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Sample records for interleukin-12 p40 homodimer

  1. IL-12p40 Homodimer Ameliorates Experimental Autoimmune Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seon-Yeong; Jung, Young Ok; Kim, Doo-Jin; Kang, Chang-Min; Moon, Young-Mee; Heo, Yu-Jung; Oh, Hye-Jwa; Park, Seong-Jeong; Yang, Se-Hwan; Kwok, Seung Ki; Ju, Ji-Hyeon; Park, Sung-Hwan; Sung, Young Chul; Kim, Ho-Youn; Cho, Mi-La

    2015-10-01

    IL-23 is the key cytokine that induces the expansion of Th17 cells. It is composed of p19 and p40 subunits of IL-12. The p40 subunit binds competitively to the receptor of IL-23 and blocks its activity. Our aim was to assess the preventive and therapeutic effect of the IL-12p40 homodimer (p40)2 subunit in autoimmune arthritis animal models. In the current study, using IL-1R antagonist-knockout mice and a collagen-induced arthritis model, we investigated the suppressive effect of (p40)2 on inflammatory arthritis. We demonstrated that the recombinant adenovirus-expressing mouse (p40)2 model prevented the development of arthritis when given before the onset of arthritis. It also decreased the arthritis index and joint erosions in the mouse model if transferred after arthritis was established. (p40)2 inhibited the production of inflammatory cytokines and Ag-specific T cell proliferation. It also induced CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3 regulatory T (Treg) cells in vitro and in vivo, whereas the generation of retinoic acid receptor-related organ receptor γt and Th17 cells was suppressed. The induction of Treg cells and the suppression of Th17 cells were mediated via activated STAT5 and suppressed STAT3. Our data suggest that (p40)2 suppressed inflammatory arthritis successfully. This could be a useful therapeutic approach in autoimmune arthritis to regulate the Th17/Treg balance and IL-23 signaling. PMID:26324771

  2. IL-12p40 Homodimer Ameliorates Experimental Autoimmune Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seon-Yeong; Jung, Young Ok; Kim, Doo-Jin; Kang, Chang-Min; Moon, Young-Mee; Heo, Yu-Jung; Oh, Hye-Jwa; Park, Seong-Jeong; Yang, Se-Hwan; Kwok, Seung Ki; Ju, Ji-Hyeon; Park, Sung-Hwan; Sung, Young Chul

    2015-01-01

    IL-23 is the key cytokine that induces the expansion of Th17 cells. It is composed of p19 and p40 subunits of IL-12. The p40 subunit binds competitively to the receptor of IL-23 and blocks its activity. Our aim was to assess the preventive and therapeutic effect of the IL-12p40 homodimer (p40)2 subunit in autoimmune arthritis animal models. In the current study, using IL-1R antagonist–knockout mice and a collagen-induced arthritis model, we investigated the suppressive effect of (p40)2 on inflammatory arthritis. We demonstrated that the recombinant adenovirus-expressing mouse (p40)2 model prevented the development of arthritis when given before the onset of arthritis. It also decreased the arthritis index and joint erosions in the mouse model if transferred after arthritis was established. (p40)2 inhibited the production of inflammatory cytokines and Ag-specific T cell proliferation. It also induced CD4+CD25+Foxp3 regulatory T (Treg) cells in vitro and in vivo, whereas the generation of retinoic acid receptor–related organ receptor γt and Th17 cells was suppressed. The induction of Treg cells and the suppression of Th17 cells were mediated via activated STAT5 and suppressed STAT3. Our data suggest that (p40)2 suppressed inflammatory arthritis successfully. This could be a useful therapeutic approach in autoimmune arthritis to regulate the Th17/Treg balance and IL-23 signaling. PMID:26324771

  3. Inflammation and Elevation of Interleukin-12p40 in Patients with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Bedrossian, Nora; Haidar, Mariam; Fares, Jawad; Kobeissy, Firas H.; Fares, Youssef

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a serious mental illness with chronic symptoms and significant impairment in psychosocial functioning, which suggests that it likely has neurodegenerative characteristics. Inflammatory markers such as pro-inflammatory cytokines are well-known etiological contributors for psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. Although, the role of inflammation in schizophrenia is becoming evident, the number of studies in this area is relatively scarce, especially in Lebanon, and increased procedural thoroughness is needed. Cytokines play a key role in the activation of the immune system and strongly influence neurotransmission. Previous investigation of plasma levels showed dysregulation of interleukin (IL)-12. However, genotypical variations of this interleukin have not been investigated for patients with schizophrenia yet. Thus, in this paper, we aimed to compute and assess IL-12p40 levels in the sera of individuals with schizophrenia from different provinces in Lebanon and compare it to controls. Healthy subjects comprised 60 individuals with a male/female (M/F) ratio of 31/29, whereas patients with schizophrenia consisted of 63 subjects with an M/F ratio of 30/33. The mean age for healthy controls was 30 years, whereas that for patients with schizophrenia was 35 years. A standardized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique was used to measure the concentration of IL-12p40 in all collected sera (n = 123). The mean IL-12p40 levels in patients with schizophrenia were significantly higher than in healthy controls (p = 0.002). Healthy females had a significantly higher concentration of IL-12p40 than healthy males (p = 0.009). Female patients with schizophrenia had significantly higher concentrations of IL-12p40 than their male counterparts (p < 0.001), healthy females (p = 0.018), and healthy males (p < 0.001), respectively. Male patients with schizophrenia had significantly higher concentrations of IL-12p40 than healthy males (p = 0.023). The

  4. Inflammation and Elevation of Interleukin-12p40 in Patients with Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Bedrossian, Nora; Haidar, Mariam; Fares, Jawad; Kobeissy, Firas H; Fares, Youssef

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a serious mental illness with chronic symptoms and significant impairment in psychosocial functioning, which suggests that it likely has neurodegenerative characteristics. Inflammatory markers such as pro-inflammatory cytokines are well-known etiological contributors for psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. Although, the role of inflammation in schizophrenia is becoming evident, the number of studies in this area is relatively scarce, especially in Lebanon, and increased procedural thoroughness is needed. Cytokines play a key role in the activation of the immune system and strongly influence neurotransmission. Previous investigation of plasma levels showed dysregulation of interleukin (IL)-12. However, genotypical variations of this interleukin have not been investigated for patients with schizophrenia yet. Thus, in this paper, we aimed to compute and assess IL-12p40 levels in the sera of individuals with schizophrenia from different provinces in Lebanon and compare it to controls. Healthy subjects comprised 60 individuals with a male/female (M/F) ratio of 31/29, whereas patients with schizophrenia consisted of 63 subjects with an M/F ratio of 30/33. The mean age for healthy controls was 30 years, whereas that for patients with schizophrenia was 35 years. A standardized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique was used to measure the concentration of IL-12p40 in all collected sera (n = 123). The mean IL-12p40 levels in patients with schizophrenia were significantly higher than in healthy controls (p = 0.002). Healthy females had a significantly higher concentration of IL-12p40 than healthy males (p = 0.009). Female patients with schizophrenia had significantly higher concentrations of IL-12p40 than their male counterparts (p < 0.001), healthy females (p = 0.018), and healthy males (p < 0.001), respectively. Male patients with schizophrenia had significantly higher concentrations of IL-12p40 than healthy males (p = 0.023). The

  5. Different tissue distribution properties for glycosylation variants of fusion proteins containing the p40 subunit of murine interleukin-12.

    PubMed

    Bootz, F; Venetz, D; Ziffels, B; Neri, D

    2016-10-01

    Antibody-based fusion proteins are gaining increasing importance for therapeutic applications, but the impact of glycosylation on in vivo biopharmaceutical performance is not always completely understood. In this article, we have analyzed biochemical and pharmaceutical properties of fusion proteins, consisting of the F8 antibody (specific to the EDA domain of fibronectin, a marker of tissue remodeling and of angiogenesis) and of the p40 subunit of interleukin-12, an inhibitor of inflammation. The corresponding fusion protein (F8-IL12p40), which inhibits colitis development in mice, is a glycosylated protein with suboptimal disease targeting properties in vivo Since the protein was extensively glycosylated, as evidenced by PNGase F treatment and mass spectrometric analysis, we mutated four asparagine residues in various combinations. The corresponding proteins exhibited similar biochemical and antigen-binding properties, but differences in thermal stability and bioactivity. Asparagine mutations did not lead to recovery of disease targeting performance in vivo, as evidenced by quantitative biodistribution studies with radioiodinated protein preparations in tumor-bearing mice. By contrast, an almost complete recovery of targeting was achieved with an enzymatically deglycosylated protein preparation. These findings reinforce the concept that different glycostructures can have an impact on tissue distribution properties.

  6. The Structure of Interleukin-23 Reveals in the Molecular Basis of P40 Subunit Sharing With Interleukin-12

    SciTech Connect

    Lupardus, P.J.; Garcia, K.C.

    2009-05-19

    Interleukin-23 is a recently identified member of the IL-12 family of heterodimeric cytokines that modulate subpopulations of T helper cells, and both IL-12 and IL-23 are attractive targets for therapy of autoimmune diseases. IL-23 is a binary complex of a four-helix bundle cytokine (p19) and a soluble class I cytokine receptor p40. IL-12 and IL-23 share p40 as an {alpha}-receptor subunit, yet show only 15% sequence homology between their four-helix cytokines p19 and p35, respectively, and signal through different combinations of shared receptors. In order to elucidate the structural basis of p40 sharing, we have determined a 2.3{angstrom} crystal structure of IL-23 for comparison to the previously determined structure of IL-12. The docking mode of p19 to p40 is altered compared to p35, deviating by a 'tilt' and 'roll' that results in an altered footprint of p40 on the A and D helices of the respective cytokines. Binding of p19 to p40 is mediated primarily by an Arginine residue on helix D of p19 that forms an extensive charge and hydrogen-bonding network with residues at the base of the pocket on p40. This 'Arginine pocket' is lined with an inner shell of hydrophobic interactions that are ringed by an outer shell of polar interactions. Comparative analysis indicates that the IL-23 and IL-12 complexes 'mimic' the network of interactions constituting the central Arginine pocket despite p19 and p35 having limited sequence homology. The majority of the structural epitopes in the two complexes are composed of unique p19 and p35 pair-wise contacts with common residues on p40. Thus, while the critical hotspot is maintained in the two complexes, the majority of the interfaces are structurally distinct and, therefore, provide a basis for the therapeutic targeting of IL-12 versus IL-23 heterodimer formation despite their use of a common receptor subunit.

  7. An interleukin 12 p40-IgG2b fusion protein abrogates T cell mediated inflammation: anti-inflammatory activity in Crohn’s disease and experimental colitis in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Stallmach, A; Marth, T; Weiß, B; Wittig, B M; Hombach, A; Schmidt, C; Neurath, M; Zeitz, M; Zeuzem, S; Abken, H

    2004-01-01

    Background and aims: Interleukin-12 (IL-12), a p35/p40 heterodimer, plays a pivotal role in the immune response in Crohn’s disease (CD). Since IL-12 p40 dimers act as IL-12 antagonists, we assayed p40 dimer proteins to modulate chronic intestinal inflammation. Methods: We generated a fusion protein consisting of the IL-12(p40) subunit fused to the constant region of IgG2b. IL-12(p40)-IgG2b was tested in a murine 2,4,6,-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS) colitis model and in lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMNC) from patients with CD in vitro. Results: Dimeric IL-12(p40)-IgG2b fusion protein bound specifically to the IL-12 receptor. In concentrations <10−7 M, it acted as an IL-12 antagonist as it inhibited interferon γ (IFN-γ) secretion, suppressed proliferation, and increased apoptosis of LPMNC from patients with CD. However, in concentrations >10−6 M, IL-12(p40)-IgG2b increased IFN-γ secretion and lymphocyte proliferation thereby acting as an IL-12 agonist. In TNBS colitic mice, IL-12(p40)-IgG2b decreased mortality (10% v 68%), prevented body weight loss, reduced tumour necrosis factor α, and increased IL-10 secretion. Conclusions: The IL-12(p40)-IgG2b fusion protein has dichotomic properties as a specific IL-12 antagonist and selective repressor of mucosal inflammation at low concentration and as an IL-12 agonist at high concentration. PMID:14960512

  8. Interleukin-12 subunits p35 and p40 of Indian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) maintain high sequence homology with those of other ruminants.

    PubMed

    Premraj, A; Sreekumar, E; Nautiyal, B; Rasool, T J

    2005-06-01

    The immune system of Indian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), one of the major dairy animals of the tropics, has received little attention. cDNAs encoding the two subunits of the heterodimeric interleukin (IL)-12 of Indian water buffalo were isolated from concanavalin A-stimulated lymphocytes. The 710-bp p35 and 1012-bp p40 subunits were amplified by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), cloned, sequenced and compared with other ruminant sequences. The IL-12 p35 subunit cDNA had nine nucleotide variations and shared 98.1% amino acid identity with the cattle IL-12 p35. The IL-12 p40 cDNA had 13 nucleotide variations and had 97.5% amino acid identity with the cattle IL-12 p40. Both the subunits showed strict conservation in the predicted secondary structure and critical amino acid residues compared with other ruminant IL-12 molecules. Buffalo IL-12 p40 recombinant protein expressed in Escherichia coli cross-reacted with cattle anti-IL-12 p40 monoclonal antibody. Our study indicates a high level of conservation of this key cytokine among ruminants.

  9. The Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3α and β Isoforms Differentially Regulates Interleukin-12p40 Expression in Endothelial Cells Stimulated with Peptidoglycan from Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Huante-Mendoza, Alejandro; Bravo-Patiño, Alejandro; Valdez-Alarcón, Juan J.; Finlay, B. Brett; Baizabal-Aguirre, Víctor M.

    2015-01-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) is a constitutively active regulatory enzyme that is important in cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, and psychiatric diseases. While GSK3α is usually important in neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases GSK3β is fundamental in the inflammatory response caused by bacterial components. Peptidoglycan (PGN), one of the most abundant cell-wall structures of Gram-positive bacteria, is an important inducer of inflammation. To evaluate whether inhibition of GSK3α and GSK3β activity in bovine endothelial cells (BEC) regulates the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-12p40, we treated BEC with SDS-purified PGN from Staphylococcus aureus. We found that PGN triggered a TLR2/PI3K/Akt-dependent phosphorylation of GSK3α at Ser21, GSK3β at Ser9, and NF-κB p65 subunit (p65) at Ser536, and the phosphorylation of GSK3α was consistently higher than that of GSK3β. The expression of IL-12p40 was inhibited in BEC stimulated with PGN and pre-treated with a specific neutralizing anti-TLR2 antibody that targets the extracellular domain of TLR2 or by the addition of Akt-i IV (an Akt inhibitor). Inhibition of GSK3α and GSK3β with LiCl or SB216763 induced an increase in IL-12p40 mRNA and protein. The effect of each isoform on IL-12p40 expression was evaluated by siRNA-gene expression silencing of GSK3α and GSK3β. GSK3α gene silencing resulted in a marked increase in IL-12p40 mRNA and protein while GSK3β gene silencing had the opposite effect on IL-12p40 expression. These results indicate that the TLR2/PI3K/Akt-dependent inhibition of GSK3α activity also plays an important role in the inflammatory response caused by stimulation of BEC with PGN from S. aureus. PMID:26200352

  10. Interleukin-12 gene-expression of macrophages is regulated by nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Rothe, H; Hartmann, B; Geerlings, P; Kolb, H

    1996-07-01

    Interleukin-12 is a heterodimeric cytokine, mainly produced by macrophages. In our present study we demonstrate that interleukin-12 expression is regulated by nitric oxide. Incubation of the macrophage cell line IC 21 with interferon-gamma gave rise to both interleukin-12 p40 mRNA and nitric oxide production. The concurrent addition of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine inhibited nitrite production and in parallel completely suppressed interleukin-12 p40 mRNA formation. This indicated that endogenous nitric oxide synthase activity was required for IL-12 p40 gene expression. Exposure of the cells towards the nitric oxide generating compounds nitroprusside or S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine induced interleukin-12 p40 mRNA. Maximal mRNA levels were induced with nitric oxide donors at 1 microM concentration. We conclude that nitric oxide may exert an autoregulatory and paracrine control of interleukin-12 gene expression. PMID:8694804

  11. Non-canonical interleukin 23 receptor complex assembly: p40 protein recruits interleukin 12 receptor β1 via site II and induces p19/interleukin 23 receptor interaction via site III.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Jutta; Moll, Jens M; Baran, Paul; Grötzinger, Joachim; Scheller, Jürgen; Floss, Doreen M

    2015-01-01

    IL-23, composed of the cytokine subunit p19 and the soluble α receptor subunit p40, binds to a receptor complex consisting of the IL-23 receptor (IL-23R) and the IL-12 receptor β1 (IL-12Rβ1). Complex formation was hypothesized to follow the "site I-II-III" architectural paradigm, with site I of p19 being required for binding to p40, whereas sites II and III of p19 mediate binding to IL-12Rβ1 and IL-23R, respectively. Here we show that the binding mode of p19 to p40 and of p19 to IL-23R follow the canonical site I and III paradigm but that interaction of IL-23 to IL-12Rβ1 is independent of site II in p19. Instead, binding of IL-23 to the cytokine binding module of IL-12Rβ1 is mediated by domains 1 and 2 of p40 via corresponding site II amino acids of IL-12Rβ1. Moreover, domains 2 and 3 of p40 were sufficient for complex formation with p19 and to induce binding of p19 to IL-23R. The Fc-tagged fusion protein of p40_D2D3/p19 did, however, not act as a competitive IL-23 antagonist but, at higher concentrations, induced proliferation via IL-23R but independent of IL-12Rβ1. On the basis of our experimental validation, we propose a non-canonical topology of the IL-23·IL-23R·IL-12Rβ1 complex. Furthermore, our data help to explain why p40 is an antagonist of IL-23 and IL-12 signaling and show that site II of p19 is dispensable for IL-23 signaling.

  12. Interleukin-12 in infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Romani, L; Puccetti, P; Bistoni, F

    1997-01-01

    Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a potent immunoregulatory cytokine that is crucially involved in a wide range of infectious diseases. In several experimental models of bacterial, parasitic, viral, and fungal infection, endogenous IL-12 is required for early control of infection and for generation and perhaps maintenance of acquired protective immunity, directed by T helper type 1 (Th1) cells and mediated by phagocytes. Although the relative roles of IL-12 and gamma interferon in Th1-cell priming may be to a significant extent pathogen dependent, common to most infections is that IL-12 regulates the magnitude of the gamma interferon response at the initiation of infection, thus potentiating natural resistance, favoring Th1-cell development; and inhibiting Th2 responses. Treatment of animals with IL-12, either alone or as a vaccine adjuvant, has been shown to prevent disease by many of the same infectious agents, by stimulating innate resistance or promoting specific reactivity. Although IL-12 may enhance protective memory responses in vaccination or in combination with antimicrobial chemotherapy, it is yet unclear whether exogenous IL-12 can alter established responses in humans. Continued investigation into the possible application of IL-12 therapy to human infections is warranted by the role of the cytokine in inflammation, immunopathology, and autoimmunity. PMID:9336665

  13. The regulation and biological activity of interleukin 12.

    PubMed

    Lee, S M; Suen, Y; Qian, J; Knoppel, E; Cairo, M S

    1998-05-01

    Interleukin 12 (IL-12) is a pleiotropic cytokine and mediates several biological activities on human T and natural killer (NK) cells, including induction of IFN-gamma production, enhancement of cell-mediated cytotoxicity and comitogenic effects on resting T-cells. The major cellular sources producing IL-12 are antigen-stimulated monocytes, macrophages, and B-cells isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Our laboratory has investigated the regulation of IL-12 gene expression in both cord blood and adult PBMC, and the effects of IL-12 on induction of IFN-gamma production, NK, and lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cytotoxicity. IL-12 mRNA expression and protein production in LPS-stimulated cord blood MNC were 3-4 fold decreased when compared with adult PBMC. There were no differences between cord blood and adult PBMC in both basal levels of transcription or the degree of transcriptional activation of the IL-12 gene. Additionally, the half-life of IL-12 p40 mRNA was 3-fold lower in activated cord blood compared to adult PBMC. Exogenous IL-12 induced a significant increase of IFN-gamma from both cord and adult PBMC. Cord MNC has significantly reduced levels of NK activity, and IL-12 significantly enhanced cord blood NK cytotoxicity up to similar levels in adult PBMC. IL-12 also significantly enhanced cord blood NK and LAK activities against a broad range of neuroblastoma, leukemia, and lymphoma cell lines. Lower doses of IL-12 and IL-15 concomitantly generated either synergistic or additive effects on cord blood NK and LAK cytotoxicities. In light of the important biological functions of IL-12, reduced expression and production of IL-12 from activated cord blood may contribute to the immaturity of cord blood cellular immunity and contribute, in part, to decreased severe graft vs. host disease following unrelated cord blood stem cell transplantation. IL-12 enhancement of IFN-gamma, NK, and LAK activity in activated cord blood MNC up to comparable levels

  14. Intrathecal production of interleukin-12 and gamma interferon in patients with bacterial meningitis.

    PubMed

    Kornelisse, R F; Hack, C E; Savelkoul, H F; van der Pouw Kraan, T C; Hop, W C; van Mierlo, G; Suur, M H; Neijens, H J; de Groot, R

    1997-03-01

    To assess the role of interleukin-12 (IL-12) and gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) in children with bacterial meningitis, bioactive IL-12 (p70) and the inactive subunit p40 and IFN-gamma were measured in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 35 children with bacterial meningitis and 10 control subjects. The production of IFN-gamma is induced by IL-12 with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) as a costimulator and inhibited by IL-10. CSF concentrations of IL-12 p40 as well as those of IFN-gamma were markedly elevated, whereas IL-12 p70 was hardly detectable. Detectable CSF levels of IFN-gamma correlated positively with IL-12 p40 (r = 0.40, P = 0.02) and TNF-alpha (r = 0.46, P = 0.04) but not with IL-6, IL-8, or IL-10. In contrast to CSF levels of TNF-alpha, IL-12, and IL-10, those of IFN-gamma were significantly higher in patients with pneumococcal meningitis than in children with meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria meningitidis, presumably because of a high CSF TNF-alpha/IL-10 ratio in the former. We suggest that IL-12- and TNF-alpha-induced IFN-gamma production may contribute to the natural immunity against microorganisms in the CSF compartment during the acute phase of bacterial meningitis.

  15. Interleukin 12 levels during the initial phase of septic shock with purpura in children: relation to severity of disease.

    PubMed

    Hazelzet, J A; Kornelisse, R F; van der Pouw Kraan, T C; Joosten, K F; van der Voort, E; van Mierlo, G; Suur, M H; Hop, W C; de Groot, R; Hack, C E

    1997-09-01

    Plasma levels of interleukin 12 (IL-12), a cytokine consisting of two different polypeptide subunits (p40 and p35), were measured together with interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) and other cytokines in 46 children with septic shock and purpura. The median (range) plasma IL-12 p40 level on admission was 457 (244-2677) pg/ml in non-survivors vs 189 (< 40-521) pg/ml in survivors (P = < 0.001). IL-12 p70 levels were elevated in only nine patients. IL-12 p40 plasma levels were positively correlated with tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and PRISM-score, whereas they were negatively correlated with C-reactive protein (CRP), whole blood cell (WBC) and serum glucose levels. Twelve (29%) of the patients had detectable levels of IFN-gamma. Thus, circulating levels of IL-12 p40 and to a lesser extent those of IL-12 p70, are elevated in children with septic shock and purpura, and correlate with severity of disease and outcome.

  16. High cytokine production and effective antitumor activity of a recombinant vaccinia virus encoding murine interleukin 12.

    PubMed

    Meko, J B; Yim, J H; Tsung, K; Norton, J A

    1995-11-01

    We have constructed a recombinant vaccinia virus (recVV), vKT0334 mIL-12, containing the genes encoding the p35 and p40 subunits of murine interleukin-12 (mIL-12). In vitro experiments demonstrated that vKT0334 mIL-12 efficiently infected a variety of murine and human tumor cell lines and produced very high amounts (1.5 micrograms/10(6) cells/24 h) of biologically active mIL-12. Mice injected s.c. with 10(6) MCA 105 sarcoma cells, followed by injection at the same site with saline or a control recVV, vKT033, containing no mIL-12 genes, all developed progressively growing tumor, whereas 60% of animals injected with vKT0334 mIL-12 remained tumor free (P < 0.0005). Furthermore, tumor growth was significantly reduced in the remaining mice treated with vKT0334 mIL-12 that did develop tumor compared with mice treated with vKT033 (P < 0.03) or saline (P < 0.0001). We conclude that recVV expressing high levels of mIL-12 offers an effective in vivo method of cytokine gene delivery and expression in tumors with subsequent antitumor effect.

  17. Nrf2-dependent repression of interleukin-12 expression in human dendritic cells exposed to inorganic arsenic.

    PubMed

    Macoch, Mélinda; Morzadec, Claudie; Génard, Romain; Pallardy, Marc; Kerdine-Römer, Saadia; Fardel, Olivier; Vernhet, Laurent

    2015-11-01

    Inorganic arsenic, a well-known Nrf2 inducer, exerts immunosuppressive properties. In this context, we recently reported that the differentiation of human blood monocytes into immature dendritic cells (DCs), in the presence of low and noncytotoxic concentrations of arsenic, represses the ability of DCs to release key cytokines in response to different stimulating agents. Particularly, arsenic inhibits the expression of human interleukin-12 (IL-12, also named IL-12p70), a major proinflammatory cytokine that controls the differentiation of Th1 lymphocytes. In the present study, we determined if Nrf2 could contribute to these arsenic immunotoxic effects. To this goal, human monocyte-derived DCs were first differentiated in the absence of metalloid and then pretreated with arsenic just before DC stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Under these experimental conditions, arsenic rapidly and stably activates Nrf2 and increases the expression of Nrf2 target genes. It also significantly inhibits IL-12 expression in activated DCs, at both mRNA and protein levels. Particularly, arsenic reduces mRNA levels of IL12A and IL12B genes which encodes the p35 and p40 subunits of IL-12p70, respectively. tert-Butylhydroquinone (tBHQ), a reference Nrf2 inducer, mimics arsenic effects and potently inhibits IL-12 expression. Genetic inhibition of Nrf2 expression markedly prevents the repression of both IL12 mRNA and IL-12 protein levels triggered by arsenic and tBHQ in human LPS-stimulated DCs. In addition, arsenic significantly reduces IL-12 mRNA levels in LPS-activated bone marrow-derived DCs from Nrf2+/+ mice but not in DCs from Nrf2-/- mice. Finally, we show that, besides IL-12, arsenic significantly reduces the expression of IL-23, another heterodimer containing the p40 subunit. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that arsenic represses IL-12 expression in human-activated DCs by specifically stimulating Nrf2 activity.

  18. Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) interleukin-12: analysis of expression profiles and functional cross-reactivity with bovine system.

    PubMed

    Premraj, Avinash; Sreekumar, E; Jain, Mamta; Rasool, T J

    2006-03-01

    Interleukin-12, a heterodimeric pro-inflammatory cytokine, from water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) was analyzed for its for its tissue specific expression and functionality. Concanavalin A stimulated splenocytes displayed an up-regulation of the IL-12 p40 subunit 8-24h post-stimulation, whereas the p35 subunit did not show any quantitative variation at different time intervals. Basal level expressions of both the subunits were observed by RT-PCR in spleen. In addition p40 transcripts could be detected in liver and p35 in brain and muscle tissues as well in very low levels. Functional recombinant buffalo IL-12 was expressed in HEK 293T cells as a heterodimer using foot-and-mouth disease virus 2A polypeptide as a linker. Culture supernatants from transfected cells contained a hetero-dimeric p70 subunit as revealed in western blot of the proteins separated by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) using a monoclonal antibody against bovine IL-12 p40. IL-12 containing culture supernatant induced production of nitric oxide in cultured splenocytes of both buffalo and bovine origin. Our study reveals that buffalo IL-12, which shares a high-level sequence identity with bovine IL-12, also has functional cross-reactivity with the bovine immune cells.

  19. A multiscale systems perspective on cancer, immunotherapy, and Interleukin-12

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies represent some of the most promising molecular targeted immunotherapies. However, understanding mechanisms by which tumors evade elimination by the immune system of the host presents a significant challenge for developing effective cancer immunotherapies. The interaction of cancer cells with the host is a complex process that is distributed across a variety of time and length scales. The time scales range from the dynamics of protein refolding (i.e., microseconds) to the dynamics of disease progression (i.e., years). The length scales span the farthest reaches of the human body (i.e., meters) down to the range of molecular interactions (i.e., nanometers). Limited ranges of time and length scales are used experimentally to observe and quantify changes in physiology due to cancer. Translating knowledge obtained from the limited scales observed experimentally to predict patient response is an essential prerequisite for the rational design of cancer immunotherapies that improve clinical outcomes. In studying multiscale systems, engineers use systems analysis and design to identify important components in a complex system and to test conceptual understanding of the integrated system behavior using simulation. The objective of this review is to summarize interactions between the tumor and cell-mediated immunity from a multiscale perspective. Interleukin-12 and its role in coordinating antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity is used illustrate the different time and length scale that underpin cancer immunoediting. An underlying theme in this review is the potential role that simulation can play in translating knowledge across scales. PMID:20843320

  20. Electrogene therapy with interleukin-12 in canine mast cell tumors

    PubMed Central

    Pavlin, Darja; Cemazar, Maja; Cör, Andrej; Sersa, Gregor; Pogacnik, Azra; Tozon, Natasa

    2011-01-01

    Background Mast cell tumors (MCT) are the most common malignant cutaneous tumors in dogs with extremely variable biological behaviour. Different treatment approaches can be used in canine cutaneous MCT, with surgical excision being the treatment of choice. In this study, electrogene therapy (EGT) as a new therapeutic approach to canine MCTs, was established. Materials and methods. Eight dogs with a total of eleven cutaneous MCTs were treated with intratumoral EGT using DNA plasmid encoding human interleukin-12 (IL-12). The local response to the therapy was evaluated by repeated measurements of tumor size and histological examination of treated tumors. A possible systemic response was assessed by determination of IL-12 and interferon- γ (IFN-γ) in patients’ sera. The occurence of side effects was monitored with weekly clinical examinations of treated animals and by performing basic bloodwork, consisting of the complete bloodcount and determination of selected biochemistry parameters. Results Intratumoral EGT with IL-12 elicits significant reduction of treated tumors’ size, ranging from 13% to 83% (median 50%) of the initial tumor volume. Additionally, a change in the histological structure of treated nodules was seen. There was a reduction in number of malignant mast cells and inflammatory cell infiltration of treated tumors. Systemic release of IL-12 in four patients was detected, without any noticeable local or systemic side effects. Conclusions These data suggest that intratumoral EGT with plasmid encoding IL-12 may be useful in the treatment of canine MCTs, exerting a local antitumor effect. PMID:22933932

  1. Interleukin-12 inhibits hepatitis B virus replication in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Cavanaugh, V J; Guidotti, L G; Chisari, F V

    1997-01-01

    Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a heterodimeric cytokine produced by antigen-presenting cells that has the ability to induce gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) secretion by T and natural killer cells and to generate normal Th1 responses. These properties suggest that IL-12 may play an important role in the immune response to many viruses, including hepatitis B virus (HBV). Recently, we have shown that HBV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes inhibit HBV replication in the livers of transgenic mice by a noncytolytic process that is mediated in part by IFN-gamma. In the current study, we demonstrated that the same antiviral response can be initiated by recombinant murine IL-12 and we showed that the antiviral effect of IL-12 extends to extrahepatic sites such as the kidney. Southern blot analyses revealed the complete disappearance of HBV replicative intermediates from liver and kidney tissues at IL-12 doses that induce little or no inflammation in these tissues. In addition, immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated the disappearance of cytoplasmic hepatitis B core antigen from both tissues after IL-12 treatment, suggesting that IL-12 either prevents the assembly or triggers the degradation of the nucleocapsid particles within which HBV replication occurs. Importantly, we demonstrated that although IFN-gamma, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and IFN-alpha/beta mRNA are induced in the liver and kidney after IL-12 administration, the antiviral effect of IL-12 is mediated principally by its ability to induce IFN-gamma production in this model. These results suggest that IL-12, through its ability to induce IFN-gamma, probably plays an important role in the antiviral immune response to HBV during natural infection. Further, since relatively nontoxic doses of recombinant IL-12 profoundly inhibit HBV replication in the liver and extrahepatic sites in this model, IL-12 may have therapeutic value as an antiviral agent for the treatment of chronic HBV infection. PMID:9060687

  2. Rapid recruitment of macrophages in interleukin-12-mediated tumour regression.

    PubMed Central

    Ha, S J; Lee, S B; Kim, C M; Shin, H S; Sung, Y C

    1998-01-01

    In order to study the mechanism of interleukin-12 (IL-12) antitumour activity, RH7777 rat hepatoma cells were engineered to express mouse IL-12 (mIL-12) (RH7777/mIL-12) under the tight control of doxycycline (dox). The production of the mIL-12 protein was regulated by the concentration of dox that was present in the culture medium. RH7777/mIL-12 cells appeared to have the same tumorigenic activity as did parental RH7777 cells, when subcutaneously injected into syngeneic rat (BUF/N) in the absence of dox. However, the tumorigenicity of RH7777/mIL-12, but not RH7777, cells were significantly decreased when dox was administrated to the animals. In addition, established tumours of RH7777/mIL-12 cells gradually disappeared upon the induction of mIL-12 by dox. To elucidate the kinetic profile of immune cells involved in the mIL-12-induced tumour regression, both histological and immunohistochemical analyses were performed 1, 3 and 14 days after the dox treatment on rats bearing tumours that were approximately 0. 5 cm in diameter. Tumour-infiltrating macrophages began to appear at the tumour site one day after dox treatment. As time elapsed, the number of tumour infiltrates including CD4+, CD8+, natural killer (NK) cells and macrophages gradually increased. In particular, CD8+ and NK cells constituted the major population of the tumour-infiltrated cells. Furthermore, it was found that resting peritoneal macrophages (PM) from rats were chemoattracted in response to mIL-12. The effects of mIL-12 on PM chemotaxis were reproducibly observed in concentrations as low as 0.1 ng/ml. These findings suggest that IL-12 can directly recruit macrophages into tumour sites which, in turn, leads to a broad and intense immunological response against tumour. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9767471

  3. Interleukin 12 induces activation of fibrinolysis and coagulation in humans.

    PubMed

    Portielje, J E; Kruit, W H; Eerenberg, A J; Schuler, M; Sparreboom, A; Lamers, C H; Bolhuis, R L; Stoter, G; Huber, C; Hack, C

    2001-02-01

    Interleukin 12 (IL-12) has potential efficacy in malignant, infectious and allergic diseases. Its side-effects include activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis, as documented in chimpanzees. We assessed the coagulative and fibrinolytic response in 18 patients with renal cell carcinoma after subcutaneous injection of 0.5 microg/kg recombinant human IL-12. IL-12 induced a fibrinolytic response in 17 patients (94%): plasmin-alpha2-anti-plasmin complexes (PAPc) increased from 11.8 +/- 6.6 nmol/l (mean +/- SD) to a maximum of 18.8 +/- 7.4 nmol/l at 72 h. Baseline levels of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and plasminogen-activator inhibitor-I (PAI) were elevated in eight and 14 patients respectively. tPA increased from 12.6 +/- 5.2 ng/ml to a maximum of 19.0 +/- 6.7 ng/ml at 72 h. PAI decreased from 111 +/- 69 ng/ml to a minimum of 65 +/- 53 ng/ml at 8 h, thereafter remaining below baseline. Elevation of PAPc correlated with elevation of tPA and reduction of PAI. A coagulative response occurred in nine patients (50%): thrombin-anti-thrombin III complexes increased from 29 +/- 53 ng/ml to a maximum of 460 +/- 322 ng/ml at 12 h. Patients with and without a coagulative response had similar levels of recombinant human IL-12, interferon-gamma or tumour necrosis factor-alpha. We conclude that IL-12 can activate both fibrinolysis and coagulation in a significant proportion of patients with cancer. The time-frame and sequence of these activation processes differ from those known for other cytokines.

  4. Antitumor and antimetastatic activity of interleukin 12 against murine tumors

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that in vivo administration of murine interleukin 12 (IL-12) to mice results in augmentation of cytotoxic natural killer (NK)/lymphocyte-activated killer cell activity, enhancement of cytolytic T cell generation, and induction of interferon gamma secretion. In this study, the in vivo activity of murine IL-12 against a number of murine tumors has been evaluated. Experimental pulmonary metastases or subcutaneous growth of the B16F10 melanoma were markedly reduced in mice treated intraperitoneally with IL-12, resulting in an increase in survival time. The therapeutic effectiveness of IL-12 was dose dependent and treatment of subcutaneous tumors could be initiated up to 14 d after injection of tumor cells. Likewise, established experimental hepatic metastases and established subcutaneous M5076 reticulum cell sarcoma and Renca renal cell adenocarcinoma tumors were effectively treated by IL-12 at doses which resulted in no gross toxicity. Local peritumoral injection of IL-12 into established subcutaneous Renca tumors resulted in regression and complete disappearance of these tumors. IL-12 was as effective in NK cell-deficient beige mice or in mice depleted of NK cell activity by treatment with antiasialo GM1, suggesting that NK cells are not the primary cell type mediating the antitumor effects of this cytokine. However, the efficacy of IL-12 was greatly reduced in nude mice suggesting the involvement of T cells. Furthermore, depletion of CD8+ but not CD4+ T cells significantly reduced the efficacy of IL-12. These results demonstrate that IL-12 has potent in vivo antitumor and antimetastatic effects against murine tumors and demonstrate as well the critical role of CD8+ T cells in mediating the antitumor effects against subcutaneous tumors. PMID:8104230

  5. Continuous release of interleukin 12 from microencapsulated engineered cells for colon cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Shu; Xiao, Zuo-Xiang; Pan, Yue-Long; Han, Ming-Yong; Dong, Qi

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To explore the anti-tumor immunity against CT26 colon tumor of the microencapsulated cells modified with murine interleukine-12 (mIL-12) gene. METHODS: Mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3) were stably transfected to express mIL-12 using expression plasmids carrying mIL-12 gene (p35 and p40), and NIH3T3-mIL-12 cells were encapsulated in alginate microcapsules for long-term delivery of mIL-12. mIL-12 released from the microencapsulated NIH3T3-mIL-12 cells was confirmed using ELISA assay. Transplantation of the microencapsulated NIH3T3-mIL-12 cells was performed in the tumor-bearing mice with CT26 cells. The anti-tumor responses and the anti-tumor activities of the microencapsulated NIH3T3-mIL-12 cells were evaluated. RESULTS: Microencapsulated NIH3T3-mIL-12 cells could release mIL-12 continuously and stably for a long time. After the microencapsulated NIH3T3-mIL-12 cells were transplanted subcutaneously into the tumor-bearing mice for 21 d, the serum concentrations of mIL-12, mIL-2 and mIFN-γ, the cytotoxicity of the CTL from the splenocytes and the NK activity in the treatment group were significantly higher than those in the controls. Moreover, mIL-12 released from the microencapsulated NIH3T3-mIL-12 cells resulted in a significant inhibition of tumor proliferation and a prolonged survival of tumor-bearing mice. CONCLUSION: The microencapsulated NIH3T3-mIL-12 cells have a significant therapeutic effect on the experimental colon tumor by activating anti-tumor immune responses in vivo. Microencapsulated and genetically engineered cells may be an extremely versatile tool for tumor gene therapy. PMID:12717836

  6. Gene therapy with a single chain interleukin 12 fusion protein induces T cell-dependent protective immunity in a syngeneic model of murine neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Lode, H N; Dreier, T; Xiang, R; Varki, N M; Kang, A S; Reisfeld, R A

    1998-03-01

    A major goal of tumor immunotherapy is the effective eradication of established metastases associated with the induction of a T cell-mediated protective immunity. We achieved this in a poorly immunogenic murine neuroblastoma model by gene therapy with a single chain interleukin 12 (scIL-12) fusion protein that assures equal expression of its p35 and p40 subunits. Thus, NXS2 hybrid neuroblastoma cells (C1300 x dorsal root ganglion cells), which form experimental bone marrow and liver metastases in syngeneic A/J mice, were transduced with a gene encoding murine interleukin 12, monomerized by introduction of a protein linker between the p35 and p40 protein chains of this heterodimeric cytokine. We demonstrate for the first time that subcutaneous vaccination with these transduced cells induces a protective immunity, as indicated by the complete absence of liver and bone marrow metastasis after challenge with NXS2 wild-type tumor cells. Furthermore, vaccination of animals with established liver and bone marrow metastases completely eradicated liver metastases and suppressed bone marrow metastases. The local and systemic immune response against scIL-12-transduced NXS2 cells is largely dependent on CD8(+) T cells. This was demonstrated in vivo by depletion of immunocompetent A/J mice with monoclonal anti-CD4 and anti-CD8 antibodies and in vitro by specific major histocompatibility complex, class I-restricted CD8(+) T cell-mediated killing of NXS2 and their parental C1300 neuroblastoma cells. In conclusion, we demonstrate successful anti-tumor immunotherapy with an scIL-12 fusion protein that could facilitate clinical application of interleukin 12 gene therapy.

  7. Interleukin-12 promotes myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) recruitment and bacterial persistence during S. aureus orthopedic implant infection

    PubMed Central

    Scherr, Tyler D.; Hartman, Curtis W.; Garvin, Kevin L.; Kielian, Tammy

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a leading cause of human prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) typified by biofilm formation. We recently identified a critical role for myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in S. aureus biofilm persistence. Pro-inflammatory signals induce MDSC recruitment and activation in tumor models; however, the mechanisms responsible for MDSC homing to sites of biofilm infection are unknown. Here we report that several cytokines (IL-12p40, IL-1β, TNF-α, and G-CSF) and chemokines (CXCL2, CCL5) were significantly elevated in a mouse model of S. aureus PJI. This coincided with significantly increased MDSC infiltrates concomitant with reduced monocyte, macrophage, and T cell influx compared with uninfected animals. Of the cytokines detected, IL-12 was of particular interest based on its ability to possess either pro- or anti-inflammatory effects mediated through p35-p40 heterodimers or p40 homodimers, respectively. MDSC recruitment was significantly reduced in both p40 and p35 KO mice, which resulted in enhanced monocyte and neutrophil influx and bacterial clearance. Adoptive transfer of wild type MDSCs into infected p40 KO animals worsened disease outcome, as evidenced by the return of S. aureus burdens to levels typical of wild type mice. Tissues obtained from patients undergoing revision surgery for PJI revealed similar patterns of immune cell influx, with increased MDSC-like cells and significantly fewer T cells compared with aseptic revisions. These findings reveal a critical role for IL-12 in shaping the anti-inflammatory biofilm milieu by promoting MDSC recruitment. PMID:25762781

  8. Identification and functional characterization of multiple interleukin 12 in amberjack (Seriola dumerili).

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Megumi; Hayashi, Kazuma; Suetake, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Araki, Kyosuke

    2016-08-01

    Interleukin (IL) -12 is a heterodimeric cytokine mainly produced by monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells in mammals. IL-12p70 composed of IL-12p35 and IL-12p40, is known to play a crucial role in promoting cell-mediated immunity (CMI) through Th1 differentiation and IFN-γ production. Although two types of IL-12p35 (p35a, p35b) and three types of IL-12p40 (p40a, p40b and p40c) have been identified in several fish species, the knowledge on functional characteristics of teleost IL-12 is still limited. In the present study, we cloned two types of IL-12p35 and three types of IL-12p40 genes in amberjack and yellowtail, and analyzed their expressions in response to stimulation with Nocardia seriolae in amberjack. As a result, four types of IL-12 (IL-12p35a, p35b, p40a and p40b) and IFN-γ mRNA were increased by live-N. seriolae stimulation but not by formalin-killed N. seriolae, suggesting that four types of IL-12 (p35, p35b, p40a and p40c) participate in promoting CMI. Subsequently, we produced six types of recombinant IL-12p70 (rIL12p70) protein in insect cells. Head kidney leukocytes were cultured with formalin-killed N. seriolae and six types of rIL-12p70 to elucidate the role of amberjack IL-12p70 in induction of CMI. After stimulation, IFN-γ expression was elevated whereas IL-10 expression was suppressed in Head kidney leukocytes stimulated with four types of rIL-12 (p40a/p35a, p40c/p35a, p40a/p35b, p40a/p35b). On the other hand, two types of rIL-12 (p40b/p35a, p40b/p35b) only elicited down regulation of IL-10 expression. These results indicate that all amberjack IL-12p70 isoforms are involved in Th1 -differentiation and promotion of CMI with different manners. Fish IL-12 has a potential for the promising vaccine adjuvant. PMID:27238429

  9. GHR/PRLR Heteromultimer Is Composed of GHR Homodimers and PRLR Homodimers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Zhang, Yue; Jiang, Jing; Lobie, Peter E; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy; Langenheim, John F; Chen, Wen Y; Zinn, Kurt R; Frank, Stuart J

    2016-05-01

    GH receptor (GHR) and prolactin (PRL) receptor (PRLR) are homologous transmembrane cytokine receptors. Each prehomodimerizes and ligand binding activates Janus Kinase 2 (JAK2)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling pathways by inducing conformational changes within receptor homodimers. In humans, GHR is activated by GH, whereas PRLR is activated by both GH and PRL. We previously devised a split luciferase complementation assay, in which 1 receptor is fused to an N-terminal luciferase (Nluc) fragment, and the other receptor is fused to a C-terminal luciferase (Cluc) fragment. When receptors approximate, luciferase activity (complementation) results. Using this assay, we reported ligand-independent GHR-GHR complementation and GH-induced complementation changes characterized by acute augmentation above basal signal, consistent with induction of conformational changes that bring GHR cytoplasmic tails closer. We also demonstrated association between GHR and PRLR in T47D human breast cancer cells by coimmunoprecipitation, suggesting that, in addition to forming homodimers, these receptors form hetero-assemblages with functional consequences. We now extend these analyses to examine basal and ligand-induced complementation of coexpressed PRLR-Nluc and PRLR-Cluc chimeras and coexpressed GHR-Nluc and PRLR-Cluc chimeras. We find that PRLR-PRLR and GHR-PRLR form specifically interacting ligand-independent assemblages and that either GH or PRL augments PRLR-PRLR complementation, much like the GH-induced changes in GHR-GHR dimers. However, in contrast to the complementation patterns for GHR-GHR or PRLR-PRLR homomers, both GH and PRL caused decline in luciferase activity for GHR-PRLR heteromers. These and other data suggest that GHR and PRLR associate in complexes comprised of GHR-GHR/PRLR-PRLR heteromers consisting of GHR homodimers and PRLR homodimers, rather than GHR-PRLR heterodimers. PMID:27003442

  10. Production of Interleukin-12 by Murine Macrophages in Response to Bacterial Peptidoglycan

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Christine; Nauciel, Charles

    1998-01-01

    Peptidoglycan (PG), a component of the bacterial cell wall, has various immunomodulating activities, including the capacity to induce delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions to antigens administered in Freund’s adjuvant. We report that PG induces interleukin-12 (IL-12) mRNA production and IL-12 secretion by mouse macrophages. The capacity of PG to induce IL-12 production, like its previously reported immunomodulating activities, was dependent on the structure of its peptide subunit. PG from Bacillus megaterium and Staphylococcus aureus induced IL-12 production, whereas PG from Micrococcus luteus and Corynebacterium poinsettiae did not. The ability of most bacterial PGs to induce IL-12 production suggests that they play an important role in triggering host defense mechanisms against bacterial infections. PMID:9746601

  11. The SNARE VAMP7 Regulates Exocytic Trafficking of Interleukin-12 in Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chiaruttini, Giulia; Piperno, Giulia M.; Jouve, Mabel; De Nardi, Francesca; Larghi, Paola; Peden, Andrew A.; Baj, Gabriele; Müller, Sabina; Valitutti, Salvatore; Galli, Thierry; Benvenuti, Federica

    2016-01-01

    Summary Interleukin-12 (IL-12), produced by dendritic cells in response to activation, is central to pathogen eradication and tumor rejection. The trafficking pathways controlling spatial distribution and intracellular transport of IL-12 vesicles to the cell surface are still unknown. Here, we show that intracellular IL-12 localizes in late endocytic vesicles marked by the SNARE VAMP7. Dendritic cells (DCs) from VAMP7-deficient mice are partially impaired in the multidirectional release of IL-12. Upon encounter with antigen-specific T cells, IL-12-containing vesicles rapidly redistribute at the immune synapse and release IL-12 in a process entirely dependent on VAMP7 expression. Consistently, acquisition of effector functions is reduced in T cells stimulated by VAMP7-null DCs. These results provide insights into IL-12 intracellular trafficking pathways and show that VAMP7-mediated release of IL-12 at the immune synapse is a mechanism to transmit innate signals to T cells. PMID:26972013

  12. IL12p40 regulates functional development of human CD4+ T cells: enlightenment by the elevated expressions of IL12p40 in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaobing; Wu, Ting; Zhou, Feng; Liu, Shi; Zhou, Rui; Zhu, Siying; Song, Lu; Zhu, Feng; Wang, Ge; Xia, Bing

    2015-03-01

    The proinflammatory effects of IL12p40 had been documented in the literature, and anti-IL12p40 treatment had been proved to be effective in therapy of Crohn disease (CD) in a phase 2b clinical trial. However, the precise role of IL12p40 in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) was still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the expressions of IL12p40 and its receptor interleukin-12 receptor β 1 both locally and systemically in IBD cases and healthy controls, and the contribution of IL12p40 in IBD pathogenesis. We found that the expression of IL12p40 was elevated both at messenger RNA and protein levels systematically and locally in IBD patients but more significantly in CD patients. Our genetic association study revealed that the polymorphisms of IL12B rs6887695 were associated with both CD and ulcerative colitis (UC) susceptibility in Chinese population, but did not affect the serum IL12p40 level in either CD patients or UC patients. In addition, CD4⁺ T cells isolated from peripheral blood of CD patients secreted the most abundant IL12p40 production, compared with the UC patients and healthy controls. We also found for the first time that neutralizing IL12p40 secretion could inhibit proliferation, enhance apoptosis, induce a G0/G1 arrest, restrain T helper 1 type immune responses, and promote chemokine C-C motif ligand 20-mediated migration of human CD4⁺ T cells, which might be the mechanisms why anti-IL12p40 treatment presented efficacy in CD.

  13. Combination electro-gene therapy using herpes virus thymidine kinase and interleukin-12 expression plasmids is highly efficient against murine carcinomas in vivo.

    PubMed

    Goto, Tomoaki; Nishi, Toru; Kobayashi, Osamu; Tamura, Takahiko; Dev, Sukhendu B; Takeshima, Hideo; Kochi, Masato; Kuratsu, Jun-ichi; Sakata, Tsuneaki; Ushio, Yukitaka

    2004-11-01

    We report the use of plasmid DNA-mediated combination gene therapy for tumor-bearing mice using in vivo electroporation, also called electro-gene therapy (EGT), that resulted in uncomplicated and complete cures in more than 90% of the mice. Subcutaneously inoculated CT26 tumors in syngeneic BALB/c mice were subjected to repeated EGT treatments consisting of intratumoral co-injection of naked plasmids encoding the cytokine interleukin-12 (IL-12) (p35 and p40 subunits) and the suicide gene herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-tk), followed by in vivo electroporation. The early anti-tumor effect was always stronger, and the rate of cure, as seen in the long-term follow-up, was always greater in the groups treated with combination EGT than in those treated with IL-12 or HSV-tk EGT alone. Systemic levels of IL-12 and IFN-gamma increased in both combination and IL-12-alone EGT-treated groups. Moreover, combination EGT for established subcutaneous tumors strongly reduced hematogenous lung metastases and increased survival time when live CT26 tumor cells were injected through the tail vein. Limited experiments on C57/B16 mice with murine melanoma also showed very similar trends. These results suggest that this simple and safe method of plasmid-mediated combination EGT may provide a potentially effective gene therapy for cancer.

  14. Interleukin-12 gene expression in human monocyte-derived macrophages stimulated with Mycobacterium bovis BCG: cytokine regulation and effect of NK cells.

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, H; Suzuki, K; Tsuyuguchi, K; Tanaka, E; Amitani, R; Maeda, A; Yamamoto, K; Sasada, M; Kuze, F

    1997-01-01

    Macrophage-derived interleukin-12 (IL-12) is essential for the activation of a protective immune response against intracellular pathogens. In this study, we examined the regulation of IL-12 mRNA expression by monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) in response to Mycobacterium bovis BCG stimulation. A reverse transcription-PCR assay detected p40 mRNA of IL-12 at 3 h and showed a peak at 6 to 12 h with a subsequent decline. Semiquantitation of mRNA levels by competitive PCR revealed that pretreatment with gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) amplified the expression approximately 100-fold, while pretreatment with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) or granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor augmented this expression about 10-fold. In contrast, pretreatment with IL-10 and IL-4 inhibited IL-12 mRNA expression. These results were further confirmed by measuring the p70 bioactive protein level in each conditioned medium by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Since IL-12 mRNA expression was weak without cytokine pretreatment and IFN-gamma strongly augmented production, we speculated that IFN-gamma might have a role in BCG stimulation of IL-12 mRNA expression. Unexpectedly, the addition of three different kinds of anti-IFN-gamma antibodies and anti-IFN-gamma receptor antibody and the coaddition of anti-TNF-alpha antibody with anti-IFN-gamma receptor antibody all failed to inhibit IL-12 mRNA expression. However, the MiniMACS method used to remove NK cells from a mononuclear cell suspension inhibited the expression of p40 mRNA but not the expression of mRNA of TNF-alpha or IL-1beta. We concluded that the coexistence of NK cells was essential for the induction of IL-12 in MDM stimulated with BCG rather than through the secretion of IFN-gamma. PMID:9353012

  15. Cancer Therapeutic Based on T Cell Receptors Designed to Regiospecifically Release Interleukin-12 | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute's Surgery Branch is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in collaborative research to further develop, evaluate, or commercialize a potential cancer therapeutic based on T cells genetically engineered to express the human interleukin 12 (IL-12) cytokine only in the tumor environment.

  16. Activity of subcutaneous interleukin-12 in AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Little, Richard F; Pluda, James M; Wyvill, Kathleen M; Rodriguez-Chavez, Isaac R; Tosato, Giovanna; Catanzaro, Andrew T; Steinberg, Seth M; Yarchoan, Robert

    2006-06-15

    Interleukin-12 (IL-12) enhances Th1-type T-cell responses and exerts antiangiogenic effects. We initiated a phase 1 pilot study of IL-12 in 32 patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related Kaposi sarcoma (KS) whose KS was progressing while on antiretroviral therapy. Fifteen patients had poor prognosis T(1)S(1) disease. IL-12 was administered subcutaneously twice weekly at doses from 100 to 625 ng/kg. The maximum tolerated dose was 500 ng/kg, and the principal toxicities were flulike symptoms, transaminase or bilirubin elevations, neutropenia, hemolytic anemia, and depression. No tumor responses were seen at the lowest dose (100 ng/kg), but 17 of 24 evaluable patients at the higher doses had partial or complete responses (response rate, 71%; 95% confidence interval, 48%-89%). Only 3 of 17 patients had a change in antiretroviral therapy before responding, and there were no significant differences between responders and nonresponders with regard to changes in CD4 counts or viral loads. Patients had increases in their serum IL-12, interferon-gamma, and inducible protein-10 (IP-10) after the first dose, and increases above baseline persisted after week 4. These results provide preliminary evidence that IL-12 has substantial activity against AIDS-related KS with acceptable toxicity and warrants further investigation for this indication.

  17. Augmented anti-tumor effect of dendritic cells genetically engineered by interleukin-12 plasmid DNA.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Masataka; Jo, Jun-Ichiro; Tabata, Yasuhiko

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to genetically engineer dendritic cells (DC) for biological activation and evaluate their anti-tumor activity in a tumor-bearing mouse model. Mouse DC were incubated on the surface of culture dishes which had been coated with the complexes of a cationized dextran and luciferase plasmid DNA complexes plus a cell adhesion protein, Pronectin, for gene transfection (reverse transfection). When compared with the conventional transfection where DC were transfected in the medium containing the complexes, the level of gene expression by the reverse method was significantly higher and the time period of gene expression was prolonged. Following the reverse transfection of DC by a plasmid DNA of mouse interleukin-12 (mIL-12) complexed with the cationized dextran, the mIL-12 protein was secreted at higher amounts for a longer time period. When injected intratumorally into mice carrying a mass of B16 tumor cells, the DC genetically activated showed significant anti-tumor activity. PMID:20338099

  18. Interleukin-12 Preserves the Cutaneous Physical and Immunological Barrier after Radiation Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, Scott A.; Cummings, Ryan J.; Judge, Jennifer L.; Barlow, Margaret L.; Nanduri, Julee; Milano Johnson, Doug E.; Palis, James; Pentland, Alice P.; Lord, Edith M.; Ryan, Julie L.

    2015-01-01

    The United States continues to be a prime target for attack by terrorist organizations in which nuclear detonation and dispersal of radiological material are legitimate threats. Such attacks could have devastating consequences to large populations, in the form of radiation injury to various human organ systems. One of these at risk organs is the cutaneous system, which forms both a physical and immunological barrier to the surrounding environment and is particularly sensitive to ionizing radiation. Therefore, increased efforts to develop medical countermeasures for treatment of the deleterious effects of cutaneous radiation exposure are essential. Interleukin-12 (IL-12) was shown to elicit protective effects against radiation injury on radiosensitive systems such as the bone marrow and gastrointestinal tract. In this article, we examined if IL-12 could protect the cutaneous system from a combined radiation injury in the form of sublethal total body irradiation and beta-radiation burn (β-burn) directly to the skin. Combined radiation injury resulted in a breakdown in skin integrity as measured by transepidermal water loss, size of β-burn lesion and an exacerbated loss of surveillant cutaneous dendritic cells. Interestingly, intradermal administration of IL-12 48 h postirradiation reduced transepidermal water loss and burn size, as well as retention of cutaneous dendritic cells. Our data identify IL-12 as a potential mitigator of radiation-induced skin injury and argue for the further development of this cytokine as a radiation countermeasure. PMID:25564716

  19. Enhancement of adaptive immunity to Neisseria gonorrhoeae by local intravaginal administration of microencapsulated interleukin 12.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingru; Egilmez, Nejat K; Russell, Michael W

    2013-12-01

    Gonorrhea remains one of the most frequent infectious diseases, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae is emerging as resistant to most available antibiotics, yet it does not induce a state of specific protective immunity against reinfection. Our recent studies have demonstrated that N. gonorrhoeae proactively suppresses host T-helper (Th) 1/Th2-mediated adaptive immune responses, which can be manipulated to generate protective immunity. Here we show that intravaginally administered interleukin 12 (IL-12) encapsulated in sustained-release polymer microspheres significantly enhanced both Th1 and humoral immune responses in a mouse model of genital gonococcal infection. Treatment of mice with IL-12 microspheres during gonococcal challenge led to faster clearance of infection and induced resistance to reinfection, with the generation of gonococcus-specific circulating immunoglobulin G and vaginal immunoglobulin A and G antibodies. These results suggest that local administration of microencapsulated IL-12 can serve as a novel therapeutic and prophylactic strategy against gonorrhea, with implications for the development of an effective vaccine. PMID:24048962

  20. Interleukin-12 preserves the cutaneous physical and immunological barrier after radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Scott A; Cummings, Ryan J; Judge, Jennifer L; Barlow, Margaret L; Nanduri, Julee; Johnson, Doug E Milano; Palis, James; Pentland, Alice P; Lord, Edith M; Ryan, Julie L

    2015-01-01

    The United States continues to be a prime target for attack by terrorist organizations in which nuclear detonation and dispersal of radiological material are legitimate threats. Such attacks could have devastating consequences to large populations, in the form of radiation injury to various human organ systems. One of these at risk organs is the cutaneous system, which forms both a physical and immunological barrier to the surrounding environment and is particularly sensitive to ionizing radiation. Therefore, increased efforts to develop medical countermeasures for treatment of the deleterious effects of cutaneous radiation exposure are essential. Interleukin-12 (IL-12) was shown to elicit protective effects against radiation injury on radiosensitive systems such as the bone marrow and gastrointestinal tract. In this article, we examined if IL-12 could protect the cutaneous system from a combined radiation injury in the form of sublethal total body irradiation and beta-radiation burn (β-burn) directly to the skin. Combined radiation injury resulted in a breakdown in skin integrity as measured by transepidermal water loss, size of β-burn lesion and an exacerbated loss of surveillant cutaneous dendritic cells. Interestingly, intradermal administration of IL-12 48 h postirradiation reduced transepidermal water loss and burn size, as well as retention of cutaneous dendritic cells. Our data identify IL-12 as a potential mitigator of radiation-induced skin injury and argue for the further development of this cytokine as a radiation countermeasure. PMID:25564716

  1. Role of interleukin 12 in experimental neonatal sepsis caused by group B streptococci.

    PubMed Central

    Mancuso, G; Cusumano, V; Genovese, F; Gambuzza, M; Beninati, C; Teti, G

    1997-01-01

    Cytokines are suspected to play an important role in systemic infections by group B streptococci (GBS), an important cause of neonatal sepsis. This work was undertaken to determine if interleukin 12 (IL-12) is produced in mouse pups infected with GBS and has a role in this sepsis model. IL-12 elevations were measured by both an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a bioassay in plasma samples obtained from 12 to 72 h after GBS challenge. Pretreatment with neutralizing anti-IL-12 antibodies significantly increased lethality and blood CFU (P < 0.05). Conversely, either prophylactically or therapeutically administered recombinant IL-12 (rIL-12) significantly improved survival time and decreased blood CFU. Since these beneficial effects were associated with increased spleen gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) production, we examined whether the latter cytokine mediated the observed rIL-12 effects. Pretreatment with neutralizing anti-IFN-gamma monoclonal antibodies significantly counteracted the beneficial effects of rIL-12 on lethality. Our data indicate that rIL-12 is a possible candidate for treatment of GBS sepsis and that its activities in this model are at least partially mediated by IFN-gamma. PMID:9284145

  2. Differential Regulation of the Interleukin-12 Receptor during the Innate Immune Response to Leishmania major

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Douglas; Elloso, M. Merle; Showe, Louise; Williams, Donna; Trinchieri, Giorgio; Scott, Phillip

    1998-01-01

    Previous studies have shown the central role of interleukin 12 (IL-12) in the development of resistance to Leishmania major infection in C3H mice. We now show that during the innate immune response the lymph node cells of L. major-infected C3H mice upregulate the IL-12 receptor on CD4+, CD8+, and B220+ cells. An increase in the ability of the lymph node cells to bind IL-12 correlates with 9.3- and 4.6-fold increases in the mRNA expression levels of the IL-12Rβ1 and -β2 subunits, respectively. In contrast, BALB/c mice, which are susceptible to L. major infection, have no increase in the ability of the lymph node cells to bind IL-12 and correspondingly smaller increases in the mRNA expression levels of the IL-12Rβ1 and -β2 subunits of 2- and 1.5-fold, respectively. Neutralizing IL-4 and the administration of exogenous IL-12 upregulate IL-12R expression in BALB/c mice, while the neutralization of IL-12 in C3H mice blocks increased IL-12 receptor expression. These experiments reveal an important role for the regulation of the IL-12 receptor during the innate immune response after infection of mice with a pathogen. PMID:9673267

  3. Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer With an Oncolytic Adenovirus Expressing Interleukin-12 in Syrian Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Bortolanza, Sergia; Bunuales, Maria; Otano, Itziar; Gonzalez-Aseguinolaza, Gloria; Ortiz-de-Solorzano, Carlos; Perez, Daniel; Prieto, Jesus; Hernandez-Alcoceba, Ruben

    2009-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive malignancy resistant to most conventional and experimental therapies, including conditionally replicative adenoviruses (CRAds). The incorporation of immunostimulatory genes such as interleukin-12 (IL-12) in these viruses may overcome some of their limitations, but evaluation of such vectors requires suitable preclinical models. We describe a CRAd in which replication is dependent on hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) activity and alterations of the pRB pathway in cancer cells. Transgenes (luciferase or IL-12) were incorporated into E3 region of the virus using a selective 6.7K/gp19K deletion. A novel permissive model of pancreatic cancer developed in immunocompetent Syrian hamsters was used for in vivo analysis. We show that, in contrast with nonreplicating adenoviruses (NR-Ad), active viral production and enhanced transgene expression took place in vivo. A single intratumor inoculation of the CRAd expressing IL-12 (Ad-DHscIL12) achieved a potent antitumor effect, whereas higher doses of replication-competent adenoviruses carrying luciferase did not. Compared to a standard NR-Ad expressing IL-12, Ad-DHscIL12 was less toxic in hamsters, with more selective tumor expression and shorter systemic exposure to the cytokine. We conclude that the expression of IL-12 in the context of a hypoxia-inducible oncolytic adenovirus is effective against pancreatic cancer in a relevant animal model. PMID:19223865

  4. Effect of Periodontal Therapy on Salivary Interleukin-12 Levels in Chronic Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Khattak, B.P.; Naagtilak, S; Singh, Ganesh; Bano, Tanveer

    2014-01-01

    Background: Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is considered a central regulator of host resistance against a variety of pathogens. The influence of scaling and root planing was evaluated on amount of IL-12 in salivary fluid of patients with chronic generalized severe periodontitis, in relation to clinical parameters. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 subjects were enrolled, of which 25 had chronic generalized severe periodontitis, and 25 periodontally healthy as control. The clinical parameters included plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), pocket probing depth (PPD) bleeding on probing (BOP) and clinical attachment loss (CAL). The level of IL-12 in salivary fluid was measured by ELISA kit at baseline and at four week following scaling and root planing. Results: Mean IL-12 levels in patients with periodontitis at baseline (9.79 ± 5.70 pg/ml) were higher than in controls (9.18±4.94 pg/ml; p=0.54.) Scaling and root planing resulted in significant increase in IL-12 levels (mean: 15.93±12.09 pg/ml; p =0.001) (control vs postoperative p <0.001). No significant correlations were found between IL-12 levels and any of the above clinical parameters. Conclusion: Short-term nonsurgical therapy resulted in a significant improvement in periodontal indices and a marked increase in IL-12 levels. PMID:25478457

  5. Preparation and characterization of chitosan/β-cyclodextrin nanoparticles containing plasmid DNA encoding interleukin-12.

    PubMed

    Nahaei, M; Valizadeh, H; Baradaran, B; Nahaei, M R; Asgari, D; Hallaj-Nezhadi, S; Dastmalchi, S; Lotfipour, F

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin-12 (IL-12) as a cytokine has been proved to possess antitumor effects via stimulating the immune system. Non-viral gene delivery systems offer several advantages, including easiness in production, low cost, safety; low immunogenicity and can carry higher amounts of genetic material without limitation on their sizes.pUMVC3-hIL12 loaded Low Molecular Weight chitosan/β-cyclodextrin (LMW CS/CD) nanoparticles were prepared using ionotropic gelation method and characterized in terms of size, zeta potential, polydispersity index, morphology, loading efficiency and cytotoxicity against the CT-26 colon carcinoma cell line.All prepared particles were spherical in shape and nano-sized (171.3±2.165 nm, PdI: 0.231±0.014) and exhibited a positive zeta potential (34.3±1.55). The nanoparticles demonstrated good DNA encapsulation efficiencies (83.315%±2.067). Prepared pUMVC3-hIL12 loaded LMW CS/CD nanoparticles showed no cell toxicity in murine CT-26 colon carcinoma cells. At the concentration of 0.1 µg/ml of nanoparticles, the transfection ability was obviously higher than that of the naked DNA.LMW CS/CD-plasmid DNA nanoparticles encoding IL-12 prepared using ionotropic gelation method with no toxic effect on the tested cells can be considered as a basis for further gene delivery studies both in vitro and in vivo to enhance the expression of IL-12.

  6. Logical Analysis of Regulation of Interleukin-12 Expression Pathway Regulation During HCV Infection.

    PubMed

    Farooqi, Zia-Ur-Rehman; Tareen, Samar H K; Ahmed, Jamil; Zaidi, Najam-Us-Sahar S

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) triggers coordinated innate and adaptive response in host cell. HCV genome and proteins of the replicating virus are recognized as non-self-antigens by host cell to activate Toll Like Receptors (TLRs). Activated TLRs ultimately express cytokines, which can clear virus either by activating interferon (IFN), protein kinase C (PKC) and RNA Lase system or through activation of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a potent antiviral cytokine, capable of clearing HCV by bridging both innate and adaptive antiviral immune response. Activation of TLR-4 on macrophages surface induces expression of IL-12 via NF-κB and AP-1 transcriptional pathway. After expression, IL- 12 releases IFN-γ, which activates anti-HCV cytotoxic lymphocytes. Conversely, in chronic HCV infection downregulation of IL-12 has been reported instead of by number of studies. Keeping in view of the above mentioned facts, this study was designed to evaluate HCV-core mediated down-regulation of IL-12 transcriptional pathway by employing a logical modeling approach based on the Ren´e Thomas formalism. The logical parameters of entities were estimated by using SMBioNet. The Logical model represents all possible dynamics of protein expression involved during course of HCV pathology. Results demonstrated that at chronic stage of infection, though TLR-4 was constantly active but yet it failed to express the NF-κB, AP-1, IL-12 and IFN-γ. This mechanism was indicative of incorporation of core mediated changes in IL-12 regulatory pathway. Moreover, results also indicate that HCV adopts different trajectories to accomplish the persistence of chronic phase of infection. It also implicated that human immune system tries to clear HCV but core is capable of inducing system oscillations to evade the immunity.

  7. Anti-inflammatory cytokines in asthma and allergy: interleukin-10, interleukin-12, interferon-gamma.

    PubMed Central

    Chung, F

    2001-01-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a cytokine derived from CD4+ T-helper type 2 (T(H2)) cells identified as a suppressor of cytokines from T-helper type 1(T(H1)) cells. Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is produced by B cells, macrophages and dendritic cells, and primarily regulates T(H1) cell differentiation, while suppressing the expansion of T(H2) cell clones. Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) is a product of T(H1) cells and exerts inhibitory effects on T(H2) cell differentiation. These cytokines have been implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma and allergies. In this context, IL-12 and IFN-gamma production in asthma have been found to be decreased, and this may reduce their capacity to inhibit IgE synthesis and allergic inflammation. IL-10 is a potent inhibitor of monocyte/macrophage function, suppressing the production of many pro-inflammatory cytokines. A relative underproduction of IL-10 from alveolar macrophages of atopic asthmatics has been reported. Therapeutic modulation of T(H1)/T(H2) imbalance in asthma and allergy by mycobacterial vaccine, specific immunotherapy and cytoline-guanosine dinucleotide motif may lead to increases in IL-12 and IFN-gamma production. Stimulation of IL-10 production by antigen-specific T-cells during immunotherapy may lead to anergy through inhibition of CD28-costimulatory molecule signalling by IL-10s anti-inflammatory effect on basophils, mast cells and eosinophils. PMID:11405550

  8. Endogenous interleukin-12: relationship with angiogenic factors, hormone receptors and nodal status in human breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Toi, M; Gion, M; Saji, H; Asano, M; Dittadi, R; Gilberti, S; Locopo, N; Gasparini, G

    1999-12-01

    Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is known to be a key cytokine for regulating immune response, but it is also known to provide some other biological function including inhibition of angiogenesis. We have determined using an enzymatic immunoassay the endogenous levels of IL-12 in 390 cytosols of primary breast cancers previously tested also for the angiogenic peptides, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and thymidine phosphorylase (TP). The concentration of IL-12 ranged from 0 to 7.6 ng/mg protein, and 124 (31.8%) out of 390 cancers showed a detectable dose (>0.1 ng/ml). There was no statistical association of IL-12 levels with tumor size and menopausal status. IL-12 levels tended to be higher in the tumors of node-positive patients as compared to those of node-negative ones (t-test, p=0.082). In addition, IL-12 levels were inversely associated with hormone receptor status, particularly progesterone receptor expression (p=0.0013). There was a significant inverse association between IL-12 and TP concentration (p=0.0007). The proportion of tumors with detectable levels of IL-12 and low levels of either VEGF or TP was higher among the patients with node-negative as compared to those with node-positive disease. On the contrary, the proportion of tumors with no detectable IL-12 and high levels of either VEGF or TP was higher in node-positive versus node-negative cancers. In conclusion, our study evaluated the balance between pro-angiogenic factors (TP and VEGF) and IL-12, as a detectable naturally occurring inhibitor of angiogenesis, in the same series of node-negative and node-positive breast cancers. Further studies are warranted to investigate the biological and clinical significance of the co-determination of pro and contra angiogenic factors in human breast carcinoma.

  9. Treatment of Chronic Viral Hepatitis in Woodchucks by Prolonged Intrahepatic Expression of Interleukin-12

    PubMed Central

    Crettaz, Julien; Otano, Itziar; Ochoa, Laura; Benito, Alberto; Paneda, Astrid; Aurrekoetxea, Igor; Berraondo, Pedro; Rodríguez-Madoz, Juan Roberto; Astudillo, Aurora; Kreppel, Florian; Kochanek, Stefan; Ruiz, Juan; Menne, Stephan; Prieto, Jesus; Gonzalez-Aseguinolaza, Gloria

    2009-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B is a major cause of liver-related death worldwide. Interleukin-12 (IL-12) induction accompanies viral clearance in chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Here, we tested the therapeutic potential of IL-12 gene therapy in woodchucks chronically infected with woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV), an infection that closely resembles chronic hepatitis B. The woodchucks were treated by intrahepatic injection of a helper-dependent adenoviral vector encoding IL-12 under the control of a liver-specific RU486-responsive promoter. All woodchucks with viral loads below 1010 viral genomes (vg)/ml showed a marked and sustained reduction of viremia that was accompanied by a reduction in hepatic WHV DNA, a loss of e antigen and surface antigen, and improved liver histology. In contrast, none of the woodchucks with higher viremia levels responded to therapy. The antiviral effect was associated with the induction of T-cell immunity against viral antigens and a reduction of hepatic expression of Foxp3 in the responsive animals. Studies were performed in vitro to elucidate the resistance to therapy in highly viremic woodchucks. These studies showed that lymphocytes from healthy woodchucks or from animals with low viremia levels produced gamma interferon (IFN-γ) upon IL-12 stimulation, while lymphocytes from woodchucks with high viremia failed to upregulate IFN-γ in response to IL-12. In conclusion, IL-12-based gene therapy is an efficient approach to treat chronic hepadnavirus infection in woodchucks with viral loads below 1010 vg/ml. Interestingly, this therapy is able to break immunological tolerance to viral antigens in chronic WHV carriers. PMID:19116251

  10. Mechanisms by Which Interleukin-12 Corrects Defective NK Cell Anticryptococcal Activity in HIV-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kyei, Stephen K.; Ogbomo, Henry; Li, ShuShun; Timm-McCann, Martina; Xiang, Richard F.; Huston, Shaunna M.; Ganguly, Anutosh; Colarusso, Pina; Gill, M. John

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogenic yeast and a leading cause of life-threatening meningitis in AIDS patients. Natural killer (NK) cells are important immune effector cells that directly recognize and kill C. neoformans via a perforin-dependent cytotoxic mechanism. We previously showed that NK cells from HIV-infected patients have aberrant anticryptococcal killing and that interleukin-12 (IL-12) restores the activity at least partially through restoration of NKp30. However, the mechanisms causing this defect or how IL-12 restores the function was unknown. By examining the sequential steps in NK cell killing of Cryptococcus, we found that NK cells from HIV-infected patients had defective binding of NK cells to C. neoformans. Moreover, those NK cells that bound to C. neoformans failed to polarize perforin-containing granules to the microbial synapse compared to healthy controls, suggesting that binding was insufficient to restore a defect in perforin polarization. We also identified lower expression of intracellular perforin and defective perforin release from NK cells of HIV-infected patients in response to C. neoformans. Importantly, treatment of NK cells from HIV-infected patients with IL-12 reversed the multiple defects in binding, granule polarization, perforin content, and perforin release and restored anticryptococcal activity. Thus, there are multiple defects in the cytolytic machinery of NK cells from HIV-infected patients, which cumulatively result in defective NK cell anticryptococcal activity, and each of these defects can be reversed with IL-12. PMID:27555306

  11. A single intradermal administration of soluble leishmanial antigen and plasmid expressing interleukin-12 protects BALB/c mice from Leishmania major infection.

    PubMed

    Yamakami, K; Akao, S; Sato, M; Nitta, Y; Miyazaki, J; Tadakuma, T

    2001-07-01

    In murine leishmaniasis, the induction of the T-helper type 1 (Th1) response contributes to infection resistance, whereas the establishment of the Th2 response makes the mice susceptible to infection. Interleukin-12 (IL-12) plays a pivotal role in the diversification of immune responses to the Th1 type. In this study, we tested whether the co-administration of IL-12 expression plasmid which compose p35 and p40 subunits and soluble leishmanial antigen (SLA) will skew the susceptible BALB/c mice to Th1 response and protect from leishmaniasis. When the mice were intradermally injected with the combination of IL-12 plasmid and SLA 7 days prior to the challenge with 1x10(6) promastigotes of Leishmania major, the local lesions completely healed and the parasite burden in the local lymph nodes significantly decreased. The cured mice attained long-term immunity, and were resistant to any subsequent rechallenge of the lethal dose of the parasite. The protective effect was associated with the development of a Th1 response, as demonstrated by the enhanced level of antigen-specific interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and dominant production of IgG2a in the serum. In contrast, the administration of empty plasmid plus SLA or IL-12 plasmid alone failed to protect the disease and shape the Th1 response. Furthermore, the protective efficiency induced by the vaccination was clearly prevented by the injection of either neutralizing anti-IL-12 mAb or anti-IFN-gamma mAb. The IL-12 expression plasmid is thus an effective adjuvant for the elicitation of a protective Th1 response against leishmaniasis and is therefore, considered to be appropriate for vaccinations that require the induction of Th1 type immunity.

  12. Interleukin-12 and interleukin-6 gene polymorphisms and risk of bladder cancer in the Iranian population.

    PubMed

    Ebadi, Nader; Jahed, Marzieh; Mivehchi, Mohamad; Majidizadeh, Tayebeh; Asgary, Mojgan; Hosseini, Seyed Ali

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-12 (IL-12) as an antitumor and interleukin-6 (IL-6) as an inflammatory cytokine, are immunomodulatory products that play important roles in responses in cancers and inflammation. We tested the association between two polymorphisms of IL-12(1188A>C; rs3212227) and IL-6 (-174 C>G) and the risk of bladder cancer in 261 patients and 251 healthy individuals. We also investigated the possible association of these SNPs in patients with high-risk jobs and smoking habits with the incidence of bladder cancer. The genotype distributions of IL-6 (-174 C/G) genotype were similar between the cases and the control groups; however, among patients with smoking habits, the association between IL-6 gene polymorphism and incidence of bladder cancer was significant. After a control adjustment for age and sex, the following results were recorded: CC genotype (OR= 2.11, 95%CI=1.56-2.87, p=0.007), GC genotype (OR=2.18, 95%CI=1.16-4.12, p=0.014) and GC+ CC (OR=2.6, 95%CI=1.43-4.47, p=0.011). A significant risk of bladder cancer was observed for the heterozygous genotype (AC) of IL-12 (OR=1.47, 95%CI=1.01-2.14, p=0.045) in all cases, and among smokers (AC) (OR=3.13, 95%CI=1.82-5.37, p=0.00014), combined AC+CC (OR=3.05, 95%CI=1.8-5.18, p=0.000015). Moreover among high risk job patients, there was more than a 3-fold increased risk of cancer in the carriers of IL-12 beta heterozygous (OR=3.7, 95%CI=2.04-6.57, p=0.000056) and combined AC+CC(OR=3.29, 95%CI=1.58-5.86, p=0.00002) genotypes as compared with the AA genotype with low-risk jobs. As a conclusion, this study suggests that IL-12(3'UTR A>C) and IL-6 (-174 C>G) genotypes are significantly associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer in the Iranian population with smoking habits and/or performing high-risk jobs.

