Science.gov

Sample records for intermedius fimbriae involved

  1. Gene cloning and characterization of Streptococcus intermedius fimbriae involved in saliva-mediated aggregation.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Taihei; Matsumoto, Mitsuharu; Sugimoto, Yasushi; Soutome, Sakiko; Oho, Takahiko

    2009-12-01

    Streptococcus intermedius, an oral commensal and a cause of systemic pyogenic disease, expresses fimbriae. To identify the gene(s) encoding these fimbriae, we used a serum raised against purified fimbriae to screen libaries of recombinant lambda phages. The cloned gene cluster encoding S. intermedius fimbriae, (saliva-mediated aggregation and adherence-associated fimbriae), contained 4 ORFs, i.e. a putative ribonulease (Saf1), a putative adhesin (Saf2), the main pilus subunit (Saf3) and a sortase C (SrtC). Escherichia coli strains harboring recombinant phages and plasmids carrying the saf3 gene produced a 55kDa protein recognized by the antifimbriae serum. Saf3 contains an N-terminal signal sequence and a C-terminal cell-wall-anchoring motif LPXTG. Among strains of the Streptococcus anginosus group, only serotype g and untypable strains were found to contain the saf3 gene, to possess the fimbrial antigen and to exhibit saliva-mediated aggregation. Knockout mutants made by insertion of an erythromycin resistance gene into saf3 did not produce fimbrial structures or fimbrial antigens and did not participate in saliva-mediated aggregation. The adherent activity of mutants toward plastic wells coated with salivary agglutinin was about 65% that of the parental strain, and the reaction depended on calcium. There was no significant difference in adherence to hydroxyapatite beads pretreated with salivary agglutinin between the parental and mutant strains. These results demonstrated that Saf3 is associated with aggregation, and suggested that other molecule(s) are associated with adherence of S. intermedius.

  2. Isolation and some properties of fimbriae of oral Streptococcus intermedius.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Taihei; Matsunoshita, Nobuko

    2004-07-01

    Streptococcus intermedius 1208-1 carried linear fiber-like fimbriae that extended radially from the cell surface. The fimbriae were isolated by pipetting and sonication and were purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by a column chromatography series. Heat treatment in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate resulted in the dissociation into smaller molecules. Rabbit antiserum raised against the purified protein reacted with fimbriae on the surface of bacteria under immunogold staining. Serotype g or g-related strains produced the fimbriae and aggregated in human saliva. The aggregation was inhibited by the anti-fimbriae immunoglobulin Fab fragment or the purified fimbriae.

  3. Intermedius nerve involvement and testing in acoustic neuromas.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, J; Zilstorff, K

    1975-01-01

    The clinical findings in 125 patients with surgically confirmed acoustic neuromas are presented, with special regard to the involvement of the intermedius nerve in the diagnosis. In assessing the function of the intermedius nerve the examination of the nasolacrimal reflex and the sensation of taste on the anterior two-thirds of the tongue are used. The methods of investigation are described in detail. The material consisted of 20 medium-sized and 105 large tumours; no intracanalicular tumor was found. Hearing loss was the initial symptom in 85% of the patients, 10% had tinitus and 4% vertigo as the first symptom. Apart from the VIII cranial nerve symptoms, a defective nasolacrimal reflex was the most significant evidence of cerebellopontine angle pathology. The test was positive in 65% of the medium-sized tumours, in the entire material, 85%. The figures are higher than the incidence of trigeminal nerve symptoms. This in contrast to the reports of most authors. The tests described are simple and quick to perform, and it is emphasized that they should be applied to all patients with unilateral hearing loss of unknown origin.

  4. Identification of Cell Surface-Exposed Proteins Involved in the Fimbria-Mediated Adherence of Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli to Intestinal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Izquierdo, Mariana; Navarro-Garcia, Fernando; Nava-Acosta, Raul; Nataro, James P.; Ruiz-Perez, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Fimbria-mediated adherence to the intestinal epithelia is a key step in enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) pathogenesis. To date, four fimbriae have been described for EAEC; aggregative adherence fimbria II (AAF/II) is the most important adherence factor for EAEC prototype strain 042. Previously, we described results showing that extracellular matrix (ECM) components might be involved in the recognition of AAF/II fimbriae by intestinal cells. In this study, we sought to identify novel potential receptors on intestinal epithelial cells recognized by the AAF/II fimbriae. Purified AafA-dsc protein, the major subunit of AAF/II fimbriae, was incubated with a monolayer of T84 cells, cross-linked to the surface-exposed T84 cell proteins, and immunoprecipitated by using anti-AafA antibodies. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis of cellular proteins bound to AafA-dsc protein identified laminin (previously recognized as a potential receptor for AAF/II) and cytokeratin 8 (CK8). Involvement of the major subunit of AAF/II fimbriae (AafA protein) in the binding to recombinant CK8 was confirmed by adherence assays with purified AAF/II fimbriae, AafA-dsc protein, and strain 042. Moreover, HEp-2 cells transfected with CK8 small interfering RNA (siRNA) showed reduced 042 adherence compared with cells transfected with scrambled siRNA as a control. Adherence of 042 to HEp-2 cells preincubated with antibodies against ECM proteins or CK8 was substantially reduced. Altogether, our results supported the idea of a role of CK8 as a potential receptor for EAEC. PMID:24516112

  5. AI-2/LuxS is involved in increased biofilm formation by Streptococcus intermedius in the presence of antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Nibras A; Petersen, Fernanda C; Scheie, Anne A

    2009-10-01

    Bacteria utilize quorum-sensing communication to organize their behavior by monitoring the concentration of bacterial signals, referred to as autoinducers (AIs). The widespread detection of AI-2 signals and its enzymatic synthase (LuxS) in bacteria suggests that AI-2 is an inter- and intraspecies communication signal. We have previously shown that antibiotic susceptibility is affected by AI-2 signaling in Streptococcus anginosus. Since chronic infections involve persistent biofilms resilient to antibiotic treatment, we explored the role of AI-2/LuxS in Streptococcus intermedius biofilm formation and cell viability when the organism was exposed to sub-MICs of ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, or tetracycline. The S. intermedius wild type (WT) and its isogenic luxS mutant, strain SI006, were exposed to sub-MICs of ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, or tetracycline. Biofilms were formed on polystyrene discs in microtiter plates. To assess planktonic cell viability, the ATP microbial viability assay was performed and the numbers of CFU were determined. For complementation assays, the AI-2 precursor dihydroxy pentanedione (DPD) was used as a supplement for SI006. Relative luxS expression was quantified by real-time PCR. The sub-MICs of all three antibiotics increased biofilm formation in S. intermedius WT. However, biofilm formation by SI006 was either unaffected or reduced (P < or = 0.05). Bacterial viability tests of biofilm and planktonic cell cultures indicated that SI006 was more susceptible to antibiotics than the WT. DPD complemented the luxS mutant phenotype. Real-time PCR revealed modest yet significant changes in luxS expression in the presence of antibiotic concentrations that increased biofilm formation. In conclusion, in S. intermedius, AI-2/LuxS was involved in antibiotic susceptibility and increased biofilm formation at sub-MICs of antibiotic.

  6. The Bordetella avium BAV1965-1962 fimbrial locus is regulated by temperature and produces fimbriae involved in adherence to turkey tracheal tissue.

    PubMed

    Loker, Stewart B; Temple, Louise M; Preston, Andrew

    2011-06-01

    Bordetella pertussis, Bordetella parapertussis, and Bordetella bronchiseptica cause respiratory tract disease in mammals, whereas Bordetella avium causes respiratory tract disease in avian hosts. While there are striking similarities between the diseases caused by the mammalian- and avian-adapted bordetellae, differences at the genetic level may account for their different host tropisms. Bacterial pathogens utilize the chaperone-usher pathway to assemble extracellular multisubunit structures (fimbriae) that play a role in virulence. Fimbriae of the mammalian bordetellae mediate attachment to the host respiratory epithelium. They are assembled by a single chaperone/usher system encoded by the fimbrial biogenesis operon fimA-D. B. avium contains a homologous fimbrial operon (BAV1965-1962), and we report here the functionality of this locus. Reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and quantitative PCR analyses demonstrated that transcription of the locus is regulated by temperature. By immuno-transmission electron microscopy (TEM), BAV1965-containing fimbriae were observed on bacteria grown at 37°C but not those grown at 22°C. A mutant in which BAV1965-1962 was deleted displayed significantly lower levels of adherence to turkey tracheal rings than the wild type. Thus, the BAV1965-1962 fimbrial locus is functional, its expression is regulated in response to temperature, and it produces fimbriae involved in adherence to host respiratory tract tissue.

  7. Inner-membrane protein MorC is involved in fimbriae production and biofilm formation in Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kenneth P; Ruiz, Teresa; Mintz, Keith P

    2016-03-01

    Fimbrial subunit synthesis, secretion and assembly on the surface of the periodontal pathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans are essential for biofilm formation. A recent quantitative proteomics study employing an afimbriated strain and a developed mutant isogenic for the inner-membrane protein morphogenesis protein C (MorC) revealed that the abundance of the proteins of the fimbrial secretion apparatus in the membrane is dependent on MorC. To investigate further the relationship between MorC and fimbriation, we identified and complemented the defect in fimbriae production in the afimbriated laboratory strain. The transformed strain expressing a plasmid containing genes encoding the WT fimbrial subunit and the prepilin peptidase displayed all of the hallmarks of a fimbriated bacterium including the distinct star-like colony morphology, robust biofilm formation, biofilm architecture composed of discrete microcolonies and the presence of fimbriae. When the identical plasmid was transformed into a morC mutant strain, the bacterium did not display any of the phenotypes of fimbriated strains. Extension of these studies to a naturally fimbriated clinical strain showed that the resulting morC mutant maintained the characteristic colony morphology of fimbriated strains. There was, however, a reduction in the secretion of fimbrial subunits, and fewer fimbriae were observed on the surface of the mutant strain. Furthermore, the morC mutant of the fimbriated strain displayed a significantly altered biofilm microcolony architecture, while maintaining a similar biofilm mass to the parent strain. These results suggest that MorC influences fimbrial secretion and microcolony formation in A. actinomycetemcomitans.

  8. The essentiality and involvement of Streptococcus intermedius histone-like DNA-binding protein in bacterial viability and normal growth.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dali; Yumoto, Hiromichi; Murakami, Keiji; Hirota, Katsuhiko; Ono, Tsuneko; Nagamune, Hideaki; Kayama, Shizuo; Matsuo, Takashi; Miyake, Yoichiro

    2008-06-01

    Streptococcus intermedius histone-like DNA-binding protein (Si-HLP) is a homodimeric protein and, conserved with Escherichia coli HU, a well-documented nucleoid-associated protein (NAP). In E. coli, HU plays important roles as both structural and regulatory factors, but it is not essential for E. coli viability. Streptococcal HLP has been found to bind host cells and induce cytokine production, but its physiological role remains poorly defined. In the present study, using gene insertion knockout and tetracycline-regulated antisense RNA expression techniques, we determined whether Si-HLP is essential for bacterial viability and normal growth in S. intermedius. The Si-HLP-downregulated S. intermedius strain showed alterations in its morphology and surface properties. Downregulation of Si-HLP led to an expanded nucleoid to fill the intracellular space. Transcription levels of several genes, including virulence-associated factors, were found to be activated or repressed in the antisense Si-hlp RNA-expressing strain by real-time PCR and reverse-transcription PCR. Collectively, these data suggest that Si-HLP serves as an essential NAP governing the nucleoid architecture and controlling the gene transcription profile in S. intermedius.

  9. Role of hyaluronidase in Streptococcus intermedius biofilm.

    PubMed

    Pecharki, D; Petersen, F C; Scheie, A Aa

    2008-03-01

    Streptococcus intermedius is found in biofilms on teeth and as a commensal member of the gastrointestinal and urinary floras, but may also be associated with deep-seated purulent infections and infective endocarditis. S. intermedius produces hyaluronidase, an enzyme that breaks down hyaluronan (HA), a major component of the extracellular matrix of connective tissue. We investigated the involvement of hyaluronidase in S. intermedius biofilm formation and dispersal as well as adhesion to human cells. The hyaluronidase activity and expression of the hyl gene were higher in growth media supplemented with HA. Inactivation of the S. intermedius hyaluronidase resulted in a mutant that formed up to 31 % more biofilm in media supplemented with HA. Hyaluronidase added to the medium caused dispersal of S. intermedius biofilm. Adhesion to epithelial cells was similar in the wild-type and the hyaluronidase mutant. We concluded that hyaluronidase may be important for S. intermedius detachment from biofilms but not for adhesion to epithelial cells. The ability of S. intermedius to detach from the surface and to spread may be crucial in the pathogenicity of this micro-organism.

  10. Acetobacter intermedius, sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Boesch, C; Trcek, J; Sievers, M; Teuber, M

    1998-03-01

    Strains of a new species in the genus Acetobacter, for which we propose the name A. intermedius sp. nov., were isolated and characterized in pure culture from different sources (Kombucha beverage, cider vinegar, spirit vinegar) and different countries (Switzerland, Slovenia). The isolated strains grow in media with 3% acetic acid and 3% ethanol as does A. europaeus, do, however, not require acetic acid for growth. These characteristics phenotypically position A. intermedius between A. europaeus and A. xylinus, DNA-DNA hybridizations of A. intermedius-DNA with DNA of the type strains of Acetobacter europaeus, A. xylinus, A. aceti, A. hansenii, A. liquefaciens, A. methanolicus, A. pasteurianus, A. diazotrophicus, Gluconobacter oxydans and Escherichia coli HB 101 indicated less than 60% DNA similarity. The important features of the new species are described. Acetobacter intermedius strain TF2 (DSM11804) isolated from the liquid phase of a tea fungus beverage (Kombucha) is the type strain.

  11. Simple method for purification of enterotoxigenic E. coli fimbriae

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Brittany; Grassel, Christen; Laufer, Rachel; Sears, Khandra; Pasetti, Marcela F.; Barry, Eileen M.; Simon, Raphael

    2016-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) are endemic pathogens in the developing world. They frequently cause illness in travelers, and are among the most prevalent causes of diarrheal disease in children. Pathogenic ETEC strains employ fimbriae as adhesion factors to bind the luminal surface of the intestinal epithelium and establish infection. Accordingly, there is marked interest in immunoprophylactic strategies targeting fimbriae to protect against ETEC infections. Multiple strategies have been reported for purification of ETEC fimbriae, however none is ideal. Purification has typically involved the use of highly virulent wild-type strains. We report here a simple and improved method to purify ETEC fimbriae, which was applied to obtain two different Class 5 fimbriae types of clinical relevance (CFA/I and CS4) expressed recombinantly in E. coli production strains. Following removal from cells by shearing, fimbriae proteins were purified by orthogonal purification steps employing ultracentrifugation, precipitation, and ion-exchange membrane chromatography. Purified fimbriae demonstrated the anticipated size and morphology by electron microscopy analysis, contained negligible levels of residual host cell proteins, nucleic acid, and endotoxin, and were recognized by convalescent human anti-sera. PMID:26581778

  12. Simple method for purification of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli fimbriae.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Brittany; Grassel, Christen; Laufer, Rachel S; Sears, Khandra T; Pasetti, Marcela F; Barry, Eileen M; Simon, Raphael

    2016-03-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are endemic pathogens in the developing world. They frequently cause illness in travelers, and are among the most prevalent causes of diarrheal disease in children. Pathogenic ETEC strains employ fimbriae as adhesion factors to bind the luminal surface of the intestinal epithelium and establish infection. Accordingly, there is marked interest in immunoprophylactic strategies targeting fimbriae to protect against ETEC infections. Multiple strategies have been reported for purification of ETEC fimbriae, however none is ideal. Purification has typically involved the use of highly virulent wild-type strains. We report here a simple and improved method to purify ETEC fimbriae, which was applied to obtain two different Class 5 fimbriae types of clinical relevance (CFA/I and CS4) expressed recombinantly in E. coli production strains. Following removal from cells by shearing, fimbriae proteins were purified by orthogonal purification steps employing ultracentrifugation, precipitation, and ion-exchange membrane chromatography. Purified fimbriae demonstrated the anticipated size and morphology by electron microscopy analysis, contained negligible levels of residual host cell proteins, nucleic acid, and endotoxin, and were recognized by convalescent human anti-sera.

  13. Path integration absent in scent-tracking fimbria-fornix rats: evidence for hippocampal involvement in "sense of direction" and "sense of distance" using self-movement cues.

    PubMed

    Whishaw, I Q; Gorny, B

    1999-06-01

    Allothetic and idiothetic navigation strategies use very different cue constellations and computational processes. Allothetic navigation requires the use of the relationships between relatively stable external (visual, olfactory, auditory) cues, whereas idiothetic navigation requires the integration of cues generated by self-movement and/or efferent copy of movement commands. The flexibility with which animals can switch between these strategies and the neural structures that support these strategies are not well understood. By capitalizing on the proclivity of foraging rats to carry large food pellets back to a refuge for eating, the present study examined the contribution of the hippocampus to the use of allothetic versus idiothetic navigation strategies. Control rats and fimbria-fornix-ablated rats were trained to follow linear, polygonal, and octagonal scent trails that led to a piece of food. The ability of the rats to return to the refuge with the food via the shortest route using allothetic cues (visual cues and/or the odor trail available) or using ideothetic cues (the odor trail removed and the rats blindfolded or tested in infrared light) was examined. Control rats "closed the polygon" by returning directly home in all cue conditions. Fimbria-fornix rats successfully used allothetic cues (closed the polygon using visual cues or tracked back on the string) but were insensitive to the direction and distance of the refuge and were lost when restricted to idiothetic cues. The results support the hypothesis that the hippocampal formation is necessary for navigation requiring the integration of idiothetic cues.

  14. [Streptococcus intermedius: a rare cause of brain abscess in children].

    PubMed

    Jouhadi, Z; Sadiki, H; Hafid, I; Najib, J

    2013-03-01

    Streptococcus intermedius is a member of the Streptococcus anginosus group, also known as the Streptococcus milleri group. Although this is a commensal agent of the mouth and upper airways, it has been recognized as an important pathogen in the formation of abscesses. However, it has rarely been involved in the formation of brain abscess in children. We report 4 pediatric cases of brain abscess caused by S. intermedius. Three boys and 1 girl, all aged over 2 years, were admitted for a febrile meningeal syndrome and seizures, caused by a S. intermedius brain abscess. Diagnosis was obtained by brain imaging combined with culture of cerebrospinal fluid. The outcome was favorable after antibiotic therapy and abscess puncture. S. intermedius should be considered a potential pathogen involved in the development of brain abscess in children.

  15. Ca2+, Mg2+-dependent DNase involvement in apoptotic effects in spermatozoa of sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius induced by two-headed sphingolipid rhizochalin.

    PubMed

    Sibirtsev, Juriy T; Shastina, Valeria V; Menzorova, Natalia I; Makarieva, Tatyana N; Rasskazov, Valeriy A

    2011-06-01

    Previously, we have purified three distinct DNases from spermatozoa of sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius and we suppose the role of Ca(2+), Mg(2+)-dependent DNase (Ca, Mg-DNase) in apoptosis of spermatozoa. Two-headed sphingolipid rhizochalin (Rhz) induced characteristic apoptotic nuclear chromatin changes, internucleosomal DNA cleavage, and activation of caspase-9, caspase-8, and caspase-3 in spermatozoa as was shown by fluorescence Hoechst 33342/PI/FDA analysis, DNA fragmentation assay, and fluorescence caspase inhibitors FAM-LEHD-fmk, FAM-IETD-fmk, and FAM-DEVD-fmk, respectively. Inhibitor of caspase-3 z-DEVD-fmk subdued Rhz-induced internucleosomal ladder formation, which confirmed the major role of caspase-3 in apoptotic DNA cleavage probably through Ca, Mg-DNase activation. Participation of sea urchin Ca, Mg-DNase in apoptosis of spermatozoa was demonstrated by ions Zn(2+) blocking of Rhz-induced DNA fragmentation due to direct inhibition of the Ca, Mg-DNase and internucleosomal cleavage of HeLa S and Vero E6 cell nuclei chromatin by highly purified Ca, Mg-DNase.

  16. Functional variation of the antigen I/II surface protein in Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus intermedius.

    PubMed

    Petersen, F C; Assev, S; van der Mei, H C; Busscher, H J; Scheie, A A

    2002-01-01

    Although Streptococcus intermedius and Streptococcus mutans are regarded as members of the commensal microflora of the body, S. intermedius is often associated with deep-seated purulent infections, whereas S. mutans is frequently associated with dental caries. In this study, we investigated the roles of the S. mutans and S. intermedius antigen I/II proteins in adhesion and modulation of cell surface characteristics. By using isogenic mutants, we show that the antigen I/II in S. mutans, but not in S. intermedius, was involved in adhesion to a salivary film under flowing conditions, as well as in binding to rat collagen type I. Binding to human fibronectin was a common function associated with the S. mutans and S. intermedius antigen I/II. Adhesion of S. mutans or S. intermedius to human collagen types I or IV was negligible. Hydrophobicity, as measured by water contact angles, and zeta potentials were unaltered in the S. intermedius mutant. The S. mutans isogenic mutants, on the other hand, exhibited more positive zeta potentials at physiological pH values than did the wild type. The results indicate common and species-specific roles for the antigen I/II in mediating the attachment of S. mutans and S. intermedius to host components and in determining cell surface properties.

  17. The role of Streptococcus intermedius in brain abscess.

    PubMed

    Mishra, A K; Fournier, P-E

    2013-04-01

    Brain abscess represents a significant medical problem, despite recent advances made in detection and therapy. Streptococcus intermedius, a commensal organism, has the potential to cause significant morbidity. S. intermedius expresses one or more members of a family of structurally and antigenically related surface proteins termed antigen I/II, which plays a potential role in its pathogenesis. It is involved in binding to human fibronectin and laminin and in inducing IL-8 release from monocytes, which promotes neutrophil chemotaxis and activation. There are few published data on the role of this organism in brain abscess. This review focuses on the clinical evidence, pathogenic role, mechanism of predisposition, and currently employed strategies to fight against S. intermedius associated to brain abscess.

  18. Enterotoxigenic potential of Staphylococcus intermedius.

    PubMed

    Becker, K; Keller, B; von Eiff, C; Brück, M; Lubritz, G; Etienne, J; Peters, G

    2001-12-01

    Staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) caused by enterotoxigenic staphylococci is one of the main food-borne diseases. In contrast to Staphylococcus aureus, a systematic screening for the enterotoxins has not yet been performed on the genomic level for the coagulase-positive species S. intermedius. Therefore, the enterotoxigenic potential of 281 different veterinary (canine, n = 247; equine, n = 23; feline, n = 9; other, n = 2) and 11 human isolates of S. intermedius was tested by using a multiplex PCR DNA-enzyme immunoassay system targeting the staphylococcal enterotoxin genes sea, seb, sec, sed, and see. Molecular results were compared by in vitro testing of enterotoxin production by two immunoassays. A total of 33 (11.3%) S. intermedius isolates, including 31 (12.6%) canine isolates, 1 equine isolate, and 1 human isolate, tested positive for the sec gene. In vitro production of the respective enterotoxins was detected in 30 (90.9%) of these isolates by using immunological tests. In contrast, none of 65 veterinary specimen-derived isolates additionally tested and comprising 13 (sub)species of coagulase-negative staphylococci were found to be enterotoxigenic. This study shows on both molecular and immunological levels that a substantial number of S. intermedius isolates harbor the potential for enterotoxin production. Since evidence for noninvasive zoonotic transmission of S. intermedius from animal hosts to humans has been documented, an enterotoxigenic role of this microorganism in SFP via contamination of food products may be assumed.

  19. Haemolytic activity of the Streptococcus milleri group' and relationship between haemolysis restricted to human red blood cells and pathogenicity in S. intermedius.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, J A; Schot, C S; Schouls, L M

    2000-01-01

    A collection of 297 clinically documented 'Streptococcus milleri' strains, identified to the genotype level by 16S rRNA gene hydridisation, was screened for haemolysis of human and animal red blood cells. Forty-nine strains (65%) of the S. intermedius genotype displayed haemolysis restricted to human blood; they were named 'exclusive human haemolytic' (EHH) S. intermedius strains. The 26 remaining S. intermedius strains were named S. intermedius non-EHH strains. Quantitative studies on the haemolysis indicated that intermedilysin was the factor involved. The S. intermedius EHH strains represented the S. intermedius phenotype, whereas the S. intermedius non-EHH strains were phenotypically characteristic of S. constellatus. The complete 16S rRNA sequences of the S. intermedius EHH strains exhibited identity with S. intermedius strains ATCC 27335 (= NCDO 2227, NCTC 11324); the 16S rRNA sequences of the S. intermedius non-EHH strains were identical to S. constellatus strain ATCC 27823 (= NCDO 2226, NCTC 11325) except for positions 228 and 229 that carried an S. intermedius sequence signature. The 16S sequence similarities between the non-EHH strains and the S. constellatus and the S. intermedius type strains were 99.5% and 98.6%, respectively. Hybridisations of the complete 16S rRNA genes with oligonucleotide probes indicated a 16S rRNA homogeneity within the S. intermedius EHH and the non-EHH strains respectively. The S. intermedius EHH strains were isolated most frequently from infection- and abscess-related specimens. The present data emphasise the genetic variability within the S. constellatus species and redefine the S. intermedius species as a homogeneous group at the 16S rRNA level.

  20. Staphylococcus intermedius Produces a Functional agr Autoinducing Peptide Containing a Cyclic Lactone

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Guangyong; Pei, Wuhong; Zhang, Linsheng; Qiu, Rongde; Lin, Jianqun; Benito, Yvonne; Lina, Gerard; Novick, Richard P.

    2005-01-01

    The agr system is a global regulator of accessory functions in staphylococci, including genes encoding exoproteins involved in virulence. The agr locus contains a two-component signal transduction module that is activated by an autoinducing peptide (AIP) encoded within the agr locus and is conserved throughout the genus. The AIP has an unusual partially cyclic structure that is essential for function and that, in all but one case, involves an internal thiolactone bond between a conserved cysteine and the C-terminal carboxyl group. The exceptional case is a strain of Staphylococcus intermedius that has a serine in place of the conserved cysteine. We demonstrate here that the S. intermedius AIP is processed by the S. intermedius AgrB protein to generate a cyclic lactone, that it is an autoinducer as well as a cross-inhibitor, and that all of five other S. intermedius strains examined also produce serine-containing AIPs. PMID:15838041

  1. Effects of Light and Covering Behavior on PAX6 Expression in the Sea Urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chong; Ji, Nanjing; Sun, Ping; Feng, Wenping; Wei, Jing; Chang, Yaqing

    2014-01-01

    We studied the diel expression pattern of PAX6 (a structural gene that is commonly involved in the eye development and photoreception of eye forming animals) and the effects of light and covering behavior on PAX6 expression in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius. We confirmed that aphotic condition significantly reduced covering behavior in S. intermedius. The diel expression pattern of PAX6 was significantly different in S. intermedius under photic and aphotic conditions. The gene expression of PAX6 significantly deceased in covered S. intermedius both under natural light and in darkness. The present finding provides valuable insight into the probable link between covering and PAX6 expression of sea urchins. Further studies are required to investigate the detailed expression network of light detection involved genes in order to fully reveal the molecular mechanism of the light-induced covering behavior of sea urchins. PMID:25333874

  2. Expression and functional properties of the Streptococcus intermedius surface protein antigen I/II.

    PubMed

    Petersen, F C; Pasco, S; Ogier, J; Klein, J P; Assev, S; Scheie, A A

    2001-07-01

    Streptococcus intermedius is associated with deep-seated purulent infections. In this study, we investigated expression and functional activities of antigen I/II in S. intermedius. The S. intermedius antigen I/II appeared to be cell surface associated, with a molecular mass of approximately 160 kDa. Northern blotting indicated that the S. intermedius NCTC 11324 antigen I/II gene was transcribed as a monocistronic message. Maximum expression was seen during the early exponential phase. Insertional inactivation of the antigen I/II gene resulted in reduced hydrophobicity during early exponential phase, whereas no effect was detected during mid- and late exponential phases. Binding to human fibronectin and laminin was reduced in the isogenic mutant, whereas binding to human collagen types I and IV and to rat collagen type I was not significant for either the wild type or the mutant. Compared to the wild type, the capacity of the isogenic mutant to induce interleukin 8 (IL-8) release by THP-1 monocytic cells was significantly reduced. The results indicate that the S. intermedius antigen I/II is involved in adhesion to human receptors and in IL-8 induction.

  3. Purification and characterization of serotype 6 fimbriae from Bordetella pertussis and comparison of their properties with serotype 2 fimbriae.

    PubMed Central

    Cowell, J L; Zhang, J M; Urisu, A; Suzuki, A; Steven, A C; Liu, T; Liu, T Y; Manclark, C R

    1987-01-01

    Fimbriae were removed from Bordetella pertussis (serotype 1.3.6) by mechanical shearing and purified by precipitation with ammonium sulfate, pH-dependent precipitation at pH 7.4, followed by two successive extractions of the precipitated fimbriae with 4 M urea. By electron microscopy, the precipitated fimbriae appeared as aggregated bundles of long, relatively straight filaments which were disaggregated to individual flexuous filaments at pH 10.5. These purified fimbriae were identified as serotype 6 agglutinogens, since antibody to the purified fimbriae agglutinated B. pertussis strains serotyped as 1.3.6, 1.2.3.6, or 1.2.3.4.6 but did not agglutinate strains of serotype 1.2.3.4, 1.2.3, or 1.3. In contrast, antibody to serotype 2 fimbriae only agglutinated B. pertussis strains containing serotype 2 agglutinogen. Purified type 6 and 2 fimbriae were found to be weakly cross-reactive by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, using polyclonal antibody to each type of fimbria. In an immunoblot assay, polyclonal antibodies to a 22,000-dalton subunit of fimbriae from B. bronchiseptica reacted strongly with the type 2 fimbrial subunit of B. pertussis, but only weakly with the type 6 subunit. When subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the protein subunit of the type 6 fimbriae migrated with a molecular weight of 21,500, whereas the type 2 fimbrial subunit had a molecular weight of 22,000. The two types of subunits had similar amino acid compositions and showed amino-terminal sequence homology in 15 of 21 amino acids. The amino-terminal amino acid sequences of the B. pertussis fimbriae were distinct from those reported for fimbriae from other gram-negative bacteria. Neither the type 6 nor the type 2 fimbriae caused hemagglutination when assayed with several types of erythrocytes. Images PMID:2881893

  4. Listening when there is no sexual signalling? Maintenance of hearing in the asexual bushcricket Poecilimon intermedius.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Gerlind U C; Strauss, Johannes; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard

    2007-05-01

    Unisexual reproduction is a widespread phenomenon in invertebrates and lower vertebrates. If a former sexual reproducing species becomes parthenogenetic, we expect traits that were subject to sexual selection to diminish. The bushcricket Poecilimon intermedius is one of the few insect species with obligate but diploid parthenogenetic reproduction. We contrasted characters that are involved in mating in a sexually sibling species with the identical structures in the parthenogenetic P. intermedius. Central for sexual communication are male songs, while receptive females approach the males phonotactically. Compared to its sister-species P. ampliatus, the morphology of the hearing organs (acoustic spiracle, crista acustica) and the function of hearing (acoustic threshold) are reduced in P. intermedius. Nonetheless, hearing is clearly maintained in the parthenogenetic females. Natural selection by acoustic hunting bats, pleiotropy or a developmental trap may explain the well maintained hearing function.

  5. Transcriptional profiling of human smooth muscle cells infected with gingipain and fimbriae mutants of Porphyromonas gingivalis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Boxi; Sirsjö, Allan; Khalaf, Hazem; Bengtsson, Torbjörn

    2016-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) is considered to be involved in the development of atherosclerosis. However, the role of different virulence factors produced by P. gingivalis in this process is still uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate the transcriptional profiling of human aortic smooth muscle cells (AoSMCs) infected with wild type, gingipain mutants or fimbriae mutants of P. gingivalis. AoSMCs were exposed to wild type (W50 and 381), gingipain mutants (E8 and K1A), or fimbriae mutants (DPG-3 and KRX-178) of P. gingivalis. We observed that wild type P. gingivalis changes the expression of a considerable larger number of genes in AoSMCs compare to gingipain and fimbriae mutants, respectively. The results from pathway analysis revealed that the common differentially expressed genes for AoSMCs infected by 3 different wild type P. gingivalis strains were enriched in pathways of cancer, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, focal adhesion, and MAPK signaling pathway. Disease ontology analysis showed that various strains of P. gingivalis were associated with different disease profilings. Our results suggest that gingipains and fimbriae, especially arginine-specific gingipain, produced by P. gingivalis play important roles in the association between periodontitis and other inflammatory diseases, including atherosclerosis. PMID:26907358

  6. Proteus mirabilis uroepithelial cell adhesin (UCA) fimbria plays a role in the colonization of the urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Pellegrino, Rafael; Scavone, Paola; Umpiérrez, Ana; Maskell, Duncan J; Zunino, Pablo

    2013-03-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections in humans. Proteus mirabilis is an opportunistic pathogen, capable of causing severe UTIs, with serious kidney damage that may even lead to death. Several virulence factors are involved in the pathogenicity of this bacterium. Among these, adherence to the uroepithelium mediated by fimbriae appears to be a significant bacterial attribute related to urovirulence. Proteus mirabilis expresses several types of fimbriae that could be involved in the pathogenesis of UTI, including uroepithelial cell adhesin (UCA). In this report, we used an uropathogenic P. mirabilis wild-type strain and an isogenic ucaA mutant unable to express UCA to study the pathogenic role of this fimbria in UTI. Ability of the mutant to adhere to desquamated uroepithelial cells and to infect mice using different experimental UTI models was significantly impaired. These results allow us to conclude that P. mirabilis UCA plays an important role in the colonization of the urinary tract.

  7. A lingual abscess caused by Streptococcus intermedius.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Amanda T; Hsia, Jennifer C; Mendez, Eduardo; Clarridge, Jill E

    2012-04-01

    Lingual abscesses are rare. We describe a case in a healthy female with no recent history of trauma. The organism recovered by culture of drainage material collected prior to antibiotic treatment was Streptococcus intermedius, an organism recognized as flora of the oropharynx and associated with abscess formation. The isolate was resistant to clindamycin, which was the antibiotic therapy that the patient received.

  8. Identification of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase of epithelial cells as a second molecule that binds to Porphyromonas gingivalis fimbriae.

    PubMed

    Sojar, Hakimuddin T; Genco, Robert J

    2005-07-01

    Binding of Porphyromonas gingivalis to the host cells is an essential step in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. P. gingivalis binds to and invades epithelial cells, and fimbriae are thought to be involved in this process. In our earlier studies, two major epithelial cell components of 40 and 50 kDa were identified as potential fimbrial receptors. Sequencing of a cyanogen bromide digestion fragment of the 50-kDa component resulted in an internal sequence identical to keratin I molecules, and hence this cytokeratin represents one of the epithelial cell receptors for P. gingivalis fimbriae. In this study, the 40-kDa component of KB cells was isolated and its amino-terminal sequence determined. The N-terminal amino sequence was found to be GKVKVGVNGF and showed perfect homology with human glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Furthermore, purified P. gingivalis fimbriae were found to bind to rabbit muscle GAPDH. Antibodies directed against internal peptide 49-68 and 69-90 of fimbrillin were shown to inhibit the binding of P. gingivalis and of fimbriae to epithelial cells. Antibodies against these peptides also inhibited the binding of fimbriae to GAPDH. Our results confirmed that the amino-terminal domain corresponding to amino residues 49-68 of the fimbrillin protein is the major GAPDH binding domain. These studies point to GAPDH as a major receptor for P. gingivalis major fimbriae and, as such, GAPDH likely plays a role in P. gingivalis adherence and colonization of the oral cavity, as well as triggering host cell processes involved in the pathogenesis of P. gingivalis infections.

  9. Isolation and characterization of a minor fimbria from Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    PubMed Central

    Hamada, N; Sojar, H T; Cho, M I; Genco, R J

    1996-01-01

    We have discovered two distinctly different fimbriae expressed by the same Porphyromonas gingivalis strain. The construction of a fimA mutant of P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 has previously been reported by N. Hamada et al. (Infect. Immun. 62:1696-1704, 1994). Expression of fimbriae on the surface of the fimA mutant and the wild-type strain, ATCC 33277, were investigated by electron microscopy. The wild-type strain produced long fimbrial structures extending from the cell surface, whereas those structures were not observed on the fimA mutant. However, short fimbrial structures were seen on the surface of the fimA mutant. The short fimbrial protein was purified from the fimA mutant by selective protein precipitation and chromatography on DEAE Sepharose CL-6B. We have found that the second fimbrial structure of P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 is distinct from the 41-kDa (43-kDa) major fimbrial protein (FimA). We provisionally call this protein minor fimbriae. The molecular mass of the minor fimbriae is 67 kDa as estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under reducing conditions after boiling at 100 degrees C. The component shows a ladder-like pattern at 80 degrees C under nonreducing conditions, suggesting a tendency to aggregate or polymerize. In immunoblotting analysis, anti-minor fimbria serum reacted with both the 100 degrees C- and the 80 degrees C-treated minor fimbriae. The anti-minor fimbria serum also reacts with the same-molecular-size fimbrial preparation from the wild-type strain. Immunogold electron microscopy showed that the anti-minor fimbria serum bound to the minor fimbria on the cell surface of the wild-type strain. This is the first report on the identification of the minor fimbria produced by P. gingivalis. These results suggest that the minor fimbriae appearing on the fimA mutant strain are produced together with numerous long major fimbriae on the wild-type strain. Moreover, the minor fimbriae are different in size and

  10. Bordetella pertussis fimbriae (Fim): relevance for vaccines.

    PubMed

    Gorringe, Andrew R; Vaughan, Thomas E

    2014-10-01

    Bordetella pertussis produces two serologically distinct fimbriae, Fim2 and Fim3. Expression of these antigens is governed by the BvgA/S system and by the length of a poly(C) tract in the promoter of each gene. Fim2 and Fim3 are important antigens for whole cell pertussis vaccines as clinical trials have shown an association of anti-fimbriae antibody-mediated agglutination and protection. The current five component acellular pertussis vaccine contains co-purified Fim2/3 and provided good efficacy in clinical trials with the anti-Fim antibody response correlating with protection when pre and post exposure antibody levels were analysed. The predominant serotype of B. pertussis isolates has changed over time in most countries but it is not understood whether this is vaccine-driven or whether serotype is linked to the prevailing predominant genotype. Recent studies have shown that both Fim2 and Fim3 are expressed during infection and that Fim2 is more immunogenic than Fim3 in the acellular vaccine.

  11. Infections Associated with Streptococcus intermedius in Children.

    PubMed

    Faden, Howard S

    2016-09-01

    Streptococcus intermedius is a viridans Streptococcus belonging to the Anginosus group. In the past 7 years, it has been associated with abscesses in 48 children, 40% of whom had complicated and/or life-threatening illness. It was the sole pathogen in 35 cases. Seventy-five percent of the infections occurred in winter and spring. None occurred in infants younger than 1 year.

  12. Haemagglutinins and fimbriae of soft rot Erwinias.

    PubMed

    Wallace, A; Pérombelon, M C

    1992-08-01

    Strains of phytopathogenic soft rot Erwinia spp. were examined for haemagglutinin (HA) production. Mannose-sensitive HA was found only in five of 15 strains of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora. Mannose-resistant HA (MRHA) was found in 12 of 15 strains of E.c. carotovora, ten of 13 strains of E.c. subsp. atroseptica and the single strain of E.c. subsp. betavasculorum, as well as all seven strains of E. chrysanthemi. MRHA, detectable only in a microtitre tray HA assay was of either broad- or narrow-spectrum activity when examined against blood of seven different animal species and could be inhibited by the beta-galactoside asialofetuin. Fimbriae of ca 10 nm diameter were found on MRHA(+) bacteria E.c. carotovora and E.c. atroseptica.

  13. Salmonella enteritidis agfBAC operon encoding thin, aggregative fimbriae.

    PubMed

    Collinson, S K; Clouthier, S C; Doran, J L; Banser, P A; Kay, W W

    1996-02-01

    Salmonella enteritidis produces thin, aggregative fimbriae, named SEF17, which are composed of polymerized AgfA fimbrin proteins. DNA sequence analysis of a 2-kb region of S. enteritidis DNA revealed three contiguous genes, agfBAC. The 453-bp agfA gene encodes the AgfA fimbrin, which was predicted to be 74% identical and 86% similar in primary sequence to the Escherichia coli curli structural protein, CsgA. pHAG, a pUC18 derivative containing a 3.0-kb HindIII fragment encoding agfBAC, directed the in vitro expression of the major AgfA fimbrin, with an M(r) of 17,000, and a minor AgfB protein, with an M(r) of 16,000, encoded by the 453-bp agfB gene. AgfA was not expressed from pDAG, a pUC18 derivative containing a 3.1-kb DraI DNA fragment encoding agfA but not agfB. Primer extension analysis identified two adjacent transcription start sites located immediately upstream of agfB in positions analogous to those of the E. coli curlin csgBA operon. No transcription start sites were located immediately upstream of agfA or agfC. Northern (RNA) blot analysis confirmed that transcription of agfA was initiated from the agfB promoter region. Secondary-structure analysis of the putative mRNA transcript for agfBAC predicted the formation of a stem-loop structure (delta Gzero, -22 kcal/mol [-91 kJ/mol]) in the intercistronic region between agfA and agfC, which may be involved in stabilization of the agfBA portion of the agfBAC transcript. agfBAC and flanking regions had a high degree of sequence similarity with those counterparts of the E. coli curlin csgBA region for which sequence data are available. These data are demonstrative of the high degree of similarity between S. enteritidis SEF17 fimbriae and E. coli curli with respect to fimbrin amino acid sequence and genetic organization and, therefore, are indicative of a common and relatively recent ancestry.

  14. Primary ventriculitis caused by Streptococcus intermedius.

    PubMed

    Vajramani, G V; Akrawi, H; Jones, G; Sparrow, O C E

    2007-06-01

    Streptococcus intermedius is increasingly being recognised as an aetiological agent in central nervous system infections. Primary ventriculitis caused by this organism has not been reported so far. We present a case of primary ventriculitis, which resulted in adhesions and multiloculated hydrocephalus, necessitating numerous surgical procedures to control it. No predisposing factor(s) could be identified. Although the organism could not be cultured from CSF, as he was already on antibiotic treatment, it could, however, be identified by 16S rDNA polymerase chain reaction on the CSF sample. It appears important to recognise this condition and to treat it aggressively to prevent complications such as adhesions and multiloculated hydrocephalus.

  15. Nervus intermedius neuralgia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Rui; Vazquez-Delgado, Eduardo; Okeson, Jeffrey P; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2007-07-01

    Nervus intermedius neuralgia (NIN) is an uncommon disorder that affects a sensory branch of the facial nerve. This condition usually provokes a very intense and stabbing pain localized in the depth of the ear canal. Due to the close anatomical proximity, temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pathologies should be included in the differential diagnosis. The treatment of NIN has not been established, although it seems reasonable that the therapeutic approaches used in other more common craniofacial neuralgias, such as trigeminal neuralgia, should be effective. In this paper, the authors present a case report of a female patient diagnosed with NIN who was successfully managed with pharmacological treatment.

  16. Three-dimensional modeling of the human fallopian tube fimbriae

    PubMed Central

    Eddie, Sharon L.; Quartuccio, Suzanne M.; Zhu, Jie; Shepherd, Jessica A.; Kothari, Rajul; Kim, J. Julie; Woodruff, Teresa K.; Burdette, Joanna E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy that affects women. Recent data suggests the disease may originate in the fallopian fimbriae; however, the anatomical origin of ovarian carcinogenesis remains unclear. This is largely driven by our lack of knowledge regarding the structure and function of normal fimbriae and the relative paucity of models that accurately recapitulate the in vivo fallopian tube. Therefore, a human three-dimensional (3D) culture system was developed to examine the role of the fallopian fimbriae in serous tumorigenesis. Methods Alginate matrix was utilized to support human fallopian fimbriae ex vivo. Fimbriae were cultured with factors hypothesized to contribute to carcinogenesis, namely; H2O2 (1mM) a mimetic of oxidative stress, insulin (5 µg/ml) to stimulate glycolysis, and estradiol (E2, 10nM) which peaks before ovulation. Cultures were evaluated for changes in proliferation and p53 expression, criteria utilized to identify potential precursor lesions. Further, secretory factors were assessed after treatment with E2 to identify if steroid signaling induces a pro-tumorigenic microenvironment. Results 3D fimbriae cultures maintained normal tissue architecture up to 7 days, retaining both epithelial subtypes. Treatment of cultures with H2O2 or insulin significantly induced proliferation. However, p53 stabilization was unaffected by any particular treatment, although was induced by ex vivo culturing. Moreover, E2-alone treatment significantly induced its canonical target PR and expression of IL8, a factor linked to poor outcome. Conclusions 3D alginate cultures of human fallopian fimbriae provide an important microphysicological model, which can be further utilized to investigate serous tumorigenesis originating from the fallopian tube. PMID:25527363

  17. Aggregative adherence fimbriae I (AAF/I) mediate colonization of fresh produce and abiotic surface by Shiga toxigenic enteroaggregative Escherichia coli O104:H4.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Attila; Xu, Yunfeng; Bauchan, Gary R; Shelton, Daniel R; Nou, Xiangwu

    2016-07-16

    The Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli O104:H4 isolated during the 2011 European outbreak expresses Shiga toxin 2a and possess virulence genes associated with the enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) pathotype. It produces plasmid encoded aggregative adherence fimbriae I (AAF/I) which mediate cell aggregation and biofilm formation in human intestine and promote Shiga-toxin adsorption, but it is not clear whether the AAF/I fimbriae are involved in the colonization and biofilm formation on food and environmental matrices such as the surface of fresh produce. We deleted the gene encoding for the AAF/I fimbriae main subunit (AggA) from an outbreak associated E. coli O104:H4 strain, and evaluated the role of AAF/I fimbriae in the adherence and colonization of E. coli O104:H4 to spinach and abiotic surfaces. The deletion of aggA did not affect the adherence of E. coli O104:H4 to these surfaces. However, it severely diminished the colonization and biofilm formation of E. coli O104:H4 on these surfaces. Strong aggregation and biofilm formation on spinach and abiotic surfaces were observed with the wild type strain but not the isogenic aggA deletion mutant, suggesting that AAF/I fimbriae play a crucial role in persistence of O104:H4 cells outside of the intestines of host species, such as on the surface of fresh produce.

  18. Draft genome sequence of Corynebacterium diphtheriae biovar intermedius NCTC 5011.

    PubMed

    Sangal, Vartul; Tucker, Nicholas P; Burkovski, Andreas; Hoskisson, Paul A

    2012-09-01

    We report an annotated draft genome of the human pathogen Corynebacterium diphtheriae bv. intermedius NCTC 5011. This strain is the first C. diphtheriae bv. intermedius strain to be sequenced, and our results provide a useful comparison to the other primary disease-causing biovars, C. diphtheriae bv. gravis and C. diphtheriae bv. mitis. The sequence has been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank with the accession number AJVH01000000.

  19. Curli fimbria: an Escherichia coli adhesin associated with human cystitis.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Melina Aparecida; Werle, Catierine Hirsch; Milanez, Guilherme Paier; Yano, Tomomasa

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli is the major causative agent of human cystitis. In this study, a preliminary molecular analysis carried out by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) demonstrated that 100% of 31 E. coli strains isolated from patients with recurrent UTIs (urinary tract infections) showed the presence of the curli fimbria gene (csgA). Curli fimbria is known to be associated with bacterial biofilm formation but not with the adhesion of human cystitis-associated E. coli. Therefore, this work aimed to study how curli fimbria is associated with uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) as an adhesion factor. For this purpose, the csgA gene was deleted from strain UPEC-4, which carries three adhesion factor genes (csgA, fimH and ompA). The wild-type UPEC-4 strain and its mutant (ΔcsgA) were analyzed for their adhesion ability over HTB-9 (human bladder carcinoma), Vero (kidney cells of African green monkey) and HUVEC (human umbilical vein) cells in the presence of α-d-mannose. All the wild-type UPEC strains tested (100%) were able to adhere to all three cell types, while the UPEC-4 ΔcsgA mutant lost its adherence to HTB-9 but continued to adhere to the HUVEC and Vero cells. The results suggest that curli fimbria has an important role in the adhesion processes associated with human UPEC-induced cystitis.

  20. Effects of covering behavior and exposure to a predatory crab Charybdis japonica on survival and HSP70 expression of juvenile sea urchins Strongylocentrotus intermedius.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chong; Ji, Nanjing; Zhang, Binglong; Sun, Ping; Feng, Wenping; Wei, Jing; Chang, Yaqing

    2014-01-01

    Predation is a complex process among predator, prey and environment. Juvenile sea urchins are more susceptible to predators than adults, which affects community structure. Behavior is involved in anti-predator responses by changes in the expression of anti-predator responsive genes. Here, we investigated the effects of exposure to a predatory crab Charybdis japonica and covering behavior on survival and HSP70 expression of juvenile sea urchins Strongylocentrotus intermedius. C. japonica consumed large numbers of juvenile S. intermedius in 12 hours with a mortality of 34.17±11.43%. Covering behavior did not significantly reduce predation. Exposure to C. japonica did not significantly upregulate HSP70 expression of juvenile S. intermedius in 12 hours. Covering behavior showed no significant regulative effect on the gene expression of HSP70 of juvenile S. intermedius exposed to C. japonica for 12 hours. The results indicate that the anti-predator function of covering behavior is limited and that HSP70 expression does not appear to play an important role in the anti-predator process of S. intermedius.

  1. Genome Sequence of the Human Abscess Isolate Streptococcus intermedius BA1.

    PubMed

    Planet, Paul J; Rampersaud, Ryan; Hymes, Saul R; Whittier, Susan; Della-Latta, Phyllis A; Narechania, Apurva; Daugherty, Sean C; Santana-Cruz, Ivette; Desalle, Robert; Ravel, Jacques; Ratner, Adam J

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus intermedius is a human pathogen with a propensity for abscess formation. We report a high-quality draft genome sequence of S. intermedius strain BA1, an isolate from a human epidural abscess. This sequence provides insight into the biology of S. intermedius and will aid investigations of pathogenicity.

  2. Isolation and characterization of fimbriae from a sparsely fimbriated strain of Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    PubMed Central

    Sojar, H T; Hamada, N; Genco, R J

    1997-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis W50 (ATCC 53978) possesses the gene for fimbriae; however, the surface-expressed fimbriae are sparse and have not been previously isolated and characterized. We purified fimbriae from strain W50 to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography [H. T. Sojar, N. Hamada, and R. J. Genco, Protein Expr. Purif. 9(1):49-52, 1997]. Negative staining of purified fimbriae viewed by electron microscopy revealed that the fimbriae were identical in diameter to fimbriae of other P. gingivalis strains, such as 2561, but were shorter in length. On sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis, the apparent molecular weight of isolated fimbrillin from strain W50 was found to be identical to that of the fimbrillin molecule of strain 2561. Unlike 2561 fimbriae, W50 fimbriae, under reducing condition, exhibited a monomeric structure on SDS-PAGE at room temperature. However, under nonreduced conditions, even at 100 degrees C, no monomer was observed. In immunoblot analysis as well as immunogold labeling of isolated fimbriae, polyclonal antibodies against 2561 fimbriae, as well as antibodies against peptide I (V-V-M-A-N-T-G-A-M-E-V-G-K-T-L-A-E-V-K-Cys) and peptide J (A-L-T-T-E-L-T-A-E-N-Q-E-A-A-G-L-I-M-T-A-E-P-Cys), reacted. However, antifimbrial antibodies against strain 2561 reacted very weakly compared to anti-peptide I and anti-peptide J. Negative staining of whole W50 cells, as well as immunogold electron microscopy with anti-peptide I and anti-peptide J, showed fimbriae shorter in length and very few in number compared to those of strain 2561. Purified fimbriae showed no hemagglutinating activity. Amino acid composition was very similar to that of previously reported fimbriae of the 2561 strain. PMID:9172351

  3. Role of Fimbriae, Flagella and Cellulose on the Attachment of Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028 to Plant Cell Wall Models.

    PubMed

    Tan, Michelle S F; White, Aaron P; Rahman, Sadequr; Dykes, Gary A

    2016-01-01

    Cases of foodborne disease caused by Salmonella are frequently associated with the consumption of minimally processed produce. Bacterial cell surface components are known to be important for the attachment of bacterial pathogens to fresh produce. The role of these extracellular structures in Salmonella attachment to plant cell walls has not been investigated in detail. We investigated the role of flagella, fimbriae and cellulose on the attachment of Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028 and a range of isogenic deletion mutants (ΔfliC fljB, ΔbcsA, ΔcsgA, ΔcsgA bcsA and ΔcsgD) to bacterial cellulose (BC)-based plant cell wall models [BC-Pectin (BCP), BC-Xyloglucan (BCX) and BC-Pectin-Xyloglucan (BCPX)] after growth at different temperatures (28°C and 37°C). We found that all three cell surface components were produced at 28°C but only the flagella was produced at 37°C. Flagella appeared to be most important for attachment (reduction of up to 1.5 log CFU/cm2) although both cellulose and fimbriae also aided in attachment. The csgD deletion mutant, which lacks both cellulose and fimbriae, showed significantly higher attachment as compared to wild type cells at 37°C. This may be due to the increased expression of flagella-related genes which are also indirectly regulated by the csgD gene. Our study suggests that bacterial attachment to plant cell walls is a complex process involving many factors. Although flagella, cellulose and fimbriae all aid in attachment, these structures are not the only mechanism as no strain was completely defective in its attachment.

  4. Role of Fimbriae, Flagella and Cellulose on the Attachment of Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028 to Plant Cell Wall Models

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Michelle S. F.; White, Aaron P.; Rahman, Sadequr

    2016-01-01

    Cases of foodborne disease caused by Salmonella are frequently associated with the consumption of minimally processed produce. Bacterial cell surface components are known to be important for the attachment of bacterial pathogens to fresh produce. The role of these extracellular structures in Salmonella attachment to plant cell walls has not been investigated in detail. We investigated the role of flagella, fimbriae and cellulose on the attachment of Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028 and a range of isogenic deletion mutants (ΔfliC fljB, ΔbcsA, ΔcsgA, ΔcsgA bcsA and ΔcsgD) to bacterial cellulose (BC)-based plant cell wall models [BC-Pectin (BCP), BC-Xyloglucan (BCX) and BC-Pectin-Xyloglucan (BCPX)] after growth at different temperatures (28°C and 37°C). We found that all three cell surface components were produced at 28°C but only the flagella was produced at 37°C. Flagella appeared to be most important for attachment (reduction of up to 1.5 log CFU/cm2) although both cellulose and fimbriae also aided in attachment. The csgD deletion mutant, which lacks both cellulose and fimbriae, showed significantly higher attachment as compared to wild type cells at 37°C. This may be due to the increased expression of flagella-related genes which are also indirectly regulated by the csgD gene. Our study suggests that bacterial attachment to plant cell walls is a complex process involving many factors. Although flagella, cellulose and fimbriae all aid in attachment, these structures are not the only mechanism as no strain was completely defective in its attachment. PMID:27355584

  5. Comparative Genomics of the Staphylococcus intermedius Group of Animal Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Ben Zakour, Nouri L.; Beatson, Scott A.; van den Broek, Adri H. M.; Thoday, Keith L.; Fitzgerald, J. Ross

    2012-01-01

    The Staphylococcus intermedius group consists of three closely related coagulase-positive bacterial species including S. intermedius, Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, and Staphylococcus delphini. S. pseudintermedius is a major skin pathogen of dogs, which occasionally causes severe zoonotic infections of humans. S. delphini has been isolated from an array of different animals including horses, mink, and pigeons, whereas S. intermedius has been isolated only from pigeons to date. Here we provide a detailed analysis of the S. pseudintermedius whole genome sequence in comparison to high quality draft S. intermedius and S. delphini genomes, and to other sequenced staphylococcal species. The core genome of the SIG was highly conserved with average nucleotide identity (ANI) between the three species of 93.61%, which is very close to the threshold of species delineation (95% ANI), highlighting the close-relatedness of the SIG species. However, considerable variation was identified in the content of mobile genetic elements, cell wall-associated proteins, and iron and sugar transporters, reflecting the distinct ecological niches inhabited. Of note, S. pseudintermedius ED99 contained a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat locus of the Nmeni subtype and S. intermedius contained both Nmeni and Mtube subtypes. In contrast to S. intermedius and S. delphini and most other staphylococci examined to date, S. pseudintermedius contained at least nine predicted reverse transcriptase Group II introns. Furthermore, S. pseudintermedius ED99 encoded several transposons which were largely responsible for its multi-resistant phenotype. Overall, the study highlights extensive differences in accessory genome content between closely related staphylococcal species inhabiting distinct host niches, providing new avenues for research into pathogenesis and bacterial host-adaptation. PMID:22919635

  6. Structure, Function, and Assembly of Type 1 Fimbriae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Stefan D.; Bouckaert, Julie

    Bacterial infections constitute a major global health problem, acutely accentuated by the rapid spread of antibiotic resistant bacterial strains. The widespread need for bacteria to attach - adhere - to target cells before they can initiate an infection may be used to advantage by targeting the bacterial adhesion tools such as pili and fimbriae for development of novel anti-bacterial vaccines and drugs. Type 1 fimbriae are widely expressed by Escherichia coli. and are used by uropathogenic strains to mediate attachment to specific niches in the urinary tract. These fimbriae belong to a class of fibrillar adhesion organelles assembled through the chaperone/usher pathway, one of the terminal branches of the general secretion pathway in Gram-negative bacteria. Our understanding of the assembly, structure and function of these structures has evolved significantly over the last decade. Here, we summarize current understanding of the function and biogenesis of fibrillar adhesion organelles, and provide some examples of recent progress towards interfering with bacterial adhesion as a means to prevent infection.

  7. Streptococcus intermedius liver abscesses and colon cancer: a case report.

    PubMed

    Millichap, J J; McKendrick, A I; Drelichman, V S

    2005-10-01

    Certain species of bacteria are known to be associated with colorectal cancer. We report a case of adenocarcinoma of the colon with bacteraemia and liver abscesses due to Streptococcus intermedius. The isolation of this organism should prompt investigation for colorectal neoplasm, which may be present but asymptomatic, without metastases, and therefore at a curative stage.

  8. Novel Waddlia Intracellular Bacterium in Artibeus intermedius Fruit Bats, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Pierlé, Sebastián Aguilar; Morales, Cirani Obregón; Martínez, Leonardo Perea; Ceballos, Nidia Aréchiga; Rivero, Juan José Pérez; Díaz, Osvaldo López; Brayton, Kelly A.

    2015-01-01

    An intracellular bacterium was isolated from fruit bats (Artibeus intermedius) in Cocoyoc, Mexico. The bacterium caused severe lesions in the lungs and spleens of bats and intracytoplasmic vacuoles in cell cultures. Sequence analyses showed it is related to Waddlia spp. (order Chlamydiales). We propose to call this bacterium Waddlia cocoyoc. PMID:26583968

  9. Biomechanical and Structural Features of CS2 Fimbriae of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Mortezaei, Narges; Singh, Bhupender; Zakrisson, Johan; Bullitt, Esther; Andersson, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are a major cause of diarrhea worldwide, and infection of children in under-developed countries often leads to high mortality rates. Isolated ETEC expresses a plethora of colonization factors (fimbriae/pili), of which CFA/I and CFA/II, which are assembled via the alternate chaperone pathway (ACP), are among the most common. Fimbriae are filamentous structures whose shafts are primarily composed of helically arranged single pilin-protein subunits, with a unique biomechanical ability to unwind and rewind. A sustained ETEC infection, under adverse conditions of dynamic shear forces, is primarily attributed to this biomechanical feature of ETEC fimbriae. Recent understanding about the role of fimbriae as virulence factors points to an evolutionary adaptation of their structural and biomechanical features. In this work, we investigated the biophysical properties of CS2 fimbriae from the CFA/II group. Homology modeling of its major structural subunit, CotA, reveals structural clues related to the niche in which they are expressed. Using optical-tweezers force spectroscopy, we found that CS2 fimbriae unwind at a constant force of 10 pN and have a corner velocity (i.e., the velocity at which the force required for unwinding rises exponentially with increased speed) of 1300 nm/s. The biophysical properties of CS2 fimbriae assessed in this work classify them into a low-force unwinding group of fimbriae together with the CFA/I and CS20 fimbriae expressed by ETEC strains. The three fimbriae are expressed by ETEC, colonize in similar gut environments, and exhibit similar biophysical features, but differ in their biogenesis. Our observation suggests that the environment has a strong impact on the biophysical characteristics of fimbriae expressed by ETEC. PMID:26153701

  10. A possible role of histone-like DNA-binding protein of Streptococcus intermedius in the pathogenesis of bile duct damage in primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Haruta, Ikuko; Kikuchi, Ken; Hashimoto, Etsuko; Kato, Hidehito; Hirota, Katsuhiko; Kobayashi, Makio; Miyake, Yoichiro; Uchiyama, Takehiko; Yagi, Junji; Shiratori, Keiko

    2008-05-01

    Bacterial infection has become a focus of attention in the pathogenesis of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). It was reported that anti-histone autoantibody was detected in PBC, suggesting that bacterial histone-like DNA-binding protein (HLP) may be involved in the pathogenesis of PBC. To identify bacterial species in PBC to confirm this possibility, serum reactivity to bacterial cells was studied by ELISA. The IgM class Streptococcus intermedius titers were significantly higher in PBC than chronic hepatitis due to hepatitis C virus (CH-C) and healthy subjects. Among the streptococci, S. intermedius was selected for further study. The antigenic peptide of S. intermedius of HLP was synthesized to examine the serum reactivity to Si-HLP. IgM class anti-Si-HLP peptide titers were significantly higher in PBC. Immunoreactivity to anti-Si-HLP was detected in the cytoplasm of biliary epithelial cells and inflammatory cells in the portal area in PBC patients' livers. Streptococci, especially S. intermedius, might play a key role in the pathogenesis of PBC, possibly involving HLP.

