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Sample records for interiores viga plana-columna

  1. Interior Renovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School & University, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes notable interior renovations of educational facilities, including the educational context and design goals. Includes information on architects, suppliers, and cost, as well as photographs. (EV)

  2. Interior Renovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School & University, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes notable interior renovations of educational facilities, including the educational context and design goals. Includes information on architects, suppliers, and cost, as well as photographs. (EV)

  3. Interior Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This document contains teacher's materials for an eight-unit secondary education vocational home economics course on interior design. The units cover period styles of interiors, furniture and accessories, surface treatments and lighting, appliances and equipment, design and space planning in home and business settings, occupant needs, acquisition…

  4. Solar Interior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahn, J.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The interior of the Sun is hidden from our sight, because it is opaque to electromagnetic waves: the radiation we receive from it on Earth is emitted in the outermost layers. Our knowledge of the solar interior is based solely on theoretical models which are built with some assumptions about the physical conditions and processes that are likely to prevail there, and on helioseismology, a very pow...

  5. Interior Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mixson, John S.; Wilby, John F.

    1991-01-01

    The generation and control of flight vehicle interior noise is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the mechanisms of transmission through airborne and structure-borne paths and the control of cabin noise by path modification. Techniques for identifying the relative contributions of the various source-path combinations are also discussed along with methods for the prediction of aircraft interior noise such as those based on the general modal theory and statistical energy analysis.

  6. Planetary Interiors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerdt, W. Bruce; Abercrombie, Rachel; Keddie, Susan; Mizutani, Hitoshi; Nagihara, Seiichi; Nakamura, Yosio; Pike, W. Thomas

    1996-01-01

    This report identifies two main themes to guide planetary science in the next two decades: understanding planetary origins, and understanding the constitution and fundamental processes of the planets themselves. Within the latter theme, four specific goals related to interior measurements addressing the theme. These are: (1) Understanding the internal structure and dynamics of at least one solid body, other than the Earth or Moon, that is actively convecting, (2) Determine the characteristics of the magnetic fields of Mercury and the outer planets to provide insight into the generation of planetary magnetic fields, (3) Specify the nature and sources of stress that are responsible for the global tectonics of Mars, Venus, and several icy satellites of the outer planets, and (4) Advance significantly our understanding of crust-mantle structure for all the solid planets. These goals can be addressed almost exclusively by measurements made on the surfaces of planetary bodies.

  7. Interior Cornice Profile, Interior Pilaster Profile, Lions Head Roof Scupper, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior Cornice Profile, Interior Pilaster Profile, Lions Head Roof Scupper, and Interior Panel Moulding - Flanders Field American Cemetery & Memorial, Chapel, Wortegemseweg 117, Waregem, West Flanders (Belgium)

  8. Interior intrusion detection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, J.R.; Matter, J.C. ); Dry, B. )

    1991-10-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing interior intrusion detection systems. Interior intrusion sensors are discussed according to their primary application: boundary-penetration detection, volumetric detection, and point protection. Information necessary for implementation of an effective interior intrusion detection system is presented, including principles of operation, performance characteristics and guidelines for design, procurement, installation, testing, and maintenance. A glossary of sensor data terms is included. 36 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Optically measuring interior cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, Gary Franklin

    2008-12-21

    A method of measuring the three-dimensional volume or perimeter shape of an interior cavity includes the steps of collecting a first optical slice of data that represents a partial volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity, collecting additional optical slices of data that represents a partial volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity, and combining the first optical slice of data and the additional optical slices of data to calculate of the three-dimensional volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity.

  10. Department of the Interior

    MedlinePlus

    ... American Indians Other Interior Offices Priorities American Energy Climate Change Jobs Regulatory Reform Stewardship Tribal Nations Join Jobs ... Secretary Bureaus For Employees Our Priorities American Energy Climate Change Jobs Regulatory Reform Stewardship Tribal Nations Resources Cobell / ...

  11. Studies in Interior Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environ Planning Design, 1970

    1970-01-01

    Floor plans and photographs illustrate a description of the Samuel C. Williams Library at Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, N.J. The unusual interior design allows students to take full advantage of the library's resources. (JW)

  12. 76. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, WING 1200 WEST, INTERIOR DEPARTMENT MUSEUM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    76. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, WING 1200 WEST, INTERIOR DEPARTMENT MUSEUM, LOBBY, BRONZE GRILL (4' x 5' negative; 8' x 10' print) - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  13. Meaning of Interior Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ge; Yu, Hengyong

    2013-01-01

    The classic imaging geometry for computed tomography is for collection of un-truncated projections and reconstruction of a global image, with the Fourier transform as the theoretical foundation that is intrinsically non-local. Recently, interior tomography research has led to theoretically exact relationships between localities in the projection and image spaces and practically promising reconstruction algorithms. Initially, interior tomography was developed for x-ray computed tomography. Then, it has been elevated as a general imaging principle. Finally, a novel framework known as “omni-tomography” is being developed for grand fusion of multiple imaging modalities, allowing tomographic synchrony of diversified features. PMID:23912256

  14. Interior design for dentistry.

    PubMed

    Unthank, M; True, G

    1999-11-01

    In the increasingly complex, competitive and stressful field of dentistry, effectively designed dental offices can offer significant benefits. Esthetic, functional and life-cycle cost issues to be considered when developing your interior design scheme include color, finishes, lighting, furnishings, art and accessories. An appropriately designed dental office serves as a valuable marketing tool for your practice, as well as a safe and enjoyable work environment. Qualified interior design professionals can help you make design decisions that can yield optimum results within your budget.

  15. Interior structure of Uranus

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, W.B.

    1984-10-01

    Key measurements are discussed which are diagnostic of Uranus interior structure and evolutionary history, and reviews their present status. Typical interior models have chondritic cores, but have the bulk of their mass in an envelope consisting of ice component, principally H2O. The total amount of free H2 in the planet cannot exceed approximately 1 to 2 earth masses. Measurements of the gravitational moments of Uranus are beginning to be accurate enough to constrain models, but are limited in utility by uncertainty in the rotation period. Discussed is evidence that the outermost planetary layers have a gravitationally significant quantity of denser material (ice component) in addition to H2 and He. The He/H ratio and the deuterium abundance in the atmosphere may be diagnostic of the planet's previous evolutionary history. It is argued that the planet's interior is likely to now be at a temperature approximately 10(3) deg K. Uranus interior with Neptune's in a number of ways, considering heat flow, degree of internal differentiation, and possible magnetic field.

  16. Trends in Interior Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovey, Robyn

    2000-01-01

    Examines how an understanding of interior design trends can help planners address their present and future furniture needs. Examines how new types of construction and their associated concerns are requiring new approaches from the facility designers and manufacturers of product solutions. (GR)

  17. Interiors That Stand Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School & University, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "It's what's on the inside that counts"--at least when it comes to "American School & University's" (AS&U's) annual Educational Interiors Showcase competition. Each May, "AS&U" assembles at its Overland Park, Kansas headquarters a jury made up of education and architectural professionals from across the country to pore over an array of exceptional…

  18. Understanding Jupiter's interior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Militzer, Burkhard; Soubiran, François; Wahl, Sean M.; Hubbard, William

    2016-09-01

    This article provides an overview of how models of giant planet interiors are constructed. We review measurements from past space missions that provided constraints for the interior structure of Jupiter. We discuss typical three-layer interior models that consist of a dense central core and an inner metallic and an outer molecular hydrogen-helium layer. These models rely heavily on experiments, analytical theory, and first-principles computer simulations of hydrogen and helium to understand their behavior up to the extreme pressures ˜10 Mbar and temperatures ˜10,000 K. We review the various equations of state used in Jupiter models and compare them with shock wave experiments. We discuss the possibility that helium rain, core erosion, and double diffusive convection have affected the structure and evolution of giant planets. In July 2016 the Juno spacecraft entered orbit around Jupiter, promising high-precision measurements of the gravitational field that will allow us to test our understanding of gas giant interiors better than ever before.

  19. Interior Design in Architectural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurel, Meltem O.; Potthoff, Joy K.

    2006-01-01

    The domain of interiors constitutes a point of tension between practicing architects and interior designers. Design of interior spaces is a significant part of architectural profession. Yet, to what extent does architectural education keep pace with changing demands in rendering topics that are identified as pertinent to the design of interiors?…

  20. Interior Design in Architectural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurel, Meltem O.; Potthoff, Joy K.

    2006-01-01

    The domain of interiors constitutes a point of tension between practicing architects and interior designers. Design of interior spaces is a significant part of architectural profession. Yet, to what extent does architectural education keep pace with changing demands in rendering topics that are identified as pertinent to the design of interiors?…

  1. Interior of Callisto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Cutaway view of the possible internal structure of Callisto. The surface of the satellite is a mosaic of images obtained in 1979 by NASA's Voyager spacecraft. The interior characteristics are inferred from gravity field and magnetic field measurements by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. Callisto's radius is 2403 km, larger than our Moon's radius. Callisto's interior is shown as a relatively uniform mixture of comparable amounts of ice and rock. The surface layer of Callisto is shown as white to indicate that it may differ from the underlying ice/rock layer in a variety of ways including, for example, the percentage of rock it contains.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/ galileo.

  2. Statistical Interior Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qiong; Wang, Ge; Sieren, Jered; Hoffman, Eric A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a statistical interior tomography (SIT) approach making use of compressed sensing (CS) theory. With the projection data modeled by the Poisson distribution, an objective function with a total variation (TV) regularization term is formulated in the maximization of a posteriori (MAP) framework to solve the interior problem. An alternating minimization method is used to optimize the objective function with an initial image from the direct inversion of the truncated Hilbert transform. The proposed SIT approach is extensively evaluated with both numerical and real datasets. The results demonstrate that SIT is robust with respect to data noise and down-sampling, and has better resolution and less bias than its deterministic counterpart in the case of low count data. PMID:21233044

  3. Modeling of interior explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharova, Y. V.; Fedorova, N. N.; Fedorov, A. V.

    2016-10-01

    The results of numerical simulation of an interior explosion are presented. The main purpose of the work is an investigation of shock-wave structure caused by explosion and estimation of pressure level on building walls. The numerical simulation was carried out by means of ANSYS AUTODYN software at normal atmospheric conditions with different mass of charge and internal geometry of room. The effect of mass charge and presence of vent area were shown. The calculation results are compared with published experimental data.

  4. Mars Interior Artist Concept

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-08-20

    Artist rendition of the formation of rocky bodies in the solar system -- how they form and differentiate and evolve into terrestrial planets. Note: After thorough examination, NASA managers have decided to suspend the planned March 2016 launch of the Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations Geodesy and Heat Transport (InSight) mission. The decision follows unsuccessful attempts to repair a leak in a section of the prime instrument in the science payload. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA16078

  5. The lunar interior.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.; Kovach, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    For materials thought to be important in the lunar interior, compressional velocities are estimated and compared with lunar seismic data. The results obtained support the conclusion that the moon is an extremely well differentiated body. This is consistent with thermal history calculations which suggest that the moon was close to or in excess of melting (solidus) temperatures throughout most of its volume early in its history.

  6. INTERIOR OF AIRLOCK FROM INTERIOR OF ALTITUDE CHAMBER R, FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF AIRLOCK FROM INTERIOR OF ALTITUDE CHAMBER R, FACING NORTHWEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Altitude Chambers, First Street, between Avenue D and Avenue E, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  7. Credit BG. Interior view of Building 4318, displaying interior structure ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit BG. Interior view of Building 4318, displaying interior structure and finish at northeast end of building - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Warehouse, Second & C Streets, Boron, Kern County, CA

  8. 3. INTERIOR VIEW OF PARTITIONS IN DRESSING ROOM; INTERIOR HALLWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. INTERIOR VIEW OF PARTITIONS IN DRESSING ROOM; INTERIOR HALLWAY FOR HYDROTHERAPY AREA AT RIGHT - Fort McCoy, Building No. T-1054, South side of South Tenth Avenue, Block 10, Sparta, Monroe County, WI

  9. 28. Interior view of telegrapher's bay, east wall, showing interior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Interior view of telegrapher's bay, east wall, showing interior finishes, framing, and furring over stonework - Bend Railroad Depot, 1160 Northeast Divion Street (At foot of Kearny Street), Bend, Deschutes County, OR

  10. Interior view of interior upstairs loft corner, north portion; camera ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of interior upstairs loft corner, north portion; camera facing east. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Ordnance Warehouse, Blake Avenue, northeast corner of Blake Avenue & Railroad Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  11. 49. INTERIOR OF GILLEY ROOM: Interior view towards southeast of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. INTERIOR OF GILLEY ROOM: Interior view towards southeast of the Gilley Room on the second floor of the powerhouse and ear barn. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  12. Schematic of Mars Interior

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-10-14

    The interior of Mars is simply modeled as a core and mantle with a thin crust, similar to Earth. Mars' size and total mass have been determined by previous missions. Given four parameters, the core size and mass, and mantle size and mass can be determined. The combination of Pathfinder Doppler data with earlier data from the Viking landers has determined a third parameter, the moment of inertia, through measurement of Mars' precession rate. A fourth measurement is needed to complete the interior model. This may be achieved through future Doppler tracking of Pathfinder, since the presence of a fluid core may be detectable through its effect on Mars' nutation. The determination of the moment of inertia is a significant constraint on possible models for Mars' interior. If the core is as dense as possible (i.e. completely iron) and the mantle is similar to Earth's (or similar to the SNC meteorites thought to originate on Mars) then the minimum core radius is about 1300 km. If the core is made of less-dense material (i.e. a mixture of iron and sulfur) then the core radius is probably no more than 2000 km. Sojourner spent 83 days of a planned seven-day mission exploring the Martian terrain, acquiring images, and taking chemical, atmospheric and other measurements. The final data transmission received from Pathfinder was at 10:23 UTC on September 27, 1997. Although mission managers tried to restore full communications during the following five months, the successful mission was terminated on March 10, 1998. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00974

  13. Turboprop interior noise studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowell, E. H.

    1979-01-01

    The modal theory of acoustoelasticity is applied to the determination of the sound levels caused by a prescribed external sound excitation which is transmitted through a cylindrical shell. A circumferential traveling pressure wave excitation is studied as representative of a propeller sound field. It is shown how other excitations such as point mechanical loading, plane wave and reverberation random may be synthesized by superposition of circumferential waves. Representative numerical results illustrate the importance of structural and acoustic frequency matching in the determination of interior sound levels and clarify the role of the cylindrical shell ring frequency. An exploratory study of a double wall geometry is conducted.

  14. Interior of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Renee C.

    2013-01-01

    A variety of geophysical measurements made from Earth, from spacecraft in orbit around the Moon, and by astronauts on the lunar surface allow us to probe beyond the lunar surface to learn about its interior. Similarly to the Earth, the Moon is thought to consist of a distinct crust, mantle, and core. The crust is globally asymmetric in thickness, the mantle is largely homogeneous, and the core is probably layered, with evidence for molten material. This chapter will review a range of methods used to infer the Moon's internal structure, and briefly discuss the implications for the Moon's formation and evolution.

  15. Interior of Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, David J.

    1992-01-01

    General principles of Titan formation and evolution are addressed. Attention is focused on the volatile reservoir (defined as all constituents more volatile than water) of Titan's interior. Volatile poor models, in which Titan is like Granymede or Callisto with a thin (observed) volatile veneer are discussed and discarded. Volatile rich models in which the present Titan consists of a methane clathrate shell overlying a deep water ammonia ocean and solid ammonia hydrate are discussed. Titan has a central core of rock which is about one half of the total mass, and a superficial hydrocarbon 'ocean' stored in subsurface caverns and pore space.

  16. 11. Detail of the interior, looking through an interior doorway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Detail of the interior, looking through an interior doorway toward the front and east window. Note: This photograph shows that the building had been converted to a residence following its use as a school. In addition, the hazardous condition of the structure's interior is evident. Two ceilings which are visible in the photograph, (the upper, probably original plastered ceiling, and a secondary, adapted ceiling) as well as ceiling joists in the southernmost rooms have collapsed. Because of the dangerous condition of the interior of the building, additional interior photography was not attempted at this time. - Perry Township School No. 3, Middle Mount Vernon & Eickhoff Roads, Evansville, Vanderburgh County, IN

  17. The lunar interior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.; Kovach, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    The compressional velocities are estimated for materials in the lunar interior and compared with lunar seismic results. The lower crust has velocities appropriate for basalts or anorthosites. The high velocities associated with the uppermost mantle imply high densities and a change in composition to a lighter assemblage at depths of the order of 120 km. Calcium and aluminum are probably important components of the upper mantle and are deficient in the lower mantle. Much of the moon may have accreted from material similar in composition to eucrites. The important mineral of the upper mantle is garnet; possible accessory minerals are kyanite, spinel, and rutile. If the seismic results stand up, the high velocity layer in the moon is more likely to be a high pressure form of anorthosite than eclogite, pyroxenite, or dunite. The thickness of the layer is of the order of 50 km. Cosmic abundances can be maintained if the lower mantle is ferromagnesium silicate with minimal amounts of calcium and aluminum. Achondrites such as eucrites and howardites have more of the required characteristics of the lunar interior than carbonaceous chondrites. A density inversion in the moon is a strong possibility.

  18. Interior of Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Cutaway view of the possible internal structure of Io The surface of the satellite is a mosaic of images obtained in 1979 by NASA's Voyager spacecraft The interior characteristics are inferred from gravity field and magnetic field measurements by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. Io's radius is 1821 km, similar to the 1738 km radius of our Moon; Io has a metallic (iron, nickel) core (shown in gray) drawn to the correct relative size. The core is surrounded by a rock shell (shown in brown). Io's rock or silicate shell extends to the surface.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/ galileo.

  19. Interior prospect and refuge.

    PubMed

    Stamps, Arthur E

    2006-12-01

    Prospect and refuge theory has usually been applied to landscapes but recent work suggests that it could also be applied to interiors. This article reports two experiments, covering 14 environments and 97 respondents, in which five hypotheses regarding prospect, refuge, and comfort were tested: H1: the transition from small, dark, and low to large, light, and high and vice-versa; H2: the transition from dark to light vs vice-versa; H3: the transition from low to high vs vice-versa; H4: the transition from small to big horizontally vs vice-versa; and H5: width. Results varied. The effect of width on comfort was substantial (r = .35); effects for the other hypotheses were either subtle or contrary to expectations.

  20. Interior of Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Cutaway view of the possible internal structure of Europa The surface of the satellite is a mosaic of images obtained in 1979 by NASA's Voyager spacecraft. The interior characteristics are inferred from gravity field and magnetic field measurements by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. Europa's radius is 1565 km, not too much smaller than our Moon's radius. Europa has a metallic (iron, nickel) core (shown in gray) drawn to the correct relative size. The core is surrounded by a rock shell (shown in brown). The rock layer of Europa (drawn to correct relative scale) is in turn surrounded by a shell of water in ice or liquid form (shown in blue and white and drawn to the correct relative scale). The surface layer of Europa is shown as white to indicate that it may differ from the underlying layers. Galileo images of Europa suggest that a liquid water ocean might now underlie a surface ice layer several to ten kilometers thick. However, this evidence is also consistent with the existence of a liquid water ocean in the past. It is not certain if there is a liquid water ocean on Europa at present.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/ galileo.

  1. 15. Interior view, greenhouse, from the northwest. The greenhouse interior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Interior view, greenhouse, from the northwest. The greenhouse interior was quite modest, the space between the floor of the lower level and the joists carrying the loft floor is only five-and-one-half feet. - John Bartram House & Garden, Greenhouse, 54th Street & LIndbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  2. 46. INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTH ON SECOND FLOOR: Interior view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTH ON SECOND FLOOR: Interior view looking south along the east wall on the second floor of the powerhouse and car barn. Note the cable car truck in the foreground. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  3. 45. INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHWEST ON SECOND FLOOR: Interior view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHWEST ON SECOND FLOOR: Interior view towards southwest on second floor of main portion of the powerhouse and car barn. This space is used for repair and storage of cable cars. Note wooden trussed roof. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  4. 44. SECOND FLOOR 'ANNEX' INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHWEST: Interior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. SECOND FLOOR 'ANNEX' - INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHWEST: Interior view towards southwest on second floor of the powerhouse 'annex.' Note the steel column and beam construction and the old shunt car formerly used to move cable cars around the yard. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  5. Hangar no. 2 interior detail of roof structures and interior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Hangar no. 2 interior detail of roof structures and interior work spaces. Note concrete piers and cross bracing. Seen at trusses no. 42, 43, & 44. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Southern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Near intersection of Windmill Road & Johnson Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  6. Designing fire safe interiors.

    PubMed

    Belles, D W

    1992-01-01

    Any product that causes a fire to grow large is deficient in fire safety performance. A large fire in any building represents a serious hazard. Multiple-death fires almost always are linked to fires that grow quickly to a large size. Interior finishes have large, continuous surfaces over which fire can spread. They are regulated to slow initial fire growth, and must be qualified for use on the basis of fire tests. To obtain meaningful results, specimens must be representative of actual installation. Variables--such as the substrate, the adhesive, and product thickness and density--can affect product performance. The tunnel test may not adequately evaluate some products, such as foam plastics or textile wall coverings, thermoplastic materials, or materials of minimal mass. Where questions exist, products should be evaluated on a full-scale basis. Curtains and draperies are examples of products that ignite easily and spread flames readily. The present method for testing curtains and draperies evaluates one fabric at a time. Although a fabric tested alone may perform well, fabrics that meet test standards individually sometimes perform poorly when tested in combination. Contents and furnishings constitute the major fuels in many fires. Contents may involve paper products and other lightweight materials that are easily ignited and capable of fast fire growth. Similarly, a small source may ignite many items of furniture that are capable of sustained fire growth. Upholstered furniture can reach peak burning rates in less than 5 minutes. Furnishings have been associated with many multiple-death fires.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. 22. INTERIOR VIEW WITH INTERIOR VIEW OF MOLDING SANDS CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. INTERIOR VIEW WITH INTERIOR VIEW OF MOLDING SANDS CONTROL AND TEST LAB FOR UNIT NO. 2 GREY IRON DISAMATIC. SAND CASTING TECHNICIAN, ROY BATES, TESTS THE WEIGHT OF THE SAND, DRYS IT, AND WEIGHT IT AGAINST STANDARDS TO CALCULATE THE CORRECT MOISTURE NEEDED FOR DIFFERENT MOLDS. THE SAND MIX VARY WITH THE SIZE AND COMPOSITION OF THE CASTING. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  8. How Technology Influences Interior Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDavitt, Tish

    1999-01-01

    Examines telecommunication technology's influences on interior school design and effective learning, and discusses how to implement this technology into the school. Building the infrastructure to support telecommunications in an educational setting and the importance of effective lighting are discussed. (GR)

  9. Fourth Aircraft Interior Noise Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, David G. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    The fourth in a series of NASA/SAE Interior Noise Workshops was held on May 19 and 20, 1992. The theme of the workshop was new technology and applications for aircraft noise with emphasis on source noise prediction; cabin noise prediction; cabin noise control, including active and passive methods; and cabin interior noise procedures. This report is a compilation of the presentations made at the meeting which addressed the above issues.

  10. Exploring Asteroid Interiors: The Deep Interior Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asphaug, E.; Belton, M. J. S.; Cangahuala, A.; Keith, L.; Klaasen, K.; McFadden, L.; Neumann, G.; Ostro, S. J.; Reinert, R.; Safaeinili, A.

    2003-01-01

    Deep Interior is a mission to determine the geophysical properties of near-Earth objects, including the first volumetric image of the interior of an asteroid. Radio reflection tomography will image the 3D distribution of complex dielectric properties within the 1 km rendezvous target and hence map structural, density or compositional variations. Laser altimetry and visible imaging will provide high-resolution surface topography. Smart surface pods culminating in blast experiments, imaged by the high frame rate camera and scanned by lidar, will characterize active mechanical behavior and structure of surface materials, expose unweathered surface for NIR analysis, and may enable some characterization of bulk seismic response. Multiple flybys en route to this target will characterize a diversity of asteroids, probing their interiors with non-tomographic radar reflectance experiments. Deep Interior is a natural follow-up to the NEARShoemaker mission and will provide essential guidance for future in situ asteroid and comet exploration. While our goal is to learn the interior geology of small bodies and how their surfaces behave, the resulting science will enable pragmatic technologies required of hazard mitigation and resource utilization.

  11. Variational Principle for Planetary Interiors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Li; Jacobsen, Stein B.

    2016-09-01

    In the past few years, the number of confirmed planets has grown above 2000. It is clear that they represent a diversity of structures not seen in our own solar system. In addition to very detailed interior modeling, it is valuable to have a simple analytical framework for describing planetary structures. The variational principle is a fundamental principle in physics, entailing that a physical system follows the trajectory, which minimizes its action. It is alternative to the differential equation formulation of a physical system. Applying the variational principle to the planetary interior can beautifully summarize the set of differential equations into one, which provides us some insight into the problem. From this principle, a universal mass-radius relation, an estimate of the error propagation from the equation of state to the mass-radius relation, and a form of the virial theorem applicable to planetary interiors are derived.

  12. Ultrasonic cleaning of interior surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Odell, D. MacKenzie C.

    1994-01-01

    An ultrasonic cleaning apparatus for cleaning the interior surfaces of tubes. The apparatus includes an ultrasonic generator and reflector each coupled to opposing ends of the open-ended, fluid-filled tube. Fluid-tight couplings seal the reflector and generator to the tube, preventing leakage of fluid from the interior of the tube. The reflector and generator are operatively connected to actuators, whereby the distance between them can be varied. When the distance is changed, the frequency of the sound waves is simultaneously adjusted to maintain the resonant frequency of the tube so that a standing wave is formed in the tube, the nodes of which are moved axially to cause cavitation along the length of the tube. Cavitation maximizes mechanical disruption and agitation of the fluid, dislodging foreign material from the interior surface.

  13. Ultrasonic cleaning of interior surfaces

    DOEpatents

    MacKenzie, D.; Odell, C.

    1994-03-01

    An ultrasonic cleaning apparatus is described for cleaning the interior surfaces of tubes. The apparatus includes an ultrasonic generator and reflector each coupled to opposing ends of the open-ended, fluid-filled tube. Fluid-tight couplings seal the reflector and generator to the tube, preventing leakage of fluid from the interior of the tube. The reflector and generator are operatively connected to actuators, whereby the distance between them can be varied. When the distance is changed, the frequency of the sound waves is simultaneously adjusted to maintain the resonant frequency of the tube so that a standing wave is formed in the tube, the nodes of which are moved axially to cause cavitation along the length of the tube. Cavitation maximizes mechanical disruption and agitation of the fluid, dislodging foreign material from the interior surface. 3 figures.

  14. Ultrasonic cleaning of interior surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Odell, D. MacKenzie C.

    1996-01-01

    An ultrasonic cleaning method for cleaning the interior surfaces of tubes. The method uses an ultrasonic generator and reflector each coupled to opposing ends of the open-ended, fluid-filled tube. Fluid-tight couplings seal the reflector and generator to the tube, preventing leakage of fluid from the interior of the tube. The reflector and generator are operatively connected to actuators, whereby the distance between them can be varied. When the distance is changed, the frequency of the sound waves is simultaneously adjusted to maintain the resonant frequency of the tube so that a standing wave is formed in the tube, the nodes of which are moved axially to cause cavitation along the length of the tube. Cavitation maximizes mechanical disruption and agitation of the fluid, dislodging foreign material from the interior surface.

  15. The interior of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.

    1974-01-01

    Questions of lunar bulk chemistry are being considered, giving attention to the depletion of the moon in iron and compounds more volatile than iron. Currently four seismic stations are operating on the moon to provide data for the study of the lunar interior. The travel times of seismic waves generated by artificial impacts have been used to determine the structure of the outer 150 km of the moon. New evidence fails to resolve the controversy whether the lunar interior is hot or cold. A schematic cross section of the moon is presented and problems concerning the origin of the moon are considered.

  16. The interior of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.

    1974-01-01

    Questions of lunar bulk chemistry are being considered, giving attention to the depletion of the moon in iron and compounds more volatile than iron. Currently four seismic stations are operating on the moon to provide data for the study of the lunar interior. The travel times of seismic waves generated by artificial impacts have been used to determine the structure of the outer 150 km of the moon. New evidence fails to resolve the controversy whether the lunar interior is hot or cold. A schematic cross section of the moon is presented and problems concerning the origin of the moon are considered.

  17. Wildfire smoke conditions: interior Alaska.

    Treesearch

    Richard J. Barney; Erwin R. Berglund

    1974-01-01

    Records of 21 stations were analyzed for the occurrence, persistence, and related visibility resulting from summertime wildfire smoke and haze in interior Alaska. Maximum probability of smoke occurrence for any station and month was 8.7 percent in July for Bettles. Seasonal occurrence of smoke was greatest for Tanana—3.3 percent. Smoke persistence and...

  18. Interior Design: Teacher's Instructional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Tricia

    This teacher's instructional guide, which is part of a family and consumer sciences education series focusing on a broad range of employment opportunities, is intended to assist teachers responsible for teaching one- and two-year interior design programs for Texas high school students. The following are among the items included: (1) introductory…

  19. Venus - Interior of Ovda Regio

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-09-20

    This image from NASA Magellan shows part of the interior of Ovda Regio, one of the large highlands ringing the equator of Venus. Several tectonic events formed this complex block fractured terrain. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00218

  20. Microgravity Science Glovebox - Interior Reach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This photo shows the interior reach in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) being developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) and NASA for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Scientists will use the MSG to carry out multidisciplinary studies in combustion science, fluid physics and materials science. The MSG is managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Photo Credit: NASA/MSFC

  1. Interior Design: Challenges and Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Planning and Management, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Presents solutions to architectural challenges in school interior design; these solutions made the indoor environments more conducive and attractive for learning. Addresses four challenges: making a long corridor look less like a tunnel; maintaining tradition and minimizing cost in a new athletic facility; designing a kindergarten that is secure…

  2. Department of the Interior program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balsley, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    The remote sensing activities of the Department of Interior are summarized. The use of satellite imagery in land and water management is described. Specific topics discussed include: land use mapping, exploration and discovery of metal, oil, and gas deposits, location of geological faults, and repetitive monitoring of dynamic environmental phenomena related to water resources.

  3. Interior Design Trends in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sager, Don, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    Four contributing authors discuss perspectives on current trends in library interior design. Articles include: "Trends in Library Furnishings: A Manufacturer's Perspective" (Andrea Johnson); "Libraries, Architecture, and Light: The Architect's Perspective" (Rick McCarthy); "The Library Administrator's Perspective" (Chadwick Raymond); and "The…

  4. Interior Design: Teacher's Instructional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Tricia

    This teacher's instructional guide, which is part of a family and consumer sciences education series focusing on a broad range of employment opportunities, is intended to assist teachers responsible for teaching one- and two-year interior design programs for Texas high school students. The following are among the items included: (1) introductory…

  5. Interior Design: Challenges and Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Planning and Management, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Presents solutions to architectural challenges in school interior design; these solutions made the indoor environments more conducive and attractive for learning. Addresses four challenges: making a long corridor look less like a tunnel; maintaining tradition and minimizing cost in a new athletic facility; designing a kindergarten that is secure…

  6. The Value of Interior Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-01

    operational requirements. Designers help translate those operational requirements into an optimal working environment. They coordinate the facility’s...occupants on interior design principles to help them more effectively fulfill their mission * analyzing space adjacencies and organizational requirements...design principles can help determine which walls should be removed. Usable floor area may be increased 25 percent by removing the appropriate walls

  7. Interior Design Factors in Library Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Patricia Ann

    When planning the interior of a library facility, the planning team of librarian, library consultant, architect, and interior design consultant must focus attention on the basic principles of interior design and the psychological needs of the user. Colors for an interior should be selected with careful regard to space, light, and emotional and…

  8. Interior design for passive solar homes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breen, J. C.

    1981-07-01

    The increasing emphasis on refinement of passive solar systems brought recognition to interior design as an integral part of passive solar architecture. Interior design can be used as a finetuning tool minimizing many of the problems associated with passive solar energy use in residential buildings. In addition, treatment of interior space in solar model homes may be a prime factor in determining sales success. A new style of interior design is evolving in response to changes in building from incorporating passive solar design features. The psychology behind passive solar architecture is reflected in interiors, and selection of interior components increasingly depends on the functional suitably of various interior elements.

  9. Interior design for passive solar homes

    SciTech Connect

    Breen, J. C.