  13. Interleukin-12 inhibits pathological neovascularization in mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yedi; Yoshida, Shigeo; Kubo, Yuki; Kobayashi, Yoshiyuki; Nakama, Takahito; Yamaguchi, Muneo; Ishikawa, Keijiro; Nakao, Shintaro; Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Ishibashi, Tatsuro; Sonoda, Koh-Hei

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia-induced retinal neovascularization is a major pathological condition in many vision-threatening diseases. In the present study, we determined whether interleukin (IL)-12, a cytokine that regulates angiogenesis, plays a role in the neovascularization in a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). We found that the expressions of the mRNAs of both IL-12p35 and IL-12p40 were significantly reduced in the OIR retinas compared to that of the room air-raised control. The sizes of the avascular areas and neovascular tufts were larger in IL-12p40 knock-out (KO) mice than that in wild type (WT) mice. In addition, an intravitreal injection of recombinant IL-12 reduced both avascular areas and neovascular tufts. IL-12 injection enhanced the expressions of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and other downstream chemokines. In an in vitro system, IL-12 had no significant effect on tube formation of human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRECs). Moreover, a blockade of IFN-γ suppressed the inhibitory effect of IL-12 on pathological neovascularization. These results suggest that IL-12 plays important roles in inhibiting pathological retinal neovascularization. PMID:27312090

  14. Observation of an E2 (Ubc9)-homodimer by crystallography.

    PubMed

    Alontaga, Aileen Y; Ambaye, Nigus D; Li, Yi-Jia; Vega, Ramir; Chen, Chih-Hong; Bzymek, Krzysztof P; Williams, John C; Hu, Weidong; Chen, Yuan

    2016-06-01

    Post-translational modifications by the small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMO), in particular the formation of poly-SUMO-2 and -3 chains, regulates essential cellular functions and its aberration leads to life-threatening diseases (Geoffroy and Hay, 2009) [1]. It was shown previously that the non-covalent interaction between SUMO and the conjugating enzyme (E2) for SUMO, known as Ubc9, is required for poly-SUMO-2/3 chain formation (Knipscheer et al., 2007) [2]. However, the structure of SUMO-Ubc9 non-covalent complex, by itself, could not explain how the poly-SUMO-2/3 chain forms and consequently a Ubc9 homodimer, although never been observed, was proposed for poly-SUMO-2/3 chain formation (Knipscheer et al., 2007) [2]. Here, we solved the crystal structure of a heterotrimer containing a homodimer of Ubc9 and the RWD domain from RWDD3. The asymmetric Ubc9 homodimer is mediated by the N-terminal region of one Ubc9 molecule and a surface near the catalytic Cys of the second Ubc9 molecule (Fig. 1A). This N-terminal surface of Ubc9 that is involved in the homodimer formation also interacts with the RWD domain, the ubiquitin-fold domain of the SUMO activating enzyme (E1), SUMO, and the E3 ligase, RanBP2 (Knipscheer et al., 2007; Tong et al.. 1997; Tatham et al., 2005; Reverter and Lima, 2005; Capili and Lima, 2007; Wang et al., 2009, 2010; Wang and Chen, 2010; Alontaga et al., 2015) [2], [3], [4], [5], [6], [7], [8], [9], [10]. The existence of the Ubc9 homodimer in solution is supported by previously published solution NMR studies of rotational correlation time and chemical shift perturbation (Alontaga et al., 2015; Yuan et al., 1999) [10], [11]. Site-directed mutagenesis and biochemical analysis suggests that this dimeric arrangement of Ubc9 is likely important for poly-SUMO chain formation (Fig. 1B and C). The asymmetric Ubc9 homodimer described for the first time in this work could provide the critical missing link in the poly-SUMO chain formation mechanism. The

  15. Observation of an E2 (Ubc9)-homodimer by crystallography.

    PubMed

    Alontaga, Aileen Y; Ambaye, Nigus D; Li, Yi-Jia; Vega, Ramir; Chen, Chih-Hong; Bzymek, Krzysztof P; Williams, John C; Hu, Weidong; Chen, Yuan

    2016-06-01

    Post-translational modifications by the small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMO), in particular the formation of poly-SUMO-2 and -3 chains, regulates essential cellular functions and its aberration leads to life-threatening diseases (Geoffroy and Hay, 2009) [1]. It was shown previously that the non-covalent interaction between SUMO and the conjugating enzyme (E2) for SUMO, known as Ubc9, is required for poly-SUMO-2/3 chain formation (Knipscheer et al., 2007) [2]. However, the structure of SUMO-Ubc9 non-covalent complex, by itself, could not explain how the poly-SUMO-2/3 chain forms and consequently a Ubc9 homodimer, although never been observed, was proposed for poly-SUMO-2/3 chain formation (Knipscheer et al., 2007) [2]. Here, we solved the crystal structure of a heterotrimer containing a homodimer of Ubc9 and the RWD domain from RWDD3. The asymmetric Ubc9 homodimer is mediated by the N-terminal region of one Ubc9 molecule and a surface near the catalytic Cys of the second Ubc9 molecule (Fig. 1A). This N-terminal surface of Ubc9 that is involved in the homodimer formation also interacts with the RWD domain, the ubiquitin-fold domain of the SUMO activating enzyme (E1), SUMO, and the E3 ligase, RanBP2 (Knipscheer et al., 2007; Tong et al.. 1997; Tatham et al., 2005; Reverter and Lima, 2005; Capili and Lima, 2007; Wang et al., 2009, 2010; Wang and Chen, 2010; Alontaga et al., 2015) [2], [3], [4], [5], [6], [7], [8], [9], [10]. The existence of the Ubc9 homodimer in solution is supported by previously published solution NMR studies of rotational correlation time and chemical shift perturbation (Alontaga et al., 2015; Yuan et al., 1999) [10], [11]. Site-directed mutagenesis and biochemical analysis suggests that this dimeric arrangement of Ubc9 is likely important for poly-SUMO chain formation (Fig. 1B and C). The asymmetric Ubc9 homodimer described for the first time in this work could provide the critical missing link in the poly-SUMO chain formation mechanism. The

  16. Construction and Characterization of a Triple-Recombinant Vaccinia Virus Encoding B7-1, Interleukin 12, and a Model Tumor Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Miles W.; Overwijk, Willem W.; Surman, Deborah R.; Tsung, Kangla; Moss, Bernard; Restifo, Nicholas P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Construction of recombinant viruses that can serve as vaccines for the treatment of experimental murine tumors has recently been achieved. The cooperative effects of immune system modulators, including cytokines such as interleukin 12 (IL-12) and costimulatory molecules such as B7-1, may be necessary for activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Thus, we have explored the feasibility and the efficacy of inclusion of these immunomodulatory molecules in recombinant virus vaccines in an experimental antitumor model in mice that uses Escherichia coli β-galactosidase as a target antigen. Methods: We developed a “cassette” system in which three loci of the vaccinia virus genome were used for homologous recombination. A variety of recombinant vaccinia viruses were constructed, including one virus, vB7/β/IL-12, that contains the following five transgenes: murine B7-1, murine IL-12 subunit p35, murine IL-12 subunit p40, E. coli lacZ (encodes β-galactosidase, the model antigen), and E. coli gpt (xanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase, a selection gene). The effects of the recombinant viruses on lung metastases and survival were tested in animals that had been given an intravenous injection of β-galactosidase-expressing murine colon carcinoma cells 3 days before they received the recombinant virus by intravenous inoculation. Results: Expression of functional B7-1 and IL-12 by virally infected cells was demonstrated in vitro. Lung tumor nodules (i.e., metastases) were reduced in mice by more than 95% after treatment with the virus vB7/β/IL-12; a further reduction in lung tumor nodules was observed when exogenous IL-12 was also given. Greatest survival of tumor-bearing mice was observed in those treated with viruses encoding β-galactosidase and B7-1 plus exogenous IL-12. Conclusion: This study shows the feasibility of constructing vaccinia viruses that express tumor antigens and multiple immune cofactors to create unique immunologic microenvironments that

  17. [Interface domain of hepatitis E virus capsid protein homodimer].

    PubMed

    Li, Shao-Wei; He, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Ying-Bin; Chen, Yi-Xin; Liu, Ru-Shi; Lin, Jian; Gu, Ying; Zhang, Jun; Xia, Ning-Shao

    2004-01-01

    Hepatitis E is a main cause of acute viral hepatitis in developing countries where it occurs as sporadic cases and in epidemics form. The causative agent, hepatitis E virus, is transmitted primarily by the fecal-oral route. The approximately 7.5 kb positive-sense single-strand RNA genome includes three open reading frames (ORFs), one of which (ORF2) is postulated to encode the major viral capsid protein (pORF2) of 660 amino acid residues. We earlier showed that a bacterially expressed peptide, designated as NE2, located from amino acid residues 394 to 606 of ORF2, was found to aggregate into homodimer to at least hexamer. To understand the interface domains within this peptide vital for dimerization and formation of major neutralizing epitopes, NE2 protein underwent terminal-truncated and site-directed mutation. The hydrophobic region, ORF2 aa597-aa602 (AVAVLA), played a key role in oligomerization. Any amino acid residue of this region replaced with glutamic acid residue, the peptide can not refold as homodimer and/or oligomer. The immunoreactivities of these mutant peptides, blotted with anti-HEV neutralizing monoclonal antibody (8C11) and convalescent human sera, show associated to the formation of homodimer. The intermolecular contact region on homodimer was investigated by chemical cross-linking of two site-directed cysteines. When the alanine on aa597 site mutated with cysteine, two different homodimers were found in SDS-PAGE analysis. One (42kD) can be disassociated with 8mol/L urea, which is postulated to form by virtue of hydrophobic interaction, and the other (60kD) falls apart with the reductant DTT present. The exact conformation, generating the cross-linking reaction of cysteines, was further investigated by induced-oxidation on monomer and hydrophobic homodimer of A597C protein with GSH/GSSG. And the results revealed, it is the conformation of hydrophobic homodimer that induces the disulfide bond come into being, instead of the one of monomer. So the

  18. A Model to Explain How the Bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG) Vaccine Drives Interleukin-12 Production in Neonates.

    PubMed

    Kativhu, Chido Loveness; Libraty, Daniel H

    2016-01-01

    The Bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG) vaccine is the only routine vaccination at birth that effectively induces neonatal T-helper 1 (Th1)-polarized immune responses. The primary cytokine that drives CD4+ T-cell Th1 differentiation is interleukin (IL)-12 p70, a heterodimeric cytokine composed of the IL-12 p35 and IL-12 p40 subunits. We therefore examined the mechanisms involved in BCG vaccine stimulation of IL-12 p35 and p40 production from human umbilical cord (neonatal) cells. We found that BCG bacilli did not upregulate IL-12 p35 mRNA production, but upregulated IL-12 p40 mRNA production in a Toll-like receptor (TLR)2-dependent manner, in human neonatal monocyte-derived dendritic cells (mdDCs). The combination of TLR2 signaling, Type I interferon (IFN), and Type II IFN induced maximal levels of IL-12 p35 and p40 mRNA production in human neonatal mdDCs. The cell-free supernatants of reconstituted BCG vaccine vials contained extracellular mycobacterial (BCG) DNA which could induce IFN-α (Type I IFN) production in human neonatal plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). BCG bacilli also stimulated human neonatal CD16lo natural killer (NK) cells to produce IFN-γ (Type II IFN) in a TLR2-dependent manner. We have therefore proposed a model where BCG vaccine could stimulate the combination of neonatal conventional DCs (cDCs), pDCs, and CD16lo NK cells to produce optimal neonatal IL-12 p35 and p40 (IL-12 p70) production and subsequent CD4+ T-cell Th1 polarization. An adjuvant that emulates the mechanism by which the BCG vaccine stimulates neonatal IL-12 p35 and p40 production could improve vaccine strategies at birth for protection against intracellular pathogens and toxins.

  19. A Model to Explain How the Bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG) Vaccine Drives Interleukin-12 Production in Neonates.

    PubMed

    Kativhu, Chido Loveness; Libraty, Daniel H

    2016-01-01

    The Bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG) vaccine is the only routine vaccination at birth that effectively induces neonatal T-helper 1 (Th1)-polarized immune responses. The primary cytokine that drives CD4+ T-cell Th1 differentiation is interleukin (IL)-12 p70, a heterodimeric cytokine composed of the IL-12 p35 and IL-12 p40 subunits. We therefore examined the mechanisms involved in BCG vaccine stimulation of IL-12 p35 and p40 production from human umbilical cord (neonatal) cells. We found that BCG bacilli did not upregulate IL-12 p35 mRNA production, but upregulated IL-12 p40 mRNA production in a Toll-like receptor (TLR)2-dependent manner, in human neonatal monocyte-derived dendritic cells (mdDCs). The combination of TLR2 signaling, Type I interferon (IFN), and Type II IFN induced maximal levels of IL-12 p35 and p40 mRNA production in human neonatal mdDCs. The cell-free supernatants of reconstituted BCG vaccine vials contained extracellular mycobacterial (BCG) DNA which could induce IFN-α (Type I IFN) production in human neonatal plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). BCG bacilli also stimulated human neonatal CD16lo natural killer (NK) cells to produce IFN-γ (Type II IFN) in a TLR2-dependent manner. We have therefore proposed a model where BCG vaccine could stimulate the combination of neonatal conventional DCs (cDCs), pDCs, and CD16lo NK cells to produce optimal neonatal IL-12 p35 and p40 (IL-12 p70) production and subsequent CD4+ T-cell Th1 polarization. An adjuvant that emulates the mechanism by which the BCG vaccine stimulates neonatal IL-12 p35 and p40 production could improve vaccine strategies at birth for protection against intracellular pathogens and toxins. PMID:27571272

  20. A Model to Explain How the Bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG) Vaccine Drives Interleukin-12 Production in Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Kativhu, Chido Loveness; Libraty, Daniel H.

    2016-01-01

    The Bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG) vaccine is the only routine vaccination at birth that effectively induces neonatal T-helper 1 (Th1)-polarized immune responses. The primary cytokine that drives CD4+ T-cell Th1 differentiation is interleukin (IL)-12 p70, a heterodimeric cytokine composed of the IL-12 p35 and IL-12 p40 subunits. We therefore examined the mechanisms involved in BCG vaccine stimulation of IL-12 p35 and p40 production from human umbilical cord (neonatal) cells. We found that BCG bacilli did not upregulate IL-12 p35 mRNA production, but upregulated IL-12 p40 mRNA production in a Toll-like receptor (TLR)2-dependent manner, in human neonatal monocyte-derived dendritic cells (mdDCs). The combination of TLR2 signaling, Type I interferon (IFN), and Type II IFN induced maximal levels of IL-12 p35 and p40 mRNA production in human neonatal mdDCs. The cell-free supernatants of reconstituted BCG vaccine vials contained extracellular mycobacterial (BCG) DNA which could induce IFN-α (Type I IFN) production in human neonatal plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). BCG bacilli also stimulated human neonatal CD16lo natural killer (NK) cells to produce IFN-γ (Type II IFN) in a TLR2-dependent manner. We have therefore proposed a model where BCG vaccine could stimulate the combination of neonatal conventional DCs (cDCs), pDCs, and CD16lo NK cells to produce optimal neonatal IL-12 p35 and p40 (IL-12 p70) production and subsequent CD4+ T-cell Th1 polarization. An adjuvant that emulates the mechanism by which the BCG vaccine stimulates neonatal IL-12 p35 and p40 production could improve vaccine strategies at birth for protection against intracellular pathogens and toxins. PMID:27571272

  1. Phase 2 study of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in combination with interleukin-12 for AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Little, Richard F; Aleman, Karen; Kumar, Pallavi; Wyvill, Kathleen M; Pluda, James M; Read-Connole, Elizabeth; Wang, Victoria; Pittaluga, Stefania; Catanzaro, Andrew T; Steinberg, Seth M; Yarchoan, Robert

    2007-12-15

    Thirty-six patients with AIDS-associated Kaposi sarcoma (KS) requiring chemotherapy were treated for six 3-week cycles of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (20 mg/m(2)) plus interleukin-12 (IL-12; 300 ng/kg subcutaneously twice weekly), followed by 500 ng/kg subcutaneous IL-12 twice weekly for up to 3 years. All received highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Twenty-two had poor-prognosis KS (T(1)S(1)). Thirty patients had a major response, including 9 with complete response, yielding an 83.3% major response rate (95% confidence interval: 67.2%-93.6%). Median time to first response was 2 cycles. Median progression was not reached at median potential follow-up of 46.9 months. Of 27 patients with residual disease when starting maintenance IL-12, 15 had a new major response compared with this new baseline. The regimen was overall well tolerated; principal toxicities were neutropenia, anemia, transaminitis, and neuropsychiatric toxicity. Patients had increases in serum IL-12, interferon gamma, and inducible protein-10 (IP-10), and these remained increased at weeks 18 and 34. The regimen of IL-12 plus liposomal doxorubicin yielded rapid tumor responses and a high response rate in patients with AIDS-KS receiving HAART, and responses were sustained on IL-12 maintenance therapy. A randomized trial of IL-12 in this setting may be warranted. This study is registered at (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov) as no. NCT00020449.

  2. In vivo treatment with interleukin 12 protects mice from immune abnormalities observed during murine acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (MAIDS)

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Lymphoproliferation, chronic B cell activation resulting in hypergammaglobulinemia, and profound immunodeficiency are prominent features of a retrovirus-induced syndrome designated murine acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (MAIDS). In vivo treatment of infected mice with recombinant interleukin 12 (IL-12) beginning at the time of infection or up to 9 wk after virus inoculation markedly inhibited the development of splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy, as well as B cell activation and Ig secretion. Treatment with IL-12 also had major effects in preventing induction of several immune defects including impaired production of interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) and IL-2 and depressed proliferative responses to various stimuli. The therapeutic effects of IL-12 on the immune system of mice with MAIDS were also associated with reduced expression of the retrovirus that causes this disease (BM5def), with lesser effects on expression of ecotropic MuLV. IL-12 treatment was not effective in IFN-gamma knockout mice or in infected mice treated simultaneously with IL-12 and anti-IFN-gamma. These results demonstrate that induction and progression of MAIDS are antagonized by IL-12 through high-level expression of IFN-gamma and may provide an experimental basis for developing treatments of retrovirus- induced immune disorders with similar immunopathogenic mechanisms. PMID:7964495

  3. Global Gene Expression Profiling in Interleukin-12-Induced Activation of CD8+ Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes against Mouse Mammary Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Shanjin; Xiang, Zhaoying; Ma, Xiaojing

    2010-01-01

    Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a critical cytokine representing the link between the cellular and humoral branches of host immune defense apparatus. IL-12-induced cytotoxic lymphocyte (CTL) development is a central mechanism in immune responses against intracellular infectious agents as well as malignant growth. However, the molecular basis of tumor-specific CTL responses mediated by IL-12 remains poorly defined. In this study, we addressed this issue in a comprehensive manner to probe into IL-12-induced anti-tumor responses by global gene expression profiling of mRNA expression in CD8+T cells in a transplantable syngeneic mouse mammary carcinoma model treated or not with recombinant IL-12. A strong tumor regression was induced by the IL-12 treatment. An introspection of differential gene expression at an early stage of the IL-12-initiated CTL activation reveals interesting genes and molecular pathways that may account for the marked tumor regression, and is likely to provide a rich source of potential targets for further research and development of effective therapeutic modalities. PMID:16285895

  4. Inferring relevant control mechanisms for Interleukin-12 signaling in naïve CD4+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Finley, Stacey D.; Gupta, Deepti; Cheng, Ning; Klinke, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a key cytokine involved in shaping cell-mediated immunity to intracellular pathogens. IL-12 initiates a cellular response via the IL-12 signaling pathway, a member of the JAK/STAT family of signaling networks. The JAK/STAT pathway includes several regulatory elements; however, the dynamics of these mechanisms are not fully understood. Therefore, the objective of this study was to infer the relative importance of regulatory mechanisms that modulate the activation of STAT4 in naïve CD4+ T cells. Dynamic changes in protein expression and activity were measured using flow cytometry and these data were used to calibrate a mathematical model of IL-12 signaling. An empirical Bayesian approach was used to infer the relative strength of different regulatory mechanism in the system. The model predicted that IL-12 receptor expression is regulated via a dynamic, autonomous program that was independent of STAT4 activation. A time scale analysis identified the signaling events that limited the cellular response, including ligand binding and receptor degradation. In summary, a mathematical model of the canonical IL-12 signaling pathway used in conjunction with a Bayesian framework provided high confidence predictions of the system-specific control mechanisms from the available experimental observations. PMID:20479776

  5. Bile acids induce monocyte differentiation toward interleukin-12 hypo-producing dendritic cells via a TGR5-dependent pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ichikawa, Riko; Takayama, Tetsuro; Yoneno, Kazuaki; Kamada, Nobuhiko; Kitazume, Mina T; Higuchi, Hajime; Matsuoka, Katsuyoshi; Watanabe, Mitsuhiro; Itoh, Hiroshi; Kanai, Takanori; Hisamatsu, Tadakazu; Hibi, Toshifumi

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are known as antigen-presenting cells and play a central role in both innate and acquired immunity. Peripheral blood monocytes give rise to resident and recruited DCs in lymph nodes and non-lymphoid tissues. The ligands of nuclear hormone receptors can modulate DC differentiation and so influence various biological functions of DCs. The role of bile acids (BAs) as signalling molecules has recently become apparent, but the functional role of BAs in DC differentiation has not yet been elucidated. We show that DCs derived from human peripheral blood monocytes cultured with a BA produce lower levels of interleukin-12 (IL-12) and tumour necrosis factor-α in response to stimulation with commensal bacterial antigens. Stimulation through the nuclear receptor farnesoid X (FXR) did not affect the differentiation of DCs. However, DCs differentiated with the specific agonist for TGR5, a transmembrane BA receptor, showed an IL-12 hypo-producing phenotype. Expression of TGR5 could only be identified in monocytes and was rapidly down-regulated during monocyte differentiation to DCs. Stimulation with 8-bromoadenosine-cyclic AMP (8-Br-cAMP), which acts downstream of TGR5 signalling, also promoted differentiation into IL-12 hypo-producing DCs. These results indicate that BAs induce the differentiation of IL-12 hypo-producing DCs from monocytes via the TGR5-cAMP pathway. PMID:22236403

  6. Interleukin-12 and photocarcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Katiyar, Santosh K.

    2007-11-01

    UV radiation induces immunosuppression and inflammatory responses, as well as oxidative stress and DNA damage, in skin cells and these various effects have been implicated in melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers, i.e., photocarcinogenesis. The cytokine interleukin (IL)-12 has been shown to possess potent antitumor activity in a wide variety of murine tumor models. In this review, we summarize the evidence that IL-12 plays a role in preventing photocarcinogenesis, and present a model of its possible mechanisms of action. Treatment of mice with IL-12 prevents UV-induced immunosuppression in a process mediated by repair of UV-induced damaged DNA. After exposure to the photocarcinogenesis protocol, the development of UV-induced tumors is more rapid and the tumor multiplicity and tumor size are significantly greater in IL-12-deficient or knockout (KO) mice than their wild-type counterparts. IL-12-deficiency in mice enhances the proliferation potential of tumor cells, and this may be one of the reasons for the rapid growth of the tumors and their greater size. The rate of malignant transformation of UV-induced papillomas to carcinomas also is higher in the IL-12 KO mice than in their wild-type counterparts in terms of carcinoma incidence and carcinoma multiplicity. UV-induced DNA damage in the form of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and sunburn cells is lower, or repaired more rapidly, in wild-type mice than IL-12 KO mice. The IL-12-associated reduction in UV-specific CPDs is due to induction of DNA repair, and particularly enhancement of nucleotide-excision repair. We suggest that endogenous stimulation of IL-12 may protect the skin from UV-induced immunosuppression, DNA damage, and, ultimately, the risk of photocarcinogenesis. Taken together, this information suggests that augmentation of IL-12 should be considered as a strategy for the prevention and treatment of photocarcinogenesis.

  7. Interleukin-12-secreting human papillomavirus type 16-transformed cells provide a potent cancer vaccine that generates E7-directed immunity.

    PubMed

    Hallez, S; Detremmerie, O; Giannouli, C; Thielemans, K; Gajewski, T F; Burny, A; Leo, O

    1999-05-01

    The development of a vaccine that would be capable of preventing or curing the (pre)cancerous lesions induced by genital oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPVs) is the focus of much research. Many studies are presently evaluating vaccines based on the viral E6 and E7 oncoproteins, both of which are continually expressed by tumor cells. The success of a cancer vaccine relies, in large part, on the induction of a tumor-specific Th1-type immunity. In this study, we have evaluated the ability of B7-related and/or interleukin-12 (IL-12)-expressing, non-immunogenic murine HPV16-transformed BMK-16/myc cells, to achieve this goal. BMK-16/myc cells engineered to express surface B7-1 or B7-2 molecules remain tumorigenic in syngeneic BALB/c mice, suggesting that expression of these molecules alone is not sufficient to induce tumor regression. In contrast, mice injected with tumor cells engineered to secrete IL-12 remained tumor-free, demonstrating that IL-12 expression is sufficient to induce tumor rejection. IL-12-secreting BMK-16/myc cells were further shown to induce potent and specific long-term tumor resistance, even after irradiation. B7-1 was found to slightly but systematically improve anti-tumor immunity elicited by IL-12-secreting BMK-16/myc cells. Injection of irradiated B7-1/IL-12+ BMK-16/myc cells generates long-lasting, Th1-type, BMK-16/myc-directed immunity in tumor-resistant mice. These mice display a memory-type, E7-specific, cell-mediated immune response, which is potentially significant for clinical applications. PMID:10209958

  8. Endogenous Interleukin-12 Is Not Required for Resolution of Chlamydophila abortus (Chlamydia psittaci Serotype 1) Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Del Río, Laura; Buendía, Antonio J.; Sánchez, Joaquín; Gallego, María C.; Caro, María R.; Ortega, Nieves; Seva, Juan; Pallarés, Francisco J.; Cuello, Francisco; Salinas, Jesús

    2001-01-01

    A Th1 immune response involving gamma interferon (IFN-γ) production is required to eliminate Chlamydophila abortus infections. In this study, the role of interleukin-12 (IL-12) in protecting against C. abortus infection was investigated using IL-12−/− and wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice to determine the role of this Th1-promoting cytokine. IL-12−/− mice were able to eliminate the C. abortus infection in a primary infection. However, there was a delay in the clearance of bacteria when IL-12−/− mice were infected with a sublethal dose of C. abortus, the delay being associated with a lower production of IFN-γ. The low level of IFN-γ was essential for survival of IL-12−/− infected mice. Both WT and IL-12−/− mice developed a Th1 immune response against C. abortus infection, since they both produced IFN-γ and immunoglobulin G2a antibody isotype. In addition, when mice were given a secondary infectious challenge with C. abortus, a protective host response which resolved the secondary infection was developed by both WT and IL-12−/− mice. The lack of IL-12 resulted in few infiltrating CD4+ T cells in the liver relative to the number in WT mice, although the number of CD8+ T cells was slightly higher. The more intense Th1 response presented by WT mice may have a pathogenic effect, as the animals showed higher morbidity after the infection. In conclusion, these results suggest that although IL-12 expedites the clearance of C. abortus infection, this cytokine is not essential for the establishment of a protective host response against the infection. PMID:11447154

  9. A covalent homodimer probing early oligomers along amyloid aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Halabelian, Levon; Relini, Annalisa; Barbiroli, Alberto; Penco, Amanda; Bolognesi, Martino; Ricagno, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Early oligomers are crucial in amyloid aggregation; however, due to their transient nature they are among the least structurally characterized species. We focused on the amyloidogenic protein beta2-microglobulin (β2m) whose early oligomers are still a matter of debate. An intermolecular interaction between D strands of facing β2m molecules was repeatedly observed, suggesting that such interface may be relevant for β2m dimerization. In this study, by mutating Ser33 to Cys, and assembling the disulphide-stabilized β2m homodimer (DimC33), such DD strand interface was locked. Although the isolated DimC33 display a stability similar to wt β2m under native conditions, it shows enhanced amyloid aggregation propensity. Three distinct crystal structures of DimC33 suggest that dimerization through the DD interface is instrumental for enhancing DimC33 aggregation propensity. Furthermore, the crystal structure of DimC33 in complex with the amyloid-specific dye Thioflavin-T pinpoints a second interface, which likely participates in the first steps of β2m aggregation. The present data provide new insight into β2m early steps of amyloid aggregation. PMID:26420657

  10. Vector description of electric and hydrophobic interactions in protein homodimers.

    PubMed

    Mozo-Villarías, Angel; Cedano, Juan; Querol, Enrique

    2016-05-01

    This article describes the formation of homodimers from their constituting monomers, based on the rules set by a simple model of electric and hydrophobic interactions. These interactions are described in terms of the electric dipole moment (D) and hydrophobic moment vectors (H) of proteins. The distribution of angles formed by the two dipole moments of monomers constituting dimers were analysed, as well as the distribution of angles formed by the two hydrophobic moments. When these distributions were fitted to Gaussian curves, it was found that for biological dimers, the D vectors tend mostly to adopt a perpendicular arrangement with respect to each other, in which the constituting dipoles have the least interaction. A minor population tends towards an antiparallel arrangement implying maximum electric attraction. Also in biological dimers, the H vectors of most monomers tend to interact in such a way that the total hydrophobic moment of the dimer increases with respect to those of the monomers. This shows that hydrophobic moments have a tendency to align. In dimers originating in the crystallisation process, the distribution of angles formed by both hydrophobic and electric dipole moments appeared rather featureless, probably because of unspecific interactions in the crystallisation processes. The model does not describe direct interactions between H and D vectors although the distribution of angles formed by both vectors in dimers was analysed. It was found that in most cases these angles tended to be either small (both moments aligned parallel to each other) or large (antiparallel disposition). PMID:26658743

  11. Multilineage hematopoietic recovery with concomitant antitumor effects using low dose Interleukin-12 in myelosuppressed tumor-bearing mice

    PubMed Central

    Basile, Lena A; Gallaher, Timothy K; Shibata, Darryl; Miller, Joseph D; Douer, Dan

    2008-01-01

    Background Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a cytokine well known for its role in immunity. A lesser known function of IL-12 is its role in hematopoiesis. The promising data obtained in the preclinical models of antitumor immunotherapy raised hope that IL-12 could be a powerful therapeutic agent against cancer. However, excessive clinical toxicity, largely due to repeat dose regimens, and modest clinical response observed in the clinical trials have pointed to the necessity to design protocols that minimize toxicity without affecting the anti-tumor effect of IL-12. We have focused on the lesser known role of IL-12 in hematopoiesis and hypothesized that an important clinical role for IL-12 in cancer may be as an adjuvant hematological cancer therapy. In this putative clinical function, IL-12 is utilized for the prevention of cancer therapy-related cytopenias, while providing concomitant anti-tumor responses over and above responses observed with the primary therapy alone. This putative clinical function of IL-12 focuses on the dual role of IL-12 in hematopoiesis and immunity. Methods We assessed the ability of IL-12 to facilitate hematopoietic recovery from radiation (625 rad) and chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide) in two tumor-bearing murine models, namely the EL4 lymphoma and the Lewis lung cancer models. Antitumor effects and changes in bone marrow cellularity were also assessed. Results We show herein that carefully designed protocols, in mice, utilizing IL-12 as an adjuvant to radiation or chemotherapy yield facile and consistent, multilineage hematopoietic recovery from cancer therapy-induced cytopenias, as compared to vehicle and the clinically-utilized cytokine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) (positive control), while still providing concomitant antitumor responses over and above the effects of the primary therapy alone. Moreover, our protocol design utilizes single, low doses of IL-12 that did not yield any apparent toxicity. Conclusion Our results

  12. Characterization of P40, a Cytadhesin of Mycoplasma agalactiae

    PubMed Central

    Fleury, Bénédicte; Bergonier, Dominique; Berthelot, Xavier; Peterhans, Ernst; Frey, Joachim; Vilei, Edy M.

    2002-01-01

    An immunodominant protein, P40, of Mycoplasma agalactiae was analyzed genetically and functionally. The gene encoding P40 was cloned from type strain PG2, sequenced, submitted to point mutagenesis in order to convert mycoplasma-specific TGATrp codon to the universal TGGTrp codon, and subsequently expressed in Escherichia coli. Nucleotide sequence-derived amino acid sequence comparisons revealed a similarity of P40 to the adhesin P50 of Mycoplasma hominis and to protein P89 of Spiroplasma citri, which is expected to be involved in adhesion. The amino acid sequence of P40 revealed a recognition site for a signal peptidase and strong antigenic and hydrophilic motifs in the C-terminal domain. Triton X-114 phase partitioning confirmed that P40 is a membrane protein. Fab fragments of antibodies directed against recombinant purified P40 significantly inhibited adherence of M. agalactiae strains PG2 to lamb joint synovial cells LSM 192. Sera taken sequentially from sheep infected with PG2 revealed that P40 induced a strong and persistent immune response that gave strong signals on immunoblots containing recombinant P40 even 3 months after infection. The gene encoding P40 was present in a single copy in all of the 26 field strains of M. agalactiae analyzed and was not detected in closely related mycoplasma species. P40 was expressed as a protein with an apparent molecular mass of 37 kDa on sodium dodecyl sulfate-acrylamide gels by all M. agalactiae strains except for serotype C strains, which showed nonsense mutations in their p40 genes. PMID:12228289

  13. Interleukin-12B gene polymorphism frequencies in Egyptians and sex-related susceptibility to hepatitis C infection.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Samar Samir; Abd El Aal, Asmaa Mostafa; Nasr, Amal Soliman; el Zanaty, Taher; Seif, Sameh Mohamed

    2013-08-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major health problem worldwide. Egypt is the country with the highest HCV infection epidemic in the world. Interleukin (IL)-12 is a cytokine that has been shown to have a potent role as an antiviral cytokine. IL-12 is a heterodimer of the polypeptides p35 and p40. IL-12 B, the gene encoding IL-12 p40, is polymorphic, and a functional single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the 3'-untranslated region at position rs3212227 was associated with apparent resistance to HCV. The genotype distribution of this polymorphism differs by race. This study is sought to identify the genotype distribution of the IL-12 SNP rs3212227 polymorphism in Egyptians and to assess its role in susceptibility to chronic HCV infection alone or in a sex-dependent way. The study included 238 subjects: 100 healthy controls and 138 patients with HCV infection. The IL-12 SNP rs3212227 was genotyped by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method (PCR-RFLP). Results showed a genotype frequency of 46%, 39%, and 15% for AA, AC, and CC IL-12 genotypes, respectively. No significant result (P=0.5) was shown in the differential distribution of the IL-12 SNP genotypes between controls and patients with HCV infection. Nonetheless, this difference in the IL-12 genotype distribution was significant (0.005) when it was stratified according to sex; moreover, the C allele distribution in men and women differed with a statistically high significance (P=0.0001) in controls versus HCV patients. In conclusion, the IL-12 SNP rs3212227 polymorphism confers a susceptibility to HCV infection in a sex-dependent way in Egyptians.

  14. Brucella abortus as a potential vaccine candidate: induction of interleukin-12 secretion and enhanced B7.1 and B7.2 and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 surface expression in elutriated human monocytes stimulated by heat-inactivated B. abortus.

    PubMed Central

    Zaitseva, M; Golding, H; Manischewitz, J; Webb, D; Golding, B

    1996-01-01

    Development of a vaccine which is capable of generating a strong cellular immune response associated with gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) production and cytotoxic T-cell development requires that the immunogen be capable of inducing the secretion of interleukin-12 (IL-12), which is a pivotal factor for the differentiation of Th1 or Tc1 cells. We have previously shown that the heat-inactivated gram-negative bacterium Brucella abortus can induce IFN-gamma secretion by T cells. In the present study, we demonstrate that B. abortus and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from B. abortus can induce IL-12 p40 mRNA expression and protein secretion by human elutriated monocytes (99% pure). p40 mRNA was detected within 4 h, and p40 protein could be measured at 24 h. This induction was abrogated by anti-CD14 monoclonal antibody, suggesting that monocytes recognize B. abortus via their receptor for LPS. The biological activity of IL-12 secreted by B. abortus-stimulated monocytes was demonstrated by its ability to upregulate IFN-gamma mRNA expression in T cells separated from monocytes and B. abortus by a transwell membrane. The B. abortus-induced IL-12 also enhanced NK cytolytic activity against K562 target cells. B. abortus was shown to rapidly increase the expression of the costimulatory molecules B7.1 and B7.2 and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 on human monocytes. Together, these data indicate that B. abortus can directly activate human monocytes and provide the cytokine milieu which would direct the immune response towards Th1-Tc1 differentiation. PMID:8757841

  15. The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Hand1 regulates mouse development as a homodimer.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dong; Scott, Ian C; Snider, Fran; Geary-Joo, Colleen; Zhao, Xiang; Simmons, David G; Cross, James C

    2013-10-15

    Hand1 is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is essential for development of the placenta, yolk sac and heart during mouse development. While Hand1 is essential for trophoblast giant cell (TGC) differentiation, its potential heterodimer partners are not co-expressed in TGCs. To test the hypothesis that Hand1 functions as homodimer, we generated knock-in mice in which the Hand1 gene was altered to encode a tethered homodimer (TH). Some Hand1(TH/-) conceptuses in which the only form of Hand1 is Hand1(TH) are viable and fertile, indicating that homodimer Hand1 is sufficient for mouse survival. ~2/3 of Hand1(TH/-) and all Hand1(TH/TH) mice died in utero and displayed severe placental defects and variable cardial and cranial-facial abnormalities, indicating a dosage-dependent effect of Hand1(TH). Meanwhile, expression of the Hand1(TH) protein did not have negative effects on viability or fertility in all Hand1(TH/+) mice. These data imply that Hand1 homodimer plays a dominant role during development and its expression dosage is critical for survival, whereas Hand1 heterodimers can be either dispensable or play a regulatory role to modulate the activity of Hand1 homodimer in vivo.

  16. Review of ustekinumab, an interleukin-12 and interleukin-23 inhibitor used for the treatment of plaque psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Koutruba, Nora; Emer, Jason; Lebwohl, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The pathogenesis of psoriasis is unknown, although it is generally accepted that this chronic inflammatory skin disorder is a complex autoimmune condition similar to other T-cell mediated disorders. Psoriasis imposes a heavy burden on the lifestyle of those affected due to the psychological, arthritic, and cutaneous morbidities; thus significant research has focused on the genetic and immunologic features of psoriasis in anticipation of more targeted, efficacious, and safe therapies. Recently, CD4+ T helper (Th) 17 cells and interleukins (IL)-12 and -23 have been important in the pathogenesis of T-cell mediated disorders such as psoriasis and has influenced the development of medications that specifically target these key immunological players. Ustekinumab is a monoclonal antibody belonging to a newly developed class of biological, anti-cytokine medications that notably targets the p40 subunit of both IL-12 and -23, both naturally occurring proteins that are important in regulating the immune system and are understood to play a role in immune-mediated inflammatory disorders. Ustekinumab’s safety and efficacy has been evaluated for the treatment of moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis in 3 phase III clinical trials, 2 placebo-controlled (PHOENIX 1 and 2), and 1 comparator-controlled (ACCEPT) study which proved advantageous in patients who were treatment-naive, previously failed other immunosuppressive medications including cyclosporine or methotrexate, were unresponsive to phototherapy, or were unable to use or tolerate other therapies. Ustekinumab has also been investigated for other indications such as psoriatic arthritis, Crohn’s disease, and relapsing/remitting multiple sclerosis. We present a concise review evaluating the evidence that supports the use of ustekinumab in the treatment of plaque psoriasis and other conditions. PMID:20421912

  17. Nicotinamidase/pyrazinamidase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis forms homo-dimers stabilized by disulfide bonds.

    PubMed

    Rueda, Daniel; Sheen, Patricia; Gilman, Robert H; Bueno, Carlos; Santos, Marco; Pando-Robles, Victoria; Batista, Cesar V; Zimic, Mirko

    2014-12-01

    Recombinant wild-pyrazinamidase from H37Rv Mycobacterium tuberculosis was analyzed by gel electrophoresis under differential reducing conditions to evaluate its quaternary structure. PZAse was fractionated by size exclusion chromatography under non-reducing conditions. PZAse activity was measured and mass spectrometry analysis was performed to determine the identity of proteins by de novo sequencing and to determine the presence of disulfide bonds. This study confirmed that M. tuberculosis wild type PZAse was able to form homo-dimers in vitro. Homo-dimers showed a slightly lower specific PZAse activity compared to monomeric PZAse. PZAse dimers were dissociated into monomers in response to reducing conditions. Mass spectrometry analysis confirmed the existence of disulfide bonds (C72-C138 and C138-C138) stabilizing the quaternary structure of the PZAse homo-dimer.

  18. Structures of the Yeast Ribonucleotide Reductase Rnr2 and Rnr4 Homodimers

    SciTech Connect

    Sommerhalter, M.; Voegtli, W.C.; Perlstein, D.L.; Ge, J.; Stubbe, J.; Rosenzweig, A.C.

    2010-03-08

    Class I ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) catalyze the reduction of ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides. Eukaryotic RNRs comprise two subunits, the R1 subunit, which contains substrate and allosteric effector binding sites, and the R2 subunit, which houses a catalytically essential diiron-tyrosyl radical cofactor. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, there are two variants of the R2 subunit, called Rnr2 and Rnr4. Rnr4 is unique in that it lacks three iron-binding residues conserved in all other R2s. Nevertheless, Rnr4 is required to activate Rnr2, and the functional species in vivo is believed to be a heterodimeric complex between the two proteins. The crystal structures of the Rnr2 and Rnr4 homodimers have been determined and are compared to that of the heterodimer. The homodimers are very similar to the heterodimer and to mouse R2 in overall fold, but there are several key differences. In the Rnr2 homodimer, one of the iron-binding helices, helix {alpha}B, is not well-ordered. In the heterodimer, interactions with a loop region connecting Rnr4 helices {alpha}A and {alpha}3 stabilize this Rnr2 helix, which donates iron ligand Asp 145. Sequence differences between Rnr2 and Rnr4 prevent the same interactions from occurring in the Rnr2 homodimer. These findings provide a structural rationale for why the heterodimer is the preferred complex in vivo. The active-site region in the Rnr4 homodimer reveals interactions not apparent in the heterodimer, supporting previous conclusions that this subunit does not bind iron. When taken together, these results support a model in which Rnr4 stabilizes Rnr2 for cofactor assembly and activity.

  19. Encapsulation and Characterization of Proton-Bound Amine Homodimers in a Water Soluble, Self-Assembled Supramolecular Host

    SciTech Connect

    Pluth, Michael; Fiedler, Dorothea; Mugridge, Jeffrey; Bergman, Robert; Raymond, Kenneth

    2008-10-01

    Cyclic amines can be encapsulated in a water-soluble self-assembled supramolecular host upon protonation. The hydrogen bonding ability of the cyclic amines, as well as the reduced degrees of rotational freedom, allows for the formation of proton-bound homodimers inside of the assembly which are otherwise not observable in aqueous solution. The generality of homodimer formation was explored with small N-alkyl aziridines, azetidines, pyrrolidines and piperidines. Proton-bound homodimer formation is observed for N-alkylaziridines (R = methyl, isopropyl, tert-butyl), N-alkylazetidines (R = isopropyl, tertbutyl), and N-methylpyrrolidine. At high concentration, formation of a proton-bound homotrimer is observed in the case of N-methylaziridine. The homodimers stay intact inside the assembly over a large concentration range, thereby suggesting cooperative encapsulation. Both G3(MP2)B3 and G3B3 calculations of the proton-bound homodimers were used to investigate the enthalpy of the hydrogen bond in the proton-bound homodimers and suggest that the enthalpic gain upon formation of the proton-bound homodimers may drive guest encapsulation.

  20. Co-expression of interleukin 12 enhances antitumor effects of a novel chimeric promoter-mediated suicide gene therapy in an immunocompetent mouse model

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yu; Liu, Zhengchun; Kong, Haiyan; Sun, Wenjie; Liao, Zhengkai; Zhou, Fuxiang; Xie, Conghua; and others

    2011-09-09

    Highlights: {yields} A novel chimeric promoter consisting of CArG element and hTERT promoter was developed. {yields} The promoter was characterized with radiation-inducibility and tumor-specificity. {yields} Suicide gene system driven by the promoter showed remarkable cytotoxicity in vitro. {yields} Co-expression of IL12 enhanced the promoter mediated suicide gene therapy in vivo. -- Abstract: The human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) promoter has been widely used in target gene therapy of cancer. However, low transcriptional activity limited its clinical application. Here, we designed a novel dual radiation-inducible and tumor-specific promoter system consisting of CArG elements and the hTERT promoter, resulting in increased expression of reporter genes after gamma-irradiation. Therapeutic and side effects of adenovirus-mediated horseradish peroxidase (HRP)/indole-3-acetic (IAA) system downstream of the chimeric promoter were evaluated in mice bearing Lewis lung carcinoma, combining with or without adenovirus-mediated interleukin 12 (IL12) gene driven by the cytomegalovirus promoter. The combination treatment showed more effective suppression of tumor growth than those with single agent alone, being associated with pronounced intratumoral T-lymphocyte infiltration and minor side effects. Our results suggest that the combination treatment with HRP/IAA system driven by the novel chimeric promoter and the co-expression of IL12 might be an effective and safe target gene therapy strategy of cancer.

  1. Subcutaneous injection of interleukin 12 induces systemic inflammatory responses in humans: implications for the use of IL-12 as vaccine adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Portielje, Johanna E A; Kruit, Wim H J; Eerenberg, Anke J M; Schuler, Martin; Sparreboom, Alex; Lamers, Cor H J; Gratama, Jan-Willem; Stoter, Gerrit; Huber, Christoph; Hack, C Erik

    2005-01-01

    Interleukin 12 (IL-12) is a cytokine with important regulatory functions bridging innate and adaptive immunity. It has been proposed as an immune adjuvant for vaccination therapy of infectious diseases and malignancies. The inflammatory properties of IL-12 play an important role in the adjuvant effect. We studied the effect of s.c. injections of recombinant human IL-12 (rHuIL-12) in 26 patients with renal cell cancer and demonstrated dose-dependent systemic activation of multiple inflammatory mediator systems in humans. rHuIL-12 at a dose of 0.5 microg/kg induced degranulation of neutrophils with a significant increase in the plasma levels of elastase (p < 0.05) and lactoferrin (p = 0.01) at 24 h. Additionally, rHuIL-12 injection mediated the release of lipid mediators, as demonstrated by a sharp increase in the plasma secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) level (p = 0.003). rHuIL-12, when administered at a dose of 0.1 microg/kg, showed minimal systemic effects. In conclusion, when IL-12 is used as an adjuvant, doses should not exceed 0.1 microg/kg, in order to avoid severe systemic inflammatory responses.

  2. Cord blood mesenchymal stem cells propel human dendritic cells to an intermediate maturation state and boost interleukin-12 production by mature dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    van den Berk, Lieke C J; Roelofs, Helene; Huijs, Tonnie; Siebers-Vermeulen, Kim G C; Raymakers, Reinier A; Kögler, Gesine; Figdor, Carl G; Torensma, Ruurd

    2009-12-01

    Pathogen-derived entities force the tissue-resident dendritic cells (DCs) towards a mature state, followed by migration to the draining lymph node to present antigens to T cells. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) modulate the differentiation, maturation and function of DCs. In umbilical cord blood an immature MSC population was identified. Remarkably, these immature stem cells modulated DCs in a different way. Marker expression was unchanged during the differentiation of monocytes towards immature DCs (iDCs) when cocultured with cord blood MSC [unrestricted somatic stem cells (USSCs)]. The maturation to mature DCs (mDCs) was enhanced when DCs were co-cultured with USSC, as evidenced by the up-regulation of costimulatory molecules. Endocytosis of dextran by iDCs was hampered in the presence of USSCs, which is indicative for the maturation of iDCs. Despite this maturation, the migration of iDCs cocultured with USSCs appeared to be identical to iDCs cultured alone. However, USSCs increased the migration of mDCs towards CCL21 and boosted interleukin-12 production. So, USSCs mature iDCs, thereby redirecting the antigen-uptake phenotype towards a mature phenotype. Furthermore, DC maturation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or USSCs reflects two distinct pathways because migration was unaffected when iDCs were matured by coculture with USSCs, while it was strongly enhanced in the presence of LPS. DCs are able to discriminate the different MSC subtypes, resulting in diverse differentiation programmes.

  3. Assembly of Bak homodimers into higher order homooligomers in the mitochondrial apoptotic pore

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Tirtha; Shin, Seungjin; Aluvila, Sreevidya; Chen, Hui-Chen; Grieve, Carter; Choe, Jun-Yong; Cheng, Emily H.; Hustedt, Eric J.; Oh, Kyoung Joon

    2016-01-01

    In mitochondrial apoptosis, Bak is activated by death signals to form pores of unknown structure on the mitochondrial outer membrane via homooligomerization. Cytochrome c and other apoptotic factors are released from the intermembrane space through these pores, initiating downstream apoptosis events. Using chemical crosslinking and double electron electron resonance (DEER)-derived distance measurements between specific structural elements in Bak, here we clarify how the Bak pore is assembled. We propose that previously described BH3-in-groove homodimers (BGH) are juxtaposed via the ‘α3/α5’ interface, in which the C-termini of helices α3 and α5 are in close proximity between two neighboring Bak homodimers. This interface is observed concomitantly with the well-known ‘α6:α6’ interface. We also mapped the contacts between Bak homodimers and the lipid bilayer based on EPR spectroscopy topology studies. Our results suggest a model for the lipidic Bak pore, whereby the mitochondrial targeting C-terminal helix does not change topology to accommodate the lining of the pore lumen by BGH. PMID:27488021

  4. Assembly of Bak homodimers into higher order homooligomers in the mitochondrial apoptotic pore.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Tirtha; Shin, Seungjin; Aluvila, Sreevidya; Chen, Hui-Chen; Grieve, Carter; Choe, Jun-Yong; Cheng, Emily H; Hustedt, Eric J; Oh, Kyoung Joon

    2016-01-01

    In mitochondrial apoptosis, Bak is activated by death signals to form pores of unknown structure on the mitochondrial outer membrane via homooligomerization. Cytochrome c and other apoptotic factors are released from the intermembrane space through these pores, initiating downstream apoptosis events. Using chemical crosslinking and double electron electron resonance (DEER)-derived distance measurements between specific structural elements in Bak, here we clarify how the Bak pore is assembled. We propose that previously described BH3-in-groove homodimers (BGH) are juxtaposed via the 'α3/α5' interface, in which the C-termini of helices α3 and α5 are in close proximity between two neighboring Bak homodimers. This interface is observed concomitantly with the well-known 'α6:α6' interface. We also mapped the contacts between Bak homodimers and the lipid bilayer based on EPR spectroscopy topology studies. Our results suggest a model for the lipidic Bak pore, whereby the mitochondrial targeting C-terminal helix does not change topology to accommodate the lining of the pore lumen by BGH. PMID:27488021

  5. Nuclear receptor coactivators facilitate vitamin D receptor homodimer action on direct repeat hormone response elements.

    PubMed

    Takeshita, A; Ozawa, Y; Chin, W W

    2000-03-01

    Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that regulates target gene expression. Although VDR forms stable heterodimer complex with retinoid X receptors (RXRs) on vitamin D-response elements (VDREs), it is still not clear whether VDR/RXR heterodimers are the only VDR complexes responsible for vitamin D-mediated gene transcription. In this report, we analyzed the effect of nuclear receptor coactivators (SRC-1 and TRAM-1) on VDR homodimer and VDR/RXR heterodimer formation by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. We found that VDR forms stable homodimers after interaction with the coactivators on a VDRE (DR+3). Of particular note, DR+4 and DR+5 hormone-response elements (HREs) may also support such interactions. Cotransfection experiments revealed further that the coactivators enhance ligand-induced VDR transcription on these elements. Our studies suggest the important role of VDR homodimers, in addition to VDR/RXR heterodimers, in vitamin D-induced transactivation. Thus, specific coactivator-VDR interactions on HREs may determine target gene transactivation.

  6. Organization of the mitochondrial apoptotic BAK pore: oligomerization of the BAK homodimers.

    PubMed

    Aluvila, Sreevidya; Mandal, Tirtha; Hustedt, Eric; Fajer, Peter; Choe, Jun Yong; Oh, Kyoung Joon

    2014-01-31

    The multidomain pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins BAK and BAX are believed to form large oligomeric pores in the mitochondrial outer membrane during apoptosis. Formation of these pores results in the release of apoptotic factors including cytochrome c from the intermembrane space into the cytoplasm, where they initiate the cascade of events that lead to cell death. Using the site-directed spin labeling method of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, we have determined the conformational changes that occur in BAK when the protein targets to the membrane and forms pores. The data showed that helices α1 and α6 disengage from the rest of the domain, leaving helices α2-α5 as a folded unit. Helices α2-α5 were shown to form a dimeric structure, which is structurally homologous to the recently reported BAX "BH3-in-groove homodimer." Furthermore, the EPR data and a chemical cross-linking study demonstrated the existence of a hitherto unknown interface between BAK BH3-in-groove homodimers in the oligomeric BAK. This novel interface involves the C termini of α3 and α5 helices. The results provide further insights into the organization of the BAK oligomeric pores by the BAK homodimers during mitochondrial apoptosis, enabling the proposal of a BAK-induced lipidic pore with the topography of a "worm hole."

  7. Therapeutic effect of interleukin 12 on mouse haemangiosarcomas is not associated with an increased anti-tumour cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activity.

    PubMed Central

    Vizler, C.; Rosato, A.; Calderazzo, F.; Quintieri, L.; Fruscella, P.; Wainstok de Calmanovici, R.; Mantovani, A.; Vecchi, A.; Zanovello, P.; Collavo, D.

    1998-01-01

    In syngeneic mice, the H5V polyoma middle-T oncogene-transformed endothelioma cell line induces Kaposi's sarcoma-like cavernous haemangiomas that regress transiently, probably because of an anti-tumour immune response, but eventually grow progressively and kill the host. To evaluate the generation of tumour-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), spleen cells of tumour-bearing mice were restimulated with irradiated H5V cells in mixed leucocyte-tumour cell cultures. Tumour-specific CTLs were demonstrable only when low numbers of H5V stimulator cells were used (<1 H5V cell per 50 splenocytes). We found that H5V cells secrete immunosuppressive mediators because CTL generation was blocked when H5V cells culture supernatants were added to allogeneic mixed leucocyte cultures. As numerous tumour-derived immunosuppressive mediators may interfere with interleukin 12 (IL-12) production, we tested whether IL-12 treatment of the tumour-bearing mice would augment their immune response and thus suppress tumour growth. Indeed, IL-12 inhibited tumour growth and prevented mortality, but did not increase anti-H5V CTL generation either in vitro or in vivo. Moreover, the anti-tumour activity in IL-12-treated mice was abrogated by anti-interferon (IFN)-gamma monoclonal antibody (MAb) co-administration. These results strongly suggest that the anti-tumour effect of IL-12 is principally mediated by IFN-gamma release that in turn blocks H5V cell proliferation and induces the release of factors that suppress angiogenesis. PMID:9484826

  8. Interleukin-12 is sufficient to promote antigen-independent interferon-γ production by CD8 T cells in old mice

    PubMed Central

    Rottinghaus, Erin K; Vesosky, Bridget; Turner, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    Numerous functional defects have been identified in naive T cells from aged mice, including deficiencies in proliferation, cytokine production and signal transduction. It is well documented that the ratio of naïve to memory T cells significantly decreases with age resulting in the majority of T cells from aged hosts expressing activated/memory T-cell markers (CD44hi), yet it is unclear whether T cells with a CD44hi phenotype in aged hosts are functionally equivalent to T cells with a similar phenotype in young hosts. We have identified a population of CD44hi CD8 T cells in old mice that are capable of secreting interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in response to interleukin-12 (IL-12) stimulation. This occurred in the absence of T-cell receptor engagement, a function that was not observed in CD8 T cells from young mice. This phenotype was associated with increased IL-12 receptor β2 gene expression and IL-12 induced signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT-4) activation, even when CD8 T-cell numbers from young and old mice were normalized for CD44hi expression. Furthermore, we demonstrate that IL-12-induced STAT-4 activation was required for T helper type 1 (Th1) cytokine-induced IFN-γ production in CD8 T cells. These data illustrate that old mice possess a specialized subset of CD44hi CD8 T cells with an enhanced responsiveness to IL-12, enabling these cells to produce substantial amounts of IFN-γ in response to Th1 cytokine stimulation. We have therefore identified a functional difference in the populations of CD44hi CD8 T cells from young and old mice, and believe that understanding age-associated immunological changes is essential for helping the elderly combat deadly diseases. PMID:19740329

  9. Release of interleukin-12 in experimental Escherichia coli septic shock in baboons: relation to plasma levels of interleukin-10 and interferon-gamma.

    PubMed

    Jansen, P M; van der Pouw Kraan, T C; de Jong, I W; van Mierlo, G; Wijdenes, J; Chang, A A; Aarden, L A; Taylor, F B; Hack, C E

    1996-06-15

    Interleukin (IL)-12 is thought to be a key factor for the induction of interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), a cytokine essential for the lethal effects of endotoxin. We report here on the release of the nonfunctional subunit of IL-12, p40, as well as biologically active heterodimeric IL-12, p70, after administration of a lethal (n = 5) or sublethal (n = 8) dose of live Escherichia coli to baboons. Remarkably, on lethal challenge, peak levels of p40 were observed at 3 hours that were about twofold lower than those elicited after sublethal challenge (2,813 +/- 515 pg/mL v 4,972 +/- 732 pg/mL, P < .05). This disparity was also observed, although to a lesser extent, for IL-12 p70 antigen, of which maximum levels of 91 +/- 47 pg/mL and 151 +/- 41 pg/mL were measured 6 hours after a lethal or sublethal dose of E coli, respectively. Circulating p70 antigen correlated with IL-12 biologic activity (r = 0.869; P < .001). When comparing lethal to sublethal conditions, lower peak levels of IL-12 on lethal E coli sharply contrasted with higher levels of other proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, and IL-8 observed in these animals. Lower IL-12 concentrations in the lethal group may have resulted in part from the enhanced production of IL-10, a known inhibitor of IL-12 synthesis in vitro, as peak levels of this cytokine 3 hours postchallenge inversely correlated with peak levels of IL-12, in particular p40 (r = -0.802; P < .01). Contrary to what might be expected if IFN-gamma were solely induced by IL-12, lethally challenged baboons generated threefold more IFN-gamma at 6 hours than those receiving a sublethal dose (P < .05). Moreover, higher levels of IFN-gamma were associated with lower p40/p70 ratios, suggesting that, in agreement with observations in vitro, IFN-gamma may have preferentially upregulated the release of p70 over p40. These data show that IL-12 is released in experimental septic shock in nonhuman primates and suggest that

  10. Evaluation of a technetium-99m labeled bombesin homodimer for GRPR imaging in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zilin; Carlucci, Giuseppe; Ananias, Hildo J K; Dierckx, Rudi A J O; Liu, Shuang; Helfrich, Wijnand; Wang, Fan; de Jong, Igle J; Elsinga, Philip H

    2013-02-01

    Multimerization of peptides can improve the binding characteristics of the tracer by increasing local ligand concentration and decreasing dissociation kinetics. In this study, a new bombesin homodimer was developed based on an ε-aminocaproic acid-bombesin(7-14) (Aca-bombesin(7-14)) fragment, which has been studied for targeting the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) in prostate cancer. The bombesin homodimer was conjugated to 6-hydrazinopyridine-3-carboxylic acid (HYNIC) and labeled with (99m)Tc for SPECT imaging. The in vitro binding affinity to GRPR, cell uptake, internalization and efflux kinetics of the radiolabeled bombesin dimer were investigated in the GRPR-expressing human prostate cancer cell line PC-3. Biodistribution and the GRPR-targeting potential were evaluated in PC-3 tumor-bearing athymic nude mice. When compared with the bombesin monomer, the binding affinity of the bombesin dimer is about ten times lower. However, the (99m)Tc labeled bombesin dimer showed a three times higher cellular uptake at 4 h after incubation, but similar internalization and efflux characters in vitro. Tumor uptake and in vivo pharmacokinetics in PC-3 tumor-bearing mice were comparable. The tumor was visible on the dynamic images in the first hour and could be clearly distinguished from non-targeted tissues on the static images after 4 h. The GRPR-targeting ability of the (99m)Tc labeled bombesin dimer was proven in vitro and in vivo. This bombesin homodimer provides a good starting point for further studies on enhancing the tumor targeting activity of bombesin multimers.

  11. Differences in binding behavior of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate to β-lactoglobulin heterodimers (AB) compared to homodimers (A) and (B).

    PubMed

    Keppler, Julia K; Martin, Dierk; Garamus, Vasil M; Schwarz, Karin

    2015-11-01

    The lipocalin β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) exists in different natural genetic variants--of which β-LG A and B are predominant in bovine milk. At physiological conditions the protein dimerizes--building homodimers of β-LG A and β-LG B and heterodimers of β-LG AB. Although β-LG is one of the most intensely characterized lipocalins, the interaction behavior of ligands with hetero- and homodimers of β-LG is largely unknown. The present findings revealed significant differences for hetero- and homodimers regarding ligand binding capacity as tested with a model ligand (i.e. surface binding (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)). These findings were confirmed using FT-IR, where the addition of EGCG influenced the β-sheet backbone of homodimer A and B with significantly higher intensity compared to heterodimer AB. Further, shape analysis by SAXS revealed oligomerization of both types of dimers upon addition of EGCG; however, homodimer A and B produced significantly larger aggregates compared to the heterodimer AB. In summary, the present study revealed that EGCG showed significantly different interaction reactivity (binding sites, aggregation size and conformational changes) to the hetero and homodimers of β-LG in the order β-LG A > B > AB. The results suggest that conformational differences between homodimers and heterodimers strongly influence the EGCG binding ability. This may also occur with other polyphenols and ligands of β-LG and gives not only important information for β-LG binding studies, but may also apply for polymorphisms of other self-aggregating lipocalins. PMID:26038095

  12. Differences in binding behavior of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate to β-lactoglobulin heterodimers (AB) compared to homodimers (A) and (B).

    PubMed

    Keppler, Julia K; Martin, Dierk; Garamus, Vasil M; Schwarz, Karin

    2015-11-01

    The lipocalin β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) exists in different natural genetic variants--of which β-LG A and B are predominant in bovine milk. At physiological conditions the protein dimerizes--building homodimers of β-LG A and β-LG B and heterodimers of β-LG AB. Although β-LG is one of the most intensely characterized lipocalins, the interaction behavior of ligands with hetero- and homodimers of β-LG is largely unknown. The present findings revealed significant differences for hetero- and homodimers regarding ligand binding capacity as tested with a model ligand (i.e. surface binding (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)). These findings were confirmed using FT-IR, where the addition of EGCG influenced the β-sheet backbone of homodimer A and B with significantly higher intensity compared to heterodimer AB. Further, shape analysis by SAXS revealed oligomerization of both types of dimers upon addition of EGCG; however, homodimer A and B produced significantly larger aggregates compared to the heterodimer AB. In summary, the present study revealed that EGCG showed significantly different interaction reactivity (binding sites, aggregation size and conformational changes) to the hetero and homodimers of β-LG in the order β-LG A > B > AB. The results suggest that conformational differences between homodimers and heterodimers strongly influence the EGCG binding ability. This may also occur with other polyphenols and ligands of β-LG and gives not only important information for β-LG binding studies, but may also apply for polymorphisms of other self-aggregating lipocalins.

  13. HemaMax™, a recombinant human interleukin-12, is a potent mitigator of acute radiation injury in mice and non-human primates.

    PubMed

    Basile, Lena A; Ellefson, Dolph; Gluzman-Poltorak, Zoya; Junes-Gill, Katiana; Mar, Vernon; Mendonca, Sarita; Miller, Joseph D; Tom, Jamie; Trinh, Alice; Gallaher, Timothy K

    2012-01-01

    HemaMax, a recombinant human interleukin-12 (IL-12), is under development to address an unmet medical need for effective treatments against acute radiation syndrome due to radiological terrorism or accident when administered at least 24 hours after radiation exposure. This study investigated pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and efficacy of m-HemaMax (recombinant murine IL-12), and HemaMax to increase survival after total body irradiation (TBI) in mice and rhesus monkeys, respectively, with no supportive care. In mice, m-HemaMax at an optimal 20 ng/mouse dose significantly increased percent survival and survival time when administered 24 hours after TBI between 8-9 Gy (p<0.05 Pearson's chi-square test). This survival benefit was accompanied by increases in plasma interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and erythropoietin levels, recovery of femoral bone hematopoiesis characterized with the presence of IL-12 receptor β2 subunit-expressing myeloid progenitors, megakaryocytes, and osteoblasts. Mitigation of jejunal radiation damage was also examined. At allometrically equivalent doses, HemaMax showed similar pharmacokinetics in rhesus monkeys compared to m-HemaMax in mice, but more robustly increased plasma IFN-γ levels. HemaMax also increased plasma erythropoietin, IL-15, IL-18, and neopterin levels. At non-human primate doses pharmacologically equivalent to murine doses, HemaMax (100 ng/Kg and 250 ng/Kg) administered at 24 hours after TBI (6.7 Gy/LD(50/30)) significantly increased percent survival of HemaMax groups compared to vehicle (p<0.05 Pearson's chi-square test). This survival benefit was accompanied by a significantly higher leukocyte (neutrophils and lymphocytes), thrombocyte, and reticulocyte counts during nadir (days 12-14) and significantly less weight loss at day 12 compared to vehicle. These findings indicate successful interspecies dose conversion and provide proof of concept that HemaMax increases survival in irradiated rhesus monkeys by promoting hematopoiesis

  14. Requirement for natural killer cell-produced interferon gamma in defense against murine cytomegalovirus infection and enhancement of this defense pathway by interleukin 12 administration

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    killing at levels comparable to those observed in control-treated mice. The consequences of interleukin 12 (IL-12) administration, a known potent inducer of IFN- gamma production by NK cells, were evaluated in MCMV-infected mice. Low IL-12 doses, i.e., 1 ng/d, increased NK cell cytotoxicity and IFN-gamma production up to twofold and resulted in improved antiviral status; virus-induced hepatitis was decreased as much as fivefold, and viral burdens were decreased to levels below detection.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7561678

  15. Construction and biological characterization of an interleukin-12 fusion protein (Flexi-12): delivery to acute myeloid leukemic blasts using adeno-associated virus.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R; Macdonald, I; Corbett, T; Hacking, G; Lowdell, M W; Prentice, H G

    1997-06-10

    Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a cytokine that exhibits pleiotropic effects on lymphocytes and natural killer cells and has been shown to have promise for the immunotherapy of cancer. The combination of the immune costimulatory molecule B7.1 and IL-12 has been shown to be synergistic for T cell activation. By transfecting tumor cells with both IL-12 and B7.1 cDNAs, it may be possible to use these modified targets as vaccines. A major obstacle in designing a vector to deliver these genes results from the structure of IL-12. Functional IL-12 is a heterodimer composed of two distinct subunits that are encoded by separate genes on different chromosomes. Production of functional IL-12 requires the coordinated expression of both genes. This presents several problems in vectors, particularly those in which additional genes, either a co-stimulatory gene or a selectable marker, are inserted. Therefore, we have constructed a single cDNA that encodes a single-chain protein, called Flexi-12, which retains all of the biological characteristics of recombinant IL-12 (rIL-12). The monomeric polypeptide Flexi-12 is able to induce the proliferation of phytohemagglutinin (PHA) blasts, induce PHA blasts to secrete interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and additionally, by preincubation, enhance the killing of K562 targets by PBLs. These phenomena are in a dose-dependent manner comparable to that seen with rIL-12. We have also shown that tyrosine phosphorylation of the STAT 4 transcription factor, which has been shown to be unique to the IL-12 signaling pathway, occurs with Flexi-12 at levels similar to those seen with rIL-12. We have packaged Flexi-12 into a recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) and used this vector to infect acute myeloid leukemic (AML) blasts. Infected AML blasts produced between 2 and 6 ng of IL-12/10(6) cells per ml per 48 hr. These studies also confirm that AAV is an efficient delivery vehicle for cytokines to leukemic cells. Direct analysis of these modified cells acting

  16. HemaMax™, a Recombinant Human Interleukin-12, Is a Potent Mitigator of Acute Radiation Injury in Mice and Non-Human Primates

    PubMed Central

    Basile, Lena A.; Ellefson, Dolph; Gluzman-Poltorak, Zoya; Junes-Gill, Katiana; Mar, Vernon; Mendonca, Sarita; Miller, Joseph D.; Tom, Jamie; Trinh, Alice; Gallaher, Timothy K.

    2012-01-01

    HemaMax, a recombinant human interleukin-12 (IL-12), is under development to address an unmet medical need for effective treatments against acute radiation syndrome due to radiological terrorism or accident when administered at least 24 hours after radiation exposure. This study investigated pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and efficacy of m-HemaMax (recombinant murine IL-12), and HemaMax to increase survival after total body irradiation (TBI) in mice and rhesus monkeys, respectively, with no supportive care. In mice, m-HemaMax at an optimal 20 ng/mouse dose significantly increased percent survival and survival time when administered 24 hours after TBI between 8–9 Gy (p<0.05 Pearson's chi-square test). This survival benefit was accompanied by increases in plasma interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and erythropoietin levels, recovery of femoral bone hematopoiesis characterized with the presence of IL-12 receptor β2 subunit–expressing myeloid progenitors, megakaryocytes, and osteoblasts. Mitigation of jejunal radiation damage was also examined. At allometrically equivalent doses, HemaMax showed similar pharmacokinetics in rhesus monkeys compared to m-HemaMax in mice, but more robustly increased plasma IFN-γ levels. HemaMax also increased plasma erythropoietin, IL-15, IL-18, and neopterin levels. At non-human primate doses pharmacologically equivalent to murine doses, HemaMax (100 ng/Kg and 250 ng/Kg) administered at 24 hours after TBI (6.7 Gy/LD50/30) significantly increased percent survival of HemaMax groups compared to vehicle (p<0.05 Pearson's chi-square test). This survival benefit was accompanied by a significantly higher leukocyte (neutrophils and lymphocytes), thrombocyte, and reticulocyte counts during nadir (days 12–14) and significantly less weight loss at day 12 compared to vehicle. These findings indicate successful interspecies dose conversion and provide proof of concept that HemaMax increases survival in irradiated rhesus monkeys by promoting

  17. Photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory studies on the uridine homodimer radical anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jae Ko, Yeon; Storoniak, Piotr; Wang, Haopeng; Bowen, Kit H.; Rak, Janusz

    2012-11-01

    We report the photoelectron spectrum (PES) of the homogeneous dimer anion radical of uridine, (rU)2•-. It features a broad band consisting of an onset of ˜1.2 eV and a maximum at the electron binding energy (EBE) ranging from 2.0 to 2.5 eV. Calculations performed at the B3LYP/6-31++G** level of theory suggest that the PES is dominated by dimeric radical anions in which one uridine nucleoside, hosting the excess charge on the base moiety, forms hydrogen bonds via its O8 atom with hydroxyl of the other neutral nucleoside's ribose. The calculated adiabatic electron affinities (AEAGs) and vertical detachment energies (VDEs) of the most stable homodimers show an excellent agreement with the experimental values. The anionic complexes consisting of two intermolecular uracil-uracil hydrogen bonds appeared to be substantially less stable than the uracil-ribose dimers. Despite the fact that uracil-uracil anionic homodimers are additionally stabilized by barrier-free electron-induced proton transfer, their relative thermodynamic stabilities and the calculated VDEs suggest that they do not contribute to the experimental PES spectrum of (rU)2•-.

  18. The HhH domain of the human DNA repair protein XPF forms stable homodimers.

    PubMed

    Das, Devashish; Tripsianes, Konstantinos; Jaspers, Nicolaas G J; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; Kaptein, Robert; Boelens, Rolf; Folkers, Gert E

    2008-03-01

    The human XPF-ERCC1 protein complex plays an essential role in nucleotide excision repair by catalysing positioned nicking of a DNA strand at the 5' side of the damage. We have recently solved the structure of the heterodimeric complex of the C-terminal domains of XPF and ERCC1 (Tripsianes et al., Structure 2005;13:1849-1858). We found that this complex comprises a pseudo twofold symmetry axis and that the helix-hairpin-helix motif of ERCC1 is required for DNA binding, whereas the corresponding domain of XPF is functioning as a scaffold for complex formation with ERCC1. Despite the functional importance of heterodimerization, the C-terminal domain of XPF can also form homodimers in vitro. We here compare the stabilities of homodimeric and heterodimeric complexes of the C-terminal domains of XPF and ERCC1. The higher stability of the XPF HhH complexes under various experimental conditions, determined using CD and NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry, is well explained by the structural differences that exist between the HhH domains of the two complexes. The XPF HhH homodimer has a larger interaction interface, aromatic stacking interactions, and additional hydrogen bond contacts as compared to the XPF/ERCC1 HhH complex, which accounts for its higher stability. PMID:17912758

  19. Daughterless homodimer synergizes with Eyeless to induce Atonal expression and retinal neuron differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka-Matakatsu, Miho; Miller, John; Borger, Daniel; Tang, Wei-Jen; Du, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Class I Basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) transcription factors form homodimers or heterodimers with class II bHLH proteins. While bHLH heterodimers are known to have diverse roles, little is known about the role of class I homodimers. In this manuscript, we show that linked a dimer of Daughterless (Da), the only Drosophila class I bHLH protein, activates Atonal (Ato) expression and retinal neuron differentiation synergistically with the retinal determination factor Eyeless (Ey). The HLH protein Extramacrocheate (Emc), which forms heterodimer with Da, antagonizes the synergistic activation from Da but not the Da-Da linked dimer with Ey. We show that Da directly interacts with Ey and promotes Ey binding to the Ey binding site in the Ato 3′ enhancer. Interestingly, the Ey binding site in the Ato 3′ enhancer contains an embedded E-box that is also required for the synergistic activation by Ey and Da. Finally we show that mammalian homologs of Ey and Da can functionally replace their Drosophila counterparts to synergistically activate the Ato enhancer, suggesting that the observed function is evolutionary conserved. PMID:24886829

  20. Synthesis and activity of novel homodimers of Morita-Baylis-Hillman adducts against Leishmania donovani: A twin drug approach.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Wagner A V; Rodrigues, Daniele C; de Oliveira, Ramon G; Mendes, Rhuan K S; Olegário, Tayná R; Rocha, Juliana C; Keesen, Tatjana S L; Lima-Junior, Claudio G; Vasconcellos, Mário L A A

    2016-09-15

    It is reported here the synthesis of novel Homodimers 12-19 of Morita-Baylis-Hillman adducts (MBHA) from one-pot Morita-Baylis-Hillman Reaction (MBHR) between aromatic aldehydes as eletrophiles and ethylene glycol diacrylate as Michael acceptor (35-94% yields) using cheap and green conditions. The bioactivities were evaluated against promastigote form of Leishmania donovani. All homodimers showed to be more potent than corresponding monomers. It is worth highlighting that the halogenated homodimers 17 and 18 (0.50μM) is almost 400 times more active than the corresponding monomer 10 and 1.24 times more potent than the second-line drug amphotericin B (0.62μM). Moreover, the selectivity index to 18 is very high (SIrb>400) far better than amphotericin B (SIrb=18.73). This is the first report of twin drugs strategy applied on Morita-Baylis-Hillman adducts. PMID:27520941

  1. A Novel Styryldehydropyridocolinium Homodimer: Synthesis and Fluorescence Properties Upon Interaction with DNA.

    PubMed

    Yao, Huirong; Chang, Lifang; Liu, Chang; Jiao, Xiaojie; He, Song; Liu, Haijun; Zeng, Xianshun

    2015-11-01

    A novel homodimer of the styryldehydropyridocolinium dye (TPTP) has been synthesized and characterized. Free TPTP exhibited low fluorescence quantum yield and large Stokes shift (over 160 nm) in water. However, it showed a significant fluorescence turn-on effect upon intercalation into DNA base pairs. Meanwhile, the fluorescence intensity of the intercalated structures formed by TPTP and DNA decreased quickly upon addition of deoxyribonuclease I, indicating that the dye can be used to monitor deoxyribonuclease I activity and DNA hydrolysis. Electrophoresis analysis revealed that the dye had intercalative binding to DNA and can potentially be used for DNA staining in electrophoresis. Thus, the innate nature of large Stokes shift and excellent fluorescence turn on effect upon interaction with DNA endue the dye with a wide range of applications.

  2. A Novel Styryldehydropyridocolinium Homodimer: Synthesis and Fluorescence Properties Upon Interaction with DNA.

    PubMed

    Yao, Huirong; Chang, Lifang; Liu, Chang; Jiao, Xiaojie; He, Song; Liu, Haijun; Zeng, Xianshun

    2015-11-01

    A novel homodimer of the styryldehydropyridocolinium dye (TPTP) has been synthesized and characterized. Free TPTP exhibited low fluorescence quantum yield and large Stokes shift (over 160 nm) in water. However, it showed a significant fluorescence turn-on effect upon intercalation into DNA base pairs. Meanwhile, the fluorescence intensity of the intercalated structures formed by TPTP and DNA decreased quickly upon addition of deoxyribonuclease I, indicating that the dye can be used to monitor deoxyribonuclease I activity and DNA hydrolysis. Electrophoresis analysis revealed that the dye had intercalative binding to DNA and can potentially be used for DNA staining in electrophoresis. Thus, the innate nature of large Stokes shift and excellent fluorescence turn on effect upon interaction with DNA endue the dye with a wide range of applications. PMID:26384336

  3. The PRiMA-linked Cholinesterase Tetramers Are Assembled from Homodimers

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Vicky P.; Xie, Heidi Q.; Chan, Wallace K. B.; Leung, K. Wing; Chan, Gallant K. L.; Choi, Roy C. Y.; Bon, Suzanne; Massoulié, Jean; Tsim, Karl W. K.

    2010-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is anchored onto cell membranes by the transmembrane protein PRiMA (proline-rich membrane anchor) as a tetrameric globular form that is prominently expressed in vertebrate brain. In parallel, the PRiMA-linked tetrameric butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is also found in the brain. A single type of AChE-BChE hybrid tetramer was formed in cell cultures by co-transfection of cDNAs encoding AChET and BChET with proline-rich attachment domain-containing proteins, PRiMA I, PRiMA II, or a fragment of ColQ having a C-terminal GPI addition signal (QN-GPI). Using AChE and BChE mutants, we showed that AChE-BChE hybrids linked with PRiMA or QN-GPI always consist of AChET and BChET homodimers. The dimer formation of AChET and BChET depends on the catalytic domains, and the assembly of tetramers with a proline-rich attachment domain-containing protein requires the presence of C-terminal “t-peptides” in cholinesterase subunits. Our results indicate that PRiMA- or ColQ-linked cholinesterase tetramers are assembled from AChET or BChET homodimers. Moreover, the PRiMA-linked AChE-BChE hybrids occur naturally in chicken brain, and their expression increases during development, suggesting that they might play a role in cholinergic neurotransmission. PMID:20566626

  4. NFATc2 recruits cJun homodimers to an NFAT site to synergistically activate interleukin-2 transcription.

    PubMed

    Walters, Ryan D; Drullinger, Linda F; Kugel, Jennifer F; Goodrich, James A

    2013-11-01

    Transcription of interleukin-2 (IL-2), a pivotal cytokine in the mammalian immune response, is induced by NFAT and AP-1 transcriptional activators in stimulated T cells. NFATc2 and cJun drive high levels of synergistic human IL-2 transcription, which requires a unique interaction between the C-terminal activation domain of NFATc2 and cJun homodimers. Here we studied the mechanism by which this interaction contributes to synergistic activation of IL-2 transcription. We found that NFATc2 can recruit cJun homodimers to the -45 NFAT element, which lacks a neighboring AP-1 site. The bZip domain of cJun is sufficient to interact with the C-terminal activation domain of NFATc2 in the absence of DNA and this interaction is inhibited by AP-1 DNA. When the -45 NFAT site was replaced by either an NFAT/AP-1 composite site or a single AP-1 site the specificity for cJun homodimers in synergistically activating IL-2 transcription was lost, and cJun/cFos heterodimers strongly activated transcription. These studies support a model in which IL-2 transcriptional synergy is mediated by the unique recruitment of a cJun homodimer to the -45 NFAT site by NFATc2, where it acts as a co-activator for IL-2 transcription.

  5. Crystal structure of schistatin, a disintegrin homodimer from saw-scaled viper (Echis carinatus) at 2.5 A resolution.

    PubMed

    Bilgrami, Sameeta; Tomar, Shailly; Yadav, Savita; Kaur, Punit; Kumar, Janesh; Jabeen, Talat; Sharma, Sujata; Singh, Tej P

    2004-08-13

    This is the first structure of a biological homodimer of disintegrin. Disintegrins are a class of small (4-14 kDa) proteins that bind to transmembrane integrins selectively. The present molecule is the first homodimer that has been isolated from the venom of Echis carinatus. The monomeric chain contains 64 amino acid residues. The three-dimensional structure of schistatin has been determined by the multiple isomorphous replacement method. It has been refined to an R-factor of 0.190 using all the data to 2.5 A resolution. The two subunits of the disintegrin homodimer are related by a 2-fold crystallographic symmetry. Thus, the crystallographic asymmetric unit contains a monomer of disintegrin. The monomer folds into an up-down topology with three sets of antiparallel beta-strands. The structure is well ordered with four intramolecular disulfide bonds. the two monomers are firmly linked to each other through two intermolecular disulfide bridges at their N termini together with several other interactions. This structure has corrected the error in the disulfide bond pattern of the two intermolecular disulfide bridges that was reported earlier using chemical methods. Unique sequence and structural features of the schistatin monomers suggest that they have the ability to bind well with both alphaIIb beta3 and alphav beta3 integrins. The N termini anchored two chains of the dimer diverge away at their C termini exposing the Arg-Gly-Asp motif into opposite directions thus enhancing their binding efficiency to integrins. This is one of the unique features of the present disintegrin homodimer and seems to be responsible for the clustering of integrin molecules. The homodimer binds to integrins apparently with a higher affinity than the monomers and also plays a role in the signaling pathway. PMID:15317139

  6. Metal-Mediated Affinity and Orientation Specificity in a Computationally Designed Protein Homodimer

    SciTech Connect

    Der, Bryan S.; Machius, Mischa; Miley, Michael J.; Mills, Jeffrey L.; Szyperski, Thomas; Kuhlman, Brian

    2015-10-15

    Computationally designing protein-protein interactions with high affinity and desired orientation is a challenging task. Incorporating metal-binding sites at the target interface may be one approach for increasing affinity and specifying the binding mode, thereby improving robustness of designed interactions for use as tools in basic research as well as in applications from biotechnology to medicine. Here we describe a Rosetta-based approach for the rational design of a protein monomer to form a zinc-mediated, symmetric homodimer. Our metal interface design, named MID1 (NESG target ID OR37), forms a tight dimer in the presence of zinc (MID1-zinc) with a dissociation constant <30 nM. Without zinc the dissociation constant is 4 {micro}M. The crystal structure of MID1-zinc shows good overall agreement with the computational model, but only three out of four designed histidines coordinate zinc. However, a histidine-to-glutamate point mutation resulted in four-coordination of zinc, and the resulting metal binding site and dimer orientation closely matches the computational model (C{alpha} rmsd = 1.4 {angstrom}).

  7. Periaxin and AHNAK Nucleoprotein 2 Form Intertwined Homodimers through Domain Swapping*

    PubMed Central

    Han, Huijong; Kursula, Petri

    2014-01-01

    Periaxin (PRX) is an abundant protein in the peripheral nervous system, with an important role in myelination. PRX participates in large molecular complexes, most likely through the interactions of its N-terminal PSD-95/Discs-large/ZO-1 (PDZ)-like domain. We present the crystal structures of the PDZ-like domains from PRX and its homologue AHNAK nucleoprotein 2 (AHNAK2). The unique intertwined, domain-swapped dimers provide a structural basis for the homodimerization of both proteins. The core of the homodimer is formed by a 6-stranded antiparallel β sheet, with every other strand from a different chain. The AHNAK2 PDZ domain structure contains a bound class III ligand peptide. The binding pocket is preformed, and the peptide-PDZ interactions have unique aspects, including two salt bridges and weak recognition of the peptide C terminus. Tight homodimerization may be central to the scaffolding functions of PRX and AHNAK2 in molecular complexes linking the extracellular matrix to the cytoskeletal network. PMID:24675079

  8. Regulation of the PI3K pathway through a p85α monomer–homodimer equilibrium

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Lydia WT; Walkiewicz, Katarzyna W; Besong, Tabot MD; Guo, Huifang; Hawke, David H; Arold, Stefan T; Mills, Gordon B

    2015-01-01

    The canonical action of the p85α regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) is to associate with the p110α catalytic subunit to allow stimuli-dependent activation of the PI3K pathway. We elucidate a p110α-independent role of homodimerized p85α in the positive regulation of PTEN stability and activity. p110α-free p85α homodimerizes via two intermolecular interactions (SH3:proline-rich region and BH:BH) to selectively bind unphosphorylated activated PTEN. As a consequence, homodimeric but not monomeric p85α suppresses the PI3K pathway by protecting PTEN from E3 ligase WWP2-mediated proteasomal degradation. Further, the p85α homodimer enhances the lipid phosphatase activity and membrane association of PTEN. Strikingly, we identified cancer patient-derived oncogenic p85α mutations that target the homodimerization or PTEN interaction surface. Collectively, our data suggest the equilibrium of p85α monomer–dimers regulates the PI3K pathway and disrupting this equilibrium could lead to disease development. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06866.001 PMID:26222500

  9. Interaction of an annexin V homodimer (Diannexin) with phosphatidylserine on cell surfaces and consequent antithrombotic activity.

    PubMed

    Kuypers, Frans A; Larkin, Sandra K; Emeis, Jef J; Allison, Anthony C

    2007-03-01

    Annexin V (AV), a protein with anticoagulant activity, exerts antithrombotic activity by binding to phosphatidylserine (PS), inhibiting activation of serine proteases important in blood coagulation. The potential use of this protein as an anticoagulant is limited as it rapidly passes from the blood into the kidneys due to its relatively small size (36 kDa). We used recombinant DNA technology to produce a homodimer of human AV (DAV, 73 kDa), which exceeds the renal filtration threshold, and has a 6.5-hour half-life in the rat circulation. Human red blood cells with externalized PS were used to show that DAV had a higher affinity for PS-exposing cells than AV. DAV labeling sensitively identifies PS-exposing cells, was found to be a potent inhibitor of the activity of the prothombinase complexes and inhibits the ability of secretory phospholipaseA(2) to hydrolyze phospholipids of PS-exposing cells, reducing the formation of mediators of blood coagulation and reperfusion injury. DAV exerts dose-dependent antithrombotic activity in rat veins. This combination of activities suggests that DAV is a valuable probe to measure PS exposure and may be efficacious as a novel drug in a wide range of clinical situations.

