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Sample records for interior ballistics launch

  1. Interior and exterior ballistics coupled optimization with constraints of attitude control and mechanical-thermal conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Xin-xin; Zhang, Nai-min; Zhang, Yan

    2016-07-01

    For solid launch vehicle performance promotion, a modeling method of interior and exterior ballistics associated optimization with constraints of attitude control and mechanical-thermal condition is proposed. Firstly, the interior and external ballistic models of the solid launch vehicle are established, and the attitude control model of the high wind area and the stage of the separation is presented, and the load calculation model of the drag reduction device is presented, and thermal condition calculation model of flight is presented. Secondly, the optimization model is established to optimize the range, which has internal and external ballistic design parameters as variables selected by sensitivity analysis, and has attitude control and mechanical-thermal conditions as constraints. Finally, the method is applied to the optimal design of a three stage solid launch vehicle simulation with differential evolution algorithm. Simulation results are shown that range capability is improved by 10.8%, and both attitude control and mechanical-thermal conditions are satisfied.

  2. A numerical model for ETC gun interior ballistics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, C.-C.; Phillips, G. T.; Su, F. Y.

    1993-01-01

    A multidimensional, transient, fluid dynamic model, BISON, has been developed to study the interior ballistic processes in an electrothermal chemical (ETC) gun. The model solves the full Navier-Stokes equations and uses a high-order numerical scheme to integrate the governing equations. Most of the important physical processes pertinent to ETC gun interior ballistics, including multiphase flow, chemical reactions, and plasma dynamics, are incorporated. Examples of applications to the study of ETC gun phenomena, such as plasma jet penetration and real gun design component analyses, are discussed. The modeling results not only compare well with experimental data, but also provide a better understanding of interior ballistics physics. The multidimensional BISON model is useful for ETC simulations.

  3. Development of a Two-Dimensional Implicit Interior Ballistics Code

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    the universal gas constant, W is the gas molecular weight, u m and n is the covolume factor, which is composition dependent . Following Gough (Ref...c is dependent on the gas composition but not temperature. v The static enthalpy is then h = p e + p The specific heat at constant pressure is...Gun Interior Ballistics Transient Combustion Time- dependent Adaptive Grid 20, ABST’RACT (Cazrt&au:e _. .. ._._ lliO 11 ~ llltld ldenllly by block

  4. Interior Ballistic Calculations Using an Accurate Equation of State for the Propellant Gases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    equation of state for propellant gases in interior ballistic calculations is very important for two reasons. The burning rate...subtracted from the heat of formation of the propellant consumed before the equilibrium calculation is performed. The accurate equation of state proposed...inside the gun is monitored as a function of time. Ballistic performance using this approach is compared to the more conventional IBHVG2 calculation.... Interior ballistics, Equation of state , MCVECE Thermochemical

  5. Ballistics of space launch by a rail gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panin, Alexander

    2010-10-01

    The idea of using a big gun to launch objects to space has been around for years -- even Isaac Newton considered the concept. However the technology of accelerating a payload with a gun only recently began approaching orbital velocity (8 km/sec). NASA is currently experimenting with a rail gun which utilizes a magnetic field powered by electricity to accelerate a projectile along a set of rails, similar to train rails. Velocities up to 3 km/sec have been reported for small projectiles, and it seems that orbital velocities can soon become a reality too. We model a launch of various projectiles from Earth surface into the elevation corresponding to the low Earth orbit (about 200-250 km above Earth's surface). The goal of this modeling is to study feasibility of such launch (and accelerations induced), and the ballistics of the flight via Earth's atmosphere (the trajectory, air drag induced, pressure and temperature generated by air drag, etc) and thus the requirements for a mass, size, strength, heat shield, and general design of a payload capsule.

  6. 9. LAUNCH CONTROL SUPPORT BUILDING. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. LAUNCH CONTROL SUPPORT BUILDING. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN. VIEW TO EAST. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  7. 10. LAUNCH CONTROL SUPPORT BUILDING. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. LAUNCH CONTROL SUPPORT BUILDING. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  8. 12. LAUNCH CONTROL SUPPORT BUILDING. INTERIOR OF GENERATOR ROOM. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. LAUNCH CONTROL SUPPORT BUILDING. INTERIOR OF GENERATOR ROOM. VIEW TO EAST. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  9. 6. LAUNCH CONTROL SUPPORT BUILDING. INTERIOR OF SECURITY OFFICE. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. LAUNCH CONTROL SUPPORT BUILDING. INTERIOR OF SECURITY OFFICE. VIEW TO WEST. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  10. 7. LAUNCH CONTROL SUPPORT BUILDING. INTERIOR OF SECURITY OFFICE. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. LAUNCH CONTROL SUPPORT BUILDING. INTERIOR OF SECURITY OFFICE. VIEW TO NORTH. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  11. 11. LAUNCH CONTROL SUPPORT BUILDING. INTERIOR OF MECHANICAL ROOM. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. LAUNCH CONTROL SUPPORT BUILDING. INTERIOR OF MECHANICAL ROOM. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  12. 55. Interior of launch support building, diesel motor generator at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. Interior of launch support building, diesel motor generator at center left, diesel electric unit at upper center, batteries at bottom center, view towards northwest - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  13. 51. Interior of launch support building, minuteman power processor at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. Interior of launch support building, minuteman power processor at lower left, power distribution panel at center, old diesel control panel at lower right, diesel battery at upper right, view towards west - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  14. 52. Interior of launch support building, hydraulic pumping unit at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. Interior of launch support building, hydraulic pumping unit at lower center, service disconnect at right, view towards south - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  15. Passive millimetre wave imaging for ballistic missile launch detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, Christopher J.; Salmon, Neil A.

    2008-10-01

    QinetiQ has used a suite of modelling tools to predict the millimetric plume signatures from a range of ballistic missile types, based on the accepted theory that Bremsstrahlung emission, generated by the collision of free electrons with neutral species in a rocket motor plume, is the dominant signature mechanism. Plume signatures in terms of radiation temperatures varied from a few hundred Kelvin to over one thousand Kelvin, and were predicted to be dependent on emission frequency, propellant type and missile thrust. Two types of platform were considered for the passive mmw imager launch detection system; a High Altitude Platform Station (HAPS) and a satellite based platform in low, mid and geosynchronous earth orbits. It was concluded that the optimum operating frequency for a HAPS based imager would be 35GHz with a 4.5m aperture and a sensitivity of 20mK providing visibility through 500 vertical feet of cloud. For a satellite based platform with a nadir view, the optimum frequency is 220 GHz. With such a system, in a low earth orbit at an altitude of 320km, with a sensitivity of 20mK, a 29cm aperture would be desirable.

  16. Pressure Oscillations during the Interior Ballistic Firing of Regenerative Liquid Propellant Guns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    Modes. The analysis depends on taking FFTs of the pressure records to identify the frequency content of the data. Both the frequency and the relative...A248 622 TECHNICAL REPORT BRL-TR-3322 BRL PRESSURE OSCILLATIONS DURING THE INTERIOR BALLISTIC FIRING OF REGENERATIVE LIQUID PROPELLANT GUNS J. D...March 1992 IFinal Jan85 - 1av 86 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Pressure Oscillations During the Interior Ballistic Firing of Regenerative PR

  17. 41. Launch Control Equipment Room, interior. Thalheimer Whiteman Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. Launch Control Equipment Room, interior. Thalheimer - Whiteman Air Force Base, Oscar O-1 Minuteman Missile Alert Facility, Southeast corner of Twelfth & Vendenberg Avenues, Knob Noster, Johnson County, MO

  18. 30. Launch Area, Generator Building, interior view showing diesel fuel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Launch Area, Generator Building, interior view showing diesel fuel tank, fuel pump (foreground) and fuel lines leading to power-generating units (removed) VIEW NORTHWEST - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, Launch Area, East Windsor Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

  19. 57. INTERIOR VIEW OF VAL BRIDGE STRUCTURE SHOWING LAUNCHING TUBE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    57. INTERIOR VIEW OF VAL BRIDGE STRUCTURE SHOWING LAUNCHING TUBE, STAIRS AND PORTION OF LAUNCHING DECK. NOTE SUPPORT CARRIAGE ASSEMBLY IN DISTANCE. Date unknown, circa March 1948. (Original photograph in possession of Dave Willis, San Diego, California.) - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. Trident II (D-5) Sea Launched Ballistic Missile UGM 133A (Trident II Missile)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-178 Trident II (D-5) Sea-Launched Ballistic Missile UGM 133A (Trident II Missile) As of FY...Executive Officer PM - Program Manager POE - Program Office Estimate RDT&E - Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation SAR - Selected Acquisition

  1. Analytical Approach to Ballistic Dispersion of Projectile Weapons Based on Variant Launch Velocity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    projectiles , the coefficient of variation of vz0 is as small as 0.5% through rigorous studies of 225 distinct barrel shapes and varying in-bore pressure due to...Analytical Approach to Ballistic Dispersion of Projectile Weapons Based on Variant Launch Velocity by Michael M. Chen ARL-RP-437 April... Projectile Weapons Based on Variant Launch Velocity Michael M. Chen Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL A reprint from

  2. Experimental study of ELF signatures developed by ballistic missile launch

    SciTech Connect

    Peglow, S.G.; Rynne, T.M.

    1993-04-08

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (Livermore, CA) and SARA, Inc. participated in the ATMD missile launch activities that occurred at WSMR during January 1993. These tests involved the launch of Lance missiles with a subsequent direction of F-15Es into the launch area for subsequent detection and simulated destruction of redeployed missile launchers, LLNL and SARA deployed SARN`s ELF sensors and various data acquisition systems for monitoring of basic phenomena. On 25 January 1993, a single missile launch allowed initial measurements of the phenomena and an assessment of appropriate sensor sensitivity settings as well as the appropriateness of the sensor deployment sites (e.g., with respect to man-made ELF sources such as power distributions and communication lines). On 27 January 1993, a measurement of a double launch of Lance missiles was performed. This technical report covers the results of the analysis of latter measurements. An attempt was made to measure low frequency electromagnetic signatures that may be produced during a missile launch. Hypothetical signature production mechanisms include: (1) Perturbations of the earth geo-potential during the launch of the missile. This signature may arise from the interaction of the ambient electric field with the conducting body of the missile as well as the partially ionized exhaust plume. (2) Production of spatial, charge sources from triboelectric-like mechanisms. Such effects may occur during the initial interaction of the missile plume with the ground material and lead to an initial {open_quotes}spike{close_quotes} output, Additionally, there may exist charge transfer mechanisms produced during the exhausting of the burnt fuel oxidizer.

  3. Aero-Assisted Pre-Stage for Ballistic and Aero-Assisted Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ustinov, Eugene A.

    2012-01-01

    A concept of an aero-assisted pre-stage is proposed, which enables launch of both ballistic and aero-assisted launch vehicles from conventional runways. The pre-stage can be implemented as a delta-wing with a suitable undercarriage, which is mated with the launch vehicle, so that their flight directions are coaligned. The ample wing area of the pre-stage combined with the thrust of the launch vehicle ensure prompt roll-out and take-off of the stack at airspeeds typical for a conventional jet airliner. The launch vehicle is separated from the pre-stage as soon as safe altitude is achieved, and the desired ascent trajectory is reached. Nominally, the pre-stage is non-powered. As an option, to save the propellant of the launch vehicle, the pre-stage may have its own short-burn propulsion system, whereas the propulsion system of the launch vehicle is activated at the separation point. A general non-dimensional analysis of performance of the pre-stage from roll-out to separation is carried out and applications to existing ballistic launch vehicle and hypothetical aero-assisted vehicles (spaceplanes) are considered.

  4. A Numerical Algorithm for the Multidimensional, Multiphase Viscous Equations of Interior Ballistics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-01

    34Volume Averaged Two-Phase (Gas-Solid) Interior Ballistics Equations," ARBRL-TR-2593, USA Balistic Research Laboratory Report, 1984. [2] A.K.R. Celmins...Tng Lit Div US Army Armor & Engineer Fort Bragg, NC 28307 Board ATTN: ATZK-AD-S 3 Commander Fort Knox, KY 40121-5200 Radford Army Ammunition Plant...Tech Library 3 Commandant P. 0. Box 12211 US Army Armor School Research Triangle Park, NC ATTN: ATZK-CD-MS 27709-2211 M. Falkovitch Armor Agency

  5. The Development of an Interior Ballistic Model for Automated Continuous Propellant Production Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    t . Other requests for this document aust be referred to Director, USA Ballistic Research Laboratory, ATTN: DROAR-TSB...r PROPELLANT LINE HOLDING i t i 1 * ! CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL TESTS 1 1 s \\ PROCESS CONTROLLER 4 1 ._J j \\. ! * INTERIOR...X UJ —i < U CO >• BO ■ — CO CO LU U o UJ — V) — o QC a 3 i—i OC z o (J — a - X 1 F !/) a. CO — A 0 T ^ — UJ >■ e 1—

  6. The Modeling of Boattail Intrusion in a Lumped Parameter Interior Ballistic Code

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    AD-A270 702 ARmy RESFARCH LABORATORY The Modeling of Boattail Intrusion in a Lumped Parameter Interior Ballistic Code Frederick W. Robbins Robert T...Puhalla Taquan S. Stewart ARL-TR-181 August 1993 xcf "APROVED MOR PUBC RUEASE; DISTRIBUTION IS UNLIMITED. 93-23103 93 10 1 2 34 A NOTICES Destroy this...to"ration Ooe~attorr% o;.z. Rnc-D" l"’ ’ etier~oin •)av• H*qt •. Ste 1204. Arhngton,. / A 22202-4302 and to the O ,ffie eof Marremerit ao Budget. Pa

  7. Sabots, Obturator and Gas-In-Launch Tube Techniques for Heat Flux Models in Ballistic Ranges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogdanoff, David W.; Wilder, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    For thermal protection system (heat shield) design for space vehicle entry into earth and other planetary atmospheres, it is essential to know the augmentation of the heat flux due to vehicle surface roughness. At the NASA Ames Hypervelocity Free Flight Aerodynamic Facility (HFFAF) ballistic range, a campaign of heat flux studies on rough models, using infrared camera techniques, has been initiated. Several phenomena can interfere with obtaining good heat flux data when using this measuring technique. These include leakage of the hot drive gas in the gun barrel through joints in the sabot (model carrier) to create spurious thermal imprints on the model forebody, deposition of sabot material on the model forebody, thereby changing the thermal properties of the model surface and unknown in-barrel heating of the model. This report presents developments in launch techniques to greatly reduce or eliminate these problems. The techniques include the use of obturator cups behind the launch package, enclosed versus open front sabot designs and the use of hydrogen gas in the launch tube. Attention also had to be paid to the problem of the obturator drafting behind the model and impacting the model. Of the techniques presented, the obturator cups and hydrogen in the launch tube were successful when properly implemented

  8. 8. LAUNCH CONTROL SUPPORT BUILDING. INTERIOR OF DINING/RECREATION ROOM. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. LAUNCH CONTROL SUPPORT BUILDING. INTERIOR OF DINING/RECREATION ROOM. VIEW TO EAST. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  9. Modeling and numerical simulation of interior ballistic processes in a 120mm mortar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, Ragini

    Numerical Simulation of interior ballistic processes in gun and mortar systems is a very difficult and interesting problem. The mathematical model for the physical processes in the mortar systems consists of a system of non-linear coupled partial differential equations, which also contain non-homogeneity in form of the source terms. This work includes the development of a three-dimensional mortar interior ballistic (3D-MIB) code for a 120mm mortar system and its stage-wise validation with multiple sets of experimental data. The 120mm mortar system consists of a flash tube contained within an ignition cartridge, tail-boom, fin region, charge increments containing granular propellants, and a projectile payload. The ignition cartridge discharges hot gas-phase products and unburned granular propellants into the mortar tube through vent-holes on its surface. In view of the complexity of interior ballistic processes in the mortar propulsion system, the overall problem was solved in a modular fashion, i.e., simulating each physical component of the mortar propulsion system separately. These modules were coupled together with appropriate initial and boundary conditions. The ignition cartridge and mortar tube contain nitrocellulose-based ball propellants. Therefore, the gas dynamical processes in the 120mm mortar system are two-phase, which were simulated by considering both phases as an interpenetrating continuum. Mass and energy fluxes from the flash tube into the granular bed of ignition cartridge were determined from a semi-empirical technique. For the tail-boom section, a transient one-dimensional two-phase compressible flow solver based on method of characteristics was developed. The mathematical model for the interior ballistic processes in the mortar tube posed an initial value problem with discontinuous initial conditions with the characteristics of the Riemann problem due to the discontinuity of the initial conditions. Therefore, the mortar tube model was solved

  10. New Diagnostic, Launch and Model Control Techniques in the NASA Ames HFFAF Ballistic Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogdanoff, David W.

    2012-01-01

    This report presents new diagnostic, launch and model control techniques used in the NASA Ames HFFAF ballistic range. High speed movies were used to view the sabot separation process and the passage of the model through the model splap paper. Cavities in the rear of the sabot, to catch the muzzle blast of the gun, were used to control sabot finger separation angles and distances. Inserts were installed in the powder chamber to greatly reduce the ullage volume (empty space) in the chamber. This resulted in much more complete and repeatable combustion of the powder and hence, in much more repeatable muzzle velocities. Sheets of paper or cardstock, impacting one half of the model, were used to control the amplitudes of the model pitch oscillations.

  11. Coupled Solid Rocket Motor Ballistics and Trajectory Modeling for Higher Fidelity Launch Vehicle Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ables, Brett

    2014-01-01

    Multi-stage launch vehicles with solid rocket motors (SRMs) face design optimization challenges, especially when the mission scope changes frequently. Significant performance benefits can be realized if the solid rocket motors are optimized to the changing requirements. While SRMs represent a fixed performance at launch, rapid design iterations enable flexibility at design time, yielding significant performance gains. The streamlining and integration of SRM design and analysis can be achieved with improved analysis tools. While powerful and versatile, the Solid Performance Program (SPP) is not conducive to rapid design iteration. Performing a design iteration with SPP and a trajectory solver is a labor intensive process. To enable a better workflow, SPP, the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST), and the interfaces between them have been improved and automated, and a graphical user interface (GUI) has been developed. The GUI enables real-time visual feedback of grain and nozzle design inputs, enforces parameter dependencies, removes redundancies, and simplifies manipulation of SPP and POST's numerous options. Automating the analysis also simplifies batch analyses and trade studies. Finally, the GUI provides post-processing, visualization, and comparison of results. Wrapping legacy high-fidelity analysis codes with modern software provides the improved interface necessary to enable rapid coupled SRM ballistics and vehicle trajectory analysis. Low cost trade studies demonstrate the sensitivities of flight performance metrics to propulsion characteristics. Incorporating high fidelity analysis from SPP into vehicle design reduces performance margins and improves reliability. By flying an SRM designed with the same assumptions as the rest of the vehicle, accurate comparisons can be made between competing architectures. In summary, this flexible workflow is a critical component to designing a versatile launch vehicle model that can accommodate a volatile

  12. A Short-Barrelled 105-mm Howitzer for Interior Ballistic Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    ballistic simulation models. The behavior of the projectile during the engraving process is of particular interest. This need has prompted the...pressure gage in the chamber adapter was used for calculating Pb. The measured, onboard acceleration calculated from combining Equations 3 and 4 is...bottom view of the figure. Section B was threaded to permit it to be attached to the carriage at the forward hoop. An adapter , D, welded to the B section

  13. Determining the Probability of Violating Upper-Level Wind Constraints for the Launch of Minuteman Ill Ballistic Missiles At Vandenberg Air Force Base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafer, Jaclyn A.; Brock, Tyler M.

    2013-01-01

    The 30th Operational Support Squadron Weather Flight (30 OSSWF) provides comprehensive weather services to the space program at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) in California. One of their responsibilities is to monitor upper-level winds to ensure safe launch operations of the Minuteman Ill ballistic missile. The 30 OSSWF requested the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) analyze VAFB sounding data to determine the probability of violating (PoV) upper-level thresholds for wind speed and shear constraints specific to this launch vehicle, and to develop a graphical user interface (GUI) that will calculate the PoV of each constraint on the day of launch. The AMU suggested also including forecast sounding data from the Rapid Refresh (RAP) model. This would provide further insight for the launch weather officers (LWOs) when determining if a wind constraint violation will occur over the next few hours, and help to improve the overall upper winds forecast on launch day.

  14. Features of optical phenomena connected with launches of solid-propellant ballistic rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platov, Yu. V.; Chernouss, S. A.; Alpatov, V. V.

    2013-04-01

    Specific optical phenomena observed in the upper atmosphere layers and connected with launches of powerful solid-propellant rockets are considered: the development of spherically symmetric gas-dust formations having the shape of an extending torus in the image plane and the formation of regions with intense blue-green (turquoise) glow observed under twilight conditions along a rocket's flight path. The development of clouds can be represented by the model of a strong explosion occurring at the stage separation of solid-propellant rockets in the upper atmosphere. A turquoise glow arises as a result of resonance scattering of solar radiation on AlO molecules that are formed when metallic aluminum in the composition of fuel interacts with atmosphere components and combustion products.

  15. The famous son of Ukrainian people V.I. Voznyuk who has provided launch of all ballistic missiles of the cosmodrome Kapustin Yar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prisniakov, V. F.; Platonov, V. P.

    2007-12-01

    The history of the life of V.I. Voznyuk is a history of the phenomenon of the Soviet rocket progress when the engineers with experience of launch of military rocket of small radius of action were testing the ballistic missiles. The remarkable and little-known destiny of Voznuk is the history of the Soviet rocket technology experts who had a severe practical schooling of command by the military forces of the first combat missiles "Katucha" during the grim military years (including the grandiose fight in Stalingrad) and then they have continued to launch the ballistic missiles. V.I. Voznyuk worked as the chief of the first Soviet cosmodrome Kapustin Yar for almost 30 years—since the most difficult moment of its organization. He organized a launch of the first Soviet ballistic missiles R-1, R-2, R-5M of S. Korolev. This report is about the outstanding achievement of the organizing ability of V.I. Voznyuk—about the launch of a missile with a nuclear warhead in 1956. V.I. Voznyuk closes a unique chain in the world of outstanding figures of space-rocket technology who were born or lived in Ukraine from designers of missile up to the organizers of its manufacture and now up to the organizers of the tests of rockets—J. Aizenberg, V. Budnik, O. Baclanov, V. Dogujiev, M. Galasj, N. Gerasuta, V. Gluschko, B. Gubanov, A. Gudimenko, I. Ivanov, G. Kesunjko, B. Konoplev, S. Korolev, V. Kovtunenko, V. Kukuschkin, O. Makarov, A. Nedaivoda, M. Reshetniyov, Yu. Semenov, V. Sergeev, Yu. Smetanin, V. Tchelomey, D. Torchiy, V. Utkin and M. Yangel.

  16. 10. Storage and shipping container, ballistic missile, mounted on ballistic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Storage and shipping container, ballistic missile, mounted on ballistic missile trailer, view from left front - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, 10 mile radius around Exit 127 off Interstate 90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  17. 11. Storage and shipping container, ballistic missile, mounted on ballistic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Storage and shipping container, ballistic missile, mounted on ballistic missile trailer, view from left side - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, 10 mile radius around Exit 127 off Interstate 90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  18. Interior Ballistics Optimization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-05

    MASSF*(24.*XSO+(24.*P+4.*Pi+4.*D. 12 .*L)*X+ PISQ + +6.*PSO.2.*L*D-2.*Pl*L. 12 .*L*P-DSO) SURF =SO RETURN END IF 140 C THE PROPELLENT HAS BEEN ALL...43 10. Modeling Approximations .................... 45 i 11. Description of IBRGAC ................... 46 12 . Program...objective and constraint functions. The second approach, SUMT was first developed by Fiacco and McCormick ( 12 ) and incorporates the constraints into a

  19. Interior Ballistics (Vnutrennyaya Ballistika

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1949-01-01

    coabwatlaa of |w»f la a calarlaatrlc ar aaaaaatrlc boob, gaaaa aap a* oaaaaataa’ iata tba piiaitor, aa* tkalr VOIUM aap a* aaaaara4 at «faaaaarlc...aaelyela of tkalr coapeeittoa. Hack poedere ofclek aora at that tiao aeed for Military aorpoooa, foroatf tko okjoct of iaeeetlgatloe at loadlag

  20. China's ballistic missile program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weder, M.

    1982-04-01

    Progress in China's development of ballistic missiles and satellite launching rockets is discussed. Historical background material is provided and several missiles are described. The missile program plans are discussed and an evaluation of China's nuclear capabilities is given.

  1. Determining the Probability of Violating Upper-Level Wind Constraints for the Launch of Minuteman III Ballistic Missiles at Vandenberg Air Force Base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafer, Jaclyn A.; Brock, Tyler M.

    2012-01-01

    The 30th Operational Support Squadron Weather Flight (30 OSSWF) provides comprehensive weather services to the space program at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) in California. One of their responsibilities is to monitor upper-level winds to ensure safe launch operations of the Minuteman Ill ballistic missile. The 30 OSSWF tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to analyze VAFB sounding data with the goal of determining the probability of violating (PoV) their upper-level thresholds for wind speed and shear constraints specific to this launch vehicle, and to develop a tool that will calculate the PoV of each constraint on the day of launch. In order to calculate the probability of exceeding each constraint, the AMU collected and analyzed historical data from VAFB. The historical sounding data were retrieved from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Earth System Research Laboratory archive for the years 1994-2011 and then stratified into four sub-seasons: January-March, April-June, July-September, and October-December. The AMU determined the theoretical distributions that best fit the maximum wind speed and maximum wind shear datasets and applied this information when calculating the averages and standard deviations needed for the historical and real-time PoV calculations. In addition, the AMU included forecast sounding data from the Rapid Refresh model. This information provides further insight for the launch weather officers (LWOs) when determining if a wind constraint violation will occur over the next few hours on the day of launch. The AMU developed an interactive graphical user interface (GUI) in Microsoft Excel using Visual Basic for Applications. The GUI displays the critical sounding data easily and quickly for LWOs on day of launch. This tool will replace the existing one used by the 30 OSSWF, assist the LWOs in determining the probability of exceeding specific wind threshold values, and help to improve the overall upper winds forecast for

  2. 2005 22nd International Symposium on Ballistics. Volume 1 - Tuesday

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-18

    University Interior Ballistics/Launch Dynamics Poster Session 8:10 am - 9:50 am November 17 1017 In-Bore Mechanics Analysis of the M855 Projectile ...section has paid more and more attention. for example guidance projectile , the changing of the shell shape from common circular to non- circular...lift-drag ratio, could supply bigger normal overload and better maneuverability. Therefore it’s more suitably used for projectile missile shape .

  3. 2005 22nd International Symposium on Ballistics Volume 2 Wednesday

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-18

    University Interior Ballistics/Launch Dynamics Poster Session 8:10 am - 9:50 am November 17 1017 In-Bore Mechanics Analysis of the M855 Projectile ... shapes , pairs and position) of lift-canards and wings strongly affect aerodynamic characteristics. So for any extended-range projectile , the... Projectiles , Nicolas Parise, SNC Technologies, Inc; Alain Dupuis, Precision Weapons Section, Defense Research and Development Canada The Use of

  4. Applications of computational modeling in ballistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturek, Walter B.

    1987-01-01

    The development of the technology of ballistics as applied to gun launched Army weapon systems is the main objective of research at the U.S. Army Ballistic Research Laboratory (BRL). The primary research programs at the BRL consist of three major ballistic disciplines: exterior, interior, and terminal. The work done at the BRL in these areas was traditionally highly dependent on experimental testing. A considerable emphasis was placed on the development of computational modeling to augment the experimental testing in the development cycle; however, the impact of the computational modeling to this date is modest. With the availability of supercomputer computational resources recently installed at the BRL, a new emphasis on the application of computational modeling to ballistics technology is taking place. The major application areas are outlined which are receiving considerable attention at the BRL at present and to indicate the modeling approaches involved. An attempt was made to give some information as to the degree of success achieved and indicate the areas of greatest need.

  5. Launch Vehicles

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1961-01-01

    This is a comparison illustration of the Redstone, Jupiter-C, and Mercury Redstone launch vehicles. The Redstone ballistic missile was a high-accuracy, liquid-propelled, surface-to-surface missile. Originally developed as a nose cone re-entry test vehicle for the Jupiter intermediate range ballistic missile, the Jupiter-C was a modification of the Redstone missile and successfully launched the first American Satellite, Explorer-1, in orbit on January 31, 1958. The Mercury Redstone lifted off carrying the first American, astronaut Alan Shepard, in his Mercury spacecraft Freedom 7, on May 5, 1961.

  6. Interior Ballistics of Recoilless Guns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1943-09-08

    PROCEDURE 14. Calculation of pressure -travel and velocity-travel curves ........................................... 17 PART IV. CHAPACTERISTICS OF...of a recoilless gun .............. 2 2. Comparison betw,:een pressure -travel curve calculated by the methods of this report and that obtained by...numerical integration ............................. 23 3. Theoretical pressure -travel and velocity-travel curves for the German 7.5-cm Leichtes Geschltz

  7. Investigation of Passive Control Devices for Potential Application to a Launch Vehicle Structure to Reduce the Interior Noise Levels During Launch

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-25

    Investigation of acoustic fields for the Cassini spacecraft : Reverberant versus launch environments. Techni- cal Memorandum NASA/TM-2000-209387; E-11814; AIAA...structural-acoustic control of a rocket fairing using proof-mass actuators. Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, 38(2):219–225, March/April 2001. [28] H. Defosse...Fairing noise reduction for directive acoustic fields. In Spacecraft and Launch Vehicle Dynamic Environments Workshop, El Segundo, California, USA

  8. Ballistic Missile Defense Review Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    range ballistic missiles. Iran launched its Safir Space Launch Vehicle ( SLV ) in August 2008 with what it claims was a dummy satellite. Iran used the...Safir-2 SLV to place the domestically produced Omid satellite in orbit in February 2009, according to statements made to the press by Iranian

  9. Terminal Ballistics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-02-01

    ballistics doe, little to c~plaini the workings of explosike pro jectiles. The termni,iaf phase (of di esplodling tbalfftic weapon is comiposed of esents...citterior, and terminal baillistic phases, and the study of this n’!w systemn hius useful parallel% it) the proiecoile ballistic sysStem. The...charge liner collapse Vi Jet velocity V, Slug velocity W Work Wp Weight of projecti!e Z A length variable a, bi Empirical constants. (In Chap. 5, Eq

  10. Direct launch using the electric rail gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barber, J. P.

    1983-01-01

    The concept explored involves using a large single stage electric rail gun to achieve orbital velocities. Exit aerodynamics, launch package design and size, interior ballistics, system and component sizing and design concepts are treated. Technology development status and development requirements are identified and described. The expense of placing payloads in Earth orbit using conventional chemical rockets is considerable. Chemical rockets are very inefficient in converting chemical energy into payload kinetic energy. A rocket motor is relatively expensive and is usually expended on each launch. In addition specialized and expensive forms of fuel are required. Gun launching payloads directly to orbit from the Earth's surface is a possible alternative. Guns are much more energy efficient than rockets. The high capital cost of the gun installation can be recovered by reusing it over and over again. Finally, relatively inexpensive fuel and large quantities of energy are readily available to a fixed installation on the Earth's surface.

  11. Direct launch using the electric rail gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barber, J. P.

    1983-01-01

    The concept explored involves using a large single stage electric rail gun to achieve orbital velocities. Exit aerodynamics, launch package design and size, interior ballistics, system and component sizing and design concepts are treated. Technology development status and development requirements are identified and described. The expense of placing payloads in Earth orbit using conventional chemical rockets is considerable. Chemical rockets are very inefficient in converting chemical energy into payload kinetic energy. A rocket motor is relatively expensive and is usually expended on each launch. In addition specialized and expensive forms of fuel are required. Gun launching payloads directly to orbit from the Earth's surface is a possible alternative. Guns are much more energy efficient than rockets. The high capital cost of the gun installation can be recovered by reusing it over and over again. Finally, relatively inexpensive fuel and large quantities of energy are readily available to a fixed installation on the Earth's surface.

  12. Ballistic mode Mercury orbiter missions.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollenbeck, G. R.

    1973-01-01

    The MVM'73 Mercury flyby mission will initiate exploration of this unique planet. No firm plans for follow-on investigations have materialized due to the difficult performance requirements of the next logical step, an orbiter mission. Previous investigations of ballistic mode flight opportunities have indicated requirements for a Saturn V class launch vehicle. Consequently, most recent effort has been oriented to use of solar electric propulsion. More comprehensive study of the ballistic flight mode utilizing Venus gravity-assist has resulted in identification of timely high-performance mission opportunities compatible with programmed launch vehicles and conventional spacecraft propulsion technologies. A likely candidate for an initial orbiter mission is a 1980 opportunity which offers net orbiter spacecraft mass of about 435 kg with the Titan IIIE/Centaur launch vehicle and single stage solid propulsion for orbit insertion.

  13. Emerging national space launch programs: Economics and safeguards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, Brian G.

    Most ballistic missile nonproliferation studies have focused on trends in the numbers and performance of missiles and the resulting security threats. This report concentrates on the economic viability of emerging national space launch programs and the prospects for imposing effective safeguards against the use of space launch technology for military missiles. For the convenience of discussion in this report, a reference to ballistic missiles hereafter means surface-to-surface guided ballistic missiles only. Space launch vehicles (SLV's) are surface-to-space ballistic missiles, and they will be referred to explicitly as 'space launch vehicles' or 'space launchers'. Surface-to-surface unguided ballistic missiles will be referred to as 'rockets.'

  14. Ballistic injury.

    PubMed

    Fackler, M L

    1986-12-01

    Wound profiles made under controlled conditions in the wound ballistics laboratory at the Letterman Army Institute of Research showed the location along their tissue path at which projectiles cause tissue disruption and the type of disruption (crush from direct contact with the projectile or stretch from temporary cavitation). Comparison of wound profiles showed the fallacy in attempting to judge wound severity using velocity alone, and laid to rest the common belief that in treating a wound caused by a high-velocity missile, one needs to excise tissue far in excess of that which appears damaged. All penetrating projectile wounds, whether civilian or military, therefore should be treated the same regardless of projectile velocity. Diagnosis of the approximate amount and location of tissue disruption is made by physical examination and appropriate radiographic studies. These wounds are contaminated, and coverage with a penicillin-type antibiotic should be provided.

  15. Interior Ballistic Modeling for Blank Ammunition,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    comes larger than refit the gas flow to the BFA is cut off. The pressure ratio across the leading shock (49 5) wave depends on the ratio of chamber...049 .. ...... . I |4 GOLDSTEIN Burning propellant in the chamber produces a pressure PC. At some point in time, the mouth of the cartridge case opens...and gas flows through the barrel producing pressure Pb in the BFA. Chamber pressure in the breech and BFA pressure on the muzzle of the barrel

  16. Viscous Modeling of the Interior Ballistic Cycle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-10-18

    Office DAJA45-86-C-O031 USARSG-UK ARO-E __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ Bc . ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code) 10. SOURCE OF FUNDING NUMBERS PROGRAM PROJECT...operator matrizes Dr and D. have the following structure Dr= Dr (D, DR, DRR), Dz = Dz (DZ, DZZ) , (3) with the Jacobian matrices c)G ,.DR = DRR = rr DZ =6

  17. Soviet Concepts of Ballistic Missile Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    Gary Powers [Ref. 2:p. 191]. Sary Shagan is also located about a thousand miles downrange from the ballistic missile test center at Kapustin Yar. In...late 1961 the Soviet Union conducted a series of atmospheric nuclear tests, during which missiles were launched from Kapustin Yar towards an impact area

  18. Ballistics for the neurosurgeon.

    PubMed

    Jandial, Rahul; Reichwage, Brett; Levy, Michael; Duenas, Vincent; Sturdivan, Larry

    2008-02-01

    Craniocerebral injuries from ballistic projectiles are qualitatively different from injuries in unconfined soft tissue with similar impact. Penetrating and nonpenetrating ballistic injuries are influenced not only by the physical properties of the projectile, but also by its ballistics. Ballistics provides information on the motion of projectiles while in the gun barrel, the trajectory of the projectile in air, and the behavior of the projectile on reaching its target. This basic knowledge can be applied to better understand the ultimate craniocerebral consequences of ballistic head injuries.

  19. Ballistic representation for kinematic access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfano, Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    This work uses simple two-body orbital dynamics to initially determine the kinematic access for a ballistic vehicle. Primarily this analysis was developed to assess when a rocket body might conjunct with an orbiting satellite platform. A family of access opportunities can be represented as a volume for a specific rocket relative to its launch platform. Alternately, the opportunities can be represented as a geographical footprint relative to aircraft or satellite position that encompasses all possible launcher locations for a specific rocket. A thrusting rocket is treated as a ballistic vehicle that receives all its energy at launch and follows a coasting trajectory. To do so, the rocket's burnout energy is used to find its equivalent initial velocity for a given launcher's altitude. Three kinematic access solutions are then found that account for spherical Earth rotation. One solution finds the maximum range for an ascent-only trajectory while another solution accommodates a descending trajectory. In addition, the ascent engagement for the descending trajectory is used to depict a rapid access scenario. These preliminary solutions are formulated to address ground-, sea-, or air-launched vehicles.

  20. Frantic Third World quest for ballistic missiles

    SciTech Connect

    Karp, A.

    1988-06-01

    Belatedly, Western Nations are trying to staunch the flow of technology that has helped create a number of new ballistic missile forces in the Third World. Ballistic missiles already are being used in one Third World conflict. Since the end of February, Iran and Iraq have fired more than 100 short-range, inaccurate missiles at each other's cities, causing thousands of casualties. These events illustrate that ballistic missiles are becoming an ominous reality in the Third World. Indeed, 20 Third World countries, including Israel and Brazil, currently possess ballistic missiles or are striving to develop them. On one level, these missiles - which are propelled by rockets into the upper atmosphere, travel in a ballistic trajectory, and are pulled by gravity to their targets - are for these nations a logical step in building up their military forces. While the missiles vary in range and accuracy, they can reach many targets in regional conflicts. Unlike manned aircraft, the do not require large, vulnerable bases. They are not as easily intercepted as slow bombers. And they are easier to develop because they are less sophisticated than modern cruise missiles such as the U.S. air-launched cruise missiles. In terms of global security, the most worrisome aspect of Third World ballistic missiles is their potential as nuclear weapons delivery systems.

