoples'…

  13. Ethnic Composition of School Classes, Majority-Minority Friendships, and Adolescents' Intergroup Attitudes in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vervoort, Miranda H. M.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Scheepers, Peer L. H.

    2011-01-01

    The relationships between the proportion of ethnic minority adolescents in school classes, the proportion and quality of majority-minority friendships and intergroup attitudes were examined using multi-level analysis (N = 2386 adolescents in 117 school classes in the Netherlands). In school classes with high proportions of ethnic minority…

  14. Athletes and Sedentary Individuals: An Intergroup Comparison Utilizing a Pulmonary Function Ratio Obtained During Submaximal Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maud, Peter J.

    A pulmonary function ratio describing oxygen extraction from alveolar ventilation was used for an intergroup comparison between three groups of athletes (rugby, basketball, and football players) and one group of sedentary subjects during steady-state submaximal exercise. The ratio and its component parts are determined from only three gas…

  15. Transforming Negative Emotions: A Case Study of Intergroup Conflict among Conflict Resolution Practitioners of Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvalho, Millicent

    2003-01-01

    Examined how conflict affected internalized oppression and conflict-handling methods utilized during a facilitated meeting that attempted to resolve or manage intergroup conflict. Data on diverse conflict-resolution practitioners and mentors at a training session on how to overcome the effects of oppression in the writing process illuminated how…

  16. Effects of Minority Status in the Classroom on Children's Intergroup Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Christia Spears; Bigler, Rebecca S.

    2002-01-01

    Three studies examined effects of relative group size on the development of children's intergroup attitudes during a summer school program in which elementary school children were assigned to majority or minority novel groups denoted by tee-shirt color. Results showed a complex effect of relative group size, varying as a function of the relative…

  17. Ethnic Composition of School Classes, Majority-Minority Friendships, and Adolescents' Intergroup Attitudes in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vervoort, Miranda H. M.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Scheepers, Peer L. H.

    2011-01-01

    The relationships between the proportion of ethnic minority adolescents in school classes, the proportion and quality of majority-minority friendships and intergroup attitudes were examined using multi-level analysis (N = 2386 adolescents in 117 school classes in the Netherlands). In school classes with high proportions of ethnic minority…

  18. Understanding Facilitation: A Study of Knowledge, Skills and Behaviors in Intergroup Dialogue Facilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evinger, Leasa Kowalski

    2014-01-01

    Institutions of higher education have recently articulated the value of creating environments where diverse individuals can interact. However, "educators have been challenged to articulate clearly the educational purposes and benefits of diversity" (Gurin, Dey, Hurtado, & Gurin, 2002, p. 330). Intergroup dialogue is one approach that…

  19. An Evaluation of Intergroup Dialogue Pedagogy: Addressing Segregation and Developing Cultural Competency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessel, Adrienne B.; Rodenborg, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    This article presents data from a study of an intergroup dialogue (IGD) course in an urban Midwest MSW program guided by Derald Wing Sue's multicultural education model. IGD was used as an innovative pedagogy to meet the Council on Social Work Education mandate for cultural competence and social justice education. Results showed significant gains…

  20. Diversity and Intergroup Contact in Higher Education: Exploring Possibilities for Democratization through Social Justice Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Sabrina N.

    2014-01-01

    This study contributes to research linking diversity and higher education teaching to democratic learning outcomes. It explores processes and outcomes associated with the intergroup contact of Black and White students enrolled in two sections of a diversity education course at a public university in the southeastern United States. The goals of…

  1. Diversity Initiatives in Higher Education: Intergroup Dialogue as Pedagogy across the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Christine

    2005-01-01

    The idea for the Intergroup Dialogue as Pedagogy Across the Curriculum (INTERACT) Pilot Project emerged, quite organically, from the cross-pollination of two major initiatives of the Office of Human Relations Programs (OHRP), the equity compliance and multicultural education arm of the Office of the President at the University of Maryland, College…

  2. Children's Intergroup Empathic Processing: The Roles of Novel Ingroup Identification, Situational Distress, and Social Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masten, Carrie L.; Gillen-O'Neel, Cari; Brown, Christia Spears

    2010-01-01

    Individuals often feel more empathy toward members of their own social groups than toward members of other social groups. However, individual factors contributing to this empathy bias remain largely unexplored among children. This study examined intergroup empathic processing among 94 children (mean age = 8.74 years, SD = 1.76) assigned to novel…

  3. The Role of Mass Media and Intergroup Relations in the Process of Newcomers' Assimilation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shim, Jae Chul

    This paper reviews the group-related literature of intergroup relations and combines it with the existing theory of communications. Noting that communication scholars have recently entered this realm of intergoup relations and searched for the role of mass media in the process of ethnic newcomers' socialization, the paper conceptualizes…

  4. Effects of Physical Atypicality on Children's Social Identities and Intergroup Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Meagan M.; Bigler, Rebecca S.

    2007-01-01

    Individuals vary in the degree to which they are representative, or typical, of their social groups. To investigate the effects of atypicality on intergroup attitudes, elementary-school-age children (N = 97) attending a summer school program were assigned to novel color groups that included typical (blue or green) and atypical (light blue or light…

  5. Intergroup communication between hospital doctors: implications for quality of patient care.

    PubMed

    Hewett, David G; Watson, Bernadette M; Gallois, Cindy; Ward, Michael; Leggett, Barbara A

    2009-12-01

    Hospitals involve a complex socio-technical health system, where communication failures influence the quality of patient care. Research indicates the importance of social identity and intergroup relationships articulated through power, control, status and competition. This study focused on interspecialty communication among doctors for patients requiring the involvement of multiple specialist departments. The paper reports on an interview study in Australia, framed by social identity and communication accommodation theories of doctors' experiences of managing such patients, to explore the impact of communication. Interviews were undertaken with 45 doctors working in a large metropolitan hospital, and were analysed using Leximancer (text mining software) and interpretation of major themes. Findings indicated that intergroup conflict is a central influence on communication. Contested responsibilities emerged from a model of care driven by single-specialty ownership of the patient, with doctors allowed to evade responsibility for patients over whom they had no sense of ownership. Counter-accommodative communication, particularly involving interpersonal control, appeared as important for reinforcing social identity and winning conflicts. Strategies to resolve intergroup conflict must address structural issues generating an intergroup climate and evoke interpersonal salience to moderate their effect.

  6. Cognitive Cultural Learning, Intergroup Contact and Change in Ethnic Attitudes and Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amir, Yehuda; Ben-Ari, Rachel

    This study was designed to test the assumption that intergroup contact will lead to changes in attitudes. The objectives were to assess the attitudes and perceptions held by Israelis regarding Eqypt and Eqyptians, and to evaluate the pattern of change occurring in these attitudes and perceptions following an intervention program and subsequent…

  7. The development of bystander intentions and social-moral reasoning about intergroup verbal aggression.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Sally B; Rutland, Adam; Cameron, Lindsey

    2015-11-01

    A developmental intergroup approach was taken to examine the development of prosocial bystander intentions among children and adolescents. Participants as bystanders (N = 260) aged 8-10 and 13-15 years were presented with scenarios of direct aggression between individuals from different social groups (i.e., intergroup verbal aggression). These situations involved either an ingroup aggressor and an outgroup victim or an outgroup aggressor and an ingroup victim. This study focussed on the role of intergroup factors (group membership, ingroup identification, group norms, and social-moral reasoning) in the development of prosocial bystander intentions. Findings showed that prosocial bystander intentions declined with age. This effect was partially mediated by the ingroup norm to intervene and perceived severity of the verbal aggression. However, a moderated mediation analysis showed that only when the victim was an ingroup member and the aggressor an outgroup member did participants become more likely with age to report prosocial bystander intentions due to increased ingroup identification. Results also showed that younger children focussed on moral concerns and adolescents focussed more on psychological concerns when reasoning about their bystander intention. These novel findings help explain the developmental decline in prosocial bystander intentions from middle childhood into early adolescence when observing direct intergroup aggression.

  8. Moral Judgments about Jewish-Arab Intergroup Exclusion: The Role of Cultural Identity and Contact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenick, Alaina; Killen, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Prejudice and discrimination as justifications for social exclusion are often viewed as violations of the moral principles of welfare, justice, and equality, but intergroup exclusion can also often be viewed as a necessary and legitimate means to maintain group identity and cohesion (Rutland, Killen, & Abrams, 2010). The current study was…

  9. Preschool Children's Attention to Environmental Messages about Groups: Social Categorization and the Origins of Intergroup Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Meagan M.; Bigler, Rebecca S.

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of adults' labeling and use of social groups on preschool children's intergroup attitudes. Children (N=87, aged 3-5) attending day care were given measures of classification skill and self-esteem and assigned to membership in a novel ("red" or "blue") social group. In experimental classrooms, teachers…

  10. Social Groups and Children's Intergroup Attitudes: Can School Norms Moderate the Effects of Social Group Norms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesdale, Drew; Lawson, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of social group norms (inclusion vs. exclusion vs. exclusion-plus-relational aggression) and school norms (inclusion vs. no norm) on 7- and 10-year-old children's intergroup attitudes were examined. Children (n = 383) were randomly assigned to a group with an inclusion or exclusion norm, and to 1 of the school norm conditions. Findings…

  11. Effects of Physical Atypicality on Children's Social Identities and Intergroup Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Meagan M.; Bigler, Rebecca S.

    2007-01-01

    Individuals vary in the degree to which they are representative, or typical, of their social groups. To investigate the effects of atypicality on intergroup attitudes, elementary-school-age children (N = 97) attending a summer school program were assigned to novel color groups that included typical (blue or green) and atypical (light blue or light…

  12. Social Identity Complexity, Cross-Ethnic Friendships, and Intergroup Attitudes in Urban Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knifsend, Casey A.; Juvonen, Jaana

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated contextual antecedents (i.e., cross-ethnic peers and friends) and correlates (i.e., intergroup attitudes) of social identity complexity in seventh grade. Social identity complexity refers to the perceived overlap among social groups with which youth identify. Identifying mostly with out-of-school sports, religious…

  13. Intergroup Dialogue in Undergraduate Multicultural Psychology Education: Group Climate Development and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Joel T.; Miles, Joseph R.

    2017-01-01

    We examined group climate and outcomes in 19 intergroup dialogues (IGD) focused on gender, race and ethnicity, religion and spirituality, sexual orientation, or social class at a large, public university. Group members completed pre- and postdialogue outcome measures of colorblind racial attitudes, ethnocultural empathy, and attitudes toward…

  14. Children's Perceptions of Intergroup and Intragroup Similarity and the Role of Social Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGlothlin, Heidi; Killen, Melanie

    2005-01-01

    Perceptions of intragroup and intergroup similarity were assessed in 1st grade (M=6.78 years, SD=.42) and 4th grade (M=9.79, SD=.51) boys and girls (N=382) who attended either ethnically homogeneous or ethnically heterogeneous schools. Children's evaluations of same-race and cross-race friendships were also assessed. European-American children…

  15. Differing Levels of Gender Salience in Preschool Classrooms: Effects on Children's Gender Attitudes and Intergroup Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilliard, Lacey J.; Liben, Lynn S.

    2010-01-01

    Developmental intergroup theory posits that when environments make social-group membership salient, children will be particularly likely to apply categorization processes to social groups, thereby increasing stereotypes and prejudices. To test the predicted impact of environmental gender salience, 3- to 5-year-old children (N = 57) completed…

  16. Peer Group Norms and Accountability Moderate the Effect of School Norms on Children's Intergroup Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Luke; Rutland, Adam; Nesdale, Drew

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the interactive effects of school norms, peer norms, and accountability on children's intergroup attitudes. Participants (n = 229) aged 5-11 years, in a between-subjects design, were randomly assigned to a peer group with an inclusion or exclusion norm, learned their school either had an inclusion norm or not, and were…

  17. Shared Features of L2 Writing: Intergroup Homogeneity and Text Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Scott A.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates intergroup homogeneity within high intermediate and advanced L2 writers of English from Czech, Finnish, German, and Spanish first language backgrounds. A variety of linguistic features related to lexical sophistication, syntactic complexity, and cohesion were used to compare texts written by L1 speakers of English to L2…

  18. Intergroup Dialogue: A Critical-Dialogic Approach to Learning about Difference, Inequality, and Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagda, Biren A.; Gurin, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Intergroup dialogue (IGD) is an educational endeavor that brings together students from two or more social identity groups to build relationships across cultural and power differences, to raise consciousness of inequalities, to explore the similarities and differences in experiences across identity groups, and to strengthen individual and…

  19. Cohesion from Conflict: Does Intergroup Conflict Motivate Intragroup Norm Enforcement and Support for Centralized Leadership?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benard, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Classic work suggests that intergroup conflict increases intragroup cohesion and cooperation. But how do group members respond when their peers refuse to cooperate? Simmel ([1908] 1955) argued that groups in conflict quell dissent by sanctioning group members and supporting centralized leadership systems. This claim has important implications, but…

  20. Bridges or Barriers? Conceptualization of the Role of Multiple Identity Gateway Groups in Intergroup Relations

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Aharon; Saguy, Tamar; Halperin, Eran; van Zomeren, Martijn

    2017-01-01

    The modern era of globalization has been accompanied by a massive growth in interconnections between groups, and has led to the sharing of multiple identities by individuals and groups. Following these developments, research has focused on the issue of multiple identities, and has shed important light on how individuals who hold these complex forms of identity feel and behave, and on the reactions they elicit from members of other groups. However, the potential of groups with such multiple identities (e.g., biracials, immigrants, etc.) to affect the intergroup relations between the groups that represent the respective sources of the different identities (e.g., Blacks and Whites, country of origin and country of residence, etc.) has not been examined to date. Accordingly, in this paper, we first systematically explore the potential of groups in which people identify with multiple social categories, or groups that are perceived as such by others, to play a role in intergroup dynamics. Next, we offer a theoretical framework outlining what functions groups of people with shared multiple identities may serve (as bridges or barriers) by proposing how their presence may facilitate or deteriorate intergroup relations. Finally, we present recent empirical research examining how groups of people with shared multiple identities can act as gateways and bridge the cleft between two separate groups that represent the respective sources of their different identities, and discuss the theoretical and practical implications for the field of intergroup relations. PMID:28706501

  1. Intergroup Contact and Evaluations of Race-Based Exclusion in Urban Minority Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruck, Martin D.; Park, Henry; Killen, Melanie; Crystal, David S.

    2011-01-01

    There is a dearth of published research on the role of intergroup contact on urban US ethnic minority children's and adolescents' evaluations of racial exclusion. The current investigation examined these issues in a sample of low-income minority 4th, 7th, and 10th grade (N = 129, 60% female) African American and Latino/a students attending…

  2. Can Intergroup Dialogue Combined with SLCE Answer Today's Call to Action?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Khuram; Wattles, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    At the center of the vision for the future of the service-learning and community engagement (SLCE) movement is an inextricable link between dialogue and collaborative action. In campus-community initiative "Tools for Social Change," the authors use intergroup dialogue (IGD) to help students, faculty, staff, and city residents co-create…

  3. Intergroup Dialogue & Religious Identity: Attempting to Raise Awareness of Christian Privilege & Religious Oppression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Sachi

    2017-01-01

    Intergroup Dialogue (IGD)--a pedagogical model that purposefully advances a critical social justice agenda--is used on college campuses around the country to facilitate student learning about issues of identity and structural power dynamics. In light of the tension that exists on college campuses between students from different religious…

  4. It Is Who You Know that Counts: Intergroup Contact and Judgments about Race-Based Exclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crystal, David S.; Killen, Melanie; Ruck, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Intergroup contact and evaluations about race-based exclusion were assessed for majority and minority students in grades 4, 7 and 10 (N=685). Scenarios depicting cross-race relations in contexts of dyadic friendship, parental discomfort and peer group disapproval were described to participants. Participants reporting higher levels of intergroup…

  5. Moral Judgments about Jewish-Arab Intergroup Exclusion: The Role of Cultural Identity and Contact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenick, Alaina; Killen, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Prejudice and discrimination as justifications for social exclusion are often viewed as violations of the moral principles of welfare, justice, and equality, but intergroup exclusion can also often be viewed as a necessary and legitimate means to maintain group identity and cohesion (Rutland, Killen, & Abrams, 2010). The current study was…

  6. Engaged Listening in Race/Ethnicity and Gender Intergroup Dialogue Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuniga, Ximena; Mildred, Jane; Varghese, Rani; DeJong, Keri; Keehn, Molly

    2012-01-01

    Although the importance of engaged listening in intergroup dialogue (IGD) is recognized, we know relatively little about when or why participants in IGD actually listen or what they gain from listening. Using qualitative analyses of interviews conducted with undergraduates who had recently completed a race/ethnicity or gender focused IGD course,…

  7. Intergroup Dialogue and Social Justice Group Work: A Call for Increased Research Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Lauren J.; Pennamon, Rodney E.; Springer, Sarah I.; Singh, Anneliese A.