  11. FimH adhesin of Escherichia coli K1 type 1 fimbriae activates BV-2 microglia

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jongseok; Shin, Sooan; Teng, C.-H.; Hong, Suk Jin; Kim, Kwang Sik . E-mail: kwangkim@jhmi.edu

    2005-09-02

    The generation of intense inflammation in the subarachnoid space in response to meningitis-causing bacteria contributes to brain dysfunction and neuronal injury in bacterial meningitis. Microglia, the major immune effector cells in the central nervous system (CNS), become activated by bacterial components to produce proinflammatory immune mediators. In this study, we showed that FimH adhesin, a tip component of type 1 fimbriae of meningitis-causing Escherichia coli K1, activated the murine microglial cell line, BV-2, which resulted in the production of nitric oxide and the release of tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}. Mitogen-activated protein kinases, ERK and p-38, and nuclear factor-{kappa}B were involved in FimH adhesin-mediated microglial activation. These findings suggest that FimH adhesin contributes to the CNS inflammatory response by virtue of activating microglia in E. coli meningitis.

  12. Effect on polymorphonuclear cell function of a human-specific cytotoxin, intermedilysin, expressed by Streptococcus intermedius.

    PubMed

    Macey, M G; Whiley, R A; Miller, L; Nagamune, H

    2001-10-01

    Streptococcus intermedius is a member of the normal flora of the mouth but is also an opportunistic pathogen associated with purulent infections at oral and nonoral sites. Intermedilysin (ILY) has been shown to be a cytolysin capable of generating pores in the cell membrane of erythrocytes demonstrable by electron microscopy. This effect has been shown to be specific for human cells. Since polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) are the main cell involved in innate immunity we investigated the effect of purified intermedilysin from Streptococcus intermedius on PMN function. Active ILY at a concentration of 40 ng/microl caused a significant decrease in the number of intact PMNs after 60 min. The active cytolysin, when compared with heat-inactivated ILY, did not appear to be chemotactic for the PMNs but did cause an increase in intracellular calcium, with increased cell surface CD11b expression, metabolic burst, and phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus. These findings may have implications for the role of ILY in deep-seated abscesses.

  13. Characterization of fimbriae produced by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Girón, J A; Ho, A S; Schoolnik, G K

    1993-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) express rope-like bundles of filaments, termed bundle-forming pili (BFP) (J. A. Girón, A. S. Y. Ho, and G. K. Schoolnik, Science 254:710-713, 1991). Expression of BFP is associated with localized adherence to HEp-2 cells and the presence of the EPEC adherence factor plasmid. In this study, we describe the identification of rod-like fimbriae and fibrillae expressed simultaneously on the bacterial surface of three prototype EPEC strains. Upon fimbrial extraction from EPEC B171 (O111:NM), three fimbrial subunits with masses of 16.5, 15.5, and 14.7 kDa were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Their N-terminal amino acid sequence showed homology with F9 and F7(2) fimbriae of uropathogenic E. coli and F1845 of diffuse-adhering E. coli, respectively. The mixture of fimbrial subunits (called FB171) exhibited mannose-resistant agglutination of human erythrocytes only, and this activity was not inhibited by alpha-D-Gal(1-4)-beta-Gal disaccharide or any other described receptor analogs for P, S, F, M, G, and Dr hemagglutinins of uropathogenic E. coli, which suggests a different receptor specificity. Hemagglutination was inhibited by extracellular matrix glycoproteins, i.e., collagen type IV, laminin, and fibronectin, and to a lesser extent by gangliosides, fetuin, and asialofetuin. Scanning electron microscopic studies performed on clusters of bacteria adhering to HEp-2 cells revealed the presence of structures resembling BFP and rod-like fimbriae linking bacteria to bacteria and bacteria to the eukaryotic cell membrane. We suggest a role of these surface appendages in the interaction of EPEC with eukaryotic cells as well as in the overall pathogenesis of intestinal disease caused by EPEC. Images PMID:7901197

  14. Structural insight in the inhibition of adherence of F4 fimbriae producing enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli by llama single domain antibodies.

    PubMed

    Moonens, Kristof; Van den Broeck, Imke; Okello, Emmanuel; Pardon, Els; De Kerpel, Maia; Remaut, Han; De Greve, Henri

    2015-02-24

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli that cause neonatal and post-weaning diarrhea in piglets express F4 fimbriae to mediate attachment towards host receptors. Recently we described how llama single domain antibodies (VHHs) fused to IgA, produced in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds and fed to piglets resulted in a progressive decline in shedding of F4 positive ETEC bacteria. Here we present the structures of these inhibiting VHHs in complex with the major adhesive subunit FaeG. A conserved surface, distant from the lactose binding pocket, is targeted by these VHHs, highlighting the possibility of targeting epitopes on single-domain adhesins that are non-involved in receptor binding.

  15. Cloning and expression of hyaluronate lyase genes of Streptococcus intermedius and Streptococcus constellatus subsp. constellatus(1).

    PubMed

    Takao, Ayuko

    2003-02-14

    Hyaluronate lyase (HAase) genes of Streptococcus intermedius and Streptococcus constellatus subsp. constellatus were isolated. In S. constellatus subsp. constellatus, the deduced amino acid sequence of HAase was most similar to that of S. intermedius (68%), whereas the enzyme of S. intermedius was most similar to that of S. pneumoniae (72%). Upstream of the HAase gene on the opposite strands, an open reading frame of a putative glutathione peroxidase started in S. intermedius, and this arrangement was similar to that in S. pneumoniae but unlike that in S. constellatus subsp. constellatus. Cell lysates of Escherichia coli carrying each streptococcal gene showed HAase activity, demonstrating that each cloned gene actually coded for HAase.

  16. Streptococcus intermedius: an unusual cause of a primary empyema.

    PubMed

    Iskandar, Said B; Al Hasan, Muhanad A; Roy, Thomas M; Byrd, Ryland P

    2006-02-01

    Despite the evolution of modern antibiotics, pleural space infection remains a common illness with significant morbidity and mortality. Every year up to 60 percent of the 1.2 million patients in the United States who present with community-acquired pneumonia develop parapneumonic pleural effusions. Few of these parapneumonic effusions progress to an empyema. Interestingly, in about 10 percent of the cases of empyema, no underlying pulmonary infection can be identified. These pleural space infections are called primary empyemas. We present a patient with a primary empyema caused by Streptococcus intermedius. Relatively few studies have investigated primary empyema caused Streptococcus intermedius. This case presentation serves as a reminder to the clinician about primary empyema caused by this micro-organism.

  17. A case of multiple empyema caused by Streptococcus intermedius.

    PubMed

    Kaga, Akihito; Higo, Ryuzaburo; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi; Yokoi, Naoko; Haruyama, Takuo; Komatsu, Hiroaki; Yabe, Ayumi; Kusunoki, Takeshi; Ikeda, Katsuhisa

    2016-11-29

    We report the case of a patient with multiple empyema present throughout his body, including chronic sinusitis and chronic suppurative otitis media, as well as subsequent epidural empyema, all caused by Streptococcus intermedius. A 38-year-old man presented with chief complaints of headache, left ear discharge, and nasal congestion. Imaging studies revealed pansinusitis, soft tissue signs in the mastoid cells, and otitis media. The patient was treated with meropenem hydrate, 6g/day. While clinical findings indicated improvement of the sinusitis, his headache did not improve. Further examination with contrast computerized tomography (CT) 'a chest radiography' blood cultures were performed, and the patient was diagnosed with multiple empyema (with an epidural empyema, pulmonary suppuration) caused by S. intermedius. Subsequent burr hole drainage was implemented to drain the epidural empyema. Long-term administration was required to treat pulmonary suppuration. While they remain rare, there has been a recent upward trend in the frequency of cases in which a young, previously healthy patient has developed multiple empyema throughout their body despite the absence of complicating diseases that pose an immune deficiency risk, such as diabetes or infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In order to properly diagnose and treat patients presenting with multiple empyema infection with S. intermedius should be included in the differential diagnosis.

  18. Bacterial fimbriae stimulate proinflammatory activation in the endothelium through distinct TLRs.

    PubMed

    Davey, Michael; Liu, Xinyan; Ukai, Takashi; Jain, Vishal; Gudino, Cynthia; Gibson, Frank C; Golenbock, Douglas; Visintin, Alberto; Genco, Caroline A

    2008-02-15

    The major and minor fimbriae proteins produced by the human pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis are required for invasion of human aortic endothelial cells and for the stimulation of potent inflammatory responses. In this study, we report that native forms of both the major and minor fimbriae proteins bind to and signal through TLR2 for this response. Major and minor fimbriae bound to a human TLR2:Fc chimeric protein with an observed K(d) of 28.9 nM and 61.7 nM, respectively. Direct binding of the major and minor fimbriae to a human chimeric CD14-Fc protein also established specific binding of the major and minor fimbriae to CD14 with classic saturation kinetics. Using a P. gingivalis major and minor fimbriae mutant, we confirmed that TLR2 binding in whole cells is dependent on the expression of the major and minor fimbriae. Although we did not observe binding with the major or minor fimbriae to the TLR4-Fc chimeric protein, signaling through TLR4 for both proteins was demonstrated in human embryonic kidney 293 cells transfected with TLR4 and only in the presence MD-2. Transient transfection of dominant-negative forms of TLR2 or TLR4 reduced IL-8 production by human aortic endothelial cells following stimulation with major or minor fimbriae. The ability of two well-defined microbe-associated molecular patterns to select for innate immune recognition receptors based on accessory proteins may provide a novel way for a pathogen to sense and signal in appropriate host environments.

  19. Type 1 Fimbriae, a Colonization Factor of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli, Are Controlled by the Metabolic Sensor CRP-cAMP

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Claudia M.; Åberg, Anna; Straseviçiene, Jurate; Emődy, Levente; Uhlin, Bernt Eric; Balsalobre, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Type 1 fimbriae are a crucial factor for the virulence of uropathogenic Escherichia coli during the first steps of infection by mediating adhesion to epithelial cells. They are also required for the consequent colonization of the tissues and for invasion of the uroepithelium. Here, we studied the role of the specialized signal transduction system CRP-cAMP in the regulation of type 1 fimbriation. Although initially discovered by regulating carbohydrate metabolism, the CRP-cAMP complex controls a major regulatory network in Gram-negative bacteria, including a broad subset of genes spread into different functional categories of the cell. Our results indicate that CRP-cAMP plays a dual role in type 1 fimbriation, affecting both the phase variation process and fimA promoter activity, with an overall repressive outcome on fimbriation. The dissection of the regulatory pathway let us conclude that CRP-cAMP negatively affects FimB-mediated recombination by an indirect mechanism that requires DNA gyrase activity. Moreover, the underlying studies revealed that CRP-cAMP controls the expression of another global regulator in Gram-negative bacteria, the leucine-responsive protein Lrp. CRP-cAMP-mediated repression is limiting the switch from the non-fimbriated to the fimbriated state. Consistently, a drop in the intracellular concentration of cAMP due to altered physiological conditions (e.g. growth in presence of glucose) increases the percentage of fimbriated cells in the bacterial population. We also provide evidence that the repression of type 1 fimbriae by CRP-cAMP occurs during fast growth conditions (logarithmic phase) and is alleviated during slow growth (stationary phase), which is consistent with an involvement of type 1 fimbriae in the adaptation to stress conditions by promoting biofilm growth or entry into host cells. Our work suggests that the metabolic sensor CRP-cAMP plays a role in coupling the expression of type 1 fimbriae to environmental conditions, thereby

  20. Characteristics of palindromic sequences in DNA of the sea urchin Stronglyocentrotus intermedius

    SciTech Connect

    Brykov, V.A.; Kukhlevskii, A.D.

    1986-03-20

    The fraction of palindromic sequences in the nuclear DNA of the sea urchin S. intermedius was characterized. Using chromatography on hydroxyapatite and treatment with S1 nuclease, it was shown that the fraction of palindromic sequences more than doubles when the sodium concentration in solution is increased or the temperature of reassociation is lowered. The increase is due to the involvement of inverted repeats in reassociation, which are characterized by a substantial nonhomologous character and/or the presence of an extended intervening DNA sequence. It was found by the method of reassociation of a nicked palindrome fraction with an excess of total homologous DNA that most of the inverted repeats in the sea urchin genome are unique sequences. The complexity of the palindrome fraction was estimated at 8.2 x 10/sup 7/ nucleotide pairs, and the number of palindromes per haploid genome approx. 500,000.

  1. Expression of Pigment Cell-Specific Genes in the Ontogenesis of the Sea Urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius

    PubMed Central

    Ageenko, Natalya V.; Kiselev, Konstantin V.; Odintsova, Nelly A.

    2011-01-01

    One of the polyketide compounds, the naphthoquinone pigment echinochrome, is synthesized in sea urchin pigment cells. We analyzed polyketide synthase (pks) and sulfotransferase (sult) gene expression in embryos and larvae of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius from various stages of development and in specific tissues of the adults. We observed the highest level of expression of the pks and sult genes at the gastrula stage. In unfertilized eggs, only trace amounts of the pks and sult transcripts were detected, whereas no transcripts of these genes were observed in spermatozoids. The addition of shikimic acid, a precursor of naphthoquinone pigments, to zygotes and embryos increased the expression of the pks and sult genes. Our findings, including the development of specific conditions to promote pigment cell differentiation of embryonic sea urchin cells in culture, represent a definitive study on the molecular signaling pathways that are involved in the biosynthesis of pigments during sea urchin development. PMID:21804858

  2. Innate immune-stimulatory activity of Porphyromonas gingivalis fimbriae is eliminated by phase separation using Triton X-114.

    PubMed

    Nozoe, Kohji; Sanui, Terukazu; Takeshita, Masaaki; Fukuda, Takao; Haraguchi, Akira; Aida, Yoshitomi; Nishimura, Fusanori

    2017-02-01

    Fimbriae are virulence factors of Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis). In this study, the action of fimbriae on neutrophil respiratory burst and cytokine production by mononuclear cells (MNC) were investigated. Native or denatured form of purified P. gingivalis fimbriae contained endotoxin at an equivalence of 1-3μglipopolysaccharides(LPS)/mg protein. The endotoxin could be reduced to the equivalent of 1ng-LPS/mg protein by phase separation using Triton X-114. Unfractionated fimbriae caused serum-dependent priming of neutrophils for enhanced respiratory burst, but both native and denatured forms of Triton X-114-fractionated fimbriae were not active at 100μg/mL. Unfractionated fimbriae induced serum-dependent production of IL-1β by MNC. Triton X-114-fractionated fimbriae (10μg/mL)-induced production of IL-1β, IL-8 or TNF-α was much lower than that induced by unfractionated fimbriae or 10ng/mL P. gingivalis-LPS preparation. Triton X-114-fractionated fimbriae immobilized on polystyrene tubes induced adhesion-stimulated superoxide release by LPS-primed neutrophils in a β2 integrin-dependent manner. P. gingivalis cells caused priming of neutrophils; however, Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 antagonists did not affect this response. Thus, P. gingivalis fimbriae were ineffective in inducing innate immune response in leukocytes; however, they induced β2 integrin-mediated response by neutrophils. Immune-stimulatory components of P. gingivalis might be recognized by receptors other than TLR4.

  3. How type 1 fimbriae help Escherichia coli to evade extracellular antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Avalos Vizcarra, Ima; Hosseini, Vahid; Kollmannsberger, Philip; Meier, Stefanie; Weber, Stefan S.; Arnoldini, Markus; Ackermann, Martin; Vogel, Viola

    2016-01-01

    To survive antibiotics, bacteria use two different strategies: counteracting antibiotic effects by expression of resistance genes or evading their effects e.g. by persisting inside host cells. Since bacterial adhesins provide access to the shielded, intracellular niche and the adhesin type 1 fimbriae increases bacterial survival chances inside macrophages, we asked if fimbriae also influenced survival by antibiotic evasion. Combined gentamicin survival assays, flow cytometry, single cell microscopy and kinetic modeling of dose response curves showed that type 1 fimbriae increased the adhesion and internalization by macrophages. This was caused by strongly decreased off-rates and affected the number of intracellular bacteria but not the macrophage viability and morphology. Fimbriae thus promote antibiotic evasion which is particularly relevant in the context of chronic infections. PMID:26728082

  4. Spatial and Temporal Deposition of Adhesive Extracellular Polysaccharide Capsule and Fimbriae by Hyphomonas Strain MHS-3

    PubMed Central

    Quintero, Ernesto J.; Busch, Kathryn; Weiner, Ronald M.

    1998-01-01

    Hyphomonas strain MHS-3, a member of a genus of primary colonizers of surfaces immersed in marine water, synthesizes two structures that mediate adhesion to solid substrata, namely, capsular exopolysaccharide and fimbriae. Specific stains, gold-labelled lectins, and monoclonal antibodies, along with transmission electron microscopy of synchronized populations, revealed that both structures are polarly and temporally expressed. The timed synthesis and placement of the fimbriae and capsule correlated with the timing and locus of MHS-3 adhesion. PMID:16349537

  5. Fimbriae and lipopolysaccharides are necessary for co-aggregation between Lactobacilli and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Kouhei; Furukawa, Soichi; Usui, Yumi; Ishiba, Madoka; Ogihara, Hirokazu; Morinaga, Yasushi

    2014-01-01

    Cells of Lactobacilli co-aggregated with Escherichia coli K-12 cells to form co-aggregates under mixed-culture conditions at 37 °C for 24 h. Co-aggregation was inhibited by sodium dodecyl sulfate but not by protease. E. coli deletion mutants of fimbriae formation and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) formation did not co-aggregate with Lactobacilli. These results showed that fimbriae and LPS are necessary for co-aggregation between Lactobacilli and E. coli.

  6. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli pathogenesis: role of Long polar fimbriae in Peyer’s patches interactions

    PubMed Central

    Cordonnier, Charlotte; Etienne-Mesmin, Lucie; Thévenot, Jonathan; Rougeron, Amandine; Rénier, Sandra; Chassaing, Benoit; Darfeuille-Michaud, Arlette; Barnich, Nicolas; Blanquet-Diot, Stéphanie; Livrelli, Valérie

    2017-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are major food-borne pathogens whose survival and virulence in the human digestive tract remain unclear owing to paucity of relevant models. EHEC interact with the follicle-associated epithelium of Peyer’s patches of the distal ileum and translocate across the intestinal epithelium via M-cells, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are still unknown. Here, we investigated the involvement of Long polar fimbriae (Lpf) in EHEC pathogenesis. Of the 236 strains tested, a significant association was observed between the presence of lpf operons and pathogenicity. In sophisticated in vitro models of the human gastro-intestinal tract, lpf expression was induced during transit through the simulated stomach and small intestine, but not in the colonic compartment. To investigate the involvement of Lpf in EHEC pathogenesis, lpf isogenic mutants and their relative trans-complemented strains were generated. Translocation across M-cells, interactions with murine ileal biopsies containing Peyer’s patches and the number of hemorrhagic lesions were significantly reduced with the lpf mutants compared to the wild-type strain. Complementation of lpf mutants fully restored the wild-type phenotypes. Our results indicate that (i) EHEC might colonize the terminal ileum at the early stages of infection, (ii) Lpf are an important player in the interactions with Peyer’s patches and M-cells, and could contribute to intestinal colonization. PMID:28317910

  7. Role of Streptococcus intermedius DnaK chaperone system in stress tolerance and pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Tomoyasu, Toshifumi; Tabata, Atsushi; Imaki, Hidenori; Tsuruno, Keigo; Miyazaki, Aya; Sonomoto, Kenji; Whiley, Robert Alan; Nagamune, Hideaki

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus intermedius is a facultatively anaerobic, opportunistic pathogen that causes purulent infections and abscess formation. The DnaK chaperone system has been characterized in several pathogenic bacteria and seems to have important functions in stress resistance and pathogenicity. However, the role of DnaK in S. intermedius remains unclear. Therefore, we constructed a dnaK knockout mutant that exhibited slow growth, thermosensitivity, accumulation of GroEL in the cell, and reduced cytotoxicity to HepG2 cells. The level of secretion of a major pathogenic factor, intermedilysin, was not affected by dnaK mutation. We further examined the function and property of the S. intermedius DnaK chaperone system by using Escherichia coli ΔdnaK and ΔrpoH mutant strains. S. intermedius DnaK could not complement the thermosensitivity of E. coli ΔdnaK mutant. However, the intact S. intermedius DnaK chaperone system could complement the thermosensitivity and acid sensitivity of E. coli ΔdnaK mutant. The S. intermedius DnaK chaperone system could regulate the activity and stability of the heat shock transcription factor σ(32) in E. coli, although S. intermedius does not utilize σ(32) for heat shock transcription. The S. intermedius DnaK chaperone system was also able to efficiently eliminate the aggregated proteins from ΔrpoH mutant cells. Overall, our data showed that the S. intermedius DnaK chaperone system has important functions in quality control of cellular proteins but has less participation in the modulation of expression of pathogenic factors.

  8. Evidence that Porphyromonas (Bacteroides) gingivalis fimbriae function in adhesion to Actinomyces viscosus.

    PubMed Central

    Goulbourne, P A; Ellen, R P

    1991-01-01

    Porphyromonas (Bacteroides) gingivalis adheres to gram-positive bacteria, such as Actinomyces viscosus, when colonizing the tooth surface. However, little is known of the adhesins responsible for this interaction. A series of experiments were performed to determine whether P. gingivalis fimbriae function in its coadhesion with A. viscosus. Fimbriae typical of P. gingivalis were isolated from strain 2561 (ATCC 33277) by the method of Yoshimura et al. (F. Yoshimura, K. Takahashi, Y. Nodasaka, and T. Suzuki, J. Bacteriol. 160:949-957, 1984) in fractions enriched with a 40-kDa subunit, the fimbrillin monomer, P. gingivalis-A. viscosus coaggregation was inhibited by purified rabbit antifimbrial immunoglobulin G (IgG) at dilutions eightfold higher than those of preimmune IgG, providing indirect evidence implicating P. gingivalis fimbriae in coadhesion. Three types of direct binding assays further supported this observation. (i) Mixtures of isolated P. gingivalis fimbriae and A. viscosus WVU627 cells were incubated for 1 h, washed vigorously with phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.2), and subjected to electrophoresis. Transblots onto nitrocellulose were probed with antifimbrial antiserum. Fimbrillin labeled positively on these blots. No reaction occurred with the control protein, porcine serum albumin, when blots were exposed to anti-porcine serum albumin, (ii) A. viscosus cells incubated with P. gingivalis fimbriae were agglutinated only after the addition of antifimbrial antibodies. (iii) Binding curves generated from an enzyme immunoassay demonstrated concentration-dependent binding of P. gingivalis fimbriae to A. viscosus cells. From these lines of evidence, P. gingivalis fimbriae appear to be capable of binding to A. viscosus and mediating the coadhesion of these species. Images PMID:1679428

  9. Prevalence of the parasitic copepod Haemobaphes intermedius on juvenile buffalo sculpins from Washington State

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halpenny, C.M.; Kocan, R.M.; Hershberger, P.K.

    2004-01-01

    The parasitic copepod, Haemobaphes intermedius, was detected in 62% of juvenile buffalo sculpins Enophrys bison, a previously unreported host, from the San Juan Islands archipelago in Washington State. Most infestations were characterized by the presence of a single female copepod infestations with multiple H. intermedius occurred either unilaterally or bilaterally in 29% of parasitized individuals. Impaired condition of parasitized hosts was indicated by significantly lower total lengths and weights (34.9 mm; 1.6 g) than in unparasitized cohorts (38.9 mm; 2.1 g). Host specificity was indicated by the failure to detect H. intermedius in 43 sympatric great sculpins Myoxocephalus polyacanthocephalus from the same location.

  10. Role of overexpressed CFA/I fimbriae in bacterial swimming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Ling; Suo, Zhiyong; Lim, Timothy; Jun, SangMu; Deliorman, Muhammedin; Riccardi, Carol; Kellerman, Laura; Avci, Recep; Yang, Xinghong

    2012-06-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli CFA/I is a protective antigen and has been overexpressed in bacterial vectors, such as Salmonella Typhimurium H683, to generate vaccines. Effects that overexpressed CFA/I may engender on the bacterial host remain largely unexplored. To investigate, we constructed a high CFA/I expression strain, H683-pC2, and compared it to a low CFA/I expression strain, H683-pC, and to a non-CFA/I expression strain, H683-pY. The results showed that H683-pC2 was less able to migrate into semisolid agar (0.35%) than either H683-pC or H683-pY. Bacteria that migrated showed motility halo sizes of H683-pC2 < H683-pC < H683-pY. In the liquid culture media, H683-pC2 cells precipitated to the bottom of the tube, while those of H683-pY did not. In situ imaging revealed that H683-pC2 bacilli tended to auto-agglutinate within the semisolid agar, while H683-pY bacilli did not. When the cfaBE fimbrial fiber encoding genes were deleted from pC2, the new plasmid, pC2(-), significantly recovered bacterial swimming capability. Our study highlights the negative impact of overexpressed CFA/I fimbriae on bacterial swimming motility.

  11. The first closed genome sequence of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis biovar intermedius

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter fetus venerealis biovar intermedius is a variant of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis, the causative agent of Bovine Genital Campylobacteriosis. In contrast to Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis which is restricted to the genital tract of cattle, Campylobacter fetus subsp. vener...

  12. Prophylactic efficacy of four antibacterial shampoos against Staphylococcus intermedius in dogs.

    PubMed

    Kwochka, K W; Kowalski, J J

    1991-01-01

    Prophylactic efficacy of 4 antibacterial shampoos against Staphylococcus intermedius in dogs was determined by use of a controlled quantitative technique. Ten adult Beagles were used in the study. The antibacterial agents in the shampoos were 3.0% benzoyl peroxide, 0.5% chlorhexidine acetate, 1.0% available iodine as a polyalkyleneglycol-iodine complex, and a combination of 0.5% triclosan, 2.0% sulfur, and 2.0% salicylic acid. Treated and control sites were challenge exposed with 5.30 +/- 0.10 (log10) S intermedius colony-forming units (CFU)/cm2 of skin and occluded for 5 hours. At the end of the test period, remaining bacteria were removed with a detergent cup-scrub technique and the total number of S intermedius CFU/cm2 skin was calculated for each treated and control site. Nontreated bacteria-challenged control sites yielded 5.62 +/- 0.65 S intermedius CFU/cm2 of skin. Staphylococcus intermedius recovery (CFU/cm2) from the treated sites was 0.94 +/- 0.76 for benzoyl peroxide, 1.96 +/- 1.33 for chlorhexidine acetate, 3.11 +/- 0.48 for organic iodine, and 4.69 +/- 0.23 for triclosan-sulfur-salicylic acid. Each S intermedius recovery value from the 4 treated sites was significantly (P less than 0.05) lower than that from the nontreated S intermedius challenge-exposed control site. Bacteria recovery values were also significantly (P less than 0.05) different among the 4 shampoo-treated sites. We concluded that all shampoos had significant (P less than 0.05) prophylactic activity against S intermedius over 5 hours. The shampoo containing benzoyl peroxide was determined to have the greatest efficacy among the products tested.

  13. Characterization of type 1 and mannose-resistant fimbriae of Erwinia spp.

    PubMed Central

    Korhonen, T K; Kalkkinen, N; Haahtela, K; Old, D C

    1987-01-01

    Type 1 fimbriae from Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora and mannose-resistant fimbriae from Erwinia rhapontici were purified and characterized. The type 1 fimbrillin had an apparent molecular weight of 16,500; that of the mannose-resistant fimbrillin was 18,000. The amino-terminal amino acid sequences of the two fimbrillins were related, but tryptic peptide maps showed significant differences between the proteins. No serological cross-reaction was found between the two fimbrial filaments, nor did they cross-react with type 1 or type 3 fimbriae purified from other enterobacterial species. Immunofluorescent staining of bacterial populations revealed that they were heterogeneous with respect to fimbriation. Images PMID:2883172

  14. Functional differences of Porphyromonas gingivalis Fimbriae in determining periodontal disease pathogenesis: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Sandra; Contreras, Adolfo

    2013-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is implicated in chronic and aggressive periodontitis. This bacterium has numerous virulence factors and one is the Fimbriae, which is quite important for bacterial colonization. Fimbriae are appendices that anchor to the bacterial wall and are comprised of the protein FimBriline encoded by the FimA gene. Thus far, six genotypes have been identified, FimA I to V and Ib. Genotypes II and IV are associated with periodontal disease, while genotype I is related to gingival health. Genotype identification of P. gingivalis FimA in periodontitis would be important to confirm the pathogenic genotypes and to establish risk at population level. This review is about the P. gingivalis FimA genotype prevalence worldwide. A systematic search using Pubmed, Hinary, and Science Direct within the following descriptors: Porphyromonas gingivalis, bacterial adhesion, periodontitis, Fimbriae, FimA, genotipification was performed to April 2011.

  15. Functional differences of Porphyromonas gingivalis Fimbriae in determining periodontal disease pathogenesis: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Contreras, Adolfo

    2013-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is implicated in chronic and aggressive periodontitis. This bacterium has numerous virulence factors and one is the Fimbriae, which is quite important for bacterial colonization. Fimbriae are appendices that anchor to the bacterial wall and are comprised of the protein FimBriline encoded by the FimA gene. Thus far, six genotypes have been identified, FimA I to V and Ib. Genotypes II and IV are associated with periodontal disease, while genotype I is related to gingival health. Genotype identification of P. gingivalis FimA in periodontitis would be important to confirm the pathogenic genotypes and to establish risk at population level. This review is about the P. gingivalis FimA genotype prevalence worldwide. A systematic search using Pubmed, Hinary, and Science Direct within the following descriptors: Porphyromonas gingivalis, bacterial adhesion, periodontitis, Fimbriae, FimA, genotipification was performed to April 2011. PMID:24892323

  16. Splenic abscess in an infant caused by Streptococcus intermedius.

    PubMed

    Matsubayashi, Tadashi; Matsubayashi, Rie; Saito, Isamu; Tobayama, Shigeo; Machida, Hiromichi

    2007-12-01

    We report a 20-month-old girl with splenic abscess. The patient was admitted to our hospital because of persistent high fever and abdominal pain. Laboratory data showed leucocytosis and elevated C-reactive protein levels. Abdominal computed tomography showed multiple low-density lesions in the spleen. These findings were consistent with a diagnosis of splenic abscess. She was successfully treated with ultrasonographically guided percutaneous drainage for 11 days and intravenous antibiotic for 17 days. On culture, aspirated fluid from the abscess grew Streptococcus intermedius. This case illustrates that the differential diagnosis of unknown-focus infection in infants should include splenic abscess. We recommend conservative therapy (antibiotics and drainage) as first-line therapy for splenic abscess in pediatric patients, based on the importance of the immunological functions of the spleen.

  17. P-fimbriae in the presence of anti-PapA antibodies: new insight of antibodies action against pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortezaei, Narges; Singh, Bhupender; Bullitt, Esther; Uhlin, Bernt Eric; Andersson, Magnus

    2013-12-01

    Uropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli establish urinary tract infections by attaching to host epithelial cells using adhesive organelles called fimbriae. Fimbriae are helix-like structures with a remarkable adaptability, offering safeguarding for bacteria exposed to changing fluid forces in the urinary tract. We challenged this property of P-fimbriae by cross-linking their subunits with shaft-specific antibodies and measuring the corresponding force response at a single organelle level. Our data show compromised extension and rewinding of P-fimbriae in the presence of antibodies and reduced fimbrial elasticity, which are important properties of fimbriae contributing to the ability of bacteria to cause urinary tract infections. The reduced elasticity found by cross-linking fimbrial subunits could thus be another assignment for antibodies; in addition to marking bacteria as foreign, antibodies physically compromise fimbrial function. We suggest that our assay and results will be a starting point for further investigations aimed at inhibiting sustained bacterial adhesion by antibodies.

  18. Expressive aphasia caused by Streptococcus intermedius brain abscess in an immunocompetent patient

    PubMed Central

    Khaja, Misbahuddin; Adler, Darryl; Lominadze, George

    2017-01-01

    Background Brain abscess is an uncommon but life-threatening infection. It involves a focal, intracerebral infection that begins in a localized area of cerebritis and develops into a collection of pus, surrounded by a well-vascularized capsule. Brain abscess still poses a significant problem in developing countries but rarely in developed countries. Predisposing factors vary in different parts of the world. With the introduction of antibiotics and imaging studies, the mortality rate has decreased between 5% and 15%. If left untreated it may lead to serious neurologic sequelae. The temporal lobe abscess can be caused by conditions like sinusitis, otitis media, dental infections, and mastoiditis if left untreated or partially treated. Additionally, in neurosurgical procedures like craniotomy, the external ventricular drain can get infected, leading to abscess formation. Case presentation We present the case study of an elderly female patient who presented with expressive aphasia caused by brain abscess, secondary to Streptococcus intermedius infection. The 72-year-old female with a medical history of hypertension came to hospital for evaluation with word-finding difficulty, an expressive aphasia that began a few days prior to presentation. Computed tomography of the head showed a left temporal lobe mass-like lesion, with surrounding vasogenic edema. The patient was empirically started on courses of antibiotics. The next day, she was subjected to magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, which showed a left temporal lobe septated rim-enhancing mass lesion, with bright restricted diffusion and diffuse surrounding vasogenic edema consistent with abscess. The patient was also seen by the neurosurgery department and underwent stereotactic, left temporal craniotomy, with drainage, and resection of abscess. Tissue culture grew S. intermedius sensitive to ampicillin sulbactam. Subsequently her expressive aphasia improved. Conclusion Brain abscess has a high mortality, however

  19. Sialidase of Streptococcus intermedius: a putative virulence factor modifying sugar chains.

    PubMed

    Takao, Ayuko; Nagamune, Hideaki; Maeda, Nobuko

    2010-10-01

    A sialidase gene of Streptococcus intermedius was cloned. It was most similar to nanA, a major sialidase gene in Streptococcus pneumoniae, and was expressed in Escherichia coli. Since the gene-knockout S. intermedius strain lost detectable sialidase activity, the gene might code, either solely or mainly, the glycosidase in the bacterial genome. Polymerase chain reaction using the primers for the nanA homologue in S. intermedius (described as nanA below) showed that this sialidase gene was commonly distributed within the isolates of S. intermedius, but not found in the strains of other species among the anginosus group. In biofilm formation assay under cultivation with mucin, the nanA-deleted S. intermedius maintained the amount of biofilm for 72 hr, while that of the parent strain decreased during incubation from 24 to 72 hr. Since sialidase activity in the parent strain increased during that time period, sialidase might contribute to the degradation of biofilm under sialic acid-rich conditions. When S. intermedius was added into the HepG2 hepatoma culture, the calculated disassociation constant (K(d)) of EDTA-releasable bacterial adhesion to the cells was higher in the nanA-deleted strain than in the parent. Furthermore, the rate constant, assuming endocytosis of the bacterium mediated by ASGP-R in HepG2 cells, seemed to be increased by sialidase pretreatment of the bacterial cells before addition to the cell culture. According to the results, modification of sugar chains by sialidase on the bacterial surface and in the surrounding environment might influence both bacterial interaction and host-bacterial interaction in S. intermedius.

  20. Genetic variability between complete mitochondrion genomes of the sablefish, Anoplopoma fimbria (Pallas, 1814).

    PubMed

    Galván-Tirado, Carolina; Del Río-Portilla, Miguel Angel; Delgado-Vega, Rigoberto; García-De León, Francisco J

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the sablefish, Anoplopoma fimbria (Genbank accession KP777542) is 16,507 bp in size and contains the typical 37 genes (13 protein-coding, 2 ribosomal RNA, and 22 transfer RNA) found in teleosts mitogenomes. The genome varies in 118 positions with respect to another mitogenome sablefish specimen.

  1. Long polar fimbriae contribute to colonization by Escherichia coli O157:H7 in vivo.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Dianna M; Cornick, Nancy; Torres, Alfredo G; Dean-Nystrom, Evelyn A; Kaper, James B; Moon, Harley W

    2004-10-01

    The contribution of long polar fimbriae to intestinal colonization by Escherichia coli O157:H7 was evaluated in sheep, conventional pigs, and gnotobiotic piglets. E. coli O157:H7 strains with lpfA1 and lpfA2 mutated were recovered in significantly lower numbers and caused fewer attachment and effacement lesions than the parent strain.

  2. Isolation of immune-relating 185/333-1 gene from Sea Urchin ( Strongylocentrotus intermedius) and Its expression analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yinan; Ding, Jun; Liu, Yang; Liu, Xuewei; Chang, Yaqing

    2016-02-01

    The 185/333 gene family involved in the immune response of sea urchin. One 185/333 cDNA was isolated from Strongylocentrotus intermedius, and named as Si185/333-1. Its full-length cDNA was 1246 bp in length with a 906 bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 301 aa. The molecular weight of the deduced protein was approximately 33.1 kD with an estimated PI of pH 6.26. Si185/333-1 had high identities (70%-86%) to most of Sp185/333. An extraordinary identity of 92% was found between Si185/333-1 and Sp185/333 C5 alpha (ABR22474). Moderate identities (63%-64%) were displayed between Si185/333-1 and He185/333. Si185/333-1 had similar structure to Sp185/333. A signal-peptide, a gly-rich region and a his-rich region were found in its secondary structure. RGD motif was found in gly-rich region at position 116-118aa. There was no transmembrane region in Si185/333-1. The element pattern of Si185/333-1 is different from any available pattern that identified in Sp185/333. Si185/333-1 clustered together with pattern C Sp185/333 in phylogenetic tree. The Si185/333-1 mRNA could be detected in tißsues including peristomial membrane, coelomocytes, muscle of Aristotles lantern, gut and tube feet, with the highest expression level detected in peristomial membrane and a relatively low expression in ovary and testis. The temporal expression of Si185/333-1 in peristomial membrane and coelomocytes were up-regulated after bacterial, ß-D-glucan and dsRNA challenges, reaching the maximum at 12 h post-stimulation. The up-regulation was more obvious in coelomocytes, and bacterial challenge triggered the highest response. These results proved that 185/333-1 gene was involved in the immune defense of S. intermedius, while more studies were necessary for its function in S. intermedius immunity.

  3. Salmonella enteritidis fimbriae displaying a heterologous epitope reveal a uniquely flexible structure and assembly mechanism.

    PubMed

    White, A P; Collinson, S K; Banser, P A; Dolhaine, D J; Kay, W W

    2000-02-18

    Two distinct Salmonella fimbrins, AgfA and SefA, comprising thin aggregative fimbriae SEF17 and SEF14, respectively, were each genetically engineered to carry PT3, an alpha-helical 16-amino acid Leishmania T-cell epitope derived from the metalloprotease gp63. To identify regions within AgfA and SefA fimbrins amenable to replacement with this epitope, PCR-generated chimeric fimbrin genes were constructed and used to replace the native chromosomal agfA and sefA genes in Salmonella enteritidis. Immunoblot analysis using anti-SEF17 and anti-PT3 sera demonstrated that all ten AgfA chimeric fimbrin proteins were expressed by S. enteritidis under normal growth conditions. Immunoelectron microscopy confirmed that eight of the AgfA::PT3 proteins were effectively assembled into cell surface-exposed fimbriae. The PT3 replacements in AgfA altered Congo red (CR) binding, cell-cell adhesion and cell surface properties of S. enteritidis to varying degrees. However, these chimeric fimbriae were still highly stable, being resistant to proteinase K digestion and requiring harsh formic acid treatment for depolymerization. In marked contrast to AgfA, none of the chimeric SefA proteins were expressed or assembled into fimbriae. Since each PT3 replacement constituted over 10% of the AgfA amino acid sequence and all ten replacements collectively represented greater than 75% of the entire AgfA primary sequence, the ability of AgfA to accept large sequence substitutions and still assemble into fibers is unique among fimbriae and other structural proteins. This structural flexibility may be related to the novel fivefold repeating sequence of AgfA and its recently proposed structure Proper formation of chimeric fimbrial fibers suggests an unusual assembly mechanism for thin aggregative fimbriae which tolerates aberrant structures. This study opens a range of possibilities for Salmonella thin aggregative fimbriae as a carrier of heterologous epitopes and as an experimental model for studies

  4. Porphyromonas gingivalis fimbriae dampen P2X7-dependent IL-1β secretion

    PubMed Central

    Morandini, Ana Carolina; Ramos-Junior, Erivan S.; Potempa, Jan; Nguyen, Ky-Anh; Oliveira, Ana Carolina; Bellio, Maria; Ojcius, David M.; Scharfstein, Julio; Coutinho-Silva, Robson

    2014-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major contributor to the pathogenesis of periodontitis, an infection-driven inflammatory disease that leads to bone destruction. This pathogen stimulates pro-IL-1β synthesis but not mature IL-1β secretion, unless the P2X7 receptor is activated by extracellular ATP. Here, we investigated the role of Pg fimbriae in eATP-induced IL-1β release. Bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs) from wild type (WT) or P2X7-deficient mice were infected with Pg (strain 381) or isogenic fimbriae deficient (strain DPG3) with or without subsequent eATP stimulation. DPG3 induced higher IL-1β secretion after eATP stimulation compared to 381 in WT BMDMs, but not in P2X7-deficient cells. This mechanism was dependent of K+ efflux and Ca2+-iPLA2 activity. Accordingly, non-fimbriated Pg failed to inhibit apoptosis via eATP/P2X7-pathway. Furthermore, Pg-driven stimulation of IL-1β was TLR2- and MyD88-dependent, and irrespective of fimbriae expression. Fimbriae-dependent down-modulation of IL-1β was selective, as levels of other cytokines remained unaffected by P2X7 deficiency. Confocal microscopy demonstrated the presence of discrete P2X7 expression in the absence of Pg stimulation which was enhanced by 381-stimulated cells. Notably, DPG3-infected macrophages revealed a distinct pattern of P2X7 receptor expression with a markedly foci formation. Collectively, these data demonstrate that eATP-induced IL-1β secretion is impaired by Pg fimbriae in a P2X7-dependent manner. PMID:24925032

  5. Interactions of immunoglobulin G, fibrinogen and fibronectin with Staphylococcus hyicus and Staphylococcus intermedius.

    PubMed

    Lämmler, C; de Freitas, J C; Chhatwal, G S; Blobel, H

    1985-10-01

    Binding of immunoglobulin G, fibrinogen and fibronectin to 112 cultures of coagulase-positive staphylococci together with 7 of coagulase-negative S. hyicus subsp. chromogenes were investigated. Of the coagulase-positive staphylococcal cultures 45 were S. hyicus subsp. hyicus, 51 S. intermedius and 16 S. aureus. All 45 S. hyicus subsp. hyicus cultures coagulated plasma preparations from pigs and not always those from sheep, rabbits and dogs. Labelled IgG was bound by all cultures of S. hyicus subsp. hyicus and S. aureus, but only by 6 of 51 S. intermedius cultures. Fibrinogen interacted with 28 of the 45 S. hyicus subsp. hyicus cultures, with 17 of the 51 S. intermedius cultures and with S. aureus throughout. Fibronectin reacted with 19 cultures of S. hyicus subsp. hyicus, 11 of S. intermedius and all S. aureus. The binding activities for labelled IgG were more pronounced than those for fibrinogen and fibronectin. None of the 7 cultures of S. hyicus subsp. chromogenes bound any of these plasma proteins. Bindings of fibrinogen and fibronectin to S. hyicus subsp. hyicus and S. intermedius elicited only in part distinct clumping reactions of the staphylococci in the respective plasma proteins.

  6. Staphylococcus intermedius binding to immobilized fibrinogen, fibronectin and cytokeratin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Vanessa; Nuttall, Tim; Fazakerley, Jennie; McEwan, Neil

    2009-10-01

    Bacterial adhesion is a key step in colonization of the skin. Staphylococcus intermedius adheres strongly to canine and feline corneocytes, and adhesion is greater to corneocytes from dogs affected with atopic dermatitis, but comparatively little is known about adhesion-receptor interaction compared to S. aureus. The aim of this study was to compare the binding of S. intermedius isolates from healthy (n = 21) and atopic dogs (n = 33) to immobilized human fibronectin and epidermal cytokeratin and canine fibrinogen in vitro. Staphylococcus intermedius and the positive control S. aureus P1 exhibited concentration-dependent binding to all three protein layers. The negative control S. aureus Newman strain and S. hominis did not bind. The majority of S. intermedius isolates adhered strongly, and there was no significant difference between isolates from atopic and healthy dogs or from lesional or nonlesional skin of atopic dogs (fibronectin P = 0.971 and 0.837; fibrinogen P = 0.811 and 0.564; cytokeratin P = 0.409 and 0.564). These results suggest that S. intermedius may possess specific microbial components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules, like S. aureus, that bind to the substrates used in this study. Adherence and therefore colonization and infection in canine atopic dermatitis, however, are more likely to be related to host factors rather than the possession of specific virulence factors.

  7. Streptococcus intermedius Causing Necrotizing Pneumonia in an Immune Competent Female: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Hannoodi, Faris; Ali, Israa; Sabbagh, Hussam; Kumar, Sarwan

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a 52-year-old immunocompetent Caucasian female treated for necrotizing Streptococcus intermedius pneumonia and review available literature of similar cases. Our patient presented with respiratory failure and required hospitalization and treatment in the intensive care unit. Moreover, she required surgical drainage of right lung empyema as well as decortication and resection. The review of literature revealed three cases of S. intermedius pneumonia, one of which was a mortality. Comparison of the published cases showed a highly varied prehospital course and radiological presentations, with a symptomatic phase ranging from 10 days to five months. Radiological findings varied from an isolated pleural effusion to systemic disease with the presence of brain abscesses. Immunocompetence appears to correlate well with the overall prognosis. In addition, smoking appears to be an important risk factor for S. intermedius pneumonia. In 2 (50%) of cases, pleural fluid analysis identified S. intermedius. In contrast, no organism was found in our patient, necessitating the acquisition of lung tissue sample for the diagnosis. In conclusion, both medical and surgical management are necessary for effective treatment of S. intermedius pneumonia. The outcome of treatment is good in immunocompetent individuals.

  8. Streptococcus intermedius Causing Necrotizing Pneumonia in an Immune Competent Female: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Israa; Sabbagh, Hussam; Kumar, Sarwan

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a 52-year-old immunocompetent Caucasian female treated for necrotizing Streptococcus intermedius pneumonia and review available literature of similar cases. Our patient presented with respiratory failure and required hospitalization and treatment in the intensive care unit. Moreover, she required surgical drainage of right lung empyema as well as decortication and resection. The review of literature revealed three cases of S. intermedius pneumonia, one of which was a mortality. Comparison of the published cases showed a highly varied prehospital course and radiological presentations, with a symptomatic phase ranging from 10 days to five months. Radiological findings varied from an isolated pleural effusion to systemic disease with the presence of brain abscesses. Immunocompetence appears to correlate well with the overall prognosis. In addition, smoking appears to be an important risk factor for S. intermedius pneumonia. In 2 (50%) of cases, pleural fluid analysis identified S. intermedius. In contrast, no organism was found in our patient, necessitating the acquisition of lung tissue sample for the diagnosis. In conclusion, both medical and surgical management are necessary for effective treatment of S. intermedius pneumonia. The outcome of treatment is good in immunocompetent individuals. PMID:27891283

  9. Anthelmintic efficacy of cinnamaldehyde and cinnamic acid from cortex cinnamon essential oil against Dactylogyrus intermedius.

    PubMed

    Ling, Fei; Jiang, Chao; Liu, Guanglu; Li, Mingshuang; Wang, Gaoxue

    2015-12-01

    Utilization of chemical pesticide to control monogenean diseases is often restricted in many countries due to the development of pesticide resistance and concerns of chemical residues and environmental contamination. Thus, the use of antiparasitic agents from plants has been explored as a possible way for controlling monogenean infections. Extracts from Cinnamomum cassia were investigated under in vivo conditions against Dactylogyrus intermedius in goldfish. The two bioactive compounds, cinnamaldehyde and cinnamic acid, were identified using nuclear magnetic resonance and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The 48 h median effective concentrations (EC(50)) for these compounds against D. intermedius were 0·57 and 6·32 mg L(-1), respectively. The LD(50) of cinnamaldehyde and cinnamic acid were 13·34 and 59·66 mg L(-1) to goldfish in 48 h acute toxicity tests, respectively. These data confirm that cinnamaldehyde is effective against D. intermedius, and the cinnamaldehyde exhibits potential for the development of a candidate antiparasitic agent.

  10. Intermedilysin release by Streptococcus intermedius: effects of various antibacterial drugs at sub-MIC levels.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Mark B; Oh, Janice H L; Kang, K L; Chow, Vincent T K

    2005-02-15

    Intermedilysin is a cytolytic toxin produced by Streptococcus intermedius, a pathogen of humans. In vitro studies showed that exposure of S. intermedius to sub-minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) levels (1/2 MIC) of protein-inhibiting antibiotics and nucleic acid-inhibiting antibiotics decreased intermedilysin release by S. intermedius. The most potent antibiotic was clindamycin. On the other hand, exposure to cell wall-inhibiting antibiotics generally showed insignificant changes in intermedilysin release at sub-MIC concentrations. Investigations into possible mechanisms underlying this sub-MIC effect with clindamycin showed that there was selective decrease in biosynthesis and release of toxin after exposure to 1/2 MIC condition. However, no significant differences in the mRNA levels of the intermedilysin gene were observed.

  11. Fimbria-dependent activation of pro-inflammatory molecules in Porphyromonas gingivalis infected human aortic endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yusuke; Davey, Michael; Yumoto, Hiromichi; Gibson, Frank C; Genco, Caroline Attardo

    2006-05-01

    Epidemiological studies support that chronic periodontal infections are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Previously, we reported that the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis accelerated atherosclerotic plaque formation in hyperlipidemic apoE-/- mice, while an isogenic fimbria-deficient (FimA-) mutant did not. In this study, we utilized 41 kDa (major) and 67 kDa (minor) fimbria mutants to demonstrate that major fimbria are required for efficient P. gingivalis invasion of human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) revealed that only invasive P. gingivalis strains induced HAEC production of pro-inflammatory molecules interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, vascular cellular adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 and E-selectin. The purified native forms of major and minor fimbria induced chemokine and adhesion molecule expression similar to invasive P. gingivalis, but failed to elicit IL-1beta production. In addition, the major and minor fimbria-mediated production of MCP-1 and IL-8 was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by P. gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Both P. gingivalis LPS and heat-killed organisms failed to stimulate HAEC. Treatment of endothelial cells with cytochalasin D abolished the observed pro-inflammatory MCP-1 and IL-8 response to invasive P. gingivalis and both purified fimbria, but did not affect P. gingivalis induction of IL-1beta. These results suggest that major and minor fimbria elicit chemokine production in HAEC through actin cytoskeletal rearrangements; however, induction of IL-1beta appears to occur via a separate mechanism. Collectively, these data support that invasive P. gingivalis and fimbria stimulate endothelial cell activation, a necessary initial event in the development of atherogenesis.

  12. DNA-based diagnostic tests for Salmonella species targeting agfA, the structural gene for thin, aggregative fimbriae.

    PubMed Central

    Doran, J L; Collinson, S K; Burian, J; Sarlós, G; Todd, E C; Munro, C K; Kay, C M; Banser, P A; Peterkin, P I; Kay, W W

    1993-01-01

    Salmonella enteritidis 27655-3b and a few diarrheagenic Escherichia coli strains produce morphologically and antigenically related, thin, aggregative fimbriae, collectively named GVVPQ fimbriae (S. K. Collinson, L. Emödy, T. J. Trust, and W. W. Kay, J. Bacteriol. 174:4490-4495, 1992). To determine whether GVVPQ fimbriae are common to Salmonella spp. and other enteropathogenic members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, 113 isolates were phenotypically screened for Congo red binding and aggregative colony morphology. Presumptive positive and representative negative strains were examined by Western blotting (immunoblotting) by using antiserum to SEF 17, the native GVVPQ fimbria of S. enteritidis. Only four S. enteritidis strains and six E. coli isolates possessed substantial amounts of GVVPQ fimbriae after 24 h of incubation on T medium. Following 5 days of incubation, 56 of 93 Salmonella isolates (60%) and 1 of 7 additional E. coli clinical isolates possessed detectable levels of GVVPQ fimbriae. Since variable expression of GVVPQ fimbriae was observed among Salmonella isolates and some E. coli strains produced scant amounts, as revealed by immunoelectron microscopy, the ability to produce these fimbriae was evaluated by genotypic screening. The structural gene for the SEF 17 fimbrin, agfA, was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction, cloned, and sequenced to provide a characterized DNA probe. An agfA DNA fragment hybridized strongly to 603 of 604 (99.8%) Salmonella isolates but very weakly to 31 of 266 other members of the family Enterobacteriaceae including 26 of 137 E. coli strains, 3 of 14 Citrobacter spp., and single isolates of Shigella sonnei and Enterobacter cloacae. The agfA DNA probe proved to be a valuable diagnostic tool for Salmonella isolates arrayed on hydrophobic grid membrane filters. Unique agfA sequences were targeted in the development of a polymerase chain reaction assay specific for Salmonella spp. Images PMID:8104955

  13. DNA-based diagnostic tests for Salmonella species targeting agfA, the structural gene for thin, aggregative fimbriae.

    PubMed

    Doran, J L; Collinson, S K; Burian, J; Sarlós, G; Todd, E C; Munro, C K; Kay, C M; Banser, P A; Peterkin, P I; Kay, W W

    1993-09-01

    Salmonella enteritidis 27655-3b and a few diarrheagenic Escherichia coli strains produce morphologically and antigenically related, thin, aggregative fimbriae, collectively named GVVPQ fimbriae (S. K. Collinson, L. Emödy, T. J. Trust, and W. W. Kay, J. Bacteriol. 174:4490-4495, 1992). To determine whether GVVPQ fimbriae are common to Salmonella spp. and other enteropathogenic members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, 113 isolates were phenotypically screened for Congo red binding and aggregative colony morphology. Presumptive positive and representative negative strains were examined by Western blotting (immunoblotting) by using antiserum to SEF 17, the native GVVPQ fimbria of S. enteritidis. Only four S. enteritidis strains and six E. coli isolates possessed substantial amounts of GVVPQ fimbriae after 24 h of incubation on T medium. Following 5 days of incubation, 56 of 93 Salmonella isolates (60%) and 1 of 7 additional E. coli clinical isolates possessed detectable levels of GVVPQ fimbriae. Since variable expression of GVVPQ fimbriae was observed among Salmonella isolates and some E. coli strains produced scant amounts, as revealed by immunoelectron microscopy, the ability to produce these fimbriae was evaluated by genotypic screening. The structural gene for the SEF 17 fimbrin, agfA, was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction, cloned, and sequenced to provide a characterized DNA probe. An agfA DNA fragment hybridized strongly to 603 of 604 (99.8%) Salmonella isolates but very weakly to 31 of 266 other members of the family Enterobacteriaceae including 26 of 137 E. coli strains, 3 of 14 Citrobacter spp., and single isolates of Shigella sonnei and Enterobacter cloacae. The agfA DNA probe proved to be a valuable diagnostic tool for Salmonella isolates arrayed on hydrophobic grid membrane filters. Unique agfA sequences were targeted in the development of a polymerase chain reaction assay specific for Salmonella spp.

  14. Amended Description of the Genes for Synthesis of Actinomyces naeslundii T14V Type 1 Fimbriae and Associated Adhesin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-07

    monoclonal antibody (MAb) (2). Eluted fimbriae were digested either with pepsin or by dilute-acid hydrolysis, and the resulting peptides were analyzed...Representative tandem mass spectrometry spectra of two such peptides, VVRNSDGTF derived by pepsin digestion and PSTPGAKPLTD from dilute-acid hydrolysis of...or -FimA). TABLE 1. FimQ peptides identified from type 1 fimbriae after pepsin and diluted-acid hydrolysis m/z Charge Mol wt Sequence (positions

  15. Splenic abscess and multiple brain abscesses caused by Streptococcus intermedius in a young healthy man.

    PubMed

    Maliyil, Jepsin; Caire, William; Nair, Rajasree; Bridges, Debbie

    2011-07-01

    We report a case of splenic abscess with multiple brain abscesses caused by Streptococcus intermedius in a healthy young man without any identifiable risk factors, which resolved with percutaneous drainage and antibiotics. Streptococcus intermedius, a member of the Streptococcus anginosus group, is a common commensal organism of the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract, and it is a known cause of deep-seated infections. Suppurative infections caused by Streptococcus anginosus group are sometimes associated with bacteremia, but hematogenous spread of infection from an occult source leading to concurrent splenic abscess and multiple brain abscesses has never been previously reported in a healthy young individual.

  16. Construction and expression of recombinant plasmids encoding type 1 fimbriae of a urinary Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate.

    PubMed Central

    Purcell, B K; Clegg, S

    1983-01-01

    The type 1 fimbriae of Klebsiella pneumoniae have been implicated as important virulence factors in mediating Klebsiella urinary infections. The chromosomally encoded fimbrial genes were cloned by a cosmid cloning technique. Further subcloning was performed with the cloning vehicles pBR322 and pACYC184, and a recombinant plasmid containing the fimbrial genes was constructed. After transformation by this plasmid, both Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium were shown to express fimbriae which reacted with Klebsiella fimbrial antiserum. The approximate location of the relevant genes on the chimeric plasmid was determined by insertion of the transposable element Tn5. Hemagglutination-negative phenotypes were used to estimate the minimum size of the DNA fragment necessary to encode fimbrial biosynthesis and expression. The size of the coding region of this fragment was found to be 5.5 kilobase pairs. PMID:6132874

  17. The Response Regulator RcsB Activates Expression of Mat Fimbriae in Meningitic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Lehti, Timo A.; Heikkinen, Johanna; Korhonen, Timo K.

    2012-01-01

    The common colonization factor of Escherichia coli, the Mat (also termed ECP) fimbria, functions to advance biofilm formation on inert surfaces as well as bacterial adherence to epithelial cells and subsequent colonization. We used global mini-Tn5 transposon mutagenesis to identify novel regulators of biofilm formation by the meningitic E. coli isolate IHE 3034. Of the 4,418 transformants, we found 17 that were impaired in biofilm formation. Most of these mutants were affected in lipopolysaccharide synthesis and were reduced in growth but not in Mat fimbria expression. In contrast, two mutants grew well but did not express Mat fimbria. The insertions in these two mutants were located at different sites of the rcsB gene, which encodes a DNA-binding response regulator of the Rcs response regulon. The mutations abrogated temperature-dependent biofilm formation by IHE 3034, and the phenotype correlated with loss of mat expression. The defect in biofilm formation in the rcsB mutant was reversed upon complementation with rcsB as well as by overexpression of structural mat genes but not by overexpression of the fimbria-specific activator gene matA. Monitoring of the mat operon promoter activity with chromosomal reporter fusions showed that the RcsB protein and an RcsAB box in the mat regulatory region, but not RcsC, RcsD, AckA, and Pta, are essential for initiation of mat transcription. Gel retardation assays showed that RcsB specifically binds to the mat promoter DNA, which enables its function in promoting biofilm formation by E. coli. PMID:22522901

  18. Improved Detection of Staphylococcus intermedius Group in a Routine Diagnostic Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Aimee; Bendall, Richard; Gaze, William; Zhang, Lihong; Vos, Michiel

    2014-01-01

    The Staphylococcus intermedius group (SIG) includes zoonotic pathogens traditionally associated with dog bites. We describe a simple scheme for improved detection of SIG using routine laboratory methods, report its effect on isolation rates, and use sequencing to confirm that, apart from one atypical SIG strain, most isolates are Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. PMID:25502532

  19. First Closed Genome Sequence of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis bv. intermedius

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Emma; Bono, James L.; Rijnsburger, Martine; Campero, Carlos; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Duim, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis bv. intermedius is a variant of C. fetus subsp. venerealis, the causative agent of bovine genital campylobacteriosis, a venereal disease associated with abortion and infertility in cattle. We report the first closed whole-genome sequence of this biovar. PMID:24503995

  20. Endophthalmitis caused by Phialophora verrucosa and Streptococcus intermedius: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shiying; Yuan, Gongqiang; Zhao, Ge; Chen, Hao; Yu, Bin

    2010-12-01

    The most common pathogenic germs of mycotic endophthalmitis are Candida, Fusarium and Aspergillus fumigatus. As a dematiaceous fungus, Phialophora verrucosa (Medlar, 1915) has not been reported to cause endophthalmitis. Herein, we report a case of endophthalmitis induced by P. verrucosa and Streptococcus intermedius.

