Science.gov

Sample records for internal auditory meatus

  1. Neuromuscular choristoma of the internal auditory meatus.

    PubMed

    Nikolaou, Georgios; Röösli, Christof; Huber, Alex; Probst, Rudolf

    2012-01-01

    Choristomas of the internal auditory meatus are exceedingly rare tumors. In most cases, neuromuscular choristomas have initially been misdiagnosed as vestibular schwannomas (VS). No known characteristics in the clinical presentation or in imaging exist distinguishing these tumors from VS, which are the most common tumors at this location [Smith et al.: AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1997;18:327-329]. We present a case of a neuromuscular choristoma of the 8th cranial nerve that was operated because of growth demonstrated on two MRI scans 3 months apart. We were convinced that this young patient would require treatment sometime in the future, and we believed that an operation at that time had higher chances to preserve the anatomical structures. Histomorphological examination of the tumor revealed a nodular lesion with fascicular and nodular assembled smooth muscle cells, connective tissue and nerve fibers.

  2. A solitary fibrous tumor in the external auditory meatus.

    PubMed

    Izumaru, Shinsuke; Yoshida, Yoshikazu; Nakashima, Tadashi

    2004-03-01

    We herein describe a rare case of a spindle-cell neoplasm arising in the external auditory canal. A 38-year-old man presented with a progressive swelling of the entrance of left external auditory meatus. The patient underwent a surgical removal of the tumor. A light microscopic study showed a spindle-cell proliferation with a collagenous stroma and a staghorn-like vascular pattern. The tumor cells were immunohistochemically positive for vimentin and CD34. The tumor was thereafter diagnosed to be a solitary fibrous tumor (SFT). SFTs most commonly occur in the pleura and are supposed to originate from submesothelial connective tissue. Although, several cases of extrapleural SFT have been reported, no SFT arising in the entrance of left external auditory canal have ever been reported in the literature. As a basically benign tumor, it occasionally relapses or metastasizes after excision, and therefore a careful follow up is necessary.

  3. Perception Mechanisms of Bone-Conducted Ultrasound Assessed by Acoustic Characteristics in the External Auditory Meatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazuhito Ito,; Seiji Nakagawa,

    2010-07-01

    Acoustic fields/vibrations in the external auditory meatus (ear canal) and tympanic membrane (TM) under bone-conducted ultrasonic stimulation were measured to elucidate the contributions of the osseotympanic and inertial routes to bone-conducted ultrasonic (BCU) perception. Evidence showing nonlinear distortions, especially the generation of audible subharmonics in the outer and middle ear, was examined. In the results, we did not find any audible signals corresponding to the subjective pitch of a BCU tone in the acoustic fields for the auditory meatus and TM vibrations. This suggests that nonlinear distortions in the osseotympanic and inertial routes do not contribute to bone-conducted ultrasonic perception. Specific properties of perception may be related to mechanisms in the cochlea or afferent neural pathway.

  4. Staphylococcus schleiferi subsp. coagulans subsp. nov., isolated from the external auditory meatus of dogs with external ear otitis.

    PubMed

    Igimi, S; Takahashi, E; Mitsuoka, T

    1990-10-01

    A new subspecies, Staphylococcus schleiferi subsp. coagulans, was isolated from the external auditory meatus of dogs suffering from external ear otitis and is described on the basis of studies of 21 strains. Phenotypic studies showed that these strains are more closely related to Staphylococcus intermedius than to other staphylococci, but DNA hybridization studies indicated that they are closely related to Staphylococcus schleiferi N850274T. On the basis of biochemical distinctiveness (positive test tube coagulase test and different carbohydrate reactions) and the etiological importance (frequent isolation from otitis specimens from dogs) of these strains, we propose to classify them as a subspecies of S. schleiferi. The strains of this new subspecies are coagulase tube test, beta-hemolysin, and heat-stable nuclease positive but clumping factor negative. A simple scheme for the differentiation of S. schleiferi subsp. coagulans from the other coagulase-positive staphylococci is presented. The type strain is GA211 (= JCM 7470).

  5. Osteoma of the external auditory meatus presenting as an aural polyp.

    PubMed

    Toma, A G; Fisher, E W

    1993-10-01

    Isolated osteomata of the external auditory canal are benign and often symptomless lesions, and are distinct from the much commoner exostoses. A case is reported in which an osteoma presented as a recurrent 'aural polyp' due to a fibroepithelial polypoid reaction in the overlying skin. The polyp and the osteoma were excised surgically. We believe this to be the first reported case to present in this manner.

  6. Anatomy of the fundus of the internal acoustic meatus - micro-computed tomography study.

    PubMed

    Kozerska, M; Skrzat, J

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to present micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) high resolution images of the fundus of internal acoustic meatus (FIAM) and characterise the normal appearance of its singular areas which are places of passage of numerous anatomical structures. By using micro-CT we obtain detailed volume rendering images presenting topography of the FIAM in 3-dimensional (3D) space. We figured out that 3D reconstructions obtained from micro-CT scans can precisely demonstrate all areas of the FIAM (facial nerve area, cochlear area, superior and inferior vestibular areas, singular foramen). Application of this technique allows finding out new anatomical structures like the foramen of the transverse crest, which is not described in literature. Hence, we estimated the size of each area of the FIAM by measuring their minimal and maximal diameter. In the studied material we did not find out any statistically significant difference between mean diameters calculated for infant and adult individuals. PMID:26339817

  7. [The threshold levels of the stapedius reflex depending on the relationship between the gas pressure in the external auditory meatus and the middle ear].

    PubMed

    Petrov, S M; Azizov, G R; Gritsiuk, M I; Timenko, A N

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to detect and elucidate effects of a single factor (gas pressure) responsible for the threshold levels of stapedius reflex. It was shown that the threshold reflexes were recorded at 105 dB SPL when the gas pressure in the external auditory meatus decreased by 150-200 pPa against the atmospheric pressure and when it increased by 100-150 pPa. These effects can be accounted for by the reduced compliance of the tympanic membrane and different changes in the state of the auditory ossicles undergoing compression and tension. When entering the most comfortable stapedial reflex levels into the patient's tuning chart, an account should be taken of the maximum value of tympanic membrane compliance. PMID:25377672

  8. [Hidradenoma of the external acoustic meatus: ceruminoma].

    PubMed

    Gianotti, R

    1990-02-01

    Benign tumour originating from the ceruminous glands of the external auditory meatus are quite rare and present similar histological features to sweat gland tumours elsewhere. The paper reports the case of a nodule in the external auditory meatus diagnosed as a myoepitheliomatous-type hidradenoma . Three histological forms of benign ceruminous gland tumours are recognised: the myoepitheliomatous, cribriform and mixed salivary type. Currently, the term hidradenoma of the external ear is preferred.

  9. Isolation and characterization of staphylococci from external auditory meatus of dogs with or without otitis externa with special reference to Staphylococcus schleiferi subsp. coagulans isolates.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Kenji; Shimizu, Akira; Kawano, Junichi; Uchida, Eiji; Haruna, Akihiro; Igimi, Shizunobu

    2005-03-01

    Staphylococci were isolated from the external auditory meatus in 14 (48.3%) of 29 dogs affected with otitis externa (OE dogs) and 28 (68.3%) of 41 dogs without OE (non-OE dogs). Twenty-two OE isolates were identified as belonging to 12 species, and 42 non-OE isolates were identified as belonging to 13 species. The predominant species found in both OE and non-OE isolates were S. intermedius, and S. epidermidis. Thirty-eight (59.4%) of 64 isolates were resistant to one or more of the 17 antimicrobial agents tested. Resistance to PCG and ABPC was most frequent. S. schleiferi subsp. coagulans, a recent etiologic agent of canine OE, was isolated from OE and non-OE dogs. All of the 5 S. schleiferi subsp. coagulans isolates showed typical characteristics. No clear difference in the extracellular enzyme or toxin profiles, nor in the PFGE patterns, was demonstrated between the OE and non-OE isolates of S. schleiferi subsp. coagulans. A new PCR primer set specific for 16S rDNA was designed to identify strains of S. schleiferi subsp. coagulans. The amplified fragment was detected in all of the 5 isolates as well as the type strain GA 211 (=JCM 7470) and a reference strain GA 11, but was not detected in any strains of the related species, S. aureus, S. intermedius and S. hyicus. The PCR may allow a simple, rapid and precise identification of S. schleiferi subsp. coagulans, in addition to the standard tube test for free coagulase.

  10. Osteoma of the internal auditory canal.

    PubMed

    Kovacić, J; Subarić, M; Lajtman, Z; Curcić, I

    2001-01-01

    Osteomas of the internal auditory canal, inaccesible to clinical examination, are rare lesions. There are only 14 cases of osteomas and exostoses of the internal auditory canal reported in the international medical literature. A patient with an osteoma of the internal auditory canal is presented, along with differential diagnosis and possible etiologic factors for the lesion. The auditory brainsteam evoked response testing showed increased absolute latencies of 1 wave and discrepancy of the wave morphology due to bony compression of the eight nerve in the internal auditory canal. Computed tomography showed a bony growth in the internal auditory canal. Magnetic response showed no abnormalities. No surgery was performed since the symptoms improved by conservative therapy.

  11. Bilateral osseous stenosis of the internal auditory canal: case report.

    PubMed

    Ciorba, A; Aimoni, C; Bianchini, C; Borrelli, M; Calzolari, F; Martini, A

    2011-06-01

    Osteomas as well as exostoses of the internal auditory canal are rare, benign, usually slow-growing lesions. The most common localizations of these temporal bone lesions are the mastoid cortex and the external auditory canal. A rare case is reported of bilateral osseous stenosis of the internal auditory canal, in the absence of clinical (auditory, vestibular and facial nerve) symptoms. In the absence of auditory, vestibular and/or facial nerve symptoms, long-term follow-up should be assessed; surgical intervention may be warranted only if symptoms are present.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging of the internal auditory canal

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, D.L.; Herfkins, R.; Koehler, P.R.; Millen, S.J.; Shaffer, K.A.; Williams, A.L.; Haughton, V.M.

    1984-04-01

    Three patients with exclusively or predominantly intracanalicular neuromas and 5 with presumably normal internal auditory canals were examined with prototype 1.4- or 1.5-tesla magnetic resonance (MR) scanners. MR images showed the 7th and 8th cranial nerves in the internal auditory canal. The intracanalicular neuromas had larger diameter and slightly greater signal strength than the nerves. Early results suggest that minimal enlargement of the nerves can be detected even in the internal auditory canal.

  13. Osteoma of the internal auditory canal.

    PubMed

    Estrem, S A; Vessely, M B; Oro, J J

    1993-03-01

    The use of MRI for the evaluation of lesions in the internal auditory canal presents a potential pitfall in the diagnosis of bony lesions of the IAC, because bone is poorly visualized with this method of imaging. The presence of marrow in an osteoma might aid in its detection, since fat in the marrow has a bright signal intensity of T1-weighted imaging. Computed tomography remains the imaging modality of choice for bony lesions of the temporal bone. We demonstrate a case of IAC osteoma in which surgical removal resulted in improvement of symptoms. The gross and microscopic appearance of the IAC osteoma in this case is similar to the characteristic findings of osteomas of the EAC. This suggests that the criteria applied to osteomas and exostoses of the EAC may also be used to differentiate bony lesions of the IAC.

  14. Rare tumors of the internal auditory canal.

    PubMed

    Dazert, Stefan; Aletsee, Christoph; Brors, Dominik; Mlynski, Robert; Sudhoff, Holger; Hildmann, Henning; Helms, Jan

    2005-07-01

    The study was performed to identify the incidence and histology of rare tumors with growth restricted to the internal auditory canal (IAC) that are different from vestibular schwannoma (VS). Furthermore, the question was addressed whether a preoperative diagnosis would be possible in these cases. A series of 351 patients that were operated on for IAC tumors through a transtemporal or translabyrinthine approach was investigated retrospectively. Cases with a tumor entity other than VS were analyzed for symptoms, radiological diagnosis, intraoperative findings and postoperative histolopatology to determine if a differential diagnosis to the common VS can be established prior to surgery. In 15 out of 351 cases (4.3%), uncommon processes of the IAC were determined by histology (6 lipomas, 3 hemangiomas, 2 neurofibromas, 2 menigiomas, 1 facial neuroma and 1 case of bilateral malignant lymphoma). The symptoms and the clinical manifestations were typical for patients with VS so that a preoperative differential diagnosis was not possible in the majority of cases. An analysis of the operation reports revealed that in 10 out of the 15 cases the surgeon suspected an unusual tumor of the IAC during surgery. The results of the present investigation suggest that rare lesions of the IAC can be expected in less than 5% of the cases and that preoperative diagnosis of rare IAC tumors is difficult. Intraoperative findings such as adhesion to cranial nerves and consistency of the tumor often indicate unusual processes, but histological analysis of the removed tissue is essential for the definite diagnosis. PMID:15947938

  15. [Hyperostosis of the internal auditory canal : An incidental finding?].

    PubMed

    Mastromonaco, P; Stöckli, S

    2015-07-01

    In contrast to the fairly common exostoses in the external auditory canal, hyperostoses and osteomas of the internal auditory canal are extremely rare. In this case report we present a patient with sudden right-sided sensorineural hearing loss, in whom imaging revealed hyperostosis with bilateral stenosis of the internal auditory canal. Whether the connection of such radiological findings with dysfunction of cranial nerves VII and VIII be causal or coincidental is controversially discussed in the literature. Therefore, the indication for surgical intervention should be considered with extreme caution. Despite examination of our radiology database comprising almost 1000 MRI/CT temporal bone investigations, we could find no other cases of hyperostosis of the petrous bone. This case thus represents a rare disease, which should be considered a differential diagnosis. PMID:25135374

  16. Bilateral osteomas and exostoses of the internal auditory canal.

    PubMed

    Schutt, Christopher A; Guo, Jennifer N; Bagwell, Kenneth A; Bulsara, Ketan R; Malhotra, Ajay; Michaelides, Elias

    2015-01-01

    Osteomas and exostoses are benign tumors of the bone that occur in the head and neck region but are rarely found within the internal auditory canal (IAC). In this report, we review the literature on bony lesions of the IAC and present two cases: one case of bilateral compressive osteomas and one case of bilateral compressive exostoses of the IAC.

  17. Reduction of internal noise in auditory perceptual learning.

    PubMed

    Jones, Pete R; Moore, David R; Amitay, Sygal; Shub, Daniel E

    2013-02-01

    This paper examines what mechanisms underlie auditory perceptual learning. Fifteen normal hearing adults performed two-alternative, forced choice, pure tone frequency discrimination for four sessions. External variability was introduced by adding a zero-mean Gaussian random variable to the frequency of each tone. Measures of internal noise, encoding efficiency, bias, and inattentiveness were derived using four methods (model fit, classification boundary, psychometric function, and double-pass consistency). The four methods gave convergent estimates of internal noise, which was found to decrease from 4.52 to 2.93 Hz with practice. No group-mean changes in encoding efficiency, bias, or inattentiveness were observed. It is concluded that learned improvements in frequency discrimination primarily reflect a reduction in internal noise. Data from highly experienced listeners and neural networks performing the same task are also reported. These results also indicated that auditory learning represents internal noise reduction, potentially through the re-weighting of frequency-specific channels.

  18. 3D MPRAGE evaluation of the internal auditory canals.

    PubMed

    Shah, M; Ross, J S; Tkach, J; Modic, M T

    1993-01-01

    A heavily T1-weighted three-dimensional (3D) gradient echo sequence utilizing a 180 degrees inversion pulse has become available for clinical use, called magnetization prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo (MPRAGE). With the appropriate choice of repetition time, echo time, flip angle, and inversion time (TI), T1-weighted imaging can be performed with excellent anatomic detail and a good signal-to-noise ratio. We performed an initial evaluation of this sequence for detection of abnormalities of the internal auditory canals compared with conventional spin echo (SE) imaging. Fifteen men and 15 women were evaluated. Diagnoses included normal (n = 15 patients), acoustic neuromas (n = 7 tumors in 4 patients), cerebellopontine angle meningiomas (n = 3), postoperative for acoustic neuroma without residual tumor (n = 2), postoperative with evidence of residual tumor (n = 3), glomus jugulare (n = 1), Bell palsy (n = 1), and vestibular enhancement of probable viral etiology (n = 1). The 3D MPRAGE study consisted of 128 coronal partitions, (10/4/1), 10 degrees flip angle, 130 x 256 matrix, 2 mm slice thickness. TI time of 350 ms, 1 s recovery time, and 5.43 min examination time. All enhancing lesions identified on the conventional SE T1-weighted imaging were also identified on the MPRAGE imaging. No diagnostic difference existed between the MPRAGE and conventional SE sequences when pathology was present, but the MPRAGE sequence did have poorer resolution in the axial reformats related to the 130 x 256 in-plane matrix. While not currently able to replace conventional two-dimensional SE imaging, 3D MPRAGE may provide a valuable adjunct to the routine imaging protocol. This technique could replace the coronal T1-weighted SE sequence and provide excellent gray-white differentiation and many contiguous thin sections without a great increase in overall examination time. PMID:8491908

  19. Osteomas and exostoses of the external auditory canal - medical and surgical management.

    PubMed

    Kemink, J L; Graham, M D

    1982-04-01

    Osteomas and exostoses have distinct clinical and histopathologic features. Osteomas are usually solitary, pedunculated, bony growths attached to the tympanosquamous or tympanomastoid suture line, characterized histologically by an internal structure of abundant discrete fibrovascular channels surrounded by irregularly oriented lamellated bone. Exostoses are usually multiple, bilaterally symmetrical, broad based elevations of bone involving the tympanic bone. They are histologically characterized by parallel, concentric layers of subperiosteal bone. The infrequent symptoms resulting from these lesions can usually be managed medically; however, on occasion surgical removal is indicated. While surgical removal of the osteoma is usually possible via the external auditory meatus, we recommend that an exostosis be removed utilizing a postauricular approach.

  20. The influence of signal type on the internal auditory representation of a room

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teret, Elizabeth

    Currently, architectural acousticians make no real distinction between a room impulse response and the auditory system's internal representation of a room. With this lack of a good model for the auditory representation of a room, it is indirectly assumed that our internal representation of a room is independent of the sound source needed to make the room characteristics audible. The extent to which this assumption holds true is examined with perceptual tests. Listeners are presented with various pairs of signals (music, speech, and noise) convolved with synthesized impulse responses of different reverberation times. They are asked to adjust the reverberation of one of the signals to match the other. Analysis of the data show that the source signal significantly influences perceived reverberance. Listeners are less accurate when matching reverberation times of varied signals than they are with identical signals. Additional testing shows that perception of reverberation can be linked to the existence of transients in the signal.

  1. Aphasia and Auditory Processing after Stroke through an International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Lens.

    PubMed

    Purdy, Suzanne C; Wanigasekara, Iruni; Cañete, Oscar M; Moore, Celia; McCann, Clare M

    2016-08-01

    Aphasia is an acquired language impairment affecting speaking, listening, reading, and writing. Aphasia occurs in about a third of patients who have ischemic stroke and significantly affects functional recovery and return to work. Stroke is more common in older individuals but also occurs in young adults and children. Because people experiencing a stroke are typically aged between 65 and 84 years, hearing loss is common and can potentially interfere with rehabilitation. There is some evidence for increased risk and greater severity of sensorineural hearing loss in the stroke population and hence it has been recommended that all people surviving a stroke should have a hearing test. Auditory processing difficulties have also been reported poststroke. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) can be used as a basis for describing the effect of aphasia, hearing loss, and auditory processing difficulties on activities and participation. Effects include reduced participation in activities outside the home such as work and recreation and difficulty engaging in social interaction and communicating needs. A case example of a young man (M) in his 30s who experienced a left-hemisphere ischemic stroke is presented. M has normal hearing sensitivity but has aphasia and auditory processing difficulties based on behavioral and cortical evoked potential measures. His principal goal is to return to work. Although auditory processing difficulties (and hearing loss) are acknowledged in the literature, clinical protocols typically do not specify routine assessment. The literature and the case example presented here suggest a need for further research in this area and a possible change in practice toward more routine assessment of auditory function post-stroke. PMID:27489401

  2. The Microbiome of the Middle Meatus in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, Vijay R.; Feazel, Leah M.; Gitomer, Sarah A.; Ir, Diana; Robertson, Charles E.; Frank, Daniel N.

    2013-01-01

    Rhinitis and rhinosinusitis are multifactorial disease processes in which bacteria may play a role either in infection or stimulation of the inflammatory process. Rhinosinusitis has been historically studied with culture-based techniques, which have implicated several common pathogens in disease states. More recently, the NIH Human Microbiome Project has examined the microbiome at a number of accessible body sites, and demonstrated differences among healthy and diseased patients. Recent DNA-based sinus studies have suggested that healthy sinuses are not sterile, as was previously believed, but the normal sinonasal microbiome has yet to be thoroughly examined. Middle meatus swab specimens were collected from 28 consecutive patients presenting with no signs or symptoms of rhinosinusitis. Bacterial colonization was assessed in these specimens using quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA pyrosequencing. All subjects were positive for bacterial colonization of the middle meatus. Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Propionibacterium acnes were the most prevalent and abundant microorganisms detected. Rich and diverse bacterial assemblages are present in the sinonasal cavity in the normal state, including opportunistic pathogens typically found in the nasopharynx. This work helps establish a baseline for understanding how the sinonasal microbiome may impact diseases of the upper airways. PMID:24386477

  3. The microbiome of the middle meatus in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Vijay R; Feazel, Leah M; Gitomer, Sarah A; Ir, Diana; Robertson, Charles E; Frank, Daniel N

    2013-01-01

    Rhinitis and rhinosinusitis are multifactorial disease processes in which bacteria may play a role either in infection or stimulation of the inflammatory process. Rhinosinusitis has been historically studied with culture-based techniques, which have implicated several common pathogens in disease states. More recently, the NIH Human Microbiome Project has examined the microbiome at a number of accessible body sites, and demonstrated differences among healthy and diseased patients. Recent DNA-based sinus studies have suggested that healthy sinuses are not sterile, as was previously believed, but the normal sinonasal microbiome has yet to be thoroughly examined. Middle meatus swab specimens were collected from 28 consecutive patients presenting with no signs or symptoms of rhinosinusitis. Bacterial colonization was assessed in these specimens using quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA pyrosequencing. All subjects were positive for bacterial colonization of the middle meatus. Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Propionibacterium acnes were the most prevalent and abundant microorganisms detected. Rich and diverse bacterial assemblages are present in the sinonasal cavity in the normal state, including opportunistic pathogens typically found in the nasopharynx. This work helps establish a baseline for understanding how the sinonasal microbiome may impact diseases of the upper airways. PMID:24386477

  4. Comparative case series of exostoses and osteomas of the internal auditory canal.

    PubMed

    Baik, Fred M; Nguyen, Linda; Doherty, Joni K; Harris, Jeffrey P; Mafee, Mahmood F; Nguyen, Quyen T

    2011-04-01

    Exostoses and osteomas are benign bony lesions of the auditory canal. Although common in the external auditory canal, they are rare and difficult to distinguish in the internal auditory canal (IAC). In this literature review and case presentation, we define radiologic and histologic criteria to differentiate exostoses from osteomas of the IAC. Two patients with exostoses and 1 patient with an osteoma of the IAC are described here. Patient 1 presented with disabling vertigo and was found to have bilateral exostoses with nerve impingement on the right. After removal of the right-sided exostoses via retrosigmoid craniotomy, the patient had complete resolution of her symptoms over 1 year. Patient 2 presented with bilateral pulsatile tinnitus and vertigo and was found to have bilateral IAC exostoses. Patient 3 presented with hearing loss and tinnitus, and a unilateral IAC osteoma was ultimately discovered. Because of the mild nature of their symptoms, patients 2 and 3 were managed without surgery. We show that IAC osteomas can be differentiated from exostoses by radiographic evidence of bone marrow in high-resolution computed tomography scans, or by the presence of fibrovascular channels on histologic analysis. Management of these rare entities is customized on the basis of patient symptoms.

  5. Visibility of the urethral meatus and risk of urinary tract infections in uncircumcised boys

    PubMed Central

    Dubrovsky, Alexander Sasha; Foster, Bethany J.; Jednak, Roman; Mok, Elise; McGillivray, David

    2012-01-01

    Background: Uncircumcised boys are at higher risk for urinary tract infections than circumcised boys. Whether this risk varies with the visibility of the urethral meatus is not known. Our aim was to determine whether there is a hierarchy of risk among uncircumcised boys whose urethral meatuses are visible to differing degrees. Methods: We conducted a prospective cross-sectional study in one pediatric emergency department. We screened 440 circumcised and uncircumcised boys. Of these, 393 boys who were not toilet trained and for whom the treating physician had requested a catheter urine culture were included in our analysis. At the time of catheter insertion, a nurse characterized the visibility of the urethral meatus (phimosis) using a 3-point scale (completely visible, partially visible or nonvisible). Our primary outcome was urinary tract infection, and our primary exposure variable was the degree of phimosis: completely visible versus partially or nonvisible urethral meatus. Results: Cultures grew from urine samples from 30.0% of uncircumcised boys with a completely visible meatus, and from 23.8% of those with a partially or nonvisible meatus (p = 0.4). The unadjusted odds ratio (OR) for culture growth was 0.73 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.35–1.52), and the adjusted OR was 0.41 (95% CI 0.17–0.95). Of the boys who were circumcised, 4.8% had urinary tract infections, which was significantly lower than the rate among uncircumcised boys with a completely visible urethral meatus (unadjusted OR 0.12 [95% CI 0.04–0.39], adjusted OR 0.07 [95% CI 0.02–0.26]). Interpretation: We did not see variation in the risk of urinary tract infection with the visibility of the urethral meatus among uncircumcised boys. Compared with circumcised boys, we saw a higher risk of urinary tract infection in uncircumcised boys, irrespective of urethral visibility. PMID:22777988

  6. Endoscopic Transcanal Retrocochlear Approach to the Internal Auditory Canal with Cochlear Preservation: Pilot Cadaveric Study.

    PubMed

    Kempfle, Judith; Kozin, Elliott D; Remenschneider, Aaron K; Eckhard, Andreas; Edge, Albert; Lee, Daniel J

    2016-05-01

    Contemporary operative approaches to the internal auditory canal (IAC) require the creation of large surgical portals for visualization with associated morbidity, including hearing loss, vestibular dysfunction, facial nerve injury, and skull base defects that increase the risk of cerebrospinal fluid leak. Transcanal approaches to the IAC have been possible only via a transcochlear technique. To preserve cochlear function, we describe a novel endoscopic transcanal infracochlear approach to the IAC in cadaveric temporal bones. Navigation fiducials were secured on fresh cadaveric heads, and real-time computed tomography imaging was used for surgical guidance. With a combination of curved instruments and rigid angled endoscopy, a transcanal hypotympanotomy and subcochlear tunnel were created with superior extension to access the IAC. Postprocedure imaging and temporal bone dissection confirmed access to the IAC without injury to the cochlea or neighboring neurovascular structures. PMID:26932951

  7. Cerebellopontine angle and internal auditory canal: neurovascular anatomy on gas CT cisternograms

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, C.R.; Hasso, A.N.; Drayer, B.P.; Hinshaw, D.B. Jr.; Thompson, J.R.

    1985-03-01

    The authors reviewed 103 normal gas CT cisternograms to delineate the appearance of normal neurovascular structures in the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) and internal auditory canal (IAC). Cranial nerves VII and VIII were identified in the CPA in 97% of cases, either separately (53%) or as a bundle (44%). Intracanalicular branches of the VIIIth cranial nerve were identified in 20% of cases, and cranial nerve V was visualized in the CPA in 14%. The characteristic vascular loop, usually the anterior inferior cerebellar artery, was visible in 35% of cases, and, in 22% of visualized cases, was in an intracanalicular location. In 10% of cases, greater than 66% of the IAC was occupied by the neurovascular bundle. Familiarity with the normal anatomy and variations seen on gas CT cisternograms is necessary to prevent false-positive interpretations.

  8. [Position and variations in the position of the canal system in the temporal bone. I. The canals of the pars petrosa between the margo superior and the meatus acusticus internus].

    PubMed

    Lang, J; Hack, C

    1985-04-01

    The canals of the temporal bone were measured on 103 objects at different levels. The distances (mean and extremes) were estimated as well as the width of the following: the facial canal, semicircular canals, vestibule, internal acoustic meatus, sigmoid sinus, superior bulb of the jugular vein, carotid canal, eustachian tube, perilymphatic and endolymphatic ducts and sac, glossopharyngeal nerve and mastoid cells.

  9. Morphometric Analysis of the Internal Auditory Canal by Computed Tomography Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Sergio Ricardo; Ajzen, Sergio; D´Ippolito, Giuseppe; Alonso, Luis; Isotani, Sadao; Lederman, Henrique

    2012-01-01

    Background Many clinical and experimental studies have been done to analyze the anatomical and functional aspects of the internal auditory canal (IAC) in human beings since there are great inter-individual variability and structural variations that may occur regarding the other adjacent structures. Objectives The purpose of this study was to characterize the morphology of the internal auditory canal (IAC) during development using high resolution computed tomography (CT) and to analyze its dimensions, which will be determined by measuring the nearby areas and structures using a system of digital image processing. Patients and Methods CT images of the IAC of 110 normal subjects aged 1 to 92 years (mean age, 46.5 years) of both genders were reviewed to determine the shape, area, opening width (OW), longitudinal length (LL), vertical diameter (VD) and distance from the vestibular aqueduct. Results The shapes observed in children and adults were funnel-shaped (74% and 58.3%, respectively), cylindrical (22% and 30.9%, respectively) and bud-shaped (4% and 10.8%, respectively). The measurements by CT in children were: area= 50.30 mm2, OW = 7.53 mm, length = 11.17 mm, VD = 4.82 mm and the distance between the IAC and the vestibular aqueduct (VA) = 12.63 mm. In adults, the measurements were: area = 44.64 mm2, OW = 7.10 mm, length = 9.84 mm, VD = 4.47 mm and the distance between IAC and VA = 11.17 mm. Conclusions CT images showed that the IAC has different shapes and when the measurements obtained for children were compared with those of adults, the parameters that presented statistically significant differences in either gender were length and diameter. PMID:23329967

  10. [Cavernous hemangioma of the internal auditory canal encasing the VII and VIII cranial nerve complex: case report].

    PubMed

    Silveira, Roberto Leal; Andrade, Gustavo Cardoso de; Pinheiro Júnior, Nilson; Pittella, José Eymard Homem; Barbosa, Vinícius Cotta

    2005-03-01

    We report the surgically treated case of a 21-year-old caucasian male harboring a cavernous hemangioma of the right internal auditory canal encasing the seventh and eighth cranial nerves complex. Only 18 cases of cavernous hemangiomas of this location have been previously reported. The clinical features, the differential diagnosis and the treatment are discussed.

  11. Is There a Relationship Between Bell's Palsy and Internal Auditory Canal?

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Hüseyin Baki; Safak Yalcin, Kadihan; Çakan, Doğan; Paksoy, Mustafa; Erdogan, Banu Atalay; Sanli, Arif

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the diameter of internal acoustic canal in patients with Bells palsy to investigate the role of anatomical differences of the temporal bone in etiology of Bell's palsy. Sixty-four patients who were diagnosed as Bells Palsy and temporal bone computed tomography imagings of them were included into the study group (Group 1). The control group (Group 2) was consisted of 35 healthy subjects without Bell's Palsy. All patients had temporal bone computed tomography imaging. The internal auditory canal inlet, mid-canal, outlet and canal lengths were measured at the most distinctive cross-section of the seventh and eighth cranial nerves bifurcation. In the study group, Bells palsy was on the right side in 26 patients (40.6 %) and on the left side in 38 patients (59.4 %). Initial House-Brackmann (HB) score was HB-2 in 29 patients (45.3 %), HB-3 in 18 patients (28.1 %), HB-4 in 13 patients (20.3 %) and HB-5 in 4 patients (6.2 %). At 6-month evaluation, HB-score of the patients were HB-1 in 37 patients (57.8 %), HB-2 in 25 patients (39.1 %) and HB-3 in 2 patients (3.1 %). Internal auditory canal (IAC) measurements of the groups showed that there were no significant differences between the measurements of right-mid canal, right canal length; and left canal outlet and left canal length of the study and control groups. Right inlet and outlet; and left inlet and mid-canal values of the study group (Bell's palsy) were significantly lower than those of the control group. In Bell's palsy group, left inlet, outlet and canal length values were significantly higher than those of the right ones. Correlation analysis showed that there were no significant correlation between paralysis side; initial HB stage; and IAC measurement results. In patients with higher initial HB score, their 6-month later HB-score was also higher. In patients with higher 6-month HB score; R canal inlet, R mid-canal, L-canal inlet, and L-mid canal values were lower. Lower

  12. Is There a Relationship Between Bell's Palsy and Internal Auditory Canal?

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Hüseyin Baki; Safak Yalcin, Kadihan; Çakan, Doğan; Paksoy, Mustafa; Erdogan, Banu Atalay; Sanli, Arif

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the diameter of internal acoustic canal in patients with Bells palsy to investigate the role of anatomical differences of the temporal bone in etiology of Bell's palsy. Sixty-four patients who were diagnosed as Bells Palsy and temporal bone computed tomography imagings of them were included into the study group (Group 1). The control group (Group 2) was consisted of 35 healthy subjects without Bell's Palsy. All patients had temporal bone computed tomography imaging. The internal auditory canal inlet, mid-canal, outlet and canal lengths were measured at the most distinctive cross-section of the seventh and eighth cranial nerves bifurcation. In the study group, Bells palsy was on the right side in 26 patients (40.6 %) and on the left side in 38 patients (59.4 %). Initial House-Brackmann (HB) score was HB-2 in 29 patients (45.3 %), HB-3 in 18 patients (28.1 %), HB-4 in 13 patients (20.3 %) and HB-5 in 4 patients (6.2 %). At 6-month evaluation, HB-score of the patients were HB-1 in 37 patients (57.8 %), HB-2 in 25 patients (39.1 %) and HB-3 in 2 patients (3.1 %). Internal auditory canal (IAC) measurements of the groups showed that there were no significant differences between the measurements of right-mid canal, right canal length; and left canal outlet and left canal length of the study and control groups. Right inlet and outlet; and left inlet and mid-canal values of the study group (Bell's palsy) were significantly lower than those of the control group. In Bell's palsy group, left inlet, outlet and canal length values were significantly higher than those of the right ones. Correlation analysis showed that there were no significant correlation between paralysis side; initial HB stage; and IAC measurement results. In patients with higher initial HB score, their 6-month later HB-score was also higher. In patients with higher 6-month HB score; R canal inlet, R mid-canal, L-canal inlet, and L-mid canal values were lower. Lower

  13. Relevance of Whitnall's tubercle and auditory meatus in diagnosing exclusions during skull-photo superimposition.

    PubMed

    Jayaprakash, Paul T; Hashim, Natassha; Yusop, Ridzuan Abd Aziz Mohd

    2015-08-01

    Video vision mixer based skull-photo superimposition is a popular method for identifying skulls retrieved from unidentified human remains. A report on the reliability of the superimposition method suggested increased failure rates of 17.3 to 32% to exclude and 15 to 20% to include skulls while using related and unrelated face photographs. Such raise in failures prompted an analysis of the methods employed for the research. The protocols adopted for assessing the reliability are seen to vary from those suggested by the practitioners in the field. The former include overlaying the skull- and face-images on the basis of morphology by relying on anthropometric landmarks on the front plane of the face-images and evaluating the goodness of match depending on mix-mode images; the latter consist of orienting the skull considering landmarks on both the eye and ear planes of the face- and skull-images and evaluating the match utilizing images seen in wipe-mode in addition to those in mix-mode. Superimposition of a skull with face-images of five living individuals in two sets of experiments, one following the procedure described for the research on reliability and the other applying the methods suggested by the practitioners has shown that overlaying the images on the basis of morphology depending on the landmarks on the front plane alone and assessing the match in mix-mode fails to exclude the skull. However, orienting the skull relying on the relationship between the anatomical landmarks on the skull- and face-images such as Whitnall's tubercle and exocanthus in the front (eye) plane and the porion and tragus in the rear (ear) plane as well as assessing the match using wipe-mode images enables excluding that skull while superimposing with the same set of face-images.

  14. [Osteoma and exostosis of the external auditory meatus: a clinical diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Granell, J; Puig, A; Benito, E

    2003-03-01

    Proliferative osseous lesions usually found in the external ear are exostoses and osteomata. In other sites they are clearly different entities, but in this location histopathologic differential features are not so reliable in the study of the specimens. An occlusive osteomata is shown, with the typical clinical presentation demonstrated in a multiplanar CT. Microscopically, the lesion consisted of mature bone trabeculae, separated by medular spaces with fibrovascular tissue, characteristic features of osteomata. However, in the most superficial areas, lines of bone apposition, like those in exostoses, were found. A literature review confirms the lack of specificity of the histopathologic study, so diagnosis is based on clinical data.