  1. Ballistic Missile Intercept from UCAV

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    the kinematic boundary is increases to ~150km. In addition, the simulated impact angles are not much lower than the previous case (see Figure 16 for...alphag=180/pi*nn*m_i*g/(ro*V^2*Sref/2)/13; % Kinematics Vdot=g*( nx -sin(th)); psidot=ny*g/V/cos(th); thdot=g*(nz-cos...of an air-launched missile from a UCAV against enemy ballistic missiles via computer simulation , using a TS-guidance algorithm developed by LT

  2. INTERIOR OF AIRLOCK FROM INTERIOR OF ALTITUDE CHAMBER R, FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF AIRLOCK FROM INTERIOR OF ALTITUDE CHAMBER R, FACING NORTHWEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Altitude Chambers, First Street, between Avenue D and Avenue E, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  3. Reflexive Launch Strategies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    ballistic-missile submarines, would cause 16.3 million fatalities.... 15 The problem of analyzing the potential vulnerability of U.S. land-based ICBMs...problems, are the main deficiencies of the system. Among the princi- pal advantages of standard ICBMs are autonomy after launch and relative simplicity...have looked at this problem agree that once we make it an accepted or standard procedure to fire ICBMs on warning, it begins to get very easy to write

  4. Navy Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-17

    aircraft target. The ballistic missile target was launched from the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai , Hawaii and the aircraft target was...Range Facility (PMRF), Barking Sands, Kauai , Hawaii . Moments later, a second, identical target was launched from the PMRF. The USS Lake Erie’s Aegis...a short-range ballistic missile target was launched from the Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF), Barking Sands, Kauai , Hawaii . Upon detecting

  5. Exact Analytic Solution for a Ballistic Orbiting Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkin, Francis P.; Hausner, Harry

    2017-07-01

    Much theoretical and observational work has been done on stellar winds within binary systems. We present a new solution for a ballistic wind launched from a source in a circular orbit. The solution is that of a single wind—no second wind is included in the system and the shocks that arise are those due to the orbiting wind interacting with itself. Our method emphasizes the curved streamlines in the corotating frame, where the flow is steady-state, allowing us to obtain an exact solution for the mass density at all pre-shock locations. Assuming an initially isotropic wind, fluid elements launched from the interior hemisphere of the wind will be the first to cross other streamlines, resulting in a spiral structure bounded by two shock surfaces. Streamlines from the outer wind hemisphere later intersect these shocks as well. An analytic solution is obtained for the geometry of the two shock surfaces. Although the inner and outer shock surfaces asymptotically trace Archimedean spirals, our tail solution suggests many crossings where the shocks overlap, beyond which the analytic solution cannot be continued. Our solution can be readily extended to an initially anisotropic wind.

  6. Internal Ballistics of a Pneumatic Potato Cannon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-09

    IOP PUBLISHING EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICS Eur. J. Phys. 30 (2009) 453–457 doi:10.1088/0143-0807/30/3/003 Internal ballistics of a pneumatic potato ...an air gun. Such devices are often employed in outdoor physics demonstrations to launch potatoes using compressed gas that is here assumed to expand...undergraduate students who have taken calculus-based introductory physics. Potato cannons are a popular construction project for physics demonstrations

  7. Targeting Low-Energy Ballistic Lunar Transfers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    Numerous low-energy ballistic transfers exist between the Earth and Moon that require less fuel than conventional transfers, but require three or more months of transfer time. An entirely ballistic lunar transfer departs the Earth from a particular declination at some time in order to arrive at the Moon at a given time along a desirable approach. Maneuvers may be added to the trajectory in order to adjust the Earth departure to meet mission requirements. In this paper, we characterize the (Delta)V cost required to adjust a low-energy ballistic lunar transfer such that a spacecraft may depart the Earth at a desirable declination, e.g., 28.5(white bullet), on a designated date. This study identifies the optimal locations to place one or two maneuvers along a transfer to minimize the (Delta)V cost of the transfer. One practical application of this study is to characterize the launch period for a mission that aims to launch from a particular launch site, such as Cape Canaveral, Florida, and arrive at a particular orbit at the Moon on a given date using a three-month low-energy transfer.

  8. Targeting Low-Energy Ballistic Lunar Transfers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    Numerous low-energy ballistic transfers exist between the Earth and Moon that require less fuel than conventional transfers, but require three or more months of transfer time. An entirely ballistic lunar transfer departs the Earth from a particular declination at some time in order to arrive at the Moon at a given time along a desirable approach. Maneuvers may be added to the trajectory in order to adjust the Earth departure to meet mission requirements. In this paper, we characterize the (Delta)V cost required to adjust a low-energy ballistic lunar transfer such that a spacecraft may depart the Earth at a desirable declination, e.g., 28.5(white bullet), on a designated date. This study identifies the optimal locations to place one or two maneuvers along a transfer to minimize the (Delta)V cost of the transfer. One practical application of this study is to characterize the launch period for a mission that aims to launch from a particular launch site, such as Cape Canaveral, Florida, and arrive at a particular orbit at the Moon on a given date using a three-month low-energy transfer.

  9. Spit-Hole Effects on the Ballistics of a 7.62-mm Cartridge

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-01

    study to examine the effects of a small caliber (7.62-mm) cartridge’s spit-hole on the interior ballistic performance of the cartridge. The performance...Spit-Hole Effects on the Ballistics of a 7.62-mm Cartridge by John Ritter ARL-TR-6785 February 2014... Ballistics of a 7.62-mm Cartridge John Ritter Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL

  10. Ballistic Limit of CFRP Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higashide, Masumi; Nagao, Yosuke; Kibe, Seishiro; Francesconi, Alessandro; Pavarin, Daniele

    JAXA has carried out the hypervelocity impact tests of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) plates together with University of Padova. Quasi-isotropic CFRP plates of 2.3, 3.5, and 4.7 mm in thickness were tested. Aluminum sphere of 0.8 to 2.9 mm in diameter was used as projectiles. With a two-stage light gas gun, the projectile was launched with a velocity range of 2 to 5 km/sec in the normal direction to the CFRP plate. Since the perforated hole and the crater on the CFRP plate after the impact are filled with flakes of the carbon fiber, it is difficult to determine the perforation of the projectile. Therefore, whether the projectile perforated the CFRP plate or not was decided by the craters on a copper plate installed behind the CFRP plate. After the impact, peeling along the fiber direction was observed on the surface of the CFRP plate. Moreover, internal delamination was generated near the surface. Finally, a ballistic limit equation of CFRP plates of 2 to 5 mm in thickness was calculated on the basis of the Cour-Palais equation. The ballistic limit equation was in good agreement with the test results.

  11. Emerging National Space Launch Programs. Economics and Safeguards

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    safeguard system (3ee Table 3.2). Now let us elaborate why SLV flight testi might not provide timely warniing. There are three reasons. First, some countries...ballistic missiles hereafter means surface-to-surface guided ballistic missiles only, Space launch vehicles ( SLVs ) are surface-to-space ballistic missiles...support missile nonproliferation. This dream is, however, hard to fulfill. xii A likely scheme for safeguarding SLVs , including sounding rockets, would

  12. 2. Missile transfer building, interior, transporter/erector on left, storage and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Missile transfer building, interior, transporter/erector on left, storage and shipping container, ballistic missile (SSCBM) containing minuteman II missile on right - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Missile Roll Transfer Building, 920 Kennedy Road, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  13. Ballistic Limit of Thin CFRP Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higashide, Masumi; Nagao, Yosuke; Kibe, Seishiro; Francesconi, Alessandro; Pavarin, Daniele

    2009-03-01

    JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) has carried out the hypervelocity impact tests for carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) plates together with CISAS (Centre of Studies and Activities for Space), University of Padova. Quasi-isotropic CFRP plates of 2.3, 3.5, and 4.7 mm in thickness were tested. Aluminum sphere of 0.8 to 2.9 mm in diameter was used as a projectile. The projectile was launched in a velocity range of 2 to 5 km/sec. The projectile impacted on the target in the normal direction. After the impact, peeling along the fiber direction was observed on the surface of the target. Moreover, delamination was generated near the surface of the target. A ballistic limit equation for CFRP was calculated by modifying the Cour-Palais equation. The ballistic limit equation for CFRP showed the good agreement with the test results.

  14. Pioneer Launch on Delta Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    NASA launches the last in the series of interplanetary Pioneer spacecraft, Pioneer 10 from Cape Kennedy, Florida. The long-tank Delta launch vehicle placed the spacecraft in a solar orbit along the path of Earth's orbit. The spacecraft then passed inside and outside Earth's orbit, alternately speeding up and slowing down relative to Earth. The Delta launch vehicle family started development in 1959. The Delta was composed of parts from the Thor, an intermediate-range ballistic missile, as its first stage, and the Vanguard as its second. The first Delta was launched from Cape Canaveral on May 13, 1960 and was powerful enough to deliver a 100-pound spacecraft into geostationary transfer orbit. Delta has been used to launch civil, commercial, and military satellites into orbit. For more information about Delta, please see Chapter 3 in Roger Launius and Dennis Jenkins' book To Reach the High Frontier published by The University Press of Kentucky in 2002.

  15. Chicxulub High-Altitude Ballistic Ejecta from Central Belize

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, K. O.; Ocampo, A. C.

    2000-01-01

    Chicxulub ejecta are found in central Belize, 475 km southeast of the impact crater center. These deposits are ballistic ejecta launched along high-altitude trajectories above the atmosphere and deposited as a discontinuous sheet on the terminal Cretaceous land surface.

  16. Chicxulub High-Altitude Ballistic Ejecta from Central Belize

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, K. O.; Ocampo, A. C.

    2000-01-01

    Chicxulub ejecta are found in central Belize, 475 km southeast of the impact crater center. These deposits are ballistic ejecta launched along high-altitude trajectories above the atmosphere and deposited as a discontinuous sheet on the terminal Cretaceous land surface.

  17. Ballisticians in War and Peace. A History of the United States Army Ballistic Research Laboratories. Volume 1. 1914-1956,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1956-01-01

    Balistics Section Head 1935; six sections were set up to cover the several fields of DirectorBRL 1941 ballistic work. The Interior Ballistics Section had...were revised in light of new ballistic support of weapons effectiveness studies and knowledge and procedures. This period saw the aircraft and armored ... armor -piercing capabilities of projectiles against various types of targets. Kent’s different bullets and shot. suggestions were made at a time when

  18. Mission design for a ballistic slow flyby Comet Encke 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farquhar, R. W.; Mccarthy, D. K.; Muhonen, D. P.; Yeomans, D. K.

    1974-01-01

    Preliminary mission analyses for a proposed 1980 slow flyby (7-9 km/s) of comet Encke are presented. Among the topics covered are science objectives, Encke's physical activity and ephemeris accuracy, trajectory and launch-window analysis, terminal guidance, and spacecraft concepts. The nominal mission plan calls for a near-perihelion intercept with two spacecraft launched on a single launch vehicle. Both spacecraft will arrive at the same time, one passing within 500 km from Encke's nucleus on its sunward side, the other cutting through the tail region. By applying a small propulsive correction about three weeks after the encounter, it is possible to retarget both spacecraft for a second Encke intercept in 1984. The potential science return from the ballistic slow flyby is compared with other proposed mission modes for the 1980 Encke flyby mission, including the widely advocated slow flyby using solar-electric propulsion. It is shown that the ballistic slow flyby is superior in every respect.

  19. Trajectory tracking and backfitting techniques against theater ballistic missiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchins, Robert G.; Britt, Patrick T.

    1999-10-01

    Since the SCUD launches in the Gulf War, theater ballistic missile (TBM) systems have become a growing concern for the US military. Detection, fast track initiation, backfitting for launch point determination, and tracking and engagement during boost phase or shortly after booster cutoff are goals that grow in importance with the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. This paper focuses on track initiation and backfitting techniques, as well as extending some earlier results on tracking a TBM during boost phase cutoff. Results indicate that Kalman techniques are superior to third order polynomial extrapolations in estimating the launch point, and that some knowledge of missile parameters, especially thrust, is extremely helpful in track initiation.

  20. Design of a ballistic fluxon qubit readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herr Kidiyarova-Shevchenko, Anna; Fedorov, Arkady; Shnirman, Alexander; Il'ichev, Evgeny; Schön, Gerd

    2007-11-01

    A detailed design is given for a flux qubit readout using ballistic fluxons. In this scheme, fluxons propagate through an underdamped Josephson transmission line (JTL) coupled to the qubit, whose state affects the fluxon propagation time. For strong qubit-JTL coupling, and far from the symmetry point, a qubit can be measured with fidelity greater than 99% and measurement time of 4 ns. The readout circuit requires additional rapid single flux quantum (RSFQ) interface circuitry to launch and receive the delayed flux solitons. The parameters of this driver and receiver have been optimized to produce low fluxon speed at launch and impedance matching at the receiver. The delayed solitons are compared to a reference line using a detector with time resolution of better than 16 ps. Both the JTL and RSFQ interface were designed for the Nb 30 A cm-2 process developed at VTT, Finland, with postdeposition of the Al qubit at IPHT, Germany.

  1. IMM tracking of a theater ballistic missile during boost phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchins, Robert G.; San Jose, Anthony

    1998-09-01

    Since the SCUD launches in the Gulf War, theater ballistic missile (TBM) systems have become a growing concern for the US military. Detection, tracking and engagement during boost phase or shortly after booster cutoff are goals that grow in importance with the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. This paper addresses the performance of tracking algorithms for TBMs during boost phase and across the transition to ballistic flight. Three families of tracking algorithms are examined: alpha-beta-gamma trackers, Kalman-based trackers, and the interactive multiple model (IMM) tracker. In addition, a variation on the IMM to include prior knowledge of a booster cutoff parameter is examined. Simulated data is used to compare algorithms. Also, the IMM tracker is run on an actual ballistic missile trajectory. Results indicate that IMM trackers show significant advantage in tracking through the model transition represented by booster cutoff.

  2. Interplanetary mission design handbook. Volume 1, part 1: Earth to Venus ballistic mission opportunities, 1991-2005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sergeyevsky, A. B.; Yin, N. H.

    1983-01-01

    Graphical data necessary for the preliminary design of ballistic missions to Venus is presented. Contours of launch energy requirements, as well as many other launch and arrival parameters, are presented in launch data/arrival date space for all launch opportunities from 1991 through 2005. An extensive text is included which explains mission design methods, from launch window development to Venus probe and orbiter arrival design, utilizing the graphical data in this volume as well as numerous equations relating various parameters.

  3. Interplanetary mission design handbook. Volume 1, part 2: Earth to Mars ballistic mission opportunities, 1990-2005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sergeyevsky, A. B.; Snyder, G. C.; Cunniff, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    Graphical data necessary for the preliminary design of ballistic missions to Mars are provided. Contours of launch energy requirements, as well as many other launch and Mars arrival parameters, are presented in launch date/arrival date space for all launch opportunities from 1990 through 2005. In addition, an extensive text is included which explains mission design methods, from launch window development to Mars probe and orbiter arrival design, utilizing the graphical data as well as numerous equations relating various parameters.

  4. Redstone Missile on Launch Pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1958-01-01

    Redstone missile No. 1002 on the launch pad at Cape Canaveral, Florida, on May 16, 1958. The Redstone ballistic missile was a high-accuracy, liquid-propelled, surface-to-surface missile developed by the Army Ballistic Missile Agency, Redstone Arsenal, in Huntsville, Alabama, under the direction of Dr. von Braun. The Redstone engine was a modified and improved version of the Air Force's Navaho cruise missile engine of the late forties. The A-series, as this would be known, utilized a cylindrical combustion chamber as compared with the bulky, spherical V-2 chamber. By 1951, the Army was moving rapidly toward the design of the Redstone missile, and production was begun in 1952. Redstone rockets became the 'reliable workhorse' for America's early space program. As an example of the versatility, Redstone was utilized in the booster for Explorer 1, the first American satellite, with no major changes to the engine or missile

  5. Airborne ballistic camera tracking systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redish, W. L.

    1976-01-01

    An operational airborne ballistic camera tracking system was tested for operational and data reduction feasibility. The acquisition and data processing requirements of the system are discussed. Suggestions for future improvements are also noted. A description of the data reduction mathematics is outlined. Results from a successful reentry test mission are tabulated. The test mission indicated that airborne ballistic camera tracking systems are feasible.

  6. Ballistic projectile trajectory determining system

    DOEpatents

    Karr, T.J.

    1997-05-20

    A computer controlled system determines the three-dimensional trajectory of a ballistic projectile. To initialize the system, predictions of state parameters for a ballistic projectile are received at an estimator. The estimator uses the predictions of the state parameters to estimate first trajectory characteristics of the ballistic projectile. A single stationary monocular sensor then observes the actual first trajectory characteristics of the ballistic projectile. A comparator generates an error value related to the predicted state parameters by comparing the estimated first trajectory characteristics of the ballistic projectile with the observed first trajectory characteristics of the ballistic projectile. If the error value is equal to or greater than a selected limit, the predictions of the state parameters are adjusted. New estimates for the trajectory characteristics of the ballistic projectile are made and are then compared with actual observed trajectory characteristics. This process is repeated until the error value is less than the selected limit. Once the error value is less than the selected limit, a calculator calculates trajectory characteristics such a the origin and destination of the ballistic projectile. 8 figs.

  7. Ballistic projectile trajectory determining system

    DOEpatents

    Karr, Thomas J.

    1997-01-01

    A computer controlled system determines the three-dimensional trajectory of a ballistic projectile. To initialize the system, predictions of state parameters for a ballistic projectile are received at an estimator. The estimator uses the predictions of the state parameters to estimate first trajectory characteristics of the ballistic projectile. A single stationary monocular sensor then observes the actual first trajectory characteristics of the ballistic projectile. A comparator generates an error value related to the predicted state parameters by comparing the estimated first trajectory characteristics of the ballistic projectile with the observed first trajectory characteristics of the ballistic projectile. If the error value is equal to or greater than a selected limit, the predictions of the state parameters are adjusted. New estimates for the trajectory characteristics of the ballistic projectile are made and are then compared with actual observed trajectory characteristics. This process is repeated until the error value is less than the selected limit. Once the error value is less than the selected limit, a calculator calculates trajectory characteristics such a the origin and destination of the ballistic projectile.

  8. Wound ballistics: theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Ordog, G J; Wasserberger, J; Balasubramanium, S

    1984-12-01

    Ballistics is the study of the natural laws governing projectile missiles and their predictable performances, and wound ballistics is the study of a missile's effect on living tissue. A knowledge of these topics is essential to determine the extent and type of injury from a missile. The type of missile can often be determined by radiography. The caliber can be measured directly if the bullet is close to the x-ray plate and the x-ray tube is at least six feet from the film. Changing these distances can result in a maximum magnification of the bullet image of 20%, and the exact amount can be calculated using a formula provided. Definitions of ballistic and wound ballistic terms are provided, as are examples of wound ballistics in application.

  9. Mars Interior Artist Concept

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-08-20

    Artist rendition of the formation of rocky bodies in the solar system -- how they form and differentiate and evolve into terrestrial planets. Note: After thorough examination, NASA managers have decided to suspend the planned March 2016 launch of the Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations Geodesy and Heat Transport (InSight) mission. The decision follows unsuccessful attempts to repair a leak in a section of the prime instrument in the science payload. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA16078

  10. Interior Renovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School & University, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes notable interior renovations of educational facilities, including the educational context and design goals. Includes information on architects, suppliers, and cost, as well as photographs. (EV)

  11. Interior Renovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School & University, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes notable interior renovations of educational facilities, including the educational context and design goals. Includes information on architects, suppliers, and cost, as well as photographs. (EV)

  12. [Ballistic quality assurance].

    PubMed

    Cassol, E; Bonnet, J; Porcheron, D; Mazeron, J-J; Peiffert, D; Alapetite, C

    2012-06-01

    This review describes the ballistic quality assurance for stereotactic intracranial irradiation treatments delivered with Gamma Knife® either dedicated or adapted medical linear accelerators. Specific and periodic controls should be performed in order to check the mechanical stability for both irradiation and collimation systems. If this step remains under the responsibility of the medical physicist, it should be done in agreement with the manufacturer's technical support. At this time, there are no recent published guidelines. With technological developments, both frequency and accuracy should be assessed in each institution according to the treatment mode: single versus hypofractionnated dose, circular collimator versus micro-multileaf collimators. In addition, "end-to-end" techniques are mandatory to find the origin of potential discrepancies and to estimate the global ballistic accuracy of the delivered treatment. Indeed, they include frames, non-invasive immobilization devices, localizers, multimodal imaging for delineation and in-room positioning imaging systems. The final precision that could be reasonably achieved is more or less 1mm. Copyright © 2012 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Launch system design for access to space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Corbin

    1994-01-01

    Here, a hybrid launch system is developed. The hybrid launch system combines the lower operating cost advantage of an non-man-rated SSTO (Single Stage to Orbit) MLV (Medium Launch Vehicle) with the crew survivability advantage of a ballistic escape pod. Ultimately, it was found that a non-man-made MLV is configured the same as a man-rated MLV and offers no significant savings in operational cost. However, addition of the proposed escape system would increase the crew survivability rate of the SSTO while incurring only a small cost per pound payload penalty.

  14. Launch of Jupiter-C/Explorer 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1958-01-01

    Launch of Jupiter-C/Explorer 1 at Cape Canaveral, Florida on January 31, 1958. After the Russian Sputnik 1 was launched in October 1957, the launching of an American satellite assumed much greater importance. After the Vanguard rocket exploded on the pad in December 1957, the ability to orbit a satellite became a matter of national prestige. On January 31, 1958, slightly more than four weeks after the launch of Sputnik.The ABMA (Army Ballistic Missile Agency) in Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville, Alabama, in cooperation with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, launched a Jupiter from Cape Canaveral, Florida. The rocket consisted of a modified version of the Redstone rocket's first stage and two upper stages of clustered Baby Sergeant rockets developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and later designated as Juno boosters for space launches

  15. Launch, Jupiter-C, Explorer 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1958-01-01

    Launch of Jupiter-C/Explorer 1 at Cape Canaveral, Florida on January 31, 1958. After the Russian Sputnik 1 was launched in October 1957, the launching of an American satellite assumed much greater importance. After the Vanguard rocket exploded on the pad in December 1957, the ability to orbit a satellite became a matter of national prestige. On January 31, 1958, slightly more than four weeks after the launch of Sputnik.The ABMA (Army Ballistic Missile Agency) in Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville, Alabama, in cooperation with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, launched a Jupiter from Cape Canaveral, Florida. The rocket consisted of a modified version of the Redstone rocket's first stage and two upper stages of clustered Baby Sergeant rockets developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and later designated as Juno boosters for space launches

  16. Launch, Jupiter-C, Explorer 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1958-01-01

    Launch of Jupiter-C/Explorer 1 at Cape Canaveral, Florida on January 31, 1958. After the Russian Sputnik 1 was launched in October 1957, the launching of an American satellite assumed much greater importance. After the Vanguard rocket exploded on the pad in December 1957, the ability to orbit a satellite became a matter of national prestige. On January 31, 1958, slightly more than four weeks after the launch of Sputnik.The ABMA (Army Ballistic Missile Agency) in Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville, Alabama, in cooperation with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, launched a Jupiter from Cape Canaveral, Florida. The rocket consisted of a modified version of the Redstone rocket's first stage and two upper stages of clustered Baby Sergeant rockets developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and later designated as Juno boosters for space launches

  17. Launch of Jupiter-C/Explorer 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1958-01-01

    Launch of Jupiter-C/Explorer 1 at Cape Canaveral, Florida on January 31, 1958. After the Russian Sputnik 1 was launched in October 1957, the launching of an American satellite assumed much greater importance. After the Vanguard rocket exploded on the pad in December 1957, the ability to orbit a satellite became a matter of national prestige. On January 31, 1958, slightly more than four weeks after the launch of Sputnik.The ABMA (Army Ballistic Missile Agency) in Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville, Alabama, in cooperation with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, launched a Jupiter from Cape Canaveral, Florida. The rocket consisted of a modified version of the Redstone rocket's first stage and two upper stages of clustered Baby Sergeant rockets developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and later designated as Juno boosters for space launches

  18. Interior Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This document contains teacher's materials for an eight-unit secondary education vocational home economics course on interior design. The units cover period styles of interiors, furniture and accessories, surface treatments and lighting, appliances and equipment, design and space planning in home and business settings, occupant needs, acquisition…

  19. Reusable launch vehicle development research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    NASA has generated a program approach for a SSTO reusable launch vehicle technology (RLV) development which includes a follow-on to the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization's (BMDO) successful DC-X program, the DC-XA (Advanced). Also, a separate sub-scale flight demonstrator, designated the X-33, will be built and flight tested along with numerous ground based technologies programs. For this to be a successful effort, a balance between technical, schedule, and budgetary risks must be attained. The adoption of BMDO's 'fast track' management practices will be a key element in the eventual success of NASA's effort.

  20. Ballistic Testing of Armor Weldments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-21

    Distribution unlimited %1 , A E S K T 5A •+ T K .4/ ¢ C+’ •; T . . .. This TOP describes ballistic tests to evaluate armor weldments for resistance to shock and...C-I 1. SCOPE. This TOP describes ballistic tests to evaluate armor weldments for resistance to shock and penetration...Operations Procedure (TOP) 2-2-711 Ballistic Testing of Armor Weldments WU A268445 6+ AuT I`S’•,+ r:’ 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) ANU; ADDRCSSI’t

  1. Rheological Studies Related to Interior Ballistics: A Historical Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-01

    The Rand Corporation ATTN: Library D 1700 Mam Street Santa Monica, CA 90401-3297 AAI Corporation ATTN: J. Hebert J. Frankle D. Cleveland...Edelman 23146 Cumorah Crest Drive Woodland Hills. CA 91364-3710 I Battelle Columbus Laboratories ATTN: Mr. Victor Levin 505 King Ave. Columbus

  2. Interior Ballistics Modeling Applied to Small Arms Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-06-01

    equations 1 Xl X2 Xn TA dT1 d2 dn or d = Xldl + X2d2 + .... ÷ Xndn B where X1 is the weight fraction of a narrow fraction of diameter dl. Subscripts A and B...DRDAR-TSS (S) Dover, NJ 07801 Commander Defense Documentation Center (12) Camerson Station Alexandria, VA 22314 Weapon System Concept Team/ CSL ATTN

  3. The Thermodynamics of Interior Ballistics and Propellant Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    Idealized Gun Using Variable Thermochemistry 22 6.1 The Use of BLAKE...reversible work (isentropic expansion) for the fully variable thermochemistry BLAKE calculation and the corresponding results using the lumped invariant...Figure 8. Comparison of reversible work. 22 6. Calculation of an Idealized Gun Using Variable Thermochemistry One of the objectives of this work

  4. Theoretical Modeling of the Interior Ballistics of the Electrothermal Gun

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-01

    VALUE OF TIME (MSEC). C PLASE(1) - FRACTION OF TOTAL...PLASMA ENERGY DELIVERED AT TIME C PLAST(1) (-). C PLASM(1) - FRACTION OF TOTAL PLASMA MASS DELIVERED AT TIee C PLAST(1) (-). C PLAST(2) - SECOND VALUE OF TIME (MSEC...FIRST VALUE OF TIME (MSEC). C ALPH(1) - FRACTION OF WORKING FLUID DECOMPOSED AT TIME ALPT(1) C (-). C ALPT(2) - SECOND VALUE OF TIME . STARTS A

  5. New Directions in Multiphase Flow Interior Ballistic Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    surface temperature is reached. Propellant combustion then follows the same pressure - dependent description typically used in lumped-parameter codes...this time, however, with a locally prescribed rate dependent on the local instantaneous pressure . (Several other ignition and combus- tion options...criterion and the global, pressure - dependent combustion process assumed to occur at the propel- lant surface. More recently, emphasis has been placed

  6. Progress Toward a Multidimensional Representation of Mortar Interior Ballistics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    of ATK, Alliant Techsystems. The Fed 150 is a basic lead styphnate primer (13) similar to the no. 41 primer (a normal lead styphnate primer). In...the absence of specific chemical makeup, the analysis given in Schmidt and Nusca (12) was considered sufficient. Table 1 provides the lead styphnate ...Table 1. Chemical composition of the no. 41 primer mixture. Name Formula Weight-Percent ±Weight-Percent Purpose Lead styphnate H3 C6 N3 O9 Pb 37

  7. [Terminal ballistics. 3].

    PubMed

    Marini, F; Mangiante, G; Dagradi, V; Radin, S; Carolo, F; Giarolli, M; Della Giacoma, G; Tosi, D; Merico, G; Tenci, A

    1993-01-01

    This brief chapter, focusing essentially on a single topic, has been written in homage to Emile Theodor Kocker, a masterful exponent of the art of surgery and founder of the culture of terminal ballistics. For most of the literature we are indebted to Fackler and Dougherty, who, with the particular grasp, and fair of historians, act as guides on a trial which is only apparently retrograde, but which actually bears eloquent witness to the fact that even in the most physically tangible of arts, namely the art of surgery, inspired curiosity may help us to go well beyond the limits of our day and age. This chapter is also dedicated to the memory of another great surgeon, Vittorio Pettinari, who for one of the authors was an incomparable mentor and past-master of such curiosity.

  8. Defense against ballistic missiles

    SciTech Connect

    Mark, H. )

    1992-01-01

    A development history and development status evaluation is presented for weapons technologies capable of serving as defenses against nuclear-tipped ballistic missiles. The decisive turning-point in this history was the March 23, 1983 announcement by President Reagan of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI). Due to President Reagan's emphasis on population protection, 'global' defense systems have tended to dominate SDI design efforts. The most important SDI technical achievements to date encompass (1) miniature homig devices, (2) the upgrade of the Patriot SAM for missile-interception capabilities, (3) light exoatmospheric projectiles, such as 'Brilliant Pebbles', (4) successful laser-communications experiments, and (5) the warhead/decoy-discriminating Firepond lidar system. 7 refs.

  9. Anomalous ballistic diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havlin, Shlomo; Bunde, Armin; Stanley, H. Eugene

    1986-07-01

    We introduce a novel two-component random network. Unit resistors are placed at random along the bonds of a pure superconducting linear chain, with the distance l between successive resistors being chosen from the distribution P(l)~l-(α+1) where α>0 is a tunable parameter. We study the transport exponents dw and ζ~ defined by ~t2/dw and ρ~Lζ~, where is the mean-square displacement, ρ the resistivity, and L the system size. We find that for α>=1 both dw and ζ~ stick at their value for a nonzero concentration of resistors. For α<1 they vary continuously with α: dw=2α and ζ~=α. In the presence of a bias field, we find dw=α. This is the first exactly soluble model displaying ``anomalous ballistic diffusion,'' which we interpret physically in terms of a Lévy-flight random walk on a linear chain lattice.

  10. Approximate Planetary Ephemerides for SLBM (Submarine Launched Ballistic Missile) Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-01

    SEQUENCE I. Kepler Orbit Generation Program PLANET A. Input a. ID for planet 1. 1 = Mercury 2. 2 = Venus 3. 3 = Earth 4. 4 = Mars 5. 5 = Jupiter 6. 6...GEOEQ A. Input a. Time (Julian days) b. Position histories for planets Mercury , Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn (these histories are in heliocentric...C POSITIONS AND PARTIALS FOR EACH TIME STEP C INPUT: ID= PLANET ID C 1- MERCURY C 2-VENUS C 3*EARTH C 4-MARS C 5-JUPITER C 6-SATURN C 7%URANUS C B

  11. Cost of space-based laser ballistic missile defense

    SciTech Connect

    Field, G.; Spergel, D.

    1986-03-21

    Orbiting platforms carrying infrared lasers have been proposed as weapons forming the first tier of a ballistic missile defense system under the President's Strategic Defense Initiative. As each laser platform can destroy a limited number of missiles, one of several methods of countering such a system is to increase the number of offensive missiles. Hence it is important to know whether the cost-exchange ratio, defined as the ratio of the cost to the defense of destroying a missile to the cost to the offense of deploying an additional missile, is greater or less than 1. Although the technology to be used in a ballistic missile defense system is still extremely uncertain, it is useful to examine methods for calculating the cost-exchange ration. As an example, the cost of an orbiting infrared laser ballistic missile defense system employed against intercontinental ballistic missiles launched simultaneously from a small area is compared to the cost of additional offensive missiles. If one adopts lower limits to the costs for the defense and upper limits to the costs for the offense, the cost-exchange ratio comes out substantially greater than 1. If these estimates are confirmed, such a ballistic missile defense system would be unable to maintain its effectiveness at less cost than it would take to proliferate the ballistic missiles necessary to overcome it and would therefore not satisfy the President's requirements for an effective strategic defense. Although the method is illustrated by applying it to a space-based infrared laser system, it should be straightforward to apply it to other proposed systems. 28 references, 2 tables.

  12. Cost of space-based laser ballistic missile defense.

    PubMed

    Field, G; Spergel, D

    1986-03-21

    Orbiting platforms carrying infrared lasers have been proposed as weapons forming the first tier of a ballistic missile defense system under the President's Strategic Defense Initiative. As each laser platform can destroy a limited number of missiles, one of several methods of countering such a system is to increase the number of offensive missiles. Hence it is important to know whether the cost-exchange ratio, defined as the ratio of the cost to the defense of destroying a missile to the cost to the offense of deploying an additional missile, is greater or less than 1. Although the technology to be used in a ballistic missile defense system is still extremely uncertain, it is useful to examine methods for calculating the cost-exchange ratio. As an example, the cost of an orbiting infrared laser ballistic missile defense system employed against intercontinental ballistic missiles launched simultaneously from a small area is compared to the cost of additional offensive missiles. If one adopts lower limits to the costs for the defense and upper limits to the costs for the offense, the cost-exchange ratio comes out substantially greater than 1. If these estimates are confirmed, such a ballistic missile defense system would be unable to maintain its effectiveness at less cost than it would take to proliferate the ballistic missiles necessary to overcome it and would therefore not satisfy the President's requirements for an effective strategic defense. Although the method is illustrated by applying it to a space-based infrared laser system, it should be straightforward to apply it to other proposed systems.

  13. 14 CFR 420.23 - Launch site location review-flight corridor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Requirements for Obtaining a License § 420.23 Launch site location review—flight corridor. (a) Guided orbital expendable launch vehicle. For a guided orbital expendable launch vehicle, an applicant shall define a flight... this part, to contain debris with a ballistic coefficient of ≥ 3 pounds per square foot, from any non...

  14. 14 CFR 420.23 - Launch site location review-flight corridor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Requirements for Obtaining a License § 420.23 Launch site location review—flight corridor. (a) Guided orbital expendable launch vehicle. For a guided orbital expendable launch vehicle, an applicant shall define a flight... this part, to contain debris with a ballistic coefficient of ≥3 pounds per square foot, from any non...

  15. 14 CFR 420.23 - Launch site location review-flight corridor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Requirements for Obtaining a License § 420.23 Launch site location review—flight corridor. (a) Guided orbital expendable launch vehicle. For a guided orbital expendable launch vehicle, an applicant shall define a flight... this part, to contain debris with a ballistic coefficient of ≥ 3 pounds per square foot, from any non...

  16. Launch Vehicles

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-09-09

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. Launch Pad 39B of the Kennedy Space Flight Center (KSC), currently used for Space Shuttle launches, will be revised to host the Ares launch vehicles. The fixed and rotating service structures standing at the pad will be dismantled sometime after the Ares I-X test flight. A new launch tower for Ares I will be built onto a new mobile launch platform. The gantry for the shuttle doesn't reach much higher than the top of the four segments of the solid rocket booster. Pad access above the current shuttle launch pad structure will not be required for Ares I-X because the stages above the solid rocket booster are inert. For the test scheduled in 2012 or for the crewed flights, workers and astronauts will need access to the highest levels of the rocket and capsule. When the Ares I rocket rolls out to the launch pad on the back of the same crawler-transporters used now, its launch gantry will be with it. The mobile launchers will nestle under three lightning protection towers to be erected around the pad area. Ares time at the launch pad will be significantly less than the three weeks or more the shuttle requires. This “clean pad” approach minimizes equipment and servicing at the launch pad. It is the same plan NASA used with the Saturn V rockets and industry employs it with more modern launchers. The launch pad will also get a new emergency escape system for astronauts, one that looks very much like a roller coaster. Cars riding on a rail will replace the familiar baskets hanging from steel cables. This artist's concept illustrates the Ares I on launch pad 39B.

  17. Launch vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutledge, William S.

    1994-06-01

    Concentrated efforts by NASA and the DOD to begin development of a new large launch vehicle have been under way for over a decade. Options include the National Launch System, Advanced Launch System, a heavy lift vehicle, a Shuttle-derived vehicle, a Titan-derived vehicle, Single stage To Orbit, NASP and Spacelifter, to name a few. All initially promised low operations costs achieved at development costs in the $5 billion - $10 billion range. However, none has obtained approval for development, primarily because it became apparent that these cost goals could not realistically be met.

  18. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Delta II Heavy launch vehicle carrying the second Mars Exploration Rover, Opportunity, is poised for launch after rollback of the Mobile Service Tower. Opportunity will reach Mars on Jan. 25, 2004. Together the two MER rovers, Spirit (launched June 10) and Opportunity, seek to determine the history of climate and water at two sites on Mars where conditions may once have been favorable to life. The rovers are identical. They will navigate themselves around obstacles as they drive across the Martian surface, traveling up to about 130 feet each Martian day. Each rover carries five scientific instruments including a panoramic camera and microscope, plus a rock abrasion tool that will grind away the outer surfaces of rocks to expose their interiors for examination. Each rover’s prime mission is planned to last three months on Mars.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-07-07

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Delta II Heavy launch vehicle carrying the second Mars Exploration Rover, Opportunity, is poised for launch after rollback of the Mobile Service Tower. Opportunity will reach Mars on Jan. 25, 2004. Together the two MER rovers, Spirit (launched June 10) and Opportunity, seek to determine the history of climate and water at two sites on Mars where conditions may once have been favorable to life. The rovers are identical. They will navigate themselves around obstacles as they drive across the Martian surface, traveling up to about 130 feet each Martian day. Each rover carries five scientific instruments including a panoramic camera and microscope, plus a rock abrasion tool that will grind away the outer surfaces of rocks to expose their interiors for examination. Each rover’s prime mission is planned to last three months on Mars.