  1. Rapid identification of Streptococcus intermedius by PCR with the ily gene as a species marker gene.

    PubMed

    Goto, Takatsugu; Nagamune, Hideaki; Miyazaki, Aiko; Kawamura, Yoshiaki; Ohnishi, Ooki; Hattori, Kanako; Ohkura, Kazuto; Miyamoto, Kazuaki; Akimoto, Shigeru; Ezaki, Takayuki; Hirota, Katsuhiko; Miyake, Yoichiro; Maeda, Takuya; Kourai, Hiroki

    2002-02-01

    Streptococcus intermedius belongs to the anginosus group of streptococci (AGS) and is associated with endogenous infections leading to abscesses in the oral cavity and at deepseated sites, such as the brain and liver. Two other species, S. anginosus and S. constellatus, and some presently unnamed taxa, are also classified as AGS. Recently, S. constellatus subsp. pharyngis, a new subspecies with biochemical characteristics similar to S. intermedius, was described with the potential for causing confusion when trying to identify isolates of these two species routinely with commercial identification kits, such as Rapid ID32 Strep and Fluo-Card Milleri. To correctly identify S. intermedius, this study attempted to develop an accurate PCR identification system with the ily gene as a species marker. This approach relies on amplification of an 819-bp fragment of the ily gene and its 3'-flanking region and is shown here to be specific for S. intermedius strains among all other streptococcal species. Moreover, this PCR system was applicable in direct rapid PCR with whole bacterial cells and TaKaRa Z-Taq (TaKaRa), a highly efficient DNA polymerase, as the template and DNA amplification enzyme, respectively.

  2. Detection of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Streptococcus intermedius in chronic periodontitis patients by multiplex PCR.

    PubMed

    De La Garza-Ramos, Myriam A; Galán-Wong, Luis J; Caffesse, Raúl G; González-Salazar, Francisco; Pereyra-Alférez, Benito

    2008-01-01

    A Multiplex PCR assay for the detection of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Streptococcus intermedius in chronic periodontitis is presented. A total of 180 samples from 65 adults with untreated periodontitis and 17 healthy volunteers were taken and processed in a simple boiling step. Cell lysates were used as DNA source for multiplex PCR assays. Primers were designed from 16S rRNA gene sequences from the GenBank-EMBL database showing specificity for target pathogens. This multiplex PCR system could detect 8.2 P gingivalis and S. intermedius cells. In untreated periodontitis patients, only 78.5% were positive for one or both bacteria; 37% were positive for P gingivalis only, 17% for S. intermedius and 24.5% for both. P. gingivalis was detected in 23.5% of healthy volunteers, while S. intermedius was not detected in the same patients. The distribution of these bacteria was related to the periodontal probing depth, while 95.23% of patients with pockets wih 6 to 7 mm deep were positive for either or both, only 70.45% of of them with 4 to 5 mm pockets were positive.

  3. Streptococcus intermedius Bacteremia and Liver Abscess following a Routine Dental Cleaning.

    PubMed

    Livingston, Lachara V; Perez-Colon, Elimarys

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus intermedius is a member of the Streptococcus anginosus group of bacteria. This group is part of the normal flora of the oropharynx, genitourinary, and gastrointestinal tracts; however, they have been known to cause a variety of purulent infections including meningitis, endocarditis, and abscesses, even in immunocompetent hosts. In particular, S. intermedius has been associated with the development of liver and brain abscesses. There have been several case reports of S. intermedius liver abscesses with active periodontal infection. To our knowledge, however, there has not been a case following a routine dental procedure. In fact, the development of liver abscesses secondary to dental procedures is very rare in general, and there are only a few case reports in the literature describing this in relation to any pathogen. We present a rare case of S. intermedius bacteremia and liver abscess following a dental cleaning. This case serves to further emphasize that even routine dental procedures can place a patient at risk of the development of bacteremia and liver abscesses. For this reason, the clinician must be sure to perform a detailed history and careful examination. Timely diagnosis of pyogenic liver abscesses is vital, as they are typically fatal if left untreated.

  4. Biofilm mode of growth of Streptococcus intermedius favored by a competence-stimulating signaling peptide.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Fernanda C; Pecharki, Daniele; Scheie, Anne A

    2004-09-01

    Gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria use quorum sensing to coordinate population behavior. In several streptococci, quorum sensing mediated by competence-stimulating peptides (CSP) is associated with development of competence for transformation. We show here that a synthetic CSP favored the biofilm mode of growth of Streptococcus intermedius without affecting the rate of culture growth.

  5. Streptococcus intermedius Bacteremia and Liver Abscess following a Routine Dental Cleaning

    PubMed Central

    Livingston, Lachara V.; Perez-Colon, Elimarys

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus intermedius is a member of the Streptococcus anginosus group of bacteria. This group is part of the normal flora of the oropharynx, genitourinary, and gastrointestinal tracts; however, they have been known to cause a variety of purulent infections including meningitis, endocarditis, and abscesses, even in immunocompetent hosts. In particular, S. intermedius has been associated with the development of liver and brain abscesses. There have been several case reports of S. intermedius liver abscesses with active periodontal infection. To our knowledge, however, there has not been a case following a routine dental procedure. In fact, the development of liver abscesses secondary to dental procedures is very rare in general, and there are only a few case reports in the literature describing this in relation to any pathogen. We present a rare case of S. intermedius bacteremia and liver abscess following a dental cleaning. This case serves to further emphasize that even routine dental procedures can place a patient at risk of the development of bacteremia and liver abscesses. For this reason, the clinician must be sure to perform a detailed history and careful examination. Timely diagnosis of pyogenic liver abscesses is vital, as they are typically fatal if left untreated. PMID:25197585

  6. Lifestyle and host defense mechanisms of the dung beetle, Euoniticellus intermedius: the toll signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Hull, Rodney; Alaouna, Mohamed; Khanyile, Lucky; Byrne, Marcus; Ntwasa, Monde

    2013-01-01

    The dung beetle, Euoniticellus intermedius (Reiche) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) is an important ecological and agricultural agent. Their main activity, the burying of dung, improves quality of the soil and reduces pests that could cause illness in animals. E. intermedius are therefore important for agriculture and for good maintenance of the environment, and are regarded as effective biological control agents for parasites of the gastrointestinal tract in livestock. The ability of E. intermedius to co-exist comfortably with many microorganisms, some of which are important human pathogens, stimulated our interest in its host defense strategies. The aim of this study was to investigate the Toll signaling pathway, which is strongly activated by fungi. Gene expression associated with fungal infection was analyzed by using 2-D gel electrophoresis and mass spectroscopy. Furthermore, the partial adult transcriptome was investigated for the presence of known immune response genes by using high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics. The results presented here suggest that E. intermedius responds to fungal challenge via the Toll signaling pathway.

  7. Biochemical and serological characterization of Bacteroides intermedius strains isolated from the deep periodontal pocket.

    PubMed Central

    Dahlén, G; Wikström, M; Renvert, S; Gmür, R; Guggenheim, B

    1990-01-01

    Fifty-one fluorescence-positive black-pigmented Bacteroides strains obtained from 51 patients with deep periodontal pockets (greater than 6 mm) were identified and characterized. Fifty of these strains were presumptively identified as Bacteroides intermedius according to the indole reaction. This was confirmed by further biochemical characterization. The 50 strains from diseased sites were then compared with 16 B. intermedius strains isolated from periodontally healthy individuals with no signs of destructive periodontal disease. Tests for antimicrobial susceptibility showed similar patterns for all 50 pocket-derived strains, except for one beta-lactamase-positive strain that was resistant to penicillin G and ampicillin. Forty-seven strains were tested for binding of three monoclonal antibodies defining three distinct serogroups of B. intermedius. Thirty-one strains belonged to serogroup I, three to serogroup II and thirteen to serogroup III. In comparison to the strains from the shallow periodontal pockets, serogroup I was significantly overrepresented in the patient group with periodontal disease. We conclude that saccharolytic black-pigmented Bacteroides species from deep periodontal pockets constituted, with very rare exceptions, a biochemically homogeneous but antigenically heterogeneous group of B. intermedius and that serogroup I is predominantly found in deep periodontal lesions. PMID:2229351

  8. Identification and Regulation of a Novel Citrobacter rodentium Gut Colonization Fimbria (Gcf)

    PubMed Central

    Caballero-Flores, Gustavo G.; Croxen, Matthew A.; Martínez-Santos, Verónica I.; Finlay, B. Brett

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Gram-negative enteric bacterium Citrobacter rodentium is a natural mouse pathogen that has been extensively used as a surrogate model for studying the human pathogens enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. All three pathogens produce similar attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions in the intestinal epithelium. During infection, these bacteria employ surface structures called fimbriae to adhere and colonize the host intestinal epithelium. For C. rodentium, the roles of only a small number of its genome-carried fimbrial operons have been evaluated. Here, we report the identification of a novel C. rodentium colonization factor, called gut colonization fimbria (Gcf), which is encoded by a chaperone-usher fimbrial operon. A gcfA mutant shows a severe colonization defect within the first 10 days of infection. The gcf promoter is not active in C. rodentium under several in vitro growth conditions; however, it is readily expressed in a C. rodentium Δhns1 mutant lacking the closest ortholog of the Escherichia coli histone-like nucleoid structuring protein (H-NS) but not in mutants with deletion of the other four genes encoding H-NS homologs. H-NS binds to the regulatory region of gcf, further supporting its direct role as a repressor of the gcf promoter that starts transcription 158 bp upstream of the start codon of its first open reading frame. The gcf operon possesses interesting novel traits that open future opportunities to expand our knowledge of the structure, regulation, and function during infection of these important bacterial structures. IMPORTANCE Fimbriae are surface bacterial structures implicated in a variety of biological processes. Some have been shown to play a critical role during host colonization and thus in disease. Pathogenic bacteria possess the genetic information for an assortment of fimbriae, but their function and regulation and the interplay between them have not been studied in detail. This work provides new insights

  9. Structure and characterization of AgfB from Salmonella enteritidis thin aggregative fimbriae.

    PubMed

    White, A P; Collinson, S K; Banser, P A; Gibson, D L; Paetzel, M; Strynadka, N C; Kay, W W

    2001-08-24

    The agfBAC operon of Salmonella enteritidis encodes thin aggregative fimbriae, fibrous, polymeric structures primarily composed of AgfA fimbrins. Although uncharacterized, AgfB shows a 51 % overall amino acid sequence similarity to AgfA. Using AgfB epitope-specific antiserum, AgfB was detected as a minor component of whole, purified fimbriae. Like AgfA, AgfB was released from purified fimbriae by >70 % formic acid, whereupon both AgfA-AgfA and AgfA-AgfB dimers as well as monomers were detected. This suggested that AgfB may form specific, highly stable, structural associations with AgfA in native fimbrial filaments, associations that were weakened in structurally unstable fibers derived from AgfA chimeric fimbrial mutants. Detailed sequence comparisons between AgfA and AgfB showed that AgfB harbored a similar fivefold repeated sequence pattern (x(6)QxGx(2)NxAx(3)Q), and contained structural motifs similar to the parallel beta helix model proposed for AgfA. Molecular modeling of AgfB revealed a 3D structure remarkably similar to that of AgfA, the structures differing principally in the surface disposition of non-conserved, basic, acidic and non-polar residues. Thus AgfB is a fimbrin-like structural homologue of AgfA and an integral, minor component of native thin aggregative fimbrial fibers. AgfB from an agfA deletion strain was detected as a non-fimbrial, SDS-insoluble form in the supernatant and was purified. AgfA from an agfB deletion strain was found in both SDS-soluble and insoluble, non-fimbrial forms. No AgfA-AgfA dimers were detected in the absence of AgfB. Fimbriae formation by intercellular complementation between agfB and agfA deletion strains could not be shown under a variety of conditions, indicating that AgfA and AgfB are not freely diffusible in S. enteritidis. This has important implications on the current assembly hypothesis for thin aggregative fimbriae.

  10. Influence of porcine intestinal pH and gastric digestion on antigenicity of F4 fimbriae for oral immunisation.

    PubMed

    Snoeck, Veerle; Cox, Eric; Verdonck, Frank; Joensuu, Jussi J; Goddeeris, Bruno M

    2004-01-14

    Newly weaned piglets can be orally immunised against F4+ enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infection with F4 fimbriae. However, to efficiently develop a vaccine against ETEC induced postweaning diarrhoea, knowledge of the stability of the F4 fimbriae to different pH and gastric digestion is needed. The gastrointestinal pH in suckling and recently weaned piglets was measured and the stability of F4 fimbriae to different pH and to pepsin was assessed in vitro. In the stomach the lowest pH was found in the fundus gland region. Gastric pH values below 2.5 were not found in suckling piglets or at the day of weaning, in contrast to piglets 1 and 2 weeks postweaning. Along the first half of the small intestine and in the caecum, a negative correlation was found between pH and age. The F4 fimbriae were stable to pH 1.5 and 2 for 2 h, whereas longer incubation periods resulted in conversion of the multimeric forms into monomers. The F4 fimbriae were partially degraded by incubation for 15-30 min in simulated gastric fluid at pH 1.5 and 2, and completely digested from 3 h onwards. At pH 3, the fimbriae maintained their antigenicity for at least 4h. The results demonstrate that gastric digestion will only have a limited impact on oral immunisation since liquid passes through the stomach relatively quickly (50% within 2 h). However, we previously demonstrated that the transit times are prolonged shortly after weaning. Shortly after weaning it could be necessary to protect the F4 fimbriae against gastric digestion to obtain efficient oral immunisation of the piglets.

  11. Crohn disease--associated adherent-invasive E. coli bacteria target mouse and human Peyer's patches via long polar fimbriae.

    PubMed

    Chassaing, Benoit; Rolhion, Nathalie; de Vallée, Amélie; Salim, Sa'ad Y; Prorok-Hamon, Maelle; Neut, Christel; Campbell, Barry J; Söderholm, Johan D; Hugot, Jean-Pierre; Colombel, Jean-Frédéric; Darfeuille-Michaud, Arlette

    2011-03-01

    Crohn disease (CD) is a multifactorial disease in which an abnormal immune response in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract leads to chronic inflammation. The small intestine, particularly the ileum, of patients with CD is colonized by adherent-invasive E. coli (AIEC)--a pathogenic group of E. coli able to adhere to and invade intestinal epithelial cells. As the earliest inflammatory lesions are microscopic erosions of the epithelium lining the Peyer's patches (PPs), we investigated the ability of AIEC bacteria to interact with PPs and the virulence factors involved. We found that AIEC bacteria could interact with mouse and human PPs via long polar fimbriae (LPF). An LPF-negative AIEC mutant was highly impaired in its ability to interact with mouse and human PPs and to translocate across monolayers of M cells, specialized epithelial cells at the surface of PPs. The prevalence of AIEC strains harboring the lpf operon was markedly higher in CD patients compared with controls. In addition, increased numbers of AIEC, but not LPF-deficient AIEC, bacteria were found interacting with PPs from Nod2(-/-) mice compared with WT mice. In conclusion, we have identified LPF as a key factor for AIEC to target PPs. This could be the missing link between AIEC colonization and the presence of early lesions in the PPs of CD patients.

  12. Activation of dentate hilar neurons by stimulation of the fimbria in rat hippocampal slices

    PubMed Central

    Scharfman, Helen E.

    2012-01-01

    It is has been shown that the major afferent input to the dentate gyrus, the perforant path, excites dentate hilar neurons. However, little is known about the other inputs to hilar cells. Therefore, we examined the responses of hilar neurons to stimulation of the fimbria. We positioned our stimulating electrodes so that granule cells were not excited antidromically by fimbria stimulation, although action potentials were easily triggered in area CA3b and CA3c pyramidal cells by such stimulation. In these experiments, fimbria stimulation evoked responses from every hilar cell tested, including examples of both of the major cell types, the spiny hilar ‘mossy’ cells (n=15) and the relatively aspiny. ‘fast-spiking’ cells (putative interneurons, n=5). Hilar cell responses consisted primarily of EPSPs that could trigger action potentials, but small IPSPs were also evoked in some cases, particularly in the fast-spiking cells. Excitation was blocked by an antagonist of the AMPA/kainate receptor subtype of excitatory amino acid receptors, 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione(CNQX, 5μM, n=5), whereas the cholinergic antagonist atropine (10μM) had no effect (n=4). When sequential intracellular recordings were made from hilar cells and area CA3 pyramidal cells in the same slice, hilar cell EPSPs began after action potentials of CA3b pyramidal cells, and stimulus strengths required to evoke hilar cell EPSPs were above threshold for area CA3b pyramidal cells. Taken together with the evidence that area CA3 pyramidal cells use an excitatory amino acid as a neurotransmitter [7, 21], and the demonstrations of area CA3 axon collaterals in the hilus [11, 16], the results raise the possibility that some area CA3 pyramidal cells excite dentate hilar neurons. PMID:8105429

  13. sRNA-Mediated Regulation of P-Fimbriae Phase Variation in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Khandige, Surabhi; Kronborg, Tina; Uhlin, Bernt Eric; Møller-Jensen, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) are capable of occupying physiologically distinct intracellular and extracellular niches within the urinary tract. This feat requires the timely regulation of gene expression and small RNAs (sRNAs) are known to mediate such rapid adjustments in response to changing environmental cues. This study aimed to uncover sRNA-mediated gene regulation in the UPEC strain UTI89, during infection of bladder epithelial cells. Hfq is an RNA chaperone known to facilitate and stabilize sRNA and target mRNA interactions with bacterial cells. The co-immunoprecipitation and high throughput RNA sequencing of Hfq bound sRNAs performed in this study, revealed distinct sRNA profiles in UPEC in the extracellular and intracellular environments. Our findings emphasize the importance of studying regulatory sRNAs in a biologically relevant niche. This strategy also led to the discovery of a novel virulence-associated trans-acting sRNA—PapR. Deletion of papR was found to enhance adhesion of UTI89 to both bladder and kidney cell lines in a manner independent of type-1 fimbriae. We demonstrate PapR mediated posttranscriptional repression of the P-fimbriae phase regulator gene papI and postulate a role for such regulation in fimbrial cross-talk at the population level in UPEC. Our results further implicate the Leucine responsive protein (LRP) as a transcriptional activator regulating PapR expression. Our study reports, for the first time, a role for sRNAs in regulation of P-fimbriae phase variation and emphasizes the importance of studying pathogenesis-specific sRNAs within a relevant biological niche. PMID:26291711

  14. Radial maze performance in three strains of mice - Role of the fimbria/fornix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinstein, D. K.; Deboissiere, T.; Robinson, N.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    Three strains of mice were tested on an 8-arm radial maze, an index of hippocampus-dependent spatial memory. Levels of performance differed betweens strains with C57Br/cdj greater than Balb/cj greater than C57B1/6j. Lesions of the fimbria/fornix disrupted performance in the C57Br and Balb strains: the C57Bl mice never performed better than chance before or after surgery. Choline acetyltransferase activity in hippocampus was not correlated with radial maze performance. These findings suggest a possible genetic contribution towards radial maze behavior.

  15. Purification of saliva agglutinin of Streptococcus intermedius and its association with bacterial aggregation and adherence.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Taihei

    2004-02-01

    Streptococcus intermedius strain 1208-1 cells were aggregated in the presence of saliva. The saliva agglutinin was purified by centrifugation, filtration, and gel filtration. SDS-PAGE analyses indicated that the purified agglutinin consisted of two high-molecular-mass proteins. Aggregation was dependent on calcium over pH 5.5, with 1 mM being the most effective concentration. Boiling inactivated purified agglutinin. S. intermedius strain 3 and Streptococcus mutans strain 1 were aggregated in the purified agglutinin. After adsorption with strain 1208-1 cells, the saliva sample did not exhibit any aggregation activity, and the agglutinin bands were no longer visible by SDS-PAGE. Adherence analyses demonstrated that the purified agglutinin immobilized on the surfaces of polystyrene wells, actinomyces cells, and apatite beads accounted for the binding of streptococcus cells. Agglutinin also effectively inhibited adherence to apatite beads coated with native saliva.

  16. Thoracoscopic foreign body removal and repair of bronchus intermedius following injury during failed bronchoscopic retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Asaf, Belal Bin; Vijay, CL; Bishnoi, Sukhram; Dua, Naresh; Kumar, Arvind

    2017-01-01

    Aspiration of foreign body (FB) into the airways is common in children and continues to be a cause for morbidity and mortality. We report herein, successful thoracoscopic management of a child who aspirated a large magnetic FB into his right bronchus and developed a tear of bronchus intermedius (BI) during an attempt at bronchoscopic retrieval using rigid bronchoscope. The impacted FB was successfully removed thoracoscopically followed by thoracoscopic BI repair. PMID:28360471

  17. Thigh abscess caused by Eikenella corrodens and Streptococcus intermedius: a case report.

    PubMed

    Zhiyong, Zong; Xiufang, Lin; Jiajie, Lu

    2007-01-01

    A 35-year-old Chinese female has a large thigh abscess without a clear source. No underlying diseases were revealed in the patient. The combination of clindamycin and cefazolin or vancomycin was administered but without a clinical response. Eikenella corrodens and Streptococcus intermedius were isolated from puncture drainage. Then, ceftriaxone was administered and a surgery of incision and further draining was carried. Eventually, the patient recovered. To our knowledge, this is the first case of thigh abscess in a previous healthy adult.

  18. Identification and molecular analysis of betaC-S lyase producing hydrogen sulfide in Streptococcus intermedius.

    PubMed

    Ito, Shuntaro; Nagamune, Hideaki; Tamura, Haruki; Yoshida, Yasuo

    2008-11-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is a toxic gas that induces the modification and release of haemoglobin in erythrocytes; however, it also functions in methionine biosynthesis in bacteria. betaC-S lyase, encoded by the lcd gene, is responsible for bacterial H(2)S production through the cleavage of l-cysteine. In this study, 26 of 29 crude extracts from reference and clinical strains of Streptococcus intermedius produced H(2)S from l-cysteine. The capacities in those strains were not higher than those in strains of the other anginosus group of streptococci, Streptococcus anginosus and Streptococcus constellatus, but were much greater than those in strains of Streptococcus gordonii, which is known to have an extremely low capacity for H(2)S production. Incubation of the remaining three extracts with l-cysteine did not result in H(2)S production. Sequence analysis revealed that the lcd genes from these three strains (S. intermedius strains ATCC 27335, IMU151 and IMU202) contained mutations or small deletions. H(2)S production in crude extracts prepared from S. intermedius ATCC 27335 was restored by repairing the lcd gene sequence in genomic DNA. The kinetic properties of the purified recombinant protein encoded by the repaired lcd gene were comparable to those of native proteins produced by H(2)S-producing strains, whereas the truncated protein produced by S. intermedius ATCC 27335 had no enzymic activity with l-cysteine or l-cystathionine. However, real-time PCR analysis indicated that the lcd gene in strains ATCC 27335, IMU151 and IMU202 is transcribed and regulated in a manner similar to that in the H(2)S-producing strain.

  19. Case report: brain and liver abscesses caused by oral infection with Streptococcus intermedius.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Kai Wolfgang; Schön, Ralf; Schumacher, Martin; Schmelzeisen, Rainer; Schulze, Dirk

    2006-10-01

    Organ abscesses are a rare and life-threatening complication mostly of hematogenously disseminated infections. We report a case of brain and liver abscesses. Identification of the lesions was made by contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), respectively. An oral examination comprised an oral focus of infection. Streptococcus intermedius was isolated from oral smear, liver and ventricular drainage, and blood sample. After the commencement of antibiotic therapy, drainage of abscesses and oral rehabilitation, complete recovery was noted.

  20. Intermedilysin is essential for the invasion of hepatoma HepG2 cells by Streptococcus intermedius.

    PubMed

    Sukeno, Akiko; Nagamune, Hideaki; Whiley, Robert A; Jafar, Syed I; Aduse-Opoku, Joseph; Ohkura, Kazuto; Maeda, Takuya; Hirota, Katsuhiko; Miyake, Yoichiro; Kourai, Hiroki

    2005-01-01

    Streptococcus intermedius causes endogenous infections leading to abscesses. This species produces intermedilysin (ILY), a human-specific cytolysin. Because of the significant correlation between higher ILY production levels by S. intermedius and deep-seated abscesses, we constructed ily knockout mutant UNS38 B3 and complementation strain UNS38 B3R1 in order to investigate the role of ILY in deep-seated infections. Strain UNS38 reduced the viability of human liver cell line HepG2 at infection but not of rat liver cell line BRL3A. Isogenic mutant strain UNS38 B3 was not cytotoxic in either cell line. Quantification of S. intermedius revealed that in infected HepG2 cells UNS38 but not UNS38 B3 increased intracellularly concomitantly with increasing cell damage. This difference between UNS38 and UNS38 B3 was not observed with UNS38 B3R1. Invasion and proliferation in BRL3A cells was not observed. Masking UNS38 or UNS38 B3R1 with ILY antibody drastically decreased adherence and invasion of HepG2. Moreover, coating strain UNS38 B3 with ILY partially restored adherence to HepG2 but without subsequent bacterial growth. At 1 day post-infection, many intact UNS38 were detected in the damaged phagosomes of HepG2 with bacterial proliferation observed in the cytoplasm of dead HepG2 after an additional 2 day incubation. These results indicate that surface-bound ILY on S. intermedius is an important factor for invasion of human cells by this bacterium and that secretion of ILY within host cells is essential for subsequent host cell death. These data strongly implicate ILY as an important factor in the pathogenesis of abscesses in vivo by this streptococcus.

  1. Are Staphylococcus intermedius Infections in Humans Cases of Mistaken Identity? A Case Series and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Viau, Roberto; Hujer, Andrea M.; Hujer, Kristine M.; Bonomo, Robert A.; Jump, Robin L.P.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus intermedius and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius are difficult to distinguish using conventional microbiological methods. Molecular diagnostic tools change our understanding of the epidemiology of these 2 organisms. In this study, we present (1) a detailed review of the current literature on molecular diagnostics and (2) a case series in which misidentification was proven in 1 case. We conclude that S pseudintermedius is a more common human pathogen than previously recognized. PMID:26509181

  2. Role of fimbriae expressed by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae in pathogenesis of and protection against otitis media and relatedness of the fimbrin subunit to outer membrane protein A.

    PubMed Central

    Sirakova, T; Kolattukudy, P E; Murwin, D; Billy, J; Leake, E; Lim, D; DeMaria, T; Bakaletz, L

    1994-01-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae is a primary pathogen in both acute otitis media (OM) and chronic OM, yet the pathogenesis of this disease is not fully understood. Although fimbriae have been observed on all clinical OM isolates examined to date, their role in pathogenesis remains unclear. Therefore, the gene which codes for the fimbrial subunit protein (fimbrin) in nontypeable H. influenzae 1128 was isolated, cloned, and sequenced. The nucleotide sequence of the fimbrin gene was found to contain an open reading frame of 1,077 bp which would encode a mature fimbrin protein consisting of 338 amino acid with a calculated molecular mass of 36.4 kDa. The translated amino acid sequence was found to be homologous with various OmpA proteins of other gram-negative bacteria, and algorithmic analysis predicted that this protein is organized as a coiled coil. To directly test whether fimbriae are involved in pathogenesis, the fimbrin gene was disrupted, and the biological consequences of disruption were absence of both expression of the fimbrial appendage and the specific immunogold labeling thereof with antisera directed against isolated fimbrial protein, reduced adherence to human oropharyngeal cells in vitro, augmented clearance from the tympanum post-transbullar inoculation, and significantly reduced induction of OM post-intranasal inoculation in a chinchilla model compared with the fimbriated parent strain. We additionally find that either passive immunization or active immunization against isolated fimbrial protein confers partial protection against transbullar challenge. A Western blot (immunoblot) indicated a degree of serological relatedness among fimbrin proteins of 15 nontypeable and type b isolates. These data suggest that fimbrin could be useful as a component of a vaccine to protect against OM. Images PMID:7909539

  3. Efficacy of tylosin tartrate on canine Staphylococcus intermedius isolates in vitro.

    PubMed

    Scott, Brian A; Mortensen, Joel E; McKeever, Tricia M; Logas, Dawn B; McKeever, Patrick J

    2010-01-01

    In the past 5 years, the incidence of canine skin infections caused by resistant strains of Staphylococcus (pseud)intermedius has increased. Many older antibiotics are used to treat these infections because the sensitivity can be demonstrated in vitro. Additionally, many of these older drugs are efficacious and unlikely to induce multidrug resistance. More than a decade ago, the antibiotic tylosin tartrate was reported to be efficacious in vitro and in vivo against Staphylococcus intermedius. The purpose of this study was to determine whether S. (pseud)intermedius isolated from untreated pyoderma cases at veterinary referral centers across the United States are sensitive in vitro to this antibiotic. Minimum inhibitory concentrations for tylosin tartrate and other commonly used antibiotics were determined for 103 isolates. Most (82.61%) of the isolates not exposed to antibiotics in the 3 months before submission were sensitive to tylosin tartrate. These findings suggest that tylosin tartrate warrants further study as a first-line option for the treatment of dogs initially presenting with pyoderma.

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Staphylococcus intermedius isolates from clinical cases of canine pyoderma in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Blunt, Catherine A; van Vuuren, Moritz; Picard, Jacqueline

    2013-05-16

    Successful treatment of canine pyoderma has become compromised owing to the development of antimicrobial resistance with accompanying recurrence of infection. Canine skin samples submitted to a veterinary diagnostic laboratory for microbiological culture and sensitivity between January 2007 and June 2010, from which Staphylococcus intermedius was isolated, were selected for this investigation. Antimicrobial resistance of S. intermedius was most prevalent with reference to ampicillin followed by resistance to tetracycline and then potentiated sulphonamides. In general, antimicrobial resistance was low and very few methicillin-resistant isolates were detected. Temporal trends were not noted, except for ampicillin, with isolates becoming more susceptible, and potentiated sulphonamides (co-trimoxazole), with isolates becoming more resistant. In general, both the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion and broth dilution minimum inhibitory concentration tests yielded similar results for the antimicrobial agents tested. The main difference was evident in the over-estimation of resistance by the Kirby-Bauer test for ampicillin, co-trimoxazole, penicillin and doxycycline. Knowledge of trends in bacterial resistance is important for veterinarians when presented with canine pyoderma. Analysis of antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of S. intermedius isolated from canine pyodermas will guide veterinarians' use of the most appropriate agent and encourage prudent use of antimicrobials in companion animals.

  5. Production of Cellulose and Curli Fimbriae by Members of the Family Enterobacteriaceae Isolated from the Human Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Zogaj, Xhavit; Bokranz, Werner; Nimtz, Manfred; Römling, Ute

    2003-01-01

    Citrobacter spp., Enterobacter spp., and Klebsiella spp. isolated from the human gut were investigated for the biosynthesis of cellulose and curli fimbriae (csg). While Citrobacter spp. produced curli fimbriae and cellulose and Enterobacter spp. produced cellulose with various temperature-regulatory programs, Klebsiella spp. did not show pronounced expression of those extracellular matrix components. Investigation of multicellular behavior in two Citrobacter species and Enterobacter sakazakii showed an extracellular matrix, cell clumping, pellicle formation, and biofilm formation associated with the expression of cellulose and curli fimbriae. In those three strains, the csgD-csgBA region and the cellulose synthase gene bcsA were conserved. PCR screening for the presence of csgD, csgA and bcsA revealed that besides Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella oxytoca, all species investigated harbored the genetic information for expression of curli fimbriae and cellulose. Since Citrobacter spp., Enterobacter spp., and Klebsiella spp. are frequently found to cause biofilm-related infections such as catheter-associated urinary tract infections, the human gut could serve as a reservoir for dissemination of biofilm-forming isolates. PMID:12819107

  6. Curli fimbriae are conditionally required in Escherichia coli O157:H7 for initial attachment and biofilm formation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several species of enteric pathogens produce curli fimbriae, which may affect their interaction with surfaces and other microbes in nonhost environments. Here we used two E. coli O157:H7 outbreak strains with distinct genotypes to understand the role of curli in surface attachment and biofilm format...

  7. CRP-Cyclic AMP Regulates the Expression of Type 3 Fimbriae via Cyclic di-GMP in Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ching-Ting; Lin, Tien-Huang; Wu, Chien-Chen; Wan, Lei; Huang, Chun-Fa; Peng, Hwei-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is the predominant pathogen isolated from liver abscesses of diabetic patients in Asian countries. However, the effects of elevated blood glucose levels on the virulence of this pathogen remain largely unknown. Type 3 fimbriae, encoded by the mrkABCDF genes, are important virulence factors in K. pneumoniae pathogenesis. In this study, the effects of exogenous glucose and the intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling pathway on type 3 fimbriae expression regulation were investigated. The production of MrkA, the major subunit of type 3 fimbriae, was increased in glucose-rich medium, whereas cAMP supplementation reversed the effect. MrkA production was markedly increased by cyaA or crp deletion, but slightly decreased by cpdA deletion. In addition, the mRNA levels of mrkABCDF genes and the activity of PmrkA were increased in Δcrp strain, as well as the mRNA levels of mrkHIJ genes that encode cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP)-related regulatory proteins that influence type 3 fimbriae expression. Moreover, the activities of PmrkHI and PmrkJ were decreased in ΔlacZΔcrp strain. These results indicate that CRP-cAMP down-regulates mrkABCDF and mrkHIJ at the transcriptional level. Further deletion of mrkH or mrkI in Δcrp strain diminished the production of MrkA, indicating that MrkH and MrkI are required for the CRP regulation of type 3 fimbriae expression. Furthermore, the high activity of PmrkHI in the ΔlacZΔcrp strain was diminished in ΔlacZΔcrpΔmrkHI, but increased in the ΔlacZΔcrpΔmrkJ strain. Deletion of crp increased the intracellular c-di-GMP concentration and reduced the phosphodiesterase activity. Moreover, we found that the mRNA levels of multiple genes related to c-di-GMP metabolism were altered in Δcrp strain. These indicate that CRP regulates type 3 fimbriae expression indirectly via the c-di-GMP signaling pathway. In conclusion, we found evidence of a coordinated regulation of type 3 fimbriae expression by the CRP-cAMP and c

  8. Bordetella filamentous hemagglutinin and fimbriae: critical adhesins with unrealized vaccine potential.

    PubMed

    Scheller, Erich V; Cotter, Peggy A

    2015-11-01

    Pertussis, or whooping cough, is a highly contagious respiratory disease that is caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Bordetella pertussis, which is transmitted exclusively from human to human. While vaccination against B. pertussis has been successful, replacement of the whole cell vaccine with an acellular component vaccine has correlated with reemergence of the disease, especially in adolescents and infants. Based on their presumed importance in mediating adherence to host tissues, filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) and fimbria (FIM) were selected as components of most acellular pertussis vaccines. In this review, we describe the biogenesis of FHA and FIM, recent data that show that these factors do, in fact, play critical roles in adherence to respiratory epithelium, and evidence that they also contribute to persistence in the lower respiratory tract by modulating the host immune response. We also discuss shortcomings of whole cell and acellular pertussis vaccines and the possibility that FHA and FIM could serve as effective protective antigens in next-generation vaccines.

  9. Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of methicillin/oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus intermedius isolated from clinical specimens during routine veterinary microbiological examinations.

    PubMed

    Zubeir, I E M El; Kanbar, T; Alber, J; Lämmler, C; Akineden, O; Weiss, R; Zschöck, M

    2007-03-31

    Methicillin/oxacillin resistance of 10 S. intermedius strains was investigated by conventional and molecular methods. The strains tested had been isolated in Germany during routine veterinary microbiological examinations of specimens from a small animal clinic between May and September 2005. Epidemiological relationships of the strains were studied by macrorestriction analysis of their chromosomal DNA using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Species identity of the 10 S. intermedius strains was confirmed by conventional methods and by PCR mediated amplification of S. intermedius specific segments of thermonuclease encoding gene nuc. As controls, four methicillin/oxacillin resistant S. intermedius (MRSI) strains obtained from specimens sent by four veterinarians and three selected methicillin/oxacillin sensitive S. intermedius (MSSI), also obtained from the small animal clinic, were tested. The 10 strains, representing approximately 6% of all S. intermedius isolated from the clinic throughout the time period mentioned above, and the four MRSI obtained from veterinarians, were methicillin/oxacillin and penicillin resistant using disk diffusion tests and could be cultivated on oxacillin resistant screening agar base (ORSAB). Both resistances could be confirmed by multiplex PCR detecting the resistance genes mecA and blaZ. The three MSSI were methicillin/oxacillin sensitive in all tests. Epidemiological investigation by macrorestriction analysis of the chromosomal DNA of the strains by pulsed field gel electrophoresis revealed that all 10 MRSI strains obtained from the clinic and the four MRSI strains obtained from veterinarians, in contrast to the three MSSI strains, represent identical or closely related bacterial clones possibly indicating a cross-infection of the animals in the clinic and the distribution of a single MRSI clone in the pet population.

  10. Photoactivated disinfection of Streptococcus intermedius through dentin disc at clinically relevant intervals: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Bonstein, Tammy; Mikulski, Lynn M; Bush, Mary A; Bush, Peter J

    2010-10-01

    In this present study we have tested the impact of porfimer sodium (Photofrin, AXCAN PHARMA Inc., Quebec, Canada) photoactivated disinfection (PD) on cells of Streptococcus intermedius in suspension. In order to provide basic data to support future clinical studies of PD in dentistry the study used exposure to Quartz-tungsten-halogen (QTH) dental curing light for clinically relevant time periods to activate Photofrin and measured its effectiveness under a variety of conditions including activation through dentin hard tissue. S. intermedius was grown in planktonic suspension for 48h. Nine groups were formed: three control groups (1-3) and six experimental groups (4-9). Groups 4-6 tested the use of Photofrin treatment combined with QTH light at various intervals of irradiation (5, 15 and 60s). Groups 7-9 were similar to groups 4-6 with the exception that irradiation commenced through a dentin disc. Following treatment, bacteria were plated. Colony counts were measured following 72h incubation at 37 degrees C. Statistical analysis was carried out by one-way ANOVA at a 95% confidence level. A significant reduction in S. intermedius colony counts was observed for all experimental groups and one control group. The reduction in numbers of colonies in the experimental groups varied from 79.28 to 99.40% with an average of 94.61%. Reduction in viable bacterial cells indicated a strong relationship between power density and irradiation interval. When curing light energy density was lower due to the irradiation through the 1mm dentin disc, prolonged irradiation interval enhanced bacterial kill. In conclusion, where direct irradiation is not possible for PD treatment, irradiation through dentin may still be done successfully within a clinically relevant interval.

  11. Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus intermedius adhesion to fibronectin films are oppositely influenced by ionic strength.

    PubMed

    Busscher, Henk J; van de Belt-Gritter, Betsy; Dijkstra, Rene J B; Norde, Willem; van der Mei, Henny C

    2008-10-07

    Bacterial adhesion to protein-coated surfaces is mediated by an interplay of specific and nonspecific interactions. Although nonspecific interactions are ubiquitously present, little is known about the physicochemical mechanisms of specific interactions. The aim of this paper is to determine the influence of ionic strength on the adhesion of two streptococcal strains to fibronectin films. Streptococcus mutans LT11 and Streptococcus intermedius NCTC11324 both possess antigen I/II with the ability to bind fibronectin from solution, but S. intermedius binds approximately 20x less fibronectin than does the S. mutans strain under identical conditions. Both strains as well as fibronectin films are negatively charged in low ionic strength phosphate buffered saline (PBS, 10x diluted), but bacteria appear uncharged in high ionic strength PBS. Physicochemical modeling on the basis of overall cell surface properties (cell surface hydrophobicity and zeta potentials) demonstrates that both strains should favor adhesion to fibronectin films in a high ionic strength environment as compared to in a low ionic strength environment, where electrostatic repulsion between equally charged surfaces is dominant. Adhesion of S. intermedius to fibronectin films in a parallel plate flow chamber was completely in line with this modeling, while in addition atomic force microscopy (AFM) indicated stronger adhesion forces upon retraction between fibronectin-coated tips and the cell surfaces in high ionic strength PBS than in low ionic strength PBS. Thus, the dependence of the interaction on ionic strength is dominated by the overall negative charge on the interacting surfaces. Adhesion of S. mutans to fibronectin films, however, was completely at odds with theoretical modeling, and the strain adhered best in low ionic strength PBS. Moreover, AFM indicated weaker repulsive forces upon approach between fibronectin-coated tips and the cell surfaces in low ionic strength PBS than in high ionic

  12. Giant Purulent Pericarditis with Cardiac Tamponade Due to Streptococcus intermedius Rapidly Progressing to Constriction.

    PubMed

    Tigen, Elif T; Sari, Ibrahim; Ak, Koray; Sert, Sena; Tigen, Kursat; Korten, Volkan

    2015-08-01

    Purulent pericardial effusion, although rare, is a life-threatening condition usually produced by the extension of a nearby bacterial infection locus or by blood dissemination in the immune-suppressed subjects or in the course of cardiothoracic surgery. Because clinical features of purulent pericardial effusion are often nonspecific, it can cause delay in diagnosis. Therefore, a high index of suspicion is required for timely diagnosis and management. Herein, we describe a case of giant purulent pericardial effusion due to Streptococcus intermedius with the history of bronchiectasis and pneumonia, which was successfully treated with pericardiocentesis via parasternal approach, appropriate antibiotics, and pericardiectomy.

  13. Identification and characterization of a novel secreted glycosidase with multiple glycosidase activities in Streptococcus intermedius.

    PubMed

    Imaki, Hidenori; Tomoyasu, Toshifumi; Yamamoto, Naoki; Taue, Chiharu; Masuda, Sachiko; Takao, Ayuko; Maeda, Nobuko; Tabata, Atsushi; Whiley, Robert A; Nagamune, Hideaki

    2014-08-01

    Streptococcus intermedius is a known human pathogen and belongs to the anginosus group (S. anginosus, S. intermedius, and S. constellatus) of streptococci (AGS). We found a large open reading frame (6,708 bp) in the lac operon, and bioinformatic analysis suggested that this gene encodes a novel glycosidase that can exhibit β-d-galactosidase and N-acetyl-β-d-hexosaminidase activities. We, therefore, named this protein "multisubstrate glycosidase A" (MsgA). To test whether MsgA has these glycosidase activities, the msgA gene was disrupted in S. intermedius. The msgA-deficient mutant no longer showed cell- and supernatant-associated β-d-galactosidase, β-d-fucosidase, N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase, and N-acetyl-β-d-galactosaminidase activities, and all phenotypes were complemented in trans with a recombinant plasmid carrying msgA. Purified MsgA had all four of these glycosidase activities and exhibited the lowest Km with 4-methylumbelliferyl-linked N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminide and the highest kcat with 4-methylumbelliferyl-linked β-d-galactopyranoside. In addition, the purified LacZ domain of MsgA had β-d-galactosidase and β-d-fucosidase activities, and the GH20 domain exhibited both N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase and N-acetyl-β-d-galactosaminidase activities. The β-d-galactosidase and β-d-fucosidase activities of MsgA are thermolabile, and the optimal temperature of the reaction was 40°C, whereas almost all enzymatic activities disappeared at 49°C. The optimal temperatures for the N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase and N-acetyl-β-d-galactosaminidase activities were 58 and 55°C, respectively. The requirement of sialidase treatment to remove sialic acid residues of the glycan branch end for glycan degradation by MsgA on human α1-antitrypsin indicates that MsgA has exoglycosidase activities. MsgA and sialidase might have an important function in the production and utilization of monosaccharides from oligosaccharides, such as glycans for survival in a normal

  14. [The effect of Bacillus intermedius RNAse on the multiplication of Candida tropicalis yeasts].

    PubMed

    Kupriianova-Ashina, F G; Kolpakov, A I; Egorov, S Iu

    1992-01-01

    The effect of Bacillus intermedius RNAse on the reproduction of Candida tropicalis and synthesis of the main biopolymers in the yeast cells. It has been found that stimulating action of the enzyme appears at the concentration of 10(-5)-10(-6) mg/ml and does not depend on the physiological state of the sowing culture. The connection between the increase of the ionic penetration and stimulation of the RNA and proteins synthesis in the yeast cells subjected to the RNAse action is shown. The mechanism of chromatine-associated RNA-polymerase activation is suggested to include the alteration of the ionic penetration of cells under the RNAse action.

  15. The stem-cell profile of ovarian surface epithelium is reproduced in the oviductal fimbriae, with increased stem-cell marker density in distal parts of the fimbriae.

    PubMed

    Auersperg, Nelly

    2013-09-01

    High-grade serous ovarian carcinomas are the most common and most lethal ovarian cancers, but their histologic origin is still controversial. Current evidence suggests that they may originate in the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) and/or epithelium of oviductal fimbriae (FE). To further investigate this question we compared the stem-cell profiles of these epithelia. Formalin-fixed sections of normal FE (N=21) and ovaries (N=21) were stained immunohistochemically for the stem-cell markers NANOG, SFRP1, LHX9, ALDH1A1, and ALDH1A2. All markers were detected in both OSE and FE. A total of 75% to 100% of surface OSE expressed all markers except ALDH1A1, which occurred in about 25% of cells. Among epithelial inclusion cysts with flat-to-cuboidal epithelium, resembling OSE, ALDH1A1 was significantly increased, whereas SFRP1 was reduced compared with surface OSE, suggesting an increased trend towards malignant transformation. Similarly, among cysts lined by columnar cells resembling FE, SFRP1 expression was low, whereas ALDH1A1 approached 100% of the cysts. FE exhibited considerable variation between and within specimens. In about half of the samples, SFRP1 and NANOG were detected in ≤25% FE. The most widespread markers were ALDH1A1 and ALDH1A2. The highest proportion of all markers occurred in the distal parts of the FE, the site of the putative ovarian cancer precursors. Marker expression in tubal ampullae was low or absent except for ALDH1A1 and ALDH1A2. The results provide an explanation for the characteristic distal location of fimbrial high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma precursor lesions, and indicate that both OSE and FE have the capacity to undergo neoplastic transformation.

  16. F9 fimbriae of uropathogenic Escherichia coli are expressed at low temperature and recognise Galβ1-3GlcNAc-containing glycans.

    PubMed

    Wurpel, Daniël J; Totsika, Makrina; Allsopp, Luke P; Hartley-Tassell, Lauren E; Day, Christopher J; Peters, Kate M; Sarkar, Sohinee; Ulett, Glen C; Yang, Ji; Tiralongo, Joe; Strugnell, Richard A; Jennings, Michael P; Schembri, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the leading causative agent of urinary tract infections (UTI) in the developed world. Among the major virulence factors of UPEC, surface expressed adhesins mediate attachment and tissue tropism. UPEC strains typically possess a range of adhesins, with type 1 fimbriae and P fimbriae of the chaperone-usher class the best characterised. We previously identified and characterised F9 as a new chaperone-usher fimbrial type that mediates biofilm formation. However, the regulation and specific role of F9 fimbriae remained to be determined in the context of wild-type clinical UPEC strains. In this study we have assessed the distribution and genetic context of the f9 operon among diverse E. coli lineages and pathotypes and demonstrated that f9 genes are significantly more conserved in a UPEC strain collection in comparison to the well-defined E. coli reference (ECOR) collection. In the prototypic UPEC strain CFT073, the global regulator protein H-NS was identified as a transcriptional repressor of f9 gene expression at 37°C through its ability to bind directly to the f9 promoter region. F9 fimbriae expression was demonstrated at 20°C, representing the first evidence of functional F9 fimbriae expression by wild-type E. coli. Finally, glycan array analysis demonstrated that F9 fimbriae recognise and bind to terminal Galβ1-3GlcNAc structures.

  17. Screening of plant extracts for anthelmintic activity against Dactylogyrus intermedius (Monogenea) in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Huang, Ai-Guo; Yi, Yang-Lei; Ling, Fei; Lu, Lin; Zhang, Qi-Zhong; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2013-12-01

    With the aim of finding natural anthelmintic agents against Dactylogyrus intermedius (Monogenea) in goldfish (Carassius auratus), 26 plants were screened for antiparasitic properties using in vivo anthelmintic efficacy assay. The results showed that Caesalpinia sappan, Lysima chiachristinae, Cuscuta chinensis, Artemisia argyi, and Eupatorium fortunei were found to have 100% anthelmintic efficacy at 125, 150, 225, 300, and 500 mg L(-1) after 48 h of exposure. Crude extract of the five plants were further partitioned with petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water to obtain anthelmintically active fractions with various polarity. Among these fractions tested, the ethyl acetate extract of L. chiachristinae was found to be the most effective with a 50% effective concentration (EC50) value of 5.1 mg/L after 48 h of exposure. This was followed by ethyl acetate extract of C. chinensis (48 h-EC50 = 8.5 mg L(-1)), chloroform extracts of C. sappan (48 h-EC50 = 15.6 mg L(-1)), methanol extract of C. chinensis (48 h-EC50 = 15.9 mg L(-1)), and chloroform and petroleum ether extract of L. chiachristinae (EC50 values of 17.2 and 21.1 mg/L, respectively), suggesting that these plants, as well as the active fractions, provide potential sources of botanic drugs for the control of D. intermedius in aquaculture.

  18. Excretion of glutamic acid in Citrobacter intermedius C3 associated with plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Jofre, J; Prieto, M J; Tomás, J; Parés, R

    1979-01-01

    Several mutants of Citrobacter intermedius C3 lacking both the ability to synthesize proline and the ability to excrete glutamic acid were isolated by treatment with nitrosoguanidine. No revertants for either characteristic were obtained from these mutants. The ability to excrete glutamic acid was transferred to those mutants with very high frequencies in mating experience by using auxotropic excreting strains as donors. Moreover, the ability to synthesize proline was transferred together with the ability to excrete glutamic acid when an excreting strain was used as donor. The transconjugants showed a rapid spontaneous curing of both genetic markers. It was shown by two different methods that a band of covalently closed circular deoxyribonucleic acid is present in the cesium chloride gradients corresponding to the wild type and excretor mutants. Nonexcretor mutants described herein lacked such a band. Pro + transformants that were also excretors were obtained with plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid isolated either from wild type or from an excretor mutant. These data strongly indicate that glutamic acid excretion in C. intermedius C3 is related to the presence of extrachromosomal deoxyribonucleic acid. PMID:457593

  19. Evidence for the synthesis and release of strongly immunosuppressive, noncytotoxic substances by Streptococcus intermedius.

    PubMed

    Arala-Chaves, M P; Higerd, T B; Porto, M T; Munoz, J; Goust, J M; Fudenberg, H H; Loadholt, C B

    1979-10-01

    Products secreted by Streptococcus intermedius were studied for their effects on the immune response. Three different preparations of crude extracellular products from S. intermedius (CEP-Si) were found to have powerful suppressor activity in vitro as shown by inhibition of human lymphocyte proliferation (uptake of [3H]thymidine) and protein synthesis in response to a wide variety of stimulants, including mitogens and antigens, and suppression of plaque formation by human cells in response to sheep erythrocytes. CEP-Si was noncytotoxic, because cells incubated with high concentrations of CEP-Si and subsequently washed were viable and recovered their ability to respond to mitogens, and because leukocyte migration was not inhibited by CEP-Si, nor was the release of leukocyte migration inhibitory factor from sensitized lymphocytes. The possibility of antigen or mitogen competition was excluded. The effects of CEP-Si in vitro were time dependent and did not require the presence of monocytes. Cells pretreated with CEP-Si and then washed suppressed plaque formation by fresh autologous cells in highly stimulated cultures. CEP-Si injected into C57BL/6 mice also strongly suppressed their immune response to sheep erythrocytes, and the in vivo suppression was correlated with the effects of CEP-Si in vitro.

  20. Evidence for the synthesis and release of strongly immunosuppressive, noncytotoxic substances by Streptococcus intermedius.

    PubMed Central

    Arala-Chaves, M P; Higerd, T B; Porto, M T; Munoz, J; Goust, J M; Fudenberg, H H; Loadholt, C B

    1979-01-01

    Products secreted by Streptococcus intermedius were studied for their effects on the immune response. Three different preparations of crude extracellular products from S. intermedius (CEP-Si) were found to have powerful suppressor activity in vitro as shown by inhibition of human lymphocyte proliferation (uptake of [3H]thymidine) and protein synthesis in response to a wide variety of stimulants, including mitogens and antigens, and suppression of plaque formation by human cells in response to sheep erythrocytes. CEP-Si was noncytotoxic, because cells incubated with high concentrations of CEP-Si and subsequently washed were viable and recovered their ability to respond to mitogens, and because leukocyte migration was not inhibited by CEP-Si, nor was the release of leukocyte migration inhibitory factor from sensitized lymphocytes. The possibility of antigen or mitogen competition was excluded. The effects of CEP-Si in vitro were time dependent and did not require the presence of monocytes. Cells pretreated with CEP-Si and then washed suppressed plaque formation by fresh autologous cells in highly stimulated cultures. CEP-Si injected into C57BL/6 mice also strongly suppressed their immune response to sheep erythrocytes, and the in vivo suppression was correlated with the effects of CEP-Si in vitro. PMID:383749

  1. Feeding and reproductive patterns of Astyanax intermedius in a headwater stream of Atlantic Rainforest.

    PubMed

    Souza, Ursulla P; Ferreira, Fabio C; Carmo, Michele A F; Braga, Francisco M S

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we determined diet composition, reproductive periodicity and fecundity of Astyanax intermedius in a headwater stream of a State Park of an Atlantic rainforest. We also evaluated the influence of rainfall, water temperature and fish size on niche width and niche overlap. Sampling was conducted monthly throughout one year in the Ribeirão Grande stream, southeastern Brazil. Diet consisted of 31 food items with equal contribution of allochthonous and autochthonous items. Females were larger than males, and the mean sizes at first maturation were 4.44 cm and 3.92 cm, respectively. Based on 212 pairs of mature ovaries, the number of oocytes per female ranged from 538 to 6,727 (mean = 2,688.7). Niche width and niche overlap were not related to rainfall nor water temperature and only niche width increased with fish size, suggesting that as fish grow, more items are included in diet. Our results suggested that A. intermedius fit as a typical opportunistic strategist which may explain the prevalence of this species in several isolated headwater basins of vegetated Atlantic forested streams where food resources are abundant and distributed throughout the year.

  2. Purification and characterization of serine proteinase 2 from Bacillus intermedius 3-19.

    PubMed

    Balaban, N P; Mardanova, A M; Sharipova, M R; Gabdrakhmanova, L A; Sokolova, E A; Rudenskaya, G N; Leshchinskaya, I B

    2004-04-01

    A proteinase secreted in the late stationary phase was isolated from the culture fluid of Bacillus intermedius 3-19 by ion-exchange chromatography on CM-cellulose followed by FPLC on a Mono S column. The enzyme was completely inhibited by the serine proteinase inhibitors diisopropyl fluorophosphate and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride. The maximum proteolytic activity against the synthetic chromogenic substrate Z-Ala-Ala-Leu-pNA was observed at pH 9.0. The molecular weight of the enzyme is 28 kD and its isoelectric point is 9.2. We have also determined pH- and thermostability and Km and kcat of this proteinase. The enzyme has been classified as a thiol-dependent serine proteinase. N-Terminal amino acid sequence (10 residues) and amino acid composition of the protein were also determined. By the mode of hydrolysis of peptide bonds in the oxidized B-chain of insulin, this enzyme is similar to the thiol-dependent serine proteinase 1 from B. intermedius 3-19 secreted during vegetative growth.

  3. Lemierre's Syndrome: Rare, but Life Threatening-A Case Report with Streptococcus intermedius.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shalini; Merchant, Shehzad S

    2012-01-01

    Lemierre's syndrome (LS) is a rare, but a life-threatening complication of an oropharyngeal infection. Combinations of fever, pharyngitis, dysphagia, odynophagia, or oropharyngeal swelling are common presenting symptoms. Infection of the lateral pharyngeal space may result in thrombosis of the internal jugular vein, subsequent metastatic complications (e.g., lung abscesses, septic arthritis), and significant morbidity and mortality. LS is usually caused by the gram-negative anaerobic bacillus Fusobacterium necrophorum, hence also known as necrobacillosis. We present a case of LS caused by Streptococcus intermedius, likely secondary to gingival scraping, in which the presenting complaint was neck pain. The oropharyngeal examination was normal and an initial CT of the neck was done without contrast, which likely resulted in a diagnostic delay. This syndrome can be easily missed in early phases. However, given the potential severity of LS, early recognition and expedient appropriate antimicrobial treatment are critical. S. intermedius is an unusual cause of LS, with only 2 previous cases being reported in the literature. Therefore, an awareness of the myriad presentations of this syndrome, which in turn will lead to appropriate and timely diagnostic studies, will result in improved outcome for LS.

  4. Role of catabolite control protein A in the regulation of intermedilysin production by Streptococcus intermedius.

    PubMed

    Tomoyasu, Toshifumi; Tabata, Atsushi; Hiroshima, Riki; Imaki, Hidenori; Masuda, Sachiko; Whiley, Robert A; Aduse-Opoku, Joseph; Kikuchi, Ken; Hiramatsu, Keiichi; Nagamune, Hideaki

    2010-09-01

    Streptococcus intermedius is an opportunistic pathogen of humans that causes purulent infections, including brain and liver abscesses. This pathogen secretes a human-specific cytolysin, intermedilysin, which has been recognized as a major virulence factor. However, most of the expressional control mechanisms of ily are still unknown. To determine these mechanisms, we analyzed the nucleotide sequence of the ily promoter region. We found a highly homologous region to the catabolite-repressible element (cre) in the ily promoter region and observed a considerable decrease in the amount of secreted intermedilysin when cells were grown in a culture medium containing high concentrations of glucose/utilizable carbohydrates. Disruption of the ccpA gene, which encodes catabolite control protein A, did not induce catabolite repression of ily by glucose/utilizable carbohydrates. In cre mutants, catabolite repression of ily was partially restored, and purified catabolite control protein A bound to an oligonucleotide containing the cre consensus sequence in the ily promoter region. In addition, a prolonged lag phase and slower doubling time of the ccpA mutant cells were observed. Our data show that S. intermedius can modulate ily expression and growth rate through catabolite control protein A-mediated monitoring of the extracellular glucose/utilizable carbohydrate concentration.

  5. Growth inhibitory effects of endotoxins from Bacteroides gingivalis and intermedius on human gingival fibroblasts in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Layman, D.L.; Diedrich, D.L.

    1987-06-01

    Purified endotoxin or lipopolysaccharide from Bacteroides gingivalis and Bacteroides intermedius caused a similar dose-dependent inhibition of growth of cultured human gingival fibroblasts as determined by /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation and direct cell count. Approximately 200 micrograms/ml endotoxin caused a 50% reduction in /sup 3/H-thymidine uptake of logarithmically growing cells. Inhibition of growth was similar in cultures of fibroblasts derived from either healthy or diseased human gingiva. When examining the change in cell number with time of exposure in culture, the rate of proliferation was significantly suppressed during the logarithmic phase of growth. However, the cells recovered so that the rate of proliferation, although reduced, was sufficient to produce a cell density similar to the control cells with prolonged culture. The endotoxins were characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The profiles of the Bacteroides endotoxins were different. B. gingivalis endotoxin showed a wide range of distinct bands indicating a heterogeneous distribution of molecular species. Endotoxin from B. intermedius exhibited a few discrete low molecular weight bands, but the majority of the lipopolysaccharides electrophoresed as a diffuse band of high molecular weight material. The apparent heterogeneity of the two Bacteroides endotoxins and the similarity in growth inhibitory capacity suggest that growth inhibitory effects of these substances cannot be attributed to any polysaccharide species of endotoxin.