  15. Evaluation of Internal Auditory Canal Structures in Tinnitus of Unknown Origin

    PubMed Central

    Baykara, Murat; Ergen, Burhan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the present study was to evaluate the internal auditory canal (IAC) and the nerves inside it to define possible structural differences in cases with subjective tinnitus of unknown origin. Methods Cases applying to the ear, nose and throat department with the complaint of tinnitus with unknown origin and having normal physical examination and test results were included in the study (n=78). Patients admitted to the radiology clinic for routine cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and whose MRI findings revealed no pathologies were enrolled as the control group (n=79). Data for the control group were obtained from the radiology department and informed consent was obtained from all the patients. Diameters of the IAC and the nerves inside it were measured through enhanced images obtained by routine temporal bone MRIs in all cases. Statistical evaluations were performed using Student t-test and statistical significance was defined as P<0.05. Results Measurements of IAC diameters revealed statistically significant differences between the controls and the tinnitus group (P<0.05). Regarding the diameters of the cochlear nerve, facial nerve, inferior vestibular nerve, superior vestibular nerve, and total vestibular nerve, no statistically significant difference was found between the controls and the tinnitus group. Conclusion Narrowed IAC has to be assessed as an etiological factor in cases with subjective tinnitus of unknown origin. PMID:25177429

  16. Symmetry of external auditive meatus. A pilot study on human skulls.

    PubMed

    Mizgiryte, Simona; Vaitelis, Julius; Barkus, Arunas; Zaleckas, Linas; Pletkus, Rolandas; Auskalnis, Adomas

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. To evaluate the perpendicularity of the line connecting external auditive meatus to the midsagital plane and the palatal suture as a midsagittal symmetry reference line. Setting and Sample Population - 62 randomly chosen human skulls from osteological collection (Vilnius University). MATERIAL AND METHODS. The skulls were photographed (Nikon 40 D, Nikkor lens 50 mm) from basal, frontobasal and frontal views. Photos were analysed with Adobe Photoshop CS5 (Adobe). The first line connected frontal points of external auditive meatus and the angle to the midsagittal plane was measured. The second line (the palatal suture) was compared to the median sagittal plane. Data was analysed with SPSS 17 (IBM). RESULTS. The mean value for the angles of the line between the external auditive meatus and the midsagittal plane in basal views was 90.12° (SD=1.48°) and in frontobasal 90.36° (SD=2.25°). No statistically significant differences were found between groups of age and sex. The inter-rater agreement for evaluation of the adequacy of palatal suture with the midsagital plane was high (Cohen's Kappa 0.702 (p<0.05)) as well as the coincidence of both lines in basal and frontobasal views (90.3% and 85.5% respectively). CONCLUSION. Considering the limits of this study the angle between external auditive meatus and midsagital skull plane has a characteristic fluctuating asymmetry. The congruence of palatal suture and midsagital plane is debatable.

  17. Rare Presentation of Giant Cell Tumor in the Internal Auditory Canal: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Jada, Ajit S.; Shrivastava, Raj K.; Mannan, Abul; Kobets, Andrew; Manolidis, Spiros

    2015-01-01

    Giant cell tumor (GCT) is a benign but locally aggressive bone tumor that usually involves the end of long bones. It is a relatively common neoplasm in patients, constituting 5 to 10% of all benign bone tumors. Approximately 2% of GCTs occur in the craniofacial skeleton with a predilection for the ethmoid, sphenoid, and temporal bones. The skull base location is unique and not commonly described. Hearing loss, headache, tinnitus, and subcutaneous masses are the most commonly reported symptoms in GCTs of the skull base. In this case report we present the first description of a GCT within the internal auditory canal causing cranial neuropathy and review the recent pertinent literature. PMID:26251814

  18. The Application of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health to Functional Auditory Consequences of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Werff, Kathy R Vander

    2016-08-01

    This article reviews the auditory consequences of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) within the context of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Because of growing awareness of mTBI as a public health concern and the diverse and heterogeneous nature of the individual consequences, it is important to provide audiologists and other health care providers with a better understanding of potential implications in the assessment of levels of function and disability for individual interdisciplinary remediation planning. In consideration of body structures and function, the mechanisms of injury that may result in peripheral or central auditory dysfunction in mTBI are reviewed, along with a broader scope of effects of injury to the brain. The activity limitations and participation restrictions that may affect assessment and management in the context of an individual's personal factors and their environment are considered. Finally, a review of management strategies for mTBI from an audiological perspective as part of a multidisciplinary team is included. PMID:27489400

  19. BDNF Increases Survival and Neuronal Differentiation of Human Neural Precursor Cells Cotransplanted with a Nanofiber Gel to the Auditory Nerve in a Rat Model of Neuronal Damage

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Yu; Palmgren, Björn; Novozhilova, Ekaterina; Englund Johansson, Ulrica; Spieles-Engemann, Anne L.; Kale, Ajay; Stupp, Samuel I.; Olivius, Petri

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To study possible nerve regeneration of a damaged auditory nerve by the use of stem cell transplantation. Methods. We transplanted HNPCs to the rat AN trunk by the internal auditory meatus (IAM). Furthermore, we studied if addition of BDNF affects survival and phenotypic differentiation of the grafted HNPCs. A bioactive nanofiber gel (PA gel), in selected groups mixed with BDNF, was applied close to the implanted cells. Before transplantation, all rats had been deafened by a round window niche application of β-bungarotoxin. This neurotoxin causes a selective toxic destruction of the AN while keeping the hair cells intact. Results. Overall, HNPCs survived well for up to six weeks in all groups. However, transplants receiving the BDNF-containing PA gel demonstrated significantly higher numbers of HNPCs and neuronal differentiation. At six weeks, a majority of the HNPCs had migrated into the brain stem and differentiated. Differentiated human cells as well as neurites were observed in the vicinity of the cochlear nucleus. Conclusion. Our results indicate that human neural precursor cells (HNPC) integration with host tissue benefits from additional brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) treatment and that these cells appear to be good candidates for further regenerative studies on the auditory nerve (AN). PMID:25243135

  20. External misattribution of internal thoughts and proneness to auditory hallucinations: the effect of emotional valence in the Deese–Roediger–McDermott paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Kanemoto, Mari; Asai, Tomohisa; Sugimori, Eriko; Tanno, Yoshihiko

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that a tendency to externalize internal thought is related to auditory hallucinations or even proneness to auditory hallucinations (AHp) in the general population. However, although auditory hallucinations are related to emotional phenomena, few studies have investigated the effect of emotional valence on the aforementioned relationship. In addition, we do not know what component of psychotic phenomena relate to externalizing bias. The current study replicated our previous research, which suggested that individual differences in auditory hallucination-like experiences are strongly correlated with the external misattribution of internal thoughts, conceptualized in terms of false memory, using the Deese–Roediger–McDermott (DRM) paradigm. We found a significant relationship between experimental performance and total scores on the Launay–Slade Hallucination Scale (LSHS). Among the LSHS factors, only vivid mental image, which is said to be a predictor of auditory hallucinations, was significantly related to experimental performance. We then investigated the potential effect of emotional valence using the DRM paradigm. The results indicate that participants with low scores on the LSHS (the low-AHp group in the current study) showed an increased discriminability index (d′) for positive words and a decreased d′ for negative words. However, no effects of emotional valence were found for participants with high LSHS scores (high-AHp group). This study indicated that external misattribution of internal thoughts predicts AHp, and that the high-AHp group showed a smaller emotional valence effect in the DRM paradigm compared with the low-AHp group. We discuss this outcome from the perspective of the dual-process activation-monitoring framework in the DRM paradigm in regard to emotion-driven automatic thought in false memory. PMID:23847517

  1. Development of an auditory emotion recognition function using psychoacoustic parameters based on the International Affective Digitized Sounds.

    PubMed

    Choi, Youngimm; Lee, Sungjun; Jung, SungSoo; Choi, In-Mook; Park, Yon-Kyu; Kim, Chobok

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an auditory emotion recognition function that could determine the emotion caused by sounds coming from the environment in our daily life. For this purpose, sound stimuli from the International Affective Digitized Sounds (IADS-2), a standardized database of sounds intended to evoke emotion, were selected, and four psychoacoustic parameters (i.e., loudness, sharpness, roughness, and fluctuation strength) were extracted from the sounds. Also, by using an emotion adjective scale, 140 college students were tested to measure three basic emotions (happiness, sadness, and negativity). From this discriminant analysis to predict basic emotions from the psychoacoustic parameters of sound, a discriminant function with overall discriminant accuracy of 88.9% was produced from training data. In order to validate the discriminant function, the same four psychoacoustic parameters were extracted from 46 sound stimuli collected from another database and substituted into the discriminant function. The results showed that an overall discriminant accuracy of 63.04% was confirmed. Our findings provide the possibility that daily-life sounds, beyond voice and music, can be used in a human-machine interface.

  2. Osteoma of the internal auditory canal mimicking vestibular schwannoma: case report and review of 17 recent cases.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Jun; Takata, Yusuke; Miyazaki, Hiromitsu; Yahata, Izumi; Tachibana, Yasuhiko; Kobayashi, Toshimitsu; Kawase, Tetsuaki; Katori, Yukio

    2014-01-01

    Osteoma of the internal auditory canal (IAC) is an uncommon benign bone tumor. Its imaging features may be similar to other IAC lesions, such as vestibular schwannomas that are benign and usually slow-growing but sometimes life-threatening tumors. Thus, detecting IAC lesions and differentiating osteoma from other IAC lesions are both important clinically. We report a case of misdiagnosis of an IAC osteoma as an IAC schwannoma based on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging using the three-dimensional constructive interference in steady state (CISS) sequence instead of T1-weighted MR imaging with gadolinium. We also review 17 cases of IAC osteomas reported in the past 22 years. A 61-year-old female was admitted to our department with IAC lesion incidentally discovered by the CISS sequence. The lesion was diagnosed as an IAC schwannoma, and was followed up annually under "wait and scan" management. Follow-up T1-weighted MR imaging with gadolinium showed no enhancement of the tumor, and additional computed tomography (CT) of the temporal bone showed a solitary pedunculated bony lesion, resulting in the diagnosis of IAC osteoma. The CISS sequence is useful for detecting small IAC lesions, such as vestibular schwannomas. However, the CISS sequence has limitations for qualitative diagnosis and can misdiagnose osteomas as schwannomas. Use of the CISS sequence without T1-weighted MR imaging with gadolinium for the screening of a lesion of the IAC and cerebellopontine angle should consider the possibility of IAC osteomas, and temporal bone CT or T1-weighted MR imaging with gadolinium should be performed when an IAC lesion is detected.

  3. Auditory agnosia.

    PubMed

    Slevc, L Robert; Shell, Alison R

    2015-01-01

    Auditory agnosia refers to impairments in sound perception and identification despite intact hearing, cognitive functioning, and language abilities (reading, writing, and speaking). Auditory agnosia can be general, affecting all types of sound perception, or can be (relatively) specific to a particular domain. Verbal auditory agnosia (also known as (pure) word deafness) refers to deficits specific to speech processing, environmental sound agnosia refers to difficulties confined to non-speech environmental sounds, and amusia refers to deficits confined to music. These deficits can be apperceptive, affecting basic perceptual processes, or associative, affecting the relation of a perceived auditory object to its meaning. This chapter discusses what is known about the behavioral symptoms and lesion correlates of these different types of auditory agnosia (focusing especially on verbal auditory agnosia), evidence for the role of a rapid temporal processing deficit in some aspects of auditory agnosia, and the few attempts to treat the perceptual deficits associated with auditory agnosia. A clear picture of auditory agnosia has been slow to emerge, hampered by the considerable heterogeneity in behavioral deficits, associated brain damage, and variable assessments across cases. Despite this lack of clarity, these striking deficits in complex sound processing continue to inform our understanding of auditory perception and cognition.

  4. Auditory hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Blom, Jan Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Auditory hallucinations constitute a phenomenologically rich group of endogenously mediated percepts which are associated with psychiatric, neurologic, otologic, and other medical conditions, but which are also experienced by 10-15% of all healthy individuals in the general population. The group of phenomena is probably best known for its verbal auditory subtype, but it also includes musical hallucinations, echo of reading, exploding-head syndrome, and many other types. The subgroup of verbal auditory hallucinations has been studied extensively with the aid of neuroimaging techniques, and from those studies emerges an outline of a functional as well as a structural network of widely distributed brain areas involved in their mediation. The present chapter provides an overview of the various types of auditory hallucination described in the literature, summarizes our current knowledge of the auditory networks involved in their mediation, and draws on ideas from the philosophy of science and network science to reconceptualize the auditory hallucinatory experience, and point out directions for future research into its neurobiologic substrates. In addition, it provides an overview of known associations with various clinical conditions and of the existing evidence for pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatments.

  5. Diffuse exostoses and osteomata of the external auditory canal: a report of 100 operations.

    PubMed

    Sheehy, J L

    1982-01-01

    The clinical, surgical, and postoperative findings were reviewed in 84 operations for correction of bony stenosis of the external auditory canal caused by diffuse exostoses. Sixteen operations for removal of a solitary osteoma of the external auditory canal are also included in the review. The solitary osteoma is an uncommon unilateral lesion, attached to the tympanosquamous or tympanomastoid suture line, almost always in the outer half of the ear canal. Removal is indicated in most cases and may be performed through the external meatus under local anesthesia. Diffuse exostoses of the external auditory canal are common bilaterally symmetrical hyperostoses of the tympanic bone, seen predominantly in men who are ocean swimmers. Surgical correction of the bony stenosis is indicated only if the lesion is symptomatic. At the Otologic Medical Group we perform the operation postauricularly, rather than transmeatally, in order to remove the lesion completely and to avoid complications.

  6. Is a Solitary Fibrous Tumor in the External Auditory Canal Benign?

    PubMed

    Lee, Chi-Kyou; Lee, Hyun Ju

    2016-09-01

    A solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is an extremely rare, distinct otological soft-tissue tumor. Only two such tumors in the external auditory canal have been reported. A SFT related to hemangiopericytomas (HPC), which commonly arise in the central nervous system. HPCs act malignant in many cases, while SFTs at other sites are mainly benign. A 25-year-old female presented with highly vascular tumor at the right external auditory meatus and bleeding from the mass when a crust was removed from its surface. After excisional biopsy followed by pre-operative embolization, this tumor confirmed with SFT. The recurrence rate of SFT is very low after complete resection, with a slightly increased risk of recurrence with extrathoracic tumors. We describe the third case of SFT in the external auditory canal and review the literature. PMID:27626087

  7. Is a Solitary Fibrous Tumor in the External Auditory Canal Benign?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun Ju

    2016-01-01

    A solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is an extremely rare, distinct otological soft-tissue tumor. Only two such tumors in the external auditory canal have been reported. A SFT related to hemangiopericytomas (HPC), which commonly arise in the central nervous system. HPCs act malignant in many cases, while SFTs at other sites are mainly benign. A 25-year-old female presented with highly vascular tumor at the right external auditory meatus and bleeding from the mass when a crust was removed from its surface. After excisional biopsy followed by pre-operative embolization, this tumor confirmed with SFT. The recurrence rate of SFT is very low after complete resection, with a slightly increased risk of recurrence with extrathoracic tumors. We describe the third case of SFT in the external auditory canal and review the literature. PMID:27626087

  8. Is a Solitary Fibrous Tumor in the External Auditory Canal Benign?

    PubMed

    Lee, Chi-Kyou; Lee, Hyun Ju

    2016-09-01

    A solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is an extremely rare, distinct otological soft-tissue tumor. Only two such tumors in the external auditory canal have been reported. A SFT related to hemangiopericytomas (HPC), which commonly arise in the central nervous system. HPCs act malignant in many cases, while SFTs at other sites are mainly benign. A 25-year-old female presented with highly vascular tumor at the right external auditory meatus and bleeding from the mass when a crust was removed from its surface. After excisional biopsy followed by pre-operative embolization, this tumor confirmed with SFT. The recurrence rate of SFT is very low after complete resection, with a slightly increased risk of recurrence with extrathoracic tumors. We describe the third case of SFT in the external auditory canal and review the literature.

  9. External auditory canal atresia of probable congenital origin in a dog.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, K; Piaia, T; Bertolini, G; De Lorenzi, D

    2007-04-01

    A nine-month-old Labrador retriever was referred to the Clinica Veterinaria Privata San Marco because of frequent headshaking and downward turning of the right ear. Clinical examination revealed that there was no external acoustic meatus in the right ear. Computed tomography confirmed that the vertical part of the right auditory canal ended blindly, providing a diagnosis of external auditory canal atresia. Cytological examination and culture of fluid from the canal and the bulla revealed only aseptic cerumen; for this reason, it was assumed that the dog was probably affected by a congenital developmental deformity of the external auditory canal. Reconstructive surgery was performed using a "pull-through" technique. Four months after surgery the cosmetic and functional results were satisfactory.

  10. Is a Solitary Fibrous Tumor in the External Auditory Canal Benign?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun Ju

    2016-01-01

    A solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is an extremely rare, distinct otological soft-tissue tumor. Only two such tumors in the external auditory canal have been reported. A SFT related to hemangiopericytomas (HPC), which commonly arise in the central nervous system. HPCs act malignant in many cases, while SFTs at other sites are mainly benign. A 25-year-old female presented with highly vascular tumor at the right external auditory meatus and bleeding from the mass when a crust was removed from its surface. After excisional biopsy followed by pre-operative embolization, this tumor confirmed with SFT. The recurrence rate of SFT is very low after complete resection, with a slightly increased risk of recurrence with extrathoracic tumors. We describe the third case of SFT in the external auditory canal and review the literature.

  11. Sexual dimorphism of the lateral angle of the internal auditory canal and its potential for sex estimation of burned human skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, David; Thompson, Tim J U; Cunha, Eugénia

    2015-09-01

    The potential of the petrous bone for sex estimation has been recurrently investigated in the past because it is very resilient and therefore tends to preserve rather well. The sexual dimorphism of the lateral angle of the internal auditory canal was investigated in two samples of cremated Portuguese individuals in order to assess its usefulness for sex estimation in burned remains. These comprised the cremated petrous bones from fleshed cadavers (N = 54) and from dry and disarticulated bones (N = 36). Although differences between males and females were more patent in the sample of skeletons, none presented a very significant sexual dimorphism, thus precluding any attempt of sex estimation. This may have been the result of a difficult application of the method and of a differential impact of heat-induced warping which is known to be less frequent in cremains from dry skeletons. Results suggest that the lateral angle method cannot be applied to burned human skeletal remains.

  12. Auditory synesthesias.

    PubMed

    Afra, Pegah

    2015-01-01

    Synesthesia is experienced when sensory stimulation of one sensory modality (the inducer) elicits an involuntary or automatic sensation in another sensory modality or different aspect of the same sensory modality (the concurrent). Auditory synesthesias (AS) occur when auditory stimuli trigger a variety of concurrents, or when non-auditory sensory stimulations trigger auditory synesthetic perception. The AS are divided into three types: developmental, acquired, and induced. Developmental AS are not a neurologic disorder but a different way of experiencing one's environment. They are involuntary and highly consistent experiences throughout one's life. Acquired AS have been reported in association with neurologic diseases that cause deafferentation of anterior optic pathways, with pathologic lesions affecting the central nervous system (CNS) outside of the optic pathways, as well as non-lesional cases associated with migraine, and epilepsy. It also has been reported with mood disorders as well as a single idiopathic case. Induced AS has been reported in experimental and postsurgical blindfolding, as well as intake of hallucinogenics or psychedelics. In this chapter the three different types of synesthesia, their characteristics, and phenomologic differences, as well as their possible neural mechanisms are discussed. PMID:25726281

  13. Auditory system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ades, H. W.

    1973-01-01

    The physical correlations of hearing, i.e. the acoustic stimuli, are reported. The auditory system, consisting of external ear, middle ear, inner ear, organ of Corti, basilar membrane, hair cells, inner hair cells, outer hair cells, innervation of hair cells, and transducer mechanisms, is discussed. Both conductive and sensorineural hearing losses are also examined.

  14. The internal auditory clock: what can evoked potentials reveal about the analysis of temporal sound patterns, and abnormal states of consciousness?

    PubMed

    Jones, S J

    2002-09-01

    internal "clocks"? Abnormal mismatch potentials may provide a manifestation of a disordered auditory time-sense, sometimes being abolished in comatose patients while the C-potentials and similar responses to the onset of tones are preserved. Both C- and M-potentials were usually found to be preserved, however, in patients who had emerged from coma and were capable of discriminating sounds. Substantially intact responses were also recorded from three patients who were functionally in a "vegetative" state. The C- and M-potentials were once again dissociated in a group of patients with multiple sclerosis, only the mismatch potentials being found to be significantly delayed. This subclinical impairment of a memory-based process responsible for the detection of change in temporal sound patterns may be related to defects in other memory domains such as working memory. PMID:12448181

  15. [The application of the lyophilized xenodermoimplants for the plastic correction of the external auditory canal and nasal septum perforation].

    PubMed

    Antoniv, V F; Popadyuk, V I; Aksenov, V M; Antoniv, T V; Korshunova, I A

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to improve the effectiveness of the treatment of atresia of the external auditory canal (EAC). Atresia of external acoustic meatus is a result of a mechanical or thermal injury but can also develop after a surgical intervention for the removal of foreign bodies, benign and malignant tumours. This condition is frequently associated with the narrowing and obliteration of EAC leading to the marked impairment of hearing despite preservation of the middle ear structures. Plastic correction of the external auditory canal for the purpose of its broadening does not always produce the desired result. To improve the efficiency of such intervention, we made use of the lyophilized xenodermoimplants based on porcine skin. Such preparation were applied in 19 patients; patency of the external auditory canal was restored in 16 cases. PMID:27367342

  16. Auditory sensitivity to local stimulation of the head surface in a beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas).

    PubMed

    Popov, Vladimir V; Sysueva, Evgeniya V; Nechaev, Dmitry I; Lemazina, Alena A; Supin, Alexander Ya

    2016-08-01

    Using the auditory evoked response technique, sensitivity to local acoustic stimulation of the ventro-lateral head surface was investigated in a beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas). The stimuli were tone pip trains of carrier frequencies ranging from 16 to 128 kHz with a pip rate of 1 kHz. For higher frequencies (90-128 kHz), the low-threshold point was located next to the medial side of the middle portion of the lower jaw. For middle (32-64 kHz) and lower (16-22.5 kHz) frequencies, the low-threshold point was located at the lateral side of the middle portion of the lower jaw. For lower frequencies, there was an additional low-threshold point next to the bulla-meatus complex. Based on these data, several frequency-specific paths of sound conduction to the auditory bulla are suggested: (i) through an area on the lateral surface of the lower jaw and further through the intra-jaw fat-body channel (for a wide frequency range); (ii) through an area on the ventro-lateral head surface and further through the medial opening of the lower jaw and intra-jaw fat-body channel (for a high-frequency range); and (iii) through an area on the lateral (near meatus) head surface and further through the lateral fat-body channel (for a low-frequency range).

  17. Auditory sensitivity to local stimulation of the head surface in a beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas).

    PubMed

    Popov, Vladimir V; Sysueva, Evgeniya V; Nechaev, Dmitry I; Lemazina, Alena A; Supin, Alexander Ya

    2016-08-01

    Using the auditory evoked response technique, sensitivity to local acoustic stimulation of the ventro-lateral head surface was investigated in a beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas). The stimuli were tone pip trains of carrier frequencies ranging from 16 to 128 kHz with a pip rate of 1 kHz. For higher frequencies (90-128 kHz), the low-threshold point was located next to the medial side of the middle portion of the lower jaw. For middle (32-64 kHz) and lower (16-22.5 kHz) frequencies, the low-threshold point was located at the lateral side of the middle portion of the lower jaw. For lower frequencies, there was an additional low-threshold point next to the bulla-meatus complex. Based on these data, several frequency-specific paths of sound conduction to the auditory bulla are suggested: (i) through an area on the lateral surface of the lower jaw and further through the intra-jaw fat-body channel (for a wide frequency range); (ii) through an area on the ventro-lateral head surface and further through the medial opening of the lower jaw and intra-jaw fat-body channel (for a high-frequency range); and (iii) through an area on the lateral (near meatus) head surface and further through the lateral fat-body channel (for a low-frequency range). PMID:27586750

  18. A method of assessing auditory and brainstem function in horses.

    PubMed

    Mayhew, I G; Washbourne, J R

    1990-01-01

    Brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) waveforms were recorded as a means of objectively evaluating auditory and brainstem function in horses. BAEP recordings were readily and repeatably recorded from horses, under minimal restraint, using signal averaging equipment. Clearly identified BAEP waveforms were obtained with compression clicks of 30-100 dB (HHL) at 10 Hz applied in the external auditory meatus of one ear and masking white noise (10 dB lower) in the other ear. Vertex positive (upwards) waveforms I through V were obtained with an active, subdermal electrode over the ipsilateral and contralateral zygomatic processes of the temporal bones and the reference electrode over the vertex. Recording sweep duration was 10 ms, amplifier sensitivity 10 microV/division, display gain x 10 and low and high amplifier filters set at 200 Hz to 2 kHz. Such recordings can be useful in evaluation of all clinical cases suspected of showing degrees of deafness, vestibular disease or brainstem disease, and in monitoring the progress of such cases. PMID:2271908

  19. Benign eccrine cylindroma of the external auditory canal.

    PubMed

    Wilson, R S; Johnson, J T

    1980-03-01

    The benign eccrine cylindroma is one of a number of histologically different tumors of the external auditory canal that have been grouped by some as "ceruminomas." The eccrine cylindroma, malignant apocrine gland tumors, and the adenoid cystic carcinomas of salivary gland origin are distinctly different histologically and in natural history and prognosis. Therapy should, therefore, be tailored to the specific tumor. A patient is presented who developed an asymptomatic external auditory canal mass that was initially incompletely excised. A recurrence five years later again proved to be a benign eccrine cylindroma of sweat gland origin. Successful and adequate treatment was local excision with a cuff of normal tissue. A variety of tumors originating from the adnexal skin structures may appear in the external auditory meatus and canal. Treatment must include biopsy and close consultation with the pathologist. The term cylindroma has been loosely applied to both benign and malignant glandular neoplasms but its usage should be restricted to the specific benign eccrine cylindrome herein described. A rationale of therapy is presented.

  20. Fat graft-assisted internal auditory canal closure after retrosigmoid transmeatal resection of acoustic neuroma: Technique for prevention of cerebrospinal fluid leakage.

    PubMed

    Azad, Tareq; Mendelson, Zachary S; Wong, Anni; Jyung, Robert W; Liu, James K

    2016-02-01

    The retrosigmoid transmeatal approach remains an important strategy in the surgical management of acoustic neuromas. Gross total resection of acoustic neuromas requires removal of tumor within the cerebellopontine angle as well as tumor involving the internal auditory canal (IAC). Drilling into the petrous bone of the IAC can expose petrous air cells, which can potentially result in a fistulous tract to the nasopharynx manifesting as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea. We describe our method of IAC closure using autologous fat graft and assessed the rates of postoperative CSF leakage. We performed a retrospective study of 24 consecutive patients who underwent retrosigmoid transmeatal resection of acoustic neuroma who underwent our method of fat graft-assisted IAC closure. We assessed rates of postoperative CSF leak (incisional leak, rhinorrhea, or otorrhea), pseudomeningocele formation, and occurrence of meningitis. Twenty-four patients (10 males, 14 females) with a mean age of 47 years (range 18-84) underwent fat graft-assisted IAC closure. No lumbar drains were used postoperatively. There were no instances of postoperative CSF leak (incisional leak, rhinorrhea, or otorrhea), pseudomeningocele formation, or occurrence of meningitis. There were no graft site complications. Our results demonstrate that autologous fat grafts provide a safe and effective method of IAC defect closure to prevent postoperative CSF leakage after acoustic tumor removal via a retrosigmoid transmeatal approach. The surgical technique and operative nuances are described.

  1. Sexual dimorphism of the lateral angle of the internal auditory canal and its potential for sex estimation of burned human skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, David; Thompson, Tim J U; Cunha, Eugénia

    2015-09-01

    The potential of the petrous bone for sex estimation has been recurrently investigated in the past because it is very resilient and therefore tends to preserve rather well. The sexual dimorphism of the lateral angle of the internal auditory canal was investigated in two samples of cremated Portuguese individuals in order to assess its usefulness for sex estimation in burned remains. These comprised the cremated petrous bones from fleshed cadavers (N = 54) and from dry and disarticulated bones (N = 36). Although differences between males and females were more patent in the sample of skeletons, none presented a very significant sexual dimorphism, thus precluding any attempt of sex estimation. This may have been the result of a difficult application of the method and of a differential impact of heat-induced warping which is known to be less frequent in cremains from dry skeletons. Results suggest that the lateral angle method cannot be applied to burned human skeletal remains. PMID:25649669

  2. [Lateral osteoma--auditory exostosis or hamartoma?].

    PubMed

    Bader, W; Falk, S

    1989-11-01

    An osteoma of the external meatus the size of a hazelnut was found in a 30-year-old man, arising from the bony edge of the external meatus near the tympanomastoid fissure. Histology showed epithelial cysts, trabeculae, blood-forming areas, fat cells, connective tissue and blood vessels. The site of origin and histological findings seem to indicate true hamartoma.

  3. Phonetic perceptual identification by native- and second-language speakers differentially activates brain regions involved with acoustic phonetic processing and those involved with articulatory-auditory/orosensory internal models.

    PubMed

    Callan, Daniel E; Jones, Jeffery A; Callan, Akiko M; Akahane-Yamada, Reiko

    2004-07-01

    This experiment investigates neural processes underlying perceptual identification of the same phonemes for native- and second-language speakers. A model is proposed implicating the use of articulatory-auditory and articulatory-orosensory mappings to facilitate perceptual identification under conditions in which the phonetic contrast is ambiguous, as in the case of second-language speakers. In contrast, native-language speakers are predicted to use auditory-based phonetic representations to a greater extent for perceptual identification than second-language speakers. The English /r-l/ phonetic contrast, although easy for native English speakers, is extremely difficult for native Japanese speakers who learned English as a second language after childhood. Twenty-two native English and twenty-two native Japanese speakers participated in this study. While undergoing event-related fMRI, subjects were aurally presented with syllables starting with a /r/, /l/, or a vowel and were required to rapidly identify the phoneme perceived by pushing one of three buttons with the left thumb. Consistent with the proposed model, the results show greater activity for second- over native-language speakers during perceptual identification of /r/ and /l/ relative to vowels in brain regions implicated with instantiating forward and inverse articulatory-auditory articulatory-orosensory models [Broca's area, anterior insula, anterior superior temporal sulcus/gyrus (STS/G), planum temporale (PT), superior temporal parietal area (Stp), SMG, and cerebellum]. The results further show that activity in brain regions implicated with instantiating these internal models is correlated with better /r/ and /l/ identification performance for second-language speakers. Greater activity found for native-language speakers especially in the anterior STG/S for /r/ and /l/ perceptual identification is consistent with the hypothesis that native-language speakers use auditory phonetic representations more

  4. Auditory Imagery: Empirical Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Timothy L.

    2010-01-01

    The empirical literature on auditory imagery is reviewed. Data on (a) imagery for auditory features (pitch, timbre, loudness), (b) imagery for complex nonverbal auditory stimuli (musical contour, melody, harmony, tempo, notational audiation, environmental sounds), (c) imagery for verbal stimuli (speech, text, in dreams, interior monologue), (d)…

  5. Auditory Training for Central Auditory Processing Disorder.

    PubMed

    Weihing, Jeffrey; Chermak, Gail D; Musiek, Frank E

    2015-11-01

    Auditory training (AT) is an important component of rehabilitation for patients with central auditory processing disorder (CAPD). The present article identifies and describes aspects of AT as they relate to applications in this population. A description of the types of auditory processes along with information on relevant AT protocols that can be used to address these specific deficits is included. Characteristics and principles of effective AT procedures also are detailed in light of research that reflects on their value. Finally, research investigating AT in populations who show CAPD or present with auditory complaints is reported. Although efficacy data in this area are still emerging, current findings support the use of AT for treatment of auditory difficulties. PMID:27587909

  6. Auditory Training for Central Auditory Processing Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Weihing, Jeffrey; Chermak, Gail D.; Musiek, Frank E.

    2015-01-01

    Auditory training (AT) is an important component of rehabilitation for patients with central auditory processing disorder (CAPD). The present article identifies and describes aspects of AT as they relate to applications in this population. A description of the types of auditory processes along with information on relevant AT protocols that can be used to address these specific deficits is included. Characteristics and principles of effective AT procedures also are detailed in light of research that reflects on their value. Finally, research investigating AT in populations who show CAPD or present with auditory complaints is reported. Although efficacy data in this area are still emerging, current findings support the use of AT for treatment of auditory difficulties. PMID:27587909

  7. Comparison of outcomes between endoscopic surgery and conventional nasal packing for epistaxis in the posterior fornix of the inferior nasal meatus

    PubMed Central

    Zou, You; Deng, Yu-Qin; Xiao, Chang-Wu; Kong, Yong-Gang; Xu, Yu; Tao, Ze-Zhang; Chen, Shi-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical features of epistaxis in the posterior fornix of the inferior nasal meatus and compare the treatment outcomes of endoscopic surgery and conventional nasal packing for this intractable form of epistaxis. Methods: Between August 2011 and August 2014, the medical records of 53 adult patients with idiopathic epistaxis in the posterior fornix of the inferior nasal meatus diagnosed by nasal endoscopy were obtained from our department. Of these, 38 patients underwent endoscopic surgery (surgery group) and 15 received a nasal pack (packing group). The patients’ background characteristics, incidence of re-bleeding, extent of discomfort after treatment as assessed using a 10-point visual analogue scale (VAS) and incidence of nasal cavity adhesion after treatment were analysed. Results: There were no significant differences in background characteristics between the two groups. The incidence of re-bleeding (0/38 vs. 4/15, surgery vs. control, P = 0.001), VAS score for discomfort (2.4 ± 1.4 vs. 7.6 ± 1.0, surgery vs. control, P = 0.001) and incidence of nasal cavity adhesion after treatment (2/38 vs. 7/15, surgery vs. control, P = 0.007) were significantly lower in the surgery group than in the packing group. Conclusion: Endoscopic surgery is superior to conventional nasal packing for the management of epistaxis in the posterior fornix of the inferior nasal meatus. During surgery, it is crucial to expose the bleeding sites by shifting the inferior turbinate inward by fracture. PMID:26870097

  8. Auditory imagery: empirical findings.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Timothy L

    2010-03-01

    The empirical literature on auditory imagery is reviewed. Data on (a) imagery for auditory features (pitch, timbre, loudness), (b) imagery for complex nonverbal auditory stimuli (musical contour, melody, harmony, tempo, notational audiation, environmental sounds), (c) imagery for verbal stimuli (speech, text, in dreams, interior monologue), (d) auditory imagery's relationship to perception and memory (detection, encoding, recall, mnemonic properties, phonological loop), and (e) individual differences in auditory imagery (in vividness, musical ability and experience, synesthesia, musical hallucinosis, schizophrenia, amusia) are considered. It is concluded that auditory imagery (a) preserves many structural and temporal properties of auditory stimuli, (b) can facilitate auditory discrimination but interfere with auditory detection, (c) involves many of the same brain areas as auditory perception, (d) is often but not necessarily influenced by subvocalization, (e) involves semantically interpreted information and expectancies, (f) involves depictive components and descriptive components, (g) can function as a mnemonic but is distinct from rehearsal, and (h) is related to musical ability and experience (although the mechanisms of that relationship are not clear). PMID:20192565

  9. Auditory imagery: empirical findings.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Timothy L

    2010-03-01

    The empirical literature on auditory imagery is reviewed. Data on (a) imagery for auditory features (pitch, timbre, loudness), (b) imagery for complex nonverbal auditory stimuli (musical contour, melody, harmony, tempo, notational audiation, environmental sounds), (c) imagery for verbal stimuli (speech, text, in dreams, interior monologue), (d) auditory imagery's relationship to perception and memory (detection, encoding, recall, mnemonic properties, phonological loop), and (e) individual differences in auditory imagery (in vividness, musical ability and experience, synesthesia, musical hallucinosis, schizophrenia, amusia) are considered. It is concluded that auditory imagery (a) preserves many structural and temporal properties of auditory stimuli, (b) can facilitate auditory discrimination but interfere with auditory detection, (c) involves many of the same brain areas as auditory perception, (d) is often but not necessarily influenced by subvocalization, (e) involves semantically interpreted information and expectancies, (f) involves depictive components and descriptive components, (g) can function as a mnemonic but is distinct from rehearsal, and (h) is related to musical ability and experience (although the mechanisms of that relationship are not clear).