    1981-07-01

    The increasing emphasis on refinement of passive solar systems has brought recognition to interior design as an integral part of passive solar architecture. Interior design can be used as a finetuning tool minimizing many of the problems associated with passive solar energy use in residential buildings. In addition, treatment of interior space in solar model homes may be a prime factor in determining sales success. A new style of interior design is evolving in response to changes in building form incorporating passive solar design features. The psychology behind passive solar architecture is reflected in interiors, and selection of interior components increasingly depends on the functional suitability of various interior elements.

  10. Propeller aircraft interior noise model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, L. D.; Wilby, E. G.; Wilby, J. F.

    1984-01-01

    An analytical model was developed to predict the interior noise of propeller-driven aircraft. The fuselage model is that of a cylinder with a structurally-integral floor. The cabin sidewall is stiffened by stringers and ring frames, and the floor by longitudinal beams. The cabin interior is covered with a sidewall treatments consisting of layers of porous material and an impervious trim septum. Representation of the propeller pressure field is utilized as input data in the form of the propeller noise signature at a series of locations on a grid over the fuselage structure. Results obtained from the analytical model are compared with test data measured by NASA in a scale model cylindrical fuselage excited by a model propeller.

  11. Interiors of Enceladus and Rhea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rappaport, N. J.; Iess, L.; Tortora, P.; Lunine, J. I.; Armstrong, J. W.; Asmar, S. W.; Somenzi, L.; Zingoni, F.

    2006-01-01

    Measurement method and data set: Gravity field parameters determined by means of range rate measurements over multiple arcs across flyby. Optical imaging not required when reliable a priori estimates of spacecraft state vector are available. Interior of Enceladus: Density of 1605 +/-14 kg/cu m, higher than pre-Cassini estimates, requires a substantial amount of rock to warmer interior to enhance likelihood of differentiation of water from rock-metal. Assume no porosity. Assuming Io s mean density for the rock-metal component, one finds its fractional mass to be 0.52+/-0.06. There is evidence that Enceladus may be differentiated: a) Areas devoid of craters must be geologically young. b) Systems of ridges, fractures, and groove indicate that the surface has been tectonically altered. c) Viscous relaxation of craters has occurred, and d) The plumes near the South pole indicate venting of subsurface volatiles.

  12. Interiors of Enceladus and Rhea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rappaport, N. J.; Iess, L.; Tortora, P.; Lunine, J. I.; Armstrong, J. W.; Asmar, S. W.; Somenzi, L.; Zingoni, F.

    2006-01-01

    Measurement method and data set: Gravity field parameters determined by means of range rate measurements over multiple arcs across flyby. Optical imaging not required when reliable a priori estimates of spacecraft state vector are available. Interior of Enceladus: Density of 1605 +/-14 kg/cu m, higher than pre-Cassini estimates, requires a substantial amount of rock to warmer interior to enhance likelihood of differentiation of water from rock-metal. Assume no porosity. Assuming Io s mean density for the rock-metal component, one finds its fractional mass to be 0.52+/-0.06. There is evidence that Enceladus may be differentiated: a) Areas devoid of craters must be geologically young. b) Systems of ridges, fractures, and groove indicate that the surface has been tectonically altered. c) Viscous relaxation of craters has occurred, and d) The plumes near the South pole indicate venting of subsurface volatiles.

  13. Planetary Interior in the Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Chau, R; Bastea, M; Mitchell, A C; Minich, R W; Nellis, W J

    2003-01-31

    In the three years of this project, we have provided a complete database of the electrical conductivity of planetary materials to 180 GPa. The electrical conductivities of these planetary materials now provide a basis for future modeling of planets taking into account full magnetohydrodynamics. By using a full magnetohydrodynamics simulation, the magnetic fields of the planets can then be taken into account. Moreover, the electrical conductivities of the planetary materials have given us insight into the structure and nature of these dense fluids. We showed that simple monoatomic fluids such as hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen at planetary interior conditions undergo a common metallization process which can be explained on a simple basis of their radial charge density distributions. This model also shows that the metallization process is actually rather common and likely to take place in a number of materials such as carbon monoxide which is also present within planetary objects. On the other hand, we have also showed that a simple two component fluid like water and methane take on much different behaviors than say nitrogen due to the chemical interactions within these systems. The dynamics of an even more complex system, ''synthetic Uranus'' are still being analyzed but suggest that on some levels the behavior is very simple, i.e. the electrical conductivity is essentially the same as water, but the local dynamics are very complex. This project has shed much light on the nature of electrical transport within planetary interiors but also has shown that understanding chemical processes in the complex fluids within planetary interiors to be very important. Understanding those local interactions and processes is required to gain further insight into planetary interiors.

  14. Timber harvest in interior Alaska.

    Treesearch

    Tricia L. Wurtz; Robert A. Ott; John C. Maisch

    2006-01-01

    The most active period of timber harvesting in the history of Alaska's interior occurred nearly a century ago (Roessler 1997). The beginning of this era was the year 1869, when steam-powered, stern-wheeled riverboats first operated on the Yukon River (Robe 1943). Gold was discovered in Alaska in the 40-Mile River area in 1886, a find that was overshadowed 10 years...

  15. NASA Administrator Welcomes Secretary of the Interior

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-01-15

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, left, welcomes Secretary of the Interior Sally Jewell to NASA Headquarters to discuss continued partnerships between NASA and the Department of the Interior, Wednesday, Jan. 15, 2014 in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  16. Creating Library Interiors: Planning and Design Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Plummer Alston, Jr.; Barton, Phillip K.

    1997-01-01

    Examines design considerations for public library interiors: access; acoustical treatment; assignable and nonassignable space; building interiors: ceilings, clocks, color, control, drinking fountains; exhibit space: slotwall display, floor coverings, floor loading, furniture, lighting, mechanical systems, public address, copying machines,…

  17. Creating Library Interiors: Planning and Design Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Plummer Alston, Jr.; Barton, Phillip K.

    1997-01-01

    Examines design considerations for public library interiors: access; acoustical treatment; assignable and nonassignable space; building interiors: ceilings, clocks, color, control, drinking fountains; exhibit space: slotwall display, floor coverings, floor loading, furniture, lighting, mechanical systems, public address, copying machines,…

  18. Interior structure of the sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacobbe, F. W.; Giacobbe, M. J.

    This paper describes a computational method of estimating physical and chemical properties within the solar interior without employing calculations involving opacities. Instead of using opacities to help determine how interior solar temperatures vary with the radial distance between the centre of the sun and its 'surface', an iterative technique employing empirical adiabatic 'cooling' and a fusion energy production rate expression were employed for this purpose. Other iterative calculations were also made (nearly simultaneously) to ensure that all known solar constraint conditions were precisely satisfied (except for the photospheric 'surface' temperature) during this computational process. In addition, all calculations could be performed using a conventional PC employing an Intel Pentium CPU and a computer program coded in ANSI C. Due to the simplifications that were possible using the techniques employed during this study, as well as the advantages associated with using a programming language that produces machine code when compiled, all solar structural details could be generated very rapidly using an ordinary computer. The results of this study were compared with more conventional results obtained by others. This comparison indicated that the methods employed within this paper produced interior intensive solar properties that were in reasonable agreement with similar properties obtained by employing more sophisticated computational approaches. Although it is not claimed that the results generated during this study are any better than more conventionally obtained findings, it is thought that these results, as well as our computational methods, are interesting and potentially useful to others. In particular, it is thought that the techniques outlined in this paper may provide a useful introduction to more complicated techniques of solar modelling.

  19. Interior Department goes to war

    SciTech Connect

    Zuckerman, S.

    1981-06-01

    Interior Department policy to open US public lands to the mining industry use is rationalized as the resource war with the Soviet Union over strategic minerals vital to national defense. Mining-industry members and government officials express concerns about vulnerability despite a National Defense Stockpile of materials for military hardware manufactures. Promoters of the concept of resource war and locked-up land use a number of figures, definitions, and interpretations that differ from those claimed by environmentalists and researchers. Restrictions may be eased and changes in legislation may make mining the highest priority use of public land. (DCK)

  20. Physical Processes in Stellar Interiors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank-Kamenetskii, D. A.

    1962-01-01

    The author set himself three fundamental tasks: (1) To show how modern atomic and nuclear physics can contribute to the description of processes in stellar interiors. (2) To present the fundamentals of the methods for calculating physical processes taking place at temperatures of millions of degrees. (3) To provide the required minimum of information on problems of atomic and nuclear physics to astrophysicists, and on astronomical problems to physicists. The book is divided into four parts, the Introduction, the Theory of Stationary Processes, the Applications of the Theory of Stationary Processes and the Theory of Non-Stationary Processes.

  1. Interior Design Research: A Human Ecosystem Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerin, Denise A.

    1992-01-01

    The interior ecosystems model illustrates effects on the human organism of the interaction of the natural, behavioral, and built environment. Examples of interior lighting and household energy consumption show the model's flexibility for organizing study variables in interior design research. (SK)

  2. State Skill Standards: Housing and Interior Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Meeting the Housing and Interior Design Standards will provide students with skills for personal family life and towards becoming a professional in the interior design field. The mission of Housing and Interior Design education is to prepare students for family life, work life, and careers in the fashion industry by creating opportunities to…

  3. Market Aspects of an Interior Design Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Judy E.

    A project was conducted to evaluate a proposed interior design program in order to determine the marketability (job availability in the field of interior design and home furnishings merchandising) and the feasibility (educational requirements for entrance into the interior design and home furnishings merchandising job market) of the program. To…

  4. Department of the Interior Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ... [The Regulatory Plan and Unified Agenda of Federal Regulatory and Deregulatory Actions] Part X Department of the Interior Semiannual Regulatory Agenda ] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (DOI) DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of the Secretary 25 CFR Ch. I 30 CFR Chs. II and VII 36 CFR Ch. I 43 CFR Subtitle A, Chs. I and II 48 CFR Ch. 14 50 CFR Chs. I...

  5. Interior order expands minerals management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    In a surprise move on May 10, Secretary of the Interior James G. Watt ordered the consolidation of all leasing and resource management functions for the outer continental shelf (OCS) into the Minerals Management Service (MMS). Among those programs shifted to MMS are ‘all functions in direct support of the OCS program’ in the Geologic Division and in the Office of the Assistant Director for Resource Programs of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), including oil and gas resources, energy-related hazards, and marine geology investigations. It is unclear whether research associated with the OCS leasing functions will be considered ‘direct support’ and what will happen to the research if it is so considered.Also to be shuttled to MMS are the oil-spill trajectory functions of the Office of Earth Sciences Applications and all the functions of the Office of Policy Analysis relating to the OCS that had been transferred from the Department of Energy as a result of the Interior and Related Agencies Appropriations Act.

  6. Interior Slopes of Copernican Craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, M. S.; Burns, K.; Stelling, R.; Speyerer, E.; Mahanti, P.

    2012-12-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) routinely acquires high resolution (50 to 200 cm pixel scales) stereo pairs from adjacent orbits through spacecraft slews; parallax angles are typically >20°, and the local incidence angle between 40° and 65°. These observations are reduced to digital elevation models (DEM) using a combination of ISIS (USGS) and SOCET Set (BAE Systems). For this study DEMs originally sampled at 2 m scales were reduced (averaging technique) to 5 m scales to provide slopes calculated over 3x3 pixel boxes (15 m x 15 m). The upper 50% of interior walls of Copernican craters (2 to 20 km diameter) typically have average slopes of 36°, with slopes locally above 40° not uncommon (i.e. Fig 1: 2.3 km diam, 17.68°S, 144.41°E). Giordano Bruno (GB; 35.97N°, 102.86°E) is likely the youngest 20-km diameter class crater on the Moon. Its floor is dominated by impact forms (ponds and flows), and inner walls exhibit a series of coalesced flow lobes emanating from steep upper slopes. The lobes appear to be composed of dry granular material based on the observation of boulder trails superposed on many examples. The upper slopes average 36° or more, with some slopes above 40°. For much of GB, slopes exceed 30° all the way to the crater floor (especially in the SE). The high slopes imply angular grains, some level of cohesion, and/or higher angles of repose due to the Moon's relatively low gravity. Larmor Q (28.56°N, 176.33°E), another large Copernican crater, is elliptical in plan (23 x 18 km diameter), with an interior floor dominated by large slump blocks. Like GB its walls exhibit overlapping lobes (granular materials) emanating from interior wall slopes that range from 30° to 36°. Other Copernican craters exhibit similar steep slopes on interior walls: Moore F (23 km diam), Necho (30 km), and two unnamed craters (9 km,13.31°S, 257.55°E; 9 km, 15.72°, 177.39°E). Slopes of the central peaks of Tycho crater (0

  7. Exoplanet's Figure and Its Interior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M.; Huang, C. L.

    2017-01-01

    With the development of the observing technology, scientists commenced research of observing and computing exoplanets' oblateness and apsidal precession now. Exoplanet's density profile and rotation period determine its oblateness. Its Love number k_2 has an obvious negative correlation with its core size. So oblateness and k_2 can well constrain its interior structure. The polytropic models based on different polytropic indices are built from the Lane-Emden equation. Then flattening numbers are solved by the Wavre's integral-differential equation. Flattening numbers of 469 selected exoplanets from NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Exoplanet Archive which have estimated values of radius, mass, and orbit period at the same time are computed under 2 assumptions: tidal locking and fixed rotation period of 10.55 hours. The result shows that flattening numbers are too small to be detected under the tidal locking assumption, and 28% of exoplanets have the flattening numbers larger than 0.1 using fixed rotation period of 10.55 hours. The Love numbers are solved by the Zharkov's approach, and k_2 has an obvious negative correlation with its core size comparing with the core-size reference index.

  8. Interiors of the giant planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, W. B.

    1988-01-01

    This theoretical/observational project constrains interior structure of Jovian planets through observational data. Researchers continue to concentrate on Neptune in support of the 1989 Voyager encounter. Occultations of stars by Neptune are observed from the Tucson area and from Chile to obtain information about Neptune's atmosphere and to continue to search for Neptune arcs. Occultations by other solar system objects are also observed as part of collaborative efforts from time to time. New results on the structure of scintillations in the central flash occultation by Neptune on 20 August 1985 were derived. Analysis shows that scintillations are present throughout the lightcurve, both near the half-intensity points (at a pressure of 1 microbar) and near the central flash (at 0.4 mbar). Near the planetary limb, the scintillations are extended parallel to the limb; near the shadow center, they are extended parallel to the limb; near the shadow center, they are extended in a radial direction. Researchers collaborated with Ramesh Narayan to derive a theory relating the scintillations to density fluctuations in Neptune's atmosphere. The theory will ultimately enable researchers to test whether the scintillations are caused by internal gravity waves in Neptune's upper atmosphere.

  9. Orbits and Interiors of Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batygin, Konstantin

    2012-05-01

    The focus of this thesis is a collection of problems of timely interest in orbital dynamics and interior structure of planetary bodies. The first three chapters are dedicated to understanding the interior structure of close-in, gaseous extrasolar planets (hot Jupiters). In order to resolve a long-standing problem of anomalously large hot Jupiter radii, we proposed a novel magnetohydrodynamic mechanism responsible for inflation. The mechanism relies on the electro-magnetic interactions between fast atmospheric flows and the planetary magnetic field in a thermally ionized atmosphere, to induce electrical currents that flow throughout the planet. The resulting Ohmic dissipation acts to maintain the interior entropies, and by extension the radii of hot Jupiters at an enhanced level. Using self-consistent calculations of thermal evolution of hot Jupiters under Ohmic dissipation, we demonstrated a clear tendency towards inflated radii for effective temperatures that give rise to significant ionization of K and Na in the atmosphere, a trend fully consistent with the observational data. Furthermore, we found that in absence of massive cores, low-mass hot Jupiters can over-flow their Roche-lobes and evaporate on Gyr time-scales, possibly leaving behind small rocky cores. Chapters four through six focus on the improvement and implications of a model for orbital evolution of the solar system, driven by dynamical instability (termed the "Nice" model). Hydrodynamical studies of the orbital evolution of planets embedded in protoplanetary disks suggest that giant planets have a tendency to assemble into multi-resonant configurations. Following this argument, we used analytical methods as well as self-consistent numerical N-body simulations to identify fully-resonant primordial states of the outer solar system, whose dynamical evolutions give rise to orbital architectures that resemble the current solar system. We found a total of only eight such initial conditions, providing

  10. 24. Interior, 1st floor, hewn timber braced framing for interior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Interior, 1st floor, hewn timber braced framing for interior wall between northeast and northwest "kitchen" rooms in older section, looking west - Brawner Farmhouse, Lee Highway/Route 29, Manassas, Manassas, VA

  11. Interior Design Students Perceptions of Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Johnnie; Park, Jin Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This longitudinal study assessed student perceptions of sustainable design issues in the context of an accredited interior design program. Although literature exists documenting the integration of sustainable strategies into interior design curriculum, more analysis is needed to determine the impact of program experiences on students'…

  12. Black Hole Interior in Quantum Gravity.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Yasunori; Sanches, Fabio; Weinberg, Sean J

    2015-05-22

    We discuss the interior of a black hole in quantum gravity, in which black holes form and evaporate unitarily. The interior spacetime appears in the sense of complementarity because of special features revealed by the microscopic degrees of freedom when viewed from a semiclassical standpoint. The relation between quantum mechanics and the equivalence principle is subtle, but they are still consistent.

  13. Flexible Interior-Impression-Molding Tray

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anders, Jeffrey E.

    1991-01-01

    Device used inside combustion chamber of complicated shape for nondestructive evaluation of qualities of welds, including such features as offset, warping, misalignment of parts, and dropthrough. Includes flexible polypropylene tray trimmed to fit desired interior surface contour. Two neodymium boron magnets and inflatable bladder attached to tray. Tray and putty inserted in cavity to make mold of interior surface.

  14. Interior Design Students Perceptions of Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Johnnie; Park, Jin Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This longitudinal study assessed student perceptions of sustainable design issues in the context of an accredited interior design program. Although literature exists documenting the integration of sustainable strategies into interior design curriculum, more analysis is needed to determine the impact of program experiences on students'…

  15. Helioseismology: Probing the interior of a star

    PubMed Central

    Demarque, P.; Guenther, D. B.

    1999-01-01

    Helioseismology offers, for the first time, an opportunity to probe in detail the deep interior of a star (our Sun). The results will have a profound impact on our understanding not only of the solar interior, but also neutrino physics, stellar evolution theory, and stellar population studies in astrophysics. PMID:10318887

  16. Interiors and atmospheres of the outer planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, W. B.

    1991-01-01

    This theoretical/observational project constrains structure of outer planet atmospheres and interiors through observational data. The primary observation tool is through observations of occultations of stars by outer solar system objects, which yield information about atmospheric temperatures and dynamics, and planetary dimensions and oblateness. The theoretical work relates the data to interior structures in a variety of ways.

  17. Flexible Interior-Impression-Molding Tray

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anders, Jeffrey E.

    1991-01-01

    Device used inside combustion chamber of complicated shape for nondestructive evaluation of qualities of welds, including such features as offset, warping, misalignment of parts, and dropthrough. Includes flexible polypropylene tray trimmed to fit desired interior surface contour. Two neodymium boron magnets and inflatable bladder attached to tray. Tray and putty inserted in cavity to make mold of interior surface.

  18. Lather (Interior Systems Mechanic). Occupational Analyses Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Mike; Chapman, Carol; MacLean, Margaret

    This analysis covers tasks performed by a lather, an occupational title some provinces and territories of Canada have also identified as drywall and acoustical mechanic; interior systems installer; and interior systems mechanic. A guide to analysis discusses development, structure, and validation method; scope of the occupation; trends; and…

  19. Interior Tomography With Continuous Singular Value Decomposition

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xin; Katsevich, Alexander; Yu, Hengyong; Wang, Ge; Li, Liang; Chen, Zhiqiang

    2013-01-01

    The long-standing interior problem has important mathematical and practical implications. The recently developed interior tomography methods have produced encouraging results. A particular scenario for theoretically exact interior reconstruction from truncated projections is that there is a known subregion in the region of interest (ROI). In this paper, we improve a novel continuous singular value decomposition (SVD) method for interior reconstruction assuming a known subregion. First, two sets of orthogonal eigen-functions are calculated for the Hilbert and image spaces respectively. Then, after the interior Hilbert data are calculated from projection data through the ROI, they are projected onto the eigen-functions in the Hilbert space, and an interior image is recovered by a linear combination of the eigen-functions with the resulting coefficients. Finally, the interior image is compensated for the ambiguity due to the null space utilizing the prior subregion knowledge. Experiments with simulated and real data demonstrate the advantages of our approach relative to the projection onto convex set type interior reconstructions. PMID:22907966

  20. Fireworthiness of transport aircraft interior systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. A.; Kourtides, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    The key materials question is addressed concerning the effect of interior systems on the survival of passengers and crew in the case of an uncontrolled transport aircraft fire. Technical opportunities are examined which are available through the modification of aircraft interior subsystem components, modifications that may reasonably be expected to provide improvements in aircraft fire safety. Subsystem components discussed are interior panels, seats, and windows. By virtue of their role in real fire situations and as indicated by the results of large scale simulation tests, these components appear to offer the most immediate and highest payoff possible by modifying interior materials of existing aircraft. These modifications have the potential of reducing the rate of fire growth, with a consequent reduction of heat, toxic gas, and smoke emission throughout the habitable interior of an aircraft, whatever the initial source of the fire.

  1. Convective Overshoot in Stellar Interior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Q. S.

    2015-07-01

    In stellar interiors, the turbulent thermal convection transports matters and energy, and dominates the structure and evolution of stars. The convective overshoot, which results from the non-local convective transport from the convection zone to the radiative zone, is one of the most uncertain and difficult factors in stellar physics at present. The classical method for studying the convective overshoot is the non-local mixing-length theory (NMLT). However, the NMLT bases on phenomenological assumptions, and leads to contradictions, thus the NMLT was criticized in literature. At present, the helioseismic studies have shown that the NMLT cannot satisfy the helioseismic requirements, and have pointed out that only the turbulent convection models (TCMs) can be accepted. In the first part of this thesis, models and derivations of both the NMLT and the TCM were introduced. In the second part, i.e., the work part, the studies on the TCM (theoretical analysis and applications), and the development of a new model of the convective overshoot mixing were described in detail. In the work of theoretical analysis on the TCM, the approximate solution and the asymptotic solution were obtained based on some assumptions. The structure of the overshoot region was discussed. In a large space of the free parameters, the approximate/asymptotic solutions are in good agreement with the numerical results. We found an important result that the scale of the overshoot region in which the thermal energy transport is effective is 1 HK (HK is the scale height of turbulence kinetic energy), which does not depend on the free parameters of the TCM. We applied the TCM and a simple overshoot mixing model in three cases. In the solar case, it was found that the temperature gradient in the overshoot region is in agreement with the helioseismic requirements, and the profiles of the solar lithium abundance, sound speed, and density of the solar models are also improved. In the low-mass stars of open

  2. Fireworthiness of transport aircraft interior systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. A.; Kourtides, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of certain aspects of the evaluation of the fireworthiness of transport aircraft interiors. First, it addresses the key materials question concerning the effect of interior systems on the survival of passengers and crew in the case of an uncontrolled fire. Second, it examines some technical opportunities that are available today through the modification of aircraft interior subsystem components, modifications that may reasonably by expected to provide improvements in aircraft fire safety. Cost and risk benefits still remain to be determined.

  3. Tectonic connections to interior processes on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    The ultimate goal of geophysical/geological exploration of Venus is to relate the present tectonic (and volcanic) state of the lithosphere to interior processes, particularly mantle convection, operating both now and in the past. The Magellan mission has provided a spectacular view of the surface, and upcoming gravity measurements, particularly if the Magellan orbit is circularized, will provide significant constraints on the state of the interior. This extended abstract focuses on several controversial issues regarding venusian tectonics and its relationship to geodynamic mechanisms in the planet's interior. The origin of highlands, coronae diapir structures, and trenches and subduction are discussed.

  4. Tectonic connections to interior processes on Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, R. J.

    1992-12-01

    The ultimate goal of geophysical/geological exploration of Venus is to relate the present tectonic (and volcanic) state of the lithosphere to interior processes, particularly mantle convection, operating both now and in the past. The Magellan mission has provided a spectacular view of the surface, and upcoming gravity measurements, particularly if the Magellan orbit is circularized, will provide significant constraints on the state of the interior. This extended abstract focuses on several controversial issues regarding venusian tectonics and its relationship to geodynamic mechanisms in the planet's interior. The origin of highlands, coronae diapir structures, and trenches and subduction are discussed.

  5. Computer vision based room interior design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Nasir; Hussain, Saddam; Ahmad, Kashif; Conci, Nicola

    2015-12-01

    This paper introduces a new application of computer vision. To the best of the author's knowledge, it is the first attempt to incorporate computer vision techniques into room interior designing. The computer vision based interior designing is achieved in two steps: object identification and color assignment. The image segmentation approach is used for the identification of the objects in the room and different color schemes are used for color assignment to these objects. The proposed approach is applied to simple as well as complex images from online sources. The proposed approach not only accelerated the process of interior designing but also made it very efficient by giving multiple alternatives.

  6. 24 CFR 3280.108 - Interior passage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... passage. (a) Interior doors having passage hardware without a privacy lock, or with a privacy lock not engaged, shall open from either side by a single movement of the hardware mechanism in any direction. (b...

  7. 24 CFR 3280.108 - Interior passage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... passage. (a) Interior doors having passage hardware without a privacy lock, or with a privacy lock not engaged, shall open from either side by a single movement of the hardware mechanism in any direction. (b...

  8. 24 CFR 3280.108 - Interior passage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... passage. (a) Interior doors having passage hardware without a privacy lock, or with a privacy lock not engaged, shall open from either side by a single movement of the hardware mechanism in any direction. (b...

  9. 24 CFR 3280.108 - Interior passage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... passage. (a) Interior doors having passage hardware without a privacy lock, or with a privacy lock not engaged, shall open from either side by a single movement of the hardware mechanism in any direction. (b...

  10. Department of Interior Focuses on Cleaning Products

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A November 1998 effort to address concerns over the indoor air quality in their buildings in DC led the Department of the Interior (DOI) to initiate a contract for custodial services using environmentally preferable cleaning products and supplies.

  11. Prediction of light aircraft interior noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howlett, J. T.; Morales, D. A.

    1976-01-01

    At the present time, predictions of aircraft interior noise depend heavily on empirical correction factors derived from previous flight measurements. However, to design for acceptable interior noise levels and to optimize acoustic treatments, analytical techniques which do not depend on empirical data are needed. This paper describes a computerized interior noise prediction method for light aircraft. An existing analytical program (developed for commercial jets by Cockburn and Jolly in 1968) forms the basis of some modal analysis work which is described. The accuracy of this modal analysis technique for predicting low-frequency coupled acoustic-structural natural frequencies is discussed along with trends indicating the effects of varying parameters such as fuselage length and diameter, structural stiffness, and interior acoustic absorption.

  12. Interior Design's Role in Educational Specifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Mary Ann

    1986-01-01

    An experienced interior designer, equipped with a well-written educational specification, will specify the best materials and coordinate colors, materials, and furnishings in line with the district's budget. (MLF)

  13. The Architectural and Interior Design Planning Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Elaine

    1994-01-01

    Explains the planning process in designing effective library facilities and discusses library building requirements that result from electronic information technologies. Highlights include historical structures; Americans with Disabilities Act; resource allocation; electrical power; interior spaces; lighting; design development; the roles of…

  14. The Architectural and Interior Design Planning Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Elaine

    1994-01-01

    Explains the planning process in designing effective library facilities and discusses library building requirements that result from electronic information technologies. Highlights include historical structures; Americans with Disabilities Act; resource allocation; electrical power; interior spaces; lighting; design development; the roles of…

  15. A S & U Educational Interiors Showcase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School & University, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Presents descriptions of the 2001 award-winning educational facilities whose interior designs are judged to be outstanding learning and gathering environments. Photos and project cost data for each facility are included. (GR)

  16. Phobos interior structure from its gravity field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Maistre, S.; Rosenblatt, P.; Rivoldini, A.

    2015-10-01

    Phobos origin remains mysterious. It could be a captured asteroid, or an in-situ object co-accreted with Mars or formed by accretion from a disk of impact ejecta.Although it is not straightforward to relate its interior properties to its origin, it is easy to agree that the interior properties of any body has to be accounted for to explain its life's history. What event could explain such an internal structure? Where should this object formed to present such interior characteristics and composition? We perform here numerical simulations to assess the ability of a gravity experiment to constrain the interior structure of the martian moon Phobos, which could in turn allow distinguishing among the competing scenarios for the moon's origin.

  17. Northeastern Exterior, Northwestern Exterior, & Southwestern Exterior Elevations, Northeastern Interior, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Northeastern Exterior, Northwestern Exterior, & Southwestern Exterior Elevations, Northeastern Interior, Southeastern Interior, & Southwestern Interior Elevations, Floor Plan, and Eastern Corner Detail - Manatoc Reservation, Vale Edge Adirondack, 1075 Truxell Road, Peninsula, Summit County, OH

  18. 130. INTERIOR, SIXTH FLOOR, WING 6100 WEST, SUITE 6000, ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    130. INTERIOR, SIXTH FLOOR, WING 6100 WEST, SUITE 6000, ROOM 6156, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR, BRONZE WALL CLOCK - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  19. Sound isolation performance of interior acoustical sash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tocci, Gregory

    2002-05-01

    In existing, as well as new buildings, an interior light of glass mounted on the inside of a prime window is used to improve the sound transmission loss otherwise obtained by the prime window alone. Interior acoustical sash is most often 1/4 in. (6 mm) monolithic or laminated glass, and is typically spaced 3 in. to 6 in. from the glass of the prime window. This paper presents TL data measured at Riverbank Acoustical Laboratories by Solutia (formerly Monsanto) for lightweight prime windows of various types, with and without interior acoustical sash glazed with 1/4 in. laminated glass. The TL data are used to estimate the A-weighted insertion loss of interior acoustical sash when applied to prime windows glazed with lightweight glass for four transportation noise source types-highway traffic, aircraft, electric rail, and diesel rail. The analysis also has been extended to determine the insertion loss expressed as a change in OITC. The data also exhibit the reductions in insertion loss that can result from short-circuiting the interior acoustical sash with the prime window. [Work supported by Solutia, Inc.

  20. Interior solution for the Kerr metric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Pastora, J. L.; Herrera, L.

    2017-01-01

    A recently presented general procedure to find static and axially symmetric, interior solutions to the Einstein equations is extended to the stationary case, and applied to find an interior solution for the Kerr metric. The solution, which is generated by an anisotropic fluid, verifies the energy conditions for a wide range of values of the parameters, and matches smoothly to the Kerr solution, thereby representing a globally regular model describing a nonspherical and rotating source of gravitational field. In the spherically symmetric limit, our model converges to the well-known incompressible perfect fluid solution. The key stone of our approach is based on an ansatz allowing to define the interior metric in terms of the exterior metric functions evaluated at the boundary source. The physical variables of the energy-momentum tensor are calculated explicitly, as well as the geometry of the source in terms of the relativistic multipole moments.

  1. Interior Structure and Habitability of Ocean Worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, S.; Bills, B. G.; Cammarano, F.; Panning, M. P.; Stähler, S. C.

    2016-12-01

    Earth's habitability depends critically on its interior structure and dynamics. Global redox cycles rely on Earth's mantle for continued flux of reduced materials (e.g., Hayes and Waldbauer 2006). Similarly, the habitability of ocean worlds must be understood in terms of their interior structure and evolution (Zolotov and Shock 2004, Hand et al. 2009, Nimmo and Pappalardo 2016, Vance et al. 2016). Combined seismology, gravity, and magnetic investigations may be able to distinguish between a hot active interior and a cold dead one. To evaluate such investigations, we are developing detailed models of interior density, elastic and anelastic structure, and associated seismic sources and signatures, building on prior work (Cammarano et al. 2006). We will present self-consistent 1-D structural models for ocean world interiors that use available thermodynamic data for fluids, ices, and rocks. Cammarano, F., V. Lekic, M. Manga, M. Panning, and B. Romanowicz (2006). Long-period seismology on Europa: 1. Physically consistent interior models. Journal of Geophysical Research, E12009:doi:10.1029/2006JE002710. Hand, K. P., C. Chyba, J. Priscu, R. Carlson, and K. Nealson (2009). Astrobiology and the Potential for Life on Europa, page 589. Arizona University Press. Hayes, J. M. and J. R. Waldbauer (2006). The carbon cycle and associated redox processes through time. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 361(1470):931-950. Nimmo, F. and R. T. Pappalardo (2016). Ocean Worlds in the Outer Solar System. Journal of Geophysical Research, doi:10.1002/2016JE005081 Vance, S. D., K. P. Hand, and R. T. Pappalardo (2016). Geophysical controls of chemical disequilibria in Europa. Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1002/2016GL068547. Zolotov, M. Y. and E. L. Shock (2004). A model for low-temperature biogeochemistry of sulfur, carbon, and iron on Europa. Journal of Geophysical Research-Planets, 109(E6):E06003.