  10. Periaxin and AHNAK nucleoprotein 2 form intertwined homodimers through domain swapping.

    PubMed

    Han, Huijong; Kursula, Petri

    2014-05-16

    Periaxin (PRX) is an abundant protein in the peripheral nervous system, with an important role in myelination. PRX participates in large molecular complexes, most likely through the interactions of its N-terminal PSD-95/Discs-large/ZO-1 (PDZ)-like domain. We present the crystal structures of the PDZ-like domains from PRX and its homologue AHNAK nucleoprotein 2 (AHNAK2). The unique intertwined, domain-swapped dimers provide a structural basis for the homodimerization of both proteins. The core of the homodimer is formed by a 6-stranded antiparallel β sheet, with every other strand from a different chain. The AHNAK2 PDZ domain structure contains a bound class III ligand peptide. The binding pocket is preformed, and the peptide-PDZ interactions have unique aspects, including two salt bridges and weak recognition of the peptide C terminus. Tight homodimerization may be central to the scaffolding functions of PRX and AHNAK2 in molecular complexes linking the extracellular matrix to the cytoskeletal network. PMID:24675079

  11. The infrared band intensities and other properties of the homodimers of the methyl and silyl halides: An ab initio study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Thomas A.

    2012-02-01

    The properties of the homodimers of methyl and silyl fluoride, chloride and bromide have been determined by means of ab initio molecular orbital calculations. The interaction energies, molecular structures, vibrational spectra and molecular orbital properties have been investigated, and some common features within each family have been observed. A number of systematic differences in the properties of the dimers have also been noted and rationalized. Typically, discussion of the results of such calculations has focused on the vibrational wavenumber shifts occurring on complexation, and the accompanying changes in the infrared band intensities have received relatively little attention. This paper aims to reposition infrared intensities as valid and useful parameters with which to interpret the formation of the homodimers of polar molecules.

  12. Native Serotonin 5-HT2C Receptors Are Expressed as Homodimers on the Apical Surface of Choroid Plexus Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Grinde, Ellinor; Lindsley, Tara; Teitler, Milt; Mancia, Filippo; Cowan, Ann; Mazurkiewicz, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a prominent class of plasma membrane proteins that regulate physiologic responses to a wide variety of stimuli and therapeutic agents. Although GPCR oligomerization has been studied extensively in recombinant cells, it remains uncertain whether native receptors expressed in their natural cellular environment are monomers, dimers, or oligomers. The goal of this study was to determine the monomer/oligomer status of a native GPCR endogenously expressed in its natural cellular environment. Native 5-HT2C receptors in choroid plexus epithelial cells were evaluated using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) with photon counting histogram (PCH). An anti–5-HT2C fragment antigen binding protein was used to label native 5-HT2C receptors. A known monomeric receptor (CD-86) served as a control for decoding the oligomer status of native 5-HT2C receptors by molecular brightness analysis. FCS with PCH revealed molecular brightness values for native 5-HT2C receptors equivalent to the molecular brightness of a homodimer. 5-HT2C receptors displayed a diffusion coefficient of 5 × 10−9 cm2/s and were expressed at 32 receptors/μm2 on the apical surface of choroid plexus epithelial cells. The functional significance and signaling capabilities of the homodimer were investigated in human embryonic kidney 293 cells using agonists that bind in a wash-resistant manner to one or both protomers of the homodimer. Whereas agonist binding to one protomer resulted in G protein activation, maximal stimulation required occupancy of both protomers. This study is the first to demonstrate the homodimeric structure of 5-HT2C receptors endogenously expressed in their native cellular environment, and identifies the homodimer as a functional signaling unit. PMID:25609374

  13. Differential regulation of Hand1 homodimer and Hand1-E12 heterodimer activity by the cofactor FHL2.

    PubMed

    Hill, Alison A; Riley, Paul R

    2004-11-01

    The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) factor Hand1 plays an essential role in cardiac morphogenesis, and yet its precise function remains unknown. Protein-protein interactions involving Hand1 provide a means of determining how Hand1-induced gene expression in the developing heart might be regulated. Hand1 is known to form either heterodimers with near-ubiquitous E-factors and other lineage-restricted class B bHLH proteins or homodimers with itself in vitro. To date, there have been no reported Hand1 protein interactions involving non-bHLH proteins. Heterodimer-versus-homodimer choice is mediated by the phosphorylation status of Hand1; however, little is known about the in vivo function of these dimers or, importantly, how they are regulated. In an effort to understand how Hand1 activity in the heart might be regulated postdimerization, we have investigated tertiary Hand1-protein interactions with non-bHLH factors. We describe a novel interaction of Hand1 with the LIM domain protein FHL2, a known transcriptional coactivator and corepressor expressed in the developing cardiovascular system. FHL2 interacts with Hand1 via the bHLH domain and is able to repress Hand1/E12 heterodimer-induced transcription but has no effect on Hand1/Hand1 homodimer activity. This effect of FHL2 is not mediated either at the level of dimerization or via an effect of Hand1/E12 DNA binding. In summary, our data describe a novel differential regulation of Hand1 heterodimers versus homodimers by association of the cofactor FHL2 and provide insight into the potential for a tertiary level of control of Hand1 activity in the developing heart.

  14. Sigma Receptor 1 activation attenuates release of inflammatory cytokines MIP1γ, MIP2, MIP3α and IL12 (p40/p70) by retinal Müller glial cells

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugam, A.; Wang, J.; Markand, S.; Perry, R.L.; Tawfik, A.; Zorrilla, E.; Ganapathy, V.; Smith, S.B.

    2015-01-01

    The high affinity Sigma Receptor 1 (σR1) ligand (+)-pentazocine ((+)-PTZ) affords profound retinal neuroprotection in vitro and in vivo by a yet-unknown mechanism. A common feature of retinal disease is Müller cell reactive gliosis, which includes cytokine release. Here we investigated whether LPS stimulates cytokine release by primary mouse Müller cells and whether (+)-PTZ alters release. Using a highly sensitive inflammatory antibody array we observed significant release of macrophage inflammatory proteins (MIP1γ, MIP2, MIP3α) and interleukin-12 (IL12 (p40/p70)) in LPS-treated cells compared to controls, and a significant decrease in secretion upon (+)-PTZ treatment. Müller cells from σR1 knockout mice demonstrated increased MIP1γ, MIP2, MIP3α and IL12 (p40/p70) secretion when exposed to LPS compared to LPS-stimulated WT cells. We investigated whether cytokine secretion was accompanied by cytosolic-to-nuclear NFκB translocation and whether endothelial cell adhesion/migration was altered by released cytokines. Cells exposed to LPS demonstrated increased NFκB nuclear location, which was reduced significantly in (+)-PTZ-treated cells. Media conditioned by LPS-stimulated-Müller cells induced leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion and endothelial cell migration, which was attenuated by (+)-PTZ treatment. The findings suggest that release of certain inflammatory cytokines by Müller cells can be attenuated by σR1 ligands providing insights into the retinal neuroprotective role of this receptor. PMID:25439327

  15. Structure of a Thyroid Hormone Receptor DNA-Binding Domain Homodimer Bound to an Inverted Palindrome DNA Response Element

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yi; Young, Matthew A.

    2010-10-22

    Thyroid hormone receptor (TR), as a member of the nuclear hormone receptor family, can recognize and bind different classes of DNA response element targets as either a monomer, a homooligomer, or a heterooligomer. We report here the first crystal structure of a homodimer TR DNA-binding domain (DBD) in complex with an inverted repeat class of thyroid response element (TRE). The structure shows a nearly symmetric structure of the TR DBD assembled on the F2 TRE where the base recognition contacts in the homodimer DNA complex are conserved relative to the previously published structure of a TR-9-cis-retinoic acid receptor heterodimer DNA complex. The new structure also reveals that the T-box region of the DBD can function as a structural hinge that enables a large degree of flexibility in the position of the C-terminal extension helix that connects the DBD to the ligand-binding domain. Although the isolated TR DBDs exist as monomers in solution, we have measured highly cooperative binding of the two TR DBD subunits onto the inverted repeat DNA sequence. This suggests that elements of the DBD can influence the specific TR oligomerization at target genes, and it is not just interactions between the ligand-binding domains that are responsible for TR oligomerization at target genes. Mutational analysis shows that intersubunit contacts at the DBD C terminus account for some, but not all, of the cooperative homodimer TR binding to the inverted repeat class TRE.

  16. Pre-existent asymmetry in the human cyclooxygenase-2 sequence homodimer.

    PubMed

    Dong, Liang; Sharma, Narayan P; Jurban, Brice J; Smith, William L

    2013-10-01

    Prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthase-2 (PGHS-2), also known as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), is a sequence homodimer. However, the enzyme exhibits half-site heme and inhibitor binding and functions as a conformational heterodimer having a catalytic subunit (Ecat) with heme bound and an allosteric subunit (Eallo) lacking heme. Some recombinant heterodimers composed of a COX-deficient mutant subunit and a native subunit (i.e. Mutant/Native PGHS-2) have COX activities similar to native PGHS-2. This suggests that the presence of heme plus substrate leads to the subunits becoming lodged in a semi-stable Eallo-mutant/Ecat-Native∼heme form during catalysis. We examined this concept using human PGHS-2 dimers composed of combinations of Y385F, R120Q, R120A, and S530A mutant or native subunits. With some heterodimers (e.g. Y385F/Native PGHS-2), heme binds with significantly higher affinity to the native subunit. This correlates with near native COX activity for the heterodimer. With other heterodimers (e.g. S530A/Native PGHS-2), heme binds with similar affinities to both subunits, and the COX activity approximates that expected for an enzyme in which each monomer contributes equally to the net COX activity. With or without heme, aspirin acetylates one-half of the subunits of the native PGHS-2 dimer, the Ecat subunits. Subunits having an S530A mutation are refractory to acetylation. Curiously, aspirin acetylates only one-quarter of the monomers of S530A/Native PGHS-2 with or without heme. This implies that there are comparable amounts of two noninterchangeable species of apoenzymes, Eallo-S530A/Ecat-Native and Eallo-Native/Ecat-S530A. These results suggest that native PGHS-2 assumes a reasonably stable, asymmetric Eallo/Ecat form during its folding and processing. PMID:23955344

  17. Human cyclooxygenase-2 is a sequence homodimer that functions as a conformational heterodimer.

    PubMed

    Dong, Liang; Vecchio, Alex J; Sharma, Narayan P; Jurban, Brice J; Malkowski, Michael G; Smith, William L

    2011-05-27

    Prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthases 1 and 2, also known as cyclooxygenases (COXs) 1 and 2, convert arachidonic acid (AA) to prostaglandin endoperoxide H(2). Prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthases are targets of nonspecific nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and COX-2-specific inhibitors called coxibs. PGHS-2 is a sequence homodimer. Each monomer has a peroxidase and a COX active site. We find that human PGHS-2 functions as a conformational heterodimer having a catalytic monomer (E(cat)) and an allosteric monomer (E(allo)). Heme binds tightly only to the peroxidase site of E(cat), whereas substrates, as well as certain inhibitors (e.g. celecoxib), bind the COX site of E(cat). E(cat) is regulated by E(allo) in a manner dependent on what ligand is bound to E(allo). Substrate and nonsubstrate fatty acids (FAs) and some COX inhibitors (e.g. naproxen) preferentially bind to the COX site of E(allo). AA can bind to E(cat) and E(allo), but the affinity of AA for E(allo) is 25 times that for E(cat). Palmitic acid, an efficacious stimulator of human PGHS-2, binds only E(allo) in palmitic acid/murine PGHS-2 co-crystals. Nonsubstrate FAs can potentiate or attenuate actions of COX inhibitors depending on the FA and whether the inhibitor binds E(cat) or E(allo). Our studies suggest that the concentration and composition of the free FA pool in the environment in which PGHS-2 functions in cells, the FA tone, is a key factor regulating PGHS-2 activity and its responses to COX inhibitors. We suggest that differences in FA tone occurring with different diets will likely affect both base-line prostanoid synthesis and responses to COX inhibitors. PMID:21467029

  18. Mapping the Homodimer Interface of an Optimized, Artificial, Transmembrane Protein Activator of the Human Erythropoietin Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Bears, Zachary; Barrera, Francisco N.; Alonso, Miriam; Engelman, Donald M.; DiMaio, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Transmembrane proteins constitute a large fraction of cellular proteins, and specific interactions involving membrane-spanning protein segments play an important role in protein oligomerization, folding, and function. We previously isolated an artificial, dimeric, 44-amino acid transmembrane protein that activates the human erythropoietin receptor (hEPOR) in trans. This artificial protein supports limited erythroid differentiation of primary human hematopoietic progenitor cells in vitro, even though it does not resemble erythropoietin, the natural ligand of this receptor. Here, we used a directed-evolution approach to explore the structural basis for the ability of transmembrane proteins to activate the hEPOR. A library that expresses thousands of mutants of the transmembrane activator was screened for variants that were more active than the original isolate at inducing growth factor independence in mouse cells expressing the hEPOR. The most active mutant, EBC5-16, supports erythroid differentiation in human cells with activity approaching that of EPO, as assessed by cell-surface expression of glycophorin A, a late-stage marker of erythroid differentiation. EBC5-16 contains a single isoleucine to serine substitution at position 25, which increases its ability to form dimers. Genetic studies confirmed the importance of dimerization for activity and identified the residues constituting the homodimer interface of EBC5-16. The interface requires a GxxxG dimer packing motif and a small amino acid at position 25 for maximal activity, implying that tight packing of the EBC5-16 dimer is a crucial determinant of activity. These experiments identified an artificial protein that causes robust activation of its target in a natural host cell, demonstrated the importance of dimerization of this protein for engagement of the hEPOR, and provided the framework for future structure-function studies of this novel mechanism of receptor activation. PMID:24788775

  19. The ToxR protein of Vibrio cholerae forms homodimers and heterodimers.

    PubMed Central

    Ottemann, K M; Mekalanos, J J

    1996-01-01

    The ToxR protein of Vibrio cholerae regulates the expression of several virulence factors that play important roles in the pathogenesis of cholera. Previous experiments with ToxR-alkaline phosphatase (ToxR-PhoA) fusion proteins suggested a model for gene regulation in which the inactive form of ToxR was a monomer and the active form of ToxR was a dimer (V. L. Miller, R. K. Taylor, and J. J. Mekalanos, Cell 48:271-279, 1987). In order to examine whether ToxR exists in a dimeric form in vivo, biochemical cross-linking analyses were carried out. Different dimeric cross-linked species were detected depending on the expression level of ToxR: when overexpressed, ToxR+ToxR homodimers and ToxR+ToxS heterodimers were detected, and when ToxR was expressed at normal levels, exclusively ToxR+ToxS heterodimers were detected. The amount of overexpression was quantitated by using ToxR-PhoA fusion proteins and was found to correspond to 2.7-fold the normal level of ToxR. The formation of both homodimeric ToxR species and heterodimeric ToxR+ToxS species is consistent with previously reported genetic data that suggested that both types of ToxR oligomeric interactions occur. However, variation in the amount of either the homodimeric or heterodimeric form detectable by this cross-linking analysis was not observed to correlate with laboratory culture conditions known to modulate ToxR activity. Thus, genetic and biochemical data indicate that ToxR is able to interact with both itself and ToxS but that these interactions may not explain mechanistically the observed changes in ToxR activity that occur in response to environmental conditions. PMID:8550410

  20. Comparative analysis of three-dimensional structures of homodimers of uridine phosphorylase from Salmonella typhimurium in the unligated state and in a complex with potassium ion

    SciTech Connect

    Lashkov, A. A.; Zhukhlistova, N. E.; Gabdulkhakov, A. G.; Mikhailov, A. M.

    2009-03-15

    The spatial organization of the homodimer of unligated uridine phosphorylase from Salmonella typhimurium (St UPh) was determined with high accuracy. The structure was refined at 1.80 A resolution to R{sub work} = 16.1% and R{sub free} = 20.0%. The rms deviations for the bond lengths, bond angles, and chiral angles are 0.006 A, 1.042{sup o}, and 0.071{sup o}, respectively. The coordinate error estimated by the Luzzati plot is 0.166 A. The coordinate error based on the maximum likelihood is 0.199 A. A comparative analysis of the spatial organization of the homodimer in two independently refined structures and the structure of the homodimer St UPh in the complex with a K{sup +} ion was performed. The substrate-binding sites in the homodimers StUPhs in the unligated state were found to act asynchronously. In the presence of a potassium ion, the three-dimensional structures of the subunits in the homodimer are virtually identical, which is apparently of importance for the synchronous action of both substrate-binding sites. The atomic coordinates of the refined structure of the homodimer and structure factors have been deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB ID code 3DPS).

  1. The United Stirling P40 engine for solar dish concentrator application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortegren, L.; Sjostedt, L. E.

    1980-01-01

    The United Stirling P40 engine is a key component in a solar concentration based energy conversion system, to be demonstrated and tested during 1980-81. The inherent characteristics of modern Stirling engines is reviewed focusing on the baseline P40 double-acting engine. The extent of modifications required for the solar application is reviewed and performance data are predicted. Finally, the potential of an advanced solar Stirling engine is briefly considered.

  2. Cooperative Signaling between Homodimers of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors 1 and 5

    PubMed Central

    Sevastyanova, Tatyana N.

    2014-01-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) function as dimers. Recent work suggests that mGluR1 and mGluR5 may physically interact, but the nature and functional consequences of this relationship have not been addressed. In this study, the functional and pharmacological consequences of this interaction were investigated. Using heterologous expression of mGluR cDNA in rat sympathetic neurons from the superior cervical ganglion and inhibition of the native calcium currents as an assay for receptor activation, a functional interdependence between mGluR1 and mGluR5 was demonstrated. In neurons coexpressing these receptors, combining a selective mGluR1 competitive antagonist with either an mGluR1- or mGluR5-selective negative allosteric modulator (NAM) BAY36-7620 [(3aS,6aS)-hexahydro-5-methylene-6a-(2-naphthalenylmethyl)-1H-cyclopenta[c]furan-1-one] or MPEP [2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine hydrochloride], respectively, strongly occluded signaling by both receptors to an approximately equal degree. By contrast, in cells coexpressing mGluR1 and mGluR2, combining the same mGluR1 competitive inhibitor with an mGluR1 or mGluR2 NAM yielded partial and full inhibition of the response, respectively, as expected for independently acting receptors. In neurons expressing mGluR1 and mGluR5, the selective NAMs each strongly inhibited the response to glutamate, suggesting that these receptors do not interact as heterodimers, which would not be inhibited by selective NAMs. Finally, evidence for a similar mGluR1/mGluR5 functional dependence is shown in medium spiny striatal neurons. Together, these data demonstrate cooperative signaling between mGluR1 and mGluR5 in a manner inconsistent with heterodimerization, and thus suggest an interaction between homodimers. PMID:25113912

  3. The C-terminal domain of the MutL homolog from Neisseria gonorrhoeae forms an inverted homodimer.

    PubMed

    Namadurai, Sivakumar; Jain, Deepti; Kulkarni, Dhananjay S; Tabib, Chaitanya R; Friedhoff, Peter; Rao, Desirazu N; Nair, Deepak T

    2010-01-01

    The mismatch repair (MMR) pathway serves to maintain the integrity of the genome by removing mispaired bases from the newly synthesized strand. In E. coli, MutS, MutL and MutH coordinate to discriminate the daughter strand through a mechanism involving lack of methylation on the new strand. This facilitates the creation of a nick by MutH in the daughter strand to initiate mismatch repair. Many bacteria and eukaryotes, including humans, do not possess a homolog of MutH. Although the exact strategy for strand discrimination in these organisms is yet to be ascertained, the required nicking endonuclease activity is resident in the C-terminal domain of MutL. This activity is dependent on the integrity of a conserved metal binding motif. Unlike their eukaryotic counterparts, MutL in bacteria like Neisseria exist in the form of a homodimer. Even though this homodimer would possess two active sites, it still acts a nicking endonuclease. Here, we present the crystal structure of the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the MutL homolog of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NgoL) determined to a resolution of 2.4 Å. The structure shows that the metal binding motif exists in a helical configuration and that four of the six conserved motifs in the MutL family, including the metal binding site, localize together to form a composite active site. NgoL-CTD exists in the form of an elongated inverted homodimer stabilized by a hydrophobic interface rich in leucines. The inverted arrangement places the two composite active sites in each subunit on opposite lateral sides of the homodimer. Such an arrangement raises the possibility that one of the active sites is occluded due to interaction of NgoL with other protein factors involved in MMR. The presentation of only one active site to substrate DNA will ensure that nicking of only one strand occurs to prevent inadvertent and deleterious double stranded cleavage. PMID:21060849

  4. Functional analysis of the p40 and p75 proteins from Lactobacillus casei BL23.

    PubMed

    Bäuerl, Christine; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Yan, Fang; Polk, D Brent; Monedero, Vicente

    2010-01-01

    The genomes of Lactobacillus casei/paracasei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains carry two genes encoding homologues of p40 and p75 from L. rhamnosus GG, two secreted proteins which display anti-apoptotic and cell protective effects on human intestinal epithelial cells. p40 and p75 carry cysteine, histidine-dependent aminohydrolase/peptidase (CHAP) and NLPC/P60 domains, respectively, which are characteristic of proteins with cell-wall hydrolase activity. In L. casei BL23 both proteins were secreted to the growth medium and were also located at the bacterial cell surface. The genes coding for both proteins were inactivated in this strain. Inactivation of LCABL_00230 (encoding p40) did not result in a significant difference in phenotype, whereas a mutation in LCABL_02770 (encoding p75) produced cells that formed very long chains. Purified glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-p40 and -p75 fusion proteins were able to hydrolyze the muropeptides from L. casei cell walls. Both fusions bound to mucin, collagen and to intestinal epithelial cells and, similar to L. rhamnosus GG p40, stimulated epidermal growth factor receptor phosphorylation in mouse intestine ex vivo. These results indicate that extracellular proteins belonging to the machinery of cell-wall metabolism in the closely related L. casei/paracasei-L. rhamnosus group are most likely involved in the probiotic effects described for these bacteria.

  5. Functional Analysis of the p40 and p75 Proteins from Lactobacillus casei BL23

    PubMed Central

    Bäuerl, Christine; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Yan, Fang; Polk, D. Brent; Monedero, Vicente

    2011-01-01

    The genomes of Lactobacillus casei/paracasei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains carry two genes encoding homologues of p40 and p75 from L. rhamnosus GG, two secreted proteins which display anti-apoptotic and cell protective effects on human intestinal epithelial cells. p40 and p75 carry cysteine, histidine-dependent aminohydrolase/peptidase (CHAP) and NLPC/P60 domains, respectively, which are characteristic of proteins with cell-wall hydrolase activity. In L. casei BL23 both proteins were secreted to the growth medium and were also located at the bacterial cell surface. The genes coding for both proteins were inactivated in this strain. Inactivation of LCABL_00230 (encoding p40) did not result in a significant difference in phenotype, whereas a mutation in LCABL_02770 (encoding p75) produced cells that formed very long chains. Purified glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-p40 and -p75 fusion proteins were able to hydrolyze the muropeptides from L. casei cell walls. Both fusions bound to mucin, collagen and to intestinal epithelial cells and, similar to L. rhamnosus GG p40, stimulated epidermal growth factor receptor phosphorylation in mouse intestine ex vivo. These results indicate that extracellular proteins belonging to the machinery of cell-wall metabolism in the closely related L. casei/paracasei-L. rhamnosus group are most likely involved in the probiotic effects described for these bacteria PMID:21178363

  6. Role of Anthocyanin-enriched Purple-fleshed Sweet Potato P40 in Colorectal Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Soyoung; Xu, Jianteng; Kim, Jaeyong; Chen, Tzu-Yu; Su, Xiaoyu; Standard, Joseph; Carey, Edward; Griffin, Jason; Herndon, Betty; Katz, Benjamin; Tomich, John; Wang, Weiqun

    2013-01-01

    Scope Anthocyanins, the natural pigments in plant foods, have been associated with cancer prevention. However, the content of anthocyanins in staple foods is typically low and the mechanisms by which they exert anti-cancer activity is not yet fully defined. Methods and results We selected an anthocyanin-enriched purple-fleshed sweet potato clone, P40, and investigated its potential anti-cancer effect in both in vitro cell culture and in vivo animal model. In addition to a high level of total phenolics and antioxidant capacity, P40 possesses a high content of anthocyanins at 7.5 mg/g dry matter. Treatment of human colonic SW480 cancer cells with P40 anthocyanin extracts at 0–40 μM of peonidin-3-glucoside equivalent resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in cell number due to cytostatic arrest of cell cycle at G1 phase but not cytotoxicity. Furthermore, dietary P40 at 10–30% significantly suppressed azoxymethane-induced formation of aberrant crypt foci in the colons of CF-1 mice in conjunction with, at least in part, a lesser proliferative PCNA and a greater apoptotic caspase-3 expression in the colon mucosal epithelial cells. Conclusion These observations, coupled with both in vitro and in vivo studies reported here, suggest anthocyanin-enriched sweet potato P40 may protect against colorectal cancer by inducing cell cycle arrest, anti-proliferative and apoptotic mechanisms. PMID:23784800

  7. Functional analysis of the p40 and p75 proteins from Lactobacillus casei BL23.

    PubMed

    Bäuerl, Christine; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Yan, Fang; Polk, D Brent; Monedero, Vicente

    2010-01-01

    The genomes of Lactobacillus casei/paracasei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains carry two genes encoding homologues of p40 and p75 from L. rhamnosus GG, two secreted proteins which display anti-apoptotic and cell protective effects on human intestinal epithelial cells. p40 and p75 carry cysteine, histidine-dependent aminohydrolase/peptidase (CHAP) and NLPC/P60 domains, respectively, which are characteristic of proteins with cell-wall hydrolase activity. In L. casei BL23 both proteins were secreted to the growth medium and were also located at the bacterial cell surface. The genes coding for both proteins were inactivated in this strain. Inactivation of LCABL_00230 (encoding p40) did not result in a significant difference in phenotype, whereas a mutation in LCABL_02770 (encoding p75) produced cells that formed very long chains. Purified glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-p40 and -p75 fusion proteins were able to hydrolyze the muropeptides from L. casei cell walls. Both fusions bound to mucin, collagen and to intestinal epithelial cells and, similar to L. rhamnosus GG p40, stimulated epidermal growth factor receptor phosphorylation in mouse intestine ex vivo. These results indicate that extracellular proteins belonging to the machinery of cell-wall metabolism in the closely related L. casei/paracasei-L. rhamnosus group are most likely involved in the probiotic effects described for these bacteria. PMID:21178363

  8. ThWRKY4 from Tamarix hispida Can Form Homodimers and Heterodimers and Is Involved in Abiotic Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liuqiang; Zheng, Lei; Zhang, Chunrui; Wang, Yucheng; Lu, Mengzhu; Gao, Caiqiu

    2015-01-01

    WRKY proteins are a large family of transcription factors that are involved in diverse developmental processes and abiotic stress responses in plants. However, our knowledge of the regulatory mechanisms of WRKYs participation in protein–protein interactions is still fragmentary, and such protein–protein interactions are fundamental in understanding biological networks and the functions of proteins. In this study, we report that a WRKY protein from Tamarix hispida, ThWRKY4, can form both homodimers and heterodimers with ThWRKY2 and ThWRKY3. In addition, ThWRKY2 and ThWRKY3 can both bind to W-box motif with binding affinities similar to that of ThWRKY4. Further, the expression patterns of ThWRKY2 and ThWRKY3 are similar to that of ThWRKY4 when plants are exposed to abscisic acid (ABA). Subcellular localization shows that these three ThWRKY proteins are nuclear proteins. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ThWRKY4 is a dimeric protein that can form functional homodimers or heterodimers that are involved in abiotic stress responses. PMID:26580593

  9. Antiparallel protocadherin homodimers use distinct affinity- and specificity-mediating regions in cadherin repeats 1-4.

    PubMed

    Nicoludis, John M; Vogt, Bennett E; Green, Anna G; Schärfe, Charlotta Pi; Marks, Debora S; Gaudet, Rachelle

    2016-01-01

    Protocadherins (Pcdhs) are cell adhesion and signaling proteins used by neurons to develop and maintain neuronal networks, relying on trans homophilic interactions between their extracellular cadherin (EC) repeat domains. We present the structure of the antiparallel EC1-4 homodimer of human PcdhγB3, a member of the γ subfamily of clustered Pcdhs. Structure and sequence comparisons of α, β, and γ clustered Pcdh isoforms illustrate that subfamilies encode specificity in distinct ways through diversification of loop region structure and composition in EC2 and EC3, which contains isoform-specific conservation of primarily polar residues. In contrast, the EC1/EC4 interface comprises hydrophobic interactions that provide non-selective dimerization affinity. Using sequence coevolution analysis, we found evidence for a similar antiparallel EC1-4 interaction in non-clustered Pcdh families. We thus deduce that the EC1-4 antiparallel homodimer is a general interaction strategy that evolved before the divergence of these distinct protocadherin families. PMID:27472898

  10. Antiparallel protocadherin homodimers use distinct affinity- and specificity-mediating regions in cadherin repeats 1-4

    PubMed Central

    Nicoludis, John M; Vogt, Bennett E; Green, Anna G; Schärfe, Charlotta PI; Marks, Debora S; Gaudet, Rachelle

    2016-01-01

    Protocadherins (Pcdhs) are cell adhesion and signaling proteins used by neurons to develop and maintain neuronal networks, relying on trans homophilic interactions between their extracellular cadherin (EC) repeat domains. We present the structure of the antiparallel EC1-4 homodimer of human PcdhγB3, a member of the γ subfamily of clustered Pcdhs. Structure and sequence comparisons of α, β, and γ clustered Pcdh isoforms illustrate that subfamilies encode specificity in distinct ways through diversification of loop region structure and composition in EC2 and EC3, which contains isoform-specific conservation of primarily polar residues. In contrast, the EC1/EC4 interface comprises hydrophobic interactions that provide non-selective dimerization affinity. Using sequence coevolution analysis, we found evidence for a similar antiparallel EC1-4 interaction in non-clustered Pcdh families. We thus deduce that the EC1-4 antiparallel homodimer is a general interaction strategy that evolved before the divergence of these distinct protocadherin families. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18449.001 PMID:27472898

  11. Characterisation and stability of anthocyanins in purple-fleshed sweet potato P40.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianteng; Su, Xiaoyu; Lim, Soyoung; Griffin, Jason; Carey, Edward; Katz, Benjamin; Tomich, John; Smith, J Scott; Wang, Weiqun

    2015-11-01

    Purple-fleshed sweet potato P40 has been shown to prevent colorectal cancer in a murine model. This study is to identify anthocyanins by using HPLC/MS-MS and assess the stability during various cooking conditions. P40 possesses a high content of anthocyanins up to 14 mg/g dry matter. Total 12 acylated anthocyanins are identified. Top three anthocyanins, e.g., cyanidin 3-caffeoyl-p-hydroxybenzoyl sophoroside-5-glucoside, peonidin 3-caffeoyl sophoroside-5-glucoside, and cyanidin 3-(6"-caffeoyl-6"-feruloylsophoroside)-5-glucoside, account for half of the anthocyanin contents. Over 80% of anthocyanins measured by acid hydrolysis were cyanidin derivatives, indicating P40 is unique when compared with other purple-fleshed sweet potatoes that usually contain more peonidin than cyanidin. Steaming, pressure cooking, microwaving, and frying but not baking significantly reduced 8-16% of total anthocyanin contents. Mono-acylated anthocyanins showed a higher resistance against heat than di- and non-acylated. Among of which, cyanidin 3-p-hydroxybenzoylsophoroside-5-glucoside exhibited the best thermal stability. The stable acylated and cyanidin-predominated anthocyanins in P40 may provide extra benefits for cancer prevention.

  12. Characterisation and stability of anthocyanins in purple-fleshed sweet potato P40.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianteng; Su, Xiaoyu; Lim, Soyoung; Griffin, Jason; Carey, Edward; Katz, Benjamin; Tomich, John; Smith, J Scott; Wang, Weiqun

    2015-11-01

    Purple-fleshed sweet potato P40 has been shown to prevent colorectal cancer in a murine model. This study is to identify anthocyanins by using HPLC/MS-MS and assess the stability during various cooking conditions. P40 possesses a high content of anthocyanins up to 14 mg/g dry matter. Total 12 acylated anthocyanins are identified. Top three anthocyanins, e.g., cyanidin 3-caffeoyl-p-hydroxybenzoyl sophoroside-5-glucoside, peonidin 3-caffeoyl sophoroside-5-glucoside, and cyanidin 3-(6"-caffeoyl-6"-feruloylsophoroside)-5-glucoside, account for half of the anthocyanin contents. Over 80% of anthocyanins measured by acid hydrolysis were cyanidin derivatives, indicating P40 is unique when compared with other purple-fleshed sweet potatoes that usually contain more peonidin than cyanidin. Steaming, pressure cooking, microwaving, and frying but not baking significantly reduced 8-16% of total anthocyanin contents. Mono-acylated anthocyanins showed a higher resistance against heat than di- and non-acylated. Among of which, cyanidin 3-p-hydroxybenzoylsophoroside-5-glucoside exhibited the best thermal stability. The stable acylated and cyanidin-predominated anthocyanins in P40 may provide extra benefits for cancer prevention. PMID:25976796

  13. Release of FGF1 and p40 synaptotagmin 1 correlates with their membrane destabilizing ability.

    PubMed Central

    Graziani, Irene; Bagalá, Cinzia; Duarte, Maria; Soldi, Raffaella; Kolev, Vihren; Tarantini, Francesca; Suresh Kumar, Thallapuranam Krishnaswamy; Doyle, Andrew; Neivandt, David; Yu, Chin; Maciag, Thomas; Prudovsky, Igor

    2006-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)1 is released from cells as a constituent of a complex that contains the small calcium binding protein S100A13, and the p40 kDa form of synaptotagmin (Syt)1, through an ER-Golgi-independent stress-induced pathway. FGF1 and the other components of its secretory complex are signal peptide-less proteins. We examined their capability to interact with lipid bilayers by studying protein-induced carboxyfluorescein release from liposomes of different phospholipid (pL) compositions. FGF1, p40 Syt1, and S100A13 induced destabilization of liposomes composed of acidic but not of zwitterionic pL. We produced mutants of FGF1 and p40 Syt1, in which specific basic amino acid residues in the regions that bind acidic pL were substituted. The ability of these mutants to induce liposomes destabilization was strongly attenuated, and they exhibited drastically diminished spontaneous and stress-induced release. Apparently, the non-classical release of FGF1 and p40 Syt1 involves destabilization of membranes containing acidic pL. PMID:16930531

  14. Theoretical Study on the UVR8 Photoreceptor: Sensing Ultraviolet-B by Tryptophan and Dissociation of Homodimer.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Chung, Lung Wa; Morokuma, Keiji; Li, Guohui

    2014-08-12

    By the irradiation of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) light, UVR8 photoreceptor can undergo dissociation of the protein homodimer and regulate gene expression in plants. We have carried out high-level quantum mechanics (QM) and ONIOM(QM:MM) calculations and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to study spectra of key tryptophan residues in UVR8 homodimer and to clarify the key role of important charged residues and their salt bridges as well as the feasible dissociation mechanism. First, benchmark calculations on the absorption and emission of 3-methylindole in the gas phase have been performed by different QM methods (TD-DFT, CASSCF, MS-CASPT2, and SAC-CI). Twenty different DFT functionals, including double hybrid and Minnesota functionals, were tested, but all these functionals failed to give satisfactory description of two key transitions. In comparison, SAC-CI and CASPT2 methods can give reliable transition energies and a correct order of (1)La and (1)Lb excited states. Furthermore, the vertical absorption and emission energies of tryptophan in UVR8 have been investigated by the ONIOM method. The present results suggest that W285 is the major chromophore of UVR8, while W233 can also sense the UV-B light and may be responsible for exciton coupling. Geometrical effects as well as electrostatic and polarization interactions with the protein matrix were found to influence optical properties of these tryptophan residues in UVR8. At the homodimeric interface, R286-D107 and R338-D44 salt bridges are suggested to play a crucial role for the UVR8 monomerization. In addition, the UV-B induced dissociation mechanism of the UVR8 homodimer has been proposed. The electrostatic repulsion between the partially negatively charged benzene ring of W285 in the (1)La excited state and the negatively charged D44/D107, along with electron and/or proton transfers among W285, R286 (or R338), W233 and D129, was suggested to result in the breakage of the key salt bridges, and destabilization as well

  15. Interleukin-12 family cytokines and sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Ringkowski, Sabine; Thomas, Paul S; Herbert, Cristan

    2014-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease predominantly affecting the lungs. It is believed to be caused by exposure to pathogenic antigens in genetically susceptible individuals but the causative antigen has not been identified. The formation of non-caseating granulomas at sites of ongoing inflammation is the key feature of the disease. Other aspects of the pathogenesis are peripheral T-cell anergy and disease progression to fibrosis. Many T-cell-associated cytokines have been implicated in the immunopathogenesis of sarcoidosis, but it is becoming apparent that IL-12 cytokine family members including IL-12, IL-23, IL-27, and IL-35 are also involved. Although the members of this unique cytokine family are heterodimers of similar subunits, their biological functions are very diverse. Whilst IL-23 and IL-12 are pro-inflammatory regulators of Th1 and Th17 responses, IL-27 is bidirectional for inflammation and the most recent family member IL-35 is inhibitory. This review will discuss the current understanding of etiology and immunopathogenesis of sarcoidosis with a specific focus on the bidirectional impact of IL-12 family cytokines on the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis.

  16. Thermal and chemical unfolding pathways of PaSdsA1 sulfatase, a homo-dimer with topologically interlinked chains.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, César; Goto, Yuji; Costas, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms as to how interlinked proteins entangle and fold is a challenge. PaSdsA1 sulfatase is a homo-dimer containing two zinc atoms per monomer. The monomer chains are interlinked in a dimerization domain. To study the unfolding pathways denaturation experiments were performed. In the native protein three forms coexist in chemical equilibrium, each with a different number of zinc atoms. In the chemical unfolding of the holo-dimers the entanglement of the chains is preserved and acts as a 'folding seed', allowing the unfolding process to be reversible. Thermal irreversible unfolding of the holo-dimers favours dissociation, producing monomers that are SDS-stabilized. The thermal unfolding of these monomers is reversible. However, it is not possible to form dimers from unfolded monomers.

  17. A novel EID family member, EID-3, inhibits differentiation and forms a homodimer or heterodimer with EID-2

    SciTech Connect

    Sasajima, Yuka; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Miyake, Satoshi; Yuasa, Yasuhito . E-mail: yuasa.monc@tmd.ac.jp

    2005-08-05

    The EID family members, i.e., E1A-like inhibitor of differentiation-1 (EID-1) and EID-1-like inhibitor of differentiation-2 (EID-2), were identified as negative regulators of cellular differentiation. EID-1 seems to inhibit differentiation by blocking histone acetyltransferase activity and EID-2 possibly inhibits differentiation through binding to class I histone deacetylases (HDACs). Here, we report a novel inhibitor of differentiation exhibiting homology with EID-2 termed EID-3 (EID-2-like inhibitor of differentiation-3). Like EID-2, EID-3 inhibited MyoD- and GR{alpha}-dependent transcription and blocked muscle differentiation in cultured cells by binding to class I HDACs. Unlike that of EID-2, the C-terminus, but not the N-terminus, of EID-3 was required for nuclear localization. EID-3 formed a homodimer or heterodimer with EID-2. These results suggest that EID-3 inhibits differentiation by blocking transcription as a complex in cells.

  18. DNA from Protozoan Parasites Babesia bovis, Trypanosoma cruzi, and T. brucei Is Mitogenic for B Lymphocytes and Stimulates Macrophage Expression of Interleukin-12, Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha, and Nitric Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Shoda, Lisl K. M.; Kegerreis, Kimberly A.; Suarez, Carlos E.; Roditi, Isabel; Corral, Ricardo S.; Bertot, Gustavo M.; Norimine, Junzo; Brown, Wendy C.

    2001-01-01

    The activation of innate immune responses by genomic DNA from bacteria and several nonvertebrate organisms represents a novel mechanism of pathogen recognition. We recently demonstrated the CpG-dependent mitogenic activity of DNA from the protozoan parasite Babesia bovis for bovine B lymphocytes (W. C. Brown, D. M. Estes, S. E. Chantler, K. A. Kegerreis, and C. E. Suarez, Infect. Immun. 66:5423–5432, 1998). However, activation of macrophages by DNA from protozoan parasites has not been demonstrated. The present study was therefore conducted to determine whether DNA from the protozan parasites B. bovis, Trypanosoma cruzi, and T. brucei activates macrophages to secrete inflammatory mediators associated with protective immunity. DNA from Escherichia coli and all three parasites stimulated B-lymphocyte proliferation and increased macrophage production of interleukin-12 (IL-12), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and nitric oxide (NO). Regulation of IL-12 and NO production occurred at the level of transcription. The amounts of IL-12, TNF-α, and NO induced by E. coli and protozoal DNA were strongly correlated (r2 > 0.9) with the frequency of CG dinucleotides in the genome, and immunostimulation by DNA occurred in the order E. coli ≥ T. cruzi > T. brucei > B. bovis. Induction of inflammatory mediators by E. coli, T. brucei, and B. bovis DNA was dependent on the presence of unmethylated CpG dinucleotides. However, at high concentrations, E. coli and T. cruzi DNA-mediated macrophage activation was not inhibited following methylation. The recognition of protozoal DNA by B lymphocytes and macrophages may provide an important innate defense mechanism to control parasite replication and promote persistent infection. PMID:11254571

  19. DNA binding of Jun and Fos bZip domains: homodimers and heterodimers induce a DNA conformational change in solution.

    PubMed Central

    John, M; Leppik, R; Busch, S J; Granger-Schnarr, M; Schnarr, M

    1996-01-01

    We constructed plasmids encoding the sequences for the bZip modules of c-Jun and c-Fos which could then be expressed as soluble proteins in Escherichia coli. The purified bZip modules were tested for their binding capacities of synthetic oligonucleotides containing either TRE or CRE recognition sites in electrophoretic mobility shift assays and circular dichroism (CD). Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that bZip Jun homodimers and bZip Jun/Fos heterodimers bind a collagenase-like TRE (CTGACTCAT) with dissociation constants of respectively 1.4 x 10(-7) M and 5 x 10(-8) M. As reported earlier [Patel et al. (1990) Nature 347, 572-575], DNA binding induces a marked change of the protein structure. However, we found that the DNA also undergoes a conformational change. This is most clearly seen with small oligonucleotides of 13 or 14 bp harboring respectively a TRE (TGACTCA) or a CRE (TGACGTCA) sequence. In this case, the positive DNA CD signal at 280 nm increases almost two-fold with a concomitant blue-shift of 3-4 nm. Within experimental error the same spectral changes are observed for TRE and CRE containing DNA fragments. The spectral changes observed with a non-specific DNA fragment are weaker and the signal of free DNA is recovered upon addition of much smaller salt concentrations than required for a specific DNA fragment. Surprisingly the spectral changes induced by Jun/Jun homodimers are not identical to those induced by Jun/Fos heterodimers. However, in both cases the increase of the positive CD band and the concomitant blue shift would be compatible with a B to A-transition of part of the binding site or a DNA conformation intermediate between the canonical A and B structures. PMID:8948639

  20. Free IL-12p40 Monomer is a Polyfunctional Adapter for Generating Novel IL-12-Like Heterodimers Extracellularly

    PubMed Central

    Abdi, Kaveh; Singh, Nevil J.; Spooner, Eric; Kessler, Benedikt M.; Radaev, Sergei; Lantz, Larry; Xiao, Tsan Sam; Matzinger, Polly; Sun, Peter D.; Ploegh, Hidde L.

    2014-01-01

    IL-12p40 partners with the p35 and p19 polypeptides to generate the heterodimeric cytokines IL-12 and IL-23 respectively. These cytokines play critical and distinct roles in host defense. The assembly of these heterodimers is thought to take place within the cell, resulting in the secretion of fully functional cytokines. Although the p40 subunit alone can also be rapidly secreted in response to inflammatory signals, its biological significance remains unclear. Here, we show that the secreted p40 monomer can generate de novo IL-12-like activities by combining extracellulary with p35 released from other cells. Surprisingly, an unbiased proteomic analysis reveals multiple such extracellular binding partners for p40 in the serum of mice after an endotoxin challenge. We biochemically validate the binding of one of these novel partners—the CD5 antigen-like glycoprotein CD5L— to the p40 monomer. Nevertheless, the assembled p40-CD5L heterodimer does not recapitulate the biological activity of IL-12. These findings underscore the plasticity of secreted free p40 monomer, suggesting that p40 functions as an adapter which is able to generate multiple de novo composites in combination with other locally available polypeptide partners, post secretion. PMID:24821971

  1. An HLA-B27 Homodimer Specific Antibody Recognizes a Discontinuous Mixed-Disulfide Epitope as Identified by Affinity-Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iuraşcu, Marius-Ionuţ; Marroquin Belaunzanar, Osiris; Cozma, Claudia; Petrausch, Ulf; Renner, Christoph; Przybylski, Michael

    2016-06-01

    HLA-B27 homodimer formation is believed to be a hallmark of HLA-B27 associated spondyloarthritides. Recently, we have generated a homodimer-specific monoclonal antibody (HD6) and have demonstrated that HLA-B27 homodimer complexes are present on monocytes of healthy HLA-B27 gene carriers at low levels, with significantly increased levels at active disease. The capability of the HD6 antibody to discriminate between correctly formed HLA-B27 heterotrimers and pathology-associated homodimers is striking and cannot be explained by the primary structure of HLA-B27. We hypothesized that HD6 accesses a unique epitope and used affinity-mass spectrometry for its identification. The HD6 antibody was immobilized on an activated sepharose affinity column, and HLA-B27 homodimer characterized for affinity. The epitope was identified by proteolytic epitope excision and MALDI mass spectrometry, and shown to comprise a discontinuous Cys-203- 257-Cys mixed-disulfide peptide structure that is not accessible in HLA-B27 heterotrimers due to protection by noncovalently linked β2-microglobulin. The epitope peptides were synthesized by solid phase peptide synthesis, and the two monomeric peptide components, HLA-B27(203-219) and HLA-B27(257-273), as well as the homo- and hetero-dimeric disulfide linked combinations prepared. The affinity binding constants KD towards the antibodies were determined using a surface acoustic wave (SAW) biosensor, and showed the highest affinity with a KD of approximately 40 nM to the HD6 antibody for the (203-219)-SS-(257-273) mixed disulfide epitope.

  2. Non-averaged human brain potentials in somatic attention: the short-latency cognition-related P40 component.

    PubMed Central

    Tomberg, C; Desmedt, J E

    1996-01-01

    1. Non-averaged scalp-recorded brain potentials were studied in humans during selective attention to randomly intermixed series of stimuli to fingers. Physiological tests were use for validating the presence or absence of the short-latency cognition-related P40 electrogeneses in parietal cortex in the response to a single-target stimulus (P40 signifies a positive polarity of about 40 ms peak latency). 2. To minimize interference from the electroencephalogram and noise we mapped single brain responses over the scalp and identified P40 topographies by an updated form of the numerical estimator Z for assessment of recorded potentials over time. We found that Z should exceed 0.96 for at least 15 ms for validation of the topographical congruity between the single P40 and an averaged P40 template. 3. Individual responses to 145 target finger stimuli correctly identified by the subject were analysed. P40 occurred only intermittently (34.5%) in a series of targets, but its voltage was unexpectedly large, exceeding the P40 voltage in averaged responses by a factor of about 10. 4. The usual assumption in the averaging method that the single brain responses combined in the average are stable but merely contaminated by unrelated noise was shown to be false for the cognition-related P40, which was considerably underestimated because of its intermittency in the averaged single trials. 5. The reaction time of the subject was on average 19% shorter in the trials in which a P40 was present, thus suggesting that P40 can influence subsequent perceptual processing by the brain in the same trial. 6. The feasibility of identifying specific cognition-related electrogeneses in single brain responses opens up the study of momentary shifts in brain processing strategies thereby allowing the neurophysiology of cognition to be based in real time. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 8 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:8910238

  3. Phase I trial of twice-weekly intravenous interleukin 12 in patients with metastatic renal cell cancer or malignant melanoma: ability to maintain IFN-gamma induction is associated with clinical response.

    PubMed

    Gollob, J A; Mier, J W; Veenstra, K; McDermott, D F; Clancy, D; Clancy, M; Atkins, M B

    2000-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the tolerability, antitumor activity, and biological effects of a new schedule of i.v. recombinant human interleukin 12 (rhIL-12). Twenty-eight patients were enrolled in a Phase I trial in which rhIL-12 was administered twice weekly as an i.v. bolus for 6 weeks. Stable or responding patients were eligible to receive additional 6-week cycles until there was no evidence of disease or until tumor progression. Patient cohorts were treated with escalating doses of rhIL-12 (30-700 ng/kg). The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was 500 ng/kg, with dose-limiting toxicities consisting of elevated hepatic transaminases and cytopenias. At the MTD (n = 14), there was one partial response occurring after 6 cycles of rhIL-12 in a patient with renal cell cancer. Two additional renal cell cancer patients treated at the MTD had prolonged disease stabilization, with one of these exhibiting tumor regression after 8 cycles of rhIL-12. IFN-gamma, IL-15, and IL-18 were induced in patients treated with rhIL-12. Whereas IFN-gamma and IL-15 induction were attenuated midway through the first cycle in patients with disease progression, those patients with tumor regression or prolonged disease stabilization were able to maintain IFN-gamma, IL-15, and IL-18 induction. The down-modulation of IFN-gamma induction during rhIL-12 treatment did not relate to IL-10 production or alterations in rhIL-12 bioavailability but was associated with an acquired defect in lymphocyte IFN-gamma production in response to IL-12, IL-2, or IL-15. This defect could be partially overcome in vitro through combined stimulation with IL-12 plus IL-2. These findings show that the chronic administration of twice-weekly i.v. rhIL-12 is well-tolerated, stimulates the production of IL-12 costimulatory cytokines and IFN-gamma, and can induce delayed tumor regression. Strategies aimed at maintaining IFN-gamma induction, such as the addition of IL-2, may further augment the response rate to this

  4. Construction of a hybrid β-hexosaminidase subunit capable of forming stable homodimers that hydrolyze GM2 ganglioside in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Tropak, Michael B; Yonekawa, Sayuri; Karumuthil-Melethil, Subha; Thompson, Patrick; Wakarchuk, Warren; Gray, Steven J; Walia, Jagdeep S; Mark, Brian L; Mahuran, Don

    2016-01-01

    Tay-Sachs or Sandhoff disease result from mutations in either the evolutionarily related HEXA or HEXB genes encoding respectively, the α- or β-subunits of β-hexosaminidase A (HexA). Of the three Hex isozymes, only HexA can interact with its cofactor, the GM2 activator protein (GM2AP), and hydrolyze GM2 ganglioside. A major impediment to establishing gene or enzyme replacement therapy based on HexA is the need to synthesize both subunits. Thus, we combined the critical features of both α- and β-subunits into a single hybrid µ-subunit that contains the α-subunit active site, the stable β-subunit interface and unique areas in each subunit needed to interact with GM2AP. To facilitate intracellular analysis and the purification of the µ-homodimer (HexM), CRISPR-based genome editing was used to disrupt the HEXA and HEXB genes in a Human Embryonic Kidney 293 cell line stably expressing the µ-subunit. In association with GM2AP, HexM was shown to hydrolyze a fluorescent GM2 ganglioside derivative both in cellulo and in vitro. Gene transfer studies in both Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff mouse models demonstrated that HexM expression reduced brain GM2 ganglioside levels. PMID:26966698

  5. Albumin Homodimers in Patients with Cirrhosis: Clinical and Prognostic Relevance of a Novel Identified Structural Alteration of the Molecule

    PubMed Central

    Baldassarre, Maurizio; Domenicali, Marco; Naldi, Marina; Laggetta, Maristella; Giannone, Ferdinando A.; Biselli, Maurizio; Patrono, Daniela; Bertucci, Carlo; Bernardi, Mauro; Caraceni, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Decompensated cirrhosis is associated to extensive post-transcriptional changes of human albumin (HA). This study aims to characterize the occurrence of HA homodimerization in a large cohort of patients with decompensated cirrhosis and to evaluate its association with clinical features and prognosis. HA monomeric and dimeric isoforms were identified in peripheral blood by using a HPLC-ESI-MS technique in 123 cirrhotic patients hospitalized for acute decompensation and 50 age- and sex-comparable healthy controls. Clinical and biochemical parameters were recorded and patients followed up to one year. Among the monomeric isoforms identified, the N- and C-terminal truncated and the native HA underwent homodimerization. All three homodimers were significantly more abundant in patients with cirrhosis, acute-on-chronic liver failure and correlate with the prognostic scores. The homodimeric N-terminal truncated isoform was independently associated to disease complications and was able to stratify 1-year survival. As a result of all these changes, the monomeric native HA was significantly decreased in patients with cirrhosis, being also associated with a poorer prognosis. In conclusion homodimerization is a novel described structural alteration of the HA molecule in decompensated cirrhosis and contributes to the progressive reduction of the monomeric native HA, the only isoform provided of structural and functional integrity. PMID:27782157

  6. Construction of a hybrid β-hexosaminidase subunit capable of forming stable homodimers that hydrolyze GM2 ganglioside in vivo.

    PubMed

    Tropak, Michael B; Yonekawa, Sayuri; Karumuthil-Melethil, Subha; Thompson, Patrick; Wakarchuk, Warren; Gray, Steven J; Walia, Jagdeep S; Mark, Brian L; Mahuran, Don

    2016-01-01

    Tay-Sachs or Sandhoff disease result from mutations in either the evolutionarily related HEXA or HEXB genes encoding respectively, the α- or β-subunits of β-hexosaminidase A (HexA). Of the three Hex isozymes, only HexA can interact with its cofactor, the GM2 activator protein (GM2AP), and hydrolyze GM2 ganglioside. A major impediment to establishing gene or enzyme replacement therapy based on HexA is the need to synthesize both subunits. Thus, we combined the critical features of both α- and β-subunits into a single hybrid µ-subunit that contains the α-subunit active site, the stable β-subunit interface and unique areas in each subunit needed to interact with GM2AP. To facilitate intracellular analysis and the purification of the µ-homodimer (HexM), CRISPR-based genome editing was used to disrupt the HEXA and HEXB genes in a Human Embryonic Kidney 293 cell line stably expressing the µ-subunit. In association with GM2AP, HexM was shown to hydrolyze a fluorescent GM2 ganglioside derivative both in cellulo and in vitro. Gene transfer studies in both Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff mouse models demonstrated that HexM expression reduced brain GM2 ganglioside levels. PMID:26966698

  7. Amino acid 72 of mouse and human GDF9 mature domain is responsible for altered homodimer bioactivities but has subtle effects on GDF9:BMP15 heterodimer activities.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jia; Wigglesworth, Karen; Rangarajan, Adithya; Eppig, John J; Thompson, Thomas B; Matzuk, Martin M

    2014-12-01

    Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) and bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) are oocyte-secreted paralogs of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) superfamily. In mammals, these two growth factors play critical roles in folliculogenesis. As previously reported, an arginine in the pre-helix loop of GDF5 defines the high binding specificity to its type 1 receptor. Interestingly, bioactive mouse GDF9 and human BMP15 share the conserved arginine in the pre-helix loop, but their low-activity counterparts (mouse BMP15 and human GDF9) have a glycine or a proline instead. To address the question of whether the arginine residue defines the different activities of GDF9 and BMP15 homodimers and their heterodimers in human and mouse, we used site-directed mutagenesis to change the species-specific residues in human and mouse proteins, and examined their activities in our in vitro assays. Although amino acid 72 of mature GDF9 is responsible for altered homodimer bioactivities, neither the corresponding BMP15 amino acid 62 nor the intact pre-helix loop is indispensable for BMP15 homodimer activity. However, amino acid 72 in GDF9 only has only subtle effects on GDF9:BMP15 heterodimer activity. Based on previous studies and our recent findings, we provide hypothetical models to understand the molecular mechanism to define activities of the homodimeric and heterodimeric ligands. The arginine residue in the pre-helix loop of GDF9 homodimer may prevent the inhibition from its pro-domain or directly alter receptor binding, but this residue in GDF9 does not significantly affect the heterodimer activity, because of suggested conformational changes during heterodimer formation.

  8. A conserved proline residue in the leucine zipper region of AtbZIP34 and AtbZIP61 in Arabidopsis thaliana interferes with the formation of homodimer

    SciTech Connect

    Shen Huaishun; Cao Kaiming; Wang Xiping

    2007-10-19

    Two putative Arabidopsis E group bZIP transcript factors, AtbZIP34 and AtbZIP61, are nuclear-localized and their transcriptional activation domain is in their N-terminal region. By searching GenBank, we found other eight plant homologues of AtbZIP34 and AtbZIP61. All of them have a proline residue in the third heptad of zipper region. Yeast two-hybrid assay and EMSA showed that AtbZIP34 and AtbZIP61 could not form homodimer while their mutant forms, AtbZIP34m and AtbZIP61m, which the proline residue was replaced by an alanine residue in the zipper region, could form homodimer and bind G-box element. These results suggest that the conserved proline residue interferes with the homodimer formation. However, both AtbZIP34 and AtbZIP61 could form heterodimers with members of I group and S group transcription factors in which some members involved in vascular development. So we speculate that AtbZIP34 and AtbZIP61 may participate in plant development via interacting with other group bZIP transcription factors.

  9. Structures of a minimal human CFTR first nucleotide-binding domain as a monomer, head-to-tail homodimer, and pathogenic mutant

    SciTech Connect

    Atwell, Shane; Brouillette, Christie G.; Conners, Kris; Emtage, Spencer; Gheyi, Tarun; Guggino, William B.; Hendle, Jorg; Hunt, John F.; Lewis, Hal A.; Lu, Frances; Protasevich, Irina I.; Rodgers, Logan A.; Romero, Rich; Wasserman, Stephen R.; Weber, Patricia C.; Wetmore, Diana; Zhang, Feiyu F.; Zhao, Xun

    2010-04-26

    Upon removal of the regulatory insert (RI), the first nucleotide binding domain (NBD1) of human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) can be heterologously expressed and purified in a form that remains stable without solubilizing mutations, stabilizing agents or the regulatory extension (RE). This protein, NBD1 387-646({Delta}405-436), crystallizes as a homodimer with a head-to-tail association equivalent to the active conformation observed for NBDs from symmetric ATP transporters. The 1.7-{angstrom} resolution X-ray structure shows how ATP occupies the signature LSGGQ half-site in CFTR NBD1. The {Delta}F508 version of this protein also crystallizes as a homodimer and differs from the wild-type structure only in the vicinity of the disease-causing F508 deletion. A slightly longer construct crystallizes as a monomer. Comparisons of the homodimer structure with this and previously published monomeric structures show that the main effect of ATP binding at the signature site is to order the residues immediately preceding the signature sequence, residues 542-547, in a conformation compatible with nucleotide binding. These residues likely interact with a transmembrane domain intracellular loop in the full-length CFTR channel. The experiments described here show that removing the RI from NBD1 converts it into a well-behaved protein amenable to biophysical studies yielding deeper insights into CFTR function.

  10. Two new crystal forms of the choline-binding domain of the major pneumococcal autolysin: insights into the dynamics of the active homodimer.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Tornero, Carlos; García, Ernesto; López, Rubens; Giménez-Gallego, Guillermo; Romero, Antonio

    2002-08-01

    Very little is known about the in vivo regulation of the catalytic activity of the major pneumococcal autolysin (LytA), a surface-exposed enzyme that rules the self-destruction of pneumococcal cells through degradation of their peptidoglycan backbone. Two new crystal forms of the cell wall anchoring domain of LytA were obtained, and their structures were solved and refined to 2.4A and 2.8A resolution. The domain is a homodimer with a boomerang-like shape in which the tertiary structure of each monomer is comprised by six independent beta hairpins arranged in a superhelical fashion. Choline molecules at the hydrophobic interface of consecutive hairpins maintain this unique structure. The C-terminal hairpin (last 13 residues of LytA) in the solenoid is responsible for the formation of the catalytically active homodimer. Although the general fold in the structures derived from both crystal forms is essentially the same, two different conformations of the basic homodimer are observed. Biochemical approaches have demonstrated the fundamental role of the 11 C-terminal residues in the catalytic activity of LytA. The studies reported here reveal the importance of some amino acid residues at the C terminus in the determination of the relative distance of the active dimeric form of the autolysin, which appears to be essential for the catalytic activity of this enzyme.

  11. A conserved proline residue in the leucine zipper region of AtbZIP34 and AtbZIP61 in Arabidopsis thaliana interferes with the formation of homodimer.

    PubMed

    Shen, Huaishun; Cao, Kaiming; Wang, Xiping

    2007-10-19

    Two putative Arabidopsis E group bZIP transcript factors, AtbZIP34 and AtbZIP61, are nuclear-localized and their transcriptional activation domain is in their N-terminal region. By searching GenBank, we found other eight plant homologues of AtbZIP34 and AtbZIP61. All of them have a proline residue in the third heptad of zipper region. Yeast two-hybrid assay and EMSA showed that AtbZIP34 and AtbZIP61 could not form homodimer while their mutant forms, AtbZIP34m and AtbZIP61m, which the proline residue was replaced by an alanine residue in the zipper region, could form homodimer and bind G-box element. These results suggest that the conserved proline residue interferes with the homodimer formation. However, both AtbZIP34 and AtbZIP61 could form heterodimers with members of I group and S group transcription factors in which some members involved in vascular development. So we speculate that AtbZIP34 and AtbZIP61 may participate in plant development via interacting with other group bZIP transcription factors. PMID:17719007

  12. Association of Common Genetic Polymorphisms with Melanoma Patient IL-12p40 Blood Levels, Risk, and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Shenying; Wang, Yuling; Chun, Yun S; Liu, Huey; Ross, Merrick I; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E; Cormier, Janice N; Royal, Richard E; Lucci, Anthony; Schacherer, Christopher W; Reveille, John D; Chen, Wei; Sui, Dawen; Bassett, Roland L; Wang, Li-E; Wei, Qingyi; Amos, Christopher I; Lee, Jeffrey E

    2015-01-01

    Recent investigation has identified association of IL-12p40 blood levels with melanoma recurrence and patient survival. No studies have investigated associations of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with melanoma patient IL-12p40 blood levels or their potential contributions to melanoma susceptibility or patient outcome. In the current study, 818,237 SNPs were available for 1,804 melanoma cases and 1,026 controls. IL-12p40 blood levels were assessed among 573 cases (discovery), 249 cases (case validation), and 299 controls (control validation). SNPs were evaluated for association with log[IL-12p40] levels in the discovery data set and replicated in two validation data sets, and significant SNPs were assessed for association with melanoma susceptibility and patient outcomes. The most significant SNP associated with log[IL-12p40] was in the IL-12B gene region (rs6897260, combined P=9.26 × 10−38); this single variant explained 13.1% of variability in log[IL-12p40]. The most significant SNP in EBF1 was rs6895454 (combined P=2.24 × 10−9). A marker in IL12B was associated with melanoma susceptibility (rs3213119, multivariate P=0.0499; OR=1.50, 95% CI 1.00–2.24), whereas a marker in EBF1 was associated with melanoma-specific survival in advanced-stage patients (rs10515789, multivariate P=0.02; HR=1.93, 95% CI 1.11–3.35). Both EBF1 and IL12B strongly regulate IL-12p40 blood levels, and IL-12p40 polymorphisms may contribute to melanoma susceptibility and influence patient outcome. PMID:25848976

  13. Activation of epidermal growth factor receptor mediates mucin production stimulated by p40, a Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-derived protein.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lihong; Cao, Hailong; Liu, Liping; Wang, Bangmao; Walker, W Allan; Acra, Sari A; Yan, Fang

    2014-07-18

    The mucus layer coating the gastrointestinal tract serves as the first line of intestinal defense against infection and injury. Probiotics promote mucin production by goblet cells in the intestine. p40, a Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-derived soluble protein, has been shown to transactivate the EGF receptor (EGFR) in intestinal epithelial cells, which is required for inhibition of apoptosis and preservation of barrier function in the colon, thereby ameliorating intestinal injury and colitis. Because activation of EGFR has been shown to up-regulate mucin production in goblet cells, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanisms of p40 regulation of mucin production. p40 activated EGFR and its downstream target, Akt, in a concentration-dependent manner in LS174T cells. p40 stimulated Muc2 gene expression and mucin production in LS174T cells, which were abolished by inhibition of EGFR kinase activity, down-regulation of EGFR expression by EGFR siRNA transfection, or suppression of Akt activation. Treatment with p40 increased mucin production in the colonic epithelium, thus thickening the mucus layer in the colon of wild type, but not of Egfr(wa5) mice, which have a dominant negative mutation in the EGFR kinase domain. Furthermore, inhibition of mucin-type O-linked glycosylation suppressed the effect of p40 on increasing mucin production and protecting intestinal epithelial cells from TNF-induced apoptosis in colon organ culture. Thus, these results suggest that p40-stimulated activation of EGFR mediates up-regulation of mucin production, which may contribute to the mechanisms by which p40 protects the intestinal epithelium from injury.

  14. Atypical OmpR/PhoB Subfamily Response Regulator GlnR of Actinomycetes Functions as a Homodimer, Stabilized by the Unphosphorylated Conserved Asp-focused Charge Interactions*

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wei; Wang, Ying; Han, Xiaobiao; Zhang, Zilong; Wang, Chengyuan; Wang, Jin; Yang, Huaiyu; Lu, Yinhua; Jiang, Weihong; Zhao, Guo-Ping; Zhang, Peng

    2014-01-01

    The OmpR/PhoB subfamily protein GlnR of actinomycetes is an orphan response regulator that globally coordinates the expression of genes related to nitrogen metabolism. Biochemical and genetic analyses reveal that the functional GlnR from Amycolatopsis mediterranei is unphosphorylated at the potential phosphorylation Asp50 residue in the N-terminal receiver domain. The crystal structure of this receiver domain demonstrates that it forms a homodimer through the α4-β5-α5 dimer interface highly similar to the phosphorylated typical response regulator, whereas the so-called “phosphorylation pocket” is not conserved, with its space being occupied by an Arg52 from the β3-α3 loop. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments confirm that GlnR forms a functional homodimer via its receiver domain and suggest that the charge interactions of Asp50 with the highly conserved Arg52 and Thr9 in the receiver domain may be crucial in maintaining the proper conformation for homodimerization, as also supported by molecular dynamics simulations of the wild type GlnR versus the deficient mutant GlnR(D50A). This model is backed by the distinct phenotypes of the total deficient GlnR(R52A/T9A) double mutant versus the single mutants of GlnR (i.e. D50N, D50E, R52A and T9A), which have only minor effects upon both dimerization and physiological function of GlnR in vivo, albeit their DNA binding ability is weakened compared with that of the wild type. By integrating the supportive data of GlnRs from the model Streptomyces coelicolor and the pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis, we conclude that the actinomycete GlnR is atypical with respect to its unphosphorylated conserved Asp residue being involved in the critical Arg/Asp/Thr charge interactions, which is essential for maintaining the biologically active homodimer conformation. PMID:24733389

  15. Selective deamidation of recombinant human stem cell factor during in vitro aging: isolation and characterization of the aspartyl and isoaspartyl homodimers and heterodimers.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Y R; Chang, W C; Mendiaz, E A; Hara, S; Chow, D T; Mann, M B; Langley, K E; Lu, H S

    1998-02-24

    During in vitro aging, deamidation of recombinant human stem cell factor produced in Escherichia. coli was detected by HPLC analysis and by the release of soluble ammonia. The deamidation rate is very slow in buffers at low pH or at low temperatures; however, the rate is significantly accelerated in alkaline buffers such as sodium bicarbonate in combination with elevated temperatures. HPLC isolation of various deamidated forms followed by peptide mapping and mass spectrometric analyses revealed that the deamidation involves Asn10 in the sequence -T9NNV- near the N-terminus of the protein. Following peptide mapping analysis, significant amounts of aspartyl and isoaspartyl peptides were identified, indicating the conversion of asparagine into both aspartate and isoaspartate residues. As a result of spontaneous association-dissociation of stem cell factor dimer, a total of five deamidated forms, including two homodimers and three heterodimers, were detected and isolated. Cell proliferation assays showed that two rhSCF heterodimeric species, derived from dimerization between isoaspartyl and other stem cell factor monomers, retain only approximately half of the biological activity. The homodimer with isoaspartic acid in place of Asn10 is 50-fold less potent, while the aspartyl homodimer, either isolated during deamidation experiments or recombinantly prepared by site-directed mutagenesis (e.g., N10D and N10D/N11D variants), exhibits higher activity than the standard molecule. In comparison, synthetic N10A and N10E variants, though missing the deamidation site, are significantly less active. All these variants lacking the Asn10 deamidation site are relatively more stable than those containing the asparagine residue. The results indicate that the biological function and chemical stability of stem cell factor are influenced by the nature of the residue at position 10. PMID:9485371

  16. Complementation of NADPH oxidase in p67-phox-deficient CGD patients p67-phox/p40-phox interaction.

    PubMed

    Vergnaud, S; Paclet, M H; El Benna, J; Pocidalo, M A; Morel, F

    2000-02-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is due to a functional defect of the O2- generating NADPH oxidase of phagocytes. Epstein-Barr-virus-immortalized B lymphocytes express all the constituents of oxidase with activity 100 times less than that of neutrophils. As in neutrophils, oxidase activity of Epstein-Barr-virus-immortalized B lymphocytes was shown to be defective in the different forms of CGD; these cells were used as a model for the complementation studies of two p67-phox-deficient CGD patients. Reconstitution of oxidase activity was performed in vitro by using a heterologous cell-free assay consisting of membrane-suspended or solubilized and purified cytochrome b558 that was associated with cytosol or with the isolated cytosolic-activating factors (p67-phox, p47-phox, p40-phox) from healthy or CGD patients. In p67-phox-deficient CGD patients, two cytosolic factors are deficient or missing: p67-phox and p40-phox. Not more than 20% of oxidase activity was recovered by complementing the cytosol of p67-phox-deficient patients with recombinant p67-phox. On the contrary, a complete restoration of oxidase activity was observed when, instead of cytosol, the cytosolic factors were added in the cell-free assay after isolation in combination with cytochrome b558 purified from neutrophil membrane. Moreover, the simultaneous addition of recombinant p67-phox and recombinant p40-phox reversed the previous complementation in a p40-phox dose-dependent process. These results suggest that in the reconstitution of oxidase activity, p67-phox is the limiting factor; the efficiency of complementation depends on the membrane tissue and the cytosolic environment. In vitro, the transition from the resting to the activated state of oxidase, which results from assembling, requires the dissociation of p40-phox from p67-phox for efficient oxidase activity. In the process, p40-phox could function as a negative regulatory factor and stabilize the resting state.

  17. Distinct from its canonical effects, deletion of IL-12p40 induces cholangitis and fibrosis in interleukin-2Rα(-/-) mice.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yuan; Yang, Wei; Yang, Yan-Qing; Ma, Hong-Di; Lu, Fang-Ting; Li, Liang; Tao, Yan-Yan; Tsuneyama, Koichi; Zhang, Weici; Friedman, Scott; Gershwin, M Eric; Lian, Zhe-Xiong

    2014-06-01

    The IL-12 family modulates T cell mediated autoimmune diseases and GWAS in PBC have suggested a critical role of IL-12 and its subunits in modulating portal inflammation. We have taken advantage of an aggressive model of portal inflammation and colitis in IL-2Rα(-/-) mice to study the specific role of IL-12 and, in particular, the immunobiology of p40(-/-)IL-2Rα(-/-) mice. Colonies of IL-2Rα(+/-), IL-2Rα(-/-) and p40(-/-)IL-2Rα(-/-) mice were studied for the natural history of immunopathology in liver and colon using histology and immunohistochemistry. Further, to focus on mechanisms, liver, spleen and mesenteric lymph node flow cytometry was employed to identify specific phenotypes; cytokine analysis on inflammatory cell populations was compared between groups. Finally, Real-Time PCR was used to focus on the genes involved in hepatic fibrosis. Surprisingly, p40(-/-)IL-2Rα(-/-) mice manifest more severe portal inflammation and bile duct damage, including signs of portal hypertension and liver fibrosis, but a significant reduction in colitis. Indeed, p40(-/-)IL-2Rα(-/-) mice reveal a profound hepatic CD8(+) T cell infiltrate, whose major component are effector memory cells as well as enhanced hepatic Th1 but reduced Th17 responses. These observations were confirmed by Real-Time PCR analysis of fibrosis-related genes in the liver. Distinct from its canonical effects, IL-12p40 plays a critical role in autoimmune cholangitis, including hepatic fibrosis. These data take on striking significance for any proposed human trials that modulate the IL-12p40 pathway in human PBC.

  18. A subset of malignant phyllodes tumors express p63 and p40: a diagnostic pitfall in breast core needle biopsies.

    PubMed

    Cimino-Mathews, Ashley; Sharma, Rajni; Illei, Peter B; Vang, Russell; Argani, Pedram

    2014-12-01

    Breast phyllodes tumors are rare fibroepithelial neoplasms of variable grade, and one key differential of malignant phyllodes on core biopsy is sarcomatoid carcinoma. p63 is reported to be sensitive and specific for sarcomatoid carcinoma, with rare expression in phyllodes in limited series. The p63 deltaNp63 isoform, p40, is postulated to be more specific for squamous differentiation but has not previously been evaluated in breast phyllodes or sarcomatoid carcinoma. Tissue microarrays containing 34 unambiguous phyllodes tumors (10 benign, 10 borderline, 14 malignant), 13 sarcomatoid carcinomas, and 10 fibroadenomas were labeled by immunohistochemistry for p63, p40, CD34, and cytokeratins AE1/AE3, 34betaE12, and CK8/18. No borderline phyllodes tumor, benign phyllodes tumor, or fibroadenoma labeled with p63, p40, or cytokeratin. However, p63 labeled 57% malignant phyllodes tumors and 62% sarcomatoid carcinomas, and p40 labeled 29% malignant phyllodes (focal) and 46% sarcomatoid carcinomas. Among established markers, cytokeratins labeled 21% malignant phyllodes tumors (focal) and 100% sarcomatoid carcinomas. CD34 labeled 57% malignant phyllodes tumors and no sarcomatoid carcinomas. Focal p63, p40, and cytokeratin labeling can be seen in malignant phyllodes tumors but not in lower-grade fibroepithelial lesions, and immunoreactivity with these markers alone is not diagnostic of sarcomatoid carcinoma on core needle biopsy. In the differential diagnosis of malignant phyllodes, p40 is a more specific but less sensitive marker of sarcomatoid carcinoma than p63. These results are consistent with the sarcoma literature in which p63 labeling has been increasingly reported and suggest caution in classifying malignant spindle cell tumors of the breast on core biopsy.

  19. Functional and structural characterization of P40, a mouse glycoprotein with T-cell growth factor activity.

    PubMed Central

    Uyttenhove, C; Simpson, R J; Van Snick, J

    1988-01-01

    Antigen-independent cell lines were derived from mouse helper T-cell clones by culture in autologous supernatant obtained after stimulation with concanavalin A. A factor, termed P40, supporting the growth of these lines was purified and characterized as a basic 32- to 39-kDa single-chain glycoprotein functionally distinct from previously identified T-cell growth factors and apparently unrelated structurally to any known protein. Of a number of cell lines, only helper T cells responded to P40, and this response was not mediated by either interleukin 2 or interleukin 4. Images PMID:3137580

  20. On a fully closed state of native human type-1 VDAC enriched in Nonidet P40.

    PubMed

    Thinnes, Friedrich P; Burckhardt, Gerhard

    2012-11-01

    There is indication that human type-1 VDAC/Porin31HL complexes, when purified from highly enriched cell membrane preparations of human B-lymphocytes by classical ion-exchange chromatography in the detergent Nonidet P40, rest in fully closed state, its N-terminus being accessible for mAbs. Cholesterol appears to be involved as a channel modulator. The channel switches to anion-selective or "open state" while being incorporated into black membranes at zero transmembrane potential. In this case, its N-terminus is hidden in the channel lumen. The cation-selective or "closed state" can be induced by transmembrane potentials beyond 30 mV, the N-terminus putatively now being positioned outside the channel lumen. The latter situation might allow one to decide if type-1 VDAC, preincubated with adequate antibodies against its N-terminal part, would enter black membranes in fully closed state or stay in the application medium, respectively, may be complexed to dimers. PMID:23000107

  1. Conformational Differences Among Solution Structures of the Type I[alpha], II[alpha], and II[beta] Protein Kinase A Regulatory Subunit Homodimers: Role of the Linker Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Vigil, D.; Blumenthal, D.K.; Heller, W.T.; Brown, S.; Canaves, J.M.; Taylor, S.S.; Trewhella, J.

    2010-11-16

    The regulatory (R) subunits of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase A or PKA) are multi-domain proteins responsible for conferring cAMP-dependence and localizing PKA to specific subcellular locations. There are four isoforms of the R subunit in mammals that are similar in molecular mass and domain organization, but clearly serve different biological functions. Although high-resolution structures are available for the cAMP-binding domains and dimerization/docking domains of two isoforms, there are no high-resolution structures of any of the intact R subunit homodimer isoforms. The results of small-angle X-ray scattering studies presented here indicate that the RI{alpha}, RII{alpha}, and RII{beta} homodimers differ markedly in overall shape, despite extensive sequence homology and similar molecular masses. The RII{alpha} and RII{beta} homodimers have very extended, rod-like shapes, whereas the RI{alpha} homodimer likely has a compact Y-shape. Based on a comparison of the R subunit sequences, we predict that the linker regions are the likely cause of these large differences in shape among the isoforms. In addition, we show that cAMP binding does not cause large conformational changes in type I{alpha} or II{alpha} R subunit homodimers, suggesting that the activation of PKA by cAMP involves only local conformational changes in the R subunits.

  2. Next Step toward Optimization of GRP Receptor Avidities: Determination of the Minimal Distance between BBN(7-14) Units in Peptide Homodimers.

    PubMed

    Fischer, G; Lindner, S; Litau, S; Schirrmacher, R; Wängler, B; Wängler, C

    2015-08-19

    As the gastrin releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) is overexpressed on several tumor types, it represents a promising target for the specific in vivo imaging of these tumors using positron emission tomography (PET). We were able to show that PESIN-based peptide multimers can result in substantially higher GRPR avidities, highly advantageous in vivo pharmacokinetics and tumor imaging properties compared to the respective monomers. However, the minimal distance between the peptidic binders, resulting in the lowest possible system entropy while enabling a concomitant GRPR binding and thus optimized receptor avidities, has not been determined so far. Thus, we aimed here to identify the minimal distance between two GRPR-binding peptides in order to provide the basis for the development of highly avid GRPR-specific PET imaging agents. We therefore synthesized dimers of the GRPR-binding bombesin analogue BBN(7-14) on a dendritic scaffold, exhibiting different distances between both peptide binders. The homodimers were further modified with the chelator NODAGA, radiolabeled with (68)Ga, and evaluated in vitro regarding their GRPR avidity. We found that the most potent of the newly developed radioligands exhibits GRPR avidity twice as high as the most potent reference compound known so far, and that a minimal distance of 62 bond lengths between both peptidic binders within the homodimer can result in concomitant peptide binding and optimal GRPR avidities. These findings answer the question as to what molecular design should be chosen when aiming at the development of highly avid homobivalent peptidic ligands addressing the GRPR.

  3. A Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-derived soluble protein, p40, stimulates ligand release from intestinal epithelial cells to transactivate epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Yan, Fang; Liu, Liping; Dempsey, Peter J; Tsai, Yu-Hwai; Raines, Elaine W; Wilson, Carole L; Cao, Hailong; Cao, Zheng; Liu, LinShu; Polk, D Brent

    2013-10-18

    p40, a Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG)-derived soluble protein, ameliorates intestinal injury and colitis, reduces apoptosis, and preserves barrier function by transactivation of the EGF receptor (EGFR) in intestinal epithelial cells. The aim of this study is to determine the mechanisms by which p40 transactivates the EGFR in intestinal epithelial cells. Here we show that p40-conditioned medium activates EGFR in young adult mouse colon epithelial cells and human colonic epithelial cell line, T84 cells. p40 up-regulates a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 17 (ADAM17) catalytic activity, and broad spectrum metalloproteinase inhibitors block EGFR transactivation by p40 in these two cell lines. In ADAM17-deficient mouse colonic epithelial (ADAM17(-/-) MCE) cells, p40 transactivation of EGFR is blocked, but can be rescued by re-expression with WT ADAM17. Furthermore, p40 stimulates release of heparin binding (HB)-EGF, but not transforming growth factor (TGF)α or amphiregulin, in young adult mouse colon cells and ADAM17(-/-) MCE cells overexpressing WT ADAM17. Knockdown of HB-EGF expression by siRNA suppresses p40 effects on transactivating EGFR and Akt, preventing apoptosis, and preserving tight junction function. The effects of p40 on HB-EGF release and ADAM17 activation in vivo are examined after administration of p40-containing pectin/zein hydrogel beads to mice. p40 stimulates ADAM17 activity and EGFR activation in colonic epithelial cells and increases HB-EGF levels in blood from WT mice, but not from mice with intestinal epithelial cell-specific ADAM17 deletion. Thus, these data define a mechanism of a probiotic-derived soluble protein in modulating intestinal epithelial cell homeostasis through ADAM17-mediated HB-EGF release, leading to transactivation of EGFR.

  4. A Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-derived Soluble Protein, p40, Stimulates Ligand Release from Intestinal Epithelial Cells to Transactivate Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor*

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Fang; Liu, Liping; Dempsey, Peter J.; Tsai, Yu-Hwai; Raines, Elaine W.; Wilson, Carole L.; Cao, Hailong; Cao, Zheng; Liu, LinShu; Polk, D. Brent

    2013-01-01

    p40, a Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG)-derived soluble protein, ameliorates intestinal injury and colitis, reduces apoptosis, and preserves barrier function by transactivation of the EGF receptor (EGFR) in intestinal epithelial cells. The aim of this study is to determine the mechanisms by which p40 transactivates the EGFR in intestinal epithelial cells. Here we show that p40-conditioned medium activates EGFR in young adult mouse colon epithelial cells and human colonic epithelial cell line, T84 cells. p40 up-regulates a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 17 (ADAM17) catalytic activity, and broad spectrum metalloproteinase inhibitors block EGFR transactivation by p40 in these two cell lines. In ADAM17-deficient mouse colonic epithelial (ADAM17−/− MCE) cells, p40 transactivation of EGFR is blocked, but can be rescued by re-expression with WT ADAM17. Furthermore, p40 stimulates release of heparin binding (HB)-EGF, but not transforming growth factor (TGF)α or amphiregulin, in young adult mouse colon cells and ADAM17−/− MCE cells overexpressing WT ADAM17. Knockdown of HB-EGF expression by siRNA suppresses p40 effects on transactivating EGFR and Akt, preventing apoptosis, and preserving tight junction function. The effects of p40 on HB-EGF release and ADAM17 activation in vivo are examined after administration of p40-containing pectin/zein hydrogel beads to mice. p40 stimulates ADAM17 activity and EGFR activation in colonic epithelial cells and increases HB-EGF levels in blood from WT mice, but not from mice with intestinal epithelial cell-specific ADAM17 deletion. Thus, these data define a mechanism of a probiotic-derived soluble protein in modulating intestinal epithelial cell homeostasis through ADAM17-mediated HB-EGF release, leading to transactivation of EGFR. PMID:24043629

  5. Microbiotadown regulates dendritic cell expression of miR-10a which targets IL-12/IL-23p40

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Xiaochang; Feng, Ting; Yao, Suxia; Wolf, Kyle J.; Liu, Chang-Gong; Liu, Xiuping; Elson, Charles O.; Cong, Yingzi

    2011-01-01

    Commensal flora plays important roles in the regulation of the gene expression involved in many intestinal functions and the maintenance of immune homeostasis, as well as in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small, non-coding RNAs, act as key regulators in many biological processes. The miRNAs are highly conserved among species and appear to play important roles in both innate and adaptive immunity, as they can control the differentiation of various immune cells as well as their functions. However, it is still largely unknown how microbiota regulates miRNA expression, thereby contributing to intestinal homeostasis and pathogenesis of IBD. In our current study, we found that microbiota negatively regulated intestinal miR-10a expression, in that the intestines, as well as intestinal epithelial cells and dendritic cells of specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice, expressed much lower levels of miR-10a compared to those in germ-free (GF) mice. Commensal bacteria downregulated DC miR-10a expression via TLR-TLR ligand interactions through a MyD88-dependent pathway. We identified IL-12/IL-23p40, a key molecule for innate immune responses to commensal bacteria, as a target of miR-10a. The ectopic expression of miR-10a precursor inhibited, whereas miR-10a inhibitor promoted, the expression of IL-12/IL-23p40 in DC. Mice with colitis expressing higher levels of IL-12/IL-23p40 exhibit lower levels of intestinal miR-10a compared to that in the control mice. Collectively, our data demonstrated that microbiota negatively regulates host miR-10a expression, which may contribute to the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis by targeting IL-12/IL-23p40 expression. PMID:22068236

  6. A lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-derived soluble protein, p40, stimulates ligand release from intestinal epithelial cells to transactivate epidermal growth factor receptor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protein p40, a Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG)-derived soluble protein, ameliorates intestinal injury and colitis, reduces apoptosis and preserves barrier function by activation of EGF receptor (EGFR) in intestinal epithelial cells. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanisms by which p40...