  10. Auditory-motor learning influences auditory memory for music.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rachel M; Palmer, Caroline

    2012-05-01

    In two experiments, we investigated how auditory-motor learning influences performers' memory for music. Skilled pianists learned novel melodies in four conditions: auditory only (listening), motor only (performing without sound), strongly coupled auditory-motor (normal performance), and weakly coupled auditory-motor (performing along with auditory recordings). Pianists' recognition of the learned melodies was better following auditory-only or auditory-motor (weakly coupled and strongly coupled) learning than following motor-only learning, and better following strongly coupled auditory-motor learning than following auditory-only learning. Auditory and motor imagery abilities modulated the learning effects: Pianists with high auditory imagery scores had better recognition following motor-only learning, suggesting that auditory imagery compensated for missing auditory feedback at the learning stage. Experiment 2 replicated the findings of Experiment 1 with melodies that contained greater variation in acoustic features. Melodies that were slower and less variable in tempo and intensity were remembered better following weakly coupled auditory-motor learning. These findings suggest that motor learning can aid performers' auditory recognition of music beyond auditory learning alone, and that motor learning is influenced by individual abilities in mental imagery and by variation in acoustic features. PMID:22271265

  11. Auditory-motor learning influences auditory memory for music.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rachel M; Palmer, Caroline

    2012-05-01

    In two experiments, we investigated how auditory-motor learning influences performers' memory for music. Skilled pianists learned novel melodies in four conditions: auditory only (listening), motor only (performing without sound), strongly coupled auditory-motor (normal performance), and weakly coupled auditory-motor (performing along with auditory recordings). Pianists' recognition of the learned melodies was better following auditory-only or auditory-motor (weakly coupled and strongly coupled) learning than following motor-only learning, and better following strongly coupled auditory-motor learning than following auditory-only learning. Auditory and motor imagery abilities modulated the learning effects: Pianists with high auditory imagery scores had better recognition following motor-only learning, suggesting that auditory imagery compensated for missing auditory feedback at the learning stage. Experiment 2 replicated the findings of Experiment 1 with melodies that contained greater variation in acoustic features. Melodies that were slower and less variable in tempo and intensity were remembered better following weakly coupled auditory-motor learning. These findings suggest that motor learning can aid performers' auditory recognition of music beyond auditory learning alone, and that motor learning is influenced by individual abilities in mental imagery and by variation in acoustic features.

  12. The Distributed Auditory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Winer, Jeffery A.; Lee, Charles C.

    2009-01-01

    A synthesis of cat auditory cortex (AC) organization is presented in which the extrinsic and intrinsic connections interact to derive a unified profile of the auditory stream and use it to direct and modify cortical and subcortical information flow. Thus, the thalamocortical input provides essential sensory information about peripheral stimulus events, which AC redirects locally for feature extraction, and then conveys to parallel auditory, multisensory, premotor, limbic, and cognitive centers for further analysis. The corticofugal output influences areas as remote as the pons and the cochlear nucleus, structures whose effects upon AC are entirely indirect, and has diverse roles in the transmission of information through the medial geniculate body and inferior colliculus. The distributed AC is thus construed as a functional network in which the auditory percept is assembled for subsequent redistribution in sensory, premotor, and cognitive streams contingent on the derived interpretation of the acoustic events. The confluence of auditory and multisensory streams likely precedes cognitive processing of sound. The distributed AC constitutes the largest and arguably the most complete representation of the auditory world. Many facets of this scheme may apply in rodent and primate AC as well. We propose that the distributed auditory cortex contributes to local processing regimes in regions as disparate as the frontal pole and the cochlear nucleus to construct the acoustic percept. PMID:17329049

  13. [Central auditory prosthesis].

    PubMed

    Lenarz, T; Lim, H; Joseph, G; Reuter, G; Lenarz, M

    2009-06-01

    Deaf patients with severe sensory hearing loss can benefit from a cochlear implant (CI), which stimulates the auditory nerve fibers. However, patients who do not have an intact auditory nerve cannot benefit from a CI. The majority of these patients are neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) patients who developed neural deafness due to growth or surgical removal of a bilateral acoustic neuroma. The only current solution is the auditory brainstem implant (ABI), which stimulates the surface of the cochlear nucleus in the brainstem. Although the ABI provides improvement in environmental awareness and lip-reading capabilities, only a few NF2 patients have achieved some limited open set speech perception. In the search for alternative procedures our research group in collaboration with Cochlear Ltd. (Australia) developed a human prototype auditory midbrain implant (AMI), which is designed to electrically stimulate the inferior colliculus (IC). The IC has the potential as a new target for an auditory prosthesis as it provides access to neural projections necessary for speech perception as well as a systematic map of spectral information. In this paper the present status of research and development in the field of central auditory prostheses is presented with respect to technology, surgical technique and hearing results as well as the background concepts of ABI and AMI. PMID:19517084

  14. Auditory Spatial Layout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wightman, Frederic L.; Jenison, Rick

    1995-01-01

    All auditory sensory information is packaged in a pair of acoustical pressure waveforms, one at each ear. While there is obvious structure in these waveforms, that structure (temporal and spectral patterns) bears no simple relationship to the structure of the environmental objects that produced them. The properties of auditory objects and their layout in space must be derived completely from higher level processing of the peripheral input. This chapter begins with a discussion of the peculiarities of acoustical stimuli and how they are received by the human auditory system. A distinction is made between the ambient sound field and the effective stimulus to differentiate the perceptual distinctions among various simple classes of sound sources (ambient field) from the known perceptual consequences of the linear transformations of the sound wave from source to receiver (effective stimulus). Next, the definition of an auditory object is dealt with, specifically the question of how the various components of a sound stream become segregated into distinct auditory objects. The remainder of the chapter focuses on issues related to the spatial layout of auditory objects, both stationary and moving.

  15. Auditory models for speech analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maybury, Mark T.

    This paper reviews the psychophysical basis for auditory models and discusses their application to automatic speech recognition. First an overview of the human auditory system is presented, followed by a review of current knowledge gleaned from neurological and psychoacoustic experimentation. Next, a general framework describes established peripheral auditory models which are based on well-understood properties of the peripheral auditory system. This is followed by a discussion of current enhancements to that models to include nonlinearities and synchrony information as well as other higher auditory functions. Finally, the initial performance of auditory models in the task of speech recognition is examined and additional applications are mentioned.

  16. Auditory processing--speech, space and auditory objects.

    PubMed

    Scott, Sophie K

    2005-04-01

    There have been recent developments in our understanding of the auditory neuroscience of non-human primates that, to a certain extent, can be integrated with findings from human functional neuroimaging studies. This framework can be used to consider the cortical basis of complex sound processing in humans, including implications for speech perception, spatial auditory processing and auditory scene segregation. PMID:15831402

  17. The Drosophila Auditory System

    PubMed Central

    Boekhoff-Falk, Grace; Eberl, Daniel F.

    2013-01-01

    Development of a functional auditory system in Drosophila requires specification and differentiation of the chordotonal sensilla of Johnston’s organ (JO) in the antenna, correct axonal targeting to the antennal mechanosensory and motor center (AMMC) in the brain, and synaptic connections to neurons in the downstream circuit. Chordotonal development in JO is functionally complicated by structural, molecular and functional diversity that is not yet fully understood, and construction of the auditory neural circuitry is only beginning to unfold. Here we describe our current understanding of developmental and molecular mechanisms that generate the exquisite functions of the Drosophila auditory system, emphasizing recent progress and highlighting important new questions arising from research on this remarkable sensory system. PMID:24719289

  18. Auditory Channel Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Philip H.; Suiter, Patricia A.

    This teacher's guide contains a list of general auditory problem areas where students have the following problems: (a) inability to find or identify source of sound; (b) difficulty in discriminating sounds of words and letters; (c) difficulty with reproducing pitch, rhythm, and melody; (d) difficulty in selecting important from unimportant sounds;…

  19. Incidental Auditory Category Learning

    PubMed Central

    Gabay, Yafit; Dick, Frederic K.; Zevin, Jason D.; Holt, Lori L.

    2015-01-01

    Very little is known about how auditory categories are learned incidentally, without instructions to search for category-diagnostic dimensions, overt category decisions, or experimenter-provided feedback. This is an important gap because learning in the natural environment does not arise from explicit feedback and there is evidence that the learning systems engaged by traditional tasks are distinct from those recruited by incidental category learning. We examined incidental auditory category learning with a novel paradigm, the Systematic Multimodal Associations Reaction Time (SMART) task, in which participants rapidly detect and report the appearance of a visual target in one of four possible screen locations. Although the overt task is rapid visual detection, a brief sequence of sounds precedes each visual target. These sounds are drawn from one of four distinct sound categories that predict the location of the upcoming visual target. These many-to-one auditory-to-visuomotor correspondences support incidental auditory category learning. Participants incidentally learn categories of complex acoustic exemplars and generalize this learning to novel exemplars and tasks. Further, learning is facilitated when category exemplar variability is more tightly coupled to the visuomotor associations than when the same stimulus variability is experienced across trials. We relate these findings to phonetic category learning. PMID:26010588

  20. The neglected neglect: auditory neglect.

    PubMed

    Gokhale, Sankalp; Lahoti, Sourabh; Caplan, Louis R

    2013-08-01

    Whereas visual and somatosensory forms of neglect are commonly recognized by clinicians, auditory neglect is often not assessed and therefore neglected. The auditory cortical processing system can be functionally classified into 2 distinct pathways. These 2 distinct functional pathways deal with recognition of sound ("what" pathway) and the directional attributes of the sound ("where" pathway). Lesions of higher auditory pathways produce distinct clinical features. Clinical bedside evaluation of auditory neglect is often difficult because of coexisting neurological deficits and the binaural nature of auditory inputs. In addition, auditory neglect and auditory extinction may show varying degrees of overlap, which makes the assessment even harder. Shielding one ear from the other as well as separating the ear from space is therefore critical for accurate assessment of auditory neglect. This can be achieved by use of specialized auditory tests (dichotic tasks and sound localization tests) for accurate interpretation of deficits. Herein, we have reviewed auditory neglect with an emphasis on the functional anatomy, clinical evaluation, and basic principles of specialized auditory tests.

  1. The Human Brain Maintains Contradictory and Redundant Auditory Sensory Predictions

    PubMed Central

    Pieszek, Marika; Widmann, Andreas; Gruber, Thomas; Schröger, Erich

    2013-01-01

    Computational and experimental research has revealed that auditory sensory predictions are derived from regularities of the current environment by using internal generative models. However, so far, what has not been addressed is how the auditory system handles situations giving rise to redundant or even contradictory predictions derived from different sources of information. To this end, we measured error signals in the event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in response to violations of auditory predictions. Sounds could be predicted on the basis of overall probability, i.e., one sound was presented frequently and another sound rarely. Furthermore, each sound was predicted by an informative visual cue. Participants’ task was to use the cue and to discriminate the two sounds as fast as possible. Violations of the probability based prediction (i.e., a rare sound) as well as violations of the visual-auditory prediction (i.e., an incongruent sound) elicited error signals in the ERPs (Mismatch Negativity [MMN] and Incongruency Response [IR]). Particular error signals were observed even in case the overall probability and the visual symbol predicted different sounds. That is, the auditory system concurrently maintains and tests contradictory predictions. Moreover, if the same sound was predicted, we observed an additive error signal (scalp potential and primary current density) equaling the sum of the specific error signals. Thus, the auditory system maintains and tolerates functionally independently represented redundant and contradictory predictions. We argue that the auditory system exploits all currently active regularities in order to optimally prepare for future events. PMID:23308266

  2. Auditory pathways: anatomy and physiology.

    PubMed

    Pickles, James O

    2015-01-01

    This chapter outlines the anatomy and physiology of the auditory pathways. After a brief analysis of the external, middle ears, and cochlea, the responses of auditory nerve fibers are described. The central nervous system is analyzed in more detail. A scheme is provided to help understand the complex and multiple auditory pathways running through the brainstem. The multiple pathways are based on the need to preserve accurate timing while extracting complex spectral patterns in the auditory input. The auditory nerve fibers branch to give two pathways, a ventral sound-localizing stream, and a dorsal mainly pattern recognition stream, which innervate the different divisions of the cochlear nucleus. The outputs of the two streams, with their two types of analysis, are progressively combined in the inferior colliculus and onwards, to produce the representation of what can be called the "auditory objects" in the external world. The progressive extraction of critical features in the auditory stimulus in the different levels of the central auditory system, from cochlear nucleus to auditory cortex, is described. In addition, the auditory centrifugal system, running from cortex in multiple stages to the organ of Corti of the cochlea, is described.

  3. Development of the auditory system

    PubMed Central

    Litovsky, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Auditory development involves changes in the peripheral and central nervous system along the auditory pathways, and these occur naturally, and in response to stimulation. Human development occurs along a trajectory that can last decades, and is studied using behavioral psychophysics, as well as physiologic measurements with neural imaging. The auditory system constructs a perceptual space that takes information from objects and groups, segregates sounds, and provides meaning and access to communication tools such as language. Auditory signals are processed in a series of analysis stages, from peripheral to central. Coding of information has been studied for features of sound, including frequency, intensity, loudness, and location, in quiet and in the presence of maskers. In the latter case, the ability of the auditory system to perform an analysis of the scene becomes highly relevant. While some basic abilities are well developed at birth, there is a clear prolonged maturation of auditory development well into the teenage years. Maturation involves auditory pathways. However, non-auditory changes (attention, memory, cognition) play an important role in auditory development. The ability of the auditory system to adapt in response to novel stimuli is a key feature of development throughout the nervous system, known as neural plasticity. PMID:25726262

  4. Auditory object cognition in dementia

    PubMed Central

    Goll, Johanna C.; Kim, Lois G.; Hailstone, Julia C.; Lehmann, Manja; Buckley, Aisling; Crutch, Sebastian J.; Warren, Jason D.

    2011-01-01

    The cognition of nonverbal sounds in dementia has been relatively little explored. Here we undertook a systematic study of nonverbal sound processing in patient groups with canonical dementia syndromes comprising clinically diagnosed typical amnestic Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 21), progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA; n = 5), logopenic progressive aphasia (LPA; n = 7) and aphasia in association with a progranulin gene mutation (GAA; n = 1), and in healthy age-matched controls (n = 20). Based on a cognitive framework treating complex sounds as ‘auditory objects’, we designed a novel neuropsychological battery to probe auditory object cognition at early perceptual (sub-object), object representational (apperceptive) and semantic levels. All patients had assessments of peripheral hearing and general neuropsychological functions in addition to the experimental auditory battery. While a number of aspects of auditory object analysis were impaired across patient groups and were influenced by general executive (working memory) capacity, certain auditory deficits had some specificity for particular dementia syndromes. Patients with AD had a disproportionate deficit of auditory apperception but preserved timbre processing. Patients with PNFA had salient deficits of timbre and auditory semantic processing, but intact auditory size and apperceptive processing. Patients with LPA had a generalised auditory deficit that was influenced by working memory function. In contrast, the patient with GAA showed substantial preservation of auditory function, but a mild deficit of pitch direction processing and a more severe deficit of auditory apperception. The findings provide evidence for separable stages of auditory object analysis and separable profiles of impaired auditory object cognition in different dementia syndromes. PMID:21689671

  5. Cremated human remains: is measurement of the lateral angle of the meatus acusticus internus a reliable method of sex determination?

    PubMed

    Masotti, Sabrina; Succi-Leonelli, Elisa; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the lateral angle (LA) method-based on the measurement of the angle at which the internal acoustic canal opens up to the surface of the petrous bone-for sex determination in cremated skeletal remains of Italians. The sample consisted of 160 adult individuals of known age and sex who had recently died and were cremated in the crematorium of Ferrara (northern Italy). Several studies have demonstrated that the petrous portion of the temporal bone may be a valuable tool for sex diagnosis in unburned skeletal remains. Since petrous bones are usually preserved after cremation, this method could be of particular interest in the case of burned skeletal remains. The repeatability of intra- and inter-observer measurements was good. The results indicated that male and female lateral angles were significantly different but that the values did not differ among age-groups. There was no bilateral difference in LA. However, neither the 45° angle, proposed in earlier studies as the sectioning point for this variable from male and female data distributions, nor another angular value allowed satisfactory discrimination between the sexes in our sample. The influence of the "age" factor (about 82 % of females were of ≥ 75 years of age) on the results is critically discussed. The results of this study suggest that the LA method is not sufficiently reliable to assess the sex of elderly Italian individuals from their burned remains and thus should only be used in conjunction with other sexing techniques.

  6. Early hominin auditory capacities.

    PubMed

    Quam, Rolf; Martínez, Ignacio; Rosa, Manuel; Bonmatí, Alejandro; Lorenzo, Carlos; de Ruiter, Darryl J; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo; Conde Valverde, Mercedes; Jarabo, Pilar; Menter, Colin G; Thackeray, J Francis; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2015-09-01

    Studies of sensory capacities in past life forms have offered new insights into their adaptations and lifeways. Audition is particularly amenable to study in fossils because it is strongly related to physical properties that can be approached through their skeletal structures. We have studied the anatomy of the outer and middle ear in the early hominin taxa Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus and estimated their auditory capacities. Compared with chimpanzees, the early hominin taxa are derived toward modern humans in their slightly shorter and wider external auditory canal, smaller tympanic membrane, and lower malleus/incus lever ratio, but they remain primitive in the small size of their stapes footplate. Compared with chimpanzees, both early hominin taxa show a heightened sensitivity to frequencies between 1.5 and 3.5 kHz and an occupied band of maximum sensitivity that is shifted toward slightly higher frequencies. The results have implications for sensory ecology and communication, and suggest that the early hominin auditory pattern may have facilitated an increased emphasis on short-range vocal communication in open habitats. PMID:26601261

  7. Early hominin auditory capacities

    PubMed Central

    Quam, Rolf; Martínez, Ignacio; Rosa, Manuel; Bonmatí, Alejandro; Lorenzo, Carlos; de Ruiter, Darryl J.; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo; Conde Valverde, Mercedes; Jarabo, Pilar; Menter, Colin G.; Thackeray, J. Francis; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2015-01-01

    Studies of sensory capacities in past life forms have offered new insights into their adaptations and lifeways. Audition is particularly amenable to study in fossils because it is strongly related to physical properties that can be approached through their skeletal structures. We have studied the anatomy of the outer and middle ear in the early hominin taxa Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus and estimated their auditory capacities. Compared with chimpanzees, the early hominin taxa are derived toward modern humans in their slightly shorter and wider external auditory canal, smaller tympanic membrane, and lower malleus/incus lever ratio, but they remain primitive in the small size of their stapes footplate. Compared with chimpanzees, both early hominin taxa show a heightened sensitivity to frequencies between 1.5 and 3.5 kHz and an occupied band of maximum sensitivity that is shifted toward slightly higher frequencies. The results have implications for sensory ecology and communication, and suggest that the early hominin auditory pattern may have facilitated an increased emphasis on short-range vocal communication in open habitats. PMID:26601261

  8. Early hominin auditory capacities.

    PubMed

    Quam, Rolf; Martínez, Ignacio; Rosa, Manuel; Bonmatí, Alejandro; Lorenzo, Carlos; de Ruiter, Darryl J; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo; Conde Valverde, Mercedes; Jarabo, Pilar; Menter, Colin G; Thackeray, J Francis; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2015-09-01

    Studies of sensory capacities in past life forms have offered new insights into their adaptations and lifeways. Audition is particularly amenable to study in fossils because it is strongly related to physical properties that can be approached through their skeletal structures. We have studied the anatomy of the outer and middle ear in the early hominin taxa Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus and estimated their auditory capacities. Compared with chimpanzees, the early hominin taxa are derived toward modern humans in their slightly shorter and wider external auditory canal, smaller tympanic membrane, and lower malleus/incus lever ratio, but they remain primitive in the small size of their stapes footplate. Compared with chimpanzees, both early hominin taxa show a heightened sensitivity to frequencies between 1.5 and 3.5 kHz and an occupied band of maximum sensitivity that is shifted toward slightly higher frequencies. The results have implications for sensory ecology and communication, and suggest that the early hominin auditory pattern may have facilitated an increased emphasis on short-range vocal communication in open habitats.

  9. Clinical assessment of auditory dysfunction.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, W G

    1982-01-01

    Many drugs, chemical substances and agents are potentially toxic to the human auditory system. The extent of toxicity depends on numerous factors. With few exceptions, toxicity in the auditory system affects various organs or cells within the cochlea or vestibular system, with brain stem and other central nervous system involvement reported with some chemicals and agents. This ototoxicity usually presents as a decrease in auditory sensitivity, tinnitus and/or vertigo or loss of balance. Classical and newer audiological techniques used in clinical assessment are beneficial in specifying the site of lesion in the cochlea, although auditory test results, themselves, give little information regarding possible pathology or etiology within the cochlea. Typically,, ototoxicity results in high frequency hearing loss, progressive as a function of frequency, usually accompanied by tinnitus and occasionally by vertigo or loss of balance. Auditory testing protocols are necessary to document this loss in auditory function. PMID:7044778

  10. Cremated human remains: is measurement of the lateral angle of the meatus acusticus internus a reliable method of sex determination?

    PubMed

    Masotti, Sabrina; Succi-Leonelli, Elisa; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the lateral angle (LA) method-based on the measurement of the angle at which the internal acoustic canal opens up to the surface of the petrous bone-for sex determination in cremated skeletal remains of Italians. The sample consisted of 160 adult individuals of known age and sex who had recently died and were cremated in the crematorium of Ferrara (northern Italy). Several studies have demonstrated that the petrous portion of the temporal bone may be a valuable tool for sex diagnosis in unburned skeletal remains. Since petrous bones are usually preserved after cremation, this method could be of particular interest in the case of burned skeletal remains. The repeatability of intra- and inter-observer measurements was good. The results indicated that male and female lateral angles were significantly different but that the values did not differ among age-groups. There was no bilateral difference in LA. However, neither the 45° angle, proposed in earlier studies as the sectioning point for this variable from male and female data distributions, nor another angular value allowed satisfactory discrimination between the sexes in our sample. The influence of the "age" factor (about 82 % of females were of ≥ 75 years of age) on the results is critically discussed. The results of this study suggest that the LA method is not sufficiently reliable to assess the sex of elderly Italian individuals from their burned remains and thus should only be used in conjunction with other sexing techniques. PMID:23344564

  11. Auditory interfaces: The human perceiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colburn, H. Steven

    1991-01-01

    A brief introduction to the basic auditory abilities of the human perceiver with particular attention toward issues that may be important for the design of auditory interfaces is presented. The importance of appropriate auditory inputs to observers with normal hearing is probably related to the role of hearing as an omnidirectional, early warning system and to its role as the primary vehicle for communication of strong personal feelings.

  12. Subcortical processing in auditory communication.

    PubMed

    Pannese, Alessia; Grandjean, Didier; Frühholz, Sascha

    2015-10-01

    The voice is a rich source of information, which the human brain has evolved to decode and interpret. Empirical observations have shown that the human auditory system is especially sensitive to the human voice, and that activity within the voice-sensitive regions of the primary and secondary auditory cortex is modulated by the emotional quality of the vocal signal, and may therefore subserve, with frontal regions, the cognitive ability to correctly identify the speaker's affective state. So far, the network involved in the processing of vocal affect has been mainly characterised at the cortical level. However, anatomical and functional evidence suggests that acoustic information relevant to the affective quality of the auditory signal might be processed prior to the auditory cortex. Here we review the animal and human literature on the main subcortical structures along the auditory pathway, and propose a model whereby the distinction between different types of vocal affect in auditory communication begins at very early stages of auditory processing, and relies on the analysis of individual acoustic features of the sound signal. We further suggest that this early feature-based decoding occurs at a subcortical level along the ascending auditory pathway, and provides a preliminary coarse (but fast) characterisation of the affective quality of the auditory signal before the more refined (but slower) cortical processing is completed.

  13. Subcortical processing in auditory communication.

    PubMed

    Pannese, Alessia; Grandjean, Didier; Frühholz, Sascha

    2015-10-01

    The voice is a rich source of information, which the human brain has evolved to decode and interpret. Empirical observations have shown that the human auditory system is especially sensitive to the human voice, and that activity within the voice-sensitive regions of the primary and secondary auditory cortex is modulated by the emotional quality of the vocal signal, and may therefore subserve, with frontal regions, the cognitive ability to correctly identify the speaker's affective state. So far, the network involved in the processing of vocal affect has been mainly characterised at the cortical level. However, anatomical and functional evidence suggests that acoustic information relevant to the affective quality of the auditory signal might be processed prior to the auditory cortex. Here we review the animal and human literature on the main subcortical structures along the auditory pathway, and propose a model whereby the distinction between different types of vocal affect in auditory communication begins at very early stages of auditory processing, and relies on the analysis of individual acoustic features of the sound signal. We further suggest that this early feature-based decoding occurs at a subcortical level along the ascending auditory pathway, and provides a preliminary coarse (but fast) characterisation of the affective quality of the auditory signal before the more refined (but slower) cortical processing is completed. PMID:26163900

  14. Auditory feedback does not influence random number generation: Evidence from profoundly deaf adults with cochlear implant.

    PubMed

    Strenge, Hans; Müller-Deile, Joachim

    2007-08-01

    Oral random number generation is a widely used neuropsychological task engaging a number of overlapping neural systems of attention, number representation, response generation, and working memory. Although phonological processing is known to be essential for random number generation no information exists on the significance of the auditory feedback of hearing one's own voice on task performance. We therefore examined the influence of auditory feedback in 15 profoundly deaf adults with cochlear implants in a device-on/off experiment. No significant effects of occluding auditory feedback on random number generation were noted, thus supporting an internal response-monitoring model independent of auditory condition. PMID:17691037

  15. Auditory Discrimination and Auditory Sensory Behaviours in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Catherine R. G.; Happe, Francesca; Baird, Gillian; Simonoff, Emily; Marsden, Anita J. S.; Tregay, Jenifer; Phillips, Rebecca J.; Goswami, Usha; Thomson, Jennifer M.; Charman, Tony

    2009-01-01

    It has been hypothesised that auditory processing may be enhanced in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We tested auditory discrimination ability in 72 adolescents with ASD (39 childhood autism; 33 other ASD) and 57 IQ and age-matched controls, assessing their capacity for successful discrimination of the frequency, intensity and duration…

  16. The Central Auditory Processing Kit[TM]. Book 1: Auditory Memory [and] Book 2: Auditory Discrimination, Auditory Closure, and Auditory Synthesis [and] Book 3: Auditory Figure-Ground, Auditory Cohesion, Auditory Binaural Integration, and Compensatory Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokhemar, Mary Ann

    This kit for assessing central auditory processing disorders (CAPD), in children in grades 1 through 8 includes 3 books, 14 full-color cards with picture scenes, and a card depicting a phone key pad, all contained in a sturdy carrying case. The units in each of the three books correspond with auditory skill areas most commonly addressed in…

  17. The role of the primary auditory cortex in the neural mechanism of auditory verbal hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Kompus, Kristiina; Falkenberg, Liv E.; Bless, Josef J.; Johnsen, Erik; Kroken, Rune A.; Kråkvik, Bodil; Larøi, Frank; Løberg, Else-Marie; Vedul-Kjelsås, Einar; Westerhausen, René; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are a subjective experience of “hearing voices” in the absence of corresponding physical stimulation in the environment. The most remarkable feature of AVHs is their perceptual quality, that is, the experience is subjectively often as vivid as hearing an actual voice, as opposed to mental imagery or auditory memories. This has lead to propositions that dysregulation of the primary auditory cortex (PAC) is a crucial component of the neural mechanism of AVHs. One possible mechanism by which the PAC could give rise to the experience of hallucinations is aberrant patterns of neuronal activity whereby the PAC is overly sensitive to activation arising from internal processing, while being less responsive to external stimulation. In this paper, we review recent research relevant to the role of the PAC in the generation of AVHs. We present new data from a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, examining the responsivity of the left and right PAC to parametrical modulation of the intensity of auditory verbal stimulation, and corresponding attentional top-down control in non-clinical participants with AVHs, and non-clinical participants with no AVHs. Non-clinical hallucinators showed reduced activation to speech sounds but intact attentional modulation in the right PAC. Additionally, we present data from a group of schizophrenia patients with AVHs, who do not show attentional modulation of left or right PAC. The context-appropriate modulation of the PAC may be a protective factor in non-clinical hallucinations. PMID:23630479

  18. Issues in Human Auditory Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Lynne A.

    2007-01-01

    The human auditory system is often portrayed as precocious in its development. In fact, many aspects of basic auditory processing appear to be adult-like by the middle of the first year of postnatal life. However, processes such as attention and sound source determination take much longer to develop. Immaturity of higher-level processes limits the…

  19. Word Recognition in Auditory Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, Iain D. J.

    2013-01-01

    Although spoken word recognition is more fundamental to human communication than text recognition, knowledge of word-processing in auditory cortex is comparatively impoverished. This dissertation synthesizes current models of auditory cortex, models of cortical pattern recognition, models of single-word reading, results in phonetics and results in…

  20. Auditory neglect and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Gutschalk, Alexander; Dykstra, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Neglect is a neurologic disorder, typically associated with lesions of the right hemisphere, in which patients are biased towards their ipsilesional - usually right - side of space while awareness for their contralesional - usually left - side is reduced or absent. Neglect is a multimodal disorder that often includes deficits in the auditory domain. Classically, auditory extinction, in which left-sided sounds that are correctly perceived in isolation are not detected in the presence of synchronous right-sided stimulation, has been considered the primary sign of auditory neglect. However, auditory extinction can also be observed after unilateral auditory cortex lesions and is thus not specific for neglect. Recent research has shown that patients with neglect are also impaired in maintaining sustained attention, on both sides, a fact that is reflected by an impairment of auditory target detection in continuous stimulation conditions. Perhaps the most impressive auditory symptom in full-blown neglect is alloacusis, in which patients mislocalize left-sided sound sources to their right, although even patients with less severe neglect still often show disturbance of auditory spatial perception, most commonly a lateralization bias towards the right. We discuss how these various disorders may be explained by a single model of neglect and review emerging interventions for patient rehabilitation.

  1. Mechanisms of auditory verbal hallucination in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Cho, Raymond; Wu, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Recent work on the mechanisms underlying auditory verbal hallucination (AVH) has been heavily informed by self-monitoring accounts that postulate defects in an internal monitoring mechanism as the basis of AVH. A more neglected alternative is an account focusing on defects in auditory processing, namely a spontaneous activation account of auditory activity underlying AVH. Science is often aided by putting theories in competition. Accordingly, a discussion that systematically contrasts the two models of AVH can generate sharper questions that will lead to new avenues of investigation. In this paper, we provide such a theoretical discussion of the two models, drawing strong contrasts between them. We identify a set of challenges for the self-monitoring account and argue that the spontaneous activation account has much in favor of it and should be the default account. Our theoretical overview leads to new questions and issues regarding the explanation of AVH as a subjective phenomenon and its neural basis. Accordingly, we suggest a set of experimental strategies to dissect the underlying mechanisms of AVH in light of the two competing models. PMID:24348430

  2. Mechanisms of Auditory Verbal Hallucination in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Raymond; Wu, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Recent work on the mechanisms underlying auditory verbal hallucination (AVH) has been heavily informed by self-monitoring accounts that postulate defects in an internal monitoring mechanism as the basis of AVH. A more neglected alternative is an account focusing on defects in auditory processing, namely a spontaneous activation account of auditory activity underlying AVH. Science is often aided by putting theories in competition. Accordingly, a discussion that systematically contrasts the two models of AVH can generate sharper questions that will lead to new avenues of investigation. In this paper, we provide such a theoretical discussion of the two models, drawing strong contrasts between them. We identify a set of challenges for the self-monitoring account and argue that the spontaneous activation account has much in favor of it and should be the default account. Our theoretical overview leads to new questions and issues regarding the explanation of AVH as a subjective phenomenon and its neural basis. Accordingly, we suggest a set of experimental strategies to dissect the underlying mechanisms of AVH in light of the two competing models. PMID:24348430

  3. The Perception of Auditory Motion

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Johahn

    2016-01-01

    The growing availability of efficient and relatively inexpensive virtual auditory display technology has provided new research platforms to explore the perception of auditory motion. At the same time, deployment of these technologies in command and control as well as in entertainment roles is generating an increasing need to better understand the complex processes underlying auditory motion perception. This is a particularly challenging processing feat because it involves the rapid deconvolution of the relative change in the locations of sound sources produced by rotational and translations of the head in space (self-motion) to enable the perception of actual source motion. The fact that we perceive our auditory world to be stable despite almost continual movement of the head demonstrates the efficiency and effectiveness of this process. This review examines the acoustical basis of auditory motion perception and a wide range of psychophysical, electrophysiological, and cortical imaging studies that have probed the limits and possible mechanisms underlying this perception. PMID:27094029

  4. Idealized computational models for auditory receptive fields.

    PubMed

    Lindeberg, Tony; Friberg, Anders

    2015-01-01

    We present a theory by which idealized models of auditory receptive fields can be derived in a principled axiomatic manner, from a set of structural properties to (i) enable invariance of receptive field responses under natural sound transformations and (ii) ensure internal consistency between spectro-temporal receptive fields at different temporal and spectral scales. For defining a time-frequency transformation of a purely temporal sound signal, it is shown that the framework allows for a new way of deriving the Gabor and Gammatone filters as well as a novel family of generalized Gammatone filters, with additional degrees of freedom to obtain different trade-offs between the spectral selectivity and the temporal delay of time-causal temporal window functions. When applied to the definition of a second-layer of receptive fields from a spectrogram, it is shown that the framework leads to two canonical families of spectro-temporal receptive fields, in terms of spectro-temporal derivatives of either spectro-temporal Gaussian kernels for non-causal time or a cascade of time-causal first-order integrators over the temporal domain and a Gaussian filter over the logspectral domain. For each filter family, the spectro-temporal receptive fields can be either separable over the time-frequency domain or be adapted to local glissando transformations that represent variations in logarithmic frequencies over time. Within each domain of either non-causal or time-causal time, these receptive field families are derived by uniqueness from the assumptions. It is demonstrated how the presented framework allows for computation of basic auditory features for audio processing and that it leads to predictions about auditory receptive fields with good qualitative similarity to biological receptive fields measured in the inferior colliculus (ICC) and primary auditory cortex (A1) of mammals. PMID:25822973

  5. Idealized Computational Models for Auditory Receptive Fields

    PubMed Central

    Lindeberg, Tony; Friberg, Anders

    2015-01-01

    We present a theory by which idealized models of auditory receptive fields can be derived in a principled axiomatic manner, from a set of structural properties to (i) enable invariance of receptive field responses under natural sound transformations and (ii) ensure internal consistency between spectro-temporal receptive fields at different temporal and spectral scales. For defining a time-frequency transformation of a purely temporal sound signal, it is shown that the framework allows for a new way of deriving the Gabor and Gammatone filters as well as a novel family of generalized Gammatone filters, with additional degrees of freedom to obtain different trade-offs between the spectral selectivity and the temporal delay of time-causal temporal window functions. When applied to the definition of a second-layer of receptive fields from a spectrogram, it is shown that the framework leads to two canonical families of spectro-temporal receptive fields, in terms of spectro-temporal derivatives of either spectro-temporal Gaussian kernels for non-causal time or a cascade of time-causal first-order integrators over the temporal domain and a Gaussian filter over the logspectral domain. For each filter family, the spectro-temporal receptive fields can be either separable over the time-frequency domain or be adapted to local glissando transformations that represent variations in logarithmic frequencies over time. Within each domain of either non-causal or time-causal time, these receptive field families are derived by uniqueness from the assumptions. It is demonstrated how the presented framework allows for computation of basic auditory features for audio processing and that it leads to predictions about auditory receptive fields with good qualitative similarity to biological receptive fields measured in the inferior colliculus (ICC) and primary auditory cortex (A1) of mammals. PMID:25822973

  6. Auditory hallucinations treated by radio headphones.

    PubMed

    Feder, R

    1982-09-01

    A young man with chronic auditory hallucinations was treated according to the principle that increasing external auditory stimulation decreases the likelihood of auditory hallucinations. Listening to a radio through stereo headphones in conditions of low auditory stimulation eliminated the patient's hallucinations.

  7. Language Development Activities through the Auditory Channel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzmaurice, Peggy, Comp.; And Others

    Presented primarily for use with educable mentally retarded and learning disabled children are approximately 100 activities for language development through the auditory channel. Activities are grouped under the following three areas: receptive skills (auditory decoding, auditory memory, and auditory discrimination); expressive skills (auditory…

  8. Cortical auditory disorders: clinical and psychoacoustic features.

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, M F; Geehan, G R

    1988-01-01

    The symptoms of two patients with bilateral cortical auditory lesions evolved from cortical deafness to other auditory syndromes: generalised auditory agnosia, amusia and/or pure word deafness, and a residual impairment of temporal sequencing. On investigation, both had dysacusis, absent middle latency evoked responses, acoustic errors in sound recognition and matching, inconsistent auditory behaviours, and similarly disturbed psychoacoustic discrimination tasks. These findings indicate that the different clinical syndromes caused by cortical auditory lesions form a spectrum of related auditory processing disorders. Differences between syndromes may depend on the degree of involvement of a primary cortical processing system, the more diffuse accessory system, and possibly the efferent auditory system. Images PMID:2450968

  9. Auditory distance perception in humans: a review of cues, development, neuronal bases, and effects of sensory loss.

    PubMed

    Kolarik, Andrew J; Moore, Brian C J; Zahorik, Pavel; Cirstea, Silvia; Pardhan, Shahina

    2016-02-01

    Auditory distance perception plays a major role in spatial awareness, enabling location of objects and avoidance of obstacles in the environment. However, it remains under-researched relative to studies of the directional aspect of sound localization. This review focuses on the following four aspects of auditory distance perception: cue processing, development, consequences of visual and auditory loss, and neurological bases. The several auditory distance cues vary in their effective ranges in peripersonal and extrapersonal space. The primary cues are sound level, reverberation, and frequency. Nonperceptual factors, including the importance of the auditory event to the listener, also can affect perceived distance. Basic internal representations of auditory distance emerge at approximately 6 months of age in humans. Although visual information plays an important role in calibrating auditory space, sensorimotor contingencies can be used for calibration when vision is unavailable. Blind individuals often manifest supranormal abilities to judge relative distance but show a deficit in absolute distance judgments. Following hearing loss, the use of auditory level as a distance cue remains robust, while the reverberation cue becomes less effective. Previous studies have not found evidence that hearing-aid processing affects perceived auditory distance. Studies investigating the brain areas involved in processing different acoustic distance cues are described. Finally, suggestions are given for further research on auditory distance perception, including broader investigation of how background noise and multiple sound sources affect perceived auditory distance for those with sensory loss. PMID:26590050

  10. Auditory short-term memory in the primate auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Scott, Brian H; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2016-06-01

    Sounds are fleeting, and assembling the sequence of inputs at the ear into a coherent percept requires auditory memory across various time scales. Auditory short-term memory comprises at least two components: an active ׳working memory' bolstered by rehearsal, and a sensory trace that may be passively retained. Working memory relies on representations recalled from long-term memory, and their rehearsal may require phonological mechanisms unique to humans. The sensory component, passive short-term memory (pSTM), is tractable to study in nonhuman primates, whose brain architecture and behavioral repertoire are comparable to our own. This review discusses recent advances in the behavioral and neurophysiological study of auditory memory with a focus on single-unit recordings from macaque monkeys performing delayed-match-to-sample (DMS) tasks. Monkeys appear to employ pSTM to solve these tasks, as evidenced by the impact of interfering stimuli on memory performance. In several regards, pSTM in monkeys resembles pitch memory in humans, and may engage similar neural mechanisms. Neural correlates of DMS performance have been observed throughout the auditory and prefrontal cortex, defining a network of areas supporting auditory STM with parallels to that supporting visual STM. These correlates include persistent neural firing, or a suppression of firing, during the delay period of the memory task, as well as suppression or (less commonly) enhancement of sensory responses when a sound is repeated as a ׳match' stimulus. Auditory STM is supported by a distributed temporo-frontal network in which sensitivity to stimulus history is an intrinsic feature of auditory processing. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory.