  2. Planetary deep interiors, geodesy, and habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehant, Veronique

    2014-05-01

    The evolution of planets is driven by the composition, structure, and thermal state of their internal core, mantle, lithosphere, crust, and by interactions with possible ocean and atmosphere. This presentation puts in perspective the fundamental understanding of the relationships and interactions between those different planetary reservoirs and their evolution through time. It emphasizes on the deep interior part of terrestrial planets and moons. The core of a planet, when composed of liquid iron alloy, may provide magnetic field and further interaction with the magnetosphere, ingredients believed to be important for the evolution of an atmosphere and of a planet in general. The deep interior is believed to be of high importance for its habitability. Lander and orbiter, even rover at the surface of planets or moons of the solar system help in determining their interior properties. First of all orbiters feel the gravity of the planet and its variations. In particular, the tidal mass redistribution induces changes in the acceleration of the spacecraft orbiting around a planet. The Love number k2 has been determined for Venus, Mars, and the Earth, as well as for Titan and will be deduced for Mercury and for some of the Galilean satellites from new missions such as JUICE (Jupiter Icy satellite Explorer). The properties of the interior can also be determined from the observation of the rotation of the celestial body. Radar observation from the Earth ground stations of Mercury has allowed Margo et al. (2012, JGR) to determine the moments of inertia of Mercury with an unprecedented accuracy. Rovers such as the MERs (Mars Exploration Rovers) allow as well to obtain the precession and nutation of Mars from which the moments of inertia of the planet and its core can be deduced. Future missions such as the InSIGHT (Interior exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy, and Heat Transport) NASA mission will further help in the determination of Mars interior and evolution

  3. The Prefabricated Interior Design Studio: An Exploration into the History and Sustainability of Interior Prefabrication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneiderman, Deborah; Freihoefer, Kara

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the integration of prefabrication into an interior design studio. A review of the literature revealed that while there is a paucity of categorical research focused on this subject, the subject is historically significant with an abundance of evidence regarding the prefabrication of the interior environment dating back…

  4. The Prefabricated Interior Design Studio: An Exploration into the History and Sustainability of Interior Prefabrication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneiderman, Deborah; Freihoefer, Kara

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the integration of prefabrication into an interior design studio. A review of the literature revealed that while there is a paucity of categorical research focused on this subject, the subject is historically significant with an abundance of evidence regarding the prefabrication of the interior environment dating back…

  5. Expected Constraints on Rhea's Interior from Cassini

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castillo, J. C.

    2005-01-01

    We model the interior of Rhea based on observational constraints and the results from geodynamical models available in the literature. Ten main types of models are defined, depending on the presence or absence of a high-pressure ice layer (ice II), and the extent of separation of the rock component from the volatiles. We present degree-two gravity components computed for each of these models in order to assess which properties of the interior are likely to be inferred from Cassini radio science measurements scheduled on November 26, 2005.

  6. 24 CFR 3280.108 - Interior passage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interior passage. 3280.108 Section 3280.108 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN...

  7. 24 CFR 3280.107 - Interior privacy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Interior privacy. 3280.107 Section 3280.107 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... privacy. Bathroom and toilet compartment doors shall be equipped with a privacy lock....

  8. 24 CFR 3280.107 - Interior privacy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interior privacy. 3280.107 Section 3280.107 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... privacy. Bathroom and toilet compartment doors shall be equipped with a privacy lock....

  9. 24 CFR 3280.107 - Interior privacy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Interior privacy. 3280.107 Section 3280.107 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... privacy. Bathroom and toilet compartment doors shall be equipped with a privacy lock....

  10. 24 CFR 3280.107 - Interior privacy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Interior privacy. 3280.107 Section 3280.107 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... privacy. Bathroom and toilet compartment doors shall be equipped with a privacy lock....

  11. 24 CFR 3280.107 - Interior privacy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Interior privacy. 3280.107 Section 3280.107 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... privacy. Bathroom and toilet compartment doors shall be equipped with a privacy lock....

  12. Mapping aspen in the Interior West

    Treesearch

    Charles E. Werstak

    2012-01-01

    Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) is a critical species that supports wildlife and livestock, watershed function, the forest products industry, landscape diversity, and recreation opportunities in the Interior West (Bartos and Campbell 1998). Studies have indicated that changes in fire regimes, an increase in herbivore presence in young aspen stands, and...

  13. Calidad del aire interior en las escuelas

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA ha desarrollado el Programa de Herramientas de Calidad del Aire Interior para las Escuelas para reducir la exposición a los contaminantes ambientales en las mismas a través de la adopción voluntaria de las prácticas para manejar la calidad del aire int

  14. Potential for forest products in interior Alaska.

    Treesearch

    George R. Sampson; Willem W.S. van Hees; Theodore S. Setzer; Richard C. Smith

    1988-01-01

    Future opportunities for producing Alaska forest products were examined from the perspective of timber supply as reported in timber inventory reports and past studies of forest products industry potential. The best prospects for increasing industrial production of forest products in interior Alaska are for softwood lumber. Current softwood lumber production in the...

  15. Building Trades. Block VIII. Interior Trim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This curriculum for interior trim provides instructional materials for 18 informational and manipulative lessons. A list of 11 references precedes the course materials. The instructor's plan for each informational lesson begins by providing this information: subject, aim, required teaching aids, required materials, references, and prerequisite…

  16. Climatology of the interior Columbia River basin.

    Treesearch

    Sue A. Ferguson

    1999-01-01

    This work describes climate means and trends in each of three major ecological zones and 13 ecological reporting units in the interior Columbia River basin. Widely differing climates help define each major zone and reporting unit, the pattern of which is controlled by three competing air masses: marine, continental, and arctic. Paleoclimatic evidence and historical...

  17. Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gendreau, Keith C.; Arzoumanian, Zaven

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation contains an overview of the mission of the Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICE), a proposed International Space Station (ISS) payload dedicated ot the study of neutron stars. There are also reviews of the Science Objectives of the payload,the science measurements, the design and the expected performance for the instruments for NICE,

  18. American School & University Educational Interiors Showcase: Citations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School & University, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Presents educational facility citation award winners of the American School and University Interiors Showcase for design of common areas, classrooms, libraries and media centers, and cafeterias/food service. The architectural firm responsible is listed for each entry as are the square footage involved, costs, completion date, and a brief…

  19. Solar Powered Automobile Interior Climate Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    There is provided a climate control system for a parked vehicle that includes a solar panel, thermostatic switch, fans, and thermoelectric coolers. The solar panel can serve as the sole source of electricity for the system. The system affords convenient installation and removal by including solar panels that are removably attached to the exterior of a vehicle. A connecting wire electrically connects the solar panels to a housing that is removably mounted to a partially opened window on the vehicle. The thermostatic switch, fans, and thermoelectric coolers are included within the housing. The thermostatic switch alternates the direction of the current flow through the thermoelectric coolers to selectively heat or cool the interior of the vehicle. The interior surface of the thermoelectric coolers are in contact with interior heat sinks that have air circulated across them by an interior fan. Similarly, the exterior surface of the thermoelectric coolers are in contact with exterior heat sinks that have air circulated across them by an exterior fan.

  20. Building of Requirement: Liberating Academic Interior Architecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLane, Yelena; Dawkins, Jim

    The authors focus on the strategies employed in the recent renovation of the William Johnston Building at Florida State University, in which the historical exterior was preserved, while the interiors were adapted to new functions as classrooms, study centers, and common spaces with intentionally undefined purposes. The building's various use…

  1. Building Trades. Block VIII. Interior Trim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This curriculum for interior trim provides instructional materials for 18 informational and manipulative lessons. A list of 11 references precedes the course materials. The instructor's plan for each informational lesson begins by providing this information: subject, aim, required teaching aids, required materials, references, and prerequisite…

  2. ETR BASEMENT, TRA642, INTERIOR. BASEMENT. CUBICLE INTERIOR (SEE PHOTOS ID33G101 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR BASEMENT, TRA-642, INTERIOR. BASEMENT. CUBICLE INTERIOR (SEE PHOTOS ID-33-G-101 AND ID-33-G-102) WITH TANK AND SODIUM-RELATED APPARATUS. CAMERA STANDS BEFORE ROLL-UP DOOR SHOWN IN PHOTO ID-33-G-101. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD24-3-3. Mike Crane, Photographer, 11/2000 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. The Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gendreau, Keith C.

    2008-01-01

    The Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer (NICE) will be a Mission of Opportunity dedicated to the study of neutron stars, the only places in the universe where all four fundamental forces of nature are simultaneously in play. NICE will explore the exotic states of matter within neutron stars, revealing their interior and surface compositions through rotation resolved X-ray spectroscopy. Absolute time-referenced data will allow NICE to probe the extreme physical environments associated with neutron stars, leveraging observations across the electromagnetic spectrum to answer decades-old questions about one of the most powerful cosmic accelerators known. Finally, NICE will definitively measure stabilities of pulsars as clocks, with implications for navigation, a pulsar-based timescale, and gravitational-wave detection. NICE will fly on the International Space Station, while GLAST is on orbit and post-RXTE, and will allow for the discovery of new high-energy pulsars and provide continuity in X-ray timing astrophysics.

  4. INTERIOR MODELS OF URANUS AND NEPTUNE

    SciTech Connect

    Helled, Ravit; Schubert, Gerald; Anderson, John D.; Podolak, Morris E-mail: schubert@ucla.edu E-mail: morris@tau.ac.il

    2011-01-01

    'Empirical' models (pressure versus density) of Uranus and Neptune interiors constrained by the gravitational coefficients J{sub 2}, J{sub 4}, the planetary radii and masses, and Voyager solid-body rotation periods are presented. The empirical pressure-density profiles are then interpreted in terms of physical equations of state of hydrogen, helium, ice (H{sub 2}O), and rock (SiO{sub 2}) to test the physical plausibility of the models. The compositions of Uranus and Neptune are found to be similar with somewhat different distributions of the high-Z material. The big difference between the two planets is that Neptune requires a non-solar envelope, while Uranus is best matched with a solar composition envelope. Our analysis suggests that the heavier elements in both Uranus' and Neptune's interior might increase gradually toward the planetary centers. Indeed it is possible to fit the gravitational moments without sharp compositional transitions.

  5. Recent advances in modeling stellar interiors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzik, Joyce Ann

    2011-11-01

    Advances in stellar interior modeling are being driven by new data from large-scale surveys and high-precision photometric and spectroscopic observations. Here we focus on single stars in normal evolutionary phases; we will not discuss the many advances in modeling star formation, interacting binaries, supernovae, or neutron stars. We review briefly: (1) updates to input physics of stellar models; (2) progress in two and three-dimensional evolution and hydrodynamic models; (3) insights from oscillation data used to infer stellar interior structure and validate model predictions (asteroseismology). We close by highlighting a few outstanding problems, e.g., the driving mechanisms for hybrid γ Dor/ δ Sct star pulsations, the cause of giant eruptions seen in luminous blue variables such as η Car and P Cyg, and the solar abundance problem.

  6. Iron opacity experiments for the solar interior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagayama, T.; Bailey, J. E.; Loisel, G.; Rochau, G. A.; Hansen, S. B.; Blancard, C.; Cosse, Ph.; Faussurier, G.; Gilleron, F.; Pain, J.-C.; Pradhan, A. K.; Orban, C.; Pinsonneault, M.; Nahar, S. N.; Iglesias, C. A.; Wilson, B.; Colgan, J.; Fontes, C.; Kilcrease, D.; Sherrill, M.; Macfarlane, J. J.; Golovkin, I.; Mancini, R. C.

    2014-10-01

    Iron opacity experiments near solar interior conditions are performed at SNL Z-machine to better constrain solar models. The SNL opacity science platform satisfies the many challenging requirements for opacity measurements and successfully determines iron opacities at multiple conditions. We found that the agreement between the modeled opacity and the measured opacity deteriorates as Te and ne are raised to approach solar interior conditions. While the inaccuracy of the modeled opacity partially resolves the solar abundance problem, the announcement of such discrepancies has a high impact on the astrophysics, atomic physics, and high energy density physics, and thus more scrutiny on the potential experimental flaws is critical. We report the synthetic investigation for potential sources of systematic uncertainties in the experiments. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  7. Interior of a charged distorted black hole

    SciTech Connect

    Abdolrahimi, Shohreh; Frolov, Valeri P.; Shoom, Andrey A.

    2009-07-15

    We study the interior of a charged, nonrotating distorted black hole. We consider static and axisymmetric black holes, and focus on a special case when an electrically charged distorted solution is obtained by the Harrison-Ernst transformation from an uncharged one. We demonstrate that the Cauchy horizon of such a black hole remains regular, provided the distortion is regular at the event horizon. The shape and the inner geometry of both the outer and inner (Cauchy) horizons are studied. We demonstrate that there exists a duality between the properties of the horizons. Proper time of a free fall of a test particle moving in the interior of the distorted black hole along the symmetry axis is calculated. We also study the property of the curvature in the inner domain between the horizons. Simple relations between the 4D curvature invariants and the Gaussian curvature of the outer and inner horizon surfaces are found.

  8. Loop quantization of Schwarzschild interior revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Parampreet; Corichi, Alejandro

    2016-03-01

    Several studies of different inequivalent loop quantizations have shown, that there exists no fully satisfactory quantum theory for the Schwarzschild interior. Existing quantizations fail either on dependence on the fiducial structure or on the lack of the classical limit. Here we put forward a novel viewpoint to construct the quantum theory that overcomes all of the known problems of the existing quantizations. It is shown that the quantum gravitational constraint is well defined past the singularity and that its effective dynamics possesses a bounce into an expanding regime. The classical singularity is avoided, and a semiclassical spacetime satisfying vacuum Einstein's equations is recovered on the ``other side'' of the bounce. We argue that such metric represents the interior region of a white-hole spacetime, but for which the corresponding ``white-hole mass'' differs from the original black hole mass. We compare the differences in physical implications with other quantizations.

  9. The Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gendreau, Keith C.

    2008-01-01

    The Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer (NICE) will be a Mission of Opportunity dedicated to the study of neutron stars, the only places in the universe where all four fundamental forces of nature are simultaneously in play. NICE will explore the exotic states of matter within neutron stars, revealing their interior and surface compositions through rotation resolved X-ray spectroscopy. Absolute time-referenced data will allow NICE to probe the extreme physical environments associated with neutron stars, leveraging observations across the electromagnetic spectrum to answer decades-old questions about one of the most powerful cosmic accelerators known. Finally, NICE will definitively measure stabilities of pulsars as clocks, with implications for navigation, a pulsar-based timescale, and gravitational-wave detection. NICE will fly on the International Space Station, while GLAST is on orbit and post-RXTE, and will allow for the discovery of new high-energy pulsars and provide continuity in X-ray timing astrophysics.

  10. Recent advances in modeling stellar interiors (u)

    SciTech Connect

    Guzik, Joyce Ann

    2010-01-01

    Advances in stellar interior modeling are being driven by new data from large-scale surveys and high-precision photometric and spectroscopic observations. Here we focus on single stars in normal evolutionary phases; we will not discuss the many advances in modeling star formation, interacting binaries, supernovae, or neutron stars. We review briefly: (1) updates to input physics of stellar models; (2) progress in two and three-dimensional evolution and hydrodynamic models; (3) insights from oscillation data used to infer stellar interior structure and validate model predictions (asteroseismology). We close by highlighting a few outstanding problems, e.g., the driving mechanisms for hybrid {gamma} Dor/{delta} Sct star pulsations, the cause of giant eruptions seen in luminous blue variables such as {eta} Car and P Cyg, and the solar abundance problem.

  11. Gravitational Higgs mechanism in neutron star interiors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coates, Andrew; Horbatsch, Michael W.; Sotiriou, Thomas P.

    2017-04-01

    We suggest that nonminimally coupled scalar fields can lead to modifications of the microphysics in the interiors of relativistic stars. As a concrete example, we consider the generation of a nonzero photon mass in such high-density environments. This is achieved by means of a light gravitational scalar, and the scalarization phase transition in scalar-tensor theories of gravitation. Two distinct models are presented, and phenomenological implications are briefly discussed.

  12. Fire tests for airplane interior materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tustin, E. A.

    1980-01-01

    Large scale, simulated fire tests of aircraft interior materials were carried out in salvaged airliner fuselage. Two "design" fire sources were selected: Jet A fuel ignited in fuselage midsection and trash bag fire. Comparison with six established laboratory fire tests show that some laboratory tests can rank materials according to heat and smoke production, but existing tests do not characterize toxic gas emissions accurately. Report includes test parameters and test details.

  13. Understanding Io's Interior Structure from Electromagnetic Induction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khurana, K. K.; Keszthelyi, L. P.; Jia, X.

    2015-12-01

    Io has long been suspected of a molten interior based on theoretical models of tidal dissipation in its interior. Extremely high temperature lava erupting on Io's surface would be consistent with an internal magma ocean but the highest reported eruption temperatures are questionable. Currently, the only direct evidence of a subsurface magma ocean in Io is the electromagnetic induction response observed by Galileo (Khurana et al. 2011, Science, 332, 1186). Using Jupiter's rotating magnetic field as a sounding signal, Khurana et al. (2011) provided evidence of a strong dipolar induction signature in Galileo's magnetometer data from four different flybys. They further showed that the signal is consistent with electromagnetic induction from large amounts of rock-melts in the asthenosphere of Io. Modeling showed that the induction response from a completely solid mantle model is inadequate to explain the magnetometer observations. However, a layer of asthenosphere >50 km in thickness with a melt fraction ≥20% is adequate to accurately match the observed magnetic field. Here we summarize our current knowledge of Io's interior from Galileo's induction measurements, and then outline a scheme to further infer properties of Io's interior, especially its internal temperature profile, by marrying the principles of thermodynamics with those of electromagnetism. In particular, we obtain guidance on stable mineral phases and their physical properties (such as density, melt state and electrical conductivity) from thermodynamic principles, whereas guidance on how the resulting internal conductivity profile affects the magnetic environment around Io is obtained from electromagnetic theory. We also explore how induction measurements can be obtained at multiple frequencies from a future mission and be used to constrain both the location and the thickness of the magma ocean. Finally, we explore the consequences of the global magma ocean on Io's physical properties such as the current

  14. Fire tests for airplane interior materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tustin, E. A.

    1980-01-01

    Large scale, simulated fire tests of aircraft interior materials were carried out in salvaged airliner fuselage. Two "design" fire sources were selected: Jet A fuel ignited in fuselage midsection and trash bag fire. Comparison with six established laboratory fire tests show that some laboratory tests can rank materials according to heat and smoke production, but existing tests do not characterize toxic gas emissions accurately. Report includes test parameters and test details.

  15. Geology of interior cratonic sag basins

    SciTech Connect

    Leighton, M.W.; Eidel, J.J.; Kolata, D.R.; Oltz, D.F. )

    1990-05-01

    Interior cratonic sag basins are thick accumulations of sediment, generally more or less oval in shape, located entirely in the interiors of continental masses. Some are single-cycle basins and others are characterized by repeated sag cycles or are complex polyhistory basins. Many appear to have developed over ancient rift systems. Interior cratonic sag basins are typified by a dominance of flexural over fault-controlled subsidence, and a low ratio of sediment volume to surface area of the basin. The Baltic, Carpentaria, Illinois, Michigan, Parana, Paris, and Williston basins are examples of interior cratonic sag basins. Tectonics played a dominant role in controlling the shapes and the geometries of the juxtaposed packets of sedimentary sequences. While the mechanics of tectonic control are not clear, evidence suggests that the movements are apparently related to convergence of lithospheric plates and collision and breakup of continents. Whatever the cause, tectonic movements controlled the freeboard of continents, altering base level and initiating new tectono-sedimentologic regimes. Sag basins situated in low latitudes during their development commonly were sites of thick carbonates (e.g., Illinois, Michigan, Williston, and Paris basins). In contrast, siliciclastic sedimentation characterized basins that formed in higher latitudes (e.g., Parana and Carpentaria basins). Highly productive sag basins are characterized by widespread, mature, organic-rich source rocks, large structures, and good seals. Nonproductive basins have one or more of the following characteristics: immature source rocks, leaky plumbing, freshwater flushing, and/or complex geology due to numerous intrusions that inhibit mapping of plays.

  16. Quantum state of the black hole interior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brustein, Ram; Medved, A. J. M.

    2015-08-01

    If a black hole (BH) is initially in an approximately pure state and it evaporates by a unitary process, then the emitted radiation will be in a highly quantum state. As the purifier of this radiation, the state of the BH interior must also be in some highly quantum state. So that, within the interior region, the mean-field approximation cannot be valid and the state of the BH cannot be described by some semiclassical metric. On this basis, we model the state of the BH interior as a collection of a large number of excitations that are packed into closely spaced but single-occupancy energy levels; a sort-of "Fermi sea" of all light-enough particles. This highly quantum state is surrounded by a semiclassical region that lies close to the horizon and has a non-vanishing energy density. It is shown that such a state looks like a BH from the outside and decays via gravitational pair production in the near-horizon region at a rate that agrees with the Hawking rate. We also consider the fate of a classical object that has passed through to the BH interior and show that, once it has crossed over the near-horizon threshold, the object meets its demise extremely fast. This result cannot be attributed to a "firewall", as the trauma to the in-falling object only begins after it has passed through the near-horizon region and enters a region where semiclassical spacetime ends but the energy density is still parametrically smaller than Planckian.

  17. Human Impacts on Wildfires in Interior Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calef, M. P.; McGuire, A. D.; Chapin, F. S.; Dewilde, L.

    2004-12-01

    The effects of human activities on the fire regime of high latitude ecosystems, which has not been well investigated, has the potential to influence water, energy, and carbon dioxide exchange with the atmosphere by influencing land cover and ecosystem dynamics. In this study we assessed the potential footprint of human presence on fire regime in Interior Alaska by investigating three research questions: 1) Does the type of fire ignition (human or lightning) have a significant impact on fire size?; 2) Does human impact on fire regime vary with population size?; and 3) Does distance from towns, roads or rivers affect fire size and ignition? To evaluate these questions, we overlaid the large-firescar database (fires >0.4 km2 for 1988-2002) and the fire ignition database (1956-2000) of the Alaska Fire Service with towns (all named settlements), major roads, and major rivers in Interior Alaska. Currently, humans are responsible for high fire frequency near towns and roads; however, human caused fires are generally much smaller than lightning ignited fires. Human impact on fire regime is a function of town size, and distance to roads and to a lesser extent rivers play an important role as they allow humans access to remote areas. Thus, it is clear that human activities influence fire regime in localized areas of Interior Alaska. Our next challenge is to evaluate if these effects of humans on the fire regime influence water, energy, and carbon dioxide exchange at the regional scale.

  18. Geologic Map of Central (Interior) Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Dover, James H.; Bradley, Dwight C.; Weber, Florence R.; Bundtzen, Thomas K.; Haeussler, Peter J.

    1998-01-01

    Introduction: This map and associated digital databases are the result of a compilation and reinterpretation of published and unpublished 1:250,000- and limited 1:125,000- and 1:63,360-scale mapping. The map area covers approximately 416,000 sq km (134,000 sq mi) and encompasses 25 1:250,000-scale quadrangles in central Alaska. The compilation was done as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Surveys and Analysis project, whose goal is nationwide assemble geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and other data. This map is an early product of an effort that will eventually encompass all of Alaska, and is the result of an agreement with the Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Division of Oil And Gas, to provide data on interior basins in Alaska. A paper version of the three map sheets has been published as USGS Open-File Report 98-133. Two geophysical maps that cover the identical area have been published earlier: 'Bouguer gravity map of Interior Alaska' (Meyer and others, 1996); and 'Merged aeromagnetic map of Interior Alaska' (Meyer and Saltus, 1995). These two publications are supplied in the 'geophys' directory of this report.

  19. A scheme for multisource interior tomography

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ge; Yu, Hengyong; Ye, Yangbo

    2009-01-01

    Currently, x-ray computed tomography (CT) requires source scanning so that projections can be collected from various orientations for image reconstruction. Limited by the scanning time, the temporal resolution of CT is often inadequate when rapid dynamics is involved in an object to be reconstructed. To meet this challenge, here the authors propose a scheme of multisource interior tomography for ultrafast imaging that reconstructs a relatively small region of interest (ROI). Specifically, such a ROI is irradiated in parallel with narrow x-ray beams defined by many source-detector pairs for data acquisition. This ROI can be then reconstructed using the interior tomography approach. To demonstrate the merits of this approach, the authors report interior reconstruction from in vivo lung CT data at a much reduced radiation dose, which is roughly proportional to the ROI size. The results suggest a scheme for ultrafast tomography (such as with a limited number of sources and in a scanning mode) to shorten data acquisition time and to suppress motion blurring. PMID:19746792

  20. Modified Interior Distance Functions (Theory and Methods)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polyak, Roman A.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we introduced and developed the theory of Modified Interior Distance Functions (MIDF's). The MIDF is a Classical Lagrangian (CL) for a constrained optimization problem which is equivalent to the initial one and can be obtained from the latter by monotone transformation both the objective function and constraints. In contrast to the Interior Distance Functions (IDF's), which played a fundamental role in Interior Point Methods (IPM's), the MIDF's are defined on an extended feasible set and along with center, have two extra tools, which control the computational process: the barrier parameter and the vector of Lagrange multipliers. The extra tools allow to attach to the MEDF's very important properties of Augmented Lagrangeans. One can consider the MIDFs as Interior Augmented Lagrangeans. It makes MIDF's similar in spirit to Modified Barrier Functions (MBF's), although there is a fundamental difference between them both in theory and methods. Based on MIDF's theory, Modified Center Methods (MCM's) have been developed and analyzed. The MCM's find an unconstrained minimizer in primal space and update the Lagrange multipliers, while both the center and the barrier parameter can be fixed or updated at each step. The MCM's convergence was investigated, and their rate of convergence was estimated. The extension of the feasible set and the special role of the Lagrange multipliers allow to develop MCM's, which produce, in case of nondegenerate constrained optimization, a primal and dual sequences that converge to the primal-dual solutions with linear rate, even when both the center and the barrier parameter are fixed. Moreover, every Lagrange multipliers update shrinks the distance to the primal dual solution by a factor 0 less than gamma less than 1 which can be made as small as one wants by choosing a fixed interior point as a 'center' and a fixed but large enough barrier parameter. The numericai realization of MCM leads to the Newton MCM (NMCM). The

  1. INTERIOR DETAIL, WINDOW OPENING ONTO THE SERVICE STAIR FROM DINING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR DETAIL, WINDOW OPENING ONTO THE SERVICE STAIR FROM DINING ROOM PASSAGE. OPENINGS LIKE THESE ARE PRESENT IN A NUMBER OF PLACES, “BORROWING LIGHT” FOR OTHERWISE DARK INTERIOR SPACES - The Woodlands, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  2. 49. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, MAIN CORRIDOR, ROOM 1023, INDIAN ARTS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, MAIN CORRIDOR, ROOM 1023, INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS SHOP, DETAIL OF DECORATIVE BEAM, CORBEL, AND CEILING - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  3. 115. INTERIOR, SIXTH FLOOR, WING 6100 WEST, SUITE 6000, RECEPTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    115. INTERIOR, SIXTH FLOOR, WING 6100 WEST, SUITE 6000, RECEPTION AREA, DETAIL OF GRAINED RADIATOR CABINET - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  4. 84. INTERIOR, SECOND FLOOR, NORTH ENTRANCE, NORTH LOBBY, NORTH WALL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    84. INTERIOR, SECOND FLOOR, NORTH ENTRANCE, NORTH LOBBY, NORTH WALL, BRONZE DOUBLE DOORS (4' x 5' negative; 8' x 10' print) - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  5. 27. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, SOUTH ENTRANCE, SOUTH LOBBY, DETAIL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, SOUTH ENTRANCE, SOUTH LOBBY, DETAIL OF BRONZE SEAL IN FLOOR (4' x 5' negative; 8' x 10' print) - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  6. 72. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, WING 1100 WEST, LIBRARY, READING ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, WING 1100 WEST, LIBRARY, READING ROOM (AND GALLERIES), DETAIL OF BRONZE GRILL - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  7. 25. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, SOUTH ENTRANCE, LOBBY, DETAIL OF BRONZE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, SOUTH ENTRANCE, LOBBY, DETAIL OF BRONZE AND GLASS DOORS (4' x 5' negative; 8' x 10' print) - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  8. 35. INTERIOR, FIRST (AND SECOND) FLOOR, MAIN CORRIDOR AND SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. INTERIOR, FIRST (AND SECOND) FLOOR, MAIN CORRIDOR AND SOUTH FOYER, DETAIL OF BRONZE BUILDING DIRECTORY (4' x 5' negative; 8' x 10' print) - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  9. 3. INTERIOR OF SOUTH BAGGAGE PASSAGE LOOKING EAST, SHOWING ROOF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. INTERIOR OF SOUTH BAGGAGE PASSAGE LOOKING EAST, SHOWING ROOF OF WOOD, GLASS, AND STEEL (TARRED ON EXTERIOR, PAINTED ON INTERIOR) - Pennsylvania Railroad Station, South Baggage Passage & Canopy, 1101 Liberty Avenue, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  10. 48. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, MAIN CORRIDOR, ROOM 1023, INDIAN ARTS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, MAIN CORRIDOR, ROOM 1023, INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS SHOP, SOUTH WALL, DEER STALKING MURAL - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  11. 66. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, WING 1100 EAST, AUDITORIUM (CONFERENCE HALL), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    66. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, WING 1100 EAST, AUDITORIUM (CONFERENCE HALL), DETAIL OF BRONZE GRILL IN BLIND GALLERY - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  12. 141. INTERIOR, SEVENTH FLOOR, WING 7100 WEST, ROOM 7138, DOUBLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    141. INTERIOR, SEVENTH FLOOR, WING 7100 WEST, ROOM 7138, DOUBLE DOOR TO THE LAW BRANCH OF THE NATIONAL LIBRARY OF NATURAL RESOURCES - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  13. 124. INTERIOR, SIXTH FLOOR, WING 6100 WEST, SUITE 6000, ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    124. INTERIOR, SIXTH FLOOR, WING 6100 WEST, SUITE 6000, ROOM 6154, SUPPORT STAFF ROOM (FORMERLY STUDY) (4' x 5' negative; 8' x 10' print) - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  14. 9. DETAIL OF INTERIOR OF FRONT PORCH SHOWING FRONT ENTRY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. DETAIL OF INTERIOR OF FRONT PORCH SHOWING FRONT ENTRY (LEFT) AND BLANK WALL (CENTER) CORRESPONDING TO LOCATION OF INTERIOR VAULTS. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Boise Project, Boise Project Office, 214 Broadway, Boise, Ada County, ID

  15. INTERIOR VIEW ON MEZZANINE ALONG EAST (CLAY STREET) FRONT FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW ON MEZZANINE ALONG EAST (CLAY STREET) FRONT FACING OAKLAND CITY HALL. TYPICAL INTERIOR CONDITIONS OF PARTIAL DEMOLITION; WINDOWS, WINDOW FRAMES, SUSPENDED CEILING, AND MOVABLE PARTITION WALLS REMOVED - John Breuner & Company Building, 1515 Clay Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  16. THE EFFECT OF APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINTOP MINING ON INTERIOR FOREST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Southern Appalachian forests are predominantly interior because they are spatially extensive with little disturbance imposed by other uses of the land. Appalachian mountaintop mining increased substantially during the 1990s, posing a threat to the interior character of the forest...