  19. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Delta II Heavy launch vehicle carrying the rover "Opportunity" for the second Mars Exploration Rover mission launches at 11:18:15 p.m. EDT. Opportunity will reach Mars on Jan. 25, 2004. Together the two MER rovers, Spirit (launched June 10) and Opportunity, seek to determine the history of climate and water at two sites on Mars where conditions may once have been favorable to life. The rovers are identical. They will navigate themselves around obstacles as they drive across the Martian surface, traveling up to about 130 feet each Martian day. Each rover carries five scientific instruments including a panoramic camera and microscope, plus a rock abrasion tool that will grind away the outer surfaces of rocks to expose their interiors for examination. Each rover’s prime mission is planned to last three months on Mars.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-07-07

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Delta II Heavy launch vehicle carrying the rover "Opportunity" for the second Mars Exploration Rover mission launches at 11:18:15 p.m. EDT. Opportunity will reach Mars on Jan. 25, 2004. Together the two MER rovers, Spirit (launched June 10) and Opportunity, seek to determine the history of climate and water at two sites on Mars where conditions may once have been favorable to life. The rovers are identical. They will navigate themselves around obstacles as they drive across the Martian surface, traveling up to about 130 feet each Martian day. Each rover carries five scientific instruments including a panoramic camera and microscope, plus a rock abrasion tool that will grind away the outer surfaces of rocks to expose their interiors for examination. Each rover’s prime mission is planned to last three months on Mars.

  20. Solar Interior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahn, J.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The interior of the Sun is hidden from our sight, because it is opaque to electromagnetic waves: the radiation we receive from it on Earth is emitted in the outermost layers. Our knowledge of the solar interior is based solely on theoretical models which are built with some assumptions about the physical conditions and processes that are likely to prevail there, and on helioseismology, a very pow...

  1. Interior Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mixson, John S.; Wilby, John F.

    1991-01-01

    The generation and control of flight vehicle interior noise is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the mechanisms of transmission through airborne and structure-borne paths and the control of cabin noise by path modification. Techniques for identifying the relative contributions of the various source-path combinations are also discussed along with methods for the prediction of aircraft interior noise such as those based on the general modal theory and statistical energy analysis.

  2. NPP Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA's National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System Preparatory Project (NPP) spacecraft was launched aboard a Delta II rocket at 5:48 a.m. EDT today, on a mission to measure ...

  3. Ballistic Evaluation of 6055 Aluminum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    alloy (AA) 6055-T651 produced by Alcoa as part of a Defense Acquisition Challenge Program. Ballistic evaluation was performed using armor-piercing...compared to other ballistic-grade aluminum alloys , namely AA6061 and AA7039. The results of these experiments were used to derive the acceptance tables...as those of M2 Bradley Infantry Fighting Vehicles. Also in 2012, the Aluminum Association assigned a new 6XXX-series alloy designation to Alcoa for

  4. Orion Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-12-05

    A Delta IV Heavy rocket lifts off from Space Launch Complex 37 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida carrying NASA's Orion spacecraft on an unpiloted flight test to Earth orbit. Liftoff was at 7:05 a.m. EST. During the two-orbit, four-and-a-half hour mission, engineers will evaluate the systems critical to crew safety, the launch abort system, the heat shield and the parachute system.

  5. Design Guide for Aerodynamics Testing of Earth and Planetary Entry Vehicles in a Ballistic Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogdanoff, David W.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this manual is to aid in the design of an aerodynamics test of an earth or planetary entry capsule in a ballistic range. In this manual, much use is made of the results and experience gained in 50 years of ballistic range aerodynamics testing at the NASA Ames Research Center, and in particular, that gained in the last 27 years, while the author was working at NASA Ames. The topics treated herein include: Data to be obtained; flight data needed to design test; Reynolds number and dynamic similarity of flight trajectory and ballistic range test; capabilities of various ballistic ranges; Calculations of swerves due to average and oscillating lift and of drag-induced velocity decreases; Model and sabot design; materials, weights and stresses; Sabot separation; Launches at angle of attack and slapping with paper to produce pitch/yaw oscillations.

  6. Iranian rocket launch alarms the West

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeandron, Michelle

    2008-03-01

    Iran came a step closer to becoming a space-faring nation last month, with the successful test of a rocket capable of carrying a satellite into orbit and the opening of a new space centre. Western commentators, however, have expressed scepticism about whether Iran really does have the technology to successfully launch a satellite, suggesting instead that the country is more interested in developing intercontinental ballistic missiles, which require similarly powerful rockets.

  7. [Terminal ballistics. 1].

    PubMed

    Mangiante, G; Dagradi, V; Radin, S; Carolo, F; Giarolli, M; Tenci, A; Merico, G; Tosi, D; Acerbi, A; Della Giacoma, G

    1993-01-01

    We have chosen to conceive of terminal ballistics as a violent and extremely rapid confrontation between two forms of resistance before the final state of rest is reached. This definition, which cannot help but don the admittedly loud and outlandish garb of physics, is the most promising for the purposes of biological interpretation. The main characters on this stage are two, but only one of these really plays the lead, namely the human target, which acts out the basic roles inherent in its physical make-up; the other, the bullet, remains a background figure, frozen in its walk-on part, and ready for the next performance. This modus operandi, which is no simplification, but rather an academic necessity, enables us to focus on images which stand out more clearly as a result of an intensive macroscopic spotlight which brings out the features of the individual phenomena, broken down into a succession of close-ups, and subtracts them from the cold physical nature of this or that form of inert matter, which here is merely an occasional, disagreeable witness, or even more, a standing from time to time for but one of the infinite facets of the biological composite being. Here, then, faced with a kind of exploded macrophotograph of a complex kaleidoscope, we see the animal universe, of which we capture so far the plasticity, the subdivisibility, the anisotropy and the cavitation.

  8. Optimizing Ballistic Imaging Operations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Can; Beggs-Cassin, Mardy; Wein, Lawrence M

    2017-09-01

    Ballistic imaging systems can help solve crimes by comparing images of cartridge cases, which are recovered from a crime scene or test-fired from a gun, to a database of images obtained from past crime scenes. Many U.S. municipalities lack the resources to process all of their cartridge cases. Using data from Stockton, CA, we analyze two problems: how to allocate limited capacity to maximize the number of cartridge cases that generate at least one hit, and how to prioritize the cartridge cases that are processed to maximize the usefulness (i.e., obtained before the corresponding criminal case is closed) of hits. The number of hits can be significantly increased by prioritizing crime scene evidence over test-fires, and by ranking calibers by their hit probability and processing only the higher ranking calibers. We also estimate that last-come first-served increases the proportion of hits that are useful by only 0.05 relative to first-come first-served. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. Shotgun wound ballistics.

    PubMed

    Ordog, G J; Wasserberger, J; Balasubramaniam, S

    1988-05-01

    Shotguns are popular world wide and more of these weapons exist than the rifled types. With an increasing incidence and prevalence of gunshot wounds it is important for traumatologists to be familiar with shotgun wound ballistics. Shotgun wounds differ from those of other missiles because the spectrum of wound severity is large owing to the fact that the pellets scatter as they travel. Close-range shotgun wounds can be as destructive as those from a high-velocity rifle, but longer weapon-victim ranges may produce only minimal injury. The type of shot (size and weight of pellets) used also determines the type of injury, with more serious injuries produced by the larger type of buckshot (greater than 0.14 inches in diameter). The severity of injury from birdshot depends mainly on the "effective" weapon-victim range which can be calculated from the shot size and shot pattern either clinically or from X-ray. Wounds may then be classified according to severity, yielding information on prognosis and extent of investigation and treatment required. We propose a four-level severity scale based upon birdshot pellet scatter patterns which correlate well with morbidity and mortality rates.

  10. 106. INTERIOR OF CABLE TRAY TUNNEL, FROM LANDLINE INSTRUMENTATION ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    106. INTERIOR OF CABLE TRAY TUNNEL, FROM LANDLINE INSTRUMENTATION ROOM (106), LSB (BLDG. 770), TOWARDS CABLE TRAY SHED - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  11. 21. DETAIL OF AIR HANDLER 1 (MST AIRCONDITIONING SYSTEM) INTERIOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. DETAIL OF AIR HANDLER 1 (MST AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM) INTERIOR, SOUTHEAST CORNER, STATION 30, SLC-3W MST - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  12. 13. INTERIOR OF NORTHEAST PHOTO TOWER WITH WINDOW OPEN; ELECTRICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. INTERIOR OF NORTHEAST PHOTO TOWER WITH WINDOW OPEN; ELECTRICAL POWER BOX BELOW WINDOW - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  13. 7. INTERIOR VIEW OF TYPICAL LARGE OFFICE SPACE, DECOMMISSIONED AFTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR VIEW OF TYPICAL LARGE OFFICE SPACE, DECOMMISSIONED AFTER DAMAGE DURING LAUNCH PAD A EXPLOSION; VIEW TO WEST. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 36006, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  14. 129. INTERIOR OF RELAY BOX FOR HYDRAULIC CONTROL PANEL IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    129. INTERIOR OF RELAY BOX FOR HYDRAULIC CONTROL PANEL IN UMBILICAL MAST PUMP ROOM (209), LSB (BLDG. 751) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  15. 132. INTERIOR OF HYDRAULIC PUMPING UNIT RELAY BOX ON SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    132. INTERIOR OF HYDRAULIC PUMPING UNIT RELAY BOX ON SOUTH WALL OF CONTROL ROOM (114), LSB (BLDG. 770) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  16. 77. Deputy commander's launch control console, fire control panel missing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    77. Deputy commander's launch control console, fire control panel missing at right, south side - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  17. 48. Bottom of shock absorber, bottom of launch tube, soda ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Bottom of shock absorber, bottom of launch tube, soda bottle liter at right - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  18. 86. Shock absorber, top of launch control center, southeast corner ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    86. Shock absorber, top of launch control center, southeast corner - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  19. 83. Shock absorber attaching "egg" to the launch control center, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    83. Shock absorber attaching "egg" to the launch control center, southwest corner - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  20. Management of civilian ballistic fractures.

    PubMed

    Seng, V S; Masquelet, A C

    2013-12-01

    The management of ballistic fractures, which are open fractures, has often been studied in wartime and has benefited from the principles of military surgery with debridement and lavage, and the use of external fixation for bone stabilization. In civilian practice, bone stabilization of these fractures is different and is not performed by external fixation. Fifteen civilian ballistic fractures, Gustilo II or IIIa, two associated with nerve damage and none with vascular damage, were reviewed. After debridement and lavage, ten internal fixations and five conservative treatments were used. No superficial or deep surgical site infection was noted. Fourteen of the 15 fractures (93%) healed without reoperation. Eleven of the 15 patients (73%) regained normal function. Ballistic fractures have a bad reputation due to their many complications, including infections. In civilian practice, the use of internal fixation is not responsible for excessive morbidity, provided debridement and lavage are performed. Civilian ballistic fractures, when they are caused by low-velocity firearms, differ from military ballistic fractures. Although the principle of surgical debridement and lavage remains the same, bone stabilization is different and is similar to conventional open fractures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Launching "Dunno"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inson, Peter

    2005-01-01

    This article, written in response to an invitation from "CLE," describes the origins and controversial content of "dunno," a first novel, self-published by Peter Inson, a former teacher and headmaster. Inson considers influences upon his writing, the thinking which led him towards self-publication and the process of personally launching and…

  2. New Horizons Launch Contingency Effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yale; Lear, Matthew H.; McGrath, Brian E.; Heyler, Gene A.; Takashima, Naruhisa; Owings, W. Donald

    2007-01-01

    On 19 January 2006 at 2:00 PM EST, the NASA New Horizons spacecraft (SC) was launched from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS), FL, onboard an Atlas V 551/Centaur/STAR™ 48B launch vehicle (LV) on a mission to explore the Pluto Charon planetary system and possibly other Kuiper Belt Objects. It carried a single Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG). As part of the joint NASA/US Department of Energy (DOE) safety effort, contingency plans were prepared to address the unlikely events of launch accidents leading to a near-pad impact, a suborbital reentry, an orbital reentry, or a heliocentric orbit. As the implementing organization. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) had expanded roles in the New Horizons launch contingency effort over those for the Cassini mission and Mars Exploration Rovers missions. The expanded tasks included participation in the Radiological Control Center (RADCC) at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), preparation of contingency plans, coordination of space tracking assets, improved aerodynamics characterization of the RTG's 18 General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules, and development of spacecraft and RTG reentry breakup analysis tools. Other JHU/APL tasks were prediction of the Earth impact footprints (ElFs) for the GPHS modules released during the atmospheric reentry (for purposes of notification and recovery), prediction of the time of SC reentry from a potential orbital decay, pre-launch dissemination of ballistic coefficients of various possible reentry configurations, and launch support of an Emergency Operations Center (EOC) on the JHU/APL campus. For the New Horizons launch, JHU/APL personnel at the RADCC and at the EOC were ready to implement any real-time launch contingency activities. A successful New Horizons launch and interplanetary injection precluded any further contingency actions. The New Horizons launch contingency was an interagency effort by several organizations. This paper

  3. 3-D ballistic transport of ellipsoidal volcanic projectiles considering horizontal wind field and variable shape-dependent drag coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertin, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    An innovative 3-D numerical model for the dynamics of volcanic ballistic projectiles is presented here. The model focuses on ellipsoidal particles and improves previous approaches by considering horizontal wind field, virtual mass forces, and drag forces subjected to variable shape-dependent drag coefficients. Modeling suggests that the projectile's launch velocity and ejection angle are first-order parameters influencing ballistic trajectories. The projectile's density and minor radius are second-order factors, whereas both intermediate and major radii of the projectile are of third order. Comparing output parameters, assuming different input data, highlights the importance of considering a horizontal wind field and variable shape-dependent drag coefficients in ballistic modeling, which suggests that they should be included in every ballistic model. On the other hand, virtual mass forces should be discarded since they almost do not contribute to ballistic trajectories. Simulation results were used to constrain some crucial input parameters (launch velocity, ejection angle, wind speed, and wind azimuth) of the block that formed the biggest and most distal ballistic impact crater during the 1984-1993 eruptive cycle of Lascar volcano, Northern Chile. Subsequently, up to 106 simulations were performed, whereas nine ejection parameters were defined by a Latin-hypercube sampling approach. Simulation results were summarized as a quantitative probabilistic hazard map for ballistic projectiles. Transects were also done in order to depict aerial hazard zones based on the same probabilistic procedure. Both maps combined can be used as a hazard prevention tool for ground and aerial transits nearby unresting volcanoes.

  4. Launch vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, J. B.

    The basic principles which determine launcher design and hence constrain the spacecraft payload are determined. Some key features of the principal launcher alternatives in Europe and the U.S., namely, the unmanned, expendable Ariane and the manned, substantially reusable, Space Shuttle, are outlined. The equations of motion of the rocket are specialized to the vertical plane, parallel and normal to the flight direction, and to the motion of the center of mass and the pitch rotation. A typical Ariane 2 flight profile for transfer into GTO is illustrated. Some representative mission requirements for spacecraft launches are reviewed. Launch vehicle burnout velocities for spacecraft emplacement are given. Geostationary orbit emplacement, orbital mission performance, and configuration interactions are discussed.

  5. LADEE Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-09-07

    NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) observatory launches aboard the Minotaur V rocket from the Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport (MARS) at NASA's Wallops Flight Facility, Friday, Sept. 6, 2013 in Virginia. LADEE is a robotic mission that will orbit the moon where it will provide unprecedented information about the environment around the moon and give scientists a better understanding of other planetary bodies in our solar system and beyond. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  6. Launch Vehicles

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    The Titan II liftoff. The Titan II launch vehicle was used for carrying astronauts on the Gemini mission. The Gemini Program was an intermediate step between the Project Mercury and the Apollo Program. The major objectives were to subject are two men and supporting equipment to long duration flights, to effect rendezvous and docking with other orbiting vehicle, and to perfect methods of reentry, and landing the spacecraft.

  7. Launch Vehicles

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-07-09

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. In this HD video image, an Ares I x-test involves the upper stage separating from the first stage. This particular test was conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center in July 2007. (Highest resolution available)

  8. The Launch of the MA-6, Friendship 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    The launch of the MA-6, Friendship 7, on February 20, 1962. Boosted by the Mercury-Atlas vehicle, a modified Atlas Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM), Friendship 7 was the first U.S. marned orbital flight and carried Astronaut John H. Glenn into orbit. Astronaut Glenn became the first American to orbit the Earth.

  9. 79. View of interior of room 114, supervisor's office, transmitter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    79. View of interior of room 114, supervisor's office, transmitter building no. 102, with microfiche viewer and technical publications. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  10. 77. View of interior of room 115, building no. 102, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    77. View of interior of room 115, building no. 102, with technical publications and equipment for testing. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  11. INTERIOR VIEW OF EAST CORNER OF SECOND FLOOR SHOWING CLERESTORY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF EAST CORNER OF SECOND FLOOR SHOWING CLERESTORY WINDOWS. VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island Polaris Missile Lab & U.S. Fleet Ballistic Missile Submarine Training Center, Between Lexington Boulvevard and the sea plane ramps on the southwest side of Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  12. INTERIOR VIEW OF SOUTHWEST WALL OF SECOND FLOOR SHOWING WINDOWS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF SOUTHWEST WALL OF SECOND FLOOR SHOWING WINDOWS, SLIDING DOORS AND METAL ROOF FRAMING. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island Polaris Missile Lab & U.S. Fleet Ballistic Missile Submarine Training Center, Between Lexington Boulvevard and the sea plane ramps on the southwest side of Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  13. DETAIL OF INTERIOR OF MISSILE TUBE AT GROUND FLOOR LEVEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF INTERIOR OF MISSILE TUBE AT GROUND FLOOR LEVEL SHOWING AIR COMPRESSOR TANKS AND CURVING STEEL PIECE. VIEW FACING EAST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island Polaris Missile Lab & U.S. Fleet Ballistic Missile Submarine Training Center, Between Lexington Boulvevard and the sea plane ramps on the southwest side of Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  14. 78 FR 49729 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; U.S. Air Force Launches, Aircraft and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    ... incidental to launching space launch vehicles, intercontinental ballistic and small missiles, aircraft and... harassment. Description of the Specified Activity There are currently six active space launch vehicle... VAFB, including descriptions of the different space vehicles and missiles, are described in the USAF's...

  15. Ballistic Resistance of Polymeric Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Chad

    2005-03-01

    Ballistic-resistant body armor has been credited with saving more than 2,500 lives, but new materials are constantly being developed, and there currently exists no method for evaluating armor over time to ensure the continued effectiveness of the protection. We report on progress towards development of a standard test method for reliability of the active polymeric materials that comprise them.

  16. Computational analysis of the compressible flow driven by a piston in a ballistic range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajesh, G.; Mishra, R.; Kang, H. G.; Kim, H. D.

    2007-11-01

    The ballistic range has long been employed in a variety of engineering fields such as high-velocity impact engineering, projectile aerodynamics and aeroballistics, since it can create an extremely high-pressure state in very short time. Since the operation of the ballistic range includes many complicated phenomena, each process should be understood in detail for the performance enhancement of the device. One of the main processes which have significant influence on the device performance is the compression process of the driver gas. Most of the studies available in this field hardly discuss this phenomenon in detail and thus lack a proper understanding of its effect on the whole system performance. In the present study, a computational analysis has been made to investigate the fluid dynamic aspects of the compression process in the pump tube of a ballistic range and to assess how it affects the performance of the ballistic range. The results obtained are validated with the available experimental data. In order to evaluate the system performance, several performance parameters are defined. Effect of a shock tube added in between the pump tube and launch tube on the performance of the ballistic range is also studied analytically. Performance of the ballistic range could be significantly improved by the proper selection of the pump tube and high-pressure tube parameters and the addition of the shock tube.

  17. Launch Vehicles

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-08-09

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts the preparation and placement of a confidence ring for friction stir welding used in manufacturing aluminum panels that will fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel. The aluminum panels are manufactured and subjected to confidence tests during which the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  18. Launch Vehicles

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-09-09

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. In this HD video image, the first stage reentry parachute drop test is conducted at the Yuma, Arizona proving ground. The parachute tests demonstrated a three-stage deployment sequence that included the use of an Orbiter drag chute to properly stage the unfurling of the main chute. The parachute recovery system for Orion will be similar to the system used for Apollo command module landings and include two drogue, three pilot, and three main parachutes. (Highest resolution available)

  19. Launch Vehicles

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-09-09

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. In this HD video image, the first stage reentry parachute drop test is conducted at the Yuma, Arizona proving ground. The parachute tests demonstrated a three-stage deployment sequence that included the use of an Orbiter drag chute to properly stage the unfurling of the main chute. The parachute recovery system for Orion will be similar to the system used for Apollo command module landings and include two drogue, three pilot, and three main parachutes. (Highest resolution available)

  20. Launch Vehicles

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-08-09

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. In this HD video image, processes for upper stage barrel fabrication are talking place. Aluminum panels are manufacturing process demonstration articles that will undergo testing until perfected. The panels are built by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Largest resolution available)

  1. Launch Vehicles

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-08-09

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts the manufacturing of aluminum panels that will be used to form the Ares I barrel. The panels are manufacturing process demonstration articles that will undergo testing until perfected. The panels are built by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  2. Launch Vehicles

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-08-09

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts friction stir welding used in manufacturing aluminum panels that will fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel. The panels are subjected to confidence tests in which the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  3. Launch Vehicles

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-08-09

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image, depicts a manufactured aluminum panel, that will be used to fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel, undergoing a confidence panel test. In this test, the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  4. Launch Vehicles

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-08-08

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts a manufactured aluminum panel that will be used to fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel, undergoing a confidence panel test. In this test, the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  5. Launch Vehicles

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-08-09

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts confidence testing of a manufactured aluminum panel that will fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel. In this test, bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  6. Launch Vehicles

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-08-09

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts a manufactured aluminum panel, that will fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel, undergoing a confidence panel test. In this test, bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  7. Launch Vehicles

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-08-09

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts a manufactured aluminum panel, that will fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel, undergoing a confidence panel test. In this test, the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  8. Interplanetary mission design handbook. Volume 1, part 4: Earth to Saturn ballistic mission opportunities, 1985-2005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sergeyevsky, A. B.; Snyder, G. C.

    1981-01-01

    Graphical data necessary for the preliminary design of ballistic missions to Saturn are provided. Contours of launch energy requirements as well as many other launch and Saturn arrival parameters, are presented in launch date/arrival date space for all launch opportunities from 1985 through 2005. In addition, an extensive text is included which explains mission design methods, from launch window development to Saturn probe and orbiter arrival design, utilizing the graphical data in this volume as well as numerous equations elating various parameters. This is the first of a planned series of mission design documents which will apply to all planets and some other bodies in the solar system.

  9. Interplanetary mission design handbook. Volume 1, part 3: Earth to Jupiter ballistic mission opportunities, 1985-2005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sergeyevsky, A. B.; Snyder, G. C.

    1982-01-01

    Graphical data necessary for the preliminary design of ballistic missions to Jupiter are provided. Contours of launch energy requirements, as well as many other launch and Jupiter arrival parameters, are presented in launch date/arrival date space for all launch opportunities from 1985 through 2005. In addition, an extensive text is included which explains mission design methods, from launch window development to Jupiter probe and orbiter arrival design, utilizing the graphical data in this volume as well as numerous equations relating various parameters.

  10. Current Testing Capabilities at the NASA Ames Ballistic Ranges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, Alvin; Tam, Tim; Bogdanoff, David; Gage, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Capabilities for designing and performing ballistic range tests at the NASA Ames Research Center are presented. Computational tools to assist in designing and developing ballistic range models and to predict the flight characteristics of these models are described. A CFD code modeling two-stage gun performance is available, allowing muzzle velocity, maximum projectile base pressure, and gun erosion to be predicted. Aerodynamic characteristics such as drag and stability can be obtained at speeds ranging from 0.2 km/s to 8 km/s. The composition and density of the test gas can be controlled, which allows for an assessment of Reynolds number and specific heat ratio effects under conditions that closely match those encountered during planetary entry. Pressure transducers have been installed in the gun breech to record the time history of the pressure during launch, and pressure transducers have also been installed in the walls of the range to measure sonic boom effects. To illustrate the testing capabilities of the Ames ballistic ranges, an overview of some of the recent tests is given.

  11. Planetary Interiors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerdt, W. Bruce; Abercrombie, Rachel; Keddie, Susan; Mizutani, Hitoshi; Nagihara, Seiichi; Nakamura, Yosio; Pike, W. Thomas

    1996-01-01

    This report identifies two main themes to guide planetary science in the next two decades: understanding planetary origins, and understanding the constitution and fundamental processes of the planets themselves. Within the latter theme, four specific goals related to interior measurements addressing the theme. These are: (1) Understanding the internal structure and dynamics of at least one solid body, other than the Earth or Moon, that is actively convecting, (2) Determine the characteristics of the magnetic fields of Mercury and the outer planets to provide insight into the generation of planetary magnetic fields, (3) Specify the nature and sources of stress that are responsible for the global tectonics of Mars, Venus, and several icy satellites of the outer planets, and (4) Advance significantly our understanding of crust-mantle structure for all the solid planets. These goals can be addressed almost exclusively by measurements made on the surfaces of planetary bodies.

  12. Finite element analysis for the evaluation of protective functions of helmets against ballistic impact.

    PubMed

    Lee, H P; Gong, S W

    2010-10-01

    The ballistic impact of a human head model protected by a Personnel Armor System Ground Troops Kevlar® helmet is analysed using the finite element method. The emphasis is to examine the effect of the interior cushioning system as a shock absorber in mitigating ballistic impact to the head. The simulations of the frontal and side impacts of the full metal jacket (FMJ) and fragment-simulating projectile (FSP) were carried out using LS-DYNA. It was found that the Kevlar® helmet with its interior nylon and leather strap was able to defeat both the FMJ and FSP without the projectiles penetrating the helmet. However, the head injuries caused by the FMJ impact can be fatal due to the high stiffness of the interior strap. The bulge section at the side of the Kevlar® helmet had more room for deformation that resulted in less serious head injuries.

  13. A new nonpenetrating ballistic injury.

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, A W; Soderstrom, C A

    1978-01-01

    A new, nonpenetrating ballistic injury mechanism involving individuals protected by soft body armor is described. Experimental studies using laboratory animals have demonstrated that despite stopping missile penetration, the heart, liver, spleen, and spinal cord are vulnerable to injury. The rapid jolting force of an impacting bullet is contrasted with the usually encountered mechanisms producing blunt trauma injury. The experimental methodology used to assess a 20% increase in survival probability and an 80% decrease in the need for surgical intervention with a new soft body armor is reviewed. Five cases of ballistic assaults on law enforcement personnel protected by soft body armor are presented. Four emphasize the potentially lifesaving qualities of the armor, while the fifth indicates the need for torso encircling design. Hospitalization should follow all assaults, regardless of the innocuous appearance of the skin lesion and the apparent well being on the assaulted individual. Therapeutic guidelines for patient management are suggested. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:736653

  14. A new nonpenetrating ballistic injury.

    PubMed

    Carroll, A W; Soderstrom, C A

    1978-12-01

    A new, nonpenetrating ballistic injury mechanism involving individuals protected by soft body armor is described. Experimental studies using laboratory animals have demonstrated that despite stopping missile penetration, the heart, liver, spleen, and spinal cord are vulnerable to injury. The rapid jolting force of an impacting bullet is contrasted with the usually encountered mechanisms producing blunt trauma injury. The experimental methodology used to assess a 20% increase in survival probability and an 80% decrease in the need for surgical intervention with a new soft body armor is reviewed. Five cases of ballistic assaults on law enforcement personnel protected by soft body armor are presented. Four emphasize the potentially lifesaving qualities of the armor, while the fifth indicates the need for torso encircling design. Hospitalization should follow all assaults, regardless of the innocuous appearance of the skin lesion and the apparent well being on the assaulted individual. Therapeutic guidelines for patient management are suggested.

  15. Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Intelligence & Security MD30 BMD Information Management Systems MD31 Modeling & Simulation MD32 Quality, Safety, and Mission Assurance...Surveillance Model 2 (AN/TPY-2) Radars, 12 Launchers, 8 Missile Round Pallets, 7 Multifunctional Information Distribution System (MIDS) Terminals, 4...Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-362 Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense

  16. Ballistic Evaluation of 7056 Aluminum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-02-01

    Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. ii REPORT...V50) for various thicknesses of material . The V50 was then compared with other ballistic-grade AAs, namely AA7085-T711 and AA7085-T721. The results of...specification, allowing increased availability of material and pricing competition to benefit the Army. In addition to the 2 tempers outlined for the mil-spec

  17. Ballistic Evaluation of 2060 Aluminum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-24

    aluminum alloy (AA) 2060-T8 produced by Alcoa as part of a Defense Acquisition Challenge Program. Ballistic evaluation was performed using armor-piercing...included in the updated military specification MIL-DTL-32341A (MR). 15. SUBJECT TERMS aluminum, armor, V50, 2060, 6055, Defense Acquisition Challenge ...BLANK. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 1 1. Introduction In 2012 a Defense Acquisition Challenge (DAC) program proposal

  18. Ballistics and anatomical modelling - A review.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, Caitlin; Kumaratilake, Jaliya

    2016-11-01

    Ballistics is the study of a projectiles motion and can be broken down into four stages: internal, intermediate, external and terminal ballistics. The study of the effects a projectile has on a living tissue is referred to as wound ballistics and falls within terminal ballistics. To understand the effects a projectile has on living tissues the mechanisms of wounding need to be understood. These include the permanent and temporary cavities, energy, yawing, tumbling and fragmenting. Much ballistics research has been conducted including using cadavers, animal models and simulants such as ballistics ordnance gelatine. Further research is being conducted into developing anatomical, 3D, experimental and computational models. However, these models need to accurately represent the human body and its heterogeneous nature which involves understanding the biomechanical properties of the different tissues and organs. Further research is needed to accurately represent the human tissues with simulants and is slowly being conducted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ballistic food transport in toucans.

    PubMed

    Baussart, Sabine; Korsoun, Leonid; Libourel, Paul-Antoine; Bels, Vincent

    2009-08-01

    The basic mechanism of food transport in tetrapods is lingual-based. Neognathous birds use this mechanism for exploiting a large diversity of food resources, whereas paleognathous birds use cranioinertial mechanism with or without tongue involvement. Food transport in two neognathous species of toucans (Ramphastos toco and R. vitellinus) is defined as ballistic transport mechanism. Only one transport cycle is used for moving the food from the tip of the beak to the pharynx. The food is projected between jaws with similar initial velocity in both species. At the time of release, the angle between trajectory of food position and horizontal is higher in R. vitellinus with a shorter beak than in R. toco. The tongue never makes contact with the food nor is it used to expand the buccal cavity. Tongue movement is associated with throat expansion, permitting the food to reach the entrance of the esophagus at the end of the ballistic trajectory. Selection of large food items in the diet may explain the evolutionary trend of using ballistic transport in the feeding behavior of toucans, which plays a key role in ecology of tropical forest.

  20. Cloth Ballistic Vest Alters Response to Blast

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    Detrick, Frederick, MD 21701-501 ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. jACCESSION NO. 11. TITLE (include Security Classification) CLOTH BALLSISTIC VEST ALTERS RESPONSE...Suppl. ’rintd in USA Cloth Ballistic Vest Alters Response to Blast YANCY Y. PHILLIPS, M.D., THOMAS G. MUNDIE, PH.D., JOHN T. YELVERTON, M.S., AND DONALD R...RICHMOND, PH.D. Ballistic wounds have been and will remain the principal cause of casualties in combat. Cloth ballistic vests (CBV) play an

  1. Reduction of lunar landing fuel requirements by utilizing lunar ballistic capture.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Michael D; Belbruno, Edward A

    2005-12-01

    Ballistic lunar capture trajectories have been successfully utilized for lunar orbital missions since 1991. Recent interest in lunar landing trajectories has occurred due to a directive from President Bush to return humans to the Moon by 2015. NASA requirements for humans to return to the lunar surface include separation of crew and cargo missions, all lunar surface access, and anytime-abort to return to Earth. Such requirements are very demanding from a propellant standpoint. The subject of this paper is the application of lunar ballistic capture for the reduction of lunar landing propellant requirements. Preliminary studies of the application of weak stability boundary (WSB) trajectories and ballistic capture have shown that considerable savings in low Earth orbit (LEO) mission mass may be realized, on the order of 36% less than conventional Hohmann transfer orbit missions. Other advantages, such as reduction in launch window constraints and reduction of lunar orbit maintenance propellant requirements, have also surfaced from this study.

  2. Microbial arms race: Ballistic "nematocysts" in dinoflagellates represent a new extreme in organelle complexity.

    PubMed

    Gavelis, Gregory S; Wakeman, Kevin C; Tillmann, Urban; Ripken, Christina; Mitarai, Satoshi; Herranz, Maria; Özbek, Suat; Holstein, Thomas; Keeling, Patrick J; Leander, Brian S

    2017-03-01

    We examine the origin of harpoon-like secretory organelles (nematocysts) in dinoflagellate protists. These ballistic organelles have been hypothesized to be homologous to similarly complex structures in animals (cnidarians); but we show, using structural, functional, and phylogenomic data, that nematocysts evolved independently in both lineages. We also recorded the first high-resolution videos of nematocyst discharge in dinoflagellates. Unexpectedly, our data suggest that different types of dinoflagellate nematocysts use two fundamentally different types of ballistic mechanisms: one type relies on a single pressurized capsule for propulsion, whereas the other type launches 11 to 15 projectiles from an arrangement similar to a Gatling gun. Despite their radical structural differences, these nematocysts share a single origin within dinoflagellates and both potentially use a contraction-based mechanism to generate ballistic force. The diversity of traits in dinoflagellate nematocysts demonstrates a stepwise route by which simple secretory structures diversified to yield elaborate subcellular weaponry.

  3. Solid rocket booster performance evaluation model. Volume 3: Sample case. [propellant combustion simulation/internal ballistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The solid rocket booster performance evaluation model (SRB-11) is used to predict internal ballistics in a sample motor. This motor contains a five segmented grain. The first segment has a 14 pointed star configuration with a web which wraps partially around the forward dome. The other segments are circular in cross-section and are tapered along the interior burning surface. Two of the segments are inhibited on the forward face. The nozzle is not assumed to be submerged. The performance prediction is broken into two simulation parts: the delivered end item specific impulse and the propellant properties which are required as inputs for the internal ballistics module are determined; and the internal ballistics for the entire burn duration of the motor are simulated.

  4. Hazard map for volcanic ballistic impacts at Popocatépetl volcano (Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alatorre-Ibargüengoitia, Miguel A.; Delgado-Granados, Hugo; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2012-11-01

    During volcanic explosions, volcanic ballistic projectiles (VBP) are frequently ejected. These projectiles represent a threat to people, infrastructure, vegetation, and aircraft due to their high temperatures and impact velocities. In order to protect people adequately, it is necessary to delimit the projectiles' maximum range within well-defined explosion scenarios likely to occur in a particular volcano. In this study, a general methodology to delimit the hazard zones for VBP during volcanic eruptions is applied to Popocatépetl volcano. Three explosion scenarios with different intensities have been defined based on the past activity of the volcano and parameterized by considering the maximum kinetic energy associated with VBP ejected during previous eruptions. A ballistic model is used to reconstruct the "launching" kinetic energy of VBP observed in the field. In the case of Vulcanian eruptions, the most common type of activity at Popocatépetl, the ballistic model was used in concert with an eruptive model to correlate ballistic range with initial pressure and gas content, parameters that can be estimated by monitoring techniques. The results are validated with field data and video observations of different Vulcanian eruptions at Popocatépetl. For each scenario, the ballistic model is used to calculate the maximum range of VBP under optimum "launching" conditions: ballistic diameter, ejection angle, topography, and wind velocity. Our results are presented in the form of a VBP hazard map with topographic profiles that depict the likely maximum ranges of VBP under explosion scenarios defined specifically for Popocatépetl volcano. The hazard zones shown on the map allow the responsible authorities to plan the definition and mitigation of restricted areas during volcanic crises.

  5. Hazard map for volcanic ballistic impacts at El Chichón volcano (Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alatorre-Ibarguengoitia, Miguel; Ramos-Hernández, Silvia; Jiménez-Aguilar, Julio

    2014-05-01

    The 1982 eruption of El Chichón Volcano in southeastern Mexico had a strong social and environmental impact. The eruption resulted in the worst volcanic disaster in the recorded history of Mexico, causing about 2,000 casualties, displacing thousands, and producing severe economic losses. Even when some villages were relocated after the 1982 eruption, many people still live and work in the vicinities of the volcano and may be affected in the case of a new eruption. The hazard map of El Chichón volcano (Macías et al., 2008) comprises pyroclastic flows, pyroclastic surges, lahars and ash fall but not ballistic projectiles, which represent an important threat to people, infrastructure and vegetation in the case of an eruption. In fact, the fatalities reported in the first stage of the 1982 eruption were caused by roof collapse induced by ashfall and lithic ballistic projectiles. In this study, a general methodology to delimit the hazard zones for volcanic ballistic projectiles during volcanic eruptions is applied to El Chichón volcano. Different scenarios are defined based on the past activity of the volcano and parameterized by considering the maximum kinetic energy associated with ballistic projectiles ejected during previous eruptions. A ballistic model is used to reconstruct the "launching" kinetic energy of the projectiles observed in the field. The maximum ranges expected for the ballistics in the different explosive scenarios defined for El Chichón volcano are presented in a ballistic hazard map which complements the published hazard map. These maps assist the responsible authorities to plan the definition and mitigation of restricted areas during volcanic crises.

  6. Ballistics for physicians: myths about wound ballistics and gunshot injuries.

    PubMed

    Santucci, Richard A; Chang, Yao-Jen

    2004-04-01

    Wound ballistics is a difficult subject. The behavior of all bullets is unpredictable but the specific effect of high velocity projectiles has been a particular source of confusion in the literature. This confusion has resulted in the likely incorrect conclusion that all high velocity wounds require massive débridement. We reviewed the entirety of the literature on this subject and concluded that high velocity weapons do not reliably create massive wounds, and judicious débridement and staged explorations may be the best treatment method for these patients. A MEDLINE search and retrieval were done of all pertinent references from 1966 to May 2003 concerning the field of wound ballistics. Articles initially missed in this search were obtained from the bibliography of retrieved studies. More than 70 articles and book chapters were reviewed. Five common myths about the tissue effects of gunshot wounds were reviewed as well as the data that dispel these myths. Information on the effects of different bullet types, and the intended and actual effect of military rifle wounds were assessed. For the majority of high velocity gunshot wounds, especially military rifles that generally fire a projectile that is meant to stay intact after impact, wound severity can be limited, even much less than that from a civilian rifle, shotgun or handgun. Judicious use of débridement during surgical exploration limits the extent of iatrogenic injury in the surgical care of these patients.