  11. Auditory-olfactory synesthesia coexisting with auditory-visual synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Thomas E; Sandramouli, Soupramanien

    2012-09-01

    Synesthesia is an unusual condition in which stimulation of one sensory modality causes an experience in another sensory modality or when a sensation in one sensory modality causes another sensation within the same modality. We describe a previously unreported association of auditory-olfactory synesthesia coexisting with auditory-visual synesthesia. Given that many types of synesthesias involve vision, it is important that the clinician provide these patients with the necessary information and support that is available.

  12. Intertrial auditory neural stability supports beat synchronization in preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Carr, Kali Woodruff; Tierney, Adam; White-Schwoch, Travis; Kraus, Nina

    2016-02-01

    The ability to synchronize motor movements along with an auditory beat places stringent demands on the temporal processing and sensorimotor integration capabilities of the nervous system. Links between millisecond-level precision of auditory processing and the consistency of sensorimotor beat synchronization implicate fine auditory neural timing as a mechanism for forming stable internal representations of, and behavioral reactions to, sound. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate a systematic relationship between consistency of beat synchronization and trial-by-trial stability of subcortical speech processing in preschoolers (ages 3 and 4 years old). We conclude that beat synchronization might provide a useful window into millisecond-level neural precision for encoding sound in early childhood, when speech processing is especially important for language acquisition and development. PMID:26760457

  13. Intertrial auditory neural stability supports beat synchronization in preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Kali Woodruff; Tierney, Adam; White-Schwoch, Travis; Kraus, Nina

    2016-01-01

    The ability to synchronize motor movements along with an auditory beat places stringent demands on the temporal processing and sensorimotor integration capabilities of the nervous system. Links between millisecond-level precision of auditory processing and the consistency of sensorimotor beat synchronization implicate fine auditory neural timing as a mechanism for forming stable internal representations of, and behavioral reactions to, sound. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate a systematic relationship between consistency of beat synchronization and trial-by-trial stability of subcortical speech processing in preschoolers (ages 3 and 4 years old). We conclude that beat synchronization might provide a useful window into millisecond-level neural precision for encoding sound in early childhood, when speech processing is especially important for language acquisition and development. PMID:26760457

  14. Auditory Processing Disorder in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... free publications Find organizations Related Topics Auditory Neuropathy Autism Spectrum Disorder: Communication Problems in Children Dysphagia Quick ... NIH… Turning Discovery Into Health ® National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders 31 Center Drive, MSC ...

  15. Leiomyoma of External Auditory Canal.

    PubMed

    George, M V; Puthiyapurayil, Jamsheeda

    2016-09-01

    This article reports a case of piloleiomyoma of external auditory canal, which is the 7th case of leiomyoma of the external auditory canal being reported and the 2nd case of leiomyoma arising from arrectores pilorum muscles, all the other five cases were angioleiomyomas, arising from blood vessels. A 52 years old male presented with a mass in the right external auditory canal and decreased hearing of 6 months duration. Tumor excision done by end aural approach. Histopathological examination report was leiomyoma. It is extremely rare for leiomyoma to occur in the external auditory canal because of the non-availability of smooth muscles in the external canal. So it should be considered as a very rare differential diagnosis for any tumor or polyp in the ear canal. PMID:27508144

  16. Classroom Demonstrations of Auditory Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haws, LaDawn; Oppy, Brian J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents activities to help students gain understanding about auditory perception. Describes demonstrations that cover topics, such as sound localization, wave cancellation, frequency/pitch variation, and the influence of media on sound propagation. (CMK)

  17. Maps of the Auditory Cortex.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Alyssa A; Barton, Brian

    2016-07-01

    One of the fundamental properties of the mammalian brain is that sensory regions of cortex are formed of multiple, functionally specialized cortical field maps (CFMs). Each CFM comprises two orthogonal topographical representations, reflecting two essential aspects of sensory space. In auditory cortex, auditory field maps (AFMs) are defined by the combination of tonotopic gradients, representing the spectral aspects of sound (i.e., tones), with orthogonal periodotopic gradients, representing the temporal aspects of sound (i.e., period or temporal envelope). Converging evidence from cytoarchitectural and neuroimaging measurements underlies the definition of 11 AFMs across core and belt regions of human auditory cortex, with likely homology to those of macaque. On a macrostructural level, AFMs are grouped into cloverleaf clusters, an organizational structure also seen in visual cortex. Future research can now use these AFMs to investigate specific stages of auditory processing, key for understanding behaviors such as speech perception and multimodal sensory integration. PMID:27145914

  18. Auditory rhythmic cueing in movement rehabilitation: findings and possible mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Rebecca S

    2014-12-19

    Moving to music is intuitive and spontaneous, and music is widely used to support movement, most commonly during exercise. Auditory cues are increasingly also used in the rehabilitation of disordered movement, by aligning actions to sounds such as a metronome or music. Here, the effect of rhythmic auditory cueing on movement is discussed and representative findings of cued movement rehabilitation are considered for several movement disorders, specifically post-stroke motor impairment, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. There are multiple explanations for the efficacy of cued movement practice. Potentially relevant, non-mutually exclusive mechanisms include the acceleration of learning; qualitatively different motor learning owing to an auditory context; effects of increased temporal skills through rhythmic practices and motivational aspects of musical rhythm. Further considerations of rehabilitation paradigm efficacy focus on specific movement disorders, intervention methods and complexity of the auditory cues. Although clinical interventions using rhythmic auditory cueing do not show consistently positive results, it is argued that internal mechanisms of temporal prediction and tracking are crucial, and further research may inform rehabilitation practice to increase intervention efficacy. PMID:25385780

  19. Role of the auditory system in speech production.

    PubMed

    Guenther, Frank H; Hickok, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reviews evidence regarding the role of auditory perception in shaping speech output. Evidence indicates that speech movements are planned to follow auditory trajectories. This in turn is followed by a description of the Directions Into Velocities of Articulators (DIVA) model, which provides a detailed account of the role of auditory feedback in speech motor development and control. A brief description of the higher-order brain areas involved in speech sequencing (including the pre-supplementary motor area and inferior frontal sulcus) is then provided, followed by a description of the Hierarchical State Feedback Control (HSFC) model, which posits internal error detection and correction processes that can detect and correct speech production errors prior to articulation. The chapter closes with a treatment of promising future directions of research into auditory-motor interactions in speech, including the use of intracranial recording techniques such as electrocorticography in humans, the investigation of the potential roles of various large-scale brain rhythms in speech perception and production, and the development of brain-computer interfaces that use auditory feedback to allow profoundly paralyzed users to learn to produce speech using a speech synthesizer.

  20. Auditory rhythmic cueing in movement rehabilitation: findings and possible mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Rebecca S.

    2014-01-01

    Moving to music is intuitive and spontaneous, and music is widely used to support movement, most commonly during exercise. Auditory cues are increasingly also used in the rehabilitation of disordered movement, by aligning actions to sounds such as a metronome or music. Here, the effect of rhythmic auditory cueing on movement is discussed and representative findings of cued movement rehabilitation are considered for several movement disorders, specifically post-stroke motor impairment, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. There are multiple explanations for the efficacy of cued movement practice. Potentially relevant, non-mutually exclusive mechanisms include the acceleration of learning; qualitatively different motor learning owing to an auditory context; effects of increased temporal skills through rhythmic practices and motivational aspects of musical rhythm. Further considerations of rehabilitation paradigm efficacy focus on specific movement disorders, intervention methods and complexity of the auditory cues. Although clinical interventions using rhythmic auditory cueing do not show consistently positive results, it is argued that internal mechanisms of temporal prediction and tracking are crucial, and further research may inform rehabilitation practice to increase intervention efficacy. PMID:25385780

  1. An Adapting Auditory-motor Feedback Loop Can Contribute to Generating Vocal Repetition

    PubMed Central

    Brainard, Michael S.; Jin, Dezhe Z.

    2015-01-01

    Consecutive repetition of actions is common in behavioral sequences. Although integration of sensory feedback with internal motor programs is important for sequence generation, if and how feedback contributes to repetitive actions is poorly understood. Here we study how auditory feedback contributes to generating repetitive syllable sequences in songbirds. We propose that auditory signals provide positive feedback to ongoing motor commands, but this influence decays as feedback weakens from response adaptation during syllable repetitions. Computational models show that this mechanism explains repeat distributions observed in Bengalese finch song. We experimentally confirmed two predictions of this mechanism in Bengalese finches: removal of auditory feedback by deafening reduces syllable repetitions; and neural responses to auditory playback of repeated syllable sequences gradually adapt in sensory-motor nucleus HVC. Together, our results implicate a positive auditory-feedback loop with adaptation in generating repetitive vocalizations, and suggest sensory adaptation is important for feedback control of motor sequences. PMID:26448054

  2. External auditory osteoma.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Peter N; Nelson, Brenda L

    2012-06-01

    External auditory canal (EAC) osteomas are rare, benign bony neoplasms that occur in wide range of patients. While chronic irritation and inflammation have been suggested as causal factors in several cases, significant data is lacking to support these suspicions. Symptoms are rare and can include hearing loss, vertigo, pain and tinnitus. Diagnosis is made based on a combination of clinical history and examination, radiographic imaging, and histopathology. Osteomas of the EAC are usually found incidentally and are unilateral and solitary. Computed tomography reveals a hyperdense, pedunculated mass arising from the tympanosquamous suture and lateral of the isthmus. Histopathologically, EAC osteomas are covered with periosteum and squamous epithelium, and consist of lamalleted bone surrounding fibrovascular channels with minimal osteocysts. Osteomas have historically been compared and contrasted with exostoses of the EAC. While they share similarities, more often than not it is possible to distinguish the two bony neoplasms based on clinical history and radiographic studies. Debate remains in the medical literature as to whether basic histopathology can distinguish osteomas of the EAC from exostoses. Surgical excision is the standard treatment for EAC osteomas, however close observation is considered acceptable in asymptomatic patients.

  3. Auditory and non-auditory effects of noise on health

    PubMed Central

    Basner, Mathias; Babisch, Wolfgang; Davis, Adrian; Brink, Mark; Clark, Charlotte; Janssen, Sabine; Stansfeld, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Noise is pervasive in everyday life and can cause both auditory and non-auditory health effects. Noise-induced hearing loss remains highly prevalent in occupational settings, and is increasingly caused by social noise exposure (eg, through personal music players). Our understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in noise-induced hair-cell and nerve damage has substantially increased, and preventive and therapeutic drugs will probably become available within 10 years. Evidence of the non-auditory effects of environmental noise exposure on public health is growing. Observational and experimental studies have shown that noise exposure leads to annoyance, disturbs sleep and causes daytime sleepiness, affects patient outcomes and staff performance in hospitals, increases the occurrence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease, and impairs cognitive performance in schoolchildren. In this Review, we stress the importance of adequate noise prevention and mitigation strategies for public health. PMID:24183105

  4. Auditory learning: a developmental method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yilu; Weng, Juyang; Hwang, Wey-Shiuan

    2005-05-01

    Motivated by the human autonomous development process from infancy to adulthood, we have built a robot that develops its cognitive and behavioral skills through real-time interactions with the environment. We call such a robot a developmental robot. In this paper, we present the theory and the architecture to implement a developmental robot and discuss the related techniques that address an array of challenging technical issues. As an application, experimental results on a real robot, self-organizing, autonomous, incremental learner (SAIL), are presented with emphasis on its audition perception and audition-related action generation. In particular, the SAIL robot conducts the auditory learning from unsegmented and unlabeled speech streams without any prior knowledge about the auditory signals, such as the designated language or the phoneme models. Neither available before learning starts are the actions that the robot is expected to perform. SAIL learns the auditory commands and the desired actions from physical contacts with the environment including the trainers.

  5. Context effects on auditory distraction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sufen; Sussman, Elyse S.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to test the hypothesis that sound context modulates the magnitude of auditory distraction, indexed by behavioral and electrophysiological measures. Participants were asked to identify tone duration, while irrelevant changes occurred in tone frequency, tone intensity, and harmonic structure. Frequency deviants were randomly intermixed with standards (Uni-Condition), with intensity deviants (Bi-Condition), and with both intensity and complex deviants (Tri-Condition). Only in the Tri-Condition did the auditory distraction effect reflect the magnitude difference among the frequency and intensity deviants. The mixture of the different types of deviants in the Tri-Condition modulated the perceived level of distraction, demonstrating that the sound context can modulate the effect of deviance level on processing irrelevant acoustic changes in the environment. These findings thus indicate that perceptual contrast plays a role in change detection processes that leads to auditory distraction. PMID:23886958

  6. Loudspeaker equalization for auditory research.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Justin A; Tran, Phuong K

    2007-02-01

    The equalization of loudspeaker frequency response is necessary to conduct many types of well-controlled auditory experiments. This article introduces a program that includes functions to measure a loudspeaker's frequency response, design equalization filters, and apply the filters to a set of stimuli to be used in an auditory experiment. The filters can compensate for both magnitude and phase distortions introduced by the loudspeaker. A MATLAB script is included in the Appendix to illustrate the details of the equalization algorithm used in the program.

  7. Sensitivity to Auditory Velocity Contrast.

    PubMed

    Locke, Shannon M; Leung, Johahn; Carlile, Simon

    2016-06-13

    A natural auditory scene often contains sound moving at varying velocities. Using a velocity contrast paradigm, we compared sensitivity to velocity changes between continuous and discontinuous trajectories. Subjects compared the velocities of two stimulus intervals that moved along a single trajectory, with and without a 1 second inter stimulus interval (ISI). We found thresholds were threefold larger for velocity increases in the instantaneous velocity change condition, as compared to instantaneous velocity decreases or thresholds for the delayed velocity transition condition. This result cannot be explained by the current static "snapshot" model of auditory motion perception and suggest a continuous process where the percept of velocity is influenced by previous history of stimulation.

  8. Effects of Auditory Input in Individuation Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Christopher W.; Sloutsky, Vladimir M.

    2008-01-01

    Under many conditions auditory input interferes with visual processing, especially early in development. These interference effects are often more pronounced when the auditory input is unfamiliar than when the auditory input is familiar (e.g. human speech, pre-familiarized sounds, etc.). The current study extends this research by examining how…

  9. Pre-Attentive Auditory Processing of Lexicality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Thomas; Horvath, Janos; Schroger, Erich; Lattner, Sonja; Widmann, Andreas; Winkler, Istvan

    2004-01-01

    The effects of lexicality on auditory change detection based on auditory sensory memory representations were investigated by presenting oddball sequences of repeatedly presented stimuli, while participants ignored the auditory stimuli. In a cross-linguistic study of Hungarian and German participants, stimulus sequences were composed of words that…

  10. Feature Assignment in Perception of Auditory Figure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Melissa K.; Samuel, Arthur G.

    2012-01-01

    Because the environment often includes multiple sounds that overlap in time, listeners must segregate a sound of interest (the auditory figure) from other co-occurring sounds (the unattended auditory ground). We conducted a series of experiments to clarify the principles governing the extraction of auditory figures. We distinguish between auditory…

  11. Auditory Detection of the Human Brainstem Auditory Evoked Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Gerald, Jr.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This study evaluated whether listeners can distinguish human brainstem auditory evoked responses elicited by acoustic clicks from control waveforms obtained with no acoustic stimulus when the waveforms are presented auditorily. Detection performance for stimuli presented visually was slightly, but consistently, superior to that which occurred for…

  12. Auditory Temporal Conditioning in Neonates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franz, W. K.; And Others

    Twenty normal newborns, approximately 36 hours old, were tested using an auditory temporal conditioning paradigm which consisted of a slow rise, 75 db tone played for five seconds every 25 seconds, ten times. Responses to the tones were measured by instantaneous, beat-to-beat heartrate; and the test trial was designated as the 2 1/2-second period…

  13. Central Auditory Function in Stutterers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, James W.; Jerger, James

    1978-01-01

    Central auditory function was assessed in 10 stutterers and 10 nonstutterers between the ages of 10 and 35 years, and the performance of the two groups compared for seven audiometric procedures, including acoustic reflex threshold and acoustic reflex amplitude function. (Author)

  14. Developing Linguistic Auditory Memory Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valett, Robert E.

    1983-01-01

    For learning handicapped children with impaired language associations, patterns, and expressions, this paper summarizes relevant linguistic research and instructional strategies. Linguistic auditory memory pattern exercises and examples are then presented as an integrated multisensory approach which has been found useful by special educators.…

  15. Auditory Risk of Air Rifles

    PubMed Central

    Lankford, James E.; Meinke, Deanna K.; Flamme, Gregory A.; Finan, Donald S.; Stewart, Michael; Tasko, Stephen; Murphy, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To characterize the impulse noise exposure and auditory risk for air rifle users for both youth and adults. Design Acoustic characteristics were examined and the auditory risk estimates were evaluated using contemporary damage-risk criteria for unprotected adult listeners and the 120-dB peak limit and LAeq75 exposure limit suggested by the World Health Organization (1999) for children. Study sample Impulses were generated by 9 pellet air rifles and 1 BB air rifle. Results None of the air rifles generated peak levels that exceeded the 140 dB peak limit for adults and 8 (80%) exceeded the 120 dB peak SPL limit for youth. In general, for both adults and youth there is minimal auditory risk when shooting less than 100 unprotected shots with pellet air rifles. Air rifles with suppressors were less hazardous than those without suppressors and the pellet air rifles with higher velocities were generally more hazardous than those with lower velocities. Conclusion To minimize auditory risk, youth should utilize air rifles with an integrated suppressor and lower velocity ratings. Air rifle shooters are advised to wear hearing protection whenever engaging in shooting activities in order to gain self-efficacy and model appropriate hearing health behaviors necessary for recreational firearm use. PMID:26840923

  16. Delayed Auditory Feedback and Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfordresher, Peter Q.; Dalla Bella, Simone

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that timing of rhythm production is disrupted by delayed auditory feedback (DAF), and that disruption varies with delay length. We tested the hypothesis that disruption depends on the state of the movement trajectory at the onset of DAF. Participants tapped isochronous rhythms at a rate specified by a metronome while hearing DAF…

  17. Dynamics of auditory working memory

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    Working memory denotes the ability to retain stimuli in mind that are no longer physically present and to perform mental operations on them. Electro- and magnetoencephalography allow investigating the short-term maintenance of acoustic stimuli at a high temporal resolution. Studies investigating working memory for non-spatial and spatial auditory information have suggested differential roles of regions along the putative auditory ventral and dorsal streams, respectively, in the processing of the different sound properties. Analyses of event-related potentials have shown sustained, memory load-dependent deflections over the retention periods. The topography of these waves suggested an involvement of modality-specific sensory storage regions. Spectral analysis has yielded information about the temporal dynamics of auditory working memory processing of individual stimuli, showing activation peaks during the delay phase whose timing was related to task performance. Coherence at different frequencies was enhanced between frontal and sensory cortex. In summary, auditory working memory seems to rely on the dynamic interplay between frontal executive systems and sensory representation regions. PMID:26029146

  18. Sprint starts and the minimum auditory reaction time.

    PubMed

    Pain, Matthew T G; Hibbs, Angela

    2007-01-01

    The simple auditory reaction time is one of the fastest reaction times and is thought to be rarely less than 100 ms. The current false start criterion in a sprint used by the International Association of Athletics Federations is based on this assumed auditory reaction time of 100 ms. However, there is evidence, both anecdotal and from reflex research, that simple auditory reaction times of less than 100 ms can be achieved. Reaction time in nine athletes performing sprint starts in four conditions was measured using starting blocks instrumented with piezoelectric force transducers in each footplate that were synchronized with the starting signal. Only three conditions were used to calculate reaction times. The pre-motor and pseudo-motor time for two athletes were also measured across 13 muscles using surface electromyography (EMG) synchronized with the rest of the system. Five of the athletes had mean reaction times of less than 100 ms in at least one condition and 20% of all starts in the first two conditions had a reaction time of less than 100 ms. The results demonstrate that the neuromuscular-physiological component of simple auditory reaction times can be under 85 ms and that EMG latencies can be under 60 ms. PMID:17127583

  19. [Experimental study on an auditory method for analyzing DNA segments].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shouzhong; Fang, Xianglin

    2002-01-01

    To explore a new method for analyzing biological molecules that have already been sequenced, an experimental study on an auditory method was carried out. The auditory method for analyzing biological molecules includes audible representation of sequence data. Audible representation of sequence data was implemented by using a multimedia computer. Each mononucleotide in a DNA sequence was matched with a corresponding sound, i.e., a DNA sequence was "dubbed" in a sound sequence. When the sound sequence is played, a special cadence can be heard. In the audible representation experiment, special cadences of different exons can be clearly heard. The results show that audible representation of DNA sequence data can be implemented by using a multimedia technique. After a 5-time auditory training, subjects both in internal testing and external testing can obtain 93%-100% of judgment accuracy rate for the difference between two sound sequences of two different exons, thus providing an experimental basis for the practicability of this method. Auditory method for analyzing DNA segments might be beneficial for the research in comparative genomics and functional genomics. This new technology must be robust and be carefully evaluated and improved in a high-throughput environment before its implementation in an application setting. PMID:11951511

  20. The Encoding of Auditory Objects in Auditory Cortex: Insights from Magnetoencephalography

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Jonathan Z.

    2014-01-01

    Auditory objects, like their visual counterparts, are perceptually defined constructs, but nevertheless must arise from underlying neural circuitry. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings of the neural responses of human subjects listening to complex auditory scenes, we review studies that demonstrate that auditory objects are indeed neurally represented in auditory cortex. The studies use neural responses obtained from different experiments in which subjects selectively listen to one of two competing auditory streams embedded in a variety of auditory scenes. The auditory streams overlap spatially and often spectrally. In particular, the studies demonstrate that selective attentional gain does not act globally on the entire auditory scene, but rather acts differentially on the separate auditory streams. This stream-based attentional gain is then used as a tool to individually analyze the different neural representations of the competing auditory streams. The neural representation of the attended stream, located in posterior auditory cortex, dominates the neural responses. Critically, when the intensities of the attended and background streams are separately varied over a wide intensity range, the neural representation of the attended speech adapts only to the intensity of that speaker, irrespective of the intensity of the background speaker. This demonstrates object-level intensity gain control in addition to the above object-level selective attentional gain. Overall, these results indicate that concurrently streaming auditory objects, even if spectrally overlapping and not resolvable at the auditory periphery, are individually neurally encoded in auditory cortex, as separate objects. PMID:24841996

  1. Vestibular reactions to long-term caloric stimulation of the rabbit labyrinth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorgiladze, G. I.

    1978-01-01

    Long-term, periodically repeated caloric stimulation of the labyrinth receptors of the internal ear was studied on eight rabbits with immobilzed heads. Warm (20 C) water was used as a stimulus in a dose of 40 ml per min injected into the auditory meatus.

  2. Behavioral semantics of learning and crossmodal processing in auditory cortex: the semantic processor concept.

    PubMed

    Scheich, Henning; Brechmann, André; Brosch, Michael; Budinger, Eike; Ohl, Frank W; Selezneva, Elena; Stark, Holger; Tischmeyer, Wolfgang; Wetzel, Wolfram

    2011-01-01

    Two phenomena of auditory cortex activity have recently attracted attention, namely that the primary field can show different types of learning-related changes of sound representation and that during learning even this early auditory cortex is under strong multimodal influence. Based on neuronal recordings in animal auditory cortex during instrumental tasks, in this review we put forward the hypothesis that these two phenomena serve to derive the task-specific meaning of sounds by associative learning. To understand the implications of this tenet, it is helpful to realize how a behavioral meaning is usually derived for novel environmental sounds. For this purpose, associations with other sensory, e.g. visual, information are mandatory to develop a connection between a sound and its behaviorally relevant cause and/or the context of sound occurrence. This makes it plausible that in instrumental tasks various non-auditory sensory and procedural contingencies of sound generation become co-represented by neuronal firing in auditory cortex. Information related to reward or to avoidance of discomfort during task learning, that is essentially non-auditory, is also co-represented. The reinforcement influence points to the dopaminergic internal reward system, the local role of which for memory consolidation in auditory cortex is well-established. Thus, during a trial of task performance, the neuronal responses to the sounds are embedded in a sequence of representations of such non-auditory information. The embedded auditory responses show task-related modulations of auditory responses falling into types that correspond to three basic logical classifications that may be performed with a perceptual item, i.e. from simple detection to discrimination, and categorization. This hierarchy of classifications determine the semantic "same-different" relationships among sounds. Different cognitive classifications appear to be a consequence of learning task and lead to a recruitment of

  3. Eye-movements intervening between two successive sounds disrupt comparisons of auditory location

    PubMed Central

    Pavani, Francesco; Husain, Masud; Driver, Jon

    2008-01-01

    Summary Many studies have investigated how saccades may affect the internal representation of visual locations across eye-movements. Here we studied instead whether eye-movements can affect auditory spatial cognition. In two experiments, participants judged the relative azimuth (same/different) of two successive sounds presented from a horizontal array of loudspeakers, separated by a 2.5 secs delay. Eye-position was either held constant throughout the trial (being directed in a fixed manner to the far left or right of the loudspeaker array), or had to be shifted to the opposite side of the array during the retention delay between the two sounds, after the first sound but before the second. Loudspeakers were either visible (Experiment1) or occluded from sight (Experiment 2). In both cases, shifting eye-position during the silent delay-period affected auditory performance in the successive auditory comparison task, even though the auditory inputs to be judged were equivalent. Sensitivity (d′) for the auditory discrimination was disrupted, specifically when the second sound shifted in the opposite direction to the intervening eye-movement with respect to the first sound. These results indicate that eye-movements affect internal representation of auditory location. PMID:18566808

  4. Auditory hallucinations inhibit exogenous activation of auditory association cortex.

    PubMed

    David, A S; Woodruff, P W; Howard, R; Mellers, J D; Brammer, M; Bullmore, E; Wright, I; Andrew, C; Williams, S C

    1996-03-22

    Percepts unaccompanied by a veridical stimulus, such as hallucinations, provide an opportunity for mapping the neural correlates of conscious perception. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can reveal localized changes in blood oxygenation in response to actual as well as imagined sensory stimulation. The safe repeatability of fMRI enabled us to study a patient with schizophrenia while he was experiencing auditory hallucinations and when hallucination-free (with supporting data from a second case). Cortical activation was measured in response to periodic exogenous auditory and visual stimulations using time series regression analysis. Functional brain images were obtained in each hallucination condition both while the patient was on and off antipsychotic drugs. The response of the temporal cortex to exogenous auditory stimulation (speech) was markedly reduced when the patient was experiencing hallucinating voices addressing him, regardless of medication. Visual cortical activation (to flashing lights) remained normal over four scans. From the results of this study and previous work on visual hallucinations we conclude that hallucinations coincide with maximal activation of the sensory and association cortex, specific to the modality of the experience. PMID:8724677

  5. Auditory Dysfunction in Patients with Cerebrovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Auditory dysfunction is a common clinical symptom that can induce profound effects on the quality of life of those affected. Cerebrovascular disease (CVD) is the most prevalent neurological disorder today, but it has generally been considered a rare cause of auditory dysfunction. However, a substantial proportion of patients with stroke might have auditory dysfunction that has been underestimated due to difficulties with evaluation. The present study reviews relationships between auditory dysfunction and types of CVD including cerebral infarction, intracerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, cerebrovascular malformation, moyamoya disease, and superficial siderosis. Recent advances in the etiology, anatomy, and strategies to diagnose and treat these conditions are described. The numbers of patients with CVD accompanied by auditory dysfunction will increase as the population ages. Cerebrovascular diseases often include the auditory system, resulting in various types of auditory dysfunctions, such as unilateral or bilateral deafness, cortical deafness, pure word deafness, auditory agnosia, and auditory hallucinations, some of which are subtle and can only be detected by precise psychoacoustic and electrophysiological testing. The contribution of CVD to auditory dysfunction needs to be understood because CVD can be fatal if overlooked. PMID:25401133

  6. Adaptation in the auditory system: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-González, David; Malmierca, Manuel S.

    2014-01-01

    The early stages of the auditory system need to preserve the timing information of sounds in order to extract the basic features of acoustic stimuli. At the same time, different processes of neuronal adaptation occur at several levels to further process the auditory information. For instance, auditory nerve fiber responses already experience adaptation of their firing rates, a type of response that can be found in many other auditory nuclei and may be useful for emphasizing the onset of the stimuli. However, it is at higher levels in the auditory hierarchy where more sophisticated types of neuronal processing take place. For example, stimulus-specific adaptation, where neurons show adaptation to frequent, repetitive stimuli, but maintain their responsiveness to stimuli with different physical characteristics, thus representing a distinct kind of processing that may play a role in change and deviance detection. In the auditory cortex, adaptation takes more elaborate forms, and contributes to the processing of complex sequences, auditory scene analysis and attention. Here we review the multiple types of adaptation that occur in the auditory system, which are part of the pool of resources that the neurons employ to process the auditory scene, and are critical to a proper understanding of the neuronal mechanisms that govern auditory perception. PMID:24600361

  7. Adaptation to delayed auditory feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, D. I.; Lackner, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    Delayed auditory feedback disrupts the production of speech, causing an increase in speech duration as well as many articulatory errors. To determine whether prolonged exposure to delayed auditory feedback (DAF) leads to adaptive compensations in speech production, 10 subjects were exposed in separate experimental sessions to both incremental and constant-delay exposure conditions. Significant adaptation occurred for syntactically structured stimuli in the form of increased speaking rates. After DAF was removed, aftereffects were apparent for all stimulus types in terms of increased speech rates. A carry-over effect from the first to the second experimental session was evident as long as 29 days after the first session. The use of strategies to overcome DAF and the differences between adaptation to DAF and adaptation to visual rearrangement are discussed.

  8. Reality of auditory verbal hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Valkonen-Korhonen, Minna; Holi, Matti; Therman, Sebastian; Lehtonen, Johannes; Hari, Riitta

    2009-01-01

    Distortion of the sense of reality, actualized in delusions and hallucinations, is the key feature of psychosis but the underlying neuronal correlates remain largely unknown. We studied 11 highly functioning subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder while they rated the reality of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The subjective reality of AVH correlated strongly and specifically with the hallucination-related activation strength of the inferior frontal gyri (IFG), including the Broca's language region. Furthermore, how real the hallucination that subjects experienced was depended on the hallucination-related coupling between the IFG, the ventral striatum, the auditory cortex, the right posterior temporal lobe, and the cingulate cortex. Our findings suggest that the subjective reality of AVH is related to motor mechanisms of speech comprehension, with contributions from sensory and salience-detection-related brain regions as well as circuitries related to self-monitoring and the experience of agency. PMID:19620178

  9. The human auditory evoked response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galambos, R.

    1974-01-01

    Figures are presented of computer-averaged auditory evoked responses (AERs) that point to the existence of a completely endogenous brain event. A series of regular clicks or tones was administered to the ear, and 'odd-balls' of different intensity or frequency respectively were included. Subjects were asked either to ignore the sounds (to read or do something else) or to attend to the stimuli. When they listened and counted the odd-balls, a P3 wave occurred at 300msec after stimulus. When the odd-balls consisted of omitted clicks or tone bursts, a similar response was observed. This could not have come from auditory nerve, but only from cortex. It is evidence of recognition, a conscious process.

  10. Psychophysiological responses to auditory change.

    PubMed

    Chuen, Lorraine; Sears, David; McAdams, Stephen

    2016-06-01

    A comprehensive characterization of autonomic and somatic responding within the auditory domain is currently lacking. We studied whether simple types of auditory change that occur frequently during music listening could elicit measurable changes in heart rate, skin conductance, respiration rate, and facial motor activity. Participants heard a rhythmically isochronous sequence consisting of a repeated standard tone, followed by a repeated target tone that changed in pitch, timbre, duration, intensity, or tempo, or that deviated momentarily from rhythmic isochrony. Changes in all parameters produced increases in heart rate. Skin conductance response magnitude was affected by changes in timbre, intensity, and tempo. Respiratory rate was sensitive to deviations from isochrony. Our findings suggest that music researchers interpreting physiological responses as emotional indices should consider acoustic factors that may influence physiology in the absence of induced emotions. PMID:26927928

  11. Auditory based neuropsychology in neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Wester, Knut

    2008-04-01

    In this article, an account is given on the author's experience with auditory based neuropsychology in a clinical, neurosurgical setting. The patients that were included in the studies are patients with traumatic or vascular brain lesions, patients undergoing brain surgery to alleviate symptoms of Parkinson's disease, or patients harbouring an intracranial arachnoid cyst affecting the temporal or the frontal lobe. The aims of these investigations were to collect information about the location of cognitive processes in the human brain, or to disclose dyscognition in patients with an arachnoid cyst. All the patients were tested with the DL technique. In addition, the cyst patients were subjected to a number of non-auditory, standard neuropsychological tests, such as Benton Visual Retention Test, Street Gestalt Test, Stroop Test and Trails Test A and B. The neuropsychological tests revealed that arachnoid cysts in general cause dyscognition that also includes auditory processes, and more importantly, that these cognition deficits normalise after surgical removal of the cyst. These observations constitute strong evidence in favour of surgical decompression. PMID:18024027

  12. Auditory sequence analysis and phonological skill.

    PubMed

    Grube, Manon; Kumar, Sukhbinder; Cooper, Freya E; Turton, Stuart; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2012-11-01

    This work tests the relationship between auditory and phonological skill in a non-selected cohort of 238 school students (age 11) with the specific hypothesis that sound-sequence analysis would be more relevant to phonological skill than the analysis of basic, single sounds. Auditory processing was assessed across the domains of pitch, time and timbre; a combination of six standard tests of literacy and language ability was used to assess phonological skill. A significant correlation between general auditory and phonological skill was demonstrated, plus a significant, specific correlation between measures of phonological skill and the auditory analysis of short sequences in pitch and time. The data support a limited but significant link between auditory and phonological ability with a specific role for sound-sequence analysis, and provide a possible new focus for auditory training strategies to aid language development in early adolescence. PMID:22951739

  13. Review of auditory subliminal psychodynamic activation experiments.

    PubMed

    Fudin, R; Benjamin, C

    1991-12-01

    Subliminal psychodynamic activation experiments using auditory stimuli have yielded only a modicum of support for the contention that such activation produces predictable behavioral changes. Problems in many auditory subliminal psychodynamic activation experiments indicate that those predictions have not been tested adequately. The auditory mode of presentation, however, has several methodological advantages over the visual one, the method used in the vast majority of subliminal psychodynamic activation experiments. Consequently, it should be considered in subsequent research in this area. PMID:1805167

  14. The Effects of Auditory Stimulation on Auditory Processing Disorder: A Summary of the Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Swain, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    The study's purpose is to determine the efficacy of the Tomatis Method of auditory stimulation as a therapeutic intervention for Auditory Processing Disorders (APD). Forty-one subjects (18 females, 23 males; 4.3-19.8 years old) were evaluated for APD. Performance on standardized tests indicated weaknesses with auditory processing skills. Each…

  15. Seeing the Song: Left Auditory Structures May Track Auditory-Visual Dynamic Alignment

    PubMed Central

    Mossbridge, Julia A.; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2013-01-01

    Auditory and visual signals generated by a single source tend to be temporally correlated, such as the synchronous sounds of footsteps and the limb movements of a walker. Continuous tracking and comparison of the dynamics of auditory-visual streams is thus useful for the perceptual binding of information arising from a common source. Although language-related mechanisms have been implicated in the tracking of speech-related auditory-visual signals (e.g., speech sounds and lip movements), it is not well known what sensory mechanisms generally track ongoing auditory-visual synchrony for non-speech signals in a complex auditory-visual environment. To begin to address this question, we used music and visual displays that varied in the dynamics of multiple features (e.g., auditory loudness and pitch; visual luminance, color, size, motion, and organization) across multiple time scales. Auditory activity (monitored using auditory steady-state responses, ASSR) was selectively reduced in the left hemisphere when the music and dynamic visual displays were temporally misaligned. Importantly, ASSR was not affected when attentional engagement with the music was reduced, or when visual displays presented dynamics clearly dissimilar to the music. These results appear to suggest that left-lateralized auditory mechanisms are sensitive to auditory-visual temporal alignment, but perhaps only when the dynamics of auditory and visual streams are similar. These mechanisms may contribute to correct auditory-visual binding in a busy sensory environment. PMID:24194873

  16. Effects of Methylphenidate (Ritalin) on Auditory Performance in Children with Attention and Auditory Processing Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillery, Kim L.; Katz, Jack; Keller, Warren D.