  6. Glutathione Deficit Affects the Integrity and Function of the Fimbria/Fornix and Anterior Commissure in Mice: Relevance for Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Corcoba, Alberto; Steullet, Pascal; Duarte, João M. N.; Van de Looij, Yohan; Monin, Aline; Cuenod, Michel; Gruetter, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Background: Structural anomalies of white matter are found in various brain regions of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar and other psychiatric disorders, but the causes at the cellular and molecular levels remain unclear. Oxidative stress and redox dysregulation have been proposed to play a role in the pathophysiology of several psychiatric conditions, but their anatomical and functional consequences are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate white matter throughout the brain in a preclinical model of redox dysregulation. Methods: In a mouse model with impaired glutathione synthesis (Gclm KO), a state-of-the-art multimodal magnetic resonance protocol at high field (14.1 T) was used to assess longitudinally the white matter structure, prefrontal neurochemical profile, and ventricular volume. Electrophysiological recordings in the abnormal white matter tracts identified by diffusion tensor imaging were performed to characterize the functional consequences of fractional anisotropy alterations. Results: Structural alterations observed at peri-pubertal age and adulthood in Gclm KO mice were restricted to the anterior commissure and fornix-fimbria. Reduced fractional anisotropy in the anterior commissure (-7.5%±1.9, P<.01) and fornix-fimbria (-4.5%±1.3, P<.05) were accompanied by reduced conduction velocity in fast-conducting fibers of the posterior limb of the anterior commissure (-14.3%±5.1, P<.05) and slow-conducting fibers of the fornix-fimbria (-8.6%±2.6, P<.05). Ventricular enlargement was found at peri-puberty (+25%±8 P<.05) but not in adult Gclm KO mice. Conclusions: Glutathione deficit in Gclm KO mice affects ventricular size and the integrity of the fornix-fimbria and anterior commissure. This suggests that redox dysregulation could contribute during neurodevelopment to the impaired white matter and ventricle enlargement observed in schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. PMID:26433393

  7. Regulation of type 1 fimbriae synthesis and biofilm formation by the transcriptional regulator LrhA of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Blumer, Caroline; Kleefeld, Alexandra; Lehnen, Daniela; Heintz, Margit; Dobrindt, Ulrich; Nagy, Gábor; Michaelis, Kai; Emödy, Levente; Polen, Tino; Rachel, Reinhard; Wendisch, Volker F; Unden, Gottfried

    2005-10-01

    Type 1 fimbriae of Escherichia coli facilitate attachment to the host mucosa and promote biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces. The transcriptional regulator LrhA, which is known as a repressor of flagellar, motility and chemotaxis genes, regulates biofilm formation and expression of type 1 fimbriae. Whole-genome expression profiling revealed that inactivation of lrhA results in an increased expression of structural components of type 1 fimbriae. In vitro, LrhA bound to the promoter regions of the two fim recombinases (FimB and FimE) that catalyse the inversion of the fimA promoter, and to the invertible element itself. Translational lacZ fusions with these genes and quantification of fimE transcript levels by real-time PCR showed that LrhA influences type 1 fimbrial phase variation, primarily via activation of FimE, which is required for the ON-to-OFF transition of the fim switch. Enhanced type 1 fimbrial expression as a result of lrhA disruption was confirmed by mannose-sensitive agglutination of yeast cells. Biofilm formation was stimulated by lrhA inactivation and completely suppressed upon LrhA overproduction. The effects of LrhA on biofilm formation were exerted via the changed levels of surface molecules, most probably both flagella and type 1 fimbriae. Together, the data show a role for LrhA as a repressor of type 1 fimbrial expression, and thus as a regulator of the initial stages of biofilm development and, presumably, bacterial adherence to epithelial host cells also.

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Komagataeibacter intermedius Strain AF2, a Producer of Cellulose, Isolated from Kombucha Tea

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Renato Augusto Corrêa; Berretta, Andresa Aparecida; Barud, Hernane da Silva; Ribeiro, Sidney José Lima; González-García, Laura Natalia; Zucchi, Tiago Domingues

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present the draft genome sequence of Komagataeibacter intermedius strain AF2, which was isolated from Kombucha tea and is capable of producing cellulose, although at lower levels compared to another bacterium from the same environment, K. rhaeticus strain AF1. PMID:26634755

  9. Comparison of tests to detect oxacillin resistance in Staphylococcus intermedius, Staphylococcus schleiferi, and Staphylococcus aureus isolates from canine hosts.

    PubMed

    Bemis, David A; Jones, Rebekah D; Hiatt, Lauren E; Ofori, Edward D; Rohrbach, Barton W; Frank, Linda A; Kania, Stephen A

    2006-09-01

    Multiple tests were compared to the reference standard PBP2a latex agglutination test for detection of mecA-mediated oxacillin resistance in canine staphylococci. Cefoxitin disk diffusion, using breakpoints for human isolates of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp., had low sensitivity for detection of oxacillin resistance in members of the Staphylococcus intermedius group.

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis Biovar Intermedius, Isolated from the Prepuce of a Bull

    PubMed Central

    Iraola, Gregorio; Pérez, Ruben; Naya, Hugo; Paolicchi, Fernando; Harris, David; Lawley, Trevor D.; Rego, Natalia; Hernández, Martín; Calleros, Lucía; Carretto, Luis; Velilla, Alejandra; Morsella, Claudia; Méndez, Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis is the causative agent of bovine genital campylobacteriosis, a sexually transmitted disease distributed worldwide. Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis biovar Intermedius strains differ in their biochemical behavior and are prevalent in some countries. We report the first genome sequence for this biovar, isolated from bull prepuce. PMID:23908278

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Komagataeibacter intermedius Strain AF2, a Producer of Cellulose, Isolated from Kombucha Tea.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Renato Augusto Corrêa; Berretta, Andresa Aparecida; Barud, Hernane da Silva; Ribeiro, Sidney José Lima; González-García, Laura Natalia; Zucchi, Tiago Domingues; Goldman, Gustavo H; Riaño-Pachón, Diego M

    2015-12-03

    Here, we present the draft genome sequence of Komagataeibacter intermedius strain AF2, which was isolated from Kombucha tea and is capable of producing cellulose, although at lower levels compared to another bacterium from the same environment, K. rhaeticus strain AF1.

  12. Complete Genome Sequence of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis Biovar Intermedius, Isolated from the Prepuce of a Bull.

    PubMed

    Iraola, Gregorio; Pérez, Ruben; Naya, Hugo; Paolicchi, Fernando; Harris, David; Lawley, Trevor D; Rego, Natalia; Hernández, Martín; Calleros, Lucía; Carretto, Luis; Velilla, Alejandra; Morsella, Claudia; Méndez, Alejandra; Gioffre, Andrea

    2013-08-01

    Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis is the causative agent of bovine genital campylobacteriosis, a sexually transmitted disease distributed worldwide. Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis biovar Intermedius strains differ in their biochemical behavior and are prevalent in some countries. We report the first genome sequence for this biovar, isolated from bull prepuce.

  13. Shigella flexneri transformants expressing type 1 (mannose-specific) fimbriae bind to, activate, and are killed by phagocytic cells.

    PubMed Central

    Gbarah, A; Mirelman, D; Sansonetti, P J; Verdon, R; Bernhard, W; Sharon, N

    1993-01-01

    Shigella flexneri M90T (invasive) and BS176 (noninvasive) are typical nonfimbriated organisms that do not bind to or activate phagocytic cells. We demonstrate that S. flexneri M90Tp and BS176p, obtained by transformation of the strains named above with the cluster of genes encoding type 1 (mannose-specific) fimbriae of Escherichia coli, express the functional fimbriae, as shown by electron microscopy, by binding of antifimbria antibodies and by yeast cell aggregation. The transformants, but not the parental strains, bound to human granulocytes and mouse peritoneal macrophages. This binding was inhibited by methyl alpha-D-mannoside but not by methyl alpha-D-galactoside. The bound bacteria induced oxidative burst activation and degranulation of the granulocytes in vitro. With mouse peritoneal macrophages, the binding of the fimbriated bacteria induced degranulation in vitro. Injection of the bacteria into mouse peritoneum also induced degranulation of the macrophages in vivo; no such effect was observed with the nonfimbriated strains. The bound fimbriated transformants were effectively killed by the human granulocytes in vitro in the absence of opsonins or after opsonization with human anti-S. flexneri antiserum. The nonfimbriated strains were killed only after opsonization. These results provide further evidence for the role of type 1 fimbriae in lectin-mediated nonopsonic phagocytosis. Images PMID:8097492

  14. Streptococcus intermedius, Streptococcus constellatus, and Streptococcus anginosus ("Streptococcus milleri group") are of different clinical importance and are not equally associated with abscess.

    PubMed

    Claridge, J E; Attorri, S; Musher, D M; Hebert, J; Dunbar, S

    2001-05-15

    Difficulties in distinguishing organisms of the "Streptococcus milleri group" (SMG; Streptococcus intermedius, Streptococcus constellatus, and Streptococcus anginosus), have caused ambiguity in determining their pathogenic potential. We reviewed 118 cases in which SMG isolates had been identified using 16S rDNA sequence. S. constellatus and S. anginosus were isolated far more frequently than was S. intermedius. Nearly all isolates of S. intermedius and most isolates of S. constellatus, but only 19% of those of S. anginosus, were associated with abscess. Our findings suggest that speciation of the SMG may guide diagnostic evaluation, give insight into the possible role of coinfecting organisms, and help assess the need to search for occult abscess.

  15. Structural predictions of AgfA, the insoluble fimbrial subunit of Salmonella thin aggregative fimbriae.

    PubMed

    Collinson, S K; Parker, J M; Hodges, R S; Kay, W W

    1999-07-16

    The unusually stable and multifunctional, thin aggregative fimbriae common to all Salmonella spp. are principally polymers of the fimbrin subunit, AgfA. AgfA of Salmonella enteritidis consists of two domains: a protease-sensitive, 22 amino acid residue N-terminal region and a protease-resistant, 109 residue C-terminal core. The unusual amino acid sequence of the AgfA core region comprises two-, five- and tenfold internal sequence homology patterns reflected in five conserved, 18-residue tandem repeats. These repeats have the consensus sequence, Sx5QxGx2NxAx3Q and are linked together by four or five residues, (x)xAx2. The predicted secondary structure for this unusual arrangement of tandem repeats in AgfA indicates mainly extended conformation with the beta strands linked by four to six residues. Candidate proteins of known structure with motifs of alternating beta strands and short loops were selected from folds described in SCOP as a source of coordinates for AgfA model construction. Three all-beta class motifs selected from the Serratia marcescens metalloprotease, myelin P2 protein or vitelline membrane outer protein I were used for initial AgfA homology build-up procedures ultimately resulting in three structural models; beta barrel, beta prism and parallel beta helix. The beta barrel model is a compact, albeit irregular structure, with the beta strands arranged in two antiparallel beta sheet faces. The beta prism model does not reflect the 5 or 10-fold symmetry of the AgfA primary sequence. However, the favored, parallel beta helix model is a compact coil of ten helically arranged beta strands forming two parallel beta sheet faces. This arrangement predicts a regular, potentially stable, C-terminal core region consistent with the observed tandem repeat sequences, protease-resistance and strong tendency of this fimbrin to oligomerize and aggregate. Positional conservation of amino acid residues in AgfA and the Escherichia coli AgfA homologue, CsgA, provides

  16. Bordetella filamentous hemagglutinin and fimbriae: critical adhesins with unrealized vaccine potential

    PubMed Central

    Scheller, Erich V.; Cotter, Peggy A.

    2015-01-01

    Pertussis, or whooping cough, is a highly contagious respiratory disease that is caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Bordetella pertussis, which is transmitted exclusively from human to human. While vaccination against B. pertussis has been successful, replacement of the whole cell vaccine with an acellular component vaccine has correlated with reemergence of the disease, especially in adolescents and infants. Based on their presumed importance in mediating adherence to host tissues, filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) and fimbria (FIM) were selected as components of most acellular pertussis vaccines. In this review, we describe the biogenesis of FHA and FIM, recent data that show that these factors do, in fact, play critical roles in adherence to respiratory epithelium, and evidence that they also contribute to persistence in the lower respiratory tract by modulating the host immune response. We also discuss shortcomings of whole cell and acellular pertussis vaccines and the possibility that FHA and FIM could serve as effective protective antigens in next-generation vaccines. PMID:26416077

  17. Promoting crystallisation of the Salmonella enteritidis fimbriae 14 pilin SefD using deuterium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Bing; Garnett, James A.; Lee, Wei-chao; Lin, Jing; Salgado, Paula; Taylor, Jonathan; Xu, Yingqi; Lambert, Sebastian; Cota, Ernesto; Matthews, Steve

    2012-05-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The benefits of D{sub 2}O in screening for crystallisation was explored. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The crystal structures of the SefD pilin in both H{sub 2}O and D{sub 2}O reveal differences. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystallisation improvements are explained by altered interactions in D{sub 2}O crystals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer D{sub 2}O is useful additive in sparse-matrix screening for crystallisation. -- Abstract: The use of heavy water (D{sub 2}O) as a solvent is commonplace in many spectroscopic techniques for the study of biological macromolecules. A significant deuterium isotope effect exists where hydrogen-bonding is important, such as in protein stability, dynamics and assembly. Here we illustrate the use of D{sub 2}O in additive screening for the production of reproducible diffraction-quality crystals for the Salmonella enteritidis fimbriae 14 (SEF14) putative tip adhesin, SefD.

  18. The Role of Thin Aggregative Fimbriae on Pathogenic Bacterial Transport Through Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvucci, A. E.; Fuka, D. R.; Marjerison, R. D.; Hay, A. G.; Zhang, W.; Caballero, L. A.; Zevi, Y.; Richards, B. K.; Steenhuis, T. S.

    2008-05-01

    Pathogenic bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp., are responsible for many deaths worldwide every year. Their survival in the natural environment is enhanced by the production of biofilms, which provide a resistance to environmental stresses. However, it remains unclear how these biofilms affect the bacterias' ability to move through the soil matrix and potentially contaminate groundwater or water from drainage systems. In this presentation, we discuss the role of thin aggregative fimbriae (curli), a key biofilm component, on transport through porous media. An experiment was performed consisting of 96 sand columns created using a deep-well microtiter plate. We used well-characterized strains of E. coli, one with the ability to form curli and one without. Pulsing the E. coli strains through the sand column, mimicking natural leaching processes, showed less transport, by greater retention, in the strains that produce curli versus those strains that do not. In addition, when cultured in conditions unfavorable to curli production, transport between strains did not differ significantly. These preliminary results indicate that curli, and to a larger extent biofilms, could be an important component influencing the transport of bacterial strains through the soil matrix. This determination of pathogens' ability to move through the environment, as related to how well they form biofilms, will facilitate a better understanding of the fate of pathogenic bacteria in the environment.

  19. AgfC and AgfE facilitate extracellular thin aggregative fimbriae synthesis in Salmonella enteritidis.

    PubMed

    Gibson, D L; White, A P; Rajotte, C M; Kay, W W

    2007-04-01

    Salmonella thin aggregative fimbriae (Tafi; curli) are important in pathogenesis and biofilm formation; however, less is known of their structure and morphogenesis. In the Salmonella agfBAC Tafi operon, the transcription and role of agfC have been elusive. In this study, agfBAC transcripts were detected using a sensitive reverse transcriptase technique. Native AgfC was not detected using polyclonal antibodies generated against purified hexahistidine-tagged AgfC; however, in trans expression revealed that AgfC was localized to the periplasm as a mature form. An isogenic DeltaagfC mutant displayed an abundance of 20 nm fibres, in addition to native Tafi (5-7 nm), and had an increase in cell surface hydrophobicity. Purified 20 nm fibres were depolymerized under exceptionally stringent conditions to release what proved to be AgfA subunits. This revealed that the 20 nm fibres represented a different form of Tafi. The role of AgfC in Tafi assembly was investigated further using an antibody-capture assay of isogenic Deltaagf mutants. A soluble antibody-accessible form of AgfA was captured in wild-type (wt), DeltaagfB and DeltaagfF strains, in support of the extracellular nucleation-precipitation pathway of Tafi assembly, but not in DeltaagfC or DeltaagfE mutants. This indicates that AgfC and AgfE are important for AgfA extracellular assembly, facilitating the synthesis of Tafi.

  20. Crystallization of the FaeE chaperone of Escherichia coli F4 fimbriae

    PubMed Central

    Van Molle, Inge; Buts, Lieven; Coppens, Fanny; Qiang, Liu; Wyns, Lode; Loris, Remy; Bouckaert, Julie; De Greve, Henri

    2005-01-01

    F4 (formerly K88) fimbriae from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli are assembled via the FaeE/FaeD chaperone/usher pathway. The chaperone FaeE crystallizes in three crystal forms, all belonging to space group C2. Crystals of form 1 diffract to 2.3 Å and have unit-cell parameters a = 195.7, b = 78.5, c = 184.6 Å, β = 102.2°. X-ray data for crystal form 2 were collected to 2.7 Å using an SeMet variant of FaeE. The crystals have unit-cell parameters a = 136.4, b = 75.7, c = 69.4 Å, β = 92.8°. Crystals of form 3 were formed in a solution containing the FaeE–FaeG complex and diffract to 2.8 Å. Unit-cell parameters are a = 109.7, b = 78.6, c = 87.8 Å, β = 96.4°. PMID:16511060

  1. The PprA-PprB two-component system activates CupE, the first non-archetypal Pseudomonas aeruginosa chaperone-usher pathway system assembling fimbriae.

    PubMed

    Giraud, Caroline; Bernard, Christophe S; Calderon, Virginie; Yang, Liang; Filloux, Alain; Molin, Søren; Fichant, Gwennaele; Bordi, Christophe; de Bentzmann, Sophie

    2011-03-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa has redundant molecular systems that contribute to its pathogenicity. Those assembling fimbrial structures promote complex organized community lifestyle. We characterized a new 5.8 kb genetic locus, cupE, that includes the conserved usher- and chaperone-encoding genes. This locus, widely conserved in different bacterial species, contains four additional genes encoding non-archetypal fimbrial subunits. We first evidenced that the cupE gene cluster was specifically expressed in biofilm conditions and was responsible for fibre assembly containing at least CupE1 protein, at the bacterial cell surface. These fimbriae not only played a significant role in the early stages (microcolony and macrocolony formation) but also in shaping 3D mushrooms during P. aeruginosa biofilm development. Using wide-genome transposon mutagenesis, we identified the PprAB two-component system (TCS) as a regulator of cupE expression, and further demonstrated the involvement of the PprAB TCS in direct CupE fimbrial assembly activation. Thus, this TCS represents a new regulatory element controlling the transition between planktonic and community lifestyles in P. aeruginosa.

  2. Crohn disease–associated adherent-invasive E. coli bacteria target mouse and human Peyer’s patches via long polar fimbriae

    PubMed Central

    Chassaing, Benoit; Rolhion, Nathalie; de Vallée, Amélie; Salim, Sa’ad Y.; Prorok-Hamon, Maelle; Neut, Christel; Campbell, Barry J.; Söderholm, Johan D.; Hugot, Jean-Pierre; Colombel, Jean-Frédéric; Darfeuille-Michaud, Arlette

    2011-01-01

    Crohn disease (CD) is a multifactorial disease in which an abnormal immune response in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract leads to chronic inflammation. The small intestine, particularly the ileum, of patients with CD is colonized by adherent-invasive E. coli (AIEC) — a pathogenic group of E. coli able to adhere to and invade intestinal epithelial cells. As the earliest inflammatory lesions are microscopic erosions of the epithelium lining the Peyer’s patches (PPs), we investigated the ability of AIEC bacteria to interact with PPs and the virulence factors involved. We found that AIEC bacteria could interact with mouse and human PPs via long polar fimbriae (LPF). An LPF-negative AIEC mutant was highly impaired in its ability to interact with mouse and human PPs and to translocate across monolayers of M cells, specialized epithelial cells at the surface of PPs. The prevalence of AIEC strains harboring the lpf operon was markedly higher in CD patients compared with controls. In addition, increased numbers of AIEC, but not LPF-deficient AIEC, bacteria were found interacting with PPs from Nod2–/– mice compared with WT mice. In conclusion, we have identified LPF as a key factor for AIEC to target PPs. This could be the missing link between AIEC colonization and the presence of early lesions in the PPs of CD patients. PMID:21339647

  3. Occurrence of Staphylococcus intermedius on the hair and skin of normal dogs.

    PubMed

    Allaker, R P; Lloyd, D H; Simpson, A I

    1992-03-01

    Aerobic bacterial populations were studied on the distal hair coat and at the skin surface of the shoulder, rump and abdomen of 10 healthy dogs. Coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) were more frequently isolated from the hair than the skin at the shoulder and rump. There was no difference in the isolation rate of coagulase positive staphylococci (CPS) (Staphylococcus intermedius) between the hair and skin. Total skin counts were greatest on the abdomen whereas CNS counts from the hair were least at this site. There were no differences between CPS counts at the three sites on either hair or skin. The populations on the relatively unfavourable microenvironment of the distal hair may represent contamination rather than colonisation. The low populations of CPS at the skin surface also indicate contamination or transient colonisation rather than true resident status.

  4. Effect of salt nutrients on mannitol production by Lactobacillus intermedius NRRL B-3693.

    PubMed

    Saha, Badal C

    2006-10-01

    The effects of four salt nutrients (ammonium citrate, sodium phosphate, magnesium sulfate, and manganese sulfate) on the production of mannitol by Lactobacillus intermedius NRRL B-3693 in a simplified medium containing 300 g fructose, 5 g soy peptone, and 50 g corn steep liquor per liter in pH-controlled fermentation at 5.0 at 37 degrees C were evaluated using a fractional factorial design. Only manganese sulfate was found to be essential for mannitol production. Added manganese sulfate concentration of 0.033 g/l was found to support maximum production. The bacterium produced 200.6 +/- 0.2 g mannitol, 61.9 +/- 0.1 g lactic acid, and 40.4 +/- 0.3 g acetic acid from 300 g fructose per liter in 67 h.

  5. [Meningitis and brain abscess caused by Streptococcus intermedius in a patient infected with HIV-1].

    PubMed

    Vallalta Morales, M; Solaz Moreno, E; Lacruz Rodrigo, J; Salavert Lletí, M; Silla Burdalo, G; Pérez-Bellés, C

    2005-06-01

    Streptococcus milleri group have been recognized as an important pathogens for abscess formation in various organs. Streptococci other than Streptococcus pneumoniae are a rare cause of bacterial meningitis in adults and can be associated with the presence of an undiagnosed brain abscess. Brain abscess is a focal collection within the brain parenchyma which can arise as a complication of a variety of infections. The most common etiologic organisms in clinical series have been microaerophilic streptococci and anaerobic bacteria. Although intracranial mass lesions that occur as a result of infection have commonly been reported in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus, brain abscess due to the common bacterial pathogens are rarely described in HIV infected patients and Toxoplasma gondii is the organism most frequently isolated from stereotactic brain biopsy in these patients. We report a patient with both HIV-1 infection and streptococcal meningitis secondary to brain abscess caused by S. intermedius.

  6. Syntheses of L-tyrosine-related amino acids by tyrosine phenol-lyase of Citrobacter intermedius.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, T; Utagawa, T; Goto, J; Kim, C J; Tani, Y; Kumagai, H; Yamada, H

    1981-06-01

    Degradation of tyrosine to phenol, pyruvate and ammonia by tyrosine phenol-lyase from Citrobacter intermedius (formerly named Escherichia intermedia) is readily reversible at high concentrations of pyruvate and ammonia. Spectrophotometric studies indicate that ammonia is the first substrate which interacts with bound pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. Kinetic results show that pyruvate is the second substrate bound, hence phenol must be the third. When an appropriate phenol derivative is substituted for phenol, the corresponding tyrosine analogue can be synthesized. 3-Fluoro-, 2-fluoro-, 3-chloro-, 2-chloro-, 3-bromo-, 2-bromo-, 2-iodo-, 3-methyl-, 2-methyl- and 2-methoxy-L-tyrosines have been synthesized by this reaction. By using various phenol derivatives or tyrosine analogues as substrates, the substrate specificity of tyrosine phenol-lyase is investigated and the situation of its active site is discussed.

  7. More than one way to control hair growth: regulatory mechanisms in enterobacteria that affect fimbriae assembled by the chaperone/usher pathway.

    PubMed

    Clegg, Steven; Wilson, Janet; Johnson, Jeremiah

    2011-05-01

    Many gram-negative enterobacteria produce surface-associated fimbriae that facilitate attachment and adherence to eucaryotic cells and tissues. These organelles are believed to play an important role during infection by enabling bacteria to colonize specific niches within their hosts. One class of these fimbriae is assembled using a periplasmic chaperone and membrane-associated scaffolding protein that has been referred to as an usher because of its function in fimbrial biogenesis. The presence of multiple types of fimbriae assembled by the chaperone/usher pathway can be found both within a single bacterial species and also among different genera. One way of controlling fimbrial assembly in these bacteria is at the genetic level by positively or negatively regulating fimbrial gene expression. This minireview considers the mechanisms that have been described to control fimbrial gene expression and uses specific examples to demonstrate both unique and shared properties of such regulatory mechanisms.

  8. Porphyromonas gingivalis fimbria-dependent activation of inflammatory genes in human aortic endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chou, Hsin-Hua; Yumoto, Hiromichi; Davey, Michael; Takahashi, Yusuke; Miyamoto, Takanari; Gibson, Frank C; Genco, Caroline A

    2005-09-01

    Epidemiological and pathological studies have suggested that infection with the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis can potentiate atherosclerosis and human coronary heart disease. Furthermore, infection with invasive, but not noninvasive P. gingivalis has been demonstrated to accelerate atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice and to accelerate local inflammatory responses in aortic tissue. In the present study, using high-density oligonucleotide microarrays, we have defined the gene expression profile of human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) after infection with invasive and noninvasive P. gingivalis. After infection of HAEC with invasive P. gingivalis strain 381, we observed the upregulation of 68 genes. Genes coding for the cytokines Gro2 and Gro3; the adhesion molecules intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1, and ELAM-1 (E-selectin); the chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8); and the proinflammatory molecules IL-6 and cyclooxygenase-2 were among the most highly upregulated genes in P. gingivalis 381-infected HAEC compared to uninfected HAEC control. Increased mRNA levels for signaling molecules, transcriptional regulators, and cell surface receptors were also observed. Of note, only 4 of these 68 genes were also upregulated in HAEC infected with the noninvasive P. gingivalis fimA mutant. Reverse transcription-PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis confirmed the expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-/P-selectins, IL-6, and IL-8 in HAEC infected with invasive P. gingivalis. We also demonstrated that increased expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in aortic tissue of ApoE(-/-) mice orally challenged with invasive P. gingivalis but not with the noninvasive P. gingivalis fimA mutant by immunohistochemical analysis. Taken together, these results demonstrate that P. gingivalis fimbria-mediated invasion upregulates inflammatory gene expression in HAEC and in aortic

  9. Extracellular polysaccharides associated with thin aggregative fimbriae of Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis.

    PubMed

    White, A P; Gibson, D L; Collinson, S K; Banser, P A; Kay, W W

    2003-09-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O polysaccharide was identified as the principle factor impeding intercellular formation of intact thin aggregative fimbriae (Tafi) in Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis. The extracellular nucleation-precipitation assembly pathway for these organelles was investigated by quantifying fimbrial formation between deltaagfA (AgfA recipient) and deltaagfB (AgfA donor) cells harboring mutations in LPS (galE::Tn10) and/or cellulose (deltabcsA) synthesis. Intercellular complementation could be detected between deltaagfA and deltaagfB strains only when both possessed the galE mutation. LPS O polysaccharide appears to be an impenetrable barrier to AgfA assembly between cells but not within individual cells. The presence of cellulose did not restrict Tafi formation between cells. Transmission electron microscopy of w+ S. enterica serovar Enteritidis 3b cells revealed diffuse Tafi networks without discernible fine structure. In the absence of cellulose, however, individual Tafi fibers were clearly visible, appeared to be occasionally branched, and showed the generally distinctive appearance described for Escherichia coli K-12 curli. A third extracellular matrix component closely associated with cellulose and Tafi was detected on Western blots by using immune serum raised to whole, purified Tafi aggregates. Cellulose was required to tightly link this material to cells. Antigenically similar material was also detected in S. enterica serovar Typhimurium and one diarrheagenic E. coli isolate. Preliminary analysis indicated that this material represented an anionic, extracellular polysaccharide that was distinct from colanic acid. Therefore, Tafi in their native state appear to exist as a complex with cellulose and at least one other component.

  10. Development of approaches to induce puberty in cultured female sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria).

    PubMed

    Guzmán, José M; Luckenbach, J Adam; da Silva, Denis A M; Ylitalo, Gina M; Swanson, Penny

    2015-09-15

    Efforts to establish sustainable and efficient aquaculture production of sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria) have been constrained by delayed puberty in cultured females. This study integrates a series of experiments aimed at gaining an understanding of the reproductive physiology of puberty in female sablefish. We detected transcripts for the dopamine D2 receptor (drd2) in brain, pituitary and ovary of sablefish, and prepubertal females exhibited significantly elevated brain and pituitary drd2 expression relative to wild maturing females. Treatments with sustained-release cholesterol pellets containing testosterone (T) and the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist, metoclopramide (Met), stimulated expression of pituitary luteinizing hormone beta subunit (lhb) and follicle-stimulating hormone beta subunit (fshb), respectively, in prepubertal females, whereas a combination of T and gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) had a strong synergistic effect on lhb expression (2000-fold higher than control). Although T induced a significant increase in the maximum ovarian follicle volume, none of the treatments tested stimulated onset of vitellogenesis. Using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, we demonstrated that Met stimulated production of T by previtellogenic ovarian follicles in vitro, whereas gonadotropin preparations enhanced 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione (A4), T and 17β-estradiol (E2) production. Treatment with T increased production of A4, 11β-hydroxyandrostenedione, 11β-hydroxytestosterone, E2, 11-ketotestosterone, and 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Interestingly, in the presence of high doses of T the previtellogenic ovary preferentially produced A4 and DHT over any other metabolite. Our data suggest the existence of dopamine inhibition of the reproductive axis in female sablefish. Treatments with Met and T elevated gonadotropin mRNAs in prepubertal females but failed to stimulate the transition into vitellogenic growth, suggesting a

  11. Gonadal sex differentiation and effects of dietary methyltestosterone treatment in sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria).

    PubMed

    Luckenbach, J Adam; Fairgrieve, William T

    2016-02-01

    Methods for sex control are needed to establish monosex aquaculture of sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria). Here we conducted the first characterization of sex differentiation by histology and hormonal sex reversal experiment in sablefish. Ovarian differentiation was first discernible at ~80 mm fork length (FL) and characterized by development of lamellar structures and onset of meiosis. Testes exhibited a dual-lobe appearance over much of their length and remained non-meiotic until males were ≥520 mm FL (2 years post-fertilization). Juveniles with undifferentiated gonads were provided diets containing 0 (control), 5 or 50 mg 17α-methyltestosterone (MT)/kg for 2 months. Following treatment, controls possessed either ovaries or non-meiotic testes, whereas MT-treated fish exhibited meiotic testes (60% of the fish), intersex gonads (~30%), or gonads that appeared sterile (~10%). A genetic sex marker revealed that all intersex fish were genetic females, although other females appeared to be completely sex reversed (i.e., neomales). One year after treatment, MT-treated fish possessed non-meiotic testes similar to control males or intersex gonads with reduced ovarian features, presumably due to atresia following MT withdrawal. Milt collected from neomales and genetic males 3 years post-treatment permitted sperm motility analyses; however, neomale sperm were virtually immotile. These results demonstrated that sablefish are differentiated gonochorists and that MT treatment from 76 to 196 mm FL induced permanent masculinization of a portion of the genetic females, but acquisition of sperm motility was impaired. Earlier administration of MT may be necessary to sex reverse a higher proportion of genetic females and reduce negative effects on fertility.

  12. Ribosomal DNA location in the scarab beetle Thorectes intermedius (Costa) (Coleoptera: Geotrupidae) using banding and fluorescent in-situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Vitturi, R; Colomba, M S; Barbieri, R; Zunino, M

    1999-01-01

    Mitotic metaphase chromosomes of the scarab beetle Thorectes intermedius (Costa) (Coleoptera Scarabaeoidea: Geotrupidae) were analyzed using various banding methods and fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) with a ribosomal probe. The results obtained indicate that silver and CMA3 staining are unable to localize the chromosome sites of nucleolar organizer regions (NORs). Such an inadequacy is a consequence of the extensive silver and CMA3 stainability of both constitutive heterochromatin and heterochromatin associated to the NORs.

  13. [Expression of secreted guanyl-specific ribonuclease genes from Bacillus intermedius and Bacillus pumilus in Bacillus subtilis cells].

    PubMed

    Znamenskaia, L V; Vershinina, O A; Vershinina, V I; Krasnov, S I; Kostrov, S V; Akimkina, T V; Leshchinskaia, I B; Hartley, R W

    1999-01-01

    Plasmids with whole genes for ribonucleases from B. intermedius (binase) and B. pumilis (RNase Bp) assembled with the whole gene of barstar, a specific intracellular inhibitor, are constructed. The resultant plasmids pMZ55 and pMZ56 effectively express binase and RNase Bp genes in B. subtilis cells. A medium for maximum expression of RNase genes by recombinant strains is developed. The expression of binase and RNase Bp genes in B. subtilis cells is negatively regulated by exogenic inorganic phosphate.

  14. Family Growth and Survival Response to Two Simulated Water Temperature Environments in the Sea Urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yaqing; Tian, Xiaofei; Zhang, Weijie; Han, Fenjie; Chen, Shun; Zhou, Mi; Pang, Zhenguo; Qi, Shoubing; Feng, Wenping

    2016-08-29

    Heat tolerance is a target trait in the selective breeding of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius, as it plays an important role in the survival and growth of cultured S. intermedius during summer. We investigated family growth and survival response to two temperature treatments to evaluate the genotype by temperature interaction (GEI) in the family selection of S. intermedius. Sea urchins from 11 families were exposed to two simulated water temperature environments-high temperature (HE) and control temperature (CE)-for 12 months, with each experiment divided into four periods (P1, stress-free period I; P2, stress-full high period; P3, stress-response period; and P4, stress-free period II) based on the temperature changes and the survival. Test diameter (TD), body weight (BW), and survival rate (SR) in HE and CE were measured monthly. Effects of family, temperature, and family-temperature interaction on TD, BW, SR, and specific growth rate (SGR) for BW were examined. In CE, BW differed significantly between families in P2, P3, and P4, while TD differed significantly between families in P3 and P4 (p < 0.05). In HE, family had significant effects on BW in P4, and on TD in P3 and P4, while temperature had significant effects on SR, TD, and BW in P3 and P4 (p < 0.05). GEI effects were not significant for TD or BW; however, family ranking changes revealed the existence of GEI in SR. The GEI results indicate the necessity of applying family selection in CE and HE for SR, but not for TD or BW. These results may provide a guide for aquaculture and selective breeding of S. intermedius under temperature pressure.

  15. Family Growth and Survival Response to Two Simulated Water Temperature Environments in the Sea Urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yaqing; Tian, Xiaofei; Zhang, Weijie; Han, Fenjie; Chen, Shun; Zhou, Mi; Pang, Zhenguo; Qi, Shoubing; Feng, Wenping

    2016-01-01

    Heat tolerance is a target trait in the selective breeding of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius, as it plays an important role in the survival and growth of cultured S. intermedius during summer. We investigated family growth and survival response to two temperature treatments to evaluate the genotype by temperature interaction (GEI) in the family selection of S. intermedius. Sea urchins from 11 families were exposed to two simulated water temperature environments—high temperature (HE) and control temperature (CE)—for 12 months, with each experiment divided into four periods (P1, stress-free period I; P2, stress-full high period; P3, stress-response period; and P4, stress-free period II) based on the temperature changes and the survival. Test diameter (TD), body weight (BW), and survival rate (SR) in HE and CE were measured monthly. Effects of family, temperature, and family-temperature interaction on TD, BW, SR, and specific growth rate (SGR) for BW were examined. In CE, BW differed significantly between families in P2, P3, and P4, while TD differed significantly between families in P3 and P4 (p < 0.05). In HE, family had significant effects on BW in P4, and on TD in P3 and P4, while temperature had significant effects on SR, TD, and BW in P3 and P4 (p < 0.05). GEI effects were not significant for TD or BW; however, family ranking changes revealed the existence of GEI in SR. The GEI results indicate the necessity of applying family selection in CE and HE for SR, but not for TD or BW. These results may provide a guide for aquaculture and selective breeding of S. intermedius under temperature pressure. PMID:27589722

  16. Effect of manganese and calcium deficiency on the growth and oxygen exchange of Scenedesmus intermedius cultured for successive generations.

    PubMed

    Adam, M S; Issa, A A

    2000-01-01

    The green alga Scenedesmus intermedius was grown in synchronous culture under manganese or calcium deficiency for six successive generations. The growth rate, pigment and protein contents gradually decreased in comparison with the control. In Mn-deficient cells, the rate of oxygen evolution was sharply decreased. This inhibition was restored to normal in less than 1 h (40-60 min) by adding Mn salt to the suspension medium. In Ca-deficient cells, the inhibition of photosynthesis appears to be irreversible.

  17. [MYP gene expressions at transcription level in different stages of gonad of sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius and hybrids].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zun-Chun; Bao, Zhen-Min; Dong, Ying; Wang, Li-Mei; He, Chong-Bo; Liu, Wei-Dong

    2008-11-01

    MYP (Major yolk protein) gene expression at transcription level in different stages of gonad of sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius and hybrids (S. intermediusfemale symbolxS. nudusmale symbol) was analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. Based on normalization with 18S rRNA levels, the comparative quantities of MYP expression were determined. The expression of MYP gene in gonad showed little difference between female and male. MYP gene expression was decreased rapidly in the gonad of S. intermedius at different stages, and slowly in hybrids. The comparative quantities of MYP expression in the gonads of S. intermedius were decreased from 44.55% to 9.59% in female and from 41.17% to 1.83% in male at different stages. The comparative quantities of MYP expression in the gonads of the hybrids were decreased from 37.66% to 19.22% in female and from 36.66% to 12.55% in male at different stages. The results indicated that the difference of MYP expression was correlated with the variation caused by hybridization.

  18. [A case of pulmonary abscess in which Haemophilus parainfluenzae and Streptococcus intermedius were isolated by percutaneous needle aspiration].

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Atsushi; Tsuboi, Eiyasu; Takaya, Hisashi; Sugino, Keishi; Sakamoto, Susumu; Kawabata, Masateru; Kishi, Kazuma; Narui, Koji; Homma, Sakae; Nakatani, Tatsuo; Nakata, Koichiro; Yoshimura, Kunihiko

    2006-08-01

    Some microbes, including the Bacteroides species, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus milleri groups, can cause pulmonary abscess. Haemophilus parainfluenzae is usually categorized as one of the normal flora which colonizes in the ears and the nasopharynx, and it has been long considered that H. parainfluenzae has little pathogenicity in the lower respiratory tract and lung parenchymal. In this report, we present a case of pulmonary abscess caused by both H. parainfluenzae and Streptococcus intermedius. The patient was a 75-year-old man who had had total esophageo-gastrectomy because of esophageal cancer. He presented with purulent sputum, and chest X-ray film showed a dense consolidation in the right upper lung field. CT-guided transcutaneous fine needle aspiration was performed as a diagnostic procedure. Since both H. parainfluenzae and S. intermedius had been isolated from the lesion, pulmonary abscess caused by these two pathogens was diagnosed. The patient was treated with panipenem/betamipron, and his symptoms and pulmonary infiltrates on the chest X-ray film improved thereafter. So far, very few cases have been reported in which H. parainfluenzae caused lower respiratory tract infection. Although S. intermedius is known as one of the pathogens of pulmonary abscess, it is possible that H. parainfluenzae could also be pathogenic in infectious diseases of the lung.

  19. Afa/Dr-expressing, diffusely adhering Escherichia coli strain C1845 triggers F1845 fimbria-dependent phosphatidylserine externalization on neutrophil-like differentiated PLB-985 cells through an apoptosis-independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Sémiramoth, Nicolas; Gleizes, Aude; Turbica, Isabelle; Sandré, Catherine; Marin-Esteban, Viviana; Gorges, Roseline; Servin, Alain; Chollet-Martin, Sylvie

    2010-07-01

    The enterovirulent Escherichia coli strains potentially involved in inflammatory bowel diseases include diffusely adherent strains expressing Afa/Dr fimbriae (Afa/Dr DAEC). We have previously observed type 1 pilus-mediated interleukin-8 (IL-8) hyperproduction in infected neutrophils. As pathogen induction of host cell death programs and clearance of apoptotic infected cells are crucial for innate immune system homeostasis and host integrity, we examined modulation of neutrophil cell death by Afa/Dr DAEC. Using the human PLB-985 cell line differentiated into fully mature neutrophils, we found that the wild-type enterovirulent E. coli strain C1845 and the recombinant strain DH5alpha/pF1845 (expressing the fimbrial adhesin F1845) similarly induced time-dependent phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization, suggesting a major specific role of this virulence factor. Using small interfering RNA (siRNA) decay-accelerating factor (DAF)-transfected PLB-985 cells, we then showed that this PS externalization was triggered in part by glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored DAF receptor engagement (leading to tyrosine kinase and protein kinase C activation) and that it required cytoskeleton and lipid raft architectural integrity. PS externalization under these conditions was not dependent on caspases, mitochondria, lysosomes, or reactive oxygen or nitrogen species. F1845-mediated PS externalization was sufficient to enable macrophage engulfment of infected differentiated PLB-985 cells. These findings provide new insights into the neutrophil response to Afa/Dr DAEC infection and highlight a new role for F1845 fimbriae. Interestingly, although apoptosis pathways were not engaged, C1845-infected PLB-985 cells displayed enhanced removal by macrophages, a process that may participate in the resolution of Afa/Dr DAEC infection and related inflammation.

  20. Environmental regulation of the long polar fimbriae 2 of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    PubMed

    Arenas-Hernández, Margarita M; Rojas-López, Maricarmen; Medrano-López, Abraham; Nuñez-Reza, Karen J; Puente, José Luis; Martínez-Laguna, Ygnacio; Torres, Alfredo G

    2014-08-01

    The molecular mechanisms controlling expression of the long polar fimbriae 2 (Lpf2) of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 were evaluated. Primer extension was used to locate the lpfA2 transcriptional start site in EHEC strain EDL933 at 171 bp upstream of the lpfA2 start codon. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that the highest lpfA2 expression occurs between an OD600 of 1.0 and 1.2 in DMEM at pH 6.5 and 37 °C. The level of lpfA2 transcription at OD600 1.2 and pH 6.5 was four times greater than that at pH 7.2. Although lpfA2 expression was decreased under iron-depleted conditions, its expression was increased in a ferric-uptake-regulator (Fur) mutant strain. The lpfA2 transcript was 0.7 and 2 times more abundant in wt EHEC grown in DMEM pH 6.5 plus iron and MacConkey broth at 25 °C, respectively, than in DMEM at pH 6.5. The lpf2 expression in DMEM pH 6.5 plus iron and bile salts was 2.7 times more abundant than baseline conditions. Further, transcription in the EDL933∆fur was 0.6 and 0.8 times higher as compared with the wt strain grown in DMEM pH 6.5 plus iron and MacConkey broth, respectively. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that purified Fur interacts with the lpf2 regulatory region, indicating that Fur repression is exerted by direct binding to the promoter region. In summary, we demonstrated that the EHEC lpf2 operon is regulated in response to temperature, pH, bile salts and iron, during the exponential phase of growth, and is controlled by Fur.

  1. Environmental regulation of the long polar fimbriae 2 of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7

    PubMed Central

    Arenas-Hernández, Margarita M.P.; Rojas-López, Maricarmen; Medrano-López, Abraham; Nuñez-Reza, Karen J.; Puente, José Luis; Martínez-Laguna, Ygnacio; Torres, Alfredo G.

    2014-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms controlling expression of the Long Polar Fimbriae 2 (Lpf2) of enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) O157:H7 were evaluated. Primer extension was used to locate the lpfA2 transcriptional start site in EHEC strain EDL933 at 171 bp upstream of the lpfA2 start codon. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that the highest lpfA2 expression occurs between an OD600 of 1.0 and 1.2 in DMEM at pH 6.5 and 37°C. The level of lpfA2 transcription at OD600 1.2 and pH 6.5 was 4-times greater than that at pH 7.2. Although lpfA2 expression was decreased under iron-depleted conditions, its expression was increased in a Ferric-uptake-regulator (Fur) mutant strain. The lpfA2 transcript was 0.7 and 2-times more abundant in wt EHEC grown in DMEM pH 6.5 plus iron and MacConkey broth at 25°C, respectively, than in DMEM at pH 6.5. The lpf2 expression in DMEM pH 6.5 plus iron and bile salts was 2.7-times more abundant and similar to MacConkey. Further, transcription in the EDL933Δfur was 0.6 and 0.8-times higher as compared to the wt strain grown in DMEM pH 6.5 plus iron and MacConkey broth, respectively. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) showed that purified Fur interacts with the lpf2 regulatory region, indicating that Fur-repression is exerted by direct binding to the promoter region. In summary, we demonstrated that the EHEC lpf2 operon is regulated in response to temperature, pH, bile salts and iron, during exponential phase of growth, and controlled by Fur. PMID:24966050

  2. Distribution of the intermedilysin gene among the anginosus group streptococci and correlation between intermedilysin production and deep-seated infection with Streptococcus intermedius.

    PubMed

    Nagamune, H; Whiley, R A; Goto, T; Inai, Y; Maeda, T; Hardie, J M; Kourai, H

    2000-01-01

    The distribution of intermedilysin, a human-specific cytolysin, among the anginosus group streptococci and the correlation of toxin production and infection by Streptococcus intermedius were investigated. PCR and Southern hybridization specific for the intermedilysin gene revealed that the toxin gene exists only in S. intermedius and no homologue to the toxin gene is distributed in S. anginosus and S. constellatus. Thus, the intermedilysin gene is useful as a marker gene of S. intermedius. Moreover, a human-specific hemolysis assay and Western blotting with intermedilysin-specific antibodies clearly demonstrated that the intermedilysin production level in isolates from deep-seated infections, such as brain and liver abscesses, is higher (6.2- to 10.2-fold, respectively) than in strains from normal habitats, such as dental plaque, or from peripheral infection sites. However, other candidate virulence factors of S. intermedius, such as chondroitin sulfate depolymerase, hyaluronidase, and sialidase activities, did not show such a clear correlation between enzymatic activity and isolation sites or disease severity. From these results, intermedilysin is likely to be the pathogenic or triggering factor of significance in inducing deep-seated infections with S. intermedius.

  3. Aggregative adherence fimbriae I (AAF/I) mediate colonization of fresh produce and abiotic surface by Shiga toxigenic enteroaggregative Escherichia coli O104:H4

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli O104:H4 bares the characteristics of both enterohemorrhagic (EHEC) and enteroaggregative (EAEC) E. coli. It produces plasmid encoded aggregative adherence fimbriae I (AAF/I) which mediate cell aggregation and biofilm formation in human intestine and promote Shiga...

  4. Both flagella and F4 fimbriae from F4ac+ enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli contribute to attachment to IPEC-J2 cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mingxu; Duan, Qiangde; Zhu, Xiaofang; Guo, Zhiyan; Li, Yinchau; Hardwidge, Philip R; Zhu, Guoqiang

    2013-05-13

    The role of flagella in the pathogenesis of F4ac+ Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) mediated neonatal and post-weaning diarrhea (PWD) is not currently understood. We targeted the reference C83902 ETEC strain (O8:H19:F4ac+ LT+ STa+ STb+), to construct isogenic mutants in the fliC (encoding the major flagellin protein), motA (encoding the flagella motor), and faeG (encoding the major subunit of F4 fimbriae) genes. Both the ΔfliC and ΔfaeG mutants had a reduced ability to adhere to porcine intestinal epithelial IPEC-J2 cells. F4 fimbriae expression was significantly down-regulated after deleting fliC, which revealed that co-regulation exists between flagella and F4 fimbriae. However, there was no difference in adhesion between the ΔmotA mutant and its parent strain. These data demonstrate that both flagella and F4 fimbriae are required for efficient F4ac+ ETEC adhesion in vitro.

  5. Live attenuated Salmonella displaying HIV-1 10E8 epitope on fimbriae: systemic and mucosal immune responses in BALB/c mice by mucosal administration

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qing-Hai; Jin, Gang; Wang, Jia-Ye; Li, Hai-Ning; Liu, Huidi; Chang, Xiao-Yun; Wang, Fu-Xiang; Liu, Shu-Lin

    2016-01-01

    The HIV-1 membrane proximal external region (MPER) that is targeted by several broadly neutralizing antibodies (BNAbs) has been considered a potential immunogen for vaccine development. However, to date the immunogenicity of these BNAb epitopes has not been made sufficiently adequate. In the present work, we used live attenuated Salmonella as a platform to present the HIV-1 MPER 10E8 epitope in the fimbriae. The insertion of the 10E8 epitope into the fimbriae had no significant influence on the expression and the absorption capacity of bacterial fimbriae, nor on the virulence and invasiveness of the attenuated Salmonella. After oral administration of the vaccine construct to mice followed by 10E8 epitope peptide boost, specific antibody responses in serum and mucosa as well as memory lymphocytes in spleen and plasma cells in bone marrow were induced. We also found that the live attenuated Salmonella vector directed the immunity toward Th1 bias, induced Th1 and Th2 cytokine responses and stimulated significant B cell differentiation into GC B, memory B and plasma cells. Therefore, we propose that the live attenuated Salmonella constitutively expressing HIV-1 BNAb epitopes on the fimbriae will be an effective approach to improving immune microenvironment and enhancing the immunogenicity of HIV-1 epitope vaccines. PMID:27411313

  6. Preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of CfaA, a molecular chaperone essential for the assembly of CFA/I fimbriae of human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, Rui; Esser, Lothar; Poole, Steven; McVeigh, Annette; Chen, Yu-xing; Savarino, Stephen J.; Xia, Di

    2014-01-21

    The molecular chaperone CfaA plays a critical role in the bioassembly of the surface-adhesive CFA/I fimbriae of enterotoxigenic E. coli. Purified CfaA was crystallized and the phase solution was determined by the multiple isomorphous replacement coupled with anomalous scattering method.

  7. Development and Efficacy Assessment of an Enteric Coated Porous Tablet Loaded With F4 Fimbriae for Oral Vaccination of Piglets against F4+ Escherichia coli Infections.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Atul; Gowda, D V; Madhunapantula, SubbaRao V; Siddaramaiah

    2016-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infection is one of the major causes contributing to the development of diarrhoea and mortality in new born, suckling and newly weaned piglets. To date, no preventive/treatment strategy showed promising results, which could be due to the lack of potent vaccines, and/or due to the development of resistance of ETEC to antibiotics. Therefore, in the present investigation, a novel porous sodium alginate (SA) tablet formulation loaded with F4 fimbriae antigen was developed and tested for efficacy against ETEC infections in piglet models. Precompression parameters of the powder mixes and post compression parameters of tablets have been evaluated and results were found to be satisfactory. Loading of F4 fimbrial antigens into the tablets was achieved by inducing pores in the tablets via the sublimation of camphor followed by incubation with purified F4 fimbriae. The loaded tablets have been coated with Eudragit L100 to protect the F4 fimbriae from (a) highly acidic gastric environment; (b) proteolytic cleavage by pepsin; and (c) to promote subsequent release in the intestine. Evaluation of developed F4 fimbrial tablets in a Pig model demonstrated induction of mucosal immunity, and a significant reduction of F4+ E. coli in faeces. Therefore, F4 fimbriae loaded porous tablets could be a novel oral vaccination candidate to induce mucosal and systemic immunity against ETEC infections.

  8. Characterization of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus intermedius and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from veterinary clinical specimens.

    PubMed Central

    Raus, J; Love, D N

    1983-01-01

    Staphylococci were the most frequent isolates from clinical specimens submitted from a large referral and teaching veterinary hospital. In this study a total of 160 isolates were examined by a wide range of biochemical tests and modifications of basic procedures. An attempt was made to test the validity of these procedures for use in characterization of clinical isolates of coagulase-positive staphylococci. Of the isolates examined, some 27 were Staphylococcus aureus, 115 were Staphylococcus intermedius, and the rest were coagulase-negative staphylococci and were not characterized further. The most useful discriminatory tests were acid production from maltose incubated overnight on maltose purple agar (W. E. Kloos and K. H. Schleifer, J. Clin. Microbiol., 1:82-88, 1975), acetoin production detected by the Barritt method, and detection of hyaluronidase activity. These gave accurate and fast results. Supplemented with the tellurite reduction test and the direct staphylocoagulase assay using Chromozym TH (Engels et al.; J. Clin. Microbiol. 14:496-500, 1981), these tests should eliminate the possibility of false identifications of these two species. PMID:6630462

  9. Fractionation and characterization of the immunosuppressive substance in crude extracellular products released by Streptococcus intermedius.

    PubMed Central

    Arala-Chaves, M P; Porto, M T; Arnaud, P; Saraiva, M J; Geada, H; Patrick, C C; Fudenberg, H H

    1981-01-01

    The noncytotoxic immunosuppressive substance detected in crude extracellular products of Streptococcus intermedius (CEP-SI) was fractionated by two steps of preparative isoelectric focusing in sucrose gradients using ampholytes of pH range from 3.5 to 6 and 4 to 5, respectively. The in vitro and in vivo suppressor effects of the most highly purified fraction of CEP-Si, designated fraction 3' (F3'EP-Si), corresponded well with those of the original CEP-Si. F3'EP-Si was sensitive to the effects of alpha, gamma, and delta chymotrypsin, trypsin, and heating. It contained approximately 1% of the total amount of protein found in the original CEP-Si, corresponding to a single band on analytical isoelectric focusing, stainable by Coomassie Blue and of isoelectric point of 4.25. The absorption spectrum of F3'EP-Si had a maximum at 260 nm but its biological activity was resistant to deoxyribonuclease and ribonuclease A and it did not contain material stainable by methylene blue. It was also resistant to neuraminidase and did not contain material stainable by periodic acid schiff. We conclude that the substance responsible for the suppressor activity of CEP-Si is a protein of molecular weight approximately 90,000, which adheres to Sephadex of cellulose acetate and forms complexes with other, nonactive constituents of CEP-Si. Images PMID:6454698

  10. Characterization of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus intermedius and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from veterinary clinical specimens.

    PubMed

    Raus, J; Love, D N

    1983-10-01

    Staphylococci were the most frequent isolates from clinical specimens submitted from a large referral and teaching veterinary hospital. In this study a total of 160 isolates were examined by a wide range of biochemical tests and modifications of basic procedures. An attempt was made to test the validity of these procedures for use in characterization of clinical isolates of coagulase-positive staphylococci. Of the isolates examined, some 27 were Staphylococcus aureus, 115 were Staphylococcus intermedius, and the rest were coagulase-negative staphylococci and were not characterized further. The most useful discriminatory tests were acid production from maltose incubated overnight on maltose purple agar (W. E. Kloos and K. H. Schleifer, J. Clin. Microbiol., 1:82-88, 1975), acetoin production detected by the Barritt method, and detection of hyaluronidase activity. These gave accurate and fast results. Supplemented with the tellurite reduction test and the direct staphylocoagulase assay using Chromozym TH (Engels et al.; J. Clin. Microbiol. 14:496-500, 1981), these tests should eliminate the possibility of false identifications of these two species.

  11. Knee joint angle affects EMG-force relationship in the vastus intermedius muscle.

    PubMed

    Saito, Akira; Akima, Hiroshi

    2013-12-01

    It is not understood how the knee joint angle affects the relationship between electromyography (EMG) and force of four individual quadriceps femoris (QF) muscles. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the knee joint angle on the EMG-force relationship of the four individual QF muscles, particularly the vastus intermedius (VI), during isometric knee extensions. Eleven healthy men performed 20-100% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) at knee joint angles of 90°, 120° and 150°. Surface EMG of the four QF synergists was recorded and normalized by the root mean square during MVC. The normalized EMG of the four QF synergists at a knee joint angle of 150° was significantly lower than that at 90° and 120° (P < 0.05). Comparing the normalized EMG among the four QF synergists, a significantly lower normalized EMG was observed in the VI at 150° as compared with the other three QF muscles (P < 0.05). These results suggest that the EMG-force relationship of the four QF synergists shifted downward at an extended knee joint angle of 150°. Furthermore, the neuromuscular activation of the VI was the most sensitive to change in muscle length among the four QF synergistic muscles.

  12. Local adaptation in the rock pocket mouse (Chaetodipus intermedius): natural selection and phylogenetic history of populations.

    PubMed

    Hoekstra, H E; Krenz, J G; Nachman, M W

    2005-02-01

    Elucidating the causes of population divergence is a central goal of evolutionary biology. Rock pocket mice, Chaeotdipus intermedius, are an ideal system in which to study intraspecific phenotypic divergence because of the extensive color variation observed within this species. Here, we investigate whether phenotypic variation in color is correlated with local environmental conditions or with phylogenetic history. First, we quantified variation in pelage color (n=107 mice) and habitat color (n=51 rocks) using a spectrophotometer, and showed that there was a correlation between pelage color and habitat color across 14 sampled populations (R2=0.43). Analyses of mtDNA sequences from these same individuals revealed strong population structure in this species across its range, where most variation (63%) was partitioned between five geographic regions. Using Mantel tests, we show that there is no correlation between color variation and mtDNA phylogeny, suggesting that pelage coloration has evolved rapidly. At a finer geographical scale, high levels of gene flow between neighboring melanic and light populations suggest the selection acting on color must be quite strong to maintain habitat-specific phenotypic distributions. Finally, we raise the possibility that, in some cases, migration between populations of pocket mice inhabiting different lava flows may be responsible for similar melanic phenotypes in different populations. Together, the results suggest that color variation can evolve very rapidly over small geographic scales and that gene flow can both hinder and promote local adaptation.

  13. [Biosynthesis of the Bacillus intermedius subtilisin-like serine proteinase by the recombinant Bacillus subtilis strain].

    PubMed

    Kirillova, Iu M; Mikhaĭlova, E O; Balaban, N P; Mardanova, A M; Kaiumov, A R; Rudenskaia, G N; Kostrov, S V; Sharipova, M R

    2006-01-01

    The effect of certain nutrients on the growth and production of the Bacillus intermedius subtilisin-like serine proteinase by the recombinant strain Bacillus subtilis AJ73(pCS9) was studied. Glucose was found to inhibit the synthesis of proteinase in the early (28 h of growth) but not in the late stationary phase (48 h of growth). The inhibitory effect of the other mono- and disaccharides studied was less pronounced. Casamino acids added to the medium at concentrations of 0.1-1% as an additional carbon and nitrogen source stimulated enzyme biosynthesis. Individual amino acids (cysteine, asparagine, glutamine, tryptophan, histidine, and glutamate) also stimulated enzyme biosynthesis in the early stationary phase by 25-30%, whereas other amino acids (valine, leucine, alanine, and aspartate) were ineffective or even slightly inhibitory to enzyme production. The stimulatory effect of the first group of amino acids on the synthesis of proteinase in the late stationary phase was negligible. In contrast, the bivalent ions Ca2+, Mg2+, and Mn2+ stimulated biosynthesis of proteinase in the late stationary phase (by 20-60%) and not in the early stationary phase. The data indicate that there are differences in the biosyntheses of proteinase by the recombinant B. subtilis strain during the early and late periods of the stationary phases.

  14. Strong mitogenic effect for murine B lymphocytes of an immunosuppressor substance released by Streptococcus intermedius.

    PubMed Central

    Arala-Chaves, M P; Ribeiro, A S; Santarém, M M; Coutinho, A

    1986-01-01

    A noncytotoxic protein substance, produced by Streptococcus intermedius, with very potent immunosuppressive properties (F3'EP-Si) was tested for lymphocyte mitogenic activity. Although devoid of T-cell mitogenicity, F3'EP-Si stimulated proliferation and led to high numbers of plaque-forming cells in cultures of normal or T-cell-depleted, small or large splenic B cells from both lipopolysaccharide-responding and -nonresponding mice. The B-cell mitogenic activity of F3'EP-Si was quantitatively comparable to that of lipopolysaccharide, and the simultaneous exposure to both mitogens stimulated additive B-cell responses. Injection of F3'EP-Si into normal mice resulted in increased numbers of spleen cells, higher rates of mitotic activity, and very large numbers of plaque-forming cells, predominantly of the immunoglobulin G2a and -b isotypes. In preliminary experiments, the analysis of surface markers among the lymphocytes participating in the blastogenic response in vivo revealed a T-cell component in the response to F3'EP-Si. These observations are discussed in the context of the immunosuppressive activity of this and other microbial substances. PMID:3490441

  15. Human salivary aggregation in Streptococcus intermedius type g strains: relationship with IgA.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Taihei

    2004-06-01

    Bacterial aggregation is an important step in elimination from the human body to protect against infection. Streptococcus intermedius K1K aggregates in human saliva. In this study, the salivary agglutinin was identified. The aggregation level was very strong in sonic-treated saliva and 1-microm filtrate. Preincubation of human saliva with anti-human alpha chain serum or anti-human whole saliva serum completely inhibited aggregation, but preincubation with anti-human micro chain serum or anti-Fc fragment of human IgG serum had no effect. Agglutinin of human saliva that could aggregate the strain K1K was purified using DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B, Phenyl-Sepharose CL-4B and Sephacryl S200HR gel filtration. Purified salivary agglutinin was characterized with electrophoresis and immunological techniques, indicating that purified material was IgA. Bacterial aggregation was dependent on the presence of calcium. Saliva filtrate specimens from eight healthy men and eight women showed different aggregation activities. Three men and one woman had little activity. These data show that the present bacterial aggregation was an immunoreaction between IgA in saliva and the bacteria dependent on the levels of calcium. In addition, the IgA in human saliva related with possible calcium-dependent antigen(s) on the surface of strain K1K.