  17. 23. CREWS' BERTHING, SHOWING DETAIL OF INTERIOR LOCKING MECHANISM ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. CREWS' BERTHING, SHOWING DETAIL OF INTERIOR LOCKING MECHANISM ON HATCH DOOR (INTERIOR SIDE OF DOOR IN IMAGE 22). - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  18. Interior, first floor southeast side of building, showing french doors ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior, first floor southeast side of building, showing french doors and interior windows - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Open Air Tuberculosis Ward, West Pennington Avenue & North Hickey Street Southwest Corner, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  19. 22. DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF OFFICE, SHOWING ORIGINAL SASH WINDOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF OFFICE, SHOWING ORIGINAL SASH WINDOWS AND DUCT WORK (OTHER OFFICE INTERIORS ARE GREATLY ALTERED FROM THE ORIGINAL) - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  20. 69. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, WING 1100 WEST, LIBRARY, READING ROOM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, WING 1100 WEST, LIBRARY, READING ROOM, DETAIL OF BOOKCASE AND VENTILATION GRILL (4' x 5' negative; 8' x 10' print) - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  1. 117. INTERIOR, SIXTH FLOOR, WING 6100 WEST, SUITE 6000, RECEPTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    117. INTERIOR, SIXTH FLOOR, WING 6100 WEST, SUITE 6000, RECEPTION AREA, DETAIL OF BUFFALO DOORKNOB (FRONTAL VIEW) - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  2. THE EFFECT OF APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINTOP MINING ON INTERIOR FOREST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Southern Appalachian forests are predominantly interior because they are spatially extensive with little disturbance imposed by other uses of the land. Appalachian mountaintop mining increased substantially during the 1990s, posing a threat to the interior character of the forest...

  3. 3. NORTHWEST INTERIOR VIEW OF NORTHWEST ROOM WITH EQUIPMENT FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. NORTHWEST INTERIOR VIEW OF NORTHWEST ROOM WITH EQUIPMENT FROM CENTER INTERIOR - Juniata Mill Complex, Assay Office, 22.5 miles Southwest of Hawthorne, between Aurora Crater & Aurora Peak, Hawthorne, Mineral County, NV

  4. 36. VAL, DETAIL OF TYPICAL INTERIOR OF CONCRETE 'A' FRAME ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. VAL, DETAIL OF TYPICAL INTERIOR OF CONCRETE 'A' FRAME STRUCTURE SHOWING PAINTED CONCRETE WALLS, CONCRETE STAIRS AND INTERIOR WOOD DOOR. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. 37. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, MAIN CORRIDOR, NORTH OF ELEVATOR LOBBY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, MAIN CORRIDOR, NORTH OF ELEVATOR LOBBY 4, EAST WALL, AMERICAN BISON MURAL (4' x 5' negative; 8' x 10' print) - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  6. 50. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, MAIN CORRIDOR, ROOM 1023, INDIAN ARTS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, MAIN CORRIDOR, ROOM 1023, INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS SHOP, DETAIL OF TIN LIGHTING SCONCE - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  7. Tidal constraints on the interior of Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumoulin, Caroline; Tobie, Gabriel; Verhoeven, Olivier; Rosenblatt, Pascal; Rambaux, Nicolas

    2016-10-01

    As a prospective study for a future exploration of Venus, we propose to systematically investigate the signature of the internal structure in the gravity field and the rotation state of Venus, through the determination of the moment of inertia and the tidal Love number.We test various mantle compositions, core size and density as well as temperature profiles representative of different scenarios for formation and evolution of Venus. The mantle density ρ and seismic vP and vS wavespeeds are computed in a consistent manner from given temperature and composition using the Perple X program. This method computes phase equilibria and uses the thermodynamics of mantle minerals developped by Stixrude and Lithgow-Bertelloni (2011).The viscoelastic deformation of the planet interior under the action of periodic tidal forces are computed following the method of Tobie et al. (2005).For a variety of interior models of Venus, the Love number, k2, and the moment of inertia factor are computed following the method described above. The objective is to determine the sensitivity of these synthetic results to the internal structure. These synthetic data are then used to infer the measurement accuracies required on the time-varying gravitational field and the rotation state (precession rate, nutation and length of day variations) to provide useful constraints on the internal structure.We show that a better determination of k2, together with an estimation of the moment of inertia, the radial displacement, and of the time lag, if possible, will refine our knowledge on the present-day interior of Venus (size of the core, mantle temperature, composition and viscosity). Inferring these quantities from a future ex- ploration mission will provide essential constraints on the formation and evolution scenarios of Venus.

  8. Interior View of the Orbital Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This photograph is an interior view of the Orbital Workshop (OWS) upper level looking from the airlock hatch, showing the octagonal opening that separated the workshop's two levels. The trash airlock can be seen at center. The lower level of the OWS provided crew accommodations for sleeping, food preparation and consumption, hygiene, waste processing and disposal, and performance of certain experiments. The upper level consisted of a large work area and housed water storage tanks, a food freezer, storage vaults for film, scientific airlocks, mobility and stability experiment equipment, and other experimental equipment.

  9. Interior structure of neptune: comparison with uranus.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, W B; Nellis, W J; Mitchell, A C; Holmes, N C; Limaye, S S; McCandless, P C

    1991-08-09

    Measurements of rotation rates and gravitational harmonics of Neptune made with the Voyager 2 spacecraft allow tighter constraints on models of the planet's interior. Shock measurements of material that may match the composition of Neptune, the so-calied planetary ;;ice,'' have been carried out to pressures exceeding 200 gigapascals (2 megabars). Comparison of shock data with inferred pressure-density profiles for both Uranus and Neptune shows substantial similarity through most of the mass of both planets. Analysis of the effect of Neptune's strong differential rotation on its gravitational harmonics indicates that differential rotation involves only the outermost few percent of Neptune's mass.

  10. Interior structure of Neptune: Comparison with Uranus

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, W.B. ); Nellis, W.J.; Mitchell, A.C.; Holmes, N.C.; McCandless, P.C. ); Limaye, S.S. )

    1991-08-09

    Measurements of rotation rates and gravitational harmonics of Neptune made with the Voyager 2 spacecraft allow tighter constraints on models of the planet's interior. Shock measurements of material that may match the composition of Neptune, the so-called planetary ice, have been carried out to pressures exceeding 200 gigapascals (2 megabars). Comparison of shock data with inferred pressure-density profiles for both Uranus and Neptune shows substantial similarity through most of the mass of both planets. Analysis of the effect of Neptune's strong differential rotation on its gravitational harmonics indicates that differential rotation involves only the outermost few percent of Neptune's mass.

  11. Speed of sound in the solar interior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Duvall, T. L., Jr.; Gough, D. O.; Harvey, J. W.; Rhodes, E. J., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The sound speed of the solar interior is directly determinable on the basis of the frequencies of solar 5-min oscillations, irrespective of solar model, and relying only on a simple asymptotic description of the oscillations in terms of trapped acoustic waves. It is plausible that, by using this asymptotic determination as an initial trial in a more accurate inversion, and imposing constraints of smoothness on the solution resulting from the iteration, a good model representing the large scale structure of the sun which satisfies the observed frequencies may be determined.

  12. Planetary Magnetic Fields: Planetary Interiors and Habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazio, T. Joseph W.; Shkolnik, Evgenya; Hallinan, Gregg; Planetary Habitability Study Team

    2016-06-01

    The W. M. Keck Institute for Space Studies (KISS) sponsored the Planetary Magnetic Fields: Planetary Interiors and Habitability Study to review the state of knowledge of extrasolar planetary magnetic fields and the prospects for their detection. There were multiple motivations for this Study. Planetary-scale magnetic fields are a window to a planet's interior and provide shielding of the planet's atmosphere. The Earth, Mercury, Ganymede, and the giant planets of the solar system all contain internal dynamo currents that generate planetary-scale magnetic fields. In turn, these internal dynamo currents arise from differential rotation, convection, compositional dynamics, or a combination of these in objects' interiors. If coupled to an energy source, such as the incident kinetic or magnetic energy from the solar wind or an orbiting satellite, a planet's magnetic field can produce intense electron cyclotron masers in its magnetic polar regions. The most well known example of this process in the solar system is the Jovian decametric emission, but all of the giant planets and the Earth contain similar electron cyclotron masers within their magnetospheres. Extrapolated to extrasolar planets, the remote detection of the magnetic field of an extrasolar planet would provide a means of obtaining constraints on the thermal state, composition, and dynamics of its interior--all of which will be difficult to determine by other means--as well as improved understanding of the basic planetary dynamo process. This report presents the findings from the Study, including potential mission concepts that emerged and future work in both modeling and observations. There was also an identification of that radio wavelength observations would likely be key to making significant progress in this field. The entire Study program would not have been possible without the generous support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. We thank Michele Judd, Tom Prince, and the staff of the W. M. Keck Institute for

  13. Fe XVII Opacity at Solar Interior Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias, Carlos A.; Hansen, Stephanie B.

    2017-02-01

    A recent study of Fe xvii R-matrix calculations aimed at resolving outstanding opacity problems claimed that substantial photon absorption from atomic core ionization processes was not previously considered. It is shown, however, that major opacity models already include cross-sections that are equivalent to the enhancements reported by the R-matrix method. Furthermore, the R-matrix calculations neglected important cross-sections that help to explain why the resultant opacity is lower than other models in the spectral range measured in transmission experiments relevant to the solar interior.

  14. Magnetism and the interior of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyal, P.; Parkin, C. W.; Daily, W. D.

    1974-01-01

    The application of lunar magnetic field measurements to the study of properties of the lunar crust and deep interior is reviewed. Following a brief description of lunar magnetometers and the lunar magnetic environment, measurements of lunar remanent fields and their interaction with the solar plasma are discussed. The magnetization induction mode is considered with reference to lunar magnetic permeability and iron abundance calculations. Finally, electrical conductivity and temperature calculations from analyses of poloidal induction, for data taken in both the solar wind and in the geomagnetic tail, are reviewed.

  15. An interior point method for semidefinite programming

    SciTech Connect

    Helmberg, C.; Rendl, F.; Vanderbei, R.J.; Wolkowicz, H.

    1994-12-31

    Semidefinite programming is of rising importance in min-max eigenvalue problems and relaxations for NP-complete problems. We present a new interior point algorithm based on the linearization XZ {minus} {mu}I which is very successful in linear programming. We show that, although the original {Delta}X is not symmetric, by using the symmetric part of {Delta}X convergence can be guaranteed. The algorithm works for arbitrary combinations of equalities and inequalities and, contrary to linearizations such as XZ + ZX {minus} {mu}I, does not make use of Kronecker products. In numerical experiments the algorithm exhibits fast quadratic convergence.

  16. Planetary Interior Structure Revealed by Spin Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margot, J.; Peale, S. J.; Jurgens, R. F.; Slade, M. A.; Holin, I. V.

    2002-12-01

    The spin state of a planet depends on the distribution of mass within the interior, gradual and discrete changes in its moments of inertia, dissipation mechanisms at the surface and below, and external torques. Detailed measurements of the spin dynamics can therefore reveal much about planetary interior structure, interactions at the core-mantle and atmosphere-surface boundaries, and mass redistribution events. Studies of the spin precession, polar wobble, and length of day variations have been used to determine Earth's moments of inertia and rigidity and to study the effects of atmospheric angular momentum changes, post-glacial rebound, and large earthquakes. In planetary investigations the spin measurements are particularly important because other means of constraining interior properties require in-situ or orbiting sensors (e.g. seismometers, magnetometers, and Doppler tracking of spacecraft). Here we describe the successful implementation of a new Earth-based radar technique (Holin, 1992) that provides spin state measurements with unprecedented accuracy. Our first observations were designed to characterize Mercury's core. Peale (1976) showed that the measurement of four quantities (the obliquity of the planet, the amplitude of its longitude librations, and the second-degree gravitational harmonics) are sufficient to determine the size and state of Mercury's core. The existence of a molten core would place strong constraints on the thermal and rotational histories of the planet, with profound implications for the composition and rotation state of the planet at the time of formation. A solid core would have a fundamental impact on theories of planetary magnetic field generation. We observed Mercury with the Goldstone radar and the Green Bank Telescope in May-June 2002. We illuminated the planet with a monochromatic signal, recorded the scattered power at the two antennas, and cross-correlated the echoes in the time domain. We obtained strong correlations which

  17. Flammability characteristics of aircraft interior composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; Gilwee, W. J., Jr.; Lerner, N. R.; Hilado, C. J.; Labossiere, L. A.; Hsu, M.-T. S.

    1976-01-01

    The thermochemical and flammability characteristics of two polymeric composites currently in use and seven others being considered for use as aircraft interior panels are described. The properties studied included: (1) oxygen index of the composite constituents; (2) fire containment capability of the composite; (3) smoke evolution from the composite; (4) thermogravimetric analysis; (5) composition of the volatile products of pyrolysis. The performance of foam filled honeycomb laminated panels consisting of high-temperature laminating bismaleimide resins is compared with the performance of empty honeycomb laminated panels consisting of laminating epoxy or phenolic resins at similar densities. Processing parameters of one of the bismaleimide composites is detailed.

  18. Interior Department Innovations in Conservation Delivery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    Interior Department Innovations in  Conservation Delivery  Robin O’Malley Policy and Partnership Coordinator USGS National  Climate   Change  and...NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) U.S. Geological Survey ,National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center,12201 Sunrise...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Climate   change   Land use and habitat  change   Invasive species  Wildfire Species conservation

  19. Interior structure of Neptune - Comparison with Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, W. B.; Nellis, W. J.; Mitchell, A. C.; Holmes, N. C.; Mccandless, P. C.; Limaye, S. S.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of rotation rates and gravitational harmonics of Neptune made with the Voyager 2 spacecraft allow tighter constraints on models of the planet's interior. Shock measurements of material that may match the composition of Neptune, the so-called planetary 'ice', have been carried out to pressures exceeding 200 gigapascals (2 megabars). Comparison of shock data with inferred pressure-density profiles for both Uranus and Neptune shows substantial similarity through most of the mass of both planets. Analysis of the effect of Neptune's strong differential rotation on its gravitational harmonics indicates that differential rotation involves only the outermost few percent of Neptune's mass.

  20. Space station interior design: Results of the NASA/AIA space station interior national design competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, R. F.

    1975-01-01

    The results of the NASA/AIA space station interior national design competition held during 1971 are presented in order to make available to those who work in the architectural, engineering, and interior design fields the results of this design activity in which the interiors of several space shuttle size modules were designed for optimal habitability. Each design entry also includes a final configuration of all modules into a complete space station. A brief history of the competition is presented with the competition guidelines and constraints. The first place award entry is presented in detail, and specific features from other selected designs are discussed. This is followed by a discussion of how some of these design features might be applied to terrestrial as well as space situations.

  1. Temporal trends of forest interior conditions in the United States

    Treesearch

    Kurt Riitters; James. Wickham

    2012-01-01

    Nature's benefits derived from forest interior environments cannot be sustained if the natural capital of forest interior area is not sustained. We analyzed the spatial patterns of forest loss and gain for the conterminous United States from 2001 to 2006 to determine whether forest interior environments were maintained at five spatial scales. A 1.1 percent net...

  2. A Bibliography for Interior Design from the Environmental Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleeman, Walter, Jr., Ed.

    The National Society of Interior Designers Interiors Environment Research Council feels that a wide range of research findings in the environmental sciences has great interest and value for the professional interior designer. One hundred and sixty-nine listings represent a broad range of topics relating to the design professions--economics,…

  3. 77 FR 45650 - Interior Fire Program Assessment 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2012-18723] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of the Secretary Interior Fire Program Assessment 2012 AGENCY: Office of Wildland Fire, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Tribal consultations and informational meetings. SUMMARY: The Office of Wildland Fire is announcing tribal consultations to discuss...

  4. Interior LED Lighting Technology. Navy Energy Technology Validation (Techval) Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    Approved for public release: distribution unlimited TDS-NAVFAC EXWC-PW-1601 Sep 2015 Interior LED Lighting Technology Navy Energy...NAVFAC EXWC) to determine the potential energy savings for Interior LED lighting technology in office environments. NAVAFAC EXWC concluded that...Interior LED Lighting Technology can save money in comparison to the conventional incandescent, halogen, and where cost-effective, compact fluorescent

  5. 24 CFR 3285.803 - Interior close-up.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Exterior and Interior Close-Up § 3285.803 Interior... doors. (b) Interior close up items necessary to join all sections of the home or items subject to transportation damage may be packaged or shipped with the home for site installation. (c) Shipped-loose wall...

  6. 132. INTERIOR, SIXTH FLOOR, WING 6100 WEST, SUITE 6000, ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    132. INTERIOR, SIXTH FLOOR, WING 6100 WEST, SUITE 6000, ROOM 6156, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR, PLASTER CEILING MEDALLION AND BRONZE CHANDELIER (4' x 5' negative; 8' x 10' print) - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  7. 17. DETAIL OF INTERIOR AND EXTERIOR WALL CONSTRUCTION, VIEW TOWARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. DETAIL OF INTERIOR AND EXTERIOR WALL CONSTRUCTION, VIEW TOWARD NORTHEAST CORNER, THIRD BAY Showing insulated exterior wall at right; asphalt felt on interior separation wall at left; sill beam, stud, and concrete foundation detailing of interior wall. - U.S. Military Academy, Ice House, Mills Road at Howze Place, West Point, Orange County, NY

  8. Status of the interior Columbia Basin: summary of scientific findings.

    Treesearch

    Forest Service. U.S. Department of Agriculture

    1996-01-01

    The Status of the Interior Columbia Basin is a summary of the scientific findings from the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project. The Interior Columbia Basin includes some 145 million acres within the northwestern United Stales. Over 75 million acres of this area are managed by the USDA Forest Service or the USDI Bureau of Land Management. A framework...

  9. 7 CFR 3201.71 - Interior paints and coatings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interior paints and coatings. 3201.71 Section 3201.71... Designated Items § 3201.71 Interior paints and coatings. (a) Definition. (1) Pigmented liquids, formulated... surfaces to which they are applied. (2) Interior paints and coatings products for which Federal...

  10. 7 CFR 3201.71 - Interior paints and coatings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interior paints and coatings. 3201.71 Section 3201.71... Designated Items § 3201.71 Interior paints and coatings. (a) Definition. (1) Pigmented liquids, formulated... surfaces to which they are applied. (2) Interior paints and coatings products for which Federal...

  11. 7 CFR 3201.71 - Interior paints and coatings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interior paints and coatings. 3201.71 Section 3201.71... Designated Items § 3201.71 Interior paints and coatings. (a) Definition. (1) Pigmented liquids, formulated... surfaces to which they are applied. (2) Interior paints and coatings products for which Federal...

  12. A Bibliography for Interior Design from the Environmental Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleeman, Walter, Jr., Ed.

    The National Society of Interior Designers Interiors Environment Research Council feels that a wide range of research findings in the environmental sciences has great interest and value for the professional interior designer. One hundred and sixty-nine listings represent a broad range of topics relating to the design professions--economics,…

  13. The effect of Appalachian mountaintop mining on interior forest

    Treesearch

    J.D. Wickham; Kurt H. Riitters; T.G. Wade; M. Coan; C. Homer

    2007-01-01

    Southern Appalachian forests are predominantly interior because they are spatially extensive with little disturbance imposed by other uses of the land. Appalachian mountaintop mining increased substantially during the 1990s, posing a threat to the interior character of the forest. We used spatial convolution to identify interior forest at multiple scales on circa 1992...

  14. Interior of southwest vault, opened southwest vault door, closed southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of southwest vault, opened southwest vault door, closed southeast vault door, and evidence of forced entry in north interior wall. View from west interior wall of southwest vault. Facing east. - Travis Air Force Base, Building No. 925, W Street, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  15. MTR WING, TRA604, INTERIOR. BASEMENT. INTERIOR VIEW FROM SAME LOCATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR WING, TRA-604, INTERIOR. BASEMENT. INTERIOR VIEW FROM SAME LOCATION IN WEST CORRIDOR AS PHOTO ID-33-G-42 BUT CAMERA FACES SOUTH. SIGN ON DOOR FOR "PIPE TUNNEL" WARNS OF RADIOLOGICAL AND ASBESTOS HAZARDS. DOOR HAS METAL HASPS. SIGN ON OVERHEAD WASTE HEAT RECOVERY PIPES SAYS THEY CONTAIN "ASBESTOS FREE INSULATION." FIRE DOOR AT LEFT LEADS TO STAIRWAY TO FIRST FLOOR. DOOR AT RIGHT LEADS TO ROOM WHICH ONCE CONTAINED MTR LIBRARY. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-13-4. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  16. Department of the Interior Climate Science Centers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Sonya A.

    2011-01-01

    What is a Climate Science Center? On September 14, 2009, the Secretary of the Interior signed a Secretarial Order (No. 3289) entitled, "Addressing the Impacts of Climate Change on America's Water, Land, and Other Natural and Cultural Resources." The Order effectively established the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) Climate Science Centers (CSCs), which will integrate DOI science and management expertise with similar contributions from our partners to provide information to support adaptation and mitigation efforts on both public and private lands, across the United States and internationally.The Southeast CSC, hosted by NC State University (NCSU), will collaborate with a number of other universities, State and Federal agencies, and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) with interest and expertise in climate science. The primary partner for the Southeast CSC will be the Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs) in the Southeast, including the Appalachian, Gulf Coastal Plains and Ozarks, Gulf Coast Prairie, Peninsular Florida, and the South Atlantic. CSC collaborations are focused on common science priorities, addressing priority partner needs, minimizing redundancies in science, sharing scientific findings, and expanding understanding of climate change impacts in the Southeast.

  17. Interior trough deposits on Mars: Subice volcanoes?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, M.G.; Tanaka, K.L.

    2001-01-01

    Widespread, several-kilometer-thick successions of layered deposits occur as mounds that partly fill the troughs or chasmata that compose the Valles Marineris on Mars. Like terrestrial subice volcanoes, the layered deposits occur in a volcano-tectonic setting within basins that may have held ponded water or ice. On the basis of their dimensions, morphologies, and associated catastrophic floods and other geologic events as shown in Viking and new Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) data sets, we suggest that the interior deposits are volcanic in origin and possibly generated by subice eruptions. A tuya origin for the mounds can explain the lack of external sediment, mound heights that can rival the plateau, local flat-topped mesas, morphologically distinct mounds of different ages, horizontal to steep dips, fine-grained materials, indications of rare volcanic vents and lava flows, and spectral composition. The extremely diverse layering of west Candor Chasma and possible volcanic cones in Melas may have formed by related subaerial eruptions. Consistent with the suggestion that interior deposits are eroding out of the wall rock, some deposits could have been erupted from sites along the walls.

  18. Interior impedance wedge diffraction with surface waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balanis, Constantine A.; Griesser, Timothy

    1988-01-01

    The exact impedance wedge solution is evaluated asymptotically using the method of steepest descents for plane wave illumination at normal incidence. Uniform but different impedances on each face are considered for both soft and hard polarizations. The asymptotic solution isolates the incident, singly reflected, multiply reflected, diffracted, and surface wave fields. Multiply reflected fields of any order are permitted. The multiply reflected fields from the exact solution are written as ratios of auxiliary Maliuzhinets functions, whereas a geometrical analysis gives the reflected fields as products of reflection coefficients. These two representations are shown to be identical in magnitude, phase and the angular range over which they exist. The diffracted field includes four Fresnel transition functions as in the perfect conductor case, and the expressions for the appropriate discontinuities at the shadow boundaries are presented. The surface wave exists over a finite angular range and only for certain surface impedances. A surface wave transition field is included to retain continuity. Computations are presented for interior wedge diffractions although the formulation is valid for both exterior and interior wedges.

  19. Interior River Lowland Ecoregion Summary Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karstensen, Krista A.

    2008-01-01

    ECOREGION DESCRIPTION The Interior River Lowlands ecoregion encompasses 93,200 square kilometers (km2) across southern and western Illinois, southwest Indiana, east-central Missouri, and fractions of northwest Kentucky and southeast Iowa. The ecoregion includes the confluence areas of the Mississippi, Missouri, Ohio, Illinois, and Wabash Rivers, and their tributaries. This ecoregion was formed in non-resident, non-calcareous sedimentary rock (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2006). The unstratified soil deposits present north of the White River in Indiana are evidence that pre-Wisconsinan ice once covered much of the Interior River Lowlands. The geomorphic characteristics of this area also include terraced valleys filled with alluvium as well as outwash, acolian, and lacustrine deposits. Historically, agricultural land use has been a vital economic resource for this region. The drained alluvial soils are farmed for feed grains and soybeans, whereas the valley uplands also are used for forage crops, pasture, woodlots, mixed farming, and livestock (USEPA, 2006). This ecoregion provides a key component of national energy resources as it contains the second largest coal reserve in the United States, and the largest reserve of bituminous coal (Varanka and Shaver, 2007). One of the primary reasons for change in the ecoregion is urbanization.

  20. Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    Many of NICER’s 56 X-ray “concentrators” seen from within the instrument optical bench. Light reflected from the gold surfaces of the 24 concentric foils in each concentrator is focused onto detectors slightly more than 1 meter (3.5 feet) away. The payload’s 56 mirror assemblies concentrate X-rays onto silicon detectors to gather data that will probe the interior makeup of neutron stars, including those that appear to flash regularly, called pulsars. The Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) is a NASA Explorer Mission of Opportunity dedicated to studying the extraordinary environments — strong gravity, ultra-dense matter, and the most powerful magnetic fields in the universe — embodied by neutron stars. An attached payload aboard the International Space Station, NICER will deploy an instrument with unique capabilities for timing and spectroscopy of fast X-ray brightness fluctuations. The embedded Station Explorer for X-ray Timing and Navigation Technology demonstration (SEXTANT) will use NICER data to validate, for the first time in space, technology that exploits pulsars as natural navigation beacons. Credit: NASA/Goddard/ Keith Gendreau NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  1. Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    NICER’s X-ray concentrator optics are inspected under a black light for dust and foreign object debris that could impair functionality once in space. The payload’s 56 mirror assemblies concentrate X-rays onto silicon detectors to gather data that will probe the interior makeup of neutron stars, including those that appear to flash regularly, called pulsars. The Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) is a NASA Explorer Mission of Opportunity dedicated to studying the extraordinary environments — strong gravity, ultra-dense matter, and the most powerful magnetic fields in the universe — embodied by neutron stars. An attached payload aboard the International Space Station, NICER will deploy an instrument with unique capabilities for timing and spectroscopy of fast X-ray brightness fluctuations. The embedded Station Explorer for X-ray Timing and Navigation Technology demonstration (SEXTANT) will use NICER data to validate, for the first time in space, technology that exploits pulsars as natural navigation beacons. Credit: NASA/Goddard/ Keith Gendreau NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  2. Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    NICER Optics Lead Takashi Okajima makes a fine adjustment to the orientation of one X-ray “concentrator” optic. The 56 optics must point in the same direction in order for NICER to achieve its science goals. The payload’s 56 mirror assemblies concentrate X-rays onto silicon detectors to gather data that will probe the interior makeup of neutron stars, including those that appear to flash regularly, called pulsars. The Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) is a NASA Explorer Mission of Opportunity dedicated to studying the extraordinary environments — strong gravity, ultra-dense matter, and the most powerful magnetic fields in the universe — embodied by neutron stars. An attached payload aboard the International Space Station, NICER will deploy an instrument with unique capabilities for timing and spectroscopy of fast X-ray brightness fluctuations. The embedded Station Explorer for X-ray Timing and Navigation Technology demonstration (SEXTANT) will use NICER data to validate, for the first time in space, technology that exploits pulsars as natural navigation beacons. Credit: NASA/Goddard/ Keith Gendreau NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  3. Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    NICER engineer Steven Kenyon prepares seven of the 56 X-ray concentrators for installation in the NICER instrument. The payload’s 56 mirror assemblies concentrate X-rays onto silicon detectors to gather data that will probe the interior makeup of neutron stars, including those that appear to flash regularly, called pulsars. The Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) is a NASA Explorer Mission of Opportunity dedicated to studying the extraordinary environments — strong gravity, ultra-dense matter, and the most powerful magnetic fields in the universe — embodied by neutron stars. An attached payload aboard the International Space Station, NICER will deploy an instrument with unique capabilities for timing and spectroscopy of fast X-ray brightness fluctuations. The embedded Station Explorer for X-ray Timing and Navigation Technology demonstration (SEXTANT) will use NICER data to validate, for the first time in space, technology that exploits pulsars as natural navigation beacons. Credit: NASA/Goddard/ Keith Gendreau NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  4. Loop quantization of the Schwarzschild interior revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corichi, Alejandro; Singh, Parampreet

    2016-03-01

    The loop quantization of the Schwarzschild interior region, as described by a homogeneous anisotropic Kantowski-Sachs model, is re-examined. As several studies of different—inequivalent—loop quantizations have shown, to date there exists no fully satisfactory quantum theory for this model. This fact poses challenges to the validity of some scenarios to address the black hole information problem. Here we put forward a novel viewpoint to construct the quantum theory that builds from some of the models available in the literature. The final picture is a quantum theory that is both independent of any auxiliary structure and possesses a correct low curvature limit. It represents a subtle but non-trivial modification of the original prescription given by Ashtekar and Bojowald. It is shown that the quantum gravitational constraint is well defined past the singularity and that its effective dynamics possesses a bounce into an expanding regime. The classical singularity is avoided, and a semiclassical spacetime satisfying vacuum Einstein’s equations is recovered on the ‘other side’ of the bounce. We argue that such a metric represents the interior region of a white-hole spacetime, but for which the corresponding ‘white hole mass’ differs from the original black hole mass. Furthermore, we find that the value of the white hole mass is proportional to the third power of the starting black hole mass.

  5. Interior Studies with BepiColombo's MPO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benkhoff, Johannes; Zender, Joe

    2017-04-01

    NASA's MESSENGER mission has fundamentally changed our view of the innermost planet. Mercury is in many ways a very different planet from what we were expecting. Now BepiColombo has to follow up on answering the fundamental questions that MESSENGER raised and go beyond. BepiColombo is a joint project between ESA and the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). The Mission consists of two orbiters, the Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) and the Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter (MMO). The mission scenario foresees a launch of both spacecraft with an ARIANE V in October 2018 and an arrival at Mercury in 2025. From their dedicated orbits the two spacecraft will be studying the planet and its environment. The MPO scientific payload comprises eleven instruments/instrument packages; several of them dedicated to the study of the interior. Together, these instruments will perform measurements to enhance our knowledge of the planets figure and internal structure and composition. Expected results will provide further clues to the origin and evolution of a planet close to its parent star. In this presentation we will give an overview on the expected science return of BepiColombo with respect to the interior. In addition we give a brief update on the latest development status of the mission. All scientific instruments have been integrated into the spacecraft and both spacecraft are now under final acceptance testing.

  6. Interior structure and chemistry of solid exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Li

    Understanding the interior structures and chemistry of Earth-like exoplanets is crucial for us to characterize exoplanets, and to find potentially habitable planets. First, I provide a model grid of the mass-radius relations for solid planets in between 0.1 and 100 Earth masses. Planets are modeled as consisting of three layers: Fe, MgSiO3 and H2O. This model is made into an interactive tool available online: http://www.astrozeng.com/. Second, I explore the effects of thermal evolution and phase transitions on the interior structures of H2O-rich planets. It is shown that the bulk H2O in such planets may exist in the plasma, superionic, ionic, Ice VII, or Ice X states depending on sizes, ages, and cooling rates. The results suggest that super-Earth sized planets which are not significantly irradiated by parent stars and which are older than approximately 3 billion years, are mostly solid. Third, I describe a new, semi-empirical mass-radius relation for solid exoplanets. It is based on the recent mass and radius measurements of 5 exoplanets within 1 to 10 Earth masses and an extrapolation of the seismically derived pressure-density relation of the Earth's interior (PREM). The implication of common core mass fractions of 0.2~0.3 among these solid exoplanets is also discussed. Fourth, I model the elemental abundance patterns of solid exoplanets based on that of their host stars. This model is constructed from the following steps of planet formation: volatile depletion, core formation, and late delivery. This model could provide constraints on the chemical compositions of solid exoplanets in addition to the constraints derived from their masses and radii. In terms of future directions of this research, I hope to link my chemical model of solid exoplanets with the chemical evolution model of our galaxy, such as the one being developed by the Lars Hernquist group, which may indicate a different mineralogy of solid exoplanets formed at different ages of our galaxy, as well

  7. The Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Gendreau, K.; Arzoumanian, Z.

    2014-01-01

    The Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) is an approved NASA Explorer Mission of Opportunity dedicated to the study of the extraordinary gravitational, electromagnetic, and nuclear-physics environments embodied by neutron stars. Scheduled to be launched in 2016 as an International Space Station payload, NICER will explore the exotic states of matter, using rotation-resolved spectroscopy of the thermal and non-thermal emissions of neutron stars in the soft (0.2-12 keV) X-ray band. Grazing-incidence "concentrator" optics coupled with silicon drift detectors, actively pointed for a full hemisphere of sky coverage, will provide photon-counting spectroscopy and timing registered to GPS time and position, with high throughput and relatively low background. The NICER project plans to implement a Guest Observer Program, which includes competitively selected user targets after the first year of flight operations. I will describe NICER and discuss ideas for potential Be/X-ray binary science.