  7. The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) binds independently to both sites of the IgG homodimer with identical affinity

    PubMed Central

    Abdiche, Yasmina Noubia; Yeung, Yik Andy; Chaparro-Riggers, Javier; Barman, Ishita; Strop, Pavel; Chin, Sherman Michael; Pham, Amber; Bolton, Gary; McDonough, Dan; Lindquist, Kevin; Pons, Jaume; Rajpal, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) is expressed by cells of epithelial, endothelial and myeloid lineages and performs multiple roles in adaptive immunity. Characterizing the FcRn/IgG interaction is fundamental to designing therapeutic antibodies because IgGs with moderately increased binding affinities for FcRn exhibit superior serum half-lives and efficacy. It has been hypothesized that 2 FcRn molecules bind an IgG homodimer with disparate affinities, yet their affinity constants are inconsistent across the literature. Using surface plasmon resonance biosensor assays that eliminated confounding experimental artifacts, we present data supporting an alternate hypothesis: 2 FcRn molecules saturate an IgG homodimer with identical affinities at independent sites, consistent with the symmetrical arrangement of the FcRn/Fc complex observed in the crystal structure published by Burmeister et al. in 1994. We find that human FcRn binds human IgG1 with an equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) of 760 ± 60 nM (N = 14) at 25°C and pH 5.8, and shows less than 25% variation across the other human subtypes. Human IgG1 binds cynomolgus monkey FcRn with a 2-fold higher affinity than human FcRn, and binds both mouse and rat FcRn with a 10-fold higher affinity than human FcRn. FcRn/IgG interactions from multiple species show less than a 2-fold weaker affinity at 37°C than at 25°C and appear independent of an IgG's variable region. Our in vivo data in mouse and rat models demonstrate that both affinity and avidity influence an IgG's serum half-life, which should be considered when choosing animals, especially transgenic systems, as surrogates. PMID:25658443

  8. Carcinogenic heavy metals replace Ca{sup 2+} for DNA binding and annealing activities of mono-ubiquitinated annexin A1 homodimer

    SciTech Connect

    Hirata, Aiko; Corcoran, George B.; Hirata, Fusao

    2010-10-01

    Mono-ubiquitinated annexin A1 was purified from rat liver nuclei. The homodimer form of mono-ubiquitinated annexin A1 was able to unwind dsDNA in a Mg{sup 2+}- and ATP-dependent manner, and to anneal ssDNA in a Ca{sup 2+}-dependent manner. Phospholipids decreased the concentration of Ca{sup 2+} required for maximal annealing activity. Heavy metals such as As{sup 3+}, Cr{sup 6+}, Pb{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} substituted for Ca{sup 2+} in the ssDNA binding and annealing activities of annexin A1. While these metals inhibited the unwinding of dsDNA by nuclear annexin A1 in the presence of Mg{sup 2+} and ATP, they enhanced dsDNA-dependent ATPase activity of annexin A1. Heavy metals may have produced dsDNA, a substrate for the DNA unwinding reaction, via the DNA annealing reaction. DNA synthesomes were isolated from L5178Y tk(+/-) mouse lymphoma cells in exponential growth, and were found to contain helicase activities. The As{sup 3+}- or Cr{sup 6+}-induced increases in ssDNA binding activity of DNA synthesomes were reduced by a mono-specific anti-annexin A1 antibody, but not by anti-Ig antibody. Anti-annexin A1 antibody also blocked the inhibitory and stimulatory effects of As{sup 3+} or Cr{sup 6+} towards DNA unwinding and annealing activities of DNA synthesomes. Based on these observations, it can be concluded that the effects of heavy metals on DNA annealing and unwinding activities are mediated, at least in substantial part, through actions of the mono-ubiquitinated annexin A1 homodimer.

  9. Neutrophil elastase enhances IL-12p40 production by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages via transactivation of the PAR-2/EGFR/TLR4 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Rui; Yamamoto, Takatoshi; Sakamoto, Arisa; Narahara, Shinji; Sugiuchi, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Yasuo

    2016-07-01

    Proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) are involved in innate immune responses and signaling cross-talk between these receptor molecules has the potential to augment an ongoing inflammatory response. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible cooperative influence of PAR-2 and TLR4 on IL-12p40 production by macrophages after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). During culture, GM-CSF upregulated PAR-2 expression by macrophages in a time-dependent manner. Stimulation with LPS enhanced IL-12p40 production by macrophages in a concentration-dependent manner. While human neutrophil elastase (HNE) did not induce IL-12p40 production, pretreatment of macrophages with HNE synergistically increased the IL-12p40 protein level after LPS exposure. Silencing of TLR4 with small interfering RNA blunted the synergistic enhancement of IL-12p40 by HNE combined with LPS. Silencing of β-arrestin 2, p22phox, or ERK1/2 also inhibited an increase of IL-12p40. Interestingly, transfection of macrophages with small interfering RNA duplexes for DUOX-2, EGFR, TLR4, or TRAF6 significantly blunted the increase of IL-12p40 in response to treatment with HNE plus LPS. U73122 and Rottlerin also inhibited the increased production of IL-12p40. In conclusion, HNE is involved in transactivation of TLR4 through activation of DUOX-2/EGFR and synergistically enhances IL-12p40 production by macrophages stimulated with LPS. PMID:27282560

  10. Proton-bound dimers of nitrogen heterocyclic molecules: Substituent effects on the structures and binding energies of homodimers of diazine, triazine, and fluoropyridine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attah, Isaac K.; Platt, Sean P.; Meot-Ner Mautner, Michael; El-Shall, M. S.; Aziz, Saadullah G.; Alyoubi, Abdulrahman O.

    2014-03-01

    The bonding energies of proton-bound homodimers BH+B were measured by ion mobility equilibrium studies and calculated at the DFT B3LYP/6-311++G** level, for a series of nitrogen heterocyclic molecules (B) with electron-withdrawing in-ring N and on-ring F substituents. The binding energies (ΔH°dissoc) of the proton-bound dimers (BH+B) vary significantly, from 29.7 to 18.1 kcal/mol, decreasing linearly with decreasing the proton affinity of the monomer (B). This trend differs significantly from the constant binding energies of most homodimers of other organic nitrogen and oxygen bases. The experimentally measured ΔH°dissoc for (1,3-diazine)2H+, i.e., (pyrimidine)2H+ and (3-F-pyridine)2H+ are 22.7 and 23.0 kcal/mol, respectively. The measured ΔH°dissoc for the pyrimidine.+(3-F-pyridine) radical cation dimer (19.2 kcal/mol) is signifcantly lower than that of the proton-bound homodimers of pyrimidine and 3-F-pyridine, reflecting the stronger interaction in the ionic H-bond of the protonated dimers. The calculated binding energies for (1,2-diazine)2H+, (pyridine)2H+, (2-F-pyridine)2H+, (3-F-pyridine)2H+, (2,6-di-F-pyridine)2H+, (4-F-pyridine)2H+, (1,3-diazine)2H+, (1,4-diazine)2H+, (1,3,5-triazine)2H+, and (pentafluoropyridine)2H+ are 29.7, 24.9, 24.8, 23.3, 23.2, 23.0, 22.4, 21.9, 19.3, and 18.1 kcal/mol, respectively. The electron-withdrawing substituents form internal dipoles whose electrostatic interactions contribute to both the decreased proton affinities of (B) and the decreased binding energies of the protonated dimers BH+B. The bonding energies also vary with rotation about the hydrogen bond, and they decrease in rotamers where the internal dipoles of the components are aligned efficiently for inter-ring repulsion. For compounds substituted at the 3 or 4 (meta or para) positions, the lowest energy rotamers are T-shaped with the planes of the two rings rotated by 90° about the hydrogen bond, while the planar rotamers are weakened by repulsion between the

  11. The Drosophila stubarista phenotype is associated with a dosage effect of the putative ribosome-associated protein D-p40 on spineless.

    PubMed

    Melnick, M B; Noll, E; Perrimon, N

    1993-10-01

    We describe the molecular characterization of the Drosophila melanogaster gene stubarista (sta) that encodes the highly conserved putative ribosome-associated protein D-p40. sta maps to cytological position 2A3-B2 on the X chromosome and encodes a protein (D-p40) of 270 amino acids. D-p40 shares 63% identity with the human p40 ribosomal protein. P element-mediated transformation of a 4.4-kb genomic fragment encompassing the 1-kb transcript corresponding to D-p40 was used to rescue both a lethal (sta2) and a viable (sta1) mutation at the stubarista (sta) locus. Developmental analysis of the sta2 mutation implicates a requirement for D-p40 during oogenesis and imaginal development, which is consistent with the expression of sta throughout development. In addition, we have analyzed the basis of the sta1 visible phenotype which consists of shortened antennae and bristles. sta1 is a translocation of the 1E1-2 to 2B3-4 region of the X chromosome onto the third chromosome at 89B21-C4. We provide genetic evidence that Dp(1;3)sta1 is mutant at the spineless (ss) locus and that it is associated with partial D-p40 activity. We demonstrate that sta1 acts as a recessive enhancer of ss; reduction in the amount of D-p40 provided by the transposed X chromosomal region of sta1 reveals a haplo-insufficient phenotype of the otherwise recessive ss mutations. This phenomenon is reminiscent of the enhancing effect observed with Minute mutations, one of which, rp49, has previously been shown to encode a ribosomal protein.

  12. Identification and immuno-electron microscopy localization of p40, a protein component of immunosuppressive virus-like particles from Leptopilina heterotoma, a virulent parasitoid wasp of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Hsiling; Morales, Jorge; Govind, Shubha

    2006-02-01

    Lamellocytes are specialized larval blood cells of Drosophila that carry out encapsulation of metazoan pathogens such as parasitoid wasps. Large virus-like particles (VLPs) from two closely related virulent parasitoid wasp species, Leptopilina heterotoma and Leptopilina victoriae, suppress the host encapsulation response by promoting lysis of lamellocytes. The molecular basis of VLP-lamellocyte interaction and lamellocyte lysis is not understood. Here, it was shown that mature VLPs are composed of at least four major proteins. Polyclonal antisera against the most abundant L. heterotoma VLP protein, p40, cross-reacted with the most abundant L. victoriae VLP protein, p47.5. Immuno-electron microscopy (EM) of the long gland-reservoir complex revealed that p40 was expressed early in VLP biogenesis and was detected along with VLP precursors within the long gland cells and lumen. In the reservoir, VLPs had an angular core, resembled mature particles and p40 was detected outside the VLP cores. Immuno-EM staining of mature VLPs from both species localized the p40 and p47.5 proteins largely to the periphery of the VLPs and along the VLP spike-like projections. p40 staining was observed in VLP-treated host haemocytes. In vitro, anti-p40 antibody almost completely blocked the ability of L. heterotoma VLPs to promote lamellocyte lysis. Anti-p40 antibody blocked lysis by L. victoriae VLPs by >50%. It is proposed that the VLP surface proteins p40 and p47.5 share antigenic determinants and significantly contribute to the strong virulence of their Hymenopteran hosts. PMID:16432035

  13. Replication-specific conversion of the Staphylococcus aureus pT181 initiator protein from an active homodimer to an inactive heterodimer.

    PubMed Central

    Rasooly, A; Wang, P Z; Novick, R P

    1994-01-01

    The Staphylococcus aureus rolling circle plasmid pT181 regulates its replication by controlling the synthesis of its initiator protein RepC. RepC is inactivated during pT181 replication by the addition of an oligodeoxynucleotide, giving rise to a new form, RepC*. We analyzed RepC and RepC* in four classes of mutants: plasmid copy number mutants, two classes of RepC mutants affecting different portions of the protein and oriC (origin) mutants. We have found that in the cell with wild-type RepC there are similar relative amounts of RepC and RepC*, regardless of copy number, and that the conversion of RepC to RepC* is replication dependent. Genetic and biochemical evidence is presented that RepC functions as a dimer and that during replication the RepC homodimer is converted to the RepC/RepC* heterodimer. Images PMID:7957090

  14. Amino Acid 72 of Mouse and Human GDF9 Mature Domain Is Responsible for Altered Homodimer Bioactivities but Has Subtle Effects on GDF9:BMP15 Heterodimer Activities1

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jia; Wigglesworth, Karen; Rangarajan, Adithya; Eppig, John J.; Thompson, Thomas B.; Matzuk, Martin M.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) and bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) are oocyte-secreted paralogs of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) superfamily. In mammals, these two growth factors play critical roles in folliculogenesis. As previously reported, an arginine in the pre-helix loop of GDF5 defines the high binding specificity to its type 1 receptor. Interestingly, bioactive mouse GDF9 and human BMP15 share the conserved arginine in the pre-helix loop, but their low-activity counterparts (mouse BMP15 and human GDF9) have a glycine or a proline instead. To address the question of whether the arginine residue defines the different activities of GDF9 and BMP15 homodimers and their heterodimers in human and mouse, we used site-directed mutagenesis to change the species-specific residues in human and mouse proteins, and examined their activities in our in vitro assays. Although amino acid 72 of mature GDF9 is responsible for altered homodimer bioactivities, neither the corresponding BMP15 amino acid 62 nor the intact pre-helix loop is indispensable for BMP15 homodimer activity. However, amino acid 72 in GDF9 only has only subtle effects on GDF9:BMP15 heterodimer activity. Based on previous studies and our recent findings, we provide hypothetical models to understand the molecular mechanism to define activities of the homodimeric and heterodimeric ligands. The arginine residue in the pre-helix loop of GDF9 homodimer may prevent the inhibition from its pro-domain or directly alter receptor binding, but this residue in GDF9 does not significantly affect the heterodimer activity, because of suggested conformational changes during heterodimer formation. PMID:25253739

  15. Risperidone-induced inactivation and clozapine-induced reactivation of rat cortical astrocyte 5-hydroxytryptamine₇ receptors: evidence for in situ G protein-coupled receptor homodimer protomer cross-talk.

    PubMed

    Smith, Carol; Toohey, Nicole; Knight, Jessica A; Klein, Michael T; Teitler, Milt

    2011-02-01

    We have reported previously novel drug-induced inactivation and reactivation of human 5-hydroxytryptamine₇ (5-HT₇) receptors in a recombinant cell line. To explain these novel observations, a homodimer structure displaying protomer-protomer cross-talk was proposed. To determine whether these novel observations and interpretations are due to an artifactual G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) mechanism unique to the recombinant cell line, we explored the properties of r5-HT₇ receptors expressed by cortical astrocytes in primary culture. As in the recombinant cell line, risperidone, 9-OH-risperidone, methiothepin, and bromocriptine were found to potently inactivate r5-HT₇ receptors. As in the recombinant cell line, exposure of risperidone-inactivated astrocyte r5-HT₇ receptors to competitive antagonists resulted in the reactivation of r5-HT₇ receptors. The potencies of the reactivating drugs closely correlated with their affinities for h5-HT₇ receptors. These results indicate the novel inactivating and reactivating property of drugs is not due to an artifact of the recombinant cell line expressing h5-HT₇ receptors but is an intrinsic property of 5-HT₇ receptors in vitro and ex vivo. This evidence suggests that a native (nonmutated) GPCR, in its native membrane environment (cortical astrocyte primary culture), can function as a homodimer with protomer-protomer cross-talk. Homodimers may be a common GPCR structure. The experimental design used in our studies can be used to explore the properties of other GPCRs in their native forms in recombinant cells, primary cultures expressing the endogenous GPCRs, and possibly in vivo. The homodimer structure and protomer-protomer cross-talk offer new avenues of research into receptor dysfunction in disease states and the development of novel drugs. PMID:21062995

  16. Legionella pneumophila Suppresses Interleukin-12 Production by Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Matsunaga, Kazuto; Klein, Thomas W.; Newton, Catherine; Friedman, Herman; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa

    2001-01-01

    In vitro infection of macrophages with Legionella pneumophila induced interleukin-1α (IL-1α), IL-10, monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), and MCP-3 but not IL-12. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of IL-12 was down-regulated by infection with virulent L. pneumophila, but other cytokines were not affected. In contrast, avirulent L. pneumophila or UV-killed, virulent L. pneumophila did not induce any suppression of IL-12. The IL-12 suppression occurred at the level of mRNA accumulation for IL-12 genes in response to LPS stimulation, but the infection induced a marked accumulation of mRNA for both MCP-1 and MCP-3, which are known to suppress IL-12 production in LPS-stimulated macrophages. However, pretreatment of macrophages with MCP-1 did not suppress LPS-induced IL-12 production at the concentrations induced by L. pneumophila infection. These results suggest that L. pneumophila selectively suppresses IL-12 production induced by LPS from macrophages in vitro by an MCP-independent mechanism. PMID:11179377

  17. Interleukin-12 and interleukin-23 inhibition in psoriatic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Johnsson, Hanna J; McInnes, Iain B

    2015-01-01

    The cytokines interleukin (IL)-12 and interleukin (IL)-23 have been implicated variously in the pathogenesis of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis (PsA). By corollary, the IL-12/23 inhibitor, Ustekinumab has been developed as an approved therapeutic for the skin and musculoskeletal syndrome of psoriasis / PsA. This review describes briefly the role of IL-12 and IL-23 in the pathophysiology of psoriatic arthritis and evaluates trial data that support its clinical use in psoriasis and different manifestations of psoriatic arthritis. The next steps towards targeting this pathway also are discussed.

  18. Interleukin-12-induced adhesion molecule expression in murine liver.

    PubMed Central

    Myers, K. J.; Eppihimer, M. J.; Hall, L.; Wolitzky, B.

    1998-01-01

    Systemically administered interleukin (IL)-12 causes liver inflammation in mice characterized by Kupffer cell proliferation and hypertrophy, hepatocyte necrosis, and multifocal accumulations of leukocytes in the hepatic parenchyma and around portal tracts and central veins. We have used both immunohistochemical staining and radiolabeled antibody quantitation to examine adhesion molecule expression in the livers of mice dosed daily with murine IL-12. Cells infiltrating livers of IL-12-treated mice were primarily mononuclear leukocytes expressing LFA-1, VLA-4, MAC-1, and CD18 adhesion molecules but little L-selectin. Kupffer cells constitutively expressed LFA-1 and smaller amounts of MAC-1, and high levels of ICAM-1 were constitutively expressed by liver sinusoidal lining cells, portal tract, and central vein endothelia. With IL-12 treatment, existing ICAM-1 expression was up-regulated and de novo expression occurred along bile duct epithelia. VCAM-1 levels were dramatically increased, with induced expression occurring along portal tract and central vein endothelia and scattered bile duct epithelial cells and in aggregations of cells in perivascular areas and the liver parenchyma. Although constitutive expression of E- and P-selectin was negligible, Il-12 induced a moderate rise in E-selectin levels. These increases in adhesion molecule expression may have implications for the therapeutic use of IL-12, especially in patients with liver disease or autoimmune conditions where augmented adhesion molecule expression may be critical to disease pathogenesis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9466572

  19. A Phase I Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Study of the Safety and Immunogenicity of Electroporated HIV DNA with or without Interleukin 12 in Prime-Boost Combinations with an Ad35 HIV Vaccine in Healthy HIV-Seronegative African Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ingabire, Rosine; Nanvubya, Annet; Anzala, Omu; Karita, Etienne; Hayes, Peter; Kopycinski, Jakub; Dally, Len; Hannaman, Drew; Egan, Michael A.; Eldridge, John H.; Syvertsen, Kristen; Lehrman, Jennifer; Rasmussen, Beth; Gilmour, Jill; Cox, Josephine H.; Fast, Patricia E.; Schmidt, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Background Strategies to enhance the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines in humans include i) co-administration of molecular adjuvants, ii) intramuscular administration followed by in vivo electroporation (IM/EP) and/or iii) boosting with a different vaccine. Combining these strategies provided protection of macaques challenged with SIV; this clinical trial was designed to mimic the vaccine regimen in the SIV study. Methods Seventy five healthy, HIV-seronegative adults were enrolled into a phase 1, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Multi-antigenic HIV (HIVMAG) plasmid DNA (pDNA) vaccine alone or co-administered with pDNA encoding human Interleukin 12 (IL-12) (GENEVAX IL-12) given by IM/EP using the TriGrid Delivery System was tested in different prime-boost regimens with recombinant Ad35 HIV vaccine given IM. Results All local reactions but one were mild or moderate. Systemic reactions and unsolicited adverse events including laboratory abnormalities did not differ between vaccine and placebo recipients. No serious adverse events (SAEs) were reported. T cell and antibody response rates after HIVMAG (x3) prime—Ad35 (x1) boost were independent of IL-12, while the magnitude of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) ELISPOT responses was highest after HIVMAG (x3) without IL-12. The quality and phenotype of T cell responses shown by intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) were similar between groups. Inhibition of HIV replication by autologous T cells was demonstrated after HIVMAG (x3) prime and was boosted after Ad35. HIV specific antibodies were detected only after Ad35 boost, although there was a priming effect with 3 doses of HIVMAG with or without IL-12. No anti-IL-12 antibodies were detected. Conclusion The vaccines were safe, well tolerated and moderately immunogenic. Repeated administration IM/EP was well accepted. An adjuvant effect of co-administered plasmid IL-12 was not detected. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01496989 PMID:26252526

  20. Treatment with a Monoclonal Anti-IL-12p40 Antibody Induces Substantial Gut Microbiota Changes in an Experimental Colitis Model

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Mejía, Josué; Jakesevic, Maja; Krych, Łukasz; Nielsen, Dennis S.; Hansen, Lars H.; Sondergaard, Bodil C.; Kvist, Peter H.; Hansen, Axel K.; Holm, Thomas L.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim. Crohn's disease is associated with gut microbiota (GM) dysbiosis. Treatment with the anti-IL-12p40 monoclonal antibody (12p40-mAb) has therapeutic effect in Crohn's disease patients. This study addresses whether a 12p40-mAb treatment influences gut microbiota (GM) composition in mice with adoptive transfer colitis (AdTr-colitis). Methods. AdTr-colitis mice were treated with 12p40-mAb or rat-IgG2a or NaCl from days 21 to 47. Disease was monitored by changes in body weight, stool, endoscopic and histopathology scores, immunohistochemistry, and colonic cytokine/chemokine profiles. GM was characterized through DGGE and 16S rRNA gene-amplicon high-throughput sequencing. Results. Following 12p40-mAb treatment, most clinical and pathological parameters associated with colitis were either reduced or absent. GM was shifted towards a higher Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes ratio compared to rat-IgG2a treated mice. Significant correlations between 17 bacterial genera and biological markers were found. The relative abundances of the RF32 order (Alphaproteobacteria) and Akkermansia muciniphila were positively correlated with damaged histopathology and colonic inflammation. Conclusions. Shifts in GM distribution were observed with clinical response to 12p40-mAb treatment, whereas specific GM members correlated with colitis symptoms. Our study implicates that specific changes in GM may be connected with positive clinical outcomes and suggests preventing or correcting GM dysbiosis as a treatment goal in inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:26880890

  1. High-sensitivity two-color detection of double-stranded DNA with a confocal fluorescence gel scanner using ethidium homodimer and thiazole orange.

    PubMed

    Rye, H S; Quesada, M A; Peck, K; Mathies, R A; Glazer, A N

    1991-01-25

    Ethidium homodimer (EthD; lambda Fmax 620 nm) at EthD:DNA ratios up to 1 dye:4-5 bp forms stable fluorescent complexes with double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) which can be detected with high sensitivity using a confocal fluorescence gel scanner (Glazer, A.N., Peck, K. & Mathies, R.A. (1990) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87, 3851-3855). However, on incubation with unlabeled DNA partial migration of EthD takes place from its complex with dsDNA to the unlabeled DNA. It is shown here that this migration is dependent on the fractional occupancy of intercalating sites in the original dsDNA-EthD complex and that there is no detectable transfer from dsDNA-EthD complexes formed at 50 bp: 1 dye. The monointercalator thiazole orange (TO; lambda Fmax 530 nm) forms readily dissociable complexes with dsDNA with a large fluorescence enhancement on binding (Lee, L.G., Chen, C. & Liu, L.A. (1986) Cytometry 7, 508-517). However, a large molar excess of TO does not displace EthD from its complex with dsDNA. When TO and EthD are bound to the same dsDNA molecule, excitation of TO leads to efficient energy transfer from TO to EthD. This observation shows the practicability of 'sensitizing' EthD fluorescence with a second intercalating dye having a very high absorption coefficient and efficient energy transfer characteristics. Electrophoresis on agarose gels, with TO in the buffer, of preformed linearized M13mp18 DNA-EthD complex together with unlabeled linearized pBR322 permits sensitive fluorescence detection in the same lane of pBR322 DNA-TO complex at 530 nm and of M13mp18 DNA-EthD complex at 620 nm. These observations lay the groundwork for the use of stable DNA-dye intercalation complexes carrying hundreds of chromophores in two-color applications such as the physical mapping of chromosomes.

  2. The Human Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter (hSGLT1) Is a Disulfide-Bridged Homodimer with a Re-Entrant C-Terminal Loop

    PubMed Central

    Sasseville, Louis J.; Morin, Michael; Coady, Michael J.; Blunck, Rikard; Lapointe, Jean-Yves

    2016-01-01

    Na-coupled cotransporters are proteins that use the trans-membrane electrochemical gradient of Na to activate the transport of a second solute. The sodium-glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) constitutes a well-studied prototype of this transport mechanism but essential molecular characteristics, namely its quaternary structure and the exact arrangement of the C-terminal transmembrane segments, are still debated. After expression in Xenopus oocytes, human SGLT1 molecules (hSGLT1) were labelled on an externally accessible cysteine residue with a thiol-reactive fluorophore (tetramethylrhodamine-C5-maleimide, TMR). Addition of dipicrylamine (DPA, a negatively-charged amphiphatic fluorescence “quencher”) to the fluorescently-labelled oocytes is used to quench the fluorescence originating from hSGLT1 in a voltage-dependent manner. Using this arrangement with a cysteine residue introduced at position 624 in the loop between transmembrane segments 12 and 13, the voltage-dependent fluorescence signal clearly indicated that this portion of the 12–13 loop is located on the external side of the membrane. As the 12–13 loop begins on the intracellular side of the membrane, this suggests that the 12–13 loop is re-entrant. Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), we observed that different hSGLT1 molecules are within molecular distances from each other suggesting a multimeric complex arrangement. In agreement with this conclusion, a western blot analysis showed that hSGLT1 migrates as either a monomer or a dimer in reducing and non-reducing conditions, respectively. A systematic mutational study of endogenous cysteine residues in hSGLT1 showed that a disulfide bridge is formed between the C355 residues of two neighbouring hSGLT1 molecules. It is concluded that, 1) hSGLT1 is expressed as a disulfide bridged homodimer via C355 and that 2) a portion of the intracellular 12–13 loop is re-entrant and readily accessible from the extracellular milieu. PMID:27137918

  3. A combination of p40, GATA-3 and uroplakin II shows utility in the diagnosis and prognosis of muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Leivo, Mariah Z; Elson, Paul J; Tacha, David E; Delahunt, Brett; Hansel, Donna E

    2016-10-01

    Recently developed antibodies against uroplakin II and ΔNp63 (p40) show utility in diagnosing primary bladder urothelial carcinoma, although application in metastatic bladder cancer and patient outcomes has been less well defined. We evaluated these antibodies by immunostain intensity and H-score, in conjunction with GATA-3 immunoreactivity, in 89 patients with muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma and 35 paired metastasis. The maintenance of immunoreactivity in metastatic lesions and the association to disease recurrence and survival was assessed. Bladder urothelial carcinoma showed immunoreactivity for GATA-3 in 99% (88/89), p40 in 87% (77/89) and uroplakin II in 80% (71/89) of cases, with a positive correlation between GATA-3 and uroplakin II H-score (0.44; p < 0.0001). All lesions were positive for at least one marker, reinforcing the use of these markers as a panel. In 35 patients with paired lymph node metastasis, uroplakin II and GATA-3 were retained in 90% and 75% of patients, respectively, suggesting these markers may have relatively high sensitivity in diagnosing metastatic urothelial carcinoma. High intensity p40 immunostain (3+), however, was significantly associated with reduced patient survival (p = 0.03). These results suggest that whereas GATA-3 and uroplakin II may be most useful in the diagnosis of urothelial carcinoma metastasis, p40 may be additionally suited as a prognostic marker. PMID:27594510

  4. The role of charge and multiple faces of the CD8 alpha/alpha homodimer in binding to major histocompatibility complex class I molecules: support for a bivalent model.

    PubMed Central

    Giblin, P A; Leahy, D J; Mennone, J; Kavathas, P B

    1994-01-01

    The CD8 dimer interacts with the alpha 3 domain of major histocompatibility complex class I molecules through two immunoglobulin variable-like domains. In this study a crystal structure-informed mutational analysis has been performed to identify amino acids in the CD8 alpha/alpha homodimer that are likely to be involved in binding to class I. Several key residues are situated on the top face of the dimer within loops analogous to the complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) of immunoglobulin. In addition, other important amino acids are located in the A and B beta-strands on the sides of the dimer. The potential involvement of amino acids on both the top and the side faces of the molecule is consistent with a bivalent model for the interaction between a single CD8 alpha/alpha homodimer and two class I molecules and may have important implications for signal transduction in class I-expressing cells. This study also demonstrates a role for the positive surface potential of CD8 in class I binding and complements previous work demonstrating the importance of a negatively charged loop on the alpha 3 domain of class I for CD8 alpha/alpha-class I interaction. We propose a model whereby residues located on the CDR-like loops of the CD8 homodimer interact with the alpha 3 domain of MHC class I while amino acids on the side of the molecule containing the A and B beta-strands contact the alpha 2 domain of class I. Images PMID:8127870

  5. Early infiltration of p40IL12+CCR7+CD11b+ cells is critical for fibrosis development

    PubMed Central

    Correa‐Costa, Matheus; Azevedo, Hatylas; Silva, Reinaldo Correia; Cruz, Mario Costa; Almeida, Maira Estanislau Soares; Hiyane, Meire Ioshie; Moreira‐Filho, Carlos Alberto; Santos, Marinilce Fagundes; Perez, Katia Regina; Cuccovia, Iolanda Midea; Camara, Niels Olsen Saraiva

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Macrophages are heterogeneous and thus can be correlated with distinct tissue outcomes after injury. Conflicting data have indicated that the M2‐related phenotype directly triggers fibrosis. Conversely, we hypothesize here that the inflammatory milieu provided by early infiltration of pro‐inflammatory macrophages dictates tissue scarring after injury. Methods and Results We first determined that tissue‐localized macrophages exhibit a pro‐inflammatory phenotype (p40IL12+CCR7+CD11b+) during the early phase of a chronic injury model, in contrast to a pro‐resolving phenotype (Arg1+IL10+CD206+CD11b+) at a later stage. Then, we evaluated the effects of injecting macrophages differentiated in vitro in the presence of IFNγ + LPS or IL4 + IL13 or non‐differentiated macrophages (hereafter, M0) on promoting inflammation and progression of chronic injury in macrophage‐depleted mice. In addition to enhancing the expression of pro‐inflammatory cytokines, the injection of M (IFNγ + LPS), but not M (IL4 + IL13) or M0, accentuated fibrosis while augmenting levels of anti‐inflammatory molecules, increasing collagen deposition and impairing organ function. We observed a similar profile after injection of sorted CCR7+CD11b+ cells and a more pronounced effect of M (IFNγ + LPS) cells originated from Stat6−/− mice. The injection of M (IFNγ + LPS) cells was associated with the up‐regulation of inflammation‐ and fibrosis‐related proteins (Thbs1, Mmp7, Mmp8, and Mmp13). Conclusions Our results suggest that pro‐inflammatory macrophages promote microenvironmental changes that may lead to fibrogenesis by inducing an inflammatory milieu that alters a network of extracellular‐related genes, culminating in tissue fibrosis.

  6. Early infiltration of p40IL12+CCR7+CD11b+ cells is critical for fibrosis development

    PubMed Central

    Correa‐Costa, Matheus; Azevedo, Hatylas; Silva, Reinaldo Correia; Cruz, Mario Costa; Almeida, Maira Estanislau Soares; Hiyane, Meire Ioshie; Moreira‐Filho, Carlos Alberto; Santos, Marinilce Fagundes; Perez, Katia Regina; Cuccovia, Iolanda Midea; Camara, Niels Olsen Saraiva

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Macrophages are heterogeneous and thus can be correlated with distinct tissue outcomes after injury. Conflicting data have indicated that the M2‐related phenotype directly triggers fibrosis. Conversely, we hypothesize here that the inflammatory milieu provided by early infiltration of pro‐inflammatory macrophages dictates tissue scarring after injury. Methods and Results We first determined that tissue‐localized macrophages exhibit a pro‐inflammatory phenotype (p40IL12+CCR7+CD11b+) during the early phase of a chronic injury model, in contrast to a pro‐resolving phenotype (Arg1+IL10+CD206+CD11b+) at a later stage. Then, we evaluated the effects of injecting macrophages differentiated in vitro in the presence of IFNγ + LPS or IL4 + IL13 or non‐differentiated macrophages (hereafter, M0) on promoting inflammation and progression of chronic injury in macrophage‐depleted mice. In addition to enhancing the expression of pro‐inflammatory cytokines, the injection of M (IFNγ + LPS), but not M (IL4 + IL13) or M0, accentuated fibrosis while augmenting levels of anti‐inflammatory molecules, increasing collagen deposition and impairing organ function. We observed a similar profile after injection of sorted CCR7+CD11b+ cells and a more pronounced effect of M (IFNγ + LPS) cells originated from Stat6−/− mice. The injection of M (IFNγ + LPS) cells was associated with the up‐regulation of inflammation‐ and fibrosis‐related proteins (Thbs1, Mmp7, Mmp8, and Mmp13). Conclusions Our results suggest that pro‐inflammatory macrophages promote microenvironmental changes that may lead to fibrogenesis by inducing an inflammatory milieu that alters a network of extracellular‐related genes, culminating in tissue fibrosis. PMID:27621813

  7. Intermolecular disulfide bonds stabilize VirB7 homodimers and VirB7/VirB9 heterodimers during biogenesis of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens T-complex transport apparatus.

    PubMed

    Spudich, G M; Fernandez, D; Zhou, X R; Christie, P J

    1996-07-23

    The Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirB7 lipoprotein contributes to the stabilization of VirB proteins during biogenesis of the putative T-complex transport apparatus. Here, we report that stabilization of VirB7 itself is correlated with its ability to form disulfide cross-linked homodimers via a reactive Cys-24 residue. Three types of beta-mercaptoethanol-dissociable complexes were visualized with VirB7 and/or a VirB7::PhoA41 fusion protein: (i) a 9-kDa complex corresponding in size to a VirB7 homodimer, (ii) a 54-kDa complex corresponding in size to a VirB7/VirB7::PhoA41 mixed dimer, and (iii) a 102-kDa complex corresponding to a VirB7::PhoA41 homodimer. A VirB7C24S mutant protein was immunologically undetectable, whereas the corresponding VirB7C24S::PhoA41 derivative accumulated to detectable levels but failed to form dissociable homodimers or mixed dimers with wild-type VirB7. We further report that VirB7-dependent stabilization of VirB9 is correlated with the ability of these two proteins to dimerize via formation of a disulfide bridge between reactive Cys-24 and Cys-262 residues, respectively. Two types of dissociable complexes were visualized: (i) a 36-kDa complex corresponding in size to a VirB7/VirB9 heterodimer and (ii) an 84-kDa complex corresponding in size to a VirB7/VirB9::PhoA293 heterodimer. A VirB9C262S mutant protein was immunologically undetectable, whereas the corresponding VirB9C262S::PhoA293 derivative accumulated to detectable levels but failed to form dissociable heterodimers with wild-type VirB7. Taken together, these results support a model in which the formation of disulfide cross-linked VirB7 dimers represent critical early steps in the biogenesis of the T-complex transport apparatus. PMID:8755505

  8. Targeting IL-12/IL-23 by Employing a p40 Peptide-Based Vaccine Ameliorates TNBS-Induced Acute and Chronic Murine Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Qingdong; Ma, Yanbing; Hillman, China-Li; Qing, Gefei; Ma, Allan G; Weiss, Carolyn R; Zhou, Gang; Bai, Aiping; Warrington, Richard J; Bernstein, Charles N; Peng, Zhikang

    2011-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-23 both share the p40 subunit and are key cytokines in the pathogenesis of Crohn’s disease. Previously, we have developed and identified three mouse p40 peptide-based and virus-like particle vaccines. Here, we evaluated the effects and immune mechanisms of the optimal vaccine in downregulating intestinal inflammation in murine acute and chronic colitis, induced by intrarectal administrations of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). Mice were injected subcutaneously with vaccine, vaccine carrier or saline three times, and then intrarectally administered TNBS weekly for 2 wks (acute colitis) or 7 wks (chronic colitis). The severity of colitis was evaluated by body weight, histology and collagen and cytokine levels in colon tissue. Th1 and Th17 cells in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) were determined. Our results showed the vaccine induced high level and long-lasting specific IgG antibodies to p40, IL-12 and IL-23. After administrations of TNBS, vaccinated mice had significantly less body weight loss and a significant decrease of inflammatory scores, collagen deposition and expression of p40, IL-12, IL-23, IL-17, TNF, iNOS and Bcl-2 in colon tissues, compared with carrier and saline groups. Moreover, vaccinated mice exhibited a trend to lower percentages of Th1 cells in acute colitis and of Th17 cells in chronic colitis in MLN than in controls. In summary, administration of the vaccine induced specific antibodies to IL-12 and IL-23, which was associated with improvement of intestinal inflammation and fibrosis. This suggests that the vaccine may provide a potential approach for the long-term treatment of Crohn’s disease. PMID:21424108

  9. Profound Lack of Interleukin (IL)-12/IL-23p40 in Neonates Born Early in Gestation Is Associated with an Increased Risk of Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Lavoie, Pascal M.; Huang, Qing; Jolette, Elyse; Whalen, Mihoko; Nuyt, Anne Monique; Audibert, Francois; Speert, David P.; Lacaze-Masmonteil, Thierry; Soudeyns, Hugo; Kollmann, Tobias R.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Infants born prematurely are highly vulnerable to infections and also exhibit a high susceptibility to organ damage due to inflammation. Methods. To investigate homeostatic immune control early in life, we used advanced multiparameter flow cytometry to compare responses to multiple Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands in single cells and mononuclear cell populations in term neonates versus preterm neonates born before 29 weeks of gestation. Results. Preterm neonates had globally attenuated TLR-stimulated interleukin (IL)-6, interferon-α, and, to a lesser extent, tumor necrosis factor-α responses but demonstrated relative preservation of anti-inflammatory IL10 responses in monocytes and dendritic cell subtypes. Remarkably, preterm neonates were also profoundly deficient in the common IL-12 and IL-23 cytokines' p40 subunit, which is critical for immunity against a wide variety of microbial pathogens in mice. Consistent with the increased susceptibility to infections resulting from the lack of IL-12/IL-23 in human newborns, significantly lower serum p40 concentrations were observed at birth in infants who developed early-onset sepsis. Conclusion. To our knowledge, this study is the first detailed analysis of multiple TLR function in neonates born extremely premature. Although attenuation of proinflammatory pathways may protect against tissue-damaging immunity early in life, this previously unrecognized p40 immune deficiency appears to result in considerably increased susceptibility to infection in human preterm newborns. PMID:20977341

  10. Dosage-sensitive sex reversal adrenal hypoplasia congenita critical region on the X chromosome, gene 1 (DAX1) (NR0B1) and small heterodimer partner (SHP) (NR0B2) form homodimers individually, as well as DAX1-SHP heterodimers.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Anita K; Zhang, Yao-Hua; McCabe, Edward R B

    2006-10-01

    Dosage-sensitive sex reversal adrenal hypoplasia congenita critical region on the X chromosome, gene 1 (DAX1) (NR0B1), and small heterodimer partner (SHP) (NR0B2) are atypical nuclear receptor superfamily members that function primarily as corepressors through heterodimeric interactions with other nuclear receptors. Mutations in DAX1 cause adrenal hypoplasia congenita, and mutations in SHP lead to mild obesity and insulin resistance, but the mechanisms are unclear. We investigated the existence and subcellular localization of DAX1 and SHP homodimers and the dynamics of homodimerization. We demonstrated DAX1 homodimerization in the nucleus and cytoplasm, and dissociation of DAX1 homodimers upon heterodimerization with steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1) or ligand-activated estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha). DAX1 homodimerization involved an interaction between its amino and carboxy termini involving its LXXLL motifs and activation function (AF)-2 domain. We observed SHP homodimerization in the nucleus of mammalian cells and showed dissociation of SHP homodimers upon heterodimerization with ligand-activated ERalpha. We observed DAX1-SHP heterodimerization in the nucleus of mammalian cells and demonstrated the involvement of the LXXLL motifs and AF-2 domain of DAX1 in this interaction. We further demonstrate heterodimerization of DAX1 with its alternatively spliced isoform, DAX1A. This is the first evidence of homodimerization of individual members of the unusual NR0B nuclear receptor family and heterodimerization between its members. Our results suggest that DAX1 forms antiparallel homodimers through the LXXLL motifs and AF-2 domain. These homodimers may function as holding reservoirs in the absence of heterodimeric partners. The formation of DAX1 and SHP homodimers and DAX1-SHP and DAX1-DAX1A heterodimers suggests the possibility of novel functions independent of their coregulator roles, suggesting additional complexity in the molecular mechanisms of DAX1 and SHP action

  11. IL-12/IL-23p40 Is Highly Expressed in Secondary Lymphoid Organs and the CNS during All Stages of EAE, but Its Deletion Does Not Affect Disease Perpetuation

    PubMed Central

    Cravens, Petra D.; Hussain, Rehana Z.; Miller-Little, William A.; Ben, Li-Hong; Segal, Benjamin M.; Herndon, Emily; Stüve, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Background Interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-23 are heterodimers that share the p40 subunit, and both cytokines are critical in the differentiation of T helper (Th)1 and Th17 cells, respectively. Th1 and Th17 effector cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE), an animal model of the human central nervous system (CNS) autoimmune demyelinating disorder multiple sclerosis (MS). However, ustekinumab, a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against p40 failed to show efficacy over placebo in a phase II clinical trial in patients with MS. The role of p40 in initial T cell priming and maintenance in secondary lymphoid tissues is not yet well understood. Methods Active EAE was induced in the B6.129-IL12b strain of p40eYFP reporter mice (yet40 mice), and Th1 and Th17 polarized cells were adoptively transferred into p40-deficient mice. Cellular subsets were phenotyped by multi-parameter flow cytometry, and p40 tissue expression was identified by confocal microscopy. Results We show that yet40 mice are susceptible to EAE, and that p40 is highly expressed in secondary lymphoid organs and the CNS during all stages of the disease. Interestingly, p40 expression in the recipient is not required for EAE induction after adoptive transfer of activated and differentiated encephalitogenic Th1 and Th17 cells into p40-deficient mice. Peripheral antagonism of T helper cell trophic factors critical for the differentiation and maintenance of Th1 and Th17 cells ameliorates EAE, indicating that p40 may play a critical role in the induction of CNS autoimmunity but not in its perpetuation. Conclusion Our data may explain why ustekinumab did not ameliorate paraclinical and clinical disease in patients with MS. In patients with already established disease, activated antigen-specific encephalitogenic CD4+ T cells are likely already differentiated, and are not dependent on p40 for maintenance. A clinical trial of longer duration with anti-p40 mAbs or other forms of

  12. In silico analysis of the three-dimensional structures of the homodimer of uridine phosphorylase from Yersinia Pseudotuberculosis in the ligand-free state and in a complex with 5-fluorouracil

    SciTech Connect

    Lashkov, A. A. Sotnichenko, S. E.; Mikhailov, A. M.

    2013-03-15

    Pseudotuberculosis is an acute infectious disease characterized by a lesion of the gastrointestinal tract. A positive therapeutic effect can be achieved by selectively suppressing the activity of uridine phosphorylase from the causative agent of the disease Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. The synergistic effect of a combination of the chemotherapeutic agent 5-fluorouracil and antimicrobial drugs, which block the synthesis of pyrimidine bases, on the cells of pathogenic protozoa and bacteria is described in the literature. The three-dimensional structures of uridine phosphorylase from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (YptUPh) both in the ligand-free state and in complexes with pharmacological agents are unknown, which hinders the search for and design of selective inhibitors of YptUPh. The three-dimensional structure of the ligand-free homodimer of YptUPh was determined by homology-based molecular modeling. The three-dimensional structure of the subunit of the YptUPh molecule belongs to {alpha}/{beta} proteins, and its topology is a three-layer {alpha}/{beta}/{alpha} sandwich. The subunit monomer of the YptUPh molecule consists of 38% helices and 24% {beta} strands. A model of the homodimer structure of YptUPh in a complex with 5-FU was obtained by the molecular docking. The position of 5-FU in the active site of the molecule is very consistent with the known data on the X-ray diffraction structures of other bacterial uridine phosphorylases (the complex of uridine phosphorylase from Salmonella typhimurium (StUPh) with 5-FU, ID PDB: 4E1V and the complex of uridine phosphorylase from Escherichia coli (EcUPh) with 5-FU and ribose 1-phosphate, ID PDB: 1RXC).

  13. The human parasite Leishmania amazonensis downregulates iNOS expression via NF-κB p50/p50 homodimer: role of the PI3K/Akt pathway

    PubMed Central

    Calegari-Silva, Teresa C.; Vivarini, Áislan C.; Miqueline, Marina; Dos Santos, Guilherme R. R. M.; Teixeira, Karina Luiza; Saliba, Alessandra Mattos; Nunes de Carvalho, Simone; de Carvalho, Laís; Lopes, Ulisses G.

    2015-01-01

    Leishmania amazonensis activates the NF-κB transcriptional repressor homodimer (p50/p50) and promotes nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) downregulation. We investigated the role of PI3K/Akt in p50/p50 NF-κB activation and the effect on iNOS expression in L. amazonensis infection. The increased occupancy of p50/p50 on the iNOS promoter of infected macrophages was observed and we demonstrated that both p50/p50 NF-κB induction and iNOS downregulation in infected macrophages depended on PI3K/Akt activation. Importantly, the intracellular growth of the parasite was also impaired during PI3K/Akt signalling inhibition and in macrophages knocked-down for Akt 1 expression. It was also observed that the increased nuclear levels of p50/p50 in L. amazonensis-infected macrophages were associated with reduced phosphorylation of 907 Ser p105, the precursor of p50. Corroborating these data, we demonstrated the increased levels of phospho-9 Ser GSK3β in infected macrophages, which is associated with GSK3β inhibition and, consequently, its inability to phosphorylate p105. Remarkably, we found that the levels of pPTEN 370 Ser, a negative regulator of PI3K, increased due to L. amazonensis infection. Our data support the notion that PI3K/Akt activity is sustained during the parasite infection, leading to NF-κB 105 phosphorylation and further processing to originate p50/p50 homodimers and the consequent downregulation of iNOS expression. PMID:26400473

  14. VirB6 Is Required for Stabilization of VirB5 and VirB3 and Formation of VirB7 Homodimers in Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    PubMed Central

    Hapfelmeier, Siegfried; Domke, Natalie; Zambryski, Patricia C.; Baron, Christian

    2000-01-01

    VirB6 from Agrobacterium tumefaciens is an essential component of the type IV secretion machinery for T pilus formation and genetic transformation of plants. Due to its predicted topology as a polytopic inner membrane protein, it was proposed to form the transport pore for cell-to-cell transfer of genetic material and proteinaceous virulence factors. Here, we show that the absence of VirB6 leads to reduced cellular levels of VirB5 and VirB3, which were proposed to assist T pilus formation as minor component(s) or assembly factor(s), respectively. Overexpression of virB6 in trans restored levels of cell-bound and T pilus-associated VirB5 to wild type but did not restore VirB3 levels. Thus, VirB6 has a stabilizing effect on VirB5 accumulation, thereby regulating T pilus assembly. In the absence of VirB6, cell-bound VirB7 monomers and VirB7-VirB9 heterodimers were reduced and VirB7 homodimer formation was abolished. This effect could not be restored by expression of VirB6 in trans. Expression of TraD, a component of the transfer machinery of the IncN plasmid pKM101, with significant sequence similarity to VirB6, restored neither protein levels nor bacterial virulence but partly permitted T pilus formation in a virB6 deletion strain. VirB6 may therefore regulate T pilus formation by direct interaction with VirB5, and wild-type levels of VirB3 and VirB7 homodimers are not required. PMID:10913084

  15. In silico analysis of the three-dimensional structures of the homodimer of uridine phosphorylase from Yersinia Pseudotuberculosis in the ligand-free state and in a complex with 5-fluorouracil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lashkov, A. A.; Sotnichenko, S. E.; Mikhailov, A. M.

    2013-03-01

    Pseudotuberculosis is an acute infectious disease characterized by a lesion of the gastrointestinal tract. A positive therapeutic effect can be achieved by selectively suppressing the activity of uridine phosphorylase from the causative agent of the disease Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. The synergistic effect of a combination of the chemotherapeutic agent 5-fluorouracil and antimicrobial drugs, which block the synthesis of pyrimidine bases, on the cells of pathogenic protozoa and bacteria is described in the literature. The three-dimensional structures of uridine phosphorylase from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis ( YptUPh) both in the ligand-free state and in complexes with pharmacological agents are unknown, which hinders the search for and design of selective inhibitors of YptUPh. The three-dimensional structure of the ligand-free homodimer of YptUPh was determined by homology-based molecular modeling. The three-dimensional structure of the subunit of the YptUPh molecule belongs to α/β proteins, and its topology is a three-layer α/β/α sandwich. The subunit monomer of the YptUPh molecule consists of 38% helices and 24% β strands. A model of the homodimer structure of YptUPh in a complex with 5-FU was obtained by the molecular docking. The position of 5-FU in the active site of the molecule is very consistent with the known data on the X-ray diffraction structures of other bacterial uridine phosphorylases (the complex of uridine phosphorylase from Salmonella typhimurium ( StUPh) with 5-FU, ID PDB: 4E1V and the complex of uridine phosphorylase from Escherichia coli ( EcUPh) with 5-FU and ribose 1-phosphate, ID PDB: 1RXC).

  16. The human parasite Leishmania amazonensis downregulates iNOS expression via NF-κB p50/p50 homodimer: role of the PI3K/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Calegari-Silva, Teresa C; Vivarini, Áislan C; Miqueline, Marina; Dos Santos, Guilherme R R M; Teixeira, Karina Luiza; Saliba, Alessandra Mattos; Nunes de Carvalho, Simone; de Carvalho, Laís; Lopes, Ulisses G

    2015-09-01

    Leishmania amazonensis activates the NF-κB transcriptional repressor homodimer (p50/p50) and promotes nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) downregulation. We investigated the role of PI3K/Akt in p50/p50 NF-κB activation and the effect on iNOS expression in L. amazonensis infection. The increased occupancy of p50/p50 on the iNOS promoter of infected macrophages was observed and we demonstrated that both p50/p50 NF-κB induction and iNOS downregulation in infected macrophages depended on PI3K/Akt activation. Importantly, the intracellular growth of the parasite was also impaired during PI3K/Akt signalling inhibition and in macrophages knocked-down for Akt 1 expression. It was also observed that the increased nuclear levels of p50/p50 in L. amazonensis-infected macrophages were associated with reduced phosphorylation of 907 Ser p105, the precursor of p50. Corroborating these data, we demonstrated the increased levels of phospho-9 Ser GSK3β in infected macrophages, which is associated with GSK3β inhibition and, consequently, its inability to phosphorylate p105. Remarkably, we found that the levels of pPTEN 370 Ser, a negative regulator of PI3K, increased due to L. amazonensis infection. Our data support the notion that PI3K/Akt activity is sustained during the parasite infection, leading to NF-κB 105 phosphorylation and further processing to originate p50/p50 homodimers and the consequent downregulation of iNOS expression. PMID:26400473

  17. What Glues a Homodimer Together: Systematic Analysis of the Stabilizing Effect of an Aromatic Hot Spot in the Protein-Protein Interface of the tRNA-Modifying Enzyme Tgt.

    PubMed

    Jakobi, Stephan; Nguyen, Phong T X; Debaene, François; Cianférani, Sarah; Reuter, Klaus; Klebe, Gerhard

    2015-08-21

    Shigella bacteria constitute the causative agent of bacillary dysentery, an acute inflammatory disease causing the death of more than one million humans per year. A null mutation in the tgt gene encoding the tRNA-modifying enzyme tRNA-guanine transglycosylase (Tgt) was found to drastically decrease the pathogenicity of Shigella bacteria, suggesting the use of Tgt as putative target for selective antibiotics. The enzyme is only functionally active as a homodimer; thus, interference with the formation of its protein-protein interface is an attractive opportunity for therapeutic intervention. To better understand the driving forces responsible for the assembly, stability, and formation of the homodimer, we studied the properties of the residues that establish the dimer interface in detail. We performed site-directed mutagenesis and controlled shifts in the monomer/dimer equilibrium ratio in solution in a concentration-dependent manner by native mass spectrometry and used crystal structure analysis to elucidate the geometrical modulations resulting from mutational variations. The wild-type enzyme exhibits nearly exclusive dimer geometry. A patch of four aromatic amino acids, embedded into a ring of hydrophobic residues and further stabilized by a network of H-bonds, is essential for the stability of the dimer's contact. Accordingly, any perturbance in the constitution of this aromatic patch by nonaromatic residues reduces dimer stability significantly, with some of these exchanges resulting in a nearly exclusively monomeric state. Apart from the aromatic hot spot, the interface comprises an extended loop-helix motif that exhibits remarkable flexibility. In the destabilized mutated variants, the loop-helix motif adopts deviating conformations in the interface region, and a number of water molecules, penetrating into the interface, are observed. PMID:25951081

  18. The laminin binding protein p40 is involved in inducing limb abnormality of mouse fetuses as the effects of methoxyacetic acid treatment.

    PubMed

    Ruyani, Aceng; Sudarwati, Sri; Sutasurya, Lien A; Sumarsono, Sony H; Gloe, Torsten

    2003-09-01

    This study is intended to characterize a protein that is linked with mouse limb teratogenicity as the effects of methoxyacetic acid (MAA) treatment. A single dose of MAA (10 mmol/kg body weight) was given by gavage on gestation day (GD) 11, whereas the control group were administered vehicle only. The pregnant mice were killed at 4 h after MAA treatment, and forelimb buds were isolated from both the control and treated group embryos. Proteins from forelimb buds GD 11 + 4 h, which were precipitated out using 40-60% ammonium sulfate, then were analyzed by two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D SDS-PAGE) technique. The 2-D gels reveal one protein with 41.6 kDa and pI 6.4, which expression was downregulated after MAA treatment. Tentative protein identification via peptide mass database search and definitive protein identification via a primary sequence database search indicate that the protein matches exactly to 34/67 kDa laminin binding protein (LBP; P14206, SwissProt), which is encoded by p40 gene (MGI:105381). The identity was further verified by Western blotting with an antibody against the 67 kDa LBP. The results suggest that MAA treatment to pregnant mice downregulates the LBP-p40 in the forelimb buds.

  19. Myeloid-Restricted AMPKα1 Promotes Host Immunity and Protects against IL-12/23p40-Dependent Lung Injury during Hookworm Infection.

    PubMed

    Nieves, Wildaliz; Hung, Li-Yin; Oniskey, Taylor K; Boon, Louis; Foretz, Marc; Viollet, Benoit; Herbert, De'Broski R

    2016-06-01

    How the metabolic demand of parasitism affects immune-mediated resistance is poorly understood. Immunity against parasitic helminths requires M2 cells and IL-13, secreted by CD4(+) Th2 and group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), but whether certain metabolic enzymes control disease outcome has not been addressed. This study demonstrates that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a key driver of cellular energy, regulates type 2 immunity and restricts lung injury following hookworm infection. Mice with a selective deficiency in the AMPK catalytic α1 subunit in alveolar macrophages and conventional dendritic cells produced less IL-13 and CCL17 and had impaired expansion of ILC2 in damaged lung tissue compared with wild-type controls. Defective type 2 responses were marked by increased intestinal worm burdens, exacerbated lung injury, and increased production of IL-12/23p40, which, when neutralized, restored IL-13 production and improved lung recovery. Taken together, these data indicate that defective AMPK activity in myeloid cells negatively impacts type 2 responses through increased IL-12/23p40 production. These data support an emerging concept that myeloid cells and ILC2 can coordinately regulate tissue damage at mucosal sites through mechanisms dependent on metabolic enzyme function. PMID:27183598

  20. Dual TNF-α/IL-12p40 Interference as a Strategy to Protect Against Colitis Based on miR-16 Precursors With Macrophage Targeting Vectors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhen; Ma, Junting; Chen, Mengjie; Jiang, Haoyang; Fu, Yong; Gan, Jingjing; Dong, Lei; Zhang, Junfeng; Chen, Jiangning

    2015-10-01

    Cytokines are central components of the mucosal inflammatory responses that take place during the development of Crohn's disease. Cell-specific combination therapies against cytokines may lead to increased efficacy and even reduced side effects. Therefore, a colonic macrophage-specific therapy using miR-16 precursors that can target both TNF-α and IL-12p40 was tested for its efficacy in experimental colitic mice. Galactosylated low molecular weight chitosan (G-LMWC) associated with miR-16 precursors were intracolonically injected into mice. The cellular localization of miR-16 precursors was determined. The therapeutic effects and possible mechanism were further studied in 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitic mice. The results show that specific upregulation of miR-16 level in colonic macrophages significantly reduces TNF-α and IL-12p40 expression, which could suppress the associated mucosal inflammation and ultimately result in the relief of colitic symptoms. This strategy, based on the dual silencing of colonic macrophage-specific cytokines, represents a potential therapeutic approach that may be valuable for colitis therapy.

  1. IL-12p40/IL-10 Producing preCD8α/Clec9A+ Dendritic Cells Are Induced in Neonates upon Listeria monocytogenes Infection

    PubMed Central

    Delbauve, Sandrine; Caminschi, Irina; Lahoud, Mireille H.; Shortman, Ken; Flamand, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    Infection by Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) causes serious sepsis and meningitis leading to mortality in neonates. This work explored the ability of CD11chigh lineage DCs to induce CD8+ T-cell immune protection against Lm in mice before 7 days of life, a period symbolized by the absence of murine IL-12p70-producing CD11chighCD8α+ dendritic cells (DCs). We characterized a dominant functional Batf3-dependent precursor of CD11chigh DCs that is Clec9A+CD205+CD24+ but CD8α- at 3 days of life. After Lm-OVA infection, these pre-DCs that cross-present Ag display the unique ability to produce high levels of IL-12p40 (not IL-12p70 nor IL-23), which enhances OVA-specific CD8+ T cell response, and regulatory IL-10 that limits OVA-specific CD8+ T cell response. Targeting these neonatal pre-DCs for the first time with a single treatment of anti-Clec9A-OVA antibody in combination with a DC activating agent such as poly(I:C) increased the protection against later exposure to the Lm-OVA strain. Poly(I:C) was shown to induce IL-12p40 production, but not IL-10 by neonatal pre-DCs. In conclusion, we identified a new biologically active precursor of Clec9A+ CD8α- DCs, endowed with regulatory properties in early life that represents a valuable target to augment memory responses to vaccines. PMID:27074026

  2. IL-12p40/IL-10 Producing preCD8α/Clec9A+ Dendritic Cells Are Induced in Neonates upon Listeria monocytogenes Infection.

    PubMed

    Torres, David; Köhler, Arnaud; Delbauve, Sandrine; Caminschi, Irina; Lahoud, Mireille H; Shortman, Ken; Flamand, Véronique

    2016-04-01

    Infection by Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) causes serious sepsis and meningitis leading to mortality in neonates. This work explored the ability of CD11c(high) lineage DCs to induce CD8+ T-cell immune protection against Lm in mice before 7 days of life, a period symbolized by the absence of murine IL-12p70-producing CD11c(high)CD8α+ dendritic cells (DCs). We characterized a dominant functional Batf3-dependent precursor of CD11c(high) DCs that is Clec9A+CD205+CD24+ but CD8α- at 3 days of life. After Lm-OVA infection, these pre-DCs that cross-present Ag display the unique ability to produce high levels of IL-12p40 (not IL-12p70 nor IL-23), which enhances OVA-specific CD8+ T cell response, and regulatory IL-10 that limits OVA-specific CD8+ T cell response. Targeting these neonatal pre-DCs for the first time with a single treatment of anti-Clec9A-OVA antibody in combination with a DC activating agent such as poly(I:C) increased the protection against later exposure to the Lm-OVA strain. Poly(I:C) was shown to induce IL-12p40 production, but not IL-10 by neonatal pre-DCs. In conclusion, we identified a new biologically active precursor of Clec9A+ CD8α- DCs, endowed with regulatory properties in early life that represents a valuable target to augment memory responses to vaccines. PMID:27074026

  3. T cell receptor complexes containing Fc epsilon RI gamma homodimers in lieu of CD3 zeta and CD3 eta components: a novel isoform expressed on large granular lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    CD3 zeta and CD3 eta form disulfide-linked homo- or heterodimers important in targeting partially assembled Ti alpha-beta/CD3 gamma delta epsilon T cell receptor (TCR) complexes to the cell surface and transducing stimulatory signals after antigen recognition. Here we identify a new TCR isoform expressed on splenic CD2+, CD3/Ti alpha- beta+, CD4-, CD8-, CD16+, NK1.1+ mouse large granular lymphocytes (LGL), which are devoid of CD3 zeta and CD3 eta proteins. The TCRs of this subset contain homodimers of the gamma subunit of the high affinity receptor for IgE (Fc epsilon RI gamma) in lieu of CD3 zeta and/or CD3 eta proteins. The LGL display natural killer-like activity and are cytotoxic for B cell hybridomas producing anti-CD3 epsilon and anti-CD16 monoclonal antibodies, demonstrating the signaling capacity of both TCR and CD16 in this cell type. These findings provide evidence for an additional level of complexity of TCR signal transduction isoforms in naturally occurring T cell subsets. PMID:1530959

  4. Expression of recombinant platelet-derived growth factor A- and B-chain homodimers in rat-1 cells and human fibroblasts reveals differences in protein processing and autocrine effects.

    PubMed Central

    Bywater, M; Rorsman, F; Bongcam-Rudloff, E; Mark, G; Hammacher, A; Heldin, C H; Westermark, B; Betsholtz, C

    1988-01-01

    The autocrine effects of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) A- and B-chain homodimers (PDGF-AA and PDGF-BB) on rat-1 cells and human fibroblasts have been investigated by using human PDGF A- and B-chain cDNA clones expressed in a retroviral vector. Infection with replication-defective virus carrying the B-chain cDNA resulted in a phenotypical transformation resembling that induced by simian sarcoma virus. The resulting cells were focus forming in monolayer cultures, grew to high saturation densities, and formed large colonies in soft agar. The PDGF A-chain transfectants showed no transformed morphology and lacked focus-forming activity but grew to high saturation density in monolayer culture and formed small colonies in soft agar. A similar but weaker effect was obtained with an A-chain cDNA variant containing a 69-base-pair insertion in the 3' end of the protein-coding domain. A- and B-chain transfectants released PDGF receptor-competing activity into the medium, but only the medium conditioned by the B-chain transfectants possessed potent mitogenic activity on human fibroblasts. Both types of transfectants had downregulated levels of PDGF receptors; however, the B-chain transfectants were downregulated to significantly lower levels. Metabolic labeling and immunoprecipitations with PDGF antiserum showed that the PDGF B-chain protein was processed to a 24-kilodalton cell-associated and a 30-kilodalton secreted dimeric protein. The A-chain protein was rapidly secreted as a 31-kilodalton dimeric protein. The present study shows a marked difference in the autocrine effects of PDGF-AA and -BB expressed under the control of a retroviral promoter and suggests that different biological properties may be assigned to these two PDGF isoforms. Images PMID:3405217

  5. Egg antigen p40 of Schistosoma japonicum promotes senescence in activated hepatic stellate cells by activation of the STAT3/p53/p21 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jinling; Xu, Tianhua; Zhu, Dandan; Wang, Jianxin; Huang, Caiqun; Lyu, Lei; Hu, Bin; Sun, Wei; Duan, Yinong

    2016-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is a serious disease that is characterized by the excess deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are a major source of ECM and serve as a key regulator in liver fibrogenesis. Inactivation of HSCs is essential for liver fibrotic regression. The present study explores the underlying mechanisms of Schistosoma japonicum egg antigen p40 (Sjp40) promoting senescence in HSCs and antifibrosis. For the first time we report that Sjp40 inhibits the activation and proliferation of an immortalized human HSC line (LX-2 cells) and promotes cellular senescence and cell cycle arrest. Sjp40 through action on the STAT3/p53/p21 pathway triggered cellular senescence, while knockdown of p53 or STAT3 partly restored cell senescence. In addition, Sjp40-induced cellular senescence caused LX-2 cells to be more sensitive to a human NK cell line (YT cells). Together these findings provide novel insights into the mechanism of antifibrosis and may have implications for the development of antifibrosis therapies. PMID:27468691

  6. IL-12p40 gene-deficient BALB/c mice exhibit lower weight loss, reduced lung pathology and decreased sensitization to allergen in response to infection with pneumonia virus of mice.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Pratima; Sarkar, Indranil; Atanley, Ethel; Gomis, Susantha; van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, Sylvia

    2016-10-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in infants and pneumonia virus of mice (PVM) causes similar disease. BALB/c mice are highly susceptible, while C57BL/6 mice are more resistant to PVM. IL-12 was significantly more up-regulated in response to PVM infection in BALB/c than in C57BL/6 mice. IL-12p40-deficient neonatal and adult BALB/c mice showed significantly less weight loss than wild-type mice after PVM challenge. The percentage of regulatory T cells, as well as IFN-β and IL-18 expression, was higher in the lungs of both neonatal and adult IL-12p40-/- mice. Adult IL-12p40-/- mice also showed enhanced TGF-β and IL-10 expression and reduced inflammatory responses. Furthermore, IL-12p40-/- mice showed decreased sensitization to inhaled cockroach antigen after PVM infection when compared to wild-type mice. In conclusion, these data suggest that a depressed regulatory capacity in BALB/c mice to PVM infection results in enhanced immunopathology and sensitization to allergen. PMID:27400340

  7. Infection Rate and Tissue Localization of Murine IL-12p40-Producing Monocyte-Derived CD103+ Lung Dendritic Cells during Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Leepiyasakulchai, Chaniya; Taher, Chato; Chuquimia, Olga D.; Mazurek, Jolanta; Söderberg-Naucler, Cecilia; Fernández, Carmen; Sköld, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Non-hematopoietic cells, including lung epithelial cells, influence host immune responses. By co-culturing primary alveolar epithelial cells and monocytes from naïve donor mice, we show that alveolar epithelial cells support monocyte survival and differentiation in vitro, suggesting a role for non-hematopoietic cells in monocyte differentiation during the steady state in vivo. CD103+ dendritic cells (αE-DC) are present at mucosal surfaces. Using a murine primary monocyte adoptive transfer model, we demonstrate that αE-DC in the lungs and pulmonary lymph nodes are monocyte-derived during pulmonary tuberculosis. The tissue localization may influence the functional potential of αE-DC that accumulate in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected lungs. Here, we confirm the localization of αE-DC in uninfected mice beneath the bronchial epithelial cell layer and near the vascular wall, and show that αE-DC have a similar distribution in the lungs during pulmonary tuberculosis and are detected in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from infected mice. Lung DC can be targeted by M. tuberculosis in vivo and play a role in bacterial dissemination to the draining lymph node. In contrast to other DC subsets, only a fraction of lung αE-DC are infected with the bacterium. We also show that virulent M. tuberculosis does not significantly alter cell surface expression levels of MHC class II on infected cells in vivo and that αE-DC contain the highest frequency of IL-12p40+ cells among the myeloid cell subsets in infected lungs. Our results support a model in which inflammatory monocytes are recruited into the M. tuberculosis-infected lung tissue and, depending on which non-hematopoietic cells they interact with, differentiate along different paths to give rise to multiple monocyte-derived cells, including DC with a distinctive αE-DC phenotype. PMID:23861965

  8. Wall Teichoic Acids Restrict Access of Bacteriophage Endolysin Ply118, Ply511, and PlyP40 Cell Wall Binding Domains to the Listeria monocytogenes Peptidoglycan

    PubMed Central

    Eugster, Marcel R.

    2012-01-01

    The C-terminal cell wall binding domains (CBDs) of phage endolysins direct the enzymes to their binding ligands on the bacterial cell wall with high affinity and specificity. The Listeria monocytogenes Ply118, Ply511, and PlyP40 endolysins feature related CBDs which recognize the directly cross-linked peptidoglycan backbone structure of Listeria. However, decoration with fluorescently labeled CBDs primarily occurs at the poles and septal regions of the rod-shaped cells. To elucidate the potential role of secondary cell wall-associated carbohydrates such as the abundant wall teichoic acid (WTA) on this phenomenon, we investigated CBD binding using L. monocytogenes serovar 1/2 and 4 cells deficient in WTA. Mutants were obtained by deletion of two redundant tagO homologues, whose products catalyze synthesis of the WTA linkage unit. While inactivation of either tagO1 (EGDe lmo0959) or tagO2 (EGDe lmo2519) alone did not affect WTA content, removal of both alleles following conditional complementation yielded WTA-deficient Listeria cells. Substitution of tagO from an isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactopyranoside-inducible single-copy integration vector restored the original phenotype. Although WTA-deficient cells are viable, they featured severe growth inhibition and an unusual coccoid morphology. In contrast to CBDs from other Listeria phage endolysins which directly utilize WTA as binding ligand, the data presented here show that WTAs are not required for attachment of CBD118, CBD511, and CBDP40. Instead, lack of the cell wall polymers enables unrestricted spatial access of CBDs to the cell wall surface, indicating that the abundant WTA can negatively regulate sidewall localization of the cell wall binding domains. PMID:23002226

  9. Platelet-derived growth factor (BB homodimer), transforming growth factor-beta 1, and basic fibroblast growth factor in dermal wound healing. Neovessel and matrix formation and cessation of repair.

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, G. F.; Tarpley, J. E.; Yanagihara, D.; Mustoe, T. A.; Fox, G. M.; Thomason, A.

    1992-01-01

    Recombinant platelet-derived growth factor (BB homodimer, rPDGF-BB), transforming growth factor beta 1 (rTGF-beta 1), and basic fibroblast growth factor (rbFGF) can accelerate healing of soft tissues. However, little information is available characterizing the components of wound matrix induced by these growth factors and the molecular mechanisms underlying accelerated repair and wound maturation. In this study, the composition, quantity, and rate of extracellular matrix deposition within growth factor-treated lapine ear excisional wounds were analyzed at different stages of healing using specific histochemical and immunohistochemical stains, coupled with image analysis techniques. Single application of optimal concentrations of each growth factor accelerated normal healing by 30% (P less than 0.0003); rPDGF-BB markedly augmented early glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and fibronectin deposition, but induced significantly greater levels of collagen later in the repair process, compared with untreated wounds rTGF-beta 1 treatment led to rapidly enhanced collagen synthesis and maturation, without increased GAG deposition. In contrast, rbFGF treatment induced a predominantly angiogenic response in wounds, with a marked increase in endothelia and neovessels (P less than 0.0001), and increased wound collagenolytic activity (P less than 0.03). rbFGF-treated wounds did not evolve into collagen-containing scars and continued to accumulate only provisional matrix well past wound closure. These results provide new evidence that growth factors influence wound repair via different mechanisms: 1) rPDGF-BB accelerates deposition of provisional wound matrix; 2) rTGF-beta 1 accelerates deposition and maturation of collagen; and 3) rbFGF induces a profound monocellular angiogenic response which may lead to a marked delay in wound maturation, and the possible loss of the normal signal(s) required to stop repair. These results suggest that specific growth factors may selectively regulate

  10. Interleukin-12 and interleukin-18 synergistically induce murine tumor regression which involves inhibition of angiogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, C M; Salhany, K E; Wysocka, M; Aruga, E; Kurzawa, H; Chang, A E; Hunter, C A; Fox, J C; Trinchieri, G; Lee, W M

    1998-01-01

    The antitumor effect and mechanisms activated by murine IL-12 and IL-18, cytokines that induce IFN-gamma production, were studied using engineered SCK murine mammary carcinoma cells. In syngeneic A/J mice, SCK cells expressing mIL-12 or mIL-18 were less tumorigenic and formed tumors more slowly than control cells. Neither SCK.12 nor SCK.18 cells protected significantly against tumorigenesis by distant SCK cells. However, inoculation of the two cell types together synergistically protected 70% of mice from concurrently injected distant SCK cells and 30% of mice from SCK cells established 3 d earlier. Antibody neutralization studies revealed that the antitumor effects of secreted mIL-12 and mIL-18 required IFN-gamma. Interestingly, half the survivors of SCK.12 and/or SCK.18 cells developed protective immunity suggesting that anti-SCK immunity is unlikely to be responsible for protection. Instead, angiogenesis inhibition, assayed by Matrigel implants, appeared to be a property of both SCK.12 and SCK.18 cells and the two cell types together produced significantly greater systemic inhibition of angiogenesis. This suggests that inhibition of tumor angiogenesis is an important part of the systemic antitumor effect produced by mIL-12 and mIL-18. PMID:9502787

  11. Interleukin-12 induces sustained activation of multiple host inflammatory mediator systems in chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Lauw, F N; Dekkers, P E; te Velde, A A; Speelman, P; Levi, M; Kurimoto, M; Hack, C E; van Deventer, S J; van der Poll, T

    1999-03-01

    To determine in vivo effects of interleukin (IL)-12 on host inflammatory mediator systems, 4 healthy chimpanzees received recombinant human IL-12 (1 microg/kg) by intravenous injection. IL-12 induced increases in plasma concentrations of IL-15, IL-18, and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), plus a marked antiinflammatory cytokine response (IL-10, soluble tumor necrosis factor [TNF] receptors, IL-1 receptor antagonist) and secretion of alpha-chemokines (IL-8, IFN-gamma-inducible protein 10) and beta-chemokines (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, macrophage inflammatory protein-1beta). In addition, IL-12 elicited neutrophilic leukocytosis, neutrophil degranulation (elastase-alpha1-antitrypsin complexes), coagulation activation (F1 + 2 prothrombin fragment, thrombin-antithrombin III complexes), and fibrinolytic activation (tissue-type plasminogen activator, plasmin-alpha2-antiplasmin complexes). IL-12-induced activation of multiple host mediator systems was found only after 8-24 h, remained detectable until the end of the 48-h observation period, and occurred in the absence of detectable TNF and IL-1beta. These data may contribute to understanding the role of IL-12 in the pathogenesis of sepsis syndrome and the toxicity found after repeated injections of IL-12.

  12. Activation of mononuclear cells by interleukin-12: an in vivo study in chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Lauw, F N; te Velde, A A; Dekkers, P E; Speelman, P; Aerts, J M; Hack, C E; van Deventer, S J; van der Poll, T

    1999-07-01

    Interleukin (IL)-12 is considered a central regulator of host resistance against a variety of pathogens. Therefore, IL-12 has been advocated as a potential therapeutic agent in infections. To determine the in vivo effects of IL-12 on mononuclear cells involved in the host immune response, four chimpanzees received an intravenous injection of recombinant IL-12 (1 microgram/kg). IL-12 induced a sustained decrease in lymphocyte counts, with decreases in CD3+/CD4+ and CD3+/CD8+ cells, while monocyte counts showed a transient increase. IL-12 injection resulted in a shift toward a Th1-mediated immune response as indicated by increased interferon-gamma production during whole-blood stimulation, while not influencing IL-4 production. IL-12-induced activation of NK cells and phagocytes, as indicated by increased NK cell cytotoxicity and increased plasma levels of granzymes A and B and of chitotriosidase activity. These data support the hypothesis that IL-12 may serve as a useful therapeutic agent in infections where a cell-mediated response is protective.

  13. Prostaglandin-E2 is a potent inhibitor of human interleukin 12 production

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    During human immunodeficiency virus infection and allergic diseases, characterized by a dominant T helper (Th) 2 response, overproduction of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is observed. In this paper we studied the effect of PGE2 on interleukin (IL)-12 synthesis, because this cytokine has been described to be essential in induction of Th1 responses. IL-12 synthesis was induced in monocytes that were stimulated with Neisseria meningitidis-derived lipopolysaccharide in whole blood cultures. PGE2 almost completely inhibited lipopolysaccharide induced IL-12 production, whereas IL-6 production was only partially inhibited by PGE2. In contrast, the production of IL-10 was approximately twofold enhanced at these conditions. The effects of PGE2 were due to its cAMP- inducing capacity, since they could be mimicked by other cAMP inducers. Recombinant human IL-10 also inhibited IL-12 and IL-6 production. However, the inhibitory effect of PGE2 on IL-12 production was independent of IL-10 since neutralizing anti-IL-10 antibodies were unable to reverse this inhibition. These results suggest that the capacity of an antigen to induce PGE2 synthesis may play a crucial role in the development of either a Th1 or Th2 response. PMID:7836930

  14. Interleukin-12 Followed by Interferon Alfa in Treating Patients With Advanced Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-31

    Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Precancerous Condition; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  15. Interleukin-12 in Treating Patients With Previously Treated Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma or Hodgkin's Disease

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-14

    Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  16. Rituximab and Interleukin-12 in Treating Patients With B-Cell Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-08-23

    Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma

  17. Disseminated BCG in an infant with interleukin-12 receptor B1 (IL12RB1) deficiency.

    PubMed

    Senanayake, Manouri P; Kumararatne, D S; Doffinger, Rainer; Barcenas-Morales, Gabriela

    2015-02-01

    Although neonatal vaccination with bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is considered to be safe, complications with disseminated disease are associated with underlying immuno-deficiency disorders. A BCG-vaccinated 4-month-old girl of Sri Lankan parentage developed progressive left axillary lymphadenopathy and severe bronchopneumonia. Lymph node biopsy demonstrated epithelioid granulomata and acid-fast bacilli. An older sibling had had a similar clinical presentation and the outcome had been fatal. Investigation for immuno-deficiency detected complete IL12RB1 deficiency. Full recovery followed a prolonged course of anti-tuberculous chemotherapy. She was put on lifelong isoniazid prophylaxis. In HIV-negative infants with unusual complications related to BCG vaccination, a primary immuno-deficiency disorder should be considered. PMID:24863105

  18. Interleukin-12 Immunomodulation Delays the Onset of Lethal Peritoneal Disease of Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Courtney A; Shea, Amanda A; Heffron, C Lynn; Schmelz, Eva M; Roberts, Paul C

    2016-01-01

    The omental fat band (OFB) is the predominant site for metastatic seeding of ovarian cancer. Previously, we highlighted the influx and accumulation of neutrophils and macrophages in the OFB following syngeneic ovarian cancer cell seeding as an important factor in the development of a protumorigenic cascade. Here we investigated localized immunomodulation as a means of promoting a successful protective response. As an important TH1-type immunomodulator, interleukin (IL)-12 has previously been investigated clinically as an anticancer therapeutic. However, systemic IL-12 administration was associated with serious side effects, galvanizing the development of immune or accessory cells engineered to express secreted or membrane-bound IL-12 (mbIL-12). Using an mbIL-12-expressing cell variant, we demonstrate that localized IL-12 in the tumor microenvironment significantly delays disease development. The mbIL-12-mediated decrease in tumor burden was associated with a significant reduction in neutrophil and macrophage infiltration in the OFB, and correlated with a reduced expression of neutrophil and macrophage chemoattractants (CXCL1, -2, -3 and CCL2, -7). Vaccination with mitotically impaired tumor cells did not confer protection against subsequent tumor challenge, indicating that IL-12 did not impact the immunogenicity of the cancer cells. Our findings are in agreement with previous reports suggesting that IL-12 may hold promise when delivered in a targeted and sustained manner to the omental microenvironment. Furthermore, resident cells within the omental microenvironment may provide a reservoir that can be activated and mobilized to prevent metastatic seeding within the peritoneum and, therefore, may be targets for chemotherapeutics.

  19. Interleukin-12 and Interleukin-2 in Treating Patients With Mycosis Fungoides

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-15

    Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Stage I Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage I Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Stage II Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage II Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Stage III Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage III Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Stage IV Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage IV Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome

  20. Interleukin-12 in Treating Patients With Hematologic Cancers or Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-09-09

    Breast Cancer; Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders; Gestational Trophoblastic Tumor; Kidney Cancer; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Neuroblastoma; Ovarian Cancer; Testicular Germ Cell Tumor

  1. Interleukin-12, Paclitaxel, and Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-03

    Male Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Endometrial Carcinoma; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Small Cell Lung Cancer

  2. Down-regulation of RpS21, a putative translation initiation factor interacting with P40, produces viable minute imagos and larval lethality with overgrown hematopoietic organs and imaginal discs.

    PubMed

    Török, I; Herrmann-Horle, D; Kiss, I; Tick, G; Speer, G; Schmitt, R; Mechler, B M

    1999-03-01

    Down-regulation of the Drosophila ribosomal protein S21 gene (rpS21) causes a dominant weak Minute phenotype and recessively produces massive hyperplasia of the hematopoietic organs and moderate overgrowth of the imaginal discs during larval development. Here, we show that the S21 protein (RpS21) is bound to native 40S ribosomal subunits in a salt-labile association and is absent from polysomes, indicating that it acts as a translation initiation factor rather than as a core ribosomal protein. RpS21 can interact strongly with P40, a ribosomal peripheral protein encoded by the stubarista (sta) gene. Genetic studies reveal that P40 underexpression drastically enhances imaginal disc overgrowth in rpS21-deficient larvae, whereas viable combinations between rpS21 and sta affect the morphology of bristles, antennae, and aristae. These data demonstrate a strong interaction between components of the translation machinery and showed that their underexpression impairs the control of cell proliferation in both hematopoietic organs and imaginal discs.