  16. First report of multiresistant, mecA-positive Staphylococcus intermedius in Europe: 12 cases from a veterinary dermatology referral clinic in Germany.

    PubMed

    Loeffler, Anette; Linek, Monika; Moodley, Arshnee; Guardabassi, Luca; Sung, Julia M L; Winkler, Margit; Weiss, Reinhard; Lloyd, David H

    2007-12-01

    Resistance to cephalosporins and/or fluoroquinolones by Staphylococcus intermedius has remained low in Europe, with effective drugs generally available for systemic therapy in pets. However, multiresistant, mecA-positive S. intermedius isolated from dogs and cats is now emerging in Europe. Twelve S. intermedius isolates, highly resistant to at least five antimicrobial classes, were isolated from skin and ear infections in 11 dogs and a cat. The 12 isolates represented 23% of all S. intermedius submissions from one veterinary dermatology referral clinic in northern Germany to veterinary diagnostic laboratories during an 18-month period and resistance included cefalexin, methicillin and enrofloxacin. The animals had been referred to the clinic with recurrent superficial pyoderma, deep pyoderma, pododermatitis or chronic otitis, all unresponsive to systemic beta-lactam-antibiotics or fluoroquinolones. Infection resolved in 10 dogs and the cat on a combination of antimicrobial treatment and correction of underlying causes. Four dogs and a cat required systemic and topical therapy; in six dogs topical antimicrobial therapy alone was successful. Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of the S. intermedius isolates were determined; species identification was confirmed by polymerase chain detection of thermonuclease genes (nuc) and the presence and expression of the gene conferring resistance to all beta-lactam antibiotics (mecA) were demonstrated in all; based on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, six were indistinguishable, the others closely or possibly related. The emergence of multiresistant, mecA-positive S. intermedius in Europe is alarming. Zoonotic implications, awareness among veterinary laboratories and strategies for the use of antimicrobials in small animal practice need to be considered.

  17. Pneumonia and empyema caused by Streptococcus intermedius that shows the diagnostic importance of evaluating the microbiota in the lower respiratory tract.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Shingo; Yatera, Kazuhiro; Kawanami, Toshinori; Yamasaki, Kei; Fukuda, Kazumasa; Naito, Keisuke; Akata, Kentarou; Nagata, Shuya; Ishimoto, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Hatsumi; Mukae, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    The bacterial species in the Streptococcus anginosus group (S. constellatus, S. anginosus, S. intermedius) are important causative pathogens of bacterial pneumonia, pulmonary abscesses and empyema. However, the bacteria in this group are primarily oral resident bacteria and unable to grow significantly on ordinary aerobic culture media. We experienced a case of pneumonia and empyema caused by Streptococcus intermedius detected using a 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and pleural effusion, but not sputum. Even when applying the molecular method, sputum samples are occasionally unsuitable for identifying the causative pathogens of lower respiratory tract infections.

  18. Culture-negative brain abscess with Streptococcus intermedius infection with diagnosis established by direct nucleotide sequence analysis of the 16s ribosomal RNA gene.

    PubMed

    Saito, Naoko; Hida, Ayumi; Koide, Yuri; Ooka, Tadasuke; Ichikawa, Yaeko; Shimizu, Jun; Mukasa, Akitake; Nakatomi, Hirofumi; Hatakeyama, Shuji; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Tsuji, Shoji

    2012-01-01

    A 70-year-old woman developed a headache for a month followed by right upper limb weakness. CT scan and MRI showed multiple ring-enhancing lesions. An intracerebral aspiration of an abscess was performed, but culture results were negative. The nucleotide sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene from the specimens identified Streptococcus intermedius. Given this result, S. intermedius was cultured by enrichment culture, and its sensitivities to antibiotics were determined. The patient exhibited complete remission. Thus, 16S rRNA gene analysis was highly useful not only for pathogen identification with negative culture results but also for the appropriate selection of antibiotics.

  19. Proteus mirabilis fimbriae- and urease-dependent clusters assemble in an extracellular niche to initiate bladder stone formation

    PubMed Central

    Schaffer, Jessica N.; Norsworthy, Allison N.; Sun, Tung-Tien

    2016-01-01

    The catheter-associated uropathogen Proteus mirabilis frequently causes urinary stones, but little has been known about the initial stages of bladder colonization and stone formation. We found that P. mirabilis rapidly invades the bladder urothelium, but generally fails to establish an intracellular niche. Instead, it forms extracellular clusters in the bladder lumen, which form foci of mineral deposition consistent with development of urinary stones. These clusters elicit a robust neutrophil response, and we present evidence of neutrophil extracellular trap generation during experimental urinary tract infection. We identified two virulence factors required for cluster development: urease, which is required for urolithiasis, and mannose-resistant Proteus-like fimbriae. The extracellular cluster formation by P. mirabilis stands in direct contrast to uropathogenic Escherichia coli, which readily formed intracellular bacterial communities but not luminal clusters or urinary stones. We propose that extracellular clusters are a key mechanism of P. mirabilis survival and virulence in the bladder. PMID:27044107

  20. Proteus mirabilis fimbriae- and urease-dependent clusters assemble in an extracellular niche to initiate bladder stone formation.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Jessica N; Norsworthy, Allison N; Sun, Tung-Tien; Pearson, Melanie M

    2016-04-19

    The catheter-associated uropathogenProteus mirabilisfrequently causes urinary stones, but little has been known about the initial stages of bladder colonization and stone formation. We found thatP. mirabilisrapidly invades the bladder urothelium, but generally fails to establish an intracellular niche. Instead, it forms extracellular clusters in the bladder lumen, which form foci of mineral deposition consistent with development of urinary stones. These clusters elicit a robust neutrophil response, and we present evidence of neutrophil extracellular trap generation during experimental urinary tract infection. We identified two virulence factors required for cluster development: urease, which is required for urolithiasis, and mannose-resistantProteus-like fimbriae. The extracellular cluster formation byP. mirabilisstands in direct contrast to uropathogenicEscherichia coli, which readily formed intracellular bacterial communities but not luminal clusters or urinary stones. We propose that extracellular clusters are a key mechanism ofP. mirabilissurvival and virulence in the bladder.

  1. Micro-evolutionary processes in sablefish Anoplopoma fimbria, based on polymorphism of the two sites of mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Orlova, S Y; Orlov, A M; Volkov, A A; Novikov, R N

    2014-01-01

    Sablefish Anoplopoma fimbria is a deep-sea fish, endemic to the North Pacific Ocean, with continuous range from southern California to the central part of Honshu Island, including the Bering and Okhotsk Seas. It is an important commercial species and a promising object for aquaculture. Compared to the eastern part of the range the population structure of sablefish in Asian waters is poorly studied. It is believed that sablefish goes to the Bering Sea and Pacific waters of Kamchatka and the Kuril Islands from the northeastern Pacific, and Asian waters are its eviction zone. Other authors suggest that replenishment of sablefish off the eastern Kamchatka and the Kuril Islands is not only due to migration of the adult fish from the Bering Sea along the continental slope, but also due to the drift of yearlings by Aleutian current over the American coast.

  2. [Detection of early gastric cancer facilitated by surveillance for a pyogenic liver abscess caused by Streptococcus intermedius].

    PubMed

    Shigefuku, Ryuta; Matsunaga, Kotaro; Tamura, Tomohiro; Ozawa, Shun-Ichiro; Matsuo, Yasumasa; Takahashi, Hideaki; Matsumoto, Nobuyuki; Okuse, Chiaki; Suzuki, Michihiro; Itoh, Fumio

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of early gastric cancer that was detected during surveillance of a pyogenic liver abscess caused by Streptococcus intermedius, an oral microbiota. Treatment with proton pump inhibitors can result in the alteration of gastric bacterial flora by altering intragastric acidity. This can place immunocompromised patients, such as those with diabetes mellitus and the elderly, at an increased risk for disease of the upper gastrointestinal tract to be a route of bacterial transmission. In this case, the patient developed a pyogenic liver abscess.

  3. Gemmobacter intermedius sp. nov., isolated from a white stork (Ciconia ciconia).

    PubMed

    Kämpfer, Peter; Jerzak, Leszek; Wilharm, Gottfried; Golke, Jan; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; Glaeser, Stefanie P

    2015-03-01

    A cream-coloured, Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-motile, rod- to irregular shaped bacterium, strain 119/4(T), was isolated from a choana swab of a white stork nestling on sheep blood agar. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and subsequent comparisons showed that it was a member of the family Rhodobacteraceae, showing 94.9 % similarity to the type strain of Gemmobacter tilapiae and 94.6 % similarity to that of Gemmobacter nectariphilus, but also similarly low sequence similarity to the type strains of Rhodobacter viridis (94.8 %), Rhodobacter veldkampii (94.6 %) and Paenirhodobacter enshiensis (94.6 %). Reconstruction of phylogenetic trees showed that strain 119/4(T) clustered close to species of the genus Gemmobacter. The quinone system contained high amounts of ubiquinone Q-10 with traces of Q-8, Q-9 and Q-11, and the fatty acid profile consisted mainly of C18 : 1ω7c, C16 : 1ω7c/iso-C15 : 0 2-OH and C10 : 0 3-OH. The predominant polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phoshatidylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine. Major polyamines were putrescine and spermidine. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and chemotaxonomic and physiological data, strain 119/4(T) represents a novel species of the genus Gemmobacter, for which the name Gemmobacter intermedius sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 119/4(T) ( = CIP 110795(T) = LMG 28215(T) = CCM 8510(T)).

  4. Base excision DNA repair in the embryonic development of the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus intermedius.

    PubMed

    Torgasheva, Natalya A; Menzorova, Natalya I; Sibirtsev, Yurii T; Rasskazov, Valery A; Zharkov, Dmitry O; Nevinsky, Georgy A

    2016-06-21

    In actively proliferating cells, such as the cells of the developing embryo, DNA repair is crucial for preventing the accumulation of mutations and synchronizing cell division. Sea urchin embryo growth was analyzed and extracts were prepared. The relative activity of DNA polymerase, apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease, uracil-DNA glycosylase, 8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase, and other glycosylases was analyzed using specific oligonucleotide substrates of these enzymes; the reaction products were resolved by denaturing 20% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. We have characterized the profile of several key base excision repair activities in the developing embryos (2 blastomers to mid-pluteus) of the grey sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus intermedius. The uracil-DNA glycosylase specific activity sharply increased after blastula hatching, whereas the specific activity of 8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase steadily decreased over the course of the development. The AP-endonuclease activity gradually increased but dropped at the last sampled stage (mid-pluteus 2). The DNA polymerase activity was high at the first cleavage division and then quickly decreased, showing a transient peak at blastula hatching. It seems that the developing sea urchin embryo encounters different DNA-damaging factors early in development within the protective envelope and later as a free-floating larva, with hatching necessitating adaptation to the shift in genotoxic stress conditions. No correlation was observed between the dynamics of the enzyme activities and published gene expression data from developing congeneric species, S. purpuratus. The results suggest that base excision repair enzymes may be regulated in the sea urchin embryos at the level of covalent modification or protein stability.

  5. High-Density Genetic Mapping with Interspecific Hybrids of Two Sea Urchins, Strongylocentrotus nudus and S. intermedius, by RAD Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zunchun; Liu, Shikai; Dong, Ying; Gao, Shan; Chen, Zhong; Jiang, Jingwei; Yang, Aifu; Sun, Hongjuan; Guan, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Bei; Wang, Bai

    2015-01-01

    Sea urchins have long been used as research model organisms for developmental biology and evolutionary studies. Some of them are also important aquaculture species in East Asia. In this work, we report the construction of RAD-tag based high-density genetic maps by genotyping F1 interspecific hybrids derived from a crossing between a female sea urchin Strongylocentrotus nudus and a male Strongylocentrotus intermedius. With polymorphisms present in these two wild individuals, we constructed a female meiotic map containing 3,080 markers for S. nudus, and a male meiotic map for S. intermedius which contains 1,577 markers. Using the linkage maps, we were able to anchor a total of 1,591 scaffolds (495.9 Mb) accounting for 60.8% of the genome assembly of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. A genome-wide scan resulted in the identification of one putative QTL for body size which spanned from 25.3 cM to 30.3 cM. This study showed the efficiency of RAD-Seq based high-density genetic map construction using F1 progenies for species with no prior genomic information. The genetic maps are essential for QTL mapping and are useful as framework to order and orientate contiguous scaffolds from sea urchin genome assembly. The integration of the genetic map with genome assembly would provide an unprecedented opportunity to conduct QTL analysis, comparative genomics, and population genetics studies.

  6. Effects of long-term elevated temperature on covering, sheltering and righting behaviors of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lisheng; Zhang, Lingling; Shi, Dongtao; Wei, Jing; Chang, Yaqing; Zhao, Chong

    2017-01-01

    Increases in ocean temperature due to climate change are predicted to change the behaviors of marine invertebrates. Altered behaviors of keystone ecosystem engineers such as echinoderms will have consequences for the fitness of individuals, which are expected to flow on to the local ecosystem. Relatively few studies have investigated the behavioral responses of echinoderms to long-term elevated temperature. We investigated the effects of exposure to long-term (∼31 weeks) elevated temperature (∼3 °C above the ambient water temperature) on covering, sheltering and righting behaviors of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius. Long-term elevated temperature showed different effects on the three behaviors. It significantly decreased covering behavior, including both covering behavior reaction (time to first covering) and ability (number of covered sea urchins and number of shells used for covering). Conversely, exposure to long-term elevated temperature significantly increased sheltering behavior. Righting response in S. intermedius was not significantly different between temperature treatments. The results provide new information into behavioral responses of echinoderms to ocean warming.

  7. High-Density Genetic Mapping with Interspecific Hybrids of Two Sea Urchins, Strongylocentrotus nudus and S. intermedius, by RAD Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Ying; Gao, Shan; Chen, Zhong; Jiang, Jingwei; Yang, Aifu; Sun, Hongjuan; Guan, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Bei; Wang, Bai

    2015-01-01

    Sea urchins have long been used as research model organisms for developmental biology and evolutionary studies. Some of them are also important aquaculture species in East Asia. In this work, we report the construction of RAD-tag based high-density genetic maps by genotyping F1 interspecific hybrids derived from a crossing between a female sea urchin Strongylocentrotus nudus and a male Strongylocentrotus intermedius. With polymorphisms present in these two wild individuals, we constructed a female meiotic map containing 3,080 markers for S. nudus, and a male meiotic map for S. intermedius which contains 1,577 markers. Using the linkage maps, we were able to anchor a total of 1,591 scaffolds (495.9 Mb) accounting for 60.8% of the genome assembly of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. A genome-wide scan resulted in the identification of one putative QTL for body size which spanned from 25.3 cM to 30.3 cM. This study showed the efficiency of RAD-Seq based high-density genetic map construction using F1 progenies for species with no prior genomic information. The genetic maps are essential for QTL mapping and are useful as framework to order and orientate contiguous scaffolds from sea urchin genome assembly. The integration of the genetic map with genome assembly would provide an unprecedented opportunity to conduct QTL analysis, comparative genomics, and population genetics studies. PMID:26398139

  8. Effects of long-term elevated temperature on covering, sheltering and righting behaviors of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lisheng; Zhang, Lingling; Shi, Dongtao; Wei, Jing; Chang, Yaqing

    2017-01-01

    Increases in ocean temperature due to climate change are predicted to change the behaviors of marine invertebrates. Altered behaviors of keystone ecosystem engineers such as echinoderms will have consequences for the fitness of individuals, which are expected to flow on to the local ecosystem. Relatively few studies have investigated the behavioral responses of echinoderms to long-term elevated temperature. We investigated the effects of exposure to long-term (∼31 weeks) elevated temperature (∼3 °C above the ambient water temperature) on covering, sheltering and righting behaviors of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius. Long-term elevated temperature showed different effects on the three behaviors. It significantly decreased covering behavior, including both covering behavior reaction (time to first covering) and ability (number of covered sea urchins and number of shells used for covering). Conversely, exposure to long-term elevated temperature significantly increased sheltering behavior. Righting response in S. intermedius was not significantly different between temperature treatments. The results provide new information into behavioral responses of echinoderms to ocean warming. PMID:28348933

  9. Identification of Streptococcus intermedius central nervous system infection by use of PCR and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Nisha S; Farrell, John J; Sampath, Rangarajan; Ranken, Raymond; Rounds, Megan A; Ecker, David J; Bonomo, Robert A

    2012-12-01

    We describe the utility of PCR and electrospray ionization with mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS) of culture-negative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in order to identify Gram-positive cocci noted on a Gram stain of CSF from a previously healthy 26-year-old man with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and multiple brain abscesses. CSF samples were obtained 2 weeks apart, first by lumbar puncture and 2 weeks later from an external ventricular drain that was inserted into the right ventricle. Both CSF cultures were negative. A Gram stain of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was notable for many Gram-positive cocci (GPC), but cultures of BAL fluid and subcarinal lymph node biopsy tissue were negative. PCR/ESI-MS detected Streptococcus intermedius, a common cause of brain abscesses, in both CSF samples as well as in the fixed tissue from the biopsy. This unique case confirms S. intermedius pulmonary infection as the source of metastatic CNS infection and reveals the potential of PCR/ESI-MS to detect a streptococcal pathogen not captured by conventional cultures.

  10. Investigations into the basis of chloramphenicol and tetracycline resistance in Staphylococcus intermedius isolates from cases of pyoderma in dogs.

    PubMed

    Kim, T J; Na, Y R; Lee, J I

    2005-04-01

    A total of 160 Staphylococcus intermedius isolates were recovered from cases of pyoderma in 2002 and were examined for susceptibility to 13 different antimicrobial agents. Ninety per cent (144) of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline, derivatives of which have been used until recently, and 18% (29) were resistant to chloramphenicol which was banned from use 13 years ago. The presence of genes encoding chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) and tetracycline resistance (tet); tet(K), (L), (M), and (O) were determined by PCR in the 29 chloramphenicol and tetracycline resistant isolates. Seventeen (59%) isolates contained the cat gene while 12 (41%) isolates did not carry the cat gene, implying there may be other genes for chloramphenicol resistance that were not detected by the primers (primer set 1) used in this study. The tet(M) gene was found in 28 (97%) of the resistant S. intermedius isolates, but none contained the tet(O) gene. All 29 isolates carried one or two tet genes; tet(K), (L), and (M), with four different distribution patterns. New PCR products, a 1.1 kb product using primer set 1 and a 0.2 kb product using primer set 2, were cloned and sequenced. A 904 bp fragment of S. aureus plamid pS194, including sequence from the streptomycin adenyltransferase gene (804 bp), was found inserted into the terminal region of the cat gene (GenBank accession no. AY604739), whilst the sequence of 0.2 kb was previously unpublished.

  11. Prevalence and antimicrogram of Staphylococcus intermedius group isolates from veterinary staff, companion animals, and the environment in veterinary hospitals in Korea.

    PubMed

    Youn, Jung-Ho; Yoon, Jang Won; Koo, Hye Cheong; Lim, Suk-Kyung; Park, Yong Ho

    2011-03-01

    The Staphylococcus intermedius bacterial group (SIG) includes 3 distinct genetically heterogenous species: S. intermedius, S. pseudintermedius, and S. delphini. This pathogen group is associated with many opportunistic skin and ear infections in companion animals. Human infections with S. intermedius and S. pseudintermedius isolates and the emergence of methicillin-resistant isolates have been recently reported, which emphasizes the importance of nationwide identification of SIG isolate prevalence and antibiotic resistance in veterinary clinics. In the present study, a total of 178 SIG isolates were obtained from veterinary staff (n  =  40), companion animals (n  =  115), and the local environment (n  =  23) in 8 Korean veterinary hospitals. Isolates were differentiated into 167 S. pseudintermedius (93.8%) and 11 S. intermedius (6.2%) isolates; S. delphini isolates were not identified. The most effective antibiotics against these isolates included amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, amikacin, nitrofloxacin, imipenem, and vancomycin; whereas ampicillin, penicillin, tetracycline, erythromycin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were not effective. Surprisingly, the 128 SIG isolates (71.9%) displayed multiple drug resistance (MDR) against 3 or more antibiotic classes. Out of 52 SIG isolates carrying the methicillin-resistance gene (mecA), only 34 (65.4%) were oxacillin-resistant, and 49 (94.2%) methicillin-resistant SIG were multidrug resistant. This finding suggests the presence of greater numbers of MDR phenotypes than other isolates (P < 0.05).

  12. SEF14 fimbriae from Salmonella enteritidis play a role in pathogenitic to cell model in vitro and host in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chunhong; Meng, Xia; Duan, Xiaoli; Tao, Zhiyun; Gong, Jiansen; Hou, Huayan; Zhu, Guoqiang

    2013-11-01

    The role of SEF14 fimbriae in virulence remains to be elucidated and in this study, we showed that sefA mutant constructed in the wild-type (WT) Salmonella enteritidis strain 50336 displayed increased invasion to IPEC-J2 cell lines and survival in mouse peritoneal macrophages, and the lethal dose 50% (LD50) in 6-week-old Balb/c mice intra-peritoneally injected with WT S. enteritidis strain decreased significantly upon deletion of sefA indicating their role in virulence. Overall, these results demonstrated that expression of sefA of SEF14 fimbriae enhances S. enteritidis adhesion to epithelial cells and survival in macrophages and contributes to S. enteritidis virulence in mice.

  13. Purification and characteristics of Ca2+,Mg2+- and Ca2+,Mn2+-dependent and acid DNases from spermatozoa of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius.

    PubMed

    Shastina, V V; Menzorova, N I; Sibirtsev, Yu T; Rasskazov, V A

    2003-05-01

    Ca2+,Mg2+- and Ca2+,Mn2+-dependent and acid DNases were isolated from spermatozoa of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius. The enzymes have been purified by successive chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, phenyl-Sepharose, Source 15Q, and by gel filtration, and the principal physicochemical and enzymatic properties of the purified enzymes were determined. Ca2+,Mg2+-dependent DNase (Ca,Mg-DNase) is a nuclear protein with molecular mass of 63 kD as the native form and its activity optimum is at pH 7.5. The enzyme activity in the presence of bivalent metal ions decreases in the series (Ca2+ + Mg2+) > Mn2+ = (Ca2+ + Mn2+) > (Mg2+ + EGTA) > Ca2+. Ca,Mg-DNase retains its maximal activity in sea water and is not inhibited by G-actin and N-ethylmaleimide, whereas Zn(2+) inhibits the enzyme. The endogenous Ca,Mg-DNase is responsible for the internucleosomal cleavage of chromosomal DNA of spermatozoa. Ca2+,Mn2+-dependent DNase (Ca,Mn-DNase) has molecular mass of 25 kD as the native form and the activity optimum at pH 8.5. The enzyme activity in the presence of bivalent metal ions decreases in the series (Ca2+ + Mn2+) > (Ca2+ + Mg2+) > Mn2+ > (Mg2+ + EGTA). In seawater the enzyme is inactive. Zinc ions inhibit Ca,Mn-DNase. Acid DNase of spermatozoa (A-DNase) is not a nuclear protein, it has molecular mass of 37 kD as a native form and the activity optimum at pH 5.5, it is not activated by bivalent metal ions, and it is inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide and iodoacetic acid. Mechanisms of the endonuclease cleavage of double-stranded DNA have been established for the three enzymes. The possible involvement of DNases from sea urchin spermatozoa in programmed cell death is discussed.

  14. Construction of non-toxic Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae strains expressing high and immunogenic levels of enterotoxigenic E. coli colonization factor I fimbriae.

    PubMed

    Tobias, Joshua; Lebens, Michael; Bölin, Ingrid; Wiklund, Gudrun; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari

    2008-02-06

    To express high quantities of colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I) derived from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) for use in ETEC vaccines, the entire CFA/I operon consisting of four genes (cfa-A, -B, -C, -E) was cloned into plasmid expression vectors that could be maintained either with or without antibiotic selection. Expression from the powerful tac promoter was under the control of the lacIq repressor present on the plasmids. Fimbriae were expressed on the surface of both a non-toxigenic E. coli K12 strain and a non-toxigenic strain of Vibrio cholerae following induction with isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). It was found that the recombinant E. coli strains expressed up to 16-fold higher levels of CFA/I fimbriae compared to a reference strain which had previously been shown to be among the highest natural producers of the CFA/I fimbriae among tested wild type ETEC strains. Oral immunization with formalin-killed recombinant E. coli bacteria over-expressing CFA/I induced significantly higher serum IgA and IgG+M antibodies responses compared to the reference strain. Oral immunization with formalin-killed recombinant V. cholerae bacteria also induce strong CFA/I-specific serum IgA and IgG+M responses. We conclude that our constructs may be useful as candidate strains in an oral killed CF-ETEC vaccine.

  15. Distinct Residues Contribute to Motility Repression and Autoregulation in the Proteus mirabilis Fimbria-Associated Transcriptional Regulator AtfJ

    PubMed Central

    Bode, Nadine J.; Chan, Kun-Wei; Kong, Xiang-Peng

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Proteus mirabilis contributes to a significant number of catheter-associated urinary tract infections, where coordinated regulation of adherence and motility is critical for ascending disease progression. Previously, the mannose-resistant Proteus-like (MR/P) fimbria-associated transcriptional regulator MrpJ has been shown to both repress motility and directly induce the transcription of its own operon; in addition, it affects the expression of a wide range of cellular processes. Interestingly, 14 additional mrpJ paralogs are included in the P. mirabilis genome. Looking at a selection of MrpJ paralogs, we discovered that these proteins, which consistently repress motility, also have nonidentical functions that include cross-regulation of fimbrial operons. A subset of paralogs, including AtfJ (encoded by the ambient temperature fimbrial operon), Fim8J, and MrpJ, are capable of autoinduction. We identified an element of the atf promoter extending from 487 to 655 nucleotides upstream of the transcriptional start site that is responsive to AtfJ, and we found that AtfJ directly binds this fragment. Mutational analysis of AtfJ revealed that its two identified functions, autoregulation and motility repression, are not invariably linked. Residues within the DNA-binding helix-turn-helix domain are required for motility repression but not necessarily autoregulation. Likewise, the C-terminal domain is dispensable for motility repression but is essential for autoregulation. Supported by a three-dimensional (3D) structural model, we hypothesize that the C-terminal domain confers unique regulatory capacities on the AtfJ family of regulators. IMPORTANCE Balancing adherence with motility is essential for uropathogens to successfully establish a foothold in their host. Proteus mirabilis uses a fimbria-associated transcriptional regulator to switch between these antagonistic processes by increasing fimbrial adherence while simultaneously downregulating flagella. The

  16. Environmental covariates of sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria) and Pacific ocean perch (Sebastes alutus) recruitment in the Gulf of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffin, Brendan; Mueter, Franz

    2016-10-01

    The sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria) and Pacific ocean perch (POP; Sebastes alutus) fisheries in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) are both highly lucrative and variable. Determining environmental factors that drive variability in their recruitment may improve our understanding of forces affecting their early life survival, which may be helpful when evaluating management strategies. Here we examine relationships between sablefish and POP recruitment and multiple environmental indices associated with circulation in the GOA. We used hierarchical cluster analysis to determine spatially and seasonally relevant scales for analyzing these relationships. We then used structural equation modeling to examine sequential relationships between large-scale climate variables, regional (eastern and western GOA) environmental variables, and recruitment using both hypothesis-testing and exploratory approaches. Exploratory analyses revealed that sablefish recruitment was positively related to July upwelling-favorable winds and negatively related to late winter freshwater discharge in the eastern GOA during age 1. POP recruitment was negatively related to June upwelling-favorable winds in both regions during ages 0 and 1 and positively related to late spring freshwater discharge throughout the GOA during age 1. These results suggest that upwelling-favorable winds and freshwater discharge may affect recruitment of both species through productivity-related mechanisms, and may additionally affect POP recruitment through advection-related mechanisms. Targeted studies at the appropriate scales are needed to provide greater certainty in the potential mechanisms behind these relationships.

  17. Pathogenic Role of SEF14, SEF17, and SEF21 Fimbriae in Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis Infection of Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Rajashekara, Gireesh; Munir, Shirin; Alexeyev, Mikhail F.; Halvorson, David A.; Wells, Carol L.; Nagaraja, Kakambi V.

    2000-01-01

    Very little is known about the contribution of surface appendages of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis to pathogenesis in chickens. This study was designed to clarify the role of SEF14, SEF17, and SEF21 fimbriae in serovar Enteritidis pathogenesis. Stable, single, defined sefA (SEF14), agfA (SEF17), and fimA (SEF21) insertionally inactivated fimbrial gene mutants of serovar Enteritidis were constructed. All mutant strains invaded Caco-2 and HT-29 enterocytes at levels similar to that of the wild type. Both mutant and wild-type strains were ingested equally well by chicken macrophage cell lines HD11 and MQ-NCSU. There were no significant differences in the abilities of these strains to colonize chicken ceca. The SEF14− strain was isolated in lower numbers from the livers of infected chickens and was cleared from the spleens faster than other strains. No significant differences in fecal shedding of these strains were observed. PMID:10742278

  18. Fimbria-fornix and entorhinal cortex differential contribution to contextual and cued fear conditioning consolidation in rats.

    PubMed

    Baldi, Elisabetta; Liuzzo, Antonino; Bucherelli, Corrado

    2013-04-10

    The Fimbria-Fornix (FF) and Entorhinal Cortex (EC) are the primary interfaces between the hippocampus and, respectively, subcortical structures and cortical areas. Their mnemonic role has been repeatedly proposed. In order to investigate their role in fear conditioning, FF and EC were subjected to bilateral fully reversible tetrodotoxin (TTX) inactivation during consolidation in adult male Wistar rats that had undergone training for fear conditioning to an acoustic stimulus (CS) and context. TTX was stereotaxically injected into animals of different groups at increasing post-acquisition delays. Memory was assessed as conditioned freezing duration measured during retention testing, performed 72 and 96 h after TTX administration in a counterbalanced manner. The results showed that FF inactivation, performed immediately after conditioning, did not disrupt consolidation of either contextual or auditory fear memory. On the contrary, EC inactivation performed at the same time was followed by both contextual and CS fear response retention impairment. EC inactivation performed 1.5h post-acquisition impaired only contextual fear response retention. EC inactivation performed 24h after acquisition training had no effect on the consolidation process. The present findings show a clearly different role of FF and EC in fear conditioning consolidation in the rat. The results are discussed in relation to their known connections with the hippocampus.

  19. A Novel pAA Virulence Plasmid Encoding Toxins and Two Distinct Variants of the Fimbriae of Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Jønsson, Rie; Struve, Carsten; Boll, Erik J.; Boisen, Nadia; Joensen, Katrine G.; Sørensen, Camilla A.; Jensen, Betina H.; Scheutz, Flemming; Jenssen, Håvard; Krogfelt, Karen A.

    2017-01-01

    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) is an increasingly recognized pathogen associated with acute and persistent diarrhea worldwide. While EAEC strains are considered highly heterogeneous, aggregative adherence fimbriae (AAFs) are thought to play a pivotal role in pathogenicity by facilitating adherence to the intestinal mucosa. In this study, we optimized an existing multiplex PCR to target all known AAF variants, which are distinguished by differences in their pilin subunits. We applied the assay on a collection of 162 clinical Danish EAEC strains and interestingly found six, by SNP analysis phylogenetically distinct, strains harboring the major pilin subunits from both AAF/III and AAF/V. Whole-genome and plasmid sequencing revealed that in these six strains the agg3A and agg5A genes were located on a novel pAA plasmid variant. Moreover, the plasmid also encoded several other virulence genes including some not previously found on pAA plasmids. Thus, this plasmid endows the host strains with a remarkably high number of EAEC associated virulence genes hereby likely promoting strain pathogenicity. PMID:28275371

  20. Curli fimbriae are conditionally required in Escherichia coli O157:H7 for initial attachment and biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Carter, Michelle Qiu; Louie, Jacqueline W; Feng, Doris; Zhong, Wayne; Brandl, Maria T

    2016-08-01

    Several species of enteric pathogens produce curli fimbriae, which may affect their interaction with surfaces and other microbes in nonhost environments. Here we used two Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreak strains with distinct genotypes to understand the role of curli in surface attachment and biofilm formation in several systems relevant to fresh produce production and processing. Curli significantly enhanced the initial attachment of E. coli O157:H7 to spinach leaves and stainless steel surfaces by 5-fold. Curli was also required for E. coli O157:H7 biofilm formation on stainless steel and enhanced biofilm production on glass by 19-27 fold in LB no-salt broth. However, this contribution was not observed when cells were grown in sterile spinach lysates. Furthermore, both strains of E. coli O157:H7 produced minimal biofilms on polypropylene in LB no-salt broth but considerable amounts in spinach lysates. Under the latter conditions, curli appeared to slightly increase biofilm production. Importantly, curli played an essential role in the formation of mixed biofilm by E. coli O157:H7 and plant-associated microorganisms in spinach leaf washes, as revealed by confocal microscopy. Little or no E. coli O157:H7 biofilms were detected at 4 °C, supporting the importance of temperature control in postharvest and produce processing environments.

  1. LacR mutations are frequently observed in Streptococcus intermedius and are responsible for increased intermedilysin production and virulence.

    PubMed

    Tomoyasu, Toshifumi; Imaki, Hidenori; Masuda, Sachiko; Okamoto, Ayumi; Kim, Hyejin; Waite, Richard D; Whiley, Robert A; Kikuchi, Ken; Hiramatsu, Keiichi; Tabata, Atsushi; Nagamune, Hideaki

    2013-09-01

    Streptococcus intermedius secretes a human-specific cytolysin, intermedilysin (ILY), which is considered to be the major virulence factor of this pathogen. We screened for a repressor of ily expression by using random gene disruption in a low-ILY-producing strain (PC574). Three independent high-ILY-producing colonies that had plasmid insertions within a gene that has high homology to lacR were isolated. Validation of these observations was achieved through disruption of lacR in strain PC574 with an erythromycin cassette, which also led to higher hemolytic activity, increased transcription of ily, and higher cytotoxicity against HepG2 cells, compared to the parental strain. The direct binding of LacR within the ily promoter region was shown by a biotinylated DNA probe pulldown assay, and the amount of ILY secreted into the culture supernatant by PC574 cells was increased by adding lactose or galactose to the medium as a carbon source. Furthermore, we examined lacR nucleotide sequences and the hemolytic activity of 50 strains isolated from clinical infections and 7 strains isolated from dental plaque. Of the 50 strains isolated from infections, 13 showed high ILY production, 11 of these 13 strains had one or more point mutations and/or an insertion mutation in LacR, and almost all mutations were associated with a marked decline in LacR function. These results strongly suggest that mutation in lacR is required for the overproduction of ILY, which is associated with an increase in pathogenicity of S. intermedius.

  2. Molecular characterization of the gonadal kisspeptin system: Cloning, tissue distribution, gene expression analysis and localization in sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria).

    PubMed

    Fairgrieve, Marian R; Shibata, Yasushi; Smith, Elizabeth K; Hayman, Edward S; Luckenbach, J Adam

    2016-01-01

    The kisspeptin system plays pivotal roles in the regulation of vertebrate reproduction. Classically, kisspeptin produced in the brain stimulates brain gonadotropin-releasing hormone signaling, which in turn activates the pituitary-gonad axis. Expression of the kisspeptin system has also been documented in peripheral tissues, including gonads of mammals and fishes. However, the fish gonadal kisspeptin system remained uncharacterized. Herein we report identification and characterization of four kisspeptin system mRNAs (kisspeptin 1 (kiss1), kiss2, and G protein-coupled receptor 54-1 (gpr54-1) and gpr54-2) in sablefish, Anoplopoma fimbria. Sablefish predicted protein sequences were highly similar to those of other marine teleosts, but less so to freshwater teleosts. Tissue distribution analyses revealed that all four kisspeptin-system transcripts were expressed in both brain and gonad. However, kiss2 was the predominant transcript in the gonads and the only transcript detected in ovulated eggs. Ontogenetic analysis of kiss2 expression in juvenile sablefish gonads demonstrated that levels were low during sex differentiation but increased with fish size and gonadal development. Dramatic increases in kiss2 mRNA occurred during primary oocyte growth, while levels remained relatively low in testes. In situ hybridization revealed that kiss2 mRNA was localized to cytoplasm of perinucleolus stage oocytes, suggesting it could play a local role in oogenesis or could be synthesized and stored within oocytes as maternal mRNA. This represents the first study to focus on the gonadal kisspeptin system in fishes and provides important tools for further investigation of both the gonadal and brain kisspeptin systems in sablefish.

  3. Antioxidant Activity and Antibacterial Effects on Clinical Isolated Streptococcus suis and Staphylococcus intermedius of Extracts from Several Parts of Cladogynos orientalis and Their Phytochemical Screenings.

    PubMed

    Sithisarn, Pongtip; Rojsanga, Piyanuch; Sithisarn, Patchima; Kongkiatpaiboon, Sumet

    2015-01-01

    The in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial assays against clinically isolated Streptococcus suis and Staphylococcus intermedius of the extracts prepared by decoction and ethanolic reflux of different parts of Chettaphangki (Cladogynos orientalis Zipp. ex Span), including the leaves, roots, and stems, using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay and disc diffusion method were conducted. Quantitative analysis of total phenolic and total flavonoid contents in the extracts using spectrophotometric methods was also performed. Finally, phytochemical screening by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was conducted. Leaf ethanolic reflux extract (100 g) contained the highest total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of 7.21 ± 0.28 μg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) and 11.51 ± 2.02 μg rutin equivalent (RE), respectively. Chettaphangki extracts promoted low antioxidant activity with EC50 values in the range of 0.27-0.48 mg/mL. Extracts and fractions from the roots and stems of this plant promoted low to intermediate antibacterial activity against S. intermedius with the inhibition zones between 7 and 14 mm. The chromatographic data suggested that the leaf extracts of C. orientalis contained rutin while the root and stem extracts contained scopoletin and chettaphanin I. Rutin promoted strong antioxidant activity while chettaphanin I showed low antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus intermedius.

  4. Screening of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus intermedius, and Staphylococcus schleiferi isolates obtained from small companion animals for antimicrobial resistance: a retrospective review of 749 isolates (2003-04).

    PubMed

    Morris, Daniel O; Rook, Kathryn A; Shofer, Frances S; Rankin, Shelley C

    2006-10-01

    Companion animal staphylococcal isolate antibiograms were screened retrospectively to determine the frequency of methicillin-resistant (MR) infection by Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus intermedius, and Staphylococcus schleiferi. Rates of MR were: S. aureus 35%, S. intermedius 17%, and S. schleiferi 40%. Frequency of isolation of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) from dogs and cats was similar, whereas methicillin-resistant S. intermedius (MRSI) and methicillin-resistant S. schleiferi (MRSS) were significantly more common in dogs. MRSS was more commonly associated with superficial (skin and ear canal) infections, whereas MRSA was more commonly associated with deep infections. The MR strain resistance pattern to other classes of antibiotics was also investigated. MRSA was resistant to the most classes of antibiotics, followed by MRSI, while MRSS maintained the most favourable susceptibility profile. MR staphylococci may pose a significant risk to animal and public health. Therefore, to avoid selecting for resistant strains in cases of suspected staphylococcal infection, clinicians should consider culture and susceptibility testing early in the course of treatment.

  5. Determination of staphylococcal exotoxins, SCCmec types, and genetic relatedness of Staphylococcus intermedius group isolates from veterinary staff, companion animals, and hospital environments in Korea.

    PubMed

    Youn, Jung-Ho; Koo, Hye Cheong; Ahn, Kuk Ju; Lim, Suk-Kyung; Park, Yong Ho

    2011-09-01

    The Staphylococcus (S.) intermedius group (SIG) has been a main research subject in recent years. S. pseudintermedius causes pyoderma and otitis in companion animals as well as foodborne diseases. To prevent SIG-associated infection and disease outbreaks, identification of both staphylococcal exotoxins and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) types among SIG isolates may be helpful. In this study, it was found that a single isolate (one out of 178 SIG isolates examined) harbored the canine enterotoxin SEC gene. However, the S. intermedius exfoliative toxin gene was found in 166 SIG isolates although the S. aureus-derived exfoliative toxin genes, such as eta, etb and etd, were not detected. SCCmec typing resulted in classifying one isolate as SCCmec type IV, 41 isolates as type V (including three S. intermedius isolates), and 10 isolates as non-classifiable. Genetic relatedness of all S. pseudintermedius isolates recovered from veterinary staff, companion animals, and hospital environments was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Strains having the same band patterns were detected in S. pseudintermedius isolates collected at 13 and 18 months, suggesting possible colonization and/or expansion of a specific S. pseudintermedius strain in a veterinary hospital.

  6. A video demonstration of preserved piloting by scent tracking but impaired dead reckoning after fimbria-fornix lesions in the rat.

    PubMed

    Whishaw, Ian Q; Gorny, Boguslaw P

    2009-04-24

    Piloting and dead reckoning navigation strategies use very different cue constellations and computational processes (Darwin, 1873; Barlow, 1964; O'Keefe and Nadel, 1978; Mittelstaedt and Mittelstaedt, 1980; Landeau et al., 1984; Etienne, 1987; Gallistel, 1990; Maurer and Se guinot, 1995). Piloting requires the use of the relationships between relatively stable external (visual, olfactory, auditory) cues, whereas dead reckoning requires the integration of cues generated by self-movement. Animals obtain self-movement information from vestibular receptors, and possibly muscle and joint receptors, and efference copy of commands that generate movement. An animal may also use the flows of visual, auditory, and olfactory stimuli caused by its movements. Using a piloting strategy an animal can use geometrical calculations to determine directions and distances to places in its environment, whereas using an dead reckoning strategy it can integrate cues generated by its previous movements to return to a just left location. Dead reckoning is colloquially called "sense of direction" and "sense of distance." Although there is considerable evidence that the hippocampus is involved in piloting (O'Keefe and Nadel, 1978; O'Keefe and Speakman, 1987), there is also evidence from behavioral (Whishaw et al., 1997; Whishaw and Maaswinkel, 1998; Maaswinkel and Whishaw, 1999), modeling (Samsonovich and McNaughton, 1997), and electrophysiological (O'Mare et al., 1994; Sharp et al., 1995; Taube and Burton, 1995; Blair and Sharp, 1996; McNaughton et al., 1996; Wiener, 1996; Golob and Taube, 1997) studies that the hippocampal formation is involved in dead reckoning. The relative contribution of the hippocampus to the two forms of navigation is still uncertain, however. Ordinarily, it is difficult to be certain that an animal is using a piloting versus a dead reckoning strategy because animals are very flexible in their use of strategies and cues (Etienne et al., 1996; Dudchenko et al., 1997

  7. Amyloid-β induces synaptic dysfunction through G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium channels in the fimbria-CA3 hippocampal synapse.

    PubMed

    Nava-Mesa, Mauricio O; Jiménez-Díaz, Lydia; Yajeya, Javier; Navarro-Lopez, Juan D

    2013-01-01

    Last evidences suggest that, in Alzheimer's disease (AD) early stage, Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide induces an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission systems resulting in the functional impairment of neural networks. Such alterations are particularly important in the septohippocampal system where learning and memory processes take place depending on accurate oscillatory activity tuned at fimbria-CA3 synapse. Here, the acute effects of Aβ on CA3 pyramidal neurons and their synaptic activation from septal part of the fimbria were studied in rats. A triphasic postsynaptic response defined by an excitatory potential (EPSP) followed by both early and late inhibitory potentials (IPSP) was evoked. The EPSP was glutamatergic acting on ionotropic receptors. The early IPSP was blocked by GABAA antagonists whereas the late IPSP was removed by GABAB antagonists. Aβ perfusion induced recorded cells to depolarize, increase their input resistance and decrease the late IPSP. Aβ action mechanism was localized at postsynaptic level and most likely linked to GABAB-related ion channels conductance decrease. In addition, it was found that the specific pharmacological modulation of the GABAB receptor effector, G-protein-coupled inward rectifier potassium (GirK) channels, mimicked all Aβ effects previously described. Thus, our findings suggest that Aβ altering GirK channels conductance in CA3 pyramidal neurons might have a key role in the septohippocampal activity dysfunction observed in AD.

  8. Amyloid-β induces synaptic dysfunction through G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium channels in the fimbria-CA3 hippocampal synapse

    PubMed Central

    Nava-Mesa, Mauricio O.; Jiménez-Díaz, Lydia; Yajeya, Javier; Navarro-Lopez, Juan D.

    2013-01-01

    Last evidences suggest that, in Alzheimer's disease (AD) early stage, Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide induces an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission systems resulting in the functional impairment of neural networks. Such alterations are particularly important in the septohippocampal system where learning and memory processes take place depending on accurate oscillatory activity tuned at fimbria-CA3 synapse. Here, the acute effects of Aβ on CA3 pyramidal neurons and their synaptic activation from septal part of the fimbria were studied in rats. A triphasic postsynaptic response defined by an excitatory potential (EPSP) followed by both early and late inhibitory potentials (IPSP) was evoked. The EPSP was glutamatergic acting on ionotropic receptors. The early IPSP was blocked by GABAA antagonists whereas the late IPSP was removed by GABAB antagonists. Aβ perfusion induced recorded cells to depolarize, increase their input resistance and decrease the late IPSP. Aβ action mechanism was localized at postsynaptic level and most likely linked to GABAB-related ion channels conductance decrease. In addition, it was found that the specific pharmacological modulation of the GABAB receptor effector, G-protein-coupled inward rectifier potassium (GirK) channels, mimicked all Aβ effects previously described. Thus, our findings suggest that Aβ altering GirK channels conductance in CA3 pyramidal neurons might have a key role in the septohippocampal activity dysfunction observed in AD. PMID:23898239

  9. Role of Proteus mirabilis MR/P fimbriae and flagella in adhesion, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity induction in T24 and Vero cells.

    PubMed

    Scavone, Paola; Villar, Silvia; Umpiérrez, Ana; Zunino, Pablo

    2015-06-01

    Proteus mirabilis is frequently associated with complicated urinary tract infections (UTI). It is proposed that several virulence factors are associated with P. mirabilis uropathogenicity. The aim of this work was to elucidate genotoxic and cytotoxic effects mediated by MR/P fimbriae and flagella in eukaryotic cells in vitro. Two cell lines (kidney- and bladder-derived) were infected with a clinical wild-type P. mirabilis strain and an MR/P and a flagellar mutant. We evaluated adhesion, genotoxicity and cytotoxicity by microscopy, comet assay and triple staining technique, respectively. Mutant strains displayed lower adhesion rates than the P. mirabilis wild-type strain and were significantly less effective to induce genotoxic and cytotoxic effects compared to the wild type. We report for the first time that P. mirabilis MR/P fimbriae and flagella mediate genotoxic and cytotoxic effects on eukaryotic cells, at least in in vitro conditions. These results could contribute to design new strategies for the control of UTI.

  10. Salicylate increases the expression of marA and reduces in vitro biofilm formation in uropathogenic Escherichia coli by decreasing type 1 fimbriae expression.

    PubMed

    Vila, Jordi; Soto, Sara M

    2012-05-01

    Escherichia coli is one of the most frequent bacteria implicated in biofilm formation, which is a dynamic process whose first step consists in bacteria adhesion to surfaces through type 1 fimbriae. Salicylate induces a number of morphological and physiological alterations in bacteria including the activation of the transcriptional regulator MarA. In this report the effects of salicylate on biofilm formation and their relationship with MarA were studied. An inverse relationship was observed between in vitro biofilm formation and salicylate concentration added to the culture medium. Salicylate increases the expression of marA and decreases the expression of fimA and fimB genes in the wild-type strain. In addition, the fimA and fimB expression was decreased in a MarR mutant in which marA was also overexpressed. In conclusion, the expression of type 1 fimbriae in presence of salicylate may be regulated by the level of marA expression through fimB regulator, albeit through neither the ompX nor the tolC genes.

  11. Salicylate increases the expression of marA and reduces in vitro biofilm formation in uropathogenic Escherichia coli by decreasing type 1 fimbriae expression

    PubMed Central

    Vila, Jordi; Soto, Sara M.

    2012-01-01

    Escherichia coli is one of the most frequent bacteria implicated in biofilm formation, which is a dynamic process whose first step consists in bacteria adhesion to surfaces through type 1 fimbriae. Salicylate induces a number of morphological and physiological alterations in bacteria including the activation of the transcriptional regulator MarA. In this report the effects of salicylate on biofilm formation and their relationship with MarA were studied. An inverse relationship was observed between in vitro biofilm formation and salicylate concentration added to the culture medium. Salicylate increases the expression of marA and decreases the expression of fimA and fimB genes in the wild-type strain. In addition, the fimA and fimB expression was decreased in a MarR mutant in which marA was also overexpressed. In conclusion, the expression of type 1 fimbriae in presence of salicylate may be regulated by the level of marA expression through fimB regulator, albeit through neither the ompX nor the tolC genes. PMID:22546909

  12. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of CfaE, the adhesive subunit of the CFA/I fimbriae from human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yong-Fu; Poole, Steven; Rasulova, Fatima; Esser, Lothar; Savarino, Stephen J.; Xia, Di

    2006-02-01

    The adhesin CfaE of the CFA/I fimbriae from human enterotoxigenic E. coli has been crystallized. CfaE crystals diffracted X-rays to better than 2.4 Å and phasing was solved by the SIRAS method. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) represents a formidable food and waterborne diarrheal disease threat of global importance. The first step in ETEC pathogenesis is bacterial attachment to small-intestine epithelial cells via adhesive fimbriae, many of which are genetically related to the prototype colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I). The minor fimbrial subunit CfaE is required for initiation of CFA/I fimbrial assembly and mediates bacterial attachment to host cell-surface receptors. A donor-strand complemented variant of CfaE (dscCfaE) was expressed with a hexahistidine tag, purified to homogeneity and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method. X-ray diffraction data sets were collected to 2.4 Å resolution for both native and derivatized crystals and showed the symmetry of space group P6{sub 2}22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 142.9, c = 231.9 Å. Initial phases were derived from the SIRAS approach and electron density showed two molecules in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. Sequence assignments were aided by anomalous signals from the selenium of an SeMet-derivatized crystal and from S atoms of a native crystal.

  13. Retrograde cell changes in medial septum and diagonal band following fimbria-fornix transection: quantitative temporal analysis.

    PubMed

    Gage, F H; Wictorin, K; Fischer, W; Williams, L R; Varon, S; Bjorklund, A

    1986-09-01

    Complete unilateral fimbria-fornix transections, including the overlying cingulate cortex, were administered to female rats. At time points from 1 day to 6 weeks, the septal-diagonal band region was examined using acetylcholinesterase histochemistry, Cresyl Violet cell staining, and choline acetyltransferase biochemistry. As early as 1 day following the transection a decrease in acetylcholinesterase positive cell body staining was observed in the medial septum; however, no loss of Nissl-stained neurons was measured in Cresyl Violet stained sections until 1 week after the lesion. Maximal loss of acetylcholinesterase-positive cells, as visualized after irreversible acetylcholinesterase inhibition, was measured at 1 week, and no further change was observed at time points up to 6 weeks after operation. The loss of acetyltransferase-positive cells was greatest in the medial septal area (-65%) and the vertical limb of the diagonal band (-55%). Little cell loss was measured in the horizontal limb of the diagonal band. This is consistent with the known projections of these cell bodies. Remaining acetylcholinesterase-positive cell bodies in the medial septum had shrunk by about 20% (measured as the diameter along the major axis). A marked neuronal cell loss (about 50%) was demonstrable in the medial septum and vertical limb of the diagonal band in the Cresyl Violet-stained sections, too. A pile-up of acetylcholinesterase-stained material was observed in the dorsal-lateral quadrant of the septal area just proximal to the lesion at 1 day following transection. This pile-up occurred in the medial septum and diagonal band area up to 1 week following the transection, and had nearly disappeared by 2 weeks post-transection. Choline acetyltransferase biochemical activity, measured in samples of whole septum, decreased significantly at 1 day but subsequently returned to control levels. By 2 weeks following transection, an increase in acetylcholinesterase-positive stained fibers was

  14. In vivo emergence of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli variants lacking genes for K99 fimbriae and heat-stable enterotoxin.

    PubMed Central

    Mainil, J G; Sadowski, P L; Tarsio, M; Moon, H W

    1987-01-01

    Neonatal pigs were inoculated with porcine enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli 431, which carries genes for K99 fimbriae and STaP enterotoxin. Colonies of strain 431 were recovered from feces of pigs for up to 17 days after inoculation and tested for hybridization with gene probes for K99 and STaP. Variants of strain 431 that did not hybridize with the probes were considered to have lost the genes. Variants were recovered from 10 of 13 suckling pigs that survived the infection. Only 0.4% of the isolates recovered during the first 2 days after inoculation were variants. Of the isolates recovered 3 to 5 days after inoculation, 20 to 36% were variants. Variant colonies were detected more frequently among pigs in some litters than in others. The litter with the highest number of variant-shedding pigs had the dam with the highest titer of K99 antibody in her colostrum. Variants also occurred in colostrum-deprived, artificially reared pigs. However, the number of variants detected was lower and they occurred later in the course of the infection in colostrum-deprived pigs than in suckling pigs. More variants were detected and they were detected earlier in colostrum-deprived pigs fed anti-K99 monoclonal antibody than in controls fed anti-K88 monoclonal antibody. Loss of STaP appeared to be secondary to loss of K99 in that some variants lacked only K99 (K99- STaP+) and some lacked both genes (K99- STaP-), but none was of the K99+ STaP- type. Our results confirmed reports of gene loss from enterotoxigenic E. coli during infection. They are consistent with the hypothesis that variants emerge under in vivo selection pressure of K99 antibody and with the speculation that gene loss may be an important component of protection in vaccinated populations. However, the emergence of variants did not appear to play a major role in the recovery of individual pigs from clinical disease. PMID:2890584

  15. Intermedilysin, a novel cytotoxin specific for human cells secreted by Streptococcus intermedius UNS46 isolated from a human liver abscess.

    PubMed Central

    Nagamune, H; Ohnishi, C; Katsuura, A; Fushitani, K; Whiley, R A; Tsuji, A; Matsuda, Y

    1996-01-01

    A novel cytotoxin (intermedilysin) specific for human cells was identified as a cytolytic factor of Streptococcus intermedius UNS46 isolated from a human liver abscess. Intermedilysin caused human cell death with membrane blebs. Intermedilysin was purified from UNS46 culture medium by means of gel filtration and hydrophobic chromatography. The purified toxin was resolved into major and minor bands of 54 and 53 kDa, respectively, by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. These proteins reacted with an antibody against intermedilysin. Five internal peptide fragments of intermedilysin were sequenced and found to have 42 to 71% homology with the thiol-activated cytotoxin pneumolysin. However, the action of intermedilysin differed from that of thiol-activated cytotoxins, especially in terms of a lack of activation by dithiothreitol and resistance to treatments with N-ethylmaleimide and 5,5'-dithio-bis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid), although cholesterol inhibited the toxin activity. Intermedilysin was potently hemolytic on human erythrocytes but was 100-fold less effective on chimpanzee and cynomolgus monkey erythrocytes. Intermedilysin was not hemolytic in nine other animal species tested. Since human erythrocytes treated with trypsin were far less sensitive to intermedilysin than were the intact cells, a cell membrane protein(s) may participate in the intermedilysin action. These data demonstrated that intermedilysin is distinguishable from all known bacterial cytolysins. PMID:8757839

  16. [Growth conditions and production of the Bacillus intermedius subtilisin-like serine proteinase by the recombinant Bacillus subtilis strain].

    PubMed

    Kirillova, Iu M; Mikhaĭlova, E O; Balaban, N P; Mardanova, A M; Rudenskaia, G N; Kostrov, S V; Sharipova, M R

    2006-01-01

    The effect of the components of the nutrient medium on growth and production of the Bacillus intermedius subtilisin-like serine proteinase by the recombinant strain Bacillus subtilis AJ73(pCS9) was studied. The production of proteinase was found to be dependent on the composition of the nutrient medium and showed two peaks, at the 28th and 48th h of growth. The concentrations of the main components of the nutrient medium (peptone and inorganic phosphate) optimal for the biosynthesis of subtilisin-like serine proteinase at the 28th and 48th h of growth were determined in factorial experiments. Complex organic substances, casein at concentrations of 0.5-1%, gelatin at concentrations of 0.5-1%, and yeast extract at a concentration of 0.5%, stimulated the production of subtilisin-like serine proteinase by the recombinant strain. The study of the sporulation dynamics in this strain showed that the proteinase peaks at the 28th and 48th h of growth correspond, respectively, to the initial stage of sporulation and to the terminal stages of endospore formation (V-VII stages of sporulation).

  17. Effects of an herbicide on physiology, morphology, and fitness of the dung beetle Euoniticellus intermedius (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).

    PubMed

    González-Tokman, Daniel; Martínez-Morales, Imelda; Farrera, Arodi; Del Rosario Ortiz-Zayas, María; Lumaret, Jean-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Some agrochemical compounds threaten nontarget organisms and their functions in the ecosystem. The authors experimentally evaluated the effects of one of the most common herbicide mixtures used worldwide, containing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and picloram, on dung beetles, which play fundamental roles in the function of natural and managed ecosystems. The present study employed techniques of physiology and geometric morphometrics, besides including fitness measurements, to assess the effects of the herbicide in the introduced beetle Euoniticellus intermedius. Because herbicide components promote oxidative stress and affect survival in certain insects, the authors predicted negative effects on the beetles. Unexpectedly, no effect of herbicide concentration was found on clutch size, sex ratio, and fluctuating asymmetry, and it even increased physiological condition and body size in exposed beetles. Because the studied species presents 2 male morphs, the authors, for the first time, evaluated the effect of a pollutant on the ratio of these morphs. Contrary to the prediction, the herbicide mixture increased the proportion of major males. Thus, the herbicide does not threaten populations of the studied beetles. The present study discusses how both negative and positive effects of pollutants on wild animals modify natural and sexual selection processes occurring in nature, which ultimately impact population dynamics. The authors recommend the use of physiological and geometric morphometrics techniques to assess the impact of pollutants on nontarget animals. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:96-102. © 2016 SETAC.

  18. Solitary Pyomyositis of the Left Rhomboideus Muscle Caused by Streptococcus anginosus and Streptococcus intermedius in an Immunocompetent Person.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Takaya, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Go; Shinzato, Isaku; Takafuta, Toshiro

    2015-01-01

    Primary pyomyositis is a bacterial infection of the skeletal muscle commonly affecting children with Staphylococcus aureus most often isolated as a pathogen. However, pyomyositis caused by anaerobic bacteria is rare in adults. Here, we report a case of solitary Pyomyositis of the left rhomboideus muscle in an immunocompetent person. A 70-year-old Japanese male presented with high fever and left shoulder pain. His muscle below the lower edge of the left scapula was tender and swollen. His laboratory examinations revealed severe inflammation. Computed tomography showed a solitary low-density area around a contrast enhancement in the left rhomboideus muscle. He was diagnosed as having solitary pyomyositis. Although his symptoms did not improve despite empiric intravenous administration of antibiotics, an incision was performed. Streptococcus anginosus and Streptococcus intermedius were isolated from the culture of drainage fluid. His symptoms gradually disappeared after the incisional drainage and continuous administration of antibiotics. Pyomyositis did not recur after his discharge. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on anaerobic pyomyositis of the shoulder muscle.

  19. Increasing antimicrobial resistance in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus intermedius group bacteria and emergence of MRSP in the UK.

    PubMed

    Beever, L; Bond, R; Graham, P A; Jackson, B; Lloyd, D H; Loeffler, A

    2015-02-14

    Frequencies of antimicrobial resistance were determined amongst 14,555 clinical Staphylococcus intermedius group (SIG) isolates from UK dogs and cats to estimate resistance trends and quantify the occurrence of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP). Reports from two diagnostic laboratories (13,313 general submissions, 1242 referral centre only submissions) were analysed retrospectively (2003/2006-2012). MRSP were defined by phenotypic resistance to meticillin and concurrent broad β-lactam resistance; a subset was confirmed genetically (SIG-specific nuc and mecA). Trends were analysed by Cochran-Armitage test. Resistance remained below 10 per cent for cefalexin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and the fluoroquinolones. Increasing resistance trends were seen in both laboratories for ampicillin/amoxicillin (both P<0.001), cefovecin (both P<0.046) and enrofloxacin (both P<0.02). Resistance to cefalexin increased over time in referral hospital isolates (P<0.001) to clindamycin (P=0.01) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (P=0.001) amongst general laboratory submissions. Overall, 106 MRSP were isolated (0.7 per cent of submissions) including 32 (2.6 per cent of submissions, all genetically confirmed) from the referral centre population (inter-laboratory difference P<0.001). Against a background of widely susceptible SIG isolates, a new trend of increasing resistance to important antimicrobials was identified overtime and the emergence of MRSP from UK clinical cases was confirmed. Attention to responsible use of antibacterial therapy in small animal practice is urgently needed.