    2017-01-01

    The intergroup dialogue (IGD) process involves individuals and facilitators with diverse social identities intentionally coming together to explore divergent and shared values and experiences. It is widely accepted that IGD serves as a meaningful and transformative process for individuals with diverse social identities; yet, professional…

  8. Interaction location outweighs the competitive advantage of numerical superiority in Cebus capucinus intergroup contests

    PubMed Central

    Crofoot, Margaret C.; Gilby, Ian C.; Wikelski, Martin C.; Kays, Roland W.

    2008-01-01

    Numerical superiority confers a competitive advantage during contests among animal groups, shaping patterns of resource access, and, by extension, fitness. However, relative group size does not always determine the winner of intergroup contests. Smaller, presumably weaker social groups often defeat their larger neighbors, but how and when they are able to do so remains poorly understood. Models of competition between individuals suggest that location may influence contest outcome. However, because of the logistical difficulties of studying intergroup interactions, previous studies have been unable to determine how contest location and group size interact to shape relationships among groups. We address this question by using an automated radio telemetry system to study intergroup interactions among six capuchin monkey (Cebus capucinus) social groups of varying sizes. We find that the odds of winning increase with relative group size; one additional group member increases the odds of winning an interaction by 10%. However, this effect is not uniform across space; with each 100 m that a group moves away from the center of its home range, its odds of winning an interaction decrease by 31%. We demonstrate that contest outcome depends on an interaction between group size and location, such that small groups can defeat much larger groups near the center of their home range. The tendency of resident groups to win contests may help explain how small groups persist in areas with intense intergroup competition. PMID:18184811

  9. Inter-Group Contact at School and Social Attitudes: Evidence from Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Joanne; Campbell, Andrea; Lolliot, Simon; Hewstone, Miles; Gallagher, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Debate continues about the relationship between schools divided on ethno-religious lines and their implications for social cohesion. One argument against the existence of separate schools is that they limit opportunities for children from different groups to engage with each other, promoting intergroup suspicion and sectarianism. Using intergroup…

  10. The Role of Social Identity Complexity in Inter-Group Attitudes among Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knifsend, Casey A.; Juvonen, Jaana

    2013-01-01

    To supplement research on adolescent social identities, the current study examined how social identity complexity relates to ethnic inter-group attitudes in a young adolescent sample (N = 97; "age range" = 12-14 years). Social identity complexity refers to the perceived overlap of groups with which youth align themselves. Descriptive…

  11. Social Identity Complexity, Cross-Ethnic Friendships, and Intergroup Attitudes in Urban Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knifsend, Casey A.; Juvonen, Jaana

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated contextual antecedents (i.e., cross-ethnic peers and friends) and correlates (i.e., intergroup attitudes) of social identity complexity in seventh grade. Social identity complexity refers to the perceived overlap among social groups with which youth identify. Identifying mostly with out-of-school sports, religious…

  12. Interaction location outweighs the competitive advantage of numerical superiority in Cebus capucinus intergroup contests.

    PubMed

    Crofoot, Margaret C; Gilby, Ian C; Wikelski, Martin C; Kays, Roland W

    2008-01-15

    Numerical superiority confers a competitive advantage during contests among animal groups, shaping patterns of resource access, and, by extension, fitness. However, relative group size does not always determine the winner of intergroup contests. Smaller, presumably weaker social groups often defeat their larger neighbors, but how and when they are able to do so remains poorly understood. Models of competition between individuals suggest that location may influence contest outcome. However, because of the logistical difficulties of studying intergroup interactions, previous studies have been unable to determine how contest location and group size interact to shape relationships among groups. We address this question by using an automated radio telemetry system to study intergroup interactions among six capuchin monkey (Cebus capucinus) social groups of varying sizes. We find that the odds of winning increase with relative group size; one additional group member increases the odds of winning an interaction by 10%. However, this effect is not uniform across space; with each 100 m that a group moves away from the center of its home range, its odds of winning an interaction decrease by 31%. We demonstrate that contest outcome depends on an interaction between group size and location, such that small groups can defeat much larger groups near the center of their home range. The tendency of resident groups to win contests may help explain how small groups persist in areas with intense intergroup competition.

  13. Nephropathology consultation via digitized images.

    PubMed

    Cronenberger, J H; Hsiao, H; Falk, R J; Jennette, J C

    1992-12-17

    Investigations into a digitized image communications system were prompted by a need to bring expert consultation to physicians in community practice. Pathologists desired the capability to concomitantly view, annotate, and discuss images with referring physicians at distant sites. Methods included evaluation of the human and procedural domain into which the system was to be integrated. The GDCN computer consultation system has the consultant nephropathologist first evaluate the processed biopsy slides, digitize representative images, transmit them with the diagnosis to referring nephrologist, and, finally, conduct an interactive consultation and review of the biopsy and case. Image resolution and compression variables must be set for each individual medical consulting application. For the GDCN, it was found that the 640 x 496 x unlimited color with compression ratios not exceeding 1:32 are acceptable. An obvious improvement of this computerized system over the noncomputerized review sessions is the ability to immediately share and discuss a new image that had not been previously sent. In the old noncomputerized consultation, only images that had been mailed could be discussed. The computerized sessions allow transmission (10 sec) of a new image that the consultation might demand. The computerized sessions also provide the ability to show the referring nephrologist an area of biopsy interest that the pathologist had not previously transmitted. Biopsy slides can be viewed during the consultation, an area digitized, and that image transmitted to the nephrologist during the consultation. Hardware and costs for the sending station were: [table: see text] This system far exceeds the requirements for this particular application; however, it is sufficient to support future, higher-technology computer applications. If necessary, this same system could be used with a less expensive computer, a less expensive camera, software compression, and a single monitor. These

  14. Intragroup and intergroup conflict at work, psychological distress, and work engagement in a sample of employees in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsuno, Kanami; Kawakami, Norito; Inoue, Akiomi; Ishizaki, Masao; Tabata, Masaji; Tsuchiya, Masao; Akiyama, Miki; Kitazume, Akiko; Kuroda, Mitsuyo; Shimazu, Akihito

    2009-12-01

    The possible associations of intragroup and intergroup conflict at work with psychological distress and work engagement were investigated in a cross-sectional study in a manufacturing factory in Japan. A self-administered questionnaire was sent to all employees, and 255 responses were returned (a response rate of 84%). Data from 247 workers (187 males and 60 females) with no missing values were analyzed. Intragroup and intergroup conflict at work, psychological distress, and work engagement were measured by the NIOSH-GJSQ, K6, and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9), respectively. An ANCOVA was conducted to compare K6 and UWES-9 scores among the tertiles on intragroup conflict or intergroup conflict scores, adjusting for demographic and occupational variables as well as worksite social support, separately for males and females. Intragroup conflict was associated with greater psychological distress for males (p for trend=0.009). Intergroup conflict was marginally significantly associated with psychological distress for both males and females (p for trend=0.050 and 0.051, respectively). Contrary to expectation, intergroup conflict was significantly associated with greater work engagement for females (p for trend=0.024). For males, intragroup and intergroup conflict at work may increase psychological distress; for females, intergroup conflict may increase both psychological distress and work engagement.

  15. Affective mediators of intergroup contact: a three-wave longitudinal study in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Swart, Hermann; Hewstone, Miles; Christ, Oliver; Voci, Alberto

    2011-12-01

    Intergroup contact (especially cross-group friendship) is firmly established as a powerful strategy for combating group-based prejudice (Pettigrew & Tropp, 2006). Great advances have been made in understanding how contact reduces prejudice (Brown & Hewstone, 2005), highlighting the importance of affective mediators (Pettigrew & Tropp, 2008). The present study, a 3-wave longitudinal study undertaken among minority-status Colored high school children in South Africa (N = 465), explored the full mediation of the effects of cross-group friendships on positive outgroup attitudes, perceived outgroup variability, and negative action tendencies via positive (affective empathy) and negative (intergroup anxiety) affective mediators simultaneously. The target group was the majority-status White South African outgroup. As predicted, a bidirectional model described the relationship between contact, mediators, and prejudice significantly better over time than either autoregressive or unidirectional longitudinal models. However, full longitudinal mediation was only found in the direction from Time 1 contact to Time 3 prejudice (via Time 2 mediators), supporting the underlying tenet of the contact hypothesis. Specifically, cross-group friendships were positively associated with positive outgroup attitudes (via affective empathy) and perceived outgroup variability (via intergroup anxiety and affective empathy) and were negatively associated with negative action tendencies (via affective empathy). Following Pettigrew and Tropp (2008), we compared two alternative hypotheses regarding the relationship between intergroup anxiety and affective empathy over time. Time 1 intergroup anxiety was indirectly negatively associated with Time 3 affective empathy, via Time 2 cross-group friendships. We discuss the theoretical and empirical contributions of this study and make suggestions for future research.

  16. Their pain gives us pleasure: How intergroup dynamics shape empathic failures and counter-empathic responses

    PubMed Central

    Cikara, M.; Bruneau, E.; Van Bavel, J. J.; Saxe, R.

    2014-01-01

    Despite its early origins and adaptive functions, empathy is not inevitable; people routinely fail to empathize with others, especially members of different social or cultural groups. In five experiments, we systematically explore how social identity, functional relations between groups, competitive threat, and perceived entitativity contribute to intergroup empathy bias: the tendency not only to empathize less with out-group relative to in-group members, but also feel pleasure in response to their pain (and pain in response to their pleasure). When teams are set in direct competition, affective responses to competition-irrelevant events are characterized not only by less empathy toward out-group relative to in-group members, but also by increased counter-empathic responses: Schadenfreude and Glückschmerz (Experiment 1). Comparing responses to in-group and out-group targets against responses to unaffiliated targets in this competitive context suggests that intergroup empathy bias may be better characterized by out-group antipathy rather than extraordinary in-group empathy (Experiment 2). We find also that intergroup empathy bias is robust to changes in relative group standing—feedback indicating that the out-group has fallen behind (Experiment 3a) or is no longer a competitive threat (Experiment 3b) does not reduce the bias. However, reducing perceived in-group and out-group entitativity can significantly attenuate intergroup empathy bias (Experiment 4). This research establishes the boundary conditions of intergroup empathy bias and provides initial support for a more integrative framework of group-based empathy. PMID:25082998

  17. Psychological consultation with substance abusers.

    PubMed

    Rogalski, C J

    1987-05-01

    Previous work has documented that compliance rates of substance abusers undergoing inpatient detoxification could be influenced by professional psychological consultation. The administrative structure has been previously described as well as a clinical/humanistic component within the administrative structure. This report describes the individualized psychological consultation. This consultative intervention is in accord with the tripartite model of mental health which views the assessment of pathology from the perspectives of the mental health practitioner, the patient, and the culture; and the recent advances within self-psychology. A self-psychological model is suggested to understand the detoxifying substance abuser, from a stage of loss of cohesiveness to one of personality stabilization. The hospital environment and persons within the environment provide both a framework and self-object functions (mirroring, idealizing, and alter ego) during detoxification. Research recommendations are made to collect empirical data on the psychology of the detoxifying addict.

  18. From science to popularization, and back--the science and journalism of the Belgian economist Gustave de Molinari.

    PubMed

    Van Dijck, Maarten

    2008-09-01

    Sociologists and historians of science, such as Richard Whitley and Stephen Hilgartner, identified a culturally dominant discourse of science popularization in the broader society. In this dominant view, a clear distinction is maintained between scientific knowledge and popularized knowledge. Popularization of science is seen as the process of transmitting real science to a lay public. This discourse on science popularization was criticized by Whitley and Hilgartner as an inadequate simplification. Yet, the battered traditional model of popularization remains remarkably resistant to these theoretical attacks. In this paper I will argue, based on research of the output of the Belgian economist Gustave de Molinari (1819-1912), and more specifically, his opinion on the role of government in economic life, that the boundary between science and popularization in political economy is not clear and that the status of scientists fluctuates over time and in different contexts. It is therefore impossible for historians or economists to distinguish science from popularization based on the essential characteristics or intrinsic quality of the work. De Molinari's ideas are followed through the different media of science and journalism. Although de Molinari himself differentiated between his scientific and "popular" work, the boundary between science and popularization proves to be highly permeable, in both directions.

  19. Special Education Consultation: Interactive Video Simulation: Adults, Teachers & Consultants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Robert J.

    A microcomputer controlled interactive videotape program is described as one way to supply special education teachers with inservice and/or consultation services. The approach allows inservice teachers to strengthen classroom teaching skills outside of the classroom. Programing directions are offered written in the SuperPILOT Authoring Language on…

  20. Consultancy on Strategic Information Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pejova, Zdravka, Ed.; Horton, Forest W., Ed.

    At the workshop, better management through strategic planning of information and consultancy was discussed as one way in which developing and Eastern European countries could tackle the complex information problems they are facing during the transition to a market economy. The sixteen papers in this volume are grouped into three basic categories:…

  1. Narrative and Structure in Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadley, David

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the process of consultation to professional networks, teams, groups and individuals concerned with the mental health of children and young people in the care system, and those adopted. Frequently there are significant elements of early trauma suffered by the young people and disruption in the professional organisation. The…

  2. Consultancy on Strategic Information Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pejova, Zdravka, Ed.; Horton, Forest W., Ed.

    At the workshop, better management through strategic planning of information and consultancy was discussed as one way in which developing and Eastern European countries could tackle the complex information problems they are facing during the transition to a market economy. The sixteen papers in this volume are grouped into three basic categories:…

  3. Innovative Models for School Consultation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlozman, Steven C.

    2003-01-01

    Describes common characteristics of two innovative models of student mental-health consultation programs: One, organized by two Harvard Medical School psychiatrists, operates in two Boston-area inner-city charter schools; the other, Responsive Advocacy for Life and Learning (RALLY), launched by a Harvard Medical School developmental psychologist,…

  4. Faculty Consulting: Responsibility or Promiscuity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Carol M; Lewis, Darrell R.