  8. Ignition characteristics of some aircraft interior fabrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Brandt, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    Six samples of aircraft interior fabrics were evaluated with regard to resistance to ignition by radiant heat. Five samples were aircraft seat upholstery fabrics and one sample was an aircraft curtain fabric. The aircraft seat fabrics were 100% wool (2 samples), 83% wool/17% nylon, 49% wool/51% polyvinyl chloride, and 100% rayon. The aircraft curtain fabric was 92% modacrylic/8% polyester. The five samples of aircraft seat upholstery fabrics were also evaluated with regard to resistance to ignition by a smoldering cigarette. The four samples of wool-containing aircraft seat fabrics appeared to be superior to the sample of rayon seat fabric in resistance to ignition, both by radiant heat and by a smoldering cigarette.

  9. Constraining the Interior Earth Objects population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuentes, Cesar; Trilling, David E.; Knight, Matthew M.; Mommert, Michael; Hechenleitner, Federico

    2016-10-01

    Interior Earth Objects (IEOs) are among the least known populations in the Solar Sytem. Ground-based surveys are extremely inefficient in surveying them as most of the time IEOs are located inside the orbit of the Earth. We present observational constraints to the IEO population from STEREO (Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory). This is the first result of searching through the archival STEREO data. Although after analyzing a year's worth of data we found no new IEOs, we observed hundreds of known asteroids. Our survey efficiency is computed with known and implanted synthetic objects, yielding a limiting magnitude of V~14.5. We constrain different IEO population models, yielding an upper limit for the total number of IEOs in line with previous estimates.

  10. Multiobjective Statistical Method for Interior Drainage Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haimes, Y. Y.; Loparo, K. A.; Olenik, S. C.; Nanda, S. K.

    1980-06-01

    In this paper the design of a levee drainage system is formulated as a multiobjective optimization problem in a probabilistic framework. The statistical nature of the problem is reflected by the probabilistic behavior of rainfall and river stage events in any given month. The multiobjective approach allows for the incorporation of noncommensurable objectives such as aesthetics, economics, and social issues into the optimization problem, providing a more realistic quantification of the impact of a flood or high water situation in an interior basin. A new method referred to as the multiobjective statistical method, which integrates statistical attributes with multiobjective optimization methodologies such as the surrogate worth trade-off method, is developed in this paper. A case study using data from the Moline area in Illinois suggests the use of the procedure.

  11. Structure and Evolution of the Lunar Interior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews-Hanna, J. C.; Weber, R. C.; Ishihara, Y.; Kamata, S.; Keane, J.; Kiefer, W. S.; Matsuyama, I.; Siegler, M.; Warren, P.

    2017-01-01

    Early in its evolution, the Moon underwent a magma ocean phase leading to its differentiation into a feldspathic crust, cumulate mantle, and iron core. However, far from the simplest view of a uniform plagioclase flotation crust, the present-day crust of the Moon varies greatly in thickness, composition, and physical properties. Recent significant improvements in both data and analysis techniques have yielded fundamental advances in our understanding of the structure and evolution of the lunar interior. The structure of the crust is revealed by gravity, topography, magnetics, seismic, radar, electromagnetic, and VNIR remote sensing data. The mantle structure of the Moon is revealed primarily by seismic and laser ranging data. Together, this data paints a picture of a Moon that is heterogeneous in all directions and across all scales, whose structure is a result of its unique formation, differentiation, and subsequent evolution. This brief review highlights a small number of recent advances in our understanding of lunar structure.

  12. Interior Structure and Evolution of the Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, W. B.

    Basic Concepts Presumed initial composition Comparison with stellar structure Structure of Cold Bodies T=O thermodynamics The P--> infinity limit (white dwarfs) Finite pressure theories Experimental data at high pressure The radius-mass diagram Heat Flow Review of data The Kelvin mechanism Differentiation Radioactivity Tidal Heating Other Diagnostics of Interior Structure Response to rotation Tidal response Magnetic field The Terrestrial Planets The earth and the moon Mercury Venus Mars Summary The Jovian Planets Jupiter A fundamental solar composition reference? Thermal structure and heat flow Evolution of Jupiter Saturn Differences with Jupiter Heat flow Uranus and Neptune Key differences with Jupiter and with each other Thermal structure and heat flow Jovian Planet Satellites Io's heat flow and its relation to Jupiter's structure The Galilean satellites and their relation to Jupiter's origin Conclusion References

  13. Seismic Constraints on Interior Solar Convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanasoge, Shravan M.; Duvall, Thomas L.; DeRosa, Marc L.

    2010-01-01

    We constrain the velocity spectral distribution of global-scale solar convective cells at depth using techniques of local helioseismology. We calibrate the sensitivity of helioseismic waves to large-scale convective cells in the interior by analyzing simulations of waves propagating through a velocity snapshot of global solar convection via methods of time-distance helioseismology. Applying identical analysis techniques to observations of the Sun, we are able to bound from above the magnitudes of solar convective cells as a function of spatial convective scale. We find that convection at a depth of r/R(solar) = 0.95 with spatial extent l < 30, where l is the spherical harmonic degree, comprise weak flow systems, on the order of 15 m/s or less. Convective features deeper than r/R(solar) = 0.95 are more difficult to image due to the rapidly decreasing sensitivity of helioseismic waves.

  14. AGU Endorses Interior Department's Scientific Integrity Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cairns, Ann

    2011-02-01

    AGU has endorsed the U.S. Department of the Interior plan, released on 1 February, to ensure scientific and scholarly integrity throughout the agency's research and program operations (see the news item on page 46 of this Eos issue). “DOI's new plan recognizes the importance of scientific and scholarly integrity in building trust in science that informs public policy,” AGU president Michael J. McPhaden said. “Integrity of the scientific enterprise is essential for guiding the scientific community, policy makers, and the general public as we work together to meet global challenges related to climate change, natural hazards, and wise use of our natural resources.”

  15. Evidence for a Wet, Reduced Martian Interior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyar, M. D.; Mackwell, S. J.; Seaman, S. J.; Marchand, G. J.

    2004-01-01

    Knowledge of the oxygen fugacity and hydrogen content of the source regions of martian meteorites is of paramount importance in constraining phase equilibria, crystallization sequences, and geodynamic processes of the martian interior, as well as models of the planet's evolution. To date, these interpretations have been hindered by the paucity in SNC meteorites of Fe-Ti oxides used in conventional oxybarometry, and by the presence of secondary alteration products that make it impossible to quantify primary hydrogen abundances in SNC minerals and melts based on whole rock samples. We present here the first transmission FTIR spectra of individual mineral grains from SNC meteorites, and interpret those results along with Mossbauer data on mineral separates from the same meteorites. Our goal is to quantify the amount of water and the oxygen fugacity present in the source regions for the rocks comprising the meteorites.

  16. Interior design of the lunar outpost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is part of an ongoing study on the interior design of a lunar outpost habitat facility. The concept presented represents the work done up to and including August 1989. This concept is part of NASA's ongoing effort to explore alternative options for planet surface systems habitation. Results of a volume analog study to determine the required pressurized volume are presented along with an internal layout of the habitat facility. The concept presented in this paper is a constructible lunar habitat that provides a living and working environment for a crew of 12. It is a 16-m diameter spherical pneumatic structure which contains 2145 cubic meters of volume. Five levels of living and working areas make up the 742 sq m of floor space. A 2-m vertical circulation shaft at the center allows for transfer of crew and equipment.

  17. Viscoelastic Mapping of Living Cell Interiors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Doris; Sackmann, Erich; Koehler, Jana; Gerisch, Guenther

    2004-03-01

    We performed spatially resolved mapping of the viscoelastic properties of the cytoplasm of living cell interiors. A magnetic tweezer was applied as a local probe for the investigation of active and passive transport inside the slime mold cells Dictyostelium discoideum. Fluorescence labeled components, i.e. the microtubulins, the endoplasmatic reticulum or the core, allow for the determination of the interaction of the magnetic probes with the cytoplasm. By comparing the trajectories of the magnetic beads in the presence of an external magnetic force and in the absence of an external force, we can measure the viscosity at any given position within the cell. These experiments show that the cytoplasm consists of soft pathways (yield stress less or equal 10 Pa) and hard pathways (yield stress less or equal 500 Pa). Selective actin, myosin II or microtubulin network removal in the living cells allows for the determination of the influence of these cell parts on the viscoelastic properties.

  18. Mobile Modelling for Crowdsourcing Building Interior Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosser, J.; Morley, J.; Jackson, M.

    2012-06-01

    Indoor spatial data forms an important foundation to many ubiquitous computing applications. It gives context to users operating location-based applications, provides an important source of documentation of buildings and can be of value to computer systems where an understanding of environment is required. Unlike external geographic spaces, no centralised body or agency is charged with collecting or maintaining such information. Widespread deployment of mobile devices provides a potential tool that would allow rapid model capture and update by a building's users. Here we introduce some of the issues involved in volunteering building interior data and outline a simple mobile tool for capture of indoor models. The nature of indoor data is inherently private; however in-depth analysis of this issue and legal considerations are not discussed in detail here.

  19. Saturn - Implications of an 'Empirical' Interior Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helled Ita, Ravit; Schubert, Gerald; Anderson, John

    We present models of Saturn's interior constrained by the newly measured gravitational coeffi- cients J2, J4, and J6 for different rotation rates of the planet. We apply the internal pressuredensity profile to constrain the hydrogen to helium ratio in Saturn, using the hydrogen and helium equation of state of Saumon et al. (1995). For surface temperatures that range from 130 to 145 K at the 1 bar level, we find that the hydrogen mass fraction of the planet ranges from 0.82 to 0.65, respectively. The planet's internal structure and composition are found to be insensitive to the assumed rotation rate. We find that helium is depleted in the upper envelope while in the high pressure region ( logP [dyne/cm2 ] ≥ 12 ) the helium abundance is significantly larger and is typically above 70%. These findings support the suggestion of helium differentiation from molecular hydrogen in Saturn's deep interior (e.g, Stevenson, 1975; Fortney and Hubbard, 2003). Finally, the possibility of using the measured precession rate of Saturn's rotation axis to determine its rotation period is assessed. We find that the models yield a moment of inertia factor varying from 0.22271 to 0.22599 for rotation periods between 10h:32m:32s and 10h:41m:35s, respectively. It is concluded that uncertainties in the values of the precession rate and moment of inertia preclude an identification of the rotation period. In principle, a joint inversion of suf- ficiently accurate gravitational and precession rate data could determine Saturn's deep rotation rate.

  20. Effective loop quantum geometry of Schwarzschild interior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortez, Jerónimo; Cuervo, William; Morales-Técotl, Hugo A.; Ruelas, Juan C.

    2017-03-01

    The success of loop quantum cosmology to resolve classical singularities of homogeneous models has led to its application to the classical Schwarszchild black hole interior, which takes the form of a homogeneous Kantowski-Sachs model. The first steps of this were done in pure quantum mechanical terms, hinting at the traversable character of the would-be classical singularity, and then others were performed using effective heuristic models capturing quantum effects that allowed a geometrical description closer to the classical one but avoided its singularity. However, the problem of establishing the link between the quantum and effective descriptions was left open. In this work, we propose to fill in this gap by considering the path-integral approach to the loop quantization of the Kantowski-Sachs model corresponding to the Schwarzschild black hole interior. We show that the transition amplitude can be expressed as a path integration over the imaginary exponential of an effective action which just coincides, under some simplifying assumptions, with the heuristic one. Additionally, we further explore the consequences of the effective dynamics. We prove first that such dynamics imply some rather simple bounds for phase-space variables, and in turn—remarkably, in an analytical way—they imply that various phase-space functions that were singular in the classical model are now well behaved. In particular, the expansion rate, its time derivative, and the shear become bounded, and hence the Raychaudhuri equation is finite term by term, thus resolving the singularities of classical geodesic congruences. Moreover, all effective scalar polynomial invariants turn out to be bounded.

  1. Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    NICER Optics Lead Takashi Okajima installs one of NICER’s 56 X-ray “concentrators,” each consisting of 24 concentric foils. To minimize the effects of Earth’s gravity on their alignment, the concentrator assemblies were installed from the outside edges toward the center of the plate that houses them. The payload’s 56 mirror assemblies concentrate X-rays onto silicon detectors to gather data that will probe the interior makeup of neutron stars, including those that appear to flash regularly, called pulsars. The Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) is a NASA Explorer Mission of Opportunity dedicated to studying the extraordinary environments — strong gravity, ultra-dense matter, and the most powerful magnetic fields in the universe — embodied by neutron stars. An attached payload aboard the International Space Station, NICER will deploy an instrument with unique capabilities for timing and spectroscopy of fast X-ray brightness fluctuations. The embedded Station Explorer for X-ray Timing and Navigation Technology demonstration (SEXTANT) will use NICER data to validate, for the first time in space, technology that exploits pulsars as natural navigation beacons. Credit: NASA/Goddard/ Keith Gendreau NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  2. Controls Over Mesopelagic Interior Carbon Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, R.

    2016-02-01

    Ocean biological processes play a central role in controlling atmospheric CO2 levels with the size of this effect being largely dependent on the depth at which sinking organic carbon (C) is recycled in the ocean's mesopelagic, between 100 and 1000m. Until recently our understanding was so poor that we were unable to even create and close a budget for the processes involved in supplying and consuming organic C in the mesopelagic, let alone model them explicitly with our best estimates of C sources and sinks being an order of magnitude apart. In 2014 however we published the first balanced mesopelagic C budget, in the Northeast Atlantic. Large scale data syntheses suggest that a wide range of factors can influence remineralisation depth including surface biogeochemical processes, dissolved oxygen (DO), and temperature (T). However such correlation analyses cannot provide a mechanistic understanding of mesopelagic remineralisation. In light of this, we have proposed to the UK NERC a focussed project known as COMICS with this mechanistic understanding as its aim. We will use targeted fieldwork to develop new parameterisations of particle flux and implement them in an IPCC class global biogeochemical model. Cruises in the Southern Ocean and in the Benguela Upwelling will exploit strong local gradients in surface biogeochemistry, T and DO. We will compile 1-d C budgets and make intensive measurements of interior C cycling and ecosystem structure. We will synthesise the observations to determine which processes are key, create new parameterisations for interior remineralisation and evaluate them by their ability to reproduce global biogeochemical distributions. Finally we will use these tools to provide a new estimate of ocean C storage using the UK Earth System Model's ocean component. This poster will introduce the project and describe the major challenges we face in delivering it.

  3. Mercury's interior from MESSENGER geodetic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genova, Antonio; Mazarico, Erwan; Goossens, Sander; Lemoine, Frank G.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2016-04-01

    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft completed more than 4 years of operations in orbit about Mercury. One of the main mission goals was the determination of the interior structure of Mercury enabled by geodetic observations of the topography, gravity field, rotation, and tides by the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) and radio science system. MLA acquired over 25 million individual measurements of Mercury's shape that are mostly limited to the northern hemisphere because of MESSENGER's eccentric orbit. However, the lack of laser altimetry in the southern hemisphere has been partly compensated by ˜400 occultations of spacecraft radio signals. X-band radio tracking data collected by the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) allowed the determination of Mercury's gravity field to spherical harmonic degree and order 100, the planet's obliquity, and the Love number k2. The combination of altimetry and radio measurements provides a powerful tool for the investigation of Mercury's orientation and tides, which enable a better understanding of the interior structure of the planet. The MLA measurements have been assembled into a digital elevation model (DEM) of the northern hemisphere. We then used individual altimetric measurements from the spacecraft for orbit determination, together with the radio tracking, over a continuous span of time using a batch least-squares filter. All observations were combined to recover directly the gravity field coefficients, obliquity, librations, and tides by minimizing the discrepancies between the computed observables and actual measurements. We will present the estimated 100×100 gravity field model, the obliquity, the Love number k2, and, for the first time, the tidal phase lag φ and the amplitude of the longitudinal libration from radio and altimetry data. The k2 phase provides information on Mercury's dissipation and mantle viscosity and allows a determination of the Q factor. A refinement of

  4. Seismology and the Interior of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerdt, William

    2012-07-01

    In addition to its intrinsic interest, Mars is particularly well-suited for studying the full range of processes and phenomena related to early terrestrial planet evolution, from initial differentiation to the start of plate tectonics. It is large and complex enough to have undergone most of the processes that affected early Earth but, unlike the Earth, has apparently not undergone extensive plate tectonics or other major reworking that erased the imprint of early events (as evidenced by the presence of cratered surfaces older than 4 Ga). The martian mantle should have Earth-like polymorphic phase transitions and may even support a perovskite layer near the core (depending on the actual core radius), a characteristic that would have major implications for core cooling and mantle convection. Thus even the most basic measurements of planetary structure, such as crustal thickness, core radius, density and state (solid/liquid), and gross mantle velocity structure would provide invaluable constraints on models of early planetary evolution. The most effective means of making these measurements is seismology, as has been shown by its long and successful use on the Earth and the key discoveries it has made possible on the Moon. However, despite a wide recognition of its value to planetary science, the seismic investigation of Mars has remained tantalizingly out of reach for the past two decades, largely due to the relatively high cost of landing multiple long-lived spacecraft on Mars to comprise a seismic network for traditional body-wave travel-time analysis. In order to initiate a long-overdue mapping of the interior structure of Mars it appears necessary to begin with a single geophysical station, using methods that can derive interior information from a single seismometer. Fortunately many such methods exist, including source location through P-S and back-azimuth, receiver functions, identification of later phases (PcP, PKP, etc.), surface wave dispersion, and normal

  5. The effect of Appalachian mountaintop mining on interior forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wickham, J.D.; Riitters, K.H.; Wade, T.G.; Coan, M.; Homer, C.

    2007-01-01

    Southern Appalachian forests are predominantly interior because they are spatially extensive with little disturbance imposed by other uses of the land. Appalachian mountaintop mining increased substantially during the 1990s, posing a threat to the interior character of the forest. We used spatial convolution to identify interior forest at multiple scales on circa 1992 and 2001 land-cover maps of the Southern Appalachians. Our analyses show that interior forest loss was 1.75–5.0 times greater than the direct forest loss attributable to mountaintop mining. Mountaintop mining in the southern Appalachians has reduced forest interior area more extensively than the reduction that would be expected based on changes in overall forest area alone. The loss of Southern Appalachian interior forest is of global significance because of the worldwide rarity of large expanses of temperate deciduous forest.

  6. Compressive Sensing–Based Interior Tomography: Preliminary Clinical Application

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hengyong; Wang, Ge; Hsieh, Jiang; Entrikin, Daniel W.; Ellis, Sandra; Liu, Baodong; Carr, John Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Compressive sensing (CS)-based interior tomography is a state-of-the-art method for accurate image reconstruction from only locally truncated projections. Here, we report our preliminary interior tomography results reconstructed from raw projections of a patient acquired on a GE Discovery CT750 HD scanner. This is the first clinical application of the CS-based interior reconstruction techniques, and the results show an excellent match with those reconstructed from global projections. PMID:22082550

  7. Capillary Flow in an Interior Corner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weislogel, Mark Milton

    1996-01-01

    The design of fluids management processes in the low-gravity environment of space requires an accurate model and description of capillarity-controlled flow in containers of irregular geometry. Here we consider the capillary rise of a fluid along an interior corner of a container following a rapid reduction in gravity. The analytical portion of the work presents an asymptotic formulation in the limit of a slender fluid column, slight surface curvature along the corner, small inertia, and low gravity. New similarity solutions are found and a list of closed form expressions is provided for flow rate and column length. In particular, it is found that the flow is proportional to t(exp 1/2) for a constant height boundary condition, t(exp 2/5) for a spreading drop, and t(exp 3/5) for constant flow. In the experimental portion of the work, measurements from a 2.2s drop tower are reported. An extensive data set, collected over a previously unexplored range of flow parameters, includes estimates of repeatability and accuracy, the role of inertia and column slenderness, and the effects of corner angle, container geometry, and fluid properties. Comprehensive comparisons are made which illustrate the applicability of the analytic results to low-g fluid systems design.

  8. The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehman, David H.; Hoffman, Tom L.; Havens, Glen G.

    2013-01-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission, launched in September 2011, successfully completed its Primary Science Mission in June 2012 and is currently in Extended Mission operations. Competitively selected under a NASA Announcement of Opportunity in December 2007, GRAIL is a Discovery Program mission subject to a mandatory project cost cap. The purpose of the mission is to precisely map the gravitational field of the Moon to reveal its internal structure from crust to core, determine its thermal evolution, and extend this knowledge to other planets. The mission uses twin spacecraft flying in tandem to provide the gravity map. The GRAIL Flight System, consisting of the spacecraft and payload, was developed based on significant heritage from previous missions such an experimental U.S. Air Force satellite, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) mission, and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission. The Mission Operations System (MOS) was based on high-heritage multimission operations developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Lockheed Martin. Both the Flight System and MOS were adapted to meet the unique challenges posed by the GRAIL mission design. This paper summarizes the implementation challenges and accomplishments of getting GRAIL ready for launch. It also discusses the in-flight challenges and experiences of operating two spacecraft, and mission results.

  9. Lightweight sidewalls for aircraft interior noise control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, D. N.; Plotkin, K. J.; Selden, R. G.; Sharp, B. H.

    1985-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental study was performed to devise lightweight sidewalls for turboprop aircraft. Seven concepts for new sidewalls were analyzed and tested for noise reduction using flat panels of 1.2 m x 1.8 m (4 ft x 6 ft), some of which were aircraft-type constructions and some of which were simpler, easier-to-construct panels to test the functioning of an acoustic principle. Aircraft-application sidewalls were then conceived for each of the seven concepts, and were subjectively evaluated for their ability to meet aircraft nonacoustic design requirements. As a result of the above, the following sidewall concepts were recommended for further investigation: a sidewall in which the interior cavity is vented to ceiling and underfloor areas; sidewalls with wall-mounted resonators, one having a conventional trim panel and one a limp one; and a sidewall with a stiff outer wall and a limp trim panel. These sidewalls appear to promise lower weights than conventional sidewalls adjusted to meet similar acoustic requirements, and further development may prove them to be practical.

  10. Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    A photo taken during the NICER range-of-motion test at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center shows the photographer’s reflection in the mirror-like radiator surface of the detector plate. Teflon-coated silver tape is used to keep NICER’s detectors cool. The Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) is a NASA Explorer Mission of Opportunity dedicated to studying the extraordinary environments — strong gravity, ultra-dense matter, and the most powerful magnetic fields in the universe — embodied by neutron stars. An attached payload aboard the International Space Station, NICER will deploy an instrument with unique capabilities for timing and spectroscopy of fast X-ray brightness fluctuations. The embedded Station Explorer for X-ray Timing and Navigation Technology demonstration (SEXTANT) will use NICER data to validate, for the first time in space, technology that exploits pulsars as natural navigation beacons. Credit: NASA/Goddard/ Keith Gendreau NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  11. Borehole locations on seven interior salt domes

    SciTech Connect

    Simcox, A.C.; Wampler, S.L.

    1982-08-01

    This report is designed as an inventory of all wells known to have been drilled within a five-mile radius of each of seven salt domes within the Interior Salt Basin in east Texas, northern Louisiana and Mississippi. There are 72 boreholes that entered salt above an elevation of -3000 feet mean sea level. For these, details of location, drilling dates, depth of casing and cement, elevation of top of caprock and salt, etc., are given on tables in the appendix. Of the seven domes, Oakwood has the largest number of boreholes, thirty-eight (including two sidetracked wells) that enter the salt stock above -3000 feet mean sea level; another dome in northeast Texas, Keechi, has eight; in northern Louisiana, Rayburn's has four and Vacherie has five; in southern Mississippi, Cypress Creek has seven, Lampton has one, and Richton has nine. In addition, all wells known outside the supra-domal area, but within a five-mile radius of the center of the 7 domes are separately catalogued.

  12. The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehman, D. H.; Hoffman, T. L.; Havens, G. G.

    The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission, launched in September 2011, successfully completed its Primary Science Mission in June 2012 and Extended Mission in December 2012. Competitively selected under a NASA Announcement of Opportunity in December 2007, GRAIL is a Discovery Program mission subject to a mandatory project cost cap. The purpose of the mission is to precisely map the gravitational field of the Moon to reveal its internal structure from crust to core, determine its thermal evolution, and extend this knowledge to other planets. The mission used twin spacecraft flying in tandem to provide the gravity map. The GRAIL Flight System, consisting of the spacecraft and payload, was developed based on significant heritage from previous missions such as an experimental U.S. Air Force satellite, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) mission, and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission. The Mission Operations System (MOS) was based on high-heritage multimission operations developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Lockheed Martin. Both the Flight System and MOS were adapted to meet the unique challenges posed by the GRAIL mission design. This paper summarizes the implementation challenges and accomplishments of getting GRAIL ready for launch. It also discusses the in-flight challenges and experiences of operating two spacecraft, and mission results.

  13. Seismic probes of solar interior magnetic structure.

    PubMed

    Hanasoge, Shravan; Birch, Aaron; Gizon, Laurent; Tromp, Jeroen

    2012-09-07

    Sun spots are prominent manifestations of solar magnetoconvection, and imaging their subsurface structure is an outstanding problem of wide physical importance. Travel times of seismic waves that propagate through these structures are typically used as inputs to inversions. Despite the presence of strongly anisotropic magnetic waveguides, these measurements have always been interpreted in terms of changes to isotropic wave speeds and flow-advection-related Doppler shifts. Here, we employ partial-differential-equation-constrained optimization to determine the appropriate parametrization of the structural properties of the magnetic interior. Seven different wave speeds fully characterize helioseismic wave propagation: the isotropic sound speed, a Doppler-shifting flow-advection velocity, and an anisotropic magnetic velocity. The structure of magnetic media is sensed by magnetoacoustic slow and fast modes and Alfvén waves, each of which propagates at a different wave speed. We show that even in the case of weak magnetic fields, significant errors may be incurred if these anisotropies are not accounted for in inversions. Translation invariance is demonstrably lost. These developments render plausible the accurate seismic imaging of magnetoconvection in the Sun.

  14. Magnetism and the interior of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyal, P.; Parkin, C. W.; Daily, W. D.

    1974-01-01

    During the time period 1961-1972, 11 magnetometers were sent to the moon. The primary purpose of this paper is to review the results of lunar magnetometer data analysis, with emphasis on the lunar interior. Magnetic fields have been measured on the lunar surface at the Apollo 12, 14, 15, and 16 landing sites. The remanent field values at these sites are 38, 103 (maximum), 3, and 327 gammas (maximum), respectively. Simultaneous magnetic field and solar plasma pressure measurements show that the Apollo 12 and 16 remanent fields are compressed during times of high plasma dynamic pressure. Apollo 15 and 16 subsatellite magnetometers have mapped in detail the field above portions of the lunar surface and have placed an upper limit on the global permanent dipole moment. Satellite and surface measurements show strong evidence that the lunar crust is magnetized over much of the lunar globe. Magnetic fields are stronger in highland regions than in mare regions and stronger on the lunar far side than on the near side. The largest magnetic anomaly measured to date is between the craters Van de Graaff and Aitken on the lunar far side.

  15. 10. The surface and interior of venus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masursky, H.; Kaula, W.M.; McGill, G.E.; Pettengill, G.H.; Phillips, R.J.; Russell, C.T.; Schubert, G.; Shapiro, I.I.

    1977-01-01

    Present ideas about the surface and interior of Venus are based on data obtained from (1) Earth-based radio and radar: temperature, rotation, shape, and topography; (2) fly-by and orbiting spacecraft: gravity and magnetic fields; and (3) landers: winds, local structure, gamma radiation. Surface features, including large basins, crater-like depressions, and a linear valley, have been recognized from recent ground-based radar images. Pictures of the surface acquired by the USSR's Venera 9 and 10 show abundant boulders and apparent wind erosion. On the Pioneer Venus 1978 Orbiter mission, the radar mapper experiment will determine surface heights, dielectric constant values and small-scale slope values along the sub-orbital track between 50??S and 75??N. This experiment will also estimate the global shape and provide coarse radar images (40-80 km identification resolution) of part of the surface. Gravity data will be obtained by radio tracking. Maps combining radar altimetry with spacecraft and ground-based images will be made. A fluxgate magnetometer will measure the magnetic fields around Venus. The radar and gravity data will provide clues to the level of crustal differentiation and tectonic activity. The magnetometer will determine the field variations accurately. Data from the combined experiments may constrain the dynamo mechanism; if so, a deeper understanding of both Venus and Earth will be gained. ?? 1977 D. Reidel Publishing Company.

  16. Space station interior noise analysis program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stusnick, E.; Burn, M.

    1987-02-01

    Documentation is provided for a microcomputer program which was developed to evaluate the effect of the vibroacoustic environment on speech communication inside a space station. The program, entitled Space Station Interior Noise Analysis Program (SSINAP), combines a Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) prediction of sound and vibration levels within the space station with a speech intelligibility model based on the Modulation Transfer Function and the Speech Transmission Index (MTF/STI). The SEA model provides an effective analysis tool for predicting the acoustic environment based on proposed space station design. The MTF/STI model provides a method for evaluating speech communication in the relatively reverberant and potentially noisy environments that are likely to occur in space stations. The combinations of these two models provides a powerful analysis tool for optimizing the acoustic design of space stations from the point of view of speech communications. The mathematical algorithms used in SSINAP are presented to implement the SEA and MTF/STI models. An appendix provides an explanation of the operation of the program along with details of the program structure and code.

  17. Magnetism and the interior of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyal, P.; Parkin, C. W.; Daily, W. D.

    1974-01-01

    During the time period 1961-1972, 11 magnetometers were sent to the moon. The primary purpose of this paper is to review the results of lunar magnetometer data analysis, with emphasis on the lunar interior. Magnetic fields have been measured on the lunar surface at the Apollo 12, 14, 15, and 16 landing sites. The remanent field values at these sites are 38, 103 (maximum), 3, and 327 gammas (maximum), respectively. Simultaneous magnetic field and solar plasma pressure measurements show that the Apollo 12 and 16 remanent fields are compressed during times of high plasma dynamic pressure. Apollo 15 and 16 subsatellite magnetometers have mapped in detail the field above portions of the lunar surface and have placed an upper limit on the global permanent dipole moment. Satellite and surface measurements show strong evidence that the lunar crust is magnetized over much of the lunar globe. Magnetic fields are stronger in highland regions than in mare regions and stronger on the lunar far side than on the near side. The largest magnetic anomaly measured to date is between the craters Van de Graaff and Aitken on the lunar far side.

  18. Titan's interior from Cassini-Huygens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobie, G.; Baland, R.-M.; Lefevre, A.; Monteux, J.; Cadek, O.; Choblet, G.; Mitri, G.