  7. Ballistic-hole spectroscopy of interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecht, M. H.; Bell, L. D.; Kaiser, W. J.; Davis, L. C.

    1990-01-01

    A new technique allows direct control and measurement of ballistic-hole transport through interfaces. This spectroscopy has been applied to determine the detailed properties of hole transmission through metal-semiconductor interfaces and probe the valence-band structure of subsurface semiconductor heterostructures. The ballistic-hole probe is created by electron-tunneling-microscopy methods and provides high-spatial-resolution capabilities.

  8. Texture Strengthening of Plates for Ballistic Purposes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    orientation Ballistics Alloy steel Aluminum alloy 20. ABSTRACT (Continue an reveres side If necessary end Identllp by block number) -T6Motivated by... aluminum indicated only a weak texture, and /A relative absence of anisotropy leading to an absence significant ballistic effects. (Possibilities of...Taylor Factors ....... 21 4.0 EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON STEEL AND ALUMINUM .......................... 31 4.1 7039 Aluminum

  9. Boundary Scattering in Ballistic Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masubuchi, Satoru; Iguchi, Kazuyuki; Yamaguchi, Takehiro; Onuki, Masahiro; Arai, Miho; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Machida, Tomoki

    2012-07-01

    We report magnetotransport measurements in ballistic graphene mesoscopic wires where the charge carrier mean free path is comparable to the wire width W. Magnetoresistance curves show characteristic peak structures where the peak field scales with the ratio of cyclotron radius Rc and wire width W as W/Rc=0.9±0.1, due to diffusive boundary scattering. The obtained proportionality constant between Rc and W differs from that of a classical semiconductor two-dimensional electron system in which W/Rc=0.55.

  10. Ballistic-Electron-Emission Microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, William J.; Bell, L. Douglas

    1990-01-01

    Ballistic-electron-emission microscope (BEEM) employs scanning tunneling-microscopy (STM) methods for nondestructive, direct electrical investigation of buried interfaces, such as interface between semiconductor and thin metal film. In BEEM, there are at least three electrodes: emitting tip, biasing electrode, and collecting electrode, receiving current crossing interface under investigation. Signal-processing device amplifies electrode signals and converts them into form usable by computer. Produces spatial images of surface by scanning tip; in addition, provides high-resolution images of buried interface under investigation. Spectroscopic information extracted by measuring collecting-electrode current as function of one of interelectrode voltages.

  11. Ballistic piston fissioning plasma experiment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, B. E.; Schneider, R. T.; Thom, K.; Lalos, G. T.

    1971-01-01

    The production of fissioning uranium plasma samples such that the fission fragment stopping distance is less than the dimensions of the plasma is approached by using a ballistic piston device for the compression of uranium hexafluoride. The experimental apparatus is described. At room temperature the gun can be loaded up to 100 torr UF6 partial pressure, but at compression a thousand fold increase of pressure can be obtained at a particle density on the order of 10 to the 19th power per cu cm. Limited spectral studies of UF6 were performed while obtaining the pressure-volume data. The results obtained and their implications are discussed.

  12. Ballistic transport in disordered graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Schuessler, A.; Ostrovsky, P. M.; Gornyi, I. V.; Mirlin, A. D.

    2009-05-14

    An analytic theory of electron transport in disordered graphene in a ballistic geometry is developed. We consider a sample of a large width W and analyze the evolution of the conductance, the shot noise, and the full statistics of the charge transfer with increasing length L, both at the Dirac point and at a finite gate voltage. The transfer matrix approach combined with the disorder perturbation theory and the renormalization group is used. We also discuss the crossover to the diffusive regime and construct a 'phase diagram' of various transport regimes in graphene.

  13. Tunnel and field effect carrier ballistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, William J. (Inventor); Bell, L. Douglas (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for interacting carriers with a structure of matter employ an electrode for emitting said carriers at a distance from a surface of that structure, and cause such carriers to travel along ballistic trajectories inside that structure by providing along the mentioned distance a gap for performance of a process selected from the group of carrier tunneling and field emission and injecting carriers emitted by the mentioned electrode and that process ballistically into the structure through the gap and the mentioned surface. The carriers are collected or analyzed after their travel along ballistic trajectories in the structure of matter. Pertinent information on the inside of the structure is obtained by conducting inside that structure what conventionally would have been considered external ballistics, while performing the carrier-propelling internal ballistics conversely outside that structure.

  14. Ballistic superconductivity in semiconductor nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hao; Gül, Önder; Conesa-Boj, Sonia; Nowak, Michał P.; Wimmer, Michael; Zuo, Kun; Mourik, Vincent; de Vries, Folkert K.; van Veen, Jasper; de Moor, Michiel W. A.; Bommer, Jouri D. S.; van Woerkom, David J.; Car, Diana; Plissard, Sébastien R; Bakkers, Erik P.A.M.; Quintero-Pérez, Marina; Cassidy, Maja C.; Koelling, Sebastian; Goswami, Srijit; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Kouwenhoven, Leo P.

    2017-01-01

    Semiconductor nanowires have opened new research avenues in quantum transport owing to their confined geometry and electrostatic tunability. They have offered an exceptional testbed for superconductivity, leading to the realization of hybrid systems combining the macroscopic quantum properties of superconductors with the possibility to control charges down to a single electron. These advances brought semiconductor nanowires to the forefront of efforts to realize topological superconductivity and Majorana modes. A prime challenge to benefit from the topological properties of Majoranas is to reduce the disorder in hybrid nanowire devices. Here we show ballistic superconductivity in InSb semiconductor nanowires. Our structural and chemical analyses demonstrate a high-quality interface between the nanowire and a NbTiN superconductor that enables ballistic transport. This is manifested by a quantized conductance for normal carriers, a strongly enhanced conductance for Andreev-reflecting carriers, and an induced hard gap with a significantly reduced density of states. These results pave the way for disorder-free Majorana devices. PMID:28681843

  15. Ballistic superconductivity in semiconductor nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; Gül, Önder; Conesa-Boj, Sonia; Nowak, Michał P.; Wimmer, Michael; Zuo, Kun; Mourik, Vincent; de Vries, Folkert K.; van Veen, Jasper; de Moor, Michiel W. A.; Bommer, Jouri D. S.; van Woerkom, David J.; Car, Diana; Plissard, Sébastien R.; Bakkers, Erik P. A. M.; Quintero-Pérez, Marina; Cassidy, Maja C.; Koelling, Sebastian; Goswami, Srijit; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Kouwenhoven, Leo P.

    2017-07-01

    Semiconductor nanowires have opened new research avenues in quantum transport owing to their confined geometry and electrostatic tunability. They have offered an exceptional testbed for superconductivity, leading to the realization of hybrid systems combining the macroscopic quantum properties of superconductors with the possibility to control charges down to a single electron. These advances brought semiconductor nanowires to the forefront of efforts to realize topological superconductivity and Majorana modes. A prime challenge to benefit from the topological properties of Majoranas is to reduce the disorder in hybrid nanowire devices. Here we show ballistic superconductivity in InSb semiconductor nanowires. Our structural and chemical analyses demonstrate a high-quality interface between the nanowire and a NbTiN superconductor that enables ballistic transport. This is manifested by a quantized conductance for normal carriers, a strongly enhanced conductance for Andreev-reflecting carriers, and an induced hard gap with a significantly reduced density of states. These results pave the way for disorder-free Majorana devices.

  16. Ballistic superconductivity in semiconductor nanowires.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Gül, Önder; Conesa-Boj, Sonia; Nowak, Michał P; Wimmer, Michael; Zuo, Kun; Mourik, Vincent; de Vries, Folkert K; van Veen, Jasper; de Moor, Michiel W A; Bommer, Jouri D S; van Woerkom, David J; Car, Diana; Plissard, Sébastien R; Bakkers, Erik P A M; Quintero-Pérez, Marina; Cassidy, Maja C; Koelling, Sebastian; Goswami, Srijit; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Kouwenhoven, Leo P

    2017-07-06

    Semiconductor nanowires have opened new research avenues in quantum transport owing to their confined geometry and electrostatic tunability. They have offered an exceptional testbed for superconductivity, leading to the realization of hybrid systems combining the macroscopic quantum properties of superconductors with the possibility to control charges down to a single electron. These advances brought semiconductor nanowires to the forefront of efforts to realize topological superconductivity and Majorana modes. A prime challenge to benefit from the topological properties of Majoranas is to reduce the disorder in hybrid nanowire devices. Here we show ballistic superconductivity in InSb semiconductor nanowires. Our structural and chemical analyses demonstrate a high-quality interface between the nanowire and a NbTiN superconductor that enables ballistic transport. This is manifested by a quantized conductance for normal carriers, a strongly enhanced conductance for Andreev-reflecting carriers, and an induced hard gap with a significantly reduced density of states. These results pave the way for disorder-free Majorana devices.

  17. The impact of acceleration on barrel/launch package design

    SciTech Connect

    Ang, J.A. ); Hauze, G. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the impact of launch acceleration on the design of electromagnetic launcher barrels and on the design of associated launch packages. This is of particular interest because launch package size and mass directly affect the overall armament system size and mass. A common design approach is to use as the peak launch acceleration, the maximum acceleration which the projectile can be designed to withstand. While this approach will minimize barrel length, it may also yield an excessively large overall system size and mass, especially for the long, slender projectile configurations which are desired for high aero-thermal and terminal ballistics performance. An alternate design approach is described which balances the goals of reducing barrel length with reducing launch package mass. Results illustrate the benefits of this balanced design approach on overall armament system size and mass.

  18. Tactical Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in a Proposed Joint Infrastructure to Counter Theater Ballistic Missiles.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-03-01

    tracking and if necessary destroying TBM/TELs. 1. Overhead Assets Successfully countering the TBM threat begins before hostilities erupt. The...infrastructure must provide unobtrusive detection and tracking methods to monitor the TBM forces of potential adversaries during peacetime. 3 "Overhead" (satellite...detect Iraqi SCUD launches. 2. COBRA BALL (RC-135S). Another national asset designed to detect and track ballistic missiles, COBRA BALL aircraft are in

  19. Apollo 12 lunar module impact: laboratory simulation and possible downrange ballistic effects.

    PubMed

    Swift, H F; McGetchin, T R; Preonas, D D; Johnson, S W

    1970-08-28

    Plastic pellets were fired into sand targets at a launch angle of 4 degrees and a velocity of 1.68 kilometers per second, the conditions of the Apollo 12 lunar module impact. Shallow elliptical or doublet craters were formed, similar to certain lunar craters. Analysis of the ejecta suggests (i) that lunar module debris skipped and, with some crater ejecta, reimpacted far downrange, but (ii) this ballistic rain does not account for the anomalous seismic signal.

  20. Theatre Ballistic Missile Defense-Multisensor Fusion, Targeting and Tracking Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-03-01

    submunitions. An advantage of the boost- phase defense is that during a launch, the missile’s rocket motors spew out hot gases that are easy to locate...study of intercepting Theatre Ballistic Missiles (TBMs) in their boost phase was prompted by concerns about the widespread dissemination of submunitions...and the differentiation of decoys from actual warheads released early in the missile’s midcourse flight. Boost Phase Intercept (BPI) would alleviate

  1. Venture Class Launch Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiese, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Provide an introduction to the Launch Services Program, and specifically the strategic initiative that drove the Venture Class Launch Services contracts. Provide information from the VCLS request for proposals, as well as the Agency's CubeSat Launch Initiative.

  2. Launch summary for 1978

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vostreys, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    Sounding rocket, satellite, and space probe launchings are presented. Time, date, and location of the launches are provided. The sponsoring countries and the institutions responsible for the launch are listed.

  3. KSC Launch Control Center (LCC) Firing Room 1 during STS-32 launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1990-01-09

    S90-29047 99Jan 1990) --- At the conclusion of another successful countdown, members of the KSC launch team in Firing Room 1 rivet their eyes on the skies to the east of the Launch Control Center. Their reward was a glimpse of Columbia burning its way upward up from Complex 39's Pad A. The brilliant flame of the boosters hurled shadows and patches of light into the firing room's interior. Launch of the STS-32 mission at 7:35 a.m. EST today marked the beginning of a busy year which could see the launch of as many as 10 missions.

  4. Aero-assisted trajectories for direct launch systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McInnes, Colin R.

    The dynamics of direct launch systems are investigated using the method of matched asymptotic expansions. Using this methodology, analytic solutions are obtained for both ballistic and lifting projectile motion. It is then shown, using parametric optimization, that the required orbital injection impulse is lower for a lifting projectile. Larger launch elevations may be used so that the atmospheric path length, and so drag loss, is lower than for a ballistic projectile. The aerodynamic lift acceleration also induces trajectory curvature to ensure a low flight path angle, and so large transverse velocity, on exit from the atmosphere. The reduction in orbital injection impulse can lead to a greatly increased payload mass fraction for the system.

  5. DETAIL OF OPEN HATCH SHOWING INTERIOR OF MISSILE TUBE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF OPEN HATCH SHOWING INTERIOR OF MISSILE TUBE AND OPEN HATCH AND DOOR ON OPPOSITE SIDE OF TUBE (AT THIRD LEVEL OF MISSILE LAB). VIEW FACING WEST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island Polaris Missile Lab & U.S. Fleet Ballistic Missile Submarine Training Center, Between Lexington Boulvevard and the sea plane ramps on the southwest side of Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  6. Preservation and storage of prepared ballistic gelatine.

    PubMed

    Mattijssen, E J A T; Alberink, I; Jacobs, B; van den Boogaard, Y

    2016-02-01

    The use of ballistic gelatine, generally accepted as a human muscle tissue simulant in wound ballistic studies, might be improved by adding a preservative (Methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate) which inhibits microbial growth. This study shows that replacing a part of the gelatine powder by the preservative does not significantly alter the penetration depth of projectiles. Storing prepared blocks of ballistic gelatine over time decreased the penetration depth of projectiles. Storage of prepared gelatine for 4 week already showed a significant effect on the penetration depth of projectiles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Implications of defenses against tactical ballistic missiles

    SciTech Connect

    Flax, A.

    1994-05-01

    The growing number of short- to medium-range ballistic missiles (SMBMs) in the inventories of many smaller states that have had recent or less recent armed conflicts with one another has been a source of concern to many countries. Inevitably this concern over ballistic missiles had been linked to their use as delivery vehicles for {open_quotes}weapons of mass destruction{close_quotes}, a category that now includes nuclear, chemical and biological weapons. But it can be argued that this categorization is not particularly useful as a point of departure for discussions of ballistic missile defense (BMD) against SMBMs.

  8. MIDAS - Mission design and analysis software for the optimization of ballistic interplanetary trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Carl G., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    A patched conic trajectory optimization program MIDAS is described that was developed to investigate a wide variety of complex ballistic heliocentric transfer trajectories. MIDAS includes the capability of optimizing trajectory event times such as departure date, arrival date, and intermediate planetary flyby dates and is able to both add and delete deep space maneuvers when dictated by the optimization process. Both powered and unpowered flyby or gravity assist trajectories of intermediate bodies can be handled and capability is included to optimize trajectories having a rendezvous with an intermediate body such as for a sample return mission. Capability is included in the optimization process to constrain launch energy and launch vehicle parking orbit parameters.

  9. Wave propagation in ballistic gelatine.

    PubMed

    Naarayan, Srinivasan S; Subhash, Ghatu

    2017-04-01

    Wave propagation characteristics in long cylindrical specimens of ballistic gelatine have been investigated using a high speed digital camera and hyper elastic constitutive models. The induced transient deformation is modelled with strain rate dependent Mooney-Rivlin parameters which are determined by modelling the stress-strain response of gelatine at a range of strain rates. The varying velocity of wave propagation through the gelatine cylinder is derived as a function of prestress or stretch in the gelatine specimen. A finite element analysis is conducted using the above constitutive model by suitably defining the impulse imparted by the polymer bar into the gelatine specimen. The model results are found to capture the experimentally observed wave propagation characteristics in gelatine effectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Defending against ballistic missile attacks

    SciTech Connect

    Frelk, J.J.; Tait, G.E.

    1990-01-01

    This book is a compendium of information on the proliferation of ballistic missiles and other defense issues. This volume describes recent SDI advances in crystal clear language. It explains how the marriage of ultra-compact electronics and rocketry has created the smart bullet or brilliant pebble--a projectile with a tiny but powerful compute brain. The brilliant pebble tracks it target by sensing the heat the target emits, as a snake does when tracking a small mammal. Then, guided by its miniaturized computer brain, the brilliant pebble steers itself into the target and destroys it by force of the impact. In this latest form, the brilliant pebble even has the ability to take sightings on the stars, setting its course by celestial navigation.

  11. Electrostatically Manipulated Ballistic Spin Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Mark

    2011-03-01

    Two decades ago Datta and Das published a remarkable paper concerning spin polarized ballistic electron currents in a semiconductor channel and the Rashba spin orbit interaction. They predicted that the source-drain conductance of a spin-injected Field Effect Transistor (spin FET) would oscillate periodically as a function of monotonically increasing gate voltage. We have observed Datta Das oscillations using spin-FETs with ferromagnetic metal electrodes as source and drain. The channel is composed of a high mobility InAs single quantum well heterostructure with strong spin-orbit interaction. The source-drain length is less than the electron mean free path at T=1.8 K. Using the nonlocal geometry, diffusive carriers are removed at a remote ground and the channel conductance is dominated by a current of spin polarized ballistic electrons. A conductance that oscillates as a function of gate voltage is observed. The oscillation amplitude is calibrated from the lateral spin valve magnetoresistance. The spin-orbit interaction parameter is determined from beats in Shubnikov-de Haas data. Thus, the fit to theory has no adjustable parameters other than a small phase factor. Finally, we compare the temperature dependence of the oscillation amplitude with that of the carrier mean free path. The importance to Spintronics, which proposes the use of both spin and charge as state variables, is the demonstration that carrier spin orientation can be modulated by voltage, a parameter normally associated with charge. In collaboration with H.C. Koo, J. Eom, S.H. Han and J. Chang. I acknowledge support from ONR.

  12. 100. INTERIOR OF SKID 9A: VENT VALVE AND RELIEF VALVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    100. INTERIOR OF SKID 9A: VENT VALVE AND RELIEF VALVE FOR RAPID-LOAD LIQUID OXYGEN TANK - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  13. 48. Quincy, MA, BO37, Launch Area, Underground Missile Storage Structure, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Quincy, MA, BO-37, Launch Area, Underground Missile Storage Structure, interior detail of water and hydraulic pumps VIEW WEST - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, Launch Area, East Windsor Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

  14. 4. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING CIRCUIT BOARD HOUSING AND SWITCHING EQUIPMENT; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING CIRCUIT BOARD HOUSING AND SWITCHING EQUIPMENT; VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 36003, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  15. INTERIOR OF ALTITUDE CHAMBER L FROM TOP LEVEL OF ACCESS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF ALTITUDE CHAMBER L FROM TOP LEVEL OF ACCESS PLATFORMS, FACING WEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Altitude Chambers, First Street, between Avenue D and Avenue E, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  16. DETAIL OF UTILITY PIPES AND PLATFORM SUPPORT COLUMN, INTERIOR OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF UTILITY PIPES AND PLATFORM SUPPORT COLUMN, INTERIOR OF ALTITUDE CHAMBER L, FACING EAST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Altitude Chambers, First Street, between Avenue D and Avenue E, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  17. UPPER HALF OF THE INTERIOR OF ALTITUDE CHAMBER R, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    UPPER HALF OF THE INTERIOR OF ALTITUDE CHAMBER R, LOOKING UP FROM BOTTOM LEVEL, FACING NORTHEAST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Altitude Chambers, First Street, between Avenue D and Avenue E, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  18. INTERIOR OF ALTITUDE CHAMBER L, LOOKING UP FROM BOTTOM LEVEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF ALTITUDE CHAMBER L, LOOKING UP FROM BOTTOM LEVEL OF INTERNAL PLATFORMS, FACING EAST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Altitude Chambers, First Street, between Avenue D and Avenue E, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  19. EXTERIOR AND INTERIOR VIEW OF AIRLOCK FOR ALTITUDE CHAMBER R, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR AND INTERIOR VIEW OF AIRLOCK FOR ALTITUDE CHAMBER R, FACING SOUTH - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Altitude Chambers, First Street, between Avenue D and Avenue E, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  20. DETAIL OF WALLMOUNTED STAIRS ON INTERIOR OF ALTITUDE CHAMBER L, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF WALL-MOUNTED STAIRS ON INTERIOR OF ALTITUDE CHAMBER L, FACING SOUTHWEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Altitude Chambers, First Street, between Avenue D and Avenue E, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  1. LOWER HALF OF THE INTERIOR OF ALTITUDE CHAMBER R, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOWER HALF OF THE INTERIOR OF ALTITUDE CHAMBER R, LOOKING UP FROM BOTTOM LEVEL, FACING NORTHEAST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Altitude Chambers, First Street, between Avenue D and Avenue E, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  2. INTERIOR OF ALTITUDE CHAMBER R, LOOKING DOWN FROM AIRLOCK, FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF ALTITUDE CHAMBER R, LOOKING DOWN FROM AIRLOCK, FACING NORTHWEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Altitude Chambers, First Street, between Avenue D and Avenue E, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  3. 4. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING CURRENT USE AS MAGNETIC TAPE STORAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING CURRENT USE AS MAGNETIC TAPE STORAGE FACILITY; VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 36002, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  4. DETAIL OF THE INTERIOR OF THE DOMED LID, ALTITUDE CHAMBER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF THE INTERIOR OF THE DOMED LID, ALTITUDE CHAMBER R, FACING NORTHWEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Altitude Chambers, First Street, between Avenue D and Avenue E, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  5. 7. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING JOINTS, PUMPS, PIPES AND TRAPS; VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING JOINTS, PUMPS, PIPES AND TRAPS; VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 28422, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  6. 7. MAGAZINE P STAIRWAY INTO THE INTERIOR, LOOKING WEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. MAGAZINE P STAIRWAY INTO THE INTERIOR, LOOKING WEST. - NIKE Missile Base C-84, Underground Storage Magazines & Launcher-Loader Assemblies, Easternmost portion of launch area, Barrington, Cook County, IL

  7. 15. MAGAZINE P INTERIOR, ELEVATOR OPERATIONS BUTTON DETAIL. NIKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. MAGAZINE P INTERIOR, ELEVATOR OPERATIONS BUTTON DETAIL. - NIKE Missile Base C-84, Underground Storage Magazines & Launcher-Loader Assemblies, Easternmost portion of launch area, Barrington, Cook County, IL

  8. 9. MAGAZINE P INTERIOR, LOOKING TO DOORWAY ENTRANCE. NIKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. MAGAZINE P INTERIOR, LOOKING TO DOORWAY ENTRANCE. - NIKE Missile Base C-84, Underground Storage Magazines & Launcher-Loader Assemblies, Easternmost portion of launch area, Barrington, Cook County, IL

  9. 6. PHOTOCOPY, INTERIOR OF MAGAZINE LOOKING FROM GROUND LEVEL. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. PHOTOCOPY, INTERIOR OF MAGAZINE LOOKING FROM GROUND LEVEL. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Underground Storage Magazines & Launcher-Loader Assemblies, Southwesternmost end of launch area, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  10. DETAIL VIEW OF THE INTERIOR OF THE PORT TSM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF THE INTERIOR OF THE PORT TSM - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Mobile Launcher Platforms, Launcher Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  11. STS-120 launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-10-23

    STS120-S-026 (23 Oct. 2007) --- In the firing room of the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, NASA Shuttle Launch Director Michael Leinbach (second right) and launch managers watch the 11:38 a.m. (EDT) launch of Space Shuttle Discovery. Discovery launched Oct. 23 on a 14-day construction mission to the International Space Station. Photo credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  12. Ballistic armor and method of producing same

    SciTech Connect

    Vanark, V.C.; Ford, T.M. Sonmino, C.B.

    1993-08-17

    A method is described of producing ballistic armor comprising the steps of: liquifying ballistic metal alloy; transferring said metal alloy in a liquid state to a tundish; supplying a controlled stream of said liquid metal alloy from said tundish to a gas atomizer having a pressurized inert gas feed; impacting said stream by a high velocity jet of inert gas to produce a stream of metal alloy particles; spraying said metal alloy particles onto a collector to form a dense ballistic armor preform; cooling of the metal alloy particles during said spraying at a rate of 10[sup 5] C/second to 10[sup 3] C/second, and mechanically working said preform to finish said preform into a desired ballistic armor shaped for fuse in military applications.

  13. Ballistic missile proliferation: An emerging threat 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Nagler, R.G.

    1992-10-01

    This report, based solely on information available from unclassified sources, provides a coherent picture of the scope and trends of ballistic missile proliferation. The focus is on countries developing, producing, or owning ballistic missiles capable of threatening the military forces, assets, or populations of neighboring or geographically remote countries. The report also identifies other countries expected to obtain operational ballistic missile capabilities, discusses expected growth in performance, and examines the projected availability of warheads of mass destruction. The emphasis is on ballistic missiles of ranges greater than approximately 300 km, though shorter range battlefield weapons are discussed as forerunners. The assessment excludes principal U.S. allies and countries formerly in the Warsaw Pact, except where these countries have sold missiles, technology; or personnel services to developing nations in support of their missile programs.

  14. Strategy of Khrunichev's Launch Vehicles Further Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedev, A. A.; Kuzin, A. I.; Karrask, V. K.

    2002-01-01

    vehicles and it is concerned with a further evolution of its launcher fleet in order to meet arising demands of their services customers. Continuing to provide an operation of current "Proton" heavy launch vehicle and "Rockot" small launch vehicle, Khrunichev is carrying out a permanent improvement of these launchers as well as is developing new advanced launch systems. Thus, the `Proton' just has the improved "Proton-M" version, which was successfully tested in a flight, while an improvement of the "Rockot" is provided by a permanent modernization of its "Breeze-KM" upper stage and a payload fairing. Enhancing of the "Proton/Proton-M's" lift capabilities and flexibility of operation is being provided by introduction of advanced upper stages, the "Breeze- M", which was just put into service, and KVRB being in the development. "Angara-1.1" small launcher is scheduled to a launch in 2003. A creation of this family foresees not only a range of small, medium and heavy launch vehicles based on a modular principle of design but also a construction of high-automated launch site at the Russian Plesetsk spaceport. An operation of the "Angara" family's launchers will allow to inject payloads of actually all classes from Russian national territory into all range of applicable orbits with high technical and economic indices. ecological safety of drop zones, Khrunichev is developing the "Baikal" fly-back reusable booster. This booster would replace expendable first stages of small "Angaras" and strap-ons of medium/heavy launchers, which exert a most influence on the Earth's environment. intercontinental ballistic missiles to current and advanced space launch vehicles of various classes. A succession of the gained experience and found technological solutions are shown.

  15. RSRM-11 (36OW011) ballistics mass properties (STS-35)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchinson, B. J.; Gruet, L. P.; Richards, M. C.

    1991-01-01

    The propulsion performance and reconstructed mass properties data from Thiolol's RSRM-11 motors which were assigned to the STS-35 launch are contained. The Thiokol manufacturing designations for the motors were 360W011A/360W011B, which are referred to as RSRM-11A and RSRM-B, respectively. The launch of STS-35 occurred on 2 December 1990 at the Eastern Test Range (ETR). The data contained herein was input to the STS-35 Flight Evaluation Report. The SRM propellant, TP-H1148, is a composite type solid propellants, formulated of polybutediene acrylic acid, acryonitrile terpolymer binder, epoxy curing agent, ammonium perchlorate oxidizer, and aluminum powder fuel. A small amount of burning rate catalyst (iron oxide) was added to achieve the desired propellant burn rate. The propellant evaluation and raw material information for the RSRM-11 are included. The ballistic performance presented was based on the Operational Flight Instrumentation (OFI) 12.5 sample per second pressure data for the steady state and tail off portion of the pressure trace. Recent studies have shown that the transducers are affected by the measuring system at KSC and temperature gradients created by the igniter heaters. Therefore, an adjustment to the data from each transducer is made to make the initial reading match the atmospheric pressure at the time of launch.

  16. Ballistics considerations for small-caliber, low-density projectiles

    SciTech Connect

    Gouge, M.J.; Baylor, L.R.; Combs, S.K.; Fisher, P.W.; Foster, C.A.; Foust, C.R.; Milora, S.L.; Qualls, A.L.

    1993-11-01

    One major application for single- and two-stage light gas guns is for fueling magnetic fusion confinement devices. Powder guns are not a feasible alternative due to possible plasma contamination by residual powder gases and the eventual requirement of steady-state operation at {approximately} 1 Hz, which will dictate a closed gas handling system where propellant gases are recovered, processed and recompressed. Interior ballistic calculations for single-stage light gas guns, both analytical and numerical, are compared to an extensive data base for low density hydrogenic projectiles (pellets). Some innovative range diagnostics are described for determining the size and velocity of these small (several mm) size projectiles. A conceptual design of a closed cycle propellant gas system is presented including tradeoffs between different light propellant gases.

  17. Quantum Mechanical Modeling of Ballistic MOSFETs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svizhenko, Alexei; Anantram, M. P.; Govindan, T. R.; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this project was to develop theory, approximations, and computer code to model quasi 1D structures such as nanotubes, DNA, and MOSFETs: (1) Nanotubes: Influence of defects on ballistic transport, electro-mechanical properties, and metal-nanotube coupling; (2) DNA: Model electron transfer (biochemistry) and transport experiments, and sequence dependence of conductance; and (3) MOSFETs: 2D doping profiles, polysilicon depletion, source to drain and gate tunneling, understand ballistic limit.

  18. 26th International Symposium on Ballistics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-16

    Borvik 12048 - The Penetration Process of Jets and Long Rods in Water , Dr. Dan Yaziv, Israel; Meir Mayseless, Zvi Cooper, Yehiel Reifen, Eitan Hirsch...Defense Industrial Association EVENT #1210 SEPTEMBER 12-16, 2011 WWW.NDIA.ORG/MEETINGS/1210 HYATT REGENCY MIAMI u MIAMI, FLORIDA PROMOTING NATIONAL...Ballistics is jointly organized and supported by the International Ballistics Society (IBS), in conjunction with the National Defense Industrial

  19. Space Shuttle Discovery Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-05-31

    NASA Shuttle Launch Director Michael Leinbach, left, STS-124 Assistant Launch Director Ed Mango, center, and Flow Director for Space Shuttle Discovery Stephanie Stilson clap in the the Launch Control Center after the main engine cut off and successful launch of the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-124) Saturday, May 31, 2008, at the Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. The Shuttle lifted off from launch pad 39A at 5:02 p.m. EDT. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  20. Determine ISS Soyuz Orbital Module Ballistic Limits for Steel Projectiles Hypervelocity Impact Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, Frankel

    2013-01-01

    A new orbital debris environment model (ORDEM 3.0) defines the density distribution of the debris environment in terms of the fraction of debris that are low-density (plastic), medium-density (aluminum) or high-density (steel) particles. This hypervelocity impact (HVI) program focused on assessing ballistic limits (BLs) for steel projectiles impacting the enhanced Soyuz Orbital Module (OM) micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) shield configuration. The ballistic limit was defined as the projectile size on the threshold of failure of the OM pressure shell as a function of impact speeds and angle. The enhanced OM shield configuration was first introduced with Soyuz 30S (launched in May 2012) to improve the MMOD protection of Soyuz vehicles docked to the International Space Station (ISS). This test program provides HVI data on U.S. materials similar in composition and density to the Russian materials for the enhanced Soyuz OM shield configuration of the vehicle. Data from this test program was used to update ballistic limit equations used in Soyuz OM penetration risk assessments. The objective of this hypervelocity impact test program was to determine the ballistic limit particle size for 440C stainless steel spherical projectiles on the Soyuz OM shielding at several impact conditions (velocity and angle combinations). This test report was prepared by NASA-JSC/ HVIT, upon completion of tests.

  1. An Outlook for the Twenty First Century as to Launch Operations, Facilities, and Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftus, Joseph P., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A discussion of launch systems for the 21st century is presented. The following launch systems are mentioned: the European Ariane family; the Japanese H-1 and H-2; the U.S.'s Titan, Delta, Atlas, and Space Shuttle; the Chinese Long March 4; and the USSR's Mir, Proton, and Zenit. Systems currently under investigation, including the Assured Crew Return Vehicle, Personnel Launch Systems, and Single Stage to Orbit (SSTO), are discussed. Automated operations, low Earth orbit, and reliability are addressed. Standards that were acceptable for ballistic missiles will not be acceptable for future launch vehicles. The achievement of significantly higher levels of reliability is seen as the challenge.

  2. An Outlook for the Twenty First Century as to Launch Operations, Facilities, and Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftus, Joseph P., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A discussion of launch systems for the 21st century is presented. The following launch systems are mentioned: the European Ariane family; the Japanese H-1 and H-2; the U.S.'s Titan, Delta, Atlas, and Space Shuttle; the Chinese Long March 4; and the USSR's Mir, Proton, and Zenit. Systems currently under investigation, including the Assured Crew Return Vehicle, Personnel Launch Systems, and Single Stage to Orbit (SSTO), are discussed. Automated operations, low Earth orbit, and reliability are addressed. Standards that were acceptable for ballistic missiles will not be acceptable for future launch vehicles. The achievement of significantly higher levels of reliability is seen as the challenge.

  3. Linking crime guns: the impact of ballistics imaging technology on the productivity of the Boston Police Department's Ballistics Unit.

    PubMed

    Braga, Anthony A; Pierce, Glenn L

    2004-07-01

    Ballistics imaging technology has received national attention as a potent tool for moving the law enforcement response to violent gun criminals forward by linking multiple crime scenes to one firearm. This study examines the impact of ballistics imaging technology on the productivity of the Boston Police Department's Ballistics Unit. Using negative binomial regression models to analyze times series data on ballistics matches, we find that ballistics imaging technology was associated with a more than sixfold increase in the monthly number of ballistics matches made by the Boston Police Department's Ballistics Unit. Cost-effectiveness estimates and qualitative evidence also suggest that ballistics imaging technology allows law enforcement agencies to make hits that would not have been possible using traditional ballistics methods.

  4. 18. VIEW OF EAST SIDE INTERIOR OF MST AT STATIONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VIEW OF EAST SIDE INTERIOR OF MST AT STATIONS 3 AND 12, FACING WEST. COMPRESSED AIR TANK AND GENERATOR AT STATION 3. CURTAIN FOR NORTH ENVIRONMENTAL DOOR VISIBLE ON LEFT SIDE OF PHOTOGRAPH; RAIL VISIBLE AT BOTTOM OF PHOTOGRAPH. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  5. 17. VIEW OF INTERIOR, EAST SIDE, DECK LEVEL OF MST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW OF INTERIOR, EAST SIDE, DECK LEVEL OF MST. NOTE CANVAS CURTAIN (RIGHT) USED TO COVER SOUTH SIDE OF MST BELOW LOWEST ENVIRONMENTAL DOORS. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  6. 20. VIEW OF RETRACTED PLATFORMS ON INTERIOR EAST SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. VIEW OF RETRACTED PLATFORMS ON INTERIOR EAST SIDE OF MST. SLIDING PLATFORM AT STATION 39.5 IN VIEW AT TOP OF PHOTOGRAPH. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  7. 18. LAUNCH CONTROL SUPPORT BUILDING. 'MISSILE ART' MURAL PAINTED ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. LAUNCH CONTROL SUPPORT BUILDING. 'MISSILE ART' MURAL PAINTED ON INTERIOR WALL OF ELEVATOR SHAFT. VIEW TO EAST. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  8. 1. Launch facility, delta 6, approach road and gate, pole ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Launch facility, delta 6, approach road and gate, pole marking the hardened intersite cable system in right center, commercial power pole outside fence in left center, view towards south - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility D-6, 4 miles north of Badlands National Park Headquarters, 4.5 miles east of Jackson County line on county road, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  9. 4. Inside perimeter fence, view towards east and launch closure, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Inside perimeter fence, view towards east and launch closure, sensor EMP antenna left center - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility D-6, 4 miles north of Badlands National Park Headquarters, 4.5 miles east of Jackson County line on county road, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  10. 31. Lower level, battery at extreme lower right, launch tube ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Lower level, battery at extreme lower right, launch tube heater control panel at right, looking east - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  11. Projectile penetration into ballistic gelatin.

    PubMed

    Swain, M V; Kieser, D C; Shah, S; Kieser, J A

    2014-01-01

    Ballistic gelatin is frequently used as a model for soft biological tissues that experience projectile impact. In this paper we investigate the response of a number of gelatin materials to the penetration of spherical steel projectiles (7 to 11mm diameter) with a range of lower impacting velocities (<120m/s). The results of sphere penetration depth versus projectile velocity are found to be linear for all systems above a certain threshold velocity required for initiating penetration. The data for a specific material impacted with different diameter spheres were able to be condensed to a single curve when the penetration depth was normalised by the projectile diameter. When the results are compared with a number of predictive relationships available in the literature, it is found that over the range of projectiles and compositions used, the results fit a simple relationship that takes into account the projectile diameter, the threshold velocity for penetration into the gelatin and a value of the shear modulus of the gelatin estimated from the threshold velocity for penetration. The normalised depth is found to fit the elastic Froude number when this is modified to allow for a threshold impact velocity. The normalised penetration data are found to best fit this modified elastic Froude number with a slope of 1/2 instead of 1/3 as suggested by Akers and Belmonte (2006). Possible explanations for this difference are discussed. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Fifth FLTSATCOM to be launched

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Launch of the FLTSATOOM-E, into an elliptical orbit by the Atlas Centaur launch vehicle is announced. The launch and relevant launch operations are described. A chart of the launch sequence for FLTSATCOM-E communication satellite is given.