    1984-01-01

    The potential benefits--to the individual, the institution, and society--and the potential costs of faculty consulting are examined. A review of the relevant literature and data precedes a presentation of new findings and a taxonomy for developing institutional guidelines. (Author/MLW)

  5. Consultants Help Modernize Arab Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01

    It's no accident that in undertaking improvements to its school system, the Ministry of Education in this small, oil-rich Persian Gulf country has made the most progress so far with an initiative to retrain school principals. After all, Vincent L. Ferrandino, the American consultant the ministry hired to help develop the school improvement…

  6. Making Human Resource Consulting Visible.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufmann, Ken; Weaver, Carol L.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the need for human resources consulting to be seen and understood in order to help achieve business objectives. Presents a model that uses core competencies to tie human resources programs to business strategies, thus positioning human resources as a strategic partner in an enterprise. (LRW)

  7. Pharmacy Program Review. Consultant's Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Robert D.; And Others

    Site visits were made by a team of consultants to Florida A&M University (FAMU) and the University of Florida (UF), the two institutions providing pharmacy education in Florida, to review programs and assess issues relating to entry-level degrees, manpower needs, and delivery systems. After a brief history of academic programs in pharmacy, the…

  8. Consultative Instructor Supervision and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, William W.

    2010-01-01

    Organizations vary greatly in how they monitor training instructors. The methods used in monitoring vary greatly. This article presents a systematic process for improving instructor skills that result in better teaching and better learning, which results in better-prepared employees for the workforce. The consultative supervision and evaluation…

  9. The Consultants' Corner: Vendor Viability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drabenstott, Jon, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Three library consultants--Rick Richmond, Wilson Stahl, and Jose-Marie Griffiths--discuss the implications of six issues for the success and stability of library automation vendors: (1) vendor business characteristics; (2) competitive advantage; (3) the library marketplace; (4) system selection; (5) corporate planning; and (6) library interests.…

  10. Educational Consulting: Justification to Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sklarow, Mark H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a response to Steven R. Antonoff's article, "Educational Consulting: A Focus for the Profession." More than 20 years ago, when this article first appeared in "The Journal of College Admission," "for profit counselors" (as they were then called by NACAC) were not welcome partners. It was acceptable practice to publicly denigrate the…

  11. When consultants and clients clash.

    PubMed

    Kesner, I F; Fowler, S

    1997-01-01

    This fictitious case study explores the issues that surround the relationships between consultants and their clients, as well as the dynamics of a newly merged organization. Susan Barlow, a senior consultant with the Statler Group, dreaded her upcoming status meeting. She had thought it a lucky break when she got assigned to the Kellogg-Champion project. Royce Kellogg, the CEO of the newly merged firm, had engaged the Statler Group for what seemed a simple project: to reconcile the policies and practices of the two former firms now that they had become one. But once on the job, Barlow realized that the issues were much more complex than they had seemed. The new firm needed help badly-but not the kind of help that the client had led Barlow to believe it needed. What would she and Jim Roussos, her partner on the assignment, tell Kellogg at the meeting? Kellogg, for his part, was not looking forward to the status meeting, either. From his point of view, the consultants had caused more problems than they had solved. What's more, he wasn't even dealing with the consultants he had hired. Where was George Gray, the senior partner he had met with originally? Maybe Barlow and Roussos were just too young and inexperienced. Kellogg felt he was getting a raw deal. How would he approach them in the morning? Should he fire them or make an attempt at damage control? Two experts advise the consultants and two advise the client on how to handle the status meeting.

  12. Intergroup Contact and Social Change: Implications of Negative and Positive Contact for Collective Action in Advantaged and Disadvantaged Groups.

    PubMed

    Reimer, Nils Karl; Becker, Julia C; Benz, Angelika; Christ, Oliver; Dhont, Kristof; Klocke, Ulrich; Neji, Sybille; Rychlowska, Magdalena; Schmid, Katharina; Hewstone, Miles

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has shown that (a) positive intergroup contact with an advantaged group can discourage collective action among disadvantaged-group members and (b) positive intergroup contact can encourage advantaged-group members to take action on behalf of disadvantaged outgroups. Two studies investigated the effects of negative as well as positive intergroup contact. Study 1 ( n = 482) found that negative but not positive contact with heterosexual people was associated with sexual-minority students' engagement in collective action (via group identification and perceived discrimination). Among heterosexual students, positive and negative contacts were associated with, respectively, more and less LGB (lesbian, gay, bisexual) activism. Study 2 ( N = 1,469) found that only negative contact (via perceived discrimination) predicted LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) students' collective action intentions longitudinally while only positive contact predicted heterosexual/cisgender students' LGBT activism. Implications for the relationship between intergroup contact, collective action, and social change are discussed.

  13. The importance of social identity content in a setting of chronic social conflict: understanding intergroup relations in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, Andrew; Haslam, S Alexander

    2008-03-01

    Two studies (N=117, 112) were conducted with school students in Northern Ireland to investigate the neglected relationship between social identity content and intergroup relations. Study 1 tested and found support for two hypotheses. The first was that the association between in-group identification and negative behavioural intentions would be moderated by antagonistic identity content. The second was that the antagonistic identity content mediates the relationship between the experience of intergroup antagonism and negative behavioural intentions. Study 2 replicated these findings at a time of reduced intergroup violence, and supplemented them with a qualitative-quantitative analysis of participants' written responses. In addition, findings demonstrate the importance of appreciating the content and meaning of social identities when theorizing about intergroup relations and developing conflict management interventions.

  14. The psychology of diaspora experiences: intergroup contact, perceived discrimination, and the ethnic identity of Koreans in China.

    PubMed

    Lee, Richard M; Noh, Chi-Young; Yoo, Hyung Chol; Doh, Hyun-Sim

    2007-04-01

    The moderating role of intergroup contact on the relationship between perceived discrimination and ethnic identity was examined in a diaspora community of Koreans living in China. It was hypothesized that Koreans with higher intergroup contact would have a lower ethnic identity under higher discrimination, whereas Koreans with lower intergroup contact would have a higher ethnic identity. Across two separate college samples, Koreans who were more willing to interact with Han Chinese had a lower ethnic identity when discrimination was higher, but this finding was not replicated within one college setting. These findings challenge the linear rejection-identification model and suggest displaced people may minimize ingroup-outgroup differences, depending on their willingness to seek intergroup contact.

  15. Consultation Barriers between Teachers and External Consultants: A Grounded Theory of Change Resistance in School Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornberg, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study, conducted in Sweden, was to investigate the cultural barriers between school personnel (teachers and principals) and nonschool personnel (a resource team), who were external to the school system, regarding consultation about challenging or difficult-to-teach students. Focus groups with teachers, principals, and the resource…

  16. Consultation Barriers between Teachers and External Consultants: A Grounded Theory of Change Resistance in School Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornberg, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study, conducted in Sweden, was to investigate the cultural barriers between school personnel (teachers and principals) and nonschool personnel (a resource team), who were external to the school system, regarding consultation about challenging or difficult-to-teach students. Focus groups with teachers, principals, and the resource…

  17. [Teledermatology versus consultations--a comparative study of 120 consultations].

    PubMed

    Herrmann, F E; Sönnichsen, K; Blum, A

    2005-10-01

    Dermatology fulfills the prerequisites for telemedicine. An important application of telemedicine might be the field of dermatologic consultations. In this comparative study images of skin disease were taken of 120 patients hospitalized in the University Hospitals of Tuebingen to answer the following questions: (1) are the preconditions in daily routine given for teledermatology, (2) is there adequate agreement between the diagnoses reached in dermatologic consultations and with teledermatology, and (3) can the images be utilized for teaching purposes. Patient acceptance was very good and the images captured with a digital camera were easily obtained. The results of intraobserver analysis for the two teledermatologists without any knowledge of the patients' history were 70.2% and 46.4%, respectively, and with knowledge of the history 76.6% and 64.3%. The results of interobserver analysis without any knowledge of the patients' history were 46.4% and 57.2% and with knowledge of the history 64.3% and 66%, respectively. With the reduction of the image quality, reduced reliability of the diagnoses was observed. Seven of ten images could be used for teaching purposes. It was demonstrated that in dermatology telemedicine is applicable in many, but not in all patients who are referred for dermatologic consultations.

  18. Simulated consultations: a sociolinguistic perspective.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Sarah; Roberts, Celia; Hawthorne, Kamila; Greenhalgh, Trisha

    2016-01-15

    Assessment of consulting skills using simulated patients is widespread in medical education. Most research into such assessment is sited in a statistical paradigm that focuses on psychometric properties or replicability of such tests. Equally important, but less researched, is the question of how far consultations with simulated patients reflect real clinical encounters--for which sociolinguistics, defined as the study of language in its socio-cultural context, provides a helpful analytic lens. In this debate article, we draw on a detailed empirical study of assessed role-plays, involving sociolinguistic analysis of talk in OSCE interactions. We consider critically the evidence for the simulated consultation (a) as a proxy for the real; (b) as performance; (c) as a context for assessing talk; and (d) as potentially disadvantaging candidates trained overseas. Talk is always a performance in context, especially in professional situations (such as the consultation) and institutional ones (the assessment of professional skills and competence). Candidates who can handle the social and linguistic complexities of the artificial context of assessed role-plays score highly--yet what is being assessed is not real professional communication, but the ability to voice a credible appearance of such communication. Fidelity may not be the primary objective of simulation for medical training, where it enables the practising of skills. However the linguistic problems and differences that arise from interacting in artificial settings are of considerable importance in assessment, where we must be sure that the exam construct adequately embodies the skills expected for real-life practice. The reproducibility of assessed simulations should not be confused with their validity. Sociolinguistic analysis of simulations in various professional contexts has identified evidence for the gap between real interactions and assessed role-plays. The contextual conditions of the simulated

  19. The accountant as triage master: an economist's perspective on voluntary euthanasia and the value of life debate.

    PubMed

    Richardson, J

    1987-07-01

    The author, an economist, rebuts the contention that human life cannot and should not be economically evaluated and argues that such evaluations are made implicitly and inconsistently, resulting in a reduction of human welfare. He presents an economic framework for the analysis of costs and benefits in which the focal point, as in most value systems, is the tradeoff between life and quality of life. Therefore, as the quality of life decreases, society's efforts to preserve life should decrease. If the valuation of life includes self evaluation, then there should be less effort to preserve the life of an individual who wishes to die. Richardson concludes that voluntary euthanasia is a limiting case in which society accepts the individual's valuation of life.

  20. The two sides of warfare: an extended model of altruistic behavior in ancestral human intergroup conflict.

    PubMed

    Rusch, Hannes

    2014-09-01

    Building on and partially refining previous theoretical work, this paper presents an extended simulation model of ancestral warfare. This model (1) disentangles attack and defense, (2) tries to differentiate more strictly between selfish and altruistic efforts during war, (3) incorporates risk aversion and deterrence, and (4) pays special attention to the role of brutality. Modeling refinements and simulation results yield a differentiated picture of possible evolutionary dynamics. The main observations are: (a) Altruism in this model is more likely to evolve for defenses than for attacks. (b) Risk aversion, deterrence, and the interplay of migration levels and brutality can change evolutionary dynamics substantially. (c) Unexpectedly, one occasional simulation outcome is a dynamically stable state of "tolerated intergroup theft," raising the question as to whether corresponding patterns also exist in real intergroup conflicts. Finally, possible implications for theories of the coevolution of bellicosity and altruism in humans are discussed.

  1. Intergroup conflict, out-group derogation, and self-directed negative affect among Italian South Tyroleans.

    PubMed

    Costarelli, Sandro; Colloca, Pasquale

    2004-04-01

    In South Tyrol, a multiethnic Italian province, the authors examined the self-directed negative affect that members of an Italian group experienced after they evaluated members of the German and Albanian groups. The authors examined the affect as a function of out-group derogation. The authors argued that to the extent that out-group derogation may run counter to norms toward intergroup fairness, such normative nonconformity will elicit negative affect directed at the self as a function of perceived intergroup conflict. The findings support the authors' line of reasoning: among Italian South Tyroleans, those who expressed greater out-group derogation were led to experience stronger negative self-directed affect when they rated a low-conflict out-group, but not when they rated a high-conflict out-group, compared to participants whose out-group derogation was less.

  2. When contact counts: Intergroup contact on business and intermarriage resistance in the Caucasus region.

    PubMed

    Gurrentz, Benjamin T; Finke, Roger

    2017-03-01

    Intergroup contact theory has been empirically supported in a variety of social contexts, but few samples have been drawn from rapidly developing nations undergoing severe political and sociocultural conflict. Using 2012 Caucasus Barometer data from the three nations of the South Caucasus - Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia - we test the effect of interreligious contact on various forms of out-group resistance in a region of the world that is both historically and presently marked with severe religious and ethnic conflict. Additionally, we take into account self-selection effects using propensity score matching. Results overwhelmingly support intergroup contact theory in all three countries, but objections toward intermarriage still remain high for treated groups. In addition, there exist significant differences based on the out-group studied, with the contact effects being the strongest for groups posing little religio-cultural or organized threat. Weaker contact effects, though, appear less related to threat and more contextual/out-group specific.

  3. Evolution and the psychology of intergroup conflict: the male warrior hypothesis.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Melissa M; Navarrete, Carlos David; Van Vugt, Mark

    2012-03-05

    The social science literature contains numerous examples of human tribalism and parochialism-the tendency to categorize individuals on the basis of their group membership, and treat ingroup members benevolently and outgroup members malevolently. We hypothesize that this tribal inclination is an adaptive response to the threat of coalitional aggression and intergroup conflict perpetrated by 'warrior males' in both ancestral and modern human environments. Here, we describe how male coalitional aggression could have affected the social psychologies of men and women differently and present preliminary evidence from experimental social psychological studies testing various predictions from the 'male warrior' hypothesis. Finally, we discuss the theoretical implications of our research for studying intergroup relations both in humans and non-humans and discuss some practical implications.

  4. The downsides of national identification for minority groups in intergroup conflicts in assimilationist societies.

    PubMed

    Bilali, Rezarta

    2014-03-01

    The current study considered the downsides of national identification for minority groups in intergroup conflicts in assimilationist societies. This study examined how, in the Turkish national context, the national and ethnic identifications of ethnic Turks (N = 103) and ethnic Kurds (N = 58) predict construals (i.e., conflict frames, attributions of responsibility, and severity of harm) of Turkish-Kurdish conflict. The results indicated that, across groups, a shared national identification was associated with similar conflict construals in line with the official Turkish narrative, whereas ethnic identification was associated with opposing conflict construals that might help maintain the conflict. However, the conflict narrative related to national identification might produce a shared understanding of the conflict (i.e., more intergroup harmony) at the cost of neglecting the minority group's grievances in the conflict and legitimizing the status-quo, thus hindering efforts to enhance the minority group's disadvantaged status.

  5. “Ingroup love” and “outgroup hate” in intergroup conflict between natural groups

    PubMed Central

    Weisel, Ori; Böhm, Robert

    2015-01-01

    We report on two studies investigating the motivations (“ingroup love” and “outgroup hate”) underlying individual participation in intergroup conflict between natural groups (fans of football clubs, supporters of political parties), by employing the Intergroup Prisoner's Dilemma Maximizing-Difference (IPD-MD) game. In this game group members can contribute to the ingroup (at a personal cost) and benefit ingroup members with or without harming members of an outgroup. Additionally, we devised a novel version of the IPD-MD in which the choice is between benefiting ingroup members with or without helping members of the outgroup. Our results show an overall reluctance to display outgroup hate by actively harming outgroup members, except when the outgroup was morality-based. More enmity between groups induced more outgroup hate only when it was operationalized as refraining from help. PMID:26339099

  6. Dehumanization, retributive and restorative justice, and aggressive versus diplomatic intergroup conflict resolution strategies.

    PubMed

    Leidner, Bernhard; Castano, Emanuele; Ginges, Jeremy

    2013-02-01

    The desire for justice can escalate or facilitate resolution of intergroup conflicts. Two studies investigated retributive and restorative notions of justice as the mediating factor of the effect of perceived outgroup sentience-an aspect of (mechanistic) dehumanization referring to the emotional depth attributed to others-on intergroup conflict resolution. Study 1 showed that for Palestinians, who see themselves as victims, perceived sentience of Israelis decreased retributive but increased restorative notions of justice, which, ultimately, increased support for conflict resolution by negotiation rather than political violence. Study 2 partially replicated Study 1's findings with Jewish Israelis. The role of perceived sentience and its relationship to retributive and restorative notions of justice in protracted and nonprotracted conflicts and their resolution is discussed.