  3. KM(+), a lectin from Artocarpus integrifolia, induces IL-12 p40 production by macrophages and switches from type 2 to type 1 cell-mediated immunity against Leishmania major antigens, resulting in BALB/c mice resistance to infection.

    PubMed

    Panunto-Castelo, A; Souza, M A; Roque-Barreira, M C; Silva, J S

    2001-12-01

    The outcome and severity of some diseases correlate with the dominance of either the T helper 1 (Th1) or Th2 immune response, which is stimulated by IL-12 or IL-4, respectively. In the present study we demonstrate that gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) secretion by murine spleen cells stimulated with KM(+), a mannose-binding lectin from Artocarpus integrifolia, is due to IL-12 induction, because (1) macrophages from several sources (including cell lines) produced IL-12 p40 in response to KM(+), and (2) lectin-free supernatants from J774 cell line cultures stimulated with KM(+) induced the secretion of IFN-gamma by spleen cell cultures, an effect blocked by the supernatant pretreatment with anti-IL-12 antibody. The known pattern of susceptibility of BALB/c mice to infection with Leishmania major, attributed to high levels of IL-4 production leading to a Th2 nonprotective immune response, was modified by administration of KM(+). Draining lymph node cells from these immunized BALB/c mice (in contrast to cells from animals immunized only with soluble leishmanial antigen [SLA]) secreted high levels of IFN-gamma and low levels of IL-4, which characterized a Th1 rather than a Th2 response pattern. The footpad thickness of BALB/c mice immunized with SLA plus KM(+) and challenged with L. major was similar to that of uninfected mice. This beneficial effect against leishmanial infection was blocked by pretreatment of these mice with anti-IL-12 antibody. These observations indicate that KM(+) induces IL-12 p40 in vivo and has a protective effect against L. major infection.

  4. The relationship of pulp polyp with the presence and concentration of immunoglobulin E, histamine, interleukin-4 and interleukin-12.

    PubMed

    Sattari, Mandana; Haghighi, Ali K; Tamijani, Hasan D

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between pulp polyp formation and immunoglobulin E (IgE), histamine and interleukin-4 (IL-4) as the most important mediators which are involved in allergy. Thirty-two samples including 16 pulp polyps and 16 normal pulps were gathered. After homogenising the pulpal tissue samples, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) techniques were used to assess the concentration of IgE, histamine, IL-4 and IL-12. The two groups showed statistically significant differences in terms of both the concentration and presence of IgE, histamine and IL-4 (P < 0.001); both presence and concentration of IgE, histamine and IL-4 were higher in pulp polyps than in normal pulps. There is not any significant difference between case and control groups regarding IL-12. The results of this study give rise to the possibility of type I hypersensitivity reaction being involved in pulp polyp's pathogenesis. PMID:19961456

  5. The roles of tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1 and interleukin-12 in murine cytomegalovirus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Yerkovich, S T; Olver, S D; Lenzo, J C; Peacock, C D; Price, P

    1997-01-01

    The roles of the inflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 (IL-1) and IL-12, in murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) disease were investigated in susceptible BALB/c and resistant C57BL/6 mice. MCMV infection induced IL-1 and TNF-alpha production by peritoneal cells from BALB/c mice, as demonstrated previously in C57BL/6 mice. Overt ill-health and viral replication in the spleens of BALB/c mice were increased by in vivo treatment with soluble TNF-alpha receptors to inhibit the activity of this cytokine, whilst antibodies to IL-12 had a similar but more restricted effect C57BL/6 mice were not affected by either treatment, suggesting TNF-alpha and IL-12 are not critical for natural killer cell-mediated restriction of viral replication in the spleen. Soluble TNF-alpha receptors and antibodies to IL-12 also enhanced MCMV titres and numbers of viral antigen-positive cells in the livers of BALB/c mice and TNF-alpha receptors have similar effects in C57BL/6 livers. In contrast, IL-1 receptors improved the health of MCMV-infected BALB/c mice and reduced viral replication and hepatitis at some time-points. Mechanisms which may underlie these changes are discussed. PMID:9203964

  6. Modulation of host responses to blood-stage malaria by interleukin-12: from therapy to adjuvant activity.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, M M; Su, Z; Sam, H; Mohan, K

    2001-01-01

    This review focuses on the role of interleukin (IL)-12, a proinflammatory cytokine with pleiotropic effects as a potent immunoregulatory molecule and hematopoietic growth factor, in infection with Plasmodium parasites, the causative agents of malaria. IL-12 has been demonstrated to have profound effects on the immune response to blood-stage malaria, to induce protection, and to alleviate malarial anemia. In combination with an anti-malarial drug, IL-12 is effective in an established malaria infection. This cytokine also has potent immune effects as a malaria vaccine adjuvant. However, IL-12 can also mediate pathology during blood-stage malaria.

  7. Enhancement of the antiangiogenic activity of interleukin-12 by peptide targeted delivery of the cytokine to alphavbeta3 integrin.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Erin B; Akhtar, Nasim; Steinberg, Howard; Wang, Zun-Yi; Lindstrom, Mary J; Padilla, Marcia L; Auerbach, Robert; Helfand, Stuart C

    2004-12-01

    We engineered a fusion protein, mrIL-12vp [mouse recombinant interleukin (IL)-12 linked to vascular peptide], linking the vascular homing peptide CDCRGDCFC (RGD-4C), a ligand for alphavbeta3 integrin, to mrIL-12 to target IL-12 directly to tumor neovasculature. The fusion protein stimulated IFN-gamma production in vitro and in vivo, indicating its biological activity was consistent with mrIL-12. Immunofluorescence techniques showed mrIL-12vp specifically bound to alphavbeta3 integrin-positive cells but not to alphavbeta3 integrin-negative cells. In corneal angiogenesis assays using BALB/c mice treated with either 0.5 microg/mouse/d of mrIL-12vp or mrIL-12 delivered by subcutaneous continuous infusion, mrIL-12vp inhibited corneal neovascularization by 67% compared with only a slight reduction (13%) in angiogenesis in the mrIL-12-treated animals (P = 0.008). IL-12 receptor knockout mice given mrIL-12vp showed a marked decrease in the area of corneal neovascularization compared with mice treated with mrIL-12. These results indicate that mrIL-12vp inhibits angiogenesis through IL-12-dependent and IL-12-independent mechanisms, and its augmented antiangiogenic activity may be due to suppression of endothelial cell signaling pathways by the RGD-4C portion of the fusion protein. Mice injected with NXS2 neuroblastoma cells and treated with mrIL-12vp showed significant suppression of tumor growth compared with mice treated with mrIL-12 (P = 0.03). Mice did not show signs of IL-12 toxicity when treated with mrIL-12vp, although hepatic necrosis was present in mrIL-12-treated mice. Localization of IL-12 to neovasculature significantly enhances the antiangiogenic effect, augments antitumor activity, and decreases toxicity of IL-12, offering a promising strategy for expanding development of IL-12 for treatment of cancer patients.

  8. Lysis of neuroblastoma cell lines by human natural killer cells activated by interleukin-2 and interleukin-12.

    PubMed

    Rossi, A R; Pericle, F; Rashleigh, S; Janiec, J; Djeu, J Y

    1994-03-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial, solid tumor in children. Despite intensive chemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation, the 5-year projected survival rate is 20% to 25%. In vitro studies have shown enhanced natural killer cell (NK) lysis of tumor cells after exposure of NK cells to interleukin-2 (IL-2). In vivo studies have demonstrated similar immunologic effects but have also revealed severe toxicities associated with the use of IL-2. IL-12 is a newly described cytokine that has several properties, including the ability to act synergistically with IL-2 in generating lymphokine-activated killer cells (LAK) against known tumor targets. We investigated the role of IL-12 in the generation of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) lysis of neuroblastoma cell lines. PBMC were activated with IL-12 alone and in combination with IL-2. Whereas IL-12 alone produced only modest enhancement of NK cell cytotoxicity, the combination of IL-2 and IL-12 was most effective in activating NK cell lysis of neuroblastoma cell lines. Further, we showed that large granular lymphocytes were the effector cells involved in target cell lysis. Finally, the CD18 molecule was shown to be critical in the lysis of neuroblastoma cells by activated PBMC.

  9. Defining the functional binding sites of interleukin 12 receptor β1 and interleukin 23 receptor to Janus kinases

    PubMed Central

    Floss, Doreen M.; Klöcker, Tobias; Schröder, Jutta; Lamertz, Larissa; Mrotzek, Simone; Strobl, Birgit; Hermanns, Heike; Scheller, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The interleukin (IL)-12–type cytokines IL-12 and IL-23 are involved in T-helper (Th) 1 and Th17 immunity, respectively. They share the IL-12 receptor β1 (IL-12Rβ1) as one component of their receptor signaling complexes, with IL-12Rβ2 as second receptor for IL-12 and IL-23R for IL-23 signal transduction. Stimulation with IL-12 and IL-23 results in activation of receptor-associated Janus kinases (Jak) and phosphorylation of STAT proteins in target cells. The Janus kinase tyrosine kinase (Tyk) 2 associates with IL-12Rβ1, whereas Jak2 binds to IL-23R and also to IL-12Rβ2. Receptor association of Jak2 is mediated by Box1 and Box2 motifs located within the intracellular domain of the receptor chains. Here we define the Box1 and Box2 motifs in IL-12Rβ1 and an unusual Jak2-binding site in IL-23R by the use of deletion and site-directed mutagenesis. Our data show that nonfunctional box motifs abolish IL-12– and IL-23–induced STAT3 phosphorylation and cytokine-dependent proliferation of Ba/F3 cells. Coimmunoprecipitation of Tyk2 by IL-12Rβ1 and Jak2 by IL‑23R supported these findings. In addition, our data demonstrate that association of Jak2 with IL-23R is mandatory for IL-12 and/or IL-23 signaling, whereas Tyk2 seems to be dispensable. PMID:27193299

  10. Dichloroacetate modulates cytokines toward T helper 1 function via induction of the interleukin-12–interferon-γ pathway

    PubMed Central

    Badr, Mujtaba M; Qinna, Nidal A; Qadan, Fadi; Matalka, Khalid Z

    2014-01-01

    Background Dichloroacetate (DCA) is one of the new, promising anticancer drugs. DCA restores normal mitochondrial function and enables cancer cells to undergo apoptosis. In addition, DCA was found to modulate certain signaling pathways involving some transcription factors. The latter encouraged us to study DCA immunomodulatory activity on cytokines and their association with increasing DCA cancer cell cytotoxicity. Methods and results Cell viability assay was used to determine the effect of different concentrations of DCA on the survival of 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA) fibrosarcoma cell line. DCA decreased the percent survival of MCA fibrosarcoma in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.01). Furthermore, this percent survival was further reduced when MCA fibrosarcoma cells were cocultured with mouse splenocytes. The latter was observed at 10 mM DCA (P<0.01), and the inhibitory concentration at 50% dropped from 23 mM to 15.6 mM DCA (P<0.05). In addition, DCA significantly enhanced interferon (IFN)-γ but not interleukin (IL)-17 production levels in unstimulated and stimulated mouse spleen cells. To investigate the mechanism of DCA on IFN-γ production, DCA cytokine modulatory effect was tested on unstimulated macrophages, T-cells, and natural killer cells. DCA significantly increased IL-12 production from macrophages but did not modulate the production of IFN-γ from either T-cells or natural killer cells. Moreover, the DCA-enhancing effect on IFN-γ production was reversed by anti-IL-12 antibody. Also, the DCA cytokine modulatory effect was tested in vivo after inducing mouse skin inflammation using phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). DCA restored PMA-lowered IFN-γ and IL-12 levels and normalized PMA-increased transforming growth factor-β level, but it inhibited IL-10 levels even further (P<0.05). Conclusion DCA has immunomodulatory activity, mainly via activation of the IL-12–IFN-γ pathway and is able to modulate cytokines toward T helper 1 lymphocyte function. These DCA immunomodulatory effects are promising and further investigations are required to develop protocols for its use in cancer treatment. PMID:24532971

  11. Clinical improvement in feline herpesvirus 1 infected cats by oral low dose of interleukin-12 plus interferon-gamma.

    PubMed

    Fiorito, Filomena; Cantiello, Antonietta; Granato, Giovanna Elvira; Navas, Luigi; Diffidenti, Carmine; De Martino, Luisa; Maharajan, Veeramani; Olivieri, Fabio; Pagnini, Ugo; Iovane, Giuseppe

    2016-10-01

    Feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1) is a widespread cat pathogen inducing rhinitis, conjunctivitis and corneal ulcers. To alleviate acute FHV-1-induced disease, antiviral agents are used often with antibiotics. But sometimes, these treatments, as well as conventional doses of cytokines have moderate efficacy and/or collateral effects. Herein we have investigated the effects of low dose interleukin (IL)-12 plus interferon (IFN)-gamma, prepared by Sequential Kinetic Activated (SKA), on the treatment of FHV-1 infection. Twenty-five, unvaccinated FHV-1-positive cats were recruited into a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded clinical trial. Fifteen cats were treated for 6 months with oral low doses of SKA IL-12 plus IFN-gamma and 10 cats were treated with placebo. At 1, 6 and 12 months (follow-up) after the beginning of treatment, clinical assessment, PCR assay and blood count were carried out. At follow-up, in treated group, we observed significant (p<0.05) improvements in clinical signs and PCR became negative in 12/15 cats (80%). In placebo, 10/10 cats were PCR-positive, with improvements (30%) or worsening (70%) in clinical signs. Blood values were normal in both groups. Our results show that the low dose therapy, based on activated solutions of IL-12 plus IFN-gamma, represents a novel approach to treat FHV-1 infection in cats. PMID:27638118

  12. Type 1 T-helper cell predominance and interleukin-12 expression in the gut of patients with Crohn's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Parronchi, P.; Romagnani, P.; Annunziato, F.; Sampognaro, S.; Becchio, A.; Giannarini, L.; Maggi, E.; Pupilli, C.; Tonelli, F.; Romagnani, S.

    1997-01-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic bowel inflammatory disorder in which the pathogenic role of immune alterations has been suggested, but the immunologic mechanisms responsible for the inflammatory reaction are still poorly understood. We investigated the profile of cytokine secretion by T-cell clones generated from gut tissue specimens of four patients with active CD, five patients with ulcerative colitis, and four patients with noninflammatory gut disorders (NIGDs). The great majority of CD4+ T-cell clones generated from the gut of patients with CD produced high levels of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) but low or undetectable amounts of interleukin-4 (IL-4), whereas substantial proportions of CD4+ T-cell clones derived from the gut of patients with either ulcerative colitis or NIGDs produced IL-4 in addition to IFN-gamma. The immunohistochemical analysis revealed high numbers of activated CD4+ T cells showing IFN-gamma but not IL-4 reactivity, as well as substantial proportions of IL-12-containing macrophages, in the intestinal lamina propria and muscularis propria of patients with CD, whereas these cells were very rare or undetectable in patients with NIGDs. Culturing T cells from gut biopsy specimens of a patient with CD in the presence of a neutralizing anti-IL-12 antibody down-regulated the development of IFN-gamma-producing CD4+ T cells. These findings suggest that a critical event in the initiation of bowel inflammatory lesions in CD may involve up-regulation of IL-12 production, resulting in conditions that maximally promote type 1 T-helper immune responses. Images Figure 2 PMID:9060820

  13. Defining the functional binding sites of interleukin 12 receptor β1 and interleukin 23 receptor to Janus kinases.

    PubMed

    Floss, Doreen M; Klöcker, Tobias; Schröder, Jutta; Lamertz, Larissa; Mrotzek, Simone; Strobl, Birgit; Hermanns, Heike; Scheller, Jürgen

    2016-07-15

    The interleukin (IL)-12-type cytokines IL-12 and IL-23 are involved in T-helper (Th) 1 and Th17 immunity, respectively. They share the IL-12 receptor β1 (IL-12Rβ1) as one component of their receptor signaling complexes, with IL-12Rβ2 as second receptor for IL-12 and IL-23R for IL-23 signal transduction. Stimulation with IL-12 and IL-23 results in activation of receptor-associated Janus kinases (Jak) and phosphorylation of STAT proteins in target cells. The Janus kinase tyrosine kinase (Tyk) 2 associates with IL-12Rβ1, whereas Jak2 binds to IL-23R and also to IL-12Rβ2. Receptor association of Jak2 is mediated by Box1 and Box2 motifs located within the intracellular domain of the receptor chains. Here we define the Box1 and Box2 motifs in IL-12Rβ1 and an unusual Jak2-binding site in IL-23R by the use of deletion and site-directed mutagenesis. Our data show that nonfunctional box motifs abolish IL-12- and IL-23-induced STAT3 phosphorylation and cytokine-dependent proliferation of Ba/F3 cells. Coimmunoprecipitation of Tyk2 by IL-12Rβ1 and Jak2 by IL‑23R supported these findings. In addition, our data demonstrate that association of Jak2 with IL-23R is mandatory for IL-12 and/or IL-23 signaling, whereas Tyk2 seems to be dispensable.

  14. Interleukin-18, interleukin-12B and interferon-γ gene polymorphisms in Brazilian patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Angelo, H D; Gomes Silva, I I F; Oliveira, R D R; Louzada-Júnior, P; Donadi, E A; Crovella, S; Maia, M M D; de Souza, P R E; Sandrin-Garcia, P

    2015-10-01

    Polymorphisms in interleukin (IL)-18, IL-12 and interferon (IFN)-γ genes are associated with different levels of cytokines expression and have been associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). IL-18 +105 A/C, IL-12B +1188 A/C and IFN-γ +874 T/A polymorphisms were analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and amplification refractory mutation system PCR from 90 RA patients and 186 healthy individuals. There were significant differences to IL-18 +105 A/C polymorphism between the RA and control groups (odds ratio = 3.77; P < 0.0001). Individual carriers of the variant allele C had a 3.77-fold increased risk of for RA (P = 0.0032). No association was observed for IL-12B and IFN-γ polymorphisms. Our finds suggest a possible role for IL-18 polymorphism in the RA susceptibility in studied population. PMID:26302971

  15. Modulation of host responses to blood-stage malaria by interleukin-12: from therapy to adjuvant activity.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, M M; Su, Z; Sam, H; Mohan, K

    2001-01-01

    This review focuses on the role of interleukin (IL)-12, a proinflammatory cytokine with pleiotropic effects as a potent immunoregulatory molecule and hematopoietic growth factor, in infection with Plasmodium parasites, the causative agents of malaria. IL-12 has been demonstrated to have profound effects on the immune response to blood-stage malaria, to induce protection, and to alleviate malarial anemia. In combination with an anti-malarial drug, IL-12 is effective in an established malaria infection. This cytokine also has potent immune effects as a malaria vaccine adjuvant. However, IL-12 can also mediate pathology during blood-stage malaria. PMID:11226854

  16. Interleukin-18, interleukin-12B and interferon-γ gene polymorphisms in Brazilian patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Angelo, H D; Gomes Silva, I I F; Oliveira, R D R; Louzada-Júnior, P; Donadi, E A; Crovella, S; Maia, M M D; de Souza, P R E; Sandrin-Garcia, P

    2015-10-01

    Polymorphisms in interleukin (IL)-18, IL-12 and interferon (IFN)-γ genes are associated with different levels of cytokines expression and have been associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). IL-18 +105 A/C, IL-12B +1188 A/C and IFN-γ +874 T/A polymorphisms were analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and amplification refractory mutation system PCR from 90 RA patients and 186 healthy individuals. There were significant differences to IL-18 +105 A/C polymorphism between the RA and control groups (odds ratio = 3.77; P < 0.0001). Individual carriers of the variant allele C had a 3.77-fold increased risk of for RA (P = 0.0032). No association was observed for IL-12B and IFN-γ polymorphisms. Our finds suggest a possible role for IL-18 polymorphism in the RA susceptibility in studied population.

  17. Sirtuin 1 Is a Key Regulator of the Interleukin-12 p70/Interleukin-23 Balance in Human Dendritic Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Yolanda; Rodríguez, Mario; Municio, Cristina; Hugo, Etzel; Alonso, Sara; Ibarrola, Nieves; Fernández, Nieves; Crespo, Mariano Sánchez

    2012-01-01

    Stimulation of human dendritic cells with the fungal surrogate zymosan produces IL-23 and a low amount of IL-12 p70. Trans-repression of il12a transcription, which encodes IL-12 p35 chain, by proteins of the Notch family and lysine deacetylation reactions have been reported as the underlying mechanisms, but a number of questions remain to be addressed. Zymosan produced the location of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) to the nucleus, enhanced its association with the il12a promoter, increased the nuclear concentration of the SIRT1 co-substrate NAD+, and decreased chromatin accessibility in the nucleosome-1 of il12a, which contains a κB-site. The involvement of deacetylation reactions in the inhibition of il12a transcription was supported by the absence of Ac-Lys-14-histone H3 in dendritic cells treated with zymosan upon coimmunoprecipitation of transducin-like enhancer of split. In contrast, we did not obtain evidence of a possible effect of SIRT1 through the deacetylation of c-Rel, the central element of the NF-κB family involved in il12a regulation. These data indicate that an enhancement of SIRT1 activity in response to phagocytic stimuli may reduce the accessibility of c-Rel to the il12a promoter and its transcriptional activation, thus regulating the IL-12 p70/IL-23 balance and modulating the ongoing immune response. PMID:22893703

  18. Interleukin-12 and Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Cancer That Has High Levels of HER2/Neu

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-02-27

    Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer; Bone Metastases; Carcinoma of the Appendix; Distal Urethral Cancer; Fallopian Tube Cancer; Gastrinoma; Glucagonoma; Inflammatory Breast Cancer; Insulinoma; Liver Metastases; Localized Unresectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Lung Metastases; Male Breast Cancer; Malignant Pericardial Effusion; Malignant Pleural Effusion; Metastatic Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Metastatic Parathyroid Cancer; Metastatic Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Newly Diagnosed Carcinoma of Unknown Primary; Occult Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Proximal Urethral Cancer; Pulmonary Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Adrenocortical Carcinoma; Recurrent Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Anal Cancer; Recurrent Bladder Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Carcinoma of Unknown Primary; Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Endometrial Carcinoma; Recurrent Esophageal Cancer; Recurrent Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Recurrent Gallbladder Cancer; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Islet Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Recurrent Parathyroid Cancer; Recurrent Prostate Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Recurrent Renal Cell Cancer; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Small Intestine Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Thyroid Cancer; Recurrent Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Recurrent Urethral Cancer; Recurrent Vaginal Cancer; Recurrent Vulvar Cancer; Skin Metastases; Small Intestine Adenocarcinoma; Somatostatinoma; Stage III Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Adrenocortical Carcinoma; Stage III Bladder Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Colon Cancer; Stage III Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage III Esophageal Cancer; Stage III Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage III Gastric Cancer; Stage III Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Stage III Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage III Prostate Cancer; Stage III Rectal Cancer; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer; Stage III Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage III Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIA Anal Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Anal Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Adrenocortical Carcinoma; Stage IV Anal Cancer; Stage IV Bladder Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Colon Cancer; Stage IV Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IV Esophageal Cancer; Stage IV Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IV Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IV Prostate Cancer; Stage IV Rectal Cancer; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Vaginal Cancer; Stage IVB Vulvar Cancer; Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Unresectable Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Unresectable Gallbladder Cancer; Urethral Cancer Associated With Invasive Bladder Cancer; WDHA Syndrome

  19. Non-heat pipe receiver/p-40 Stirling engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haglund, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    The technology for a full-up hybrid dish-Stirling Solar Thermal Power system is discussed. Overall solar-to-electric efficiency for the dish-Stirling system demonstration is approximately 30%. Hybrid operation is provided by fossil fuel combustion augmentation, which enables the Stirling engine to operate continuously at constant speed and power, regardless of insolation level, thus providing the capability to operate on cloudy days and at night.

  20. A convenient cancer vaccine therapy with in vivo transfer of interleukin 12 expression plasmid using gene gun technology after priming with irradiated carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Nishitani, Masa-aki; Sakai, Tohru; Ishii, Kazunari; Zhang, Manxin; Nakano, Yoko; Nitta, Yoshio; Miyazaki, Jun-ichi; Kanayama, Hiro-omi; Kagawa, Susumu; Himeno, Kunisuke

    2002-02-01

    We studied interleukin (IL)-12 gene therapy using a gene gun as a new autologous vaccination strategy for cancer. In the first experiment, BALB/c mice were inoculated with syngeneic murine renal cancer cells (Renca) intradermally in the abdomen. This was followed by an injection of IL-12 expression plasmid using the gene gun. About 40% of the mice exhibited rejection of the tumor after the treatment and these mice also acquired immunological resistance against a secondary challenge with Renca cells. Based on these results, we examined whether antitumor activity can be potentiated when mice undergo combination treatment with intradermal inoculation of irradiated Renca cells and transfection with IL-12 gene. Inoculation of irradiated Renca cells alone was partially effective in inducing antitumor immunity, whereas the combined treatment remarkably intensified this effect. Moreover, this combined treatment inhibited tumor establishment and enhanced survival of the mice with tumor infiltration by CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, even when the treatment was started after tumor-implantation at a distant site. This antitumor effect was antigen specific and we confirmed the induction of antitumor cytotoxic T cells by this treatment. These results show that local cutaneous transfer of IL-12 expression plasmid using gene gun technology enhances systemic and specific antitumor immunity primed by irradiated tumor cells.

  1. In vivo electroporation-mediated transfer of interleukin-12 and interleukin-18 genes induces significant antitumor effects against melanoma in mice.

    PubMed

    Kishida, T; Asada, H; Satoh, E; Tanaka, S; Shinya, M; Hirai, H; Iwai, M; Tahara, H; Imanishi, J; Mazda, O

    2001-08-01

    Direct intratumoral transfection of cytokine genes was performed by means of the in vivo electroporation as a novel therapeutic strategy for cancer. Plasmid vectors carrying the firefly luciferase, interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-18 genes were injected into established subcutaneous B16-derived melanomas followed by electric pulsation. When plasmid vectors with Epstein--Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) gene were employed, the expression levels of the transgenes were significantly higher in comparison with those obtained with conventional plasmid vectors. In consequence of the transfection with IL-12 and IL-18 genes, serum concentrations of the cytokines were significantly elevated, while interferon (IFN)-gamma also increased in the sera of the animals. The IL-12 gene transfection resulted in significant suppression of tumor growth, while the therapeutic effect was further improved by co-transfection with IL-12 and IL-18 genes. Repetitive co-transfection with IL-12 and IL-18 genes resulted in significant prolongation of survival of the animals. Natural killer (NK) and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activities were markedly enhanced in the mice transfected with the cytokine genes. The present data suggest that the cytokine gene transfer can be successfully achieved by in vivo electroporation, leading to both specific and nonspecific antitumoral immune responses and significant therapeutic outcome. PMID:11509956

  2. [Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) disease and interleukin 12 receptor β1 deficiency: clinical experience of two familial and one sporadic case].

    PubMed

    Strickler, Alexis; Pérez, Amir; Risco, Migdy; Gallo, Silvanna

    2014-08-01

    BCG disease has been reported in primary and secondary immunodeficiency and as Mendelian Susceptibility to Mycobacterial Diseases (MSMD). Investigation of this syndrome has led to the identifications of a series of genetic, inherited defects in the IL-12/IFN-γ axis. MSMD-causing mutations have been found in seven autosomal and two X-linked genes. In these patients, local or disseminated vaccine BCG infections are common. We report a clinical series including two infants with left axillary adenitis ipsilateral to the site of neonatal BCG immunization; one of them member of a family with two previously reported cases and a single sporadic case. All of them were diagnosed sequentially in Puerto Montt, Chile. The aim of this report is to notify the first Chilean disseminated BCG patients without previous immunodeficiency, in whom it was possible to identify an underlying immunodeficiency, although specific tests for IL-12/IFN-γ axis was no performed in our country. Clinical suspicion and international collaboration permitted to confirm IL12-Rβ1 deficiency in 2 of 3 familial cases and a sporadic case.

  3. Cell-surface bound pertussis toxin induces polyclonal T cell responses with high levels of interferon-gamma in the absence of interleukin-12.

    PubMed

    Wakatsuki, Ayako; Borrow, Persephone; Rigley, Kevin; Beverley, Peter C L

    2003-07-01

    Pertussis toxin (PTx), an exotoxin produced by Bordetella pertussis, has long been used as a mucosal adjuvant. We examined the T cell stimulatory properties of PTx in order to dissect its mechanisms of adjuvanticity. PTx or the B-oligomer of PTx (PTxB) failed to activate purified murine CD4+ or CD8+ T cells, as measured by a lack of proliferation or expression of early T cell activation markers. However, these T cells proliferated extensively in response to the toxin in the presence of syngeneic DC, and proliferation was accompanied by a high level of IFN-gamma production in the absence of IL-12. Interestingly, such responses were independent of signals mediated by MHC-TCR interaction. Both PTx and PTxB were found to bind stably to the surface of DC, and increased the adherence of DC to surrounding cells. These data suggest that polyclonal T cell responses mediated by the toxin are likely to be caused by the toxin bound on the surface of APC, either cross-linking cell surface molecules on T cells, or directly stimulating T cells together with the co-stimulatory molecules expressed on APC. B. pertussis may use this toxin as a mechanism to evade a specific immune response. PMID:12811846

  4. Therapeutic Administration of KM+ Lectin Protects Mice Against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Infection via Interleukin-12 Production in a Toll-Like Receptor 2-Dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Coltri, Kely C.; Oliveira, Leandro L.; Pinzan, Camila F.; Vendruscolo, Patrícia E.; Martinez, Roberto; Goldman, Maria Helena; Panunto-Castelo, Ademilson; Roque-Barreira, Maria-Cristina

    2008-01-01

    KM+ is a mannose-binding lectin from Artocarpus integrifolia that induces interleukin (IL)-12 production by macrophages and protective T helper 1 immune response against Leishmania major infection. In this study, we performed experiments to evaluate the therapeutic activity of jackfruit KM+ (jfKM+) and its recombinant counterpart (rKM+) in experimental paracoccidioidomycosis. To this end, jfKM+ or rKM+ was administered to BALB/c mice 10 days after infection with Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis. Thirty days postinfection, lungs from the KM+-treated mice contained significantly fewer colony-forming units and little to no organized granulomas compared to the controls. In addition, lung homogenates from the KM+-treated mice presented higher levels of nitric oxide, IL-12, interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor-α, whereas higher levels of IL-4 and IL-10 were detected in the control group. With mice deficient in IL-12, Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, TLR4, or TLR adaptor molecule MyD88, we demonstrated that KM+ led to protection against P. brasiliensis infection through IL-12 production, which was dependent on TLR2. These results demonstrated a beneficial effect of KM+ on the severity of P. brasiliensis infection and may expand its potential use as a novel immunotherapeutic molecule. PMID:18599609

  5. The Effect of Aqueous Garlic Extract on Interleukin-12 and 10 Levels in Leishmania major (MRHO/IR/75/ER) Infected Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Gharavi, MJ; Nobakht, M; Khademvatan, S; Fani, F; Bakhshayesh, M; Roozbehani, M

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to investigate the immunomodulation effects of aqueous garlic extract (AGE) in the cultured macrophages infected by Leishmania major. Methods: After J774 macrophages proliferation in RPMI1640 and incubation with Leishmania for 72 hours, AGE was added in doses of 9.25, 18.5, 37, 74 and 148 mg/ml for 18, 24 and 48 hours and cell culture supernatants were harvested. The Leishmania infected J774 cells to assess the cell viability was examined using trypan blue and methylthiazol tetrazolium assay (MTT). An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed on cell culture supernatants for measurement of interleukin IL-10 and IL-12. Results: Dose of 37 mg/ml for 48 hours of garlic extract was the most potent dose for activation of amastigotes infected macrophages. In addition, AGE increased the level of IL-12 in Leishmania infected cell lines significantly. Conclusions: AGE treated cell is effective against parasitic pathogens, and AGE induced IL-12 differentially affected the immune response to invading Leishmania parasites. PMID:23113109

  6. Notch- and Transducin-like Enhancer of Split (TLE)-dependent Histone Deacetylation Explain Interleukin 12 (IL-12) p70 Inhibition by Zymosan*

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Yolanda; Municio, Cristina; Hugo, Etzel; Zhu, Jimmy; Alonso, Sara; Hu, Xiaoyu; Fernández, Nieves; Crespo, Mariano Sánchez

    2011-01-01

    The fungal analog zymosan induces IL-23 and low amounts of IL-12 p70. This study addresses the molecular mechanisms underlying this cytokine pattern in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. The transcriptional regulation of il23a, one of the chains of IL-23, depended on the activation of c-Rel and histone H3 phosphorylation, as judged from the association of c-Rel with the il23a promoter and the correlation between IL-23 production and Ser-10-histone H3 phosphorylation. Consistent with its reduced ability to produce IL-12 p70, zymosan induced a transient occupancy of the il12a promoter by c-Rel, blocked the production of IL-12 p70 and the transcription of il12a induced by other stimuli, and triggered the expression and nuclear translocation of the transcriptional repressors of the Notch family hairy and enhancer of split (Hes)-1, Hes5, hairy/enhancer-of-split related with YRPW motif protein (Hey)-1, and transducin-like enhancer of split (TLE). Zymosan also induced the interaction of Hes1 and TLE with histone H3 phosphorylated on Ser-10 and deacetylated on Lys-14. Inhibition of class III histone deacetylases increased the production of IL-12 p70 and partially blunted the inhibitory effect of zymosan on the production of IL-12 p70 elicited by LPS and IFN-γ. These results indicate that the selective induction of IL-23 by β-glucans is explained by the activation of c-Rel associated with Ser-10-histone H3 phosphorylation in the il23a promoter mediated by mitogen- and stress-activated kinase and/or protein kinase A and inhibition of il12a transcription by a mechanism involving activation of several corepressors with the ability to bind TLE and to promote histone deacetylation. PMID:21402701

  7. Therapeutic administration of KM+ lectin protects mice against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection via interleukin-12 production in a toll-like receptor 2-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Coltri, Kely C; Oliveira, Leandro L; Pinzan, Camila F; Vendruscolo, Patrícia E; Martinez, Roberto; Goldman, Maria Helena; Panunto-Castelo, Ademilson; Roque-Barreira, Maria-Cristina

    2008-08-01

    KM(+) is a mannose-binding lectin from Artocarpus integrifolia that induces interleukin (IL)-12 production by macrophages and protective T helper 1 immune response against Leishmania major infection. In this study, we performed experiments to evaluate the therapeutic activity of jackfruit KM(+) (jfKM(+)) and its recombinant counterpart (rKM(+)) in experimental paracoccidioidomycosis. To this end, jfKM(+) or rKM(+) was administered to BALB/c mice 10 days after infection with Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis. Thirty days postinfection, lungs from the KM(+)-treated mice contained significantly fewer colony-forming units and little to no organized granulomas compared to the controls. In addition, lung homogenates from the KM(+)-treated mice presented higher levels of nitric oxide, IL-12, interferon-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, whereas higher levels of IL-4 and IL-10 were detected in the control group. With mice deficient in IL-12, Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, TLR4, or TLR adaptor molecule MyD88, we demonstrated that KM(+) led to protection against P. brasiliensis infection through IL-12 production, which was dependent on TLR2. These results demonstrated a beneficial effect of KM(+) on the severity of P. brasiliensis infection and may expand its potential use as a novel immunotherapeutic molecule.

  8. Coupled regulation of interleukin-12 receptor beta-1 of CD8+ central memory and CCR7-negative memory T cells in an early alloimmunity in liver transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Egawa, H; Ozawa, K; Takada, Y; Teramukai, S; Mori, A; Ogawa, K; Kaido, T; Fujimoto, Y; Kawaguchi, Y; Hatano, E; Sato, H; Ono, M; Takai, K; Tanaka, K; Uemoto, S

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated how CD8+ T cell subsets respond to allo- and infectious immunity after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Early alloimmunity: 56 recipients were classified into three types according to the post-transplant course; type I demonstrated uneventful post-transplant course, type II developed severe sepsis leading to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome or retransplantation and type III with acute rejection. In 23 type I recipients, the interleukin (IL)-12 receptor beta-1 (Rβ1)+ cells of central memory T cells (Il-12Rβ1+ TCM) were increased above the pretransplant level. In 16 type II recipients, IL-12Rβ1+ TCM was decreased markedly below the pretransplant level on postoperative day (POD) 5. In 17 type III recipients, IL-12Rβ1+ TCM was decreased for a more prolonged period until POD 10. Along with down-regulation of IL-12Rβ1+ TCM, the IL-12Rβ1+ cells of CCR7-negative subsets (CNS) as well as perforin, interferon (IFN)-γ and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α decreased gradually, resulting in the down-regulation of effectors and cytotoxicity. The down-regulation of IL-12Rβ1+ TCM was suggested to be due to the recruitment of alloantigen-primed T cells into the graft, and then their entry into the secondary lymphoid organ, resulting in graft destruction. Infectious immunity: immunocompetent memory T cells with the capacity to enhance effectors and cytotoxicity were generated in response to post-transplant infection along with both up-regulation of the IL-12Rβ1+ TCM and an increase in the CNS showing the highest level of IL-12Rβ1+ cells. In conclusion, this work demonstrated that the IL-12Rβ1+ cells of TCM and CNS are regulated in a tightly coupled manner and that expression levels of IL-12Rβ1+ TCM play a crucial role in controlling allo- and infectious immunity. PMID:20345976

  9. Inhibition of interferon gamma induced interleukin 12 production: a potential mechanism for the anti-inflammatory activities of tumor necrosis factor.

    PubMed

    Hodge-Dufour, J; Marino, M W; Horton, M R; Jungbluth, A; Burdick, M D; Strieter, R M; Noble, P W; Hunter, C A; Puré, E

    1998-11-10

    Inflammation is associated with production of cytokines and chemokines that recruit and activate inflammatory cells. Interleukin (IL) 12 produced by macrophages in response to various stimuli is a potent inducer of interferon (IFN) gamma production. IFN-gamma, in turn, markedly enhances IL-12 production. Although the immune response is typically self-limiting, the mechanisms involved are unclear. We demonstrate that IFN-gamma inhibits production of chemokines (macrophage inflammatory proteins MIP-1alpha and MIP-1beta). Furthermore, pre-exposure to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibited IFN-gamma priming for production of high levels of IL-12 by macrophages in vitro. Inhibition of IL-12 by TNF can be mediated by both IL-10-dependent and IL-10-independent mechanisms. To determine whether TNF inhibition of IFN-gamma-induced IL-12 production contributed to the resolution of an inflammatory response in vivo, the response of TNF+/+ and TNF-/- mice injected with Corynebacterium parvum were compared. TNF-/- mice developed a delayed, but vigorous, inflammatory response leading to death, whereas TNF+/+ mice exhibited a prompt response that resolved. Serum IL-12 levels were elevated 3-fold in C. parvum-treated TNF-/- mice compared with TNF+/+ mice. Treatment with a neutralizing anti-IL-12 antibody led to resolution of the response to C. parvum in TNF-/- mice. We conclude that the role of TNF in limiting the extent and duration of inflammatory responses in vivo involves its capacity to regulate macrophage IL-12 production. IFN-gamma inhibition of chemokine production and inhibition of IFN-gamma-induced IL-12 production by TNF provide potential mechanisms by which these cytokines can exert anti-inflammatory/repair function(s). PMID:9811882

  10. The X-ray Structure of a BAK Homodimer Reveals an Inhibitory Zinc Binding Site

    SciTech Connect

    Modoveanu,T.; Liu, Q.; Tocilj, A.; Watson, M.; Shore, G.; Gehring, K.

    2006-01-01

    BAK/BAX-mediated mitochondrial outer-membrane permeabilization (MOMP) drives cell death during development and tissue homeostasis from zebrafish to humans. In most cancers, this pathway is inhibited by BCL-2 family antiapoptotic members, which bind and block the action of proapoptotic BCL proteins. We report the 1.5 {angstrom} crystal structure of calpain-proteolysed BAK, cBAK, to reveal a zinc binding site that regulates its activity via homodimerization. cBAK contains an occluded BH3 peptide binding pocket that binds a BID BH3 peptide only weakly . Nonetheless, cBAK requires activation by truncated BID to induce cytochrome c release in mitochondria isolated from bak/bax double-knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts. The BAK-mediated MOMP is inhibited by low micromolar zinc levels. This inhibition is alleviated by mutation of the zinc-coordination site in BAK. Our results link directly the antiapoptotic effects of zinc to BAK.

  11. Activated d16HER2 homodimers and SRC kinase mediate optimal efficacy for trastuzumab.

    PubMed

    Castagnoli, Lorenzo; Iezzi, Manuela; Ghedini, Gaia C; Ciravolo, Valentina; Marzano, Giulia; Lamolinara, Alessia; Zappasodi, Roberta; Gasparini, Patrizia; Campiglio, Manuela; Amici, Augusto; Chiodoni, Claudia; Palladini, Arianna; Lollini, Pier Luigi; Triulzi, Tiziana; Menard, Sylvie; Nanni, Patrizia; Tagliabue, Elda; Pupa, Serenella M

    2014-11-01

    A splice isoform of the HER2 receptor that lacks exon 16 (d16HER2) is expressed in many HER2-positive breast tumors, where it has been linked with resistance to the HER2-targeting antibody trastuzumab, but the impact of d16HER2 on tumor pathobiology and therapeutic response remains uncertain. Here, we provide genetic evidence in transgenic mice that expression of d16HER2 is sufficient to accelerate mammary tumorigenesis and improve the response to trastuzumab. A comparative analysis of effector signaling pathways activated by d16HER2 and wild-type HER2 revealed that d16HER2 was optimally functional through a link to SRC activation (pSRC). Clinically, HER2-positive breast cancers from patients who received trastuzumab exhibited a positive correlation in d16HER2 and pSRC abundance, consistent with the mouse genetic results. Moreover, patients expressing high pSRC or an activated "d16HER2 metagene" were found to derive the greatest benefit from trastuzumab treatment. Overall, our results establish the d16HER2 signaling axis as a signature for decreased risk of relapse after trastuzumab treatment.

  12. Excited State Dynamics of 7-AZAINDOLE Homodimer in Frozen Nitrogen Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Moitrayee; Bandyopadhyay, Biman; Karmakar, Shreetama; Chakraborty, Tapas

    2011-06-01

    In a fluid medium (liquid or gas), the doubly hydrogen bonded dimer of 7-azaindole (7AI) undergoes tautomerization via simultaneous exchange of two H-atoms/protons between the two moieties upon UV excitation to lowest excited singlet state. The excited dimer emits exclusively visible fluorescence from tautomeric configuration, and no UV fluorescence is detected from the locally excited state. We show here for the first time that this generic excited state dynamics of 7AI dimer is totally altered if the species is synthesized and confined in frozen nitrogen at 8 K. The dimer has been found to emit only from the locally excited state, and the photophysical channel leading to excited state tautomerization is completely blocked. The formation of the centrosymmetric dimer in nitrogen matrix is ensured by recording the FTIR spectrum of the dimer before initiating the photophysical measurements. The details of our findings and interpretation of the measured data will be presented in the talk.

  13. Evidence for interleukin-1-independent stimulation of interleukin-12 and down-regulation by interleukin-10 in Helicobacter pylori-infected murine dendritic cells deficient in the interleukin-1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Obonyo, Marygorret; Cole, Sheri P; Datta, Sandip K; Guiney, Donald G

    2006-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is characterized by infiltration of cells of the immune system, including dendritic cells, into the gastric mucosa. During chronic inflammation with Helicobacter pylori infection, a variety of cytokines are secreted into the mucosa, including interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). The role of IL-1 in H. pylori infection was investigated using bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells from wild-type and IL-1 receptor-deficient (IL-1R-/-) mice. Dendritic cells were incubated with H. pylori at a multiplicity of infection of 10 and 100, and cytokine production evaluated. Helicobacter pylori SS1, H. pylori SD4, and an isogenic cagE mutant of SD4 stimulated IL-12, IL-6, IL-1beta, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha at comparable levels in dendritic cells from both wild-type and IL-1R-/- mice. IL-10 production required the higher inoculum, while IL-12 was decreased at this bacterial load. Pretreatment of dendritic cells with an antibody to IL-10 resulted in an increased production of IL-12, confirming the down-regulation of IL-12 by IL-10. cagE was required for maximum stimulation of IL-12 by H. pylori. We speculate that the down-regulation of IL-12 by IL-10 at the higher multiplicity of infection represents the modulation of the host inflammatory response in vivo by H. pylori when the bacterial load is high, allowing for persistent colonization of the gastric mucosa.

  14. Mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells can phagocytize the Sporothrix schenckii, and mature and activate the immune response by secreting interleukin-12 and presenting antigens to T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Kusuhara, Masahiro; Qian, Hua; Li, Xiaoguang; Tsuruta, Daisuke; Tsuchisaka, Atsunari; Ishii, Norito; Ohata, Chika; Furumura, Minao; Hashimoto, Takashi

    2014-05-01

    In sporotrichosis, dermal dendritic cells were considered to participate in induction of the immune responses against Sporothrix schenckii infection. However, it is still unclear whether and how dermal dendritic cells were involved in the progress. To clarify the pathogenic role of dermal dendritic cells (DC) in sporotrichosis, we examined the phagocytosis, maturation stages, cytokine production and antigen-presenting ability of mouse bone marrow-derived DC after stimulation with S. schenckii. By analysis of flow cytometry, electron microscope and confocal microscope, mouse bone marrow-derived DC were proved to be able to phagocytize the S. schenckii. The increased expression of CD40, CD80 and CD86 on the surface of S. schenckii-pulsed mouse bone marrow-derived DC was detected by flow cytometer, indicating that the S. schenckii-pulsed mouse bone marrow-derived DC underwent the maturation program. The secretory enhancement of interleukin (IL)-12, but not IL-4, was found in S. schenckii-pulsed mouse bone marrow-derived DC, suggesting the possible activation of T-helper 1 prone immune responses. Furthermore, S. schenckii-pulsed mouse bone marrow-derived DC were demonstrated to be capable of inducing the proliferation of T lymphocytes from BALB/c mice that were pre-sensitized with S. schenckii. Together, all the results implied that dermal DC may participate in the induction of immune responses against S. schenckii infection in sporotrichosis.

  15. Regulation of signal transducer and activator of transcription and suppressor of cytokine-signaling gene expression in the brain of mice with astrocyte-targeted production of interleukin-12 or experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Maier, Joachim; Kincaid, Carrie; Pagenstecher, Axel; Campbell, Iain L

    2002-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-12 and interferon (IFN)-gamma are implicated in the pathogenesis of immune disorders of the central nervous system (CNS). To define the basis for the actions of these cytokines in the CNS, we examined the temporal and spatial regulation of key signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) and suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) in the brain of transgenic mice with astrocyte production of IL-12 or in mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In healthy mice, with the exception of STAT4 and STAT6, the expression of a number of STAT and SOCS genes was detectable. However, in symptomatic transgenic mice and in EAE significant up-regulation of STAT1, STAT2, STAT3, STAT4, IRF9, and SOCS1 and SOCS3 RNA transcripts was observed. Although the increased expression of STAT1 RNA was widely distributed and included neurons, astrocytes, and microglia, STAT4 and STAT3 and SOCS1 and SOCS3 RNA was primarily restricted to the infiltrating mononuclear cell population. The level and location of the STAT1, STAT3, and STAT4 proteins overlapped with their corresponding RNA and additionally showed nuclear localization indicative of activation of these molecules. Thus, in both the glial fibrillary acidic protein-IL-12 mice and in EAE the CNS expression of key STAT and SOCS genes that regulate IL-12 (STAT4) and IFN-gamma (STAT1, SOCS1, and SOCS3) receptor signaling is highly regulated and compartmentalized. We conclude the interaction between these positive and negative signaling circuits and their distinct cellular locations likely play a defining role in coordinating the actions of IL-12 and IFN-gamma during the pathogenesis of type 1 immune responses in the CNS.

  16. Regulation of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription and Suppressor of Cytokine-Signaling Gene Expression in the Brain of Mice with Astrocyte-Targeted Production of Interleukin-12 or Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Joachim; Kincaid, Carrie; Pagenstecher, Axel; Campbell, Iain L.

    2002-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-12 and interferon (IFN)-γ are implicated in the pathogenesis of immune disorders of the central nervous system (CNS). To define the basis for the actions of these cytokines in the CNS, we examined the temporal and spatial regulation of key signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) and suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) in the brain of transgenic mice with astrocyte production of IL-12 or in mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In healthy mice, with the exception of STAT4 and STAT6, the expression of a number of STAT and SOCS genes was detectable. However, in symptomatic transgenic mice and in EAE significant up-regulation of STAT1, STAT2, STAT3, STAT4, IRF9, and SOCS1 and SOCS3 RNA transcripts was observed. Although the increased expression of STAT1 RNA was widely distributed and included neurons, astrocytes, and microglia, STAT4 and STAT3 and SOCS1 and SOCS3 RNA was primarily restricted to the infiltrating mononuclear cell population. The level and location of the STAT1, STAT3, and STAT4 proteins overlapped with their corresponding RNA and additionally showed nuclear localization indicative of activation of these molecules. Thus, in both the glial fibrillary acidic protein-IL-12 mice and in EAE the CNS expression of key STAT and SOCS genes that regulate IL-12 (STAT4) and IFN-γ (STAT1, SOCS1, and SOCS3) receptor signaling is highly regulated and compartmentalized. We conclude the interaction between these positive and negative signaling circuits and their distinct cellular locations likely play a defining role in coordinating the actions of IL-12 and IFN-γ during the pathogenesis of type 1 immune responses in the CNS. PMID:11786421

  17. Antibodies in the Treatment of Psoriasis: IL-12/23 p40 and IL-17a.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, Craig L

    2016-06-01

    The anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α agents represent the second generation of psoriasis therapy. Research has produced a third generation of biologic treatments, some of which offer greater efficacy than the TNF-α inhibitors. This article reviews the data documenting the efficacy and safety of three types of biologics. PMID:27551698

  18. IL-8 single-chain homodimers and heterodimers: interactions with chemokine receptors CXCR1, CXCR2, and DARC.

    PubMed Central

    Leong, S. R.; Lowman, H. B.; Liu, J.; Shire, S.; Deforge, L. E.; Gillece-Castro, B. L.; McDowell, R.; Hébert, C. A.

    1997-01-01

    Covalent single-chain dimers of the chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) have been designed to mimic the dimeric form of IL-8 in solution and facilitate the production of heterodimer variants of IL-8. Physical studies indicated that use of a simple peptide linker to join two subunits, while allowing receptor binding and activation, led to self-association of the tethered dimers. However, addition of a single disulfide crosslink between the tethered subunits prevented this multimer from forming, yielding a species of dimer molecular weight. Crosslinked single-chain dimers bind to both IL-8 neutrophil receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2 as well as to DARC, as does a double disulfide-linked dimer with no peptide linker. In addition, neutrophil response to these dimers as measured by chemotaxis or beta-glucuronidase release is similar to that elicited by wild-type IL-8, providing evidence that the dissociation of the dimeric species is not required for these biologically relevant activities. Finally, through construction of single-chain heterodimer mutants, we show that only the first subunit's ELR motif is the single-chain variants. PMID:9070443

  19. Regulation of the PI3K pathway through a p85α monomer–homodimer equilibrium | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    The canonical action of the p85α regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) is to associate with the p110α catalytic subunit to allow stimuli-dependent activation of the PI3K pathway. We elucidate a p110α-independent role of homodimerized p85α in the positive regulation of PTEN stability and activity. p110α-free p85α homodimerizes via two intermolecular interactions (SH3:proline-rich region and BH:BH) to selectively bind unphosphorylated activated PTEN.

  20. The Vesicle Priming Factor CAPS Functions as a Homodimer via C2 Domain Interactions to Promote Regulated Vesicle Exocytosis*

    PubMed Central

    Petrie, Matt; Esquibel, Joseph; Maciuba, Stephanie; Takahashi, Hirohide

    2016-01-01

    Neurotransmitters and peptide hormones are secreted by regulated vesicle exocytosis. CAPS (also known as CADPS) is a 145-kDa cytosolic and peripheral membrane protein required for vesicle docking and priming steps that precede Ca2+-triggered vesicle exocytosis. CAPS binds phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) and SNARE proteins and is proposed to promote SNARE protein complex assembly for vesicle docking and priming. We characterized purified soluble CAPS as mainly monomer in equilibrium with small amounts of dimer. However, the active form of CAPS bound to PC12 cell membranes or to liposomes containing PI(4,5)P2 and Q-SNARE proteins was mainly dimer. CAPS dimer formation required its C2 domain based on mutation or deletion studies. Moreover, C2 domain mutations or deletions resulted in a loss of CAPS function in regulated vesicle exocytosis, indicating that dimerization is essential for CAPS function. Comparison of the CAPS C2 domain to a structurally defined Munc13-1 C2A domain dimer revealed conserved residues involved in CAPS dimerization. We conclude that CAPS functions as a C2 domain-mediated dimer in regulated vesicle exocytosis. The unique tandem C2-PH domain of CAPS may serve as a PI(4,5)P2-triggered switch for dimerization. CAPS dimerization may be coupled to oligomeric SNARE complex assembly for vesicle docking and priming. PMID:27528604

  1. N15 Cro And Gamma Cro Orthologous DNA-Binding Domains With Completely Different But Equally Effective Homodimer Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Dubrava, M.S.; Ingram, W.M.; Roberts, S.A.; Weichsel, A.; Montfort, W.R.; Cordes, M.H.J.

    2009-05-18

    Bacteriophage Cro proteins bind to target DNA as dimers but do not all dimerize with equal strength, and differ in fold in the region of the dimer interface. We report the structure of the Cro protein from Enterobacteria phage N15 at 1.05 {angstrom} resolution. The subunit fold contains five alpha-helices and is closely similar to the structure of P22 Cro (1.3 {angstrom} backbone room mean square difference over 52 residues), but quite different from that of lambda Cro, a structurally diverged member of this family with a mixed alpha-helix/beta-sheet fold. N15 Cro crystallizes as a biological dimer with an extensive interface (1303 {angstrom}{sub 2} change in accessible surface area per dimer) and also dimerizes in solution with a K(d) of 5.1 {+-} 1.5 {micro}M. Its dimerization is much stronger than that of its structural homolog P22 Cro, which does not self-associate detectably in solution. Instead, the level of self-association and interfacial area for N15 Cro is similar to that of lambda Cro, even though these two orthologs do not share the same fold and have dimer interfaces that are qualitatively different in structure. The common Cro ancestor is thought to be an all-helical monomer similar to P22 Cro. We propose that two Cro descendants independently developed stronger dimerization by entirely different mechanisms.

  2. Binding of nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (N-BPs) to the Trypanosoma cruzi farnesyl diphosphate synthase homodimer

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Chuan-Hsiang; Gabelli, Sandra B.; Oldfield, Eric; Amzel, L. Mario

    2010-11-15

    Bisphosphonates (BPs) are a class of compounds that have been used extensively in the treatment of osteoporosis and malignancy-related hypercalcemia. Some of these compounds act through inhibition of farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPS), a key enzyme in the synthesis of isoprenoids. Recently, nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (N-BPs) used in bone resorption therapy have been shown to be active against Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite that causes American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease), suggesting that they may be used as anti-trypanosomal agents. The crystal structures of TcFPPS in complex with substrate (isopentenyl diphosphate, IPP) and five N-BP inhibitors show that the C-1 hydroxyl and the nitrogen-containing groups of the inhibitors alter the binding of IPP and the conformation of two TcFPPS residues, Tyr94 and Gln167. Isothermal titration calorimetry experiments suggest that binding of the first N-BPs to the homodimeric TcFPPS changes the binding properties of the second site. This mechanism of binding of N-BPs to TcFPPS is different to that reported for the binding of the same compounds to human FPPS.

  3. Use of thiazole orange homodimer as an alternative to ethidium bromide for DNA detection in agarose gels.

    PubMed

    Wilke, W W; Heller, M J; Iakoubova, O K; Robinson, R A

    1994-04-01

    Detection of polymerase chain reaction-amplified DNA fragments is commonly accomplished by visualizing the products in electrophoretic agarose beds with the use of ethidium bromide under ultraviolet light. However, ethidium bromide is mutagenic, and special handling and disposal precautions must be used. We report the use of a nonmutagenic dye, thiazole orange dimer (TOTO), which can be substituted for ethidium bromide. The excitation maximum for TOTO under ultraviolet light is 488 nm, and the absorption maximum is 510 nm, necessitating photographic filters different from those used for ethidium bromide for optimal results. Of particular importance in TOTO's use is the quantity used for each gel lane, since excess TOTO will cause unacceptable product mobility retardation. TOTO is only slightly more expensive than ethidium bromide. Overall, this stain provides very good visualization of polymerase chain reaction--amplified DNA bands in agarose gels. We believe the use of this safer reagent will become more widespread with increased regulation of laboratory activities.

  4. Altered Dendritic Cell Phenotype in Response to Leishmania amazonensis Amastigote Infection Is Mediated by MAP Kinase, ERK

    PubMed Central

    Boggiatto, Paola Mercedes; Jie, Fei; Ghosh, Mousumi; Gibson-Corley, Katherine Nicole; Ramer-Tait, Amanda Ellen; Jones, Douglas Elliot; Petersen, Christine Anne

    2009-01-01

    Initiation of productive immune responses against Leishmania depends on the successful transition of dendritic cells (DC) from an immature to a mature phenotype. This process is characterized by high CD40 surface expression as well as interleukin-12 production, which are frequently seen in response to L. major infection. In vivo footpad infection of C3HeB/FeJ mice for 7 days with L. amazonensis promoted an immature CD11c+ DC phenotype characterized by both significantly low CD40 surface expression and significantly decreased interleukin-12p40 production compared with L. major infection of these same mice. In vitro infection of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells with L. amazonensis amastigotes resulted in rapid and significant phosphorylation of the mitogen activated protein kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, observed within minutes of exposure to the parasite. Infection with L. amazonensis promastigotes led to increased 1/2 phosphorylation after 4 hours of infection compared with L. major infection, which correlated with promastigote transformation into amastigotes. Treatment of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells with a mitogen activated protein kinase kinase-specific inhibitor, PD98059, led to regained surface CD40 expression and interleukin-12p40 production following L. amazonensis amastigote infection compared with non-treated, infected DC. Treatment of L. amazonensis-infected mice with the highly-specific mitogen activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor, CI-1040, enhanced surface CD40 expression on CD11c+ DC obtained from the draining lymph node. L. amazonensis amastigotes, through activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, inhibit the ability of DC to undergo proper maturation both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:19349356

  5. Recombinant p35 from bacteria can form Interleukin (IL-)12, but Not IL-35.

    PubMed

    Aparicio-Siegmund, Samadhi; Moll, Jens M; Lokau, Juliane; Grusdat, Melanie; Schröder, Jutta; Plöhn, Svenja; Rose-John, Stefan; Grötzinger, Joachim; Lang, Philipp A; Scheller, Jürgen; Garbers, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    The Interleukin (IL)-12 family contains several heterodimeric composite cytokines which share subunits among each other. IL-12 consists of the subunits p40 (shared with IL-23) and p35. p35 is shared with the composite cytokine IL-35 which comprises of the p35/EBI3 heterodimer (EBI3 shared with IL-27). IL-35 signals via homo- or heterodimers of IL-12Rβ2, gp130 and WSX-1, which are shared with IL-12 and IL-27 receptor complexes, respectively. p35 was efficiently secreted in complex with p40 as IL-12 but not with EBI3 as IL-35 in several transfected cell lines tested which complicates the analysis of IL-35 signal transduction. p35 and p40 but not p35 and EBI3 form an inter-chain disulfide bridge. Mutation of the responsible cysteine residue (p40C197A) reduced IL-12 formation and activity only slightly. Importantly, the p40C197A mutation prevented the formation of antagonistic p40 homodimers which enabled the in vitro reconstitution of biologically active IL-12 with p35 produced in bacteria (p35bac). Reconstitution of IL-35 with p35bac and EBI3 did, however, fail to induce signal transduction in Ba/F3 cells expressing IL-12Rβ2 and gp130. In summary, we describe the in vitro reconstitution of IL-12, but fail to produce recombinant IL-35 by this novel approach.

  6. SU-E-P-40: Dosimetric Characteristics of Field Aperture Margin Design in Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To characterize the dosimetric effects of field aperture margin design in Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT). Methods: Three artificial spherical PTVs, with diameter of 10mm, 20mm and 30mm, were created on CT images of a human body thoracic phantom. Seven non-coplanar isocentric fields were used for treatment planning. For each PTV, treatment plans with margins 0mm, 1mm, 2mm and 3mm were planned. Dosimetric comparison among plans was done considering the following parameters: prescribed isodose line for target coverage, maximum dose, mean dose as well as dose spillages of V80, V50, and V20. Results: Corresponding to aperture margins of 0mm, 1mm,2m and 3mm used in the treatment planning, the percentage of isodose line chosen for dose prescription increases from 65% to 93% for 10mm PTV, 70% to 92% for 20mm PTV, and 75% to 92% for 30mm PTV. The maximum dose decrease accordingly from 155.7% to 109.5% for 10mm PTV, 145% to 111.6% for 20mm PTV, 137% to 112.2% for 30mm PTV. The mean dose decrease from 138.% to 104.4% for 10mm PTV, 122.8% to 106.1% for 20mm PTV, 121.3% to 106% for 30mm PTV. Dose spillages (mm3) increase (V80−2.6 to 4.02, V50−4.55 to 9.3, V20–87.86 to 101.71) for 10 mm PTV, (V80−6.78 to 9.89, V50–13.46 to 20.4, V20-119.16 to 219.1) for 20 mm PTV, (V80–22.01 to 28.59, V50–41.56 to 52.66, V20-532.71 to 551.84) for 30 mm PTV. Conclusion: In SBRT treatment planning, tight field aperture margin requires prescribing dose to lower isodose line that leading to higher dose inhomogeneity and higher mean dose to PTV. Loose margin allows prescribing dose to higher isodose line, therefore improves the dose homogeneity. However, it increases dose spillages. Clinician could try different margins according to the PTV size and location of surrounding critical organs to optimize the dose delivered to the patient.

  7. CDK-activating kinase (Ee;CDKF;1) of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) forms both homo-dimers and homo-trimers in its native state

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leafy spurge is a deep rooted perennial weed that propagates both by seeds and underground adventitious buds located on the crown and roots (crown and root buds). As buds develop during the normal growing season, they are maintained in a quiescent state through correlative inhibition. To enhance our...

  8. Inhibitive effects of nickel chloride (NiCl₂) on thymocytes.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kun; Guo, Hongrui; Deng, Jie; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Wang, Xun; Wu, Bangyuan; Li, Jian; Yin, Shuang

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to define the inhibitive effects of dietary nickel chloride (NiCl2) on thymocytes in broilers fed on diets supplemented with 0, 300, 600, and 900 mg/kg of NiCl2 for 42 days. We examined the changes of cell cycle phase, percentages of apoptotic cells, T cell subsets, cytokines, and mRNA expression of apoptotic proteins (bcl-2, bax, and caspase-3) in thymocytes by flow cytometry and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). In the NiCl2-treated broilers, the percentages of thymocytes in G0/G1 phase were increased, whereas thymocytes in the S phase and the proliferation index were decreased. The percentages of apoptotic thymocytes were increased. Also, the mRNA expression levels of bax and caspase-3 were increased, and mRNA expression levels of bcl-2 were decreased. The percentages of CD3(+), CD3(+)CD4(+), and CD3(+)CD8(+) T lymphocytes in the thymus and peripheral blood were diminished. Concurrently, thymic cytokine (interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-10 (IL-10), interleukin-12 p35 subunit (IL-12p35), interleukin-12 p40 subunit (IL-12p40), interleukin-21 (IL-21), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), thymosin β4, thymosin β10, and thymosin β15) mRNA expression levels were decreased. The abovementioned results showed that dietary NiCl2 in excess of 300 mg/kg inhibited thymocyte growth by arresting cell cycle, increasing apoptosis percentage, altering apoptotic protein mRNA expression levels, and downregulating cytokine expression levels. PMID:25547965

  9. Anti-Inflammatory Components of the Starfish Astropecten polyacanthus

    PubMed Central

    Thao, Nguyen Phuong; Cuong, Nguyen Xuan; Luyen, Bui Thi Thuy; Quang, Tran Hong; Hanh, Tran Thi Hong; Kim, Sohyun; Koh, Young-Sang; Nam, Nguyen Hoai; Kiem, Phan Van; Minh, Chau Van; Kim, Young Ho

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation is important in biomedical research, because it plays a key role in inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis and other forms of arthritis, diabetes, heart disease, irritable bowel syndrome, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, allergies, asthma, and even cancer. In the present study, we describe the inhibitory effect of crude extracts and steroids isolated from the starfish Astropecten polyacanthus on pro-inflammatory cytokine (Interleukin-12 (IL-12) p40, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α)) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs). Among those tested, compounds 5 and 7 showed potent inhibitory effects on the production of all three pro-inflammatory cytokines with IC50 values ranging from 1.82 ± 0.11 to 7.00 ± 0.16 μM. Potent inhibitory activities were also observed for compound 1 on the production of IL-12 p40 and IL-6 with values of 3.96 ± 0.12 and 4.07 ± 0.13 μM, respectively, and for compounds 3 and 4 on the production of IL-12 p40 with values of 6.55 ± 0.18 and 5.06 ± 0.16 μM, respectively. Moreover, compounds 2 (IC50 = 34.86 ± 0.31 μM) and 6 (IC50 = 79.05 ± 2.05 μM) exhibited moderate inhibitory effects on the production of IL-12 p40, whereas compounds 3 (IC50 = 22.80 ± 0.21 μM) and 4 (IC50 = 16.73 ± 0.25 μM) moderately inhibited the production of TNF-α and IL-6, respectively. PMID:23945602

  10. Adherent-Invasive Escherichia coli Production of Cellulose Influences Iron-Induced Bacterial Aggregation, Phagocytosis, and Induction of Colitis.

    PubMed

    Ellermann, Melissa; Huh, Eun Young; Liu, Bo; Carroll, Ian M; Tamayo, Rita; Sartor, R Balfour

    2015-10-01

    Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC), a functionally distinct subset of resident intestinal E. coli associated with Crohn's disease, is characterized by enhanced epithelial adhesion and invasion, survival within macrophages, and biofilm formation. Environmental factors, such as iron, modulate E. coli production of extracellular structures, which in turn influence the formation of multicellular communities, such as biofilms, and bacterial interactions with host cells. However, the physiological and functional responses of AIEC to variable iron availability have not been thoroughly investigated. We therefore characterized the impact of iron on the physiology of AIEC strain NC101 and subsequent interactions with macrophages. Iron promoted the cellulose-dependent aggregation of NC101. Bacterial cells recovered from the aggregates were more susceptible to phagocytosis than planktonic cells, which corresponded with the decreased macrophage production of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-12 (IL-12) p40. Prevention of aggregate formation through the disruption of cellulose production reduced the phagocytosis of iron-exposed NC101. In contrast, under iron-limiting conditions, where NC101 aggregation is not induced, the disruption of cellulose production enhanced NC101 phagocytosis and decreased macrophage secretion of IL-12 p40. Finally, abrogation of cellulose production reduced NC101 induction of colitis when NC101 was monoassociated in inflammation-prone Il10(-/-) mice. Taken together, our results introduce cellulose as a novel physiological factor that impacts host-microbe-environment interactions and alters the proinflammatory potential of AIEC.

  11. Studies on nonidet P40 lysis of murine lymphoid cells. I. Use of cholera toxin and cell surface Ig to determine degree of dissociation of the plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Hart, D A

    1975-09-01

    Lymphoid cells from A/J mice were iodinated (125I) by the lactoperoxidase lysed with the non-ionic detergent NP-40. The plasma membrane glycolipid receptor for cholera toxin and cell surface immunoglobulin were utilized in immune precipitation systems to characterize the degree of dissociation of the plasma membrane under various conditions. It was found that at 0.1% NP-40 and at cell concentration from 5 to 10 times 10(7) cells/ml, lipid-protein and protein-lipid-protein complexes formed in NP-40 which were soluble after centrifugation at 10(5) times G. Column chromatography of 125I-cell lysates on agarose A-0.5 M in 0.1% or 0.5% NP-40/PBS indicated that the majority of iodinated cell surface material existed as aggregates in detergent micelles. The availability of the oligosaccharide moiety of the glycolipid to interact with the cholera toxin was dependent on both the detergent concentration and the cell concentration used for cell lysis. However, the cell surface immunoglobulin was immunoprecipitable under all conditions of lysis tested.

  12. The 3'UTR 1188A/C polymorphism of IL-12p40 is not associated with susceptibility for developing plaque psoriasis in Mestizo population from western Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sandoval-Talamantes, Ana Karen; Brito-Luna, Myrian Johanna; Fafutis-Morris, Mary; Villanueva-Quintero, Delfina Guadalupe; Graciano-Machuca, Omar; Ramírez-Dueñas, María Guadalupe; Alvarado-Navarro, Anabell

    2015-02-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease that affects the skin and the joints. Psoriasis is characterized by the keratinocyte proliferation, which is induced by cytokines Th1 and Th17. Patients with plaque psoriasis present a chronic inflammatory response with high levels of interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-23. Various single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) have been identified in the IL12B gene, such as SNP 3' UTR 1188 A/C (SNP rs3212227), which has been associated with susceptibility to developing plaque psoriasis and with the production of IL-12 and IL-23 in individuals of different ethnic groups. In this study, we determined whether there is an association of SNP rs3212227 with the susceptibility of developing plaque psoriasis and with serum levels of IL-12 and IL-23 in Mestizo population in western Mexico. We included 112 patients with psoriasis and 112 clinical healthy individuals in the study. The frequencies of genotypes A/A, A/C, and C/C in patients with plaque psoriasis were 41, 53, and 6%, respectively, while in the control group, these were 37, 53, and 10%, respectively, without finding statistically significant differences between both groups (p>0.05). Although IL-12 and IL-23 serum levels were higher in patients than in controls, we found no significant differences. The group of patients with genotype CC presented the highest levels of IL-23 (p<0.05). These data suggest that the SNP rs3212227 phenotype is not associated with the risk of developing plaque psoriasis or with IL-12 and IL-23 levels in Mestizo population in western Mexico.

  13. Nasal IL-12p70 DNA prevents and treats intestinal allergic diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Hino, Ayako; Fukuyama, Satoshi; Kataoka, Kosuke; Kweon, Mi-Na; Fujihashi, Kohtaro; Kiyono, Hiroshi

    2005-06-01

    OVA-induced allergic diarrhea occurs as a consequence of over-expression of Th1 inhibitory IL-12p40 monomers and homodimers in the large intestine, establishing a dominant Th2-type environment. In this study, we demonstrate that intranasally administered murine IL-12p70 naked DNA expression plasmids resulted in the synthesis of corresponding cytokine in the large intestinal CD11c(+) dendritic cells, leading to the inhibition of Ag-specific Th2-type response for the prevention of allergic diarrhea and the suppression of clinical symptoms including OVA-specific IgE Ab synthesis. The nasal IL-12p70 DNA treatment proved effective even after the establishment of allergic diarrhea. These results suggest that the mucosal administration of naked IL-12p70 DNA plasmid should be considered as a possible preventive and therapeutic treatment for Th2 cell-mediated food allergic diseases in the intestinal tract.

  14. IL-12 Family Cytokines: General Characteristics, Pathogenic Microorganisms, Receptors, and Signalling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Behzadi, Payam; Behzadi, Elham; Ranjbar, Reza

    2016-03-01

    Among a wide range of cytokines, the Interleukin 12 (IL-12) family has its unique structural, functional, and immunological characteristics that have made this family as important immunological playmakers. Because of the importance of IL-12 heterodimeric cytokines in microbial infections, autoimmune diseases, and cancers, the authors of this literature discuss about the general characteristics of IL-12 family members, the interactions between IL-12 cytokines and pathogenic microorganisms, the interleukins receptors and their strategies for selecting different signalling pathways. IL-12 and IL-23 are similar in p40 subunits and both are involved in proinflammatory responses while, IL-27 and IL-35 contribute to anti-inflammatory activities; however, IL-27 is also involved in pro-inflammatory responses. There are some similarities and dissimilarities among IL-12 family members which make them a unique bridge between innate and adaptive immune systems. The bioactivities of IL-12 family indicate a brilliant promise for their applications in different fields of medicine. The members of IL-12 family are candidate for several therapeutics including gene therapy, cancer therapy, tumour therapy, and vaccination. To have an accurate diagnostic technique and definite treatment regarding to infectious diseases, the playmakers of IL-12 family as effective criteria together with microarray technology are the best choices for current and future applications.

  15. IL-35, an anti-inflammatory cytokine which expands CD4+CD25+ Treg Cells.

    PubMed

    Castellani, Maria Luisa; Anogeianaki, A; Felaco, P; Toniato, E; De Lutiis, M A; Shaik, B; Fulcheri, M; Vecchiet, J; Tetè, S; Salini, V; Theoharides, T C; Caraffa, A; Antinolfi, P; Frydas, I; Conti, P; Cuccurullo, C; Ciampoli, C; Cerulli, G; Kempuraj, D

    2010-01-01

    Interleukin 12 (IL 12) p35/p40 is a heterodimeric cytokine which plays a critical role in inflammation, immunity and tissue proliferation, and also plays a relevant function in T helper (Th) cell polarization and Th1 T-cell differentiation. IL-12 family members, IL-12p70, IL-23, IL-27 and IL-35, play an important role in influencing helper T-cell differentiation. EBV-induced gene 3 can be associated with the p35 subunit of IL-12 to form the EBI3/p35 heterodimer, also called IL-35. It has been shown that IL-35 has biological activity and able to expand CD4+CD25+ Treg cells, suppress the proliferation of CD4+CD25- effector cells and inhibit Th17 cell polarization. IL-35 has been shown to be constitutively expressed by regulatory T (Treg) cells CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) and suggested to contribute to their suppressive activity. IL-35 is a crucial mediator which provokes CD4+CD25+ T cell proliferation and IL-10 generation, another well-known anti-inflammatory cytokine, along with TGFbeta cytokine. These studies suggest that IL-35, together with other successfully discovered cytokine inhibitors, represents a new potential therapeutic cytokine for chronic inflammation, autoimmunity and other immunological disorders.

  16. IL-12 Family Cytokines: General Characteristics, Pathogenic Microorganisms, Receptors, and Signalling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Behzadi, Payam; Behzadi, Elham; Ranjbar, Reza

    2016-03-01

    Among a wide range of cytokines, the Interleukin 12 (IL-12) family has its unique structural, functional, and immunological characteristics that have made this family as important immunological playmakers. Because of the importance of IL-12 heterodimeric cytokines in microbial infections, autoimmune diseases, and cancers, the authors of this literature discuss about the general characteristics of IL-12 family members, the interactions between IL-12 cytokines and pathogenic microorganisms, the interleukins receptors and their strategies for selecting different signalling pathways. IL-12 and IL-23 are similar in p40 subunits and both are involved in proinflammatory responses while, IL-27 and IL-35 contribute to anti-inflammatory activities; however, IL-27 is also involved in pro-inflammatory responses. There are some similarities and dissimilarities among IL-12 family members which make them a unique bridge between innate and adaptive immune systems. The bioactivities of IL-12 family indicate a brilliant promise for their applications in different fields of medicine. The members of IL-12 family are candidate for several therapeutics including gene therapy, cancer therapy, tumour therapy, and vaccination. To have an accurate diagnostic technique and definite treatment regarding to infectious diseases, the playmakers of IL-12 family as effective criteria together with microarray technology are the best choices for current and future applications. PMID:27020866

  17. Anti-inflammatory effects of sodium butyrate on human monocytes: potent inhibition of IL-12 and up-regulation of IL-10 production.

    PubMed

    Säemann, M D; Böhmig, G A; Osterreicher, C H; Burtscher, H; Parolini, O; Diakos, C; Stöckl, J; Hörl, W H; Zlabinger, G J

    2000-12-01

    Cytokines are critical in regulating unresponsiveness versus immunity towards enteric antigens derived from the intestinal flora and ingested food. There is increasing evidence that butyrate, a major metabolite of intestinal bacteria and crucial energy source for gut epithelial cells, also possesses anti-inflammatory properties. Its influence on cytokine production, however, is not established. Here, we report that butyrate strongly inhibits interleukin-12 (IL-12) production by suppression of both IL-12p35 and IL-12p40 mRNA accumulation, but massively enhances IL-10 secretion in Staphylococcus aureus cell-stimulated human monocytes. The effect of butyrate on IL-12 production was irreversible upon the addition of neutralizing antibodies to IL-10 or transforming growth factor b1 and of indomethacin. In anti-CD3-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells, butyrate enhanced IL-10 and IL-4 secretion but reduced the release of IL-2 and interferon-g. The latter effect was in part a result of suppressed IL-12 production but also a result of inhibition of IL-12 receptor expression on T cells. These data demonstrate a novel anti-inflammatory property of butyrate that may have broad implications for the regulation of immune responses in vivo and could be exploited as new therapeutic approach in inflammatory conditions.

  18. Ustekinumab treatment for psoriasis in 119 patients maintained on therapy for a minimum of one year: a review.

    PubMed

    Wilder, Elizabeth G; Patel, Mahir; Hebeler, Katherine; Menter, Alan

    2014-08-01

    Ustekinumab is a human IgG1κ monoclonal antibody that binds with high affinity and specificity to the p40 protein subunit shared by both the interleukin-12 and interleukin-23 cytokines. This study reviews clinical response and adverse events in 119 psoriasis patients who have received ustekinumab for a minimum of 1 year. The medical records of 119 psoriasis patients treated with ustekinumab at our referral clinic in Dallas between 2009 and 2013 were reviewed for response rates, side effects, and concomitant therapies. Of 119 patients, 117 (98%) had plaque type psoriasis, with 40 (34%) patients having psoriasis affecting either their palms and/or soles. Forty-four (37%) patients had psoriatic arthritis. The median follow-up period was 31 months. Fifty-six (47%) of the 119 patients obtained near complete clearance (response of more than 90% of initial body surface area involvement) upon the final follow-up visit or at the time of ustekinumab treatment discontinuation. Concomitant systemic treatments, primarily methotrexate, were given to 59 (50%) patients. Twenty-three (19%) patients discontinued treatment, primarily for sub-optimal response or loss of response. Fifty (42%) patients required either an increase in the dose of ustekinumab to 90 mg and/or administration more frequently than every 12 weeks to achieve and maintain psoriasis clearance.

  19. CD4⁺ effector and memory cell populations protect against Cryptosporidium parvum infection.

    PubMed

    McNair, Nina N; Mead, Jan R

    2013-01-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum is a protozoan parasite that infects the epithelial cells of the small intestine causing diarrheal illness in humans. While T cells are known to be important in resistance and recovery from infection, little has been characterized as to the phenotypic expression of surface effector and memory markers after infection. We used an acute model of infection (C57BL/6 interleukin-12p40), which develops long-standing resistance to re-infection, to characterize expression of different effector and memory cells. Using flow cytometry, we found that heterogeneous populations were generated after infection, consisting of both CD62L(high) central memory T cells (T(CM)) and CD62L(low) effector memory T cells (T(EM)) that were competent to produce the Th type 1 effector cytokine, IFN-γ. Both CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ T(CM) and T(EM) populations persisted in the absence of infection (up to 60 days post-infection). Additionally, transfer of either CD62L(low)CD4⁺ T(EM) or CD62L(high)CD4⁺ T(CM) into naive recipients resulted in a protective response. Taken together, these studies show that distinct subsets of effector and memory CD4⁺ T cells develop after infection with C. parvum, and mediate protective immunity to re-challenge.

  20. Inhibition of p38 MAP kinase during cellular activation results in IFN-γ-dependent augmentation of IL-12 production by human monocytes/macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Marriott, J B; Clarke, I A; Dalgleish, A G

    2001-01-01

    Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a key immunomodulatory cytokine produced by antigen-presenting cells that promotes cellular immunity and enables the generation of protective immunity against intracellular pathogens and tumours. Therefore, modulation of IL-12 activity is a primary immunotherapeutic goal. However, little is known about its regulation. Signalling via p38 MAPK has been implicated in the control of inflammatory responses and is therefore a potential therapeutic target. We have used the highly selective p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB203580) to examine the effect of this pathway on the production of IL-12. Surprisingly, we found that SB203580 strongly up-regulated LPS induced IL-12p40 at the protein (intracellular and secreted) and mRNA levels in PBMC cultures. The effect on IL-12 was apparent using both T cell-independent and T cell-dependent stimuli but not in unstimulated cultures, indicating that activation signals are required. Furthermore, the production of IFN-γ by T cells is crucial as production was not increased in LPS-stimulated, purified adherent monocytes/macrophages without the addition of exogenous IFN-γ. These results provide evidence that p38 MAPK has an unexpected suppressive effect on IL-12p40 gene transcription, and suggests interplay between p38 MAPK- and IFN-γ -mediated signals in the regulation of IL-12 production by monocytes/macrophages. Furthermore, the importance of IL-12 as a key immunoregulatory cytokine suggests that the clinical application of pyrinidyl imidazole inhibitors, such as SB203580, may need to be reassessed. PMID:11472427

  1. Nocardia farcinica Activates Human Dendritic Cells and Induces Secretion of Interleukin-23 (IL-23) Rather than IL-12p70

    PubMed Central

    Eisenblätter, Martin; Buchal, Ariane; Gayum, Hermine; Jasny, Edith; Renner Viveros, Pablo; Ulrichs, Timo; Schneider, Thomas; Schumann, Ralf R.; Zweigner, Janine

    2012-01-01

    Studying the interaction of dendritic cells (DCs) with bacteria controlled by T-cell-mediated immune responses may reveal novel adjuvants for the induction of cellular immunity. Murine studies and the observation that nocardias infect predominantly immunosuppressed patients have suggested that these bacteria may possess an adjuvant potential. Moreover, adjuvants on the basis of the nocardial cell wall have been applied in clinical studies. Since the handling of adjuvants by DCs may determine the type of immune responses induced by a vaccine, the present study aimed at investigating the interaction of immature human monocyte-derived DCs with live or inactivated Nocardia farcinica in vitro and determining the cellular phenotypic changes as well as alterations in characteristic functions, such as phagocytosis, induction of T-cell proliferation, and cytokine secretion. Human DCs ingested N. farcinica and eradicated the bacterium intracellularly. DCs exposed to inactivated N. farcinica were activated, i.e., they developed a mature phenotype, downregulated their phagocytic capacity, and stimulated allogeneic T cells in mixed leukocyte reactions. Soluble factors were not involved in this process. To elucidate the potential adjuvant effect of N. farcinica on the induction of T-cell-mediated immune responses, we characterized the cytokines produced by nocardia-exposed DCs and detected substantial amounts of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-12 p40 (IL-12p40). However, nocardia-treated DCs secreted only small amounts of IL-12p70, which were significantly smaller than the amounts of IL-23. Thus, N. farcinica activates DCs, but adjuvants based on this bacterium may have only a limited capacity to induce Th1 immune responses. PMID:22988018

  2. Trefoil factor 2 negatively regulates Type 1 immunity against Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    McBerry, Cortez; Egan, Charlotte E.; Rani, Reena; Yang, Yanfen; Wu, David; Boespflug, Nicholas; Boon, Louis; Butcher, Barbara; Mirpuri, Julie; Hogan, Simon P.; Denkers, Eric Y.; Aliberti, Julio; Herbert, De’Broski R.