    2013-09-01

    The Cassini-Huygens mission has brought many informations about Titan that can be used to infer its interior structure: the gravity field coefficients (up to degree 3, [1]), the surface shape (up to degree 6, [2]), the tidal Love number [1], the electric field [3], and the orientation of its rotation axis [4]. The measured obliquity and gravity perturbation due to tides, as well as the electric field, are lines of evidence for the presence of an internal global ocean beneath the ice surface of Titan [5,1,3]. The observed surface shape and gravity can be used to further constrain the structure of the ice shell above the internal ocean. The presence of a significant topography associated with weak gravity anomalies indicates that deflections of internal interface or lateral density variations may exist to compensate the topography. To assess the sources of compensation, we consider interior models including interface deflections and/or density variations, which reproduces simultaneously the surface gravity and long-wavelength topography data [6]. Furthermore, in order to test the long-term mechanical stability of the internal mass anomalies, we compute the relaxation rate of each internal interface in response to surface mass load. We show that the topography can be explained either by defections of the ocean/ice interface or by density variations in an upper crust [6]. For non-perfectly compensated models of the outer ice shell, the present-day structure is stable only for a conductive layer above a relatively cold ocean (for bottom viscosity > 1016 Pa.s, T < 250 K). For perfectly compensated models, a convective ice shell is stable (with a bottom viscosity lower than 1015 Pas) if the source of compensation is due to density variations in the upper crust (2-3 km below the surface). In this case, deep gravity anomalies are required to explain the observed geoid. Our calculations show that the high pressure ice layer cannot be the source of the residual gravity

  19. Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    NICER engineer Steven Kenyon installs an X-ray detector onto the payload’s detector plate. The detectors are protected by red caps during installation because they are very sensitive to dust and other foreign object debris. The Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) is a NASA Explorer Mission of Opportunity dedicated to studying the extraordinary environments — strong gravity, ultra-dense matter, and the most powerful magnetic fields in the universe — embodied by neutron stars. An attached payload aboard the International Space Station, NICER will deploy an instrument with unique capabilities for timing and spectroscopy of fast X-ray brightness fluctuations. The embedded Station Explorer for X-ray Timing and Navigation Technology demonstration (SEXTANT) will use NICER data to validate, for the first time in space, technology that exploits pulsars as natural navigation beacons. Credit: NASA/Goddard/ Keith Gendreau NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  20. Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    A NICER team member measures the focused optical power of each X-ray concentrator in a clean tent at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center. The Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) is a NASA Explorer Mission of Opportunity dedicated to studying the extraordinary environments — strong gravity, ultra-dense matter, and the most powerful magnetic fields in the universe — embodied by neutron stars. An attached payload aboard the International Space Station, NICER will deploy an instrument with unique capabilities for timing and spectroscopy of fast X-ray brightness fluctuations. The embedded Station Explorer for X-ray Timing and Navigation Technology demonstration (SEXTANT) will use NICER data to validate, for the first time in space, technology that exploits pulsars as natural navigation beacons. Credit: NASA/Goddard/ Keith Gendreau NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  1. Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    The NICER payload, blanketed and waiting for launch in the Space Station Processing Facility at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Florida. The instrument is in its stowed configuration for launch. The Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) is a NASA Explorer Mission of Opportunity dedicated to studying the extraordinary environments — strong gravity, ultra-dense matter, and the most powerful magnetic fields in the universe — embodied by neutron stars. An attached payload aboard the International Space Station, NICER will deploy an instrument with unique capabilities for timing and spectroscopy of fast X-ray brightness fluctuations. The embedded Station Explorer for X-ray Timing and Navigation Technology demonstration (SEXTANT) will use NICER data to validate, for the first time in space, technology that exploits pulsars as natural navigation beacons. Credit: NASA/Goddard/ Keith Gendreau NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  2. The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehman, David H.; Hoffman, Tom L.; Havens, Glen G.

    2013-01-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission, launched in September 2011, successfully completed its Primary Science Mission in June 2012 and is currently in Extended Mission operations. Competitively selected under a NASA Announcement of Opportunity in December 2007, GRAIL is a Discovery Program mission subject to a mandatory project cost cap. The purpose of the mission is to precisely map the gravitational field of the Moon to reveal its internal structure from crust to core, determine its thermal evolution, and extend this knowledge to other planets. The mission uses twin spacecraft flying in tandem to provide the gravity map. The GRAIL Flight System, consisting of the spacecraft and payload, was developed based on significant heritage from previous missions such an experimental U.S. Air Force satellite, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) mission, and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission. The Mission Operations System (MOS) was based on high-heritage multimission operations developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Lockheed Martin. Both the Flight System and MOS were adapted to meet the unique challenges posed by the GRAIL mission design. This paper summarizes the implementation challenges and accomplishments of getting GRAIL ready for launch. It also discusses the in-flight challenges and experiences of operating two spacecraft, and mission results.

  3. Space station interior noise analysis program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stusnick, E.; Burn, M.

    1987-01-01

    Documentation is provided for a microcomputer program which was developed to evaluate the effect of the vibroacoustic environment on speech communication inside a space station. The program, entitled Space Station Interior Noise Analysis Program (SSINAP), combines a Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) prediction of sound and vibration levels within the space station with a speech intelligibility model based on the Modulation Transfer Function and the Speech Transmission Index (MTF/STI). The SEA model provides an effective analysis tool for predicting the acoustic environment based on proposed space station design. The MTF/STI model provides a method for evaluating speech communication in the relatively reverberant and potentially noisy environments that are likely to occur in space stations. The combinations of these two models provides a powerful analysis tool for optimizing the acoustic design of space stations from the point of view of speech communications. The mathematical algorithms used in SSINAP are presented to implement the SEA and MTF/STI models. An appendix provides an explanation of the operation of the program along with details of the program structure and code.

  4. INTERIOR PERSPECTIVE, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHWEST WITH FIELD SET UP IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR PERSPECTIVE, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHWEST WITH FIELD SET UP IN FOOTBALL CONFIGURATION. FIELD SEATING ROTATES TO ACCOMMODATE BASEBALL GAMES. - Houston Astrodome, 8400 Kirby Drive, Houston, Harris County, TX

  5. Interior detail of structural elements section; camera facing east. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior detail of structural elements section; camera facing east. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Supply Building, Walnut Avenue, southeast corner of Walnut Avenue & Fifth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  6. INTERIOR OF SECOND FLOOR AIRFIELD MANAGEMENT SUPERINTENDENT'S OFFICE. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF SECOND FLOOR AIRFIELD MANAGEMENT SUPERINTENDENT'S OFFICE. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Base Operations Building, Idaho at Alabama Avenue, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  7. 6. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING STRUCTURAL DESIGN AND SAWN REPLACEMENT EYEBROW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING STRUCTURAL DESIGN AND SAWN REPLACEMENT EYEBROW RAFTERS - Camp Cleawox, Adirondack Sleeping Shelter, Oregon Dunes National Recreation Area, Siuslaw National Forest, Florence, Lane County, OR

  8. Interior view of garage facing back wall (east) Presidio ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of garage facing back wall (east) - Presidio of San Francisco, Officers' Vehicles Garage, 1055 General Kennedy Avenue, Letterman Hospital Complex, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  9. 9. Interior, room in southeast corner of depot looking southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Interior, room in southeast corner of depot looking southeast - Missouri Pacific Railway Depot, Natches Street (State Highway 15) & Pine Street intersection, northeast corner, Wisner, Franklin Parish, LA

  10. 10. Interior, room in southwest corner of depot looking northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Interior, room in southwest corner of depot looking northeast - Missouri Pacific Railway Depot, Natches Street (State Highway 15) & Pine Street intersection, northeast corner, Wisner, Franklin Parish, LA

  11. INTERIOR VIEW OF EAST SIDE DOORS, FACING SOUTHEAST. Douglas ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF EAST SIDE DOORS, FACING SOUTHEAST. - Douglas Aircraft Company Long Beach Plant, Aircraft Wing & Fuselage Assembly Building, 3855 Lakewood Boulevard, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. VIEW OF SOUTHEASTERN INTERIOR SPACE, FACING NORTHWEST. Douglas Aircraft ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SOUTHEASTERN INTERIOR SPACE, FACING NORTHWEST. - Douglas Aircraft Company Long Beach Plant, Aircraft Parts Shipping & Receiving Building, 3855 Lakewood Boulevard, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. VIEW OF CENTRAL INTERIOR SPACE, FACING NORTHEAST. Douglas Aircraft ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF CENTRAL INTERIOR SPACE, FACING NORTHEAST. - Douglas Aircraft Company Long Beach Plant, Aircraft Parts Shipping & Receiving Building, 3855 Lakewood Boulevard, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. BLDG 2 WEST END LOBBY INTERIOR Naval Magazine Lualualei, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLDG 2 WEST END LOBBY INTERIOR - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, Police Station, Kolekole Road & Constitution Street intersection, north side of main quad, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  15. New rain shed (Building No. 241) interior showing posts, braces, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    New rain shed (Building No. 241) interior showing posts, braces, and roof structure. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  16. INTERIOR VIEW OF ENTRANCE TO LABORATORY, SHOWING HANDHAMMERED ALUMINUM DOORS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF ENTRANCE TO LABORATORY, SHOWING HAND-HAMMERED ALUMINUM DOORS AND MARBLE. NOTE ALUMINUM LIGHT FIXTURE - Alcoa Research Laboratory, Freeport Road, New Kensington, Westmoreland County, PA

  17. 9. Interior view, overhead line shafting and lathe workbench, east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Interior view, overhead line shafting and lathe workbench, east shop, ground floor, looking northwest. - Larrabee & Hingston Company, Main Shop Building, 19 Howley Street, Peabody, Essex County, MA

  18. 11. SECOND FLOOR INTERIOR, SHOWING EAST BALCONY AND BASKETBALL COURT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. SECOND FLOOR INTERIOR, SHOWING EAST BALCONY AND BASKETBALL COURT. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Fort David A. Russell, Gymnasium, Randall Avenue between Fourth & Fifth Streets, Cheyenne, Laramie County, WY

  19. 7. INTERIOR, VIEW FROM ENTRANCE TOWARD ENCLOSED STAIRS AND REAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR, VIEW FROM ENTRANCE TOWARD ENCLOSED STAIRS AND REAR DOOR - Mulliken-Spragins Tenant House, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  20. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, 1966, INTERIOR, DETAIL, ENCLOSED STAIRCASE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, 1966, INTERIOR, DETAIL, ENCLOSED STAIRCASE AND TIN SHEETING. - Sig Sautelle Circus Training House, South Main Street (State Route 11), Homer, Cortland County, NY

  1. INTERIOR SECOND FLOOR EAST ENGINEERING DESIGN AREA DETAIL VIEW, FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR SECOND FLOOR EAST ENGINEERING DESIGN AREA DETAIL VIEW, FACING NORTH. - NASA Industrial Plant, Systems Integration & Checkout Facility, 12214 Lakewood Boulevard, Downey, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. INTERIOR OF WEAPONS CLEANING CLASSROOM. view TO WEST. Plattsburgh ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF WEAPONS CLEANING CLASSROOM. view TO WEST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Combined Arms Training Maintenance Building, Off Perimeter Road in Firearms Training Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  3. INTERIOR OF COLD STORAGE ROOM, SHOWING MOVABLE HANGING RACKS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF COLD STORAGE ROOM, SHOWING MOVABLE HANGING RACKS. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Aircraft Storehouse, Between Midway & Card Streets at Enterprise Avenue intersection, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  4. Interior view of second floor sleeping area; camera facing south. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of second floor sleeping area; camera facing south. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Marine Barracks, Cedar Avenue, west side between Twelfth & Fourteenth Streets, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  5. 14. INTERIOR OF TYPICAL SLEEPING QUARTERS, BUILDING 208, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. INTERIOR OF TYPICAL SLEEPING QUARTERS, BUILDING 208, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Bachelor Airmen Quarters, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  6. GENERAL VIEW OF INTERIOR, MAIN READING ROOM, LOOKING SOUTHWEST AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF INTERIOR, MAIN READING ROOM, LOOKING SOUTHWEST AND SHOWING VIEW INTO REAR SECTION - Free Library of Philadelphia, Richmond Branch, 2987 Almond Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  7. Interior view of Dispatch Office and counter, facing south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of Dispatch Office and counter, facing south - International Longshoremen's & Warehousemen's Union Hall, Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme Road, Port Hueneme, Ventura County, CA

  8. Interior detail of dispatch boards in main hall, facing west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior detail of dispatch boards in main hall, facing west - International Longshoremen's & Warehousemen's Union Hall, Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme Road, Port Hueneme, Ventura County, CA

  9. Interior view of Secretary's Office, facing southeast International Longshoremen's ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of Secretary's Office, facing southeast - International Longshoremen's & Warehousemen's Union Hall, Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme Road, Port Hueneme, Ventura County, CA

  10. Interior view, main entry lobby on Fourteenth Street United ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, main entry lobby on Fourteenth Street - United States Department of Commerce, Bounded by Fourteenth, Fifteenth, and E streets and Constitution Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  11. Interior view, office of the Secretary of Commerce United ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, office of the Secretary of Commerce - United States Department of Commerce, Bounded by Fourteenth, Fifteenth, and E streets and Constitution Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  12. 8. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF FISH HATCHERY BUILDING, SHOWING INCUBATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF FISH HATCHERY BUILDING, SHOWING INCUBATION TANKS. - Bonneville Project, Fish Hatchery, On Columbia River bordered on South by Union Pacific, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  13. Interior view, detail of the staircase to show the burnished ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, detail of the staircase to show the burnished aluminum and brass balustrade - Departmental Auditorium, Constitution Avenue between Twelfth and Fourteenth Streets, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  14. INTERIOR FIRST FLOOR WEST CENTRAL ELEVATOR LOBBY DETAIL VIEW, FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR FIRST FLOOR WEST CENTRAL ELEVATOR LOBBY DETAIL VIEW, FACING SOUTHEAST. - NASA Industrial Plant, Systems Integration & Checkout Facility, 12214 Lakewood Boulevard, Downey, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. Interior view of Chapel with marble altar and wall panel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of Chapel with marble altar and wall panel carved with crusader's sword design. - Flanders Field American Cemetery & Memorial, Chapel, Wortegemseweg 117, Waregem, West Flanders (Belgium)

  16. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey GUARD ROOM, EAST END, INTERIOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey GUARD ROOM, EAST END, INTERIOR Lanny Miyamoto, photographer October 1958 - Baltimore City Jail, 801 Van Buren & East Madison Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  17. 18. DETAIL OF ORIGINAL INTERIOR DOOR AND HARDWARE A. C. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. DETAIL OF ORIGINAL INTERIOR DOOR AND HARDWARE A. C. Eschete, photographer, September 24, 1977 - Bagatelle Plantation, East River Road (moved to Iberville Parish), Donaldsonville, Ascension Parish, LA

  18. 49. AUXILARY CHAMBER, EAST SIDE AIRLOCK LOOKING SOUTHEAST FROM INTERIOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. AUXILARY CHAMBER, EAST SIDE AIRLOCK LOOKING SOUTHEAST FROM INTERIOR (LOCATION HHH) - Shippingport Atomic Power Station, On Ohio River, 25 miles Northwest of Pittsburgh, Shippingport, Beaver County, PA

  19. BLDG 1 INTERIOR OF CO'S OFFICE Naval Magazine Lualualei, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLDG 1 INTERIOR OF CO'S OFFICE - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, Administration Building, Between Constitution & Constellation Streets, east side of main quad, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  20. 18. INTERIOR OF CIVIL RIGHTS INSTITUTE, MILESTONE GALLERY EXHIBITION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. INTERIOR OF CIVIL RIGHTS INSTITUTE, MILESTONE GALLERY EXHIBITION OF THE SIXTEENTH STREET CHURCH, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Sixteenth Street Baptist Church, 1530 Sixth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  1. Interior detail of tower space; camera facing southwest. Mare ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior detail of tower space; camera facing southwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Defense Electronics Equipment Operating Center, I Street, terminus west of Cedar Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  2. 11. HISTORIC AMERICAN BUILDINGS SURVEY George Neuschafer, photographer. INTERIOR: BAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. HISTORIC AMERICAN BUILDINGS SURVEY George Neuschafer, photographer. INTERIOR: BAKE OVEN IN CELLAR FIREPLACE IN FIRST ADDITION - American House Hotel, Union Street & Moravian Alley, Hope, Warren County, NJ

  3. 9. Building 105, Facilities Engineering Building, 1830, interior, Tin Metal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Building 105, Facilities Engineering Building, 1830, interior, Tin Metal area of building, looking S. - Watervliet Arsenal, Building 105, South Broadway, on Hudson River, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  4. ARCH TYPE MAGAZINE # 2131. INTERIOR LOOKING TOWARD ENTRY. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARCH TYPE MAGAZINE # 2131. INTERIOR LOOKING TOWARD ENTRY. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, Magazine Type, Various roads in northern & eastern portions of installation, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  5. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey INTERIOR, PULPIT END (SOUTHEAST END) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey INTERIOR, PULPIT END (SOUTHEAST END) Lanny Miyamoto, Photographer - October 1958 - Eutaw Place Baptist Church, Dolphin & Eutaw Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  6. Interior view of second floor brace shop partition walls and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of second floor brace shop partition walls and cobbler's bench, facing west. - Gorgas Hospital, Administration & Clinics Building, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  7. Deep Interior Mission: Imaging the Interior of Near-Earth Asteroids Using Radio Reflection Tomography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Safaeinili, A.; Asphaug, E.; Rodriquez, E.; Gurrola, E.; Belton, M.; Klaasen, K.; Ostro, S.; Plaut, J.; Yeomans, D.

    2005-01-01

    Near-Earth asteroids are important exploration targets since they provide clues to the evolution of the solar system. They are also of interest since they present a clear danger to Earth. Our mission objective is to image the internal structure of two NEOs using radio reflection tomography (RRT) in order to explore the record of asteroid origin and impact evolution, and to test the fundamental hypothesis that some NEOs are rubble piles rather than consolidated bodies. Our mission s RRT technique is analogous to doing a CAT scan of the asteroid from orbit. Closely sampled radar echoes are processed to yield volumetric maps of mechanical and compositional boundaries, and to measure interior material dielectric properties. The RRT instrument is a radar that operates at 5 and 15 MHz with two 30-m (tip-to-tip) dipole antennas that are used in a cross-dipole configuration. The radar transmitter and receiver electronics have heritage from JPL's MARSIS contribution to Mars Express, and the antenna is similar to systems used in IMAGE and LACE missions. The 5-MHz channel is designed to penetrate greater than 1 km of basaltic rock, and 15-MHz penetrates a few hundred meters or more. In addition to RRT volumetric imaging, we use redundant color cameras to explore the surface expressions of unit boundaries, in order to relate interior radar imaging to what is observable from spacecraft imaging and from Earth. The camera also yields stereo color imaging for geology and RRT-related compositional analysis. Gravity and high fidelity geodesy are used to explore how interior structure is expressed in shape, density, mass distribution and spin. Ion thruster propulsion is utilized by Deep Interior to enable tomographic radar mapping of multiple asteroids. Within the Discovery AO scheduling parameters we identify two targets, S-type 1999 ND43 (approximately 500 m diameter) and V-type 3908 Nyx (approximately 1 km), asteroids whose compositions bracket the diversity of solar system

  8. Deep Interior Mission: Imaging the Interior of Near-Earth Asteroids Using Radio Reflection Tomography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Safaeinili, A.; Asphaug, E.; Rodriquez, E.; Gurrola, E.; Belton, M.; Klaasen, K.; Ostro, S.; Plaut, J.; Yeomans, D.

    2005-01-01

    Near-Earth asteroids are important exploration targets since they provide clues to the evolution of the solar system. They are also of interest since they present a clear danger to Earth. Our mission objective is to image the internal structure of two NEOs using radio reflection tomography (RRT) in order to explore the record of asteroid origin and impact evolution, and to test the fundamental hypothesis that some NEOs are rubble piles rather than consolidated bodies. Our mission s RRT technique is analogous to doing a CAT scan of the asteroid from orbit. Closely sampled radar echoes are processed to yield volumetric maps of mechanical and compositional boundaries, and to measure interior material dielectric properties. The RRT instrument is a radar that operates at 5 and 15 MHz with two 30-m (tip-to-tip) dipole antennas that are used in a cross-dipole configuration. The radar transmitter and receiver electronics have heritage from JPL's MARSIS contribution to Mars Express, and the antenna is similar to systems used in IMAGE and LACE missions. The 5-MHz channel is designed to penetrate greater than 1 km of basaltic rock, and 15-MHz penetrates a few hundred meters or more. In addition to RRT volumetric imaging, we use redundant color cameras to explore the surface expressions of unit boundaries, in order to relate interior radar imaging to what is observable from spacecraft imaging and from Earth. The camera also yields stereo color imaging for geology and RRT-related compositional analysis. Gravity and high fidelity geodesy are used to explore how interior structure is expressed in shape, density, mass distribution and spin. Ion thruster propulsion is utilized by Deep Interior to enable tomographic radar mapping of multiple asteroids. Within the Discovery AO scheduling parameters we identify two targets, S-type 1999 ND43 (approximately 500 m diameter) and V-type 3908 Nyx (approximately 1 km), asteroids whose compositions bracket the diversity of solar system

  9. Visualizing interior and exterior jet aircraft noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moondra, Manmohan S.

    In today's competitive aerospace industry, the quest for quiet has drawn significant attention to both the interior and exterior design of an airplane. Understanding the noise generation mechanisms of a jet aircraft is a crucial first step toward developing the most cost-effective noise and vibrations abatement methods. In this investigation, the Helmholtz Equation Least Squares (HELS) based nearfield acoustic holography will be used to understand noise transmission caused by jet engine and turbulence into the fuselage of a jet aircraft cruising at 30,000 ft. Modern propulsive jet engines produce exterior noise sources with a high amplitude noise field and complicated characteristics, which makes them very difficult to characterize. In particular, there are turbulent eddies that are moving through the jet at high speeds along the jet boundary. These turbulent eddies in the shear layer produce a directional and frequency dependent noise. The original HELS approach assumes a spherical source at the origin and computes the acoustic field based on spherical emission from this source. This assumption of one source at the origin is not sufficient to characterize a complex source like a jet. As such, a modified HELS approach is introduced that will help improve the source characterization as it is not dependent on a single source at the origin but a number of virtual sources throughout the space. Custom microphones are created to take acoustic pressure measurements around the jet engine. These measured acoustic pressures are then taken as input to the modified HELS algorithm to visualize the noise pattern of a subsonic jet engine.

  10. Exploring Venus interior structure with infrasonic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mimoun, David; Garcia, Raphael; Cadu, Alexandre; Cutts, Jim; Komjathy, Attila; Pauken, Mike; Kedar, Sharon; Jackson, Jennifer; Stevenson, Dave

    2017-04-01

    Radar images have revealed a surface of Venus that is much younger than expected, as well as a variety of enigmatic features linked to the tectonic activity. If probing the interior structure of Venus is a formidable challenge, it is still of primary importance for understanding Venus itself, its relationship to Earth and more generally the evolution of Earth-like planets. Conventional long period seismology uses very broadband seismic sensors that require to be in contact with the planetary surface, like for the Apollo missions and for the Mars Insight mission; this approach is in the short term impractical for Venus because of its extreme temperature and pressure surface conditions. Russian probes such as Venera 13-14 have only lasted a few tens of minutes, when the required duration of the seismic measurements, based on a rough estimate of the Venus tectonic activity, is at least of a few months. We propose as a possible way forward to use the very conditions at the surface of Venus to record the signal in a more suitable environment: as acoustic and infrasonic waves resulting from seismic activity are coupled much more efficiently than on Earth in the dense carbon dioxide atmosphere, a string of micro-barometers deployed on a tether by a balloon platform at Venus over the cloud layer would record this infrasonic counterpart. Such an experiment could encompass a wide range of scientific objectives, from the characterization of the infrasonic background of Venus to the ability to record, and possibly discriminate, signatures from volcanic events, storm activity, and meteor impacts. We will discuss our proposed Venus experiment, as well as the experimental validation effort that takes place on Earth to validate the idea and possibly record infrasonic seismic counterparts

  11. Tidal constraints on the interior of Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumoulin, Caroline; Tobie, Gabriel; Verhoeven, Olivier; Rosenblatt, Pascal; Rambaux, Nicolas

    2017-04-01

    As a prospective study for a future exploration of Venus, we compute the tidal response of Venus' interior assuming various mantle compositions and temperature profiles representative of different scenarios of Venus' formation and evolution. The mantle density and seismic velocities are modeled from thermodynamical equilibria of mantle minerals and used to predict the moment of inertia, Love numbers and tidal lag characterizing the signature of the internal structure in the gravity field. The viscoelasticity of the mantle is parameterized using an Andrade rheology. From the models considered here, the moment of inertia lies in the range of 0.327 to 0.342, corresponding to a core radius of 2900 to 3450 km. The potential Love number, k2, varies from 0.25 to 0.36. Viscoelasticity of the mantle strongly increases the Love number relative to previous elastic models : depending on mantle viscosity, k2 is increased by up to 25% using a liquid core. Moreover, once a viscoelastic rheology is assumed for the core, our calculations show that the estimation of k2 from tracking of Magellan and Pioneer Venus Orbiter does not rule out the possibility of a completely solid core. Except if the solid core has a high viscosity (≥ 1018 Pa.s), solutions with both liquid and solid cores are consistent with the present-day estimation of k2. More accurate estimation of the Love number together with estimation of tidal lag by future exploration mission are required to determine the state of Venus' core and to constrain the thermo-compositional evolution of the mantle.

  12. Full waveform inversion of solar interior flows

    SciTech Connect

    Hanasoge, Shravan M.

    2014-12-10

    The inference of flows of material in the interior of the Sun is a subject of major interest in helioseismology. Here, we apply techniques of full waveform inversion (FWI) to synthetic data to test flow inversions. In this idealized setup, we do not model seismic realization noise, training the focus entirely on the problem of whether a chosen supergranulation flow model can be seismically recovered. We define the misfit functional as a sum of L {sub 2} norm deviations in travel times between prediction and observation, as measured using short-distance filtered f and p {sub 1} and large-distance unfiltered p modes. FWI allows for the introduction of measurements of choice and iteratively improving the background model, while monitoring the evolution of the misfit in all desired categories. Although the misfit is seen to uniformly reduce in all categories, convergence to the true model is very slow, possibly because it is trapped in a local minimum. The primary source of error is inaccurate depth localization, which, due to density stratification, leads to wrong ratios of horizontal and vertical flow velocities ({sup c}ross talk{sup )}. In the present formulation, the lack of sufficient temporal frequency and spatial resolution makes it difficult to accurately localize flow profiles at depth. We therefore suggest that the most efficient way to discover the global minimum is to perform a probabilistic forward search, involving calculating the misfit associated with a broad range of models (generated, for instance, by a Monte Carlo algorithm) and locating the deepest minimum. Such techniques possess the added advantage of being able to quantify model uncertainty as well as realization noise (data uncertainty).

  13. Lunar interior properties from the GRAIL mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, James G.; Konopliv, Alexander S.; Boggs, Dale H.; Park, Ryan S.; Yuan, Dah-Ning; Lemoine, Frank G.; Goossens, Sander; Mazarico, Erwan; Nimmo, Francis; Weber, Renee C.; Asmar, Sami W.; Melosh, H. Jay; Neumann, Gregory A.; Phillips, Roger J.; Smith, David E.; Solomon, Sean C.; Watkins, Michael M.; Wieczorek, Mark A.; Andrews-Hanna, Jeffrey C.; Head, James W.; Kiefer, Walter S.; Matsuyama, Isamu; McGovern, Patrick J.; Taylor, G. Jeffrey; Zuber, Maria T.

    2014-07-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission has sampled lunar gravity with unprecedented accuracy and resolution. The lunar GM, the product of the gravitational constant G and the mass M, is very well determined. However, uncertainties in the mass and mean density, 3345.56 ± 0.40 kg/m3, are limited by the accuracy of G. Values of the spherical harmonic degree-2 gravity coefficients J2 and C22, as well as the Love number k2 describing lunar degree-2 elastic response to tidal forces, come from two independent analyses of the 3 month GRAIL Primary Mission data at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the Goddard Space Flight Center. The two k2 determinations, with uncertainties of ~1%, differ by 1%; the average value is 0.02416 ± 0.00022 at a 1 month period with reference radius R = 1738 km. Lunar laser ranging (LLR) data analysis determines (C - A)/B and (B - A)/C, where A < B < C are the principal moments of inertia; the flattening of the fluid outer core; the dissipation at its solid boundaries; and the monthly tidal dissipation Q = 37.5 ± 4. The moment of inertia computation combines the GRAIL-determined J2 and C22 with LLR-derived (C - A)/B and (B - A)/C. The normalized mean moment of inertia of the solid Moon is Is/MR2 = 0.392728 ± 0.000012. Matching the density, moment, and Love number, calculated models have a fluid outer core with radius of 200-380 km, a solid inner core with radius of 0-280 km and mass fraction of 0-1%, and a deep mantle zone of low seismic shear velocity. The mass fraction of the combined inner and outer core is ≤1.5%.

  14. Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL): Mapping the Lunar Interior from Crust to Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuber, Maria T.; Smith, David E.; Lehman, David H.; Hoffman, Tom L.; Asmar, Sami W.; Watkins, Michael M.

    2013-09-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) is a spacecraft-to-spacecraft tracking mission that was developed to map the structure of the lunar interior by producing a detailed map of the gravity field. The resulting model of the interior will be used to address outstanding questions regarding the Moon's thermal evolution, and will be applicable more generally to the evolution of all terrestrial planets. Each GRAIL orbiter contains a Lunar Gravity Ranging System instrument that conducts dual-one-way ranging measurements to measure precisely the relative motion between them, which in turn are used to develop the lunar gravity field map. Each orbiter also carries an Education/Public Outreach payload, Moon Knowledge Acquired by Middle-School Students (MoonKAM), in which middle school students target images of the Moon for subsequent classroom analysis. Subsequent to a successful launch on September 10, 2011, the twin GRAIL orbiters embarked on independent trajectories on a 3.5-month-long cruise to the Moon via the EL-1 Lagrange point. The spacecraft were inserted into polar orbits on December 31, 2011 and January 1, 2012. After a succession of 19 maneuvers the two orbiters settled into precision formation to begin science operations in March 1, 2012 with an average altitude of 55 km. The Primary Mission, which consisted of three 27.3-day mapping cycles, was successfully completed in June 2012. The extended mission will permit a second three-month mapping phase at an average altitude of 23 km. This paper provides an overview of the mission: science objectives and measurements, spacecraft and instruments, mission development and design, and data flow and data products.

  15. 42. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, NORTHWEST CORNER OF GRAND STAIRCASE (STAIRS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, NORTHWEST CORNER OF GRAND STAIRCASE (STAIRS G), SIDE AISLE, WEST WALL, THE NEGRO'S CONTRIBUTION IN THE SOCIAL AND CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT OF AMERICA: SCIENCE MURAL - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  16. 43. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, SOUTHWEST CORNER OF GRAND STAIRCASE (STAIRS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, SOUTHWEST CORNER OF GRAND STAIRCASE (STAIRS G), SIDE AISLE, WEST WALL, THE NEGRO'S CONTRIBUTION IN THE SOCIAL AND CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT OF AMERICA: THE ARTS MURAL - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  17. Effects of propeller rotation direction on airplane interior noise levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, C. M.; Mayes, W. H.; Daniels, E. F.

    1985-01-01

    Interior noise measurements for upsweeping and downsweeping movement of the propeller blade tips past the fuselage were made on a twin-engine airplane and on two simplified fuselage models. Changes in interior noise levels of as much as 8 dB reversal of propeller rotation direction were measured for some configurations and test conditions.

  18. Interior Design Education within a Human Ecological Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaup, Migette L.; Anderson, Barbara G.; Honey, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    An education based in human ecology can greatly benefit interior designers as they work to understand and improve the human condition. Design programs housed in colleges focusing on human ecology can improve the interior design profession by taking advantage of their home base and emphasizing the human ecological framework in the design curricula.…

  19. 55. Interior of launch support building, diesel motor generator at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. Interior of launch support building, diesel motor generator at center left, diesel electric unit at upper center, batteries at bottom center, view towards northwest - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  20. 10. CONTROL ROOM INTERIOR. Looking into southwest corner. CONTROL ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. CONTROL ROOM INTERIOR. Looking into southwest corner. CONTROL ROOM INTERIOR, SHOWING ESCAPE HATCH. Looking north along east wall. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Instrumentation & Control Building, Test Area 1-115, northwest end of Saturn Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  1. 149. INTERIOR, EIGHTH FLOOR, SOUTH PENTHOUSE, FORMERLY EMPLOYEES' LOUNGE, SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    149. INTERIOR, EIGHTH FLOOR, SOUTH PENTHOUSE, FORMERLY EMPLOYEES' LOUNGE, SOUTH ANNEX, DETAIL OF BRONZE WALL LIGHTING FIXTURE (4' x 5' negative; 8' x 10' print) - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  2. 19. DETAIL OF INTERIOR WALL CONSTRUCTION, VIEW TOWARD SOUTH, THIRD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. DETAIL OF INTERIOR WALL CONSTRUCTION, VIEW TOWARD SOUTH, THIRD BAY Showing asphalt felt applied to both sides of interior wall studs beneath wood cladding. Back-nailing of felt indicates sequence of felt and cladding installation. - U.S. Military Academy, Ice House, Mills Road at Howze Place, West Point, Orange County, NY

  3. 51. Interior of launch support building, minuteman power processor at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. Interior of launch support building, minuteman power processor at lower left, power distribution panel at center, old diesel control panel at lower right, diesel battery at upper right, view towards west - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  4. 49 CFR 238.233 - Interior fittings and surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interior fittings and surfaces. 238.233 Section... I Passenger Equipment § 238.233 Interior fittings and surfaces. (a) Each seat in a passenger car... passenger car shall be either avoided or padded to mitigate the consequences of an impact with such...