  7. The influence of intergroup comparisons on Africans' intelligence test performance in a job selection context.

    PubMed

    Klein, Olivier; Pohl, Sabine; Ndagijimana, Chantal

    2007-09-01

    Sub-Saharan Africans living in Belgium (N = 69) completed a culture-free intelligence test in a simulated job selection environment. Prior to testing, the authors instructed participants that Africans' average performance on this test was generally better (positive comparison), worse (negative comparison), or equal to Belgians' performance. In a control condition, no such information was given. Results indicated that, compared with the equal and control conditions, performance was lower when intergroup comparisons were negative. In the former condition, participants were also more likely to endorse external factors that may account for lower performance. The authors interpreted the findings in line with stereotype threat theory (C. M. Steele & J. Aronson, 1995). In the context of job selection, the validity of intelligence tests conducted with members of stigmatized groups may be affected by the salience of social stereotypes and intergroup social comparisons.

  8. Evolution and the psychology of intergroup conflict: the male warrior hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Melissa M.; Navarrete, Carlos David; Van Vugt, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The social science literature contains numerous examples of human tribalism and parochialism—the tendency to categorize individuals on the basis of their group membership, and treat ingroup members benevolently and outgroup members malevolently. We hypothesize that this tribal inclination is an adaptive response to the threat of coalitional aggression and intergroup conflict perpetrated by ‘warrior males’ in both ancestral and modern human environments. Here, we describe how male coalitional aggression could have affected the social psychologies of men and women differently and present preliminary evidence from experimental social psychological studies testing various predictions from the ‘male warrior’ hypothesis. Finally, we discuss the theoretical implications of our research for studying intergroup relations both in humans and non-humans and discuss some practical implications. PMID:22271783

  9. Children's intergroup empathic processing: the roles of novel ingroup identification, situational distress, and social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Masten, Carrie L; Gillen-O'Neel, Cari; Brown, Christia Spears

    2010-01-01

    Individuals often feel more empathy toward members of their own social groups than toward members of other social groups. However, individual factors contributing to this empathy bias remain largely unexplored among children. This study examined intergroup empathic processing among 94 children (mean age=8.74years, SD=1.76) assigned to novel color groups. After 1week in their group, children were interviewed to assess their ingroup identification and trait levels of social anxiety. Subsequently, a social threat was simulated, and children's feelings of situational distress and empathy bias for others who experienced the same threat were assessed. Findings indicated that, among children who reported more social anxiety and situational distress, those with a stronger ingroup identity displayed more empathy bias favoring their ingroup. Given that empathy is an important contributor to prosocial behavior, implications for children's intergroup relations are discussed.

  10. Perpetuating one's own disadvantage: intergroup contact enables the ideological legitimation of inequality.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Nikhil K; Sibley, Chris G

    2013-11-01

    Contact with the dominant group can increase opposition, among the disadvantaged, to social policies that would benefit their group. This effect can be explained in terms of contact promoting support for an ideology of meritocracy, which privileges the distribution of societal resources based on individual merit, rather than group-level disadvantage. We tested this ideological mechanism in a large, nationally representative sample of Māori (a disadvantaged group in New Zealand; N = 1,008). Positive intergroup contact with the dominant group (New Zealand Europeans) predicted increased opposition to a topical reparative policy (Māori ownership of the foreshore), and this was fully mediated by increased support for the ideology of meritocracy. Intergroup contact may enable the ideological legitimation of inequality among members of disadvantaged groups, engendering political attitudes that are detrimental to their group's interests. Contact with ingroup members had the opposite effect, increasing support for reparative policy by reducing subscription to meritocratic ideology.

  11. Safety, Threat, and Stress in Intergroup Relations: A Coalitional Index Model.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Pascal; Firat, Rengin; van Leeuwen, Florian

    2015-07-01

    Contact between people from different groups triggers specific individual- and group-level responses, ranging from attitudes and emotions to welfare and health outcomes. Standard social psychological perspectives do not yet provide an integrated, causal model of these phenomena. As an alternative, we describe a coalitional perspective. Human psychology includes evolved cognitive systems designed to garner support from other individuals, organize and maintain alliances, and measure potential support from group members. Relations between alliances are strongly influenced by threat detection mechanisms, which are sensitive to cues that express that one's own group will provide less support or that other groups are dangerous. Repeated perceptions of such threat cues can lead to chronic stress. The model provides a parsimonious explanation for many individual-level effects of intergroup relations and group-level disparities in health and well-being. This perspective suggests new research directions aimed at understanding the psychological processes involved in intergroup relations. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Us versus Them: Social Identity Shapes Neural Responses to Intergroup Competition and Harm

    PubMed Central

    Cikara, Mina; Botvinick, Matthew M.; Fiske, Susan T.

    2013-01-01

    Intergroup competition makes social identity salient, which affects how people respond to competitors’ hardships. The failures of a fellow group member are painful, while those of a rival group member may give pleasure—a feeling that may motivate harming rivals. The present study examines whether valuation-related neural responses to rival groups’ failures correlate with likelihood of harming individuals associated with those rivals. Avid fans of the Red Sox and Yankees teams viewed baseball plays while undergoing fMRI. Subjectively negative outcomes (favored-failure, rival-success) activated anterior cingulate cortex and insula, while positive outcomes (favored-success, rival-failure—even against a third team) activated ventral striatum. The ventral striatum effect, associated with subjective pleasure, also correlated with self-reported likelihood of aggressing against a fan of the rival team (controlling for general aggression). Outcomes of social group competition can directly affect primary reward-processing neural systems, with implications for intergroup harm. PMID:21270447

  13. Reducing intergroup prejudice and conflict using the media: a field experiment in Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Paluck, Elizabeth Levy

    2009-03-01

    Can the media reduce intergroup prejudice and conflict? Despite the high stakes of this question, understanding of the mass media's role in shaping prejudiced beliefs, norms, and behavior is limited. A yearlong field experiment in Rwanda tested the impact of a radio soap opera featuring messages about reducing intergroup prejudice, violence, and trauma in 2 fictional Rwandan communities. Compared with a control group who listened to a health radio soap opera, listeners' perceptions of social norms and their behaviors changed with respect to intermarriage, open dissent, trust, empathy, cooperation, and trauma healing. However, the radio program did little to change listeners' personal beliefs. Group discussion and emotion were implicated in the process of media influence. Taken together, the results point to an integrated model of behavioral prejudice and conflict reduction that prioritizes the communication of social norms over changes in personal beliefs.

  14. How does social essentialism affect the development of inter-group relations?

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Marjorie; Leslie, Sarah-Jane; Saunders, Katya; Dunham, Yarrow; Cimpian, Andrei

    2017-02-22

    Psychological essentialism is a pervasive conceptual bias to view categories as reflecting something deep, stable, and informative about their members. Scholars from diverse disciplines have long theorized that psychological essentialism has negative ramifications for inter-group relations, yet little previous empirical work has experimentally tested the social implications of essentialist beliefs. Three studies (N = 127, ages 4.5-6) found that experimentally inducing essentialist beliefs about a novel social category led children to share fewer resources with category members, but did not lead to the out-group dislike that defines social prejudice. These findings indicate that essentialism negatively influences some key components of inter-group relations, but does not lead directly to the development of prejudice.

  15. When attitudes do not fit: discordance of acculturation attitudes as an antecedent of intergroup threat.

    PubMed

    Rohmann, Anette; Piontkowski, Ursula; van Randenborgh, Annette

    2008-03-01

    Recent research has shown that the perspectives of both minorities and majorities should be taken into account to reach a deeper understanding of the acculturation process and its consequences for intergroup relations. The authors report two experiments that investigated the impact of discordant acculturation attitudes on perceived threat. In Study 1 (N=183), Germans were asked for their attitudes toward Turks and Italians. Different levels of concordance of acculturation attitudes were induced by presenting participants with newspaper articles describing the acculturation attitude of the respective out-group and perceived threat was measured. In Study 2 (N=100), two fictitious immigrant groups were used as target groups. Results in both studies showed that discordance of acculturation attitudes leads to higher perceptions of intergroup threat than concordance of acculturation attitudes. Furthermore, both studies supported the assumption that a similar out-group is perceived as less threatening than a dissimilar out-group.

  16. CRP for Pesticides - Child Resistant Packaging Consultants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This list includes consultants who have indicated an expertise in the area of child-resistant packaging. This list is not intended to indicate EPA approval, certification, or endorsement of these consultants, nor is it necessarily comprehensive.

  17. 34 CFR 75.191 - Consultation costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Development of Curricula Or Instructional Materials § 75.191 Consultation costs. An applicant may budget reasonable consultation fees or planning costs in connection with the development of curricula or...

  18. 34 CFR 75.191 - Consultation costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Development of Curricula Or Instructional Materials § 75.191 Consultation costs. An applicant may budget reasonable consultation fees or planning costs in connection with the development of curricula or...

  19. 34 CFR 75.191 - Consultation costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Development of Curricula Or Instructional Materials § 75.191 Consultation costs. An applicant may budget reasonable consultation fees or planning costs in connection with the development of curricula or...

  20. 34 CFR 75.191 - Consultation costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Development of Curricula Or Instructional Materials § 75.191 Consultation costs. An applicant may budget reasonable consultation fees or planning costs in connection with the development of curricula...

  1. Predicting community opposition to inclusion in schools: the role of social dominance, contact, intergroup anxiety, and economic conservatism.

    PubMed

    Crowson, H Michael; Brandes, Joyce A

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses community members' attitudes toward inclusion, the practice of including students with disabilities in regular education classroom settings. Participants in Study 1 were 271 community adults, completing measures of prior contact with people with disabilities, social dominance orientation (SDO), economic conservatism, intergroup anxiety, prejudice, and opposition to inclusion. Results from structural equation modeling indicated that amount of intergroup anxiety predicted opposition to inclusion via the mediator, prejudice toward people with disabilities, and that amount of prior contact indirectly predicted prejudice toward people with disabilities through intergroup anxiety. SDO positively predicted both intergroup anxiety and prejudice in the model, with prejudice also mediating between SDO and opposition to inclusion. Both SDO and economic conservatism failed to exhibit direct predictive relationships with opposition to inclusion. Participants in Study 2 were 161 community adults. Contact was shown to exert an indirect effect on prejudice via intergroup anxiety, whereas intergroup anxiety impacted inclusive attitudes via prejudice. SDO exerted both direct and indirect (via prejudice) effects on opposition to inclusion.

  2. When East meets West: a longitudinal examination of the relationship between group relative deprivation and intergroup contact in reunified Germany.

    PubMed

    Koschate, Miriam; Hofmann, Wilhelm; Schmitt, Manfred

    2012-06-01

    Intergroup contact and group relative deprivation have both been shown to play a key role in the understanding of intergroup relations. Nevertheless, we know little about their causal relationship. In order to shed some light on the directionality and causality of the relationship between intergroup contact and group relative deprivation, we analysed responses by East and West Germans from k= 97 different cities, collected 6 (N(T)(1) = 1,001), 8 (N(T)(2) = 747), and 10 years (N(T)(3) = 565) after reunification. Multi-level cross-lagged analyses showed that group relative deprivation at T1 led to more (rather than less) intergroup contact between East and West Germans 2 years as well as 4 years later. We found no evidence for the reverse causal relationship, or moderation by group membership. Furthermore, admiration mediated the positive effect of relative deprivation on intergroup contact for both East and West Germans. This intriguing finding suggests that intergroup contact may be used as a proactive identity management strategy by members of both minority and majority groups. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  3. Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup (GCIG) consensus review for cervical adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Hiroyuki; Yokota, Harushige; Monk, Bradley; Treilleux, Isabelle; Devouassoux-Shisheboran, Mojgan; Davis, Alison; Kim, Jae-Weon; Mahner, Sven; Stany, Michael; Pignata, Sandro; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle; Fujiwara, Keiichi

    2014-11-01

    Cervical adenocarcinoma is known to be less common than squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix comprising approximately 25% of all cervical carcinomas. Differences in associated human papillomavirus types, patterns of spread, and prognosis call for treatments that are not always like those for squamous cancers. In this review, we report a consensus developed by the Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup surrounding cervical adenocarcinoma for epidemiology, pathology, treatment, and unanswered questions. Prospective clinical trials are needed to help develop treatment guidelines.

  4. Echoing the call to move "beyond prejudice" in search of intergroup equality.

    PubMed

    Wright, Stephen C; Bitacola, Lisa M

    2012-12-01

    We also critique the myopic focus on prejudice reduction, but we do not support the call for a reconceptualization of prejudice. Redefining key psychological constructs is unproductive. Also, we point to interpersonal dynamics in cross-group interaction as a key mechanism in the prejudice reduction/collective action paradox and point to solutions involving intrapersonal/interpersonal processes, as well as broader structural intergroup relations.

  5. The Effect of Intergroup Contact on Attitudes Toward the Role of Women in the Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    of their male counterparts. Earlier research at West Point (Priest, Vitters, & Prince, 1978) and the Air Force Academy ( DeFleur , Gillman, & Marchak...1978) demonstrated that male attitudes toward women may initially become more negative after intergroup contact. DeFleur et al. (1978) assessed the...year at the Air Force Academy. BCT was a strenu- ous period of training in a rugged field environment. DeFleur et al. found that male attitudes toward

  6. Why group apologies succeed and fail: intergroup forgiveness and the role of primary and secondary emotions.

    PubMed

    Wohl, Michael J A; Hornsey, Matthew J; Bennett, Shannon H

    2012-02-01

    It is widely assumed that official apologies for historical transgressions can lay the groundwork for intergroup forgiveness, but evidence for a causal relationship between intergroup apologies and forgiveness is limited. Drawing on the infrahumanization literature, we argue that a possible reason for the muted effectiveness of apologies is that people diminish the extent to which they see outgroup members as able to experience complex, uniquely human emotions (e.g., remorse). In Study 1, Canadians forgave Afghanis for a friendly-fire incident to the extent that they perceived Afghanis as capable of experiencing uniquely human emotions (i.e., secondary emotions such as anguish) but not nonuniquely human emotions (i.e., primary emotions such as fear). Intergroup forgiveness was reduced when transgressor groups expressed secondary emotions rather than primary emotions in their apology (Studies 2a and 2b), an effect that was mediated by trust in the genuineness of the apology (Study 2b). Indeed, an apology expressing secondary emotions aroused no more forgiveness than a no-apology control (Study 3) and less forgiveness than an apology with no emotion (Study 4). Consistent with an infrahumanization perspective, effects of primary versus secondary emotional expression did not emerge when the apology was offered for an ingroup transgression (Study 3) or when an outgroup apology was delivered through an ingroup proxy (Study 4). Also consistent with predictions, these effects were demonstrated only by those who tended to deny uniquely human qualities to the outgroup (Study 5). Implications for intergroup apologies and movement toward reconciliation are discussed.

  7. Perceived incivility during emergency department phone consultations.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Amith L; Vaghasiya, Milan; Boddy, Rachel; Byth, Karen; Unwin, Danielle

    2016-06-01

    Perceived incivility during ED medical phone consultations is poorly researched. We aimed to determine frequency and factors influencing perceived incivility during ED phone consultations. We conducted a prospective self-reported survey of 40 consecutive phone consultations for 21 ED volunteer doctors. Consultations were classified based on the aim of consultation and deemed as 'positive', 'neutral' or 'negative' based on the perceptions of the consulting doctor. Training levels, time bands and specialty data were collected for both consulting and consulted parties. Fifty-seven of 714 included consultations (7.98%, 95% CI 6.2-10.2%) were reported as negative by ED medical staff. Factors associated with significant incidence of negative grading of consultation involved requests for investigations (19.3% vs 5.3%, P < 0.01), consultations with specialist trainees postgraduate year > 4 (9.1% vs 3.8%, P < 0.01) and those involving radiology specialty (18% vs 5.32%, P < 0.01). The risk was lower when the consulted professional was a specialist medical practitioner as compared to specialist trainee (4.1% vs 9.4%, P = 0.02). Multiple logistical modelling suggests that female (adjusted OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.1-5.2) medical staff are more likely to report perceived incivility during ED phone consultations. Perceived incivility occurs infrequently during ED phone consultations. ED female medical staff are at an increased risk of perceived incivility during phone consultations with non-ED medical professionals. Health organisations should actively pursue programmes to investigate the occurrence of incivility during healthcare consultations and implement programmes to mitigate the risk of developing a negative workplace culture. © 2016 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  8. Biostatistical consultation for dental research.