    2000-01-01

    A double-blind, placebo-controlled study examined effects of methylphenidate (Ritalin) on auditory processing in 32 children with both attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and central auditory processing (CAP) disorder. Analyses revealed that Ritalin did not have a significant effect on any of the central auditory processing measures, although…

  17. Auditory, Visual, and Auditory-Visual Perception of Vowels by Hearing-Impaired Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hack, Zarita Caplan; Erber, Norman P.

    1982-01-01

    Vowels were presented through auditory, visual, and auditory-visual modalities to 18 hearing impaired children (12 to 15 years old) having good, intermediate, and poor auditory word recognition skills. All the groups had difficulty with acoustic information and visual information alone. The first two groups had only moderate difficulty identifying…

  18. Corticofugal modulation of peripheral auditory responses

    PubMed Central

    Terreros, Gonzalo; Delano, Paul H.

    2015-01-01

    The auditory efferent system originates in the auditory cortex and projects to the medial geniculate body (MGB), inferior colliculus (IC), cochlear nucleus (CN) and superior olivary complex (SOC) reaching the cochlea through olivocochlear (OC) fibers. This unique neuronal network is organized in several afferent-efferent feedback loops including: the (i) colliculo-thalamic-cortico-collicular; (ii) cortico-(collicular)-OC; and (iii) cortico-(collicular)-CN pathways. Recent experiments demonstrate that blocking ongoing auditory-cortex activity with pharmacological and physical methods modulates the amplitude of cochlear potentials. In addition, auditory-cortex microstimulation independently modulates cochlear sensitivity and the strength of the OC reflex. In this mini-review, anatomical and physiological evidence supporting the presence of a functional efferent network from the auditory cortex to the cochlear receptor is presented. Special emphasis is given to the corticofugal effects on initial auditory processing, that is, on CN, auditory nerve and cochlear responses. A working model of three parallel pathways from the auditory cortex to the cochlea and auditory nerve is proposed. PMID:26483647

  19. Bat's auditory system: Corticofugal feedback and plasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suga, Nobuo

    2001-05-01

    The auditory system of the mustached bat consists of physiologically distinct subdivisions for processing different types of biosonar information. It was found that the corticofugal (descending) auditory system plays an important role in improving and adjusting auditory signal processing. Repetitive acoustic stimulation, cortical electrical stimulation or auditory fear conditioning evokes plastic changes of the central auditory system. The changes are based upon egocentric selection evoked by focused positive feedback associated with lateral inhibition. Focal electric stimulation of the auditory cortex evokes short-term changes in the auditory cortex and subcortical auditory nuclei. An increase in a cortical acetylcholine level during the electric stimulation changes the cortical changes from short-term to long-term. There are two types of plastic changes (reorganizations): centripetal best frequency shifts for expanded reorganization of a neural frequency map and centrifugal best frequency shifts for compressed reorganization of the map. Which changes occur depends on the balance between inhibition and facilitation. Expanded reorganization has been found in different sensory systems and different species of mammals, whereas compressed reorganization has been thus far found only in the auditory subsystems highly specialized for echolocation. The two types of reorganizations occur in both the frequency and time domains. [Work supported by NIDCO DC00175.

  20. Central auditory function of deafness genes.

    PubMed

    Willaredt, Marc A; Ebbers, Lena; Nothwang, Hans Gerd

    2014-06-01

    The highly variable benefit of hearing devices is a serious challenge in auditory rehabilitation. Various factors contribute to this phenomenon such as the diversity in ear defects, the different extent of auditory nerve hypoplasia, the age of intervention, and cognitive abilities. Recent analyses indicate that, in addition, central auditory functions of deafness genes have to be considered in this context. Since reduced neuronal activity acts as the common denominator in deafness, it is widely assumed that peripheral deafness influences development and function of the central auditory system in a stereotypical manner. However, functional characterization of transgenic mice with mutated deafness genes demonstrated gene-specific abnormalities in the central auditory system as well. A frequent function of deafness genes in the central auditory system is supported by a genome-wide expression study that revealed significant enrichment of these genes in the transcriptome of the auditory brainstem compared to the entire brain. Here, we will summarize current knowledge of the diverse central auditory functions of deafness genes. We furthermore propose the intimately interwoven gene regulatory networks governing development of the otic placode and the hindbrain as a mechanistic explanation for the widespread expression of these genes beyond the cochlea. We conclude that better knowledge of central auditory dysfunction caused by genetic alterations in deafness genes is required. In combination with improved genetic diagnostics becoming currently available through novel sequencing technologies, this information will likely contribute to better outcome prediction of hearing devices.

  1. Models of plasticity in spatial auditory processing.

    PubMed

    Shinn-Cunningham, B

    2001-01-01

    Both psychophysical and physiological studies have examined plasticity of spatial auditory processing. While there is a great deal known about how the system computes basic cues that influence spatial perception, less is known about how these cues are integrated to form spatial percepts and how the auditory system adapts and calibrates in order to maintain accurate spatial perception. After summarizing evidence for plasticity in the spatial auditory pathway, this paper reviews a statistical, decision-theory model of short-term plasticity and a system-level model of the spatial auditory pathway that may help elucidate how long- and short-term experiences influence the computations underlying spatial hearing.

  2. Evaluation of the auditory system: an update.

    PubMed

    Brackmann, D E; Forquer, B D

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the audiologic techniques currently used at the Otologic Medical Group, Inc. Auditory threshold in children is determined by a combination of behavioral and objective audiometric techniques. When behavioral techniques fail, auditory brainstem response audiometry combined with impedance audiometry gives a good estimate of hearing thresholds. Impedance audiometry is a valuable addition to the diagnosis of cochlear otosclerosis. This technique is also of benefit in the neurotologic evaluation. Auditory brainstem response audiometry is the most accurate method of detecting an acoustic tumor. We no longer use SISI, tone decay, or Bekesy tests. The newer audiometric studies have greatly improved our evaluation of the auditory system.

  3. Feel the Noise: Relating Individual Differences in Auditory Imagery to the Structure and Function of Sensorimotor Systems

    PubMed Central

    Lima, César F.; Lavan, Nadine; Evans, Samuel; Agnew, Zarinah; Halpern, Andrea R.; Shanmugalingam, Pradheep; Meekings, Sophie; Boebinger, Dana; Ostarek, Markus; McGettigan, Carolyn; Warren, Jane E.; Scott, Sophie K.

    2015-01-01

    Humans can generate mental auditory images of voices or songs, sometimes perceiving them almost as vividly as perceptual experiences. The functional networks supporting auditory imagery have been described, but less is known about the systems associated with interindividual differences in auditory imagery. Combining voxel-based morphometry and fMRI, we examined the structural basis of interindividual differences in how auditory images are subjectively perceived, and explored associations between auditory imagery, sensory-based processing, and visual imagery. Vividness of auditory imagery correlated with gray matter volume in the supplementary motor area (SMA), parietal cortex, medial superior frontal gyrus, and middle frontal gyrus. An analysis of functional responses to different types of human vocalizations revealed that the SMA and parietal sites that predict imagery are also modulated by sound type. Using representational similarity analysis, we found that higher representational specificity of heard sounds in SMA predicts vividness of imagery, indicating a mechanistic link between sensory- and imagery-based processing in sensorimotor cortex. Vividness of imagery in the visual domain also correlated with SMA structure, and with auditory imagery scores. Altogether, these findings provide evidence for a signature of imagery in brain structure, and highlight a common role of perceptual–motor interactions for processing heard and internally generated auditory information. PMID:26092220

  4. Crossmodal interactions during non-linguistic auditory processing in cochlear-implanted deaf patients.

    PubMed

    Barone, Pascal; Chambaudie, Laure; Strelnikov, Kuzma; Fraysse, Bernard; Marx, Mathieu; Belin, Pascal; Deguine, Olivier

    2016-10-01

    Due to signal distortion, speech comprehension in cochlear-implanted (CI) patients relies strongly on visual information, a compensatory strategy supported by important cortical crossmodal reorganisations. Though crossmodal interactions are evident for speech processing, it is unclear whether a visual influence is observed in CI patients during non-linguistic visual-auditory processing, such as face-voice interactions, which are important in social communication. We analyse and compare visual-auditory interactions in CI patients and normal-hearing subjects (NHS) at equivalent auditory performance levels. Proficient CI patients and NHS performed a voice-gender categorisation in the visual-auditory modality from a morphing-generated voice continuum between male and female speakers, while ignoring the presentation of a male or female visual face. Our data show that during the face-voice interaction, CI deaf patients are strongly influenced by visual information when performing an auditory gender categorisation task, in spite of maximum recovery of auditory speech. No such effect is observed in NHS, even in situations of CI simulation. Our hypothesis is that the functional crossmodal reorganisation that occurs in deafness could influence nonverbal processing, such as face-voice interaction; this is important for patient internal supramodal representation. PMID:27622640

  5. Adenosine and the Auditory System

    PubMed Central

    Vlajkovic, Srdjan M; Housley, Gary D; Thorne, Peter R

    2009-01-01

    Adenosine is a signalling molecule that modulates cellular activity in the central nervous system and peripheral organs via four G protein-coupled receptors designated A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. This review surveys the literature on the role of adenosine in auditory function, particularly cochlear function and its protection from oxidative stress. The specific tissue distribution of adenosine receptors in the mammalian cochlea implicates adenosine signalling in sensory transduction and auditory neurotransmission although functional studies have demonstrated that adenosine stimulates cochlear blood flow, but does not alter the resting and sound-evoked auditory potentials. An interest in a potential otoprotective role for adenosine has recently evolved, fuelled by the capacity of A1 adenosine receptors to prevent cochlear injury caused by acoustic trauma and ototoxic drugs. The balance between A1 and A2A receptors is conceived as critical for cochlear response to oxidative stress, which is an underlying mechanism of the most common inner ear pathologies (e.g. noise-induced and age-related hearing loss, drug ototoxicity). Enzymes involved in adenosine metabolism, adenosine kinase and adenosine deaminase, are also emerging as attractive targets for controlling oxidative stress in the cochlea. Other possible targets include ectonucleotidases that generate adenosine from extracellular ATP, and nucleoside transporters, which regulate adenosine concentrations on both sides of the plasma membrane. Developments of selective adenosine receptor agonists and antagonists that can cross the blood-cochlea barrier are bolstering efforts to develop therapeutic interventions aimed at ameliorating cochlear injury. Manipulations of the adenosine signalling system thus hold significant promise in the therapeutic management of oxidative stress in the cochlea. PMID:20190966

  6. Auditory hallucinations in nonverbal quadriplegics.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, J

    1985-11-01

    When a system for communicating with nonverbal, quadriplegic, institutionalized residents was developed, it was discovered that many were experiencing auditory hallucinations. Nine cases are presented in this study. The "voices" described have many similar characteristics, the primary one being that they give authoritarian commands that tell the residents how to behave and to which the residents feel compelled to respond. Both the relationship of this phenomenon to the theoretical work of Julian Jaynes and its effect on the lives of the residents are discussed.

  7. Active Auditory Mechanics in Insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, D.; Göpfert, M. C.

    2003-02-01

    Evidence is presented that hearing in some insects is an active process. Audition in mosquitoes is used for mate-detection and is supported by antennal receivers, whose sound-induced vibrations are transduced by Johnston's organs. Each of these sensory organs contains ca. 15,000 sensory neurons. As shown by mechanical analysis, a physiologically vulnerable mechanism is at work that nonlinearly enhances the sensitivity and frequency selectivity of antennal hearing. This process of amplification correlates with the electrical activity of the auditory mechanoreceptor units in Johnston's organ.

  8. Benign lesions of the external auditory canal.

    PubMed

    Tran, L P; Grundfast, K M; Selesnick, S H

    1996-10-01

    Benign mass lesions of the external auditory canal, such as exostoses and osteomas, are common findings on physical examination but most often do not require treatment. The differential diagnosis of lesions in the external auditory canal, however, should not be limited to those benign processes discussed here, but should also include infectious, dermatologic, congenital, and malignant processes.

  9. Auditory and visual evoked potentials during hyperoxia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. B. D.; Strawbridge, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental study of the auditory and visual averaged evoked potentials (AEPs) recorded during hyperoxia, and investigation of the effect of hyperoxia on the so-called contingent negative variation (CNV). No effect of hyperoxia was found on the auditory AEP, the visual AEP, or the CNV. Comparisons with previous studies are discussed.

  10. Changing Auditory Time with Prismatic Goggles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnani, Barbara; Pavani, Francesco; Frassinetti, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the spatial organization of auditory time and the effects of the manipulation of spatial attention on such a representation. In two experiments, we asked 28 adults to classify the duration of auditory stimuli as "short" or "long". Stimuli were tones of high or low pitch, delivered left or right of the…

  11. Auditory Processing Disorders: An Overview. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciocci, Sandra R.

    This digest presents an overview of children with auditory processing disorders (APDs), children who can typically hear information but have difficulty attending to, storing, locating, retrieving, and/or clarifying that information to make it useful for academic and social purposes. The digest begins by describing central auditory processing and…

  12. Auditory Processing Disorder and Foreign Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veselovska, Ganna

    2015-01-01

    This article aims at exploring various strategies for coping with the auditory processing disorder in the light of foreign language acquisition. The techniques relevant to dealing with the auditory processing disorder can be attributed to environmental and compensatory approaches. The environmental one involves actions directed at creating a…

  13. Auditory-Oral Matching Behavior in Newborns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xin; Striano, Tricia; Rakoczy, Hannes

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-five newborn infants were tested for auditory-oral matching behavior when presented with the consonant sound /m/ and the vowel sound /a/--a precursor behavior to vocal imitation. Auditory-oral matching behavior by the infant was operationally defined as showing the mouth movement appropriate for producing the model sound just heard (mouth…

  14. Passive Auditory Stimulation Improves Vision in Hemianopia

    PubMed Central

    Lewald, Jörg; Tegenthoff, Martin; Peters, Sören; Hausmann, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Techniques employed in rehabilitation of visual field disorders such as hemianopia are usually based on either visual or audio-visual stimulation and patients have to perform a training task. Here we present results from a completely different, novel approach that was based on passive unimodal auditory stimulation. Ten patients with either left or right-sided pure hemianopia (without neglect) received one hour of unilateral passive auditory stimulation on either their anopic or their intact side by application of repetitive trains of sound pulses emitted simultaneously via two loudspeakers. Immediately before and after passive auditory stimulation as well as after a period of recovery, patients completed a simple visual task requiring detection of light flashes presented along the horizontal plane in total darkness. The results showed that one-time passive auditory stimulation on the side of the blind, but not of the intact, hemifield of patients with hemianopia induced an improvement in visual detections by almost 100% within 30 min after passive auditory stimulation. This enhancement in performance was reversible and was reduced to baseline 1.5 h later. A non-significant trend of a shift of the visual field border toward the blind hemifield was obtained after passive auditory stimulation. These results are compatible with the view that passive auditory stimulation elicited some activation of the residual visual pathways, which are known to be multisensory and may also be sensitive to unimodal auditory stimuli as were used here. Trial Registration DRKS00003577 PMID:22666311

  15. Further Evidence of Auditory Extinction in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Rebecca Shisler; Basilakos, Alexandra; Love-Myers, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Preliminary research ( Shisler, 2005) suggests that auditory extinction in individuals with aphasia (IWA) may be connected to binding and attention. In this study, the authors expanded on previous findings on auditory extinction to determine the source of extinction deficits in IWA. Method: Seventeen IWA (M[subscript age] = 53.19 years)…

  16. Auditory Conceptualization: A New Dimension to Phonics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Marilyn

    A teaching technique that leads to auditory conceptualization--the ability to determine the number and order of sounds embedded within syllables--shows promise of measurably improving the reading proficiency of children of all ability levels. Based on C. and P. Lindamood's published technique, "Auditory Discrimination in Depth," the procedure…

  17. Feedback delays eliminate auditory-motor learning in speech production.

    PubMed

    Max, Ludo; Maffett, Derek G

    2015-03-30

    Neurologically healthy individuals use sensory feedback to alter future movements by updating internal models of the effector system and environment. For example, when visual feedback about limb movements or auditory feedback about speech movements is experimentally perturbed, the planning of subsequent movements is adjusted - i.e., sensorimotor adaptation occurs. A separate line of studies has demonstrated that experimentally delaying the sensory consequences of limb movements causes the sensory input to be attributed to external sources rather than to one's own actions. Yet similar feedback delays have remarkably little effect on visuo-motor adaptation (although the rate of learning varies, the amount of adaptation is only moderately affected with delays of 100-200ms, and adaptation still occurs even with a delay as long as 5000ms). Thus, limb motor learning remains largely intact even in conditions where error assignment favors external factors. Here, we show a fundamentally different result for sensorimotor control of speech articulation: auditory-motor adaptation to formant-shifted feedback is completely eliminated with delays of 100ms or more. Thus, for speech motor learning, real-time auditory feedback is critical. This novel finding informs theoretical models of human motor control in general and speech motor control in particular, and it has direct implications for the application of motor learning principles in the habilitation and rehabilitation of individuals with various sensorimotor speech disorders.

  18. Speech perception as complex auditory categorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Lori L.

    2002-05-01

    Despite a long and rich history of categorization research in cognitive psychology, very little work has addressed the issue of complex auditory category formation. This is especially unfortunate because the general underlying cognitive and perceptual mechanisms that guide auditory category formation are of great importance to understanding speech perception. I will discuss a new methodological approach to examining complex auditory category formation that specifically addresses issues relevant to speech perception. This approach utilizes novel nonspeech sound stimuli to gain full experimental control over listeners' history of experience. As such, the course of learning is readily measurable. Results from this methodology indicate that the structure and formation of auditory categories are a function of the statistical input distributions of sound that listeners hear, aspects of the operating characteristics of the auditory system, and characteristics of the perceptual categorization system. These results have important implications for phonetic acquisition and speech perception.

  19. A Brain System for Auditory Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Sabine; Gander, Phillip E.; Barascud, Nicolas; Halpern, Andrea R.; Griffiths, Timothy D.

    2016-01-01

    The brain basis for auditory working memory, the process of actively maintaining sounds in memory over short periods of time, is controversial. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in human participants, we demonstrate that the maintenance of single tones in memory is associated with activation in auditory cortex. In addition, sustained activation was observed in hippocampus and inferior frontal gyrus. Multivoxel pattern analysis showed that patterns of activity in auditory cortex and left inferior frontal gyrus distinguished the tone that was maintained in memory. Functional connectivity during maintenance was demonstrated between auditory cortex and both the hippocampus and inferior frontal cortex. The data support a system for auditory working memory based on the maintenance of sound-specific representations in auditory cortex by projections from higher-order areas, including the hippocampus and frontal cortex. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In this work, we demonstrate a system for maintaining sound in working memory based on activity in auditory cortex, hippocampus, and frontal cortex, and functional connectivity among them. Specifically, our work makes three advances from the previous work. First, we robustly demonstrate hippocampal involvement in all phases of auditory working memory (encoding, maintenance, and retrieval): the role of hippocampus in working memory is controversial. Second, using a pattern classification technique, we show that activity in the auditory cortex and inferior frontal gyrus is specific to the maintained tones in working memory. Third, we show long-range connectivity of auditory cortex to hippocampus and frontal cortex, which may be responsible for keeping such representations active during working memory maintenance. PMID:27098693

  20. Tactile feedback improves auditory spatial localization.

    PubMed

    Gori, Monica; Vercillo, Tiziana; Sandini, Giulio; Burr, David

    2014-01-01

    Our recent studies suggest that congenitally blind adults have severely impaired thresholds in an auditory spatial bisection task, pointing to the importance of vision in constructing complex auditory spatial maps (Gori et al., 2014). To explore strategies that may improve the auditory spatial sense in visually impaired people, we investigated the impact of tactile feedback on spatial auditory localization in 48 blindfolded sighted subjects. We measured auditory spatial bisection thresholds before and after training, either with tactile feedback, verbal feedback, or no feedback. Audio thresholds were first measured with a spatial bisection task: subjects judged whether the second sound of a three sound sequence was spatially closer to the first or the third sound. The tactile feedback group underwent two audio-tactile feedback sessions of 100 trials, where each auditory trial was followed by the same spatial sequence played on the subject's forearm; auditory spatial bisection thresholds were evaluated after each session. In the verbal feedback condition, the positions of the sounds were verbally reported to the subject after each feedback trial. The no feedback group did the same sequence of trials, with no feedback. Performance improved significantly only after audio-tactile feedback. The results suggest that direct tactile feedback interacts with the auditory spatial localization system, possibly by a process of cross-sensory recalibration. Control tests with the subject rotated suggested that this effect occurs only when the tactile and acoustic sequences are spatially congruent. Our results suggest that the tactile system can be used to recalibrate the auditory sense of space. These results encourage the possibility of designing rehabilitation programs to help blind persons establish a robust auditory sense of space, through training with the tactile modality. PMID:25368587

  1. Auditory target detection in reverberation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurek, Patrick M.; Freyman, Richard L.; Balakrishnan, Uma

    2004-04-01

    Measurements and theoretical predictions of auditory target detection in simulated reverberant conditions are reported. The target signals were pulsed 13-octave bands of noise and the masker signal was a continuous wideband noise. Target and masker signals were passed through a software simulation of a reverberant room with a rigid sphere modeling a listener's head. The location of the target was fixed while the location of the masker was varied in the simulated room. Degree of reverberation was controlled by varying the uniform acoustic absorption of the simulated room's surfaces. The resulting target and masker signals were presented to the listeners over headphones in monaural-left, monaural-right, or binaural listening modes. Changes in detection performance in the monaural listening modes were largely predictable from the changes in target-to-masker ratio in the target band, but with a few dB of extra masking in reverberation. Binaural detection performance was generally well predicted by applying Durlach's [in Foundations of Modern Auditory Theory (Academic, New York, 1972)] equalization-cancellation theory to the direct-plus-reverberant ear signals. Predictions in all cases were based on a statistical description of room acoustics and on acoustic diffraction by a sphere. The success of these detection models in the present well-controlled reverberant conditions suggests that they can be used to incorporate listening mode and source location as factors in speech-intelligibility predictions.

  2. Change Detection in Auditory Textures.

    PubMed

    Boubenec, Yves; Lawlor, Jennifer; Shamma, Shihab; Englitz, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Many natural sounds have spectrotemporal signatures only on a statistical level, e.g. wind, fire or rain. While their local structure is highly variable, the spectrotemporal statistics of these auditory textures can be used for recognition. This suggests the existence of a neural representation of these statistics. To explore their encoding, we investigated the detectability of changes in the spectral statistics in relation to the properties of the change. To achieve precise parameter control, we designed a minimal sound texture--a modified cloud of tones--which retains the central property of auditory textures: solely statistical predictability. Listeners had to rapidly detect a change in the frequency marginal probability of the tone cloud occurring at a random time.The size of change as well as the time available to sample the original statistics were found to correlate positively with performance and negatively with reaction time, suggesting the accumulation of noisy evidence. In summary we quantified dynamic aspects of change detection in statistically defined contexts, and found evidence of integration of statistical information.

  3. Vision contingent auditory pitch aftereffects.

    PubMed

    Teramoto, Wataru; Kobayashi, Maori; Hidaka, Souta; Sugita, Yoichi

    2013-08-01

    Visual motion aftereffects can occur contingent on arbitrary sounds. Two circles, placed side by side, were alternately presented, and the onsets were accompanied by tone bursts of high and low frequencies, respectively. After a few minutes of exposure to the visual apparent motion with the tones, a circle blinking at a fixed location was perceived as a lateral motion in the same direction as the previously exposed apparent motion (Teramoto et al. in PLoS One 5:e12255, 2010). In the present study, we attempted to reverse this contingency (pitch aftereffects contingent on visual information). Results showed that after prolonged exposure to the audio-visual stimuli, the apparent visual motion systematically affected the perceived pitch of the auditory stimuli. When the leftward apparent visual motion was paired with the high-low-frequency sequence during the adaptation phase, a test tone sequence was more frequently perceived as a high-low-pitch sequence when the leftward apparent visual motion was presented and vice versa. Furthermore, the effect was specific for the exposed visual field and did not transfer to the other side, thus ruling out an explanation in terms of simple response bias. These results suggest that new audiovisual associations can be established within a short time, and visual information processing and auditory processing can mutually influence each other. PMID:23727883

  4. Perirhinal cortex supports acquired fear of auditory objects.

    PubMed

    Bang, Sun Jung; Brown, Thomas H

    2009-07-01

    Damage to rat perirhinal cortex (PR) profoundly impairs fear conditioning to 22kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), but has no effect on fear conditioning to continuous tones. The most obvious difference between these two sounds is that continuous tones have no internal temporal structure, whereas USVs consist of strings of discrete calls separated by temporal discontinuities. PR was hypothesized to support the fusion or integration of discontinuous auditory segments into unitary representations or "auditory objects". This transform was suggested to be necessary for normal fear conditioning to occur. These ideas naturally assume that the effect of PR damage on auditory fear conditioning is not peculiar to 22kHz USVs. The present study directly tested these ideas by using a different set of continuous and discontinuous auditory cues. Control and PR-damaged rats were fear conditioned to a 53kHz USV, a 53kHz continuous tone, or a 53kHz discontinuous tone. The continuous and discontinuous tones matched the 53kHz USV in terms of duration, loudness, and principle frequency. The on/off pattern of the discontinuous tone matched the pattern of the individual calls of the 53kHz USV. The on/off pattern of the 50kHz USV was very different from the patterns in the 22kHz USVs that have been comparably examined. Rats with PR damage were profoundly impaired in fear conditioning to both discontinuous cues, but they were unimpaired in conditioning to the continuous cue. The implications of this temporal discontinuity effect are explored in terms of contemporary ideas about PR function. PMID:19185613

  5. Different effects of lesions to auditory core and belt cortex on auditory recognition in dogs.

    PubMed

    Kuśmierek, Paweł; Malinowska, Monika; Kowalska, Danuta M

    2007-07-01

    Auditory recognition memory, in contrast to memory in other modalities, is not affected by damage to the perihinal cortex, and its neural basis remains unknown. In an attempt to elucidate this problem, we investigated the role of canine auditory core and belt areas in auditory recognition. Either core or posterior belt areas were surgically removed. The core and belt regions were defined on the basis of response properties and thalamocortical connectivity established in previous studies. The animals were tested on auditory delayed matching to sample (DMS, a recognition memory task) using complex, trial-unique auditory stimuli. Both core and belt lesions impaired auditory recognition, however, the underlying deficit was different. Lesions to the core areas impaired auditory localization abilities. Lesions to the posterior belt areas did not affect this component of the recognition task, but affected auditory quality discrimination and/or recognition. The deficit following the posterior belt lesion did not increase with retention delay, suggesting that auditory belt areas do not constitute a substrate for auditory recognition memory. Their main function appears to be processing of complex sound patterns, including immediate recognition.

  6. Relationship between Sympathetic Skin Responses and Auditory Hypersensitivity to Different Auditory Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Fumi; Iwanaga, Ryoichiro; Chono, Mami; Fujihara, Saori; Tokunaga, Akiko; Murata, Jun; Tanaka, Koji; Nakane, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Goro

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] Auditory hypersensitivity has been widely reported in patients with autism spectrum disorders. However, the neurological background of auditory hypersensitivity is currently not clear. The present study examined the relationship between sympathetic nervous system responses and auditory hypersensitivity induced by different types of auditory stimuli. [Methods] We exposed 20 healthy young adults to six different types of auditory stimuli. The amounts of palmar sweating resulting from the auditory stimuli were compared between groups with (hypersensitive) and without (non-hypersensitive) auditory hypersensitivity. [Results] Although no group × type of stimulus × first stimulus interaction was observed for the extent of reaction, significant type of stimulus × first stimulus interaction was noted for the extent of reaction. For an 80 dB-6,000 Hz stimulus, the trends for palmar sweating differed between the groups. For the first stimulus, the variance became larger in the hypersensitive group than in the non-hypersensitive group. [Conclusion] Subjects who regularly felt excessive reactions to auditory stimuli tended to have excessive sympathetic responses to repeated loud noises compared with subjects who did not feel excessive reactions. People with auditory hypersensitivity may be classified into several subtypes depending on their reaction patterns to auditory stimuli. PMID:25140103

  7. Relationship between Sympathetic Skin Responses and Auditory Hypersensitivity to Different Auditory Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Kato, Fumi; Iwanaga, Ryoichiro; Chono, Mami; Fujihara, Saori; Tokunaga, Akiko; Murata, Jun; Tanaka, Koji; Nakane, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Goro

    2014-07-01

    [Purpose] Auditory hypersensitivity has been widely reported in patients with autism spectrum disorders. However, the neurological background of auditory hypersensitivity is currently not clear. The present study examined the relationship between sympathetic nervous system responses and auditory hypersensitivity induced by different types of auditory stimuli. [Methods] We exposed 20 healthy young adults to six different types of auditory stimuli. The amounts of palmar sweating resulting from the auditory stimuli were compared between groups with (hypersensitive) and without (non-hypersensitive) auditory hypersensitivity. [Results] Although no group × type of stimulus × first stimulus interaction was observed for the extent of reaction, significant type of stimulus × first stimulus interaction was noted for the extent of reaction. For an 80 dB-6,000 Hz stimulus, the trends for palmar sweating differed between the groups. For the first stimulus, the variance became larger in the hypersensitive group than in the non-hypersensitive group. [Conclusion] Subjects who regularly felt excessive reactions to auditory stimuli tended to have excessive sympathetic responses to repeated loud noises compared with subjects who did not feel excessive reactions. People with auditory hypersensitivity may be classified into several subtypes depending on their reaction patterns to auditory stimuli.

  8. Comparative Auditory Mechanics: From Species to Species and From Base to Apex—A Moderated Discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Nigel P.; Manley, Geoffrey A.

    2011-11-01

    A discussion moderated by the authors on the topics "Comparative Auditory Mechanics" and "Mechanics in the Apex of the Cochlea" was held on 20 July 2011 at the 11th International Mechanics of Hearing Workshop in Williamstown, Massachusetts. The paper provides an edited transcript of the session.

  9. A Comparison of Three Auditory Discrimination-Perception Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenke, Karl

    1978-01-01

    Comparisons were made between scores of 52 third graders on three measures of auditory discrimination: Wepman's Auditory Discrimination Test, the Goldman-Fristoe Woodcock (GFW) Test of Auditory Discrimination, and the Kimmell-Wahl Screening Test of Auditory Perception (STAP). (CL)

  10. Spatial auditory processing in pinnipeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Marla M.

    Given the biological importance of sound for a variety of activities, pinnipeds must be able to obtain spatial information about their surroundings thorough acoustic input in the absence of other sensory cues. The three chapters of this dissertation address spatial auditory processing capabilities of pinnipeds in air given that these amphibious animals use acoustic signals for reproduction and survival on land. Two chapters are comparative lab-based studies that utilized psychophysical approaches conducted in an acoustic chamber. Chapter 1 addressed the frequency-dependent sound localization abilities at azimuth of three pinniped species (the harbor seal, Phoca vitulina, the California sea lion, Zalophus californianus, and the northern elephant seal, Mirounga angustirostris). While performances of the sea lion and harbor seal were consistent with the duplex theory of sound localization, the elephant seal, a low-frequency hearing specialist, showed a decreased ability to localize the highest frequencies tested. In Chapter 2 spatial release from masking (SRM), which occurs when a signal and masker are spatially separated resulting in improvement in signal detectability relative to conditions in which they are co-located, was determined in a harbor seal and sea lion. Absolute and masked thresholds were measured at three frequencies and azimuths to determine the detection advantages afforded by this type of spatial auditory processing. Results showed that hearing sensitivity was enhanced by up to 19 and 12 dB in the harbor seal and sea lion, respectively, when the signal and masker were spatially separated. Chapter 3 was a field-based study that quantified both sender and receiver variables of the directional properties of male northern elephant seal calls produce within communication system that serves to delineate dominance status. This included measuring call directivity patterns, observing male-male vocally-mediated interactions, and an acoustic playback study

  11. Feature Assignment in Perception of Auditory Figure

    PubMed Central

    Gregg, Melissa K.; Samuel, Arthur G.

    2012-01-01

    Because the environment often includes multiple sounds that overlap in time, listeners must segregate a sound of interest (the auditory figure) from other co-occurring sounds (the unattended auditory ground). We conducted a series of experiments to clarify the principles governing the extraction of auditory figures. We distinguish between auditory “objects” (relatively punctate events, such as a dog's bark) and auditory “streams” (sounds involving a pattern over time, such as a galloping rhythm). In Experiments 1 and 2, on each trial two sounds -- an object (a vowel) and a stream (a series of tones) – were presented with one target feature that could be perceptually grouped with either source. In each block of these experiments, listeners were required to attend to one of the two sounds, and report its perceived category. Across several experimental manipulations, listeners were more likely to allocate the feature to an impoverished object if the result of the grouping was a good, identifiable object. Perception of objects was quite sensitive to feature variation (noise masking), whereas perception of streams was more robust to feature variation. In Experiment 3, the number of sound sources competing for the feature was increased to three. This produced a shift toward relying more on spatial cues than on the potential contribution of the feature to an object's perceptual quality. The results support a distinction between auditory objects and streams, and provide new information about the way that the auditory world is parsed. PMID:22288691

  12. Auditory memory function in expert chess players

    PubMed Central

    Fattahi, Fariba; Geshani, Ahmad; Jafari, Zahra; Jalaie, Shohreh; Salman Mahini, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chess is a game that involves many aspects of high level cognition such as memory, attention, focus and problem solving. Long term practice of chess can improve cognition performances and behavioral skills. Auditory memory, as a kind of memory, can be influenced by strengthening processes following long term chess playing like other behavioral skills because of common processing pathways in the brain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the auditory memory function of expert chess players using the Persian version of dichotic auditory-verbal memory test. Methods: The Persian version of dichotic auditory-verbal memory test was performed for 30 expert chess players aged 20-35 years and 30 non chess players who were matched by different conditions; the participants in both groups were randomly selected. The performance of the two groups was compared by independent samples t-test using SPSS version 21. Results: The mean score of dichotic auditory-verbal memory test between the two groups, expert chess players and non-chess players, revealed a significant difference (p≤ 0.001). The difference between the ears scores for expert chess players (p= 0.023) and non-chess players (p= 0.013) was significant. Gender had no effect on the test results. Conclusion: Auditory memory function in expert chess players was significantly better compared to non-chess players. It seems that increased auditory memory function is related to strengthening cognitive performances due to playing chess for a long time. PMID:26793666

  13. Auditory Efferent System Modulates Mosquito Hearing.

    PubMed

    Andrés, Marta; Seifert, Marvin; Spalthoff, Christian; Warren, Ben; Weiss, Lukas; Giraldo, Diego; Winkler, Margret; Pauls, Stephanie; Göpfert, Martin C

    2016-08-01

    The performance of vertebrate ears is controlled by auditory efferents that originate in the brain and innervate the ear, synapsing onto hair cell somata and auditory afferent fibers [1-3]. Efferent activity can provide protection from noise and facilitate the detection and discrimination of sound by modulating mechanical amplification by hair cells and transmitter release as well as auditory afferent action potential firing [1-3]. Insect auditory organs are thought to lack efferent control [4-7], but when we inspected mosquito ears, we obtained evidence for its existence. Antibodies against synaptic proteins recognized rows of bouton-like puncta running along the dendrites and axons of mosquito auditory sensory neurons. Electron microscopy identified synaptic and non-synaptic sites of vesicle release, and some of the innervating fibers co-labeled with somata in the CNS. Octopamine, GABA, and serotonin were identified as efferent neurotransmitters or neuromodulators that affect auditory frequency tuning, mechanical amplification, and sound-evoked potentials. Mosquito brains thus modulate mosquito ears, extending the use of auditory efferent systems from vertebrates to invertebrates and adding new levels of complexity to mosquito sound detection and communication. PMID:27476597

  14. Auditory memory distortion for spoken prose.

    PubMed

    Hutchison, Joanna L; Hubbard, Timothy L; Ferrandino, Blaise; Brigante, Ryan; Wright, Jamie M; Rypma, Bart

    2012-11-01

    Observers often remember a scene as containing information that was not presented but that would have likely been located just beyond the observed boundaries of the scene. This effect is called boundary extension (BE; e.g., Intraub & Richardson, 1989). Previous studies have observed BE in memory for visual and haptic stimuli, and the present experiments examined whether BE occurred in memory for auditory stimuli (prose, music). Experiments 1 and 2 varied the amount of auditory content to be remembered. BE was not observed, but when auditory targets contained more content, boundary restriction (BR) occurred. Experiment 3 presented auditory stimuli with less content and BR also occurred. In Experiment 4, white noise was added to stimuli with less content to equalize the durations of auditory stimuli, and BR still occurred. Experiments 5 and 6 presented trained stories and popular music, and BR still occurred. This latter finding ruled out the hypothesis that the lack of BE in Experiments 1-4 reflected a lack of familiarity with the stimuli. Overall, memory for auditory content exhibited BR rather than BE, and this pattern was stronger if auditory stimuli contained more content. Implications for the understanding of general perceptual processing and directions for future research are discussed.