  13. Launch Pad in a Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantovani, J. G.; Tamasy, G. J.; Mueller, R. P.; Townsend, I. I.; Sampson, J. W.; Lane, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is developing a new deployable launch system capability to support a small class of launch vehicles for NASA and commercial space companies to test and launch their vehicles. The deployable launch pad concept was first demonstrated on a smaller scale at KSC in 2012 in support of NASA Johnson Space Center's Morpheus Lander Project. The main objective of the Morpheus Project was to test a prototype planetary lander as a vertical takeoff and landing test-bed for advanced spacecraft technologies using a hazard field that KSC had constructed at the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF). A steel pad for launch or landing was constructed using a modular design that allowed it to be reconfigurable and expandable. A steel flame trench was designed as an optional module that could be easily inserted in place of any modular steel plate component. The concept of a transportable modular launch and landing pad may also be applicable to planetary surfaces where the effects of rocket exhaust plume on surface regolith is problematic for hardware on the surface that may either be damaged by direct impact of high speed dust particles, or impaired by the accumulation of dust (e.g., solar array panels and thermal radiators). During the Morpheus free flight campaign in 2013-14, KSC performed two studies related to rocket plume effects. One study compared four different thermal ablatives that were applied to the interior of a steel flame trench that KSC had designed and built. The second study monitored the erosion of a concrete landing pad following each landing of the Morpheus vehicle on the same pad located in the hazard field. All surfaces of a portable flame trench that could be directly exposed to hot gas during launch of the Morpheus vehicle were coated with four types of ablatives. All ablative products had been tested by NASA KSC and/or the manufacturer. The ablative thicknesses were measured periodically following the twelve Morpheus free flight tests

  14. Launch Pad in a Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantovani, James; Tamasy, Gabor; Mueller, Rob; Townsend, Van; Sampson, Jeff; Lane, Mike

    2016-01-01

    NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is developing a new deployable launch system capability to support a small class of launch vehicles for NASA and commercial space companies to test and launch their vehicles. The deployable launch pad concept was first demonstrated on a smaller scale at KSC in 2012 in support of NASA Johnson Space Center's Morpheus Lander Project. The main objective of the Morpheus Project was to test a prototype planetary lander as a vertical takeoff and landing test-bed for advanced spacecraft technologies using a hazard field that KSC had constructed at the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF). A steel pad for launch or landing was constructed using a modular design that allowed it to be reconfigurable and expandable. A steel flame trench was designed as an optional module that could be easily inserted in place of any modular steel plate component. The concept of a transportable modular launch and landing pad may also be applicable to planetary surfaces where the effects of rocket exhaust plume on surface regolith is problematic for hardware on the surface that may either be damaged by direct impact of high speed dust particles, or impaired by the accumulation of dust (e.g., solar array panels and thermal radiators). During the Morpheus free flight campaign in 2013-14, KSC performed two studies related to rocket plume effects. One study compared four different thermal ablatives that were applied to the interior of a steel flame trench that KSC had designed and built. The second study monitored the erosion of a concrete landing pad following each landing of the Morpheus vehicle on the same pad located in the hazard field. All surfaces of a portable flame trench that could be directly exposed to hot gas during launch of the Morpheus vehicle were coated with four types of ablatives. All ablative products had been tested by NASA KSC and/or the manufacturer. The ablative thicknesses were measured periodically following the twelve Morpheus free flight tests

  15. IRIS Launch Animation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This animation demonstrates the launch and deployment of NASA's Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) mission satellite via a Pegasus rocket. The launch is scheduled for June 26, 2013 from V...

  16. Shuttle Era: Launch Directors

    NASA Image and Video Library

    A space shuttle launch director is the leader of the complex choreography that goes into a shuttle liftoff. Ten people have served as shuttle launch directors, making the final decision whether the...

  17. Space Launch System Animation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA is ready to move forward with the development of the Space Launch System -- an advanced heavy-lift launch vehicle that will provide an entirely new national capability for human exploration be...

  18. STS-135 Atlantis Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-07

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, right, participates in the post launch traditional beans and cornbread at the NASA Kennedy Space Center, Launch Control Center (LCC) shortly after the space shuttle Atlantis, STS-135, launched on Friday, July 8, 2011, in Cape Canaveral, Fla. The launch of Atlantis is the final flight of the shuttle program, a 12-day mission to the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  19. Launch Vehicle Operations Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackledge, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    The Saturn Launch Vehicle Operations Simulator (LVOS) was developed for NASA at Kennedy Space Center. LVOS simulates the Saturn launch vehicle and its ground support equipment. The simulator was intended primarily to be used as a launch crew trainer but it is also being used for test procedure and software validation. A NASA/contractor team of engineers and programmers implemented the simulator after the Apollo XI lunar landing during the low activity periods between launches.

  20. STS-135 Atlantis Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-07

    NASA Photographer Kim Shiflett, left, and Videographer Glenn Benson capture a group photo of the launch team in Firing Room Four of the NASA Kennedy Space Center Launch Control Center (LCC) shortly after the space shuttle Atlantis, STS-135, launched on Friday, July 8, 2011, in Cape Canaveral, Fla. The launch of Atlantis is the final flight of the shuttle program, a 12-day mission to the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  1. STS-135 Atlantis Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-07

    NASA Kennedy Space Center worker Dwayne Hutcheson sweeps the Launch Control Center (LCC) lobby floor in preparation for the post launch tradition of corn bread and beans after a successful launch of the space shuttle Atlantis from pad 39A on Friday, July 8, 2011, in Cape Canaveral, Fla. The launch of Atlantis, STS-135, is the final flight of the shuttle program, a 12-day mission to the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  2. Ballistic phonon transport in holey silicon.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaeho; Lim, Jongwoo; Yang, Peidong

    2015-05-13

    When the size of semiconductors is smaller than the phonon mean free path, phonons can carry heat with no internal scattering. Ballistic phonon transport has received attention for both theoretical and practical aspects because Fourier's law of heat conduction breaks down and the heat dissipation in nanoscale transistors becomes unpredictable in the ballistic regime. While recent experiments demonstrate room-temperature evidence of ballistic phonon transport in various nanomaterials, the thermal conductivity data for silicon in the length scale of 10-100 nm is still not available due to experimental challenges. Here we show ballistic phonon transport prevails in the cross-plane direction of holey silicon from 35 to 200 nm. The thermal conductivity scales linearly with the length (thickness) even though the lateral dimension (neck) is as narrow as 20 nm. We assess the impact of long-wavelength phonons and predict a transition from ballistic to diffusive regime using scaling models. Our results support strong persistence of long-wavelength phonons in nanostructures and are useful for controlling phonon transport for thermoelectrics and potential phononic applications.

  3. Launch Summary for 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vostreys, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    Spacecraft launching for 1979 are identified and listed under the categories of (1) sounding rockets, and (2) artificial Earth satellites and space probes. The sounding rockets section includes a listing of the experiments, index of launch sites and tables of the meanings and codes used in the launch listing.

  4. LAUNCH Health Forum

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-10-30

    Tom Kalil, Deputy Director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, opens the LAUNCH: Health forum at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida on Saturday, Oct. 30, 2010. LAUNCH: Health provides a forum to discuss accelerating innovation for a sustainable future. LAUNCH: Health partners include NASA, USAID and Nike. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  5. Ballistic Energy Transport in Oligomers.

    PubMed

    Rubtsova, Natalia I; Qasim, Layla N; Kurnosov, Arkady A; Burin, Alexander L; Rubtsov, Igor V

    2015-09-15

    The development of nanocomposite materials with desired heat management properties, including nanowires, layered semiconductor structures, and self-assembled monolayer (SAM) junctions, attracts broad interest. Such materials often involve polymeric/oligomeric components and can feature high or low thermal conductivity, depending on their design. For example, in SAM junctions made of alkane chains sandwiched between metal layers, the thermal conductivity can be very low, whereas the fibers of ordered polyethylene chains feature high thermal conductivity, exceeding that of many pure metals. The thermal conductivity of nanostructured materials is determined by the energy transport between and within each component of the material, which all need to be understood for optimizing the properties. For example, in the SAM junctions, the energy transport across the metal-chain interface as well as the transport through the chains both determine the overall heat conductivity, however, to separate these contributions is difficult. Recently developed relaxation-assisted two-dimensional infrared (RA 2DIR) spectroscopy is capable of studying energy transport in individual molecules in the time domain. The transport in a molecule is initiated by exciting an IR-active group (a tag); the method records the influence of the excess energy on another mode in the molecule (a reporter). The energy transport time can be measured for different reporters, and the transport speed through the molecule is evaluated. Various molecules were interrogated by RA 2DIR: in molecules without repeating units (disordered), the transport mechanism was expected and found to be diffusive. The transport via an oligomer backbone can potentially be ballistic, as the chain offers delocalized vibrational states. Indeed, the transport regime via three tested types of oligomers, alkanes, polyethyleneglycols, and perfluoroalkanes was found to be ballistic, whereas the transport within the end groups was diffusive

  6. Theater Ballistic Missile Defense: Who’s Fight Is It

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    conducted as part of counterair operations; however, one mission area defense against in- flight theater ballistic missiles - remains unique. That particular...mission should be controlled by an anti-ballistic missile expert, responsible to the Area Air Defense Commander.

  7. Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Clear Air Force Station, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Ballistic Missile Early Warning System - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  8. The use of the Global Positioning System for ballistic missile tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoefener, Carl E.; Wartenberg, Martin R.

    During test and evaluation of ballistic missiles there is a requirement for precision Time, Space, Position, and Information (TSPI) determination. Ballistic missiles must be tracked during test for range safety purposes so that an errant missile may be destroyed, and the missile trajectory can be precisely determined in order to evaluate the missile guidance system. In the past, the tracking accuracies obtained from instrumentation radars for TSPI was not sufficient, particularly for trajectory determination. Radars may also be problematic for range safety if the weapons are launched far at sea or more than one must be tracked simultaneously. For metric tracking or precision trajectory determination, a Global Positioning System (GPS) translator tracking system can record the entire mission for postflight analysis, and the mission may be replayed as often as required allowing tracking filter optimization.

  9. Deterrence of ballistic missile systems and their effects on today's air operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durak, Hasan

    2015-05-01

    Lately, the effect-based approach has gained importance in executing air operations. Thus, it makes more successful in obtaining the desired results by breaking the enemy's determination in a short time. Air force is the first option to be chosen in order to defuse the strategic targets. However, the problems such as the defense of targets and country, radars, range…etc. becoming serious problems. At this level ballistic missiles emerge as a strategic weapon. Ultimate emerging technologies guided by the INS and GPS can also be embedded with multiple warheads and reinforced with conventional explosive, ballistic missiles are weapons that can destroy targets with precision. They have the advantage of high speed, being easily launched from every platform and not being easily detected by air defense systems contrary to other air platforms. While these are the advantages, there are also disadvantages of the ballistic missiles. The high cost, unavailability of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons, and its limited effect while using conventional explosives against destroying the fortified targets are the disadvantages. The features mentioned above should be considered as limitation to the impact of the ballistic missiles. The aim is to impose the requests on enemies without starting a war with all components and to ensure better implementation of the operation functions during the air operations. In this study, effects of ballistic missiles in the future on air battle theatre will be discussed in the beginning, during the process and at the end phase of air operations within the scope of an effect-based approach.

  10. Launch summary for 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vostreys, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    Sounding rockets, artificial Earth satellites, and space probes launched betweeen January 1 and December 31, 1980 are listed. Data tabulated for the rocket launchings show launching site, instruments carried, date of launch, agency rocket identification, sponsoring country, experiment discipline, peak altitude, and the experimenter or institution responsible. Tables for satellites and space probes show COSPAR designation, spacecraft name, country, launch date, epoch date, orbit type, apoapsis, periapsis and inclination period. The functions and responsibilities of the World Data Center and the areas of scientific interest at the seven subcenters are defined. An alphabetical listing of experimenters using the sounding rockets is also provided.

  11. Ballistic damage in hybrid composite laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phadnis, Vaibhav A.; Pandya, Kedar S.; Naik, Niranjan K.; Roy, Anish; Silberschmidt, Vadim V.

    2015-07-01

    Ballistic damage of hybrid woven-fabric composites made of plain-weave E-glass- fabric/epoxy and 8H satin-weave T300 carbon-fabric/epoxy is studied using a combination of experimental tests, microstructural studies and finite-element (FE) analysis. Ballistic tests were conducted with a single-stage gas gun. Fibre damage and delamination were observed to be dominating failure modes. A ply-level FE model was developed, with a fabric-reinforced ply modelled as a homogeneous orthotropic material with capacity to sustain progressive stiffness degradation due to fibre/matrix cracking, fibre breaking and plastic deformation under shear loading. Simulated damage patterns on the front and back faces of fabric-reinforced composite plates provided an insight into their damage mechanisms under ballistic loading.

  12. Ballistic transport in graphene beyond linear response

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenstein, B.; Korniyenko, Y.; Lewkowicz, M.; Kao, H. C.

    2010-01-15

    The process of coherent creation of particle-hole excitations by an electric field in graphene is quantitatively described beyond linear response. We calculate the evolution of current density, number of pairs and energy in ballistic regime for electric field E using the tight-binding model. While for ballistic flight times smaller than t{sub nl}propor toE{sup -1/2} current is linear in E and independent of time, for larger ballistic times the current increases after t{sub nl} as Jpropor toE{sup 3/2}t and finally at yet larger times (t>t{sub B}propor toE{sup -1}) Bloch oscillations set in. It is shown that the number of pairs follows the 2D generalization of the Schwinger's creation rate npropor toE{sup 3/2} only on certain time segments with a prefactor different from that obtained using the asymptotic formula.

  13. Early management of ballistic hand trauma.

    PubMed

    Eardley, W G P; Stewart, M P M

    2010-02-01

    Complex hand wounds are an unfortunate consequence of conflict. Increased battlefield survival rates have resulted in an evolving range of ballistic hand trauma encountered by deployed surgical teams, requiring increased knowledge and understanding of these injuries. In the civilian setting, the combined threats of gun crime and acts of terrorism warrant appreciation for such injury among all surgeons. Surgeons often have to relearn the management of ballistic hand trauma and other aspects of war surgery under difficult circumstances because the experiences of their predecessors may be forgotten. Current evidence regarding these injuries is scarce. Ballistic hand trauma is rarely isolated. The demand on surgical resources from combat injury is significant, and it is imperative that a phased strategy be followed in this setting. Minimal, accurate débridement and decompression with early stability are crucial. Delayed primary closure and an awareness of future reconstructive options are fundamental.

  14. Ballistic Response of Fabrics: Model and Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orphal, Dennis L.; Walker Anderson, James D., Jr.

    2001-06-01

    Walker (1999)developed an analytical model for the dynamic response of fabrics to ballistic impact. From this model the force, F, applied to the projectile by the fabric is derived to be F = 8/9 (ET*)h^3/R^2, where E is the Young's modulus of the fabric, T* is the "effective thickness" of the fabric and equal to the ratio of the areal density of the fabric to the fiber density, h is the displacement of the fabric on the axis of impact and R is the radius of the fabric deformation or "bulge". Ballistic tests against Zylon^TM fabric have been performed to measure h and R as a function of time. The results of these experiments are presented and analyzed in the context of the Walker model. Walker (1999), Proceedings of the 18th International Symposium on Ballistics, pp. 1231.

  15. Interior Cornice Profile, Interior Pilaster Profile, Lions Head Roof Scupper, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior Cornice Profile, Interior Pilaster Profile, Lions Head Roof Scupper, and Interior Panel Moulding - Flanders Field American Cemetery & Memorial, Chapel, Wortegemseweg 117, Waregem, West Flanders (Belgium)

  16. The Rockot launch system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamerjohanns, G.; Kinnersley, M.

    1999-09-01

    EUROCKOT Launch Services GmbH has been founded by Daimler-Benz Aerospace of Germany and Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center of Russia to offer world-wide cost effective launch services on the Rockot launch system. The Rockot commercial program is described. Rockot can launch satellites weighing up to 1850 kg into polar and other low earth (LEO) orbits. The Rockot launch vehicle is based on the former Russian SS-19 strategic missile. The first and second stages are inherited from the SS-19, the third stage named Breeze is newly developed and has multiple ignition capability. The Rockot launch system is flight proven. In addition to the currently adapted Rockot launch site Plesetsk for high inclinations, EUROCKOT is in the process to also adapt the Baykonur cosmodrome as their complementary Rockot launch site for lower inclinations. The wide range of Rockot performance is provided. The first commercial launch is foreseen in the middle of 1999. The expected launch capacity for Plesetsk and Baykonur will exceed 10 launches per year. The complete Rockot system including performance is presented.

  17. [Peculiarities of ballistic wounds of maxillo-facial area inflicted by modern ballistic weapon].

    PubMed

    Prokhvatilov, G I; Vatrenitsa, V I; Logatkin, S M; Asfendiarov, D D

    2009-08-01

    The article presents data of a comparative investigation of volume of ballistic damages of maxillo-facial area, given by different ballistic weapon (from usual PM to newest GSh-18). The article says that was set up a large volume of damages of sort and bone tissues of maxillo-facial area, given by bullet of cartridge of GSh-18 in all searched parameters. All materials, received in investigation, could be used in science substantiation and in elaboration of recommendations in planning of structure of sanitarium casualty, methods of investigations, surgical treatment and rehabilitation of wounded with damages, given by modern ballistic weapon.

  18. Electron launching voltage monitor

    DOEpatents

    Mendel, Clifford W.; Savage, Mark E.

    1992-01-01

    An electron launching voltage monitor measures MITL voltage using a relationship between anode electric field and electron current launched from a cathode-mounted perturbation. An electron launching probe extends through and is spaced from the edge of an opening in a first MITL conductor, one end of the launching probe being in the gap between the MITL conductor, the other end being adjacent a first side of the first conductor away from the second conductor. A housing surrounds the launching probe and electrically connects the first side of the first conductor to the other end of the launching probe. A detector detects the current passing through the housing to the launching probe, the detected current being representative of the voltage between the conductors.

  19. Electron launching voltage monitor

    DOEpatents

    Mendel, C.W.; Savage, M.E.

    1992-03-17

    An electron launching voltage monitor measures MITL voltage using a relationship between anode electric field and electron current launched from a cathode-mounted perturbation. An electron launching probe extends through and is spaced from the edge of an opening in a first MITL conductor, one end of the launching probe being in the gap between the MITL conductor, the other end being adjacent a first side of the first conductor away from the second conductor. A housing surrounds the launching probe and electrically connects the first side of the first conductor to the other end of the launching probe. A detector detects the current passing through the housing to the launching probe, the detected current being representative of the voltage between the conductors. 5 figs.

  20. Visualization Development of the Ballistic Threat Geospatial Optimization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    ARL-TR-7335 ● JULY 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Visualization Development of the Ballistic Threat Geospatial Optimization... Visualization Development of the Ballistic Threat Geospatial Optimization by Stephen Allen Engility Corporation Chantilly, VA Song J...Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) October 2014–February 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Visualization Development of the Ballistic Threat Geospatial

  1. Numerical Simulation of Ballistic Impact of Layered Aluminum Nitride Ceramic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    ARL-TR-7416 ● SEP 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Numerical Simulation of Ballistic Impact of Layered Aluminum Nitride Ceramic...of Ballistic Impact of Layered Aluminum Nitride Ceramic by JD Clayton Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL...Numerical Simulation of Ballistic Impact of Layered Aluminum Nitride Ceramic 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  2. A Simplified Guidance for Target Missiles Used in Ballistic Missile Defence Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhakar, N.; Kumar, I. D.; Tata, S. K.; Vaithiyanathan, V.

    2013-01-01

    A simplified guidance scheme for the target missiles used in Ballistic Missile Defence is presented in this paper. The proposed method has two major components, a Ground Guidance Computation (GGC) and an In-Flight Guidance Computation. The GGC which runs on the ground uses a missile model to generate attitude history in pitch plane and computes launch azimuth of the missile to compensate for the effect of earth rotation. The vehicle follows the pre launch computed attitude (theta) history in pitch plane and also applies the course correction in azimuth plane based on its deviation from the pre launch computed azimuth plane. This scheme requires less computations and counters In-flight disturbances such as wind, gust etc. quite efficiently. The simulation results show that the proposed method provides the satisfactory performance and robustness.

  3. Ballistic phonon transmission in quasiperiodic acoustic nanocavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Yuan; Huang, Wei-Qing; Huang, Gui-Fang; Chen, Yuan; Hu, Wangyu; Wang, Ling-Ling; Pan, Anlian

    2011-04-01

    Ballistic phonon transport is investigated in acoustic nanocavities modulated in a quasiperiodic manner at low temperatures. Two different types of quasiperiodic acoustic nanocavities are considered: the lengths of nanocavities (QPL) and the lengths of the bridges (QPD) connecting two successive nanocavities are modulated according to the Fibonacci rule. We demonstrate that the transmission spectra and thermal conductance in both systems are similar, which is more prominent in QPD than in QPL. The transmission and thermal conductance of QPD are larger than those of QPL due to the fact that constant nanocavity length in QPD would strengthen ballistic phonon resonant transport, while varying nanocavity length in QPL lead to strong phonon scattering.

  4. On the simulation of ballistic shock loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollburg, Uwe

    1987-01-01

    Blast or penetrator-impact induced shocks are characterized by high acceleration levels, particularily in the higher frequency range and for a short time duration. These shocks are dangerous for the equipment of ships, combat vehicles, airplanes or spacecraft structures. As ballistic shock loads are insufficiently simulated by laboratory test machines, researchers designed a ballistic shock simulator. The impact induced shocks are simulated by an explosive and the vehicle to be bombarded is replaced by a simplified structure. This structure is suitable to accommodate any equipment which can be tested up to their load limits.

  5. Ballistics: a primer for the surgeon.

    PubMed

    Volgas, David A; Stannard, James P; Alonso, Jorge E

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on ballistics and to sort through the plethora of myth and popular opinion. The trauma surgeon is increasingly faced with gunshot wounds. Knowledge of ballistics is important to help in assessing the patterns of wounds that are seen. There are many factors that affect the flight of a bullet to its target. Many of these factors also affect the behaviour of the bullet after it strikes the target. It is primarily these factors that interest the surgeon.

  6. Ballistic intercept missions to Comet Encke

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mumma, M. (Compiler)

    1975-01-01

    The optimum ballistic intercept of a spacecraft with the comet Encke is determined. The following factors are considered in the analysis: energy requirements, encounter conditions, targeting error, comet activity, spacecraft engineering requirements and restraints, communications, and scientific return of the mission. A baseline model is formulated which includes the basic elements necessary to estimate the scientific return for the different missions considered. Tradeoffs which have major impact on the cost and/or scientific return of a ballistic mission to comet Encke are identified and discussed. Recommendations are included.

  7. COSMOS Launch Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalnins, Indulis

    2002-01-01

    COSMOS-3M is a two stage launcher with liquid propellant rocket engines. Since 1960's COSMOS has launched satellites of up to 1.500kg in both circular low Earth and elliptical orbits with high inclination. The direct SSO ascent is available from Plesetsk launch site. The very high number of 759 launches and the achieved success rate of 97,4% makes this space transportation system one of the most reliable and successful launchers in the world. The German small satellite company OHB System co-operates since 1994 with the COSMOS manufacturer POLYOT, Omsk, in Russia. They have created the joint venture COSMOS International and successfully launched five German and Italian satellites in 1999 and 2000. The next commercial launches are contracted for 2002 and 2003. In 2005 -2007 COSMOS will be also used for the new German reconnaissance satellite launches. This paper provides an overview of COSMOS-3M launcher: its heritage and performance, examples of scientific and commercial primary and piggyback payload launches, the launch service organization and international cooperation. The COSMOS launch service business strategy main points are depicted. The current and future position of COSMOS in the worldwide market of launch services is outlined.

  8. Interior intrusion detection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, J.R.; Matter, J.C. ); Dry, B. )

    1991-10-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing interior intrusion detection systems. Interior intrusion sensors are discussed according to their primary application: boundary-penetration detection, volumetric detection, and point protection. Information necessary for implementation of an effective interior intrusion detection system is presented, including principles of operation, performance characteristics and guidelines for design, procurement, installation, testing, and maintenance. A glossary of sensor data terms is included. 36 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. The Ballistic Cart on an Incline Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serway, Raymond A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents the theory behind the mechanics demonstration that involves projecting a ball vertically upward from a ballistic cart moving along an inclined plane. The measured overshoot is believed to be due, in part, to the presence of rolling friction and the inertial properties of the cart wheels. (JRH)

  10. The National Ballistics Imaging Comparison (NBIC) project.

    PubMed

    Song, J; Vorburger, T V; Ballou, S; Thompson, R M; Yen, J; Renegar, T B; Zheng, A; Silver, R M; Ols, M

    2012-03-10

    In response to the guidelines issued by the American Society of Crime Laboratory Directors/Laboratory Accreditation Board (ASCLD/LAB-International) to establish traceability and quality assurance in U.S. crime laboratories, a NIST/ATF joint project entitled National Ballistics Imaging Comparison (NBIC) was initialized in 2008. The NBIC project aims to establish a National Traceability and Quality System for ballistics identifications in crime laboratories within the National Integrated Ballistics Information Network (NIBIN) of the U.S. NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM) 2460 bullets and 2461 cartridge cases are used as reference standards. 19 ballistics examiners from 13 U.S. crime laboratories participated in this project. They each performed 24 periodic image acquisitions and correlations of the SRM bullets and cartridge cases over the course of a year, but one examiner only participated in Phase 1 tests of SRM cartridge case. The correlation scores were collected by NIST for statistical analyses, from which control charts and control limits were developed for the proposed Quality System and for promoting future assessments and accreditations for firearm evidence in U.S. forensic laboratories in accordance with the ISO 17025 Standard. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  11. The Internal Ballistics of an Air Gun

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The internal ballistics of a firearm or artillery piece considers the pellet, bullet, or shell motion while it is still inside the barrel. In general, deriving the muzzle speed of a gunpowder firearm from first principles is difficult because powder combustion is fast and it very rapidly raises the temperature of gas (generated by gunpowder…

  12. The Ballistic Cart on an Incline Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serway, Raymond A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents the theory behind the mechanics demonstration that involves projecting a ball vertically upward from a ballistic cart moving along an inclined plane. The measured overshoot is believed to be due, in part, to the presence of rolling friction and the inertial properties of the cart wheels. (JRH)

  13. Lightweight Integrally Armored Floor (LIAF) Ballistic Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    UHMWPE ), and a mini-core sandwich structure which serves as the walking surface of the floor system (Figure 1). Specimen details are covered in...SIDE Strike Face Backing Plate (walking surface) Ballistic Material ( UHMWPE ) Projectile Lightweight Integrally Armored Floor (LIAF

  14. Promoting Improved Ballistic Resistance of Transparent Armor

    SciTech Connect

    Wereszczak, Andrew A; Patel, P; Templeton, D W

    2011-01-01

    Transparent armor is a material or system of materials designed to be optically transparent, yet protect from fragmentation or ballistic impacts. Although engineered to defeat specific threats, or a range of threats, there are general requirements common to all of these designs. The primary requirement for a transparent armor system is to not only defeat the designated threat but also provide a multi-hit capability with minimized distortion of surrounding areas. Ground platforms have several parameters that must be optimized, such as weight, space efficiency, and cost versus performance. Glass exhibits tensile failure stress that is very much dependent on the amount of material being stressed, the side being tensile-stressed (i.e., air-versus tin-side if a float glass), and where it is being tensile stressed (i.e., in the middle or near an edge). An axiom arising from those effects is a greater amount of allowable deflection (i.e., higher failure stress) of a ballistically impacted transparent armor will result in improved ballistic resistance. Therefore, the interpretation and management of those tensile-failure-stress dependencies shall ultimately improve ballistic resistance and its predictability of transparent armor. Each of those three dependencies (size, side, and location) in a soda-lime silicate glass is described.

  15. Exceptional ballistic transport in epitaxial graphene nanoribbons.

    PubMed

    Baringhaus, Jens; Ruan, Ming; Edler, Frederik; Tejeda, Antonio; Sicot, Muriel; Taleb-Ibrahimi, Amina; Li, An-Ping; Jiang, Zhigang; Conrad, Edward H; Berger, Claire; Tegenkamp, Christoph; de Heer, Walt A

    2014-02-20

    Graphene nanoribbons will be essential components in future graphene nanoelectronics. However, in typical nanoribbons produced from lithographically patterned exfoliated graphene, the charge carriers travel only about ten nanometres between scattering events, resulting in minimum sheet resistances of about one kilohm per square. Here we show that 40-nanometre-wide graphene nanoribbons epitaxially grown on silicon carbide are single-channel room-temperature ballistic conductors on a length scale greater than ten micrometres, which is similar to the performance of metallic carbon nanotubes. This is equivalent to sheet resistances below 1 ohm per square, surpassing theoretical predictions for perfect graphene by at least an order of magnitude. In neutral graphene ribbons, we show that transport is dominated by two modes. One is ballistic and temperature independent; the other is thermally activated. Transport is protected from back-scattering, possibly reflecting ground-state properties of neutral graphene. At room temperature, the resistance of both modes is found to increase abruptly at a particular length--the ballistic mode at 16 micrometres and the other at 160 nanometres. Our epitaxial graphene nanoribbons will be important not only in fundamental science, but also--because they can be readily produced in thousands--in advanced nanoelectronics, which can make use of their room-temperature ballistic transport properties.

  16. Equation of State of Ballistic Gelatin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-23

    We determined the equation of state for ballistic gelatin using the Brillouin scattering spectroscopy with a diamond anvil cell by measuring the...0 to 100 deg C between ambient and 12 GPa. We analyzed the Brillouin data using a high temperature Vinet equation of state and obtained the bulk

  17. Equation of State of Ballistic Gelatin (II)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-03

    We determined the equation of state of ballistic gelatin (20%) using Brillouin scattering spectroscopy with diamond anvil cells by measuring the...purposes, we also measured the pressure dependence of sound velocity of lamb tissues up to 10 GPa. We analyzed the Brillouin data using the Vinet equation of state and

  18. Graphene Triangular Ballistic Rectifier: Fabrication and Characterisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auton, Gregory; Kumar, Roshan Krishna; Hill, Ernie; Song, Aimin

    2017-07-01

    It has been shown that graphene can demonstrate ballistic transport at room temperature. This opens up a range of practical applications that do not require graphene to have a band gap, which is one of the most significant challenges for its use in the electronics industry. Here, the very latest high mobility graphene (>100,000 cm2 V-1 s-1) fabrication techniques will be demonstrated so that one such device, called the triangular ballistic rectifier (TBR), can be characterised. The TBR is a four-terminal device with a triangular anti-dot at their intersection; two sides of the triangle are positioned and angled such that ballistic carriers from the two input electrodes are redirected like billiard balls to one of the two output contacts irrespective of the instantaneous polarity of the input. A responsivity of 2400 mV mW-1 is demonstrated at room temperature from a low-frequency input signal. The ballistic nature of the device is justified and explained in more detail with low-temperature measurements.

  19. The Internal Ballistics of an Air Gun

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The internal ballistics of a firearm or artillery piece considers the pellet, bullet, or shell motion while it is still inside the barrel. In general, deriving the muzzle speed of a gunpowder firearm from first principles is difficult because powder combustion is fast and it very rapidly raises the temperature of gas (generated by gunpowder…

  20. Capability of satellite-aided ballistic capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Z.-F.; Topputo, F.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper we study a special instance of ballistic capture dynamics: the case in which the capture orbit about a planet experiences a close passage to one or more of its natural satellites. The capability of the satellites in improving ballistic capture is assessed. The dynamical framework considers at least the gravitational attractions of the Sun, the planet, and its satellites, all acting on a massless particle. The effect of the satellites is introduced explicitly by modifying a previously developed method, which relies on three-dimensional stable sets and n-body dynamics with precise ephemeris. Once a stability criterium is defined, initial conditions defined over a computational grid are integrated forward and backward. This allows us to classify orbits into different sets. Ballistic capture orbits with prescribed features are generated by manipulating these sets. Two indices, namely the hyperbolic velocity and the stability index, are used to assess the performance of pre- and post-capture portions, respectively. A Pareto frontier is used to extract orbits of practical interest. Case studies are performed in the context of Earth and Jupiter environments. Comparing to the situation with no moons, the satellite-aided ballistic capture can evidently increase the pre-capture energy and post-capture stability, so making it possible to have permanent capture of a particle at zero-cost. This is a desirable feature in mission design.

  1. Graphene Triangular Ballistic Rectifier: Fabrication and Characterisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auton, Gregory; Kumar, Roshan Krishna; Hill, Ernie; Song, Aimin

    2016-09-01

    It has been shown that graphene can demonstrate ballistic transport at room temperature. This opens up a range of practical applications that do not require graphene to have a band gap, which is one of the most significant challenges for its use in the electronics industry. Here, the very latest high mobility graphene (>100,000 cm2 V-1 s-1) fabrication techniques will be demonstrated so that one such device, called the triangular ballistic rectifier (TBR), can be characterised. The TBR is a four-terminal device with a triangular anti-dot at their intersection; two sides of the triangle are positioned and angled such that ballistic carriers from the two input electrodes are redirected like billiard balls to one of the two output contacts irrespective of the instantaneous polarity of the input. A responsivity of 2400 mV mW-1 is demonstrated at room temperature from a low-frequency input signal. The ballistic nature of the device is justified and explained in more detail with low-temperature measurements.

  2. Antares Rocket Test Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-04-21

    The Orbital Sciences Corporation Antares rocket is seen as it launches from Pad-0A of the Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport (MARS) at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia, Sunday, April 21, 2013. The test launch marked the first flight of Antares and the first rocket launch from Pad-0A. The Antares rocket delivered the equivalent mass of a spacecraft, a so-called mass simulated payload, into Earth's orbit. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  3. STS-135 Atlantis Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-07

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden speaks to visitors at the NASA Kennedy Space Center Banana Creek viewing site prior to going to the Launch Control Center (LCC) for the planned launch of the space shuttle Atlantis from pad 39A on Friday, July 8, 2011, in Cape Canaveral, Fla. The launch of Atlantis, STS-135, is the final flight of the shuttle program, a 12-day mission to the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  4. Launch the Litening Pod!

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-19

    Launch the LITENING Pod ! EWS Contemporary Issue Paper Submitted by Captain Fausett, Brian M. to Major G.A. Thiele, CG 2 19...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Launch the Litening Pod ! 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e...ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 2 “Launch the LITENING pod

  5. MAVEN Atlas V Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-18

    The United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket with NASA’s Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) spacecraft launches from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Space Launch Complex 41, Monday, Nov. 18, 2013, Cape Canaveral, Florida. NASA’s Mars-bound spacecraft, the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutionN, or MAVEN, is the first spacecraft devoted to exploring and understanding the Martian upper atmosphere. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  6. LAUNCH - STS-4 - KSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1982-07-06

    S82-33288 (27 June 1982) --- This horizontal view of the space shuttle Columbia captures the flight of water birds disturbed by the activity at launch Pad 39A. Launch occurred at 10:59:59 a.m. (EDT), June 27, 1982. Astronauts Thomas K. Mattingly II and Henry W. Hartsfield Jr. are aboard for NASA's final orbital flight test before launching into a new space era with the first operational flight planned for fall of this year. Photo credit: NASA

  7. MAVEN Atlas V Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-18

    The United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket with NASA’s Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) spacecraft launches from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Space Launch Complex 41, Monday, Nov. 18, 2013, Cape Canaveral, Florida. NASA’s Mars-bound spacecraft, the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN, or MAVEN, is the first spacecraft devoted to exploring and understanding the Martian upper atmosphere. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  8. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/9: De-Alerting Strategic Ballistic Missiles

    SciTech Connect

    Connell, Leonard W.; Edenburn, Michael W.; Fraley, Stanley K.; Trost, Lawrence C.

    1999-03-01

    This paper presents a framework for evaluating the technical merits of strategic ballistic missile de-alerting measures, and it uses the framework to evaluate a variety of possible measures for silo-based, land-mobile, and submarine-based missiles. De-alerting measures are defined for the purpose of this paper as reversible actions taken to increase the time or effort required to launch a strategic ballistic missile. The paper does not assess the desirability of pursuing a de-alerting program. Such an assessment is highly context dependent. The paper postulates that if de-alerting is desirable and is used as an arms control mechanism, de-alerting measures should satisfy specific cirteria relating to force security, practicality, effectiveness, significant delay, and verifiability. Silo-launched missiles lend themselves most readily to de-alerting verification, because communications necessary for monitoring do not increase the vulnerabilty of the weapons by a significant amount. Land-mobile missile de-alerting measures would be more challenging to verify, because monitoring measures that disclose the launcher's location would potentially increase their vulnerability. Submarine-launched missile de-alerting measures would be extremely challlenging if not impossible to monitor without increasing the submarine's vulnerability.

  9. Optically measuring interior cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, Gary Franklin

    2008-12-21

    A method of measuring the three-dimensional volume or perimeter shape of an interior cavity includes the steps of collecting a first optical slice of data that represents a partial volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity, collecting additional optical slices of data that represents a partial volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity, and combining the first optical slice of data and the additional optical slices of data to calculate of the three-dimensional volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity.

  10. Expedition 27 Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-04-01

    The Soyuz TMA-21 launches from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on Tuesday, April 5, 2011 carrying Expedition 27 Soyuz Commander Alexander Samokutyaev, NASA Flight Engineer Ron Garan and Russian Flight Engineer Andrey Borisenko to the International Space Station. The Soyuz, which has been dubbed "Gagarin", is launching one week shy of the 50th anniversary of the launch of Yuri Gagarin from the same launch pad in Baikonur on April 12, 1961 to become the first human to fly in space. Photo Credit: (NASA/Victor Zelentsov)

  11. Expedition 27 Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-04

    The Soyuz TMA-21 launches from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on Tuesday, April 5, 2011 carrying Expedition 27 Soyuz Commander Alexander Samokutyaev, NASA Flight Engineer Ron Garan and Russian Flight Engineer Andrey Borisenko to the International Space Station. The Soyuz, which has been dubbed "Gagarin", is launching one week shy of the 50th anniversary of the launch of Yuri Gagarin from the same launch pad in Baikonur on April 12, 1961 to become the first human to fly in space. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  12. Launch Services Safety Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftin, Charles E.

    2008-01-01

    NASA/KSC Launch Services Division Safety (SA-D) services include: (1) Assessing the safety of the launch vehicle (2) Assessing the safety of NASA ELV spacecraft (S/C) / launch vehicle (LV) interfaces (3) Assessing the safety of spacecraft processing to ensure resource protection of: - KSC facilities - KSC VAFB facilities - KSC controlled property - Other NASA assets (4) NASA personnel safety (5) Interfacing with payload organizations to review spacecraft for adequate safety implementation and compliance for integrated activities (6) Assisting in the integration of safety activities between the payload, launch vehicle, and processing facilities

  13. Antares Rocket Test Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-04-21

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden congratulates the Orbital Sciences Corporation launch team and management in the Range Control Center at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility after the successful launch of the Orbital Sciences Antares rocket from the Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport (MARS) in Virginia, Sunday, April 21, 2013. The test launch marked the first flight of Antares and the first rocket launch from Pad-0A. The Antares rocket delivered the equivalent mass of a spacecraft, a so-called mass simulated payload, into Earth's orbit. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  14. GPM: Waiting for Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The Global Precipitation Measurement mission's Core Observatory is poised for launch from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's Tanegashima Space Center, scheduled for the afternoon of Feb. 27, ...