    PubMed

    Clive, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    Dental science researchers do not really need a detailed, ready-at-hand knowledge of statistics to design and perform high quality scientific research. Although the acquisition and utilization of such knowledge by dental researchers is not discouraged, it is proposed that it is more important for dental researchers to be committed to developing and maintaining a long term, ongoing, interactive consulting relationship with a biostatistician. The nature of this relationship will depend in large part on the complexity of the dental research being conducted. While the statistical consultant will assist in interpreting analytic results for the dental researcher, the latter will need to provide extensive input in assisting in the estimation of sample size and power, and for expressing scientific hypotheses in statistical terms so that the appropriate data analytic methodology can be specified.

  9. [Teenagers' drawings in transcultural consultations].

    PubMed

    Simon, Amalini; Titia Rizzi, Alice

    The place of teenagers' drawings has been studied as part of a transcultural consultation, based on the creativity of the children of migrants. When speaking is difficult, drawings enable teenagers to show another dimension of their internal world. Aravin, a young Tamil boy, who lacked the necessary words, was able to express all the complexity of his thoughts through his drawings, finally being able to formulate in the group the difficult situations which he was drawing.

  10. Ultrasound for the Pulmonary Consultant

    PubMed Central

    Chichra, Astha; Makaryus, Mina; Chaudhri, Parag; Narasimhan, Mangala

    2016-01-01

    Bedside ultrasonographic assessment of the lung and pleura provides rapid, noninvasive, and essential information in diagnosis and management of various pulmonary conditions. Ultrasonography helps in diagnosing common conditions, including consolidation, interstitial syndrome, pleural effusions and masses, pneumothorax, and diaphragmatic dysfunction. It provides procedural guidance for various pulmonary procedures, including thoracentesis, chest tube insertion, transthoracic aspiration, and biopsies. This article describes major applications of ultrasonography for the pulmonary consultant along with illustrative figures and videos. PMID:27398039

  11. [Cognitive methods during medical consultation].

    PubMed

    Lähteenmäki, Antti

    2012-01-01

    An essential method of cognitive psychotherapy is a precise, situation-focused interview, during which interpretations, emotions and behavior are taken into account. This work mode is also suited for medical consultation. In cognitive psychology, schemes and modes are identified that may be helpful for analyzing the patient-doctor relationship. Empathy may improve patient outcome. Properly applied cognitive methods facilitate the evolution of empathy.

  12. Religion and intergroup conflict: findings from the Global Group Relations Project.

    PubMed

    Neuberg, Steven L; Warner, Carolyn M; Mistler, Stephen A; Berlin, Anna; Hill, Eric D; Johnson, Jordan D; Filip-Crawford, Gabrielle; Millsap, Roger E; Thomas, George; Winkelman, Michael; Broome, Benjamin J; Taylor, Thomas J; Schober, Juliane

    2014-01-01

    How might religion shape intergroup conflict? We tested whether religious infusion-the extent to which religious rituals and discourse permeate the everyday activities of groups and their members-moderated the effects of two factors known to increase intergroup conflict: competition for limited resources and incompatibility of values held by potentially conflicting groups. We used data from the Global Group Relations Project to investigate 194 groups (e.g., ethnic, religious, national) at 97 sites around the world. When religion was infused in group life, groups were especially prejudiced against those groups that held incompatible values, and they were likely to discriminate against such groups. Moreover, whereas disadvantaged groups with low levels of religious infusion typically avoided directing aggression against their resource-rich and powerful counterparts, disadvantaged groups with high levels of religious infusion directed significant aggression against them-despite the significant tangible costs to the disadvantaged groups potentially posed by enacting such aggression. This research suggests mechanisms through which religion may increase intergroup conflict and introduces an innovative method for performing nuanced, cross-societal research.

  13. Enhanced Memory for both Threat and Neutral Information Under Conditions of Intergroup Threat

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yong; Zhao, Yufang; Ybarra, Oscar; Stephan, Walter G.; Yang, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the effect of intergroup threat on cognitive outcomes such as memory. Different theoretical perspectives can inform how intergroup threat should affect memory for threat-relevant and neutral information, such as the mood-congruency approach, Yerkes–Dodson law, Easterbrook’s theory, and also evolutionary perspectives. To test among these, we conducted two experiments to examine how exposure to intergroup threats affected memory compared to control conditions. In study 1, we manipulated symbolic threat and examined participants’ memory for threat and neutral words. In study 2, memory performance was assessed following the induction of realistic threat. Across the studies, in the control condition participants showed better memory for threat-related than neutral information. However, participants under threat remembered neutral information as well as threat-related information. In addition, participants in the threat condition remembered threat-related information as well as participants in the control condition. The findings are discussed in terms of automatic vigilance processes but also the effects of threat on arousal and its effect on information processing. This latter perspective, suggests paradoxically, that under some circumstances involving an outgroup threat, non-threatening information about outgroups can be extensively processed. PMID:26635669

  14. The role of the residence-effect on the outcome of intergroup encounters in Verreaux's sifakas.

    PubMed

    Koch, Flávia; Signer, Johannes; Kappeler, Peter M; Fichtel, Claudia

    2016-06-22

    Intergroup competition has an important impact on the survival and fitness of individuals in group-living species. However, factors influencing the probability of winning an encounter are not fully understood. We studied the influence of numerical advantage and location of the encounter on the chances of winning in eight neighboring groups of Verreaux's sifakas (Propithecus verreauxi), in Kirindy Forest, western Madagascar. Intergroup encounters were inferred from spatial data collected via GPS loggers over a period of two years. Location, i.e., the proximity to the respective core area, rather than the numerical advantage of a group in a given encounter, influenced the probability of winning. Accordingly, the high value that resident groups attribute to exclusive and intensively used areas increased their motivation in defending these locations against intruders. Moreover, losers used the encounter area less often than winners within a month after the encounter, suggesting that losing also entails long-term costs. Thus, our results suggest that in gregarious animals the particular circumstances of each encounter, such as the location, can outweigh group characteristics and predict the chances of winning an intergroup encounter.

  15. On being peripheral and paying attention: prototypicality and information processing in intergroup conflict.

    PubMed

    Van Kleef, Gerben A; Steinel, Wolfgang; Homan, Astrid C

    2013-01-01

    Intergroup conflicts are ubiquitous-they occur, for instance, between (work)groups, departments, organizations, political parties, or nations. Such conflicts are commonly addressed through negotiations, in which representatives negotiate on behalf of their constituency. Intergroup negotiations are complex, as representatives need to navigate between the interests of their own constituency and the other party. This implies that negotiation success requires careful processing of information about both parties' interests. Here, we examine how representative negotiators' motivation to engage in such thorough information processing is influenced by their position in the group. Whereas prototypical representatives feel secure about their membership, peripheral representatives have a less certain position. We propose that peripheral representatives are therefore more attentive and responsive to information that may be relevant to the negotiation than prototypical representatives, but only when they are accountable to their constituents. Data from 4 experiments showed that peripheral representatives reported higher information-processing motivation (Experiment 1), bought and recalled more information (Experiment 2), exhibited greater sensitivity to emotional expressions of the outgroup representative (Experiment 3), and attained more integrative ("win-win") agreements (Experiment 4) than prototypical representatives, but only when they were accountable. The findings are discussed in relation to theorizing on group dynamics, motivated information processing, emotion, and intergroup conflict, and practical implications are considered.

  16. Effects of minority status in the classroom on children's intergroup attitudes.

    PubMed

    Brown, Christia Spears; Bigler, Rebecca S

    2002-10-01

    Three studies examined the effects of relative group size on the development of children's intergroup attitudes. The studies employed a novel group paradigm in which elementary school children attending a summer school program were assigned to larger (i.e., majority) or smaller (i.e., minority) novel groups in their classroom (denoted by colored tee-shirts). In each study, relative group size was situated within a different classroom context. Study 1 examined the effects of relative group size when teachers made functional use of the novel groups and were themselves members of the novel groups. Study 2 examined the effects of relative group size in the absence of functional use. Study 3 examined the effects of relative group size when the classroom environment contained implicit messages about group status. In each study, children's intergroup attitudes (e.g., trait ratings, group evaluations) were assessed following several weeks in the classroom. The effect of relative group size on in-group bias was complex, varying as a function of (a) the relative size and salience of groups, (b) the measure used to assess intergroup attitudes, (c) group status (higher or lower), and (d) children's age.

  17. 50 CFR 402.11 - Early consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.11 Early consultation. (a) Purpose. Early consultation is designed to reduce the likelihood of conflicts between listed species or critical...

  18. 50 CFR 402.13 - Informal consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.13 Informal consultation. (a..., that the action is not likely to adversely affect listed species or critical habitat, the consultation...

  19. 50 CFR 402.11 - Early consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.11 Early consultation. (a) Purpose. Early consultation is designed to reduce the likelihood of conflicts between listed species or critical...

  20. 50 CFR 402.13 - Informal consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.13 Informal consultation. (a..., that the action is not likely to adversely affect listed species or critical habitat, the consultation...

  1. 50 CFR 402.11 - Early consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.11 Early consultation. (a) Purpose. Early consultation is designed to reduce the likelihood of conflicts between listed species or critical...

  2. 50 CFR 402.13 - Informal consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.13 Informal consultation. (a..., that the action is not likely to adversely affect listed species or critical habitat, the consultation...

  3. 50 CFR 402.11 - Early consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.11 Early consultation. (a) Purpose. Early consultation is designed to reduce the likelihood of conflicts between listed species or critical...

  4. 50 CFR 402.13 - Informal consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.13 Informal consultation. (a..., that the action is not likely to adversely affect listed species or critical habitat, the consultation...

  5. 50 CFR 402.11 - Early consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.11 Early consultation. (a) Purpose. Early consultation is designed to reduce the likelihood of conflicts between listed species or critical...

  6. 50 CFR 402.13 - Informal consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.13 Informal consultation. (a..., that the action is not likely to adversely affect listed species or critical habitat, the consultation...

  7. Prioritizing Reading Consultants' Roles in Central Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Richard A.

    What reading consultants do varies considerably from person to person as there is variability in the role each reading consultant perceives as his or her responsibility. To assist reading consultants in prioritizing their roles to meet their constituents' needs, 113 elementary teachers enrolled in graduate reading classes at the University of…

  8. Entry-Level Activities in System Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hylander, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    System-level consultation or organizational development in schools is an area in great need of theoretical models and definitions. The three articles in this special issue provide a unique learning opportunity not only for consultation across borders but also for consultation within the same nation. In my commentary, I limit my remarks to a few…

  9. Special Education Teacher Consultant: Idealism versus Realism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haight, Sherrel Lee

    1984-01-01

    A review of literature on topics of teacher consultant roles, cross-categorical services, approval criteria, and caseloads suggests the position of teacher consultant as it is being implemented may be untenable. There is a critical lack of role definition at state and local levels and a dearth of professional preparation in consultation skills.…

  10. Core Competencies for Training Effective School Consultants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhouse, Katie Lynn Sutton

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop and validate a set of core competencies of effective school-based consultants for preservice school psychology consultation training. With recent changes in service delivery models, psychologists are challenged to engage in more indirect, preventative practices (Reschly, 2008). Consultation emerges as…

  11. 22 CFR 401.21 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Consultation. 401.21 Section 401.21 Foreign Relations INTERNATIONAL JOINT COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND CANADA RULES OF PROCEDURE Applications § 401.21 Consultation. The Commission may meet or consult with the applicant, the Governments and other persons or...

  12. 22 CFR 401.21 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Consultation. 401.21 Section 401.21 Foreign Relations INTERNATIONAL JOINT COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND CANADA RULES OF PROCEDURE Applications § 401.21 Consultation. The Commission may meet or consult with the applicant, the Governments and other persons or...

  13. 22 CFR 401.21 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Consultation. 401.21 Section 401.21 Foreign Relations INTERNATIONAL JOINT COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND CANADA RULES OF PROCEDURE Applications § 401.21 Consultation. The Commission may meet or consult with the applicant, the Governments and other persons or...

  14. 22 CFR 401.21 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Consultation. 401.21 Section 401.21 Foreign Relations INTERNATIONAL JOINT COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND CANADA RULES OF PROCEDURE Applications § 401.21 Consultation. The Commission may meet or consult with the applicant, the Governments and other persons or...

  15. 24 CFR 92.358 - Consultant activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Consultant activities. 92.358... Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Other Federal Requirements § 92.358 Consultant activities. No person providing consultant services in an employer-employee type relationship shall receive more than a...

  16. 24 CFR 92.358 - Consultant activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Consultant activities. 92.358... Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Other Federal Requirements § 92.358 Consultant activities. No person providing consultant services in an employer-employee type relationship shall receive more than a...

  17. 24 CFR 92.358 - Consultant activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Consultant activities. 92.358... Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Other Federal Requirements § 92.358 Consultant activities. No person providing consultant services in an employer-employee type relationship shall receive more than a...

  18. 24 CFR 92.358 - Consultant activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Consultant activities. 92.358... Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Other Federal Requirements § 92.358 Consultant activities. No person providing consultant services in an employer-employee type relationship shall receive more than a...

  19. 24 CFR 92.358 - Consultant activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consultant activities. 92.358... Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Other Federal Requirements § 92.358 Consultant activities. No person providing consultant services in an employer-employee type relationship shall receive more than a...

  20. Observed Consultation: Confidence and Accuracy of Assessors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tweed, Mike; Ingham, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Judgments made by the assessors observing consultations are widely used in the assessment of medical students. The aim of this research was to study judgment accuracy and confidence and the relationship between these. Assessors watched recordings of consultations, scoring the students on: a checklist of items; attributes of consultation; a…

  1. 34 CFR 75.191 - Consultation costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Consultation costs. 75.191 Section 75.191 Education... Development of Curricula Or Instructional Materials § 75.191 Consultation costs. An applicant may budget reasonable consultation fees or planning costs in connection with the development of curricula...

  2. The Consultation Role of a Nurse Educator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsyth, Diane McNally; Rhudy, Lori; Johnson, LeAnn M.

    2002-01-01

    In educational consultation, responsibility for identifying and refining problems and modifying solutions remains with the consultee. Five steps of consultation are gaining entry, identifying the problem, engaging in action planning, evaluating, and disengaging. Consultant and consultee are in a nonhierarchical relationship. (SK)

  3. 22 CFR 401.21 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Consultation. 401.21 Section 401.21 Foreign Relations INTERNATIONAL JOINT COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND CANADA RULES OF PROCEDURE Applications § 401.21 Consultation. The Commission may meet or consult with the applicant, the Governments and other persons or their...