  15. Auditory Memory Distortion for Spoken Prose

    PubMed Central

    Hutchison, Joanna L.; Hubbard, Timothy L.; Ferrandino, Blaise; Brigante, Ryan; Wright, Jamie M.; Rypma, Bart

    2013-01-01

    Observers often remember a scene as containing information that was not presented but that would have likely been located just beyond the observed boundaries of the scene. This effect is called boundary extension (BE; e.g., Intraub & Richardson, 1989). Previous studies have observed BE in memory for visual and haptic stimuli, and the present experiments examined whether BE occurred in memory for auditory stimuli (prose, music). Experiments 1 and 2 varied the amount of auditory content to be remembered. BE was not observed, but when auditory targets contained more content, boundary restriction (BR) occurred. Experiment 3 presented auditory stimuli with less content and BR also occurred. In Experiment 4, white noise was added to stimuli with less content to equalize the durations of auditory stimuli, and BR still occurred. Experiments 5 and 6 presented trained stories and popular music, and BR still occurred. This latter finding ruled out the hypothesis that the lack of BE in Experiments 1–4 reflected a lack of familiarity with the stimuli. Overall, memory for auditory content exhibited BR rather than BE, and this pattern was stronger if auditory stimuli contained more content. Implications for the understanding of general perceptual processing and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:22612172

  16. Auditory connections and functions of prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Plakke, Bethany; Romanski, Lizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    The functional auditory system extends from the ears to the frontal lobes with successively more complex functions occurring as one ascends the hierarchy of the nervous system. Several areas of the frontal lobe receive afferents from both early and late auditory processing regions within the temporal lobe. Afferents from the early part of the cortical auditory system, the auditory belt cortex, which are presumed to carry information regarding auditory features of sounds, project to only a few prefrontal regions and are most dense in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). In contrast, projections from the parabelt and the rostral superior temporal gyrus (STG) most likely convey more complex information and target a larger, widespread region of the prefrontal cortex. Neuronal responses reflect these anatomical projections as some prefrontal neurons exhibit responses to features in acoustic stimuli, while other neurons display task-related responses. For example, recording studies in non-human primates indicate that VLPFC is responsive to complex sounds including vocalizations and that VLPFC neurons in area 12/47 respond to sounds with similar acoustic morphology. In contrast, neuronal responses during auditory working memory involve a wider region of the prefrontal cortex. In humans, the frontal lobe is involved in auditory detection, discrimination, and working memory. Past research suggests that dorsal and ventral subregions of the prefrontal cortex process different types of information with dorsal cortex processing spatial/visual information and ventral cortex processing non-spatial/auditory information. While this is apparent in the non-human primate and in some neuroimaging studies, most research in humans indicates that specific task conditions, stimuli or previous experience may bias the recruitment of specific prefrontal regions, suggesting a more flexible role for the frontal lobe during auditory cognition. PMID:25100931

  17. Causal contribution of primate auditory cortex to auditory perceptual decision-making

    PubMed Central

    Tsunada, Joji; Liu, Andrew S.K.; Gold, Joshua I.; Cohen, Yale E.

    2015-01-01

    Auditory perceptual decisions are thought to be mediated by the ventral auditory pathway. However, the specific and causal contributions of different brain regions in this pathway, including the middle-lateral (ML) and anterolateral (AL) belt regions of the auditory cortex, to auditory decisions have not been fully identified. To identify these contributions, we recorded from and microstimulated ML and AL sites while monkeys decided whether an auditory stimulus contained more low-frequency or high-frequency tone bursts. Both ML and AL neural activity was modulated by the frequency content of the stimulus. However, only the responses of the most stimulus-sensitive AL neurons were systematically modulated by the monkeys’ choices. Consistent with this observation, microstimulation of AL—but not ML—systematically biased the monkeys’ behavior toward the choice associated with the preferred frequency of the stimulated site. Together, these findings suggest that AL directly and causally contributes sensory evidence used to form this auditory decision. PMID:26656644

  18. Auditory Neuropathy/Dyssynchrony in Biotinidase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Yaghini, Omid

    2016-01-01

    Biotinidase deficiency is a disorder inherited autosomal recessively showing evidence of hearing loss and optic atrophy in addition to seizures, hypotonia, and ataxia. In the present study, a 2-year-old boy with Biotinidase deficiency is presented in which clinical symptoms have been reported with auditory neuropathy/auditory dyssynchrony (AN/AD). In this case, transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions showed bilaterally normal responses representing normal function of outer hair cells. In contrast, acoustic reflex test showed absent reflexes bilaterally, and visual reinforcement audiometry and auditory brainstem responses indicated severe to profound hearing loss in both ears. These results suggest AN/AD in patients with Biotinidase deficiency. PMID:27144235

  19. Survival of auditory hair cells.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Michelle L; Pereira, Fred A

    2015-07-01

    The inability of mammals to regenerate auditory hair cells creates a pressing need to understand the means of enhancing hair cell survival following insult or injury. Hair cells are easily damaged by noise exposure, by ototoxic medications and as a consequence of aging processes, all of which lead to progressive and permanent hearing impairment as hair cells are lost. Significant efforts have been invested in designing strategies to prevent this damage from occurring since permanent hearing loss has a profound impact on communication and quality of life for patients. In this mini-review, we discuss recent progress in the use of antioxidants, anti-inflammatories and apoptosis inhibitors to enhance hair cell survival. We conclude by clarifying the distinction between protection and rescue strategies and by highlighting important areas of future research.

  20. Auditory display for the blind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fish, R. M. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A system for providing an auditory display of two-dimensional patterns as an aid to the blind is described. It includes a scanning device for producing first and second voltages respectively indicative of the vertical and horizontal positions of the scan and a further voltage indicative of the intensity at each point of the scan and hence of the presence or absence of the pattern at that point. The voltage related to scan intensity controls transmission of the sounds to the subject so that the subject knows that a portion of the pattern is being encountered by the scan when a tone is heard, the subject determining the position of this portion of the pattern in space by the frequency and interaural difference information contained in the tone.

  1. Neuromechanistic Model of Auditory Bistability

    PubMed Central

    Rankin, James; Sussman, Elyse; Rinzel, John

    2015-01-01

    Sequences of higher frequency A and lower frequency B tones repeating in an ABA- triplet pattern are widely used to study auditory streaming. One may experience either an integrated percept, a single ABA-ABA- stream, or a segregated percept, separate but simultaneous streams A-A-A-A- and -B---B--. During minutes-long presentations, subjects may report irregular alternations between these interpretations. We combine neuromechanistic modeling and psychoacoustic experiments to study these persistent alternations and to characterize the effects of manipulating stimulus parameters. Unlike many phenomenological models with abstract, percept-specific competition and fixed inputs, our network model comprises neuronal units with sensory feature dependent inputs that mimic the pulsatile-like A1 responses to tones in the ABA- triplets. It embodies a neuronal computation for percept competition thought to occur beyond primary auditory cortex (A1). Mutual inhibition, adaptation and noise are implemented. We include slow NDMA recurrent excitation for local temporal memory that enables linkage across sound gaps from one triplet to the next. Percepts in our model are identified in the firing patterns of the neuronal units. We predict with the model that manipulations of the frequency difference between tones A and B should affect the dominance durations of the stronger percept, the one dominant a larger fraction of time, more than those of the weaker percept—a property that has been previously established and generalized across several visual bistable paradigms. We confirm the qualitative prediction with our psychoacoustic experiments and use the behavioral data to further constrain and improve the model, achieving quantitative agreement between experimental and modeling results. Our work and model provide a platform that can be extended to consider other stimulus conditions, including the effects of context and volition. PMID:26562507

  2. Auditory, visual, and auditory-visual processing performance in typically developing children: modality independence versus dependence.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Roshni; Yathiraj, Asha

    2015-02-01

    The study was carried out to determine whether cross-modal interactions occur during processing of auditory and/or visual signals that require separation/closure, integration, and duration pattern perception in typically developing children. Thirty typically developing children were evaluated on three auditory processing tests (speech-in-noise test in Indian-English, dichotic-consonant vowel test, and duration pattern test) that tapped separation/closure, integration and duration pattern perception. The children were also evaluated on the visual and auditory-visual analogues of the auditory tests. Differences in modality were found in each of the processes that were tested. The performance when the auditory and visual modalities were tested simultaneously was significantly higher than the auditory or visual modality for tests that involved separation/closure and integration. In contrast, scores on the analogous auditory-visual duration pattern test were significantly higher than the auditory test but not the visual analogous test. Further, the scores of the auditory modality were significantly poorer than the visual modality for separation/closure and duration patterning but not for integration. Findings of the study indicate that performance on higher level processing varies depending on the modality that is assessed and supports the presence of cross-modality interactions.

  3. Coordinated forms of noradrenergic plasticity in the locus coeruleus and primary auditory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Ana Raquel O.; Froemke, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    The cerebral cortex is plastic and represents the world according to the significance of sensory stimuli. However, cortical networks are embodied within complex circuits including neuromodulatory systems such as the noradrenergic locus coeruleus, providing information about internal state and behavioral relevance. While norepinephrine is important for cortical plasticity, it is unknown how modulatory neurons themselves respond to changes of sensory input. Here we examine how locus coeruleus neurons are modified by experience, and the consequences of locus coeruleus plasticity on cortical representations and sensory perception. We made whole-cell recordings from rat locus coeruleus and primary auditory cortex (AI), pairing sounds with locus coeruleus activation. Although initially unresponsive, locus coeruleus neurons developed and maintained auditory responses afterwards. Locus coeruleus plasticity induced changes in AI responses lasting at least hours and improved auditory perception for days to weeks. Our results demonstrate that locus coeruleus is highly plastic, leading to substantial changes in regulation of brain state by norepinephrine. PMID:26301326

  4. Osteoma of the external auditory canal.

    PubMed

    Ohtani, I; Aikawa, T; Honda, M; Ouchi, J

    1984-01-01

    A case of osteoma of the external auditory canal in a 19-year-old male patient was reported. The differentiation between osteoma and exostosis was discussed clinically, histopathologically and scanning electron microscopically.

  5. Auditory evoked potentials and transcendental meditation.

    PubMed

    Barwood, T J; Empson, J A; Lister, S G; Tilley, A J

    1978-11-01

    Auditory evoked potentials to tone stimuli were recorded from 8 practised meditators before, during, and after meditation, and also during light sleep. No consistent changes were noted between baseline and meditating AEPs, or between meditating and sleep AEPs.

  6. Sexual Orientation and the Auditory System

    PubMed Central

    McFadden, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    The auditory system exhibits differences by sex and by sexual orientation, and the implication is that relevant auditory structures are altered during prenatal development, possibly by exposure to androgens. The otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) of newborn male infants are weaker than those of newborn females, and these sex differences persist through the lifespan. The OAEs of nonheterosexual females also are weaker than those of heterosexual females, suggesting an atypically strong exposure to androgens some time early in development. Auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) also exhibit sex differences beginning early in life. Some AEPs are different for heterosexual and nonheterosexual females, and other AEPs are different for heterosexual and nonheterosexual males. Research on non-humans treated with androgenic or anti-androgenic agents also suggests that OAEs are masculinized by prenatal exposure to androgens late in gestation. Collectively, the evidence suggests that prenatal androgens, acting globally or locally, affect both nonheterosexuality and the auditory system. PMID:21310172

  7. Auditory pathways: are 'what' and 'where' appropriate?

    PubMed

    Hall, Deborah A

    2003-05-13

    New evidence confirms that the auditory system encompasses temporal, parietal and frontal brain regions, some of which partly overlap with the visual system. But common assumptions about the functional homologies between sensory systems may be misleading. PMID:12747854

  8. Auditory perception modulated by word reading.

    PubMed

    Cao, Liyu; Klepp, Anne; Schnitzler, Alfons; Gross, Joachim; Biermann-Ruben, Katja

    2016-10-01

    Theories of embodied cognition positing that sensorimotor areas are indispensable during language comprehension are supported by neuroimaging and behavioural studies. Among others, the auditory system has been suggested to be important for understanding sound-related words (visually presented) and the motor system for action-related words. In this behavioural study, using a sound detection task embedded in a lexical decision task, we show that in participants with high lexical decision performance sound verbs improve auditory perception. The amount of modulation was correlated with lexical decision performance. Our study provides convergent behavioural evidence of auditory cortex involvement in word processing, supporting the view of embodied language comprehension concerning the auditory domain. PMID:27324193

  9. Hemodynamic imaging of the auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Deborah, Ann Hall; Karima, Susi

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 20 years or so, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has proven to be an influential tool for measuring perceptual and cognitive processing non-invasively in the human brain. This article provides a brief yet comprehensive overview of this dominant method for human auditory neuroscience, providing the reader with knowledge about the practicalities of using this technique to assess central auditory coding. Key learning objectives include developing an understanding of the basic MR physics underpinning the technique, the advantage of auditory fMRI over other current neuroimaging alternatives, and highlighting some of the practical considerations involved in setting up, running, and analyzing an auditory fMRI experiment. The future utility of fMRI and anticipated technical developments is also briefly evaluated. Throughout the review, key concepts are illustrated using specific author examples, with particular emphasis on fMRI findings that address questions pertaining to basic sound coding (such as frequency and pitch).

  10. Auditory-visual spatial interaction and modularity

    PubMed

    Radeau, M

    1994-02-01

    The results of dealing with the conditions for pairing visual and auditory data coming from spatially separate locations argue for cognitive impenetrability and computational autonomy, the pairing rules being the Gestalt principles of common fate and proximity. Other data provide evidence for pairing with several properties of modular functioning. Arguments for domain specificity are inferred from comparison with audio-visual speech. Suggestion of innate specification can be found in developmental data indicating that the grouping of visual and auditory signals is supported very early in life by the same principles that operate in adults. Support for a specific neural architecture comes from neurophysiological studies of the bimodal (auditory-visual) neurons of the cat superior colliculus. Auditory-visual pairing thus seems to present the four main properties of the Fodorian module.

  11. The Goldilocks effect in infant auditory attention.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Celeste; Piantadosi, Steven T; Aslin, Richard N

    2014-01-01

    Infants must learn about many cognitive domains (e.g., language, music) from auditory statistics, yet capacity limits on their cognitive resources restrict the quantity that they can encode. Previous research has established that infants can attend to only a subset of available acoustic input. Yet few previous studies have directly examined infant auditory attention, and none have directly tested theorized mechanisms of attentional selection based on stimulus complexity. This work utilizes model-based behavioral methods that were recently developed to examine visual attention in infants (e.g., Kidd, Piantadosi, & Aslin, 2012). The present results demonstrate that 7- to 8-month-old infants selectively attend to nonsocial auditory stimuli that are intermediately predictable/complex with respect to their current implicit beliefs and expectations. These findings provide evidence of a broad principle of infant attention across modalities and suggest that sound-to-sound transitional statistics heavily influence the allocation of auditory attention in human infants.

  12. Auditory Cortex Mapmaking: Principles, Projections, and Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Schreiner, Christoph E.; Winer, Jeffery A.

    2008-01-01

    Maps of sensory receptor epithelia and of derived or computed features of the sensory environment are a common feature of auditory, visual, and somatic sensory representations from the periphery to the cerebral cortex. Maps enhance the understanding of normal neural organization and its modification by pathology and experience. They underlie the derivation of the computational principles that govern sensory processing and the generation of perception. Despite their intuitive explanatory power, the functio of and rules for organizing maps and their plasticity are not well understood. Some puzzles of auditory cortical map organization are that only a few complete receptor maps are available, and that even fewer computational maps have been identified beyond primary cortical areas. Neuroanatomical evidence suggests equally organized connectional patterns throughout the cortical hierarchy that might nerlie map stability. Here we consider the implications of auditory cortical map organization and its plasticity and evaluate the complementary role of maps in representation and computation from an auditory perspective. PMID:17964251

  13. Auditory cortex activation is modulated by emotion: a functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) study.

    PubMed

    Plichta, M M; Gerdes, A B M; Alpers, G W; Harnisch, W; Brill, S; Wieser, M J; Fallgatter, A J

    2011-04-01

    Visual emotional stimuli evoke enhanced activation in early visual cortex areas which may help organisms to quickly detect biologically salient cues and initiate appropriate approach or avoidance behavior. Functional neuroimaging evidence for the modulation of other sensory modalities by emotion is scarce. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to test whether sensory facilitation by emotional cues can also be found in the auditory domain. We recorded auditory brain activation with functional near-infrared-spectroscopy (fNIRS), a non-invasive and silent neuroimaging technique, while participants were listening to standardized pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral sounds selected from the International Affective Digitized Sound System (IADS). Pleasant and unpleasant sounds led to increased auditory cortex activation as compared to neutral sounds. This is the first study to suggest that the enhanced activation of sensory areas in response to complex emotional stimuli is apparently not restricted to the visual domain but is also evident in the auditory domain.

  14. Auditory scene analysis by echolocation in bats.

    PubMed

    Moss, C F; Surlykke, A

    2001-10-01

    Echolocating bats transmit ultrasonic vocalizations and use information contained in the reflected sounds to analyze the auditory scene. Auditory scene analysis, a phenomenon that applies broadly to all hearing vertebrates, involves the grouping and segregation of sounds to perceptually organize information about auditory objects. The perceptual organization of sound is influenced by the spectral and temporal characteristics of acoustic signals. In the case of the echolocating bat, its active control over the timing, duration, intensity, and bandwidth of sonar transmissions directly impacts its perception of the auditory objects that comprise the scene. Here, data are presented from perceptual experiments, laboratory insect capture studies, and field recordings of sonar behavior of different bat species, to illustrate principles of importance to auditory scene analysis by echolocation in bats. In the perceptual experiments, FM bats (Eptesicus fuscus) learned to discriminate between systematic and random delay sequences in echo playback sets. The results of these experiments demonstrate that the FM bat can assemble information about echo delay changes over time, a requirement for the analysis of a dynamic auditory scene. Laboratory insect capture experiments examined the vocal production patterns of flying E. fuscus taking tethered insects in a large room. In each trial, the bats consistently produced echolocation signal groups with a relatively stable repetition rate (within 5%). Similar temporal patterning of sonar vocalizations was also observed in the field recordings from E. fuscus, thus suggesting the importance of temporal control of vocal production for perceptually guided behavior. It is hypothesized that a stable sonar signal production rate facilitates the perceptual organization of echoes arriving from objects at different directions and distances as the bat flies through a dynamic auditory scene. Field recordings of E. fuscus, Noctilio albiventris, N

  15. Hearing loss and the central auditory system: Implications for hearing aids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisina, Robert D.

    2003-04-01

    Hearing loss can result from disorders or damage to the ear (peripheral auditory system) or the brain (central auditory system). Here, the basic structure and function of the central auditory system will be highlighted as relevant to cases of permanent hearing loss where assistive devices (hearing aids) are called for. The parts of the brain used for hearing are altered in two basic ways in instances of hearing loss: (1) Damage to the ear can reduce the number and nature of input channels that the brainstem receives from the ear, causing plasticity of the central auditory system. This plasticity may partially compensate for the peripheral loss, or add new abnormalities such as distorted speech processing or tinnitus. (2) In some situations, damage to the brain can occur independently of the ear, as may occur in cases of head trauma, tumors or aging. Implications of deficits to the central auditory system for speech perception in noise, hearing aid use and future innovative circuit designs will be provided to set the stage for subsequent presentations in this special educational session. [Work supported by NIA-NIH Grant P01 AG09524 and the International Center for Hearing & Speech Research, Rochester, NY.

  16. Optogenetic stimulation of the auditory pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Victor H.; Gehrt, Anna; Reuter, Kirsten; Jing, Zhizi; Jeschke, Marcus; Mendoza Schulz, Alejandro; Hoch, Gerhard; Bartels, Matthias; Vogt, Gerhard; Garnham, Carolyn W.; Yawo, Hiromu; Fukazawa, Yugo; Augustine, George J.; Bamberg, Ernst; Kügler, Sebastian; Salditt, Tim; de Hoz, Livia; Strenzke, Nicola; Moser, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Auditory prostheses can partially restore speech comprehension when hearing fails. Sound coding with current prostheses is based on electrical stimulation of auditory neurons and has limited frequency resolution due to broad current spread within the cochlea. In contrast, optical stimulation can be spatially confined, which may improve frequency resolution. Here, we used animal models to characterize optogenetic stimulation, which is the optical stimulation of neurons genetically engineered to express the light-gated ion channel channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2). Optogenetic stimulation of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) activated the auditory pathway, as demonstrated by recordings of single neuron and neuronal population responses. Furthermore, optogenetic stimulation of SGNs restored auditory activity in deaf mice. Approximation of the spatial spread of cochlear excitation by recording local field potentials (LFPs) in the inferior colliculus in response to suprathreshold optical, acoustic, and electrical stimuli indicated that optogenetic stimulation achieves better frequency resolution than monopolar electrical stimulation. Virus-mediated expression of a ChR2 variant with greater light sensitivity in SGNs reduced the amount of light required for responses and allowed neuronal spiking following stimulation up to 60 Hz. Our study demonstrates a strategy for optogenetic stimulation of the auditory pathway in rodents and lays the groundwork for future applications of cochlear optogenetics in auditory research and prosthetics. PMID:24509078

  17. Glial Cell Contributions to Auditory Brainstem Development

    PubMed Central

    Cramer, Karina S.; Rubel, Edwin W

    2016-01-01

    Glial cells, previously thought to have generally supporting roles in the central nervous system, are emerging as essential contributors to multiple aspects of neuronal circuit function and development. This review focuses on the contributions of glial cells to the development of auditory pathways in the brainstem. These pathways display specialized synapses and an unusually high degree of precision in circuitry that enables sound source localization. The development of these pathways thus requires highly coordinated molecular and cellular mechanisms. Several classes of glial cells, including astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia, have now been explored in these circuits in both avian and mammalian brainstems. Distinct populations of astrocytes are found over the course of auditory brainstem maturation. Early appearing astrocytes are associated with spatial compartments in the avian auditory brainstem. Factors from late appearing astrocytes promote synaptogenesis and dendritic maturation, and astrocytes remain integral parts of specialized auditory synapses. Oligodendrocytes play a unique role in both birds and mammals in highly regulated myelination essential for proper timing to decipher interaural cues. Microglia arise early in brainstem development and may contribute to maturation of auditory pathways. Together these studies demonstrate the importance of non-neuronal cells in the assembly of specialized auditory brainstem circuits.

  18. Long Latency Auditory Evoked Potentials during Meditation.

    PubMed

    Telles, Shirley; Deepeshwar, Singh; Naveen, Kalkuni Visweswaraiah; Pailoor, Subramanya

    2015-10-01

    The auditory sensory pathway has been studied in meditators, using midlatency and short latency auditory evoked potentials. The present study evaluated long latency auditory evoked potentials (LLAEPs) during meditation. Sixty male participants, aged between 18 and 31 years (group mean±SD, 20.5±3.8 years), were assessed in 4 mental states based on descriptions in the traditional texts. They were (a) random thinking, (b) nonmeditative focusing, (c) meditative focusing, and (d) meditation. The order of the sessions was randomly assigned. The LLAEP components studied were P1 (40-60 ms), N1 (75-115 ms), P2 (120-180 ms), and N2 (180-280 ms). For each component, the peak amplitude and peak latency were measured from the prestimulus baseline. There was significant decrease in the peak latency of the P2 component during and after meditation (P<.001; analysis of variance and post hoc analysis with Bonferroni adjustment). The P1, P2, and N2 components showed a significant decrease in peak amplitudes during random thinking (P<.01; P<.001; P<.01, respectively) and nonmeditative focused thinking (P<.01; P<.01; P<.05, respectively). The results suggest that meditation facilitates the processing of information in the auditory association cortex, whereas the number of neurons recruited was smaller in random thinking and non-meditative focused thinking, at the level of the secondary auditory cortex, auditory association cortex and anterior cingulate cortex.

  19. Investigating bottom-up auditory attention

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Emine Merve; Elhilali, Mounya

    2014-01-01

    Bottom-up attention is a sensory-driven selection mechanism that directs perception toward a subset of the stimulus that is considered salient, or attention-grabbing. Most studies of bottom-up auditory attention have adapted frameworks similar to visual attention models whereby local or global “contrast” is a central concept in defining salient elements in a scene. In the current study, we take a more fundamental approach to modeling auditory attention; providing the first examination of the space of auditory saliency spanning pitch, intensity and timbre; and shedding light on complex interactions among these features. Informed by psychoacoustic results, we develop a computational model of auditory saliency implementing a novel attentional framework, guided by processes hypothesized to take place in the auditory pathway. In particular, the model tests the hypothesis that perception tracks the evolution of sound events in a multidimensional feature space, and flags any deviation from background statistics as salient. Predictions from the model corroborate the relationship between bottom-up auditory attention and statistical inference, and argues for a potential role of predictive coding as mechanism for saliency detection in acoustic scenes. PMID:24904367

  20. Electromagnetic recording of the auditory system.

    PubMed

    Poeppel, David; Hickok, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Auditory processing is remarkably fast and sensitive to the precise temporal structure of acoustic signals over a range of scales, from submillisecond phenomena such as localization to the construction of elementary auditory attributes at tens of milliseconds to basic properties of speech and music at hundreds of milliseconds. In light of the rapid (and often transitory) nature of auditory phenomena, in order to investigate the neurocomputational basis of auditory perception and cognition, a technique with high temporal resolution is appropriate. Here we briefly outline the utility of magnetoencephalography (MEG) for the study of the neural basis of audition. The basics of MEG are outlined in brief, and some of the most-used neural responses are described. We discuss the classic transient evoked fields (e.g., M100), responses elicited by change in a stimulus (e.g., pitch-onset response), the auditory steady-state response, and neural oscillations (e.g., theta-phase tracking). Because of the high temporal resolution and the good spatial resolution of MEG, paired with the convenient location of human auditory cortex for MEG-based recording, electromagnetic recording of this type is well suited to investigate various aspects from audition, from crafted laboratory experiments on pitch perception or scene analysis to naturalistic speech and music tasks.

  1. Dynamic auditory localization: systematic replication of the auditory velocity function.

    PubMed

    Perrott, D R; Buck, V; Waugh, W; Strybel, T Z

    1979-10-01

    Two experiments explored the capability of normal-hearing adults to judge the apparent velocity of an unseen moving sound source. In exper. I, 9 naive and, 1 experienced S judged the velocity of a moving source emitting a .5-kc/s tone at 50 db SPL. S's head was in the center of a circle of 1.88-m radius swept by a small loudspeaker. In exper. II the sound was a low-pass-filtered (0.1-1 kc/s) noise at 50 db sound spectrum level. In both experiments perceived velocity was directly proportional to the actual velocity of the source. These results support out initial observations (Waugh et al, J. Aud. Res., 1979, 19, 103-1 10) that auditory velocity discrimination can be described as a power function with an exponent of 1.0. In exper. II the Ss also varied the sound source velocity by means of a variable resistor to produce a perceived velocity of 100 degrees/sec. Performance on the adaptive velocity production task was successfully predicted from the data of the absolute velocity judgment task. The Weber fraction was .052 for relatively fast-moving sound sources (100 degrees/sec). The ability to discriminate sound source velocity appears to be a well-defined feature of the dynamic binaural spatial system. PMID:262464

  2. Auditory processing deficits in reading disabled adults.

    PubMed

    Amitay, Sygal; Ahissar, Meray; Nelken, Israel

    2002-09-01

    The nature of the auditory processing deficit of disabled readers is still an unresolved issue. The quest for a fundamental, nonlinguistic, perceptual impairment has been dominated by the hypothesis that the difficulty lies in processing sequences of stimuli at presentation rates of tens of milliseconds. The present study examined this hypothesis using tasks that require processing of a wide range of stimulus time constants. About a third of the sampled population of disabled readers (classified as "poor auditory processors") had difficulties in most of the tasks tested: detection of frequency differences, detection of tones in narrowband noise, detection of amplitude modulation, detection of the direction of sound sources moving in virtual space, and perception of the lateralized position of tones based on their interaural phase differences. Nevertheless, across-channel integration was intact in these poor auditory processors since comodulation masking release was not reduced. Furthermore, phase locking was presumably intact since binaural masking level differences were normal. In a further examination of temporal processing, participants were asked to discriminate two tones at various intervals where the frequency difference was ten times each individual's frequency just noticeable difference (JND). Under these conditions, poor auditory processors showed no specific difficulty at brief intervals, contrary to predictions under a fast temporal processing deficit assumption. The complementary subgroup of disabled readers who were not poor auditory processors showed some difficulty in this condition when compared with their direct controls. However, they had no difficulty on auditory tasks such as amplitude modulation detection, which presumably taps processing of similar time scales. These two subgroups of disabled readers had similar reading performance but those with a generally poor auditory performance scored lower on some cognitive tests. Taken together, these

  3. Auditory Highlighting as a Strategy for Improving Listening Comprehension. Auditory Learning Monograph Series 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, James W.

    Fifty-eight students (in grades 5 and 6) of average or near-average intelligence (who were reading 2 or more years below their normal expected level and who learned best through the auditory modality) took part in a study to evaluate the following areas: the effectiveness of two auditory highlighting procedures for increasing listening…

  4. Developing Auditory Skills: A Guide to Auditory Communication Activities. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marvich, Judith W.; Lederman, Norman

    The manual provides information about the development of auditory communication training for hearing impaired students. Two models of auditory training are reviewed: the Model Secondary School for the Deaf, which posits five areas of training, including awareness, attention, identification/recognition, message analysis, and…

  5. Auditory brainstem response in dolphins.

    PubMed

    Ridgway, S H; Bullock, T H; Carder, D A; Seeley, R L; Woods, D; Galambos, R

    1981-03-01

    We recorded the auditory brainstem response (ABR) in four dolphins (Tursiops truncatus and Delphinus delphis). The ABR evoked by clicks consists of seven waves within 10 msec; two waves often contain dual peaks. The main waves can be identified with those of humans and laboratory mammals; in spite of a much longer path, the latencies of the peaks are almost identical to those of the rat. The dolphin ABR waves increase in latency as the intensity of a sound decreases by only 4 microseconds/decibel(dB) (for clicks with peak power at 66 kHz) compared to 40 microseconds/dB in humans (for clicks in the sonic range). Low-frequency clicks (6-kHz peak power) show a latency increase about 3 times (12 microseconds/dB) as great. Although the dolphin brainstem tracks individual clicks to at least 600 per sec, the latency increases and amplitude decreases with increasing click rates. This effect varies among different waves of the ABR; it is around one-fifth the effect seen in man. The dolphin brain is specialized for handling brief, frequent clicks. A small latency difference is seen between clicks 180 degrees different in phase--i.e., with initial compression vs. initial rarefaction. The ABR can be used to test theories of dolphin sonar signal processing. Hearing thresholds can be evaluated rapidly. Cetaceans that have not been investigated can now be examined, including the great whales, a group for which data are now completely lacking.

  6. Effects of an Auditory Lateralization Training in Children Suspected to Central Auditory Processing Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lotfi, Yones; Moosavi, Abdollah; Bakhshi, Enayatollah; Sadjedi, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Central auditory processing disorder [(C)APD] refers to a deficit in auditory stimuli processing in nervous system that is not due to higher-order language or cognitive factors. One of the problems in children with (C)APD is spatial difficulties which have been overlooked despite their significance. Localization is an auditory ability to detect sound sources in space and can help to differentiate between the desired speech from other simultaneous sound sources. Aim of this research was investigating effects of an auditory lateralization training on speech perception in presence of noise/competing signals in children suspected to (C)APD. Subjects and Methods In this analytical interventional study, 60 children suspected to (C)APD were selected based on multiple auditory processing assessment subtests. They were randomly divided into two groups: control (mean age 9.07) and training groups (mean age 9.00). Training program consisted of detection and pointing to sound sources delivered with interaural time differences under headphones for 12 formal sessions (6 weeks). Spatial word recognition score (WRS) and monaural selective auditory attention test (mSAAT) were used to follow the auditory lateralization training effects. Results This study showed that in the training group, mSAAT score and spatial WRS in noise (p value≤0.001) improved significantly after the auditory lateralization training. Conclusions We used auditory lateralization training for 6 weeks and showed that auditory lateralization can improve speech understanding in noise significantly. The generalization of this results needs further researches. PMID:27626084

  7. Effects of an Auditory Lateralization Training in Children Suspected to Central Auditory Processing Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lotfi, Yones; Moosavi, Abdollah; Bakhshi, Enayatollah; Sadjedi, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Central auditory processing disorder [(C)APD] refers to a deficit in auditory stimuli processing in nervous system that is not due to higher-order language or cognitive factors. One of the problems in children with (C)APD is spatial difficulties which have been overlooked despite their significance. Localization is an auditory ability to detect sound sources in space and can help to differentiate between the desired speech from other simultaneous sound sources. Aim of this research was investigating effects of an auditory lateralization training on speech perception in presence of noise/competing signals in children suspected to (C)APD. Subjects and Methods In this analytical interventional study, 60 children suspected to (C)APD were selected based on multiple auditory processing assessment subtests. They were randomly divided into two groups: control (mean age 9.07) and training groups (mean age 9.00). Training program consisted of detection and pointing to sound sources delivered with interaural time differences under headphones for 12 formal sessions (6 weeks). Spatial word recognition score (WRS) and monaural selective auditory attention test (mSAAT) were used to follow the auditory lateralization training effects. Results This study showed that in the training group, mSAAT score and spatial WRS in noise (p value≤0.001) improved significantly after the auditory lateralization training. Conclusions We used auditory lateralization training for 6 weeks and showed that auditory lateralization can improve speech understanding in noise significantly. The generalization of this results needs further researches.

  8. Modular functional organization of cat anterior auditory field.

    PubMed

    Imaizumi, Kazuo; Priebe, Nicholas J; Crum, Poppy A C; Bedenbaugh, Purvis H; Cheung, Steven W; Schreiner, Christoph E

    2004-07-01

    Two tonotopic areas, the primary auditory cortex (AI) and the anterior auditory field (AAF), are the primary cortical fields in the cat auditory system. They receive largely independent, concurrent thalamocortical projections from the different thalamic divisions despite their hierarchical equivalency. The parallel streams of thalamic inputs to AAF and AI suggest that AAF neurons may differ from AI neurons in physiological properties. Although a modular functional organization in cat AI has been well documented, little is known about the internal organization of AAF beyond tonotopy. We studied how basic receptive field parameters (RFPs) are spatially organized in AAF with single- and multiunit recording techniques. A distorted tonotopicity with an underrepresentation in midfrequencies (1 and 5 kHz) and an overrepresentation in the high-frequency range was found. Spectral bandwidth (Q-values) and response threshold were significantly correlated with characteristic frequency (CF). To understand whether AAF has a modular organization of RFPs, CF dependencies were eliminated by a nonparametric, local regression model, and the residuals (difference between the model and observed values) were evaluated. In a given isofrequency domain, clusters of low or high residual RFP values were interleaved for threshold, spectral bandwidth, and latency, suggesting a modular organization. However, RFP modules in AAF were not expressed as robustly as in AI. A comparison of RFPs between AAF and AI shows that AAF neurons were more broadly tuned and had shorter latencies than AI neurons. These physiological field differences are consistent with anatomical evidence of largely independent, concurrent thalamocortical projections in AI and AAF, which strongly suggest field-specific processing.