  15. Kestrel balloon launch system

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, M.J.

    1991-10-01

    Kestrel is a high-altitude, Helium-gas-filled-balloon system used to launch scientific payloads in winds up to 20 knots, from small platforms or ships, anywhere over land or water, with a minimal crew and be able to hold in standby conditions. Its major components consist of two balloons (a tow balloon and a main balloon), the main deployment system, helium measurement system, a parachute recovery unit, and the scientific payload package. The main scope of the launch system was to eliminate the problems of being dependent of launching on long airfield runways, low wind conditions, and long launch preparation time. These objectives were clearly met with Kestrel 3.

  16. Principles of ballistics applicable to the treatment of gunshot wounds.

    PubMed

    Swan, K G; Swan, R C

    1991-04-01

    Ballistics is the science of the motion of a projectile through the barrel of a firearm (internal ballistics), during its subsequent flight (external ballistics), and during its final complicated motion after it strikes a target (terminal ballistics). Wound ballistics is a special case of terminal ballistics. Although wound ballistics is at best sets of approximations, its principles enter usefully into an evaluation of a gunshot wound and its treatment. A special consideration in these cases is their medicolegal aspects. At a minimum, the medical team receiving the patient should exert care not to destroy the clothing and in particular to cut around and not through bullet holes, to turn over to law enforcement officials any metallic foreign body recovered from the patient, and to describe precisely, or even to photograph, any entrance or exit wounds.

  17. Determination of the Trajectory of Ballistic Missiles Using a Dense GPS Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heki, K.; Ozeki, M.

    2009-12-01

    The dense array of ~1000 Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers in Japan provides useful information on atmosphere and ionosphere in terms of delays of microwaves in propagation media. Here we introduce its brand-new application, determination of the trajectories of ballistic missiles by using their electron depletion signatures in ionosphere. Booker (1961) first detected F-region ion depletion associated with a missile passage. Later, formation of an ionospheric hole by the launch of Skylab was observed, and Mendillo et al. (1975) attributed the electron depletion to the water molecules in the rocket exhaust. In Japan, ionospheric depletion after the launch of the H-IIA rocket was observed at GPS receivers in southern Japan using differences in phases between the two carrier frequencies L1 and L2 (Furuya & Heki, 2008). The so-called Taepodong-1, and -2 (the North Korean government claims that they successfully launched satellites), ballistic missiles with liquid fuel engines, were launched from Musudanri, North Korea, in August 1998, and April 2009, respectively. Their first stage engines splashed down onto the Japan Sea, and their second stage engines flew over northeastern Japan and reached the Pacific Ocean. We investigated GPS data before and after the launches, and detected that linear electron depletion areas appear in the northern part of the Japan Sea (~300 km east of the launch pad) approximately six minutes after the launch. Such electron depletion occurs as a result of exchange of positive charges between oxygen ions and water molecules, and dissociative recombination of water with electrons. The ionospheric hole rapidly grows and gradually decays as the water molecules diffuse. By comparing the numerical simulation results of ionospheric hole formation (water diffusion and chemical reaction) and the observed change in ionospheric total electron content (TEC), we conclude that the Taepodong-1 exhaust included water molecules ~0.5 percent of those in

  18. Launch and Landing of Russian Soyuz - Medical Support for US and Partner Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menon, Anil

    2017-01-01

    Launching, landing, flight route, expeditions, Soyuz, near Kazakhstan USOS Crew Surgeon -Quarantine and direct care to crew before launch, then present in close proximity to launch for abort. IP Crew Surgeon -same Deputy Crew Surgeon -Back up for crew surgeon, care for immediate family, stationed at airport for helicopter abort response Russian based US doctor -Coordinate with SOS staff USOS Crew Surgeon -Nominal helicopter response and initial medical care and support during return on gulfstreamIPcenter dotP Crew Surgeon -same Deputy Crew Surgeon -Ballistic helicopter support Russian based US doctor -Coordinate with SOS staff Direct return doctor -Direct medical care on return flight

  19. Multisensor detection and tracking of tactical ballistic missiles using knowledge-based state estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Edward; Queeney, Tom

    1994-06-01

    Westinghouse has developed and demonstrated a system that performs multisensor detection and tracking of tactical ballistic missiles (TBM). Under a USAF High Gear Program, we developed knowledge-based techniques to discriminate TBM targets from ground clutter, air breathing targets, and false alarms. Upon track initiation the optimal estimate of the target's launch point, impact point and instantaneous position was computed by fusing returns from noncollocated multiple sensors. The system also distinguishes different missile types during the boost phase and forms multiple hypotheses to account for measurement and knowledge base uncertainties. This paper outlines the salient features of the knowledge-based processing of the multisensor data.

  20. The Effects of Ballistic and Non-Ballistic Bench Press on Mechanical Variables.

    PubMed

    Moir, Gavin L; Munford, Shawn N; Moroski, Lindsey L; Davis, Shala E

    2017-02-21

    To investigate the effects of ballistic and non-ballistic bench press performed with loads equivalent to 30 and 90% 1-repetition maximum (1-RM) on mechanical variables. Eleven resistance-trained men (age: 23.0 ± 1.4 years; mass: 98.4 ± 14.4 kg) attended four testing sessions where they performed one of the following sessions: 1) three sets of five non-ballistic repetitions performed with a load equivalent to 30% 1-RM (30N-B), 2) three sets of five ballistic repetitions performed with a load equivalent to 30% 1-RM (30B), 3) three sets of four non-ballistic repetitions with a load equivalent to 90% 1-RM (90N-B), 4) three sets of four ballistic repetitions with a load equivalent to 90% 1-RM (90B). Force plates and a 3-D motion analysis system were used to determine the velocity, force, power output (PO) and work during each repetition. The heavier loads resulted in significantly greater forces applied to the barbell (mean differences: 472-783 N, p<0.001), but lower barbell velocities (mean differences: 0.85-1.20 m/s, p<0.001) and PO (mean differences: 118-492 W, p≤0.022). The ballistic conditions enhanced the mechanical variables only at the lower load with 30B producing significantly greater force (mean difference: 263 N, p<0.001), velocity (mean difference: 0.33 m/s, p<0.001), and PO (mean difference: 335 W, p<0.001) compared to 30N-B. Furthermore, the increase in PO across the 3 sets in 30B was significantly different from all other conditions (p=0.013). The total mechanical work performed was significantly greater for the conditions with the heavier loads compared to those with the lighter loads (mean differences: 3,62-5,600 J, p<0.001) and that performed during the ballistic conditions was significantly greater than that performed during the non-ballistic conditions with the same load (mean differences: 945-1,030 J, p<0.001). Ballistic bench press may be an effective exercise for developing power output and multiple sets may elicit post

  1. Interplanetary mission design handbook. Volume 1, Part 5: Mars-to-Earth ballistic mission opportunities, 1992-2007

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sergeyevsky, Andrey; Cunniff, Ross

    1987-01-01

    This document contains graphical data necessary for the preliminary design of ballistic missions returning from Mars. Contours of Mars-departure energy requirements, as well as many other launch and Earth-arrival parameters are presented in arrival-date/launch-date space for all departure opportunities from 1992 through 2007. In addition, an extensive companion document (Part 2) is available; it contains Earth-Mars graphical data and explains mission design methods, using the graphical data as well as numerous equations relating various parameters. This is one of a planned series of mission design handbooks.

  2. Analytic Ballistic Performance Model of Whipple Shields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. E.; Bjorkman, M. D.; Christiansen, E. L.; Ryan, S. J.

    2014-01-01

    The dual-wall Whipple shield is the shield of choice for lightweight, long-duration flight. The shield uses an initial sacrificial wall to initiate fragmentation and melt an impacting threat that expands over a void before hitting a subsequent shield wall of a critical component. The key parameters to this type of shield are the rear wall and its mass which stops the debris, as well as the minimum pressure generated under threat particle impact of the sacrificial wall and the amount of void that is available for expansion. Ensuring the minimum pressure is sufficiently high to achieve large scale fragmentation/melt of the threat particle enables the expansion of the threat and reduces the momentum flux of the debris on the rear wall. Three key factors in the minimum pressure achieved are the thickness of the sacrificial wall relative to the characteristic dimension of the impacting particle, the density and material cohesion contrast of the sacrificial wall relative to the threat particle and the impact speed. The mass of the rear wall and the sacrificial wall are desirable to minimize for launch costs and dynamic concerns making it important to have an understanding of the effects of density contrast and impact speed. In this paper a fourth key parameter is identified related to fragmentation, which corresponds to the ratio of the size of the projectile relative to the transition from brittle to ductile hole growth in the projectile. Ballistic limit equations have been developed to define the failure limits of a MMOD shield, generally in terms of projectile diameter (or mass), impact velocity, and angle. Within the range of impact velocities relevant for Earth-orbiting spacecraft, three distinct regions of penetration phenomenology have been identified for Whipple shields: center dot Low velocity: the projectile is eroded (and possibly deformed) during its passage through the bumper plate, but is not fragmented. Thus, perforation of the rear wall is by a fragment

  3. Expedition 24 Launch Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-06-14

    Expedition 24 NASA Flight Engineer Shannon Walker has her Russian Sokol suit prepared for launch by technicians at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Tuesday, June 15, 2010. Walker, Soyuz Commander Fyodor Yurchikhin and Flight Engineer Doug Wheelock launched in their Soyuz TMA-19 rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on Wednesday, June 16, 2010. (Photo Credit: NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  4. Expedition 24 Launch Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-06-14

    Expedition 24 NASA Flight Engineer Doug Wheelock, center, has his Russian Sokol suit prepared for launch by a technician at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Tuesday, June 15, 2010. Wheelock, Soyuz Commander Fyodor Yurchikhin and Flight Engineer Shannon Walker launched in their Soyuz TMA-19 rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on Wednesday, June 16, 2010. (Photo Credit: NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  5. Expedition 24 Launch Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-06-14

    Expedition 24 NASA Flight Engineer Doug Wheelock has his Russian Sokol suit prepared for launch by a technician at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Tuesday, June 15, 2010. Wheelock, Soyuz Commander Fyodor Yurchikhin and Flight Engineer Shannon Walker launched in their Soyuz TMA-19 rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on Wednesday, June 16, 2010. (Photo Credit: NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  6. Saturn IB Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The Saturn IB launch vehicle lifting off from Launch Complex 39B at 9:01 a.m. EST. The Skylab 4 astronauts Gerald P. Carr, Dr. Edward G. Gibson, and William R. Pogue, were onboard for the third and final mission to the orbiting space station.

  7. Saturn IB Launch Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This chart provides a launch summary of the Saturn IB launch vehicle as of 1973. Developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) as an interim vehicle in MSFC's 'building block' approach to the Saturn rocket development, the Saturn IB utilized Saturn I technology to further develop and refine the larger boosters and the Apollo spacecraft capabilities required for the marned lunar missions.

  8. Expedition 8 Launch Briefing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-15

    Expedition 8 Soyuz Commander and Flight Engineer Alexander Kaleri and European Space Agency astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain are briefed on launch procedures from a Russian trainer at their crew quarters in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Wednesday, Oct. 15, 2003 as they prepare for launch Oct. 18 in a Soyuz TMA-3 vehicle to the International Space Station. Photo Credit (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  9. Launch Collision Probability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bollenbacher, Gary; Guptill, James D.

    1999-01-01

    This report analyzes the probability of a launch vehicle colliding with one of the nearly 10,000 tracked objects orbiting the Earth, given that an object on a near-collision course with the launch vehicle has been identified. Knowledge of the probability of collision throughout the launch window can be used to avoid launching at times when the probability of collision is unacceptably high. The analysis in this report assumes that the positions of the orbiting objects and the launch vehicle can be predicted as a function of time and therefore that any tracked object which comes close to the launch vehicle can be identified. The analysis further assumes that the position uncertainty of the launch vehicle and the approaching space object can be described with position covariance matrices. With these and some additional simplifying assumptions, a closed-form solution is developed using two approaches. The solution shows that the probability of collision is a function of position uncertainties, the size of the two potentially colliding objects, and the nominal separation distance at the point of closest approach. ne impact of the simplifying assumptions on the accuracy of the final result is assessed and the application of the results to the Cassini mission, launched in October 1997, is described. Other factors that affect the probability of collision are also discussed. Finally, the report offers alternative approaches that can be used to evaluate the probability of collision.

  10. STS-135 Atlantis Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-08

    Space shuttle Atlantis is seen as it launches from pad 39A on Friday, July 8, 2011, at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. The launch of Atlantis, STS-135, is the final flight of the shuttle program, a 12-day mission to the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. Impactless, in-tube sabot separation technique useful for modest-sized supersonic ballistic ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasoh, Akihiro; Oshiba, Shin

    2006-10-01

    A simple and high performance sabot separation technique which is useful even in about 10-m-long supersonic ballistic ranges has been developed. The normal in-flight sabot separation distance is vastly reduced by adding an addition tube with no diaphragm that may cause damage to the projectile. The launch tube of the ballistic range is subdivided to the acceleration, ventilation, and sabot separation sections. In the ventilation section, both the precursor shock wave driven by the sabot when coasting through the acceleration section and the driver gas is vented out to the dump chamber. In the sabot separation section, only the sabot experiences a great dragging pressure imbalance whereas the drag to the projectile is kept negligible. Initially, the whole system except for the driver gas chamber is connected without any diaphragm; the range operation is not accompanied by any high-speed impact among the sabot, diaphragm, and other related solid parts. The experimental environment can be kept clean. The influence of the muzzle blast is eliminated within a reasonably short distance from the muzzle because it delays owing to the ventilation section. Calibration experiments and the demonstration of flow visualization and boom measurement of supersonic flight were conducted using a 25mm bore, Mach-2 ballistic range.

  12. 102. Interior view of utilidor passageway link between building nos. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    102. Interior view of utilidor passageway link between building nos. 101 and 102 showing waveguides on left and cable tray system on right sides. Note fire suppression water supply piping (upper center). Small maintenance 3-wheel vehicle at center (Note: similar vehicles still in use in 2001.) Official photograph BMEWS Project by Hansen, Photographic Services, Riverton, NJ, BMEWS, clear as negative no. A-101123. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  13. Delta II rocket prepared for launch of Deep Space 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A solid rocket booster (left) is raised for installation onto the Boeing Delta 7326 rocket that will launch Deep Space 1 at Launch Pad 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station. Delta II rockets are medium capacity expendable launch vehicles derived from the Delta family of rockets built and launched since 1960. Since then there have been more than 245 Delta launches. Delta's origins go back to the Thor intermediate-range ballistic missile, which was developed in the mid-1950s for the U.S. Air Force. The Thor -- a single-stage, liquid-fueled rocket -- later was modified to become the Delta launch vehicle. The Delta 7236 has three solid rocket boosters and a Star 37 upper stage. Delta IIs are manufactured in Huntington Beach, Calif. Rocketdyne, a division of The Boeing Company, builds Delta II's main engine in Canoga Park, Calif. Final assembly takes place at the Boeing facility in Pueblo, Colo. Deep Space 1, the first flight in NASA's New Millennium Program, is designed to validate 12 new technologies for scientific space missions of the next century. Onboard experiments include an ion propulsion engine and software that tracks celestial bodies so the spacecraft can make its own navigation decisions without the intervention of ground controllers. Deep Space 1 will complete most of its mission objectives within the first two months, but may also do a flyby of a near-Earth asteroid, 1992 KD, in July 1999.

  14. Delta II rocket prepared for launch of Deep Space 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A Boeing Delta 7326 rocket with two solid rocket boosters attached sits on Launch Pad 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station. Delta II rockets are medium capacity expendable launch vehicles derived from the Delta family of rockets built and launched since 1960. Since then there have been more than 245 Delta launches. Delta's origins go back to the Thor intermediate-range ballistic missile, which was developed in the mid-1950s for the U.S. Air Force. The Thor -- a single-stage, liquid-fueled rocket -- later was modified to become the Delta launch vehicle. Delta IIs are manufactured in Huntington Beach, Calif. Rocketdyne, a division of The Boeing Company, builds Delta II's main engine in Canoga Park, Calif. Final assembly takes place at the Boeing facility in Pueblo, Colo. The Delta 7236, which has three solid rocket boosters and a Star 37 upper stage, will launch Deep Space 1, the first flight in NASA's New Millennium Program. It is designed to validate 12 new technologies for scientific space missions of the next century. Onboard experiments include an ion propulsion engine and software that tracks celestial bodies so the spacecraft can make its own navigation decisions without the intervention of ground controllers. Deep Space 1 will complete most of its mission objectives within the first two months, but may also do a flyby of a near-Earth asteroid, 1992 KD, in July 1999.

  15. Delta II rocket prepared for launch of Deep Space 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    - A solid rocket booster is maneuvered into place for installation on the Boeing Delta 7326 rocket that will launch Deep Space 1 at Launch Pad 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station. Delta II rockets are medium capacity expendable launch vehicles derived from the Delta family of rockets built and launched since 1960. Since then there have been more than 245 Delta launches. Delta's origins go back to the Thor intermediate-range ballistic missile, which was developed in the mid-1950s for the U.S. Air Force. The Thor -- a single-stage, liquid-fueled rocket -- later was modified to become the Delta launch vehicle. The Delta 7236 has three solid rocket boosters and a Star 37 upper stage. Delta IIs are manufactured in Huntington Beach, Calif. Rocketdyne, a division of The Boeing Company, builds Delta II's main engine in Canoga Park, Calif. Final assembly takes place at the Boeing facility in Pueblo, Colo. Deep Space 1, the first flight in NASA's New Millennium Program, is designed to validate 12 new technologies for scientific space missions of the next century. Onboard experiments include an ion propulsion engine and software that tracks celestial bodies so the spacecraft can make its own navigation decisions without the intervention of ground controllers. Deep Space 1 will complete most of its mission objectives within the first two months, but may also do a flyby of a near-Earth asteroid, 1992 KD, in July 1999.

  16. Delta II rocket prepared for launch of Deep Space 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    (Left) A solid rocket booster is lifted for installation onto the Boeing Delta 7326 rocket that will launch Deep Space 1 at Launch Pad 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station. Delta II rockets are medium capacity expendable launch vehicles derived from the Delta family of rockets built and launched since 1960. Since then there have been more than 245 Delta launches. Delta's origins go back to the Thor intermediate-range ballistic missile, which was developed in the mid-1950s for the U.S. Air Force. The Thor -- a single-stage, liquid-fueled rocket -- later was modified to become the Delta launch vehicle. The Delta 7236 has three solid rocket boosters and a Star 37 upper stage. Delta IIs are manufactured in Huntington Beach, Calif. Rocketdyne, a division of The Boeing Company, builds Delta II's main engine in Canoga Park, Calif. Final assembly takes place at the Boeing facility in Pueblo, Colo. Deep Space 1, the first flight in NASA's New Millennium Program, is designed to validate 12 new technologies for scientific space missions of the next century. Onboard experiments include an ion propulsion engine and software that tracks celestial bodies so the spacecraft can make its own navigation decisions without the intervention of ground controllers. Deep Space 1 will complete most of its mission objectives within the first two months, but may also do a flyby of a near-Earth asteroid, 1992 KD, in July 1999.

  17. High-speed Imaging of Global Surface Temperature Distributions on Hypersonic Ballistic-Range Projectiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilder, Michael C.; Reda, Daniel C.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA-Ames ballistic range provides a unique capability for aerothermodynamic testing of configurations in hypersonic, real-gas, free-flight environments. The facility can closely simulate conditions at any point along practically any trajectory of interest experienced by a spacecraft entering an atmosphere. Sub-scale models of blunt atmospheric entry vehicles are accelerated by a two-stage light-gas gun to speeds as high as 20 times the speed of sound to fly ballistic trajectories through an 24 m long vacuum-rated test section. The test-section pressure (effective altitude), the launch velocity of the model (flight Mach number), and the test-section working gas (planetary atmosphere) are independently variable. The model travels at hypersonic speeds through a quiescent test gas, creating a strong bow-shock wave and real-gas effects that closely match conditions achieved during actual atmospheric entry. The challenge with ballistic range experiments is to obtain quantitative surface measurements from a model traveling at hypersonic speeds. The models are relatively small (less than 3.8 cm in diameter), which limits the spatial resolution possible with surface mounted sensors. Furthermore, since the model is in flight, surface-mounted sensors require some form of on-board telemetry, which must survive the massive acceleration loads experienced during launch (up to 500,000 gravities). Finally, the model and any on-board instrumentation will be destroyed at the terminal wall of the range. For these reasons, optical measurement techniques are the most practical means of acquiring data. High-speed thermal imaging has been employed in the Ames ballistic range to measure global surface temperature distributions and to visualize the onset of transition to turbulent-flow on the forward regions of hypersonic blunt bodies. Both visible wavelength and infrared high-speed cameras are in use. The visible wavelength cameras are intensified CCD imagers capable of integration

  18. High-speed Imaging of Global Surface Temperature Distributions on Hypersonic Ballistic-Range Projectiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilder, Michael C.; Reda, Daniel C.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA-Ames ballistic range provides a unique capability for aerothermodynamic testing of configurations in hypersonic, real-gas, free-flight environments. The facility can closely simulate conditions at any point along practically any trajectory of interest experienced by a spacecraft entering an atmosphere. Sub-scale models of blunt atmospheric entry vehicles are accelerated by a two-stage light-gas gun to speeds as high as 20 times the speed of sound to fly ballistic trajectories through an 24 m long vacuum-rated test section. The test-section pressure (effective altitude), the launch velocity of the model (flight Mach number), and the test-section working gas (planetary atmosphere) are independently variable. The model travels at hypersonic speeds through a quiescent test gas, creating a strong bow-shock wave and real-gas effects that closely match conditions achieved during actual atmospheric entry. The challenge with ballistic range experiments is to obtain quantitative surface measurements from a model traveling at hypersonic speeds. The models are relatively small (less than 3.8 cm in diameter), which limits the spatial resolution possible with surface mounted sensors. Furthermore, since the model is in flight, surface-mounted sensors require some form of on-board telemetry, which must survive the massive acceleration loads experienced during launch (up to 500,000 gravities). Finally, the model and any on-board instrumentation will be destroyed at the terminal wall of the range. For these reasons, optical measurement techniques are the most practical means of acquiring data. High-speed thermal imaging has been employed in the Ames ballistic range to measure global surface temperature distributions and to visualize the onset of transition to turbulent-flow on the forward regions of hypersonic blunt bodies. Both visible wavelength and infrared high-speed cameras are in use. The visible wavelength cameras are intensified CCD imagers capable of integration

  19. 65. DETAIL OF ASSISTANT LAUNCH CONTROLLER AND LAUNCH CONTROLLER PANELS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. DETAIL OF ASSISTANT LAUNCH CONTROLLER AND LAUNCH CONTROLLER PANELS LOCATED NEAR CENTER OF SLC-3E CONTROL ROOM. NOTE 30-CHANNEL COMMUNICATIONS PANELS. PAYLOAD ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL AND MONITORING PANELS (LEFT) AND LAUNCH OPERATORS PANEL (RIGHT) IN BACKGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  20. Antares Rocket Test Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-04-21

    NASA Deputy Administrator Lori Garver and other guests react after having watched the successful launch of the Orbital Sciences Corporation Antares rocket from the Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport (MARS) at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia, Sunday, April 21, 2013. The test launch marked the first flight of Antares and the first rocket launch from Pad-0A. The Antares rocket delivered the equivalent mass of a spacecraft, a so-called mass simulated payload, into Earth's orbit. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  1. Antares Rocket Test Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-04-21

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden and NASA Deputy Administrator Lori Garver and other guests react after having watched the successful launch of the Orbital Sciences Corporation Antares rocket from the Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport (MARS) at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia, Sunday, April 21, 2013. The test launch marked the first flight of Antares and the first rocket launch from Pad-0A. The Antares rocket delivered the equivalent mass of a spacecraft, a so-called mass simulated payload, into Earth's orbit. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  2. STS-135 Launch Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-07

    NASA Chief, Astronaut Office, Johnson Space Center Peggy Whitson deals cards during a traditional game that is played at the NASA Kennedy Space Center Operations and Checkout Building with the shuttle crew prior to them leaving for the launch pad, on Friday, July 8, 2011 in Cape Canaveral, Fla. The point of the game is that the commander must use up all his or her bad luck before launch, so the crew can only leave for the pad after the commander loses. The launch of Atlantis, STS-135, is the final flight of the shuttle program, a 12-day mission to the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Jerry Ross)

  3. STS-135 Atlantis Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-08

    Space shuttle Atlantis is seen through the window of a Shuttle Training Aircraft (STA) as it launches from launch pad 39A at Kennedy Space Center on the STS-135 mission, Friday, July 8, 2011 in Cape Canaveral, Fla. Atlantis launched on the final flight of the shuttle program on a 12-day mission to the International Space Station. The STS-135 crew will deliver the Raffaello multipurpose logistics module containing supplies and spare parts for the space station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Dick Clark)

  4. Ballistic penetration of Perma-Gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryckman, Raymond Albert; Powell, David Arthur; Lew, Adrian

    2012-03-01

    In this study a number of experiments were performed by taking high-speed footage of the firing spherical steel bullets at different speeds into Perma-Gel, a new synthetic thermoplastic material touted to exhibit similar properties to ordnance ballistic gelatin. We found that the gel undergoes very large and recoverable elastic deformations, which could strongly affect the dynamics of the temporary cavity formed behind the projectile. As with ordnance ballistic gelatin, the diameter of the temporary cavity can be many times the diameter of the projectile, in contrast with that of the permanent cavity which is several times smaller.We also observed that the closure of the cavity chokes the air inside, which could affect its dynamics in noticeable ways. Finally, one of the experiments suggest that the precise model of material failure may not be important to determine the dynamics of the temporary cavity.

  5. [Wound Ballistics – a Brief Overview].

    PubMed

    Bolliger, Stephan A; Eggert, Sebastian; Thali, Michael J

    2016-02-03

    Wound ballistics examines the specific effect, namely the wound profile, of bullets on the body by firing at synthetic models made of ordnance gelatine, glycerin soap and synthetic bones, validated with real cases from (battlefield) surgery and forensic pathology. Wound profile refers to the penetration depth, the bullet deformation/ fragmentation, the diameter of the permanent and the temporary wound cavity. Knowing these features and the used ammunition a surgeon can rapidly assess the amount damage within a patient. The forensic pathologist can draw conclusions as to the used ammunition based on the wound profile. By measuring of the destructive capability of different ammunition types, wound ballistics lays the foundation for guidelines concerning the maximum effect of military ammunition.

  6. Non-Ballistic Vapor-Driven Ejecta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrobel, K. E.; Schultz, P. H.; Heineck, J. T.

    2004-01-01

    Impact-induced vaporization is a key component of early-time cratering mechanics. Previous experimental [1,2] and computational [e.g., 3] studies focused on the generation and expansion of vapor clouds in an attempt to better understand vaporization in hypervelocity impacts. Presented here is a new experimental approach to the study of impact-induced vaporization. The three-dimensional particle image velocimetry (3D PIV) system captures interactions between expanding vapor phases and fine particulates. Particles ejected early in the cratering process may be entrained in expanding gas phases generated at impact, altering their otherwise ballistic path of flight. 3D PIV allows identifying the presence of such non-ballistic ejecta from very early times in the cratering process.

  7. Ballistic electron transport in wrinkled superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitran, T. L.; Nemnes, G. A.; Ion, L.; Dragoman, Daniela

    2016-07-01

    Inspired by the problem of elastic wave scattering on wrinkled interfaces, we studied the scattering of ballistic electrons on a wrinkled potential energy region. The electron transmission coefficient depends on both wrinkle amplitude and periodicity, having different behaviors for positive and negative scattering potential energies. For scattering on potential barriers, minibands appear in the electron transmission, as in superlattices, whereas for scattering on periodic potential wells the transmission coefficient has a more complex form. Besides suggesting that tuning of electron transmission is possible by modifying the scattering potential via voltages on wrinkled gate electrodes, our results emphasize the analogies between ballistic electrons and elastic waves even in scattering problems on non-typical configurations.

  8. Ballistic injuries in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Bruner, David; Gustafson, Corey G; Visintainer, Catherine

    2011-12-01

    According to 2007 data, gunshot wounds from homicides, suicides, and accidents caused 31,000 deaths in the United States, with even higher numbers of serious, nonfatal injuries. In recent years, new evidence on effective treatment of patients with gunshot wounds has come from military settings and is being adapted for civilian emergency departments (EDs). Effective, evidence-based management of ballistic injuries in the ED is vital. This issue reviews the physics of ballistics as it relates to the tracts and patterns of tissue injury caused by different types of firearms and missiles, and it takes a regional approach to reviewing the current evidence for managing gunshot wounds to the head, neck, thorax, abdomen, genitourinary (GU) system, extremities, and soft tissues. Current guidelines as well as new research and evidence regarding fluid resuscitation, airway management, evaluation strategies, drug therapies, and documentation are discussed.

  9. Ballistic Missile Silo Door Monitoring Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    EDENBURN,MICHAEL W.; TROST,LAWRENCE C.

    2000-01-01

    This paper compares the cost and effectiveness of several potential options that may be used to monitor silo-based ballistic missiles. Silo door monitoring can be used to verify that warheads removed to deactivate or download silo-based ballistic missiles have not been replaced. A precedent for monitoring warhead replacement using reentry vehicle on site inspections (RV-OSIs) and using satellites has been established by START-I and START-II. However, other monitoring options have the potential to be less expensive and more effective. Three options are the most promising if high verification confidence is desired: random monitoring using door sensors; random monitoring using manned or unmanned aircraft; and continuous remote monitoring using unattended door sensors.

  10. Nonlinear Ballistic Transport in Graphene Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrokhi, M. Javad; Boland, Mathias; Nasseri, Mohsen; Strachan, Douglas

    Through the extreme size scaling of electronic devices, there is great potential to achieve highly efficient and ultrafast electronics. By scaling down the channel length in graphene transistors to the point where the mean free path exceeds the relevant channel length, the electron transport can transition from a diffusive regime to an intrinsic ballistic regime. In such a regime, both quantum tunneling at the electrode-channel interface and the screening length, as determined by electrode-channel barrier width, can have a strong effect on current nonlinearity and asymmetric gate response. Here we discuss our experimental results on nangap electrodes to graphene channels that show quantitative agreement with an intrinsic ballistic model. Moreover, this behavior persists to room temperature and on standard oxide substrates, providing strong evidence for a new regime of nonlinearity in graphene devices that could be of potential use for electronic applications.

  11. Ballistic labeling with fluorescent dyes and indicators.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Joshua L; Wong, Rachel O L

    2008-04-01

    Neuronal cell labeling is fundamental to investigations of the nervous system. Labeling of cells in live or fixed tissue with dyes or ion indicators using ballistic approaches has recently been developed for the study of neuronal architecture and function. In this approach, dye-coated particles are propelled into cells by a pulse of pressurized helium. This unit provides step-by-step protocols for coating tungsten particles with fluorescent or indicator dyes and for delivering these particles into cells and tissue. The major advantage of the ballistic method of dye delivery is that large populations of neurons can be rapidly labeled within a piece of live or fixed tissue. Advantages and limitations of the approach are discussed and technical advice is provided. (c) 2008 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  12. Imaging magnetoelectric subbands in ballistic constrictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozikov, A. A.; Weinmann, D.; Rössler, C.; Ihn, T.; Ensslin, K.; Reichl, C.; Wegscheider, W.

    2013-08-01

    We perform scanning gate experiments on ballistic constrictions in the presence of small perpendicular magnetic fields. The constrictions form the entrance and exit of a circular gate-defined ballistic stadium. Close to constrictions we observe sets of regular fringes creating a checker board pattern. Inside the stadium conductance fluctuations governed by chaotic dynamics of electrons are visible. The checker board pattern allows us to determine the number of transmitted modes in the constrictions forming between the tip-induced potential and gate-defined geometry. Spatial investigation of the fringe pattern in a perpendicular magnetic field shows a transition from electrostatic to magnetic depopulation of magnetoelectric subbands. Classical and quantum simulations agree well with different aspects of our observations.

  13. Ballistic electron spectroscopy of individual buried molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirczenow, George

    2007-01-01

    A theoretical study is presented of the ballistic electron emission spectra (BEES) of individual insulating and conducting organic molecules chemisorbed on a silicon substrate and buried under a thin gold film. It is predicted that ballistic electrons injected into the gold film from a scanning tunneling microscope tip should be transmitted so weakly to the silicon substrate by alkane molecules of moderate length (decane, hexane) and their thiolates that individual buried molecules of this type will be difficult to detect in BEES experiments. However, resonant transmission by molecules containing unsaturated C-C bonds or aromatic rings is predicted to be strong enough for BEES spectra of individual buried molecules of these types to be measured. Calculated BEES spectra of molecules of both types are presented and the effects of some simple interstitial and substitutional gold defects that may occur in molecular films are also briefly discussed.

  14. Terminal Ballistics of Concrete-Polymer Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-09-01

    in Portland Cement Concrete 19 8. Effects of Butyl Acrylate on Cratering 20 9. Penetiation of LMC Made with CE1-P 22 10. Cratering in Latex -Modified...Penetration Craterlng Liquid Monomers Concrete Reinforcing Patterns Terminal Ballistics Concrete Cracking Latex -Modified Concrete 20 ABSTRACT...polymerization; (3) latex modified concrete which differed from portland cement concrete only in the sub- stitution of latex emulsion for portions of the

  15. Theater Ballistic Missile Defense from the Sea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-08-01

    Engagement. The confluence of political constraints on U.S. actions and the tactical challenges posed by the speed and lethality of enemy TBM-WMD systems...warfare. In speed and altitude, they exceed the envelope of conventional Air Warfare (AW) defenses. In range, they may cross AOR boundaries of geographic...system of systems,Third World theater ballistic missiles stand alone and must rely on speed and brute force. The solution for poor targeting of denied

  16. Ballistic Missile Proliferation: An Emerging Threat 1992

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-01

    Soviets. Hepatitis A >4 weeks Hepatitis B >4 weeks A 1970 World Health Organization report con- Turberculosis >4 weeks cluded that biological warfare was...Chairman Dr. Robert R. Everett Dr. W. A. Nierenberg Mr. Daniel J. Fink Gen. B . A. Schriever (USAF, Ret.) Dr. O’Dean Judd Dr. Frederick Seitz Dr. Hans...range ballistic missiles include the developing countries-after another 20-year Soviet Union (Scud B ), North Korea (Scuds B and delay. However, the

  17. Attacking the Theater Mobile Ballistic Missile Threat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    and Record, �Theater Ballistic Missile Defense and US Contingency Operations,� 13. 43Greg Myre, Associated Press, �De Klerk Reveals South African...possession). ____. Briefing, subject: �WarBreaker.� 17 December 1992. Myre, Greg. Associated Press. �De Klerk Reveals South African Nuclear...April�3 May 1992, 1,44. Ordway, Frederick I. III and Ronald C. Wakeford. International Missile and Spacecraft Guide. New York: McGraw

  18. Conformable Self-Healing Ballistic Armor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-28

    armor piercing projectiles even from military rifles rep- which initiates a crack , the ceramic material will undergo continuous cracking or crazing ...part of ballistic protective armor systems is well-known because of the light weight of these materials as compared to steel and other solid...aUoy steel which provides protection against most heavy and explosive particles. Such 10 vehicles or vessels are frequently capable of selectively

  19. Ballistic mode Mercury orbiter mission opportunity handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollenbeck, G. R.; Roos, D. G.; Lewis, P. S.

    1973-01-01

    Significant payloads in Mercury orbit can be achieved through use of high-thrust, chemical propulsion systems on ballistic trajectories. Interplanetary trajectory characteristics are presented, for Venus swingbys to Mercury, were multiple revolutions about the sun are allowed on each leg to provide low energy mission in 1977, 1980, 1985 and 1988. Guidance and navigation results are shown for each opportunity. Additionally, the use of midcourse maneuvers and multiple Venus swingbys are explored as means of further reducing the energy requirements.

  20. Modeling internal ballistics of gas combustion guns.

    PubMed

    Schorge, Volker; Grossjohann, Rico; Schönekess, Holger C; Herbst, Jörg; Bockholdt, Britta; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Frank, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    Potato guns are popular homemade guns which work on the principle of gas combustion. They are usually constructed for recreational rather than criminal purposes. Yet some serious injuries and fatalities due to these guns are reported. As information on the internal ballistics of homemade gas combustion-powered guns is scarce, it is the aim of this work to provide an experimental model of the internal ballistics of these devices and to investigate their basic physical parameters. A gas combustion gun was constructed with a steel tube as the main component. Gas/air mixtures of acetylene, hydrogen, and ethylene were used as propellants for discharging a 46-mm caliber test projectile. Gas pressure in the combustion chamber was captured with a piezoelectric pressure sensor. Projectile velocity was measured with a ballistic speed measurement system. The maximum gas pressure, the maximum rate of pressure rise, the time parameters of the pressure curve, and the velocity and path of the projectile through the barrel as a function of time were determined according to the pressure-time curve. The maximum gas pressure was measured to be between 1.4 bar (ethylene) and 4.5 bar (acetylene). The highest maximum rate of pressure rise was determined for hydrogen at (dp/dt)max = 607 bar/s. The muzzle energy was calculated to be between 67 J (ethylene) and 204 J (acetylene). To conclude, this work provides basic information on the internal ballistics of homemade gas combustion guns. The risk of injury to the operator or bystanders is high, because accidental explosions of the gun due to the high-pressure rise during combustion of the gas/air mixture may occur.

  1. Ballistic Experiments with Titanium and Aluminum Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Gogolewski, R.; Morgan, B.R.

    1999-11-23

    During the course of the project we conducted two sets of fundamental experiments in penetration mechanics in the LLNL Terminal Ballistics Laboratory of the Physics Directorate. The first set of full-scale experiments was conducted with a 14.5mm air propelled launcher. The object of the experiments was to determine the ballistic limit speed of 6Al-4V-alloy titanium, low fineness ratio projectiles centrally impacting 2024-T3 alloy aluminum flat plates and the failure modes of the projectiles and the targets. The second set of one-third scale experiments was conducted with a 14.5mm powder launcher. The object of these experiments was to determine the ballistic limit speed of 6Al-4V alloy titanium high fineness ratio projectiles centrally impacting 6Al-4V alloy titanium flat plates and the failure modes of the projectiles and the target. We employed radiography to observe a projectile just before and after interaction with a target plate. Early on, we employed a non-damaging ''soft-catch'' technique to capture projectiles after they perforated targets. Once we realized that a projectile was not damaged during interaction with a target, we used a 4-inch thick 6061-T6-alloy aluminum witness block with a 6.0-inch x 6.0-inch cross-section to measure projectile residual penetration. We have recorded and tabulated below projectile impact speed, projectile residual (post-impact) speed, projectile failure mode, target failure mode, and pertinent comments for the experiments. The ballistic techniques employed for the experiments are similar to those employed in an earlier study.