    2012-01-01

    Interleukin 12 (IL-12)-mediated Type 1 inflammation confers host-protection against the parasitic protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. However, production of interferon gamma (IFN-γ), another Type 1 inflammatory cytokine, also drives lethality from excessive injury to the intestinal epithelium. As mechanisms that restore epithelial barrier function following infection remain poorly understood, this study investigated the role of Trefoil factor 2 (TFF2), a well-established regulator of mucosal tissue repair. Paradoxically, TFF2 antagonized IL-12 release from DC’s and macrophages, which protected TFF2 deficient mice (TFF2−/−) from T. gondii pathogenesis. Dysregulated intestinal homeostasis in naïve TFF2−/− mice correlated with increased IL-12/23p40 levels and enhanced T cell recruitment at baseline. Infected TFF2−/− mice displayed low rates of parasite replication and reduced gut immunopathology, whereas WT mice experienced disseminated infection and lethal ileitis. p38 MAPK activation and IL-12p70 production was more robust from TFF2−/− CD8+ DC compared to WT CD8+ DC and treatment of WT DC with rTFF2 suppressed TLR-induced IL-12/23p40 production. Neutralization of IFN-γ and IL-12 in TFF2−/− animals abrogated resistance shown by enhanced parasite replication and infection-induced morbidity. Hence, TFF2 regulated intestinal barrier function and Type 1 cytokine release from myeloid phagocytes, which dictated the outcome of oral T. gondii infection in mice. PMID:22896633

  3. Anti-Tumor Effects after Adoptive Transfer of IL-12 Transposon-Modified Murine Splenocytes in the OT-I-Melanoma Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Galvan, Daniel L; O'Neil, Richard T; Foster, Aaron E; Huye, Leslie; Bear, Adham; Rooney, Cliona M; Wilson, Matthew H

    2015-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of gene modified T cells provides possible immunotherapy for patients with cancers refractory to other treatments. We have previously used the non-viral piggyBac transposon system to gene modify human T cells for potential immunotherapy. However, these previous studies utilized adoptive transfer of modified human T cells to target cancer xenografts in highly immunodeficient (NOD-SCID) mice that do not recapitulate an intact immune system. Currently, only viral vectors have shown efficacy in permanently gene-modifying mouse T cells for immunotherapy applications. Therefore, we sought to determine if piggyBac could effectively gene modify mouse T cells to target cancer cells in a mouse cancer model. We first demonstrated that we could gene modify cells to express murine interleukin-12 (p35/p40 mIL-12), a transgene with proven efficacy in melanoma immunotherapy. The OT-I melanoma mouse model provides a well-established T cell mediated immune response to ovalbumin (OVA) positive B16 melanoma cells. B16/OVA melanoma cells were implanted in wild type C57Bl6 mice. Mouse splenocytes were isolated from C57Bl6 OT-I mice and were gene modified using piggyBac to express luciferase. Adoptive transfer of luciferase-modified OT-I splenocytes demonstrated homing to B16/OVA melanoma tumors in vivo. We next gene-modified OT-I cells to express mIL-12. Adoptive transfer of mIL-12-modified mouse OT-I splenocytes delayed B16/OVA melanoma tumor growth in vivo compared to control OT-I splenocytes and improved mouse survival. Our results demonstrate that the piggyBac transposon system can be used to gene modify splenocytes and mouse T cells for evaluating adoptive immunotherapy strategies in immunocompetent mouse tumor models that may more directly mimic immunotherapy applications in humans. PMID:26473608

  4. The Correlation of Serum IL-12B Expression With Disease Activity in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye Won; Chung, Sook Hee; Moon, Chang Mo; Che, Xiumei; Kim, Seung Won; Park, Soo Jung; Hong, Sung Pil; Kim, Tae Il; Kim, Won Ho; Cheon, Jae Hee

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Genetic variants in IL12B, encoding the p40 subunit common in interleukin-12 (IL-12) and interleukin-23, were identified as the susceptibility loci for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study aimed to identify the correlation of serum IL-12B expression with disease activity in patients with IBD and evaluate the possibility of IL-12B as a biomarker for assessing inflammatory status in IBD. A total of 102 patients with IBD, including 38, 32, and 32 patients with Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), and intestinal Behçet's disease (intestinal BD), respectively, were included. The clinical and laboratory data from the patients were collected at the time of serum IL-12B measurement. Serum IL-12B levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The median IL-12B levels in patients with CD, UC, and intestinal BD were significantly higher than those in controls (1.87, 2.74, and 2.73 pg/mL, respectively, vs. 1.42 pg/mL, all P <0.05). IL-12B concentrations were associated with disease activity in patients with UC and intestinal BD but not in those with CD. IL-12B levels were increased with increasing disease activity in patients with UC (P <0.001). Likewise, patients with active intestinal BD had higher IL-12B levels than those without active disease (P = 0.008). IL-12B levels were correlated with the endoscopic disease activity of UC (P = 0.002) and intestinal BD (P = 0.001) but not that of CD. Serum IL-12B levels were significantly correlated with clinical and endoscopic disease activity in patients with UC and intestinal BD, suggesting its potential use as a biomarker for assessing disease activity in these patients. PMID:27281077

  5. CD46-Utilizing Adenoviruses Inhibit C/EBPβ-Dependent Expression of Proinflammatory Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Iacobelli-Martinez, Milena; Nepomuceno, Ronald R.; Connolly, Jodi; Nemerow, Glen R.

    2005-01-01

    The majority of adenovirus serotypes utilize the coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor (CAR) for virus-host cell attachment, but subgroup B and subgroup D (adenovirus type 37 [Ad37]) viruses recognize CD46. CD46 is a ubiquitously expressed receptor that serves as a cofactor for the inactivation of the complement components C3b and C4b, and it also serves as a receptor for diverse microbial pathogens. A reported consequence of CD46 engagement is a reduced capability of human immune cells to express interleukin-12 (IL-12), a cytokine involved in both the innate and adaptive immune responses. Studies were thus undertaken to determine whether CD46-utilizing Ads alter the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. Subgroup B (Ad16 and -35) and Ad37, but not Ad2 or -5, significantly reduced IL-12 production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and lipopolysaccharide. IL-12 mRNA (p35 and p40 subunits) levels as well as other cytokine mRNA levels (IL-1α and -β, IL-1Ra, and IL-6) were decreased upon interaction with CD46-utilizing Ads. Analysis of transcription factor activity required for cytokine expression indicated that CD46-utilizing Ads preferentially inhibited IFN-γ-induced C/EBPβ protein expression, consequently reducing its ability to form DNA complexes. Interference with IFN-γ signaling events by CD46-utilizing Ads, but not CAR-utilizing Ads, reveals a potentially critical difference in the host immune response against distinct Ad vectors, a situation that has implications for gene delivery and vaccine development. PMID:16103178

  6. Foal Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells Become Activated upon Rhodococcus equi Infection▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Flaminio, M. Julia B. F.; Nydam, Daryl V.; Marquis, Hélène; Matychak, Mary Beth; Giguère, Steeve

    2009-01-01

    Susceptibility of foals to Rhodococcus equi pneumonia is exclusive to the first few months of life. The objective of this study was to investigate the immediate immunologic response of foal and adult horse antigen-presenting cells (APCs) upon infection with R. equi. We measured the activation of the antigen-presenting major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecule, costimulatory molecules CD40 and CD86, the cytokine interleukin-12 (IL-12), and the transcriptional factor interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) in monocyte-derived macrophages (mMOs) and dendritic cells (mDCs) of adult horses and foals of different ages (from birth to 3 months of age) infected with virulent R. equi or its avirulent, plasmid-cured derivative. Infection with virulent or avirulent R. equi induced (P ≤ 0.01) the expression of IL-12p35 and IL-12p40 mRNAs in foal mMOs and mDCs at different ages. This response was likely mediated by the higher (P = 0.008) expression of IRF-1 in foal mDCs at birth than in adult horse mDCs. R. equi infection promoted comparable expression of costimulatory molecules CD86 and CD40 in foal and adult horse cells. The cytokine and costimulatory response by foal mDCs was not accompanied by robust MHC class II molecule expression. These data suggest that foal APCs detect the presence of R. equi and respond with the expression of the Th1-inducing cytokine IL-12. Nevertheless, there seems to be a limitation to MHC class II molecule expression which we hypothesize may compromise the efficient priming of naïve effector cells in early life. PMID:19109450

  7. Anti-metastatic immunotherapy based on mucosal administration of flagellin and immunomodulatory P10.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Filipe M; Braga, Catarina J M; Pereira, Felipe V; Maricato, Juliana T; Origassa, Clarice S T; Souza, Mariana F; Melo, Amanda C; Silva, Priscila; Tomaz, Samanta L; Gimenes, Karina P; Scutti, Jorge A B; Juliano, Maria A; Zamboni, Dario S; Câmara, Niels O; Travassos, Luiz R; Ferreira, Luis C S; Rodrigues, Elaine G

    2015-01-01

    Current therapies against malignant melanoma generally fail to increase survival in most patients, and immunotherapy is a promising approach as it could reduce the dosage of toxic therapeutic drugs. In the present study, we show that an immunotherapeutic approach based on the use of the Toll-like receptor (TLR)-5 ligand flagellin (Salmonella Typhimurium FliCi) combined with the major histocompatibility complex class II-restricted P10 peptide, derived from the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis gp43 major surface protein, reduced the number of lung metastasis in a murine melanoma model. Compounds were administered intranasally into C57Bl/6 mice intravenously challenged with syngeneic B16F10-Nex2 melanoma cells, aiming at the local (pulmonary) immune response modulation. Along with a marked reduction in the number of lung nodules, a significant increase in survival was observed. The immunization regimen induced both local and systemic proinflammatory responses. Lung macrophages were polarized towards a M1 phenotype, lymph node cells, and splenocytes secreted higher interleukin-12p40 and interferon (IFN)-γ levels when re-stimulated with tumor antigens. The protective effect of the FliCi+P10 formulation required TLR-5, myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 and IFN-γ expression, but caspase-1 knockout mice were only partially protected, suggesting that intracellular flagellin receptors are not involved with the anti-tumor effect. The immune therapy resulted in the activation of tumor-specific CD4(+) T lymphocytes, which conferred protection to metastatic melanoma growth after adoptive transfer. Taken together, our results report a new immunotherapeutic approach based on TLR-5 activation and IFN-γ production capable to control the metastatic growth of B16F10-Nex2 melanoma, being a promising alternative to be associated with chemotherapeutic drugs for an effective anti-tumor responses. PMID:25223833

  8. Anti-Tumor Effects after Adoptive Transfer of IL-12 Transposon-Modified Murine Splenocytes in the OT-I-Melanoma Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Aaron E.; Huye, Leslie; Bear, Adham; Rooney, Cliona M.; Wilson, Matthew H.

    2015-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of gene modified T cells provides possible immunotherapy for patients with cancers refractory to other treatments. We have previously used the non-viral piggyBac transposon system to gene modify human T cells for potential immunotherapy. However, these previous studies utilized adoptive transfer of modified human T cells to target cancer xenografts in highly immunodeficient (NOD-SCID) mice that do not recapitulate an intact immune system. Currently, only viral vectors have shown efficacy in permanently gene-modifying mouse T cells for immunotherapy applications. Therefore, we sought to determine if piggyBac could effectively gene modify mouse T cells to target cancer cells in a mouse cancer model. We first demonstrated that we could gene modify cells to express murine interleukin-12 (p35/p40 mIL-12), a transgene with proven efficacy in melanoma immunotherapy. The OT-I melanoma mouse model provides a well-established T cell mediated immune response to ovalbumin (OVA) positive B16 melanoma cells. B16/OVA melanoma cells were implanted in wild type C57Bl6 mice. Mouse splenocytes were isolated from C57Bl6 OT-I mice and were gene modified using piggyBac to express luciferase. Adoptive transfer of luciferase-modified OT-I splenocytes demonstrated homing to B16/OVA melanoma tumors in vivo. We next gene-modified OT-I cells to express mIL-12. Adoptive transfer of mIL-12-modified mouse OT-I splenocytes delayed B16/OVA melanoma tumor growth in vivo compared to control OT-I splenocytes and improved mouse survival. Our results demonstrate that the piggyBac transposon system can be used to gene modify splenocytes and mouse T cells for evaluating adoptive immunotherapy strategies in immunocompetent mouse tumor models that may more directly mimic immunotherapy applications in humans. PMID:26473608

  9. Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 3 suppresses T helper type 1, type 17 and type 2 immune responses after Trypanosoma cruzi infection and inhibits parasite replication by interfering with alternative macrophage activation.

    PubMed

    Böhme, Julia; Roßnagel, Caroline; Jacobs, Thomas; Behrends, Jochen; Hölscher, Christoph; Erdmann, Hanna

    2016-03-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 3 (EBI3) is a member of the interleukin-12 (IL)-12) family structurally related to the subunit p40 of IL-12 and forms a heterodimer either with the p28 subunit to build IL-27 or with p35 to form IL-35. Interleukin-27 is secreted by antigen-presenting cells whereas IL-35 appears to be produced mainly by regulatory T cells and regulatory B cells but both cytokines negatively regulate inflammatory immune responses. We here analysed the function of EBI3 during infection with the intracellular parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. Compared with C57BL/6 wild-type mice, EBI3-deficient (EBI3(-/-) ) mice showed a higher parasitaemia associated with an increased mortality rate. The EBI3(-/-) mice displayed an elevated inflammatory immune response with an increased production of T helper type 1 (Th1-), Th2- and Th17-derived cytokines. The increased Th2 immune response appears to have over-ridden the otherwise protective Th1 and Th17 immune responses by the induction of arginase-1-expressing alternatively activated macrophages in these mice. Hence, neutralization of IL-4 and arginase-1 activity partially restored protective immune responses in EBI3(-/-) mice. So far, our results demonstrate that EBI3 is an essential general regulator of inflammatory immune responses in experimental Chagas disease and is required for control of T. cruzi infection by inhibiting Th2-dependent alternative macrophage activation. Further studies are needed to dissect the underlying mechanisms and clarify whether EBI3 association with IL-27 or/and IL-35 accounts for its anti-inflammatory character in parasitic disease.

  10. Human tolerogenic dendritic cells produce IL-35 in the absence of other IL-12 family members.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Karen O; van der Kooij, Sandra W; Vignali, Dario A A; van Kooten, Cees

    2015-06-01

    IL-35 is a cytokine of the IL-12 family, existing as a heterodimer of IL-12p35 and Ebi3. IL-35 has anti-inflammatory properties and is produced by regulatory T cells in humans and mice, where it is required for optimal suppression of immune responses. Distinct from other IL-12 cytokines, the expression of IL-35 has not been described in antigen-presenting cells. In view of the immune-regulatory properties of IL-35, we investigated the expression, regulation, and function of IL-12p35 and Ebi3 in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells and tolerogenic DCs (tolDCs). These tolDCs do not produce IL-12p70 or the homodimer IL-12p40. We demonstrate that tolDCs completely lack transcriptional expression of IL-12p40. However, tolDCs maintain mRNA expression of IL-12p35 and Ebi3. Using intracellular flow cytometry and Western blot analysis, we show that tolDCs produce Ebi3 and IL-12p35, and both can be enhanced upon stimulation with IFN-γ, LPS, or CD40L. tolDCs supernatants have the capacity to suppress T-cell activation. Using IL12A silencing, we demonstrate that IL-12p35 is required for tolDCs to reach their full suppressive potential. Taken together, our results indicate that tolDCs produce IL-35, providing an additional novel mechanism by which tolDCs elicit their tolerogenic potential.

  11. Immobilization antigen vaccine adjuvanted by parasitic heat shock protein 70C confers high protection in fish against cryptocaryonosis.

    PubMed

    Josepriya, T A; Chien, Kuo-Hsuan; Lin, Hsin-Yun; Huang, Han-Ning; Wu, Chang-Jer; Song, Yen-Ling

    2015-08-01

    The immobilization antigen (iAg) has been demonstrated as a protective immunogen against Cryptocaryon irritans infection. In this study, C-terminal domain of heat shock protein 70 cloned from C. irritans (Hsp70C) was tested for its immuno-stimulatory effects. The iAg and Hsp70C cDNAs were constructed independently in secretory forms and were encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles. In the first immunization trial, grouper fingerlings orally intubated with iAg and iAg:Hsp70C presented 96% and 100% relative percent survival (RPS), respectively, after a lethal challenge. In the second trial, both iAg and iAg:Hsp70C groups showed 100% RPS and the skin trophont burden was significantly lowered. The iAg:Hsp70C still provides a significantly high protection of 51% RPS at 49 days post immunization, when an even more serious lethal infection occurs. RT-qPCR results showed that Hsp70C could up-regulate the expression of i) T cell markers: Cluster of Differentiation 8 alpha (CD8α) and CD4, ii) cytokine genes: Interferon gamma (IFNγ), Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNFα) and Interleukin 12 p40 (IL-12/P40), iii) antibody genes: Immunoglobulin M heavy chain (IgMH) and IgTH, and iv) major histocompatibility complex (MHC-I & MHC-II), in the spleen of iAg:Hsp70C group. Furthermore, significantly high levels of iAg-specific IgM was detected in skin mucus which efficiently immobilized live theronts in iAg- and iAg:Hsp70C-immunized fish at 5 weeks post immunization. Hsp70C significantly increased the number of nonspecific CD8(+) skin leucocytes which exerted cytotoxicity against theronts, although cytotoxic activity showed no difference among the various groups. Because of this complementary cooperation of cellular and humoral immune responses, Hsp70C enhances the efficacy of iAg vaccine and constrains C. irritans infection. In view of the severe loss caused by cryptocaryonosis, application of this parasitic vaccine in farmed and ornamental fish, is worthy to be considered. PMID

  12. Deregulation of Fas ligand expression as a novel cause of autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome-like disease

    PubMed Central

    Nabhani, Schafiq; Ginzel, Sebastian; Miskin, Hagit; Revel-Vilk, Shoshana; Harlev, Dan; Fleckenstein, Bernhard; Hönscheid, Andrea; Oommen, Prasad T.; Kuhlen, Michaela; Thiele, Ralf; Laws, Hans-Jürgen; Borkhardt, Arndt; Stepensky, Polina; Fischer, Ute

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome is frequently caused by mutations in genes involved in the Fas death receptor pathway, but for 20–30% of patients the genetic defect is unknown. We observed that treatment of healthy T cells with interleukin-12 induces upregulation of Fas ligand and Fas ligand-dependent apoptosis. Consistently, interleukin-12 could not induce apoptosis in Fas ligand-deficient T cells from patients with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome. We hypothesized that defects in the interleukin-12 signaling pathway may cause a similar phenotype as that caused by mutations of the Fas ligand gene. To test this, we analyzed 20 patients with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome of unknown cause by whole-exome sequencing. We identified a homozygous nonsense mutation (c.698G>A, p.R212*) in the interleukin-12/interleukin-23 receptor-component IL12RB1 in one of these patients. The mutation led to IL12RB1 protein truncation and loss of cell surface expression. Interleukin-12 and -23 signaling was completely abrogated as demonstrated by deficient STAT4 phosphorylation and interferon γ production. Interleukin-12-mediated expression of membrane-bound and soluble Fas ligand was lacking and basal expression was much lower than in healthy controls. The patient presented with the classical symptoms of autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome: chronic non-malignant, non-infectious lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, elevated numbers of double-negative T cells, autoimmune cytopenias, and increased levels of vitamin B12 and interleukin-10. Sanger sequencing and whole-exome sequencing excluded the presence of germline or somatic mutations in genes known to be associated with the autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome. Our data suggest that deficient regulation of Fas ligand expression by regulators such as the interleukin-12 signaling pathway may be an alternative cause of autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome-like disease. PMID:26113417

  13. TLR3 drives IRF6-dependent IL-23p19 expression and p19/EBI3 heterodimer formation in keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Ramnath, Divya; Tunny, Kathryn; Hohenhaus, Daniel M; Pitts, Claire M; Bergot, Anne-Sophie; Hogarth, P Mark; Hamilton, John A; Kapetanovic, Ronan; Sturm, Richard A; Scholz, Glen M; Sweet, Matthew J

    2015-10-01

    Interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family members impart cell-type specificity to toll-like receptor (TLR) signalling, and we recently identified a role for IRF6 in TLR2 signalling in epithelial cells. TLR3 has a well-characterized role in wound healing in the skin, and here, we examined TLR3-dependent IRF6 functions in human keratinocytes. Primary keratinocytes responded robustly to the TLR3 agonist poly(IC) with upregulation of mRNAs for interferon-β (IFN-β), the interleukin-12 (IL-12) family member IL-23p19 and the chemokines IL-8 and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5). Silencing of IRF6 expression enhanced poly(IC)-inducible IFN-β mRNA levels and inhibited poly(IC)-inducible IL-23p19 mRNA expression in primary keratinocytes. Consistent with these data, co-transfection of IRF6 increased poly(IC)-inducible IL-23p19 promoter activity, but inhibited poly(IC)-inducible IFN-β promoter activity in reporter assays. Surprisingly, poly(IC) did not regulate IL-12p40 expression in keratinocytes, suggesting that TLR3-inducible IL-23p19 may have an IL-23-independent function in these cells. The only other IL-12 family member that was strongly poly(IC) inducible was EBI3, which has not been shown to heterodimerize with IL-23p19. Both co-immunoprecipitation and proximity ligation assays revealed that IL-23p19 and EBI3 interact in cells. Co-expression of IL-23p19 and EBI3, as compared with IL-23p19 alone, resulted in increased levels of secreted IL-23p19, implying a functional role for this heterodimer. In summary, we report that IRF6 regulates a subset of TLR3 responses in human keratinocytes, including the production of a novel IL-12 family heterodimer (p19/EBI3). We propose that the TLR3-IRF6-p19/EBI3 axis may regulate keratinocyte and/or immune cell functions in the context of cell damage and wound healing in the skin. PMID:26303210

  14. Alpha/Beta Interferon Protects Adult Mice from Fatal Sindbis Virus Infection and Is an Important Determinant of Cell and Tissue Tropism

    PubMed Central

    Ryman, Kate D.; Klimstra, William B.; Nguyen, Khuong B.; Biron, Christine A.; Johnston, Robert E.

    2000-01-01

    Infection of adult 129 Sv/Ev mice with consensus Sindbis virus strain TR339 is subclinical due to an inherent restriction in early virus replication and viremic dissemination. By comparing the pathogenesis of TR339 in 129 Sv/Ev mice and alpha/beta interferon receptor null (IFN-α/βR−/−) mice, we have assessed the contribution of IFN-α/β in restricting virus replication and spread and in determining cell and tissue tropism. In adult 129 Sv/Ev mice, subcutaneous inoculation with 100 PFU of TR339 led to extremely low-level virus replication and viremia, with clearance under way by 96 h postinoculation (p.i.). In striking contrast, adult IFN-α/βR−/− mice inoculated subcutaneously with 100 PFU of TR339 succumbed to the infection within 84 h. By 24 h p.i. a high-titer serum viremia had seeded infectious virus systemically, coincident with the systemic induction of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-12 (IL-12) p40, IFN-γ, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and IL-6. Replicating virus was located in macrophage-dendritic cell (DC)-like cells at 24 h p.i. in the draining lymph node and in the splenic marginal zone. By 72 h p.i. virus replication was widespread in macrophage-DC-like cells in the spleen, liver, lung, thymus, and kidney and in fibroblast-connective tissue and periosteum, with sporadic neuroinvasion. IFN-α/β-mediated restriction of TR339 infection was mimicked in vitro in peritoneal exudate cells from 129 Sv/Ev versus IFN-α/βR−/− mice. Thus, IFN-α/β protects the normal adult host from viral infection by rapidly conferring an antiviral state on otherwise permissive cell types, both locally and systemically. Ablation of the IFN-α/β system alters the apparent cell and tissue tropism of the virus and renders macrophage-DC-lineage cells permissive to infection. PMID:10708454

  15. Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor Expressed by Recombinant Respiratory Syncytial Virus Attenuates Viral Replication and Increases the Level of Pulmonary Antigen-Presenting Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bukreyev, Alexander; Belyakov, Igor M.; Berzofsky, Jay A.; Murphy, Brian R.; Collins, Peter L.

    2001-01-01

    An obstacle to developing a vaccine against human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is that natural infection typically does not confer solid immunity to reinfection. To investigate methods to augment the immune response, recombinant RSV (rRSV) was constructed that expresses murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (mGM-CSF) from a transcription cassette inserted into the G-F intergenic region. Replication of rRSV/mGM-CSF in the upper and lower respiratory tracts of BALB/c mice was reduced 23- to 74- and 5- to 588-fold, respectively, compared to that of the parental rRSV. Despite this strong attenuation of replication, the level of RSV-specific serum antibodies induced by rRSV/mGM-CSF was comparable to, or marginally higher than, that of the parental rRSV. The induction of RSV-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T cells was moderately reduced during the initial infection, which might be a consequence of reduced antigen expression. Mice infected with rRSV/mGM-CSF had elevated levels of pulmonary mRNA for gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and interleukin 12 (IL-12) p40 compared to animals infected by wild-type rRSV. Elevated synthesis of IFN-γ could account for the restriction of RSV replication, as was observed previously with an IFN-γ-expressing rRSV. The accumulation of total pulmonary mononuclear cells and total CD4+ T lymphocytes was accelerated in animals infected with rRSV/mGM-CSF compared to that in animals infected with the control virus, and the level of IFN-γ-positive or IL-4-positive pulmonary CD4+ cells was elevated approximately twofold. The number of pulmonary lymphoid and myeloid dendritic cells and macrophages was increased up to fourfold in mice infected with rRSV/mGM-CSF compared to those infected with the parental rRSV, and the mean expression of major histocompatibility complex class II molecules, a marker of activation, was significantly increased in the two subsets of dendritic cells. Enhanced antigen presentation likely accounts for the

  16. Immune Modulators as Therapeutic Agents for Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Rook, Alain H.; Benoit, Bernice; Kim, Ellen J.; Vittorio, Carmela C.; Anshelevich, Sasha; Raphael, Brian A.; Introcaso, Camille E.; Gardner, Jennifer M.; Evans, Katherine G.; Morrissey, Kelly; Samimi, Sara; Musiek, Amy C.; Showe, Louise C.; Wasik, Mariusz A.; Wysocka, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma at all stages appears to be responsive to immune modulatory therapeutic approaches. We describe here the mechanistic rationale for the use of interferons, interleukin-12, retinoids, Toll-like receptor agonists, photopheresis and combinations of immune preserving, immune stimulatory therapies for CTCL. PMID:20826407

  17. The transcription factor GATA3 actively represses RUNX3 protein-regulated production of interferon-gamma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The transcription factor GATA3 is crucial for the differentiation of naive CD4+ T cells into T helper 2 (Th2) cells. Here, we show that deletion of Gata3 allowed the appearance of interferon-g (IFN-g)-producing cells in the absence of interleukin-12 (IL-12) and IFN-g. Such IFN-g production was tra...

  18. GDNF — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    The GDNF gene encodes a neurotrophic factor that enhances survival and morphological differentiation of dopaminergic neurons. This protein is a mature secreted homodimer. Several transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been identified.

  19. Structural basis of the heterodimerization of the MST and RASSF SARAH domains in the Hippo signalling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Eunha; Cheong, Hae-Kap; Mushtaq, Ameeq Ul; Kim, Hye-Yeon; Yeo, Kwon Joo; Kim, Eunhee; Lee, Woo Cheol; Hwang, Kwang Yeon; Cheong, Chaejoon; Jeon, Young Ho

    2014-07-01

    The heterodimeric structure of the MST1 and RASSF5 SARAH domains is presented. A comparison of homodimeric and heterodimeric interactions provides a structural basis for the preferential association of the SARAH heterodimer. Despite recent progress in research on the Hippo signalling pathway, the structural information available in this area is extremely limited. Intriguingly, the homodimeric and heterodimeric interactions of mammalian sterile 20-like (MST) kinases through the so-called ‘SARAH’ (SAV/RASSF/HPO) domains play a critical role in cellular homeostasis, dictating the fate of the cell regarding cell proliferation or apoptosis. To understand the mechanism of the heterodimerization of SARAH domains, the three-dimensional structures of an MST1–RASSF5 SARAH heterodimer and an MST2 SARAH homodimer were determined by X-ray crystallography and were analysed together with that previously determined for the MST1 SARAH homodimer. While the structure of the MST2 homodimer resembled that of the MST1 homodimer, the MST1–RASSF5 heterodimer showed distinct structural features. Firstly, the six N-terminal residues (Asp432–Lys437), which correspond to the short N-terminal 3{sub 10}-helix h1 kinked from the h2 helix in the MST1 homodimer, were disordered. Furthermore, the MST1 SARAH domain in the MST1–RASSF5 complex showed a longer helical structure (Ser438–Lys480) than that in the MST1 homodimer (Val441–Lys480). Moreover, extensive polar and nonpolar contacts in the MST1–RASSF5 SARAH domain were identified which strengthen the interactions in the heterodimer in comparison to the interactions in the homodimer. Denaturation experiments performed using urea also indicated that the MST–RASSF heterodimers are substantially more stable than the MST homodimers. These findings provide structural insights into the role of the MST1–RASSF5 SARAH domain in apoptosis signalling.

  20. Neuroadaptations in Human Chronic Alcoholics: Dysregulation of the NF-κB System

    PubMed Central

    Ökvist, Anna; Johansson, Sofia; Kuzmin, Alexander; Bazov, Igor; Merino-Martinez, Roxana; Ponomarev, Igor; Mayfield, R. Dayne; Harris, R. Adron; Sheedy, Donna; Garrick, Therese; Harper, Clive; Hurd, Yasmin L.; Terenius, Lars; Ekström, Tomas J.

    2007-01-01

    Background Alcohol dependence and associated cognitive impairments apparently result from neuroadaptations to chronic alcohol consumption involving changes in expression of multiple genes. Here we investigated whether transcription factors of Nuclear Factor-kappaB (NF-κB) family, controlling neuronal plasticity and neurodegeneration, are involved in these adaptations in human chronic alcoholics. Methods and Findings Analysis of DNA-binding of NF-κB (p65/p50 heterodimer) and the p50 homodimer as well as NF-κB proteins and mRNAs was performed in postmortem human brain samples from 15 chronic alcoholics and 15 control subjects. The prefrontal cortex involved in alcohol dependence and cognition was analyzed and the motor cortex was studied for comparison. The p50 homodimer was identified as dominant κB binding factor in analyzed tissues. NF-κB and p50 homodimer DNA-binding was downregulated, levels of p65 (RELA) mRNA were attenuated, and the stoichiometry of p65/p50 proteins and respective mRNAs was altered in the prefrontal cortex of alcoholics. Comparison of a number of p50 homodimer/NF-κB target DNA sites, κB elements in 479 genes, down- or upregulated in alcoholics demonstrated that genes with κB elements were generally upregulated in alcoholics. No significant differences between alcoholics and controls were observed in the motor cortex. Conclusions We suggest that cycles of alcohol intoxication/withdrawal, which may initially activate NF-κB, when repeated over years downregulate RELA expression and NF-κB and p50 homodimer DNA-binding. Downregulation of the dominant p50 homodimer, a potent inhibitor of gene transcription apparently resulted in derepression of κB regulated genes. Alterations in expression of p50 homodimer/NF-κB regulated genes may contribute to neuroplastic adaptation underlying alcoholism. PMID:17895971

  1. Growth differentiation factor 9:bone morphogenetic protein 15 heterodimers are potent regulators of ovarian functions.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jia; Li, Qinglei; Wigglesworth, Karen; Rangarajan, Adithya; Kattamuri, Chandramohan; Peterson, Randall T; Eppig, John J; Thompson, Thomas B; Matzuk, Martin M

    2013-02-19

    The TGF-β superfamily is the largest family of secreted proteins in mammals, and members of the TGF-β family are involved in most developmental and physiological processes. Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) and bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15), oocyte-secreted paralogs of the TGF-β superfamily, have been shown genetically to control ovarian physiology. Although previous studies found that GDF9 and BMP15 homodimers can modulate ovarian pathways in vitro, the functional species-specific significance of GDF9:BMP15 heterodimers remained unresolved. Therefore, we engineered and produced purified recombinant mouse and human GDF9 and BMP15 homodimers and GDF9:BMP15 heterodimers to compare their molecular characteristics and physiological functions. In mouse granulosa cell and cumulus cell expansion assays, mouse GDF9 and human BMP15 homodimers can up-regulate cumulus expansion-related genes (Ptx3, Has2, and Ptgs2) and promote cumulus expansion in vitro, whereas mouse BMP15 and human GDF9 homodimers are essentially inactive. However, we discovered that mouse GDF9:BMP15 heterodimer is ∼10- to 30-fold more biopotent than mouse GDF9 homodimer, and human GDF9:BMP15 heterodimer is ∼1,000- to 3,000-fold more bioactive than human BMP15 homodimer. We also demonstrate that the heterodimers require the kinase activities of ALK4/5/7 and BMPR2 to activate SMAD2/3 but unexpectedly need ALK6 as a coreceptor in the signaling complex in granulosa cells. Our findings that GDF9:BMP15 heterodimers are the most bioactive ligands in mice and humans compared with homodimers explain many puzzling genetic and physiological data generated during the last two decades and have important implications for improving female fertility in mammals.

  2. Carrier Properties of a Protein Derived from Outer Membrane Protein A of Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Rauly, Isabelle; Goetsch, Liliane; Haeuw, Jean-François; Tardieux, Christine; Baussant, Thierry; Bonnefoy, Jean-Yves; Corvaia, Nathalie

    1999-01-01

    We have recently cloned a new protein, recombinant P40 (rP40). When tested in vivo after conjugation to a B-cell epitope, rP40 induces an important antibody response without the need for adjuvant. To characterize its potency, this carrier protein was coupled to a peptide derived from respiratory syncytial virus attachment G protein (G1′). After immunization of mice with the rP40-G1′ conjugate, strong antipeptide antibodies were detected, whereas peptide alone was not immunogenic. To emphasize the carrier properties of rP40, a polysaccharide derived from Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) was coupled to it. Immunoglobulin G responses against the Hib polysaccharide were observed after coupling to rP40. Interestingly, an antipeptide antibody response was observed despite preexisting anti-rP40 antibodies generated by preimmunization with rP40. In addition, rP40 compares well with the reference carrier protein, tetanus toxoid (TT), since antibody responses of equal intensity were observed when a peptide or a polysaccharide was coupled to TT and rP40. Moreover, rP40 had advantages compared to TT; e.g., it induced a mixed Th1/Th2 response, whereas TT induced only a Th2 profile. Together, the results indicate that rP40 is a novel carrier protein with potential for use as an alternative carrier for human vaccination. PMID:10531198

  3. Beta-carotene-induced enhancement of natural killer cell activity in elderly men: an investigation of the role of cytokines.

    PubMed

    Santos, M S; Gaziano, J M; Leka, L S; Beharka, A A; Hennekens, C H; Meydani, S N

    1998-07-01

    We showed previously that natural killer (NK) cell activity is significantly greater in elderly men supplemented with beta-carotene than in those taking placebo. In an attempt to determine the mechanism of beta-carotene's effect, we analyzed the production of NK cell-enhancing cytokines (interferon alpha, interferon gamma, and interleukin 12). Boston-area participants in the Physicians' Health Study (men aged 65-88 y; mean age, 73 y) who had been supplemented with beta-carotene (50 mg on alternate days) for an average of 12 y were enrolled in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Elderly subjects taking beta-carotene supplements had significantly greater plasma beta-carotene concentrations than those taking placebo. Beta-carotene-supplemented elderly men had significantly greater NK cell activity than did elderly men receiving placebo. Percentages of NK cells (CD16+CD56+) were not significantly different between the beta-carotene and placebo groups. Production of interleukin 12, interferon alpha, or concanavalin A-stimulated interferon gamma by cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells was not significantly different between beta-carotene-supplemented elderly and those taking placebo. Our results indicate that beta-carotene-induced enhancement of NK cell activity is not mediated by changes in percentages of CD16+CD56+ NK cells nor through up-regulation of interleukin 12 or interferon alpha.

  4. Involvement of the cytoplasmic cysteine-238 of CD40 in its up-regulation of CD23 expression and its enhancement of TLR4-triggered responses.

    PubMed

    Nadiri, Amal; Jundi, Malek; El Akoum, Souhad; Hassan, Ghada S; Yacoub, Daniel; Mourad, Walid

    2015-11-01

    CD40, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, plays a key role in both adaptive and innate immunity. Engagement of CD40 with its natural trimeric ligand or with cross-linked antibodies results in disulfide-linked CD40 (dl-CD40) homodimer formation, a process mediated by the cysteine-238 residues of the cytoplasmic tail of CD40. The present study was designed to elucidate the biological relevance of cysteine-238-mediated dl-CD40 homodimers to the expression of CD23 on B cells and to investigate its possible involvement in the innate response. Our results indicate that cysteine-238-mediated dl-CD40 homodimerization is required for CD40-induced activation of PI3-kinase/Akt signaling and the subsequent CD23 expression, as inhibition of dl-CD40 homodimer formation through a point mutation-approach specifically impairs these responses. Interestingly, cysteine-238-mediated dl-CD40 homodimers are also shown to play a crucial role in Toll-like receptor 4-induced CD23 expression, further validating the importance of this system in bridging innate and adaptive immune responses. This process also necessitates the activation of the PI3-kinase/Akt cascade. Thus, our results highlight new roles for CD40 and cysteine-238-mediated CD40 homodimers in cell biology and identify a potential new target for therapeutic strategies against CD40-associated chronic inflammatory diseases.

  5. Evidence for Homodimerization of the c-Fos Transcription Factor in Live Cells Revealed by Fluorescence Microscopy and Computer Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Szalóki, Nikoletta; Krieger, Jan Wolfgang; Komáromi, István; Tóth, Katalin

    2015-01-01

    The c-Fos and c-Jun transcription factors, members of the activator protein 1 (AP-1) complex, form heterodimers and bind to DNA via a basic leucine zipper and regulate the cell cycle, apoptosis, differentiation, etc. Purified c-Jun leucine zipper fragments could also form stable homodimers, whereas c-Fos leucine zipper homodimers were found to be much less stable in earlier in vitro studies. The importance of c-Fos overexpression in tumors and the controversy in the literature concerning c-Fos homodimerization prompted us to investigate Fos homodimerization. Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) and molecular brightness analysis of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy data from live HeLa cells transfected with fluorescent-protein-tagged c-Fos indicated that c-Fos formed homodimers. We developed a method to determine the absolute concentrations of transfected and endogenous c-Fos and c-Jun, which allowed us to determine dissociation constants of c-Fos homodimers (Kd = 6.7 ± 1.7 μM) and c-Fos–c-Jun heterodimers (on the order of 10 to 100 nM) from FRET titrations. Imaging fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (SPIM-FCCS) and molecular dynamics modeling confirmed that c-Fos homodimers were stably associated and could bind to the chromatin. Our results establish c-Fos homodimers as a novel form of the AP-1 complex that may be an autonomous transcription factor in c-Fos-overexpressing tissues and could contribute to tumor development. PMID:26303532

  6. Crystal Structure of a Complex of NOD1 CARD and Ubiquitin

    PubMed Central

    Ver Heul, Aaron M.; Gakhar, Lokesh; Piper, Robert C.; Subramanian, Ramaswamy

    2014-01-01

    The Caspase Recruitment Domain (CARD) from the innate immune receptor NOD1 was crystallized with Ubiquitin (Ub). NOD1 CARD was present as a helix-swapped homodimer similar to other structures of NOD1 CARD, and Ub monomers formed a homodimer similar in conformation to Lys48-linked di-Ub. The interaction between NOD1 CARD and Ub in the crystal was mediated by novel binding sites on each molecule. Comparisons of these sites to previously identified interaction surfaces on both molecules were made along with discussion of their potential functional significance. PMID:25127239

  7. Zebra reaction or the recipe for the synthesis of heterodimeric zinc complexes.

    PubMed

    Jędrzkiewicz, D; Ejfler, J; John, Ł; Szafert, S

    2016-02-21

    A series of asymmetric heterodimeric zinc complexes have been synthesized in a direct reaction between conformationally flexible chiral/achiral homodimers. The cooperative activity of steric factors and coordination codes resulted in an intriguing chiral self-sorting process. Herein, we are reporting our recent exploration of the first example of such a type of reaction. PMID:26658768

  8. The prodomain of BMP4 is necessary and sufficient to generate stable BMP4/7 heterodimers with enhanced bioactivity in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Neugebauer, Judith M.; Kwon, Sunjong; Kim, Hyung-Seok; Donley, Nathan; Tilak, Anup; Sopory, Shailaja; Christian, Jan L.

    2015-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins 4 and 7 (BMP4 and BMP7) are morphogens that signal as either homodimers or heterodimers to regulate embryonic development and adult homeostasis. BMP4/7 heterodimers exhibit markedly higher signaling activity than either homodimer, but the mechanism underlying the enhanced activity is unknown. BMPs are synthesized as inactive precursors that dimerize and are then cleaved to generate both the bioactive ligand and prodomain fragments, which lack signaling activity. Our study reveals a previously unknown requirement for the BMP4 prodomain in promoting heterodimer activity. We show that BMP4 and BMP7 precursor proteins preferentially or exclusively form heterodimers when coexpressed in vivo. In addition, we show that the BMP4 prodomain is both necessary and sufficient for generation of stable heterodimeric ligands with enhanced activity and can enable homodimers to signal in a context in which they normally lack activity. Our results suggest that intrinsic properties of the BMP4 prodomain contribute to the relative bioactivities of homodimers versus heterodimers in vivo. These findings have clinical implications for the use of BMPs as regenerative agents for the treatment of bone injury and disease. PMID:25902523

  9. Crystal structure and assembly of the functional Nanoarchaeum equitans tRNA splicing endonuclease

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Michelle; Xue, Song; Erdman, Rachel; Randau, Lennart; Söll, Dieter; Li, Hong

    2009-10-27

    The RNA splicing and processing endonuclease from Nanoarchaeum equitans (NEQ) belongs to the recently identified ({alpha}{beta}){sub 2} family of splicing endonucleases that require two different subunits for splicing activity. N. equitans splicing endonuclease comprises the catalytic subunit (NEQ205) and the structural subunit (NEQ261). Here, we report the crystal structure of the functional NEQ enzyme at 2.1 {angstrom} containing both subunits, as well as that of the NEQ261 subunit alone at 2.2 {angstrom}. The functional enzyme resembles previously known {alpha}{sub 2} and {alpha}{sub 4} endonucleases but forms a heterotetramer: a dimer of two heterodimers of the catalytic subunit (NEQ205) and the structural subunit (NEQ261). Surprisingly, NEQ261 alone forms a homodimer, similar to the previously known homodimer of the catalytic subunit. The homodimers of isolated subunits are inhibitory to heterodimerization as illustrated by a covalently linked catalytic homodimer that had no RNA cleavage activity upon mixing with the structural subunit. Detailed structural comparison reveals a more favorable hetero- than homodimerization interface, thereby suggesting a possible regulation mechanism of enzyme assembly through available subunits. Finally, the uniquely flexible active site of the NEQ endonuclease provides a possible explanation for its broader substrate specificity.

  10. Zebra reaction or the recipe for the synthesis of heterodimeric zinc complexes.

    PubMed

    Jędrzkiewicz, D; Ejfler, J; John, Ł; Szafert, S

    2016-02-21

    A series of asymmetric heterodimeric zinc complexes have been synthesized in a direct reaction between conformationally flexible chiral/achiral homodimers. The cooperative activity of steric factors and coordination codes resulted in an intriguing chiral self-sorting process. Herein, we are reporting our recent exploration of the first example of such a type of reaction.

  11. The neuropeptide bursicon acts in cuticle metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bursicon is a heterodimeric neuropeptide formed of bursicon a (burs a) and bursicon B (burs B) that controls cuticle tanning and wing expansion in insects. Burs a-a and burs B-B homodimers are also formed; they act via an unknown receptor to induce expression of prophylactic immune and stress genes ...

  12. Substitution of specific cysteine residues in E1 glycoprotein of classical swine fever virus strain Brescia affects formation of E1-E2 heterodimers and alters virulence in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    E1, along with E^rns and E2, is one of the three envelope glycoproteins of Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV). E1 and E2 are anchored to the virus envelope at their carboxyl termini and E^rns loosely associates with the viral envelope. In infected cells, E2 forms homodimers and heterodimers with E1,...

  13. Effect of specific amino acid substitutions in the putative fusion peptide of structural glycoprotein E2 on Classical Swine Fever Virus replication

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    E2, along with E^rns and E1, is an envelope glycoprotein of Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV). E2 is involved in several virus functions including cell attachment, host range susceptibility and virulence in natural hosts. In infected cells, E2 forms homodimers as well as heterodimers with E1, media...

  14. Human Leukocyte Antigen and Cytokine Receptor Gene Polymorphisms Associated With Heterogeneous Immune Responses to Mumps Viral Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Ovsyannikova, Inna G.; Jacobson, Robert M.; Dhiman, Neelam; Vierkant, Robert A.; Pankratz, V. Shane; Poland, Gregory A.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Mumps outbreaks continue to occur throughout the world, including in highly vaccinated populations. Vaccination against mumps has been successful; however, humoral and cellular immune responses to mumps vaccines vary significantly from person to person. We set out to assess whether HLA and cytokine gene polymorphisms are associated with variations in the immune response to mumps viral vaccine. METHODS To identify genetic factors that might contribute to variations in mumps vaccine–induced immune responses, we performed HLA genotyping in a group of 346 healthy schoolchildren (12–18 years of age) who previously received 2 doses of live mumps vaccine. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (minor allele frequency of >5%) in cytokine and cytokine receptor genes were genotyped for a subset of 118 children. RESULTS Median values for mumps-specific antibody titers and lymphoproliferative stimulation indices were 729 IU/mL and 4.8, respectively. Girls demonstrated significantly higher mumps antibody titers than boys, indicating gender-linked genetic differences in humoral immune response. Significant associations were found between the HLA-DQB1*0303 alleles and lower mumps-specific antibody titers. An interesting finding was the association of several HLA class II alleles with mumps-specific lymphoproliferation. Alleles of the DRB1 (*0101, *0301, *0801, *1001, *1201, and *1302), DQA1 (*0101, *0105, *0401, and *0501), and DQB1 (*0201, *0402, and *0501) loci were associated with significant variations in lymphoproliferative immune responses to mumps vaccine. Additional associations were observed with single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the interleukin-10RA, interleukin-12RB1, and interleukin-12RB2 cytokine receptor genes. Minor alleles for 4 single-nucleotide polymorphisms within interleukin-10RA and interleukin-12RB genes were associated with variations in humoral and cellular immune responses to mumps vaccination. CONCLUSIONS These data suggest the important role of

  15. A new approach for studying GPCR dimers: drug-induced inactivation and reactivation to reveal GPCR dimer function in vitro, in primary culture, and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Teitler, Milt; Klein, Michael T

    2012-02-01

    GPCRs are a major family of homologous proteins and are key mediators of the effects of numerous endogenous neurotransmitters, hormones, cytokines, therapeutic drugs, and drugs-of-abuse. Despite the enormous amount of research on the pharmacological and biochemical properties of GPCRs, the question as to whether they exist as monomers, dimers, or higher order structures in the body is unanswered. The GPCR dimer field has been dominated by techniques involving recombinant cell lines expressing mutant receptors, often involving the solubilization of the receptors. These techniques cannot be applied in vivo or even to primary cell cultures. This review will focus on a novel approach to exploring the functional properties of homodimers. Studies of the 5-HT(7) and 5-HT(2A) serotonin receptors have revealed that binding of a pseudo-irreversible antagonist ("inactivator") to one of the orthosteric sites of a homodimer abolishes all receptor activity, and subsequent binding of a competitive antagonist to the orthosteric site of the second protomer releases the inactivator, allowing the receptor to return to an active state. This approach demonstrates allosteric crosstalk between protomers of native GPCR homodimers, indicating that GPCRs do exist and function as homodimers in both recombinant cells and rat primary astrocytes. This technique can be applied universally using intact recombinant or primary cells in culture, membrane homogenate preparations and, potentially, in vivo. The data obtained using the 5-HT(7) and 5-HT(2A) receptors are strongly supportive of a GPCR homodimer structure, with little evidence of monomer involvement in the function of these receptors. PMID:22119169

  16. Decreased serum IL-27 and IL-35 levels are associated with disease severity in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Da-Qi; Jia, Kun; Wang, Rong; Li, Ting; Zhao, Ning; Yang, Li-Na; Yang, Li

    2016-04-15

    The interleukin 12 (IL-12) family plays important roles in autoimmune diseases. To explore the roles of the IL-12 family members IL-27 and IL-35 in the pathogenesis of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD), we determined their serum and cerebral spinal fluid levels and assessed potential correlations with clinical characteristics. Serum IL-27 levels were negatively correlated with disease severity and spinal cord lesion length, while serum IL-35 levels were negatively correlated with disease severity and annual relapse rate. Thus, IL-27 and IL-35 may be important biomarkers of NMOSD severity and these molecules might represent potential therapeutic cytokines for treating NMOSD.

  17. IL-12 Family Cytokines: Immunological Playmakers

    PubMed Central

    Vignali, Dario A.A.; Kuchroo, Vijay K.

    2014-01-01

    The interleukin-12 (IL-12) family is unique in comprising the only heterodimeric cytokines, which includes IL-12, IL-23, IL-27 and IL-35. This endows these cytokines with a unique set of connections and functional interactions not shared within other cytokine families. Despite sharing many structural features and molecular partners, they mediate surprisingly diverse functional effects. Here we discuss the unique and unusual structural and functional characteristics of this cytokine family. We outline how cells might interpret seemingly similar cytokine signals to give rise to the diverse functional outcomes which characterize this cytokine family. We will also discuss the therapeutic implications of this complexity. PMID:22814351

  18. Interleukin-17 inhibitors. A new era in treatment of psoriasis and other skin diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wasilewska, Agnieszka; Winiarska, Marta; Olszewska, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease caused by the excessive secretion of inflammatory cytokines. Available therapeutic options include biologic drugs such as tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors and interleukin 12/23 (IL-12/23) inhibitors. The recent discovery of IL-17, which contributes to development of psoriasis, opened new possibilities for further treatment modalities. Currently, one anti-IL17 biological agent is approved for the treatment – a fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17A (secukinumab). Further clinical trials, including a humanized IgG4 specific for IL-17 (ixekizumab) and a fully human antibody that targets the IL-17 receptor A (brodalumab). PMID:27605893

  19. Getting from the bench to the patient: biotechnology strategies.

    PubMed

    Youssoufian, Hagop; Lewis, Jonathan

    2013-10-01

    Despite significant advances in understanding of molecular pathobiology, the adoption of this knowledge and its application to drug development is sporadic. Consequently, the drug development process has remained intrinsically laborious and inefficient. Translational research seeks to improve this process by integrating scientific advances into well-defined clinical challenges and opportunities. The focus of this article is on cancer therapeutics, specifically, 2 biotechnology organizations' advances in oncology: (1) optimizing the safety and efficacy of a novel DNA cross-linking small molecule, palifosfamide, and (2) bringing synthetic biology into clinical practice using a controllable gene therapy strategy with intratumorally injected interleukin-12 DNA, a potent cytokine.

  20. Interleukin-17 inhibitors. A new era in treatment of psoriasis and other skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Wasilewska, Agnieszka; Winiarska, Marta; Olszewska, Małgorzata; Rudnicka, Lidia

    2016-08-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease caused by the excessive secretion of inflammatory cytokines. Available therapeutic options include biologic drugs such as tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors and interleukin 12/23 (IL-12/23) inhibitors. The recent discovery of IL-17, which contributes to development of psoriasis, opened new possibilities for further treatment modalities. Currently, one anti-IL17 biological agent is approved for the treatment - a fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17A (secukinumab). Further clinical trials, including a humanized IgG4 specific for IL-17 (ixekizumab) and a fully human antibody that targets the IL-17 receptor A (brodalumab). PMID:27605893

  1. Interleukin-17 inhibitors. A new era in treatment of psoriasis and other skin diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wasilewska, Agnieszka; Winiarska, Marta; Olszewska, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease caused by the excessive secretion of inflammatory cytokines. Available therapeutic options include biologic drugs such as tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors and interleukin 12/23 (IL-12/23) inhibitors. The recent discovery of IL-17, which contributes to development of psoriasis, opened new possibilities for further treatment modalities. Currently, one anti-IL17 biological agent is approved for the treatment – a fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17A (secukinumab). Further clinical trials, including a humanized IgG4 specific for IL-17 (ixekizumab) and a fully human antibody that targets the IL-17 receptor A (brodalumab).

  2. Identification and expression analysis of two interleukin-23α (p19) isoforms, in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and Atlantic salmon Salmo salar.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yousheng; Husain, Mansourah; Qi, Zhitao; Bird, Steve; Wang, Tiehui

    2015-08-01

    Interleukin (IL)-23 is a heterodimeric IL-12 family cytokine composed of a p19 α-chain, linked to a p40 β-chain that is shared with IL-12. IL-23 is distinguished functionally from IL-12 by its ability to induce the production of IL-17, and differentiation of Th17 cells in mammals. Three isoforms of p40 (p40a, p40b and p40c) have been found in some 3R teleosts. Salmonids also possess three p40 isoforms (p40b1, p40b2 and p40c) although p40a is missing, and two copies (paralogues) of p40b are present that have presumably been retained following the 4R duplication in this fish lineage. Teleost p19 has been discovered recently in zebrafish, but to date there is limited information on expression and modulation of this molecule. In this report we have cloned two p19 paralogues (p19a and p19b) in salmonids, suggesting that a salmonid can possess six potential IL-23 isoforms. Whilst Atlantic salmon has two active p19 genes, the rainbow trout p19b gene may have been pseudogenized. The salmonid p19 translations share moderate identities (22.8-29.9%) to zebrafish and mammalian p19 molecules, but their identity was supported by structural features, a conserved 4 exon/3 intron gene organisation, and phylogenetic tree analysis. The active salmonid p19 genes are highly expressed in blood and gonad. Bacterial (Yersinia ruckeri) and viral infection in rainbow trout induces the expression of p19a, suggesting pathogen-specific induction of IL-23 isoforms. Trout p19a expression was also induced by PAMPs (poly IC and peptidoglycan) and the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β in primary head kidney macrophages. These data may indicate diverse functional roles of trout IL-23 isoforms in regulating the immune response in fish.

  3. Colon-specific delivery of a probiotic-derived soluble protein ameliorates intestinal inflammation in mice through an EGFR-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Yan, Fang; Cao, Hanwei; Cover, Timothy L; Washington, M Kay; Shi, Yan; Liu, LinShu; Chaturvedi, Rupesh; Peek, Richard M; Wilson, Keith T; Polk, D Brent

    2011-06-01

    Probiotic bacteria can potentially have beneficial effects on the clinical course of several intestinal disorders, but our understanding of probiotic action is limited. We have identified a probiotic bacteria-derived soluble protein, p40, from Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), which prevents cytokine-induced apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells. In the current study, we analyzed the mechanisms by which p40 regulates cellular responses in intestinal epithelial cells and p40's effects on experimental colitis using mouse models. We show that the recombinant p40 protein activated EGFR, leading to Akt activation. Activation of EGFR by p40 was required for inhibition of cytokine-induced apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and ex vivo. Furthermore, we developed a pectin/zein hydrogel bead system to specifically deliver p40 to the mouse colon, which activated EGFR in colon epithelial cells. Administration of p40-containing beads reduced intestinal epithelial apoptosis and disruption of barrier function in the colon epithelium in an EGFR-dependent manner, thereby preventing and treating DSS-induced intestinal injury and acute colitis. Furthermore, p40 activation of EGFR was required for ameliorating colon epithelial cell apoptosis and chronic inflammation in oxazolone-induced colitis. These data define what we believe to be a previously unrecognized mechanism of probiotic-derived soluble proteins in protecting the intestine from injury and inflammation.

  4. IL12B expression is sustained by a heterogenous population of myeloid lineages during tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Reeme, Allison E.; Miller, Halli E.; Robinson, Richard T.

    2015-01-01

    Summary IL12B is required for resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection, promoting the initiation and maintenance of Mtb-specific effector responses. While this makes the IL12-pathway an attractive target for experimental tuberculosis (TB) therapies, data regarding what lineages express IL12B after infection is established are limited. This is not obvious in the lung, an organ in which both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic lineages produce IL12p40 upon pathogen encounter. Here, we use radiation bone marrow chimeras and Yet40 reporter mice to determine what lineages produce IL12p40 during experimental TB. We observed that hematopoietic IL12p40-production was sufficient to control Mtb, with no contribution by non-hematopoietic lineages. Furthermore, rather than being produced by a single subset, IL12p40 was produced by cells that were heterogenous in their size, granularity, autofluorescence and expression of CD11c, CD11b and CD8α. While depending on the timepoint and tissue examined, the surface phenotype of IL12p40-producers most closely resembled macrophages based on previous surveys of lung myeloid lineages. Importantly, depletion of CDllchi cells during infection had no affect on lung IL12p40-concentrations. Collectively, our data demonstrate that IL12p40 production is sustained by a heterogenous population of myeloid lineages during experimental TB, and that redundant mechanisms of IL12p40-production exist when CD11chi lineages are absent. PMID:23491716

  5. Commonly used prophylactic vaccines as an alternative for synthetically produced TLR ligands to mature monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Schreibelt, Gerty; Benitez-Ribas, Daniel; Schuurhuis, Danita; Lambeck, Annechien J A; van Hout-Kuijer, Maaike; Schaft, Niels; Punt, Cornelis J A; Figdor, Carl G; Adema, Gosse J; de Vries, I Jolanda M

    2010-07-29

    Currently dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccines are explored in clinical trials, predominantly in cancer patients. Murine studies showed that only maturation with Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands generates mature DCs that produce interleukin-12 and promote optimal T-cell help. Unfortunately, the limited availability of clinical-grade TLR ligands significantly hampers the translation of these findings into DC-based vaccines. Therefore, we explored 15 commonly used preventive vaccines as a possible source of TLR ligands. We have identified a cocktail of the vaccines BCG-SSI, Influvac, and Typhim that contains TLR ligands and is capable of optimally maturing DCs. These DCs (vaccine DCs) showed high expression of CD80, CD86, and CD83 and secreted interleukin-12. Although vaccine DCs exhibited an impaired migratory capacity, this could be restored by addition of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2); vaccine PGE(2) DCs). Vaccine PGE(2) DCs are potent inducers of T-cell proliferation and induce Th1 polarization. In addition, vaccine PGE(2) DCs are potent inducers of tumor antigen-specific CD8(+) effector T cells. Finally, vaccine PGE(2)-induced DC maturation is compatible with different antigen-loading strategies, including RNA electroporation. These data thus identify a new clinical application for a mixture of commonly used preventive vaccines in the generation of Th1-inducing clinical-grade mature DCs.

  6. Identification of cyclophilin-40 interacting proteins reveals potential cellular function of cyclophilin-40

    PubMed Central

    Park, Miki Susanto; Chu, Feixia; Xie, Jinghang; Wang, Yu; Bhattacharya, Pompeya; Chan, William K.

    2010-01-01

    Cyclophilin-40 (CyP40) is part of the immunophilin family and is found in Hsp90-containing protein complexes. We are interested in identifying proteins that interact with CyP40. CyP40 interacting proteins in HeLa cells were identified using the tandem affinity purification approach. Adenovirus (AdCyP40) expressing human CyP40 protein, fused with a streptavidin and a calmodulin binding peptides at the N-terminus, was generated. Proteins were separated on a SDS-PAGE gel after tandem affinity purification. Ten silver-stained protein bands that were enriched in the AdCyP40-infected lysate and the corresponding regions in the control lysate were excised, digested by trypsin and identified by tandem mass spectrometric analysis. Eleven interacting proteins were identified and four of which (RACK1, Ku70, RPS3, and NF45) were expressed in rabbit reticulocyte lysates, bacteria, and MCF-7 cells. We confirmed that these proteins interact with CyP40. We observed that RACK1 suppressed the cobalt chloride-induced, HRE-dependent luciferase activity in MCF-7 cells but not in MCF-7 stable cells expressing about 5% of the cellular CyP40 content. In addition, RACK1 reduced the HIF-1α protein accumulation after cobalt chloride treatment which was not observed when the CyP40 content was down-regulated. Collectively, we conclude that reduction of the HIF-1α protein by RACK1 is CyP40-mediated. PMID:21146485

  7. Snyder-Robinson Syndrome: Rescuing the Disease-Causing Effect of G56S mutant by Small Molecule Binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhe; Martiny, Virginie; Lagorce, David; Alexov, Emil; Miteva, Maria; Clemson University Team; Université Paris Diderot Team

    2013-03-01

    Snyder-Robinson Syndrome (SRS) is an X-linked mental retardation disorder, which is caused by defects in a particular gene coding for the spermine synthase (SMS) protein. Among the missense mutations known to be disease-causing is the G56S, which is positioned at the interface of the SMS homo-dimer. Previous computational and experimental investigations have shown that G56S mutation destabilizes the homo-dimer and thus greatly reduces the SMS enzymatic activity. In this study, we explore the possibility of mitigating the effect of G56S mutation by binding small molecules to suitable pockets around the mutation site. It is done by combined efforts of molecular dynamics simulations and in silico screening. The binding of selected molecules was calculated to fully compensate the effect of the mutation and rescue the wild type dimer affinity. This work was supported by NIH, NLM grant. No. 1R03LM009748

  8. The GPCR heterotetramer: challenging classical pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Ferré, Sergi

    2015-03-01

    Two concepts are gaining increasing acceptance in G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) pharmacology: (i) pre-coupling of GPCRs with their preferred signaling molecules, and (ii) GPCR oligomerization. This is begging for the introduction of new models such as GPCR oligomer-containing signaling complexes with GPCR homodimers as functional building blocks. This model favors the formation of GPCR heterotetramers - heteromers of homodimers coupled to their cognate G protein. The GPCR heterotetramer offers an optimal framework for a canonical antagonistic interaction between activated Gs and Gi proteins, which can simultaneously bind to their respective preferred receptors and to adenylyl cyclase (AC) catalytic units. This review addresses the current evidence for pre-coupling of the various specific components that provide the very elaborate signaling machinery exemplified by the Gs-Gi-AC-coupled GPCR heterotetramer.

  9. Functional and Structural Characterization of the Antiphagocytic Properties of a Novel Transglutaminase from Streptococcus suis*

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jie; Pian, Yaya; Ge, Jingpeng; Guo, Jie; Zheng, Yuling; Jiang, Hua; Hao, Huaijie; Yuan, Yuan; Jiang, Yongqiang; Yang, Maojun

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (Ss2) is an important swine and human zoonotic pathogen. In the present study, we identified a novel secreted immunogenic protein, SsTGase, containing a highly conserved eukaryotic-like transglutaminase (TGase) domain at the N terminus. We found that inactivation of SsTGase significantly reduced the virulence of Ss2 in a pig infection model and impaired its antiphagocytosis in human blood. We further solved the crystal structure of the N-terminal portion of the protein in homodimer form at 2.1 Å. Structure-based mutagenesis and biochemical studies suggested that disruption of the homodimer directly resulted in the loss of its TGase activity and antiphagocytic ability. Characterization of SsTGase as a novel virulence factor of Ss2 by acting as a TGase would be beneficial for developing new therapeutic agents against Ss2 infections. PMID:26085092

  10. Structure of the Get3 targeting factor in complex with its membrane protein cargo

    PubMed Central

    Mateja, Agnieszka; Paduch, Marcin; Chang, Hsin-Yang; Szydlowska, Anna; Kossiakoff, Anthony A.; Hegde, Ramanujan S.; Keenan, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Tail-anchored (TA) proteins are a physiologically important class of membrane proteins targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum by the conserved GET pathway. During transit, their hydrophobic transmembrane domains (TMDs) are chaperoned by the cytosolic targeting factor Get3, but the molecular nature of the functional Get3-TA protein targeting complex remains unknown. We reconstituted the physiologic assembly pathway for a functional targeting complex and showed that it comprises a TA protein bound to a Get3 homodimer. Crystal structures of Get3 bound to different TA proteins showed an α-helical TMD occupying a hydrophobic groove that spans the Get3 homodimer. Our data elucidate the mechanism of TA protein recognition and shielding by Get3, and suggest general principles of hydrophobic domain chaperoning by cellular targeting factors. PMID:25745174

  11. Crystal Structure of the HP1-EMSY Complex Reveals an Unusual Mode of HP1 Binding

    SciTech Connect

    Huang,Y.; Myers, M.; Xu, R.

    2006-01-01

    Heterochromatin protein-1 (HP1) plays an essential role in both the assembly of higher-order chromatin structure and epigenetic inheritance. The C-terminal chromo shadow domain (CSD) of HP1 is responsible for homodimerization and interaction with a number of chromatin-associated nonhistone proteins, including EMSY, which is a BRCA2-interacting protein that has been implicated in the development of breast and ovarian cancer. We have determined the crystal structure of the HP1{beta} CSD in complex with the N-terminal domain of EMSY at 1.8 Angstroms resolution. Surprisingly, the structure reveals that EMSY is bound by two HP1 CSD homodimers, and the binding sequences differ from the consensus HP1 binding motif PXVXL. This structural information expands our understanding of HP1 binding specificity and provides insights into interactions between HP1 homodimers that are likely to be important for heterochromatin formation.

  12. Attractant Signaling by an Aspartate Chemoreceptor Dimer with a Single Cytoplasmic Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardina, Paul J.; Manson, Michael D.

    1996-10-01

    Signal transduction across cell membranes often involves interactions among identical receptor subunits, but the contribution of individual subunits is not well understood. The chemoreceptors of enteric bacteria mediate attractant responses by interrupting a phosphotransfer circuit initiated at receptor complexes with the protein kinase CheA. The aspartate receptor (Tar) is a homodimer, and oligomerized cytoplasmic domains stimulate CheA activity much more than monomers do in vitro. Intragenic complementation was used to show in Escherichia coli that heterodimers containing one full-length and one truncated Tar subunit mediated responses to aspartate in the presence of full-length Tar homodimers that could not bind aspartate. Thus, a Tar dimer containing only one cytoplasmic domain can initiate an attractant (inhibitory) signal, although it may not be able to stimulate kinase activity of CheA.

  13. Structural And Mechanistic Analysis of Protein Interactions in Module 3 of the 6-Deoxyerythronolide B Synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Y.; Chen, A.Y.; Kim, C.-Y.; Cane, D.E.; Khosla, C.

    2009-06-04

    We report the 2.6 A X-ray crystal structure of a 190 kDa homodimeric fragment from module 3 of the 6-deoxyerthronolide B synthase covalently bound to the inhibitor cerulenin. The structure shows two well-organized interdomain linker regions in addition to the full-length ketosynthase (KS) and acyltransferase (AT) domains. Analysis of the substrate-binding site of the KS domain suggests that a loop region at the homodimer interface influences KS substrate specificity. We also describe a model for the interaction of the catalytic domains with the acyl carrier protein (ACP) domain. The ACP is proposed to dock within a deep cleft between the KS and AT domains, with interactions that span both the KS homodimer and AT domain. In conjunction with other recent data, our results provide atomic resolution pictures of several catalytically relevant protein interactions in this remarkable family of modular megasynthases.

  14. Receptor domains involved in signal transduction of prolactin and growth hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, P.A.; Edery, M.; Finidori, J.

    1994-12-31

    Prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH) receptors are members of a superfamily that include receptors for a number of cytokines. GH and its receptor form an unusual homodimer consisting of one molecule of GH and two molecules of receptor. A similar homodimer of the PRL receptor is probably required for biological effects to be seen. Using specific assays to measure the functional activity of PRL and GH receptors, a 25 amino acid juxtamembrane region has been identified as essential but not sufficient for normal action. More detailed studies have limited the region to eight amino acids, rich in prolines, that is highly conserved in many members of the receptor superfamily. Finally, GH and PRL have been shown to induce the rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of an associated kinase, Janus kinase 2, and of the receptor itself. 28 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Functional expression of miraculin, a taste-modifying protein in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Tomomi; Satoh, Makiko; Nakata, Rieko; Aoyama, Takashi; Inoue, Hiroyasu

    2009-04-01

    Miraculin isolated from red berries of Richadella dulcifica, a native shrub of West Africa, has the unusual property of modifying a sour taste into a sweet one. This homodimer protein consists of two glycosylated polypeptides that are cross-linked by a disulfide bond. Recently, functional expression of miraculin was reported in host cells with the ability to glycosylate proteins, such as lettuce, tomato and the microbe Aspergillus oryzae, but not Escherichia coli. Thus, a question remains as to whether glycosylation of miraculin is essential for its taste-modifying properties. Here we show that recombinant miraculin expressed in E. coli has taste-modifying properties as a homodimer, not as a monomer, indicating that glycosylation is not essential for the taste-modifying property. PMID:19122203

  16. Crystal structures of the coil 2B fragment and the globular tail domain of human lamin B1

    SciTech Connect

    Ruan, Jianbin; Xu, Chao; Bian, Chuanbing; Lam, Robert; Wang, Jia-Pey; Kania, Joanna; Min, Jinrong; Zang, Jianye

    2012-07-18

    We present here the crystal structures of human lamin B1 globular tail domain and coiled 2B domain, which adopt similar folds to Ig-like domain and coiled-coil domain of lamin A, respectively. Despite the overall similarity, we found an extra intermolecular disulfide bond in the lamin B1 coil 2B domain, which does not exist in lamin A/C. In addition, the structural analysis indicates that interactions at the lamin B1 homodimer interface are quite different from those of lamin A/C. Thus our research not only reveals the diversely formed homodimers among lamin family members, but also sheds light on understanding the important roles of lamin B1 in forming the nuclear lamina matrix.

  17. Positive Control Mutations in the MyoD Basic Region Fail to Show Cooperative DNA Binding and Transcriptional Activation in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bengal, Eyal; Flores, Osvaldo; Rangarajan, Pundi N.; Chen, Amy; Weintraub, Harold; Verma, Inder M.

    1994-06-01

    An in vitro transcription system from HeLa cells has been established in which MyoD and E47 proteins activate transcription both as homodimers and heterodimers. However, heterodimers activate transcription more efficiently than homodimers, and function synergistically from multiple binding sites. Positive control mutants in the basic region of MyoD that have previously been shown to be defective in initiating the myogenic program, can bind DNA but have lost their ability to function as transcriptional activators in vitro. Additionally, positive control mutants, unlike wild-type MyoD, fail to bind cooperatively to DNA. We propose that binding of MyoD complexes to high affinity MyoD binding sites induces conformational changes that facilitate cooperative binding to multiple sites and promote transcriptional activation.

  18. Determination of the dissociation constants for recombinant c-Myc, Max, and DNA complexes: The inhibitory effect of linoleic acid on the DNA-binding step

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Kyung Chae; Rhee, Ho Sung; Park, Chi Hoon; Yang, Chul-Hak . E-mail: chulyang@plaza.snu.ac.kr

    2005-08-19

    c-Myc, the protein product of protooncogene c-myc, functions in cell proliferation, differentiation, and neoplastic disease. In this study, recombinant c-Myc and Max proteins, encompassing DNA binding (basic region) and dimerization (helix-loop-helix/leucine zipper) domain of human origin, were expressed in bacteria as Myc87 and Max85. Myc87 was purified under denatured conditions and was renatured again. The dissociation constant for the protein dimers and for dimer/DNA complexes were not detectable by isothermal titration calorimetry because of the low degree of solubility of Myc87 and Max85. Therefore, we set up equations which were used to determine the dissociation constants from the proportion of protein-DNA complexes. The dimer dissociation constants in TBS were 5.90({+-}0.54) x 10{sup -7} M for Max85/Max85 homodimer, 6.85({+-}0.25) x 10{sup -3} M for Myc87/Myc87 homodimer, and 2.55({+-}0.29) x 10{sup -8} M for Myc87/Max85 heterodimer, and the DNA-binding dissociation constants in TBS were 1.33({+-}0.21) x 10{sup -9} M for Max85/Max85/DNA, 2.27({+-}0.08) x 10{sup -12} M for Myc87/Myc87/DNA, and 4.43({+-}0.37) x 10{sup -10} M for Myc87/Max85/DNA. In addition, we revealed that linoleic acid which is known as an inhibitor for the formation of Max/Max/DNA complex reduced the affinity of Max homodimer for DNA. This result indicates that linoleic acid may bind to the DNA-binding region of Max homodimer.

  19. TMEM16A(a)/anoctamin-1 Shares a Homodimeric Architecture with CLC Chloride Channels*

    PubMed Central

    Fallah, Ghada; Römer, Thomas; Detro-Dassen, Silvia; Braam, Ursula; Markwardt, Fritz; Schmalzing, Günther

    2011-01-01

    TMEM16A/anoctamin-1 has been identified as a protein with the classic properties of a Ca2+-activated chloride channel. Here, we used blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) and chemical cross-linking to assess the quaternary structure of the mouse TMEM16A(a) and TMEM16A(ac) splice variants as well as a genetically concatenated TMEM16A(a) homodimer. The constructs carried hexahistidyl (His) tags to allow for their purification using a nondenaturing metal affinity resin. Neither His-tagging nor head-to-tail concatenation of two copies of TMEM16A(a) noticeably affected Ca2+-induced measured macroscopic Cl− currents compared with the wild-type TMEM16A(a) channel. The digitonin-solubilized, nondenatured TMEM16A(a) protein migrated in the BN-PAGE gel as a homodimer, as judged by comparison with the concatenated TMEM16A(a) homodimer and channel proteins of known oligomeric structures (e.g. the voltage-gated Cl− channel CLC-1). Cross-linking with glutaraldehyde corroborated the homodimeric structure of TMEM16A(a). The TMEM16A(a) homodimer detected in Xenopus laevis oocytes and HEK 293 cells dissociated into monomers following denaturation with SDS, and reducing versus nonreducing SDS-PAGE provided no evidence for the presence of intersubunit disulfide bonds. Together, our data demonstrate that the Ca2+-activated chloride channel member TMEM16A shares an obligate homodimeric architecture with the hCLC-1 channel. PMID:20974900

  20. Attenuated and lethal variants of Pichindé virus induce differential patterns of NF-kappaB activation suggesting a potential target for novel therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Bowick, Gavin C; Fennewald, Susan M; Zhang, Lihong; Yang, Xianbin; Aronson, Judith F; Shope, Robert E; Luxon, Bruce A; Gorenstein, David G; Herzog, Norbert K

    2009-12-01

    Lassa virus pathogenesis is believed to involve dysregulation of cytokines. We have previously shown nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) inhibition using a BSL-2 model for Lassa fever. Here we further define the potential mechanism for NF-kappaB inhibition as involving increased levels of repressive p50/p50 homodimers, and suggest a novel therapeutic strategy that acts via modulation of host signaling.

  1. NAD(P)-Dependent Aldehyde Dehydrogenases Induced during Growth of Ralstonia eutropha Strain Bo on Tetrahydrofurfuryl Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Schräder, Thomas; Zarnt, Grit; Andreesen, Jan R.

    2001-01-01

    Different aldehyde dehydrogenases (AlDHs) were formed during growth of Ralstonia eutropha Bo on tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol (THFA). One of these enzymes, AlDH 4, was purified and characterized as a homodimer containing no prosthetic groups, showing a strong substrate inhibition, and having an N-terminal sequence similar to those of various NAD(P)-dependent AlDHs. The conversion rate of THFA by the quinohemoprotein THFA dehydrogenase was increased by AlDH 4. PMID:11717302

  2. Crystal structure of calpain-3 penta-EF-hand (PEF) domain - a homodimerized PEF family member with calcium bound at the fifth EF-hand

    SciTech Connect

    Partha, Sarathy K.; Ravulapalli, Ravikiran; Allingham, John S.; Campbell, Robert L.; Davies, Peter L.

    2014-08-21

    Calpains are Ca2+dependent intracellular cysteine proteases that cleave a wide range of protein substrates to help implement Ca2+ signaling in the cell. The major isoforms of this enzyme family, calpain-1 and calpain-2, are heterodimers of a large and a small subunit, with the main dimer interface being formed through their C-terminal penta-EF hand (PEF) domains. Calpain-3, or p94, is a skeletal muscle-specific isoform that is genetically linked to limb-girdle muscular dystrophy. Biophysical and modeling studies with the PEF domain of calpain-3 support the suggestion that full-length calpain-3 exists as a homodimer. Here, we report the crystallization of calpain-3's PEF domain and its crystal structure in the presence of Ca2+, which provides evidence for the homodimer architecture of calpain-3 and supports the molecular model that places a protease core at either end of the elongated dimer. Unlike other calpain PEF domain structures, the calpain-3 PEF domain contains a Ca2+ bound at the EF5-hand used for homodimer association. Three of the four Ca2+-binding EF-hands of the PEF domains are concentrated near the protease core, and have the potential to radically change the local charge within the dimer during Ca2+ signaling. Examination of the homodimer interface shows that there would be steric clashes if the calpain-3 large subunit were to try to pair with a calpain small subunit.

  3. The roles of RIIbeta linker and N-terminal cyclic nucleotide-binding domain in determining the unique structures of Type IIbeta Protein Kinase A. A small angle X-ray and neutron scattering study

    DOE PAGES

    Blumenthal, Donald K.; Copps, Jeffrey; Smith-Nguyen, Eric V.; Zhang, Ping; Heller, William T.; Taylor, Susan S.

    2014-08-11

    Protein kinase A (PKA) is ubiquitously expressed and is responsible for regulating many important cellular functions in response to changes in intracellular cAMP concentrations. Moreover, the PKA holoenzyme is a tetramer (R2:C2), with a regulatory subunit homodimer (R2) that binds and inhibits two catalytic (C) subunits; binding of cAMP to the regulatory subunit homodimer causes activation of the catalytic subunits. Four different R subunit isoforms exist in mammalian cells, and these confer different structural features, subcellular localization, and biochemical properties upon the PKA holoenzymes they form. The holoenzyme containing RIIβ is structurally unique in that the type IIβ holoenzyme ismore » much more compact than the free RIIβ homodimer. We have used small angle x-ray scattering and small angle neutron scattering to study the solution structure and subunit organization of a holoenzyme containing an RIIβ C-terminal deletion mutant (RIIβ(1–280)), which is missing the C-terminal cAMP-binding domain to better understand the structural organization of the type IIβ holoenzyme and the RIIβ domains that contribute to stabilizing the holoenzyme conformation. These results demonstrate that compaction of the type IIβ holoenzyme does not require the C-terminal cAMP-binding domain but rather involves large structural rearrangements within the linker and N-terminal cyclic nucleotide-binding domain of the RIIβ homodimer. The structural rearrangements are significantly greater than seen previously with RIIα and are likely to be important in mediating short range and long range interdomain and intersubunit interactions that uniquely regulate the activity of the type IIβ isoform of PKA.« less

  4. Towards an exact theory of linear absorbance and circular dichroism of pigment-protein complexes: Importance of non-secular contributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinh, Thanh-Chung; Renger, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    A challenge for the theory of optical spectra of pigment-protein complexes is the equal strength of the pigment-pigment and the pigment-protein couplings. Treating both on an equal footing so far can only be managed by numerically costly approaches. Here, we exploit recent results on a normal mode analysis derived spectral density that revealed the dominance of the diagonal matrix elements of the exciton-vibrational coupling in the exciton state representation. We use a cumulant expansion technique that treats the diagonal parts exactly, includes an infinite summation of the off-diagonal parts in secular and Markov approximations, and provides a systematic perturbative way to include non-secular and non-Markov corrections. The theory is applied to a model dimer and to chlorophyll (Chl) a and Chl b homodimers of the reconstituted water-soluble chlorophyll-binding protein (WSCP) from cauliflower. The model calculations reveal that the non-secular/non-Markov effects redistribute oscillator strength from the strong to the weak exciton transition in absorbance and they diminish the rotational strength of the exciton transitions in circular dichroism. The magnitude of these corrections is in a few percent range of the overall signal, providing a quantitative explanation of the success of time-local convolution-less density matrix theory applied earlier. A close examination of the optical spectra of Chl a and Chl b homodimers in WSCP suggests that the opening angle between Qy transition dipole moments in Chl b homodimers is larger by about 9∘ than for Chl a homodimers for which a crystal structure of a related WSCP complex exists. It remains to be investigated whether this change is due to a different mutual geometry of the pigments or due to the different electronic structures of Chl a and Chl b.

  5. The roles of RIIbeta linker and N-terminal cyclic nucleotide-binding domain in determining the unique structures of Type IIbeta Protein Kinase A. A small angle X-ray and neutron scattering study

    SciTech Connect

    Blumenthal, Donald K.; Copps, Jeffrey; Smith-Nguyen, Eric V.; Zhang, Ping; Heller, William T.; Taylor, Susan S.

    2014-08-11

    Protein kinase A (PKA) is ubiquitously expressed and is responsible for regulating many important cellular functions in response to changes in intracellular cAMP concentrations. Moreover, the PKA holoenzyme is a tetramer (R2:C2), with a regulatory subunit homodimer (R2) that binds and inhibits two catalytic (C) subunits; binding of cAMP to the regulatory subunit homodimer causes activation of the catalytic subunits. Four different R subunit isoforms exist in mammalian cells, and these confer different structural features, subcellular localization, and biochemical properties upon the PKA holoenzymes they form. The holoenzyme containing RIIβ is structurally unique in that the type IIβ holoenzyme is much more compact than the free RIIβ homodimer. We have used small angle x-ray scattering and small angle neutron scattering to study the solution structure and subunit organization of a holoenzyme containing an RIIβ C-terminal deletion mutant (RIIβ(1–280)), which is missing the C-terminal cAMP-binding domain to better understand the structural organization of the type IIβ holoenzyme and the RIIβ domains that contribute to stabilizing the holoenzyme conformation. These results demonstrate that compaction of the type IIβ holoenzyme does not require the C-terminal cAMP-binding domain but rather involves large structural rearrangements within the linker and N-terminal cyclic nucleotide-binding domain of the RIIβ homodimer. The structural rearrangements are significantly greater than seen previously with RIIα and are likely to be important in mediating short range and long range interdomain and intersubunit interactions that uniquely regulate the activity of the type IIβ isoform of PKA.

  6. The structure of the GemC1 coiled coil and its interaction with the Geminin family of coiled-coil proteins

    PubMed Central

    Caillat, Christophe; Fish, Alexander; Pefani, Dafni-Eleftheria; Taraviras, Stavros; Lygerou, Zoi; Perrakis, Anastassis

    2015-01-01

    GemC1, together with Idas and Geminin, an important regulator of DNA-replication licensing and differentiation decisions, constitute a superfamily sharing a homologous central coiled-coil domain. To better understand this family of proteins, the crystal structure of a GemC1 coiled-coil domain variant engineered for better solubility was determined to 2.2 Å resolution. GemC1 shows a less typical coiled coil compared with the Geminin homodimer and the Geminin–Idas heterodimer structures. It is also shown that both in vitro and in cells GemC1 interacts with Geminin through its coiled-coil domain, forming a heterodimer that is more stable that the GemC1 homodimer. Comparative analysis of the thermal stability of all of the possible superfamily complexes, using circular dichroism to follow the unfolding of the entire helix of the coiled coil, or intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence of a unique conserved N-terminal tryptophan, shows that the unfolding of the coiled coil is likely to take place from the C-terminus towards the N-terminus. It is also shown that homodimers show a single-state unfolding, while heterodimers show a two-state unfolding, suggesting that the dimer first falls apart and the helices then unfold according to the stability of each protein. The findings argue that Geminin-family members form homodimers and heterodimers between them, and this ability is likely to be important for modulating their function in cycling and differentiating cells. PMID:26527144

  7. A synthetic gene increases TGFβ3 accumulation by 75-fold in tobacco chloroplasts enabling rapid purification and folding into a biologically active molecule.