  9. Auditory and motor imagery modulate learning in music performance.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rachel M; Palmer, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Skilled performers such as athletes or musicians can improve their performance by imagining the actions or sensory outcomes associated with their skill. Performers vary widely in their auditory and motor imagery abilities, and these individual differences influence sensorimotor learning. It is unknown whether imagery abilities influence both memory encoding and retrieval. We examined how auditory and motor imagery abilities influence musicians' encoding (during Learning, as they practiced novel melodies), and retrieval (during Recall of those melodies). Pianists learned melodies by listening without performing (auditory learning) or performing without sound (motor learning); following Learning, pianists performed the melodies from memory with auditory feedback (Recall). During either Learning (Experiment 1) or Recall (Experiment 2), pianists experienced either auditory interference, motor interference, or no interference. Pitch accuracy (percentage of correct pitches produced) and temporal regularity (variability of quarter-note interonset intervals) were measured at Recall. Independent tests measured auditory and motor imagery skills. Pianists' pitch accuracy was higher following auditory learning than following motor learning and lower in motor interference conditions (Experiments 1 and 2). Both auditory and motor imagery skills improved pitch accuracy overall. Auditory imagery skills modulated pitch accuracy encoding (Experiment 1): Higher auditory imagery skill corresponded to higher pitch accuracy following auditory learning with auditory or motor interference, and following motor learning with motor or no interference. These findings suggest that auditory imagery abilities decrease vulnerability to interference and compensate for missing auditory feedback at encoding. Auditory imagery skills also influenced temporal regularity at retrieval (Experiment 2): Higher auditory imagery skill predicted greater temporal regularity during Recall in the presence of

  10. Visual modulation of auditory responses in the owl inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Bergan, Joseph F; Knudsen, Eric I

    2009-06-01

    The barn owl's central auditory system creates a map of auditory space in the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICX). Although the crucial role visual experience plays in the formation and maintenance of this auditory space map is well established, the mechanism by which vision influences ICX responses remains unclear. Surprisingly, previous experiments have found that in the absence of extensive pharmacological manipulation, visual stimuli do not drive neural responses in the ICX. Here we investigated the influence of dynamic visual stimuli on auditory responses in the ICX. We show that a salient visual stimulus, when coincident with an auditory stimulus, can modulate auditory responses in the ICX even though the same visual stimulus may elicit no neural responses when presented alone. For each ICX neuron, the most effective auditory and visual stimuli were located in the same region of space. In addition, the magnitude of the visual modulation of auditory responses was dependent on the context of the stimulus presentation with novel visual stimuli eliciting consistently larger response modulations than frequently presented visual stimuli. Thus the visual modulation of ICX responses is dependent on the characteristics of the visual stimulus as well as on the spatial and temporal correspondence of the auditory and visual stimuli. These results demonstrate moment-to-moment visual enhancements of auditory responsiveness that, in the short-term, increase auditory responses to salient bimodal stimuli and in the long-term could serve to instruct the adaptive auditory plasticity necessary to maintain accurate auditory orienting behavior. PMID:19321633

  11. The harmonic organization of auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoqin

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental structure of sounds encountered in the natural environment is the harmonicity. Harmonicity is an essential component of music found in all cultures. It is also a unique feature of vocal communication sounds such as human speech and animal vocalizations. Harmonics in sounds are produced by a variety of acoustic generators and reflectors in the natural environment, including vocal apparatuses of humans and animal species as well as music instruments of many types. We live in an acoustic world full of harmonicity. Given the widespread existence of the harmonicity in many aspects of the hearing environment, it is natural to expect that it be reflected in the evolution and development of the auditory systems of both humans and animals, in particular the auditory cortex. Recent neuroimaging and neurophysiology experiments have identified regions of non-primary auditory cortex in humans and non-human primates that have selective responses to harmonic pitches. Accumulating evidence has also shown that neurons in many regions of the auditory cortex exhibit characteristic responses to harmonically related frequencies beyond the range of pitch. Together, these findings suggest that a fundamental organizational principle of auditory cortex is based on the harmonicity. Such an organization likely plays an important role in music processing by the brain. It may also form the basis of the preference for particular classes of music and voice sounds. PMID:24381544

  12. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genetics Home Health Conditions ADPEAF autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features Enable Javascript to view the ... Open All Close All Description Autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features ( ADPEAF ) is an uncommon form ...

  13. Auditory Discrimination Development through Vestibulo-Cochlear Stimulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Lyelle L.

    1980-01-01

    Three types of vestibular activities (active, adaptive, and passively imposed) to improve auditory discrimination development are described and results of a study using the vestibular stimulation techniques with 20 Ss (average age 9) having abnormal auditory discrimination. (PHR)

  14. Auditory masking of speech in reverberant multi-talker environments.

    PubMed

    Weller, Tobias; Buchholz, Jörg M; Best, Virginia

    2016-03-01

    Auditory localization research needs to be performed in more realistic testing environments to better capture the real-world abilities of listeners and their hearing devices. However, there are significant challenges involved in controlling the audibility of relevant target signals in realistic environments. To understand the important aspects influencing target detection in more complex environments, a reverberant room with a multi-talker background was simulated and presented to the listener in a loudspeaker-based virtual sound environment. Masked thresholds of a short speech stimulus were measured adaptively for multiple target source locations in this scenario. It was found that both distance and azimuth of the target source have a strong influence on the masked threshold. Subsequently, a functional model was applied to analyze the factors influencing target detectability. The model is comprised of an auditory front-end that generates an internal representation of the stimuli in both ears, followed by a decision device combining d' information across time, frequency and both ears. The model predictions of the masked thresholds were overall in very good agreement with the experimental results. An analysis of the model processes showed that head shadow effects, signal spectrum, and reverberation have a strong impact on target audibility in the given scenario. PMID:27036267

  15. Brain stem auditory evoked responses during the cold pressor test.

    PubMed

    Vaney, N; Sethi, A; Tandon, O P

    1994-04-01

    This study was conducted to determine changes, if any, in Brain stem auditory evoked responses (BAEP's) during the cold pressor test (CPT) in healthy human subjects. Thirteen subjects (age 18-25 yrs) were selected for the study. Their BAEP's were recorded using standardized technique employing 10-20 international electrode placement system and sound click stimuli of specified intensity, duration and frequency. The standard CPT was performed in the non-dominant hand and the BAEP's, heart rate and blood pressure were recorded before and during the CPT. The values of absolute peak latencies and amplitude of evoked responses were statistically analysed. The amplitude of wave V showed a significant increase (P < 0.05) during the CPT (0.47 +/- 0.203 and 0.37 +/- 0.174 mu v before and during CPT respectively). This could be due to interaction of activated central ascending monoaminergic pathways or nociceptive afferents with the midbrain auditory generator so as to increase it's activity.

  16. EEG Responses to Auditory Stimuli for Automatic Affect Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Hettich, Dirk T.; Bolinger, Elaina; Matuz, Tamara; Birbaumer, Niels; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang; Spüler, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Brain state classification for communication and control has been well established in the area of brain-computer interfaces over the last decades. Recently, the passive and automatic extraction of additional information regarding the psychological state of users from neurophysiological signals has gained increased attention in the interdisciplinary field of affective computing. We investigated how well specific emotional reactions, induced by auditory stimuli, can be detected in EEG recordings. We introduce an auditory emotion induction paradigm based on the International Affective Digitized Sounds 2nd Edition (IADS-2) database also suitable for disabled individuals. Stimuli are grouped in three valence categories: unpleasant, neutral, and pleasant. Significant differences in time domain domain event-related potentials are found in the electroencephalogram (EEG) between unpleasant and neutral, as well as pleasant and neutral conditions over midline electrodes. Time domain data were classified in three binary classification problems using a linear support vector machine (SVM) classifier. We discuss three classification performance measures in the context of affective computing and outline some strategies for conducting and reporting affect classification studies. PMID:27375410

  17. EEG Responses to Auditory Stimuli for Automatic Affect Recognition.

    PubMed

    Hettich, Dirk T; Bolinger, Elaina; Matuz, Tamara; Birbaumer, Niels; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang; Spüler, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Brain state classification for communication and control has been well established in the area of brain-computer interfaces over the last decades. Recently, the passive and automatic extraction of additional information regarding the psychological state of users from neurophysiological signals has gained increased attention in the interdisciplinary field of affective computing. We investigated how well specific emotional reactions, induced by auditory stimuli, can be detected in EEG recordings. We introduce an auditory emotion induction paradigm based on the International Affective Digitized Sounds 2nd Edition (IADS-2) database also suitable for disabled individuals. Stimuli are grouped in three valence categories: unpleasant, neutral, and pleasant. Significant differences in time domain domain event-related potentials are found in the electroencephalogram (EEG) between unpleasant and neutral, as well as pleasant and neutral conditions over midline electrodes. Time domain data were classified in three binary classification problems using a linear support vector machine (SVM) classifier. We discuss three classification performance measures in the context of affective computing and outline some strategies for conducting and reporting affect classification studies. PMID:27375410

  18. Beyond auditory cortex: working with musical thoughts.

    PubMed

    Zatorre, Robert J

    2012-04-01

    Musical imagery is associated with neural activity in auditory cortex, but prior studies have not examined musical imagery tasks requiring mental transformations. This paper describes functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies requiring manipulation of musical information. In one set of experiments, listeners were asked to mentally reverse a familiar tune when presented backwards. This manipulation consistently elicits neural activity in the intraparietal sulcus (IPS). Separate experiments requiring judgments about melodies that have been transposed from one musical key to another also elicit IPS activation. Conjunction analyses indicate that the same portions of the IPS are recruited in both tasks. The findings suggest that the dorsal pathway of auditory processing is involved in the manipulation and transformation of auditory information, as has also been shown for visuomotor and visuospatial tasks. As such, it provides a substrate for the creation of new mental representations that are based on manipulation of previously experienced sensory events. PMID:22524363

  19. Are auditory percepts determined by experience?

    PubMed

    Monson, Brian B; Han, Shui'Er; Purves, Dale

    2013-01-01

    Audition--what listeners hear--is generally studied in terms of the physical properties of sound stimuli and physiological properties of the auditory system. Based on recent work in vision, we here consider an alternative perspective that sensory percepts are based on past experience. In this framework, basic auditory qualities (e.g., loudness and pitch) are based on the frequency of occurrence of stimulus patterns in natural acoustic stimuli. To explore this concept of audition, we examined five well-documented psychophysical functions. The frequency of occurrence of acoustic patterns in a database of natural sound stimuli (speech) predicts some qualitative aspects of these functions, but with substantial quantitative discrepancies. This approach may offer a rationale for auditory phenomena that are difficult to explain in terms of the physical attributes of the stimuli as such.

  20. Phonetic categorization in auditory word perception.

    PubMed

    Ganong, W F

    1980-02-01

    To investigate the interaction in speech perception of auditory information and lexical knowledge (in particular, knowledge of which phonetic sequences are words), acoustic continua varying in voice onset time were constructed so that for each acoustic continuum, one of the two possible phonetic categorizations made a word and the other did not. For example, one continuum ranged between the word dash and the nonword tash; another used the nonword dask and the word task. In two experiments, subjects showed a significant lexical effect--that is, a tendency to make phonetic categorizations that make words. This lexical effect was greater at the phoneme boundary (where auditory information is ambiguous) than at the ends of the condinua. Hence the lexical effect must arise at a stage of processing sensitive to both lexical knowledge and auditory information.

  1. The auditory hallucination: a phenomenological survey.

    PubMed

    Nayani, T H; David, A S

    1996-01-01

    A comprehensive semi-structured questionnaire was administered to 100 psychotic patients who had experienced auditory hallucinations. The aim was to extend the phenomenology of the hallucination into areas of both form and content and also to guide future theoretical development. All subjects heard 'voices' talking to or about them. The location of the voice, its characteristics and the nature of address were described. Precipitants and alleviating factors plus the effect of the hallucinations on the sufferer were identified. Other hallucinatory experiences, thought insertion and insight were examined for their inter-relationships. A pattern emerged of increasing complexity of the auditory-verbal hallucination over time by a process of accretion, with the addition of more voices and extended dialogues, and more intimacy between subject and voice. Such evolution seemed to relate to the lessening of distress and improved coping. These findings should inform both neurological and cognitive accounts of the pathogenesis of auditory hallucinations in psychotic disorders. PMID:8643757

  2. Electrophysiological measurement of human auditory function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galambos, R.

    1975-01-01

    Knowledge of the human auditory evoked response is reviewed, including methods of determining this response, the way particular changes in the stimulus are coupled to specific changes in the response, and how the state of mind of the listener will influence the response. Important practical applications of this basic knowledge are discussed. Measurement of the brainstem evoked response, for instance, can state unequivocally how well the peripheral auditory apparatus functions. It might then be developed into a useful hearing test, especially for infants and preverbal or nonverbal children. Clinical applications of measuring the brain waves evoked 100 msec and later after the auditory stimulus are undetermined. These waves are clearly related to brain events associated with cognitive processing of acoustic signals, since their properties depend upon where the listener directs his attention and whether how long he expects the signal.

  3. Auditory motion affects visual biological motion processing.

    PubMed

    Brooks, A; van der Zwan, R; Billard, A; Petreska, B; Clarke, S; Blanke, O

    2007-02-01

    The processing of biological motion is a critical, everyday task performed with remarkable efficiency by human sensory systems. Interest in this ability has focused to a large extent on biological motion processing in the visual modality (see, for example, Cutting, J. E., Moore, C., & Morrison, R. (1988). Masking the motions of human gait. Perception and Psychophysics, 44(4), 339-347). In naturalistic settings, however, it is often the case that biological motion is defined by input to more than one sensory modality. For this reason, here in a series of experiments we investigate behavioural correlates of multisensory, in particular audiovisual, integration in the processing of biological motion cues. More specifically, using a new psychophysical paradigm we investigate the effect of suprathreshold auditory motion on perceptions of visually defined biological motion. Unlike data from previous studies investigating audiovisual integration in linear motion processing [Meyer, G. F. & Wuerger, S. M. (2001). Cross-modal integration of auditory and visual motion signals. Neuroreport, 12(11), 2557-2560; Wuerger, S. M., Hofbauer, M., & Meyer, G. F. (2003). The integration of auditory and motion signals at threshold. Perception and Psychophysics, 65(8), 1188-1196; Alais, D. & Burr, D. (2004). No direction-specific bimodal facilitation for audiovisual motion detection. Cognitive Brain Research, 19, 185-194], we report the existence of direction-selective effects: relative to control (stationary) auditory conditions, auditory motion in the same direction as the visually defined biological motion target increased its detectability, whereas auditory motion in the opposite direction had the inverse effect. Our data suggest these effects do not arise through general shifts in visuo-spatial attention, but instead are a consequence of motion-sensitive, direction-tuned integration mechanisms that are, if not unique to biological visual motion, at least not common to all types of

  4. A verbal behavior analysis of auditory hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Burns, C E; Heiby, E M; Tharp, R G

    1983-01-01

    A review of recent research on the non-medical control of auditory hallucinations is presented. It is suggested that the decreases in hallucinatory behavior obtained in studies using aversive contingencies may be attributable to the disruption of the chains of behavior involved. The results of several additional studies are interpreted as indicating that methods of stimulus control and the use of incompatible behaviors may be effective in reducing the rate of auditory hallucinations. Research relating auditory hallucinations to subvocalizations is presented in support of the view that hallucinatory phenomena are sometimes related to the subject's own vocal productions. Skinner's views (1934, 1936, 1953, 1957, 1980) are then presented as possible explanations of some hallucinatory behavior. It is suggested that some auditory hallucinations consit of the mishearing of environmental and physiological stimuli as voices in a fashion similar to that which Skinner observed in his work with the verbal summator. The maintenance of long chains of such responses may be largely attributable to self-intraverbal influences (such as are present during automatic writing). With some auditory hallucinations, this progression involves first mishearing ambiguous stimuli as voices and then attributing the voices to some cause (e.g., insanity, the television, radio, or God). Later, the frequent and ongoing chains of such behavior may contaminate other verbal responses. Such verbal behavior may be parasitic on "normal verbal behavior" (and hence, not directly dependent on consquences for maintenance), may be cued by various stimuli (including respiration), and may interfere with other covert and overt behavior. Several studies to investigate this view are presented. It is hoped that such research will lead to a better understanding of the major issues involved in the etiology and treatment of auditory hallucinations in particular and perhaps of psychosis in general.

  5. Auditory Brainstem Response Improvements in Hyperbillirubinemic Infants

    PubMed Central

    Abdollahi, Farzaneh Zamiri; Manchaiah, Vinaya; Lotfi, Yones

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Hyperbillirubinemia in infants have been associated with neuronal damage including in the auditory system. Some researchers have suggested that the bilirubin-induced auditory neuronal damages may be temporary and reversible. This study was aimed at investigating the auditory neuropathy and reversibility of auditory abnormalities in hyperbillirubinemic infants. Subjects and Methods The study participants included 41 full term hyperbilirubinemic infants (mean age 39.24 days) with normal birth weight (3,200-3,700 grams) that admitted in hospital for hyperbillirubinemia and 39 normal infants (mean age 35.54 days) without any hyperbillirubinemia or other hearing loss risk factors for ruling out maturational changes. All infants in hyperbilirubinemic group had serum bilirubin level more than 20 milligram per deciliter and undergone one blood exchange transfusion. Hearing evaluation for each infant was conducted twice: the first one after hyperbilirubinemia treatment and before leaving hospital and the second one three months after the first hearing evaluation. Hearing evaluations included transient evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) screening and auditory brainstem response (ABR) threshold tracing. Results The TEOAE and ABR results of control group and TEOAE results of the hyperbilirubinemic group did not change significantly from the first to the second evaluation. However, the ABR results of the hyperbilirubinemic group improved significantly from the first to the second assessment (p=0.025). Conclusions The results suggest that the bilirubin induced auditory neuronal damage can be reversible over time so we suggest that infants with hyperbilirubinemia who fail the first hearing tests should be reevaluated after 3 months of treatment. PMID:27144228

  6. Congenital cholesteatoma of external auditory canal.

    PubMed

    Quantin, Laura; Carrera Fernández, Sandra; Moretti, Jorge

    2002-02-01

    A 7-month-old male child is reported with congenital cholesteatoma of the external auditory canal. We describe the clinical features, computed tomography finding and surgical treatment. Congenital cholesteatomas can occur within the temporal bone. There are six places of location: (1) petrous apex, (2) mastoid, (3) middle ear, (4) both middle ear and mastoid, (5) external ear canal and (6) within the squamous portion of the temporal bone. Congenital cholesteatoma of the external auditory canal is rare. Generally, it appears in the canal floor without lesions in the tympanic membrane. Computed tomography completes the study. Treatment consists of excision of the mass.

  7. Subsymmetries predict auditory and visual pattern complexity.

    PubMed

    Toussaint, Godfried T; Beltran, Juan F

    2013-01-01

    A mathematical measure of pattern complexity based on subsymmetries possessed by the pattern, previously shown to correlate highly with empirically derived measures of cognitive complexity in the visual domain, is found to also correlate significantly with empirically derived complexity measures of perception and production of auditory temporal and musical rhythmic patterns. Not only does the subsymmetry measure correlate highly with the difficulty of reproducing the rhythms by tapping after listening to them, but also the empirical measures exhibit similar behavior, for both the visual and auditory patterns, as a function of the relative number of subsymmetries present in the patterns. PMID:24494441

  8. The many facets of auditory display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blattner, Meera M.

    1995-01-01

    In this presentation we will examine some of the ways sound can be used in a virtual world. We make the case that many different types of audio experience are available to us. A full range of audio experiences include: music, speech, real-world sounds, auditory displays, and auditory cues or messages. The technology of recreating real-world sounds through physical modeling has advanced in the past few years allowing better simulation of virtual worlds. Three-dimensional audio has further enriched our sensory experiences.

  9. Transient auditory hallucinations in an adolescent.

    PubMed

    Skokauskas, Norbert; Pillay, Devina; Moran, Tom; Kahn, David A

    2010-05-01

    In adolescents, hallucinations can be a transient illness or can be associated with non-psychotic psychopathology, psychosocial adversity, or a physical illness. We present the case of a 15-year-old secondary-school student who presented with a 1-month history of first onset auditory hallucinations, which had been increasing in frequency and severity, and mild paranoid ideation. Over a 10-week period, there was a gradual diminution, followed by a complete resolution, of symptoms. We discuss issues regarding the diagnosis and prognosis of auditory hallucinations in adolescents.

  10. Giant cholesteatoma of the external auditory canal.

    PubMed

    Sapçi, T; Uğur, G; Karavus, A; Ağrali, N; Akbulut, U G

    1997-06-01

    Cholesteatomas are found almost exclusively in the middle ear and mastoid. Occasionally this disease is seen in the external auditory canal. Cholesteatoma of the external auditory canal is a rare condition. Severe pain and profuse discharge associated with a normal eardrum and normal hearing are essential clinical features. In addition, we found facial paresis and conductive hearing loss in our case. Smaller cholesteatomas can be managed by frequent debridement in the office; larger lesions require surgical intervention. Surgery is successful in resolving otorrhea and relieving pain. In addition, our own experience has shown that surgery is successful in relieving facial paresis.

  11. Functional Topography of Human Auditory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Rauschecker, Josef P.

    2016-01-01

    Functional and anatomical studies have clearly demonstrated that auditory cortex is populated by multiple subfields. However, functional characterization of those fields has been largely the domain of animal electrophysiology, limiting the extent to which human and animal research can inform each other. In this study, we used high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging to characterize human auditory cortical subfields using a variety of low-level acoustic features in the spectral and temporal domains. Specifically, we show that topographic gradients of frequency preference, or tonotopy, extend along two axes in human auditory cortex, thus reconciling historical accounts of a tonotopic axis oriented medial to lateral along Heschl's gyrus and more recent findings emphasizing tonotopic organization along the anterior–posterior axis. Contradictory findings regarding topographic organization according to temporal modulation rate in acoustic stimuli, or “periodotopy,” are also addressed. Although isolated subregions show a preference for high rates of amplitude-modulated white noise (AMWN) in our data, large-scale “periodotopic” organization was not found. Organization by AM rate was correlated with dominant pitch percepts in AMWN in many regions. In short, our data expose early auditory cortex chiefly as a frequency analyzer, and spectral frequency, as imposed by the sensory receptor surface in the cochlea, seems to be the dominant feature governing large-scale topographic organization across human auditory cortex. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In this study, we examine the nature of topographic organization in human auditory cortex with fMRI. Topographic organization by spectral frequency (tonotopy) extended in two directions: medial to lateral, consistent with early neuroimaging studies, and anterior to posterior, consistent with more recent reports. Large-scale organization by rates of temporal modulation (periodotopy) was correlated with confounding

  12. Developing and Presenting Auditory Demonstrations: Two Sound Editor Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firment, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    Experiencing examples of auditory phenomena can clarify textbook and lecture explanations. The addition of visual displays to auditory demonstrations can make them more understandable. Two sound editor programs, Audacity[R] and Adobe Audition Pro 2.0[R], provide excellent capabilities for the display and authoring of auditory demonstrations.…

  13. 21 CFR 882.1900 - Evoked response auditory stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Evoked response auditory stimulator. 882.1900 Section 882.1900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... auditory stimulator. (a) Identification. An evoked response auditory stimulator is a device that produces...

  14. 21 CFR 882.1900 - Evoked response auditory stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evoked response auditory stimulator. 882.1900 Section 882.1900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... auditory stimulator. (a) Identification. An evoked response auditory stimulator is a device that produces...

  15. Auditory Hypersensitivity in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucker, Jay R.

    2013-01-01

    A review of records was completed to determine whether children with auditory hypersensitivities have difficulty tolerating loud sounds due to auditory-system factors or some other factors not directly involving the auditory system. Records of 150 children identified as not meeting autism spectrum disorders (ASD) criteria and another 50 meeting…

  16. Comorbidity of Auditory Processing, Language, and Reading Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Mridula; Purdy, Suzanne C.; Kelly, Andrea S.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The authors assessed comorbidity of auditory processing disorder (APD), language impairment (LI), and reading disorder (RD) in school-age children. Method: Children (N = 68) with suspected APD and nonverbal IQ standard scores of 80 or more were assessed using auditory, language, reading, attention, and memory measures. Auditory processing…

  17. Auditory Stream Biasing in Children with Reading Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouimet, Tialee; Balaban, Evan

    2010-01-01

    Reading impairments have previously been associated with auditory processing differences. We examined "auditory stream biasing", a global aspect of auditory temporal processing. Children with reading impairments, control children and adults heard a 10 s long stream-bias-inducing sound sequence (a repeating 1000 Hz tone) and a test sequence (eight…

  18. Auditory Temporal Processing as a Specific Deficit among Dyslexic Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fostick, Leah; Bar-El, Sharona; Ram-Tsur, Ronit

    2012-01-01

    The present study focuses on examining the hypothesis that auditory temporal perception deficit is a basic cause for reading disabilities among dyslexics. This hypothesis maintains that reading impairment is caused by a fundamental perceptual deficit in processing rapid auditory or visual stimuli. Since the auditory perception involves a number of…

  19. Auditory, visual, and auditory-visual perception of vowels by hearing-impaired children.

    PubMed

    Hack, Z C; Erber, N P

    1982-03-01

    The vowels (foreign letters in text) were presented through auditory, visual, and combined auditory-visual modalities to hearing-impaired children having good, intermediate, and poor auditory work-recognition skills. When they received acoustic information only, children with good word-recognition skills confused neighboring vowels (i.e., those having similar formant frequencies). Children with intermediate work-recognition skills demonstrated this same difficulty and confused front and back vowels. Children with poor word-recognition skills identified vowels mainly on the basis of temporal and intensity cues. Through lipreading alone, all three groups distinguished spread from rounded vowels but could not reliably identify vowels within the categories. The first two groups exhibited only moderate difficulty in identifying vowels audiovisually. The third group, although showing a small amount of improvement over lipreading alone, still experienced difficulty in identifying vowels through combined auditory and visual modes.

  20. The role of auditory brainstem response in diagnosing auditory impairments of Dejerine-Sottas.

    PubMed

    Talebi, Hossein; Rezazadeh, Nima

    2012-06-01

    Dejerine-Sottas disease is classified as hereditary motor sensory neuropathy (HMSN) type III and shows evidence of Friedreich's ataxia, significant reduction in nerve conduction velocity (NCV), hypomyelination and demyelination of the nerve fibers. In this study, a 10-years-old girl with Dejerine-Sottas disease is presented in which routine clinical signs (ataxia and reduced NCV) seem with significant impairments of auditory brainstem pathway. It is indicated that pure tone audiometry, standard tympanometry (tympanometry and acoustic reflex), and otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) showed normal results in both ears (normal peripheral auditory system). In contrast, auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) indicated abnormal findings in absolute latencies of I, III, and V and inter-peak latencies of I-III and I-V. These findings suggested auditory brainstem involvement especially in low and mid regions. PMID:22445798

  1. Roles of Supplementary Motor Areas in Auditory Processing and Auditory Imagery.

    PubMed

    Lima, César F; Krishnan, Saloni; Scott, Sophie K

    2016-08-01

    Although the supplementary and pre-supplementary motor areas have been intensely investigated in relation to their motor functions, they are also consistently reported in studies of auditory processing and auditory imagery. This involvement is commonly overlooked, in contrast to lateral premotor and inferior prefrontal areas. We argue here for the engagement of supplementary motor areas across a variety of sound categories, including speech, vocalizations, and music, and we discuss how our understanding of auditory processes in these regions relate to findings and hypotheses from the motor literature. We suggest that supplementary and pre-supplementary motor areas play a role in facilitating spontaneous motor responses to sound, and in supporting a flexible engagement of sensorimotor processes to enable imagery and to guide auditory perception. PMID:27381836

  2. Neurodynamics, tonality, and the auditory brainstem response.

    PubMed

    Large, Edward W; Almonte, Felix V

    2012-04-01

    Tonal relationships are foundational in music, providing the basis upon which musical structures, such as melodies, are constructed and perceived. A recent dynamic theory of musical tonality predicts that networks of auditory neurons resonate nonlinearly to musical stimuli. Nonlinear resonance leads to stability and attraction relationships among neural frequencies, and these neural dynamics give rise to the perception of relationships among tones that we collectively refer to as tonal cognition. Because this model describes the dynamics of neural populations, it makes specific predictions about human auditory neurophysiology. Here, we show how predictions about the auditory brainstem response (ABR) are derived from the model. To illustrate, we derive a prediction about population responses to musical intervals that has been observed in the human brainstem. Our modeled ABR shows qualitative agreement with important features of the human ABR. This provides a source of evidence that fundamental principles of auditory neurodynamics might underlie the perception of tonal relationships, and forces reevaluation of the role of learning and enculturation in tonal cognition. PMID:22974442

  3. Auditory Training with Frequent Communication Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tye-Murray, Nancy; Spehar, Brent; Sommers, Mitchell; Barcroft, Joe

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Individuals with hearing loss engage in auditory training to improve their speech recognition. They typically practice listening to utterances spoken by unfamiliar talkers but never to utterances spoken by their most frequent communication partner (FCP)--speech they most likely desire to recognize--under the assumption that familiarity…

  4. Developmental Changes in Auditory Temporal Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrongiello, Barbara A.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Infants, preschoolers, and adults were tested to determine the shortest time interval at which they would respond to the precedence effect, an auditory phenomenon produced by presenting the same sound through two loudspeakers with the input to one loudspeaker delayed in relation to the other. Results revealed developmental differences in threshold…

  5. Individual Differences and Auditory Conditioning in Neonates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franz, W. K.; And Others

    The purposes of this study are (1) to analyze learning ability in newborns using heart rate responses to auditory temporal conditioning and (2) to correlate these with measures on the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale. Twenty normal neonates were tested using the Brazelton Scale on the third day of life. They were also given a…

  6. Auditory Emotional Cues Enhance Visual Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeelenberg, Rene; Bocanegra, Bruno R.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies show that emotional stimuli impair performance to subsequently presented neutral stimuli. Here we show a cross-modal perceptual enhancement caused by emotional cues. Auditory cue words were followed by a visually presented neutral target word. Two-alternative forced-choice identification of the visual target was improved by…

  7. Bilingualism Influences Inhibitory Control in Auditory Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenfeld, Henrike K.; Marian, Viorica

    2011-01-01

    Bilinguals have been shown to outperform monolinguals at suppressing task-irrelevant information. The present study aimed to identify how processing linguistic ambiguity during auditory comprehension may be associated with inhibitory control. Monolinguals and bilinguals listened to words in their native language (English) and identified them among…

  8. Affective Priming with Auditory Speech Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degner, Juliane

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments explored the applicability of auditory stimulus presentation in affective priming tasks. In Experiment 1, it was found that standard affective priming effects occur when prime and target words are presented simultaneously via headphones similar to a dichotic listening procedure. In Experiment 2, stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was…

  9. Advances in Auditory and Vestibular Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Trune, Dennis R.; Dutia, Mayank B.

    2010-01-01

    Auditory and Vestibular medicine is becoming more accepted as a specialty of its own, Medical NeurOtology. Recent advances in the field have been instrumental in the understanding of the scientific foundations, pathophysiology, clinical approach and management of patients with hearing and vestibular disorders. This paper will review these advances. PMID:20711412

  10. The Goldilocks Effect in Infant Auditory Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Celeste; Piantadosi, Steven T.; Aslin, Richard N.

    2014-01-01

    Infants must learn about many cognitive domains (e.g., language, music) from auditory statistics, yet capacity limits on their cognitive resources restrict the quantity that they can encode. Previous research has established that infants can attend to only a subset of available acoustic input. Yet few previous studies have directly examined infant…

  11. Auditory word discriminations in the pigeon.

    PubMed Central

    Pisacreta, R; Gough, D; Redwood, E; Goodfellow, L

    1986-01-01

    Four pigeons were trained on a multiple variable-interval 30-s extinction schedule with various pairs of spoken English words presented as the discriminative stimuli. The birds typically produced discrimination indices of 70% to 90% accuracy. Discrimination accuracy was improved by shortening the interval between auditory stimulus presentations, and by increasing the number of syllables in the words. PMID:3711775

  12. Information Processing in Auditory-Visual Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henker, Barbara A.; Whalen, Carol K.

    1972-01-01

    The present study used a set of bimodal (auditory-visual) conflict designed specifically for the preschool child. The basic component was a match-to-sample sequence designed to reduce the often-found contaminating factors in studies with young children: failure to understand or remember instructions, inability to perform the indicator response, or…

  13. The geriatric auditory and vestibular systems.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, R; Clemis, J D

    1990-12-01

    Age-related declines in auditory and vestibular function are becoming more prevalent and better understood. The personal and societal impact of these disorders is impressive, and present techniques of amplification or balance training can be of great benefit. However, many issues await investigation, and continued integration of ever-increasing technologies promises many new answers, and questions, in the future. PMID:2074981

  14. AUDITORY FACTORS IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE ACQUISITION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LEUTENEGGER, RALPH R.; AND OTHERS

    INFORMATION ON THE AUDITORY SKILLS OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE STUDENTS WAS OBTAINED AND A STUDY WAS MADE OF THE RELATIONSHIP OF THOSE SKILLS TO EASE OF MASTERY OF FRENCH AND SPANISH. THIS RESEARCH WAS CONDUCTED TO ANSWER QUESTIONS RAISED BY THE CURRENT TREND IN LANGUAGE INSTRUCTION TOWARD THE DEVELOPMENT OF AUDIOLINGUAL SKILLS BY PREDOMINANTLY AURAL…

  15. Developmental changes in distinguishing concurrent auditory objects.

    PubMed

    Alain, Claude; Theunissen, Eef L; Chevalier, Hélène; Batty, Magali; Taylor, Margot J

    2003-04-01

    Children have considerable difficulties in identifying speech in noise. In the present study, we examined age-related differences in central auditory functions that are crucial for parsing co-occurring auditory events using behavioral and event-related brain potential measures. Seventeen pre-adolescent children and 17 adults were presented with complex sounds containing multiple harmonics, one of which could be 'mistuned' so that it was no longer an integer multiple of the fundamental. Both children and adults were more likely to report hearing the mistuned harmonic as a separate sound with an increase in mistuning. However, children were less sensitive in detecting mistuning across all levels as revealed by lower d' scores than adults. The perception of two concurrent auditory events was accompanied by a negative wave that peaked at about 160 ms after sound onset. In both age groups, the negative wave, referred to as the 'object-related negativity' (ORN), increased in amplitude with mistuning. The ORN was larger in children than in adults despite a lower d' score. Together, the behavioral and electrophysiological results suggest that concurrent sound segregation is probably adult-like in pre-adolescent children, but that children are inefficient in processing the information following the detection of mistuning. These findings also suggest that processes involved in distinguishing concurrent auditory objects continue to mature during adolescence.

  16. Visual and auditory brain-computer interfaces.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shangkai; Wang, Yijun; Gao, Xiaorong; Hong, Bo

    2014-05-01

    Over the past several decades, electroencephalogram (EEG)-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) have attracted attention from researchers in the field of neuroscience, neural engineering, and clinical rehabilitation. While the performance of BCI systems has improved, they do not yet support widespread usage. Recently, visual and auditory BCI systems have become popular because of their high communication speeds, little user training, and low user variation. However, building robust and practical BCI systems from physiological and technical knowledge of neural modulation of visual and auditory brain responses remains a challenging problem. In this paper, we review the current state and future challenges of visual and auditory BCI systems. First, we describe a new taxonomy based on the multiple access methods used in telecommunication systems. Then, we discuss the challenges of translating current technology into real-life practices and outline potential avenues to address them. Specifically, this review aims to provide useful guidelines for exploring new paradigms and methodologies to improve the current visual and auditory BCI technology.

  17. Effects of Context on Auditory Stream Segregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Joel S.; Carter, Olivia L.; Lee, Suh-Kyung; Hannon, Erin E.; Alain, Claude

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined the effect of preceding context on auditory stream segregation. Low tones (A), high tones (B), and silences (-) were presented in an ABA-pattern. Participants indicated whether they perceived 1 or 2 streams of tones. The A tone frequency was fixed, and the B tone was the same as the A tone or had 1 of 3 higher frequencies.…

  18. Infant Habituation to Visual and Auditory Stimulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Jane; Haskins, Ron

    A total of 14 infants participated in this study of the recovery of visual orienting by crossmodal stimulation when no new visual information was present. The locus of the crossmodal stimulation (auditory stimulation) was discriminable to the subject. Infants in three age groups were tested on three occasions each separated by 30 days. No…

  19. Auditory Evoked Responses in Neonates by MEG

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez-Pavon, J. C.; Sosa, M.; Lutter, W. J.; Maier, M.; Wakai, R. T.

    2008-08-11

    Magnetoencephalography is a biomagnetic technique with outstanding potential for neurodevelopmental studies. In this work, we have used MEG to determinate if newborns can discriminate between different stimuli during the first few months of life. Five neonates were stimulated during several minutes with auditory stimulation. The results suggest that the newborns are able to discriminate between different stimuli despite their early age.

  20. Lateralization of auditory-cortex functions.

    PubMed

    Tervaniemi, Mari; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2003-12-01

    In the present review, we summarize the most recent findings and current views about the structural and functional basis of human brain lateralization in the auditory modality. Main emphasis is given to hemodynamic and electromagnetic data of healthy adult participants with regard to music- vs. speech-sound encoding. Moreover, a selective set of behavioral dichotic-listening (DL) results and clinical findings (e.g., schizophrenia, dyslexia) are included. It is shown that human brain has a strong predisposition to process speech sounds in the left and music sounds in the right auditory cortex in the temporal lobe. Up to great extent, an auditory area located at the posterior end of the temporal lobe (called planum temporale [PT]) underlies this functional asymmetry. However, the predisposition is not bound to informational sound content but to rapid temporal information more common in speech than in music sounds. Finally, we obtain evidence for the vulnerability of the functional specialization of sound processing. These altered forms of lateralization may be caused by top-down and bottom-up effects inter- and intraindividually In other words, relatively small changes in acoustic sound features or in their familiarity may modify the degree in which the left vs. right auditory areas contribute to sound encoding. PMID:14629926

  1. Auditory risk estimates for youth target shooting

    PubMed Central

    Meinke, Deanna K.; Murphy, William J.; Finan, Donald S.; Lankford, James E.; Flamme, Gregory A.; Stewart, Michael; Soendergaard, Jacob; Jerome, Trevor W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To characterize the impulse noise exposure and auditory risk for youth recreational firearm users engaged in outdoor target shooting events. The youth shooting positions are typically standing or sitting at a table, which places the firearm closer to the ground or reflective surface when compared to adult shooters. Design Acoustic characteristics were examined and the auditory risk estimates were evaluated using contemporary damage-risk criteria for unprotected adult listeners and the 120-dB peak limit suggested by the World Health Organization (1999) for children. Study sample Impulses were generated by 26 firearm/ammunition configurations representing rifles, shotguns, and pistols used by youth. Measurements were obtained relative to a youth shooter’s left ear. Results All firearms generated peak levels that exceeded the 120 dB peak limit suggested by the WHO for children. In general, shooting from the seated position over a tabletop increases the peak levels, LAeq8 and reduces the unprotected maximum permissible exposures (MPEs) for both rifles and pistols. Pistols pose the greatest auditory risk when fired over a tabletop. Conclusion Youth should utilize smaller caliber weapons, preferably from the standing position, and always wear hearing protection whenever engaging in shooting activities to reduce the risk for auditory damage. PMID:24564688

  2. Late Maturation of Auditory Perceptual Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huyck, Julia Jones; Wright, Beverly A.