  4. Observed Consultation: Confidence and Accuracy of Assessors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tweed, Mike; Ingham, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Judgments made by the assessors observing consultations are widely used in the assessment of medical students. The aim of this research was to study judgment accuracy and confidence and the relationship between these. Assessors watched recordings of consultations, scoring the students on: a checklist of items; attributes of consultation; a…

  5. Entry-Level Activities in System Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hylander, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    System-level consultation or organizational development in schools is an area in great need of theoretical models and definitions. The three articles in this special issue provide a unique learning opportunity not only for consultation across borders but also for consultation within the same nation. In my commentary, I limit my remarks to a few…

  6. Readings in the Economics of Education. A Selection of Articles, Essays, and Texts from the Works of Economists, Past and Present, on the Relationships between Economics and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This publication consists of selected articles, essays and texts from the works of economists on the relationships between economics and education. These selections, representing the range of orientations, methods and findings believed to be most significant, are organized into the following topics: 1) Perspectives on Education and Development in…

  7. Strangers at the Benchside: Research Ethics Consultation

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Mildred K.; Tobin, Sara L.; Greely, Henry T.; McCormick, Jennifer; Boyce, Angie; Magnus, David

    2008-01-01

    Institutional ethics consultation services for biomedical scientists have begun to proliferate, especially for clinical researchers. We discuss several models of ethics consultation and describe a team-based approach used at Stanford University in the context of these models. As research ethics consultation services expand, there are many unresolved questions that need to be addressed, including what the scope, composition, and purpose of such services should be, whether core competencies for consultants can and should be defined, and how conflicts of interest should be mitigated. We make preliminary recommendations for the structure and process of research ethics consultation, based on our initial experiences in a pilot program. PMID:18570086

  8. Psychiatric consultation in problem employee situations.

    PubMed

    Schouten, Ronald

    2012-12-01

    This article focuses on psychiatric consultation in "problem employee situations," a broad term that refers to any situation in which there is conflict between an employee and the employer or coworkers. It summarizes key principles and observations that are common to psychiatric consultations in the workplace and then offers case examples that are representative of such consultations and highlights those principles. Although the focus is on psychiatric consultation to employers, an employee may seek consultation himself or herself, especially when prospects for adversarial proceedings arise. The principles described here apply in both sets of circumstances.

  9. Letter: Feedback on abortion consultation.

    PubMed

    Harper, D M

    1974-07-01

    The author agree's with C.M. Friedman's article ("Making Abortion Consultation Therapeutic," November 1973) that psychiatrists should stop prostituting themselves by claiming an abortion is necessary to safeguar d the woman's mental health. However, he feels the real human issue is whether a lift whould be destroyed simply because it is inconvenient for the mother and not, as Dr. Friedman suggests, because of "her mature longings for a child, her present capacity to love and give, her present reality, and a weighing of her morality."

  10. Physician Preferences for Elements of Effective Consultations

    PubMed Central

    Boulware, David R.; Dekarske, Adrienne S.

    2009-01-01

    Background Effective communication is vital for optimal medical consultation, but there is little current information about physician preferences for effective consultation. Methods We invited physicians with at least one post-graduate year of experience at four Minnesota teaching hospitals to complete a 16-question Internet questionnaire about inpatient consultations. Results E-mail requests were received by an estimated 651 physicians. Questionnaires were completed by 323 (50%). Of these, 54% had completed training >5 years before, 17% had completed training <5 years before, and 30% were residents or fellows. Three elements were considered essential in consultation requests by most respondents: the specific question to be addressed (94%), whom to call with the response (68%), and consultation urgency (66%). In the consultation note, 71% of subjects placed high importance on simple, concise recommendations and 64% on the rationale behind them, while only 7% placed high importance on citing references. Most (69%) preferred that assessments and recommendations be written in bulleted or numbered format. A plurality (48%) preferred that assessments and recommendations be separated. Most placed high value on recommendations regarding drug therapy that specify dose (80%), duration (80%), and generic medication name (62%). Requesters placed greater importance than consultants (87% vs. 65%, respectively, P = 0.004) on recommendations that included duration of therapy. The majority (63%) stated that telephone requests were needed for emergent or urgent consultations. Those who usually requested consultations were more likely than those who usually responded to consultation requests to prefer telephone requests for routine consultations (43% vs. 20%, P < 0.001). Conclusions Physicians agreed on many essential elements for effective consultations. These results should guide efforts to improve communication in the consultation process and design electronic medical

  11. The effect of parallel consulting on the quality of consultations in regional general practice.

    PubMed

    Tran, Peter Duy; Laurence, Jerome Martin; Weston, Kathryn M; McLennan, Peter L

    2012-05-01

    The sustainability of community-based medical education relies on maintaining consultation quality as perceived by patients. This study aims to investigate the effect of an alternative model (parallel consultation) of teaching on patients' views of consultation quality as compared to the conventional consultation model in a general practice setting. A cross-sectional questionnaire study. Patients attending a regional general practice in the Southern Highlands of New South Wales between February and May 2010, who consented to student involvement in their consultation. Instruments to measure 'empathy' (CARE score) and 'enablement' (PEI score) as markers for consultation quality were administered after patient consultations. There was no difference in consultation length between the two groups. There was a small increase in the level of empathy experienced by patients attending parallel consultations compared to conventional consultations (P<0.05). The level of enablement did not differ between the groups. Although generally encouraging towards student involvement, patients' attitudes were significantly more positive towards students involved in the parallel consultation group (P<0.01). There is no loss in consultation quality, as experienced by the patient, when using the parallel consulting model. Parallel consulting does not change the length of time a patient spends with their doctor, and patients have a positive perception of the students involved in this model of clinical teaching.

  12. Quality of consultation and the project 'Support and Consultation on Euthanasia in the Netherlands' (SCEN).

    PubMed

    Jansen-van der Weide, Marijke Catharina; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje Dorien; van der Wal, Gerrit

    2007-01-01

    Consultation of another physician is one of the requirements for prudent practice. The project 'Support and Consultation on Euthanasia in the Netherlands' (SCEN) is aimed at professionalizing consultation. The objective of this study is to assess whether the quality of consultation was improved through SCEN. In four districts all general practitioners (GPs) received a pre-test questionnaire approximately six weeks before the start of the project in the period (n=1224, response 71%). In the period from April 2000 to December 2002, all GPs in districts in which SCEN had been implemented received a written post-test questionnaire one and a half years after the start of the project. This post-test questionnaire was returned by 60% of the GPs (n=3614). In SCEN consultations the attending physicians has no specific relation to the attending physician in 85% of consultations, while this is the case for 31% of other consultations. While before the start of SCEN in 71% of consultations six or seven of the seven criteria for good consultation were met, in SCEN consultations 83% of cases six or seven of these requirements were met. GPS who had consulted a SCEN physician generally were more positive about different aspects than those who consulted another consultant, such as considering the consultant to be able to make an independent judgement (totally agree 74% versus 59%). Although the quality of consultation appears to be high for both SCEN physicians and other consultants, the SCEN project further contributed to the quality of consultation. Since GPs attach importance to judgement of SCEN physician and have the intention to use it in future, and the quality of consultation stays high over time, this project is expected to maintain its value.

  13. Individual participation in intergroup contests is mediated by numerical assessment strategies in black howler and tufted capuchin monkeys.

    PubMed

    Van Belle, Sarie; Scarry, Clara J

    2015-12-05

    Asymmetries in resource-holding potential between opposing groups frequently determine outcomes of intergroup contests. Since both numerical superiority and high intergroup dominance rank may confer competitive advantages, group members should benefit from assessing the relative strength of rivals prior to engaging in defensive displays. However, differences in individual assessment may emerge when cost-benefit trade-offs differ among group members. We examine the influence of numerical superiority and intergroup dominance relationships on individual participation in intergroup encounters in black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) and tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus nigritus). Black howlers responded with longer vocal displays during encounters with neighbours with an equal number of resident males, while tufted capuchins increased their participation with increasing relative male group size. Within each species, males and females responded similarly to varying numerical odds, suggesting that despite pay-off asymmetries between males and females, both sexes were similarly influenced by numerical asymmetries in deciding to participate in collective group defence. Whereas the outcome of contests among tufted capuchins was determined by relative male group size, reflected in a pronounced intergroup dominance hierarchy, the absence of dominance relationships among black howler groups may have provoked prolonged vocal displays in order to assess rival groups with matching competitive abilities.

  14. Individual participation in intergroup contests is mediated by numerical assessment strategies in black howler and tufted capuchin monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Van Belle, Sarie; Scarry, Clara J.

    2015-01-01

    Asymmetries in resource-holding potential between opposing groups frequently determine outcomes of intergroup contests. Since both numerical superiority and high intergroup dominance rank may confer competitive advantages, group members should benefit from assessing the relative strength of rivals prior to engaging in defensive displays. However, differences in individual assessment may emerge when cost–benefit trade-offs differ among group members. We examine the influence of numerical superiority and intergroup dominance relationships on individual participation in intergroup encounters in black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) and tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus nigritus). Black howlers responded with longer vocal displays during encounters with neighbours with an equal number of resident males, while tufted capuchins increased their participation with increasing relative male group size. Within each species, males and females responded similarly to varying numerical odds, suggesting that despite pay-off asymmetries between males and females, both sexes were similarly influenced by numerical asymmetries in deciding to participate in collective group defence. Whereas the outcome of contests among tufted capuchins was determined by relative male group size, reflected in a pronounced intergroup dominance hierarchy, the absence of dominance relationships among black howler groups may have provoked prolonged vocal displays in order to assess rival groups with matching competitive abilities. PMID:26503680

  15. [Systemic consultation--about possibilities and limitations].

    PubMed

    Rostworowska, Maria; Opoczyńska, Małgorzata; de Barbaro, Bogdan

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents the role of systemic consultation in the diagnostic and therapeutic process of the people hospitalised for the first time because of a psychotic episode. The following questions are going to be put: What is the role of systemic family consultation in the diagnostic and therapeutic process on the inpatient ward? What are the differences between systemic consultation and others forms of family interventions f.e. family interviews, psycho--education, systemic therapy? What are possibilities and limitations of consultation? What does it invite to? These are only some of those questions, which are typical for daily clinical practice, in which the family consultation takes an important part. In this paper according to our clinical experience, we would like to share some of our thoughts on the questions put. In spite of difficulties the family consultation confronts us with, we are deeply convinced that it has an important part in therapeutic and diagnostic process.

  16. Testosterone is associated with cooperation during intergroup competition by enhancing parochial altruism.

    PubMed

    Reimers, Luise; Diekhof, Esther K

    2015-01-01

    The steroid hormone testosterone is widely associated with negative behavioral effects, such as aggression or dominance. However, recent studies applying economic exchange tasks revealed conflicting results. While some point to a prosocial effect of testosterone by increasing altruistic behavior, others report that testosterone promotes antisocial tendencies. Taking into account additional factors such as parochial altruism (i.e., ingroup favoritism and outgroup hostility) might help to explain this contradiction. First evidence for a link between testosterone and parochial altruism comes from recently reported data of male soccer fans playing the ultimatum game. In this study high levels of endogenous testosterone predicted increased altruistic punishment during outgroup interactions and at the same time heightened ingroup generosity. Here, we report findings of another experimental task, the prisoner's dilemma, applied in the same context to examine the role of testosterone on parochial tendencies in terms of cooperation. In this task, 50 male soccer fans were asked to decide whether or not they wanted to cooperate with partners marked as either fans of the subject's own favorite team (ingroup) or fans of other teams (outgroups). Our results show that high testosterone levels were associated with increased ingroup cooperation during intergroup competition. In addition, subjects displaying a high degree of parochialism during intergroup competition had significantly higher levels of testosterone than subjects who did not differentiate much between the different groups. In sum, the present data demonstrate that the behavioral effects of testosterone are not limited to aggressive and selfish tendencies but may imply prosocial aspects depending on the context. By this means, our results support the previously reported findings on testosterone-dependent intergroup bias and indicate that this social hormone might be an important factor driving parochial altruism.

  17. Group Norms, Intergroup Resource Allocation, and Social Reasoning Among Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Luke; Manstead, Antony S R; Rutland, Adam

    2017-09-21

    Cooperation is a fundamental drive of moral behavior from infancy, yet competitive intergroup contexts can exert a significant influence on resource allocation behavior in childhood. The present study explored how ingroup and outgroup norms of competition and cooperation influenced the allocation of resources between groups among children and adolescents, along with how they reasoned about these allocations. Ingroup norms combined, for the first time, with outgroup norms were manipulated to examine their effect on the development of intergroup resource allocation. Participants aged 8 to 16 years (n = 229) were told that their ingroup and the outgroup held either a competitive or cooperative norm about how they should behave in an arts competition. They then allocated tokens for expenditure in the competition between the 2 teams, and provided social reasoning to justify their chosen allocations. Results showed a negative outgroup norm of competition led to significantly more ingroup bias when the ingroup also held a competitive rather than a cooperative norm. In contrast, a positive outgroup norm of cooperation did not result in significantly less ingroup bias when the ingroup also held a cooperative norm. Additionally, adolescents, unlike children who allocated equally were more likely to make reference to fair competition, a form of moral reasoning, in the competitive compared with the cooperative ingroup norm condition. This study showed that children and adolescents considered both ingroup and outgroup norms simultaneously when making intergroup resource allocations, but that only adolescents varied their reasoning to justify these allocation in line with group norms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Testosterone is associated with cooperation during intergroup competition by enhancing parochial altruism

    PubMed Central

    Reimers, Luise; Diekhof, Esther K.

    2015-01-01

    The steroid hormone testosterone is widely associated with negative behavioral effects, such as aggression or dominance. However, recent studies applying economic exchange tasks revealed conflicting results. While some point to a prosocial effect of testosterone by increasing altruistic behavior, others report that testosterone promotes antisocial tendencies. Taking into account additional factors such as parochial altruism (i.e., ingroup favoritism and outgroup hostility) might help to explain this contradiction. First evidence for a link between testosterone and parochial altruism comes from recently reported data of male soccer fans playing the ultimatum game. In this study high levels of endogenous testosterone predicted increased altruistic punishment during outgroup interactions and at the same time heightened ingroup generosity. Here, we report findings of another experimental task, the prisoner's dilemma, applied in the same context to examine the role of testosterone on parochial tendencies in terms of cooperation. In this task, 50 male soccer fans were asked to decide whether or not they wanted to cooperate with partners marked as either fans of the subject's own favorite team (ingroup) or fans of other teams (outgroups). Our results show that high testosterone levels were associated with increased ingroup cooperation during intergroup competition. In addition, subjects displaying a high degree of parochialism during intergroup competition had significantly higher levels of testosterone than subjects who did not differentiate much between the different groups. In sum, the present data demonstrate that the behavioral effects of testosterone are not limited to aggressive and selfish tendencies but may imply prosocial aspects depending on the context. By this means, our results support the previously reported findings on testosterone-dependent intergroup bias and indicate that this social hormone might be an important factor driving parochial altruism. PMID

  19. National Identification Counteracts the Sedative Effect of Positive Intergroup Contact on Ethnic Activism

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Adrienne; Green, Eva G. T.; Visintin, Emilio Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Positive intergroup contact with socially and economically advantaged national majorities has been shown to reduce ethnic identification among minorities, thereby undermining ethnic minority activism. This finding implies that ethnic identity is the relevant social identity driving ethnic minorities’ struggle for equality. We argue that the study of the “sedating” effect of positive intergroup contact for minorities should be more nuanced. The existence of multiple and sometimes interplaying social identities can foster a reinterpretation of the meaning of “ethnic” activism. This study therefore examines how the interplay of ethnic and national identities shapes the sedating effect of contact on minority activism. We expect national identification to buffer the sedated activism resulting from reduced ethnic identification. That is, the mediation from intergroup contact to reduced ethnic activism through weakened ethnic identification is expected to be moderated by national identification. With survey data from Bulgaria, we investigated support for ethnic activism among Bulgarian Roma (N = 320) as a function of their contact with the national majority as well as their degree of ethnic and national identification. The predicted moderated mediation was revealed: a negative indirect relationship between contact and activism through decreased ethnic identification occurred among Roma with low national identification, whereas no sedating effect occurred among Roma identifying strongly as members of the Bulgarian nation. We discuss the meaning of national identification for the Roma minority, who experience harsh discrimination in countries where they have been historically settled, as well as convergence of these findings with work on dual identification. We highlight the role of interacting social identities in mobilizing resources for activism and the importance of adopting a critical view on ethnic discourse when studying activism in both traditional and

  20. Consultation to residential psychosocial rehabilitation agencies.

    PubMed

    Kupers, T A

    1996-08-01

    As non-profit psychosocial rehabilitation agencies take over providing many of the services once provided by governmental facilities in some locales, consultation to the staff of these agencies can be very productive. Using a revised community consultation model, the author lists some of the issues that are regularly raised by staff, and discusses the functions that this kind of consultation can fulfill in this important sector of community mental health services.