    PubMed

    Gisby, Martin F; Mellors, Philip; Madesis, Panagiotis; Ellin, Marianne; Laverty, Hugh; O'Kane, Sharon; Ferguson, Mark W J; Day, Anil

    2011-06-01

    Human transforming growth factor-β3 (TGFβ3) is a new therapeutic protein used to reduce scarring during wound healing. The active molecule is a nonglycosylated, homodimer comprised of 13-kDa polypeptide chains linked by disulphide bonds. Expression of recombinant human TGFβ3 in chloroplasts and its subsequent purification would provide a sustainable source of TGFβ3 free of animal pathogens. A synthetic sequence (33% GC) containing frequent chloroplast codons raised accumulation of the 13-kDa TGFβ3 polypeptide by 75-fold compared to the native coding region (56% GC) when expressed in tobacco chloroplasts. The 13-kDa TGFβ3 monomer band was more intense than the RuBisCO 15-kDa small subunit on Coomassie blue-stained SDS-PAGE gels. TGFβ3 accumulated in insoluble aggregates and was stable in leaves of different ages but was not detected in seeds. TGFβ3 represented 12% of leaf protein and appeared as monomer, dimer and trimer bands on Western blots of SDS-PAGE gels. High yield and insolubility facilitated initial purification and refolding of the 13-kDa polypeptide into the TGFβ3 homodimer recognized by a conformation-dependent monoclonal antibody. The TGFβ3 homodimer and trace amounts of monomer were the only bands visible on silver-stained gels following purification by hydrophobic interaction chromatography and cation exchange chromatography. N-terminal sequencing and electronspray ionization mass spectrometry showed the removal of the initiator methionine and physical equivalence of the chloroplast-produced homodimer to standard TGFβ3. Functional equivalence was demonstrated by near-identical dose-response curves showing the inhibition of mink lung epithelial cell proliferation. We conclude that chloroplasts are an attractive production platform for synthesizing recombinant human TGFβ3. PMID:21535357

  8. Impact of membrane lipid composition on the structure and stability of the transmembrane domain of amyloid precursor protein.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, Laura; Foster, Leigh; Straub, John E; Thirumalai, D

    2016-09-01

    Cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by γ-secretase is a crucial first step in the evolution of Alzheimer's disease. To discover the cleavage mechanism, it is urgent to predict the structures of APP monomers and dimers in varying membrane environments. We determined the structures of the C9923-55 monomer and homodimer as a function of membrane lipid composition using a multiscale simulation approach that blends atomistic and coarse-grained models. We demonstrate that the C9923-55 homodimer structures form a heterogeneous ensemble with multiple conformational states, each stabilized by characteristic interpeptide interactions. The relative probabilities of each conformational state are sensitive to the membrane environment, leading to substantial variation in homodimer peptide structure as a function of membrane lipid composition or the presence of an anionic lipid environment. In contrast, the helicity of the transmembrane domain of monomeric C991-55 is relatively insensitive to the membrane lipid composition, in agreement with experimental observations. The dimer structures of human EphA2 receptor depend on the lipid environment, which we show is linked to the location of the structural motifs in the dimer interface, thereby establishing that both sequence and membrane composition modulate the complete energy landscape of membrane-bound proteins. As a by-product of our work, we explain the discrepancy in structures predicted for C99 congener homodimers in membrane and micelle environments. Our study provides insight into the observed dependence of C99 protein cleavage by γ-secretase, critical to the formation of amyloid-β protein, on membrane thickness and lipid composition. PMID:27559086

  9. The presence of γ’ chain impairs fibrin polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Gersh, Kathryn C.; Nagaswami, Chandrasekaran; Weisel, John W.; Lord, Susan T.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction A fraction of fibrinogen molecules contain an alternatively spliced variant chain called γ’. Plasma levels of this variant have been associated with both myocardial infarction and venous thrombosis. Because clot structure has been associated with cardiovascular risk, we examined the effect of γ’ chain on clot structure. Materials and Methods We expressed three fibrinogen variants in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells: γ/γ homodimer, γ/γ’ heterodimer, and γ’/γ’ homodimer. We observed thrombin-catalyzed fibrinopeptide release by HPLC, fibrin polymerization by turbidity, and clot structure by scanning electron microscopy. We characterized post-translational modifications by mass spectrometry. Results Fibrinopeptide A was released at the same rate for all three fibrinogens, while fibrinopeptide B was released faster from the γ’/γ’ homodimer. The rise in turbidity was slower and final absorbance was lower during polymerization of γ’-containing fibrinogens than for γ/γ fibrinogen. Micrographs showed that γ’/γ’ fibrin clots are composed of very thin fibers, while the diameter of γ/γ’ fibers is similar to γ/γ fibers. Further, the fiber networks formed from γ’-containing samples were non-uniform. Mass spectrometry showed heterogeneous addition of N-glycans and tyrosine sulfation in the γ’ chain. Conclusions The presence of γ’ chains slows lateral aggregation and alters fibrin structure. We suggest these changes are likely due to charge-charge repulsion, such that polymerization of the γ’/γ’ homodimer is more impaired than the heterodimer since these repulsions are partially offset by incorporation of γ chains in the γ/γ’ heterodimer. PMID:19138790

  10. The Atypical Response Regulator Protein ChxR Has Structural Characteristics and Dimer Interface Interactions That Are Unique within the OmpR/PhoB Subfamily

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, John M.; Lovell, Scott; Battaile, Kevin P.; Hu, Lei; Middaugh, C. Russell; Hefty, P. Scott

    2013-05-29

    Typically as a result of phosphorylation, OmpR/PhoB response regulators form homodimers through a receiver domain as an integral step in transcriptional activation. Phosphorylation stabilizes the ionic and hydrophobic interactions between monomers. Recent studies have shown that some response regulators retain functional activity in the absence of phosphorylation and are termed atypical response regulators. The two currently available receiver domain structures of atypical response regulators are very similar to their phospho-accepting homologs, and their propensity to form homodimers is generally retained. An atypical response regulator, ChxR, from Chlamydia trachomatis, was previously reported to form homodimers; however, the residues critical to this interaction have not been elucidated. We hypothesize that the intra- and intermolecular interactions involved in forming a transcriptionally competent ChxR are distinct from the canonical phosphorylation (activation) paradigm in the OmpR/PhoB response regulator subfamily. To test this hypothesis, structural and functional studies were performed on the receiver domain of ChxR. Two crystal structures of the receiver domain were solved with the recently developed method using triiodo compound I3C. These structures revealed many characteristics unique to OmpR/PhoB subfamily members: typical or atypical. Included was the absence of two {alpha}-helices present in all other OmpR/PhoB response regulators. Functional studies on various dimer interface residues demonstrated that ChxR forms relatively stable homodimers through hydrophobic interactions, and disruption of these can be accomplished with the introduction of a charged residue within the dimer interface. A gel shift study with monomeric ChxR supports that dimerization through the receiver domain is critical for interaction with DNA.

  11. The Atypical Response Regulator Protein ChxR Has Structural Characteristics and Dimer Interface Interactions That Are Unique within the OmpR/PhoB Subfamily*

    PubMed Central

    Hickey, John M.; Lovell, Scott; Battaile, Kevin P.; Hu, Lei; Middaugh, C. Russell; Hefty, P. Scott

    2011-01-01

    Typically as a result of phosphorylation, OmpR/PhoB response regulators form homodimers through a receiver domain as an integral step in transcriptional activation. Phosphorylation stabilizes the ionic and hydrophobic interactions between monomers. Recent studies have shown that some response regulators retain functional activity in the absence of phosphorylation and are termed atypical response regulators. The two currently available receiver domain structures of atypical response regulators are very similar to their phospho-accepting homologs, and their propensity to form homodimers is generally retained. An atypical response regulator, ChxR, from Chlamydia trachomatis, was previously reported to form homodimers; however, the residues critical to this interaction have not been elucidated. We hypothesize that the intra- and intermolecular interactions involved in forming a transcriptionally competent ChxR are distinct from the canonical phosphorylation (activation) paradigm in the OmpR/PhoB response regulator subfamily. To test this hypothesis, structural and functional studies were performed on the receiver domain of ChxR. Two crystal structures of the receiver domain were solved with the recently developed method using triiodo compound I3C. These structures revealed many characteristics unique to OmpR/PhoB subfamily members: typical or atypical. Included was the absence of two α-helices present in all other OmpR/PhoB response regulators. Functional studies on various dimer interface residues demonstrated that ChxR forms relatively stable homodimers through hydrophobic interactions, and disruption of these can be accomplished with the introduction of a charged residue within the dimer interface. A gel shift study with monomeric ChxR supports that dimerization through the receiver domain is critical for interaction with DNA. PMID:21775428

  12. Towards an exact theory of linear absorbance and circular dichroism of pigment-protein complexes: Importance of non-secular contributions

    SciTech Connect

    Dinh, Thanh-Chung; Renger, Thomas

    2015-01-21

    A challenge for the theory of optical spectra of pigment-protein complexes is the equal strength of the pigment-pigment and the pigment-protein couplings. Treating both on an equal footing so far can only be managed by numerically costly approaches. Here, we exploit recent results on a normal mode analysis derived spectral density that revealed the dominance of the diagonal matrix elements of the exciton-vibrational coupling in the exciton state representation. We use a cumulant expansion technique that treats the diagonal parts exactly, includes an infinite summation of the off-diagonal parts in secular and Markov approximations, and provides a systematic perturbative way to include non-secular and non-Markov corrections. The theory is applied to a model dimer and to chlorophyll (Chl) a and Chl b homodimers of the reconstituted water-soluble chlorophyll-binding protein (WSCP) from cauliflower. The model calculations reveal that the non-secular/non-Markov effects redistribute oscillator strength from the strong to the weak exciton transition in absorbance and they diminish the rotational strength of the exciton transitions in circular dichroism. The magnitude of these corrections is in a few percent range of the overall signal, providing a quantitative explanation of the success of time-local convolution-less density matrix theory applied earlier. A close examination of the optical spectra of Chl a and Chl b homodimers in WSCP suggests that the opening angle between Q{sub y} transition dipole moments in Chl b homodimers is larger by about 9{sup ∘} than for Chl a homodimers for which a crystal structure of a related WSCP complex exists. It remains to be investigated whether this change is due to a different mutual geometry of the pigments or due to the different electronic structures of Chl a and Chl b.

  13. The structure of the GemC1 coiled coil and its interaction with the Geminin family of coiled-coil proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Caillat, Christophe; Fish, Alexander; Pefani, Dafni-Eleftheria; Taraviras, Stavros; Lygerou, Zoi; Perrakis, Anastassis

    2015-10-31

    The GemC1 coiled-coil structure has subtle differences compared with its homologues Geminin and Idas. Co-expression experiments in cells and biophysical stability analysis of the Geminin-family coiled coils suggest that the GemC1 coiled coil alone is unstable. GemC1, together with Idas and Geminin, an important regulator of DNA-replication licensing and differentiation decisions, constitute a superfamily sharing a homologous central coiled-coil domain. To better understand this family of proteins, the crystal structure of a GemC1 coiled-coil domain variant engineered for better solubility was determined to 2.2 Å resolution. GemC1 shows a less typical coiled coil compared with the Geminin homodimer and the Geminin–Idas heterodimer structures. It is also shown that both in vitro and in cells GemC1 interacts with Geminin through its coiled-coil domain, forming a heterodimer that is more stable that the GemC1 homodimer. Comparative analysis of the thermal stability of all of the possible superfamily complexes, using circular dichroism to follow the unfolding of the entire helix of the coiled coil, or intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence of a unique conserved N-terminal tryptophan, shows that the unfolding of the coiled coil is likely to take place from the C-terminus towards the N-terminus. It is also shown that homodimers show a single-state unfolding, while heterodimers show a two-state unfolding, suggesting that the dimer first falls apart and the helices then unfold according to the stability of each protein. The findings argue that Geminin-family members form homodimers and heterodimers between them, and this ability is likely to be important for modulating their function in cycling and differentiating cells.

  14. Determining the oligomer number of native GPCR using florescence correlation spectroscopy and drug-induced inactivation-reactivation.

    PubMed

    Teitler, Milt; Herrick-Davis, Katharine

    2014-01-01

    GPCRs are a major family of homologous proteins and are key mediators of the effects of numerous endogenous neurotransmitters, hormones, cytokines, therapeutic drugs, and drugs-of-abuse. Despite the enormous amount of research on the pharmacological and biochemical properties of GPCRs, there is surprisingly little information on GPCR dimer structure and function in primary cell culture or in vivo. We have used two novel approaches to develop methods to detect and study GPCR dimer function: FCS/PCH and "inactivation-reactivation". This review will focus on the data we have developed and our interpretations of those data. Using FCS/PCH 5-HT2C receptors have been detected directly and appear to exist as dimers, consistent with the inactivation-reactivation data on 5-HT7 and 5-HT2A receptors. Studies of the 5-HT7 and 5-HT2A serotonin receptors have revealed that binding of a pseudo-irreversible antagonist ("inactivator") to one of the orthosteric sites of a homodimer abolishes all receptor activity, and subsequent binding of a competitive antagonist to the orthosteric site of the second protomer releases the inactivator, allowing the receptor to return to an active state. This approach demonstrates allosteric crosstalk between protomers of native GPCR homodimers, indicating that GPCRs do exist and function as homodimers in both recombinant cells and rat primary astrocytes. This technique can be applied universally using intact recombinant or primary cells in culture, membrane homogenate preparations and, potentially, in vivo. This approach can be applied to heterodimers as well as homodimers and may aid in the development of novel drugs with heterodimer selectivity. PMID:25213307

  15. G Protein–Coupled Receptor Oligomerization Revisited: Functional and Pharmacological Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Casadó, Vicent; Devi, Lakshmi A.; Filizola, Marta; Jockers, Ralf; Lohse, Martin J.; Milligan, Graeme; Pin, Jean-Philippe; Guitart, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Most evidence indicates that, as for family C G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), family A GPCRs form homo- and heteromers. Homodimers seem to be a predominant species, with potential dynamic formation of higher-order oligomers, particularly tetramers. Although monomeric GPCRs can activate G proteins, the pentameric structure constituted by one GPCR homodimer and one heterotrimeric G protein may provide a main functional unit, and oligomeric entities can be viewed as multiples of dimers. It still needs to be resolved if GPCR heteromers are preferentially heterodimers or if they are mostly constituted by heteromers of homodimers. Allosteric mechanisms determine a multiplicity of possible unique pharmacological properties of GPCR homomers and heteromers. Some general mechanisms seem to apply, particularly at the level of ligand-binding properties. In the frame of the dimer-cooperativity model, the two-state dimer model provides the most practical method to analyze ligand–GPCR interactions when considering receptor homomers. In addition to ligand-binding properties, unique properties for each GPCR oligomer emerge in relation to different intrinsic efficacy of ligands for different signaling pathways (functional selectivity). This gives a rationale for the use of GPCR oligomers, and particularly heteromers, as novel targets for drug development. Herein, we review the functional and pharmacological properties of GPCR oligomers and provide some guidelines for the application of discrete direct screening and high-throughput screening approaches to the discovery of receptor-heteromer selective compounds. PMID:24515647

  16. A crystallographic study of human NONO (p54(nrb)): overcoming pathological problems with purification, data collection and noncrystallographic symmetry.

    PubMed

    Knott, Gavin J; Panjikar, Santosh; Thorn, Andrea; Fox, Archa H; Conte, Maria R; Lee, Mihwa; Bond, Charles S

    2016-06-01

    Non-POU domain-containing octamer-binding protein (NONO, a.k.a. p54(nrb)) is a central player in nuclear gene regulation with rapidly emerging medical significance. NONO is a member of the highly conserved Drosophila behaviour/human splicing (DBHS) protein family, a dynamic family of obligatory dimeric nuclear regulatory mediators. However, work with the NONO homodimer has been limited by rapid irreversible sample aggregation. Here, it is reported that L-proline stabilizes purified NONO homodimers, enabling good-quality solution small-angle X-ray structure determination and crystallization. NONO crystallized in the apparent space group P21 with a unique axis (b) of 408.9 Å and with evidence of twinning, as indicated by the cumulative intensity distribution L statistic, suggesting the possibility of space group P1. Structure solution by molecular replacement shows a superhelical arrangement of six NONO homodimers (or 12 in P1) oriented parallel to the long axis, resulting in extensive noncrystallographic symmetry. Further analysis revealed that the crystal was not twinned, but the collected data suffered from highly overlapping reflections that obscured the L-test. Optimized data collection on a new crystal using higher energy X-rays, a smaller beam width and an increased sample-to-detector distance produced non-overlapping reflections to 2.6 Å resolution. The steps taken to analyse and overcome this series of practical difficulties and to produce a biologically informative structure are discussed. PMID:27303796

  17. A Variable Light Domain Fluorogen Activating Protein Homodimerizes To Activate Dimethylindole Red

    SciTech Connect

    Senutovitch, Nina; Stanfield, Robyn L.; Bhattacharyya, Shantanu; Rule, Gordon S.; Wilson, Ian A.; Armitage, Bruce A.; Waggoner, Alan S.; Berget, Peter B.

    2012-07-11

    Novel fluorescent tools such as green fluorescent protein analogues and fluorogen activating proteins (FAPs) are useful in biological imaging for tracking protein dynamics in real time with a low fluorescence background. FAPs are single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) selected from a yeast surface display library that produce fluorescence upon binding a specific dye or fluorogen that is normally not fluorescent when present in solution. FAPs generally consist of human immunoglobulin variable heavy (V{sub H}) and variable light (V{sub L}) domains covalently attached via a glycine- and serine-rich linker. Previously, we determined that the yeast surface clone, V{sub H}-V{sub L} M8, could bind and activate the fluorogen dimethylindole red (DIR) but that the fluorogen activation properties were localized to the M8V{sub L} domain. We report here that both nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray diffraction methods indicate the M8V{sub L} forms noncovalent, antiparallel homodimers that are the fluorogen activating species. The M8V{sub L} homodimers activate DIR by restriction of internal rotation of the bound dye. These structural results, together with directed evolution experiments with both V{sub H}-V{sub L} M8 and M8V{sub L}, led us to rationally design tandem, covalent homodimers of M8V{sub L} domains joined by a flexible linker that have a high affinity for DIR and good quantum yields.

  18. The structural basis for partitioning of the XRCC1/DNA ligase III-[alpha] BRCT-mediated dimer complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Cuneo, Matthew J.; Gabel, Scott A.; Krahn, Joseph M.; Ricker, Melissa A.; London, Robert E.

    2011-11-17

    The ultimate step common to almost all DNA repair pathways is the ligation of the nicked intermediate to form contiguous double-stranded DNA. In the mammalian nucleotide and base excision repair pathways, the ligation step is carried out by ligase III-{alpha}. For efficient ligation, ligase III-{alpha} is constitutively bound to the scaffolding protein XRCC1 through interactions between the C-terminal BRCT domains of each protein. Although structural data for the individual domains has been available, no structure of the complex has been determined and several alternative proposals for this interaction have been advanced. Interpretation of the models is complicated by the formation of homodimers that, depending on the model, may either contribute to, or compete with heterodimer formation. We report here the structures of both homodimer complexes as well as the heterodimer complex. Structural characterization of the heterodimer formed from a longer XRCC1 BRCT domain construct, including residues comprising the interdomain linker region, revealed an expanded heterodimer interface with the ligase III-{alpha} BRCT domain. This enhanced linker-mediated binding interface plays a significant role in the determination of heterodimer/homodimer selectivity. These data provide fundamental insights into the structural basis of BRCT-mediated dimerization, and resolve questions related to the organization of this important repair complex.

  19. The Structural Basis for Partitioning of the XRCC1/DNA Ligase III-alpha BRCT-mediated Dimer Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    M Cuneo; S Gabel; J Krahn; M Ricker; R London

    2011-12-31

    The ultimate step common to almost all DNA repair pathways is the ligation of the nicked intermediate to form contiguous double-stranded DNA. In the mammalian nucleotide and base excision repair pathways, the ligation step is carried out by ligase III-{alpha}. For efficient ligation, ligase III-{alpha} is constitutively bound to the scaffolding protein XRCC1 through interactions between the C-terminal BRCT domains of each protein. Although structural data for the individual domains has been available, no structure of the complex has been determined and several alternative proposals for this interaction have been advanced. Interpretation of the models is complicated by the formation of homodimers that, depending on the model, may either contribute to, or compete with heterodimer formation. We report here the structures of both homodimer complexes as well as the heterodimer complex. Structural characterization of the heterodimer formed from a longer XRCC1 BRCT domain construct, including residues comprising the interdomain linker region, revealed an expanded heterodimer interface with the ligase III-{alpha} BRCT domain. This enhanced linker-mediated binding interface plays a significant role in the determination of heterodimer/homodimer selectivity. These data provide fundamental insights into the structural basis of BRCT-mediated dimerization, and resolve questions related to the organization of this important repair complex.

  20. Homodimerization of pokeweed antiviral protein as a mechanism to limit depurination of pokeweed ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Tourlakis, Marina E; Karran, Rajita A; Desouza, Leroi; Siu, K W Michael; Hudak, Katalin A

    2010-11-01

    Ribosome inactivating proteins are glycosidases synthesized by many plants and have been hypothesized to serve in defence against pathogens. These enzymes catalytically remove a conserved purine from the sarcin/ricin loop of the large ribosomal RNA, which has been shown in vitro to limit protein synthesis. The resulting toxicity suggests that plants may possess a mechanism to protect their ribosomes from depurination during the synthesis of these enzymes. For example, pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP) is cotranslationally inserted into the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum and travels via the endomembrane system to be stored in the cell wall. However, some PAP may retrotranslocate across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane to be released back into the cytosol, thereby exposing ribosomes to depurination. In this work, we isolated and characterized a complexed form of the enzyme that exhibits substantially reduced activity. We showed that this complex is a homodimer of PAP and that dimerization involves a peptide that contains a conserved aromatic amino acid, tyrosine 123, located in the active site of the enzyme. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation demonstrated that the homodimer may form in vivo and that dimerization is prevented by the substitution of tyrosine 123 for alanine. The homodimer is a minor form of PAP, observed only in the cytosol of cells and not in the apoplast. Taken together, these data support a novel mechanism for the limitation of depurination of autologous ribosomes by molecules of the protein that escape transport to the cell wall by the endomembrane system.

  1. Diverse oligomeric states of CEACAM IgV domains.

    PubMed

    Bonsor, Daniel A; Günther, Sebastian; Beadenkopf, Robert; Beckett, Dorothy; Sundberg, Eric J

    2015-11-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecules (CEACAMs) comprise a large family of cell surface adhesion molecules that bind to themselves and other family members to carry out numerous cellular functions, including proliferation, signaling, differentiation, tumor suppression, and survival. They also play diverse and significant roles in immunity and infection. The formation of CEACAM oligomers is caused predominantly by interactions between their N-terminal IgV domains. Although X-ray crystal structures of CEACAM IgV domain homodimers have been described, how CEACAMs form heterodimers or remain monomers is poorly understood. To address this key aspect of CEACAM function, we determined the crystal structures of IgV domains that form a homodimeric CEACAM6 complex, monomeric CEACAM8, and a heterodimeric CEACAM6-CEACAM8 complex. To confirm and quantify these interactions in solution, we used analytical ultracentrifugation to measure the dimerization constants of CEACAM homodimers and isothermal titration calorimetry to determine the thermodynamic parameters and binding affinities of CEACAM heterodimers. We found the CEACAM6-CEACAM8 heterodimeric state to be substantially favored energetically relative to the CEACAM6 homodimer. Our data provide a molecular basis for the adoption of the diverse oligomeric states known to exist for CEACAMs and suggest ways in which CEACAM6 and CEACAM8 regulate the biological functions of one another, as well as of additional CEACAMs with which they interact, both in cis and in trans.

  2. Structural basis of ultraviolet-B perception by UVR8.

    PubMed

    Wu, Di; Hu, Qi; Yan, Zhen; Chen, Wen; Yan, Chuangye; Huang, Xi; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Panyu; Deng, Haiteng; Wang, Jiawei; Deng, XingWang; Shi, Yigong

    2012-04-12

    The Arabidopsis thaliana protein UVR8 is a photoreceptor for ultraviolet-B. Upon ultraviolet-B irradiation, UVR8 undergoes an immediate switch from homodimer to monomer, which triggers a signalling pathway for ultraviolet protection. The mechanism by which UVR8 senses ultraviolet-B remains largely unknown. Here we report the crystal structure of UVR8 at 1.8 Å resolution, revealing a symmetric homodimer of seven-bladed β-propeller that is devoid of any external cofactor as the chromophore. Arginine residues that stabilize the homodimeric interface, principally Arg 286 and Arg 338, make elaborate intramolecular cation-π interactions with surrounding tryptophan amino acids. Two of these tryptophans, Trp 285 and Trp 233, collectively serve as the ultraviolet-B chromophore. Our structural and biochemical analyses identify the molecular mechanism for UVR8-mediated ultraviolet-B perception, in which ultraviolet-B radiation results in destabilization of the intramolecular cation-π interactions, causing disruption of the critical intermolecular hydrogen bonds mediated by Arg 286 and Arg 338 and subsequent dissociation of the UVR8 homodimer.

  3. Diverse oligomeric states of CEACAM IgV domains

    PubMed Central

    Bonsor, Daniel A.; Günther, Sebastian; Beadenkopf, Robert; Beckett, Dorothy; Sundberg, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecules (CEACAMs) comprise a large family of cell surface adhesion molecules that bind to themselves and other family members to carry out numerous cellular functions, including proliferation, signaling, differentiation, tumor suppression, and survival. They also play diverse and significant roles in immunity and infection. The formation of CEACAM oligomers is caused predominantly by interactions between their N-terminal IgV domains. Although X-ray crystal structures of CEACAM IgV domain homodimers have been described, how CEACAMs form heterodimers or remain monomers is poorly understood. To address this key aspect of CEACAM function, we determined the crystal structures of IgV domains that form a homodimeric CEACAM6 complex, monomeric CEACAM8, and a heterodimeric CEACAM6–CEACAM8 complex. To confirm and quantify these interactions in solution, we used analytical ultracentrifugation to measure the dimerization constants of CEACAM homodimers and isothermal titration calorimetry to determine the thermodynamic parameters and binding affinities of CEACAM heterodimers. We found the CEACAM6–CEACAM8 heterodimeric state to be substantially favored energetically relative to the CEACAM6 homodimer. Our data provide a molecular basis for the adoption of the diverse oligomeric states known to exist for CEACAMs and suggest ways in which CEACAM6 and CEACAM8 regulate the biological functions of one another, as well as of additional CEACAMs with which they interact, both in cis and in trans. PMID:26483485

  4. Genomic redistribution of GR monomers and dimers mediates transcriptional response to exogenous glucocorticoid in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hee-Woong; Uhlenhaut, N Henriette; Rauch, Alexander; Weiner, Juliane; Hübner, Sabine; Hübner, Norbert; Won, Kyoung-Jae; Lazar, Mitchell A; Tuckermann, Jan; Steger, David J

    2015-06-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are commonly prescribed drugs, but their anti-inflammatory benefits are mitigated by metabolic side effects. Their transcriptional effects, including tissue-specific gene activation and repression, are mediated by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which is known to bind as a homodimer to a palindromic DNA sequence. Using ChIP-exo in mouse liver under endogenous corticosterone exposure, we report here that monomeric GR interaction with a half-site motif is more prevalent than homodimer binding. Monomers colocalize with lineage-determining transcription factors in both liver and primary macrophages, and the GR half-site motif drives transcription, suggesting that monomeric binding is fundamental to GR's tissue-specific functions. In response to exogenous GC in vivo, GR dimers assemble on chromatin near ligand-activated genes, concomitant with monomer evacuation of sites near repressed genes. Thus, pharmacological GCs mediate gene expression by favoring GR homodimer occupancy at classic palindromic sites at the expense of monomeric binding. The findings have important implications for improving therapies that target GR.

  5. Organization of the Mitochondrial Apoptotic BAK Pore

    PubMed Central

    Aluvila, Sreevidya; Mandal, Tirtha; Hustedt, Eric; Fajer, Peter; Choe, Jun Yong; Oh, Kyoung Joon

    2014-01-01

    The multidomain pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins BAK and BAX are believed to form large oligomeric pores in the mitochondrial outer membrane during apoptosis. Formation of these pores results in the release of apoptotic factors including cytochrome c from the intermembrane space into the cytoplasm, where they initiate the cascade of events that lead to cell death. Using the site-directed spin labeling method of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, we have determined the conformational changes that occur in BAK when the protein targets to the membrane and forms pores. The data showed that helices α1 and α6 disengage from the rest of the domain, leaving helices α2-α5 as a folded unit. Helices α2-α5 were shown to form a dimeric structure, which is structurally homologous to the recently reported BAX “BH3-in-groove homodimer.” Furthermore, the EPR data and a chemical cross-linking study demonstrated the existence of a hitherto unknown interface between BAK BH3-in-groove homodimers in the oligomeric BAK. This novel interface involves the C termini of α3 and α5 helices. The results provide further insights into the organization of the BAK oligomeric pores by the BAK homodimers during mitochondrial apoptosis, enabling the proposal of a BAK-induced lipidic pore with the topography of a “worm hole.” PMID:24337568

  6. Exploring Symmetry as an Avenue to the Computational Design of Large Protein Domains

    SciTech Connect

    Fortenberry, Carie; Bowman, Elizabeth Anne; Proffitt, Will; Dorr, Brent; Combs, Steven; Harp, Joel; Mizoue, Laura; Meiler, Jens

    2012-03-15

    It has been demonstrated previously that symmetric, homodimeric proteins are energetically favored, which explains their abundance in nature. It has been proposed that such symmetric homodimers underwent gene duplication and fusion to evolve into protein topologies that have a symmetric arrangement of secondary structure elements - 'symmetric superfolds'. Here, the ROSETTA protein design software was used to computationally engineer a perfectly symmetric variant of imidazole glycerol phosphate synthase and its corresponding symmetric homodimer. The new protein, termed FLR, adopts the symmetric ({beta}{alpha}){sub 8} TIM-barrel superfold. The protein is soluble and monomeric and exhibits two-fold symmetry not only in the arrangement of secondary structure elements but also in sequence and at atomic detail, as verified by crystallography. When cut in half, FLR dimerizes readily to form the symmetric homodimer. The successful computational design of FLR demonstrates progress in our understanding of the underlying principles of protein stability and presents an attractive strategy for the in silico construction of larger protein domains from smaller pieces.

  7. [RXR, a key member of the oncogenic complex in acute promyelocytic leukemia].

    PubMed

    Halftermeyer, Juliane; Le Bras, Morgane; De Thé, Hugues

    2011-11-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) is induced by fusion proteins always implying the retinoic acid receptor RARa. Although PML-RARa and other fusion oncoproteins are able to bind DNA as homodimers, in vivo they are always found in association with the nuclear receptor RXRa (Retinoid X Receptor). Thus, RXRa is an essential cofactor of the fusion protein for the transformation. Actually, RXRa contributes to several aspects of in vivo -transformation: RARa fusion:RXRa hetero-oligomeric complexes bind DNA with a much greater affinity than RARa fusion homodimers. Besides, PML-RARa:RXRa recognizes an enlarged repertoire of DNA binding sites. Thus the association between fusion proteins and RXRa regulates more genes than the homodimer alone. Titration of RXRa by the fusion protein may also play a role in the transformation process, as well as post-translational modifications of RXRa in the complex. Finally, RXRa is required for rexinoid-induced APL differentiation. Thus, RXRa is a key member of the oncogenic complex.

  8. Genomic redistribution of GR monomers and dimers mediates transcriptional response to exogenous glucocorticoid in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hee-Woong; Uhlenhaut, N Henriette; Rauch, Alexander; Weiner, Juliane; Hübner, Sabine; Hübner, Norbert; Won, Kyoung-Jae; Lazar, Mitchell A; Tuckermann, Jan; Steger, David J

    2015-06-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are commonly prescribed drugs, but their anti-inflammatory benefits are mitigated by metabolic side effects. Their transcriptional effects, including tissue-specific gene activation and repression, are mediated by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which is known to bind as a homodimer to a palindromic DNA sequence. Using ChIP-exo in mouse liver under endogenous corticosterone exposure, we report here that monomeric GR interaction with a half-site motif is more prevalent than homodimer binding. Monomers colocalize with lineage-determining transcription factors in both liver and primary macrophages, and the GR half-site motif drives transcription, suggesting that monomeric binding is fundamental to GR's tissue-specific functions. In response to exogenous GC in vivo, GR dimers assemble on chromatin near ligand-activated genes, concomitant with monomer evacuation of sites near repressed genes. Thus, pharmacological GCs mediate gene expression by favoring GR homodimer occupancy at classic palindromic sites at the expense of monomeric binding. The findings have important implications for improving therapies that target GR. PMID:25957148

  9. Evolutionary trace-based peptides identify a novel asymmetric interaction that mediates oligomerization in nuclear receptors.

    PubMed

    Gu, Peili; Morgan, Daniel H; Sattar, Minawar; Xu, Xueping; Wagner, Ryan; Raviscioni, Michele; Lichtarge, Olivier; Cooney, Austin J

    2005-09-01

    Germ cell nuclear factor (GCNF) is an orphan nuclear receptor that plays important roles in development and reproduction, by repressing the expression of essential genes such as Oct4, GDF9, and BMP15, through binding to DR0 elements. Surprisingly, whereas recombinant GCNF binds to DR0 sequences as a homodimer, endogenous GCNF does not exist as a homodimer but rather as part of a large complex termed the transiently retinoid-induced factor (TRIF). Here, we use evolutionary trace (ET) analysis to design mutations and peptides that probe the molecular basis for the formation of this unusual complex. We find that GCNF homodimerization and TRIF complex formation are DNA-dependent, and ET suggests that dimerization involves key functional sites on both helix 3 and helix 11, which are located on opposing surfaces of the ligand binding domain. Targeted mutations in either helix of GCNF disrupt the formation of both the homodimer and the endogenous TRIF complex. Moreover, peptide mimetics of both of these ET-determined sites inhibit dimerization and TRIF complex formation. This suggests that a novel helix 3-helix 11 heterotypic interaction mediates GCNF interaction and would facilitate oligomerization. Indeed, it was determined that the endogenous TRIF complex is composed of a GCNF oligomer. These findings shed light on an evolutionarily selected mechanism that reveals the unusual DNA-binding, dimerization, and oligomerization properties of GCNF.

  10. Cutting edge: identification of c-Rel-dependent and -independent pathways of IL-12 production during infectious and inflammatory stimuli.

    PubMed

    Mason, Nicola; Aliberti, Julio; Caamano, Jorge C; Liou, Hsiou-Chi; Hunter, Christopher A

    2002-03-15

    The production of IL-12 is required for immunity to many intracellular pathogens. Recent studies have shown that c-Rel, a member of the NF-kappaB family of transcription factors, is essential for LPS-induced IL-12p40 production by macrophages. In this study, we demonstrate that c-Rel is also required for IL-12p40 production by macrophages in response to Corynebacterium parvum, CpG oligodeoxynucleotides, anti-CD40 and low molecular weight hyaluronic acid. However, c-Rel(-/-) mice infected with Toxoplasma gondii produce comparable amounts of IL-12p40 to infected wild-type mice and have an IL-12-dependent mechanism of resistance to this infection. Furthermore, c-Rel was not required for IL-12p40 production by macrophages or dendritic cells in response to soluble Toxoplasma Ag, and neutrophils from c-Rel(-/-) mice contain normal amounts of preformed IL-12p40. Together these studies reveal the presence of c-Rel-dependent pathways critical for IL-12p40 production in response to inflammatory stimuli and demonstrate a novel c-Rel-independent pathway of IL-12p40 production during toxoplasmosis. PMID:11884420

  11. [Book review] Battle against extinction: Native fish management in the American West, by W. L. Minckley and J. E. Deacon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walsh, S.J.

    1993-01-01

    Review of: BATTLE AGAINST EXTINCTION: NATIVE FISH MANAGEMENT IN THE AMERICAN WEST. W. L. Minckley and J. E. Deacon (eds.). 1991. The University of Arizona Press, Tucson. ISBN 0-8165-1221-3. 517 p., $40.00 (hardcover).

  12. New insights into IL-12-mediated tumor suppression

    PubMed Central

    Tugues, S; Burkhard, S H; Ohs, I; Vrohlings, M; Nussbaum, K; vom Berg, J; Kulig, P; Becher, B

    2015-01-01

    During the past two decades, interleukin-12 (IL-12) has emerged as one of the most potent cytokines in mediating antitumor activity in a variety of preclinical models. Through pleiotropic effects on different immune cells that form the tumor microenvironment, IL-12 establishes a link between innate and adaptive immunity that involves different immune effector cells and cytokines depending on the type of tumor or the affected tissue. The robust antitumor response exerted by IL-12, however, has not yet been successfully translated into the clinics. The majority of clinical trials involving treatment with IL-12 failed to show sustained antitumor responses and were associated to toxic side effects. Here we discuss the therapeutic effects of IL-12 from preclinical to clinical studies, and will highlight promising strategies to take advantage of the antitumor activity of IL-12 while limiting adverse effects. PMID:25190142

  13. [Rational bases for new approaches to the therapy of pediatric solid tumors: immunotherapy and gene therapy].

    PubMed

    Pistoia, V; Prigione, I; Facchetti, P; Corrias, M V

    1994-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is one of the commonest solid tumors in children. Conventional therapeutic approaches, such as surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, fail to control tumor progression in stage III and IV patients. The search for novel therapeutic strategies should necessarily take into account immunotherapy and gene therapy. Here the theoretical bases for the development of such approaches are discussed. Studies carried out with neuroblastoma (NB) cell lines have shown that neoplastic cells express a wide array of potential tumor associated antigens (TAA) but are devoid of HLA molecules which are necessary for TAA presentation to the host immune system. Transfection of NB cells with the interferon gamma gene appears a promising approach, since this cytokine up-regulates the expression of class I HLA molecules in NB cells. Other cytokines of potential interest for gene transfer studies are interleukin 2 (IL2) and interleukin 12 (IL12).

  14. Regulation of cutaneous allergic reaction by odorant inhalation.

    PubMed

    Hosoi, J; Tsuchiya, T

    2000-03-01

    Olfactory stimuli modulate emotional conditions and the whole body immune system. Effects of odorant inhalation on cutaneous immune reaction were examined. Contact hypersensitivity to 2,4, 6-trinitrochlorobenzene was elicited in C57BL/6 mice. The reaction was suppressed at both the induction and elicitation phases by exposure to an odorant, citralva. Topical application of citralva or lyral/lilial did not affect the reaction. The suppressive effect of citralva was more potent than that of another odorant, lyral/lilial. Citralva decreased the number of epidermal Langerhans cells, whereas lyral/lilial had a weak effect. Citralva but not lyral/lilial induced plasma corticosterone. Glucocorticoid receptor antagonist abrogated the suppressive effect of citralva on contact hypersensitivity. Serum interleukin-12 was downregulated by exposure to citralva or lyral/lilial. These data demonstrate that olfactory stimuli regulate the cutaneous immune system.

  15. [Current Research of the Roles of IL-35 in Tumor Progression].

    PubMed

    Huang, Chongbiao; Tian, Ye; Cui, Yan; Xu, Jie; Xin, Liang; Yang, Xueling; Qi, Daliang

    2016-04-20

    Interleukin(IL)-35 is a new member of the interleukin-12 superfamily. Since its first report in 2007, IL-35 rapidly became a research highlight in the field of immunology. Like other IL-12 superfamily members, IL-35 was a heterodimer which was composed of an α chain P35 and a β chain Epstein-Barr virus induced gene 3 (EBI3). Recent research work revealed two distinct roles of IL-35. Firstly, IL-35 is highly expressed in some kinds of inflammatory diseases and autoimmune diseases and plays import roles in the pathogenesis. Secondly, IL-35 is positively expressed in some cancers and plays some roles in the process of tumor progression. Here we demonstrate the structure and the signalling of IL-35. We reviewed the the roles of IL-35 in promoting tumor progression.

  16. Lung airway-surveilling CXCR3hi memory CD8+ T cells are critical for protection against Influenza A virus

    PubMed Central

    Slütter, Bram; Pewe, Lecia L.; Kaech, Susan M.; Harty, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Inducing memory CD8+ T-cells specific for conserved antigens from Influenza A virus (IAV) is a potential strategy for broadly protective vaccines. Here we show that memory CD8 T-cells in the airways played an important role in early control of IAV. Expression of chemokine receptor CXCR3 was critical for memory CD8 T-cells to populate the airways during the steady state and vaccination approaches were designed to favor the establishment of memory CD8 T-cells in the airways. Specifically, we found that interleukin-12 (IL-12) signaling shortly after immunization limited CXCR3 expression on memory CD8 T-cells. Neutralization of IL-12 or adjuvants that did not induce high amounts of IL-12, enhanced CXCR3 expression, sustained airway localization of memory CD8 T-cells and resulted in superior protection against IAV. PMID:24238342

  17. Lung airway-surveilling CXCR3(hi) memory CD8(+) T cells are critical for protection against influenza A virus.

    PubMed

    Slütter, Bram; Pewe, Lecia L; Kaech, Susan M; Harty, John T

    2013-11-14

    Inducing memory CD8(+) T cells specific for conserved antigens from influenza A virus (IAV) is a potential strategy for broadly protective vaccines. Here we show that memory CD8(+) T cells in the airways played an important role in early control of IAV. Expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR3 was critical for memory CD8(+) T cells to populate the airways during the steady state and vaccination approaches were designed to favor the establishment of memory CD8(+) T cells in the airways. Specifically, we found that interleukin-12 (IL-12) signaling shortly after immunization limited CXCR3 expression on memory CD8(+) T cells. Neutralization of IL-12 or adjuvants that did not induce high amounts of IL-12 enhanced CXCR3 expression, sustained airway localization of memory CD8(+) T cells, and resulted in superior protection against IAV.

  18. An immunostimulatory DNA sequence from a probiotic strain of Bifidobacterium longum inhibits IgE production in vitro.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Noritoshi; Kitazawa, Haruki; Shimosato, Takeshi; Iwabuchi, Noriyuki; Xiao, Jin-Zhong; Iwatsuki, Keiji; Kokubo, Sadayuki; Saito, Tadao

    2006-04-01

    The immunostimulatory oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) BL07 (5'-GCGTCGGTTTCGGTGCTCAC-3') was identified from the genomic DNA of the probiotic strain Bifidobacterium longum BB536. ODN BL07 stimulated B-lymphocyte proliferation and induced interleukin-12 (IL-12) production in macrophage-like J774.1 cells. ODNs BL07 and BL07S (modified with phosphorothioate backbone) significantly inhibited immunoglobulin E (IgE) production and stimulated interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and IL-12 production, but did not affect IL-4 secretion in murine splenic cells of ovalbumin-primed BALB/c mice. These ODNs also significantly inhibited production of IgE in purified murine B cells in the presence of IL-4 and anti-CD40. The results suggest the potential of ODNs BL07 and BL07S in preventing IgE-related immune responses and the possible involvement of ODN BL07 in the antiallergic efficacy of B. longum BB536.

  19. Bone marrow-resident NK cells prime monocytes for regulatory function during infection

    PubMed Central

    Askenase, Michael H.; Han, Seong-Ji; Byrd, Allyson L.; da Fonseca, Denise Morais; Bouladoux, Nicolas; Wilhelm, Christoph; Konkel, Joanne E.; Hand, Timothy W.; Lacerda-Queiroz, Norinne; Su, Xin-Zhuan; Trinchieri, Giorgio; Grainger, John R.; Belkaid, Yasmine

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Tissue-infiltrating Ly6Chi monocytes play diverse roles in immunity, ranging from pathogen killing to immune regulation. How and where this diversity of function is imposed remains poorly understood. Here we show that during acute gastrointestinal infection, priming of monocytes for regulatory function preceded systemic inflammation and was initiated prior to bone marrow egress. Notably, natural killer (NK) cell-derived IFN-γ promoted a regulatory program in monocyte progenitors during development. Early bone marrow NK cell activation was controlled by systemic interleukin-12 (IL-12) produced by Batf3-dependent dendritic cells (DC) in the mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). This work challenges the paradigm that monocyte function is dominantly imposed by local signals following tissue recruitment, and instead proposes a sequential model of differentiation in which monocytes are pre-emptively educated during development in the bone marrow to promote their tissue-specific function. PMID:26070484

  20. Cytotoxic and natural killer cell stimulatory constituents of Phyllanthus songboiensis

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Yulin; Yuan, Chunhua; Deng, Youcai; Kanagasabai, Ragu; Ninh, Tran Ngoc; Tu, Vuong Tan; Chai, Hee-Byung; Soejarto, Djaja D.; Fuchs, James R.; Yalowich, Jack C.; Yu, Jianhua; Kinghorn, A. Douglas

    2014-01-01

    A dichapetalin-type triterpenoid and a dibenzylbutyrolactone-type lignan, together with five known lignans, a known aromatic diterpenoid, and a known acylated phytosterol, were isolated from the aerial parts of Phyllanthus songboiensis, collected in Vietnam. Their structures were determined by interpretation of the spectroscopic data, and the inhibitory activity toward the HT-29 human colon cancer cells of all isolates was evaluated by a cytotoxicity assay. The known arylnaphthalene lignan, (+)-acutissimalignan A, was highly cytotoxic toward HT-29 cells, with an IC50 value of 19 nM, but this compound was inactive as a DNA topoisomerase IIα (topo IIα) poison. The known phytosterol, (−)-β-sitosterol-3-O-β-D-(6-O-palmitoyl)glucopyranoside, was found to stimulate natural killer (NK) cells at a concentration of 10 μM in the presence of interleukin 12 (IL-12). PMID:25596805

  1. Congenital IL-12R1β receptor deficiency and thrombophilia in a girl homozygous for an IL12RB1 mutation and compound heterozygous for MTFHR mutations: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Kose, M.; Ceylan, O.; Patiroglu, T.; Bustamante, J.; Casanova, J. L.; Akyildiz, B. N.; Doganay, S.

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-12 (IL-12) plays an important role in the production of interferon gamma from T cells and natural killer cells and is essential for protection against intra-macrophagic pathogens such as Mycobacterium and Salmonella. Here, we describe a 16-year-old girl with homozygous mutation in exon 12 of the IL12RB1 gene, which causes complete IL-12Rβ1 deficiency in association with heterozygous mutation (C677T and A1298C) in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene. She presented with disseminated Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex infection, retroperitoneal fungal abscess and also thrombosis in the superior mesenteric–portal vein junction. This is the first case report of a primary immunodeficiency associated with a genetically determined venous thrombosis. PMID:24678409

  2. Soluble MICA-NKG2D interaction upregulates IFN-γ production by activated CD3-CD56+ NK cells: potential impact on chronic graft versus host disease.

    PubMed

    Boukouaci, Wahid; Al-Daccak, Reem; Dulphy, Nicolas; Lauden, Laura; Amokrane, Kahina; Fortier, Catherine; Marzais, François; Bennabi, Meriem; Peffault de Latour, Regis; Socie, Gerard; Toubert, Antoine; Charron, Dominique; Krishnamoorthy, Rajagopal; Tamouza, Ryad

    2013-12-01

    A soluble isoform of MHC class I chain-related molecule A (soluble MICA), generated by proteolytic shedding from the membrane-bound MICA of various tumor cells, has been shown to downregulate both the expression of natural killer group 2-member D receptor and the cytotoxic function of effectors cells and was postulated as a mechanism for tumor immune evasion. Its effect on the expression of cytokines by the effector cells remained unexplored. Here we demonstrate that the sMICA molecules upregulate interferon gamma expression by interleukin-12/interleukin-18-activated CD3(-)CD56(+) natural killer cells, witnessing the pro-inflammatory effect of soluble MICA. Overall, these data are in line with our previous observations that the raised serum levels of soluble MICA, following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, confer susceptibility to and the presence of pre-transplantation anti-MICA antibodies in the patient's serum confer protection against chronic graft versus host disease.

  3. Anti-tumor properties of orally administered glucosamine and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine oligomers in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Sachie; Azuma, Kazuo; Kurozumi, Seiji; Kiyose, Masatoshi; Osaki, Tomohiro; Tsuka, Takeshi; Itoh, Norihiko; Imagawa, Tomohiro; Minami, Saburo; Sato, Kimihiko; Okamoto, Yoshiharu

    2014-10-13

    The current study evaluated the anti-tumor activities of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine oligomer (NACOS) and glucosamine oligomer (COS) after their oral administration in a tumor (colon 26)-bearing mouse model. Compared to the control group, NACOS and COS groups showed significantly suppressed tumor growth, and apparent, marked apoptosis in tumor tissues. Furthermore, serum interleukin-12p70 and interferon-γ levels significantly increased in the NACOS and COS groups compared to the corresponding levels in the control group. Collectively, the results indicate the oral administration of NACOS and COS could enhance innate immunity. Results of experiments in Myd-88 knockout mice revealed that the apparent effects were related to both Myd-88-dependent and Myd-88-independent pathways. The data indicated that oral administration of NACOS and COS produced anti-tumor effects through the induction of apoptosis and stimulation of the immune system, which suggests that NACOS and COS are candidate anti-tumor functional foods.

  4. [Development of ultrasonic cancer therapy using ultrasound sensitive liposome].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Ryo; Oda, Yusuke; Utoguchi, Naoki; Maruyama, Kazuo

    2010-12-01

    Ultrasound (US) has been utilized as a useful tool for diagnosis and therapy. US mediated drug and gene delivery is paid to attention as a non-invasive system. The combination of US and microbubbles generated microjet stream by inducing disruption of bubbles and resulted in enhancing permeability of cell membrane. This phenomenon has been utilized as driving force for drug and gene delivery. Recently, we developed ultrasound sensitive liposome [Bubble liposome (BL)] containing perfluoropropane gas. US combined with BL could effectively transfer gene in vivo compared to conventional cationic liposomes. Using this method, we succeeded to obtain a therapeutic effect in cancer gene therapy with Interleukin-12 corded plasmid DNA. Therefore, it is expected that US combined with BL might be a useful non-viral vector system. From this result, the fusion of liposomal and ultrasound technologies would be important for establishment of advanced cancer therapy.

  5. Cytocompatibility, degradation, mechanical property retention and ion release profiles for phosphate glass fibre reinforced composite rods.

    PubMed

    Felfel, R M; Ahmed, I; Parsons, A J; Palmer, G; Sottile, V; Rudd, C D

    2013-05-01

    Fibre reinforced composites have recently received much attention as potential bone fracture fixation applications. Bioresorbable composites based on poly lactic acid (PLA) and phosphate based glass fibre were investigated according to ion release, degradation, biocompatibility and mechanical retention profiles. The phosphate based glass fibres used in this study had the composition of 40P2O5-24MgO-16CaO-16Na2O-4Fe2O3 in mol% (P40). The degradation and ion release profiles for the composites showed similar trends with the amount of sodium and orthophosphate ions released being greater than the other cations and anions investigated. This was attributed to low Dietzal's field strength for the Na(+) in comparison with Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) and breakdown of longer chain polyphosphates into orthophosphate ions. P40 composites exhibited good biocompatibility to human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which was suggested to be due to the low degradation rate of P40 fibres. After 63 days immersion in PBS at 37 °C, the P40 composite rods lost ~1.1% of mass. The wet flexural, shear and compressive strengths for P40 UD rods were ~70%, ~80% and ~50% of their initial dry values after 3 days of degradation, whereas the flexural modulus, shear and compressive strengths were ~70%, ~80%, and ~65% respectively. Subsequently, the mechanical properties remained stable for the duration of the study at 63 days. The initial decrease in mechanical properties was attributed to a combination of the plasticisation effect of water and degradation of the fibre-matrix interface, with the subsequent linear behaviour being attributed to the chemical durability of P40 fibres. P40 composite rods showed low degradation and ion release rates, good biocompatibility and maintained mechanical properties similar to cortical bone for the duration of the study. Therefore, P40 composite rods have huge potential as resorbable intramedullary nails or rods. PMID:23498213

  6. Efficacy of oral administration of heat-killed probiotics from Mongolian dairy products against influenza infection in mice: alleviation of influenza infection by its immunomodulatory activity through intestinal immunity.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Shiro; Takeshita, Masahiko; Kikuchi, Yukiharu; Dashnyam, Bumbein; Kawahara, Satoshi; Yoshida, Hiroki; Watanabe, Wataru; Muguruma, Michio; Kurokawa, Masahiko

    2011-12-01

    Some probiotics possess immunomodulatory activities and have been used as complementary and alternative medicines. We previously found that 10 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains isolated from traditional Mongolian dairy products showed probiotic potential in vitro. In this study, we assessed the immunomodulatory activity of 10 LABs on influenza virus (IFV) infection in relation to their efficacies in IFV-infected mice. In an intranasal IFV infection model in mice, oral administration of boiled Lactobacillus plantarum 06CC2 strain (20mg/mouse), one of the 10 LABs, twice daily for 10 days starting two days before infection was significantly effective in protecting the body weight loss of infected mice, reducing virus yields in the lungs on days 2, 4, and 6 after infection, and prolonging survival times without toxicity. The total numbers of infiltrated cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), especially macrophages and neutrophils, were significantly reduced by 06CC2 administration on day 2. On day 2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production in BALF was also reduced significantly, but interferon-α, interleukin-12, and interferon-γ productions were augmented and natural killer (NK) cell activity was significantly elevated. Furthermore, the gene expressions of interleukin-12 receptor and interferon-γ in Peyer's patches were augmented by 06CC2 administration on day 2. Thus, 06CC2 was suggested to alleviate influenza symptoms in mice in correlation with the augmentation of NK cell activity associated with the enhancement of interferon-α and Th1 cytokine productions through intestinal immunity and the reduction of TNF-α in the early stage of infection.

  7. Xenogeneic immunization with human tyrosine hydroxylase DNA vaccines suppresses growth of established neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Huebener, Nicole; Fest, Stefan; Hilt, Kerstin; Schramm, Alexander; Eggert, Angelika; Durmus, Tahir; Woehler, Anja; Stermann, Alexander; Bleeke, Matthias; Baykan, Bianca; Weixler, Silke; Gaedicke, Gerhard; Lode, Holger N

    2009-08-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is a challenging malignancy of the sympathetic nervous tissue characterized by a very poor prognosis. One important marker for NB is the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the first-step enzyme of catecholamine biosynthesis. We could show stable and high TH gene expression in 67 NB samples independent of the clinical stage. Based on this observation, we addressed the question of whether xenogeneic TH DNA vaccination is effective in inducing an anti-NB immune response. For this purpose, we generated three DNA vaccines based on pCMV-F3Ub and pBUD-CE4.1 plasmids encoding for human (h)THcDNA (A), hTH minigene (B), and hTHcDNA in combination with the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 12 (C), and tested prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy to suppress primary tumor growth and spontaneous metastasis. Here we report that xenogeneic TH DNA vaccination was effective in eradicating established primary tumors and inhibiting metastasis. Interestingly, this effect could not be enhanced by adding the Th1 cytokine interleukin 12. However, increased IFN-gamma production and NB cytotoxicity of effector cells harvested from vaccinated mice suggested the participation of tumor-specific CTLs in the immune response. The depletion of CD8(+)T cells completely abrogated the hTH vaccine-mediated anti-NB immune response. Furthermore, rechallenging of surviving mice resulted in reduced primary tumor growth, indicating the induction of a memory immune response. In conclusion, xenogeneic immunization with TH-derived DNA vaccines is effective against NB, and may open a new venue for a novel and effective immunotherapeutic strategy against this challenging childhood tumor.

  8. Turned on by danger: activation of CD1d-restricted invariant natural killer T cells.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Victoria

    2012-09-01

    CD1d-restricted invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells bear characteristics of innate and adaptive lymphocytes, which allow them to bridge the two halves of the immune response and play roles in many disease settings. Recent work has characterized precisely how their activation is initiated and regulated. Novel antigens from important pathogens have been identified, as has an abundant self-antigen, β-glucopyranosylcaramide, capable of mediating an iNKT-cell response. Studies of the iNKT T-cell receptor (TCR)-antigen-CD1d complex show how docking between CD1d-antigen and iNKT TCR is highly conserved, and how small sequence differences in the TCR establish intrinsic variation in iNKT TCR affinity. The sequence of the TCR CDR3β loop determines iNKT TCR affinity for ligand-CD1d, independent of ligand identity. CD1d ligands can promote T helper type 1 (Th1) or Th2 biased cytokine responses, depending on the composition of their lipid tails. Ligands loaded into CD1d on the cell surface promote Th2 responses, whereas ligands with long hydrophobic tails are loaded endosomally and promote Th1 responses. This information is informing the design of synthetic iNKT-cell antigens. The iNKT cells may be activated by exogenous antigen, or by a combination of dendritic cell-derived interleukin-12 and iNKT TCR-self-antigen-CD1d engagement. The iNKT-cell activation is further modulated by recent foreign or self-antigen encounter. Activation of dendritic cells through pattern recognition receptors alters their antigen presentation and cytokine production, strongly influencing iNKT-cell activation. In a range of bacterial infections, dendritic cell-dependent innate activation of iNKT cells through interleukin-12 is the dominant influence on their activity.

  9. Activation of spleen cells by ArtinM may account for its immunomodulatory properties.

    PubMed

    Silva, Thiago Aparecido da; Souza, Maria Aparecida de; Cecílio, Nerry Tatiana; Roque-Barreira, Maria Cristina

    2014-09-01

    ArtinM is a D-mannose-binding lectin extracted from Artocarpus heterophyllus that promotes interleukin-12 production by macrophages and dendritic cells. This property is considered responsible for T helper 1 immunity induced in vivo after ArtinM administration. In this study, we investigated the effect of native (jArtinM) and recombinant (rArtinM) forms of lectin on murine spleen cells and isolated T lymphocytes. We found that ArtinM binds to the surface of spleen cells. This interaction, which was blocked by D-mannose, induced cell activation, as manifested by increased mitochondrial activity, interleukin-2 production, and cell proliferation. We verified that a 30-times higher concentration of rArtinM was required to trigger optimal activation of spleen cells compared with that needed with jArtinM, although these proteins have identical sugar recognition properties and use the same signaling molecules to trigger cell activation. Because the distinction between native and recombinant is restricted to their tertiary structure (tetrameric and monomeric, respectively), we postulated that the multi-valence of jArtinM accounts for its superiority in promoting clustering of cell surface glycoreceptors and activation. The jArtinM and rArtinM activation effect exerted on spleen cells was reproduced on purified CD4(+) T cells. Our results suggest that ArtinM interaction with T cells leads to responses that may act in concert with the interleukin-12 produced by antigen-presenting cells to modulate immunity toward the T helper 1 axis. Further studies are necessary to dissect ArtinM/T-cell interactions to more fully understand the immunomodulation induced by carbohydrate recognition. PMID:24842046

  10. Activation of spleen cells by ArtinM may account for its immunomodulatory properties.

    PubMed

    Silva, Thiago Aparecido da; Souza, Maria Aparecida de; Cecílio, Nerry Tatiana; Roque-Barreira, Maria Cristina

    2014-09-01

    ArtinM is a D-mannose-binding lectin extracted from Artocarpus heterophyllus that promotes interleukin-12 production by macrophages and dendritic cells. This property is considered responsible for T helper 1 immunity induced in vivo after ArtinM administration. In this study, we investigated the effect of native (jArtinM) and recombinant (rArtinM) forms of lectin on murine spleen cells and isolated T lymphocytes. We found that ArtinM binds to the surface of spleen cells. This interaction, which was blocked by D-mannose, induced cell activation, as manifested by increased mitochondrial activity, interleukin-2 production, and cell proliferation. We verified that a 30-times higher concentration of rArtinM was required to trigger optimal activation of spleen cells compared with that needed with jArtinM, although these proteins have identical sugar recognition properties and use the same signaling molecules to trigger cell activation. Because the distinction between native and recombinant is restricted to their tertiary structure (tetrameric and monomeric, respectively), we postulated that the multi-valence of jArtinM accounts for its superiority in promoting clustering of cell surface glycoreceptors and activation. The jArtinM and rArtinM activation effect exerted on spleen cells was reproduced on purified CD4(+) T cells. Our results suggest that ArtinM interaction with T cells leads to responses that may act in concert with the interleukin-12 produced by antigen-presenting cells to modulate immunity toward the T helper 1 axis. Further studies are necessary to dissect ArtinM/T-cell interactions to more fully understand the immunomodulation induced by carbohydrate recognition.

  11. Expression of Fas and Fas Ligand on Mouse Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells in the Generalized Shwartzman Reaction and Its Relationship to Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Koide, Naoki; Narita, Kayo; Kato, Yutaka; Sugiyama, Tsuyoshi; Chakravortty, Dipshikha; Morikawa, Akiko; Yoshida, Tomoaki; Yokochi, Takashi

    1999-01-01

    Previously we reported that the consecutive injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into LPS-sensitized mice for the generalized Shwartzman reaction (GSR) appeared to induce the injury of renal tubular epithelial cells via apoptosis. The aim of this study was to characterize the mechanism of renal tubular epithelial cell injury in GSR. The expression of Fas and Fas ligand was immunohistochemically detected on renal tubular epithelial cells from GSR-induced mice, although neither Fas nor Fas ligand was found in cells from untreated control mice or in cells from mice receiving a single injection of LPS. GSR-induced renal tubular epithelial cell injury was produced in neither Fas-negative MRL-lpr/lpr mice nor Fas ligand-negative MRL-gld/gld mice. The administration of anti-gamma interferon antibody together with a preparative injection of LPS prevented the expression of Fas and Fas ligand and the apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells. A provocative injection of tumor necrosis factor alpha into LPS-sensitized mice augmented Fas and Fas ligand expression and the apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells. The administration of tumor necrosis factor alpha to interleukin-12-sensitized mice resulted in Fas and Fas ligand expression and the apoptosis. Sensitization with interleukin-12 together with anti-gamma interferon antibody did not cause the apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells. It was suggested that the Fas/Fas ligand system probably plays a critical role in the development of renal tubular epithelial cell injury through apoptotic cell death. PMID:10417181

  12. Bioresorbable screws reinforced with phosphate glass fibre: manufacturing and mechanical property characterisation.

    PubMed

    Felfel, R M; Ahmed, I; Parsons, A J; Rudd, C D

    2013-01-01

    Use of bioresorbable screws could eliminate disadvantages associated with metals such as removal operations, corrosion, MRI interference and stress shielding. Mechanical properties of bioresorbable polymers alone are insufficient for load bearing applications application as screws. Thus, reinforcement is necessary to try and match or surpass the mechanical properties of cortical bone. Phosphate based glass fibres were used to reinforce polylactic acid (PLA) in order to produce unidirectionally aligned (UD) and unidirectionally plus randomly distributed (UD/RM) composite screws (P40 UD and P40 UD/RM). The maximum flexural and push-out properties for the composite screws (P40 UD and P40 UD/RM) increased by almost 100% in comparison with the PLA screws. While the pull-out strength and stiffness of the headless composite screws were ∼80% (strength) and ∼130% (stiffness) higher than for PLA, those with heads exhibited properties lower than those for PLA alone as a result of failure at the heads. An increase in the maximum shear load and stiffness for the composite screws (∼30% and ∼40%) in comparison to the PLA screws was also seen. Maximum torque for the PLA screws was ∼1000 mN m, while that for the composite screws were slightly lower. The SEM micrographs for P40 UD and P40 UD/RM screws revealed small gaps around the fibres, which were suggested to be due to buckling of the UD fibres during the manufacturing process.

  13. Bioresorbable screws reinforced with phosphate glass fibre: manufacturing and mechanical property characterisation.

    PubMed

    Felfel, R M; Ahmed, I; Parsons, A J; Rudd, C D

    2013-01-01

    Use of bioresorbable screws could eliminate disadvantages associated with metals such as removal operations, corrosion, MRI interference and stress shielding. Mechanical properties of bioresorbable polymers alone are insufficient for load bearing applications application as screws. Thus, reinforcement is necessary to try and match or surpass the mechanical properties of cortical bone. Phosphate based glass fibres were used to reinforce polylactic acid (PLA) in order to produce unidirectionally aligned (UD) and unidirectionally plus randomly distributed (UD/RM) composite screws (P40 UD and P40 UD/RM). The maximum flexural and push-out properties for the composite screws (P40 UD and P40 UD/RM) increased by almost 100% in comparison with the PLA screws. While the pull-out strength and stiffness of the headless composite screws were ∼80% (strength) and ∼130% (stiffness) higher than for PLA, those with heads exhibited properties lower than those for PLA alone as a result of failure at the heads. An increase in the maximum shear load and stiffness for the composite screws (∼30% and ∼40%) in comparison to the PLA screws was also seen. Maximum torque for the PLA screws was ∼1000 mN m, while that for the composite screws were slightly lower. The SEM micrographs for P40 UD and P40 UD/RM screws revealed small gaps around the fibres, which were suggested to be due to buckling of the UD fibres during the manufacturing process. PMID:23122715

  14. Structural reorganization of the interleukin-7 signaling complex

    SciTech Connect

    McElroy, Craig A.; Holland, Paul J.; Zhao, Peng; Lim, Jae-Min; Wells, Lance; Eisenstein, Edward; Walsh, Scott T.R.

    2012-06-29

    We report here an unliganded receptor structure in the common gamma-chain ({gamma}{sub c}) family of receptors and cytokines. The crystal structure of the unliganded form of the interleukin-7 alpha receptor (IL-7R{alpha}) extracellular domain (ECD) at 2.15 {angstrom} resolution reveals a homodimer forming an 'X' geometry looking down onto the cell surface with the C termini of the two chains separated by 110 {angstrom} and the dimer interface comprising residues critical for IL-7 binding. Further biophysical studies indicate a weak association of the IL-7R{alpha} ECDs but a stronger association between the {gamma}{sub c}/IL-7R{alpha} ECDs, similar to previous studies of the full-length receptors on CD4{sup +} T cells. Based on these and previous results, we propose a molecular mechanism detailing the progression from the inactive IL-7R{alpha} homodimer and IL-7R{alpha}-{gamma}{sub c} heterodimer to the active IL-7-IL-7R{alpha}-{gamma}{sub c} ternary complex whereby the two receptors undergo at least a 90{sup o} rotation away from the cell surface, moving the C termini of IL-7R{alpha} and {gamma}{sub c} from a distance of 110 {angstrom} to less than 30 {angstrom} at the cell surface. This molecular mechanism can be used to explain recently discovered IL-7- and {gamma}{sub c}-independent gain-of-function mutations in IL-7R{alpha} from B- and T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients. The mechanism may also be applicable to other {gamma}{sub c} receptors that form inactive homodimers and heterodimers independent of their cytokines.

  15. A new and simple method to evaluate early membrane changes in frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Peña, F J; Saravia, F; Johannisson, A; Walgren, M; Rodríguez-Martínez, H

    2005-04-01

    Detection of early changes in the sperm plasma membrane during cryopreservation is of utmost importance when designing freezing protocols and has previously been studied in the pig species using annexin-V detection of phosphatidylserine translocation. In the present study we designed a new assay to detect these changes in boar spermatozoa, based on the slight increase of sperm membrane permeability occurring during the early stages of cryoinjury, using the combination of three fluorescent probes, SNARF-1, YO-PRO-1 and ethidium homodimer. Four ejaculates from five different boars were frozen-thawed and flow cytometrically (FC) evaluated as paired samples. One of the samples was assayed using the annexin-V/propidium iodide staining and the other sample was evaluated using the new triple staining. Using this combination of probes, four sperm subpopulations were easily detected: viable, with stable membranes (SNARF-1 positive cells), and three with compromised membranes, one of YO-PRO-1+/Eth- cells, one ethidium homodimer+ spermatozoa and, finally spermatozoa stained both with YO-PRO-1 and ethidium homodimer (YO-PRO-1+/Eth+). The latter three categories corresponded to dead spermatozoa, but with different degree of membrane damage, being YO-PRO+/Eth- an earlier stage of membrane destabilization, (manifested by an increase in membrane permeability, while still maintaining membrane integrity) than YO-PRO+/Eth+. A method agreement analysis between both methods was performed revealing good agreement, although the percentage of live cells was 9.44% larger for the triple stain than the annexin-V assay. The new assay stained all sperm sub-populations present in the sample, making it especially suitable for both fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry, facilitating the exclusion of debris and egg-yolk particles when using FC. PMID:15811072

  16. Local variations of HER2 dimerization in breast cancer cells discovered by correlative fluorescence and liquid electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Peckys, Diana B.; Korf, Ulrike; de Jonge, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The formation of HER2 homodimers plays an important role in breast cancer aggressiveness and progression; however, little is known about its localization. We have studied the intra- and intercellular variation of HER2 at the single-molecule level in intact SKBR3 breast cancer cells. Whole cells were visualized in hydrated state with correlative fluorescence microscopy and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). The locations of individual HER2 receptors were detected using an anti-HER2 affibody in combination with a quantum dot (QD), a fluorescent nanoparticle. Fluorescence microscopy revealed considerable differences of HER2 membrane expression between individual cells and between different membrane regions of the same cell (that is, membrane ruffles and flat areas). Subsequent ESEM of the corresponding cellular regions provided images of individually labeled HER2 receptors. The high spatial resolution of 3 nm and the close proximity between the QD and the receptor allowed quantifying the stoichiometry of HER2 complexes, distinguishing between monomers, dimers, and higher-order clusters. Downstream data analysis based on calculating the pair correlation function from receptor positions showed that cellular regions exhibiting membrane ruffles contained a substantial fraction of HER2 in homodimeric state. Larger-order clusters were also present. Membrane areas with homogeneous membrane topography, on the contrary, displayed HER2 in random distribution. Second, HER2 homodimers appeared to be absent from a small subpopulation of cells exhibiting a flat membrane topography, possibly resting cells. Local differences in homodimer presence may point toward functional differences with possible relevance for studying metastasis and drug response. PMID:26601217

  17. Mapping the Interaction of B Cell Leukemia 3 (BCL-3) and Nuclear Factor κB (NF-κB) p50 Identifies a BCL-3-mimetic Anti-inflammatory Peptide.

    PubMed

    Collins, Patricia E; Grassia, Gianluca; Colleran, Amy; Kiely, Patrick A; Ialenti, Armando; Maffia, Pasquale; Carmody, Ruaidhrí J

    2015-06-19

    The NF-κB transcriptional response is tightly regulated by a number of processes including the phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and subsequent proteasomal degradation of NF-κB subunits. The IκB family protein BCL-3 stabilizes a NF-κB p50 homodimer·DNA complex through inhibition of p50 ubiquitination. This complex inhibits the binding of the transcriptionally active NF-κB subunits p65 and c-Rel on the promoters of NF-κB target genes and functions to suppress inflammatory gene expression. We have previously shown that the direct interaction between p50 and BCL-3 is required for BCL-3-mediated inhibition of pro-inflammatory gene expression. In this study we have used immobilized peptide array technology to define regions of BCl-3 that mediate interaction with p50 homodimers. Our data show that BCL-3 makes extensive contacts with p50 homodimers and in particular with ankyrin repeats (ANK) 1, 6, and 7, and the N-terminal region of Bcl-3. Using these data we have designed a BCL-3 mimetic peptide based on a region of the ANK1 of BCL-3 that interacts with p50 and shares low sequence similarity with other IκB proteins. When fused to a cargo carrying peptide sequence this BCL-3-derived peptide, but not a mutated peptide, inhibited Toll-like receptor-induced cytokine expression in vitro. The BCL-3 mimetic peptide was also effective in preventing inflammation in vivo in the carrageenan-induced paw edema mouse model. This study demonstrates that therapeutic strategies aimed at mimicking the functional activity of BCL-3 may be effective in the treatment of inflammatory disease.

  18. COUP-TFII orchestrates venous and lymphatic endothelial identity by homo- or hetero-dimerisation with PROX1.

    PubMed

    Aranguren, Xabier L; Beerens, Manu; Coppiello, Giulia; Wiese, Cornelia; Vandersmissen, Ine; Lo Nigro, Antonio; Verfaillie, Catherine M; Gessler, Manfred; Luttun, Aernout

    2013-03-01

    Endothelial cell (EC) identity is in part genetically predetermined. Transcription factor NR2F2 (also known as chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor II, COUP-TFII) plays a key role in EC fate decision making; however, many of the underlying mechanisms remain enigmatic. In the present study, we demonstrate that NR2F2 differentially regulates gene expression of venous versus lymphatic ECs (LECs) and document a novel paradigm whereby NR2F2 homodimers induce a venous EC fate, while heterodimers with the LEC-specific transcription factor PROX1 instruct LEC lineage specification. NR2F2 homodimers inhibit arterial differentiation in venous ECs through direct binding to the promoter regions of the Notch target genes HEY1 and HEY2 (HEY1/2), whereas NR2F2/PROX1 heterodimers lack this inhibitory effect, resulting at least in part in non-canonical HEY1/2 expression in LECs. Furthermore, NR2F2/PROX1 heterodimers actively induce or are permissive for the expression of a major subset of LEC-specific genes. In addition to NR2F2/PROX1 heterodimerisation, the expression of HEY1 and some of these LEC-specific genes is dependent on PROX1 DNA binding. Thus, NR2F2 homodimers in venous ECs and NR2F2/PROX1 heterodimers in LECs differentially regulate EC subtype-specific genes and pathways, most prominently the Notch target genes HEY1/2. This novel mechanistic insight could pave the way for new therapeutic interventions for vascular-bed-specific disorders.

  19. Rational Design of Small-Molecule Stabilizers of Spermine Synthase Dimer by Virtual Screening and Free Energy-Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhe; Martiny, Virginie; Lagorce, David; Ikeguchi, Yoshihiko; Alexov, Emil; Miteva, Maria A.

    2014-01-01

    Snyder-Robinson Syndrome (SRS) is a rare mental retardation disorder which is caused by the malfunctioning of an enzyme, the spermine synthase (SMS), which functions as a homo-dimer. The malfunctioning of SMS in SRS patients is associated with several identified missense mutations that occur away from the active site. This investigation deals with a particular SRS-causing mutation, the G56S mutation, which was shown computationally and experimentally to destabilize the SMS homo-dimer and thus to abolish SMS enzymatic activity. As a proof-of-concept, we explore the possibility to restore the enzymatic activity of the malfunctioning SMS mutant G56S by stabilizing the dimer through small molecule binding at the mutant homo-dimer interface. For this purpose, we designed an in silico protocol that couples virtual screening and a free binding energy-based approach to identify potential small-molecule binders on the destabilized G56S dimer, with the goal to stabilize it and thus to increase SMS G56S mutant activity. The protocol resulted in extensive list of plausible stabilizers, among which we selected and tested 51 compounds experimentally for their capability to increase SMS G56S mutant enzymatic activity. In silico analysis of the experimentally identified stabilizers suggested five distinctive chemical scaffolds. This investigation suggests that druggable pockets exist in the vicinity of the mutation sites at protein-protein interfaces which can be used to alter the disease-causing effects by small molecule binding. The identified chemical scaffolds are drug-like and can serve as original starting points for development of lead molecules to further rescue the disease-causing effects of the Snyder-Robinson syndrome for which no efficient treatment exists up to now. PMID:25340632

  20. Binding of type II nuclear receptors and estrogen receptor to full and half-site estrogen response elements in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Klinge, C M; Bodenner, D L; Desai, D; Niles, R M; Traish, A M

    1997-01-01

    The mechanism by which retinoids, thyroid hormone (T3) and estrogens modulate the growth of breast cancer cells is unclear. Since nuclear type II nuclear receptors, including retinoic acid receptor (RAR), retinoid X receptor (RXR) and thyroid hormone receptor (TR), bind direct repeats (DR) of the estrogen response elements (ERE) half-site (5'-AGGTCA-3'), we examined the ability of estrogen receptor (ER) versus type II nuclear receptors, i.e. RARalpha, beta and gamma, RXRbeta, TRalpha and TRbeta, to bind various EREs in vitro . ER bound a consensus ERE, containing a perfectly palindromic 17 bp inverted repeat (IR), as a homodimer. In contrast, ER did not bind to a single ERE half-site. Likewise, ER did not bind two tandem (38 bp apart) half-sites, but low ER binding was detected to three tandem copies of the same half-site. RARalpha,beta or gamma bound both ERE and half-site constructs as a homodimer. RXRbeta did not bind full or half-site EREs, nor did RXRbeta enhance RARalpha binding to a full ERE. However, RARalpha and RXRbeta bound a half-site ERE cooperatively forming a dimeric complex. The RARalpha-RXRbeta heterodimer bound the Xenopus vitellogenin B1 estrogen responsive unit, with two non-consensus EREs, with higher affinity than one or two copies of the full or half-site ERE. Both TRalpha and TRbeta bound the full and the half-site ERE as monomers and homodimers and cooperatively as heterodimers with RXRbeta. We suggest that the cellular concentrations of nuclear receptors and their ligands, and the nature of the ERE or half-site sequence and those of its flanking sequences determine the occupation of EREs in estrogen-regulated genes in vivo . PMID:9115356

  1. Type IV Pilus Alignment Subcomplex Proteins PilN and PilO Form Homo- and Heterodimers in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Leighton, Tiffany L; Yong, Daniel H; Howell, P Lynne; Burrows, Lori L

    2016-09-16

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections and is resistant to many antibiotics. Type IV pili (T4P) are among the key virulence factors used by P. aeruginosa for host cell attachment, biofilm formation, and twitching motility, making this system a promising target for novel therapeutics. Point mutations in the conserved PilMNOP alignment subcomplex were previously shown to have distinct effects on assembly and disassembly of T4P, suggesting that it may function in a dynamic manner. We introduced mutations encoding Cys substitutions into pilN and/or pilO on the chromosome to maintain normal stoichiometry and expression levels and captured covalent PilNO heterodimers, as well as PilN and PilO homodimers, in vivo Most covalent PilN or PilO homodimers had minimal functional impact in P. aeruginosa, suggesting that homodimers are a physiologically relevant state. However, certain covalent homo- or heterodimers eliminated twitching motility, suggesting that specific PilNO configurations are essential for T4P function. These data were verified using soluble N-terminal truncated fragments of PilN and PilO Cys mutants, which purified as a mixture of homo- and heterodimers at volumes consistent with a tetramer. Deletion of genes encoding alignment subcomplex components, PilM or PilP, but not other T4P components, including the motor ATPases PilB or PilT, blocked in vivo formation of disulfide-bonded PilNO heterodimers, suggesting that both PilM and PilP influence the heterodimer interface. Combined, our data suggest that T4P function depends on rearrangements at PilN and PilO interfaces. PMID:27474743

  2. Sushi domains in the B subunit of factor XIII responsible for oligomer assembly.

    PubMed

    Souri, Masayoshi; Kaetsu, Hiroshi; Ichinose, Akitada

    2008-08-19

    Factor XIII (FXIII) is a heterotetramer composed of two catalytic A subunits (FXIII-A) and two B subunits (FXIII-B). FXIII-B has 10 Sushi domains. To explore the structure-function relationship of FXIII-B, we looked for domains in FXIII-B responsible for its homodimer and heterotetramer assembly with FXIII-A. Full-length recombinant human FXIII-B (rFXIII-B) and truncated rFXIII-Bs with various numbers of Sushi domains (rFXIII-B x- y ) were expressed in a baculovirus expression system. rFXIII-B was indistinguishable from purified human plasma FXIII-B, in terms of the molecular weight (after being deglycosylated by glycosidases) and the ability to form complexes between the two subunits. rFXIII-B was in dimer form and produced a heterotetramer complex with FXIII-A. Gel-filtration and FXIII-A binding analysis of the various truncated forms of rFXIII-B x- y revealed that the first Sushi domain was responsible for the binding of FXIII-B to FXIII-A and that the fourth and ninth Sushi domains were involved in the FXIII-B homodimer assembly. rFXIII-B and rFXIII-B 1-9, which formed a heterotetramer complex with FXIII-A, protected FXIII-A from proteolytic digestion. These findings suggest that only full-length or nearly full-length FXIII-B is large enough to cover the exposed surface of FXIII-A. In conclusion, at least 3 out of the 10 Sushi domains of FXIII-B have the distinct function of forming a homodimer and a heterotetramer, which should be ascribed to the differences in their amino acid sequences. The present studies, however, do not exclude the possibility that additional Sushi domains may also support either or both functions.

  3. Local variations of HER2 dimerization in breast cancer cells discovered by correlative fluorescence and liquid electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Peckys, Diana B; Korf, Ulrike; de Jonge, Niels

    2015-07-01

    The formation of HER2 homodimers plays an important role in breast cancer aggressiveness and progression; however, little is known about its localization. We have studied the intra- and intercellular variation of HER2 at the single-molecule level in intact SKBR3 breast cancer cells. Whole cells were visualized in hydrated state with correlative fluorescence microscopy and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). The locations of individual HER2 receptors were detected using an anti-HER2 affibody in combination with a quantum dot (QD), a fluorescent nanoparticle. Fluorescence microscopy revealed considerable differences of HER2 membrane expression between individual cells and between different membrane regions of the same cell (that is, membrane ruffles and flat areas). Subsequent ESEM of the corresponding cellular regions provided images of individually labeled HER2 receptors. The high spatial resolution of 3 nm and the close proximity between the QD and the receptor allowed quantifying the stoichiometry of HER2 complexes, distinguishing between monomers, dimers, and higher-order clusters. Downstream data analysis based on calculating the pair correlation function from receptor positions showed that cellular regions exhibiting membrane ruffles contained a substantial fraction of HER2 in homodimeric state. Larger-order clusters were also present. Membrane areas with homogeneous membrane topography, on the contrary, displayed HER2 in random distribution. Second, HER2 homodimers appeared to be absent from a small subpopulation of cells exhibiting a flat membrane topography, possibly resting cells. Local differences in homodimer presence may point toward functional differences with possible relevance for studying metastasis and drug response.

  4. Nucleoside triphosphate-dependent DNA-binding properties of mos protein.

    PubMed Central

    Seth, A; Priel, E; Vande Woude, G F

    1987-01-01

    We have previously shown that the mos gene product, p40mos, produced in Escherichia coli binds ATP and has ATPase activity. In the present study, we investigated the DNA-binding properties of p40mos and two mos deletion mutant proteins. Nitrocellulose blot protein-DNA binding assays showed that p40mos binds DNA in the presence of Mg2+-ATP and certain other nucleoside triphosphates. Ninety percent of the p40mos-bound DNA is dissociated if the complex is washed in the presence of 1 M NaCl or in the absence of ATP. p40mos-DNA binding is not observed in the presence of AMP or the nonhydrolyzable ATP analog adenosine 5'-[beta, gamma-methylene]-triphosphate; however, in the presence of ADP, p40mos binds DNA at 20% of the level that is observed with ATP. An N-terminal-deletion mutant protein, p19mos, has no DNA-binding activity, whereas a C-terminal-deletion mutant protein, p25mos, does. p25mos contains the ATP-binding domain, binds DNA in the presence of either ADP or ATP, and shows 5% and 45% binding (relative to that in the presence of ATP) in the presence of AMP and adenosine 5'-[beta, gamma-methylene]triphosphate, respectively. These results suggest that the N-terminal domain of p40mos is responsible for nucleoside triphosphate-mediated DNA binding. We also observed differential histone-DNA binding in the presence and absence of ATP. Images PMID:3035537

  5. A Kirchhoff solution to plasmon hybridization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willingham, Britain; Link, Stephan

    2013-12-01

    Using Ohm's law, a solution to plasmon hybridization via Kirchoff's equations results in a simple and intuitive picture of a metal nanoparticle dimer as a capacitively coupled circuit. Calculated absorption spectra and surface charge densities show that dimers of different metallic composition support different super- and sub-radiant plasmons compared to homodimers. Strong screening of Coulomb interactions between nanoparticles of different metallic background prohibits the excitation of anti-bonding plasmons, while changes to the free electron conductivity upon a collective response result in coupled plasmon lifetimes which shift as a function of interparticle distance. Smaller separations then result in the longest lived plasmons.