  5. 17. INTERIOR OF TAN 629 HANGAR, TAKEN FROM HIGH ROOF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. INTERIOR OF TAN 629 HANGAR, TAKEN FROM HIGH ROOF ON NORTH SIDE, FACING SOUTH. DETAIL OF INTERIOR CORNER, SHOWING JOINT BETWEEN BARREL VAULT AND SIDE WALLS, ENTRY TO DOOR POCKET. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Hangar No. 629, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. 14. INTERIOR OF TAN 629 HANGAR, TAKEN ON LOW ROOF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. INTERIOR OF TAN 629 HANGAR, TAKEN ON LOW ROOF ON WEST SIDE, FACING EAST. DETAIL OF INTERIOR OF HANGAR DOORS, SMC DUCTWORK, AND TRIANGULAR BRACES SUPPORTING WALL ABOVE DOORS. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Hangar No. 629, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. Detail, interior side of doubleplanked door, north end, Burton Park ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, interior side of double-planked door, north end, Burton Park Club House, view to east-southeast (135mm lens). Note diagonal sheathing of interior surface, wrought-iron strap hinges. - Burton Park, Club House & Amphitheater, Adjacent ot south end of Chestnut Avenue, San Carlos, San Mateo County, CA

  8. Assembly room, bunkhouse first floor interior. Vent pipe for missing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Assembly room, bunkhouse first floor interior. Vent pipe for missing heating stove exited through opening into chimney, seen on the far wall. Walls are exposed studs and bracing with board and battan on the exterior and interior sides. - Sespe Ranch, Bunkhouse, 2896 Telegraph Road, Fillmore, Ventura County, CA

  9. Interior-Point Methods for Linear Programming: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, J. N.; Singh, D.

    2002-01-01

    The paper reviews some recent advances in interior-point methods for linear programming and indicates directions in which future progress can be made. Most of the interior-point methods belong to any of three categories: affine-scaling methods, potential reduction methods and central path methods. These methods are discussed together with…

  10. Decline of forest interior conditions in the conterminous United States

    Treesearch

    Kurt H. Riitters; James D. Wickham

    2012-01-01

    Forest fragmentation threatens the sustainability of forest interior environments, thereby endangering subordinate ecological attributes and functions. We analyzed the spatial patterns of forest loss and gain for the conterminous United States from 2001 to 2006 to determine whether forest interior environments were maintained at five spatial scales. A 1.1% net loss of...

  11. 44. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, NORTHEAST CORNER OF GRAND STAIRCASE (STAIRS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, NORTHEAST CORNER OF GRAND STAIRCASE (STAIRS G), SIDE AISLE, EAST WALL, THE NEGRO'S CONTRIBUTION IN THE SOCIAL AND CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT OF AMERICA: RELIGION MURAL (4' x 5' negative; 8' x 10' print) - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  12. Interior-Point Methods for Linear Programming: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, J. N.; Singh, D.

    2002-01-01

    The paper reviews some recent advances in interior-point methods for linear programming and indicates directions in which future progress can be made. Most of the interior-point methods belong to any of three categories: affine-scaling methods, potential reduction methods and central path methods. These methods are discussed together with…

  13. 19. Interior view of large unoccupied office space looking towards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Interior view of large unoccupied office space looking towards opened doorway to corridor; showing interior and exterior windows, and separated office space; main portion of east wing on main floor; view to south. - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Group Administration & Secure Storage Building, 2372 Westover Avenue, Blackhawk, Meade County, SD

  14. INTERIOR VIEW OF JAMES HARRIS CUTTING SCREW THREADS INTO THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF JAMES HARRIS CUTTING SCREW THREADS INTO THE INTERIOR OF FITTINGS ON ONE IN A BANK OF TAPPING MACHINES, EACH OPERATED BY THE SAME WORKER SIMULTANEOUSLY BUT TIMED TO REQUIRE WORKER ACTION AT INTERVALS THAT DO NOT INTERFERE WITH THE OTHER MACHINES. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Tapping Room, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  15. 33. Interior view of N room of mill, looking NW, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Interior view of N room of mill, looking NW, showing interior of W wall and cast-iron columns and arches. - Hacienda Azurarera Santa Elena, Sugar Mill Ruins, 1.44 miles North of PR Route 2 Bridge Over Rio De La Plata, Toa Baja, Toa Baja Municipio, PR

  16. IBHVG2: Mortar Simulation With Interior Propellant Canister

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    pressure igniter canister. The application allows initial pressurization of the canister until interior pressure reaches a force high enough to rupture... Pressure versus time curves from appendices A, B, D, and F.........................................8 Figure 3. Projectile velocity versus time...curves from appendices A, B, D, and F. ........................9 Figure 4. Canister interior pressures

  17. Interior Design Standards in the Secondary FCS Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Shana H.; Smith, Bettye P.

    2006-01-01

    This article deals with a study on interior design standards in the secondary FCS curriculum. This study assessed the importance FCS teachers placed on content standards in the interior design curriculum to help determine the amount of time and emphasis to place on the units within the courses. A cover letter and questionnaire were sent…

  18. 25. Interior detail view of women's waiting area, showing exposed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Interior detail view of women's waiting area, showing exposed roof construction with lacquered finish, decorative cove molding at intersection of roof and walls, and interior framing details - Bend Railroad Depot, 1160 Northeast Divion Street (At foot of Kearny Street), Bend, Deschutes County, OR

  19. 25. VIEW FROM MAIN HALL THROUGH INTERIOR WINDOW TO SOLARIUM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. VIEW FROM MAIN HALL THROUGH INTERIOR WINDOW TO SOLARIUM Note how much light enters this interior space from the solarium. The hall also receives light from the lightwell window of the main stairs to the third floor, out of sight to the left. - Woodrow Wilson House, 2340 South S Street, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  20. INTERIOR VIEW ON SEVENTH FLOOR ALONG EAST (CLAY STREET) FRONT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW ON SEVENTH FLOOR ALONG EAST (CLAY STREET) FRONT. TYPICAL INTERIOR CONDITIONS OF PARTIAL DEMOLITION; SUSPENDED CEILING AND MOVABLE PARTITION WALLS REMOVED, REMAINS OF DEMOLISHED SHEET METAL CORNICE FROM BUILDING EXTERIOR VISIBLE ON FLOOR - John Breuner & Company Building, 1515 Clay Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  1. Interior Design Supports Art Education: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemons, Stephanie A.

    2006-01-01

    Interior design, as a field of study, is a rapidly growing area of interest--particularly for teenagers in the United States. Part of this interest stems from the proliferation of design-related reality shows available through television media. Some art educators and curriculum specialists in the nation perceive the study of interior spaces as a…

  2. 36 CFR 1192.155 - Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions. 1192.155 Section 1192.155 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND... TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Over-the-Road Buses and Systems § 1192.155 Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions...

  3. Interior Design Education within a Human Ecological Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaup, Migette L.; Anderson, Barbara G.; Honey, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    An education based in human ecology can greatly benefit interior designers as they work to understand and improve the human condition. Design programs housed in colleges focusing on human ecology can improve the interior design profession by taking advantage of their home base and emphasizing the human ecological framework in the design curricula.…

  4. Interior Design Supports Art Education: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemons, Stephanie A.

    2006-01-01

    Interior design, as a field of study, is a rapidly growing area of interest--particularly for teenagers in the United States. Part of this interest stems from the proliferation of design-related reality shows available through television media. Some art educators and curriculum specialists in the nation perceive the study of interior spaces as a…

  5. Interior Design Standards in the Secondary FCS Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Shana H.; Smith, Bettye P.

    2006-01-01

    This article deals with a study on interior design standards in the secondary FCS curriculum. This study assessed the importance FCS teachers placed on content standards in the interior design curriculum to help determine the amount of time and emphasis to place on the units within the courses. A cover letter and questionnaire were sent…

  6. 50. INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTH AT FIRST FLOOR MACHINE SHOP: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTH AT FIRST FLOOR MACHINE SHOP: Interior view towards south of the machine shop located on the first floor of the powerhouse and car barn. Compare this view with CA-12-74, taken seventeen years earlier. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  7. 49 CFR 238.435 - Interior fittings and surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Interior fittings and surfaces. 238.435 Section... II Passenger Equipment § 238.435 Interior fittings and surfaces. (a) Each seat back and seat.... (g) Energy-absorbent material shall be used to pad surfaces likely to be impacted by occupants during...

  8. 49 CFR 238.435 - Interior fittings and surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Interior fittings and surfaces. 238.435 Section... II Passenger Equipment § 238.435 Interior fittings and surfaces. (a) Each seat back and seat.... (g) Energy-absorbent material shall be used to pad surfaces likely to be impacted by occupants during...

  9. 49 CFR 238.233 - Interior fittings and surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Interior fittings and surfaces. 238.233 Section... I Passenger Equipment § 238.233 Interior fittings and surfaces. (a) Each seat in a passenger car... passenger car shall be either avoided or padded to mitigate the consequences of an impact with such surfaces...

  10. 49 CFR 238.233 - Interior fittings and surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Interior fittings and surfaces. 238.233 Section... I Passenger Equipment § 238.233 Interior fittings and surfaces. (a) Each seat in a passenger car... passenger car shall be either avoided or padded to mitigate the consequences of an impact with such surfaces...

  11. 49 CFR 238.435 - Interior fittings and surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interior fittings and surfaces. 238.435 Section... II Passenger Equipment § 238.435 Interior fittings and surfaces. (a) Each seat back and seat.... (g) Energy-absorbent material shall be used to pad surfaces likely to be impacted by occupants during...

  12. 49 CFR 238.435 - Interior fittings and surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Interior fittings and surfaces. 238.435 Section... II Passenger Equipment § 238.435 Interior fittings and surfaces. (a) Each seat back and seat.... (g) Energy-absorbent material shall be used to pad surfaces likely to be impacted by occupants during...

  13. 49 CFR 238.233 - Interior fittings and surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Interior fittings and surfaces. 238.233 Section... I Passenger Equipment § 238.233 Interior fittings and surfaces. (a) Each seat in a passenger car... passenger car shall be either avoided or padded to mitigate the consequences of an impact with such surfaces...

  14. 49 CFR 238.435 - Interior fittings and surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Interior fittings and surfaces. 238.435 Section... II Passenger Equipment § 238.435 Interior fittings and surfaces. (a) Each seat back and seat.... (g) Energy-absorbent material shall be used to pad surfaces likely to be impacted by occupants during...

  15. 49 CFR 238.233 - Interior fittings and surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Interior fittings and surfaces. 238.233 Section... I Passenger Equipment § 238.233 Interior fittings and surfaces. (a) Each seat in a passenger car... passenger car shall be either avoided or padded to mitigate the consequences of an impact with such surfaces...

  16. Interior view to show inside of one of the three ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view to show inside of one of the three octagonal-shaped pavilions; note interior seating. View taken from beginning of the causeway just outside the Music Hall (MD-1109-G) - National Park Seminary, Chateau Causeways, Between Linden Lane & Beach Drive, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  17. Resilience of Athabascan subsistence systems to interior Alaska's changing climate

    Treesearch

    Gary P. Kofinas; F. Stuart Chapin; Shauna BurnSilver; Jennifer I. Schmidt; Nancy L. Fresco; Knut Kielland; Stephanie Martin; Anna Springsteen; T. Scott Rupp

    2010-01-01

    Subsistence harvesting and wild food production by Athabascan peoples is part of an integrated social-ecological system of interior Alaska. We describe effects of recent trends and future climate change projections on the boreal ecosystem of interior Alaska and relate changes in ecosystem services to Athabascan subsistence. We focus primarily on moose, a keystone...

  18. 52. Interior of launch support building, hydraulic pumping unit at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. Interior of launch support building, hydraulic pumping unit at lower center, service disconnect at right, view towards south - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  19. Mood perception of interior colors in a gym

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, Haruyo; Koizumi, Naoko

    2002-06-01

    When people enter a gym, they feel more like exercising in some cases than other cases. The interior color of the space may be a contributing factor. This paper discusses how the interior color of a gym affects female subjects in their twenties and forties to fifties both physiologically and psychologically.

  20. 17. Interior view, greenhouse, north wall taken from the ground. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Interior view, greenhouse, north wall taken from the ground. Stucco-painted white-covered the interior walls in order to seal-off any drafts and to reflect the sunlight entering through the east-facing windows. - John Bartram House & Garden, Greenhouse, 54th Street & LIndbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  1. 17. Interior detail, pilaster on transverse wall at the northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Interior detail, pilaster on transverse wall at the northeast end of the Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to northeast (90mm lens). Note the offset top of the pilaster, a feature common to all interior transverse wall pilasters. - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  2. 45. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, SOUTHEAST CORNER OF GRAND STAIRCASE (STAIRS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, SOUTHEAST CORNER OF GRAND STAIRCASE (STAIRS G), SIDE AISLE, EAST WALL, THE NEGRO'S CONTRIBUTION IN THE SOCIAL AND CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT OF AMERICA: EDUCATION MURAL - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  3. 27. FET 59862 VIEW OF INTERIOR OF TAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. FET 59-862 VIEW OF INTERIOR OF TAN 629 HANGAR LOOKING TOWARDS NORTHEAST CORNER SHOWING INTERIOR FACE OF SLIDING DOORS DURING CONSTRUCTION. SHROUDS COVER COUPLING STATION. PHOTO DATE: FEBRUARY 20, 1959. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Hangar No. 629, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. The Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project: scientific assessment.

    Treesearch

    1999-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains digital versions (PDF) of the major scientific documents prepared for the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project (ICBEMP). "A Framework for Ecosystem Management in the Interior Columbia Basin and Portions of the Klamath and Great Basins" describes a general planning model for ecosystem management. The "Highlighted...

  5. A research to reduce interior noise in general aviation airplanes. General aviation interior noise study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roskam, J.; Muirhead, V. U.; Smith, H. W.; Peschier, T. D.

    1977-01-01

    The construction, calibration, and properties of a facility for measuring sound transmission through aircraft type panels are described along with the theoretical and empirical methods used. Topics discussed include typical noise source, sound transmission path, and acoustic cabin properties and their effect on interior noise. Experimental results show an average sound transmission loss in the mass controlled frequency region comparable to theoretical predictions. The results also verify that transmission losses in the stiffness controlled region directly depend on the fundamental frequency of the panel. Experimental and theoretical results indicate that increases in this frequency, and consequently in transmission loss, can be achieved by applying pressure differentials across the specimen.

  6. Schiaparelli Crater Rim and Interior Deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A portion of the rim and interior of the large impact crater Schiaparelli is seen at different resolutions in images acquired October 18, 1997 by the Mars Global Surveyor Orbiter Camera (MOC) and by the Viking Orbiter 1 twenty years earlier. The left image is a MOC wide angle camera 'context' image showing much of the eastern portion of the crater at roughly 1 km (0.6 mi) per picture element. The image is about 390 by 730 km (240 X 450 miles). Shown within the wide angle image is the outline of a portion of the best Viking image (center, 371S53), acquired at a resolution of about 240 m/pixel (790 feet). The area covered is 144 X 144 km (89 X 89 miles). The right image is the high resolution narrow angle camera view. The area covered is very small--3.9 X 10.2 km (2.4 X 6.33 mi)--but is seen at 63 times higher resolution than the Viking image. The subdued relief and bright surface are attributed to blanketing by dust; many small craters have been completely filled in, and only the most recent (and very small) craters appear sharp and bowl-shaped. Some of the small craters are only 10-12 m (30-35 feet) across. Occasional dark streaks on steeper slopes are small debris slides that have probably occurred in the past few decades. The two prominent, narrow ridges in the center of the image may be related to the adjustment of the crater floor to age or the weight of the material filling the basin.

    Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  7. CHIC - Coupling Habitability, Interior and Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noack, Lena; Labbe, Francois; Boiveau, Thomas; Rivoldini, Attilio; Van Hoolst, Tim

    2014-05-01

    We present a new code developed for simulating convection in terrestrial planets and icy moons. The code CHIC is written in Fortran and employs the finite volume method and finite difference method for solving energy, mass and momentum equations in either silicate or icy mantles. The code uses either Cartesian (2D and 3D box) or spherical coordinates (2D cylinder or annulus). It furthermore contains a 1D parametrised model to obtain temperature profiles in specific regions, for example in the iron core or in the silicate mantle (solving only the energy equation). The 2D/3D convection model uses the same input parameters as the 1D model, which allows for comparison of the different models and adaptation of the 1D model, if needed. The code has already been benchmarked for the following aspects: - viscosity-dependent rheology (Blankenbach et al., 1989) - pseudo-plastic deformation (Tosi et al., in preparation phase) - subduction mechanism and plastic deformation (Quinquis et al., in preparation phase) New features that are currently developed and benchmarked include: - compressibility (following King et al., 2009 and Leng and Zhong, 2008) - different melt modules (Plesa et al., in preparation phase) - freezing of an inner core (comparison with GAIA code, Huettig and Stemmer, 2008) - build-up of oceanic and continental crust (Noack et al., in preparation phase) The code represents a useful tool to couple the interior with the surface of a planet (e.g. via build-up and erosion of crust) and it's atmosphere (via outgassing on the one hand and subduction of hydrated crust and carbonates back into the mantle). It will be applied to investigate several factors that might influence the habitability of a terrestrial planet, and will also be used to simulate icy bodies with high-pressure ice phases. References: Blankenbach et al. (1989). A benchmark comparison for mantle convection codes. GJI 98, 23-38. Huettig and Stemmer (2008). Finite volume discretization for dynamic

  8. High order total variation method for interior tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jiansheng; Yu, Hengyong; Cong, Wenxiang; Jiang, Ming; Wang, Ge

    2012-10-01

    While classic CT theory targets exact reconstruction of a whole cross-section or an entire object, practical applications often focus on a region of interest (ROI). The long-standing interior problem is well known that an internal ROI cannot be exactly reconstruct only from truncated projection data associated with x-rays through the ROI. Although lambda tomography was developed to target gradient-like features of an internal ROI for the interior problem, it has not been well accepted in the biomedical community. On the other hand, approximate local reconstruction methods are subject to biases and artifacts. Recently, the interior problem is re-visited with appropriate prior knowledge, delivering practical results. First, the interior problem can be exactly and stably solved if a sub-region in an ROI is known. Thereafter, the sub-region knowledge can be replaced by certain rather weak constraints. For local reconstruction, a candidate image can be represented as the sum of the truth and an ambiguity component. Very surprisingly, the ROI image is prove to be the unique minimizer of the total variation (TV) or high order total variation (HOT) functional subject to the measurement, if the ROI is piece-wise constant or polynomial. Interior tomography algorithms based on HOT minimization have been developed for x-ray CT, and then extended for interior SPECT and interior differential phasecontrast tomography, respectively. In this paper, we will summarize the main theoretical and algorithmic results.

  9. Interior's Climate Science Centers: Focus or Fail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udall, B.

    2012-12-01

    After a whirlwind two years of impressive and critical infrastructure building, the Department of Interior's Climate Science Centers are now in a position to either succeed or fail. The CSCs have a number of difficult structural problems including too many constituencies relative to the available resources, an uneasy relationship among many of the constituencies including the DOI agencies themselves, a need to do science in a new, difficult and non-traditional way, and a short timeframe to produce useful products. The CSCs have built a broad and impressive network of scientists and stakeholders. These entities include science providers of the universities and the USGS, and decision makers from the states, tribes, DOI land managers and other federal agencies and NGOs. Rather than try to support all of these constituencies the CSCs would be better served by refocusing on a core mission of supporting DOI climate related decision making. The CSCs were designed to service the climate science needs of DOI agencies, many of which lost their scientific capabilities in the 1990s due to a well-intentioned but ultimately harmful re-organization at DOI involving the now defunct National Biological Survey. Many of these agencies would like to have their own scientists, have an uneasy relationship with the nominal DOI science provider, the USGS, and don't communicate effectively among themselves. The CSCs must not succumb to pursuing science in either the traditional mode of the USGS or in the traditional mode of the universities, or worse, both of them. These scientific partners will need to be flexible, learn how to collaborate and should expect to see fewer resources. Useful CSC processes and outputs should start with the recommendations of the 2009 NRC Report Informing Decisions in a Changing Climate: (1) begin with users' needs; (2) give priority to process over products; (3) link information producers and users; (4) build connections across disciplines and organizations

  10. Enceladus' Interior: A Liquid Circulation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matson, Dennis L.; Johnson, Torrence; Lunine, Jonathan; Castillo-Rogez, Julie

    We are studying a model for Enceladus' interior in which the water, gas, dust and heat are supplied to the plumes by a relatively deeply circulating brine solution. Data indicates such a source for the erupting material. On the basis of ammonia in the plume gas Waite et al. [1] suggested that the jets might originate from a liquid water region under Enceladus' icy surface. Postberg et al. [2] noted that the presence of ". . . grains that are rich in sodium salts (0.5-2 percent by mass). . . can arise only if the plumes originate from liquid water." Waite et al. [1] also regard the some of the plume chemicals as evidence for interactions with an ice layer presumably overlying the liquid water reservoir. They suggest that this could be in the form of dissociation of clathrate hydrates [3]. Additionally, there is a large heat flow of more than 15 GW [4, 5] coming out of Enceladus' south polar region. We consider a model that brings heat and chemical species up to the surface from a reservoir or "ocean" located below the ice crust that may be many tens of kilometers thick. Water transits to the surface via vertical conduits. The Cassini INMS data suggest that the water has a relatively large gas content of order a few percent. As the water travels upward and the pressure is released, exolving gases form bubbles. Since the bubbly liquid is less dense than the ice, it moves upward. (This part of the model is a variant of the "Perrier Ocean" Europa model of Crawford and Stevenson [6]. A similar model was studied for Ganymede by Murchie and Head [7].) Postberg et al. [2] model the plume eruptions that result from the water, gases, salts, and other chemicals that our circulation model provides. In the near-surface reservoir feeding the plumes, bubbles reaching the surface of the water pop and throw a very fine spray. Some of these very small droplets of brine exit with the plume gas and provide the observed salt-rich dust particles [2]. Much of the water-borne heat is

  11. Lunar Crater Interiors with High Circular Polarization Signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weitz, C. M.; Campbell, B. A.; Morgan, G.

    2015-12-01

    We analyzed 12.6-cm Earth-based radar images of the Moon to search for older craters (pre-Copernican) that display high values of the circular polarization ratio (CPR) on their interior walls. These craters have highly eroded rims and ejecta, indicating that there must be a source exposed within the crater interior that is continuously creating a rougher surface. Of particular interest are craters between 10-25 km in diameter that occur in smooth plains in the highlands, where competent layers are not expected as they are for the mare. After identifying these high-CPR interiors in pre-Copernican craters, we studied LROC NAC and Kaguya TC images to search for possible albedo and layering on crater interior walls that might signal the presence of anomalous material. Our results indicate that high-CPR craters generally have boulder fields clustered around their upper interior walls. We divide the high-CPR craters into three types: (1) craters on the layered mare lava flows; (2) craters in the highlands that correlate to mapped locations of smooth plains; and (3) craters on the highlands that are not associated with smooth plains. Most of the high-CPR craters in the highlands are associated with Eratosthenian-period craters, and most of these are also on smooth plains, indicating that impact melt sheets are a likely source for the boulders exposed on their interior walls. Statistical analyses will be performed after incorporating multiple lunar datasets into GIS to quantify these preliminary interpretations. Figure 1. Example of high-CPR crater Zagut A located on smooth plains in the highlands. LROC images showing boulders on (a) northern crater interior wall and (b) southern crater interior wall. (c) Stronlgy enhanced values of CPR are observed for the interior of Zagut A.

  12. Interior says new management will solve OSM's problems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-10-01

    This article describes Interior Secretary Donald P. Hodel's plans to deal with many of the problems that plague the Office of Surface Mining (OSM) by realigning OSM management. An eight week joint review by the Interior Department and the House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs has indentified significant problems affecting OSM's policy and planning, state oversight and assistance, abandoned mine lands, and federal mining permits and penalties programs. Problems also were found with OSM's automatic data processing systems. The joint review also pointed to a lack of management control and direction.

  13. Virtual Reality as Innovative Approach to the Interior Designing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaleja, Pavol; Kozlovská, Mária

    2017-06-01

    We can observe significant potential of information and communication technologies (ICT) in interior designing field, by development of software and hardware virtual reality tools. Using ICT tools offer realistic perception of proposal in its initial idea (the study). A group of real-time visualization, supported by hardware tools like Oculus Rift HTC Vive, provides free walkthrough and movement in virtual interior with the possibility of virtual designing. By improving of ICT software tools for designing in virtual reality we can achieve still more realistic virtual environment. The contribution presented proposal of an innovative approach of interior designing in virtual reality, using the latest software and hardware ICT virtual reality technologies

  14. Interior and its implications for the atmosphere. [effects of Titan interior structure on its atmospheric composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, J. S.

    1974-01-01

    The bulk composition and interior structure of Titan required to explain the presence of a substantial methane atmosphere are shown to imply the presence of solid CH4 - 7H2O in Titan's primitive material. Consideration of the possible composition and structure of the present atmosphere shows plausible grounds for considering models with total atmospheric pressures ranging from approximately 20 mb up to approximately 1 kb. Expectations regarding the physical state of the surface and its chemical composition are strongly conditioned by the mass of atmosphere believed to be present. A surface of solid CH4, liquid CH4 solid, CH4 hydrate, H2O ice, aqueous NH3 solution, or even a non-surface of supercritical H2O-NH3-CH4 fluid could be rationalized.

  15. The lunar interior. [compressional velocities of interior materials compared with lunar seismic results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.; Kovach, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    The compressional velocities are estimated for materials thought to be important in the lunar interior and compared with lunar seismic results. The lower lunar crust has velocities appropriate for basalts or anorthosites. Anorthosite is preferred if lunar basalts result from a small degree of partial melting. The high velocities associated with the uppermost mantle imply high densities and a change to a lighter assemblage at depths of the order of 120 km. Ca- and Al-rich minerals are important components of both the lower crust and the upper mantle. Most of the moon may have accreted from refractory material rich in Ca, Al, U, and the rare-earth elements. The important mineral of the upper mantle is garnet; possible accessory minerals are kyanite, spinel and rutile. If the seismic results stand up, the high-velocity layer in the moon is more likely to be a high-pressure form of anorthosite than eclogite, pyroxenite, or dunite.

  16. 6. Interior view of unoccupied space looking up at exposed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Interior view of unoccupied space looking up at exposed roof structure; showing HVAC duct work and wood structure; near center of building; view to northeast. - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Warehouse, 789 Twining Street, Blackhawk, Meade County, SD

  17. Section C, interior of Hudson & Manhattan Railroad Station at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Section C, interior of Hudson & Manhattan Railroad Station at loading dock, showing door to upper vault, looking northeast. (JB) - World Trade Center Site, Bounded by Vesey, Church, Liberty Streets, & Route 9A, New York County, NY

  18. Section C, interior of Hudson & Manhattan Railroad Station basement ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Section C, interior of Hudson & Manhattan Railroad Station basement showing door to vault, looking northwest. (JB) - World Trade Center Site, Bounded by Vesey, Church, Liberty Streets, & Route 9A, New York County, NY

  19. General interior view of parking structure in Section A from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General interior view of parking structure in Section A from level B2 showing "Pony A" on exposed truss, looking west. (JB) - World Trade Center Site, Bounded by Vesey, Church, Liberty Streets, & Route 9A, New York County, NY

  20. Section C, interior of Hudson & Manhattan Railroad Station basement ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Section C, interior of Hudson & Manhattan Railroad Station basement showing tile on columns and outside walls, looking northeast. (BH) - World Trade Center Site, Bounded by Vesey, Church, Liberty Streets, & Route 9A, New York County, NY

  1. Section A, general interior view of blowers used to ventilate ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Section A, general interior view of blowers used to ventilate garages, looking southeast from level B2. (BH) - World Trade Center Site, Bounded by Vesey, Church, Liberty Streets, & Route 9A, New York County, NY

  2. Section C, interior of Hudson & Manhattan Railroad Station basement ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Section C, interior of Hudson & Manhattan Railroad Station basement showing generator pit, looking west. (BH) - World Trade Center Site, Bounded by Vesey, Church, Liberty Streets, & Route 9A, New York County, NY

  3. Section C, interior of Hudson & Manhattan Railroad Station at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Section C, interior of Hudson & Manhattan Railroad Station at loading dock, showing door to vault in vestibule, looking northeast. (JB) - World Trade Center Site, Bounded by Vesey, Church, Liberty Streets, & Route 9A, New York County, NY

  4. 50. INTERIOR VIEW OF PACKING LINE WHERE ALL THE NAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. INTERIOR VIEW OF PACKING LINE WHERE ALL THE NAIL BOXES ARE FORMED, FILLED WITH NAILS AND SEALED; NOTE THESE ARE FIFTY-POUND BOXES - LaBelle Iron Works, Thirtieth & Wood Streets, Wheeling, Ohio County, WV

  5. INTERIOR VIEW OF TYPICAL COVERED ENCLOSED WALKWAY; NOTE HEATING UNITS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF TYPICAL COVERED ENCLOSED WALKWAY; NOTE HEATING UNITS MOUNTED BELOW WINDOWS AND HEATING SYSTEM PIPES ABOVE - Fort McCoy, Building No. T-10600, 4 Quadrants, Block 10, Sparta, Monroe County, WI

  6. 1. PLENUM INTERIOR, SHOWING HEATING COILS AND BYPASS Hot ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. PLENUM INTERIOR, SHOWING HEATING COILS AND BY-PASS - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  7. 3. INTERIOR, CENTRAL BOILER ROOM, FROM MEZZANINE DECK NEAR TOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. INTERIOR, CENTRAL BOILER ROOM, FROM MEZZANINE DECK NEAR TOP OF STAIRWAY, LOOKING NORTH-NORTHEAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Heating Plant, North of B Street & West of Third Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  8. 4. INTERIOR, CENTRAL BOILER ROOM, LOWER LEVEL, BOILERS, FROM SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. INTERIOR, CENTRAL BOILER ROOM, LOWER LEVEL, BOILERS, FROM SOUTHWEST CORNER OF ROOM, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Heating Plant, North of B Street & West of Third Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  9. 3. INTERIOR VIEW OF CENTRAL HEATING STATION, BUILDING 102, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. INTERIOR VIEW OF CENTRAL HEATING STATION, BUILDING 102, SHOWING FURNACES, LOOKING SOUTH. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Central Heating Station, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  10. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 4, FROM UPPER CATWALK SHOWING BOILERS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF BUILDING 4, FROM UPPER CATWALK SHOWING BOILERS AND VENTS, FACING EAST - Roosevelt Base, Central Heating Plant, Corner of Colorado Street & Reeves Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. 5. OBLIQUE INTERIOR VIEW OF CHEMICAL STORAGE BUILDING (#1776), LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. OBLIQUE INTERIOR VIEW OF CHEMICAL STORAGE BUILDING (#1776), LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Chemical Storage, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  12. 10. Interior view of shop area showing grease pit ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Interior view of shop area showing grease pit - Fort Hood, World War II Temporary Buildings, Company Maintenance Shop & Arms Room, North of Park Avenue at Forty-ninth Street, Killeen, Bell County, TX

  13. 12. Interior detail of column base at shop area ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Interior detail of column base at shop area - Fort Hood, World War II Temporary Buildings, Company Maintenance Shop & Arms Room, North of Park Avenue at Forty-ninth Street, Killeen, Bell County, TX

  14. 11. Interior detail showing truss structure at shop area ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Interior detail showing truss structure at shop area - Fort Hood, World War II Temporary Buildings, Company Maintenance Shop & Arms Room, North of Park Avenue at Forty-ninth Street, Killeen, Bell County, TX