  1. Effects of intergroup exclusion on individual needs threat and behavior tendencies.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao Li; Wei, Li; Zhao, Qing Hua; Liu, Li

    2017-10-01

    This study explores the effects of intergroup exclusion on need-threat and the behavioral tendencies of excluded individuals. Results show that those excluded by in-group members perceived more threat to relational needs, while participants excluded by out-group members perceived more threat to efficacy needs. In addition, participants excluded by out-group members displayed significantly more aggression intention and less helping intention than those who were excluded by in-group members. This study indicates that the group relationship between excluders and the excluded will directly affect threat perception and behavioral responses. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. 76 FR 18583 - Draft Tribal Consultation Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... tribal populations and are authorized to speak for ONDCP; and Ensures ONDCP's component heads and program... consultation sessions, summarizing the discussion, recommendations, responses, and soliciting feedback...

  3. Nurse education consultancy: a new role.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, D A

    1996-12-01

    Market philosophy is transforming nurse education, an arena where alternative values and beliefs have been important. Such philosophy challenges nurse teachers to rethink their roles and consider what they might have to offer the profession either working within an institution or independently. This paper will explore the role of the nurse education consultant, examining what is implied by the term 'consultation' and what this might mean within a consultation process. Consultancy may be used to help colleges to market effectively and ethically, when the benefits of long term investment in education may not otherwise be apparent.

  4. 15 CFR 286.6 - Public consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACCREDITATION AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAMS NATIONAL VOLUNTARY CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT SYSTEM EVALUATION (NVCASE) PROGRAM § 286.6 Public consultation. NIST...

  5. 15 CFR 286.6 - Public consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACCREDITATION AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAMS NATIONAL VOLUNTARY CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT SYSTEM EVALUATION (NVCASE) PROGRAM § 286.6 Public consultation. NIST...

  6. 15 CFR 286.6 - Public consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACCREDITATION AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAMS NATIONAL VOLUNTARY CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT SYSTEM EVALUATION (NVCASE) PROGRAM § 286.6 Public consultation. NIST...

  7. 15 CFR 286.6 - Public consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACCREDITATION AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAMS NATIONAL VOLUNTARY CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT SYSTEM EVALUATION (NVCASE) PROGRAM § 286.6 Public consultation. NIST...

  8. 15 CFR 286.6 - Public consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACCREDITATION AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAMS NATIONAL VOLUNTARY CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT SYSTEM EVALUATION (NVCASE) PROGRAM § 286.6 Public consultation. NIST...

  9. How to write a psychiatric consultation.

    PubMed

    Garrick, T R; Stotland, N L

    1982-07-01

    The written psychiatric consultation is the distillation, the official permanent record, and the one universal element of the consultation process. Both the document and process present a good and growing opportunity for service and teaching. The authors offer a conceptual and practical scheme to help potential consultants make decisions about the content, style, and wording of their written communications. Each of the components of the consultation document, including headings, openings, history, examination, and formulations, is considered in terms of its effects on the liaison with the consultee and the care of the patient.

  10. Fewer users seen turning to energy consultants

    SciTech Connect

    Ulanoff, J.

    1983-06-20

    Energy-consulting firms are having to adjust to a drop in business because of dissatisfaction among their customers with the recommendations they have made and the fact that companies have developed better in-house expertise. Some consulting firms are going out of business, while others are restructuring and shifting their emphasis from energy management to equipment replacement. Consultants also blame user indifference to energy matters because of the current fuel prices, but users cite their own financial problems and in-place conservation programs as reasons for turning away from the consultants. (DCK)

  11. Intergroup contact, attitudes toward homosexuality, and the role of acceptance of gender non-conformity in young adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Kate L.; Bos, Henny M.W.; Sandfort, Theo G.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored how contact with gay and lesbian persons affects adolescents' attitudes toward them, and whether this association is mediated or moderated by one's acceptance of gender non-conformity. We analyzed survey responses from 456 Dutch adolescents aged 12 to 15 who reported having no same-sex attractions. Data were collected in 2008 at 8 schools in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Preliminary analyses showed that contact with lesbian/gay persons outside of school was positively associated with attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. Multilevel analyses showed that acceptance of gender non-conformity mediated rather than moderated the relationship between intergroup contact and sexual prejudice in males. The effect of intergroup contact on females' attitudes toward lesbian women was no longer significant in multilevel analyses. The findings suggest that attention to both intergroup contact and acceptance of gender non-conformity would enhance our understanding of attitudes toward homosexuality in adolescents. PMID:22243627

  12. Perceiving expatriate coworkers as foreigners encourages aid: social categorization and procedural justice together improve intergroup cooperation and dual identity.

    PubMed

    Leonardelli, Geoffrey J; Toh, Soo Min

    2011-01-01

    We propose that social categorization can encourage particular forms of intergroup cooperation because it differentiates a group in need from a group that can give aid. Moreover, social categorization is most likely to occur when individuals perceive procedural justice (i.e., fair treatment) from authorities in a superordinate group that includes the individuals' subgroup. Two field studies investigating relations between local and foreign coworkers tested not only this prediction, but also whether high social categorization and procedural justice would yield a dual identity, in which group members identify simultaneously with their social category and the superordinate group. Both studies supported our predictions: Local employees engaged a dual identity and offered knowledge to aid a foreign coworker's adjustment more often when local-foreign categorization and procedural justice from organizational authorities were high than when these variables were low. These discoveries point to controllable mechanisms that enable intergroup cooperation, and our findings have important implications for intergroup aid, expatriate adjustment, immigration, and multiculturalism.

  13. No effect of inter-group conflict on within-group harmony in non-human primates

    PubMed Central

    Grueter, Cyril C

    2013-01-01

    It has been a longstanding assumption that the threat of extra-group conflict can promote the expression of socio-positive behavior and cohesion within animal groups. I conducted a comparative analysis on the effect of inter-group conflict (indexed by home range overlap) on within-group affiliation levels (indexed by time engaged in allogrooming) in a sample of 48 primate species. There was no association between the 2 variables in a phylogenetic generalized least squares regression. I conclude that inter-group conflict may at best elicit short-term immediate changes in affiliation levels, but permanently elevated cohesion appears unique to humans with their large-scale social integration and scaled up inter-group conflict. PMID:24563713

  14. Consulting--Part 2. The art and science of using consultants.

    PubMed

    Lister, E D; Pirrotta, S

    1996-11-01

    Part I of this series described a research project--a survey of more than 300 physician executives. Asked to share their personal experiences of unsuccessful consultations, our correspondents painted a clear picture of what can go wrong when organizational consultants enter health care systems, and described the lasting destructive sequelae to failed consultations. The two issues responsible for most failed consultations were the intrusion of internal politics into the process and the failure to clearly establish and maintain consensual goals. In Part 2, the consultation process is explored from a very different perspective. What are the issues that often trigger requests for consultation services, as well as the dynamics that can foreshadow success or failure before consultants are even engaged? What are the pitfalls and pointers for the successful use of consultation services?

  15. Building Authentic Intergroup Dialogue on Campus: Living a Commitment to Shared Governance and Career Path Development through the Full Inclusion of All Members of the University Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Christine

    2003-01-01

    The University of Maryland's Intergroup Dialogue and Leadership Program (IDLP) is coordinated by the Office of Human Relations Programs (OHRP), an arm of the Office of the President. Because of this organizational location, OHRP has campus-wide scope which has been foundational to its ability to adapt the Intergroup Dialogue Program (IDP)…

  16. Palliative Care Consultations in Hospitalized Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ladwig, Susan; Robb, Jessica; Kelly, Adam; Nielsen, Eric; Quill, Timothy E.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the pattern and characteristics of palliative care (PC) consultations in patients with stroke and compare them with the characteristics of nonstroke consultations. Methods The palliative care program at Strong Memorial Hospital (SMH) was established in October 2001. SMH is a 765-bed academic medical center with approximately 38,000 discharges. For each consult from 2005 to 2007, we collected demographic, clinical, and service-related information. We explored similarities and differences in patients with different types of stroke, including patients with ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and subdural hematoma. In addition, we compared these data to the nonstroke patients who had a palliative care consultation during the same time period. Results Over the 3-year period from 2005 to 2007, there were a total of 101 consultations in patients with stroke (6.3% of all PC consultations). Of the 101 consultations, 31 were in patients with ischemic stroke, 26 in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage, 30 in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage, and 14 in patients with subdural hematoma. Patients with stroke who had a PC consult were more functionally impaired, less likely to have capacity, more likely to die in the hospital, and to have fewer traditional symptom burdens than other common diagnoses seen on the PC consultation service. The most common trajectory to death was withdrawal of mechanical ventilation, but varied by type of stroke. Common treatments negotiated in these consultations included mechanical ventilation, artificial nutrition, tracheostomy, and less likely antibiobics, intravenous fluids, and various neurosurgical procedures. Conclusions Patients with stroke are a common diagnosis seen on an inpatient palliative care consult service. Each stroke type represents patients with potentially distinct palliative care needs. PMID:20384501

  17. Emerging trends in environmental consultant liability

    SciTech Connect

    Witkin, J.B.

    1995-12-01

    Two federal district judges have recently opened the door for negligence suits aimed specifically an environmental consultants. In William Levy and Harper Realty, Inc. v. Versar, Inc., the respective courts allowed negligence-based claims to survive motions to dismiss, suggesting environmental consultants who fail to discover and/or disclose contamination on the properties they are investigating may be liable for considerable damages, including remediation costs and the economic losses suffered as a result of a claimant`s reliance on the environmental consultant`s work product. These cases poses great concern for environmental consultants. This paper will review these cases in detail, and other legal issues of concern to environmental consultants. It will also review the steps consultants can take to limit their liability, including obtaining errors and omissions insurance, using properly drafted environmental services agreements, properly training their employees, effectively communicating about risks with their clients, and other risk management techniques. In light of the exorbitant costs of environmental clean up, and the expansive breadth of liability imposed by federal environmental laws, consultants need to understand the potential causes of action that can be brought against them. Two federal district judges from Illinois have recently opened the door for negligence suits aimed specifically at environmental consultants, in William Levy and Harper Realty, Inc. v. Versar Inc. This paper will analyze the versar and Mobil Oil cases in detail. It will also explore other issues on professional liability generally of concern to environmental consultants. Finally, suggestion are briefly offered to guide environmental consultants as they embark on clean up activities, to reduce their potential liability to third parties.

  18. Competency-Based Behavior Consultation Training: An Evaluation of Consultant Outcomes, Treatment Effects, and Consumer Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lepage, Kathy; Kratochwill, Thomas R.; Elliott, Stephen N.

    2004-01-01

    Assessments of consultants, clients, and consumer satisfaction were used to examine the effects of a competency-based consultation training program conducted over 4 years. Using a multiple-baseline framework to assess training effects on consultants and single-case study designs to evaluate changes in client behavior, a number of significant…

  19. Finalizing the Consultant Effectiveness Scale: An Analysis and Validation of the Characteristics of Effective Consultants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoff, Howard M.; Hines, Constance V.; Kromrey, Jeffrey D.

    1995-01-01

    Proposes that as consultation becomes a larger part of the school psychologist's role and function, the need to empirically identify characteristics of effective consultants is increasingly important. Describes the Consultant Effectiveness Scale (CES) and reexamines it with a national sample of school psychologists. Evaluates discriminate validity…

  20. Developing Knowledge and Value in Management Consulting. Research in Management Consulting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buono, Anthony F., Ed.

    This document contains 11 papers that explore knowledge and value development in the field of management consulting, with particular emphasis on trends and techniques in the practice of management consulting and the current theory and dynamics of management consulting. The following papers are included: "Introduction" (Anthony F. Buono);…

  1. Competent Consultation: Developing Self-Efficacy for Process and Problem Aspects of Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guiney, Meaghan C.; Zibulsky, Jamie

    2017-01-01

    Using samples of novice and advanced consultants in training (CITs), this study explored the development of consultation self-efficacy (CSE) for both process-oriented and problem-oriented aspects of consultation. Regardless of experience level, self-efficacy in both domains increased with training. However, significantly greater gains were made by…

  2. Characteristics of Consultants and Consultees and Success in Mental Health Consultation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpert, Judith L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Considered selected attitudinal and value characteristics of high and low successful consultants. Consultants (N=12) and consultees (N=15) completed six measures. Results indicated that more successful consultants have consultees who are more authoritarian and dogmatic, and are dissimilar to consultees in level of dogmatism and reported need for…

  3. The Consulting Role in a Response-to-Intervention Context: An Exploratory Study of Instructional Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Daniel S.; Salmon, Diane; Cavanaugh, Kate; Schneider, Mary Frances

    2014-01-01

    Response to intervention (RtI) is an influential system of service delivery in contemporary schools, but the specific role of school consultation in RtI implementation is not clearly defined. Instructional consultation provides a potential meeting point between consultation and RtI practices. Through a mixed-methods approach, this study explored…

  4. Developing Knowledge and Value in Management Consulting. Research in Management Consulting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buono, Anthony F., Ed.

    This document contains 11 papers that explore knowledge and value development in the field of management consulting, with particular emphasis on trends and techniques in the practice of management consulting and the current theory and dynamics of management consulting. The following papers are included: "Introduction" (Anthony F. Buono);…

  5. Cultural Modifications to Current School-Based Consultation Approaches Reported by Culturally Diverse Beginning Consultants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarver Behring, Shari; Cabello, Beverly; Kushida, Doreen; Murguia, Annette

    2000-01-01

    Examines the use of current consultation approaches and modifications with European-American, African-American, Asian-American or Latino consultants and students in interviews of cases in which the consultant and student were from the same or different cultural background. The results, illustrated by case descriptions, strongly suggest that…

  6. Intra- and intergroup vocal behavior in resident killer whales, Orcinus orca.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Brigitte M; Symonds, Helena; Spong, Paul; Ladich, Friedrich

    2007-12-01

    Vocal communication within and between groups of individuals has been described extensively in birds and terrestrial mammals, however, little is known about how cetaceans utilize their sounds in their natural environment. Resident killer whales, Orcinus orca, live in highly stable matrilines and exhibit group-specific vocal dialects. Single call types cannot exclusively be associated with particular behaviors and calls are thought to function in group identification and intragroup communication. In the present study call usage of three closely related matrilines of the Northern resident community was compared in various intra- and intergroup contexts. In two out of the three matrilines significant changes in vocal behavior depending both on the presence and identity of accompanying whales were found. Most evidently, family-specific call subtypes, as well as aberrant and variable calls, were emitted at higher rates, whereas "low arousal" call types were used less in the presence of matrilines from different pods, subclans, or clans. Ways in which the observed changes may function both in intra- and intergroup communication.

  7. The Process Model of Group-Based Emotion: Integrating Intergroup Emotion and Emotion Regulation Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, Amit; Halperin, Eran; van Zomeren, Martijn; Gross, James J

    2016-05-01

    Scholars interested in emotion regulation have documented the different goals and strategies individuals have for regulating their emotions. However, little attention has been paid to the regulation of group-based emotions, which are based on individuals' self-categorization as a group member and occur in response to situations perceived as relevant for that group. We propose a model for examining group-based emotion regulation that integrates intergroup emotions theory and the process model of emotion regulation. This synergy expands intergroup emotion theory by facilitating further investigation of different goals (i.e., hedonic or instrumental) and strategies (e.g., situation selection and modification strategies) used to regulate group-based emotions. It also expands emotion regulation research by emphasizing the role of self-categorization (e.g., as an individual or a group member) in the emotional process. Finally, we discuss the promise of this theoretical synergy and suggest several directions for future research on group-based emotion regulation. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  8. Compensation in intergroup relations: an investigation of its structural and strategic foundations.