  2. 24th International Symposium on Ballistics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-26

    by changed projectile shape , which leads to enhanced plugging failure. • Importance of in-situ testing!!! • Be careful with norms and standards...shown). Mach 0.7 Mach 1.25 24th Int’l Symposium on Ballistics, 22-26 Sep 2008 14 Conclusions & Future Work • Projectile base shape is an important...strength is the parameter that permits the projectile to maintain the designed armor-piercing shape during the penetration process. – The projectile

  3. Development of a Ballistic Impact Detection System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    skin without causing the impact expected for a projectile of such weight and velocity. The spherical shapes used in the proof-of-concept less than...voltage recording for ID 65-4. Embedded Projectile Presumed Shock Wave Tissue Displacement Wave Development of a Ballistic Impact Detection System...the non-lethal phase. Calculated values for the non-lethal projectiles range from 46 to 66 Joules, at the velocities (250 – 300 ft/sec) used in the

  4. Characteristics of ballistic and blast injuries.

    PubMed

    Powers, David B; Delo, Robert I

    2013-03-01

    Ballistic injury wounds are formed by variable interrelated factors, such as the nature of the tissue, the compositional makeup of the bullet, distance to the target, and the velocity, shape, and mass of the of the projectile. This complex arrangement, with the ultimate outcome dependent on each other, makes the prediction of wounding potential difficult to assess. As the facial features are the component of the body most involved in a patient's personality and interaction with society, preservation of form, cosmesis, and functional outcome should remain the primary goals in the management of ballistic injury. A logical, sequential analysis of the injury patterns to the facial complex is an absolutely necessary component for the treatment of craniomaxillofacial ballistic injuries. Fortunately, these skill sets should be well honed in all craniomaxillofacial surgeons through their exposure to generalized trauma, orthognathic, oncologic, and cosmetic surgery patients. Identification of injured tissues, understanding the functional limitations of these injuries, and preservation of both hard and soft tissues minimizing the need for tissue replacement are paramount.

  5. Thermo-Electron Ballistic Coolers or Heaters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sang H.

    2003-01-01

    Electronic heat-transfer devices of a proposed type would exploit some of the quantum-wire-like, pseudo-superconducting properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes or, optionally, room-temperature-superconducting polymers (RTSPs). The devices are denoted thermo-electron ballistic (TEB) coolers or heaters because one of the properties that they exploit is the totally or nearly ballistic (dissipation or scattering free) transport of electrons. This property is observed in RTSPs and carbon nanotubes that are free of material and geometric defects, except under conditions in which oscillatory electron motions become coupled with vibrations of the nanotubes. Another relevant property is the high number density of electrons passing through carbon nanotubes -- sufficient to sustain electron current densities as large as 100 MA/square cm. The combination of ballistic motion and large current density should make it possible for TEB devices to operate at low applied potentials while pumping heat at rates several orders of magnitude greater than those of thermoelectric devices. It may also enable them to operate with efficiency close to the Carnot limit. In addition, the proposed TEB devices are expected to operate over a wider temperature range

  6. Historical overview of wound ballistics research.

    PubMed

    Maiden, Nick

    2009-01-01

    Ballistics involves the study of the scientific properties of projectiles, their behavior and their terminal effects on biological tissues and other materials. Wound ballistics deals with the analysis of injuries caused by projectiles and the behavior of projectiles within human or other biological tissues. The nineteenth century witnessed the development of both of these areas with Kocher's hydrodynamic theory and the understanding of the significance of bullet deformation in causing tissue injury. The degree of traumatic disruption of tissues and organs was also related to direct energy transfer from projectiles. While subsequent research has concentrated on elucidating further mechanisms of injury, the exact cause of remote tissue damage from high energy projectiles is still the subject of ongoing research. Much of the contemporary literature regarding wound ballistics concentrates on the forensic aspects and their application for legal purposes, in particular the investigation of shooting scenes. There have been many advances in this area, particularly in relation to the identification of various types of gunshot wounds and how their appearance can be used to establish if a shooting was accidental, deliberate (homicidal) or self inflicted (suicidal).

  7. Ballistic Similitude Design Criterion for artillery projectiles

    SciTech Connect

    Hodapp, A.E. Jr.; LaFarge, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    A Sandia National Laboratories analytically derived and experimentally verified Ballistic Similitude Design Criterion (BSDC) is described herein. This BSDC, for projectiles of identical external shape, was used to guide development of the M753 8-inch Artillery Fired Atomic Projectile (AFAP) as a ballistically similar counterpart to the M650 8-inch rocket assisted conventional high explosive (HE) projectile. As required for similitude, the mean impact point of the M753 falls within the precision error region about the M650 mean impact point when the M753 is fired with standard equipment and M650 firing data. The M753 is the first AFAP that has been developed and proven to be ballistically similar to a conventional HE projectile. Since gross internal differences between the M753 and M650 make complete duplication of M650 mass properties impossible, a BSDC was required to identify which properties were necessary to match in order to achieve similitude. The effects of internal vibrating bodies, rotating band characteristics, muzzle exit conditions, the basic mass properties, and the effects of mass asymmetries were all considered in the development of the BSDC.

  8. Ballistic transfection of mammalian cells in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Kolesnikov, V.A.; Zelenin, A.V.; Zelenina, I.A.

    1995-11-01

    The method of ballistic transfection initially proposed for genetic transformation of plants was used for animal cells in vitro and in situ. The method consists in bombarding the transfected cells with microparticles of heavy metals carrying foreign DNA. Penetrating the cell nucleus, the microparticles transport the introduced gene. Successful genetic transformation of the cultured mouse cells and fish embryos was realized, and this allowed the study of mammalian cells in situ. The performed studies allowed us to demonstrate expression of the reporter genes of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, galactosidase, and neomycin phosphotransferase in the mouse liver, mammary gland and kidney explants, in the liver and cross-striated muscle of mouse and rat in situ, and in developing mouse embryos at the stages of two-cell embryo, morula, and blastocyst. All these genes were introduced by ballistic transfection. In the liver and cross-striated muscle the transgene activity was detected within two to three months after transfection. Thus, the ballistic introduction of the foreign genes in the cells in situ was demonstrated, and this opens possibilities for the use of this method in gene therapy. Methodical aspects of the bombarding and transfection are considered in detail, and the published data on transfection and genetic transformation of mammalian cells are discussed. 41 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  9. A Computational Investigation of the Multi-Hit Ballistic-Protection Performance of Laminated Transparent-armor Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grujicic, Mica; Pandurangan, B.; Coutris, N.

    2012-06-01

    Multi-hit ballistic-protection performance of a prototypical laminated glass/polycarbonate transparent armor is investigated using a series of transient nonlinear dynamics analyses of armor impact with a sequence of four M2AP full metal jacket (FMJ) armor-piercing bullets. All calculations were carried out using ABAQUS/Explicit commercial finite element program (ABAQUS Version 6.7, User Documentation, Dessault Systems, 2007), and the computational results obtained were compared to their experimental counterparts obtained by Dolan (Ballistic Transparent-armor Testing Using a Multi-hit Rifle Pattern, Bachelors, Thesis, Kettering University, December 2007). The comparison revealed that (a) The proposed computational procedure can reasonably well account for the observed multi-hit ballistic-protection performance of the laminated transparent armor; (b) The role of prior bullet hits in reducing armor's ballistic-protection performance is clearly revealed; (c) The role of polycarbonate lamina in preventing glass fragments from entering the vehicle interior is clearly demonstrated; and (d) Experimentally observed inability of the transparent armor to defeat 0.50-caliber Fragment Simulating Projectiles (FSPs) is confirmed.

  10. Department of the Interior

    MedlinePlus

    ... American Indians Other Interior Offices Priorities American Energy Climate Change Jobs Regulatory Reform Stewardship Tribal Nations Join Jobs ... Secretary Bureaus For Employees Our Priorities American Energy Climate Change Jobs Regulatory Reform Stewardship Tribal Nations Resources Cobell / ...

  11. Studies in Interior Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environ Planning Design, 1970

    1970-01-01

    Floor plans and photographs illustrate a description of the Samuel C. Williams Library at Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, N.J. The unusual interior design allows students to take full advantage of the library's resources. (JW)

  12. RSRM-9 (360L009): Ballistics mass properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drendel, Albert S.; Richards, M. C.

    1990-01-01

    The propulsion performance and reconstructed mass properties data from Thiokol's RSRM-9 motors which were assigned to the STS-36 launch are presented. The SRM propellant, TP-H1148, is a composite type solid propellant, formulated of polybutadiene acrylic acid acryonitrile terpolymer binder (PBAN), epoxy curing agent, ammonium perchlorate oxidizer and aluminum powder fuel. A small amount of burning rate catalyst (iron oxide) was added to achieve the desired propellant burn rate. The propellant evaluation and raw material information for the RSRM-9 are included. The propellant grain design consists of four segments. There is a forward segment with an eleven point star with a transition into a tapered circular perforated (CP) configuration. There are two center segments that result in a double tapered CP configuration and an aft segment with a triple taper CP configuration and a cutout for the partially submerged nozzle. The ballistic performance presented is based on the Operational Flight Instrumentation (OFI) 12.5 sample per second pressure data for the steady state and tail off portion of the pressure trace. No high sample rate pressure gauges, Development Flight Instrumentation (DFI), were used on this flight and therefore no ignition data is presented.

  13. Launch of Juno!

    NASA Image and Video Library

    An Atlas V rocket lofted the Juno spacecraft toward Jupiter from Space Launch Complex-41. The 4-ton Juno spacecraft will take five years to reach Jupiter on a mission to study its structure and dec...

  14. Anchor Trial Launch

    Cancer.gov

    NCI has launched a multicenter phase III clinical trial called the ANCHOR Study -- Anal Cancer HSIL (High-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion) Outcomes Research Study -- to determine if treatment of HSIL in HIV-infected individuals can prevent anal canc

  15. Genomic Data Commons launches

    Cancer.gov

    The Genomic Data Commons (GDC), a unified data system that promotes sharing of genomic and clinical data between researchers, launched today with a visit from Vice President Joe Biden to the operations center at the University of Chicago.

  16. Hi-C Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The High resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) was launched on a NASA Black Brant IX two-stage rocket from White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico July 11, 2012. The experiment reached a maximum velocit...

  17. Launch - STS-6 - KSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1983-04-12

    S83-30222 (4 April 1983) --- The second reusable spacecraft in history successfully launches from Launch Pad 39A at 1:30:00:88 p.m. (EST) on April 4, 1983, and heads for its history making five-day mission in Earth orbit. The space shuttle Challenger, its two solid rocket boosters (SRB), and a new lightweight?external fuel tank were captured on film by an automatically-tripped camera in a protected station nearer to the launch pad than human beings are able to be at launch time. Onboard the spacecraft are astronauts Paul J. Wietz, Karol J. Bobko, Dr. Story Musgrave and Donald H. Peterson. Photo credit: NASA

  18. First Accessible Boat Launch

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a story about how the Northwest Indiana urban waters partnership location supported the process to create and open the first handicap accessible canoe and kayak launch in the state of Indiana.

  19. IRVE 3 Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The Inflatable Reentry Vehicle Experiment, or IRVE-3, launched on July 23, 2012, from NASA's Wallops Flight Facility. The purpose of the IRVE-3 test was to show that a space capsule can use an infl...

  20. GPM Launch Coverage

    NASA Image and Video Library

    A Japanese H-IIA rocket with the NASA-Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Core Observatory aboard, launched from the Tanegashima Space Center in Japan o...

  1. NASA Now: Glory Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    In this episode of NASA Now, Dr. Hal Maring joins us to explain why the upcoming launch of the Glory satellite is so important to further our understanding of climate change. He also will speak on ...

  2. 76. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, WING 1200 WEST, INTERIOR DEPARTMENT MUSEUM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    76. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, WING 1200 WEST, INTERIOR DEPARTMENT MUSEUM, LOBBY, BRONZE GRILL (4' x 5' negative; 8' x 10' print) - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  3. 97. VIEW OF CENTER OF INTERIOR ROW OF EQUIPMENT CABINETS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    97. VIEW OF CENTER OF INTERIOR ROW OF EQUIPMENT CABINETS ON SOUTH SIDE OF LANDLINE INSTRUMENTATION ROOM. THREE ADDITIONAL GOULD BRUSH CHART RECORDERS ARE IN THIS ROW (NOT VISIBLE IN PHOTOGRAPH) LOCATED IMMEDIATELY EAST (LEFT) OF THESE CABINETS. Another row of cabinets south of (behind) this one is not accessible for photography. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  4. Vertical Launch Alignment Transfer Apparatus.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A launch mechanism for vertically launching missiles carried in launch tubes disposed in a pod . The launch mechanism includes apparatus for... pod and v-groove elements are secured in the launch tubes and oriented to the northfinder. Rods are secured on opposite sides of each missile and are

  5. Injuries of the head from backface deformation of ballistic protective helmets under ballistic impact.

    PubMed

    Rafaels, Karin A; Cutcliffe, Hattie C; Salzar, Robert S; Davis, Martin; Boggess, Brian; Bush, Bryan; Harris, Robert; Rountree, Mark Steve; Sanderson, Ellory; Campman, Steven; Koch, Spencer; Dale Bass, Cameron R

    2015-01-01

    Modern ballistic helmets defeat penetrating bullets by energy transfer from the projectile to the helmet, producing helmet deformation. This deformation may cause severe injuries without completely perforating the helmet, termed "behind armor blunt trauma" (BABT). As helmets become lighter, the likelihood of larger helmet backface deformation under ballistic impact increases. To characterize the potential for BABT, seven postmortem human head/neck specimens wearing a ballistic protective helmet were exposed to nonperforating impact, using a 9 mm, full metal jacket, 124 grain bullet with velocities of 400-460 m/s. An increasing trend of injury severity was observed, ranging from simple linear fractures to combinations of linear and depressed fractures. Overall, the ability to identify skull fractures resulting from BABT can be used in forensic investigations. Our results demonstrate a high risk of skull fracture due to BABT and necessitate the prevention of BABT as a design factor in future generations of protective gear. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. 33. Launch Control Center, close view of launch key inserted ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Launch Control Center, close view of launch key inserted in the launch panel. Lyon - Whiteman Air Force Base, Oscar O-1 Minuteman Missile Alert Facility, Southeast corner of Twelfth & Vendenberg Avenues, Knob Noster, Johnson County, MO

  7. Experiences with Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumbacher, Daniel L.

    2006-01-01

    The presentation "NASA Experience with Launch Vehicles" is a compilation of Mr. Dumbacher's career experiences with the Space Shuttle Program, the Delta - Clipper Experimental flight test project, the X-33 demonstrator project, and recent experiences with the Orbital Spaceplane Program agd the current NASA effort on Exploration Launch Systems. Mr. Dumbacher will discuss his personal experiences and provide lessons learned from each program. The accounts provided by Mr. Dumbacher are his own and do not necessarily represent the official NASA position.

  8. STS-130 Launch Attempt

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-02-07

    NASA Associate Administrator for Space Operations Bill Gerstenmaier, center, reacts to an updated weather report during the countdown of the launch of the space shuttle Endeavour and the start of the STS-130 mission at NASA Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. on Sunday Feb. 7, 2010. Space shuttle Endeavour's launch attempt was scrubbed due to a low cloud ceiling over Kennedy Space Center. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  9. STS-132 Launch Tweetup

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-12

    Jon Cowart @Rocky_Sci, orbiter engineering manager, Space Shuttle Program, interacts with Tweetup participant, Jen Vargas, @jenvargus, as he speaks to participants at the two-day STS-132 Launch Tweetup at Kennedy Space Center, Thursday, May 13, 2010, in Cape Canaveral, Fla. NASA Twitter followers in attendance will have the opportunity to take a tour of NASA's Kennedy Space Center, view the space shuttle launch and speak with shuttle technicians, engineers, astronauts and managers. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  10. Expedition 23 Launch Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-04-01

    Expedition 23 Flight Engineer Mikhail Kornienko of the Russia has his Russian Sokol suit prepared for launch by a technician at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Friday, April 2, 2010. Kornienko and fellow Expedition 23 crewmembers Soyuz Commander Alexander Skvortsov and NASA Flight Engineer Tracy Caldwell Dyson of the U.S. launched in their Soyuz TMA-18 rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on Friday, April 2, 2010. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  11. Expedition 23 Launch Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-04-01

    Expedition 23 Soyuz Commander Alexander Skvortsov has his Russian Sokol suit prepared for launch by a technician at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Friday, April 2, 2010. Skvortsov and fellow Expedition 23 crewmembers Flight Engineer Mikhail Kornienko of the Russia and NASA Flight Engineer Tracy Caldwell Dyson of the U.S. launched in their Soyuz TMA-18 rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on Friday, April 2, 2010. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  12. Expedition 22 Launch Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-12-20

    Expedition 22 Flight Engineer Soichi Noguchi of Japan has his Russian Sokol suit prepared for launch by a technician at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Sunday, Dec. 20, 2009. Soichi and fellow Expedition 22 crew members NASA Flight Engineer Timothy J. Creamer of the U.S., Soyuz Commander Oleg Kotov of Russia launched in their Soyuz TMA-17 rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on Monday, Dec. 21, 2009. (Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  13. Expedition 23 Launch Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-04-01

    Expedition 23 NASA Flight Engineer Tracy Caldwell Dyson, left, talks with Soyuz Commander Alexander Skvortsov of Russia, while Flight Engineer Mikhail Kornienko of Russia has his Russian Sokol suit prepared for launch at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Friday, April 2, 2010. The Expedition 23 crew members launched in their Soyuz TMA-18 rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on Friday, April 2, 2010. (Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  14. Expedition 23 Launch Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-04-01

    Expedition 23 NASA Flight Engineer Tracy Caldwell Dyson of the U.S. has her Russian Sokol suit prepared for launch by a technician at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Friday, April 2, 2010. Caldwell Dyson and fellow Expedition 23 crew members Soyuz Commander Alexander Skvortsov and Flight Engineer Mikhail Kornienko of Russia launched in their Soyuz TMA-18 rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on Friday, April 2, 2010. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  15. Expedition 25 Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-10-07

    Expedition 25 NASA Flight Engineer Scott Kelly of the U.S. has his Russian Sokol suit prepared for launch by a technician at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Friday, Oct. 8, 2010. Kelly and fellow Expedition 25 crew members Soyuz Commander Alexander Kaleri and Flight Engineer Oleg Skripochka launched in their Soyuz TMA-01M at 5:10 a.m. Friday morning. (Photo Credit: NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  16. Expedition 25 Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-10-07

    The Soyuz TMA-01M rocket launches from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on Friday, October 8, 2010 carrying Expedition 25 Soyuz Commander Alexander Kaleri of Russia, NASA Flight Engineer Scott J. Kelly and Russian Flight Engineer Oleg Skripochka to the International Space Station. Their Soyuz TMA-01M rocket launched at 5:10 a.m Kazakhstan time. (Photo Credit: NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  17. Expedition 25 Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-10-07

    Expedition 25 NASA Flight Engineer Scott Kelly of the U.S. has his Russian Sokol suit prepared for launch by a technician at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, Friday, Oct. 8, 2010. Kelly and fellow Expedition 25 crew members Soyuz Commander Alexander Kaleri and Flight Engineer Oleg Skripochka launched in their Soyuz TMA-01M at 5:10 a.m. Friday morning. (Photo Credit: NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  18. STS-64 launch view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Passing through some of the trailer clouds of an overcast sky which temporarily postponed its launch, the Space Shuttle Discovery heads for its 19th Earth orbital flight. Several kilometers away, astronaut John H. Casper, Jr., who took this picture, was piloting the Shuttle Training Aircraft (STA) from which the launch and landing area weather was being monitored. Onboard Discovery were astronauts Richard N. Richards, L. Blaine Hammond, Jr., Mark C. Lee, Carl J. Meade, Susan J. Helms, and Jerry M. Linenger.

  19. Orion EFT-1 Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-12-05

    A Delta IV Heavy rocket lifts off from Space Launch Complex 37 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida carrying NASA's Orion spacecraft on an unpiloted flight test to Earth orbit. Liftoff was at 7:05 a.m. EST. During the two-orbit, four-and-a-half hour mission, engineers will evaluate the systems critical to crew safety, the launch abort system, the heat shield and the parachute system.

  20. Expedition 22 Launch Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-12-21

    Expedition 22 Soyuz Commander Oleg Kotov of Russia, left, NASA Flight Engineer Timothy J. Creamer of the U.S., back center, and Flight Engineer Soichi Noguchi of Japan are walked from their bus to the soyuz rocket at the launch pad at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Monday, Dec. 21, 2009. Kotov, Creamer and Noguchi launched in their Soyuz TMA-17 rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on Monday, Dec. 21, 2009. (Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  1. Expedition 22 Launch Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-12-20

    Expedition 22 Soyuz Commander Oleg Kotov of Russia, center, has his Russian Sokol suit prepared for launch while NASA Flight Engineer Timothy J. Creamer of the U.S., left, and Flight Engineer Soichi Noguchi of Japan wait at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Sunday, Dec. 20, 2009. The Expedition 22 crew members launched in their Soyuz TMA-17 rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on Monday, Dec. 21, 2009. (Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  2. Expedition 22 Launch Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-12-20

    Expedition 22 NASA Flight Engineer Timothy J. Creamer of the U.S. has his Russian Sokol suit prepared for launch by a technician at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Sunday, Dec. 20, 2009. Creamer and fellow Expedition 22 crew members, Soyuz Commander Oleg Kotov of Russia, Flight Engineer Soichi Noguchi of Japan launched in their Soyuz TMA-17 rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on Monday, Dec. 21, 2009. (Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  3. Expedition 22 Launch Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-12-20

    Expedition 22 NASA Flight Engineer Timothy J. Creamer of the U.S., left, talks with Soyuz Commander Oleg Kotov of Russia, right, while Flight Engineer Soichi Noguchi of Japan has his Russian Sokol suit prepared for launch at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Sunday, Dec. 20, 2009. The Expedition 22 crew members launched in their Soyuz TMA-17 rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on Monday, Dec. 21, 2009. (Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  4. Magnetic Launch Assist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez, Jose

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of this program are to: (1) To develop a safe, reliable, inexpensive, and minimum operation launch assist system for sending payloads into orbit using ground powered, magnetic suspension and propulsion technologies; (2) Improve safety, reliability, operability for third generation Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV); (3) Reduce vehicle weight and increase payload capacity; and (4) Support operational testing of Rocket Based Combine Cycle (RBCC) engines.

  5. STS-132 Launch Tweetup

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-12

    Kendal Van Dyke, a database professional that is followed on Twitter @twitter.com/sqldba, takes part in the two-day STS-132 Launch Tweetup at Kennedy Space Center, Thursday, May 13, 2010, in Cape Canaveral, Fla. NASA Twitter followers in attendance will have the opportunity to take a tour of NASA's Kennedy Space Center, view the space shuttle launch and speak with shuttle technicians, engineers, astronauts and managers. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  6. Expedition 8 Launch Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-18

    Technicians conduct a leak check on the spacesuit of Expedition 8 Soyuz Commander Alexander Kaleri at the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Saturday, Oct. 18, 2003, prior to his departure for the launch pad with Expedition 8 Commander and NASA Science Officer Mike Foale and European Space Agency astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain. The trio were launched on a Soyuz TMA-3 vehicle to the International Space Station, arriving on Oct. 20. Photo Credit (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  7. Expedition 8 Launch Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-18

    Technicians conduct a leak check on the spacesuit of European Space Agency astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain at the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Saturday, Oct. 18, 2003, prior to his departure for the launch pad with Expedition 8 Commander and NASA Science Officer Mike Foale and Soyuz Commander Alexander Kaleri. The trio were launched on a Soyuz TMA-3 vehicle to the International Space Station, arriving on Oct. 20. Photo Credit (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  8. Expedition 8 Launch Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-18

    Expedition 8 Commander and NASA Science Officer Michael Foale completes suiting up at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, Saturday, Oct. 18, 2003, prior to departing for the launch pad with Expedition 8 Soyuz Commander Alexander Kaleri and European Space Agency astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain. The trio were launched on the Soyuz TMA-3 vehicle to the International Space Station, arriving on Oct. 20. Photo Credit (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  9. Launch Vehicle Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Bryan; Greenfeld, Israel

    2005-01-01

    As the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) planning for updated launch vehicle operations progresses, there is a need to consider improved methods. This study considers the use of phased array antennas mounted on launch vehicles and transmitting data to either NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) satellites or to the commercial Iridium, Intelsat, or Inmarsat communications satellites. Different data rate requirements are analyzed to determine size and weight of resulting antennas.

  10. STS-135 Atlantis Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-08

    Guests look on from the terrace of Operations Support Building II as space shuttle Atlantis launches from launch pad 39A on the STS-135 mission Friday, July 8, 2011, at Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. Atlantis and its crew will deliver to the International Space Station the Raffaello multipurpose logistics module containing supplies and spare parts for the space station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  11. STS-135 Atlantis Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-08

    Space shuttle Atlantis, STS-135, launches skyward on a 12-day mission to the International Space Station (ISS), Friday, July 8, 2011, at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. The launch of Atlantis is the final flight of the shuttle program and will carry the Raffaello multipurpose logistics module containing supplies and spare parts for the space station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  12. Orion EFT-1 Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-12-05

    A Delta IV Heavy rocket roars to life at Space Launch Complex 37 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. The launch vehicle is carrying NASA's Orion spacecraft on an unpiloted flight test to Earth orbit. Liftoff was at 7:05 a.m. EST. The flight will send Orion 3,600 miles in altitude beyond the Earth's surface on a four-and-a-half hour mission.

  13. STS-132 Launch Tweetup

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-12

    Ron Woods, an equipment specialist, who has been a space suit designer from Mercury to now speaks to participants at the two-day STS-132 Launch Tweetup at Kennedy Space Center, Thursday, May 13, 2010, in Cape Canaveral, Fla. NASA Twitter followers in attendance will have the opportunity to take a tour of NASA's Kennedy Space Center, view the space shuttle launch and speak with shuttle technicians, engineers, astronauts and managers. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  14. Ballistics Modeling for Non-Axisymmetric Hypervelocity Smart Bullets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-03

    into a single CMq called the pitch damping coefficient. 12 3. Magnus Moment The Magnus force is seldom important in exterior ballistics, even for a...the full set of forces and moments, (b) without magnus moment, and (c) without pitch damping moment. The velocity as a function of range is given in...wheel, combined with a tabulated set of ballistic coefficients used to specify the aerodynamic forces and moments on the body. The ballistic coefficients

  15. Ionospheric holes made by ballistic missiles from North Korea detected with a Japanese dense GPS array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozeki, Masaru; Heki, Kosuke

    2010-09-01

    A dense array of global positioning system (GPS) receivers is a useful tool to study ionospheric disturbances. Here we report observations by a Japanese GPS array of ionospheric holes, i.e., localized electron depletion. They were made by neutral molecules in exhaust plumes (e.g., water) of ballistic missiles from North Korea, Taepodong-1 and -2, launched on 31 August, 1998, and 5 April, 2009, respectively. Negative anomaly of electron density emerged ˜6 min after the launches in the middle of the Japan Sea, and extended eastward along the missile tracks. By comparing the numerical simulation of electron depletion and the observed change in ionospheric total electron content, we suggest that the exhaust plumes from the Taepodong-2 second stage effused up to ˜1.5 × 1026 water molecules per second. The ionospheric hole signature was used to constrain the Taepodong-2 trajectory together with other information, e.g., coordinates of the launch pad, time and coordinates of the first stage splashdown, and height and time of the second stage passage over Japan. The Taepodong-2 is considered to have reached the ionospheric F region in ˜6 min, flown above northeastern Japan ˜7 min after the launch, and crashed to the Pacific Ocean without attaining the first astronautical velocity. The ionospheric hole in the 1998 Taepodong-1 launch was much less in size, but it is difficult to compare directly the thrusts of the two missiles due to uncertainty of the Taepodong-1 trajectory.

  16. Electromagnetic Launch to Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNab, I. R.

    Many advances in electromagnetic (EM) propulsion technology have occurred in recent years. Linear motor technology for low-velocity and high-mass applications is being developed for naval catapults. Such technology could serve as the basis for a first-stage booster launch--as suggested by the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the Maglifter concept. Using railguns, laboratory experiments have demonstrated launch velocities of 2-3 km/s and muzzle energies > 8 MJ. The extension of this technology to the muzzle velocities ( 7500 m/s) and energies ( 10 GJ) needed for the direct launch of payloads into orbit is very challenging but may not be impossible. For launch to orbit, even long launchers (> 1000 m) would need to operate at accelerations > 1000 G to reach the required velocities, so it would only be possible to launch rugged payloads, such as fuel, water, and materiel. Interest is being shown in such concepts by US, European, Russian, and Chinese researchers. An intermediate step proposed in France could be to launch payloads to sounding rocket altitudes for ionospheric research.

  17. 76 FR 14589 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Repeal of Restriction on Ballistic Missile...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-17

    ... Regulation Supplement; Repeal of Restriction on Ballistic Missile Defense Research, Development, Test, and... Ballistic Missile Defense research, development, test, and evaluation from foreign sources. DATES: Effective...) repealed the restriction from foreign sources of acquisition of Ballistic Missile Defense...

  18. Wernher von Braun and Saturn IB on Launch Pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Dr. Wernher von Braun stands in front of a Saturn IB launch vehicle at Kennedy Space Flight Center. Dr. von Braun led a team of German rocket scientists, called the Rocket Team, to the United States, first to Fort Bliss/White Sands, later being transferred to the Army Ballistic Missile Agency at Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama. They were further transferred to the newly established NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama in 1960, and Dr. von Braun became the first Center Director. Under von Braun's direction, MSFC developed the Mercury-Redstone, which put the first American in space; and later the Saturn rockets, Saturn I, Saturn IB, and Saturn V. The Saturn V launch vehicle put the first human on the surface of the Moon, and a modified Saturn V vehicle placed Skylab, the first United States' experimental space station, into Earth orbit. Dr. von Braun was MSFC Director from July 1960 to February 1970.

  19. Chunk projectile launch using the Sandia Hypervelocity Launcher Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Chhabildas, L.C.; Trucano, T.G.; Reinhart, W.D.; Hall, C.A.

    1994-07-01

    An experimental technique is described to launch an intact ``chunk,`` i.e. a 0.3 cm thick by 0.6 cm diameter cylindrical titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) flyer, to 10.2 km/s. The ability to launch fragments having such an aspect ratio is important for hypervelocity impact phenomenology studies. The experimental techniques used to accomplish this launch were similar but not identical to techniques developed for the Sandia HyperVelocity Launcher (HVL). A confined barrel impact is crucial in preventing the two-dimensional effects from dominating the loading response of the projectile chunk. The length to diameter ratio of the metallic chunk that is launched to 10.2 km/s is 0.5 and is an order of magnitude larger than those accomplished using the conventional hypervelocity launcher. The multi-dimensional, finite-difference (finite-volume), hydrodynamic code CTH was used to evaluate and assess the acceleration characteristics i.e., the in-bore ballistics of the chunky projectile launch. A critical analysis of the CTH calculational results led to the final design and the experimental conditions that were used in this study. However, the predicted velocity of the projectile chunk based on CTH calculations was {approximately} 6% lower than the measured velocity of {approximately}10.2 km/S.

  20. GPM Core Observatory Launch Animation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This animation depicts the launch of the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Core Observatory satellite from Tanegashima Space Center, Japan. The launch is currently scheduled for Feb. 27, 2014....

  1. A cost engineered launch vehicle for space tourism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koelle, -Ing. Dietrich E., , Dr.

    1999-09-01

    The paper starts with a set of major requirements for a space tourism vehicle and discusses major vehicle options proposed for this purpose. It seems that the requirements can be met best with a Ballistic SSTO Vehicle which has the additional advantage of lowest development cost compared to other launch vehicle options — important for a commercial development venture. The BETA Ballistic Reusable Vehicle Concept is characterized by the plug nozzle cluster engine configuration where the plug nozzle serves also as base plate and re-entry heat shield. In this case no athmospheric turn maneuver is required (as in case-of the front-entry Delta-Clipper DC-Y concept). In our specific case for space tourism this mode has the avantage that the forces at launch and reentry are in exactly the same direction, easing passenger seating arrangements. The second basic advantage is the large available volume on top of the vehicle providing ample space for passenger accomodation, visibility and volume for zero-g experience (free floating), one of the major passenger mission requirements. An adequate passenger cabin design for 100 passengers is presented, as well as the modern BETA-STV Concept with its mass allocations.

  2. Ares Launch Vehicles Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanhooser, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Since 2005, the Ares Projects have been building the nation s next generation of crew and cargo launch vehicles. As part of the Constellation Program, the Ares vehicles will enable astronauts in the Orion crew exploration vehicle and Altair lunar lander to reach the Moon and beyond. These vehicles draw upon hardware and experienced developed over 50 years of exploration, while also incorporating technology and management practices from today. Ares is concentrating on building the Ares I crew launch vehicle to ensure America s continued ability to send crews to the International Space Station. Progress has been made on design, fabrication, and testing for the first stage, upper stage, upper stage engine, and integrated vehicle. This presentation will provide an overview of the Ares launch vehicles architecture, milestone progress, and top project risks.

  3. STS-133 launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-02-24

    STS133-S-067 (24 Feb. 2011) --- In Firing Room 4 of the Launch Control Center at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, NASA's Discovery Flow Director Stephanie Stilson, left, STS-133 Assistant Shuttle Launch Director and lead NASA Test Director Charlie Blackwell-Thompson and Shuttle Launch Director Mike Leinbach watch space shuttle Discovery head toward Earth orbit on the STS-133 mission to the International Space Station. Discovery and its six-member crew are on a mission to deliver the Permanent Multipurpose Module, packed with supplies and critical spare parts, as well as Robonaut 2, the dexterous humanoid astronaut helper, to the orbiting outpost. Discovery is making its 39th mission and is scheduled to be retired following STS-133. This is the 133rd Space Shuttle Program mission and the 35th shuttle voyage to the space station. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  4. STS-135 Launch Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-07

    NASA Chief, Astronaut Office, Johnson Space Center Peggy Whitson, center, STS-135 Astronauts, Rex Walheim, left, and Commander Chris Ferguson are seen as the entire crew plays a traditional card game at the NASA Kennedy Space Center Operations and Checkout Building prior to them leaving for the launch pad, on Friday, July 8, 2011 in Cape Canaveral, Fla. The point of the game is that the commander must use up all his or her bad luck before launch, so the crew can only leave for the pad after the commander loses. The launch of Atlantis, STS-135, is the final flight of the shuttle program, a 12-day mission to the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Jerry Ross)

  5. Antares Rocket Test Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-04-21

    NASA Deputy Administrator Lori Garver talks with CEO and President of Orbital Sciences Corporation David Thompson, left, Executive Vice President and Chief Technical Officer, Orbital Sciences Corporation Antonio Elias, second from left, and Executive Director, Va. Commercial Space Flight Authority Dale Nash, background, in the Range Control Center at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility after the successful launch of the Orbital Sciences Antares rocket from the Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport (MARS) in Virginia, Sunday, April 21, 2013. The test launch marked the first flight of Antares and the first rocket launch from Pad-0A. The Antares rocket delivered the equivalent mass of a spacecraft, a so-called mass simulated payload, into Earth's orbit. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  6. Constant Pressure Interior Ballistics Code CONPRESS: Theory and User’s Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    With Identical Inputs for Constant Pressure Calculations Balistic Valmes Enervy Information Velocity (mis): 1,667.67 Prop. Energy (MJ): 45.6 Burnout...Alexandria, VA 22304-6145 I Commander Commander U.S. Army Tank-Automotive Command U.S. Army Materiel Command ATTN: AMSTA-JSK ( Armor Eng. Br.) ATrN: AMCAM

  7. Experimental Studies of Multidimensional Two-Phase Flow Processes in Interior Ballistics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    Continued Investigation of Early Time Propellant Charge Behavior ," Report No. 6816-I>-1, Calspan Corporation, Buffalo, NY, June 1981. CENTERCORE...steel plate bearing Kistler gage ports was attached with sufficient fiberglass wraps to hold it in place, and holes were drilled from the adapters ...noted here. .. Round 2 displayed the same very early behavior as seen in Round 1, with the oscillation of the primer pulse in the ullage. There

  8. Studies Supporting Development of a Modified Gradient Equation for Lumped-Parameter Interior Ballistic Codes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    a 0 :3 0 4 0 6.0 "Travel (motoer) Travel (meters) 2?500.0 B2 ., 0 B .00-3. BASE 3000 7°- 300.0 3000 2000 A 1.0 eL 1 0CL .1oo ..... . 2 1000 . .o...Cleveland Dept. of Mech. Engineering P. 0. Box 6767 Monterey, CA 93943-5100 Baltimore , MD 21204 22 DISTRIBUTION LIST No. of No. of Copies...McSpadden I ltitute of Gas Technology Black Canyon Stage 1 ATTN: D. Gidaspow Box 1140 3424 S. State Street Phoenix, AZ 85029 Chicago, IL 60616-3896

  9. A Lumped-Parameter Interior Ballistic Computer Code Using the TTCP (The Technical Cooperation Program) Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-01

    jam (nchpts) if(chdist(l) .ne.0.0)write(3,45,err=-30) 45 forinat(lx,’ # points ? ’) 15 chdist (1) -0. 0 p13-pi/3 .0 b1-0. 0 b2 -0. 0 b^Z -). 0 b4-0. 0...D+P) *(D-P-4 .*X) -4 .*D1SQ)/4./D1/PP2X A1=ATAN(SQRT(1. -B1*Bl)/B1) IF(Al.GT.0.)GO TO 610 Al=PI+Al 610 B2 =( (D+P)* (D-.P-4.*X)+4.*D1SQ)/4./D1,/Lt2X...A2=ATAN(SQRT(1 .- B2 * B2 )/ B2 ) 1 * (2. *Y-P-TW.OX) *(2 .*Y-D+TWOJX)) L1=U42X* (A1*PP2X+A2*tt42X, 650 IF(X.GT.W/2.)GO TO 690 SURF-SO+12 .*(F1+F2+F3) -6

  10. Pulsed Power, Plasma, and Interior Ballistic Simulations for Application to Electrothermal-Chemical Guns.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-03-01

    AMSRL OP SD TA/ ATTN AMSMC PBM E L LAIBSON RECORDS MANAGEMENT PCTNY ARSNL NJ 07806-5000 2800 POWDER MILL RD ADELPHI MD 20783-1197 3 PEO ARMAMENTS PM TMAS...LIBRARY 2800 POWDER MILL RD 2 DIRECTOR ADELPHI MD 207830-1197 BENET LAB USA WATERVLIET ARNSL ATTN SARWV RD G CARAFANO 1 DIRECTOR R HASOENBEIN US ARMY...RESEARCH LABORATORY WATERVLIET NY 12189 ATTN AMSRL OP SD TP/ TECH PUBLISHING BRANCH 2 DIRECTOR 2800 POWDER MILL RD BENET LAB USA WATERVLIET ARNSL

  11. Review of Solid Propellant Ignition Models Relative to the Interior Ballistic Modelling of Gun Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    case of propellant mixtures, the properties are taken as mass fraction averages of the constituents. The solid -phase exother- mic reactions are not...processes all acting to transfer heat energy to the solid propellant . Due to the complexity of the heat transfer mechanisms present, no one complete method...to the heat transfer, assuming radiative and convective mechanisms , based on uidized bed theory [32]. The heat transferred to the solid propellant

  12. New Pressure Gradient Equations for Lumped-Parameter Interior Ballistic Codes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    chambrage effects are important factors in respect to the time- dependent behavior of the pressure gradient. The result of the RGA gradient equation... dependence of both V. and d 21np/dt 2 . The Drojectile acceleration is given by P = goABPB gQAP,L.5 MM "(L.25) To get the base pressure Pg dependence ...v)) or a- - 14(t)z (L.69) where k1(t) = k, = C "- ,j. (L,.70) k, depends upon the base pressure PB = P(z.P (one of the values we wish to solve for

  13. Simulations of Special Interior Ballistic Phenomena with and without Heat Transfer to Gun Tube Wall.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    second type of flow is simulated which hs tie-- dependent pressure and temperature profiles similar to a real weapon. It i". obtained by adding proper heat...and mass to the one-phase flow via source terms. An empirical burning law for pressure - dependent sources is used. Tlio- sources move with the flow... dependent balance of the heat fluxes at the inner wall surface, and the two-dimensional temperature calculation within the gun tube wall. The

  14. Mortar Interior Ballistics: Sensitivity Studies Using IBHVG2 and Progress Toward a Multidimensional Representation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    coefficient and exponent, covolume , and projectile weight) on the peak chamber pressure and projectile exit velocity. A sensitivity study on these...the percent change in the peak pressure of the main chamber as a function of a change in the propellant covolume for the 120-mm mortar (zones 0, 2...taken up by the gas molecules in the gas. The covolume becomes important at high (gun) pressures . 5 ’ fF R T , (1) where F is the force, R’ is

  15. Analysis of Interior Ballistics Processes of Bulk Loaded Liquid Propellant Guns.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-01

    e). The dura- tion and relative pressure levels of these plateaus depend upon the relation- ship between the velocity and burning surface area...provisions for defining the gas phase pressure in terms of the ideal gas law Pg = (y -l)p c T (18) or in terms of a covolume relationship (yg-I~ Pg...traverse the distance between the breech and the projectile several times depending on the length of the barrel considered. If a constant covolume is

  16. In-bore chronograph--a laser radar for interior ballistics measurements, part 1: system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Greg; Fowler, Stuart R.; Halsey, Howard W.; Whittle, Kerry B.; Kamerman, Gary W.