  6. A mutational wrench in the HAMP gearbox.

    PubMed

    Manson, Michael D

    2009-09-01

    HAMP domains communicate between input and output signalling elements in bacterial proteins. In the Tsr chemoreceptor, they convert axial movement of transmembrane helix 2 into changes in packing of the cytoplasmic kinase-control module (KCM). Zhou et al. suggest transmembrane helix 2 'tugs' on HAMP to destabilize x-da packing of the parallel four-helix bundle of the HAMP homodimer. Attractants would inhibit tugging. HAMP stability may be inversely related to stability of the a-d packing of the anti-parallel four-helix bundle of KCM, a relationship possibly facilitated by HAMP/KCM helical mismatch. The beauty of this idea lies in its simplicity and testability.

  7. Purification and primary structure determination of human lysosomal dipeptidase.

    PubMed

    Dolenc, Iztok; Mihelic, Marko

    2003-02-01

    The lysosomal metallopeptidase is an enzyme that acts preferentially on dipeptides with unsubstituted N- and C-termini. Its activity is highest in slightly acidic pH. Here we describe the isolation and characterization of lysosomal dipeptidase from human kidney. The isolated enzyme has the amino-terminal sequence DVAKAIINLAVY and is a homodimer with a molecular mass of 100 kDa. So far no amino acid sequence has been determined for this metallopeptidase. The complete primary structure as deduced from the nucleotide sequence revealed that the isolated dipeptidase is similar to blood plasma glutamate carboxypeptidase.

  8. Synthetic access to spacer-linked 3,6-diamino-2,3,6-trideoxy-alpha-D-glucopyranosides--potential aminoglycoside mimics for the inhibition of the HIV-1 TAR-RNA/Tat-peptide complex.

    PubMed

    Jöge, Thomas; Jesberger, Martin; Bröker, Patrick; Kirschning, Andreas

    2007-09-01

    The synthesis of spacer-linked neoaminoglycoside 5 is described. Key steps of the synthesis are the introduction of nitrogen functionalities at C-3 and C-6 and the olefin cross metathesis of allyl glycoside 16. Although it is known that Grubbs catalysts tolerate nitrogen functionalities, difficulties were encountered in the cross metathesis reaction. Factors that govern this dimerization are the steric and electronic demands of the catalyst and the substrate. Preliminary biological evaluation of homodimer 5, by studying the inhibition of HIV-1 TAR-RNA/Tat-peptide complex using a method based on fluorescence titration, revealed an inhibitory effect of 5.

  9. De Novo Fragment Design for Drug Discovery and Chemical Biology.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Tiago; Reker, Daniel; Welin, Martin; Caldera, Michael; Brunner, Cyrill; Gabernet, Gisela; Schneider, Petra; Walse, Björn; Schneider, Gisbert

    2015-12-01

    Automated molecular de novo design led to the discovery of an innovative inhibitor of death-associated protein kinase 3 (DAPK3). An unprecedented crystal structure of the inactive DAPK3 homodimer shows the fragment-like hit bound to the ATP pocket. Target prediction software based on machine learning models correctly identified additional macromolecular targets of the computationally designed compound and the structurally related marketed drug azosemide. The study validates computational de novo design as a prime method for generating chemical probes and starting points for drug discovery.

  10. Crystal structure of the Rasputin NTF2-like domain from Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Vognsen, Tina; Kristensen, Ole

    2012-03-30

    The crystal structure of the NTF2-like domain of the Drosophila homolog of Ras GTPase SH3 Binding Protein (G3BP), Rasputin, was determined at 2.7Å resolution. The overall structure is highly similar to nuclear transport factor 2: It is a homodimer comprised of a β-sheet and three α-helices forming a cone-like shape. However, known binding sites for RanGDP and FxFG containing peptides show electrostatic and steric differences compared to nuclear transport factor 2. A HEPES molecule bound in the structure suggests a new, and possibly physiologically relevant, ligand binding site.

  11. Novel Bat Influenza Virus NS1 Proteins Bind Double-Stranded RNA and Antagonize Host Innate Immunity.

    PubMed

    Turkington, Hannah L; Juozapaitis, Mindaugas; Kerry, Philip S; Aydillo, Teresa; Ayllon, Juan; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Schwemmle, Martin; Hale, Benjamin G

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate that novel bat HL17NL10 and HL18NL11 influenza virus NS1 proteins are effective interferon antagonists but do not block general host gene expression. Solving the RNA-binding domain structures revealed the canonical NS1 symmetrical homodimer, and RNA binding required conserved basic residues in this domain. Interferon antagonism was strictly dependent on RNA binding, and chimeric bat influenza viruses expressing NS1s defective in this activity were highly attenuated in interferon-competent cells but not in cells unable to establish antiviral immunity.

  12. Novel Bat Influenza Virus NS1 Proteins Bind Double-Stranded RNA and Antagonize Host Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Turkington, Hannah L.; Juozapaitis, Mindaugas; Kerry, Philip S.; Aydillo, Teresa; Ayllon, Juan; García-Sastre, Adolfo

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that novel bat HL17NL10 and HL18NL11 influenza virus NS1 proteins are effective interferon antagonists but do not block general host gene expression. Solving the RNA-binding domain structures revealed the canonical NS1 symmetrical homodimer, and RNA binding required conserved basic residues in this domain. Interferon antagonism was strictly dependent on RNA binding, and chimeric bat influenza viruses expressing NS1s defective in this activity were highly attenuated in interferon-competent cells but not in cells unable to establish antiviral immunity. PMID:26246567

  13. Homo-dimerization and ligand binding by the leucine-rich repeat domain at RHG1/RFS2 underlying resistance to two soybean pathogens

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The protein encoded by GmRLK18-1 (Glyma_18_02680 on chromosome 18) was a receptor like kinase (RLK) encoded within the soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) Rhg1/Rfs2 locus. The locus underlies resistance to the soybean cyst nematode (SCN) Heterodera glycines (I.) and causal agent of sudden death syndrome (SDS) Fusarium virguliforme (Aoki). Previously the leucine rich repeat (LRR) domain was expressed in Escherichia coli. Results The aims here were to evaluate the LRRs ability to; homo-dimerize; bind larger proteins; and bind to small peptides. Western analysis suggested homo-dimers could form after protein extraction from roots. The purified LRR domain, from residue 131–485, was seen to form a mixture of monomers and homo-dimers in vitro. Cross-linking experiments in vitro showed the H274N region was close (<11.1 A) to the highly conserved cysteine residue C196 on the second homo-dimer subunit. Binding constants of 20–142 nM for peptides found in plant and nematode secretions were found. Effects on plant phenotypes including wilting, stem bending and resistance to infection by SCN were observed when roots were treated with 50 pM of the peptides. Far-Western analyses followed by MS showed methionine synthase and cyclophilin bound strongly to the LRR domain. A second LRR from GmRLK08-1 (Glyma_08_g11350) did not show these strong interactions. Conclusions The LRR domain of the GmRLK18-1 protein formed both a monomer and a homo-dimer. The LRR domain bound avidly to 4 different CLE peptides, a cyclophilin and a methionine synthase. The CLE peptides GmTGIF, GmCLE34, GmCLE3 and HgCLE were previously reported to be involved in root growth inhibition but here GmTGIF and HgCLE were shown to alter stem morphology and resistance to SCN. One of several models from homology and ab-initio modeling was partially validated by cross-linking. The effect of the 3 amino acid replacements present among RLK allotypes, A87V, Q115K and H274N were predicted to alter domain

  14. Opportunities and challenges in the discovery of allosteric modulators of GPCRs for treating CNS disorders

    PubMed Central

    Conn, P. Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig W.; Meiler, Jens; Niswender, Colleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Novel allosteric modulators of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are providing fundamental advances in the development of GPCR ligands with high subtype selectivity and novel modes of efficacy that have not been possible with traditional approaches. As new allosteric modulators are advancing as drug candidates, we are developing an increased understanding of the major advantages and broad range of activities that can be achieved with these agents through selective modulation of specific signalling pathways, differential effects on GPCR homodimers versus heterodimers, and other properties. This understanding creates exciting opportunities, as well as unique challenges, in the optimization of novel therapeutic agents for disorders of the central nervous system. PMID:25176435

  15. Dimerization and DNA-binding of ASR1, a small hydrophilic protein abundant in plant tissues suffering from water loss

    SciTech Connect

    Maskin, Laura; Frankel, Nicolas; Gudesblat, Gustavo; Demergasso, Maria J.; Pietrasanta, Lia I.; Iusem, Norberto D. . E-mail: norbius@fbmc.fcen.uba.ar

    2007-01-26

    The Asr gene family is present in Spermatophyta. Its members are generally activated under water stress. We present evidence that tomato ASR1, one of the proteins of the family, accumulates in seed during late stages of embryogenesis, a physiological process characterized by water loss. In vitro, electrophoretic assays show a homo-dimeric structure for ASR1 and highlight strong non-covalent interactions between monomers prone to self-assemble. Direct visualization of single molecules by atomic force microscopy (AFM) confirms that ASR1 forms homodimers and that uncovers both monomers and dimers bind double stranded DNA.

  16. Comparison of uptake between PureSorb-Q40 and regular hydrophobic coenzyme Q10 in rats and humans after single oral intake.

    PubMed

    Nukui, Kazuki; Yamagishi, Toshihiko; Miyawaki, Hiromi; Kettawan, Aikkarach; Okamoto, Tadashi; Sato, Kiyoshi

    2007-04-01

    Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a lipid-soluble antioxidant and essential component of the mitochondrial electron transfer system in the body, and is in wide use as a functional food material and cosmetic raw material. However, as CoQ10 is extremely lipid-soluble, absorption by the body is not easy. In general, people use soft-gel capsules in which CoQ10 is suspended in oil, and take these capsules with food. PureSorb-Q40 (P40) was developed to improve CoQ10 processability and absorption when taken without food, and the present study compared the effects of food on absorption between P40 and conventional lipid-soluble CoQ10 in rats and humans. The results of a rat study showed higher uptake when P40 was administered in the fasting state or with food compared to lipid-soluble CoQ10. The results of a human study showed that uptake was favorable when P40 was administered in the fasting state, and even when administered postprandially, a significant difference was noted in uptake rate up to 6 h after intake and uptake volume up to 8 h after intake when compared to lipid-soluble CoQ10. These results show that any CoQ10 product using P40 can be quickly and reliably absorbed by the body regardless of dosage form or intake time.

  17. The 1.9 A Structure of the Branched-Chain Amino-Acid Transaminase (IlvE) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Tremblay, L.; Blanchard, J

    2009-01-01

    Unlike mammals, bacteria encode enzymes that synthesize branched-chain amino acids. The pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent transaminase performs the final biosynthetic step in these pathways, converting keto acid precursors into {alpha}-amino acids. The branched-chain amino-acid transaminase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtIlvE) has been crystallized and its structure has been solved at 1.9 {angstrom} resolution. The MtIlvE monomer is composed of two domains that interact to form the active site. The biologically active form of IlvE is a homodimer in which each monomer contributes a substrate-specificity loop to the partner molecule. Additional substrate selectivity may be imparted by a conserved N-terminal Phe30 residue, which has previously been observed to shield the active site in the type IV fold homodimer. The active site of MtIlvE contains density corresponding to bound PMP, which is likely to be a consequence of the presence of tryptone in the crystallization medium. Additionally, two cysteine residues are positioned at the dimer interface for disulfide-bond formation under oxidative conditions. It is unknown whether they are involved in any regulatory activities analogous to those of the human mitochondrial branched-chain amino-acid transaminase.

  18. Crystal structure of the BTB domain from the LRF/ZBTB7 transcriptional regulator.

    PubMed

    Stogios, Peter J; Chen, Lu; Privé, Gilbert G

    2007-02-01

    BTB-zinc finger (BTB-ZF) proteins are transcription regulators with roles in development, differentiation, and oncogenesis. In these proteins, the BTB domain (also known as the POZ domain) is a protein-protein interaction motif that contains a dimerization interface, a possible oligomerization surface, and surfaces for interactions with other factors, including nuclear co-repressors and histone deacetylases. The BTB-ZF protein LRF (also known as ZBTB7, FBI-1, OCZF, and Pokemon) is a master regulator of oncogenesis, and represses the transcription of a variety of important genes, including the ARF, c-fos, and c-myc oncogenes and extracellular matrix genes. We determined the crystal structure of the BTB domain from human LRF to 2.1 A and observed the canonical BTB homodimer fold. However, novel features are apparent on the surface of the homodimer, including differences in the lateral groove and charged pocket regions. The residues that line the lateral groove have little similarity with the equivalent residues from the BCL6 BTB domain, and we show that the 17-residue BCL6 Binding Domain (BBD) from the SMRT co-repressor does not bind to the LRF BTB domain. PMID:17189472

  19. C-type lectin receptors Dectin-3 and Dectin-2 form a heterodimeric pattern-recognition receptor for host defense against fungal infection.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Le-Le; Zhao, Xue-Qiang; Jiang, Changying; You, Yun; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Jiang, Yuan-Ying; Jia, Xin-Ming; Lin, Xin

    2013-08-22

    C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) play critical roles as pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) for sensing Candida albicans infection, which can be life-threatening for immunocompromised individuals. Here we have shown that Dectin-3 (also called CLECSF8, MCL, or Clec4d), a previously uncharacterized CLR, recognized α-mannans on the surfaces of C. albicans hyphae and induced NF-κB activation. Mice with either blockade or genetically deleted Dectin-3 were highly susceptible to C. albicans infection. Dectin-3 constantly formed heterodimers with Dectin-2, a well-characterized CLR, for recognizing C. albicans hyphae. Compared to their respective homodimers, Dectin-3 and Dectin-2 heterodimers bound α-mannans more effectively, leading to potent inflammatory responses against fungal infections. Together, our study demonstrates that Dectin-3 forms a heterodimeric PRR with Dectin-2 for sensing fungal infection and suggests that different CLRs may form different hetero- and homodimers, which provide different sensitivity and diversity for host cells to detect various microbial infections.

  20. Penicillin-binding protein 5 can form a homo-oligomeric complex in the inner membrane of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Skoog, Karl; Bruzell, Filippa Stenberg; Ducroux, Aurélie; Hellberg, Mårten; Johansson, Henrik; Lehtiö, Janne; Högbom, Martin; Daley, Daniel O

    2011-01-01

    Penicillin-binding protein 5 (PBP5) is a dd-carboxypeptidase, which cleaves the terminal d-alanine from the muramyl pentapeptide in the peptidoglycan layer of Escherichia coli and other bacteria. In doing so, it varies the substrates for transpeptidation and plays a key role in maintaining cell shape. In this study, we have analyzed the oligomeric state of PBP5 in detergent and in its native environment, the inner membrane. Both approaches indicate that PBP5 exists as a homo-oligomeric complex, most likely as a homo-dimer. As the crystal structure of the soluble domain of PBP5 (i.e., lacking the membrane anchor) shows a monomer, we used our experimental data to generate a model of the homo-dimer. This model extends our understanding of PBP5 function as it suggests how PBP5 can interact with the peptidoglycan layer. It suggests that the stem domains interact and the catalytic domains have freedom to move from the position observed in the crystal structure. This would allow the catalytic domain to have access to pentapeptides at different distances from the membrane. PMID:21674665

  1. Tau assembly: the dominant role of PHF6 (VQIVYK) in microtubule binding region repeat R3.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Pritam; Do, Thanh D; Larini, Luca; LaPointe, Nichole E; Sercel, Alexander J; Shade, Madeleine F; Feinstein, Stuart C; Bowers, Michael T; Shea, Joan-Emma

    2015-04-01

    Self-aggregation of the microtubule-binding protein Tau reduces its functionality and is tightly associated with Tau-related diseases, termed tauopathies. Tau aggregation is also strongly associated with two nucleating six-residue segments, namely PHF6 (VQIVYK) and PHF6* (VQIINK). In this paper, using experiments and computational modeling, we study the self-assembly of individual and binary mixtures of Tau fragments containing PHF6* (R2/wt; (273)GKVQIINKKLDL(284)) and PHF6 (R3/wt; (306)VQIVYKPVDLSK(317)) and a mutant R2/ΔK280 associated with a neurodegenerative tauopathy. The initial stage of aggregation is probed by ion-mobility mass spectrometry, the kinetics of aggregation monitored with Thioflavin T assays, and the morphology of aggregates visualized by transmission electron microscopy. Insights into the structure of early aggregates and the factors stabilizing the aggregates are obtained from replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations. Our data suggest that R3/wt has a much stronger aggregation propensity than either R2/wt or R2/ΔK280. Heterodimers containing R3/wt are less stable than R3/wt homodimers but much more stable than homodimers of R2/wt and R2/ΔK280, suggesting a possible role of PHF6*-PHF6 interactions in initiating the aggregation of full-length Tau. Lastly, R2/ΔK280 binds more strongly to R3/wt than R2/wt, suggesting a possible mechanism for a pathological loss of normal Tau function.

  2. Tau Assembly: The Dominant Role of PHF6 (VQIVYK) in Microtubule Binding Region Repeat R3

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Pritam; Do, Thanh D.; Larini, Luca; LaPointe, Nichole E.; Sercel, Alexander J.; Shade, Madeleine F.; Feinstein, Stuart C.; Bowers, Michael T.; Shea, Joan-Emma

    2015-01-01

    Self-aggregation of the microtubule-binding protein Tau reduces its functionality and is tightly associated with Tau-related diseases, termed tauopathies. Tau aggregation is also strongly associated with two nucleating six-residue segments, namely PHF6 (VQIVYK) and PHF6* (VQIINK). In this paper, using experiments and computational modeling, we study the self-assembly of individual and binary mixtures of Tau fragments containing PHF6* (R2/wt; 273GKVQIINKKLDL284) and PHF6 (R3/wt; 306VQIVYKPVDLSK317), and a mutant R2/ΔK280 associated with a neurodegenerative tauopathy. The initial stage of aggregation is probed by ion-mobility mass spectrometry, the kinetics of aggregation monitored with Thioflavin T assays and the morphology of aggregates visualized by transmission electron microscopy. Insights into the structure of early aggregates and the factors stabilizing the aggregates are obtained from replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations. Our data suggest that R3/wt has a much stronger aggregation propensity than either R2/wt or R2/ΔK280. Heterodimers containing R3/wt are less stable than R3/wt homodimers but much more stable than homodimers of R2/wt and R2/ΔK280, suggesting a possible role of PHF6*/PHF6 interactions in initiating the aggregation of full length Tau. Lastly, R2/ΔK280 binds stronger to R3/wt than R2/wt suggesting a possible mechanism for a pathological loss of normal Tau function. PMID:25775228

  3. Communication: Ion mobility of the radical cation dimers: (Naphthalene)2+• and naphthalene+•-benzene: Evidence for stacked sandwich and T-shape structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platt, Sean P.; Attah, Isaac K.; Aziz, Saadullah; El-Shall, M. Samy

    2015-05-01

    Dimer radical cations of aromatic and polycyclic aromatic molecules are good model systems for a fundamental understanding of photoconductivity and ferromagnetism in organic materials which depend on the degree of charge delocalization. The structures of the dimer radical cations are difficult to determine theoretically since the potential energy surface is often very flat with multiple shallow minima representing two major classes of isomers adopting the stacked parallel or the T-shape structure. We present experimental results, based on mass-selected ion mobility measurements, on the gas phase structures of the naphthalene+ṡ ṡ naphthalene homodimer and the naphthalene+ṡ ṡ benzene heterodimer radical cations at different temperatures. Ion mobility studies reveal a persistence of the stacked parallel structure of the naphthalene+ṡ ṡ naphthalene homodimer in the temperature range 230-300 K. On the other hand, the results reveal that the naphthalene+ṡ ṡ benzene heterodimer is able to exhibit both the stacked parallel and T-shape structural isomers depending on the experimental conditions. Exploitation of the unique structural motifs among charged homo- and heteroaromatic-aromatic interactions may lead to new opportunities for molecular design and recognition involving charged aromatic systems.

  4. Visualization and ligand-induced modulation of dopamine receptor dimerization at the single molecule level

    PubMed Central

    Tabor, Alina; Weisenburger, Siegfried; Banerjee, Ashutosh; Purkayastha, Nirupam; Kaindl, Jonas M.; Hübner, Harald; Wei, Luxi; Grömer, Teja W.; Kornhuber, Johannes; Tschammer, Nuska; Birdsall, Nigel J. M.; Mashanov, Gregory I.; Sandoghdar, Vahid; Gmeiner, Peter

    2016-01-01

    G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), including dopamine receptors, represent a group of important pharmacological targets. An increased formation of dopamine receptor D2 homodimers has been suggested to be associated with the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Selective labeling and ligand-induced modulation of dimerization may therefore allow the investigation of the pathophysiological role of these dimers. Using TIRF microscopy at the single molecule level, transient formation of homodimers of dopamine receptors in the membrane of stably transfected CHO cells has been observed. The equilibrium between dimers and monomers was modulated by the binding of ligands; whereas antagonists showed a ratio that was identical to that of unliganded receptors, agonist-bound D2 receptor-ligand complexes resulted in an increase in dimerization. Addition of bivalent D2 receptor ligands also resulted in a large increase in D2 receptor dimers. A physical interaction between the protomers was confirmed using high resolution cryogenic localization microscopy, with ca. 9 nm between the centers of mass. PMID:27615810

  5. Molecular basis of sidekick-mediated cell-cell adhesion and specificity

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Kerry M; Yamagata, Masahito; Jin, Xiangshu; Mannepalli, Seetha; Katsamba, Phinikoula S; Ahlsén, Göran; Sergeeva, Alina P; Honig, Barry; Sanes, Joshua R; Shapiro, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Sidekick (Sdk) 1 and 2 are related immunoglobulin superfamily cell adhesion proteins required for appropriate synaptic connections between specific subtypes of retinal neurons. Sdks mediate cell-cell adhesion with homophilic specificity that underlies their neuronal targeting function. Here we report crystal structures of Sdk1 and Sdk2 ectodomain regions, revealing similar homodimers mediated by the four N-terminal immunoglobulin domains (Ig1–4), arranged in a horseshoe conformation. These Ig1–4 horseshoes interact in a novel back-to-back orientation in both homodimers through Ig1:Ig2, Ig1:Ig1 and Ig3:Ig4 interactions. Structure-guided mutagenesis results show that this canonical dimer is required for both Sdk-mediated cell aggregation (via trans interactions) and Sdk clustering in isolated cells (via cis interactions). Sdk1/Sdk2 recognition specificity is encoded across Ig1–4, with Ig1–2 conferring the majority of binding affinity and differential specificity. We suggest that competition between cis and trans interactions provides a novel mechanism to sharpen the specificity of cell-cell interactions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19058.001 PMID:27644106

  6. Redesigning an FKBP-ligand interface to generate chemical dimerizers with novel specificity.

    PubMed

    Clackson, T; Yang, W; Rozamus, L W; Hatada, M; Amara, J F; Rollins, C T; Stevenson, L F; Magari, S R; Wood, S A; Courage, N L; Lu, X; Cerasoli, F; Gilman, M; Holt, D A

    1998-09-01

    FKBP ligand homodimers can be used to activate signaling events inside cells and animals that have been engineered to express fusions between appropriate signaling domains and FKBP. However, use of these dimerizers in vivo is potentially limited by ligand binding to endogenous FKBP. We have designed ligands that bind specifically to a mutated FKBP over the wild-type protein by remodeling an FKBP-ligand interface to introduce a specificity binding pocket. A compound bearing an ethyl substituent in place of a carbonyl group exhibited sub-nanomolar affinity and 1,000-fold selectivity for a mutant FKBP with a compensating truncation of a phenylalanine residue. Structural and functional analysis of the new pocket showed that recognition is surprisingly relaxed, with the modified ligand only partially filling the engineered cavity. We incorporated the specificity pocket into a fusion protein containing FKBP and the intracellular domain of the Fas receptor. Cells expressing this modified chimeric protein potently underwent apoptosis in response to AP1903, a homodimer of the modified ligand, both in culture and when implanted into mice. Remodeled dimerizers such as AP1903 are ideal reagents for controlling the activities of cells that have been modified by gene therapy procedures, without interference from endogenous FKBP. PMID:9724721

  7. Signal Integration by the IκB Protein Pickle Shapes Drosophila Innate Host Defense.

    PubMed

    Morris, Otto; Liu, Xi; Domingues, Celia; Runchel, Christopher; Chai, Andrea; Basith, Shaherin; Tenev, Tencho; Chen, Haiyang; Choi, Sangdun; Pennetta, Giuseppa; Buchon, Nicolas; Meier, Pascal

    2016-09-14

    Pattern recognition receptors are activated following infection and trigger transcriptional programs important for host defense. Tight regulation of NF-κB activation is critical to avoid detrimental and misbalanced responses. We describe Pickle, a Drosophila nuclear IκB that integrates signaling inputs from both the Imd and Toll pathways by skewing the transcriptional output of the NF-κB dimer repertoire. Pickle interacts with the NF-κB protein Relish and the histone deacetylase dHDAC1, selectively repressing Relish homodimers while leaving other NF-κB dimer combinations unscathed. Pickle's ability to selectively inhibit Relish homodimer activity contributes to proper host immunity and organismal health. Although loss of pickle results in hyper-induction of Relish target genes and improved host resistance to pathogenic bacteria in the short term, chronic inactivation of pickle causes loss of immune tolerance and shortened lifespan. Pickle therefore allows balanced immune responses that protect from pathogenic microbes while permitting the establishment of beneficial commensal host-microbe relationships. PMID:27631699

  8. Unfolding the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase RNase H domain – how to lose a molecular tug-of-war

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xunhai; Pedersen, Lars C.; Gabel, Scott A.; Mueller, Geoffrey A.; DeRose, Eugene F.; London, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    Formation of the mature HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) p66/p51 heterodimer requires subunit-specific processing of the p66/p66′ homodimer precursor. Since the ribonuclease H (RH) domain contains an occult cleavage site located near its center, cleavage must occur either prior to folding or subsequent to unfolding. Recent NMR studies have identified a slow, subunit-specific RH domain unfolding process proposed to result from a residue tug-of-war between the polymerase and RH domains on the functionally inactive, p66′ subunit. Here, we describe a structural comparison of the isolated RH domain with a domain swapped RH dimer that reveals several intrinsically destabilizing characteristics of the isolated domain that facilitate excursions of Tyr427 from its binding pocket and separation of helices B and D. These studies provide independent support for the subunit-selective RH domain unfolding pathway in which instability of the Tyr427 binding pocket facilitates its release followed by domain transfer, acting as a trigger for further RH domain destabilization and subsequent unfolding. As further support for this pathway, NMR studies demonstrate that addition of an RH active site-directed isoquinolone ligand retards the subunit-selective RH′ domain unfolding behavior of the p66/p66′ homodimer. This study demonstrates the feasibility of directly targeting RT maturation with therapeutics. PMID:26773054

  9. Asymmetric conformational maturation of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xunhai; Perera, Lalith; Mueller, Geoffrey A; DeRose, Eugene F; London, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1 reverse transcriptase utilizes a metamorphic polymerase domain that is able to adopt two alternate structures that fulfill catalytic and structural roles, thereby minimizing its coding requirements. This ambiguity introduces folding challenges that are met by a complex maturation process. We have investigated this conformational maturation using NMR studies of methyl-labeled RT for the slower processes in combination with molecular dynamics simulations for rapid processes. Starting from an inactive conformation, the p66 precursor undergoes a unimolecular isomerization to a structure similar to its active form, exposing a large hydrophobic surface that facilitates initial homodimer formation. The resulting p66/p66' homodimer exists as a conformational heterodimer, after which a series of conformational adjustments on different time scales can be observed. Formation of the inter-subunit RH:thumb' interface occurs at an early stage, while maturation of the connection' and unfolding of the RH' domains are linked and occur on a much slower time scale. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06359.001 PMID:26037594

  10. The structural basis of chicken, swine and bovine CD8αα dimers provides insight into the co-evolution with MHC I in endotherm species.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanjie; Li, Xin; Qi, Jianxun; Zhang, Nianzhi; Xia, Chun

    2016-01-01

    It is unclear how the pivotal molecules of the adaptive immune system (AIS) maintain their inherent characteristics and relationships with their co-receptors over the course of co-evolution. CD8α, a fundamental but simple AIS component with only one immunoglobulin variable (IgV) domain, is a good example with which to explore this question because it can fold correctly to form homodimers (CD8αα) and interact with peptide-MHC I (p/MHC I) with low sequence identities between different species. Hereby, we resolved the crystal structures of chicken, swine and bovine CD8αα. They are typical homodimers consisting of two symmetric IgV domains with distinct species specificities. The CD8αα structures indicated that a few highly conserved residues are important in CD8 dimerization and in interacting with p/MHC I. The dimerization of CD8αα mainly depends on the pivotal residues on the dimer interface; in particular, four aromatic residues provide many intermolecular forces and contact areas. Three residues on the surface of CD8α connecting cavities that formed most of the hydrogen bonds with p/MHC I were also completely conserved. Our data propose that a few key conserved residues are able to ensure the CD8α own structural characteristics despite the great sequence variation that occurs during evolution in endotherms. PMID:27122108

  11. Gas Phase Measurements of Mono-Fluoro Acids and the Dimer of 3-FLUORO-BENZOIC Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, Adam M.; Carey, Spencer J.; Pejlovas, Aaron M.; Li, Kexin; Kang, Lu; Kukolich, Stephen G.

    2016-06-01

    The gas phase homodimer of 3-fluorobenzoic acid was detected and the spectra showed evidence of proton tunneling. Experimental rotational constants are A(0^+)= 1151.8(5), B(0^+)=100.3(5), C(0^+)= 87.64(3) MHz and A(0^-)=1152.2(5), B(0^-)= 100.7(5), C(0^-)=88.85(3) MHz for the two ground vibrational states split by the proton tunneling motion. The tunneling splitting (ΔE) is approximately 560 MHz. This homodimer appears to be the largest carboxylic acid dimer observed with F-T microwave spectroscopy. Additionally, the microwave spectra of the mono-fluoro-benozic acids, (2-fluoro, 3-floro and 4-fluoro) benzoic acid have been measured in the frequency range of 4-14 GHz using a pulsed beam Fourier Transform microwave spectrometer. Measured rotational transition lines were assigned and fit using a rigid rotor Hamiltonian. Assignments were made for 3 conformers of 2-fluorobenzoic acid, 2 conformers of 3-fluorobenzoic acid and 1 conformer of 4-fluorobenzoic acid. Supported by the NSF CHE-1057796

  12. Atg38 is required for autophagy-specific phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase complex integrity

    PubMed Central

    Araki, Yasuhiro; Ku, Wei-Chi; Akioka, Manami; May, Alexander I.; Hayashi, Yu; Arisaka, Fumio; Ishihama, Yasushi

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy is a conserved eukaryotic process of protein and organelle self-degradation within the vacuole/lysosome. Autophagy is characterized by the formation of an autophagosome, for which Vps34-dervied phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI3P) is essential. In yeast, Vps34 forms two distinct protein complexes: complex I, which functions in autophagy, and complex II, which is involved in protein sorting to the vacuole. Here we identify and characterize Atg38 as a stably associated subunit of complex I. In atg38Δ cells, autophagic activity was significantly reduced and PI3-kinase complex I dissociated into the Vps15–Vps34 and Atg14–Vps30 subcomplexes. We find that Atg38 physically interacted with Atg14 and Vps34 via its N terminus. Further biochemical analyses revealed that Atg38 homodimerizes through its C terminus and that this homodimer formation is indispensable for the integrity of complex I. These data suggest that the homodimer of Atg38 functions as a physical linkage between the Vps15–Vps34 and Atg14–Vps30 subcomplexes to facilitate complex I formation. PMID:24165940

  13. Isolation of herpes simplex virus regulatory protein ICP4 as a homodimeric complex.

    PubMed Central

    Metzler, D W; Wilcox, K W

    1985-01-01

    The viral polypeptide ICP4 (or Vmw175) is synthesized during the immediate early phase of infection by herpes simplex virus and regulates the transcription of delayed early and late viral genes. We obtained a partially purified preparation of soluble ICP4 under nondenaturing conditions. Physical constants for native ICP4 were empirically determined by molecular sieve chromatography and sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation. The Stokes radius of native ICP4 was 8.72 X 10(-7) cm. The sedimentation coefficient of native ICP4 was 9.00S. From these values, the calculated molecular weight of native ICP4 was 342,000, a value which is twice that of monomeric ICP4, as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The failure of any other polypeptides to specifically coprecipitate with native ICP4 in the presence of anti-ICP4 antibody indicates that the 342,000-dalton complex is a homodimer of ICP4. The frictional coefficient ratio of native ICP4, which is 1.9, indicates that the homodimer is a highly elongated molecule. Images PMID:2991559

  14. Microtubule-bundling activity of the centrosomal protein, Cep169, and its binding to microtubules.

    PubMed

    Mori, Yusuke; Taniyama, Yuki; Tanaka, Sayori; Fukuchi, Hiroki; Terada, Yasuhiko

    2015-11-27

    CDK5RAP2 is a centrosomal protein that regulates the recruitment of a γ-tubulin ring complex (γ-TuRC) onto centrosomes and microtubules (MTs) dynamics as a member of MT plus-end-tracking proteins (+TIPs). In our previous report, we found mammalian Cep169 as a CDK5RAP2 binding partner, and Cep169 accumulates at the distal ends of MTs and centrosomes, and coincides with CDK5RAP2. Depletion of Cep169 induces MT depolymerization, indicating that Cep169 targets MT tips and regulates stability and dynamics of MTs. However, how Cep169 contributes to the stabilization of MT remains unclear. Here we show that Cep169 is able to stabilize MTs and induces formation of long MT bundles with intense acetylation of MTs with CDK5RAP2, when expressed at higher levels in U2OS cells. In addition, we demonstrated that Cep169 forms homodimers through its N-terminal domain and directly interacts with MTs through its C-terminal domain. Interestingly, Cep169 mutants, which lack each domains, completely abolished the activity, respectively. Therefore, Cep169 bundles MTs and induces solid structure of MTs by crosslinking each adjacent MTs as a homodimer. PMID:26482847

  15. Purification and identification of two carnosine-cleaving enzymes, carnosine dipeptidase I and Xaa-methyl-His dipeptidase, from Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica).

    PubMed

    Oku, Takahiro; Ando, Seiichi; Tsai, Hsin-Chun; Yamashita, Yusuke; Ueno, Hiroshi; Shiozaki, Kazuhiro; Nishi, Ryuichiro; Yamada, Shoji

    2012-06-01

    Three enzymes, carnosine dipeptidase I (EC 3.4.13.20, CNDP1), carnosine dipeptidase II (EC 3.4.13.18, CNDP2), and Xaa-methyl-His dipeptidase (or anserinase: EC 3.4.13.5, ANSN), are known to be capable of catalyzing the hydrolysis of carnosine (β-alanyl-l-histidine), in vertebrates. Here we report the purification and identification of two unidentified carnosine-cleaving enzymes from Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica). Two different dipeptidases were successfully purified to homogeneity from the skeletal muscle; one exhibited a broad substrate specificity, while the other a narrow specificity. N-terminal amino-acid sequencing, deglycosylation analysis, and genetic analysis clearly revealed that the former is a homodimer of glycosylated subunits, encoded by ANSN, and the latter is another homodimer of glycosylated subunits, encoded by CNDP1; that is, Xaa-methyl-His dipeptidase, and carnosine dipeptidase I respectively. This is the first report on the identification of carnosine dipeptidase I from a non-mammal. Database search revealed presence of a CNDP1 ortholog only from salmonid fishes, including Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout, but not from other ray-finned fish species, such as zebrafish, fugu, and medaka whose genomes have been completely sequenced. The mRNAs of CNDP1 and ANSN are strongly expressed in the liver of Japanese eel, compared with other tissues, while that of CNDP2 is widely distributed in all tissues tested.

  16. Insight into the flagella type III export revealed by the complex structure of the type III ATPase and its regulator.

    PubMed

    Imada, Katsumi; Minamino, Tohru; Uchida, Yumiko; Kinoshita, Miki; Namba, Keiichi

    2016-03-29

    FliI and FliJ form the FliI6FliJ ATPase complex of the bacterial flagellar export apparatus, a member of the type III secretion system. The FliI6FliJ complex is structurally similar to the α3β3γ complex of F1-ATPase. The FliH homodimer binds to FliI to connect the ATPase complex to the flagellar base, but the details are unknown. Here we report the structure of the homodimer of a C-terminal fragment of FliH (FliHC2) in complex with FliI. FliHC2 shows an unusually asymmetric homodimeric structure that markedly resembles the peripheral stalk of the A/V-type ATPases. The FliHC2-FliI hexamer model reveals that the C-terminal domains of the FliI ATPase face the cell membrane in a way similar to the F/A/V-type ATPases. We discuss the mechanism of flagellar ATPase complex formation and a common origin shared by the type III secretion system and the F/A/V-type ATPases. PMID:26984495

  17. IR/UV and UV/UV double-resonance study of guaiacol and eugenol dimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longarte, Asier; Redondo, Carolina; Fernández, José A.; Castaño, Fernando

    2005-04-01

    Guaiacol (2-methoxyphenol) and eugenol (4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol) molecules are biologically active phenol derivatives with an intramolecular -OH⋯OCH3 hydrogen bond (H bond). Pulsed supersonic expansions of mixtures of either of the two molecules with He yield weakly bound homodimers as well as other higher-order complexes. A number of complementary and powerful laser spectroscopic techniques, including UV-UV and IR-UV double resonances, have been employed to interrogate the species formed in the expansion in order to get information on their structures and spectroscopic properties. The interpretation of the spectra of eugenol dimer is complex and required a previous investigation on a similar but simpler molecule both to gain insight into the possible structures and support the conclusions. Guaiacol (2-methoxyphenol) has been used for that purpose. The combination of the broad laser study combined with ab initio calculations at the Becke 3 Lee-Yang-Parr/6-31+G(d) level has provided the isomer structures, the potential-energy wells, and shed light on the inter- and intramolecular interactions involved. Guaiacol homodimer has been shown to have a single isomer whereas eugenol dimer has at least two. The comparison between the computed geometries of the dimers, their respective energies, and the vibrational normal modes permits the identification of the spectra.

  18. Small Maf proteins (MafF, MafG, MafK): History, structure and function.

    PubMed

    Katsuoka, Fumiki; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    2016-07-25

    The small Maf proteins (sMafs) are basic region leucine zipper (bZIP)-type transcription factors. The basic region of the Maf family is unique among the bZIP factors, and it contributes to the distinct DNA-binding mode of this class of proteins. MafF, MafG and MafK are the three vertebrate sMafs, and no functional differences have been observed among them in terms of their bZIP structures. sMafs form homodimers by themselves, and they form heterodimers with cap 'n' collar (CNC) proteins (p45 NF-E2, Nrf1, Nrf2, and Nrf3) and also with Bach proteins (Bach1 and Bach2). Because CNC and Bach proteins cannot bind to DNA as monomers, sMafs are indispensable partners that are required by CNC and Bach proteins to exert their functions. sMafs lack the transcriptional activation domain; hence, their homodimers act as transcriptional repressors. In contrast, sMafs participate in transcriptional activation or repression depending on their heterodimeric partner molecules and context. Mouse genetic analyses have revealed that various biological pathways are under the regulation of CNC-sMaf heterodimers. In this review, we summarize the history and current progress of sMaf studies in relation to their partners. PMID:27058431

  19. In vivo reconstitution of a homodimeric cytochrome b559 like structure: The role of the N-terminus α-subunit from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Luján, María A; Martínez, Jesús I; Alonso, Pablo J; Torrado, Alejandro; Roncel, Mercedes; Ortega, José M; Sancho, Javier; Picorel, Rafael

    2015-11-01

    The cytochrome b559 is a heme-bridged heterodimeric protein with two subunits, α and β. Both subunits from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 have previously been cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli and in vivo reconstitution experiments have been carried out. The formation of homodimers in the bacterial membrane with endogenous heme was only observed in the case of the β-subunit (β/β) but not with the full length α-subunit. In the present work, reconstitution of a homodimer (α/α) cytochrome b559 like structure was possible using a chimeric N-terminus α-subunit truncated before the amino acid isoleucine 17, eliminating completely a short amphipathic α-helix that lays on the surface of the membrane. Overexpression and in vivo reconstitution in the bacteria was clearly demonstrated by the brownish color of the culture pellet and the use of a commercial monoclonal antibody against the fusion protein carrier, the maltoside binding protein, and polyclonal antibodies against a synthetic peptide of the α-subunit from Thermosynechococcus elongatus. Moreover, a simple partial purification after membrane solubilization with Triton X-100 confirmed that the overexpressed protein complex corresponded with the maltoside binding protein-chimeric α-subunit cytochrome b559 like structure. The features of the new structure were determined by UV-Vis, electron paramagnetic resonance and redox potentiometric techniques. Ribbon representations of all possible structures are also shown to better understand the mechanism of the cytochrome b559 maturation in the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane.

  20. Post-translational regulation of rice MADS29 function: homodimerization or binary interactions with other seed-expressed MADS proteins modulate its translocation into the nucleus.

    PubMed

    Nayar, Saraswati; Kapoor, Meenu; Kapoor, Sanjay

    2014-10-01

    OsMADS29 is a seed-specific MADS-box transcription factor that affects embryo development and grain filling by maintaining hormone homeostasis and degradation of cells in the nucellus and nucellar projection. Although it has a bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) sequence, the transiently expressed OsMADS29 monomer does not localize specifically in the nucleus. Dimerization of the monomers alters the intracellular localization fate of the resulting OsMADS29 homodimer, which then translocates into the nucleus. By generating domain-specific deletions/mutations, we show that two conserved amino acids (lysine(23) and arginine(24)) in the NLS are important for nuclear localization of the OsMADS29 homodimer. Furthermore, the analyses involving interaction of OsMADS29 with 30 seed-expressed rice MADS proteins revealed 19 more MADS-box proteins, including five E-class proteins, which interacted with OsMADS29. Eleven of these complexes were observed to be localized in the nucleus. Deletion analysis revealed that the KC region (K-box and C-terminal domain) plays a pivotal role in homodimerization. These data suggest that the biological function of OsMADS29 may not only be regulated at the level of transcription and translation as reported earlier, but also at the post-translational level by way of the interaction between OsMADS29 monomers, and between OsMADS29 and other MADS-box proteins.

  1. Theoretical prediction of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis missense mutation effects on Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase structural stability

    SciTech Connect

    Potier, M.; Tu, Y.

    1994-09-01

    Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) deficiency is associated with the progressive paralytic disorder familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS). Fifteen missense mutations in the SOD gene were identified in several patients. These mutations may prevent correct promoter folding or hamper homodimer formation necessary for SOD activity. To understand the effect of the missense mutations on SOD structure and function, we used a theoretical analysis of structural effects based on two predictive methods using the modeled tertiary structure of human SOD. The first method uses the TORSO program which optimizes amino acid side-chains repacking in both wild-type and mutant SODs and calculates protein internal packing energy. The second method uses a hydrophobicity scale of the amino acid residues and considers both solvent accessibility and hydrophobic nature of residue substitutions to compute a stabilization energy change ({delta}E). These predictive methods have been tested in 187 single and multiple missense mutants of 8 proteins (T4 lysozyme, human carbonic anhydrase II, chymotrypsin inhibitor 2, f1 gene V protein, barnase, {lambda}-repressor, chicken and human lysozymes) with experimentally determined thermostability. The overall prediction accuracy with these proteins was 88%. Analysis of FALS missense mutations {delta}E predicts that 14 of 15 mutations destabilize the SOD structure. The other missense mutation is located at the homodimer interface and may hinder dimer formation. This approach is applicable to any protein with known tertiary structure to predict missense mutation effects on protein stability.

  2. Crystal structure of the BTB domain from the LRF/ZBTB7 transcriptional regulator.

    PubMed

    Stogios, Peter J; Chen, Lu; Privé, Gilbert G

    2007-02-01

    BTB-zinc finger (BTB-ZF) proteins are transcription regulators with roles in development, differentiation, and oncogenesis. In these proteins, the BTB domain (also known as the POZ domain) is a protein-protein interaction motif that contains a dimerization interface, a possible oligomerization surface, and surfaces for interactions with other factors, including nuclear co-repressors and histone deacetylases. The BTB-ZF protein LRF (also known as ZBTB7, FBI-1, OCZF, and Pokemon) is a master regulator of oncogenesis, and represses the transcription of a variety of important genes, including the ARF, c-fos, and c-myc oncogenes and extracellular matrix genes. We determined the crystal structure of the BTB domain from human LRF to 2.1 A and observed the canonical BTB homodimer fold. However, novel features are apparent on the surface of the homodimer, including differences in the lateral groove and charged pocket regions. The residues that line the lateral groove have little similarity with the equivalent residues from the BCL6 BTB domain, and we show that the 17-residue BCL6 Binding Domain (BBD) from the SMRT co-repressor does not bind to the LRF BTB domain.

  3. Dynamics and thermodynamic properties of CXCL7 chemokine.

    PubMed

    Herring, Charles A; Singer, Christopher M; Ermakova, Elena A; Khairutdinov, Bulat I; Zuev, Yuriy F; Jacobs, Donald J; Nesmelova, Irina V

    2015-11-01

    Chemokines form a family of signaling proteins mainly responsible for directing the traffic of leukocytes, where their biological activity can be modulated by their oligomerization state. We characterize the dynamics and thermodynamic stability of monomer and homodimer structures of CXCL7, one of the most abundant platelet chemokines, using experimental methods that include circular dichroism (CD) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and computational methods that include the anisotropic network model (ANM), molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and the distance constraint model (DCM). A consistent picture emerges for the effects of dimerization and Cys5-Cys31 and Cys7-Cys47 disulfide bonds formation. The presence of disulfide bonds is not critical for maintaining structural stability in the monomer or dimer, but the monomer is destabilized more than the dimer upon removal of disulfide bonds. Disulfide bonds play a key role in shaping the characteristics of native state dynamics. The combined analysis shows that upon dimerization flexibly correlated motions are induced between the 30s and 50s loop within each monomer and across the dimer interface. Interestingly, the greatest gain in flexibility upon dimerization occurs when both disulfide bonds are present, and the homodimer is least stable relative to its two monomers. These results suggest that the highly conserved disulfide bonds in chemokines facilitate a structural mechanism that is tuned to optimally distinguish functional characteristics between monomer and dimer. PMID:26297927

  4. Post-translational regulation of rice MADS29 function: homodimerization or binary interactions with other seed-expressed MADS proteins modulate its translocation into the nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Nayar, Saraswati; Kapoor, Meenu; Kapoor, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    OsMADS29 is a seed-specific MADS-box transcription factor that affects embryo development and grain filling by maintaining hormone homeostasis and degradation of cells in the nucellus and nucellar projection. Although it has a bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) sequence, the transiently expressed OsMADS29 monomer does not localize specifically in the nucleus. Dimerization of the monomers alters the intracellular localization fate of the resulting OsMADS29 homodimer, which then translocates into the nucleus. By generating domain-specific deletions/mutations, we show that two conserved amino acids (lysine23 and arginine24) in the NLS are important for nuclear localization of the OsMADS29 homodimer. Furthermore, the analyses involving interaction of OsMADS29 with 30 seed-expressed rice MADS proteins revealed 19 more MADS-box proteins, including five E-class proteins, which interacted with OsMADS29. Eleven of these complexes were observed to be localized in the nucleus. Deletion analysis revealed that the KC region (K-box and C-terminal domain) plays a pivotal role in homodimerization. These data suggest that the biological function of OsMADS29 may not only be regulated at the level of transcription and translation as reported earlier, but also at the post-translational level by way of the interaction between OsMADS29 monomers, and between OsMADS29 and other MADS-box proteins. PMID:25096923

  5. Gas phase measurements of mono-fluoro-benzoic acids and the dimer of 3-fluoro-benzoic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, Adam M.; Carey, Spencer J.; Pejlovas, Aaron M.; Li, Kexin; Kang, Lu; Kukolich, Stephen G.

    2015-04-01

    The microwave spectrum of the mono-fluoro-benzoic acids, 2-fluoro-, 3-fluoro-, and 4-fluoro-benzoic acid have been measured in the frequency range of 4-14 GHz using a pulsed beam Fourier transform microwave spectrometer. Measured rotational transition lines were assigned and fit using a rigid rotor Hamiltonian. Assignments were made for 3 conformers of 2-fluorobenzoic acid, 2 conformers of 3-fluorobenzoic acid, and 1 conformer of 4-fluorobenzoic acid. Additionally, the gas phase homodimer of 3-fluorobenzoic acid was detected, and the spectra showed evidence of proton tunneling. Experimental rotational constants are A(0+) = 1151.8(5), B(0+) = 100.3(5), C(0+) = 87.64(3) MHz and A(0-) = 1152.2(5), B(0-) = 100.7(5), C(0-) = 88.85(3) MHz for the two ground vibrational states split by the proton tunneling motion. The tunneling splitting (ΔE) is approximately 560 MHz. This homodimer appears to be the largest carboxylic acid dimer observed with F-T microwave spectroscopy.

  6. Enhancing Antibody Fc Heterodimer Formation through Electrostatic Steering Effects

    PubMed Central

    Gunasekaran, Kannan; Pentony, Martin; Shen, Min; Garrett, Logan; Forte, Carla; Woodward, Anne; Ng, Soo Bin; Born, Teresa; Retter, Marc; Manchulenko, Kathy; Sweet, Heather; Foltz, Ian N.; Wittekind, Michael; Yan, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Naturally occurring IgG antibodies are bivalent and monospecific. Bispecific antibodies having binding specificities for two different antigens can be produced using recombinant technologies and are projected to have broad clinical applications. However, co-expression of multiple light and heavy chains often leads to contaminants and pose purification challenges. In this work, we have modified the CH3 domain interface of the antibody Fc region with selected mutations so that the engineered Fc proteins preferentially form heterodimers. These novel mutations create altered charge polarity across the Fc dimer interface such that coexpression of electrostatically matched Fc chains support favorable attractive interactions thereby promoting desired Fc heterodimer formation, whereas unfavorable repulsive charge interactions suppress unwanted Fc homodimer formation. This new Fc heterodimer format was used to produce bispecific single chain antibody fusions and monovalent IgGs with minimal homodimer contaminants. The strategy proposed here demonstrates the feasibility of robust production of novel Fc-based heterodimeric molecules and hence broadens the scope of bispecific molecules for therapeutic applications. PMID:20400508

  7. Enhancing antibody Fc heterodimer formation through electrostatic steering effects: applications to bispecific molecules and monovalent IgG.

    PubMed

    Gunasekaran, Kannan; Pentony, Martin; Shen, Min; Garrett, Logan; Forte, Carla; Woodward, Anne; Ng, Soo Bin; Born, Teresa; Retter, Marc; Manchulenko, Kathy; Sweet, Heather; Foltz, Ian N; Wittekind, Michael; Yan, Wei

    2010-06-18

    Naturally occurring IgG antibodies are bivalent and monospecific. Bispecific antibodies having binding specificities for two different antigens can be produced using recombinant technologies and are projected to have broad clinical applications. However, co-expression of multiple light and heavy chains often leads to contaminants and pose purification challenges. In this work, we have modified the CH3 domain interface of the antibody Fc region with selected mutations so that the engineered Fc proteins preferentially form heterodimers. These novel mutations create altered charge polarity across the Fc dimer interface such that coexpression of electrostatically matched Fc chains support favorable attractive interactions thereby promoting desired Fc heterodimer formation, whereas unfavorable repulsive charge interactions suppress unwanted Fc homodimer formation. This new Fc heterodimer format was used to produce bispecific single chain antibody fusions and monovalent IgGs with minimal homodimer contaminants. The strategy proposed here demonstrates the feasibility of robust production of novel Fc-based heterodimeric molecules and hence broadens the scope of bispecific molecules for therapeutic applications.

  8. Independent Mechanisms Target SMCHD1 to Trimethylated Histone H3 Lysine 9-Modified Chromatin and the Inactive X Chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Brideau, Nicholas J.; Coker, Heather; Gendrel, Anne-Valerie; Siebert, C. Alistair; Bezstarosti, Karel; Demmers, Jeroen; Poot, Raymond A.; Nesterova, Tatyana B.

    2015-01-01

    The chromosomal protein SMCHD1 plays an important role in epigenetic silencing at diverse loci, including the inactive X chromosome, imprinted genes, and the facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy locus. Although homology with canonical SMC family proteins suggests a role in chromosome organization, the mechanisms underlying SMCHD1 function and target site selection remain poorly understood. Here we show that SMCHD1 forms an active GHKL-ATPase homodimer, contrasting with canonical SMC complexes, which exist as tripartite ring structures. Electron microscopy analysis demonstrates that SMCHD1 homodimers structurally resemble prokaryotic condensins. We further show that the principal mechanism for chromatin loading of SMCHD1 involves an LRIF1-mediated interaction with HP1γ at trimethylated histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9me3)-modified chromatin sites on the chromosome arms. A parallel pathway accounts for chromatin loading at a minority of sites, notably the inactive X chromosome. Together, our results provide key insights into SMCHD1 function and target site selection. PMID:26391951

  9. Gas phase measurements of mono-fluoro-benzoic acids and the dimer of 3-fluoro-benzoic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, Adam M.; Carey, Spencer J.; Pejlovas, Aaron M.; Li, Kexin; Kukolich, Stephen G.; Kang, Lu

    2015-04-14

    The microwave spectrum of the mono-fluoro-benzoic acids, 2-fluoro-, 3-fluoro-, and 4-fluoro-benzoic acid have been measured in the frequency range of 4-14 GHz using a pulsed beam Fourier transform microwave spectrometer. Measured rotational transition lines were assigned and fit using a rigid rotor Hamiltonian. Assignments were made for 3 conformers of 2-fluorobenzoic acid, 2 conformers of 3-fluorobenzoic acid, and 1 conformer of 4-fluorobenzoic acid. Additionally, the gas phase homodimer of 3-fluorobenzoic acid was detected, and the spectra showed evidence of proton tunneling. Experimental rotational constants are A(0{sup +}) = 1151.8(5), B(0{sup +}) = 100.3(5), C(0{sup +}) = 87.64(3) MHz and A(0{sup −}) = 1152.2(5), B(0{sup −}) = 100.7(5), C(0{sup −}) = 88.85(3) MHz for the two ground vibrational states split by the proton tunneling motion. The tunneling splitting (ΔE) is approximately 560 MHz. This homodimer appears to be the largest carboxylic acid dimer observed with F-T microwave spectroscopy.

  10. Homodimerization of Marek's disease virus-encoded Meq protein is not sufficient for transformation of lymphocytes in chickens.

    PubMed

    Suchodolski, Paulette F; Izumiya, Yoshihiro; Lupiani, Blanca; Ajithdoss, Dharani K; Gilad, Oren; Lee, Lucy F; Kung, Hsing-Jien; Reddy, Sanjay M

    2009-01-01

    Marek's disease virus (MDV), the etiologic agent of Marek's disease, is a potent oncogenic herpesvirus. MDV is highly contagious and elicits a rapid onset of malignant T-cell lymphomas in chickens within several weeks after infection. MDV genome codes an oncoprotein, Meq, which shares resemblance with the Jun/Fos family of bZIP transcription factors. Similar to Jun, the leucine zipper region of Meq allows the formation of homo- and heterodimers. Meq homo- and heterodimers have different DNA binding affinities and transcriptional activity; therefore, they may differentially regulate transcription of viral and cellular genes. In this study we investigated the role of Meq homodimers in the pathogenicity of MDV by generating a chimeric meq gene, which contains the leucine zipper region of the yeast transcription factor GCN4 (meqGCN). A recombinant virus (rMd5-MeqGCN) containing the chimeric meqGCN gene in place of parental meq was generated with overlapping cosmid clones of Md5, a very virulent MDV strain. The rMd5-MeqGCN virus replicated in vitro and in vivo but was unable to transform T cells in infected chickens. These data provide the first in vivo evidence that Meq homodimers are not sufficient for MDV-induced transformation.

  11. Dimerization drives EGFR endocytosis through two sets of compatible endocytic codes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Chen, Xinmei; Wang, Zhixiang

    2015-03-01

    We have shown previously that epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) endocytosis is controlled by EGFR dimerization. However, it is not clear how the dimerization drives receptor internalization. We propose that EGFR endocytosis is driven by dimerization, bringing two sets of endocytic codes, one contained in each receptor monomer, in close proximity. Here, we tested this hypothesis by generating specific homo- or hetero-dimers of various receptors and their mutants. We show that ErbB2 and ErbB3 homodimers are endocytosis deficient owing to the lack of endocytic codes. Interestingly, EGFR-ErbB2 or EGFR-ErbB3 heterodimers are also endocytosis deficient. Moreover, the heterodimer of EGFR and the endocytosis-deficient mutant EGFRΔ1005-1017 is also impaired in endocytosis. These results indicate that two sets of endocytic codes are required for receptor endocytosis. We found that an EGFR-PDGFRβ heterodimer is endocytosis deficient, although both EGFR and PDGFRβ homodimers are endocytosis-competent, indicating that two compatible sets of endocytic codes are required. Finally, we found that to mediate the endocytosis of the receptor dimer, the two sets of compatible endocytic codes, one contained in each receptor molecule, have to be spatially coordinated.

  12. An unusual dimeric structure and assembly for TLR4 regulator RP105-MD-1

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Sung-il; Hong, Minsun; Wilson, Ian A

    2011-11-16

    RP105-MD-1 modulates the TLR4-MD-2-mediated, innate immune response against bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The crystal structure of the bovine 1:1 RP105-MD-1 complex bound to a putative endogenous lipid at 2.9 Å resolution shares a similar overall architecture to its homolog TLR4-MD-2 but assembles into an unusual 2:2 homodimer that differs from any other known TLR-ligand assembly. The homodimer is assembled in a head-to-head orientation that juxtaposes the N-terminal leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) of the two RP105 chains, rather than the usual tail-to-tail configuration of C-terminal LRRs in ligand-activated TLR dimers, such as TLR1-TRL2, TLR2-TLR6, TLR3-TLR3 and TLR4-TLR4. Another unusual interaction is mediated by an RP105-specific asparagine-linked glycan, which wedges MD-1 into the co-receptor binding concavity on RP105. This unique mode of assembly represents a new paradigm for TLR complexes and suggests a molecular mechanism for regulating LPS responses.

  13. Analyzing Receptor Assemblies in the Cell Membrane Using Fluorescence Anisotropy Imaging with TIRF Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Erdelyi, Miklos; Simon, Joseph; Barnard, Eric A.; Kaminski, Clemens F.

    2014-01-01

    Signaling within and between animal cells is controlled by the many receptor proteins in their membrane. They variously operate as trans-membrane monomers and homo- or hetero-dimers, and may assemble with ion-channels: analyses thereof are needed in studies of receptor actions in tissue physiology and pathology. Interactions between membrane proteins are detectable when pre-labeled with fluorophores, but a much fuller analysis is achievable via advanced optical techniques on living cells. In this context, the measurement of polarization anisotropy in the emitted fluorescence has been the least exploited. Here we demonstrate its methodology and particular advantages in the study of receptor protein assembly. Through excitation in both TIRF and EPI fluorescence illumination modes we are able to quantify and suppress contributions to the signal from extraneous intra-cellular fluorescence, and we show that the loss of fluorescence-polarization measured in membrane proteins reports on receptor protein assembly in real time. Receptor monomers and homo-dimers in the cell membrane can be analyzed quantitatively and for homo-dimers only a single fluorescent marker is needed, thus suppressing ambiguities that arise in alternative assays, which require multiple label moieties and which are thus subject to stoichiometric uncertainty. PMID:24945870

  14. JAK2 activation by growth hormone and other cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Michael J.; Brooks, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) and structurally related cytokines regulate a great number of physiological and pathological processes. They do this by coupling their single transmembrane domain (TMD) receptors to cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases, either as homodimers or heterodimers. Recent studies have revealed that many of these receptors exist as constitutive dimers rather than being dimerized as a consequence of ligand binding, which has necessitated a new paradigm for describing their activation process. In the present study, we describe a model for activation of the tyrosine kinase Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) by the GH receptor homodimer based on biochemical data and molecular dynamics simulations. Binding of the bivalent ligand reorientates and rotates the receptor subunits, resulting in a transition from a form with parallel TMDs to one where the TMDs separate at the point of entry into the cytoplasm. This movement slides the pseudokinase inhibitory domain of one JAK kinase away from the kinase domain of the other JAK within the receptor dimer–JAK complex, allowing the two kinase domains to interact and trans-activate. This results in phosphorylation and activation of STATs and other signalling pathways linked to this receptor which then regulate postnatal growth, metabolism and stem cell activation. We believe that this model will apply to most if not all members of the class I cytokine receptor family, and will be useful in the design of small antagonists and agonists of therapeutic value. PMID:25656053

  15. Expression, purification and characterization of galectin-1 in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Shu, Zhen; Li, Jing; Mu, Nan; Gao, Yuan; Huang, Tonglie; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Zenglu; Li, Meng; Hao, Qiang; Li, Weina; He, Liqing; Zhang, Cun; Zhang, Wei; Xue, Xiaochang; Zhang, Yingqi

    2014-07-01

    As a member of beta-galactoside-binding proteins family, Galectin-1 (Gal-1) contains a single carbohydrate recognition domain, by means of which it can bind glycans both as a monomer and as a homodimer. Gal-1 is implicated in modulating cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions and may act as an autocrine negative growth factor that regulates cell proliferation. Besides, it can also suppress TH1 and TH17 cells by regulating dendritic cell differentiation or suppress inflammation via IL-10 and IL-27. In the present study, Gal-1 monomer and concatemer (Gal-1②), which can resemble Gal-1 homodimer, were expressed in Escherichia coli and their bioactivities were analyzed. The results of this indicate that both Gal-1 and Gal-1② were expressed in E. coli in soluble forms with a purity of over 95% after purifying with ion-exchange chromatography. Clearly, both Gal-1 and Gal-1② can effectively promote erythrocyte agglutination in hemagglutinating activity assays and inhibit Jurkat cell proliferation in MTT assays. All these data demonstrate that bacterially-expressed Gal-1 and Gal-1② have activities similar to those of wild type human Gal-1 whereas the bioactivity of concatemer Gal-1② was stronger than those of the bacterially-expressed and wild type human Gal. PMID:24718258

  16. Structure of Protonated Threonine Dimers in the Gas Phase: Salt-Bridged or Charge-Solvated?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Hong; Kong, Xianglei

    2015-09-01

    For homodimers of amino acids, their salt-bridged structures are gradually stabilized as the proton affinity of the component amino acid increases. Threonine has a proton affinity value located in the middle of the list of 20 natural amino acids. Thus, identifying whether the most stable isomer of protonated threonine dimer (Thr2H+) has a charge-solvated or salt-bridged structure is important and helpful for understanding the structures of other homodimers. By combining infrared photodissociation (IRPD) spectroscopy and theoretical calculations, the structures of Thr2H+ were investigated. Based on calculations at the M062X/6-311++G(d,p)//M062X/6-311++G(d,p) level, the most stable isomer of Thr2H+ was computed to be a charge-solvated structure, with an energy 3.87 kcal/mol lower than the most stable salt-bridged isomer. The predicted infrared spectrum is in good agreement with the experimental spectrum. To evaluate the temperature effect on the distribution of different isomers, the relative concentrations of the six isomers of Thr2H+ were calculated at different temperatures, according to their partition functions and enthalpies. The results show that the isomers are dominated by charge-solvated structures at a temperature of 300 K.

  17. Visualization and ligand-induced modulation of dopamine receptor dimerization at the single molecule level.

    PubMed

    Tabor, Alina; Weisenburger, Siegfried; Banerjee, Ashutosh; Purkayastha, Nirupam; Kaindl, Jonas M; Hübner, Harald; Wei, Luxi; Grömer, Teja W; Kornhuber, Johannes; Tschammer, Nuska; Birdsall, Nigel J M; Mashanov, Gregory I; Sandoghdar, Vahid; Gmeiner, Peter

    2016-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), including dopamine receptors, represent a group of important pharmacological targets. An increased formation of dopamine receptor D2 homodimers has been suggested to be associated with the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Selective labeling and ligand-induced modulation of dimerization may therefore allow the investigation of the pathophysiological role of these dimers. Using TIRF microscopy at the single molecule level, transient formation of homodimers of dopamine receptors in the membrane of stably transfected CHO cells has been observed. The equilibrium between dimers and monomers was modulated by the binding of ligands; whereas antagonists showed a ratio that was identical to that of unliganded receptors, agonist-bound D2 receptor-ligand complexes resulted in an increase in dimerization. Addition of bivalent D2 receptor ligands also resulted in a large increase in D2 receptor dimers. A physical interaction between the protomers was confirmed using high resolution cryogenic localization microscopy, with ca. 9 nm between the centers of mass. PMID:27615810

  18. PGL germ granule assembly protein is a base-specific, single-stranded RNase

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, Scott T.; Kershner, Aaron M.; Bingman, Craig A.; Wickens, Marvin; Kimble, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Cellular RNA-protein (RNP) granules are ubiquitous and have fundamental roles in biology and RNA metabolism, but the molecular basis of their structure, assembly, and function is poorly understood. Using nematode “P-granules” as a paradigm, we focus on the PGL granule scaffold protein to gain molecular insights into RNP granule structure and assembly. We first identify a PGL dimerization domain (DD) and determine its crystal structure. PGL-1 DD has a novel 13 α-helix fold that creates a positively charged channel as a homodimer. We investigate its capacity to bind RNA and discover unexpectedly that PGL-1 DD is a guanosine-specific, single-stranded endonuclease. Discovery of the PGL homodimer, together with previous results, suggests a model in which the PGL DD dimer forms a fundamental building block for P-granule assembly. Discovery of the PGL RNase activity expands the role of RNP granule assembly proteins to include enzymatic activity in addition to their job as structural scaffolds. PMID:26787882

  19. Crystal structures and enzyme mechanisms of a dual fucose mutarotase/ribose pyranase.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwang-Hoon; Ryu, Kyoung-Seok; Kim, Min-Sung; Suh, Hye-Young; Ku, Bonsu; Song, Young-Lan; Ko, Sunggeon; Lee, Weontae; Oh, Byung-Ha

    2009-08-01

    Escherichia coli FucU (Fucose Unknown) is a dual fucose mutarotase and ribose pyranase, which shares 44% sequence identity with its human counterpart. Herein, we report the structures of E. coli FucU and mouse FucU bound to L-fucose and delineate the catalytic mechanisms underlying the interconversion between stereoisomers of fucose and ribose. E. coli FucU forms a decameric toroid with each active site formed by two adjacent subunits. While one subunit provides most of the fucose-interacting residues including a catalytic tyrosine residue, the other subunit provides a catalytic His-Asp dyad. This active-site feature is critical not only for the mutarotase activity toward L-fucose but also for the pyranase activity toward D-ribose. Structural and biochemical analyses pointed that mouse FucU assembles into four different oligomeric forms, among which the smallest homodimeric form is most abundant and would be the predominant species under physiological conditions. This homodimer has two fucose-binding sites that are devoid of the His-Asp dyad and catalytically inactive, indicating that the mutarotase and the pyranase activities appear dispensable in vertebrates. The defective assembly of the mouse FucU homodimer into the decameric form is due to an insertion of two residues at the N-terminal extreme, which is a common aspect of all the known vertebrate FucU proteins. Therefore, vertebrate FucU appears to serve for as yet unknown function through the quaternary structural alteration.

  20. Comparison of Quantum Mechanics and Molecular Mechanics Dimerization Energy Landscapes for Pairs of Ring-Containing Amino Acids in Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Morozov, Alexandre V.; Misura M. S., Kira; Tsemekhman, Kiril; Baker, David

    2004-06-17

    A promising approach to developing improved potential functions for modeling macromolecular interactions consists of combining protein structural analysis, quantum mechanical calculations on small molecule models, and molecular mechanics potential decomposition. Here we apply this approach to the interactions of pairs of ring-containing amino acids in proteins. We find reasonable qualitative agreement between molecular mechanics and quantum chemistry calculations, both over one-dimensional projections of the binding free energy landscape for amino acid homodimers and over a set of homodimers and heterodimers from experimentally observed protein crystal structures. The molecular mechanics landscapes are a sum of charge-charge and Lennard-Jones contributions; short-range quantum mechanical effects such as charge transfer appear not to be significant in ring side chain interactions. We also find a reasonable degree of correlation between the molecular mechanics energy landscapes and the distributions of dimer geometries observed in protein structures, suggesting that the intrinsic dimer interaction energies do contribute to packing of side chains in proteins rather than being overwhelmed by the numerous interactions with other protein atoms and solvent. These results demonstrate that interactions involving aromatic residues and proline can be fairly well modeled using current molecular mechanics force fields, but there is still room for improvement, particularly for interactions involving proline and tyrosine.

  1. Crystal structure of human dynein light chain Dnlc2A: Structural insights into the interaction with IC74

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Junfeng; Wang Zhanxin; Wang Xinquan; Tang Qun; An Xiaomin; Gui Lulu; Liang Dongcai . E-mail: dcliang@sun5.ibp.ac.cn

    2006-10-27

    The human light chain of the motor protein dynein, Dnlc2A, is also a novel TGF-{beta}-signaling component, which is altered with high frequency in epithelial ovarian cancer. It is an important mediator of dynein and the development of cancer, owing to its ability to bind to the dynein intermediate light chain (DIC) IC74 and to regulate TGF-{beta}-dependent transcriptional events. Here we report the 2.1-A crystal structure of Dnlc2A using single anomalous diffraction. The proteins form a homodimer in solution and interact mainly through the helix {alpha}{sub 2}, strand {beta}{sub 3}, and the loop following this strand in each protein to generate a 10-stranded {beta}-sheet core. The surface of the {beta}-sheet core is mainly positively charged and predicted (by software PPI-Pred) to be the site that interacts with other partners. At the same time, the residues 79-82, 88, and 90 of each molecule formed two holes in the core. Residue 89 of each molecule, which is crucial for the DIC binding function of Dnlc2A, is within the holes. On the basis of these observations, we propose that the homodimer is the structural and functional unit maintained by hydrogen bonding interactions and hydrophobic packing, and that the patch of the surface of the {beta}-sheet core is the main area of interaction with other partners. Furthermore, the two holes would be the key sites to interact with IC74.

  2. On the electrostatic properties of homodimeric proteins

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Brandon; Petukh, Marharyta; Alexov, Emil

    2014-01-01

    A large fraction of proteins function as homodimers, but it is not always clear why the dimerization is important for functionality since frequently each monomer possesses a distinctive active site. Recent work (PLoS Computational Biology, 9(2), e1002924) indicates that homodimerization may be important for forming an electrostatic funnel in the spermine synthase homodimer which guides changed substrates toward the active centers. This prompted us to investigate the electrostatic properties of a large set of homodimeric proteins and resulted in an observation that in a vast majority of the cases the dimerization indeed results in specific electrostatic features, although not necessarily in an electrostatic funnel. It is demonstrated that the electrostatic dipole moment of the dimer is predominantly perpendicular to the axis connecting the centers of the mass of the monomers. In addition, the surface points with highest potential are located in the proximity of the interfacial plane of the homodimeric complexes. These findings indicate that frequently homodimerization provides specific electrostatic features needed for the function of proteins. PMID:25419028

  3. Spectroscopic characterization of 57Fe-reconstituted rubrerythrin, a non-heme iron protein with structural analogies to ribonucleotide reductase.

    PubMed

    Ravi, N; Prickril, B C; Kurtz, D M; Huynh, B H

    1993-08-24

    Rubrerythrin, a contraction of rubredoxin and hemerythrin, is the trivial name given to a non-heme iron protein isolated from Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Hildenborough). This protein, whose physiological function is unknown, was first characterized by J. LeGall et al. [(1988) Biochemistry 28, 1636] as being a homodimer of subunit M(r) = 21,900 with four Fe per homodimer distributed as two rubredoxin-type FeS4 centers and one hemerythrin-type diiron cluster. Subsequent analysis of the amino acid sequence of the rubrerythrin gene [Kurtz, D. M., Jr., & Prickril, B.C. (1991) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 181, 137] revealed an internal homology which suggested that each subunit can accommodate one diiron cluster. Here, we report a procedure for reconstitution of the as-isolated D. vulgaris rubrerythrin with 57Fe. The reconstituted protein was characterized by optical, electron paramagnetic resonance, and Mössbauer spectroscopies. The results indicate successful incorporation of 57Fe into the two types of sites and strongly suggest that each subunit of rubrerythrin can indeed accommodate one diiron cluster as well as one rubredoxin-type center. Combined with amino acid sequence analysis, the spectroscopic characterization further suggests that the rubrerythrin subunit contains a diiron site whose structure is more closely related to that in ribonucleotide reductase than to that in hemerythrin.

  4. DAN (NBL1) specifically antagonizes BMP2 and BMP4 and modulates the actions of GDF9, BMP2, and BMP4 in the rat ovary.

    PubMed

    Hung, Wei-Ting; Wu, Fang-Ju; Wang, Chun-Jen; Luo, Ching-Wei

    2012-05-01

    Although differential screening-selected gene aberrative in neuroblastoma (DAN, official symbol NBL1) is the founding member of the DAN subfamily of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonists, its antagonizing targets, gene regulation, and physiological functions remain unclear. Using diverse cell expression systems, we found that the generation of bioactive DAN is likely to be cell type specific. Unlike other phylogenetically close members, which are covalently linked homodimers, DAN forms a noncovalently linked homodimer during folding. Purified recombinant DAN specifically blocked signaling of BMP2 and BMP4 but not that of other ovarian-expressed transforming growth factor-beta members. Although widely distributed in many organs, DAN transcript level was periodically regulated by gonadotropins. Ovarian microdissection indicated that NBL1 (DAN) mRNA is mainly expressed in granulosa cells, where its transcript level is up-regulated by the gonadotropin-driven cAMP cascade. We further investigated the local regulation and ovarian functions of DAN. NBL1 (DAN) mRNA expression in granulosa cells was up-regulated by oocyte-derived growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9), whereas treatment with DAN significantly reversed the inhibitory effect of BMP4 on follicle-stimulating hormone-induced progesterone production in cultured granulosa cells. Our findings suggest the DAN gradient in granulosa cells, established by oocyte-derived GDF9, may serve as an antagonist barrier that modulates the actions of theca-derived BMP4 and granulosa/theca-derived BMP2 during folliculogenesis both spatially and temporally.

  5. Genomic, RNAseq, and molecular modeling evidence suggests that the major allergen domain in insects evolved from a homodimeric origin.

    PubMed

    Randall, Thomas A; Perera, Lalith; London, Robert E; Mueller, Geoffrey A

    2013-01-01

    The major allergen domain (MA) is widely distributed in insects. The crystal structure of a single Bla g 1 MA revealed a novel protein fold in which the fundamental structure was a duplex of two subsequences (monomers), which had diverged over time. This suggested that the evolutionary origin of the MA structure may have been a homodimer of this smaller subsequence. Using publicly available genomic data, the distribution of the basic unit of this class of proteins was determined to better understand its evolutionary history. The duplication and divergence is examined at three distinct levels of resolution: 1) within the orders Diptera and Hymenoptera, 2) within one genus Drosophila, and 3) within one species Aedes aegypti. Within the family Culicidae, we have found two separate occurrences of monomers as independent genes. The organization of the gene family in A. aegypti shows a common evolutionary origin for its monomer and several closely related MAs. Molecular modeling of the A. aegypti monomer with the unique Bla g 1 fold confirms the distant evolutionary relationship and supports the feasibility of homodimer formation from a single monomer. RNAseq data for A. aegypti confirms that the monomer is expressed in the mosquito similar to other A. aegypti MAs after a blood meal. Together, these data support the contention that the detected monomer shares similar functional characteristics to related MAs in other insects. An extensive search for this domain outside of Insecta confirms that the MAs are restricted to insects.

  6. Crystal structure of omega transcriptional repressor encoded by Streptococcus pyogenes plasmid pSM19035 at 1.5 A resolution.

    PubMed

    Murayama, K; Orth, P; de la Hoz, A B; Alonso, J C; Saenger, W

    2001-12-01

    The 71 amino acid residue omega protein encoded by the Streptococcus pyogenes non-conjugative plasmid pSM19035 is a transcriptional repressor that regulates expression of genes for copy number control and stable maintenance of plasmids. The crystal structure of omega protein has been determined by multiple isomorphous replacement, including anomalous scattering and refined to an R-factor of 21.1 % (R(free)=23.2 %) at 1.5 A resolution. Two monomers related by a non-crystallographic 2-fold axis form a homodimer that occupies the asymmetric unit. Each polypeptide chain is folded into two alpha-helices and one beta-strand forming an antiparallel beta-ribbon in the homodimer. The N-terminal regions (1-23 and 1-22 in subunits I and II, respectively) are not defined in the electron density due to proteolysis of the N-terminal 20 amino acid residues during crystallisation and partial disorder. The omega protein belongs to the structural superfamily of MetJ/Arc repressors featuring a ribbon-helix-helix DNA-binding motif with the beta-ribbon located in and recognizing the major groove of operator DNA; according to a modelled omega protein-DNA complex, residues Arg31 and Arg31' on the beta-ribbon are in positions to interact with a nucleobase, especially guanine. PMID:11733997

  7. A unique phenylalanine in the transmembrane domain strengthens homodimerization of the syndecan-2 transmembrane domain and functionally regulates syndecan-2.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Mi-Jung; Choi, Youngsil; Yun, Ji-Hye; Lee, Weontae; Han, Inn-Oc; Oh, Eok-Soo

    2015-02-27

    The syndecans are a type of cell surface adhesion receptor that initiates intracellular signaling events through receptor clustering mediated by their highly conserved transmembrane domains (TMDs). However, the exact function of the syndecan TMD is not yet fully understood. Here, we investigated the specific regulatory role of the syndecan-2 TMD. We found that syndecan-2 mutants in which the TMD had been replaced with that of syndecan-4 were defective in syndecan-2-mediated functions, suggesting that the TMD of syndecan-2 plays one or more specific roles. Interestingly, syndecan-2 has a stronger tendency to form sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-resistant homodimers than syndecan-4. Our structural studies showed that a unique phenylalanine residue (Phe(167)) enables an additional molecular interaction between the TMDs of the syndecan-2 homodimer. The presence of Phe(167) was correlated with a higher tendency toward oligomerization, and its replacement with isoleucine significantly reduced the SDS-resistant dimer formation and cellular functions of syndecan-2 (e.g. cell migration). Conversely, replacement of isoleucine with phenylalanine at this position in the syndecan-4 TMD rescued the defects observed in a mutant syndecan-2 harboring the syndecan-4 TMD. Taken together, these data suggest that Phe(167) in the TMD of syndecan-2 endows the protein with specific functions. Our work offers new insights into the signaling mediated by the TMD of syndecan family members.

  8. Evidence against T-cell development in the adult human intestinal mucosa based upon lack of terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase expression.

    PubMed Central

    Taplin, M E; Frantz, M E; Canning, C; Ritz, J; Blumberg, R S; Balk, S P

    1996-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that a subset of murine intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (iIEL), particularly those which express the CD8 alpha alpha homodimer, mature extrathymically. This study confirms that a small fraction of adult human iIEL also express the CD8 alpha alpha homodimer and demonstrates that most of these cells in the small intestine are T cells using the alpha beta T-cell receptor (TCR). Whether these cells or other subsets of adult human iIEL mature extrathymically in the intestine was assessed by measuring the expression of terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase (TdT), an enzyme expressed exclusively by immature lymphocytes. Very low levels of TdT message could be detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification in some iIEL samples. The level of TdT expression was assayed by competitive PCR amplification and compared with thymocytes and peripheral blood lymphocytes. These measurements indicated that the number of immature T cells expressing TdT in the intestinal epithelium was less than one cell per 10(7) lymphocytes. This demonstrates that there are few if any TdT expressing immature T cells in the adult human intestinal mucosa and indicates, therefore, that T-cell development in the intestinal mucosa does not contribute significantly to the T-cell repertoire of the adult human intestine. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8778025

  9. RelB, a new Rel family transcription activator that can interact with p50-NF-kappa B.

    PubMed Central

    Ryseck, R P; Bull, P; Takamiya, M; Bours, V; Siebenlist, U; Dobrzanski, P; Bravo, R

    1992-01-01

    We have identified a serum-inducible gene, relB, which encodes a protein of 558 amino acids containing a region with high similarity to c-Rel and other members of the Rel family. Transcriptional activation analysis of GAL4-RelB fusion proteins in yeast cells reveals that RelB contains in its C-terminal 180 amino acids a transcriptional activation domain. The N-terminal part including the region of similarity with the Rel family shows no detectable transcriptional activity. RelB does not bind with high affinity to NF-kappa B sites, but heterodimers between RelB and p50-NF-kappa B do bind to different NF-kappa B-binding sites with a similar affinity to that shown by p50-NF-kappa B homodimers. However, RelB/p50-NF-kappa B heterodimers, in contrast to p50-NF-kappa B homodimers, transactivate transcription of a promoter containing a kappa B-binding site. Images PMID:1732739

  10. New insights into the organization of plasma membrane and its role in signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kenichi G N

    2015-01-01

    Plasma membranes have heterogeneous structures for efficient signal transduction, required to perform cell functions. Recent evidence indicates that the heterogeneous structures are produced by (1) compartmentalization by actin-based membrane skeleton, (2) raft domains, (3) receptor-receptor interactions, and (4) the binding of receptors to cytoskeletal proteins. This chapter provides an overview of recent studies on diffusion, clustering, raft association, actin binding, and signal transduction of membrane receptors, especially glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored receptors. Studies on diffusion of GPI-anchored receptors suggest that rafts may be small and/or short-lived in plasma membranes. In steady state conditions, GPI-anchored receptors form transient homodimers, which may represent the "standby state" for the stable homodimers and oligomers upon ligation. Furthermore, It is proposed that upon ligation, the binding of GPI-anchored receptor clusters to cytoskeletal actin filaments produces a platform for downstream signaling, and that the pulse-like signaling easily maintains the stability of the overall signaling activity.

  11. Development of purification processes for fully human bispecific antibodies based upon modification of protein A binding avidity

    PubMed Central

    Tustian, Andrew D.; Endicott, Christine; Adams, Benjamin; Mattila, John; Bak, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT There is strong interest in the design of bispecific monoclonal antibodies (bsAbs) that can simultaneously bind 2 distinct targets or epitopes to achieve novel mechanisms of action and efficacy. Multiple bispecific formats have been proposed and are currently under development. Regeneron's bispecific technology is based upon a standard fully human IgG antibody in order to minimize immunogenicity and improve the pharmacokinetic profile. A single common light chain and 2 distinct heavy chains combine to form the bispecific molecule. One of the heavy chains contains a chimeric Fc sequence form (called Fc*) that ablates binding to Protein A via the constant region. As a result of co-expression of the 2 heavy chains and the common light chain, 3 products are created, 2 of which are homodimeric for the heavy chains and one that is the desired heterodimeric bispecific product. The Fc* sequence allows selective purification of the FcFc* bispecific product on commercially available affinity columns, due to intermediate binding affinity for Protein A compared to the high avidity FcFc heavy chain homodimer, or the weakly binding Fc*Fc* homodimer. This platform requires the use of Protein A chromatography in both a capture and polishing modality. Several challenges, including variable region Protein A binding, resin selection, selective elution optimization, and impacts upon subsequent non-affinity downs