  20. Multiple Paternity in a Reintroduced Population of the Orinoco Crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius) at the El Frío Biological Station, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Rossi Lafferriere, Natalia A; Antelo, Rafael; Alda, Fernando; Mårtensson, Dick; Hailer, Frank; Castroviejo-Fisher, Santiago; Ayarzagüena, José; Ginsberg, Joshua R; Castroviejo, Javier; Doadrio, Ignacio; Vilá, Carles; Amato, George

    2016-01-01

    The success of a reintroduction program is determined by the ability of individuals to reproduce and thrive. Hence, an understanding of the mating system and breeding strategies of reintroduced species can be critical to the success, evaluation and effective management of reintroduction programs. As one of the most threatened crocodile species in the world, the Orinoco crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius) has been reduced to only a few wild populations in the Llanos of Venezuela and Colombia. One of these populations was founded by reintroduction at Caño Macanillal and La Ramera lagoon within the El Frío Biological Station, Venezuela. Twenty egg clutches of C. intermedius were collected at the El Frío Biological Station for incubation in the lab and release of juveniles after one year. Analyzing 17 polymorphic microsatellite loci from 335 hatchlings we found multiple paternity in C. intermedius, with half of the 20 clutches fathered by two or three males. Sixteen mothers and 14 fathers were inferred by reconstruction of multilocus parental genotypes. Our findings showed skewed paternal contributions to multiple-sired clutches in four of the clutches (40%), leading to an overall unequal contribution of offspring among fathers with six of the 14 inferred males fathering 90% of the total offspring, and three of those six males fathering more than 70% of the total offspring. Our results provide the first evidence of multiple paternity occurring in the Orinoco crocodile and confirm the success of reintroduction efforts of this critically endangered species in the El Frío Biological Station, Venezuela.

  1. Multiple Paternity in a Reintroduced Population of the Orinoco Crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius) at the El Frío Biological Station, Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Alda, Fernando; Mårtensson, Dick; Hailer, Frank; Castroviejo-Fisher, Santiago; Ginsberg, Joshua R.; Castroviejo, Javier; Doadrio, Ignacio; Vilá, Carles; Amato, George

    2016-01-01

    The success of a reintroduction program is determined by the ability of individuals to reproduce and thrive. Hence, an understanding of the mating system and breeding strategies of reintroduced species can be critical to the success, evaluation and effective management of reintroduction programs. As one of the most threatened crocodile species in the world, the Orinoco crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius) has been reduced to only a few wild populations in the Llanos of Venezuela and Colombia. One of these populations was founded by reintroduction at Caño Macanillal and La Ramera lagoon within the El Frío Biological Station, Venezuela. Twenty egg clutches of C. intermedius were collected at the El Frío Biological Station for incubation in the lab and release of juveniles after one year. Analyzing 17 polymorphic microsatellite loci from 335 hatchlings we found multiple paternity in C. intermedius, with half of the 20 clutches fathered by two or three males. Sixteen mothers and 14 fathers were inferred by reconstruction of multilocus parental genotypes. Our findings showed skewed paternal contributions to multiple-sired clutches in four of the clutches (40%), leading to an overall unequal contribution of offspring among fathers with six of the 14 inferred males fathering 90% of the total offspring, and three of those six males fathering more than 70% of the total offspring. Our results provide the first evidence of multiple paternity occurring in the Orinoco crocodile and confirm the success of reintroduction efforts of this critically endangered species in the El Frío Biological Station, Venezuela. PMID:26982578

  2. Efficacy of unilateral deep brain stimulation of the thalamic ventralis intermedius nucleus in a patient with bipolar disorder associated with Klinefelter syndrome and essential tremor. Case report.

    PubMed

    Telfeian, A E; Boockvar, J A; Simuni, T; Jaggi, J; Skolnick, B; Baltuch, G H

    2000-07-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventralis intermedius nucleus (Vim) is a safe and effective treatment for essential tremor. Bipolar disorder and essential tremor had each been reported to occur in association with Klinefelter syndrome but the three diseases have been reported to occur together in only one patient. The genetic basis and natural history of these disorders are not completely understood and may be related rather than coincidental. The authors report on a 23-year-old man with Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY) and bipolar disorder who was treated successfully with unilateral DBS of the thalamic Vim for essential tremor.

  3. Biochemical properties of Bacillus intermedius subtilisin-like proteinase secreted by a Bacillus subtilis recombinant strain in its stationary phase of growth.

    PubMed

    Mikhailova, E O; Mardanova, A M; Balaban, N P; Rudenskaya, G N; Ilyinskaya, O N; Sharipova, M R

    2009-03-01

    Biochemical properties of Bacillus intermedius subtilisin-like proteinase (AprBi) secreted by a B. subtilis recombinant strain in the early and late stationary phases of growth have been determined. Protein structure was analyzed and its stability estimated. It was noted that the enzyme corresponding to different phases of bacterial growth retains activity in the presence of reducing and oxidizing agents (C2H5OH and H2O2). Different effects of bivalent metal ions on activity of two proteinase fractions were found. Calcium ions more efficiently activate proteinase secreted in the late stationary phase. Unlike the first enzyme fraction, the second forms catalytically active dimers.

  4. Isolation and characterization of a subtilisin-like proteinase of Bacillus intermedius secreted by the Bacillus subtilis recombinant strain AJ73 at different growth stages.

    PubMed

    Mikhailova, E O; Mardanova, A M; Balaban, N P; Rudenskaya, G N; Sharipova, M R

    2007-02-01

    Two subtilisin-like serine proteinases of Bacillus intermedius secreted by the Bacillus subtilis recombinant strain AJ73 (pCS9) on the 28th and 48th h of culture growth (early and late proteinase, respectively) have been isolated by ion-exchange chromatography on CM-cellulose and by FPLC. Molecular weights of both proteinases were determined. The N-terminal sequences of the recombinant protein and mature proteinases of the original strain were compared. Kinetic parameters and substrate specificities of the early and late proteinase were analyzed. Physicochemical properties of the enzymes were studied.

  5. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor as entry port for S. intermedius causing bacteremia and multiple liver abscesses. Case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Benou, C; Walter, B M; Schlitter, M A; Wilhelm, D; Neu, B; Schmid, R M

    2016-03-01

    We report a case of a previously healthy 52-year-old man who presented with fever and liver lesions suspicious for metastatic disease, which proved subsequently to be abscesses. Further workup revealed a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) in the gastric corpus as entry port to Streptococcus intermedius-associated bacteremia and liver abscesses. After antibiotic treatment and surgical resection of the tumor, the patient recovered well. This unusual case indicates that gastrointestinal stromal tumors can remain undetected until they cause a life threatening infection. A review of recent literature pertaining to GIST and liver abscesses follows.

  6. Heterologous expression ofa histone-like protein from Streptococcus intermedius in Escherichia coli alters the nucleoid structure and inhibits the growth of E. coli.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dali; Yumoto, Hiromichi; Murakami, Keiji; Hirota, Katsuhiko; Kayama, Shizuo; Taniguchi, Tomonori; Yamamoto, Akitake; Ono, Tsuneko; Matsuo, Takashi; Miyake, Yoichiro

    2008-11-01

    Escherichia coli failed to survive after transformation with a Streptococcus intermedius histone-like protein gene (Si-hlp) and its promoter-harbored plasmid. The promoter function of Si-hlp in E. coli was determined using enhanced green fluorescence protein (egfp) gene as a reporter. The inhibitory effect of Si-HLP on E. coli viability was verified by a tetracycline-inducible gene expression system. Further study suggested that Si-HLP may alter the bacterial nucleoid structure, leading to the growth inhibition of E. coli.

  7. Streptomyces alfalfae sp. nov. and comparisons with its closest taxa Streptomyces silaceus, Streptomyces flavofungini and Streptomyces intermedius.

    PubMed

    She, Wenqing; Sun, Zhongfeng; Yi, Lei; Zhao, Shumiao; Liang, Yunxiang

    2016-01-01

    A novel streptomycete strain, designated XY25T, was isolated from the rhizosphere soil in an alfalfa field in Jingyang, Shanxi, China. The isolate showed optimal growth at 37 °C, and was capable of growing at pH 6-10 and in the presence of 0-6 % (w/v) NaCl. Mycelia of strain XY25T appeared spiral and developed into white spore chains with long-rod spores and a smooth surface. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of XY25T was determined and was found to be highly similar to those of species of the genus Streptomyces including Streptomyces silaceus DSM 41861T (99.11 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Streptomyces flavofungini DSM 40366T (98.49 %) and Streptomyces intermedius DSM 40372T (98.43 %), all of which were used for further characterization. Each of the four streptomycetes showed distinctive patterns of carbon usage and fatty acids composition. Analysis of cellular components of strain XY25T revealed ll-diaminopimelic acid as diagnostic diamino acid and xylose as the major sugar, whereas polar lipids were determined as phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, an unknown phospholipid, two unknown phosphatidylinositol mannosides and several unknown lipids. Menaquinones were dominated by MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H8), and the main fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0. DNA-DNA hybridization studies indicated that strain XY25T showed relatedness values of 35.2-40.42 % with the closest related species. Based on these results, strain XY25T represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces alfalfae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is XY25T ( = KCTC 39571T = CCTCC AA2015019T).

  8. Inhibition of type 1 fimbriae-mediated Escherichia coli adhesion and biofilm formation by trimeric cluster thiomannosides conjugated to diamond nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanal, Manakamana; Larsonneur, Fanny; Raks, Victoriia; Barras, Alexandre; Baumann, Jean-Sébastien; Martin, Fernando Ariel; Boukherroub, Rabah; Ghigo, Jean-Marc; Ortiz Mellet, Carmen; Zaitsev, Vladimir; Garcia Fernandez, Jose M.; Beloin, Christophe; Siriwardena, Aloysius; Szunerits, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in nanotechnology have seen the development of a number of microbiocidal and/or anti-adhesive nanoparticles displaying activity against biofilms. In this work, trimeric thiomannoside clusters conjugated to nanodiamond particles (ND) were targeted for investigation. NDs have attracted attention as a biocompatible nanomaterial and we were curious to see whether the high mannose glycotope density obtained upon grouping monosaccharide units in triads might lead to the corresponding ND-conjugates behaving as effective inhibitors of E. coli type 1 fimbriae-mediated adhesion as well as of biofilm formation. The required trimeric thiosugar clusters were obtained through a convenient thiol-ene ``click'' strategy and were subsequently conjugated to alkynyl-functionalized NDs using a Cu(i)-catalysed ``click'' reaction. We demonstrated that the tri-thiomannoside cluster-conjugated NDs (ND-Man3) show potent inhibition of type 1 fimbriae-mediated E. coli adhesion to yeast and T24 bladder cells as well as of biofilm formation. The biofilm disrupting effects demonstrated here have only rarely been reported in the past for analogues featuring such simple glycosidic motifs. Moreover, the finding that the tri-thiomannoside cluster (Man3N3) is itself a relatively efficient inhibitor, even when not conjugated to any ND edifice, suggests that alternative mono- or multivalent sugar-derived analogues might also be usefully explored for E. coli-mediated biofilm disrupting properties.Recent advances in nanotechnology have seen the development of a number of microbiocidal and/or anti-adhesive nanoparticles displaying activity against biofilms. In this work, trimeric thiomannoside clusters conjugated to nanodiamond particles (ND) were targeted for investigation. NDs have attracted attention as a biocompatible nanomaterial and we were curious to see whether the high mannose glycotope density obtained upon grouping monosaccharide units in triads might lead to the corresponding

  9. Implementation of a Functional Observation Battery for the Assessment of Postoperative Well-being in Rats Subjected to Fimbria-Fornix Transection.

    PubMed

    Marschner, Linda; Wogensen, Elise; Mogensen, Jesper; Abelson, Klas

    2016-01-01

    The postoperative well-being of Wistar rats subjected to fimbria-fornix transections was assessed using a functional observational battery (FOB), including observations of relative body weight change, general condition, fur quality, body posture and movement, appetite, and pica behavior. Fimbria-fornix transected animals (FF), sham-operated animals (Sham), and two non-operated control groups with and without administration of buprenorphine (+BUP and -BUP, respectively) were observed twice daily for seven days after surgery. Buprenorphine (0.4 mg/kg) mixed in a nut paste for voluntary ingestion was supplied twice daily for 84 h to all groups except the -BUP control group starting on the day of surgery. Body weight was slightly decreased postoperatively in both surgical groups (FF and Sham) compared to control groups. The +BUP control group lost weight starting at day four after discontinuation of buprenorphine. Furthermore, the FF group exhibited significantly reduced general condition one day after surgery, with significantly affected body posture and movement for two days after surgery. In addition, mild pica behavior was observed in the FF group during the first postsurgical day. In conclusion, the FOB implemented in the present study appears to be a sensitive and accurate protocol for assessing animal well-being in the experimental setup applied. It is apparent that the FF transection is an invasive procedure that causes mildly adverse postoperative effects on the rats' well-being. We therefore recommend that this FOB is applied as a routine welfare monitoring protocol in experiments using mechanical central nervous system injury models, such as FF transection.

  10. Sensitization of human aortic endothelial cells to lipopolysaccharide via regulation of Toll-like receptor 4 by bacterial fimbria-dependent invasion.

    PubMed

    Yumoto, Hiromichi; Chou, Hsin-Hua; Takahashi, Yusuke; Davey, Michael; Gibson, Frank C; Genco, Caroline A

    2005-12-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are differentially up-regulated in response to microbial infection and chronic inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis. Epidemiological data support the idea that periodontal disease may be a risk factor for acceleration of atherosclerosis. Porphyromonas gingivalis, the etiological agent of periodontal disease, invades endothelium, has been detected in human atheromatous tissue, and accelerates atheroma formation in apolipoprotein E-/- mice with concurrent induction of TLRs in the aorta. As endothelial cells can present antigen via TLRs and play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis, we examined TLR expression in human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) cultured with wild-type P. gingivalis, a fimbria-deficient mutant, and purified antigens. We observed increased TLR expression in HAEC infected with wild-type P. gingivalis by fluorescence-activated cell sorter, but not with noninvasive, fimbria-deficient mutant or purified P. gingivalis antigens. Following a wild-type P. gingivalis challenge, functional TLR2 and TLR4 activation was assessed by subsequent stimulation with TLR agonists Staphylococcus aureus lipoteichoic acid (SLTA; TLR2 ligand) and Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS; TLR4 ligand). Unchallenged HAEC failed to elicit monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) in response to LPS or SLTA but did so when cultured with wild-type P. gingivalis. P. gingivalis-induced TLR2 and -4 expression on HAEC functionally reacted to SLTA and E. coli LPS as measured by a further increase in MCP-1 production. Furthermore, MCP-1 expression elicited by E. coli LPS was inhibitable with TLR4-specific antibody and polymyxin B. These results indicate that invasive P. gingivalis stimulates TLR expression on the surface of endothelium and these primed cells respond to defined TLR-specific ligands.

  11. Development and Application of Pathovar-Specific Monoclonal Antibodies That Recognize the Lipopolysaccharide O Antigen and the Type IV Fimbriae of Xanthomonas hyacinthi

    PubMed Central

    van Doorn, J.; Ojanen-Reuhs, T.; Hollinger, T. C.; Reuhs, B. L.; Schots, A.; Boonekamp, P. M.; Oudega, B.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a specific immunological diagnostic assay for yellow disease in hyacinths, using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Mice were immunized with a crude cell wall preparation (shear fraction) from Xanthomonas hyacinthi and with purified type IV fimbriae. Hybridomas were screened for a positive reaction with X. hyacinthi cells or fimbriae and for a negative reaction with X. translucens pv. graminis or Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora. Nine MAbs recognized fimbrial epitopes, as shown by immunoblotting, immunofluorescence, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and immunoelectron microscopy; however, three of these MAbs had weak cross-reactions with two X. translucens pathovars in immunoblotting experiments. Seven MAbs reacted with lipopolysaccharides and yielded a low-mobility ladder pattern on immunoblots. Subsequent analysis of MAb 2E5 showed that it specifically recognized an epitope on the O antigen, which was found to consist of rhamnose and fucose in a 2:1 molar ratio. The cross-reaction of MAb 2E5 with all X. hyacinthi strains tested showed that this O antigen is highly conserved within this species. MAb 1B10 also reacted with lipopolysaccharides. MAbs 2E5 and 1B10 were further tested in ELISA and immunoblotting experiments with cells and extracts from other pathogens. No cross-reaction was found with 27 other Xanthomonas pathovars tested or with 14 other bacterial species from other genera, such as Erwinia and Pseudomonas, indicating the high specificity of these antibodies. MAbs 2E5 and 1B10 were shown to be useful in ELISA for the detection of X. hyacinthi in infected hyacinths. PMID:10473431

  12. Development and application of pathovar-specific monoclonal antibodies that recognize the lipopolysaccharide O antigen and the type IV fimbriae of Xanthomonas hyacinthi

    SciTech Connect

    Doorn, J. van; Ojanen-Reuhs, T.; Hollinger, T.C.; Reuhs, B.L.; Schots, A.; Boonekamp, P.M.; Oudega, B.

    1999-09-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a specific immunological diagnostic assay for yellow disease in hyacinths, using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Mice were immunized with a crude cell wall preparation (shear fraction) from Xanthomonas hyacinthi and with purified type IV fimbriae. Hybridomas were screened for a positive reaction with X. hyacinthi cells or fimbriae and for a negative reaction with X. translucens pv. graminis or Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora. Nine MAbs recognized fimbrial epitopes, as shown by immunoblotting, immunofluorescence, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and immunoelectron microscopy; however, three of these MAbs had weak cross-reactions with two X. translucens pathovars in immunoblotting experiments. Seven MAbs reacted with lipopolysaccharides and yielded a low-mobility ladder pattern on immunoblots. Subsequent analysis of MAb 2E5 showed that it specifically recognized an epitope on the O antigen, which was found to consist of rhamnose and fucose in a 2:1 molar ratio. The cross-reaction of MAb 2E5 with all X. hyacinthi strains tested showed that this O antigen is highly conserved within this species. MAb 1B10 also reacted with lipopolysaccharides. MAbs 2E5 and 1B10 were further tested in ELISA and immunoblotting experiments with cells and extracts from other pathogens. No cross-reaction was found with 27 other Xanthomonas pathovars tested or with 14 other bacterial species from other genera, such as Erwinia and Pseudomonas, indicating the high specificity of these antibodies. MAbs 2E5 and 1B10 were shown to be useful in ELISA for the detection of X. hyacinthi in infected hyacinths.

  13. How does a viviparous semifossorial lizard reproduce? Ophiodes intermedius (Squamata: Anguidae) from subtropical climate in the Wet Chaco region of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Martín A; Boretto, Jorgelina M; Ibargüengoytía, Nora R

    2017-01-16

    The best predictors of reproductive patterns are commonly associated with climate factors, but evolutionary history also plays an important role. The semifossorial and viviparous lizard Ophiodes intermedius from the Wet Chaco region of Argentina showed an annual cycle with asynchrony between males and females and an unusual pattern for subtropical climates, with vitellogenesis beginning in autumn, ovulation and copulation in spring, and births occurring in summer. Males exhibited annual variation of testicular size associated with spermatogenic activity, reaching their maximum gonadal activity in late summer (March), but sperm storage in the epididymis and/or deferent duct occurred throughout the year. Females showed an extended reproductive cycle beginning in mid-autumn (May) with vitellogenesis and finishing with births from late spring to mid-summer (December to February). Litter size varied from 4 to 9 offspring. Females reached sexual maturity at a larger snout-vent length and, overall, showed greater body size than males, while males exhibited larger heads than females. Fat body cycles indicated that females use lipid reserves to support vitellogenesis and embryo development, while males allocate lipid resources to the search for females, courtship and copulation rather than to gametogenesis. Ophiodes intermedius differed from other species of the genus in litter size, gestation period, timing of birth and the minimum size at sexual maturity, probably as a result of the influence of ecological, historical and phylogenetic factors.

  14. Septic thrombophlebitis of the superior mesenteric vein with bacteraemia caused by Bacteroides fragilis and Streptococcus intermedius as a complication of diverculitis.

    PubMed

    Hadano, Yoshiro; Iwata, Hiroyoshi

    2013-02-05

    A 68-year-old Japanese man with alcoholic liver cirrhosis was admitted to our hospital because of fever and haematemesis. On day 3, his blood culture became positive for Gram-negative bacilli and Gram-positive cocci, and contrast-enhanced abdominal CT revealed acute septic thrombophlebitis of the superior mesenteric vein with caecal diverculitis. Antimicrobial therapy with ampicillin-sulbactam and anticoagulant therapy were started and the blood culture grew Bacteroides fragilis and Streptococcus intermedius. On hospital day 7, the patient's condition began to improve in response to the therapy, therefore, the ampicillin-sulbactam and anticoagulant therapy was continued for 42 days. The patient was discharged home on hospital day 45. B fragilis bacteraemia of unknown source should caution the physician to search for an intra-abdominal focus, such as thrombosis of the portal vein or mesenteric vein.

  15. [A case of culture-negative brain abscess caused by Streptococcus intermedius infection diagnosed by broad-range PCR of 16S ribosomal RNA].

    PubMed

    Ohara, Nobuyuki; Asai, Katsunori; Ohkusu, Kiyofumi; Wakayama, Akatsuki

    2013-10-01

    A 50-year-old man presented with altered mental status during hospitalization for pneumonia. MRI showed multifocal ring-enhanced lesions, which consisted of multiple cerebral abscesses. We started empirical antibiotic therapy, but the following morning, his condition rapidly deteriorated and a CT scan revealed acute hydrocephalus, which required ventricular drainage. Gram staining of cerebro-spinal fluid from the ventricular drainage showed gram-positive cocci in chains, but culture results were negative. 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing with broad-range PCR of the cerebro-spinal fluid identified Streptococcus intermedius. On the basis of this identification, the antibiotic regimen was changed to ampicillin monotherapy. After 1 year of antibiotic therapy, all the abscesses had disappeared and the patient was discharged without any sequelae. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene analysis with broad-range PCR is a very useful method for facilitating the etiological diagnosis and selection of appropriate treatment for culture-negative infections.

  16. Deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidus internus or ventralis intermedius nucleus of thalamus for Holmes tremor.

    PubMed

    Espinoza Martinez, Jairo Alberto; Arango, Gabriel J; Fonoff, Erich Talamoni; Reithmeier, Thomas; Escobar, Oscar Andrés; Furlanetti, Luciano; Alvarez Berastegui, G Rene; Fernandes da Silva, Fabio Eduardo; Contreras Lopez, William Omar

    2015-10-01

    Holmes tremor (HT) is a difficult-to-treat, very disabling symptomatic condition which characteristically appears weeks to years after a brain lesion. It features a unique combination of rest, action, and postural tremors. Pharmacotherapy is mostly not effective. Chronic deep brain stimulation (DBS) of ventralis intermedius nucleus (Vim) of thalamus has been described as being the best surgical approach in singular case series; various authors observe, however, cases with partial responses only; therefore, alternatives are still needed. We report ten patients with HT unresponsive to best medical therapy who underwent DBS in our center from March 2002 to June 2012. Based in our previous experience dealing with cases of unsatisfactory Vim intraoperative tremor control and in order to optimize surgical results, presurgical target planning included two Nuclei: Vim and posteroventral Globus pallidus internus (GPi) (Espinoza et al. 2010; Espinoza et al. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 90(suppl 1):1-202, p 61, 2012). Definitive chosen target was decided after single-cell microelectrode recording, intraoperative test stimulation, thresholds for stimulation-induced adverse effects and best clinical response compared to baseline status. Fahn-Tolosa-Marin tremor rating scale (FTM-TRS) was used to evaluate outcome. The electrode was implanted in the nucleus with the best tremor suppression achievement; on the other hand, GPi DBS was initially decided if one of the following conditions was present: (a) If Vim nucleus anatomy was grossly altered; (b) when intraoperative tremor control was unsatisfactory despite Vim high-intensity stimulation; or (c) if unaffordable side effects or even tremor worsening occurred during intraoperative macrostimulation. Seven patients received definitive Gpi DBS implantation, while three patients received Vim DBS. In all observed cases, we observed an improvement on the TRS. In two cases where Vim thalamic anatomy was altered by the pathological insult

  17. A double, long polar fimbria mutant of Escherichia coli O157:H7 expresses Curli and exhibits reduced in vivo colonization.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Sonja J; Ritchie, Jennifer M; Rojas-Lopez, Maricarmen; Blumentritt, Carla A; Popov, Vsevolod L; Greenwich, Jennifer L; Waldor, Matthew K; Torres, Alfredo G

    2012-03-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 causes food and waterborne enteric infections that can result in hemorrhagic colitis and life-threatening hemolytic uremic syndrome. Intimate adherence of the bacteria to intestinal epithelial cells is mediated by intimin, but E. coli O157:H7 also possess several other putative adhesins, including curli and two operons that encode long polar fimbriae (Lpf). To assess the importance of Lpf for intestinal colonization, we performed competition experiments between E. coli O157:H7 and an isogenic ΔlpfA1 ΔlpfA2 double mutant in the infant rabbit model. The mutant was outcompeted in the ileum, cecum, and midcolon, suggesting that Lpf contributes to intestinal colonization. In contrast, the ΔlpfA1 ΔlpfA2 mutant showed increased adherence to colonic epithelial cells in vitro. Transmission electron microscopy revealed curli-like structures on the surface of the ΔlpfA1 ΔlpfA2 mutant, and the presence of curli was confirmed by Congo red binding, immunogold-labeling electron microscopy, immunoblotting, and quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) measuring csgA expression. However, deletion of csgA, which encodes the major curli subunit, does not appear to affect intestinal colonization. In addition to suggesting that Lpf can contribute to EHEC intestinal colonization, our observations indicate that the regulatory pathways governing the expression of Lpf and curli are interdependent.

  18. On Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Michael B.

    Involvement Ratings In Settings (IRIS), a multi-dimensional non-verbal scale of involvement adaptable to a time-sampling method of data collection, was constructed with the aid of the videotapes of second-grade Follow Through classrooms made by CCEP. Scales were defined through observations of involved and alienated behavior, and the IRIS was…

  19. Evaluation of an Immunochromatographic Assay for Rapid Detection of Penicillin-Binding Protein 2a in Human and Animal Staphylococcus intermedius Group, Staphylococcus lugdunensis, and Staphylococcus schleiferi Clinical Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, A. R.; Ford, B. A.; McAllister, S. K.; Lonsway, D.; Albrecht, V.; Jerris, R. C.; Rasheed, J. K.; Limbago, B.

    2015-01-01

    The performance of a rapid penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a) detection assay, the Alere PBP2a culture colony test, was evaluated for identification of PBP2a-mediated beta-lactam resistance in human and animal clinical isolates of Staphylococcus intermedius group, Staphylococcus lugdunensis, and Staphylococcus schleiferi. The assay was sensitive and specific, with all PBP2a-negative and PBP2a-positive strains testing negative and positive, respectively. PMID:26677248

  20. Characterization of the Pathogenicity of Streptococcus intermedius TYG1620 Isolated from a Human Brain Abscess Based on the Complete Genome Sequence with Transcriptome Analysis and Transposon Mutagenesis in a Murine Subcutaneous Abscess Model.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Noriko; Sekizuka, Tsuyoshi; Sugi, Yutaka; Kawakami, Nobuhiro; Ogasawara, Yumiko; Kato, Kengo; Yamashita, Akifumi; Takeuchi, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Makoto

    2017-02-01

    Streptococcus intermedius is known to cause periodontitis and pyogenic infections in the brain and liver. Here we report the complete genome sequence of strain TYG1620 (genome size, 2,006,877 bp; GC content, 37.6%; 2,020 predicted open reading frames [ORFs]) isolated from a brain abscess in an infant. Comparative analysis of S. intermedius genome sequences suggested that TYG1620 carries a notable type VII secretion system (T7SS), two long repeat regions, and 19 ORFs for cell wall-anchored proteins (CWAPs). To elucidate the genes responsible for the pathogenicity of TYG1620, transcriptome analysis was performed in a murine subcutaneous abscess model. The results suggest that the levels of expression of small hypothetical proteins similar to phenol-soluble modulin β1 (PSMβ1), a staphylococcal virulence factor, significantly increased in the abscess model. In addition, an experiment in a murine subcutaneous abscess model with random transposon (Tn) mutant attenuation suggested that Tn mutants with mutations in 212 ORFs in the Tn mutant library were attenuated in the murine abscess model (629 ORFs were disrupted in total); the 212 ORFs are putatively essential for abscess formation. Transcriptome analysis identified 37 ORFs, including paralogs of the T7SS and a putative glucan-binding CWAP in long repeat regions, to be upregulated and attenuated in vivo This study provides a comprehensive characterization of S. intermedius pathogenicity based on the complete genome sequence and a murine subcutaneous abscess model with transcriptome and Tn mutagenesis, leading to the identification of pivotal targets for vaccines or antimicrobial agents for the control of S. intermedius infections.

  1. Evaluation of an Immunochromatographic Assay for Rapid Detection of Penicillin-Binding Protein 2a in Human and Animal Staphylococcus intermedius Group, Staphylococcus lugdunensis, and Staphylococcus schleiferi Clinical Isolates.

    PubMed

    Arnold, A R; Burnham, C-A D; Ford, B A; Lawhon, S D; McAllister, S K; Lonsway, D; Albrecht, V; Jerris, R C; Rasheed, J K; Limbago, B; Burd, E M; Westblade, L F

    2016-03-01

    The performance of a rapid penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a) detection assay, the Alere PBP2a culture colony test, was evaluated for identification of PBP2a-mediated beta-lactam resistance in human and animal clinical isolates of Staphylococcus intermedius group, Staphylococcus lugdunensis, and Staphylococcus schleiferi. The assay was sensitive and specific, with all PBP2a-negative and PBP2a-positive strains testing negative and positive, respectively.

  2. Family Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liontos, Lynn Balster

    1992-01-01

    Family involvement in schools will work only when perceived as an enlarged concept focusing on all children, including those from at-risk families. Each publication reviewed here is specifically concerned with family involvement strategies concerned with all children or targeted at primarily high risk students. Susan McAllister Swap looks at three…

  3. Attenuated Shigella flexneri 2a ΔguaBA Strain CVD 1204 Expressing Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) CS2 and CS3 Fimbriae as a Live Mucosal Vaccine against Shigella and ETEC Infection

    PubMed Central

    Altboum, Zeev; Barry, Eileen M.; Losonsky, Genevieve; Galen, James E.; Levine, Myron M.

    2001-01-01

    To construct a prototype hybrid vaccine against Shigella and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), the genes encoding the production of ETEC CS2 and CS3 fimbriae were isolated and expressed in attenuated Shigella flexneri 2a guaBA strain CVD 1204. The CS2 cotA to -D genes, isolated from ETEC strain C91F, and the CS3 cstA to -H genes, subcloned from plasmid pCS100, were cloned into ∼15-copy-number-stabilized pGA1 behind the osmotically regulated ompC promoter, resulting in high expression of both fimbriae. Under nonselective in vitro growth conditions, pGA1-CS2 and pGA1-CS3 were stable in CVD 1204, exhibiting a plasmid loss of only approximately 1% per duplication. Expression of CS2 and CS3 reduced the invasiveness of Shigella for HeLa cells and slowed the intracellular growth rate. Guinea pigs immunized intranasally with CVD 1204(pGA1-CS2) or CVD 1204(pGA1-CS3), or with a mixture of these strains, developed secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA) in tears and serum IgG antibodies against Shigella lipopolysaccharide, CS2, and CS3 antigens. Moreover, the animals were protected against keratoconjunctivitis following conjunctival challenge with virulent S. flexneri 2a strain 2457T. Animals immunized with Shigella expressing CS2 or CS3 developed serum antibodies that agglutinated Shigella as well as an ETEC strain bearing the homologous fimbriae, whereas animals immunized with combined CVD 1204(pGA1-CS2) and CVD 1204(pGA1-CS3) developed antibodies that agglutinated all three test strains. These observations support the feasibility of a multivalent vaccine against shigellosis and ETEC diarrhea consisting of multiple Shigella live vectors expressing relevant ETEC antigens. PMID:11292735

  4. The study of adhesive forces between the type-3 fimbriae of Klebsiella pneumoniae and collagen-coated surfaces by using optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Chiahan; Fan, Chia-chieh; Huang, Ying-Jung; Peng, Hwei-Ling; Long, Hsu

    2004-10-01

    Adherence to host cells by a bacterial pathogen is a critical step for establishment of infection. It will contribute greatly to the understanding of bacterial pathogenesis by studying the biological force between a single pair of pathogen and host cell. In our experiment, we use a calibrated optical tweezers system to detach a single Klebsiella pneumoniae, the pathogen, from collagen, the host. By gradually increasing the laser power of the optical tweezers until the Klebsiella pneumoniae is detached from the collagen, we obtain the magnitude of the adhesive force between them. This happens when the adhesive force is barely equal to the trapping force provided by the optical tweezers at that specific laser power. This study is important because Klebsiella pneumoniae is an opportunistic pathogen which causes suppurative lesions, urinary and respiratory tract infections. It has been proved that type 3 fimbrial adhesin (mrkD) is strongly associated with the adherence of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Besides, four polymorphic mrkD alleles: namely, mrkDv1, v2, v3, and v4, are typed by using RFLP. In order to investigate the relationship between the structure and the function for each of these variants, DNA fragments encoding the major fimbrial proteins mrkA, mrkB, mrkC are expressed together with any of the four mrkD adhesins in E. coli JM109. Our study shows that the E. coli strain carrying the mrkDv3 fimbriae has the strongest binding activity. This suggests that mrkDv3 is a key factor that enhances the adherence of Klebsiella Pneumoniae to human body.

  5. Role of F1C fimbriae, flagella, and secreted bacterial components in the inhibitory effect of probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 on atypical enteropathogenic E. coli infection.

    PubMed

    Kleta, Sylvia; Nordhoff, Marcel; Tedin, Karsten; Wieler, Lothar H; Kolenda, Rafal; Oswald, Sibylle; Oelschlaeger, Tobias A; Bleiss, Wilfried; Schierack, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is recognized as an important intestinal pathogen that frequently causes acute and persistent diarrhea in humans and animals. The use of probiotic bacteria to prevent diarrhea is gaining increasing interest. The probiotic E. coli strain Nissle 1917 (EcN) is known to be effective in the treatment of several gastrointestinal disorders. While both in vitro and in vivo studies have described strong inhibitory effects of EcN on enteropathogenic bacteria, including pathogenic E. coli, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, we examined the inhibitory effect of EcN on infections of porcine intestinal epithelial cells with atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC) with respect to single infection steps, including adhesion, microcolony formation, and the attaching and effacing phenotype. We show that EcN drastically reduced the infection efficiencies of aEPEC by inhibiting bacterial adhesion and growth of microcolonies, but not the attaching and effacing of adherent bacteria. The inhibitory effect correlated with EcN adhesion capacities and was predominantly mediated by F1C fimbriae, but also by H1 flagella, which served as bridges between EcN cells. Furthermore, EcN seemed to interfere with the initial adhesion of aEPEC to host cells by secretion of inhibitory components. These components do not appear to be specific to EcN, but we propose that the strong adhesion capacities enable EcN to secrete sufficient local concentrations of the inhibitory factors. The results of this study are consistent with a mode of action whereby EcN inhibits secretion of virulence-associated proteins of EPEC, but not their expression.

  6. The YfcO fimbriae gene enhances adherence and colonization abilities of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Li, Yaxin; Wang, Haojin; Ren, Jianluan; Chen, Ling; Zhuge, Xiangkai; Hu, Lin; Li, Dezhi; Tang, Fang; Dai, Jianjun

    2016-11-01

    Chaperone-usher (CU) fimbriae, which are adhesive surface organelles found in many Gram-negative bacteria, mediate tissue tropism through the interaction of fimbrial adhesins with specific receptors expressed on the host cell surface. A CU fimbrial gene yfcO, was identified in avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) strain DE205B via gene functional analysis. In this study, yfcO was found in 13.41% (11/82) of E. coli strains, including phylogenetic groups A, B1, B2 and D, with the highest percentage in group B2. The expression of yfcO in biofilm forming bacteria was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that in the planktonic bacteria. A yfcO deletion mutant was constructed, and adherence to DF-1 chicken embryo fibroblast cells was analyzed in vitro. Compared to the wild-type (WT), adherence of the mutant to DF-1 cells was significantly decreased (P < 0.01). The mutant bacterial loads in the heart, brain and liver were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those of the WT strain. Resistance of the mutant to acidic (acetic, pH 4.0, 20 min) and high osmolarity (2.5 M NaCl, 1 h) stress conditions decreased by 51.28% (P < 0.001) and 80.34% (P < 0.01), respectively. These results suggest that yfcO contributes to APEC virulence through bacterial adherence to host tissues.

  7. Contributions of EspA Filaments and Curli Fimbriae in Cellular Adherence and Biofilm Formation of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vijay K.; Kudva, Indira T.; Bearson, Bradley L.; Stasko, Judith A.

    2016-01-01

    In Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157), the filamentous structure of the type III secretion system is produced from the polymerization of the EspA protein. EspA filaments are essential for O157 adherence to epithelial cells. In previous studies, we demonstrated that O157 hha deletion mutants showed increased adherence to HEp-2 cells and produced abundant biofilms. Transcriptional analysis revealed increased expression of espA as well as the csgA gene, which encodes curli fimbriae that are essential for biofilm formation. In the present study, we constructed hha espA, hha csgA, and hha csgA espA deletion mutants to determine the relative importance of EspA and CsgA in O157 adherence to HEp-2 cells and biofilm formation. In vitro adherence assays, conducted at 37°C in a tissue culture medium containing 0.1% glucose, showed that HEp-2 cell adherence required EspA because hha espA and hha csgA espA mutants adhered to HEp-2 cells at higher levels only when complemented with an espA-expressing plasmid. Biofilm assays performed at 28°C in a medium lacking glucose showed dependency of biofilm formation on CsgA; however EspA was not produced under these conditions. Despite production of detectable levels of EspA at 37°C in media supplemented with 0.1% glucose, the biofilm formation occurred independent of EspA. These results indicate dependency of O157 adherence to epithelial cells on EspA filaments, while CsgA promoted biofilm formation under conditions mimicking those found in the environment (low temperature with nutrient limitations) and in the digestive tract of an host animal (higher temperature and low levels of glucose). PMID:26900701

  8. Effects of prolonged vibration to vastus intermedius muscle on force steadiness of knee extensor muscles during isometric force-matching task.

    PubMed

    Saito, Akira; Ando, Ryosuke; Akima, Hiroshi

    2016-12-01

    Afferent inputs from Ia fibers in muscle spindles are essential for the control of force and prolonged vibration has been applied to muscle-tendon units to manipulate the synaptic input from Ia afferents onto α-motor neurons. The vastus intermedius (VI) reportedly provides the highest contribution to the low-level knee extension torque among the individual synergists of quadriceps femoris (QF). The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of prolonged vibration to the VI on force steadiness of the QF. Nine healthy men (25.1±4.3years) performed submaximal force-matching task of isometric knee extension for 15s before and after mechanical vibration to the superficial region of VI for 30min. Target forces were 2.5%, 10%, and 30% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), and force steadiness was determined by the coefficient of variation (CV) of force. After the prolonged VI vibration, the CV of force at 2.5%MVC was significantly increased, but CVs at 10% and 30%MVCs were not significantly changed. The present study concluded that application of prolonged vibration to the VI increased force fluctuations of the QF during a very low-level force-matching task.

  9. Lipofuscin-like pigment in gonads of Sea Urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius as a potential biomarker of marine pollution: a field study.

    PubMed

    Vaschenko, Marina A; Zhadan, Peter M; Aminin, Dmitry L; Almyashova, Tatyana N

    2012-05-01

    Accumulation of lipofuscin-like pigments (LLPs) has been shown to be an appropriate index of both age and stress in some aquatic invertebrates. In the present study, LLP was quantified by measuring its autofluorescence intensity (ex 450 nm/em 512 nm) in nutritive phagocytes (NPs) of sea urchins Strongylocentrotus intermedius inhabiting polluted and relatively clean areas of Japan Sea. To avoid variations in LLP content related to sea urchin reproductive condition, only developing gonads with acini occupied mostly by NPs were used for LLP quantification as well as semiquantitative histopathological analysis. LLP concentrations ranged from 0.0 to 4.57 ± 0.53% area fraction in female gonads and from 0.0 to 4.61 ± 0.35% in male gonads. The presence of specimens with extremely high LLP concentrations (>1.5%) in all examined samples, including specimens from the reference station, as well as the absence of strong correlations between LLP concentrations and several parameters related to pollution (heavy-metal concentrations in sea urchin gonads and concentrations of heavy metals, DDT, hexachlorocyclohexane, and total petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments), allow us to conclude that LLP content in sea urchin NPs can not be used as a biomarker in marine pollution monitoring.

  10. Enzymatic methods for the determination of pollution in seawater using salt resistant alkaline phosphatase from eggs of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius.

    PubMed

    Menzorova, Natalie I; Seitkalieva, Alexandra V; Rasskazov, Valerу A

    2014-02-15

    A new salt resistant alkaline phosphatase from eggs of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius (StAP) has been shown to have a unique property to hydrolyze substrate in seawater without loss of enzymatic activity. The enzyme has pH optimum at 8.0-8.5. Model experiments showed various concentrations of copper, zinc, cadmium and lead added to seawater or a standard buffer mixture to inhibit completely the enzyme activity at the concentrations of 15-150 μg/l. StAP sensitivity to the presence in seawater of metals, pesticides, detergents and oil products appears to be considerably less. Samples of seawater taken from aquatic areas of the Troitsy Bay of the Peter the Great Bay, Japan Sea have been shown to inhibit the enzyme activity; the same was shown for the samples of fresh waters. The phosphatase inhibition assay developed proved to be highly sensitive, technically easy-to use allowing to test a great number of samples.

  11. NAS agar is more suitable than McKay agar for primary culture of Streptococcus milleri group (SMG) fastidious bacteria, S. intermedius in particular.

    PubMed

    Raclavsky, Vladislav; Novotny, Radko; Stary, Lubomir; Navratilova, Lucie; Zatloukal, Jaromir; Jakubec, Petr; Zapalka, Martin; Kopriva, Frantisek; Kolek, Vitezslav

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus milleri group (SMG) is a group of three streptococcal species (S. anginosus, intermedius and constellatus) that act as opportunist pathogens, among others in cystic fibrosis. Due to their fastidious character, they are both difficult to cultivate and to differentiate from less pathogenic streptococcal species, therefore being most probably underdiagnosed. Semi-selective McKay agar and NAS agar were developed to facilitate SMG recovery from clinical samples; however, direct comparison of recovery rates has not been published yet. We tested the performance of both media on 123 patient samples and demonstrated general superiority of NAS agar for SMG recovery during primary cultivation convincingly. This observation was also confirmed by quantitative drop tests during subculture. Despite the undisputed overall superiority of NAS agar over McKay agar, a smaller fraction of strains grew better on McKay agar. Inter-strain differences were the most probable explanation. Therefore, when economic conditions are not limiting and maximum recovery rate is desirable, both plates are advised to be used in parallel for primary cultivation of clinical samples.

  12. Cervical Facet Joint Infection and Associated Epidural Abscess with Streptococcus intermedius from a Dental Infection Origin A Case Report and Review.

    PubMed

    Kaye, Ian David; Protopsaltis, Themistocles S

    2016-09-01

    Pyogenic cervical facet joint infections are rare and such infections from a dental origin are even less common. Of these few cases, none have described infection with Streptococcus intermedius as the pathogen. A 65-year-old orthopaedic surgeon complained of fevers, right-sided radiating neck pain, stiffness, swelling, erythema, and right upper extremity weakness one month after he had broken a crown over his right mandibular premolar, a continued source of pain. Imaging of the cervical spine showed a right C4-C5 facet inflammatory arthropathy and a small epidural abscess that was cultured and initially treated with intravenous antibiotics. The oral maxillofacial surgery team performed an extraction of the infected, symptomatic tooth. For continued right upper extremity weakness, the patient underwent C4-C5 laminoforaminotomy and irrigation and debridement of the right C4-C5 facet joint. After 6 weeks of intravenous antibiotics, the patient's infectious and inflammatory markers had normalized. By 4 months, he had regained full strength at his upper extremity and a painless and full range of motion of his cervical spine.Pyogenic cervical facet joint infection is very rare and potentially dangerous. A high clinical suspicion and appropriate imaging, including magnetic resonance imaging, are important for correct diagnosis. Prompt medical and surgical treatment may avert complications, and although the patient presented made a complete recovery, patients may be left with neurological compromise.

  13. Manual segmentation of the fornix, fimbria, and alveus on high-resolution 3T MRI: Application via fully-automated mapping of the human memory circuit white and grey matter in healthy and pathological aging.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Robert S C; Park, Min Tae M; Devenyi, Gabriel A; Lynn, Vivian; Pipitone, Jon; Winterburn, Julie; Chavez, Sofia; Schira, Mark; Lobaugh, Nancy J; Voineskos, Aristotle N; Pruessner, Jens C; Chakravarty, M Mallar

    2016-10-18

    Recently, much attention has been focused on the definition and structure of the hippocampus and its subfields, while the projections from the hippocampus have been relatively understudied. Here, we derive a reliable protocol for manual segmentation of hippocampal white matter regions (alveus, fimbria, and fornix) using high-resolution magnetic resonance images that are complementary to our previous definitions of the hippocampal subfields, both of which are freely available at https://github.com/cobralab/atlases. Our segmentation methods demonstrated high inter- and intra-rater reliability, were validated as inputs in automated segmentation, and were used to analyze the trajectory of these regions in both healthy aging (OASIS), and Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI; using ADNI). We observed significant bilateral decreases in the fornix in healthy aging while the alveus and cornu ammonis (CA) 1 were well preserved (all p's<0.006). MCI and AD demonstrated significant decreases in fimbriae and fornices. Many hippocampal subfields exhibited decreased volume in both MCI and AD, yet no significant differences were found between MCI and AD cohorts themselves. Our results suggest a neuroprotective or compensatory role for the alveus and CA1 in healthy aging and suggest that an improved understanding of the volumetric trajectories of these structures is required.

  14. The long polar fimbriae genes identified in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli are present in other diarrheagenic E. coli and in the standard E. coli collection of reference (ECOR) strains.

    PubMed

    Toma, Claudia; Higa, Naomi; Iyoda, Sunao; Rivas, Marta; Iwanaga, Masaaki

    2006-03-01

    Long polar fimbriae (LPF) are related to type I fimbriae in genetic organization and were first identified in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Four lpfA genetic variants designated lpfA(O157/OI-141), lpfA(O157/OI-154), lpfA(O26) and lpfA(O113) have been identified in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). In this study, PCR was employed to determine the distribution of STEC-lpfAs in enteropathogenic, enteroaggregative, enterotoxigenic and enteroinvasive E. coli (EPEC, EAEC, ETEC and EIEC) and in the standard E. coli collection of reference (ECOR). Among the 97 diarrheagenic strains from our collection, only 2 EPEC strains of serotypes O55:H7 and O119:NM were positive for both lpfA(O157/OI-141) and lpfA(O157/OI-154). lpfA(O157/OI-141) was also positive in 1 of 25 ETEC strains. lpfA(O113) was present in 51 of 97 strains and lpfA(O26) in 13 of 97 strains of diverse diarrheagenic categories. STEC-lpfAs were also present in non-pathogenic ECOR strains of all phylogenetic groups. This study showed that the lpfA genes identified in the genome of STEC strains are not specific to this category. Our results suggest that there is a relationship between the lpfA variant and the phylogenetic group.

  15. Protective effect of a T-cell-dependent immunosuppressive, B-cell-mitogenic protein (F3'EP-Si, or P90) produced by Streptococcus intermedius.

    PubMed Central

    Lima, M; Bandeira, A; Portnoi, D; Ribeiro, A; Chaves, M A

    1992-01-01

    The role of a previously described bacterial protein (F3'EP-Si), now designated P90, in the survival of Streptococcus intermedius in the host was investigated, and the immunosuppressive and B-cell-mitogenic effects of this protein were further characterized. C57BL6 mice treated with P90 were about 50 times more susceptible to infection with this bacterium than untreated mice. One of seven splenocytes of C57BL/6 mice were activated by P90. Marked splenomegaly was observed in mice treated with P90, with increased numbers of splenic mononuclear cells and polyclonal immunoglobulin-secreting plaque-forming cells. Peak responses were seen on day 3 for immunoglobulin M (IgM) and on day 5 for IgG, with an isotypic pattern consisting predominantly of IgG2a and IgG2b. When mice were treated with P90 before being primed with sheep erythrocytes, polyclonal immunoglobulin synthesis was accompanied by an ephemeral stimulation of the specific immune response against sheep erythrocytes that was quickly replaced by a dramatic immunosuppression. In contrast, when mice were treated with P90 after being primed, the polyclonal activation was comparatively much less evident and there was no suppression of the specific immune response. Immunosuppression was considerably reduced in mice thymectomized as adults or depleted of CD8+ cells. Adoptive transfer experiments showed that B cells obtained from P90-treated mice were less able to respond to an antigenic challenge, even in the presence of normal T cells, and that T cells obtained from P90-treated mice could actively suppress the specific immune response of normal B cells. PMID:1500165

  16. Lutibacter holmesii sp. nov., a marine bacterium of the family Flavobacteriaceae isolated from the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius, and emended description of the genus Lutibacter.

    PubMed

    Nedashkovskaya, Olga I; Van Trappen, Stefanie; Zhukova, Natalia V; De Vos, Paul

    2015-11-01

    Seven Gram-staining-negative, strictly aerobic, pale-yellow-pigmented, rod-shaped and non-motile strains were isolated from the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius collected from Troitsa Bay, Sea of Japan. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that these isolates were affiliated with the family Flavobacteriaceae. The novel isolates showed 99.9-100 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to each other and were closely related to the type strains of the recognized members of the genus Lutibacter with sequence similarities of 95.8-98.4 %. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 35-36 mol%. DNA-DNA relatedness among the sea urchin isolates was 95-99 % and between strain KMM 6277T and its most closely related type strains, Lutibacter agarilyticus KCTC 23842T and Lutibacter litoralis JCM 13034T, was 38 and 27 %, respectively. The prevalent fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0, summed feature 3 (comprising iso-C15 : 0 2-OH and/or C16 : 1 ω7c fatty acids), iso-C15 : 1 and C15 : 0. The polar lipid profile was composed of the phosphatidylethanolamine, one unknown aminolipid and one unknown lipid. The main respiratory isoprenoid quinone was MK-6.The results of phylogenetic, phenotypic and genotypic analyses indicated that the novel strains represent a novel species within the genus Lutibacter, for which the name Lutibacter holmesii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KMM 6277T ( = CCUG 62221T = LMG 26737T).

  17. Evaluation of Oxacillin and Cefoxitin Disk and MIC Breakpoints for Prediction of Methicillin Resistance in Human and Veterinary Isolates of Staphylococcus intermedius Group

    PubMed Central

    Wu, M. T.; Westblade, L. F.; Dien Bard, J.; Wallace, M. A.; Stanley, T.; Burd, E.; Hindler, J.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a coagulase-positive species that colonizes the nares and anal mucosa of healthy dogs and cats. Human infections with S. pseudintermedius range in severity from bite wounds and rhinosinusitis to endocarditis; historically, these infections were thought to be uncommon, but new laboratory methods suggest that their true incidence is underreported. Oxacillin and cefoxitin disk and MIC tests were evaluated for the detection of mecA- or mecC-mediated methicillin resistance in 115 human and animal isolates of the Staphylococcus intermedius group (SIG), including 111 Staphylococcus pseudintermediusand 4 Staphylococcus delphini isolates, 37 of which were mecA positive. The disk and MIC breakpoints evaluated included the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M100-S25 Staphylococcus aureus/Staphylococcus lugdunensis oxacillin MIC breakpoints and cefoxitin disk and MIC breakpoints, the CLSI M100-S25 coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) oxacillin MIC breakpoint and cefoxitin disk breakpoint, the CLSI VET01-S2 S. pseudintermedius oxacillin MIC and disk breakpoints, and the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) S. pseudintermedius cefoxitin disk breakpoint. The oxacillin results interpreted by the VET01-S2 (disk and MIC) and M100-S25 CoNS (MIC) breakpoints agreed with the results of mecA/mecC PCR for all isolates, with the exception of one false-resistant result (1.3% of mecA/mecC PCR-negative isolates). In contrast, cefoxitin tests performed poorly, ranging from 3 to 89% false susceptibility (very major errors) and 0 to 48% false resistance (major errors). BD Phoenix, bioMérieux Vitek 2, and Beckman Coulter MicroScan commercial automated susceptibility test panel oxacillin MIC results were also evaluated and demonstrated >95% categorical agreement with mecA/mecC PCR results if interpreted by using the M100-S25 CoNS breakpoint. The Alere penicillin-binding protein 2a test accurately detected all

  18. Localization of a domain in the FimH adhesin of Escherichia coli type 1 fimbriae capable of receptor recognition and use of a domain-specific antibody to confer protection against experimental urinary tract infection.

    PubMed Central

    Thankavel, K; Madison, B; Ikeda, T; Malaviya, R; Shah, A H; Arumugam, P M; Abraham, S N

    1997-01-01

    The FimH subunit of type 1-fimbriated Escherichia coli has been implicated as an important determinant of bacterial adherence and colonization of the urinary tract. Here, we sought to localize the functionally important domain(s) within the FimH molecule and to determine if antibodies against this domain would block adherence of type 1-fimbriated E. coli to the bladder mucosa in situ and in vivo in an established mouse model of cystitis. We generated translational fusion proteins of disparate regions of the FimH molecule with an affinity tag MalE, and tested each of the fusion products in vitro for functional activity. The minimum region responsible for binding mouse bladder epithelial cells and a soluble mannoprotein, horseradish peroxidase, was contained within residues 1-100 of the FimH molecule. We validated and extended these findings by demonstrating that antibodies directed at the putative binding region of FimH or at synthetic peptides corresponding to epitopes within the binding domain could specifically block type 1 fimbriae-mediated bacterial adherence to bladder epithelial cells in situ and yeast cells in vitro. Next, we compared the ability of mice passively immunized intraperitoneally with antisera raised against residues 1-25 and 253-264 of FimH or 1-13 of FimA to resist bladder colonization in vivo after intravesicular challenge with type 1-fimbriated E. coli. Only the antibody directed at the putative binding region of FimH (anti- s-FimH1-25) significantly reduced E. coli bladder infections in the experimental mouse model of urinary tract infections. Similar results were obtained when the mice were actively immunized with synthetic peptides corresponding to residues 1-25 and 253-264 of FimH or 1-13 of FimA. The mechanism of protection was attributed, at least in part, to inhibition of bacterial adherence to the bladder surface by s-FimH1-25-specific antibody molecules that had filtered through the kidneys into the urine. The level of Fim

  19. Histone-like DNA binding protein of Streptococcus intermedius induces the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in human monocytes via activation of ERK1/2 and JNK pathways.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dali; Yumoto, Hiromichi; Hirota, Katsuhiko; Murakami, Keiji; Takahashi, Kanako; Hirao, Kouji; Matsuo, Takashi; Ohkura, Kazuto; Nagamune, Hideaki; Miyake, Yoichiro

    2008-01-01

    Streptococcus intermedius is a commensal associated with serious, deep-seated purulent infections in major organs, such as the brain and liver. Histone-like DNA binding protein (HLP) is an accessory architectural protein in a variety of bacterial cellular processes. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of pro-inflammatory cytokine inductions in THP-1 cells by stimulation with recombinant HLP of S. intermedius (rSi-HLP). rSi-HLP stimulation-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-8, IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha) occurred in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In contrast with the heat-stable activity of DNA binding, the induction activity of rSi-HLP was heat-unstable. In subsequent studies, rSi-HLP acted cooperatively with lipoteichoic acid, the synthetic Toll-like receptor 2 agonist, Pam3CSK4, and the cytosolic nucleotide binding oligomerization domain 2 receptor agonist, muramyldipeptide. Furthermore, Western blot and blocking assays with specific inhibitors showed that rSi-HLP stimulation induced the activation of cell signal transduction pathways, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). In addition to its physiological role in bacterial growth through DNA binding, these results indicate that Si-HLP can trigger a cascade of events that induce pro-inflammatory responses via ERK1/2 and JNK signal pathways, and suggest that bacterial HLP may contribute to the activation of host innate immunity during bacterial infection.

  20. The exopolysaccharide gene cluster Bcam1330-Bcam1341 is involved in Burkholderia cenocepacia biofilm formation, and its expression is regulated by c-di-GMP and Bcam1349.

    PubMed

    Fazli, Mustafa; McCarthy, Yvonne; Givskov, Michael; Ryan, Robert P; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2013-02-01

    In Burkholderia cenocepacia, the second messenger cyclic diguanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) has previously been shown to positively regulate biofilm formation and the expression of cellulose and type-I fimbriae genes through binding to the transcriptional regulator Bcam1349. Here, we provide evidence that cellulose and type-I fimbriae are not involved in B. cenocepacia biofilm formation in flow chambers, and we identify a novel Bcam1349/c-di-GMP-regulated exopolysaccharide gene cluster which is essential for B. cenocepacia biofilm formation. Overproduction of Bcam1349 in trans promotes wrinkly colony morphology, pellicle, and biofilm formation in B. cenocepacia. A screen for transposon mutants unable to respond to the overproduction of Bcam1349 led to the identification of a 12-gene cluster, Bcam1330-Bcam1341, the products of which appear to be involved in the production of a putative biofilm matrix exopolysaccharide and to be essential for flow-chamber biofilm formation. We demonstrate that Bcam1349 binds to the promoter region of genes in the Bcam1330-Bcam1341 cluster and that this binding is enhanced by the presence of c-di-GMP. Furthermore, we demonstrate that overproduction of both c-di-GMP and Bcam1349 leads to increased transcription of these genes, indicating that c-di-GMP and Bcam1349 functions together in regulating exopolysaccharide production from the Bcam1330-Bcam1341 gene cluster. Our results suggest that the product encoded by the Bcam1330-Bcam1341 gene cluster is a major exopolysaccharide that provides structural stability to the biofilms formed by B. cenocepacia, and that its production is regulated by c-di-GMP through binding to and promotion of the activity of the transcriptional regulator Bcam1349.

  1. Eye Involvement in TSC

    MedlinePlus

    ... Privacy Policy Sitemap Learn Engage Donate About TSC Eyes Campbell (1905) first described the eye involvement in ... some form of eye involvement. Nonretinal and Retinal Eye Findings Facial angiofibromas may involve the eyelids of ...

  2. A Video Demonstration of Preserved Piloting by Scent Tracking but Impaired Dead Reckoning After Fimbria-Fornix Lesions in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Whishaw, Ian Q.; Gorny, Boguslaw P.

    2009-01-01

    Piloting and dead reckoning navigation strategies use very different cue constellations and computational processes (Darwin, 1873; Barlow, 1964; O’Keefe and Nadel, 1978; Mittelstaedt and Mittelstaedt, 1980; Landeau et al., 1984; Etienne, 1987; Gallistel, 1990; Maurer and Séguinot, 1995). Piloting requires the use of the relationships between relatively stable external (visual, olfactory, auditory) cues, whereas dead reckoning requires the integration of cues generated by self-movement. Animals obtain self-movement information from vestibular receptors, and possibly muscle and joint receptors, and efference copy of commands that generate movement. An animal may also use the flows of visual, auditory, and olfactory stimuli caused by its movements. Using a piloting strategy an animal can use geometrical calculations to determine directions and distances to places in its environment, whereas using an dead reckoning strategy it can integrate cues generated by its previous movements to return to a just left location. Dead reckoning is colloquially called "sense of direction" and "sense of distance." Although there is considerable evidence that the hippocampus is involved in piloting (O’Keefe and Nadel, 1978; O’Keefe and Speakman, 1987), there is also evidence from behavioral (Whishaw et al., 1997; Whishaw and Maaswinkel, 1998; Maaswinkel and Whishaw, 1999), modeling (Samsonovich and McNaughton, 1997), and electrophysiological (O’Mare et al., 1994; Sharp et al., 1995; Taube and Burton, 1995; Blair and Sharp, 1996; McNaughton et al., 1996; Wiener, 1996; Golob and Taube, 1997) studies that the hippocampal formation is involved in dead reckoning. The relative contribution of the hippocampus to the two forms of navigation is still uncertain, however. Ordinarily, it is difficult to be certain that an animal is using a piloting versus a dead reckoning strategy because animals are very flexible in their use of strategies and cues (Etienne et al., 1996; Dudchenko et al

  3. Home Fires Involving Grills

    MedlinePlus

    ... fires were fueled by gas while 13% used charcoal or other solid fuel. Gas grills were involved ... structure fires and 4,300 outdoor fires annually. Charcoal or other solid-fueled grills were involved in ...