    1993-10-01

    An internal research and development program at Teledyne Brown Engineering has produced a laser radar device to measure velocities of projectiles as they travel through the barrel of a gun. The technique measures velocities directly via the Doppler shift imposed on a retro- reflected laser beam. The device, called the In-Bore Chronograph (IBC), is believed to be the first coherent laser radar to be offered commercially. The IBC measures in-bore velocities from 5 to 2500 m/sec.

  17. The Charge Designer’s Workbench: A Range of Interior Ballistic Modeling Tools

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    Laboratory: Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, June 2004. 9. Boris, J. P.; Landsburg, A. M.; Oran , E. S.; Gardner, J. H. LCPFCT–A Flux-Corrected...RESEARCH LAB AMSRD ARL CI OK TL 2800 POWDER MILL RD ADELPHI MD 20783-1197 ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND 1 DIR USARL AMSRD ARL CI OK TP (BLDG

  18. IBHVG2 (Interior Ballistics of High Velocity Guns, Version 2)--A User’s Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-01

    03 SAMIE AS RPT 0 Wr’C usr*s Un14lassile _____ V~nNAUS1&1 n c’’ e Isn D UA (301) 27蔶 SLCl3R- 10 -A DD FOM 147. . AR ;3 APF4 Z70tiQfli*m b mosw itw...OE+ 10 ] 9 $UM For variables related to gulitube geometry, aamely. NAMT. ame of gun; 2S characters magTYPE CHAM chamber volume [inni Cv CVOL ORVE groove...kept in mind heo usinst, /or example. a $SAV£ deck-OA poision you w lefrne sy now be th one the campaer eode decided upo. 10 GUN TUBE STEEL LAND GRVt

  19. Progress Toward a Multidimensional Representation of the 5.56-mm Interior Ballistics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    the combustion products of lead styphnate , tetracene, pentaerythritoltetranitrate (PETN), and aluminum. The solid phase consisted of the...uncombusted barium nitrate and antimony sulfide, which is heated by the hot gases. Thermochemical calculation indicated the presence of a condensed phase as...velocities. Mil spec analysis (14) yielded a log-mean diameter of 95 m for both the antimony sulfide and the barium nitrate. The primer tube was modeled at

  20. Final design report of a personnel launch system and a family of heavy lift launch vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tupa, James; Merritt, Debbie; Riha, David; Burton, Lee; Kubinski, Russell; Drake, Kerry; Mann, Darrin; Turner, Ken

    1991-01-01

    The objective was to design both a Personnel Launch System (PLS) and a family of Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles (FHLLVs) that provide low cost and efficient operation in missions not suited for the Shuttle. The PLS vehicle is designed primarily for space station crew rotation and emergency crew return. The final design of the PLS vehicle and its interior is given. The mission of the FHLLVs is to place large, massive payloads into Earth orbit with payload flexibility being considered foremost in the design. The final design of three launch vehicles was found to yield a payload capacity range from 20 to 200 mt. These designs include the use of multistaged, high thrust liquid engines mounted on the core stages of the rocket.

  1. AXONOMETRIC, LAUNCH DOOR AND DOOR CYLINDER, LAUNCH PLATFORM ROLLER GUIDE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AXONOMETRIC, LAUNCH DOOR AND DOOR CYLINDER, LAUNCH PLATFORM ROLLER GUIDE, CRIB SUSPENSION SHOCK STRUT, LAUNCH PLATFORM - Dyess Air Force Base, Atlas F Missle Site S-8, Launch Facility, Approximately 3 miles east of Winters, 500 feet southwest of Highway 1770, center of complex, Winters, Runnels County, TX

  2. Meaning of Interior Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ge; Yu, Hengyong

    2013-01-01

    The classic imaging geometry for computed tomography is for collection of un-truncated projections and reconstruction of a global image, with the Fourier transform as the theoretical foundation that is intrinsically non-local. Recently, interior tomography research has led to theoretically exact relationships between localities in the projection and image spaces and practically promising reconstruction algorithms. Initially, interior tomography was developed for x-ray computed tomography. Then, it has been elevated as a general imaging principle. Finally, a novel framework known as “omni-tomography” is being developed for grand fusion of multiple imaging modalities, allowing tomographic synchrony of diversified features. PMID:23912256

  3. Interior design for dentistry.

    PubMed

    Unthank, M; True, G

    1999-11-01

    In the increasingly complex, competitive and stressful field of dentistry, effectively designed dental offices can offer significant benefits. Esthetic, functional and life-cycle cost issues to be considered when developing your interior design scheme include color, finishes, lighting, furnishings, art and accessories. An appropriately designed dental office serves as a valuable marketing tool for your practice, as well as a safe and enjoyable work environment. Qualified interior design professionals can help you make design decisions that can yield optimum results within your budget.

  4. Launch of Vanguard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1955-01-01

    Launch of a three-stage Vanguard (SLV-7) from Cape Canaveral, Florida, September 18, 1959. Designated Vanguard III, the 100-pound satellite was used to study the magnetic field and radiation belt. In September 1955, the Department of Defense recommended and authorized the new program, known as Project Vanguard, to launch Vanguard booster to carry an upper atmosphere research satellite in orbit. The Vanguard vehicles were used in conjunction with later booster vehicle such as the Thor and Atlas, and the technique of gimbaled (movable) engines for directional control was adapted to other rockets.

  5. Expedition 18 Launch Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-10-11

    Expedition 18 Flight Engineer Yuri V. Lonchakov, bottom, Expedition 18 Commander Michael Fincke and American spaceflight participant Richard Garriott, top, wave farewell from the steps of the Soyuz launch pad prior to their launch in the Soyuz TMA-13 spacecraft, Sunday, Oct. 12, 2008 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. The three crew members are scheduled to dock with the International Space Station on Oct. 14. Fincke and Lonchakov will spend six months on the station, while Garriott will return to Earth Oct. 24 with two of the Expedition 17 crew members currently on the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  6. LAUNCH - APOLLO 9 - CAPE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-03-03

    S69-25862 (3 March 1969) --- Framed by palm trees in the foreground, the Apollo 9 (Spacecraft 104/Lunar Module 3/ Saturn 504) space vehicle is launched from Pad A, Launch Complex 39, Kennedy Space Center (KSC) at 11 a.m. (EST), March 3, 1969. Aboard the spacecraft are astronauts James A. McDivitt, commander; David R. Scott, command module pilot; and Russell L. Schweickart, lunar module pilot. The Apollo 9 mission will evaluate spacecraft lunar module systems performance during manned Earth-orbital flight. Apollo 9 is the second manned Saturn V mission.

  7. APOLLO VII - LAUNCH - KSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1968-10-11

    S68-48662 (11 Oct. 1968) --- The Apollo 7/Saturn IB space vehicle is launched from the Kennedy Space Center's Launch Complex 34 at 11:03 a.m. (EDT), Oct. 11, 1968. Apollo 7 (Spacecraft 101/Saturn 205) is the first of several manned flights aimed at qualifying the spacecraft for the half-million mile round trip to the moon. Aboard the Apollo spacecraft are astronauts Walter M. Schirra Jr., commander; Donn F. Eisele, command module pilot; and Walter Cunningham, lunar module pilot. (This view is framed by palm trees on either side).

  8. NPP Satellite Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-10-28

    The Satellite Operations Facility of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is seen here minutes before the launch of the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System Preparatory Project (NPP) on Friday, Oct. 28, 2011 in Suitland, Md. NPP is a joint venture between NASA and NOAA, and is the nation's newest Earth-observing satellite, which will provide data on climate change science, allow for accurate weather forecasts and advance warning for severe weather. NPP was launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  9. NPP Satellite Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-10-28

    Dr. Kathy Sullivan, center, Deputy Administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and former NASA astronaut is interviewed by a local television network at NOAA's Satellite Operations Facility in Suitland, Md. after the successful launch of the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System Preparatory Project (NPP) on Friday, Oct. 28, 2011. NPP is a joint venture between NASA and NOAA, and is the nation's newest Earth-observing satellite, which will provide data on climate change science, allow for accurate weather forecasts and advance warning for severe weather. NPP was launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  10. NPP Satellite Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-10-28

    NASA Deputy Administrator Lori Garver, left, watches the launch of the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System Preparatory Project (NPP) at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Satellite Operations Center on Friday, Oct. 28, 2011 in Suitland, Md. U.S Congresswoman Donna Edwards, D-Md., is seen next to Garver. NPP is a joint venture between NASA and NOAA, and is the nation's newest Earth-observing satellite, which will provide data on climate change science, allow for accurate weather forecasts and advance warning for severe weather. NPP was launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  11. Expedition 8 Launch Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-18

    With a throng of reporters looking on, the prime and backup crews for the Expedition 8 mission to the International Space Station and the prime and backup European Space Agency Astronauts receive final well-wishes from Russian and U.S. space officials at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, Saturday, Oct. 18, 2003, before heading to the launch pad. Expedition 8 Commander and NASA Science Officer Michael Foale, Expedition 8 Soyuz Commander Alexander Kaleri and ESA's Pedro Duque of Spain were launched on a Soyuz TMA-3 vehicle, arriving at the ISS on Oct. 20. Photo Credit (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  12. LDSD Ready for Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-06-05

    NASA's Low-Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) hangs from a launch tower at U.S. Navy's Pacific Missile Range Facility in Kauai, Hawaii. The saucer-shaped vehicle will test two devices for landing heavy payloads on Mars: an inflatable donut-shaped device and a supersonic parachute. The launch tower helps link the vehicle to a balloon; once the balloon floats up, the vehicle is released from the tower and the balloon carries it to high altitudes. The vehicle's rocket takes it to even higher altitudes, to the top of the stratosphere, where the supersonic test begins. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19342

  13. STS-64 launch view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    With a crew of six NASA astronauts aboard, the Space Shuttle Discovery heads for its nineteenth Earth-orbital mission. Launch was delayed because of weather, but all systems were 'go,' and the spacecraft left the launch pad at 6:23 p.m. (EDT) on September 9, 1994. Onboard were astronauts Richard N. Richards, L. Blaine Hammond, Carl J. Meade, Mark C. Lee, Susan J. Helms, and Jerry M. Linenger (051-2); Making a bright reflection in nearby marsh waters, the Space Shuttle Discovery heads for its 19th mission in earth orbit (053).

  14. STS-64 launch view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    With a crew of six NASA astronauts aboard, the Space Shuttle Discovery heads for its nineteenth Earth-orbital mission. Launch was delayed because of weather, but all systems were 'go,' and the spacecraft left the launch pad at 6:23 p.m. (EDT) on September 9, 1994. Onboard were astronauts Richard N. Richards, L. Blaine Hammond, Carl J. Meade, Mark C. Lee, Susan J. Helms, and Jerry M. Linenger (051-2); Making a bright reflection in nearby marsh waters, the Space Shuttle Discovery heads for its 19th mission in earth orbit (053).

  15. Expedition 22 Launch Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-12-20

    Expedition 22 Flight Engineer Soichi Noguchi of Japan has his Russian Sokol suit prepared for launch by a technician while space agency photographers document the process at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Sunday, Dec. 20, 2009. Soichi and fellow Expedition 22 crew members NASA Flight Engineer Timothy J. Creamer of the U.S., Soyuz Commander Oleg Kotov of Russia launched in their Soyuz TMA-17 rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on Monday, Dec. 21, 2009. (Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  16. Launch - STS-6 - KSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1983-04-06

    S83-30134 (7 April 1983) --- Flare from the first launch of the space shuttle Challenger is reflected in the Atlantic Ocean?s Cape Canaveral beach waters shortly after 1:30 p.m. (EST) on April 7, 1983. Only the tips of the orbiter?s wings are visible in this south looking view, as the manned portion of the launch cluster is obscured by its new lightweight external fuel tank (ET) and two solid rocket boosters (SRB). Onboard the spacecraft are astronauts Paul J. Weitz, Karol J. Bobko, Dr. F. Story Musgrave and Donald H. Peterson. Photo credit: NASA

  17. STS-56 Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The second try works like a charm as the Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off from Launch Pad 39B on Mission STS-56 at 1:29:00 a.m., EDT, April 8. First attempt to launch Discovery on its 16th space voyage was halted at T-11 seconds on April 6. Aboard for the second Space Shuttle mission of 1993 are a crew of five and the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science 2 (ATLAS 2), the second in a series of missions to study the sun's energy output and Earth's middle atmosphere chemical makeup, and how these factors affect levels of ozone.

  18. Analysis of behind the armor ballistic trauma.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yaoke; Xu, Cheng; Wang, Shu; Batra, R C

    2015-05-01

    The impact response of body armor composed of a ceramic plate with an ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fiber-reinforced composite and layers of UHMWPE fibers shielding a block of ballistic gelatin has been experimentally and numerically analyzed. It is a surrogate model for studying injuries to human torso caused by a bullet striking body protection armor placed on a person. Photographs taken with a high speed camera are used to determine deformations of the armor and the gelatin. The maximum depth of the temporary cavity formed in the ballistic gelatin and the peak pressure 40mm behind the center of the gelatin front face contacting the armor are found to be, respectively, ~34mm and ~15MPa. The Johnson-Holmquist material model has been used to simulate deformations and failure of the ceramic. The UHMWPE fiber-reinforced composite and the UHMWPE fiber layers are modeled as linear elastic orthotropic materials. The gelatin is modeled as a strain-rate dependent hyperelastic material. Values of material parameters are taken from the open literature. The computed evolution of the temporary cavity formed in the gelatin is found to qualitatively agree with that seen in experiments. Furthermore, the computed time histories of the average pressure at four points in the gelatin agree with the corresponding experimentally measured ones. The maximum pressure at a point and the depth of the temporary cavity formed in the gelatin can be taken as measures of the severity of the bodily injury caused by the impact; e.g. see the United States National Institute of Justice standard 0101.06-Ballistic Resistance of Body Armor.

  19. The reference ballistic imaging database revisited.

    PubMed

    De Ceuster, Jan; Dujardin, Sylvain

    2015-03-01

    A reference ballistic image database (RBID) contains images of cartridge cases fired in firearms that are in circulation: a ballistic fingerprint database. The performance of an RBID was investigated a decade ago by De Kinder et al. using IBIS(®) Heritage™ technology. The results of that study were published in this journal, issue 214. Since then, technologies have evolved quite significantly and novel apparatus have become available on the market. The current research article investigates the efficiency of another automated ballistic imaging system, Evofinder(®) using the same database as used by De Kinder et al. The results demonstrate a significant increase in correlation efficiency: 38% of all matches were on first position of the Evofinder correlation list in comparison to IBIS(®) Heritage™ where only 19% were on the first position. Average correlation times are comparable to the IBIS(®) Heritage™ system. While Evofinder(®) demonstrates specific improvement for mutually correlating different ammunition brands, ammunition dependence of the markings is still strongly influencing the correlation result because the markings may vary considerably. As a consequence a great deal of potential hits (36%) was still far down in the correlation lists (positions 31 and lower). The large database was used to examine the probability of finding a match as a function of correlation list verification. As an example, the RBID study on Evofinder(®) demonstrates that to find at least 90% of all potential matches, at least 43% of the items in the database need to be compared on screen and this for breech face markings and firing pin impression separately. These results, although a clear improvement to the original RBID study, indicate that the implementation of such a database should still not be considered nowadays.

  20. 76 FR 70165 - Ballistic-Resistant Body Armor Standard Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs Ballistic-Resistant Body Armor Standard Workshop AGENCY: National Institute of..., Ballistic Resistance of Body Armor, and the discussion is directed toward manufacturers, certification...

  1. Ballistic Missile Defense Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-10-01

    Potential cumulative impacts associated with stratospheric ozone depletion, global climate change, and biodiversity are global rather than local or...environmental documentation. Potential cumulative impacts to biodiversity from the BMD Program and other sources are not expected to be significant and will be...Ballistic Missile Defense Final Programmatic Environmental Impact .Statement Ballistic Missile Defense Organization 19980302 086 BMDOTIC DXC QUAL

  2. Methods for Analysis and Simulation of Ballistic Impact

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-04-01

    Laboratory Methods for Analysis and Simulation of Ballistic Impact by John D Clayton Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL...SUBJECT TERMS impact physics, materials science, mechanics, terminal ballistics, shock waves 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION...and propagation of planar shock waves through solid material specimens induced by collision with flyer plates or by explosive loading. Method: The

  3. An integrated approach towards future ballistic neck protection materials selection.

    PubMed

    Breeze, John; Helliker, Mark; Carr, Debra J

    2013-05-01

    Ballistic protection for the neck has historically taken the form of collars attached to the ballistic vest (removable or fixed), but other approaches, including the development of prototypes incorporating ballistic material into the collar of an under body armour shirt, are now being investigated. Current neck collars incorporate the same ballistic protective fabrics as the soft armour of the remaining vest, reflecting how ballistic protective performance alone has historically been perceived as the most important property for neck protection. However, the neck has fundamental differences from the thorax in terms of anatomical vulnerability, flexibility and equipment integration, necessitating a separate solution from the thorax in terms of optimal materials selection. An integrated approach towards the selection of the most appropriate combination of materials to be used for each of the two potential designs of future neck protection has been developed. This approach requires evaluation of the properties of each potential material in addition to ballistic performance alone, including flexibility, mass, wear resistance and thermal burden. The aim of this article is to provide readers with an overview of this integrated approach towards ballistic materials selection and an update of its current progress in the development of future ballistic neck protection.

  4. Ballistic thermal transport in silicon nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maire, Jeremie; Anufriev, Roman; Nomura, Masahiro

    2017-02-01

    We have experimentally investigated the impact of dimensions and temperature on the thermal conductivity of silicon nanowires fabricated using a top-down approach. Both the width and temperature dependences of thermal conductivity agree with those in the existing literature. The length dependence of thermal conductivity exhibits a transition from semi-ballistic thermal phonon transport at 4 K to fully diffusive transport at room temperature. We additionally calculated the phonon dispersion in these structures in the framework of the theory of elasticity and showed that the thermal conductance increases with width. This agrees with our experimental observations and supports the pertinence of using the modified phonon dispersion at low temperatures.

  5. Ballistic Impacts on Composite and Sandwich Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrate, Serge

    Composite and sandwich structures are sometimes subjected to impacts that result in complete perforation. Tests are conducted to determine the velocity required to achieve complete penetration for a given projectile and a model is required for data reduction purposes, to understand the effect of various parameters and to extrapolate for other test conditions. In addition, models capable of predicting the ballistic limit and the extent of damage in composite and sandwich structures are also needed. This chapter presents a comprehensive and critical assessment of the existing literature on this topic.

  6. Hollow ballistic pendulum for plasma momentum measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Goncharov, S.F.; Pashinin, P.P.; Perov, V.Y.; Serov, R.V.; Yanovsky, V.P.

    1988-05-01

    A novel pendulum design: hollow ballistic pendulum: is suggested for plasma momentum measurements. It has an advantage over the pendula used earlier in laser plasma experiments of being insensitive to a momentum of matter evaporated and scattered by the pendulum wall exposed to the plasma, which usually exceeds plasma momentum to be measured. Simple expressions describing pendulum performance are derived, and requirements of shape and size are established. Using this kind of pendulum in experiments on laser acceleration of thin foils made it possible to measure the momentum of accelerated foil with an accuracy of about 10%.

  7. Going ballistic: Graphene hot electron transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaziri, S.; Smith, A. D.; Östling, M.; Lupina, G.; Dabrowski, J.; Lippert, G.; Mehr, W.; Driussi, F.; Venica, S.; Di Lecce, V.; Gnudi, A.; König, M.; Ruhl, G.; Belete, M.; Lemme, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    This paper reviews the experimental and theoretical state of the art in ballistic hot electron transistors that utilize two-dimensional base contacts made from graphene, i.e. graphene base transistors (GBTs). Early performance predictions that indicated potential for THz operation still hold true today, even with improved models that take non-idealities into account. Experimental results clearly demonstrate the basic functionality, with on/off current switching over several orders of magnitude, but further developments are required to exploit the full potential of the GBT device family. In particular, interfaces between graphene and semiconductors or dielectrics are far from perfect and thus limit experimental device integrity, reliability and performance.

  8. Ballistic thermal transport in silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Maire, Jeremie; Anufriev, Roman; Nomura, Masahiro

    2017-02-02

    We have experimentally investigated the impact of dimensions and temperature on the thermal conductivity of silicon nanowires fabricated using a top-down approach. Both the width and temperature dependences of thermal conductivity agree with those in the existing literature. The length dependence of thermal conductivity exhibits a transition from semi-ballistic thermal phonon transport at 4 K to fully diffusive transport at room temperature. We additionally calculated the phonon dispersion in these structures in the framework of the theory of elasticity and showed that the thermal conductance increases with width. This agrees with our experimental observations and supports the pertinence of using the modified phonon dispersion at low temperatures.

  9. Narrow electron injector for ballistic electron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Kast, M.; Pacher, C.; Strasser, G.; Gornik, E.

    2001-06-04

    A three-terminal hot electron transistor is used to measure the normal energy distribution of ballistic electrons generated by an electron injector utilizing an improved injector design. A triple barrier resonant tunneling diode with a rectangular transmission function acts as a narrow (1 meV) energy filter. An asymmetric energy distribution with its maximum on the high-energy side with a full width at half maximum of {Delta}E{sub inj}=10 meV is derived. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  10. THE BALLISTICS OF A RIBBON COMPOSITE

    SciTech Connect

    Larcombe, J.; Morley, M.; Earp, S.; Proud, W. G.; Fray, A. J.; French, M. A.

    2009-12-28

    The impact behaviour of composites is of great importance in the field of aerospace and vehicle protection. The combination of formability, lightness and strength make composite systems attractive compared to equivalent monolithic systems. However, their use as optical components has been hampered by their lack of transparency. Transparency is strongly affected by refractive index differences in the materials that form the composite. In this study a number of ribbon-based composites were produced. The impact velocity, sample deformation during the impact process and residual impactor velocity were measured. This allowed comparison between the materials ballistic efficiency. The materials are then compared to other transparent systems.

  11. Contemporary management of maxillofacial ballistic trauma.

    PubMed

    Breeze, J; Tong, D; Gibbons, A

    2017-09-01

    Ballistic maxillofacial trauma in the UK is fortunately relatively rare, and generally involves low velocity handguns and shotguns. Civilian terrorist events have, however, shown that all maxillofacial surgeons need to understand how to treat injuries from improvised explosive devices. Maxillofacial surgeons in the UK have also been responsible for the management of soldiers evacuated from Iraq and Afghanistan, and in this review we describe the newer types of treatment that have evolved from these conflicts, particularly that of damage-control maxillofacial surgery. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. More Inaccurate Specifications of Ballistic Coefficients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-02

    The rifles used in the study were all Remington 700s with factory barrels. The 223 Remington , 308 Winchester, and 30-06 were all ADLs with...Berger 62 grain flat base varmint bullet. This bullet demonstrates excellent accuracy (0.5 MOA) in the Remington 700 test rifle out to 300 yards and...factor. The earlier paper (Courtney and Courtney 2009) reported a BC of 0.308 +/- 0.010 for the 125 grain Nosler Ballistic Tip from the Remington

  13. Role of Shear Instability in Ballistic Penetration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    example of this is shown in Figure 1 (taken from Reference 1). Two sets of targets were made from the same steel alloy ( 4340 ), processed in the same way...Figure 3 shows that for both VIM and ESR steels , the drop in ballistic performance is clearly associated with the change in failure mode from plastic flow...diabticshea bads n ths pper -Or A R * Failure by Plastic Flow A. * Failure by Plugging i 1.4 a Failure by Discing 6 1.3 ,0 A ESR Steel % 1.2 A A ~1.1 06 0 acr

  14. Thermal Conductance of Ballistic Point Contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartsch, Th.; Schmidt, M.; Heyn, Ch.; Hansen, W.

    2012-02-01

    We study the thermal conductance of ballistic point contacts. These contacts are realized as few nanometer long pillars in so-called air-gap heterostructures (AGHs). The pillar length is orders of magnitude smaller than the mean free path of the phonons up to room temperature. Because of the small dimension and the low density of the pillars, the thermal conductance of the AGHs is several orders of magnitude reduced in comparison to bulk structures. The measurement results are in quantitative agreement with a simple model that is based on the Boltzmann transport equation.

  15. Officials of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1956-01-01

    Hermann Oberth (forefront) with officials of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency at Huntsville, Alabama in 1956. Left to right: Dr. Ernst Stuhlinger (seated); Major General H.N. Toftoy, Commanding Officer and person responsible for 'Project Paperclip,' which took scientists and engineers out of Germany after World War II to design rockets for American military use. Many of the scientists later helped to design the Saturn V rocket that took the Apollo 11 astronauts to the Moon. Dr. Eberhard Rees, Deputy Director, Development Operations Division Wernher von Braun, Director, Development Operations Division.

  16. INTERIOR OF ALTITUDE CHAMBER L FROM 16’8” LEVEL OF INTERNAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF ALTITUDE CHAMBER L FROM 16’-8” LEVEL OF INTERNAL PLATFORMS, FACING NORTH - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Altitude Chambers, First Street, between Avenue D and Avenue E, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  17. INTERIOR OF ALTITUDE CHAMBER L FROM 6’4” LEVEL OF INTERNAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF ALTITUDE CHAMBER L FROM 6’-4” LEVEL OF INTERNAL PLATFORMS, FACING WEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Altitude Chambers, First Street, between Avenue D and Avenue E, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  18. DETAIL OF THE INTERIOR OF PP45L (PATCHBOARD), ALTITUDE CHAMBER L, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF THE INTERIOR OF PP45L (PATCHBOARD), ALTITUDE CHAMBER L, FACING WEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Altitude Chambers, First Street, between Avenue D and Avenue E, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  19. INTERIOR OF ALTITUDE CHAMBER L FROM 6’4” LEVEL OF INTERNAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF ALTITUDE CHAMBER L FROM 6’-4” LEVEL OF INTERNAL PLATFORMS, FACING EAST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Altitude Chambers, First Street, between Avenue D and Avenue E, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  20. INTERIOR OF ALTITUDE CHAMBER L FROM 16’8” LEVEL OF INTERNAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF ALTITUDE CHAMBER L FROM 16’-8” LEVEL OF INTERNAL PLATFORMS, FACING SOUTH - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Altitude Chambers, First Street, between Avenue D and Avenue E, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  1. 6. INTERIOR VIEW OF MAIN ROOM SHOWING DAMAGE AT RIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. INTERIOR VIEW OF MAIN ROOM SHOWING DAMAGE AT RIDGE CAUSED BY SOLID ROCKET FUEL BURNING ON AND THROUGH THE ROOF; VIEW TO WEST. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 36009, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  2. General View of the interior of the Vehicle Assembly Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General View of the interior of the Vehicle Assembly Building at the Kennedy Space Center showing an External Tank being hoisted to be transferred to and mated with the Solid Rocket Boosters which had been previously stacked and assembled on the Mobile Launch Platform - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  3. Feasibility of ballistic strengthening exercises in neurologic rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Williams, Gavin; Clark, Ross A; Hansson, Jessica; Paterson, Kade

    2014-09-01

    Conventional methods for strength training in neurologic rehabilitation are not task specific for walking. Ballistic strength training was developed to improve the functional transfer of strength training; however, no research has investigated this in neurologic populations. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the feasibility of applying ballistic principles to conventional leg strengthening exercises in individuals with mobility limitations as a result of neurologic injuries. Eleven individuals with neurologic injuries completed seated and reclined leg press using conventional and ballistic techniques. A 2 × 2 repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to compare power measures (peak movement height and peak velocity) between exercises and conditions. Peak jump velocity and peak jump height were greater when using the ballistic jump technique rather than the conventional concentric technique (P < 0.01). These findings suggest that when compared with conventional strengthening exercises, the incorporation of ballistic principles was associated with increased peak height and peak velocities.

  4. Interior structure of Uranus

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, W.B.

    1984-10-01

    Key measurements are discussed which are diagnostic of Uranus interior structure and evolutionary history, and reviews their present status. Typical interior models have chondritic cores, but have the bulk of their mass in an envelope consisting of ice component, principally H2O. The total amount of free H2 in the planet cannot exceed approximately 1 to 2 earth masses. Measurements of the gravitational moments of Uranus are beginning to be accurate enough to constrain models, but are limited in utility by uncertainty in the rotation period. Discussed is evidence that the outermost planetary layers have a gravitationally significant quantity of denser material (ice component) in addition to H2 and He. The He/H ratio and the deuterium abundance in the atmosphere may be diagnostic of the planet's previous evolutionary history. It is argued that the planet's interior is likely to now be at a temperature approximately 10(3) deg K. Uranus interior with Neptune's in a number of ways, considering heat flow, degree of internal differentiation, and possible magnetic field.

  5. Trends in Interior Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovey, Robyn

    2000-01-01

    Examines how an understanding of interior design trends can help planners address their present and future furniture needs. Examines how new types of construction and their associated concerns are requiring new approaches from the facility designers and manufacturers of product solutions. (GR)

  6. Interiors That Stand Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School & University, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "It's what's on the inside that counts"--at least when it comes to "American School & University's" (AS&U's) annual Educational Interiors Showcase competition. Each May, "AS&U" assembles at its Overland Park, Kansas headquarters a jury made up of education and architectural professionals from across the country to pore over an array of exceptional…

  7. Understanding Jupiter's interior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Militzer, Burkhard; Soubiran, François; Wahl, Sean M.; Hubbard, William

    2016-09-01

    This article provides an overview of how models of giant planet interiors are constructed. We review measurements from past space missions that provided constraints for the interior structure of Jupiter. We discuss typical three-layer interior models that consist of a dense central core and an inner metallic and an outer molecular hydrogen-helium layer. These models rely heavily on experiments, analytical theory, and first-principles computer simulations of hydrogen and helium to understand their behavior up to the extreme pressures ˜10 Mbar and temperatures ˜10,000 K. We review the various equations of state used in Jupiter models and compare them with shock wave experiments. We discuss the possibility that helium rain, core erosion, and double diffusive convection have affected the structure and evolution of giant planets. In July 2016 the Juno spacecraft entered orbit around Jupiter, promising high-precision measurements of the gravitational field that will allow us to test our understanding of gas giant interiors better than ever before.

  8. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF), United Space Alliance technicians replace the attachment points for the spars on the interior of a wing of Space Shuttle Atlantis. Reinforced Carbon Carbon (RCC) panels are mechanically attached to the wing with a series of floating joints - spars - to reduce loading on the panels caused by wing deflections. The aluminum and the metallic attachments are protected from exceeding temperature limits by internal insulation. The next launch of Atlantis will be on mission STS-114, a utilization and logistics flight to the International Space Station.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-03

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF), United Space Alliance technicians replace the attachment points for the spars on the interior of a wing of Space Shuttle Atlantis. Reinforced Carbon Carbon (RCC) panels are mechanically attached to the wing with a series of floating joints - spars - to reduce loading on the panels caused by wing deflections. The aluminum and the metallic attachments are protected from exceeding temperature limits by internal insulation. The next launch of Atlantis will be on mission STS-114, a utilization and logistics flight to the International Space Station.

  9. Interior Design in Architectural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurel, Meltem O.; Potthoff, Joy K.

    2006-01-01

    The domain of interiors constitutes a point of tension between practicing architects and interior designers. Design of interior spaces is a significant part of architectural profession. Yet, to what extent does architectural education keep pace with changing demands in rendering topics that are identified as pertinent to the design of interiors?…

  10. Interior Design in Architectural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurel, Meltem O.; Potthoff, Joy K.

    2006-01-01

    The domain of interiors constitutes a point of tension between practicing architects and interior designers. Design of interior spaces is a significant part of architectural profession. Yet, to what extent does architectural education keep pace with changing demands in rendering topics that are identified as pertinent to the design of interiors?…

  11. NASA Launch Services Program Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higginbotham, Scott

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has need to procure a variety of launch vehicles and services for its unmanned spacecraft. The Launch Services Program (LSP) provides the Agency with a single focus for the acquisition and management of Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) launch services. This presentation will provide an overview of the LSP and its organization, approach, and activities.

  12. Voyager 1's Launch Vehicle

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1977-09-05

    The Titan/Centaur-6 launch vehicle was moved to Launch Complex 41 at Kennedy Space Center in Florida to complete checkout procedures in preparation for launch. The photo is dated January 1977. This launch vehicle carried Voyager 1 into space on September 5, 1977. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21739

  13. SPIDER Readied for Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-01-22

    Prior to launch, the team laid out the parachute and hang lines in front of SPIDER, seen in the distance. The long-duration balloon that would carry SPIDER into the sky is attached to the end of the parachute shown here in the foreground. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19177

  14. NanoLaunch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jonathan; Harris, Lawanna

    2015-01-01

    NASA's NanoLaunch effort will provide the framework to mature both Earth-to-orbit and on-orbit propulsion and avionics technologies while also providing affordable, dedicated access to low-Earth orbit for CubeSat-class payloads. The project will also serve as an early career personnel training opportunity with mentors to gain hands-on project experience.

  15. Expedition 23 Launch Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-04-01

    Expedition 23 Flight Engineer Tracy Caldwell Dyson performs the traditional door signing Friday, April 2, 2010 at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Caldwell Dyson was launched onboard the Soyuz rocket later that day with Expedition 23 Soyuz Commander Alexander Skvortsov and Flight Engineer Mikhail Kornienko on a mission to the International Space Station (ISS). Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  16. STS-120 launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-10-23

    STS120-S-025 (23 Oct. 2007) --- In the firing room at NASA's Kennedy Space Center, NASA Associate Administrator Chris Scolese and other managers watch the Space Shuttle Discovery launch of the STS-120 mission at 11:38 a.m. (EDT), Oct. 23, 2007. William Gerstenmaier is in right foreground. Photo credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  17. Expedition 8 Launch Briefing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-12

    Backup Expedition 8 Commander Bill McArthur, left, and prime Expedition 8 Commander Michael Foale practice procedures with a satellite phone during final training at their crew quarters in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Wednesday, Oct. 15, 2003, for launch on a Soyuz TMA-3 vehicle Oct. 18 to the International Space Station. Photo Credit (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  18. Expedition 25 Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-10-07

    Expedition 25 NASA Flight Engineer Scott Kelly of the U.S., left, Soyuz Commander Alexander Kaleri and Flight Engineer Oleg Skripochka, right, have their Russian Sokol suits prepared for launch by technicians at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, Friday, Oct. 8, 2010. (Photo Credit: NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  19. Expedition 25 Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-10-07

    Expedition 25 crew members prepare to have their Russian Sokol Suits pressure checked at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on Friday, Oct. 8, 2010. Soyuz Commander Alexander Kaleri, NASA Flight Engineer Scott Kelly and Flight Engineer Oleg Skripochka launched in their Soyuz TMA-01M at 5:10 a.m. Friday morning. (Photo Credit: NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  20. Expedition 25 Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-10-07

    Expedition 25 Soyuz Commander Alexander Kaleri awaits to have his Russian Sokol Suit pressure checked at the Baikonur Cosmodrome on Friday, Oct. 8, 2010 in Kazakhstan. Kaleri and fellow Expedition 25 crew members Flight Engineers Scott Kelly and Oleg Skripochka launched in their Soyuz TMA-01M at 5:10 a.m. Friday morning. (Photo Credit: NASA/Carla Cioffi)