  15. Interior, second floor north side of building toward east end ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior, second floor north side of building toward east end - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Open Air Tuberculosis Ward, West Pennington Avenue & North Hickey Street Southwest Corner, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  16. Interior, second floor south side of building toward east end ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior, second floor south side of building toward east end - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Open Air Tuberculosis Ward, West Pennington Avenue & North Hickey Street Southwest Corner, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  17. 8. VIEW OF INTERIOR OF OPERATING HOUSE. 'WORTHINGTON PUMP AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF INTERIOR OF OPERATING HOUSE. 'WORTHINGTON PUMP AND MACHINE COMPANY' PUMP AND MOTOR TO OPERATE GAMES - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Ashurst-Hayden Dam, Gila River, T4S R11E S7, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  18. Interior view of third floor structural elements; camera facing south. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of third floor structural elements; camera facing south. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Supply Building, Walnut Avenue, southeast corner of Walnut Avenue & Fifth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  19. Interior view of second level deck along west side; camera ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of second level deck along west side; camera facing north. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Supply Building, Walnut Avenue, southeast corner of Walnut Avenue & Fifth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  20. Interior detail of third level structural elements at south end; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior detail of third level structural elements at south end; camera facing west. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Supply Building, Walnut Avenue, southeast corner of Walnut Avenue & Fifth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  1. View of interior detail; living room fireplace with builtin cabinetry ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of interior detail; living room fireplace with built-in cabinetry - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Quarters P, Walnut Avenue, northwest corner of Walnut Avenue & Fifth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  2. 9. Interior of 'Pavilion Lounge' at north end of Second ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Interior of 'Pavilion Lounge' at north end of Second Grandstand, showing vaulted ceilings, bar and spider chandelier. (May 1993) - Longacres, Second Grandstand, 1621 Southwest Sixteenth Street, Renton, King County, WA

  3. GENERAL VIEW OF THE INTERIOR OF THE EXTREME NORTH CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF THE INTERIOR OF THE EXTREME NORTH CONTROL TANK SHOWING THE REMAINING PIECES OF EQUIPMENT USED DURING THE REDSTONE ROCKET TESTING PROGRAM. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  4. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH PIPE BEING SPRAYED WITH ZINC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH PIPE BEING SPRAYED WITH ZINC COATING. - United States Pipe & Foundry Company Plant, Coating, Painting, Lining & Packaging Building, 2023 St. Louis Avenue at I-20/59, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  5. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING HEROULT NO. 2 FURNACE (ca. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING HEROULT NO. 2 FURNACE (ca. 1920) AND DC MOTORS (which raise and lower the bus bars) - Braeburn Alloy Steel, Braeburn Road at Allegheny River, Lower Burrell, Westmoreland County, PA

  6. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST SHOWING NO. 1 FURNACE. TO RIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST SHOWING NO. 1 FURNACE. TO RIGHT ARE D.C. MOTORS (which raise and lower the bus bars) - Braeburn Alloy Steel, Braeburn Road at Allegheny River, Lower Burrell, Westmoreland County, PA

  7. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING FURNACE NO. 1 (ca. 1910. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING FURNACE NO. 1 (ca. 1910. Nameplate reads: "Heroult Electric Furnace, Capacity 6 tons, Built by American Bridge Company, Pencoyd, PA, No. 33") - Braeburn Alloy Steel, Braeburn Road at Allegheny River, Lower Burrell, Westmoreland County, PA

  8. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST, SHOWING HEROULT NO. 2 FURNACE (ca. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST, SHOWING HEROULT NO. 2 FURNACE (ca. 1920) AND DETAIL OF CABLES AND BUS BARS (which convey power to electrodes) - Braeburn Alloy Steel, Braeburn Road at Allegheny River, Lower Burrell, Westmoreland County, PA

  9. 3. INTERIOR OF THE WATER FILTRATION PLANT SHOWING REMAINS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. INTERIOR OF THE WATER FILTRATION PLANT SHOWING REMAINS OF THE FILTRATION APPARATUS. - Tower Hill No. 2 Mine, Approximately 0.47 mile Southwest of intersection of Stone Church Road & Township Route 561, Hibbs, Fayette County, PA

  10. 38. INTERIOR VIEW OF TANK. Suspended wooden platform obscures bottom ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. INTERIOR VIEW OF TANK. Suspended wooden platform obscures bottom of tank No date - U.S. Naval Submarine Base, New London Submarine Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT

  11. 21. VIEW OF ESCAPE TRAINING TANK, SHOWING INTERIOR OF CUPOLA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. VIEW OF ESCAPE TRAINING TANK, SHOWING INTERIOR OF CUPOLA AND TOP OF THE TANK, LOOKING NORTHEAST - U.S. Naval Submarine Base, New London Submarine Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT

  12. 3. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 313, SHOWING LABORATORY. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 313, SHOWING LABORATORY. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Laboratory Building, 510 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 175 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  13. 6. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 313, SHOWING LABORATORY. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 313, SHOWING LABORATORY. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Laboratory Building, 510 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 175 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  14. 5. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 313, SHOWING LABORATORY. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 313, SHOWING LABORATORY. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Laboratory Building, 510 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 175 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  15. 7. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 313, SHOWING LABORATORY. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 313, SHOWING LABORATORY. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Laboratory Building, 510 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 175 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  16. INTERIOR VIEW OF FURNACE NO. 2, DRAWING ROOM, SHOWING A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF FURNACE NO. 2, DRAWING ROOM, SHOWING A FLOOR INDICATING FOURCAULT DRAWING MACHINE AND FURNACE. - Chambers-McKee Window Glass Company, Furnace No. 2, Clay Avenue Extension, Jeannette, Westmoreland County, PA

  17. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST, CAST HOUSE OF BLAST FURNACE NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST, CAST HOUSE OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 1 AND BLAST FURNACE NO. 2. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 1 & No. 2, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

  18. 4. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 313, SHOWING LABORATORY. VIEW TO EAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 313, SHOWING LABORATORY. VIEW TO EAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Laboratory Building, 510 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 175 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  19. 9. INTERIOR VIEW OF EYE PRESS AREA; TO LEFT IS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. INTERIOR VIEW OF EYE PRESS AREA; TO LEFT IS A TWO-BAY SLOTTED TYPE FURNACE, TO CENTER IS EYE PRESS, TO RIGHT IS CURCULAR SAW - Warwood Tool Company, Foot of Nineteenth Street, Wheeling, Ohio County, WV

  20. 12. INTERIOR VIEW OF TRANSFORMER BUILDING, HIGHLINE PUMP PLANT, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. INTERIOR VIEW OF TRANSFORMER BUILDING, HIGHLINE PUMP PLANT, SHOWING NEW SWITCHES AND METERS, December 3, 1952 - Highline Canal & Pumping Station, South side of Salt River between Tempe, Phoenix & Mesa, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  1. 13. INTERIOR VIEW, DETAIL OF METERED WARNING BELL (PRIOR TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. INTERIOR VIEW, DETAIL OF METERED WARNING BELL (PRIOR TO ARRIVAL OF TRAINS), LOCATED IN TICKET OFFICE, SOUTHWEST WALL - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Station, Laurel, 101 Lafayette Avenue, Laurel, Prince George's County, MD

  2. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING GE CONTROL PANEL, RHEOSTATS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING GE CONTROL PANEL, RHEOSTATS AND METERS FOR NO. 2 FURNACE. METER TO THE LEFT IS WESTINGHOUSE. - Braeburn Alloy Steel, Braeburn Road at Allegheny River, Lower Burrell, Westmoreland County, PA

  3. 7. OBLIQUE INTERIOR VIEW OF FILTRATION ROOM IN FILTRATION PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. OBLIQUE INTERIOR VIEW OF FILTRATION ROOM IN FILTRATION PLANT (#1773), LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING PUMP NO. 1 AND METERING EQUIPMENT - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  4. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW AT THE WEST ANNEX LOOKING NORTH FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW AT THE WEST ANNEX LOOKING NORTH FROM COLUMN LINE AA-45 SHOWING SECURITY BALCONY TO THE RIGHT. - Offutt Air Force Base, Glenn L. Martin-Nebraska Bomber Plant, Building D, Peacekeeper Drive, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  5. 69. INTERIOR, BUILDING 272 (PLUTONIUM STORAGE BUILDING) LOOKING SOUTHWEST THROUGH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. INTERIOR, BUILDING 272 (PLUTONIUM STORAGE BUILDING) LOOKING SOUTHWEST THROUGH DOOR-WAY INTO PLUTONIUM STORAGE AREA. - Loring Air Force Base, Weapons Storage Area, Northeastern corner of base at northern end of Maine Road, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  6. 71. INTERIOR, BUILDING 272 (PLUTONIUM STORAGE BUILDING) LOOKING NORTHEAST INTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. INTERIOR, BUILDING 272 (PLUTONIUM STORAGE BUILDING) LOOKING NORTHEAST INTO PLUTONIUM STORAGE ROOM SHOWING CUBICLES FOR STORAGE. - Loring Air Force Base, Weapons Storage Area, Northeastern corner of base at northern end of Maine Road, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  7. 3. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTH SHOWING PUNCH AND SHEAR MACHINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTH SHOWING PUNCH AND SHEAR MACHINE (manufactured by Cleveland Punch and Shear Works Company, USA) - Cambria & Indiana Railroad, Blacksmith Shop, .25 miles northwest of Colver, Colver, Cambria County, PA

  8. INTERIOR VIEW OF COLUMN TOPS. CARBON DIOXIDE BUBBLED THROUGH AMMONIONATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF COLUMN TOPS. CARBON DIOXIDE BUBBLED THROUGH AMMONIONATED SALT BRINE TO MAKE BICARBONATE OF SODA. - Solvay Process Company, SA Wetside Building, Between Willis & Milton Avenue, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  9. Interior view of connector between Building Nos. 608 & 609 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of connector between Building Nos. 608 & 609 (HABS CO-172-DS) facing north - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Neuropsychiatric Ward, Southeast Corner of East Nineteenth Avenue & Wheeling Street (formerly South Van Valzuh Street), Aurora, Adams County, CO

  10. INTERIOR OF WARD ROOM WITH RUDDER QUADRANT AND SHAFT LOCATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF WARD ROOM WITH RUDDER QUADRANT AND SHAFT LOCATED ABOVE. NOTE WIRE ROPE ALONG CEILING WHICH RUNS DIRECT TO WHEEL MECHANISM. - Lightship 116, Pier 3, Inner Harbor, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  11. 19. 1925 Main Factory building, interior, view of second floor's ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. 1925 Main Factory building, interior, view of second floor's permutit room, view looking east showing water treatment tanks - North Star Woolen Mill, 109 Portland Avenue South, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  12. 13. Water treatment plant interior view of tanks in control ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Water treatment plant interior view of tanks in control room. View to SW - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

  13. 14. Water treatment plant interior view of chlorination room. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Water treatment plant interior view of chlorination room. View to N - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

  14. 5. INTERIOR, STORAGE AREA AT WESTERN END, FROM SOUTH OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. INTERIOR, STORAGE AREA AT WESTERN END, FROM SOUTH OF LOADING DOCK WELL, LOOKING NORTH. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Coffee Roasting Plant, East of Fourth Street, between J & K, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  15. 6. INTERIOR, OFFICE AREA IN SOUTHWEST CORNER OF BUILDING, FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. INTERIOR, OFFICE AREA IN SOUTHWEST CORNER OF BUILDING, FROM NORTHEAST CORNER OF ROOM, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Coffee Roasting Plant, East of Fourth Street, between J & K, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  16. 10. INTERIOR, UPPER STORY, FROM APPROXIMATE CENTER, LOOKING NORTH, WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. INTERIOR, UPPER STORY, FROM APPROXIMATE CENTER, LOOKING NORTH, WITH GRATED FLOOR OPENING ON RIGHT. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Coffee Roasting Plant, East of Fourth Street, between J & K, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  17. 7. INTERIOR, UPPER STORY LOFT, FROM NORTHWEST CORNER OF ROOM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR, UPPER STORY LOFT, FROM NORTHWEST CORNER OF ROOM, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Coffee Roasting Plant, East of Fourth Street, between J & K, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  18. 11. INTERIOR, MAIN STORAGE AREA IN EASTERN PORTION OF BUILDING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. INTERIOR, MAIN STORAGE AREA IN EASTERN PORTION OF BUILDING, FROM APPROXIMATELY 25 FEET NORTHEAST OF SOUTHWEST CORNER, LOOKING NORTH. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Coffee Roasting Plant, East of Fourth Street, between J & K, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  19. 4. BUILDING 8767, INTERIOR. Looking west. Edwards Air Force ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. BUILDING 8767, INTERIOR. Looking west. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunkers for Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  20. 6. Interior of quarters (executive officer's quarters), living room, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Interior of quarters (executive officer's quarters), living room, looking west - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Quarters S, Essex Street, .45 mile South-Southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  1. 9. Interior of Building 1009, view of central hall, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Interior of Building 1009, view of central hall, looking southeast - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1009, Essex Street, .68 mile South-southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  2. 6. Interior of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), looking north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Interior of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), looking north - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1015, Byrd Street, .82 mile South-southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  3. 8. Interior of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), structural detail, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Interior of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), structural detail, looking northeast - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1015, Byrd Street, .82 mile South-southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  4. 9. Interior of Building 1001 (administration building), Room 204, vault, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Interior of Building 1001 (administration building), Room 204, vault, looking east - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1001, Independence Street, .45 mile south of intersection of Texas State Highway & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  5. 7. Interior of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), structural detail, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Interior of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), structural detail, looking northeast - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1015, Byrd Street, .82 mile South-southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  6. 21. View of interior of purging house looking N showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. View of interior of purging house looking N showing roof trussing. - Hacienda Azucarera La Esperanza, Mill (Ruins), 2.65 miles North of PR Route 2 Bridge Over Manati River, Manati, Manati Municipio, PR

  7. 69. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE ABSORPTION TOWER BUILDING, ABSORPTION TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE ABSORPTION TOWER BUILDING, ABSORPTION TOWER UNDER CONSTRUCTION. (DATE UNKNOWN). - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  8. 8. INTERIOR VIEW OF STATION PARLEY LOOKING THROUGH THE HATCH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR VIEW OF STATION PARLEY LOOKING THROUGH THE HATCH, SHOWING THE FLOOR AND THE INSTRUMENT PEDESTAL WITH HARDWARE. - White's Point Reservation, Base End Stations, B"6, Bounded by Voyager Circle & Mariner Drive, San Pedro, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. 6. INTERIOR, FORMER QUARTERS OF THE SPANISH NAVY, LARGE ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. INTERIOR, FORMER QUARTERS OF THE SPANISH NAVY, LARGE ROOM WING TO WEST OF ENTRANCE PORTICO SHOWING BEAMED CEILING CONSTRUCTION. - El Arsenal, Former Headquarters of the Spanish Navy, Calle Arsenal, San Juan, San Juan Municipio, PR

  10. 7. INTERIOR, FORMER QUARTERS OF THE SPANISH NAVY, DETAIL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR, FORMER QUARTERS OF THE SPANISH NAVY, DETAIL OF THE UNDERSIDE OF BEAM AND BATTEN CEILING, WING TO WEST OF ENTRANCE PORTICO. - El Arsenal, Former Headquarters of the Spanish Navy, Calle Arsenal, San Juan, San Juan Municipio, PR

  11. 5. Interior, charging floor, view to south. Charlestown Navy ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Interior, charging floor, view to south. - Charlestown Navy Yard, Incinerator, Midway along northern boundary of Charlestown Navy Yard, on Little Mystic Channel, near junction of Eighteenth Street & Second Avenue, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  12. 67. Photocopied July 1978. INTERIOR VIEW OF ENGINE HOUSE (BELIEVED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    67. Photocopied July 1978. INTERIOR VIEW OF ENGINE HOUSE (BELIEVED TO BE AT QUINCY), SHOWING DETAIL OF WINDING DRUM. C. 1900. FROM ORIGINAL BELONGING TO THE MARQUETTE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. - Quincy Mining Company, Hancock, Houghton County, MI

  13. Interior view of pool facing northwest Fitzsimons General Hospital, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of pool facing northwest - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Swimming Pool, Southeast corner of East Nineteenth Place (formerly East McAfee Avenue) & Wheeling Street (formerly South Van Valzah Street), Aurora, Adams County, CO

  14. 66. DETAILED INTERIOR VIEW OF NEPTUNE'S LOCKER, SHOWING ORIGINAL ENTRY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    66. DETAILED INTERIOR VIEW OF NEPTUNE'S LOCKER, SHOWING ORIGINAL ENTRY DOOR AND CEILING, LOOKING EAST - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  15. 67. DETAILED INTERIOR VIEW OF NEPTUNE'S LOCKER, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    67. DETAILED INTERIOR VIEW OF NEPTUNE'S LOCKER, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING ORIGINAL CEILING (WALLS AND FENESTRATION MODIFIED) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  16. 9. Interior view of caretaker's house bedroom looking towards the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Interior view of caretaker's house bedroom looking towards the front entryway - Richmond Hill Plantation, Caretaker's House, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  17. INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE AND A 4' DUCTILE IRON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE AND A 4' DUCTILE IRON PIPE BEING CENTRIFUGALLY CAST, AS OPERATOR WATCHES TO ENSURE QUALITY. - McWane Cast Iron Pipe Company, Pipe Casting Area, 1201 Vanderbilt Road, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  18. Interior detail of the south end of the main space ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior detail of the south end of the main space showing gun mounts - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Auxiliary Machine & Electric Shop, Avenue G near Fifth Street intersection, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  19. 8. VIEW EAST, INTERIOR VIEW OF BUILDING 11, BASEMENT, FULLER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW EAST, INTERIOR VIEW OF BUILDING 11, BASEMENT, FULLER VACUUM PUMPS - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Supersonic Wind Tunnel Building, Bounded by Clara Barton Parkway & McArthur Boulevard, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  20. BOILING HOUSE, INTERIOR, SECOND FLOOR, SYRUP TANKS IN RIGHT FOREGROUND, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BOILING HOUSE, INTERIOR, SECOND FLOOR, SYRUP TANKS IN RIGHT FOREGROUND, HIGH GRADE VACUUM PANS BEYOND THE SYRUP TANKS. VIEW FROM THE SOUTH - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  1. Typical Window, Interior Wall Paint Sequence, Wall Section, and Foundation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Typical Window, Interior Wall Paint Sequence, Wall Section, and Foundation Sections - Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) Camp NP-5-C, Barracks No. 5, CCC Camp Historic District at Chapin Mesa, Cortez, Montezuma County, CO

  2. 5. INTERIOR, LOOKING PAST HELIUM COMPRESSORS NO. 3 AND NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. INTERIOR, LOOKING PAST HELIUM COMPRESSORS NO. 3 AND NO. 2, TO NORTHEAST FRONT. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Helium Compression Plant, Test Area 1-115, intersection of Altair & Saturn Boulevards, Boron, Kern County, CA

  3. INTERIOR VIEW OF A TYPICAL ROOM (ROOM NO. 209), FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF A TYPICAL ROOM (ROOM NO. 209), FACING NORTH. THE SINK AND MIRROR MAY HAVE BEEN FROM THE ORIGINAL CONSTRUCTION. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Bachelor Officer Quarters, Dealy Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  4. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE DINING AREA, FACING EAST. THE DECORATIVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF THE DINING AREA, FACING EAST. THE DECORATIVE DESIGN OF THE OVERHEAD BEAMS AND COLUMNS ARE FROM THE ORIGINAL CONSTRUCTION. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Bachelor Officer Quarters, Dealy Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  5. INTERIOR OF ENTRY HALLWAY AND STEEL ENTRY DOOR ON SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF ENTRY HALLWAY AND STEEL ENTRY DOOR ON SOUTH SIDE, VIEW FACING NORTHEAST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Telephone Exchange, Coral Sea Road north of Bismarck Sea Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  6. FEATURE B, TYPE 1 PILLBOX, INTERIOR VIEW OF SEAWARD ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE B, TYPE 1 PILLBOX, INTERIOR VIEW OF SEAWARD ROOM FROM DOORWAY, VIEW FACING SOUTH. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Shore Pillbox Complex-Type 1 Pillbox, Along shoreline, seaward of Coral Sea Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  7. INTERIOR FROM NORTH ENTRY VESTIBULE INTO MAIN EQUIPMENT ROOM, VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR FROM NORTH ENTRY VESTIBULE INTO MAIN EQUIPMENT ROOM, VIEW FACING SOUTH. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Telephone Exchange, Coral Sea Road north of Bismarck Sea Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  8. FEATURE 4, ARMCO HUT, INTERIOR , VIEW FACING NORTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE 4, ARMCO HUT, INTERIOR , VIEW FACING NORTHWEST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-ARMCO Hut, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  9. INTERIOR OF NORTH ENTRY VESTIBULE, SHOWING TRANSFORMER ROOM BEHIND WIRE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF NORTH ENTRY VESTIBULE, SHOWING TRANSFORMER ROOM BEHIND WIRE MESH, VIEW FACING EAST-SOUTHEAST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Telephone Exchange, Coral Sea Road north of Bismarck Sea Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  10. INTERIOR OF SOUTH ENTRY AIRLOCK SHOWING STEEL DOORS OPENING TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF SOUTH ENTRY AIRLOCK SHOWING STEEL DOORS OPENING TO OUTSIDE AND INTO MAIN EQUIPMENT ROOM, VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Telephone Exchange, Coral Sea Road north of Bismarck Sea Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  11. 15. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST OF BUILDING 343 (STORAGE MAGAZINE) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST OF BUILDING 343 (STORAGE MAGAZINE) IN STORAGE AREA. - Loring Air Force Base, Weapons Storage Area, Northeastern corner of base at northern end of Maine Road, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  12. 5. INTERIOR, CENTRAL BLOCK, FIRST FLOOR, VIEW THROUGH DOORWAY IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. INTERIOR, CENTRAL BLOCK, FIRST FLOOR, VIEW THROUGH DOORWAY IN EAST WALL OF NORTHEAST ROOM, SHOWING (EAST) WALL OF EAST ROOM (FIRST AND SECOND FLOORS), AND SECOND FLOOR JOISTS - Bulows Minde Estate House, Bulows Minde, Bulows Minde, St. Croix, VI

  13. 6. INTERIOR, NORTH WING, VIEW THROUGH DOORWAY IN EAST WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. INTERIOR, NORTH WING, VIEW THROUGH DOORWAY IN EAST WALL OF SOUTHEAST ROOM, SHOWING RUINOUS FIRST AND SECOND FLOOR (EAST) WALL OF NORTHWEST ROOM IN CENTRAL BLOCK - Bulows Minde Estate House, Bulows Minde, Bulows Minde, St. Croix, VI

  14. 7. INTERIOR, NORTH WING, NORTHCENTRAL ROOM, VIEW OF NORTHEAST CORNER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR, NORTH WING, NORTH-CENTRAL ROOM, VIEW OF NORTHEAST CORNER, SHOWING FIRST FLOOR ARCH (BRIDGING CORNER) SUPPORTING SECOND FLOOR CORNER WINDOW - Bulows Minde Estate House, Bulows Minde, Bulows Minde, St. Croix, VI

  15. 8. INTERIOR, NORTH WING, VIEW THROUGH DOORWAY IN NORTH WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR, NORTH WING, VIEW THROUGH DOORWAY IN NORTH WALL OF SOUTHEAST ROOM, SHOWING FENESTRATED NORTH WALL (BASEMENT THROUGH SECOND LEVELS) OF NORTH-CENTRAL ROOM - Bulows Minde Estate House, Bulows Minde, Bulows Minde, St. Croix, VI

  16. 2. INTERIOR, CENTRAL BLOCK, FIRST FLOOR, EAST ROOM, GENERAL VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. INTERIOR, CENTRAL BLOCK, FIRST FLOOR, EAST ROOM, GENERAL VIEW OF NORTH WALL WITH ARCHED WINDOW, AND WEST WALL WITH DOORWAY LEADING INTO NORTHEAST ROOM OF CENTRAL BLOCK - Bulows Minde Estate House, Bulows Minde, Bulows Minde, St. Croix, VI

  17. 2. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING ORIGINAL LEFFEL AND WESTINGHOUSE TURBINEGENERATOR UNITS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING ORIGINAL LEFFEL AND WESTINGHOUSE TURBINE-GENERATOR UNITS. - Illinois Power Company, Marseilles Hydro-electric Plant, North bank of Illinois River, Marseilles, La Salle County, IL

  18. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy, Yale University INTERIOR OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy, Yale University INTERIOR OF NAVE FACING EAST, PRIOR TO 1931 Source: Art Library Art and Architecture Building Yale University - Yale University, Dwight Hall, 69 High Street, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  19. Interior detail of set of three art glass windows near ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior detail of set of three art glass windows near front of chapel, south wall, facing south. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, St. Peter's Chapel, Walnut Street & Cedar Parkway, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  20. 29. ISLAND PLANT: INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST ON GROUND FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. ISLAND PLANT: INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST ON GROUND FLOOR - American Falls Water, Power & Light Company, Island Power Plant, Snake River, below American Falls Dam, American Falls, Power County, ID

  1. 40. Photocopy of a photographca. 1925 ISLAND PLANT: INTERIOR OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. Photocopy of a photograph--ca. 1925 ISLAND PLANT: INTERIOR OF GENERATING PLANT - American Falls Water, Power & Light Company, Island Power Plant, Snake River, below American Falls Dam, American Falls, Power County, ID

  2. 15. Historic view of interior of Berlin Iron Bridge Company. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Historic view of interior of Berlin Iron Bridge Company. Engraving from Engineering News (3 October 1891): 317 - Court Street Bridge, Court Street spanning Blackstone River & Truman Drive, Woonsocket, Providence County, RI

  3. 25. William E. Barrett, Photographer, August 1975. INTERIOR OF SAWMILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. William E. Barrett, Photographer, August 1975. INTERIOR OF SAWMILL LOOKING WEST. ROLLERS FROM TRIPLE EDGER (LEFT) AND DOUBLE EDGER (RIGHT) AND HEAVY TIMBER ROLLERS FROM CENTER MILL (CENTER). - Meadow River Lumber Company, Highway 60, Rainelle, Greenbrier County, WV

  4. 1. INTERIOR VIEW OF INEDIBLE PRODUCTS HASHERS ON LEVEL 3; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. INTERIOR VIEW OF INEDIBLE PRODUCTS HASHERS ON LEVEL 3; LOOKING SOUTH - Rath Packing Company, Hog Killing & By-Products Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  5. 11. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF KILLING FLOOR ON LEVEL 4; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF KILLING FLOOR ON LEVEL 4; LOOKING SOUTHWEST TOWARD SPLITTERS' PLATFORMS - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  6. 19. INTERIOR: ARCH AND CORBELED VAULT NEAR FRONT Copy photograph ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. INTERIOR: ARCH AND CORBELED VAULT NEAR FRONT Copy photograph of photogrammetric plate LC-HABS-GS07-1116-113L. - Provident Life & Trust Company Bank, 407-409 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  7. 8. Interior view, basement, west addition, looking northeast towards (exterior) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Interior view, basement, west addition, looking northeast towards (exterior) west wall of original section, bottom corbel of chimney base visible along wall - Latham House, 1200 North Quaker Lane, Alexandria, Independent City, VA

  8. 35. INTERIOR VIEW, WHEELBRATORFRYE SHOT PEENER FOR REMOVAL OF RUST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. INTERIOR VIEW, WHEELBRATOR-FRYE SHOT PEENER FOR REMOVAL OF RUST AND SCALE; NOTE TOOLS ARE TUMBLED WITH BLASTED WITH LEAD SHOT TO CLEAN SURFACES - Warwood Tool Company, Foot of Nineteenth Street, Wheeling, Ohio County, WV

  9. 5. INTERIOR DETAIL OF 'BATTLESHIP DECK' WALL PARTITION AND CEILING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. INTERIOR DETAIL OF 'BATTLESHIP DECK' WALL PARTITION AND CEILING OF FIRST FLOOR OF 1930 ADDITION TO OFFICE BUILDING - Midwest Steel & Iron Works Company, 25 Larimer Street, Denver, Denver County, CO

  10. INTERIOR OF BRIEFING ROOM A. view TO NORTHWEST Plattsburgh ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF BRIEFING ROOM A. view TO NORTHWEST - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Target Intelligence Training Building-Combat Center, Off Connecticut Road, east of Idaho Avenue, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  11. INTERIOR OF TARGET INTELLIGENCE ROOM. view TO WEST. Plattsburgh ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF TARGET INTELLIGENCE ROOM. view TO WEST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Target Intelligence Training Building-Combat Center, Off Connecticut Road, east of Idaho Avenue, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  12. Interior noise prediction methodology: ATDAC theory and validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathur, Gopal P.; Gardner, Bryce K.

    1992-01-01

    The Acoustical Theory for Design of Aircraft Cabins (ATDAC) is a computer program developed to predict interior noise levels inside aircraft and to evaluate the effects of different aircraft configurations on the aircraft acoustical environment. The primary motivation for development of this program is the special interior noise problems associated with advanced turboprop (ATP) aircraft where there is a tonal, low frequency noise problem. Prediction of interior noise levels requires knowledge of the energy sources, the transmission paths, and the relationship between the energy variable and the sound pressure level. The energy sources include engine noise, both airborne and structure-borne; turbulent boundary layer noise; and interior noise sources such as air conditioner noise and auxiliary power unit noise. Since propeller and engine noise prediction programs are widely available, they are not included in ATDAC. Airborne engine noise from any prediction or measurement may be input to this program. This report describes the theory and equations implemented in the ATDAC program.

  13. 53. Photocopy of photograph, c. 1946. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. Photocopy of photograph, c. 1946. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF GENERATOR ROOM. (Courtesy of the Potomac Edison Company Library (Hagerstown, MD), Historical Data Files, Dam No. 5 listing) - Dam No. 5 Hydroelectric Plant, On Potomac River, Hedgesville, Berkeley County, WV

  14. 11. INTERIOR VIEW OF BALCONY FROM GROUND FLOOR LEVEL. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. INTERIOR VIEW OF BALCONY FROM GROUND FLOOR LEVEL. - Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Area B, Building No. 12, Technical Data Building, Third Street, between B & D Streets, Dayton, Montgomery County, OH

  15. 11. INTERIOR, LAMP MECHANISM WEIGHT PIT, STAIRWAY IN BACKROUND, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. INTERIOR, LAMP MECHANISM WEIGHT PIT, STAIRWAY IN BACKROUND, LOOKING NORTHEAST, WITH SCALE - Hunting Island Lighthouse, Lighthouse, Hunting Island State Park, U.S. Route 21, 16 miles East of Beaufort, Beaufort, Beaufort County, SC

  16. 10. INTERIOR, LAMP MECHANISM WEIGHT PIT, STAIRWAY IN BACKROUND, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. INTERIOR, LAMP MECHANISM WEIGHT PIT, STAIRWAY IN BACKROUND, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Hunting Island Lighthouse, Lighthouse, Hunting Island State Park, U.S. Route 21, 16 miles East of Beaufort, Beaufort, Beaufort County, SC

  17. 34. INTERIOR VIEW INSIDE PARTIALLY DEMOLISHED SAND BLASTING AND CLEANING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. INTERIOR VIEW INSIDE PARTIALLY DEMOLISHED SAND BLASTING AND CLEANING BUILDING LOOKING AT THE ELEVATION OF FOUNDRY. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Shops, South side of Pratt Street between Carey & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  18. 4. INTERIOR, FOUNDRY CA. 1919 SHOWING CASTINGS READY FOR CLEANING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. INTERIOR, FOUNDRY CA. 1919 SHOWING CASTINGS READY FOR CLEANING AND FOUNDRY FLASKS TO RIGHT. - Hardie-Tynes Manufacturing Company, Workshop, 800 Twenty-eighth Street North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  19. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, 395 BUCYRUS ERIE SHOVEL CLEANING OVERBURDEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, 395 BUCYRUS ERIE SHOVEL CLEANING OVERBURDEN FROM LEDGE SO THAT DRAGLINE CAN CONTINUE REMOVING OVERBURDEN TO ACCESS LEVELS OF THE COAL SEAMS. - Drummond Coal Company Cedrum Mine, 8750 Pit, County Road 124, Townley, Walker County, AL

  20. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, 395 BUCYRUS ERIE SHOVEL CLEANING OVERBURDEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, 395 BUCYRUS ERIE SHOVEL CLEANING OVERBURDEN FROM LEDGE TO ACCESS COAL SEAMS BELOW. - Drummond Coal Company Cedrum Mine, 8750 Pit, County Road 124, Townley, Walker County, AL