  4. Involving Parents at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Joel R.

    2008-01-01

    This working paper explores reasons to encourage parents of English language learners (ELLs) to be involved in the learning process at the middle school level. Barriers to parental involvement of language minority students will be identified and successful, research-based strategies to increase parental involvement will be introduced. Five…

  5. Involving Faculty in Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrew, Lloyd D.

    1979-01-01

    Firm planning objectives, clearly stated relationships to overall institutional objectives, faculty involvement, and active leadership are advocated for successful academic planning. Faculty involvement is dependent on the strength of the technical, marketing, and budgeting staffs, and involvement in the planning process may kindle faculty…

  6. Gubernatorial Involvement in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Edward R.

    This research on 12 States' gubernatorial involvement in State educational policy formation investigates four functional stages of that involvement--issue definition, proposal formulation, support mobilization, and decision enactment. Drawing on the Educational Governance Project information and interviews, a gubernatorial involvement index was…

  7. Polymicrobial subdural empyema: involvement of Streptococcus pneumoniae revealed by lytA PCR and antigen detection.

    PubMed

    Greve, Thomas; Clemmensen, Dorte; Ridderberg, Winnie; Pedersen, Lisbeth N; Møller, Jens K

    2011-03-01

    The authors report a case of a subdural empyema (SDE) caused by a coinfection with Streptococcus intermedius and Streptococcus pneumoniae, initially considered a S. intermedius infection only. An otherwise healthy 11-year-old female was admitted to the hospital after 5 days of illness. Symptoms were consistent with classical SDE symptoms and progressed rapidly with finally somnolence before the first neurosurgical procedure despite relevant antibiotic treatment. Primary MRI showed an interhemispheric SDE and a postoperative control CT scan showed progression of the empyema infratentorially. The empyema was evacuated twice, day 8 and 18, with good results. Primary samples showed growth of S. intermedius only. The severity of the clinical picture elicited supplementary samples, which were additionally positive for S. pneumoniae by an in-house specific lytA PCR and/or a commercial antigen test.

  8. Involving LEP Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garate, Dama; And Others

    Four community liaisons for public school programs for limited- English-proficient (LEP) populations discuss briefly aspects of parent involvement. Dama Garate describes the populations served by the Trinity-Arlington Project in the Arlington (Virginia) Public Schools and suggests issues to be considered in parent involvement efforts. Pirun Sen of…

  9. High Involvement Work Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    These three papers were presented at a symposium on high-involvement work teams moderated by Michael Leimbach at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development. "Beyond Training to the New Learning Environment: Workers on the High-Involvement Frontline" (Joseph Anthony Ilacqua, Carol Ann Zulauf) shows the link between…

  10. [Families Involved in Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Nicole, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This issue of "Community Update" focuses on families involved in learning. The first article briefly discusses the "Ready to Read, Ready to Learn" White House summit that highlighted new research on early childhood learning. The center spread of this issue offers "Priming the Primary Educator: A Look at L. A. County's Parent Involvement Programs"…

  11. Categories of Parent Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauch, Jerold P.

    1994-01-01

    The growing interest in effective parent involvement has produced several ways to classify or describe ways parents are or should be involved. This article reviews and evaluates Ira Gordon's systems approach, the California-based System Development Corporation's categories, Eugenia H. Berger's parental role categories, Chavkin and Williams' parent…

  12. Commericial Involvement in Intramurals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maas, Gerry

    Sport in general has long had ties with commercial interests, the most popular and widespread involving publicity. Intramural sports programs, however, have not cultivated many commercial involvements in publicity. The approach in intramural sports advertising is simple. A commercial interest pays for space or time in a given communication media…

  13. [Heart involvement in sarcoglycanopathies].

    PubMed

    Fayssoil, A; Nardi, O; Orlikowski, D; Annane, D

    2012-11-01

    Sarcoglycanopathies (SG) are autosomic recessive muscular dystrophies, secondary to mutations of the sarcoglycan complex. Clinical pictures include muscle weakness affecting mainly the proximal limb girdle musculature. We review heart involvement in this group of disease.

  14. Consumer Involvement in Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Susan

    1976-01-01

    With the emphasis on consumer involvement in the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, changes in the counseling relationship must occur. This article discusses new interaction patterns for consumer and counselor. (Author)

  15. Vasculitis and gastrointestinal involvement.

    PubMed

    Casella, G; Bronzino, B; Cutrino, L; Montani, N; Somma, A; Baldini, V

    2006-06-01

    The incidence of gastrointestinal involvement is relatively observed in patients with vasculitis processes. Vasculitis can be primary (necrotising or hypersensitivity) or secondary to another primary disease. Gastrointestinal involvement is present in up to 50% of the various forms of systemic vasculitis. Primary or secondary vasculitic process, according to the classification in necrotizing and hypersensitivity vasculitis, are described in this paper. A review of the literature on the the subject is also presented.

  16. Musculoskeletal involvement in sarcoidosis*, **

    PubMed Central

    Nessrine, Akasbi; Zahra, Abourazzak Fatima; Taoufik, Harzy

    2014-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disorder of unknown cause. It most commonly affects the pulmonary system but can also affect the musculoskeletal system, albeit less frequently. In patients with sarcoidosis, rheumatic involvement is polymorphic. It can be the presenting symptom of the disease or can appear during its progression. Articular involvement is dominated by nonspecific arthralgia, polyarthritis, and Löfgren's syndrome, which is defined as the presence of lung adenopathy, arthralgia (or arthritis), and erythema nodosum. Skeletal manifestations, especially dactylitis, appear mainly as complications of chronic, multiorgan sarcoidosis. Muscle involvement in sarcoidosis is rare and usually asymptomatic. The diagnosis of rheumatic sarcoidosis is based on X-ray findings and magnetic resonance imaging findings, although the definitive diagnosis is made by anatomopathological study of biopsy samples. Musculoskeletal involvement in sarcoidosis is generally relieved with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or corticosteroids. In corticosteroid-resistant or -dependent forms of the disease, immunosuppressive therapy, such as treatment with methotrexate or anti-TNF-α, is employed. The aim of this review was to present an overview of the various types of osteoarticular and muscle involvement in sarcoidosis, focusing on their diagnosis and management. PMID:24831403

  17. Consumer Involvement in Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thursz, Daniel

    A new approach to rehabilitation of the disabled and disadvantaged is necessary, but the problem of how to involve consumers and how to organize groups for community action is a big one. Moreover, citizen participation cannot be a substitute for basic improvement in the quality of service. Service agencies need to be decentralized and staff…

  18. Getting Parents Involved.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butts, Vickie; Finch, Patty A.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a parental involvement program in reading, writing, and human education. The project consists of caring for Clifford, a stuffed toy dog, on a rotated basis by first grade students. Books and pet care items accompany Clifford and provide an opportunity for parent and child to work together. (ML)

  19. Parent Involvement. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2007-01-01

    What are some ways in which to get parents meaningfully involved in their child's high school? According to the research, the most successful programs are those that provide a variety of ways in which parents can be actively engaged in their child's academic life. Joyce Epstein, Director of the National Network of Partnership Schools, out of Johns…

  20. Rethinking Parent Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandergrift, Judith A.; Greene, Andrea L.

    1992-01-01

    Arizona At-Risk Pilot Project results suggest most effective means to involve parents are those that establish personal rapport between someone from the school and a parent and do not initially require high levels of commitment or participation. The "ideal" parent may be hard to find, but getting to know parents individually and…

  1. Endocannabinoid involvement in endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Dmitrieva, Natalia; Nagabukuro, Hiroshi; Resuehr, David; Zhang, Guohua; McAllister, Stacy L.; McGinty, Kristina A.; Mackie, Ken; Berkley, Karen J.

    2010-01-01

    Endometriosis is a disease common in women that is defined by abnormal extrauteral growths of uterine endometrial tissue and associated with severe pain. Partly because how the abnormal growths become associated with pain is poorly understood, the pain is difficult to alleviate without resorting to hormones or surgery, which often produce intolerable side effects or fail to help. Recent studies in a rat model and women showed that sensory and sympathetic nerve fibers sprout branches to innervate the abnormal growths. This situation, together with knowledge that the endocannabinoid system is involved in uterine function and dysfunction and that exogenous cannabinoids were once used to alleviate endometriosis-associated pain, suggests that the endocannabinoid system is involved in both endometriosis and its associated pain. Here, using a rat model, we found that CB1 cannabinoid receptors are expressed on both the somata and fibers of both the sensory and sympathetic neurons that innervate endometriosis’s abnormal growths. We further found that CB1 receptor agonists decrease, whereas CB1 receptor antagonists increase, endometriosis-associated hyperalgesia. Together these findings suggest that the endocannabinoid system contributes to mechanisms underlying both the peripheral innervation of the abnormal growths and the pain associated with endometriosis, thereby providing a novel approach for the development of badly-needed new treatments. PMID:20833475

  2. A Tripartite Fusion, FaeG-FedF-LT192A2:B, of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) Elicits Antibodies That Neutralize Cholera Toxin, Inhibit Adherence of K88 (F4) and F18 Fimbriae, and Protect Pigs against K88ac/Heat-Labile Toxin Infection ▿

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Xiaosai; Liu, Mei; Casey, Thomas A.; Zhang, Weiping

    2011-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains expressing K88 (F4) or F18 fimbriae and heat-labile (LT) and/or heat-stable (ST) toxins are the major cause of diarrhea in young pigs. Effective vaccines inducing antiadhesin (anti-K88 and anti-F18) and antitoxin (anti-LT and anti-ST) immunity would provide broad protection to young pigs against ETEC. In this study, we genetically fused nucleotides coding for peptides from K88ac major subunit FaeG, F18 minor subunit FedF, and LT toxoid (LT192) A2 and B subunits for a tripartite adhesin-adhesin-toxoid fusion (FaeG-FedF-LT192A2:B). This fusion was used for immunizations in mice and pigs to assess the induction of antiadhesin and antitoxin antibodies. In addition, protection by the elicited antiadhesin and antitoxin antibodies against a porcine ETEC strain was evaluated in a gnotobiotic piglet challenge model. The data showed that this FaeG-FedF-LT192A2:B fusion elicited anti-K88, anti-F18, and anti-LT antibodies in immunized mice and pigs. In addition, the anti-porcine antibodies elicited neutralized cholera toxin and inhibited adherence against both K88 and F18 fimbriae. Moreover, immunized piglets were protected when challenged with ETEC strain 30302 (K88ac/LT/STb) and did not develop clinical disease. In contrast, all control nonvaccinated piglets developed severe diarrhea and dehydration after being challenged with the same ETEC strain. This study clearly demonstrated that this FaeG-FedF-LT192A2:B fusion antigen elicited antibodies that neutralized LT toxin and inhibited the adherence of K88 and F18 fimbrial E. coli strains and that this fusion could serve as an antigen for vaccines against porcine ETEC diarrhea. In addition, the adhesin-toxoid fusion approach used in this study may provide important information for developing effective vaccines against human ETEC diarrhea. PMID:21813665

  3. Is Echinococcus intermedius a valid species?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Medical and veterinary sciences require scientific names to discriminate pathogenic organisms in our living environment. Various species concepts have been proposed for metazoan animals. There are, however, constant controversies over their validity because of lack of a common criterion to define ...

  4. [Primary pyomyositis caused by Streptococcus intermedius].

    PubMed

    Repáraz, F J; Repáraz, J; Martínez Bayarri, M; Tejero, A; Corchuelo, C; Avila, A

    2007-01-01

    Pyomyositis is a sub-acute bacterial infection that affects the striated muscle and is usually accompanied by the formation of an abscess in this muscle. It was initially described as an endemic disease in the tropics and only in recent years has an increase been observed in the number of cases in countries with a temperate climate in relation to an increase of immuno-depressed patients. The causal germ is Staphylococcus aureus in more than 75% of cases. The most useful imaging test is magnetic resonance. Treatment consists of complete surgical draining of the abscess combined with a suitable antibiotic therapy. We present a case of primary pyomyositis of the quadriceps in a diabetic patient with a remote traumatic antecedent of the affected zone and caused by an unusual germ. A complete recovery was obtained, without sequels, following surgical draining and 4 weeks of endovenous antibiotic treatment.

  5. Microstructural lines involving luminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Kazuhiko

    2004-06-01

    Japanese National Printing Bureau has been focused upon the development of anti-copy lines for many years. The basic concept with regard to security measure lies in the merge of art and technology. On this basis, our originally developed anti-copy lines show flexibility to various security designs. Our newest anti-copy lines comprising from the Tri-Branched and Divided Lines shows clearer latent image effect compared to that of our other developed anti-copy lines. However, the anti-copy effect of security printing lines with microstructure is deteriorating due to the emergence of digital image techniques with higher resolution. In this situation, this paper introduces a new security measure comprising from luminescence and security printing lines with microstructure. It gives rise to a latent image effect under UV light due to the characteristic microstructure while visually same density. The principle advantage is that the combination of the anti-copy and luminescent feature strongly enhances its secure effect in documents. There is no necessity of two kinds of inks and any specially designed equipment to produce security documents with microstructural lines involving luminescence.

  6. Applying Employee Involvement in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohrman, Susan Albers; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The applicability of employee-involvement approaches to the management of schools is explored, describing three approaches (parallel-suggestion involvement, job involvement, and high involvement). Design issues (technology; organizational structure; leadership; organizational boundaries, customer definition, and relation to stakeholder; measures;…

  7. Multidrug toxicity involving sumatriptan.

    PubMed

    Knittel, Jessica L; Vorce, Shawn P; Levine, Barry; Hughes, Rhome L; Bosy, Thomas Z

    2015-01-01

    A multidrug fatality involving sumatriptan is reported. Sumatriptan is a tryptamine derivative that acts at 5-HT(1B/1D) receptors and is used for the treatment of migraines. The decedent was a 21-year-old white female found dead in bed by her spouse. No signs of physical trauma were observed and a large number of prescription medications were discovered at the scene. Toxicological analysis of the central blood revealed sumatriptan at a concentration of 1.03 mg/L. Following therapeutic dosing guidelines, sumatriptan concentrations do not exceed 0.095 mg/L. Sumatriptan was isolated by solid-phase extraction and analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in multiple reaction monitoring mode. A tissue distribution study was completed with the following concentrations measured: 0.61 mg/L in femoral blood, 0.56 mg/L in iliac blood, 5.01 mg/L in urine, 0.51 mg/kg in liver, 3.66 mg/kg in kidney, 0.09 mg/kg in heart, 0.32 mg/kg in spleen, 0.01 mg/kg in brain, 15.99 mg/kg in lung and 78.54 mg/45 mL in the stomach contents. Carisoprodol, meprobamate, fluoxetine, doxylamine, orphenadrine, dextromethorphan and hydroxyzine were also present in the blood at the following concentrations: 3.35, 2.36, 0.63, 0.19, 0.06, 0.55 and 0.16 mg/L. The medical examiner ruled the cause of death as acute mixed drug toxicity and the manner of death as accident.

  8. Nail involvement in pemphigus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Engineer, L; Norton, L A; Ahmed, A R

    2000-09-01

    Nail involvement in pemphigus vulgaris is relatively rare. We describe a case of severe pemphigus involving both the skin and oral mucosa in which an acute exacerbation was preceded by the onset of nail involvement of all 4 extremities. Nail involvement occurred in the form of hemorrhagic paronychia of multiple digits. Oral, cutaneous, and nail manifestations of the disease were all well controlled by systemic therapy. A review of the literature on nail involvement in pemphigus reveals that this involvement may be manifested in multiple ways, with chronic paronychia and onychomadesis being the most common. Involvement of the nail occurs most frequently either as part of the initial presentation, or just before or concurrent with a flare of pre-existing disease. Nail involvement, when it occurs, is usually present when the disease is severe. Topical therapy is insufficient, and systemic therapy is warranted. In the majority of cases, nail recovery is complete, with no residual damage.

  9. Measuring Parent Involvement Program Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Lisa S.

    1994-01-01

    Investigates implementation of the 1990-91 New York City Parent Involvement Program. The first section summarizes the research underlying development of methodology for measuring parent involvement program implementation across diverse program sites. The second section outlines a six-step data collection and measurement methodology involving site…

  10. Measuring Involvement with Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowak, Glen J.; Salmon, Charles T.

    A study applied research concepts from consumer product involvement to test a model for research on involvement with social issues. Issue involvement was defined as the state or level of perceived importance and/or interest evoked by a stimulus (issue) within a specific situation. Attitudes on four social issues--abortion, pornography, the…

  11. Parental Involvement in High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brian, Donna JG

    Although parental involvement is recommended at all levels of schooling, involvement of parents at the secondary level has not been well defined in the literature. This paper presents findings of a case study that examined three high schools with varying levels of parental involvement--the first, a large high school with a predominantly working…

  12. Families Get Involved! Learning Partners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC. Media and Information Services.

    Noting that families who are involved in their children's education make a difference in their child's performance, this two-page information sheet encourages families to get involved by listing the benefits of family involvement on one side and the ways adult family members can help in the school on the other. As a result of family participation:…

  13. Anal involvement in pemphigus vularis.

    PubMed

    Khezri, Somayeh; Mahmoudi, Hamid-Reza; Masoom, Seyedeh Nina; Daneshpazhooh, Maryam; Balighi, Kamran; Hosseini, S Hamed; Chams-Davatchi, Cheyda

    2013-01-01

    Background. Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an autoimmune blistering disease of the skin and mucosa. Anal mucosa may be involved in PV, but the frequency and clinical profile are not fully ascertained. Objective. The aim was to investigate the involvement of the anal area in newly diagnosed PV patients. Patients and Methods. A total of 168 consecutive newly diagnosed PV patients were enrolled. Anal symptoms and signs, involvement of other body sites, and severity of disease were recorded. Results. A total of 47 out of 168 patients (27.9%) had involvement of the anal area. Anal involvement was significantly associated with PV lesions in ophthalmic (P = 0.03), nasal (P = 0.02), and genital mucosa (P < 0.001) but not the oral cavity (P = 0.24). There was a significant association between number of involved mucosal sites and anal involvement (P < 0.001). Anal involvement was associated with oral severity (P = 0.02). Constipation was the most frequent symptom (73.8%) followed by pain on defecation (50%). Seventeen patients (36%) were symptom-free. Erosion was the most frequent sign (91.5%). Conclusion. Anal involvement in PV seems to be more frequent than previously assumed. Routine anal examination is recommended even in asymptomatic patients as anal involvement appears to correlate with the severity of PV.

  14. Sacroiliac joint involvement in psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Kaçar, Cahit; Sezer, Ilhan; Kocabaş, Hilal; Cay, Hasan Fatih; Cevikol, Can; Alpsoy, Erkan; Melikoğlu, Meltem Alkan; Akman, Ayşe

    2010-07-01

    Psoriasis is a skin disorder that is associated with arthritis. Sacroiliac joint involvement is considered to be less frequent than the other types of psoriatic arthritis. Additionally, the psoriatic sacroiliitis is considered to be asymmetric in general. We aimed to define the frequency and type of sacroiliac involvement in patients with psoriasis. Patients with psoriasis were included the study. Characteristics of skin, nail and articular involvement were noted. Psoriasis area and severity index was calculated. Antero-posterior pelvic X-rays were obtained and graded by two rheumatologists and a radiologist independently. One hundred and thirty-three patients were included. Thirty-seven of patients (27%) have articular involvement symptomatically. The sacroiliac joint involvement was observed in 34 (26%) of patients. More than one-half of sacroiliac involvement was bilateral while less than one-half was in symptomatic patients regarding sacroiliitis. Fifty-seven percentages of all patients have psoriatic nail involvement. Sacroiliac joint involvement did not show any significant association with psoriatic nail involvement or the severity of skin disease. We found higher frequency of sacroiliac joint involvement and bilateral sacroiliitis in patients with psoriasis. This is in contrast to present information about the association of psoriasis and sacroiliitis. These findings need confirmation by further studies and with more sophisticated techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging.

  15. Monoarticular Hip Involvement in Pseudogout

    PubMed Central

    Kocyigit, Figen; Kuyucu, Ersin; Kocyigit, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Pseudogout is the acutest form of arthritis in the elderly. Although clinical manifestations vary widely, polyarticular involvement is typical mimicking osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis. Monoarticular involvement is relatively rare and is generally provoked by another medical condition. There are reported cases of hip involvement by pseudogout in monoarticular form. However, all of the cases were presented as septic arthritis. In this report, we present a case of monoarticular hip involvement mimicking soft tissue abscess. We confirmed the pseudogout diagnosis after ultrasonographic evaluation of the involved hip joint and pathological and biochemical analysis of synovial fluid analysis. Diagnosis is important to avoid unnecessary medical and surgical treatment in cases of the bizarre involvement of hip in pseudogout. PMID:25838961

  16. Preparing Teachers for Parent Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safran, Daniel

    This paper examines the potential impact of parent involvement in the formal education of their children and suggests ways that teacher education can be restructured to prepare teachers to work with parents. This paper attempts to answer five questions: (1) Why should parents be involved in the formal education of their children? (2) Why should…

  17. Parental Involvement and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Sarah Christine

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the correlation between student achievement and parent's perceptions of their involvement in their child's schooling. Parent participants completed the Parent Involvement Project Parent Questionnaire. Results slightly indicated parents of students with higher level of achievement perceived less demand or invitations…

  18. Parent Involvement: Support or Stress?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seefeldt, Carol

    1985-01-01

    Argues for a reexamination of goals and methods of traditional parent involvement which has revolved around the welfare of children rather than emphasizing the benefits for parents themselves. Calls for a reconceptualization of parent involvement based on: (1) being sensitive to family needs, (2) offering real support for families, and (3)…

  19. A Handbook for Community Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia State Dept. of Education, Atlanta. Office of Administrative Services.

    To help Georgia school administrators, educators, and community members, this handbook suggests ideas and plans for strengthening school-community relations and increasing community involvement in schools. The first section lays out the four steps district administrators should take in developing a systemwide community involvement program,…

  20. Employee involvement: motivation or manipulation?

    PubMed

    McConnell, C R

    1998-03-01

    Employee involvement is subject to a great deal of verbal tribute; there is hardly a manager at work today who will not praise the value of employee input. However, many employee involvement efforts leave employees feeling more manipulated than motivated. This occurs because supervisors and managers, while expecting employees to change the way they work, are themselves either unwilling to change or remain unconscious of the need to change. The result is that, although employee input is regularly solicited in a number of forms, it is often discounted, ignored, or altered to fit the manager's preconceptions. Often the employee is left feeling manipulated. Since the opportunity for involvement can be a strong motivator, it becomes the manager's task to learn how to provide involvement opportunity in manipulative fashion. This can be accomplished by providing involvement opportunity accompanied by clear outcome expectations and allowing employees the freedom to pursue those outcomes in their own way.

  1. Ocular involvement in pemphigus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Akhyani, Maryam; Keshtkar-Jafari, Alireza; Chams-Davatchi, Cheyda; Lajevardi, Vahide; Beigi, Sara; Aghazadeh, Nessa; Rayati Damavandi, Maede; Arami, Shabnam

    2014-07-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an autoimmune disorder affecting the skin and mucous membranes. Ocular involvement in PV has been reported but its prevalence and clinical characteristics are not well defined. This prospective cross-sectional study of 103 PV patients was designed to determine the prevalence, clinical types and epidemiological trends of ocular involvement in a population of Iranian patients with PV. Ocular involvement was present in 17 (16.5%) patients. Conjunctivitis was the most prevalent type of ocular involvement (9/17, 52.9%), followed by erosion of the palpebral conjunctiva (7/17, 41.2%). Erosion of the bulbar conjunctiva was noted in only one patient (5.9%). The most commonly reported symptoms were eye irritation (76.5%) and redness (76.5%). No significant relation was found between ocular involvement and disease activity (partial remission or relapse). Mucoid discharge was significantly more common in patients with conjunctival erosions as compared to patients with conjunctivitis (P = 0.038). We conclude that ocular involvement is not rare in PV; 16.5% of PV patients develop ocular disease independent of the disease activity and extension. Conjunctivitis is the most common type of involvement, however, palpebral conjunctival erosion is more frequent than previously realized.

  2. 2009 Community Involvement Training Conference

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A dynamic training conference that brings together more than 450 people from EPA and the Agency’s partners and stakeholders who plan and implement environmental community involvement, partnership, stewardship, outreach, and education programs.

  3. EPA Community Involvement Training Conferences

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A dynamic training conference that brings together more than 450 people from EPA and the Agency’s partners and stakeholders who plan and implement environmental community involvement, partnership, stewardship, outreach, and education programs.

  4. 2013 Community Involvement Training Conference

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A dynamic training conference that brings together more than 450 people from EPA and the Agency’s partners and stakeholders who plan and implement environmental community involvement, partnership, stewardship, outreach, and education programs.

  5. 2011 Community Involvement Training Conference

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A dynamic training conference that brings together more than 450 people from EPA and the Agency’s partners and stakeholders who plan and implement environmental community involvement, partnership, stewardship, outreach, and education programs.

  6. 2015 Community Involvement Training Conference

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A dynamic training conference that brings together more than 450 people from EPA and the Agency’s partners and stakeholders who plan and implement environmental community involvement, partnership, stewardship, outreach, and education programs.

  7. Community Involvement During Emergency Responses

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Involvement occurs in different forms, but is always geared towards improving the public's understanding of the presence of hazardous substances in the community, and how to address any issues that may arise.

  8. 2007 Community Involvement Training Conference

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A dynamic training conference that brings together more than 450 people from EPA and the Agency’s partners and stakeholders who plan and implement environmental community involvement, partnership, stewardship, outreach, and education programs.

  9. Public Involvement in BOSC Activities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA policy and the Federal Advisory Committee Act provide for public involvement in committee activities primarily by open access to meetings and records and by providing the public an opportunity to submit comments to the committee.

  10. 2017 Community Involvement Training Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A dynamic training event that brings together more than 450 people from EPA and the Agency’s partners and stakeholders who plan and implement environmental community involvement, partnership, stewardship, outreach, and education programs, t

  11. [Neurological involvement in Wegener's granulomatosis].

    PubMed

    Asakura, Kunihiko; Muto, Tatsuro

    2013-11-01

    Abstract Wegener's granulomatosis is a rare autoimmune disease associated with granulomatous inflammation and anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated small vessel vasculitis. Following the discovery of ANCA, ANCA-associated vasculitis is established as a disease entity of Wegener's granulomatosis, microscopic polyangiitis, and Churg-Strauss syndrome. Clinical and experimental studies have provided evidences that myeloperoxidase (MPO) and proteinase 3 (PR3), which are major antigenic targets for ANCA in neutrophils, are not only disease markers but also involved in the pathogenesis. In addition, recent studies have revealed another potential antigen for ANCA, lysosomal-associated membrane protein-2 (LAMP-2). Though nervous system manifestations of Wegener's granulomatosis are less frequent than classical manifestations in the lungs and kidneys, 20-50% of patients demonstrate neurological involvements. Peripheral nervous system involvement (in generalized Wegener's granulomatosis) is more frequent than central nervous system (CNS) involvement. Multiple mononeuropathy and multiple cranial neuropathy are the most prevalent symptoms. CNS manifestations include cerebrovascular events, pachymeningitis, seizures, and reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. Here we discuss the pathogenic mechanism of ANCA and review the literature regarding neurological involvement in Wegener's granulomatosis.

  12. Liver involvement in systemic infection

    PubMed Central

    Minemura, Masami; Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro

    2014-01-01

    The liver is often involved in systemic infections, resulting in various types of abnormal liver function test results. In particular, hyperbilirubinemia in the range of 2-10 mg/dL is often seen in patients with sepsis, and several mechanisms for this phenomenon have been proposed. In this review, we summarize how the liver is involved in various systemic infections that are not considered to be primarily hepatotropic. In most patients with systemic infections, treatment for the invading microbes is enough to normalize the liver function tests. However, some patients may show severe liver injury or fulminant hepatic failure, requiring intensive treatment of the liver. PMID:25276279

  13. Vascular involvement in relapsing polychondritis.

    PubMed Central

    Esdaile, J.; Hawkins, D.; Gold, P.; Freedman, S. O.; Duguid, W. P.

    1977-01-01

    Review of four cases of relapsing polychondritis (RP) seen at one hospital in the 12-year period 1963 to 1974 revealed that one patient had aortic insufficiency with large artery involvement, two others had involvement of medium and large arteries and the fourth may have had mucocutaneous vasculitis. Valvular disease has occurred in 9% of all cases of RP reported in the literature and, if vasculitis beyong the aortic root is included, 25% of cases of RP manifested inflammatory vascular disease. The frequency of pseudotumour of the orbit and cochlear-labyrinthine dysfunction is also high and may be a manifestation of vasculitis. PMID:870159

  14. Parental Involvement in Norwegian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulsen, Jan Merok

    2012-01-01

    This article examines findings on key challenges of school-parent relations in Norway. The review is based on recent large-scale studies on several issues, including formalized school-parent cooperation, parental involvement in the pedagogical discourse, and teacher perspectives on the parents' role in the school community. Findings suggest a…

  15. Parental Involvement through Better Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Edel

    2008-01-01

    Building strong bonds between home and school is one of National Middle School Association's (2003) 14 characteristics for successful middle schools set forth in "This We Believe". Getting teachers to actually believe in the value of parental involvement is not always easy. This article examines a range of key issues in the literature on…

  16. Parent Involvement as Ritualized Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doucet, Fabienne

    2011-01-01

    This article examines parent involvement (PI) as a ritual system using Turner's concept of root paradigms. Through a twofold analysis, I argue that the highly ritualized nature of PI practices creates a group identity among mainstream parents and schools that marginalizes diverse families. First, I point out three root paradigms in the ritual…

  17. Home/School/Community Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Larry E.; Decker, Virginia A.

    Today's schools are entering a second wave of reform in response to changing demographics, public demand for accountability, and societal changes expanding the traditional time frame for learning. To meet these challenges, schools need help through home and community involvement. This book offers seven strategies illustrated by success stories…

  18. Promoting Active Involvement in Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conderman, Greg; Bresnahan, Val; Hedin, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a rationale for using active involvement techniques, describes large- and small-group methods based on their documented effectiveness and applicability to K-12 classrooms, and illustrates their use. These approaches include ways of engaging students in large groups (e.g., unison responses, response cards, dry-erase boards,…

  19. Managing Parent Involvement during Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriman, Lynette S.

    2008-01-01

    In the wake of 9/11, Hurricane Katrina, and the Virginia Tech shooting tragedy, it is no surprise that concern for students' safety is the primary reason attributed to parents' increased involvement. Parents and university administrators share in their commitment to student safety. However, college and university staff who assume responsibility…

  20. Parental Involvement and Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driessen, Geert; Smit, Frederik; Sleegers, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Parental involvement is seen as an important strategy for the advancement of the quality of education. The ultimate objective of this is to expand the social and cognitive capacities of pupils. In addition, special attention is paid to the children of low-educated and ethnic minority parents. Various forms of both parental and school-initiated…

  1. Malignant haemangioendothelioma involving the liver

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, Stella M.; Millward-Sadler, G. H.

    1974-01-01

    The features of four cases of malignant haemangioendothelioma involving the liver and other organs are described. Two cases were associated with a microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia. The nature of the tumours and possible pathogenesis for the anaemias are discussed. Images PMID:4832301

  2. Predictors of Residence Hall Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arboleda, Ana; Wang, Yongyi; Shelley, Mack C., II; Whalen, Donald F.

    2003-01-01

    Residence hall students' (N = 1,186, 52% male, 90% White, 66% freshmen) involvement in their living community is influenced significantly by precollege student characteristics (gender, ethnicity), classification, attitudes (toward hall director, house cabinet, academic comfort, social environment, group study), and environmental variables (noise,…

  3. Maternal exposure to hexachlorophene targets intermediate-stage progenitor cells in the hippocampal neurogenesis involving myelin vacuolation of cholinergic and glutamatergic inputs in mice.

    PubMed

    Kato, Mizuho; Abe, Hajime; Itahashi, Megu; Kikuchihara, Yoh; Kimura, Masayuki; Mizukami, Sayaka; Yoshida, Toshinori; Shibutani, Makoto

    2016-02-01

    Hexachlorophene (HCP) has been shown to induce myelin vacuolation due to intramyelinic edema of the nerve fibers in animal neural tissue. We investigated the maternal exposure effect of HCP on hippocampal neurogenesis in the offspring of pregnant mice supplemented with 0 (control), 33 or 100 ppm HCP in diet from gestational day 6 to day 21 after delivery. On postnatal day (PND) 21, offspring as examined in males exhibited decreased granule cell lineage populations expressing paired box 6, sex-determining region Y-box 2 and eomesodermin in the hippocampal subgranular zone (SGZ) accompanied by myelin vacuolation involving white matter tracts of the hippocampal fimbria at ≥ 33 ppm. However, SGZ cellular populations expressing brain lipid binding protein and doublecortin were unchanged at any dose. Transcript expression of cholinergic receptor genes, Chrna4 and Chrnb2, and glutamate receptor genes, Grm1 and Grin2d, examined at 100 ppm, decreased in the dentate gyrus. HCP exposure did not alter the number of proliferating or apoptotic cells in the SGZ, or reelin- or calcium-binding protein-expressing γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic interneurons in the dentate hilus, on PND 21 and PND 77. All neurogenesis-related changes observed in HCP-exposed offspring on PND 21 disappeared on PND 77, suggesting that maternal HCP exposure at ≥ 33 ppm reversibly decreased type 2 intermediate-stage progenitor cells in the hippocampal neurogenesis. Myelin vacuolation might be responsible for changes in neurogenesis possibly by reducing nerve conduction velocity of cholinergic inputs from the septal-hippocampal pathway to granule cell lineages and/or GABAergic interneurons, and of glutamatergic inputs to granule cell lineages.

  4. The Bacterial iprA Gene Is Conserved across Enterobacteriaceae, Is Involved in Oxidative Stress Resistance, and Influences Gene Expression in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Herman, Allison; Serfecz, Jacquelyn; Kinnally, Alexandra; Crosby, Kathleen; Youngman, Matthew; Wykoff, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The iprA gene (formerly known as yaiV or STM0374) is located in a two-gene operon in the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium genome and is associated with altered expression during spaceflight and rotating-wall-vessel culture conditions that increase virulence. However, iprA is uncharacterized in the literature. In this report, we present the first targeted characterization of this gene, which revealed that iprA is highly conserved across Enterobacteriaceae. We found that S. Typhimurium, Escherichia coli, and Enterobacter cloacae ΔiprA mutant strains display a multi-log-fold increase in oxidative stress resistance that is complemented using a plasmid-borne wild-type (WT) copy of the S. Typhimurium iprA gene. This observation was also associated with increased catalase activity, increased S. Typhimurium survival in macrophages, and partial dependence on the katE gene and full dependence on the rpoS gene. Our results indicate that IprA protein activity is sensitive to deletion of the N- and C-terminal 10 amino acids, while a region that includes amino acids 56 to 80 is dispensable for activity. RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) analysis revealed several genes altered in expression in the S. Typhimurium ΔiprA mutant strain compared to the WT, including those involved in fimbria formation, spvABCD-mediated virulence, ethanolamine utilization, the phosphotransferase system (PTS) transport, and flagellin phase switching from FlgB to FliC (likely a stochastic event) and several genes of hypothetical or putative function. IMPORTANCE Overall, this work reveals that the conserved iprA gene measurably influences bacterial biology and highlights the pool of currently uncharacterized genes that are conserved across bacterial genomes. These genes represent potentially useful targets for bacterial engineering, vaccine design, and other possible applications. PMID:27246569

  5. Isolation of an Escherichia coli K-12 mutant strain able to form biofilms on inert surfaces: involvement of a new ompR allele that increases curli expression.

    PubMed

    Vidal, O; Longin, R; Prigent-Combaret, C; Dorel, C; Hooreman, M; Lejeune, P

    1998-05-01

    Classical laboratory strains of Escherichia coli do not spontaneously colonize inert surfaces. However, when maintained in continuous culture for evolution studies or industrial processes, these strains usually generate adherent mutants which form a thick biofilm, visible with the naked eye, on the wall of the culture apparatus. Such a mutant was isolated to identify the genes and morphological structures involved in biofilm formation in the very well characterized E. coli K-12 context. This mutant acquired the ability to colonize hydrophilic (glass) and hydrophobic (polystyrene) surfaces and to form aggregation clumps. A single point mutation, resulting in the replacement of a leucine by an arginine residue at position 43 in the regulatory protein OmpR, was responsible for this phenotype. Observations by electron microscopy revealed the presence at the surfaces of the mutant bacteria of fibrillar structures looking like the particular fimbriae described by the Olsén group and designated curli (A. Olsén, A. Jonsson, and S. Normark, Nature 338:652-655, 1989). The production of curli (visualized by Congo red binding) and the expression of the csgA gene encoding curlin synthesis (monitored by coupling a reporter gene to its promoter) were significantly increased in the presence of the ompR allele described in this work. Transduction of knockout mutations in either csgA or ompR caused the loss of the adherence properties of several biofilm-forming E. coli strains, including all those which were isolated in this work from the wall of a continuous culture apparatus and two clinical strains isolated from patients with catheter-related infections. These results indicate that curli are morphological structures of major importance for inert surface colonization and biofilm formation and demonstrate that their synthesis is under the control of the EnvZ-OmpR two-component regulatory system.

  6. [Eye involvement of borrelia aetiology].

    PubMed

    Krbková, Lenka; Vodicková, Kristýna; Pellarová, Hana; Bednárová, Jana; Cápová, Iva

    2007-06-01

    We present a case of eye involvement -- intermediate uveitis -- during tick-borne borreliosis in a 10-year-old boy. Ophthalmologic examination revealed impaired vision, apparent thick floating whitish opacity in the vitreous humour of the left eye and fine fibres in the vitreous humour of the right eye. Sonographic examination confirmed hyperechogenic opacity in the vitreous humour. An autoimmune process was suspected but not confirmed. Serological examination showed IgG antibodies against three pathogenic borreliae and borderline values of IgM antibodies against Borrelia garinii were found by immunoblot. The boy was treated with intravenous ceftriaxone for 21 days. The subsequent sonographic examination showed only minute sporadic echogenicity. Biomicroscopically, only residual opacity in the vitreous humour was found. Isolated eye involvement of borrelia aetiology is rare. The discussion provides a review of similar cases of uveitis including diagnosis of the eye form as published in literature.

  7. Cardiac Involvement in Peripheral Neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Burakgazi, Ahmet Z; AlMahameed, Soufian

    2016-03-01

    Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is the least recognized and understood complication of peripheral neuropathy. However, because of its potential adverse effects including sudden death, CAN is one of the most important forms of autonomic neuropathies. CAN presents with different clinical manifestations including postural hypotension, exercise intolerance, fluctuation of blood pressure and heart rate, arrhythmia, and increased risk of myocardial infarction. In this article, the prevalence, clinical presentations, and management of cardiac involvement in certain peripheral neuropathies, including diabetic neuropathy, Guillain-Barré syndrome, chronic inflammatory polyneuropathy, human immunodeficiency virus-associated neuropathy, hereditary neuropathies, and amyloid neuropathy are examined in detail.

  8. [Glucocorticoid involvement in memory consolidation].

    PubMed

    Sandi, C

    Glucocorticoids, hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex, can get access to the brain, where they induce a variety of cellular, molecular, and functional actions. Recent evidence showed that glucocorticoids are potent modulators of cognitive processes, such as learning, memory, and retrieval. In particular, the stress response induced by learning a new task, together with the consequent release of glucocorticoids, have been critically involved in memory consolidation processes. In general, these hormones induce facilitating effects on the strength at which newly acquired information is stored into a long term memory, mainly by activating intracellular glucocorticoid receptors. Such receptors belong to the family of nuclear hormone receptors and exert their actions by modulating the transcription of a variety of genes and, therefore, by critically regulating the synthesis of a wide number of proteins. Since protein synthesis appears to be a requirement of almost all forms of long term memory, glucocorticoids might induce their cognitive effects by affecting gene expression. This review focus on the involvement of glucocorticoids and their receptors in a variety of animal models for learning and memory.

  9. Hypothalamic involvement in chronic migraine

    PubMed Central

    Peres, M; del Rio, M S.; Seabra, M; Tufik, S; Abucham, J; Cipolla-Neto, J; Silberstein, S; Zukerman, E

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Chronic migraine (CM), previously called transformed migraine, is a frequent headache disorder that affects 2%-3% of the general population. Analgesic overuse, insomnia, depression, and anxiety are disorders that are often comorbid with CM. Hypothalamic dysfunction has been implicated in its pathogenesis, but it has never been studied in patients with CM. The aim was to analyze hypothalamic involvement in CM by measurement of melatonin, prolactin, growth hormone, and cortisol nocturnal secretion.
METHODS—A total of 338 blood samples (13/patient) from 17 patients with CM and nine age and sex matched healthy volunteers were taken. Melatonin, prolactin, growth hormone, and cortisol concentrations were determined every hour for 12 hours. The presence of comorbid disorders was also evaluated.
RESULTS—An abnormal pattern of hypothalamic hormonal secretion was found in CM. This included: (1) a decreased nocturnal prolactin peak, (2) increased cortisol concentrations, (3) a delayed nocturnal melatonin peak in patients with CM, and (4) lower melatonin concentrations in patients with CM with insomnia. Growth hormone secretion did not differ from controls.
CONCLUSION—These results support hypothalamic involvement in CM, shown by a chronobiologic dysregulation, and a possible hyperdopaminergic state in patients with CM. Insomnia might be an important variable in the study findings.

 PMID:11723194

  10. Renal involvement in antiphospholipid syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sciascia, Savino; Cuadrado, Maria José; Khamashta, Munther; Roccatello, Dario

    2014-05-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disease defined by the presence of arterial or venous thrombotic events and/or pregnancy morbidity in patients who test positive for antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs). APS can be isolated (known as primary APS) or associated with other autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE; known as secondary APS). The kidney is a major target organ in APS and renal thrombosis can occur at any level within the vasculature of the kidney (renal arteries, intrarenal arteries, glomerular capillaries and renal veins); events reflect the site and size of the involved vessels. Histological findings vary widely, including ischaemic glomeruli and thrombotic lesions without glomerular or arterial immune deposits on immunofluorescence. Renal prognosis is affected by the presence of aPLs in patients with lupus nephritis and can be poor. In patients with SLE and aPLs, biopsy should be performed because inflammatory and thrombotic lesions require different therapeutic approaches. Renal involvement in patients with definite APS is treated by anticoagulation with long-term warfarin. The range of renal manifestations associated with APS is broadening and, therefore, aPLs have increasing relevance in end-stage renal disease, transplantation and pregnancy.

  11. [Cardiovascular involvement in rheumatic diseases].

    PubMed

    Driazhenko, I V

    2005-01-01

    Cardiovascular system involvement with early development of atherosclerosis is characteristic for rheumatic diseases. Among causes of death in various rheumatic diseases cardiovascular pathology also prevails. This paper contains a review of most important studies of impairment of the heart, arterial and venous parts of cardiovascular system in patients with diffuse diseases of connective tissue, rheumatoid arthritis and systemic vasculitides. The role of immune mechanisms, endothelial dysfunction, dyslipidemia in pathogenesis of cardiovascular disturbances with development of myocardial and vascular remodeling in rheumatic diseases is also discussed. Major risk factors of cardiovascular pathology in rheumatic patients are presented. Treatment of a cardiovascular pathology in these patients presumes the use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, aldosterone antagonists and statins.

  12. Charmless B decays involving baryons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gronau, Michael; Rosner, Jonathan L.

    1988-02-01

    Predictions are made for the fraction of B-meson decays involving specific final states of NN¯+nπ (n>=0), as functions of (a) decay dynamics, (b) models for multipion production, (c) the isospin of the final state, and (d) the ratio ||Vbu/Vbc|| of Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements. From recent observations of B+-->pp¯π+(+c.c.) and B0-->pp¯π+π- by the ARGUS Collaboration, it is concluded that ||Vbu/Vbc||>~0.08, similar to the ARGUS Collaboration's own estimate of 0.07. However, a more likely value for this ratio is near its present experimental upper limit. Predictions are made for further final states in NN¯+nπ and in other charmless B decays. We also comment briefly on prospects for observing CP violation in B-->NN¯+nπ.

  13. Diet, Obesity, and Political Involvement

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The views expressed are those of the author and may not necessarily reflect the views of the Editorial Board. Abstract: This essay is an opinion article addressed to the busy practitioner. It provides information on nutrition, diet, nutritional science, and obesity to serve as a reference in teaching his patients on these issues. It is composed by a gastroenterologist who has been engaged in clinical gastroenterology and nutrition, research, and teaching in an academic medical center for 35 years. It also relates the information to conclusions on reasonable involvement of the national government in these topics. Finally, its audience might include the interested, well-educated, lay public. Hence, excessive scientific parlance and referencing have been avoided. PMID:26106846

  14. Hirayama Disease with Proximal Involvement

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Hirayama disease is a slowly progressing benign motor neuron disease that affects the distal upper limb. A 29-year-old man visited the hospital with a 1-year history of weakened left proximal upper limb. He was diagnosed with Hirayama disease 9 years ago, while there was no further progression of the muscle weakness afterward. Atrophy and weakness was detected in proximal upper limb muscles. Magnetic resonance imaging and somatosensory evoked potentials were normal. Needle electromyography showed abnormal findings in proximal upper limb muscles. Our patient had Hirayama disease involving the proximal portion through secondary progression. Clinical manifestation and accurate electromyography may be useful for diagnosis. Rare cases with progression patterns as described here are helpful and have clinical meaning for clinicians. PMID:27550499

  15. Lung Involvement in Systemic Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Hassoun, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Scleroderma is a multisystem disease characterized by a severe inflammatory process and exuberant fibrosis. Lung involvement is a frequent complication and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in this syndrome. Two major pulmonary syndromes are associated with scleroderma; a pulmonary vascular disorder evolving over time into relatively isolated pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), and interstitial lung disease (ILD). Each syndrome, when present, is a cause of morbidity and significantly reduces survival of scleroderma patients when compared to patients free of lung complication. When pulmonary hypertension and ILD are combined, survival is further reduced. Current therapy appears to have no meaningful effect on either condition and, thus, there is a need for better understanding of underlying pathogenic mechanisms. This review focuses on clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic features of PAH and ILD as well as other frequent but less debilitating lung complications of scleroderma. PMID:21195581

  16. [Hypothalamic involvement in multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Darlix, A; Mathey, G; Monin, M-L; Sauvée, M; Braun, M; Schaff, J-L; Debouverie, M

    2012-05-01

    Hypothalamic involvement is a rare condition in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). We report two patients with a long history of MS who presented with severe acute hypothermia with associated thrombocytopenia and elevated transaminase levels. Several cases of hypothermia or hyperthermia in patients with MS have been reported in the literature. They could be linked with hypothalamic lesions, in particular in the pre-optic area. However, other anatomical locations seem to be involved in thermoregulation and can be affected by MS. Besides, some cases of syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion have been reported in patients with MS. Finally, some sleep disorders, particularly hypersomnia or narcolepsy, could be related to hypothalamic lesions, through the fall in hypocretin-1 in the cerebrospinal fluid. Hypocretin-1 is a neuropeptide that is secreted by some hypothalamic cells. It plays a role in the sleep-awake rhythm. We report one patient with narcolepsy and cataplexy before the first symptoms of MS appeared. Hypothalamic signs are rare in MS. However, several series of autopsies have shown a high frequency of demyelinating lesions in the hypothalamic area. Among these lesions, the proportion of active lesions seems elevated. Yet only few of them have a clinical or biological translation such as thermoregulation dysfunction, sleep disorders or natremia abnormalities. Thus, it seems unlikely that inflammatory hypothalamic lesions alone, even when bilateral, could be the explanation of these signs. A sufficient number of inflammatory demyelinating lesions, which we can observe in patients with a long history of MS and an already severe disability, is probably necessary to develop such a rare symptomatology. Hypothalamic signs might be a factor of poor prognosis for the disease course and progression of the disability.

  17. Drug hypersensitivity reactions involving skin.

    PubMed

    Hausmann, Oliver; Schnyder, Benno; Pichler, Werner J

    2010-01-01

    Immune reactions to drugs can cause a variety of diseases involving the skin, liver, kidney, lungs, and other organs. Beside immediate, IgE-mediated reactions of varying degrees (urticaria to anaphylactic shock), many drug hypersensitivity reactions appear delayed, namely hours to days after starting drug treatment, showing a variety of clinical manifestations from solely skin involvement to fulminant systemic diseases which may be fatal. Immunohistochemical and functional studies of drug-specific T cells in patients with delayed reactions confirmed a predominant role for T cells in the onset and maintenance of immune-mediated delayed drug hypersensitivity reactions (type IV reactions). In these reactions, drug-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are stimulated by drugs through their T cell receptors (TCR). Drugs can stimulate T cells in two ways: they can act as haptens and bind covalently to larger protein structures (hapten-carrier model), inducing a specific immune response. In addition, they may accidentally bind in a labile, noncovalent way to a particular TCR of the whole TCR repertoire and possibly also major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-molecules - similar to their pharmacologic action. This seems to be sufficient to reactivate certain, probably in vivo preactivated T cells, if an additional interaction of the drug-stimulated TCR with MHC molecules occurs. The mechanism was named pharmacological interaction of a drug with (immune) receptor and thus termed the p-i concept. This new concept may explain the frequent skin symptoms in drug hypersensitivity to oral or parenteral drugs. Furthermore, the various clinical manifestations of T cell-mediated drug hypersensitivity may be explained by distinct T cell functions leading to different clinical phenotypes. These data allowed a subclassification of the delayed hypersensitivity reactions (type IV) into T cell reactions which, by releasing certain cytokines and chemokines, preferentially activate and recruit

  18. The grief involved in change.

    PubMed

    Linney, B J

    1999-01-01

    In this era of rapid change, people need to be helped through the grieving process at work. "By acknowledging and articulating what is involved, you facilitate people's movement through it ... successful people in growing organizations need to learn to move through the process as quickly and efficiently as possible and help others do the same." Morris Shectman, in Working Without a Net says, "Contrary to the old paradigm--which held that others don't have a right to know about your personal life--the new paradigm says that it's a necessity that they know." If people are to move through the grief that is caused by undesired change, they will have to tell some of their personal feelings. "Each stage of the process--shock and denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance--is functional ... when people go through the process in a healthy manner, they'll recycle through it in a diluted fashion." Leaders in the organization can help people start the process or move through it if they get stuck at a particular stage.

  19. Fabry disease and cardiovascular involvement.

    PubMed

    Anastasakis, Aris; Papatheodorou, Efstathios; Steriotis, Alexandros Klavdios

    2013-01-01

    Fabry disease (FD, OMIM 301500) is a rare X-linked lysosomal storage disorder of the glycosphigolipid metabolism caused by total or partial deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme alpha-galactosidase A (α-gal A). Progressive intralysosomal accumulation of neutral glycosphingolipids in a variety of cell types triggers a cascade of pathophysiological events including cellular death, compromised energy metabolism, small vessel injury, K(Ca)3.1 channel dysfunction in endothelial cells, oxidative stress, impaired autophagosome maturation, tissue ischemia and, importantly, development of irreversible cardiac and renal tissue fibrosis, leading to major multisystemic manifestations. Cardiovascular complications of the disease are very frequent and contribute substantially to disease-related morbidity and mortality in men. Cardiovascular involvement is the leading cause of premature death in heterozygous female patients with FD. Left ventricular hypertrophy is the most prominent cardiac manifestation followed by conduction system disease, valve dysfunction, arrhythmias, vessel disease and coronary microvascular dysfunction. The diagnosis of subclinical forms of the disease, before the development of cardiac hypertrophy, using newer techniques (tissue doppler imaging, strain rate and cardiac magnetic resonance) is crucial to the early initation of the treatment. Greatest benefit of the enzyme replacement treatment is achieved when started at an early stage of the disease before extensive fibrosis or other irreversible tissue damage takes place. Fabry disease should be included in the differential diagnosis algorithm of idiopathic hypertrophy. Determination of Alpha-Gal A activity on plasma and peripheral leukocytes in males and genetic testing in females are the diagnostic gold-standards.

  20. Pharmaceutical research involving the homeless.

    PubMed

    Beauchamp, Tom L; Jennings, Bruce; Kinney, Eleanor D; Levine, Robert J

    2002-10-01

    Discussions of research involving vulnerable populations have left the homeless comparatively ignored. Participation by these subjects in drug studies has the potential to be upsetting, inconvenient, or unpleasant. Participation occasionally produces injury, health emergencies, and chronic health problems. Nonetheless, no ethical justification exists for the categorical exclusion of homeless persons from research. The appropriate framework for informed consent for these subjects of pharmaceutical research is not a single event of oral or written consent, but a multi-staged arrangement of disclosure, dialogue, and permission-giving. Payments and other rewards in biomedical research raise issues of whether it is ethical to offer inducements to the homeless in exchange for participation in drug studies. Such inducements can influence desperate persons who are seriously lacking in resources. The key is to strike a balance between a rate of payment high enough that it does not exploit subjects by underpayment and low enough that it does not create an irresistible inducement. This proposal does not underestimate the risks of research, which are often overestimated and need to be appraised in light of the relevant empirical literature.

  1. Accidental death involving professional fireworks.

    PubMed

    Romolo, Francesco Saverio; Aromatario, Mariarosaria; Bottoni, Edoardo; Cappelletti, Simone; Fiore, Paola Antonella; Ciallella, Costantino

    2014-01-01

    An interesting case of accidental death involving the explosion of professional fireworks in an apartment is described. The examination of the scene permitted to study several effects of the explosion on walls, ceiling, furniture and especially on a balcony where the victim was found. The external examination of the victim showed extensive thermal injuries, degloving injuries and extensive shrapnel wounds. The autopsy examination showed subarachnoid haemorrhage localized to the cerebellum, haemorrhage in the soft tissues of the neck and chest and fracture of one clavicle. Almost the entire surface of lungs showed blunt injuries and the liver showed tearing of parenchyma and multiple cavities. Histological analysis were carried out showing thickening of alveolar septae, enlargement of alveolar spaces and alveolar ruptures in lung sections while numerous, round, empty spaces were detected in the parenchyma of the liver. The examination of the scene and of the fragments found showed that at least eight pyrotechnical charges exploded on the balcony, in close proximity of the threshold with the living room of the apartment. According to the chemical findings, the charges were typical for professional use and were filled with a mixture of potassium perchlorate and aluminium. A conservative calculation results in more than 1.5 kg total mass of pyrotechnic composition exploding very close to the victim.

  2. Evaluating Parent Involvement. Issue Paper No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safran, Daniel

    This paper poses a series of questions to assist programs in deciding what it is about parent involvement that they wish to evaluate. The questions focus on the nature of parent involvement, why parent involvement is needed, and what evaluation of parent involvement should include. A conceptual framework for research on the impact of parent…

  3. Defining Parental Involvement: Perception of School Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Clara Y.; Austin, Sheila M.; Growe, Roslin

    2013-01-01

    There remains a plaguing question of how to get parents involved with their child's education. Many parents and educators have different perceptions of what parental involvement means. Miscommunication between the two groups often exists because of how parental involvement is conceptualized. While educators define parental involvement as…

  4. Ethical issues involving the internet

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, T.J.; Kallman, E.A.; Lelewer, D.

    1994-12-31

    During the 90`s, the {open_quotes}Information Superhighway{close_quotes} has received widespread publicity. Many campuses have participated in this drive to an information based society by becoming participating nodes on the Internet. As an information provider, the Internet has the potential to change the college experience in many ways, both good and bad. It also poses a number of problems for college students in areas such as privacy, access, and honesty. It provides professors with a dynamic information storage and retrieval tool that offers the opportunity to modernize both curriculum experiences and pedagogical approaches. On some campuses, Internet access and capability has become so important that course modules and whole courses are being built. The panelists will each discuss a different issue involved with making the Internet more integral to the collegiate environment. The first panelist will consider risks and threats that an institution of higher learning must consider as it approaches Internet use will be presented. The steps an institution took to build policies and deal with {open_quotes}inevitable incidents{close_quotes} that will occur as the Internet is opened to full use by both students and faculty. The second panelist will present four computer ethics Each module uses the abundance and dynamism of Internet information to provide challenging {open_quotes}Ethics in the Computer Workplace{close_quotes} experiences that could not easily be done by traditional means. The third panelist will discuss a course module that explores both the positive and negative potential of the Internet. The costs and ease of Internet access, as well as normally available Internet tools, are also presented. This module has been used in a course called {open_quotes}Ethical and Social Issues in Computer Science{close_quotes} and will be used in a general-education course to be offered beginning in 1994-95.

  5. ERIC/EECE Report: Parent Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goins, Brad

    1993-01-01

    Summarizes five documents and four articles in the ERIC database that examine parents' involvement in their children's education. Topics include strategies for better parenting, school readiness, increasing parent involvement, and parent education programs. (MDM)

  6. Management of gastrointestinal involvement in scleroderma

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraja, Vivek; McMahan, Zsuzsanna H.; Getzug, Terri; Khanna, Dinesh

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal tract (GIT) commonly affects patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). The GI involvement is quite heterogeneous varying from asymptomatic disease to significant dysmotility causing complications like malabsorption, weight loss and severe malnutrition. This review focuses on the management of GI involvement in SSc and has been categorized based on the segment of GIT involved. A brief discussion on the role of patient reported outcome measures in SSc-GI involvement has also been incorporated. PMID:26005632

  7. Data Collection Instruments for Evaluating Family Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westmoreland, Helen; Bouffard, Suzanne; O'Carroll, Kelley; Rosenberg, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    As evidence supporting the benefits of family involvement in learning mounts, there is an increasing demand for evaluation of family involvement initiatives and for additional research to inform practice and policy. Those designing and implementing family involvement programs must be responsive to calls to bolster the quality of the evidence base…

  8. Localized Pemphigus Vegetans without Mucosal Involvement.

    PubMed

    Jain, Vk; Jindal, N; Imchen, S

    2014-03-01

    Pemphigus vegetans is a rare variant of pemphigus vulgaris. A 62-year-old woman presented with erythematous moist vegetative plaque on the left breast and left groin. There was no mucosal involvement. Histopathological and direct immunofluorescence findings were suggestive of pemphigus vegetans. She showed excellent response to oral steroids. Literature is scarcely available on the limited involvement with pemphigus vegetans without mucosal involvement.

  9. Mucous Membrane Pemphigoid with Tracheal Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Minaie, Arash; Surani, Salim R.

    2016-01-01

    34-year-old African American female with history of pemphigoid presented with hemoptysis. Patient was found to have mucous membrane pemphigoid involving the oropharynx and extending to trachea, till just above main stem carina. Four other cases described mucosal pemphigoid involving the trachea. We hereby present a brief review of current consensus on management of mucous membrane pemphigoid with airway involvement. PMID:26955496

  10. POLITICS OF UNIVERSITY INVOLVEMENT IN SOCIAL CHANGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CAMPBELL, ALAN K.

    THE AUTHOR DISCUSSES THE UNIVERSITY'S ROLE IN SOCIAL CHANGE FROM THE POLITICAL VIEWPOINT. BY EXAMINING OUR POLITICAL SYSTEM AS IT RELATED TO UNIVERSITY INVOLVEMENT, HE INDICATES THE POLITICAL RAMIFICATIONS OF SUCH INVOLVEMENT AND SHOWS THE KIND OF INVOLVEMENT THAT IS POLITICALLY POSSIBLE. HE PINPOINTS THE DIFFICULTIES CIVIC ADMINISTRATORS AND…

  11. Involving Fathers in Psychological Services for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Alan

    2006-01-01

    This paper is a commentary of the special series on involving fathers in psychological services for children. The following themes are addressed: the effects of fathers on child development; benefits of father involvement in child psychology services; obstacles to father involvement; engaging fathers; specific interventions for fathers; and…

  12. Parental Involvement in Special Education Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westwood-Robinette, Nicole M.