    PubMed

    Cambon, Laurent; Yzerbyt, Vincent; Yakimova, Sonya

    2015-03-01

    Recent work in intergroup relations stresses the role of two fundamental dimensions, competence and warmth, which organize the perception of social groups. A pattern often encountered in people's ratings is one of compensation in that a group that is evaluated higher than another group on one of the two fundamental dimensions is also judged lower on the other fundamental dimension. Based on Social Identity Theory, the present work extends previous research on compensation by examining boundary conditions as well as underlying psychological processes. Two studies involving experimental and correlational evidence, minimal and real groups, and different kinds of conflict, reveal that compensation is more likely when the groups are in asymmetrical relation and share a cooperative view of the intergroup setting. Our data also suggest that, among members of low status groups, compensation is associated with social creativity. In contrast, and in line with the 'noblesse oblige' effect, members of the high status group would seem to rely on compensation as a means to appear non-discriminatory.

  9. Exaggerated Intergroup Bias in Economical Decision Making Games: Differential Effects of Primary and Secondary Psychopathic Traits

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Steven M.; Mitchell, Ian J.; Johnson, Ian; Dawson, Ellen; Beech, Anthony R.

    2013-01-01

    Psychopathic personality traits are linked with selfish and non-cooperative responses during economical decision making games. However, the possibility that these responses may vary when responding to members of the in-group and the out-group has not yet been explored. We aimed to examine the effects of primary (selfish, uncaring) and secondary (impulsive, irresponsible) psychopathic personality traits on the responses of non-offending participants to the in-group and the out-group (defined in terms of affiliation to a UK University) across a series of economical decision making games. We asked a total of 60 participants to act as the proposer in both the dictator game and the ultimatum game. We found that across both tasks, those who scored highly for secondary psychopathic traits showed an elevated intergroup bias, making more generous offers toward members of the in-group relative to the out-group. An exaggerated intergroup bias may therefore represent a motivational factor for the antisocial behavior of those with elevated secondary psychopathic traits. PMID:23950898

  10. Intergroup Contact Effects via Ingroup Distancing among Majority and Minority Groups: Moderation by Social Dominance Orientation.

    PubMed

    Kauff, Mathias; Schmid, Katharina; Lolliot, Simon; Al Ramiah, Ananthi; Hewstone, Miles

    2016-01-01

    Five studies tested whether intergroup contact reduces negative outgroup attitudes through a process of ingroup distancing. Based on the deprovincialization hypothesis and Social Dominance Theory, we hypothesized that the indirect effect of cross-group friendship on outgroup attitudes via reduced ingroup identification is moderated by individuals' Social Dominance Orientation (SDO), and occurs only for members of high status majority groups. We tested these predictions in three different intergroup contexts, involving conflictual relations between social groups in Germany (Study 1; N = 150; longitudinal Study 2: N = 753), Northern Ireland (Study 3: N = 160; Study 4: N = 1,948), and England (Study 5; N = 594). Cross-group friendship was associated with reduced ingroup identification and the link between reduced ingroup identification and improved outgroup attitudes was moderated by SDO (the indirect effect of cross-group friendship on outgroup attitudes via reduced ingroup only occurred for individuals scoring high, but not low, in SDO). Although there was a consistent moderating effect of SDO in high-status majority groups (Studies 1-5), but not low-status minority groups (Studies 3, 4, and 5), the interaction by SDO was not reliably stronger in high- than low-status groups. Findings are discussed in terms of better understanding deprovincialization effects of contact.

  11. Early Neural Markers of Implicit Attitudes: N170 Modulated by Intergroup and Evaluative Contexts in IAT

    PubMed Central

    Ibáñez, Agustín; Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Hurtado, Esteban; González, Ramiro; Haye, Andrés; Manes, Facundo F.

    2010-01-01

    The Implicit Association Test (IAT) is the most popular measure to evaluate implicit attitudes. Nevertheless, its neural correlates are not yet fully understood. We examined event related potentials (ERPs) in response to face- and word processing while indigenous and non-indigenous participants performed an IAT displaying faces (ingroup and outgroup members) and words (positive and negative valence) as targets of category judgments. The N170 component was modulated by valence of words and by ingroup/outgroup face categorization. Contextual effects (face–words implicitly associated in the task) had an influence on the N170 amplitude modulation. On the one hand, in face categorization, right N170 showed differences according to the association between social categories of faces and affective valence of words. On the other, in word categorization, left N170 presented a similar modulation when the task implied a negative-valence associated with ingroup faces. Only indigenous participants showed a significant IAT effect and N170 differences. Our results demonstrate an early ERP blending of stimuli processing with both intergroup and evaluative contexts, suggesting an integration of contextual information related to intergroup attitudes during the early stages of word and face processing. To our knowledge, this is the first report of early ERPs during an ethnicity IAT, opening a new branch of exchange between social neuroscience and social psychology of attitudes. PMID:21079750

  12. Formation of raiding parties for intergroup violence is mediated by social network structure

    PubMed Central

    Glowacki, Luke; Isakov, Alexander; Wrangham, Richard W.; McDermott, Rose; Fowler, James H.; Christakis, Nicholas A.

    2016-01-01

    Intergroup violence is common among humans worldwide. To assess how within-group social dynamics contribute to risky, between-group conflict, we conducted a 3-y longitudinal study of the formation of raiding parties among the Nyangatom, a group of East African nomadic pastoralists currently engaged in small-scale warfare. We also mapped the social network structure of potential male raiders. Here, we show that the initiation of raids depends on the presence of specific leaders who tend to participate in many raids, to have more friends, and to occupy more central positions in the network. However, despite the different structural position of raid leaders, raid participants are recruited from the whole population, not just from the direct friends of leaders. An individual’s decision to participate in a raid is strongly associated with the individual’s social network position in relation to other participants. Moreover, nonleaders have a larger total impact on raid participation than leaders, despite leaders’ greater connectivity. Thus, we find that leaders matter more for raid initiation than participant mobilization. Social networks may play a role in supporting risky collective action, amplify the emergence of raiding parties, and hence facilitate intergroup violence in small-scale societies. PMID:27790996

  13. Imagine That! The Effect of Counterstereotypic Imagined Intergroup Contact on Weight Bias.

    PubMed

    Dunaev, Jamie L; Brochu, Paula M; Markey, Charlotte H

    2017-10-09

    Higher body-weight people are highly stigmatized and face prejudice and discrimination across a number of domains. Further, experiences of weight stigmatization are associated with a host of negative physical, psychological, and social consequences. However, less is known about effective means for reducing weight bias. One strategy that has shown some success in prejudice reduction, yet is relatively untested for weight bias, is imagined intergroup contact. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of counterstereotypic imagined intergroup contact on weight bias. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 experimental conditions or a control group. In the experimental conditions, participants were asked to imagine interactions with either a counterstereotypic (e.g., confident, attractive) or stereotypic (e.g., unattractive, insecure) "obese" person. Participants then completed the Anti-fat Attitudes Questionnaire (dislike subscale; Crandall, 1994; Quinn & Crocker, 1999), the Universal Measure of Bias-Fat (negative judgment and social distance subscales; Latner et al., 2008), and the Fat Phobia Scale. Results indicated that participants in the counterstereotypic condition reported lower levels of weight bias (dislike, negative judgment, and social distance) than participants in the stereotypic and control conditions. These findings highlight the potential usefulness of counterstereotypic imagined contact to reduce weight bias. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Listen to the band! How sound can realize group identity and enact intergroup domination.

    PubMed

    Shayegh, John; Drury, John; Stevenson, Clifford

    2017-03-01

    Recent research suggests that sound appraisal can be moderated by social identity. We validate this finding, and also extend it, by examining the extent to which sound can also be understood as instrumental in intergroup relations. We interviewed nine members of a Catholic enclave in predominantly Protestant East Belfast about their experiences of an outgroup (Orange Order) parade, where intrusive sound was a feature. Participants reported experiencing the sounds as a manifestation of the Orange Order identity and said that it made them feel threatened and anxious because they felt it was targeted at them by the outgroup (e.g., through aggressive volume increases). There was also evidence that the sounds produced community disempowerment, which interviewees explicitly linked to the invasiveness of the music. Some interviewees described organizing to collectively 'drown out' the bands' sounds, an activity which appeared to be uplifting. These findings develop the elaborated social identity model of empowerment, by showing that intergroup struggle and collective self-objectification can operate through sound as well as through physical actions. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  15. Negotiating power: agenda ordering and the willingness to negotiate in asymmetric intergroup conflicts.

    PubMed

    Kteily, Nour; Saguy, Tamar; Sidanius, James; Taylor, Donald M

    2013-12-01

    In this research, we investigated how group power influences the way members of groups in asymmetrical conflict approach intergroup negotiations. Drawing on theories of negotiations and of intergroup power, we predicted that group power would interact with features of the proposed negotiating agenda to influence willingness to come to the table. Based on the negotiation literature, we focused on 2 types of sequential negotiation agendas: 1 beginning with the discussion of consequential issues before less consequential issues (consequential first) and 1 leaving the discussion of consequential issues until after less consequential issues are discussed (consequential later). Because they are motivated to advance changes to their disadvantaged status quo, we expected low-power group members to favor consequential first over consequential later invitations to negotiate. High-power group members, motivated to protect their advantage, were expected to show the reverse preference. Converging evidence from 5 experiments involving real-world and experimental groups supported these predictions. Across studies, participants received an invitation to negotiate from the other group involving either a consequential first or consequential later agenda. Low-power group members preferred consequential first invitations because these implied less stalling of change to the status quo, and high-power group members preferred consequential later invitations because these invitations seemed to pose less threat to their position. Theoretical and practical implications for negotiations research and conflict resolution are discussed.

  16. Exaggerated intergroup bias in economical decision making games: differential effects of primary and secondary psychopathic traits.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Steven M; Mitchell, Ian J; Johnson, Ian; Dawson, Ellen; Beech, Anthony R

    2013-01-01

    Psychopathic personality traits are linked with selfish and non-cooperative responses during economical decision making games. However, the possibility that these responses may vary when responding to members of the in-group and the out-group has not yet been explored. We aimed to examine the effects of primary (selfish, uncaring) and secondary (impulsive, irresponsible) psychopathic personality traits on the responses of non-offending participants to the in-group and the out-group (defined in terms of affiliation to a UK University) across a series of economical decision making games. We asked a total of 60 participants to act as the proposer in both the dictator game and the ultimatum game. We found that across both tasks, those who scored highly for secondary psychopathic traits showed an elevated intergroup bias, making more generous offers toward members of the in-group relative to the out-group. An exaggerated intergroup bias may therefore represent a motivational factor for the antisocial behavior of those with elevated secondary psychopathic traits.

  17. That's what friends are for: how intergroup friendships promote historically disadvantaged groups' substantive political representation.

    PubMed

    Kokkonen, Andrej; Karlsson, David

    2017-05-16

    The interests of historically disadvantaged groups risk being overlooked if they are not present in the decision-making process. However, a mere presence in politics does not guarantee political success. Often groups need allies to promote their interests successfully. We argue that one way to identify such allies is to judge politicians by whether they have friends in historically disadvantaged groups, as intergroup friendships have been shown to make people understand and feel empathy for outgroups. In other words, intergroup friendships may function as an important complement to descriptive representation. We test our argument with a unique survey that asks all elected political representatives in Sweden's 290 municipalities (response rate 79 per cent) about their friendship ties to, and their representation of, five historically disadvantaged groups: women, immigrants, youths, pensioners and blue-collar workers. We find a strong correlation between representatives' friendship ties to these groups and their commitment to represent them. The correlation is especially strong for youths and blue-collar workers, which likely can be explained by the fact that these groups usually lack crucial political resources (such as experience and education). We conclude that friendship ties function as an important complement to descriptive representation for achieving substantive representation. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  18. Oxytocin Motivates Non-Cooperation in Intergroup Conflict to Protect Vulnerable In-Group Members

    PubMed Central

    De Dreu, Carsten K. W.; Shalvi, Shaul; Greer, Lindred L.; Van Kleef, Gerben A.; Handgraaf, Michel J. J.

    2012-01-01

    Intergroup conflict is often driven by an individual's motivation to protect oneself and fellow group members against the threat of out-group aggression, including the tendency to pre-empt out-group threat through a competitive approach. Here we link such defense-motivated competition to oxytocin, a hypothalamic neuropeptide involved in reproduction and social bonding. An intergroup conflict game was developed to disentangle whether oxytocin motivates competitive approach to protect (i) immediate self-interest, (ii) vulnerable in-group members, or (iii) both. Males self-administered oxytocin or placebo (double-blind placebo-controlled) and made decisions with financial consequences to themselves, their fellow in-group members, and a competing out-group. Game payoffs were manipulated between-subjects so that non-cooperation by the out-group had high vs. low impact on personal payoff (personal vulnerability), and high vs. low impact on payoff to fellow in-group members (in-group vulnerability). When personal vulnerability was high, non-cooperation was unaffected by treatment and in-group vulnerability. When personal vulnerability was low, however, in-group vulnerability motivated non-cooperation but only when males received oxytocin. Oxytocin fuels a defense-motivated competitive approach to protect vulnerable group members, even when personal fate is not at stake. PMID:23144787

  19. Intergroup Contact Effects via Ingroup Distancing among Majority and Minority Groups: Moderation by Social Dominance Orientation

    PubMed Central

    Kauff, Mathias; Schmid, Katharina; Lolliot, Simon; Al Ramiah, Ananthi; Hewstone, Miles

    2016-01-01

    Five studies tested whether intergroup contact reduces negative outgroup attitudes through a process of ingroup distancing. Based on the deprovincialization hypothesis and Social Dominance Theory, we hypothesized that the indirect effect of cross-group friendship on outgroup attitudes via reduced ingroup identification is moderated by individuals’ Social Dominance Orientation (SDO), and occurs only for members of high status majority groups. We tested these predictions in three different intergroup contexts, involving conflictual relations between social groups in Germany (Study 1; N = 150; longitudinal Study 2: N = 753), Northern Ireland (Study 3: N = 160; Study 4: N = 1,948), and England (Study 5; N = 594). Cross-group friendship was associated with reduced ingroup identification and the link between reduced ingroup identification and improved outgroup attitudes was moderated by SDO (the indirect effect of cross-group friendship on outgroup attitudes via reduced ingroup only occurred for individuals scoring high, but not low, in SDO). Although there was a consistent moderating effect of SDO in high-status majority groups (Studies 1–5), but not low-status minority groups (Studies 3, 4, and 5), the interaction by SDO was not reliably stronger in high- than low-status groups. Findings are discussed in terms of better understanding deprovincialization effects of contact. PMID:26751203

  20. Multiple emotions: a person-centered approach to the relationship between intergroup emotion and action orientation.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Julian W; Kashima, Yoshihisa; Laham, Simon M

    2014-08-01

    Although a great deal of research has investigated the relationship between emotions and action orientations, most studies to date have used variable-centered techniques to identify the best emotion predictor(s) of a particular action. Given that people frequently report multiple or blended emotions, a profitable area of research may be to adopt person-centered approaches to examine the action orientations elicited by a particular combination of emotions or "emotion profile." In two studies, across instances of intergroup inequality in Australia and Canada, we examined participants' experiences of six intergroup emotions: sympathy, anger directed at three targets, shame, and pride. In both studies, five groups of participants with similar emotion profiles were identified by cluster analysis and their action orientations were compared; clusters indicated that the majority of participants experienced multiple emotions. Each action orientation was also regressed on the six emotions. There were a number of differences in the results obtained from the person-centered and variable-centered approaches. This was most apparent for sympathy: the group of participants experiencing only sympathy showed little inclination to perform prosocial actions, yet sympathy was a significant predictor of numerous action orientations in regression analyses. These results imply that sympathy may only prompt a desire for action when experienced in combination with other emotions. We suggest that the use of person-centered and variable-centered approaches as complementary analytic strategies may enrich research into not only the affective predictors of action, but emotion research in general.