    2014-01-01

    Educators and researchers have long considered parental involvement an integral part in the success of students and researchers have concluded that there is a connection between parental involvement and the retention rates of students who are involved in regular education curriculum. However, much less information is available regarding the…

  13. Parental Involvement in Traditional and Online Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Cheng-Sian; Chen, Hsi-Mei

    2011-01-01

    While parental involvement benefits the learning performance of elementary students and the internet changes the learning environment, few studies have examined how parents are involved in the virtual world. This two-year project analysed the effects of parental involvement at home, in school and on internet use. The first stage of our research…

  14. Mandating Father Involvement: Implications for Special Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillie, Timothy

    This paper examines issues concerning mandated father involvement with their children, especially as this involvement affects children with special needs. The paper examines four points: (1) the history of the status of fathers, how it has changed, and why father involvement is an issue; (2) current regulations at the federal level which…

  15. Cross-Cultural Issues in Parent Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Bach-Tuyet Pham; And Others

    Four papers address cultural issues related to the involvement of limited-English-proficient parents in public schools in the United States. "Cultural Issues in Indochinese Parent Involvement" (Bach-Tuyet (Pham) Tran) outlines the linguistic, social, and practical barriers to Indochinese immigrant parent involvement and makes suggestions for…

  16. Examining Variability in Superintendent Community Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Theodore J.; Young, I. Phillip; Petersen, George J.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which four independent variables (age, gender, education level, and district type) accounted for variability in superintendent community involvement. Two covariates associated with levels of community involvement (disposition toward community involvement and district enrollment) were infused to assess the impact…

  17. Who and What Does Involvement Involve? A Multi-Sited Field Study of Involvement of Relatives in Danish Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Oute, Jeppe; Petersen, Anders; Huniche, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    This article gives an account of aspects of a multi-sited field study of involvement of relatives in Danish psychiatry. By following metaphors of involvement across three sites of the psychiatric system-a family site, a clinical site and a policy site-the first author (J.O.) investigated how, and on what grounds, involvement of relatives is perceived in Danish psychiatry. Paradoxically, the current understanding of involvement of relatives fails to take into consideration the perspectives of the relatives per se and families that were being studied. By analyzing involvement from a discourse theoretical perspective laid out by Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe, the aim of this study is to show how the dominant discourse about involvement at the political and clinical sites is constituted by understandings of mentally ill individuals and by political objectives of involvement. The analysis elucidates how a psycho-ideological discourse positions the mentally ill person as weak, incapable, and ineffective. By contrast, the supporting relative is positioned as a strong, capable, and effective co-therapist. Furthermore, the analysis considers how this dominant discourse of involvement is constituted by a broader discourse of neoliberalism and market orientation, which justifies involvement as a subtle institutionalization of social control. The article highlights that the role of the relative as a co-therapist may be contested by the families' discourse, which emphasizes issues concerning the responsibility toward the mental health of the ill individual as well as toward the psychological milieu of the family.

  18. Porphyromonas gingivalis Evasion of Autophagy and Intracellular Killing by Human Myeloid Dendritic Cells Involves DC-SIGN-TLR2 Crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    El-Awady, Ahmed R.; Miles, Brodie; Scisci, Elizabeth; Kurago, Zoya B.; Palani, Chithra D.; Arce, Roger M.; Waller, Jennifer L.; Genco, Caroline A.; Slocum, Connie; Manning, Matthew; Schoenlein, Patricia V.; Cutler, Christopher W.

    2015-01-01

    Signaling via pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) expressed on professional antigen presenting cells, such as dendritic cells (DCs), is crucial to the fate of engulfed microbes. Among the many PRRs expressed by DCs are Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and C-type lectins such as DC-SIGN. DC-SIGN is targeted by several major human pathogens for immune-evasion, although its role in intracellular routing of pathogens to autophagosomes is poorly understood. Here we examined the role of DC-SIGN and TLRs in evasion of autophagy and survival of Porphyromonas gingivalis in human monocyte-derived DCs (MoDCs). We employed a panel of P. gingivalis isogenic fimbriae deficient strains with defined defects in Mfa-1 fimbriae, a DC-SIGN ligand, and FimA fimbriae, a TLR2 agonist. Our results show that DC-SIGN dependent uptake of Mfa1+P. gingivalis strains by MoDCs resulted in lower intracellular killing and higher intracellular content of P. gingivalis. Moreover, Mfa1+P. gingivalis was mostly contained within single membrane vesicles, where it survived intracellularly. Survival was decreased by activation of TLR2 and/or autophagy. Mfa1+P. gingivalis strain did not induce significant levels of Rab5, LC3-II, and LAMP1. In contrast, P. gingivalis uptake through a DC-SIGN independent manner was associated with early endosomal routing through Rab5, increased LC3-II and LAMP-1, as well as the formation of double membrane intracellular phagophores, a characteristic feature of autophagy. These results suggest that selective engagement of DC-SIGN by Mfa-1+P. gingivalis promotes evasion of antibacterial autophagy and lysosome fusion, resulting in intracellular persistence in myeloid DCs; however TLR2 activation can overcome autophagy evasion and pathogen persistence in DCs. PMID:25679217

  19. Porphyromonas gingivalis evasion of autophagy and intracellular killing by human myeloid dendritic cells involves DC-SIGN-TLR2 crosstalk.

    PubMed

    El-Awady, Ahmed R; Miles, Brodie; Scisci, Elizabeth; Kurago, Zoya B; Palani, Chithra D; Arce, Roger M; Waller, Jennifer L; Genco, Caroline A; Slocum, Connie; Manning, Matthew; Schoenlein, Patricia V; Cutler, Christopher W

    2015-02-01

    Signaling via pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) expressed on professional antigen presenting cells, such as dendritic cells (DCs), is crucial to the fate of engulfed microbes. Among the many PRRs expressed by DCs are Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and C-type lectins such as DC-SIGN. DC-SIGN is targeted by several major human pathogens for immune-evasion, although its role in intracellular routing of pathogens to autophagosomes is poorly understood. Here we examined the role of DC-SIGN and TLRs in evasion of autophagy and survival of Porphyromonas gingivalis in human monocyte-derived DCs (MoDCs). We employed a panel of P. gingivalis isogenic fimbriae deficient strains with defined defects in Mfa-1 fimbriae, a DC-SIGN ligand, and FimA fimbriae, a TLR2 agonist. Our results show that DC-SIGN dependent uptake of Mfa1+P. gingivalis strains by MoDCs resulted in lower intracellular killing and higher intracellular content of P. gingivalis. Moreover, Mfa1+P. gingivalis was mostly contained within single membrane vesicles, where it survived intracellularly. Survival was decreased by activation of TLR2 and/or autophagy. Mfa1+P. gingivalis strain did not induce significant levels of Rab5, LC3-II, and LAMP1. In contrast, P. gingivalis uptake through a DC-SIGN independent manner was associated with early endosomal routing through Rab5, increased LC3-II and LAMP-1, as well as the formation of double membrane intracellular phagophores, a characteristic feature of autophagy. These results suggest that selective engagement of DC-SIGN by Mfa-1+P. gingivalis promotes evasion of antibacterial autophagy and lysosome fusion, resulting in intracellular persistence in myeloid DCs; however TLR2 activation can overcome autophagy evasion and pathogen persistence in DCs.

  20. Improving antibiotic stewardship by involving nurses.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Elizabeth; Rodrigues, Anne; Wright, Louise; Williams, Natalie; Stuart, Rhonda L

    2013-04-01

    Antimicrobial stewardship programs are important preventative strategies to reduce hospital-acquired infection, typically involving medical and pharmacy staff. Because nurses are pivotal in administering medication prescribed by medical staff and filled by pharmacy staff, we assessed nursing attitudes and antimicrobial stewardship knowledge before and after an education intervention that focused on nursing involvement in antimicrobial management. This study supports involving nurses as a means of improving antibiotic stewardship.

  1. Teacher Involvement: A Message for "Restructurers."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    High, Reginald M.; Achilles, C. M.

    This study, a research component of Tennessee's 1987-1988 Leadership in Educational Administration Development (LEAD) project, describes actual and preferred teacher involvement in selected school activities. Two hundred and three teachers in 18 schools ranked their degree of actual and preferred involvement in determining school activities. The…

  2. Creating Sensitive Environments for Parent Involvement Meetings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Laverne; Barrera, John

    2005-01-01

    The most important step to parent involvement is helping parents to value education. Successful parent involvement often hinges on employing a wide variety of presentation methods to meet parents' needs. Foremost, parents must learn to become effective collaborators with the school. When the focus is on the value of education, a plethora of topics…

  3. Parent Involvement in Early Childhood Home Visiting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korfmacher, Jon; Green, Beth; Staerkel, Fredi; Peterson, Carla; Cook, Gina; Roggman, Lori; Faldowski, Richard A.; Schiffman, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    This review provides an overview of an important aspect of early childhood home visiting research: understanding how parents are involved in program services and activities. Involvement is defined as the process of the parent connecting with and using the services of a program to the best of the client's and the program's ability. The term…

  4. Peer Involvement in Adolescent Dating Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Pam S.; Martsolf, Donna; Draucker, Claire Burke

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the ways in which peers are involved in adolescent dating violence. Eighty-eight young adults aged 18-21 were interviewed and asked to reflect on aggressive dating relationships they experienced as teens. The researchers used grounded theory to analyze the data. Findings showed that male and female peers were involved in…

  5. Involving Migrant Families in Education. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Yolanda G.; Velazquez, Jose A.

    This digest describes parent involvement in their children's education from the perspective of migrant parents and educators and offers strategies to enhance the experience of schooling for migrant students and their families. Teachers often perceive parent involvement as preparing children for school, attending school events, and fulfilling…

  6. Lipoma involving the skull. Case report.

    PubMed

    Tomabechi, M; Sako, K; Daita, G; Yonemasu, Y

    1992-02-01

    The case of an intraosseous lipoma involving the left frontal bone is reported. Lipomas of the bone are rare; only three cases of lipomas involving the skull have previously been reported. The differential diagnosis includes a healing bone infarction or fracture, meningioma, hemangioma, and fibrous dysplasia. Diagnosis prior to surgery is difficult.

  7. Science Learning at Home: Involving Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Elizabeth Outlaw; Heaton, Emily T.; Heslop, Karen; Kixmiller, Kassandra

    2009-01-01

    Families' involvement in their children's science learning at home has numerous benefits, especially when they support children's self-initiated investigations. In a position statement on parental involvement in science education, the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA 2009) stresses the role of parents in the daily reinforcement of…

  8. Attitudes Underlying the Politics of Parent Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrander, Kenneth H.; Ostrom, Katherine

    1990-01-01

    Factor analysis of 38 interviews with classroom teachers regarding working collaboratively with parents revealed that some teachers have apprehensions about involving parents when potential problems are perceived and the teachers believe they do not have sufficient time to involve parents. (MLF)

  9. Getting Involved in the IEP Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Ellen; Lieberman, Lauren J.; Daggett, Sara

    2006-01-01

    Although, in many districts, physical educators are integral members of the Individualized Education Program (designed for students with disabilities such as Down syndrome and autism), in other districts, physical educators are only partially involved in the process or are not given the opportunity to be involved at all. However, the physical…

  10. Examining Teacher's Comfort Level of Parental Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Deborah Ann

    2011-01-01

    The connection between home and school is of utmost importance. Therefore, an important concern for those educating teachers is to help teachers recognize the need for and importance of establishing parental involvement and to help them create avenues in which communication can occur. Knowing that parental involvement is important and putting that…

  11. Turkish Early Childhood Educators on Parental Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakyemez, Sevcan

    2015-01-01

    Research conducted over recent decades show that parental involvement plays a significant role in children's academic achievement as well as their cognitive, social and emotional development. For effective parental involvement, understanding the conceptualization of early childhood educators should be significant. This research investigated the…

  12. Parent Involvement in Local Chapter 1 Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jay, E. Deborah; Shields, Patrick M.

    This report focuses on the involvement of parents in local projects funded under Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act and Chapter 1 of the Education Consolidation and Improvement Act. It researches the kind and extent of involvement, the impact of state and local factors on it, and the effect of the change from Title I to Chapter…

  13. Bullying Prevention and the Parent Involvement Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolbert, Jered B.; Schultz, Danielle; Crothers, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis of bullying prevention programs provides support for social-ecological theory, in which parent involvement addressing child bullying behaviors is seen as important in preventing school-based bullying. The purpose of this manuscript is to suggest how Epstein and colleagues' parent involvement model can be used as a…

  14. Community Involvement in Marine Protected Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaza, Stephanie

    1988-01-01

    Lists several key concepts in developing successful interpretive programs for marine protected areas with community involvement. Identifies educational tools that help foster community involvement in conservation and management. Cites three model programs. Sets standards and goals for international success including leadership, education,…

  15. 7 CFR 1794.13 - Public involvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act § 1794.13 Public involvement. (a) In carrying out its responsibilities under NEPA, RUS shall make diligent efforts to involve the public in the environmental review process through public...

  16. Future Directions in Youth Involvement Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose-Krasnor, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Youth activity involvement has received increasing research and theoretical attention and should be of particular interest to social development investigators. Involvement has been correlated with a wide range of positive developmental indices, although not for all activities nor for all children. However, our ability to interpret such findings…

  17. Parental Involvement in Education: Possibilities and Limitations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Mir Baiz

    1996-01-01

    Examines parental involvement in school affairs as a means to forge school-community partnerships in education. Identifies fundamental barriers to meaningful parental involvement and suggests possible solutions, such as parent empowerment, administrators' support, home-school interdependency, awareness of current research, reorganized structures,…

  18. Perceptions of Parent Involvement in Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePlanty, Jennifer; Coulter-Kern, Russell; Duchane, Kim A.

    2007-01-01

    The authors sought to understand the types of parent involvement that teachers, parents, and students believe affect the academic achievement of adolescent learners at the junior high school level. Research that included focus groups, interviews, and surveys indicated that teachers and students believed that parent involvement at school was…

  19. Stateline: Changing the Nature of Parent Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2005-01-01

    There's parent involvement and then there's parent involvement. There's the kind that has parents volunteering their time in schools, making costumes, or organizing and staffing the school carnival fund-raiser. This is helpful activity by any measure--helpful in the service of kids and not to be minimized. But there are other levels of involvement…

  20. Student Involvement: A Bridge to Total Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    This document, prepared by students involved in the Task Force on Student Involvement program, provides guidelines for administrators who are attempting to enhance constructive student participation in the total educational program. An outline of specific recommendations for dealing with high school unrest is followed by general recommendations…

  1. Examination Involving Students as Peer Examiners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ljungman, Anders G.; Silen, Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    The main interest in this article is students' involvement in assessment as a part of growth towards self-directedness in learning. In order to enhance students' development of autonomy in learning, a project involving "older" students as peer examiners for "younger" students was designed and carried out. Students in the sixth semester in a…

  2. Handbook of Father Involvement: Multidisciplinary Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S., Ed.; Cabrera, Natasha, Ed.

    Despite an unprecedented surge of research on fathers, progress in the study of father involvement generally occurs within rather than across disciplines. This handbook highlights the challenges facing researchers of father involvement across disciplines. Following an introduction, the chapters of the book are as follows: 1) "Methodological,…

  3. 38 CFR 200.6 - Public involvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Public involvement. 200.6 Section 200.6 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief ARMED FORCES RETIREMENT HOME COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 200.6 Public involvement. (a) As part of its system for NEPA...

  4. 38 CFR 200.6 - Public involvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Public involvement. 200.6 Section 200.6 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief ARMED FORCES RETIREMENT HOME COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 200.6 Public involvement. (a) As part of its system for NEPA...

  5. 38 CFR 200.6 - Public involvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public involvement. 200.6 Section 200.6 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief ARMED FORCES RETIREMENT HOME COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 200.6 Public involvement. (a) As part of its system for NEPA...

  6. 38 CFR 200.6 - Public involvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Public involvement. 200.6 Section 200.6 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief ARMED FORCES RETIREMENT HOME COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 200.6 Public involvement. (a) As part of its system for NEPA...

  7. Peer involvement in adolescent dating violence.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Pam S; Martsolf, Donna; Draucker, Claire Burke

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the ways in which peers are involved in adolescent dating violence. Eighty-eight young adults aged 18-21 were interviewed and asked to reflect on aggressive dating relationships they experienced as teens. The researchers used grounded theory to analyze the data. Findings showed that male and female peers were involved in adolescent dating violence in unique ways. Male peers were involved in dating violence by participating in the aggression, agitating the aggression, being the competition, trivializing the aggression, and keeping tabs on the recipient. Female peers were involved in dating violence by deserting the recipient, cheating with the boyfriend, being the audience, needling the male dating partner, and helping the recipient. Male and female peers were involved similarly in adolescent dating violence by confronting the partner. School nurses working with adolescents are uniquely positioned to approach adolescents about dating violence. Interventions aimed at promoting discussions with adolescents are discussed.

  8. Involvement in research without compromising research quality.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Ruth; Liabo, Kristin

    2012-10-01

    Health research funders in the UK now ask applicants to state how their research will involve patients and members of the public. Such involvement can help with questions that researchers repeatedly face: about improving trial recruitment, response rates and follow-up. Patient and Public Involvement (PPI) in research is usually presented in the form of a ladder, from a low rung where studies are led by researchers with no patient involvement, to a high rung where studies are patient-led. This hierarchy does not sit well with many clinicians and academics whose expertise appears to have been downgraded. This article argues that research quality and relevance are optimised when patient expertise is integrated with researchers' and policy-makers' expertise, and each role acknowledged and valued, illustrated by an alternative model for PPI which places research and expertise at the centre of the involvement enterprise.

  9. Involvement of polyphosphate kinase in virulence and stress tolerance of uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Peng, Liang; Jiang, Qiao; Pan, Jia-Yun; Deng, Cong; Yu, Jing-Yi; Wu, Xiao-Man; Huang, Sheng-He; Deng, Xiao-Yan

    2016-04-01

    Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis), a gram-negative enteric bacterium, frequently causes urinary tract infections. Many virulence factors of uropathogenic P. mirabilis have been identified, including urease, flagella, hemolysin and fimbriae. However, the functions of polyphosphate kinase (PPK), which are related to the pathogenicity of many bacteria, remain entirely unknown in P. mirabilis. In this study, a ppk gene encoding the PPK insertional mutant in P. mirabilis strain HI4320 was constructed, and its biological functions were examined. The results of survival studies demonstrated that the ppk mutant was deficient in resistance to oxidative, hyperosmotic and heat stress. The swarming and biofilm formation abilities of P. mirabilis were also attenuated after the ppk interruption. In vitro and in vivo experiments suggested that ppk was required for P. mirabilis to invade the bladder. The negative phenotypes of the ppk mutant could be restored by ppk gene complementation. Furthermore, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to analyze the proteomes of the wild-type strain and the ppk mutant. Compared with the wild-type strain, seven proteins including TonB-dependent receptor, universal stress protein G, major mannose-resistant/Proteus-like fimbrial protein (MR/P fimbriae), heat shock protein, flagellar capping protein, putative membrane protein and multidrug efflux protein were down-regulated, and four proteins including exported peptidase, repressor protein for FtsI, FKBP-type peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase and phosphotransferase were up-regulated in the ppk mutant. As a whole, these results indicate that PPK is an important regulator and plays a crucial role in stress tolerance and virulence in uropathogenic P. mirabilis.

  10. Relation between employees' religiosity and job involvement.

    PubMed

    Knotts, Tami L

    2003-12-01

    While it has been argued that religion influences the meaning of work, few studies have empirically examined how employees' religiosity and job attitudes relate to one another. Specifically, this study investigated the relations among three religious orientations (intrinsic, extrinsic-personal, and extrinsic-social) and job involvement for 100 employees of a rehabilitation hospital in the southern United States. The respondents completed the 1989 Intrinsic/Extrinsic-Revised Scale and the 6-item version of the 1965 Job Involvement Scale. Correlation indicated a negative association between Intrinsic Religiosity and Job Involvement (r=-.26, p<.05) and a positive one between Extrinsic-personal and Job Involvement (r=.23, p<.05) for the total sample. When separated by religious affiliation, regression analyses indicated a significant positive relationship between scores on Extrinsic-personal Religiosity and in Job Involvement for Protestants (B=.32, p<.01), but Intrinsic Religiosity was signifiantly negatively related to Job Involvement for non-Protestants (B=-.35, p<.05). No relation was found between scores on Extrinsic-social Religiosity and Job involvement for either group. These results suggest that employees' religiosity may influence work values in different ways for Protestant and non-Protestant workers.

  11. The psychology of male (non) involvement.

    PubMed

    1977-01-01

    The primary reason for male involvement in family planning is that the current approach of focusing all family planning attention on women is not working. Unwanted pregnancy continues to increase despite the advent of the oral contraceptive and the IUD and despite the great amount of money and effort that have been invested in making women better contraceptors. Whether or not a contraceptive is effectively used depends a lot on the attitude of the man. The great majority of the studies conducted on male attitudes toward ocntraception indicates that boys and men are interested in the subject. Despite the discrepancy between what people say and what they actually do, there is a vast population of men who are receptive to education and guidance. If the approach is right, the majority of men are willing to become involved. The men who are resistant to involvement in family planning are a minority, and probably nothing can be done about this group. Although the majority of men are not resistant, they see no reason for involvement. In the last 20 years men have been taught that contraception is none of their business. This teaching has been done by the media, family planning agencies, some feminist writers and by women themselves. Most of the resistance to male involvement comes from family planning agencies rather than from the men. How to get men involved in actually a small issues. If there is a change in thinking in the agencies and a willingness to involve men, many effective ways will be found.

  12. Management of hip involvement in ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Guan, Mingqiang; Wang, Jian; Zhao, Liang; Xiao, Jun; Li, Zhihan; Shi, Zhanjun

    2013-08-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is an inflammatory rheumatologic disease characterized by inflammation and progressive structural damage of the affected joints. Hip involvement often results in severe deformities and significant impairment on function. Although, tremendous progress has been made in conservative management for AS, effective prevention strategies for hip involvement and long-term need for total hip arthroplasty (THA) remain indefinite. When hip involvement has progressed to intractable pain and disability, THA is still the most effective treatment strategy to relieve pain and restore function. However, certain AS-specific problems regarding "preoperative preparation," "intraoperative difficulties," "perioperative pharmacological management," "postoperative physiotherapy," "operation benefits," and "operation complications" need more concern and further discussion.

  13. 32 CFR 651.36 - Public involvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Assessment § 651.36 Public involvement. (a) The... to open decision-making and builds the necessary community trust that sustains the Army in the...

  14. Guidance for Catastrophic Emergency Situations Involving Asbestos

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document addresses the types of asbestos issues that may arise during catastrophic events and how EPA has addressed such issues. It replaces the Guidelines for Catastrophic Emergency Situations Involving Asbestos which was issued in 1992.

  15. Tropheryma whipplei endocarditis without gastrointestinal involvement

    PubMed Central

    Love, Susannah M.; Morrison, Lindsay; Appleby, Clare; Modi, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Whipple's disease, caused by the bacterium Tropheryma whipplei, is a rare chronic multi-system illness commonly affecting the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and presenting with a triad of diarrhoea, weight loss and malabsorption. While 20–55% of patients with a diagnosis of Whipple's disease have clinically evident cardiac manifestations, the initial presentation with isolated valvular disease, without any GI symptoms, is rare. Whereas cardiac involvement usually involves a single valve, cases of double-valve involvement are extremely rare. We report the case of a patient with T. whipplei native aortic and mitral valvular endocarditis, without GI involvement, who presented with the new-onset cardiac failure and ventricular arrhythmias, which required urgent double-valve replacement. This case report is accompanied by a review of the relevant literature. PMID:22499804

  16. Parent Leadership and Family Involvement (Special Focus).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Kathy Goetz, Ed.; Lalley, Jacqueline, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This "Special Focus" issue of "America's Family Support Magazine," focuses on parent leadership and family involvement. Articles pertaining to this focus include: (1) "Forging Equal Partnerships" (Ahsan); (2) "Who Best Represents the Voice of Parents?" (Foster); (3) "Parent Leadership Training…

  17. Parent Involvement: What Is It That Works?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leik, Robert K.; Chalkley, Mary Anne

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the assessment of the impact of parent involvement in the Head Start Family Impact Project. This project was undertaken with cooperation from the Parents in Community Action (PICA) component of the Hennepin County, Minnesota, Head Start Program. (BB)

  18. Community Involvement Plan Presentation in Western Agency

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA Region 9 will host a Community Involvement Plan presentation in the Western Agency chapter to discuss EPA’s outreach plans with community members in uranium impacted areas and answer questions about mine cleanup progress.

  19. Posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disease involving the pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Meriden, Zina; Bullock, Grant C; Bagg, Adam; Bonatti, Hugo; Cousar, John B; Lopes, M Beatriz; Robbins, Mark K; Cathro, Helen P

    2010-11-01

    Posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are heterogeneous lesions with variable morphology, immunophenotype, and molecular characteristics. Multiple distinct primary lesions can occur in PTLD, rarely with both B-cell and T-cell characteristics. Lesions can involve both grafted organs and other sites; however, PTLD involving the pituitary gland has not been previously reported. We describe a patient who developed Epstein-Barr virus-negative PTLD 13 years posttransplantation involving the terminal ileum and pituitary, which was simultaneously involved by a pituitary adenoma. Immunohistochemistry of the pituitary lesion showed expression of CD79a, CD3, and CD7 with clonal rearrangements of both T-cell receptor gamma chain (TRG@) and immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH@) genes. The terminal ileal lesion was immunophenotypically and molecularly distinct. This is the first report of pituitary PTLD and illustrates the potentially complex nature of PTLD.

  20. Fires and Burns Involving Home Medical Oxygen

    MedlinePlus

    ... nfpa.org Fires and Burns Involving Home Medical Oxygen The air is normally 21% oxygen. Oxygen is not flammable, but fire needs it to burn. ¾ When more oxygen is present, any fire that starts will burn ...

  1. Gastrointestinal and Hepatic Involvement in Hypereosinophilic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hurairah, Abu

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to study the gastrointestinal and hepatic involvement in hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES). Gastrointestinal or hepatic involvement is estimated to affect up to one-third of patients with HES, although most of the clinical evidence has been derived from case reports. In literature, HES presenting with hepatitis and jaundice with subsequent development of colitis is a rare clinicopathologic entity. Given the clinical implications, physicians should include HES among differentials in these types of presentations. PMID:27733964

  2. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis with ascites and colon involvement.

    PubMed

    Levinson, J D; Ramanathan, V R; Nozick, J H

    1977-12-01

    The case of a 39-year old white man with eosinophilic gastroenteritis is presented. The major clinical features were gastric outlet obstruction, diarrhea and massive ascites. At surgery, significant involvement of the entire gastrointestinal tract from the gastric antrum to the sigmoid colon was found. Histologic documentation of colon involvement was obtained. The response to corticosteroids was prompt and sustained. At present, he is maintained on an alternating day schedule of steroid administration.

  3. Conceptions of Ability and Related Affects in Task Involvement and Ego Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jagacinski, Carolyn M.; Nicholls, John G.

    1984-01-01

    Five studies were conducted to determine if college students employ different conceptions of ability in self-referenced (task-involving) and interpersonally competitive (ego-involving) situations. Competence and positive affects were associated with higher effort in task-involving situations but negatively associated with higher effort in…

  4. Effects of stakeholder involvement in river management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchecker, M.; Menzel, S.

    2012-04-01

    In the last decades, in many parts of Europe involving local stakeholders or the local public in river management has become a standard procedure. For many decision makers, the purpose of involving other interest groups is limited to achieving a sufficient local acceptance of the project, and accordingly they adopt minimal forms of involvement. Theoretical literature and first empirical studies, however, suggest that stakeholder involvement can have, if done in appropriate quality, have much more far-reaching benefits for a sustainable river management such as a better consensus, social learning and social capital building. But there is so far only little reliable evidence that and under which conditions such benefits or effects in fact result from stakeholder involvement processes. The reason for this is that such involvement processes represent very complex social interventions, and all"affordable"effect measurement methods have their weaknesses. In our project we wanted to find out which were the really robust social effects of stakeholder involvement in river management. We therefore evaluated a number of real Swiss case studies of participatory river management using three different approaches of effect measurements: a quasi-experimental approach using repeated standardized measurement of stakeholders' attitudes, a qualitative long-term ex-post measurement approach based on interviews with stakeholders of five participatory river projects, and a comparative analysis approach based on data of residents effect assessments of participatory river planning gathered in a Swiss national survey. The analysis of all three evaluation studies confirmed that stakeholder involvement in river management projects have substantive social effects. The comparison of the results of the three measurement approaches revealed that social learning and acceptance building were the most robust effects of stakeholder involvement, as they were confirmed by all the three measurement

  5. Third Party Involvement in Barroom Conflicts

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Michael J.; Osgood, D. Wayne; Felson, Richard B.; Wells, Samantha; Graham, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effect of situational variables on whether third parties intervene in conflicts in barroom settings, and whether they are aggressive or not when they intervene. Based on research on bystander intervention in emergencies, we hypothesized that third parties would be most likely to become involved in incidents with features that convey greater danger of serious harm. The situational variables indicative of danger were severity of aggression, whether the aggression was one-sided or mutual, gender, and level of intoxication of the initial participants in the conflict. Analyses consist of cross-tabulations and three-level Hierarchical Logistic Models (with bar, evening, and incidents as levels) for 860 incidents of verbal and physical aggression from 503 nights of observation in 87 large bars and clubs in Toronto, Canada. Third party involvement was more likely during incidents in which: (1) the aggression was more severe; (2) the aggression was mutual (vs. one-sided) aggression; (3) only males (vs. mixed gender) were involved; and (4) participants were more intoxicated. These incident characteristics were stronger predictors of nonaggressive third party involvement than aggressive third party involvement. The findings suggest that third parties are indeed responding to the perceived danger of serious harm. Improving our knowledge about this aspect of aggressive incidents is valuable for developing prevention and intervention approaches designed to reduce aggression in bars and other locations. PMID:23494773

  6. [Pulmonary involvement in connective tissue disease].

    PubMed

    Bartosiewicz, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    The connective tissue diseases are a variable group of autoimmune mediated disorders characterized by multiorgan damage. Pulmonary complications are common, usually occur after the onset of joint symptoms, but can also be initially presenting complaint. The respiratory system may be involved in all its component: airways, vessels, parenchyma, pleura and respiratory muscles. Lung involvement is an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality in the connective tissue diseases. Clinical course is highly variable - can range from mild to rapidly progressive, some processes are reversible, while others are irreversible. Thus, the identification of reversible disease , and separately progressive disease, are important clinical issues. The frequency, clinical presentation, prognosis and responce to therapy are different, depending on the pattern of involvement as well as on specyfic diagnostic method used to identify it. High- resolution computed tompography plays an important role in identifying patients with respiratory involvement. Pulmonary function tests are a sensitive tool detecting interstitial lung disease. In this article, pulmonary lung involvement accompanying most frequently apperaing connective tissue diseases - rheumatoid arthritis, systemic sclerosis, lupus erythematosus, polymyositis/dermatomyositis, Sjögrens syndrome and mixed connective tissue disaese are reviewed.

  7. Third party involvement in barroom conflicts.

    PubMed

    Parks, Michael J; Osgood, D Wayne; Felson, Richard B; Wells, Samantha; Graham, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the effect of situational variables on whether third parties intervene in conflicts in barroom settings, and whether they are aggressive or not when they intervene. Based on research on bystander intervention in emergencies, we hypothesized that third parties would be most likely to become involved in incidents with features that convey greater danger of serious harm. The situational variables indicative of danger were severity of aggression, whether the aggression was one-sided or mutual, gender, and level of intoxication of the initial participants in the conflict. Analyses consist of cross-tabulations and three-level Hierarchical Logistic Models (with bar, evening, and incidents as levels) for 860 incidents of verbal and physical aggression from 503 nights of observation in 87 large bars and clubs in Toronto, Canada. Third party involvement was more likely during incidents in which: (1) the aggression was more severe; (2) the aggression was mutual (vs. one-sided) aggression; (3) only males (vs. mixed gender) were involved; and (4) participants were more intoxicated. These incident characteristics were stronger predictors of non-aggressive third party involvement than aggressive third party involvement. The findings suggest that third parties are indeed responding to the perceived danger of serious harm. Improving our knowledge about this aspect of aggressive incidents is valuable for developing prevention and intervention approaches designed to reduce aggression in bars and other locations.

  8. Mothers, Men, and Child Protective Services Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Lawrence M.; Paxson, Christina; Waldfogel, Jane

    2010-01-01

    This study used data on 2,297 families from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to examine whether Child Protective Services (CPS) involvement varies by maternal relationship status. Families were categorized according to whether the mother was living with a (male) partner or spouse, was involved in a dating relationship, or was not romantically involved. Families in which the mother was romantically involved were further delineated by whether her partner was the biological father of none, some, or all of the children in her household. Results indicated that families in which the mother was living with a man who was not the biological father of all children and those in which she was not romantically involved were significantly more likely to be contacted by CPS than those in which she was living with the biological father of all resident children. These findings withstood the inclusion of detailed controls for the mother’s characteristics and behaviors and (in two-parent families) her partner’s characteristics and behaviors, suggesting that they are not fully explained by observable social selection factors. PMID:19581431

  9. The "other" vasculitis syndromes and kidney involvement.

    PubMed

    Ozen, Seza

    2010-09-01

    There are a number of vasculitides that are not confined to a specific vessel size, do not have characteristic features, and/or are not secondary to another disease. Most of these vasculitides are rare in childhood. Behçet disease is representative of this group as it involves vessels of any size on both the arterial and venous side. In addition to renal vascular involvement, Behçet disease may involve the kidney through glomerulonephritis, secondary amyloidosis and, rarely, tubulointerstital involvement. Vasculitis secondary to infections, malignancy, and drugs are not common among children. However, vasculitis may be associated with a number of rheumatic diseases in childhood and the auto-inflammatory syndromes (periodic fever syndromes). Auto-inflammatory syndromes are diseases characterized by periodic attacks of clinical and laboratory inflammation. Studies carried out during the past decade have provided valuable information on the mechanism of inflammation and innate immunity in general. This group of vasculitides is associated with secondary amyloidosis of the kidney if not treated. Hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis is an interesting vasculitic disease with frequent kidney involvement. Here, we introduce the reader to the wide scope of these diseases; although rare, such diseases represent a challenge to the nephrologist.

  10. Cherubism With Bilateral Mandible and Maxilla Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhaoyang; Zhai, Miao; Gan, Wei; Zhang, Hong; Zhou, Yuxia; Wen, Haixia

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cherubism is a rare, nonneoplastic, self-limiting fibro-osseous that occurs in children. Affected children usually appear normal at birth. Lesions are characterized by the replacement of bone with fibrovascular tissue containing many multinucleated giant cells. Most studies have reported cherubism to be familial and with bilateral involvement of the mandibles. The authors describe a nonfamilial case of cherubism, involving both the mandible and the maxilla, in a 4-year-old female child with slowly enlarging, painless, symmetrical swelling of both cheeks. Cherubism is a rare disease that is usually limited to the mandible, but the maxilla may be involved. Computed tomography scan and biopsy are helpful for early diagnosis. PMID:26656340

  11. Pleural involvement in systemic autoimmune disorders.

    PubMed

    Bouros, Demosthenes; Pneumatikos, Ioannis; Tzouvelekis, Argyris

    2008-01-01

    Systemic autoimmune diseases, a heterogeneous group of immunologically mediated inflammatory disorders including multiorgan involvement, can affect the pleura with various frequencies, either as a single presenting feature or as part of multisystem involvement. Rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus represent the most common immunological diseases that affect the pleural cavity; however, there is considerable variation regarding the reported prevalence, natural history and prognosis of pleural involvement in both conditions. The definition of pleural disease in the remaining systemic autoimmune disorders is unquestionably imprecise and assumptive, since it is risky to support premises based on single case reports or retrospective data from very small series. In this article, we will review the manifestations of pleural disease caused by rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, polymyositis/dermatomyositis, mixed connective tissue disease, ankylosing spondylitis, Sjogren's syndrome and Wegener's granulomatosis.

  12. Prescribing Errors Involving Medication Dosage Forms

    PubMed Central

    Lesar, Timothy S

    2002-01-01

    CONTEXT Prescribing errors involving medication dose formulations have been reported to occur frequently in hospitals. No systematic evaluations of the characteristics of errors related to medication dosage formulation have been performed. OBJECTIVE To quantify the characteristics, frequency, and potential adverse patient effects of prescribing errors involving medication dosage forms . DESIGN Evaluation of all detected medication prescribing errors involving or related to medication dosage forms in a 631-bed tertiary care teaching hospital. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Type, frequency, and potential for adverse effects of prescribing errors involving or related to medication dosage forms. RESULTS A total of 1,115 clinically significant prescribing errors involving medication dosage forms were detected during the 60-month study period. The annual number of detected errors increased throughout the study period. Detailed analysis of the 402 errors detected during the last 16 months of the study demonstrated the most common errors to be: failure to specify controlled release formulation (total of 280 cases; 69.7%) both when prescribing using the brand name (148 cases; 36.8%) and when prescribing using the generic name (132 cases; 32.8%); and prescribing controlled delivery formulations to be administered per tube (48 cases; 11.9%). The potential for adverse patient outcome was rated as potentially “fatal or severe” in 3 cases (0.7%), and “serious” in 49 cases (12.2%). Errors most commonly involved cardiovascular agents (208 cases; 51.7%). CONCLUSIONS Hospitalized patients are at risk for adverse outcomes due to prescribing errors related to inappropriate use of medication dosage forms. This information should be considered in the development of strategies to prevent adverse patient outcomes resulting from such errors. PMID:12213138

  13. Modeling fault among motorcyclists involved in crashes.

    PubMed

    Haque, Md Mazharul; Chin, Hoong Chor; Huang, Helai

    2009-03-01

    Singapore crash statistics from 2001 to 2006 show that the motorcyclist fatality and injury rates per registered vehicle are higher than those of other motor vehicles by 13 and 7 times, respectively. The crash involvement rate of motorcyclists as victims of other road users is also about 43%. The objective of this study is to identify the factors that contribute to the fault of motorcyclists involved in crashes. This is done by using the binary logit model to differentiate between at-fault and not-at-fault cases and the analysis is further categorized by the location of the crashes, i.e., at intersections, on expressways and at non-intersections. A number of explanatory variables representing roadway characteristics, environmental factors, motorcycle descriptions, and rider demographics have been evaluated. Time trend effect shows that not-at-fault crash involvement of motorcyclists has increased with time. The likelihood of night time crashes has also increased for not-at-fault crashes at intersections and expressways. The presence of surveillance cameras is effective in reducing not-at-fault crashes at intersections. Wet-road surfaces increase at-fault crash involvement at non-intersections. At intersections, not-at-fault crash involvement is more likely on single-lane roads or on median lane of multi-lane roads, while on expressways at-fault crash involvement is more likely on the median lane. Roads with higher speed limit have higher at-fault crash involvement and this is also true on expressways. Motorcycles with pillion passengers or with higher engine capacity have higher likelihood of being at-fault in crashes on expressways. Motorcyclists are more likely to be at-fault in collisions involving pedestrians and this effect is higher at night. In multi-vehicle crashes, motorcyclists are more likely to be victims than at-fault. Young and older riders are more likely to be at-fault in crashes than middle-aged group of riders. The findings of this study will help

  14. Serotonin involvement in pituitary-adrenal function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos-Danellis, J.; Kellar, K. J.; Kent, D.; Gonzales, C.; Berger, P. A.; Barchas, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments clarifying the effects of serotonin (5-HT) in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical system are surveyed. Lesion experiments which seek to determine functional maps of serotonergic input to areas involved in regulation are reported. Investigations of the effects of 5-HT levels on the plasma ACTH response to stress and the diurnal variation in basal plasma corticosterone are summarized, and the question of whether serotonergic transmission is involved in the regulation of all aspects of pituitary-adrenal function is considered with attention to the stimulatory and inhibitory action of 5-HT.

  15. Hand involvement in multiple hereditary exostosis.

    PubMed

    Wood, V E; Molitor, C; Mudge, M K

    1990-11-01

    In summary, patients with multiple hereditary exostosis often inherit hand involvement but rarely show hand deformity. The principal area of involvement appears to be around the MCP joint but the PIP joint is the most common area of deformity. Metacarpal shortening usually does not cause functional problems and need not be treated. Angular deformity, though rare, does cause problems and needs surgical treatment. Unfortunately, there is no evidence that prevention of deformity is possible by early excision of osteochondromas. Treatment, therefore, requires both osteochondroma excision and closing-wedge corrective osteotomy.

  16. Shuttle Student Involvement Project for Secondary Schools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, G. P.; Ladwig, A.

    1981-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has initiated the Shuttle Student Involvement Project for Secondary Schools (SSIP-S), an annual nationwide competition to select student proposals for experiments suitable for flight aboard the Space Shuttle. The objective of the project is to stimulate the study of science and technology in grades 9 through 12 by directly relating students to a space research program. This paper will analyze the first year of the project from a standpoint of how the competition was administered; the number and types of proposals that were submitted; and will discuss the process involved in preparing the winning experiments for eventual flight.

  17. Metabolic Disturbances in Diseases with Neurological Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, João M. N.; Schuck, Patrícia F.; Wenk, Gary L.; Ferreira, Gustavo C.

    2014-01-01

    Degeneration of specific neuronal populations and progressive nervous system dysfunction characterize neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. These findings are also reported in inherited diseases such as phenylketonuria and glutaric aciduria type I. The involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction in these diseases was reported, elicited by genetic alterations, exogenous toxins or buildup of toxic metabolites. In this review we shall discuss some metabolic alterations related to the pathophysiology of diseases with neurological involvement and aging process. These findings may help identifying early disease biomarkers and lead to more effective therapies to improve the quality of life of the patients affected by these devastating illnesses. PMID:25110608

  18. Involving Undergraduates in Solar Physics Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopresto, James C.; Jenkins, Nancy

    1996-05-01

    Via a combination of local funding, Cottrell Research Corporation and a pending NSF proposal, I am actively involved in including undergraduates in solar physics research. Severl undergraduates, about 2-3 per academic year over the past several years have participated in a combination of activities. This project has been ongoing since November of 1992. Student involvement includes; 1)acquiring image and other data via the INTERNET, 2) reducing dat via inhouse programs and image processing, 3) traveling to Kitt Peak to obtain solar spectral index data.

  19. Creative Productivity: Who Gets Involved? Who Benefits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebert, Thomas P.

    1992-01-01

    A project of the Talented and Gifted Program in Torrington, Connecticut, is described. The project involved classroom teachers, the gifted teacher, art teacher, and physical education teacher leading fourth-grade students in developing a life-size skeleton, a tape-recorded narration explaining the skeletal system, and a song. (JDD)

  20. Mergers and acquisitions involving equine veterinary practices.

    PubMed

    Jackman, Brad R; McCafferty, Owen E

    2009-12-01

    This article discusses mergers and acquisitions involving equine veterinary practices. Combining practices can be professionally and economically advantageous but requires a great deal of thought, planning, and implementation. If due diligence is performed and true business teamwork is undertaken, the benefits can be enormous and rewarding.

  1. Students' Interpretations of Mathematical Statements Involving Quantification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piatek-Jimenez, Katrina

    2010-01-01

    Mathematical statements involving both universal and existential quantifiers occur frequently in advanced mathematics. Despite their prevalence, mathematics students often have difficulties interpreting and proving quantified statements. Through task-based interviews, this study took a qualitative look at undergraduate mathematics students'…

  2. Improving Circulation Services through Staff Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kisby, Cynthia M.; Kilman, Marcus D.

    2007-01-01

    The Circulation Services Department at the University of Central Florida Libraries reports on leadership and training initiatives that resulted in a number of service-enhancing projects implemented by a highly motivated and involved staff. Key elements in reinvigorating the department included a change in leadership philosophy, increased…

  3. Increasing Parent Involvement with Parent Progress Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catchpole, Kimberly; Arnett, Nate

    2014-01-01

    Youth service providers recognize that involving families in children's learning is critical to academic achievement and overall healthy development. Yet youth service providers face ongoing challenges engaging families in out-of-school time programs. The authors, administrators of a nationally recognized youth development program, share their…

  4. Parent Involvement, Technology, and Media: Now What?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrikakou, Eva N.

    2016-01-01

    The rapid technological advances, the expansion of online media use, and the declining cost of mobile technology have introduced a communication factor that has precipitously affected parent involvement and the relationship between parents and children. The present article explores ways through which technology and online media have affected…

  5. Accessible Family Involvement in Early Childhood Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Johnetta W.; Storey, Pamela; Zhang, Chenyi

    2011-01-01

    Family involvement in early childhood classrooms benefits children, school staff, and families. The development of a strong relationship between early childhood programs and families is a critical component of developmentally appropriate practices. What strategies enable families to be full and active participants in their young children's…

  6. Processes Involved in Acquisition of Cognitive Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Carol A.; Bain, John

    Processes involved in the acquisition of cognitive skills were studied through an investigation of the efficacy of initially encoding knowledge of a cognitive skill in either declarative or procedural form. Subjects were 80 university students. The cognitive skill, learning the steps to program a simulated video cassette recorder (VCR), was taught…

  7. Factors Inhibiting Hispanic Parents' School Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jay; Stern, Kenneth; Shatrova, Zhanna

    2008-01-01

    Factors inhibiting Hispanic parental involvement in non-metropolitan area schools were studied. With the mandates of No Child Left Behind intensifying the need to improve the academic achievement of all at-risk groups of students in American schools, and with the relatively new phenomenon of large numbers of Hispanics settling in non-metropolitan…

  8. Chinese Parental Involvement: Reaching New Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantino, Rebecca; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Studies the involvement of 15 Chinese immigrant parents or guardians at 1 school in southern California, and provides information on home/school communication. The study determined, through additional interviews with 10 elementary teachers, at which levels of participation did parents and teachers see themselves working and the kinds of…

  9. The Personal Meaning of Participation: Enduring Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, N.

    1989-01-01

    Examines the personal meaning of participation, discussing recreation and consumer behavior literature, the development of an instrument to measure the concept, and the relationship between commitment to camping and choice of campground setting. Personal meaning of participation seems to be best represented by the concept of enduring involvement.…

  10. American Involvement in Fringe Religious Cults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Intellect, 1977

    1977-01-01

    "Twenty million Americans are involved in fringe religious cults such as spiritualism, Hare Krishna, Scientology, and Black Gospel groups," according to anthropologist Irving Zaretsky of the University of Chicago. He recently completed a 10-year period as a participant-observer of fringe religious groups in the San Francisco Bay area and the…

  11. Curriculum Development: Teacher Involvement in Curriculum Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsubaie, Merfat Ayesh

    2016-01-01

    In order for curriculum development to be effective and schools to be successful, teachers must be involved in the development process. An effective curriculum should reflect the philosophy, goals, objectives, learning experiences, instructional resources, and assessments that comprise a specific educational program ("Guide to curriculum…

  12. Opinions on Career Involvement of Married Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillin, Marvin R.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    The results of the study show that a potential area of conflict exists for young adults regarding the career involvement of the wife. College women preferred a career and marriage rather than either alone, while college men preferred that their wives not work after the birth of children. (BY)

  13. Trauma among Street-Involved Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Kimberly A.; Thompson, Sanna J.; Ferguson, Kristin M.; Yoder, Jamie R.; Kern, Leah

    2014-01-01

    Previous research documents that street-involved youth experience rates of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) that are significantly higher than their housed counterparts. Trauma and PTSD are of particular concern for homeless youth as they can negatively affect youths' ability to function adaptively and to transition off the streets.…

  14. [Severe eye involvement in pemphigus vulgaris].

    PubMed

    Baykal, H E; Pleyer, U; Sönnichsen, K; Thiel, H J; Zierhut, M

    1995-12-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an immune-mediated vesiculobullous disease of the skin and mucous membranes. Generally, patients with PV present first with oral lesions, which may precede the cutaneous lesions, such as bullae and erosions, by several months. An ocular manifestation is unusual. The most common ophthalmologic involvement in pemphigus is conjunctivitis, but without progressive scarring such as occurs in ocular cictricial pemphigoid. Corneal involvement is very rare. CASE REPORT. We report on severe ocular involvement in a 56-year-old male Turkish patient with PV. Ophthalmologic findings included conjunctival cicatrization, corneal ulceration and corneal perforation, despite immunosuppressive therapy with azathioprine and corticosteroids. A penetrating keratoplasty was performed, but rapidly failed because of corneal vascularization. CONCLUSION. If a chronic bullous dermatosis leads to severe eye involvement, PV should be considered in the differential diagnosis besides ocular cicatricial pemphigoid. Pemphigus vulgaris can be differentiated on the basis of clinical findings and histopathological and immunohistological features. Generally, PV can be treated with steroids or with a combination of an immunosuppressant and steroids. However, the combination of prednisone and azathioprine could not prevent corneal perforation in our patient.

  15. Commitment: A Behavioral Approach to Job Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiener, Yoash; Gechman, Arthur S.

    1977-01-01

    Work commitment behaviors were defined as a special class of socially acceptable work behaviors exceeding formal and/or normative expectations relevant to work. For a sample of 54 female elementary school teachers, work commitment measures demonstrated moderate correlations with two attitudinal measures of job involvement and a job satisfaction…

  16. Barriers to Parental Involvement for Disadvantaged Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Scott

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify obstacles which prevent active participation at home and at school for economically disadvantaged families. Parental involvement has been recognized as one of the most important variables influencing student academic achievement (Henrich & Gadaire, 2008; Jeynes, 2007; Stewart, 2008). Recent history…

  17. Parental Involvement to Parental Engagement: A Continuum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodall, Janet; Montgomery, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Based on the literature of the field, this article traces a continuum between parental involvement with schools, and parental engagement with children's learning. The article seeks to shed light on an area of confusion; previous research has shown that different stakeholder groups understand "parental engagement" in different ways.…

  18. Multi-Dimensional Perception of Parental Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Yael

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to define and conceptualize the term parental involvement. A questionnaire was administrated to parents (140), teachers (145), students (120) and high ranking civil servants in the Ministry of Education (30). Responses were analyzed through Smallest Space Analysis (SSA). The SSA solution among all groups rendered…

  19. Family Involvement in the Schools of Belize

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youngblom, Rachel K.; Houlihan, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to better understand the level of involvement of families in Belize with the education of their children. It was anticipated that information from this broadly distributed survey might show areas of current strengths and weakness in the current system that might allow for future adjustments.

  20. Physical Education Homework That Involves the Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Skip M.; Hannon, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Within the objectives of the "Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs" (CSPAP) and the "Let's Move in School Initiative" (LMIS), the PA leaders (PE teachers) strive to instill the knowledge, skills, and confidence that help their students be physically active for a lifetime. PA leaders strive to involve family and…

  1. Father Involvement among Malay Muslims in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhari, Rumaya; Yaacob, Siti Nor; Talib, Mansor Abu

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on findings from a study of 989 fathers of school-going children aged 10 through 16 from intact families in rural and urban areas in Selangor, Malaysia. The study aims to explore the factors that affect father involvement among Malay Muslims. Results indicate that fathers' education, marital quality, and number of children are…

  2. Parental Involvement in the Migrant Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridgway, John; And Others

    Although the Migrant Education Program dates from 1965, parental involvement in it is governed by very recent statutory and regulatory requirements. Current statutory requirements come from the Elementary Secondary Education Amendments (ESEA) of 1978. They concern the establishment of and consultation by State and Local Education Agencies (SEAs…

  3. 23 CFR 650.109 - Public involvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Public involvement. 650.109 Section 650.109 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Location and Hydraulic Design of Encroachments on Flood Plains § 650.109...

  4. 23 CFR 650.109 - Public involvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Public involvement. 650.109 Section 650.109 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Location and Hydraulic Design of Encroachments on Flood Plains § 650.109...

  5. 23 CFR 650.109 - Public involvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Public involvement. 650.109 Section 650.109 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Location and Hydraulic Design of Encroachments on Flood Plains § 650.109...

  6. 23 CFR 650.109 - Public involvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Public involvement. 650.109 Section 650.109 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Location and Hydraulic Design of Encroachments on Flood Plains § 650.109...

  7. 23 CFR 650.109 - Public involvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Public involvement. 650.109 Section 650.109 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Location and Hydraulic Design of Encroachments on Flood Plains § 650.109...

  8. Parent Involvement, Business Partnerships Promote Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Danny D.

    1994-01-01

    To tap the resources, knowledge, and expertise of parents, a West Virginia middle school initiated a parent-involvement program in fall 1992. The parents created their own program, the Red Apple Corps, which planned and promoted a back-to-school day, a birthday bulletin board, a tutoring program, a school pride award, and the school newspaper.…

  9. Business Involvement in Education: Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols Education Consulting Group, Edmonton (Alberta).

    The literature on business involvement in education in Canada, the United States, Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Switzerland, Japan, the United Kingdom, and other European countries was reviewed. Special attention was paid to the following topics: workplace trends/changes; skill requirements/deficits; youth employment/unemployment; integration versus…

  10. District Liaison Involvement in Partnership Academies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Debra M.; Kiltz, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    In this article, Gustafson and Kiltz reflect on why they got involved in the very first master's level Professional Administrative Leadership Academy developed at Kansas State University (KSU). The authors had the opportunity to observe school leaders and noted that the most effective leaders shared their power and knowledge freely with others.…

  11. Promoting Active Involvement in Today's Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conderman, Greg; Bresnahan, Val; Hedin, Laura

    2011-01-01

    In today's diverse classrooms and age of accountability, teachers need to use efficient, research-based instructional approaches that engage all students, promote interest and variety in learning and teaching, and provide immediate and continuous informal assessment data. This article presents a rationale for using active involvement techniques,…

  12. About Face: Visual Research Involving Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lodge, Caroline

    2009-01-01

    Some crucial issues in visual research involving children in schools are examined: the contradictions between the current widespread practice of visual recordings in public and private spheres and the cautious approach adopted in educational research; the dominance of adults and text in school research despite technology providing accessible ways…

  13. Rural Practitioners' Involvement in Response to Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Susan M.; McGuire, Beatriz; Krumdick, Nathaniel D.; Lee, Michelle M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study describes perceived levels of involvement in school-based Response to Intervention (RtI) initiatives as reported by occupational therapy (OT) practitioners from different types of communities (i.e., rural, suburban, and urban). In addition, it identifies differences among practice patterns of rural OT practitioners, compared…

  14. Parental Involvement and Young Women's Contraceptive Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisco, Michelle L.

    2005-01-01

    Young adult women in the United States tend to delay family formation, pursue higher education and professional jobs, and become sexually active before marriage. Using effective contraception is the best way to ensure that nonmarital parenthood does not disrupt educational and career plans. Because parental involvement in education shapes…

  15. Background Papers on Student Drug Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollander, Charles, Ed.

    The National Student Association (NSA) presents its position on student drug involvement in part 1 of this collection. A resolution calling for re-investigation of existing marijuana laws and guaranteed rights to the privacy of students was passed by NSA in August, 1966. This resolution is discussed. In part 2, papers presented at the National…

  16. Pamphlets involve staff in patient education.

    PubMed

    Matten, M R; McBride, L G

    1980-01-01

    Hospital staff involvement in a patient education program is critical to the program's success. Unfortunately, prepackaged programs, although attractive, ignore this important component. Pamphlet construction can be a convenient way to include various staff members in the development of a patient education program.

  17. The Politics and Policies of Parental Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    Today's parents are involved in college students' lives more than those of any previous generation. The purpose of this article is to help institutions constructively manage their relationships with parents, for the benefit of students, the institution, and the parents themselves. The author seeks to offer guidance to institutions in developing a…

  18. Parent Involvement in Education: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henniger, Michael L., Comp.

    This comprehensive bibliography on parent involvement in education includes published and unpublished materials on this topic dating from January 1970 through October 1978. References were gathered from the following sources: "Education Index,""Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature,""Books in Print," and the ERIC data base ("Current Index to…

  19. Involving Families and Community through Gardening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starbuck, Sara; Olthof, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Gardens are complex and require a variety of skills. Gross- and fine-motor activities, science concepts, language and literacy development, math, and community involvement are all part of the preschool gardening project the authors describe. They list gardening books for children and suggest container gardens for urban school settings. The authors…

  20. Understanding of Multiplicative Contexts Involving Fractions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardiman, Pamela Thibodeau; Mestre, Jose P.

    Numerous studies indicate that performance in solving single step multiplicative word problems is influenced by both problem structure and the types of numbers involved in the problem. For example, including numbers less than one often increases the difficulty of a problem. What remains unclear is how problem structure and number type interact in…

  1. 32 CFR 651.47 - Public involvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Public Involvement and the Scoping Process § 651.47 Public... it proceeds (AR 360-5). The plan will include the following: (1) Information dissemination to local... proposed action, as appropriate (AR 335-15)....

  2. 32 CFR 651.36 - Public involvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Assessment § 651.36 Public involvement. (a) The... completed EA/draft FNSI shall be made (see § 651.35) (see also AR 360-5 (Public Information)). The plan...

  3. 32 CFR 651.47 - Public involvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Public Involvement and the Scoping Process § 651.47 Public... it proceeds (AR 360-5). The plan will include the following: (1) Information dissemination to local... proposed action, as appropriate (AR 335-15)....

  4. 32 CFR 651.47 - Public involvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Public Involvement and the Scoping Process § 651.47 Public... it proceeds (AR 360-5). The plan will include the following: (1) Information dissemination to local... proposed action, as appropriate (AR 335-15)....

  5. 32 CFR 651.36 - Public involvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Assessment § 651.36 Public involvement. (a) The... completed EA/draft FNSI shall be made (see § 651.35) (see also AR 360-5 (Public Information)). The plan...

  6. 32 CFR 651.36 - Public involvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Assessment § 651.36 Public involvement. (a) The... completed EA/draft FNSI shall be made (see § 651.35) (see also AR 360-5 (Public Information)). The plan...

  7. 32 CFR 651.36 - Public involvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Assessment § 651.36 Public involvement. (a) The... completed EA/draft FNSI shall be made (see § 651.35) (see also AR 360-5 (Public Information)). The plan...

  8. Intergenerational Relationship Quality, Gender, and Grandparent Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Melissa A.; Scaramella, Laura V.; Neppl, Tricia K.; Ontai, Lenna; Conger, Rand D.

    2010-01-01

    This prospective, intergenerational study (N = 181) considered how parent (G1, Generation 1) and child (G2, Generation 2) relationship quality during adolescence and adulthood is associated with G1's level of involvement with their 3- to 4-year-old grandchildren (G3, Generation 3). Path model analyses indicated different patterns of results for…

  9. Getting Elementary Students Involved in Band

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Patience

    2009-01-01

    The author discusses getting elementary students involved in a band. The goals of an elementary band instructor should include introduction of good practice habits, working within an ensemble, and rehearsal procedures, along with the focusing on the essentials of music. Instructors should let students use the basic instruments: flute, clarinet,…

  10. Understanding Current Trends in Family Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney-Hall, Karla C.

    2008-01-01

    Parents of today's college students have much on their minds: paying for college, coping with their children's history of depression, ensuring safety, managing complex roommate relationships, and emphasizing academic success, to name just a few. Parental involvement has reportedly grown over the past few years, owing to many contributing factors:…

  11. Community College Administrator Involvement with Forensics Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskill, Rex W.

    The administration at Normandale Community College in Bloomington, Minnesota, has had tremendous influence on the college's forensics program. The first positive administrative decision made was to involve every full-time person hired in speech and theatre in the activity part of the program. Another positive aspect of the administration is its…

  12. Community Involvement in School Management in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veloso, Luísa; Craveiro, Daniela; Rufino, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the ways in which the community is involved in Portuguese school management. It is based on an analysis of the external evaluation reports of 298 Portuguese schools for the academic years 2006-07, 2007-08 and 2008-09. The corpus analysed allowed the identification of two main aspects of the participation processes: (1) local…

  13. Parent, Family and Community Involvement. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1997

    1997-01-01

    This theme issue includes six articles about nurturing parent and community involvement in schools, particularly schools serving Hispanic, immigrant, or economically disadvantaged students. "Thinking about Learning: The Community and Academic Standards" (Oanh H. Maroney, Aurelio M. Montemayor) describes a Corpus Christi (Texas) project…

  14. Increasing Student Involvement in Cognitive Aging Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henkel, Linda A.

    2006-01-01

    The involvement of undergraduates in research on aging has benefits for the students and for the faculty mentors, as well as for their departments, their universities, and the field of gerontology at large. This article reports on the application of a 3-year Academic Research Enhancement Award (AREA) by the National Institute on Aging awarded to…

  15. Voter Involvement in the 1980 Presidential Election.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadley, Roger; Hamilton, Peter K.

    A study explored the relationship between voters' involvement in political elections and their reactions to different media as sources of political information. Data were gathered from 246 telephone interviews conducted 1 month prior to the 1980 United States presidential campaign. Respondents were asked to (1) name political issues discussed in…

  16. Schools Seek to Channel Parent Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Bess

    2008-01-01

    Schools flush with students' parents showing up and helping out have long been the envy of those where classrooms echo on back-to-school night. But in recent years, incidents reported in the news media have dabbed shadows on that glowing picture of parent involvement, raising issues about whether demanding adults have made teachers' jobs harder…

  17. 36 CFR 212.52 - Public involvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Public involvement. 212.52 Section 212.52 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TRAVEL...) General. The public shall be allowed to participate in the designation of National Forest System...

  18. 36 CFR 212.52 - Public involvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Public involvement. 212.52 Section 212.52 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TRAVEL...) General. The public shall be allowed to participate in the designation of National Forest System...

  19. 36 CFR 212.52 - Public involvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Public involvement. 212.52 Section 212.52 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TRAVEL...) General. The public shall be allowed to participate in the designation of National Forest System...

  20. 36 CFR 212.52 - Public involvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public involvement. 212.52 Section 212.52 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TRAVEL...) General. The public shall be allowed to participate in the designation of National Forest System...