    2011-01-01

    Adults can improve their performance on many perceptual tasks with training, but when does the response to training become mature? To investigate this question, we trained 11-year-olds, 14-year-olds and adults on a basic auditory task (temporal-interval discrimination) using a multiple-session training regimen known to be effective for adults. The…

  3. Auditory Brainstem Responses in Childhood Psychosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillberg, Christopher; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Auditory brainstem responses (ABR) were compared in 24 autistic children, seven children with other childhood psychoses, and 31 normal children. One-third of the autistic Ss showed abnormal ABR indicating brainstem dysfunction and correlating with muscular hypotonia and severe language impairment. Ss with other psychoses and normal Ss showed…

  4. Reading adn Auditory-Visual Equivalences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidman, Murray

    1971-01-01

    A retarded boy, unable to read orally or with comprehension, was taught to match spoken to printed words and was then capable of reading comprehension (matching printed words to picture) and oral reading (naming printed words aloud), demonstrating that certain learned auditory-visual equivalences are sufficient prerequisites for reading…

  5. Auditory Memory Difficulties and Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcell, Michael M.; Weeks, Sharon L.

    The study attempted to determine whether the failure of Down Syndrome (DS) individuals to show the modality effect (the tendency to show better short-term memory for brief sequences of auditory rather than visual information) is due to the verbal-expressive demands of oral responding in memory tasks. DS, nonretarded (NR) and MR (non-DS mentally…

  6. Auditory Temporal Pattern Discrimination and Reading Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAnally, Ken I.; Castles, Anne; Bannister, Susan

    2004-01-01

    The relation between reading ability and performance on an auditory temporal pattern discrimination task was investigated in children who were either good or delayed readers. The stimuli in the primary task consisted of sequences of tones, alternating between high and low frequencies. The threshold interstimulus interval (ISI) for discrimination…

  7. Multivariate sensitivity to voice during auditory categorization

    PubMed Central

    Peelle, Jonathan E.; Kraemer, David; Lloyd, Samuel; Granger, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Past neuroimaging studies have documented discrete regions of human temporal cortex that are more strongly activated by conspecific voice sounds than by nonvoice sounds. However, the mechanisms underlying this voice sensitivity remain unclear. In the present functional MRI study, we took a novel approach to examining voice sensitivity, in which we applied a signal detection paradigm to the assessment of multivariate pattern classification among several living and nonliving categories of auditory stimuli. Within this framework, voice sensitivity can be interpreted as a distinct neural representation of brain activity that correctly distinguishes human vocalizations from other auditory object categories. Across a series of auditory categorization tests, we found that bilateral superior and middle temporal cortex consistently exhibited robust sensitivity to human vocal sounds. Although the strongest categorization was in distinguishing human voice from other categories, subsets of these regions were also able to distinguish reliably between nonhuman categories, suggesting a general role in auditory object categorization. Our findings complement the current evidence of cortical sensitivity to human vocal sounds by revealing that the greatest sensitivity during categorization tasks is devoted to distinguishing voice from nonvoice categories within human temporal cortex. PMID:26245316

  8. Multivariate sensitivity to voice during auditory categorization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yune Sang; Peelle, Jonathan E; Kraemer, David; Lloyd, Samuel; Granger, Richard

    2015-09-01

    Past neuroimaging studies have documented discrete regions of human temporal cortex that are more strongly activated by conspecific voice sounds than by nonvoice sounds. However, the mechanisms underlying this voice sensitivity remain unclear. In the present functional MRI study, we took a novel approach to examining voice sensitivity, in which we applied a signal detection paradigm to the assessment of multivariate pattern classification among several living and nonliving categories of auditory stimuli. Within this framework, voice sensitivity can be interpreted as a distinct neural representation of brain activity that correctly distinguishes human vocalizations from other auditory object categories. Across a series of auditory categorization tests, we found that bilateral superior and middle temporal cortex consistently exhibited robust sensitivity to human vocal sounds. Although the strongest categorization was in distinguishing human voice from other categories, subsets of these regions were also able to distinguish reliably between nonhuman categories, suggesting a general role in auditory object categorization. Our findings complement the current evidence of cortical sensitivity to human vocal sounds by revealing that the greatest sensitivity during categorization tasks is devoted to distinguishing voice from nonvoice categories within human temporal cortex. PMID:26245316

  9. Integration and segregation in auditory scene analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sussman, Elyse S.

    2005-03-01

    Assessment of the neural correlates of auditory scene analysis, using an index of sound change detection that does not require the listener to attend to the sounds [a component of event-related brain potentials called the mismatch negativity (MMN)], has previously demonstrated that segregation processes can occur without attention focused on the sounds and that within-stream contextual factors influence how sound elements are integrated and represented in auditory memory. The current study investigated the relationship between the segregation and integration processes when they were called upon to function together. The pattern of MMN results showed that the integration of sound elements within a sound stream occurred after the segregation of sounds into independent streams and, further, that the individual streams were subject to contextual effects. These results are consistent with a view of auditory processing that suggests that the auditory scene is rapidly organized into distinct streams and the integration of sequential elements to perceptual units takes place on the already formed streams. This would allow for the flexibility required to identify changing within-stream sound patterns, needed to appreciate music or comprehend speech..

  10. Speech Perception in Individuals with Auditory Neuropathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeng, Fan-Gang; Liu, Sheng

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Speech perception in participants with auditory neuropathy (AN) was systematically studied to answer the following 2 questions: Does noise present a particular problem for people with AN: Can clear speech and cochlear implants alleviate this problem? Method: The researchers evaluated the advantage in intelligibility of clear speech over…

  11. Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norrix, Linda W.; Velenovsky, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder, or ANSD, can be a confusing diagnosis to physicians, clinicians, those diagnosed, and parents of children diagnosed with the condition. The purpose of this review is to provide the reader with an understanding of the disorder, the limitations in current tools to determine site(s) of lesion, and…

  12. Central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Central auditory tests.

    PubMed

    Dlouha, Olga; Novak, Alexej; Vokral, Jan

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this project is to use central auditory tests for diagnosis of central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) in children with specific language impairment (SLI), in order to confirm relationship between speech-language impairment and central auditory processing. We attempted to establish special dichotic binaural tests in Czech language modified for younger children. Tests are based on behavioral audiometry using dichotic listening (different auditory stimuli that presented to each ear simultaneously). The experimental tasks consisted of three auditory measures (test 1-3)-dichotic listening of two-syllable words presented like binaural interaction tests. Children with SLI are unable to create simple sentences from two words that are heard separately but simultaneously. Results in our group of 90 pre-school children (6-7 years old) confirmed integration deficit and problems with quality of short-term memory. Average rate of success of children with specific language impairment was 56% in test 1, 64% in test 2 and 63% in test 3. Results of control group: 92% in test 1, 93% in test 2 and 92% in test 3 (p<0.001). Our results indicate the relationship between disorders of speech-language perception and central auditory processing disorders. PMID:17382411

  13. A new class of auditory warning signals for complex systems: auditory icons.

    PubMed

    Belz, S M; Robinson, G S; Casali, J G

    1999-12-01

    This simulator-based study examined conventional auditory warnings (tonal, nonverbal sounds) and auditory icons (representational, nonverbal sounds), alone and in combination with a dash-mounted visual display, to present information about impending collision situations to commercial motor vehicle operators. Brake response times were measured for impending front-to-rear collision scenarios under 6 display configurations, 2 vehicle speeds, and 2 levels of headway. Accident occurrence was measured for impending side collision scenarios under 2 vehicle speeds, 2 levels of visual workload, 2 auditory displays, absence/presence of mirrors, and absence/presence of a dash-mounted iconic visual display. For both front-to-rear and side collision scenarios, auditory icons elicited significantly improved driver performance over conventional auditory warnings. Driver performance improved when collision warning information was presented through multiple modalities. Brake response times were significantly faster for impending front-to-rear collision scenarios using the longer headway condition. The presence of mirrors significantly reduced the number of accidents for impending side collision scenarios. Subjective preference data indicated that participants preferred multimodal displays over single-modality displays. Actual or potential applications for this research include auditory displays and warnings, information presentation, and the development of alternative user interfaces.

  14. 40 Hz auditory steady state response to linguistic features of stimuli during auditory hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Ying, Jun; Yan, Zheng; Gao, Xiao-rong

    2013-10-01

    The auditory steady state response (ASSR) may reflect activity from different regions of the brain, depending on the modulation frequency used. In general, responses induced by low rates (≤40 Hz) emanate mostly from central structures of the brain, and responses from high rates (≥80 Hz) emanate mostly from the peripheral auditory nerve or brainstem structures. Besides, it was reported that the gamma band ASSR (30-90 Hz) played an important role in working memory, speech understanding and recognition. This paper investigated the 40 Hz ASSR evoked by modulated speech and reversed speech. The speech was Chinese phrase voice, and the noise-like reversed speech was obtained by temporally reversing the speech. Both auditory stimuli were modulated with a frequency of 40 Hz. Ten healthy subjects and 5 patients with hallucination symptom participated in the experiment. Results showed reduction in left auditory cortex response when healthy subjects listened to the reversed speech compared with the speech. In contrast, when the patients who experienced auditory hallucinations listened to the reversed speech, the auditory cortex of left hemispheric responded more actively. The ASSR results were consistent with the behavior results of patients. Therefore, the gamma band ASSR is expected to be helpful for rapid and objective diagnosis of hallucination in clinic. PMID:24142731

  15. Biological impact of auditory expertise across the life span: musicians as a model of auditory learning

    PubMed Central

    Strait, Dana L.; Kraus, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Experience-dependent characteristics of auditory function, especially with regard to speech-evoked auditory neurophysiology, have garnered increasing attention in recent years. This interest stems from both pragmatic and theoretical concerns as it bears implications for the prevention and remediation of language-based learning impairment in addition to providing insight into mechanisms engendering experience-dependent changes in human sensory function. Musicians provide an attractive model for studying the experience-dependency of auditory processing in humans due to their distinctive neural enhancements compared to nonmusicians. We have only recently begun to address whether these enhancements are observable early in life, during the initial years of music training when the auditory system is under rapid development, as well as later in life, after the onset of the aging process. Here we review neural enhancements in musically trained individuals across the life span in the context of cellular mechanisms that underlie learning, identified in animal models. Musicians’ subcortical physiologic enhancements are interpreted according to a cognitive framework for auditory learning, providing a model by which to study mechanisms of experience-dependent changes in auditory function in humans. PMID:23988583

  16. Diffusion Imaging of Auditory and Auditory-Limbic Connectivity in Tinnitus: Preliminary Evidence and Methodological Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Seydell-Greenwald, Anna; Raven, Erika P.; Leaver, Amber M.; Turesky, Ted K.; Rauschecker, Josef P.

    2014-01-01

    Subjective tinnitus, or “ringing in the ears,” is perceived by 10 to 15 percent of the adult population and causes significant suffering in a subset of patients. While it was originally thought of as a purely auditory phenomenon, there is increasing evidence that the limbic system influences whether and how tinnitus is perceived, far beyond merely determining the patient's emotional reaction to the phantom sound. Based on functional imaging and electrophysiological data, recent articles frame tinnitus as a “network problem” arising from abnormalities in auditory-limbic interactions. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging is a noninvasive method for investigating anatomical connections in vivo. It thus has the potential to provide anatomical evidence for the proposed changes in auditory-limbic connectivity. However, the few diffusion imaging studies of tinnitus performed to date have inconsistent results. In the present paper, we briefly summarize the results of previous studies, aiming to reconcile their results. After detailing analysis methods, we then report findings from a new dataset. We conclude that while there is some evidence for tinnitus-related increases in auditory and auditory-limbic connectivity that counteract hearing-loss related decreases in auditory connectivity, these results should be considered preliminary until several technical challenges have been overcome. PMID:25050181

  17. Biological impact of auditory expertise across the life span: musicians as a model of auditory learning.

    PubMed

    Strait, Dana L; Kraus, Nina

    2014-02-01

    Experience-dependent characteristics of auditory function, especially with regard to speech-evoked auditory neurophysiology, have garnered increasing attention in recent years. This interest stems from both pragmatic and theoretical concerns as it bears implications for the prevention and remediation of language-based learning impairment in addition to providing insight into mechanisms engendering experience-dependent changes in human sensory function. Musicians provide an attractive model for studying the experience-dependency of auditory processing in humans due to their distinctive neural enhancements compared to nonmusicians. We have only recently begun to address whether these enhancements are observable early in life, during the initial years of music training when the auditory system is under rapid development, as well as later in life, after the onset of the aging process. Here we review neural enhancements in musically trained individuals across the life span in the context of cellular mechanisms that underlie learning, identified in animal models. Musicians' subcortical physiologic enhancements are interpreted according to a cognitive framework for auditory learning, providing a model in which to study mechanisms of experience-dependent changes in human auditory function.

  18. Efficacy of Auditory Training in Elderly Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Morais, Aline Albuquerque; Rocha-Muniz, Caroline Nunes; Schochat, Eliane

    2015-01-01

    Auditory training (AT) has been used for auditory rehabilitation in elderly individuals and is an effective tool for optimizing speech processing in this population. However, it is necessary to distinguish training-related improvements from placebo and test–retest effects. Thus, we investigated the efficacy of short-term AT [acoustically controlled auditory training (ACAT)] in elderly subjects through behavioral measures and P300. Sixteen elderly individuals with auditory processing disorder (APD) received an initial evaluation (evaluation 1 – E1) consisting of behavioral and electrophysiological tests (P300 evoked by tone burst and speech sounds) to evaluate their auditory processing. The individuals were divided into two groups. The Active Control Group (n = 8) underwent placebo training. The Passive Control Group (n = 8) did not receive any intervention. After 12 weeks, the subjects were revaluated (evaluation 2 – E2). Then, all of the subjects underwent ACAT. Following another 12 weeks (eight training sessions), they underwent the final evaluation (evaluation 3 – E3). There was no significant difference between E1 and E2 in the behavioral test [F(9.6) = 0.06, p = 0.92, λ de Wilks = 0.65)] or P300 [F(8.7) = 2.11, p = 0.17, λ de Wilks = 0.29] (discarding the presence of placebo effects and test–retest). A significant improvement was observed between the pre- and post-ACAT conditions (E2 and E3) for all auditory skills according to the behavioral methods [F(4.27) = 0.18, p = 0.94, λ de Wilks = 0.97]. However, the same result was not observed for P300 in any condition. There was no significant difference between P300 stimuli. The ACAT improved the behavioral performance of the elderly for all auditory skills and was an effective method for hearing rehabilitation. PMID:26042031

  19. Efficacy of auditory training in elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Morais, Aline Albuquerque; Rocha-Muniz, Caroline Nunes; Schochat, Eliane

    2015-01-01

    Auditory training (AT) has been used for auditory rehabilitation in elderly individuals and is an effective tool for optimizing speech processing in this population. However, it is necessary to distinguish training-related improvements from placebo and test-retest effects. Thus, we investigated the efficacy of short-term AT [acoustically controlled auditory training (ACAT)] in elderly subjects through behavioral measures and P300. Sixteen elderly individuals with auditory processing disorder (APD) received an initial evaluation (evaluation 1 - E1) consisting of behavioral and electrophysiological tests (P300 evoked by tone burst and speech sounds) to evaluate their auditory processing. The individuals were divided into two groups. The Active Control Group (n = 8) underwent placebo training. The Passive Control Group (n = 8) did not receive any intervention. After 12 weeks, the subjects were revaluated (evaluation 2 - E2). Then, all of the subjects underwent ACAT. Following another 12 weeks (eight training sessions), they underwent the final evaluation (evaluation 3 - E3). There was no significant difference between E1 and E2 in the behavioral test [F(9.6) = 0.06, p = 0.92, λ de Wilks = 0.65)] or P300 [F(8.7) = 2.11, p = 0.17, λ de Wilks = 0.29] (discarding the presence of placebo effects and test-retest). A significant improvement was observed between the pre- and post-ACAT conditions (E2 and E3) for all auditory skills according to the behavioral methods [F(4.27) = 0.18, p = 0.94, λ de Wilks = 0.97]. However, the same result was not observed for P300 in any condition. There was no significant difference between P300 stimuli. The ACAT improved the behavioral performance of the elderly for all auditory skills and was an effective method for hearing rehabilitation.

  20. McGurk illusion recalibrates subsequent auditory perception

    PubMed Central

    Lüttke, Claudia S.; Ekman, Matthias; van Gerven, Marcel A. J.; de Lange, Floris P.

    2016-01-01

    Visual information can alter auditory perception. This is clearly illustrated by the well-known McGurk illusion, where an auditory/aba/ and a visual /aga/ are merged to the percept of ‘ada’. It is less clear however whether such a change in perception may recalibrate subsequent perception. Here we asked whether the altered auditory perception due to the McGurk illusion affects subsequent auditory perception, i.e. whether this process of fusion may cause a recalibration of the auditory boundaries between phonemes. Participants categorized auditory and audiovisual speech stimuli as /aba/, /ada/ or /aga/ while activity patterns in their auditory cortices were recorded using fMRI. Interestingly, following a McGurk illusion, an auditory /aba/ was more often misperceived as ‘ada’. Furthermore, we observed a neural counterpart of this recalibration in the early auditory cortex. When the auditory input /aba/ was perceived as ‘ada’, activity patterns bore stronger resemblance to activity patterns elicited by /ada/ sounds than when they were correctly perceived as /aba/. Our results suggest that upon experiencing the McGurk illusion, the brain shifts the neural representation of an /aba/ sound towards /ada/, culminating in a recalibration in perception of subsequent auditory input. PMID:27611960

  1. McGurk illusion recalibrates subsequent auditory perception.

    PubMed

    Lüttke, Claudia S; Ekman, Matthias; van Gerven, Marcel A J; de Lange, Floris P

    2016-01-01

    Visual information can alter auditory perception. This is clearly illustrated by the well-known McGurk illusion, where an auditory/aba/ and a visual /aga/ are merged to the percept of 'ada'. It is less clear however whether such a change in perception may recalibrate subsequent perception. Here we asked whether the altered auditory perception due to the McGurk illusion affects subsequent auditory perception, i.e. whether this process of fusion may cause a recalibration of the auditory boundaries between phonemes. Participants categorized auditory and audiovisual speech stimuli as /aba/, /ada/ or /aga/ while activity patterns in their auditory cortices were recorded using fMRI. Interestingly, following a McGurk illusion, an auditory /aba/ was more often misperceived as 'ada'. Furthermore, we observed a neural counterpart of this recalibration in the early auditory cortex. When the auditory input /aba/ was perceived as 'ada', activity patterns bore stronger resemblance to activity patterns elicited by /ada/ sounds than when they were correctly perceived as /aba/. Our results suggest that upon experiencing the McGurk illusion, the brain shifts the neural representation of an /aba/ sound towards /ada/, culminating in a recalibration in perception of subsequent auditory input. PMID:27611960

  2. Representation of reward feedback in primate auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Brosch, Michael; Selezneva, Elena; Scheich, Henning

    2011-01-01

    It is well established that auditory cortex is plastic on different time scales and that this plasticity is driven by the reinforcement that is used to motivate subjects to learn or to perform an auditory task. Motivated by these findings, we study in detail properties of neuronal firing in auditory cortex that is related to reward feedback. We recorded from the auditory cortex of two monkeys while they were performing an auditory categorization task. Monkeys listened to a sequence of tones and had to signal when the frequency of adjacent tones stepped in downward direction, irrespective of the tone frequency and step size. Correct identifications were rewarded with either a large or a small amount of water. The size of reward depended on the monkeys' performance in the previous trial: it was large after a correct trial and small after an incorrect trial. The rewards served to maintain task performance. During task performance we found three successive periods of neuronal firing in auditory cortex that reflected (1) the reward expectancy for each trial, (2) the reward-size received, and (3) the mismatch between the expected and delivered reward. These results, together with control experiments suggest that auditory cortex receives reward feedback that could be used to adapt auditory cortex to task requirements. Additionally, the results presented here extend previous observations of non-auditory roles of auditory cortex and shows that auditory cortex is even more cognitively influenced than lately recognized.

  3. Estrogenic modulation of auditory processing: a vertebrate comparison

    PubMed Central

    Caras, Melissa L.

    2013-01-01

    Sex-steroid hormones are well-known regulators of vocal motor behavior in several organisms. A large body of evidence now indicates that these same hormones modulate processing at multiple levels of the ascending auditory pathway. The goal of this review is to provide a comparative analysis of the role of estrogens in vertebrate auditory function. Four major conclusions can be drawn from the literature: First, estrogens may influence the development of the mammalian auditory system. Second, estrogenic signaling protects the mammalian auditory system from noise- and age-related damage. Third, estrogens optimize auditory processing during periods of reproductive readiness in multiple vertebrate lineages. Finally, brain-derived estrogens can act locally to enhance auditory response properties in at least one avian species. This comparative examination may lead to a better appreciation of the role of estrogens in the processing of natural vocalizations and may provide useful insights toward alleviating auditory dysfunctions emanating from hormonal imbalances. PMID:23911849

  4. Neural mechanisms underlying auditory feedback control of speech.

    PubMed

    Tourville, Jason A; Reilly, Kevin J; Guenther, Frank H

    2008-02-01

    The neural substrates underlying auditory feedback control of speech were investigated using a combination of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and computational modeling. Neural responses were measured while subjects spoke monosyllabic words under two conditions: (i) normal auditory feedback of their speech and (ii) auditory feedback in which the first formant frequency of their speech was unexpectedly shifted in real time. Acoustic measurements showed compensation to the shift within approximately 136 ms of onset. Neuroimaging revealed increased activity in bilateral superior temporal cortex during shifted feedback, indicative of neurons coding mismatches between expected and actual auditory signals, as well as right prefrontal and Rolandic cortical activity. Structural equation modeling revealed increased influence of bilateral auditory cortical areas on right frontal areas during shifted speech, indicating that projections from auditory error cells in posterior superior temporal cortex to motor correction cells in right frontal cortex mediate auditory feedback control of speech.

  5. Auditory Prosthesis with a Penetrating Nerve Array

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Russell L.

    2007-01-01

    Contemporary auditory prostheses (“cochlear implants”) employ arrays of stimulating electrodes implanted in the scala tympani of the cochlea. Such arrays have been implanted in some 100,000 profoundly or severely deaf people worldwide and arguably are the most successful of present-day neural prostheses. Nevertheless, most implant users show poor understanding of speech in noisy backgrounds, poor pitch recognition, and poor spatial hearing, even when using bilateral implants. Many of these limitations can be attributed to the remote location of stimulating electrodes relative to excitable cochlear neural elements. That is, a scala tympani electrode array lies within a bony compartment filled with electrically conductive fluid. Moreover, scala tympani arrays typically do not extend to the apical turn of the cochlea in which low frequencies are represented. In the present study, we have tested in an animal model an alternative to the conventional cochlear implant: a multielectrode array implanted directly into the auditory nerve. We monitored the specificity of stimulation of the auditory pathway by recording extracellular unit activity at 32 sites along the tonotopic axis of the inferior colliculus. The results demonstrate the activation of specific auditory nerve populations throughout essentially the entire frequency range that is represented by characteristic frequencies in the inferior colliculus. Compared to conventional scala tympani stimulation, thresholds for neural excitation are as much as 50-fold lower and interference between electrodes stimulated simultaneously is markedly reduced. The results suggest that if an intraneural stimulating array were incorporated into an auditory prosthesis system for humans, it could offer substantial improvement in hearing replacement compared to contemporary cochlear implants. PMID:17265124

  6. The Essential Complexity of Auditory Receptive Fields

    PubMed Central

    Thorson, Ivar L.; Liénard, Jean; David, Stephen V.

    2015-01-01

    Encoding properties of sensory neurons are commonly modeled using linear finite impulse response (FIR) filters. For the auditory system, the FIR filter is instantiated in the spectro-temporal receptive field (STRF), often in the framework of the generalized linear model. Despite widespread use of the FIR STRF, numerous formulations for linear filters are possible that require many fewer parameters, potentially permitting more efficient and accurate model estimates. To explore these alternative STRF architectures, we recorded single-unit neural activity from auditory cortex of awake ferrets during presentation of natural sound stimuli. We compared performance of > 1000 linear STRF architectures, evaluating their ability to predict neural responses to a novel natural stimulus. Many were able to outperform the FIR filter. Two basic constraints on the architecture lead to the improved performance: (1) factorization of the STRF matrix into a small number of spectral and temporal filters and (2) low-dimensional parameterization of the factorized filters. The best parameterized model was able to outperform the full FIR filter in both primary and secondary auditory cortex, despite requiring fewer than 30 parameters, about 10% of the number required by the FIR filter. After accounting for noise from finite data sampling, these STRFs were able to explain an average of 40% of A1 response variance. The simpler models permitted more straightforward interpretation of sensory tuning properties. They also showed greater benefit from incorporating nonlinear terms, such as short term plasticity, that provide theoretical advances over the linear model. Architectures that minimize parameter count while maintaining maximum predictive power provide insight into the essential degrees of freedom governing auditory cortical function. They also maximize statistical power available for characterizing additional nonlinear properties that limit current auditory models. PMID:26683490

  7. The Essential Complexity of Auditory Receptive Fields.

    PubMed

    Thorson, Ivar L; Liénard, Jean; David, Stephen V

    2015-12-01

    Encoding properties of sensory neurons are commonly modeled using linear finite impulse response (FIR) filters. For the auditory system, the FIR filter is instantiated in the spectro-temporal receptive field (STRF), often in the framework of the generalized linear model. Despite widespread use of the FIR STRF, numerous formulations for linear filters are possible that require many fewer parameters, potentially permitting more efficient and accurate model estimates. To explore these alternative STRF architectures, we recorded single-unit neural activity from auditory cortex of awake ferrets during presentation of natural sound stimuli. We compared performance of > 1000 linear STRF architectures, evaluating their ability to predict neural responses to a novel natural stimulus. Many were able to outperform the FIR filter. Two basic constraints on the architecture lead to the improved performance: (1) factorization of the STRF matrix into a small number of spectral and temporal filters and (2) low-dimensional parameterization of the factorized filters. The best parameterized model was able to outperform the full FIR filter in both primary and secondary auditory cortex, despite requiring fewer than 30 parameters, about 10% of the number required by the FIR filter. After accounting for noise from finite data sampling, these STRFs were able to explain an average of 40% of A1 response variance. The simpler models permitted more straightforward interpretation of sensory tuning properties. They also showed greater benefit from incorporating nonlinear terms, such as short term plasticity, that provide theoretical advances over the linear model. Architectures that minimize parameter count while maintaining maximum predictive power provide insight into the essential degrees of freedom governing auditory cortical function. They also maximize statistical power available for characterizing additional nonlinear properties that limit current auditory models. PMID:26683490

  8. Comparison of Electrophysiological Auditory Measures in Fishes.

    PubMed

    Maruska, Karen P; Sisneros, Joseph A

    2016-01-01

    Sounds provide fishes with important information used to mediate behaviors such as predator avoidance, prey detection, and social communication. How we measure auditory capabilities in fishes, therefore, has crucial implications for interpreting how individual species use acoustic information in their natural habitat. Recent analyses have highlighted differences between behavioral and electrophysiologically determined hearing thresholds, but less is known about how physiological measures at different auditory processing levels compare within a single species. Here we provide one of the first comparisons of auditory threshold curves determined by different recording methods in a single fish species, the soniferous Hawaiian sergeant fish Abudefduf abdominalis, and review past studies on representative fish species with tuning curves determined by different methods. The Hawaiian sergeant is a colonial benthic-spawning damselfish (Pomacentridae) that produces low-frequency, low-intensity sounds associated with reproductive and agonistic behaviors. We compared saccular potentials, auditory evoked potentials (AEP), and single neuron recordings from acoustic nuclei of the hindbrain and midbrain torus semicircularis. We found that hearing thresholds were lowest at low frequencies (~75-300 Hz) for all methods, which matches the spectral components of sounds produced by this species. However, thresholds at best frequency determined via single cell recordings were ~15-25 dB lower than those measured by AEP and saccular potential techniques. While none of these physiological techniques gives us a true measure of the auditory "perceptual" abilities of a naturally behaving fish, this study highlights that different methodologies can reveal similar detectable range of frequencies for a given species, but absolute hearing sensitivity may vary considerably.

  9. Imposed delay of response: effects on aphasics auditory comprehension of visuality and non-visually cued material.

    PubMed

    Yorkston, K M; Marshall, R C; Butler, M R

    1977-04-01

    Two groups of aphasics were administered an auditory comprehension task under conditions of 0-, 5-, and 10-sec. imposed delay of response. The auditory-visual group received auditory and visual cues; the auditory group received only auditory cues. Comprehension for the auditory-visual group was significantly better than for the auditory group. Increase in delay time significantly improved comprehension for the auditory-visual group but not for the auditory group.

  10. Attention Modulates the Auditory Cortical Processing of Spatial and Category Cues in Naturalistic Auditory Scenes

    PubMed Central

    Renvall, Hanna; Staeren, Noël; Barz, Claudia S.; Ley, Anke; Formisano, Elia

    2016-01-01

    This combined fMRI and MEG study investigated brain activations during listening and attending to natural auditory scenes. We first recorded, using in-ear microphones, vocal non-speech sounds, and environmental sounds that were mixed to construct auditory scenes containing two concurrent sound streams. During the brain measurements, subjects attended to one of the streams while spatial acoustic information of the scene was either preserved (stereophonic sounds) or removed (monophonic sounds). Compared to monophonic sounds, stereophonic sounds evoked larger blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI responses in the bilateral posterior superior temporal areas, independent of which stimulus attribute the subject was attending to. This finding is consistent with the functional role of these regions in the (automatic) processing of auditory spatial cues. Additionally, significant differences in the cortical activation patterns depending on the target of attention were observed. Bilateral planum temporale and inferior frontal gyrus were preferentially activated when attending to stereophonic environmental sounds, whereas when subjects attended to stereophonic voice sounds, the BOLD responses were larger at the bilateral middle superior temporal gyrus and sulcus, previously reported to show voice sensitivity. In contrast, the time-resolved MEG responses were stronger for mono- than stereophonic sounds in the bilateral auditory cortices at ~360 ms after the stimulus onset when attending to the voice excerpts within the combined sounds. The observed effects suggest that during the segregation of auditory objects from the auditory background, spatial sound cues together with other relevant temporal and spectral cues are processed in an attention-dependent manner at the cortical locations generally involved in sound recognition. More synchronous neuronal activation during monophonic than stereophonic sound processing, as well as (local) neuronal inhibitory mechanisms in

  11. Stochastic undersampling steepens auditory threshold/duration functions: implications for understanding auditory deafferentation and aging

    PubMed Central

    Marmel, Frédéric; Rodríguez-Mendoza, Medardo A.; Lopez-Poveda, Enrique A.

    2015-01-01

    It has long been known that some listeners experience hearing difficulties out of proportion with their audiometric losses. Notably, some older adults as well as auditory neuropathy patients have temporal-processing and speech-in-noise intelligibility deficits not accountable for by elevated audiometric thresholds. The study of these hearing deficits has been revitalized by recent studies that show that auditory deafferentation comes with aging and can occur even in the absence of an audiometric loss. The present study builds on the stochastic undersampling principle proposed by Lopez-Poveda and Barrios (2013) to account for the perceptual effects of auditory deafferentation. Auditory threshold/duration functions were measured for broadband noises that were stochastically undersampled to various different degrees. Stimuli with and without undersampling were equated for overall energy in order to focus on the changes that undersampling elicited on the stimulus waveforms, and not on its effects on the overall stimulus energy. Stochastic undersampling impaired the detection of short sounds (<20 ms). The detection of long sounds (>50 ms) did not change or improved, depending on the degree of undersampling. The results for short sounds show that stochastic undersampling, and hence presumably deafferentation, can account for the steeper threshold/duration functions observed in auditory neuropathy patients and older adults with (near) normal audiometry. This suggests that deafferentation might be diagnosed using pure-tone audiometry with short tones. It further suggests that the auditory system of audiometrically normal older listeners might not be “slower than normal”, as is commonly thought, but simply less well afferented. Finally, the results for both short and long sounds support the probabilistic theories of detectability that challenge the idea that auditory threshold occurs by integration of sound energy over time. PMID:26029098

  12. Auditory-somatosensory integration and cortical plasticity in musical training.

    PubMed

    Pantev, Christo; Lappe, Claudia; Herholz, Sibylle C; Trainor, Laurel

    2009-07-01

    Learning to play a musical instrument requires complex multimodal skills involving simultaneous perception of several sensory modalities: auditory, visual, and somatosensory as well as the motor system. Musical training thus provides an adequate neuroscientific model to study multimodal integration and plasticity in musical training. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of short-term uni- and multimodal musical training on auditory-somatosensory integration and plasticity. Two groups of nonmusicians were musically trained. The first group (sensorimotor-auditory group, SA) learned to play a musical sequence on the piano, whereas the second one (auditory group, A) actively listened to and made judgments about the correctness of the music. The training-induced cortical plasticity effect was assessed by recording musically elicited mismatch negativity (MMN) from magnetoencephalographic (MEG) measurements before and after training. The SA group showed significant enlargement of MMN after training compared to the A group, reflecting greater enhancement of musical representations in auditory cortex after sensorimotor-auditory training compared to mere auditory training. This study demonstrates that the sensorimotor and auditory systems integrate and that this multimodal training causes cortical reorganizational changes in the auditory cortex over and above the changes introduced by auditory training alone.

  13. Progressive auditory neuropathy in patients with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Ceranic, B; Luxon, L

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate auditory neural involvement in patients with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). Methods: Auditory assessment was undertaken in two patients with LHON. One was a 45 year old woman with Harding disease (multiple-sclerosis-like illness and positive 11778mtDNA mutation) and mild auditory symptoms, whose auditory function was monitored over five years. The other was a 59 year old man with positive 11778mtDNA mutation, who presented with a long standing progressive bilateral hearing loss, moderate on one side and severe to profound on the other. Standard pure tone audiometry, tympanometry, stapedial reflex threshold measurements, stapedial reflex decay, otoacoustic emissions with olivo-cochlear suppression, auditory brain stem responses, and vestibular function tests were undertaken. Results: Both patients had good cochlear function, as judged by otoacoustic emissions (intact outer hair cells) and normal stapedial reflexes (intact inner hair cells). A brain stem lesion was excluded by negative findings on imaging, recordable stapedial reflex thresholds, and, in one of the patients, olivocochlear suppression of otoacoustic emissions. The deterioration of auditory function implied a progressive course in both cases. Vestibular function was unaffected. Conclusions: The findings are consistent with auditory neuropathy—a lesion of the cochlear nerve presenting with abnormal auditory brain stem responses and with normal inner hair cells and the cochlear nucleus (lower brain stem). The association of auditory neuropathy, or any other auditory dysfunction, with LHON has not been recognised previously. Further studies are necessary to establish whether this is a consistent finding. PMID:15026512

  14. Auditory spatial processing in Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Hannah L.; Nicholas, Jennifer M.; Yong, Keir X. X.; Downey, Laura E.; Schott, Jonathan M.; Mummery, Catherine J.; Crutch, Sebastian J.

    2015-01-01

    The location and motion of sounds in space are important cues for encoding the auditory world. Spatial processing is a core component of auditory scene analysis, a cognitively demanding function that is vulnerable in Alzheimer’s disease. Here we designed a novel neuropsychological battery based on a virtual space paradigm to assess auditory spatial processing in patient cohorts with clinically typical Alzheimer’s disease (n = 20) and its major variant syndrome, posterior cortical atrophy (n = 12) in relation to healthy older controls (n = 26). We assessed three dimensions of auditory spatial function: externalized versus non-externalized sound discrimination, moving versus stationary sound discrimination and stationary auditory spatial position discrimination, together with non-spatial auditory and visual spatial control tasks. Neuroanatomical correlates of auditory spatial processing were assessed using voxel-based morphometry. Relative to healthy older controls, both patient groups exhibited impairments in detection of auditory motion, and stationary sound position discrimination. The posterior cortical atrophy group showed greater impairment for auditory motion processing and the processing of a non-spatial control complex auditory property (timbre) than the typical Alzheimer’s disease group. Voxel-based morphometry in the patient cohort revealed grey matter correlates of auditory motion detection and spatial position discrimination in right inferior parietal cortex and precuneus, respectively. These findings delineate auditory spatial processing deficits in typical and posterior Alzheimer’s disease phenotypes that are related to posterior cortical regions involved in both syndromic variants and modulated by the syndromic profile of brain degeneration. Auditory spatial deficits contribute to impaired spatial awareness in Alzheimer’s disease and may constitute a novel perceptual model for probing brain network disintegration across the Alzheimer

  15. Auditory sensitivity in aquatic animals.

    PubMed

    Lucke, Klaus; Popper, Arthur N; Hawkins, Anthony D; Akamatsu, Tomonari; André, Michel; Branstetter, Brian K; Lammers, Marc; Radford, Craig A; Stansbury, Amanda L; Aran Mooney, T

    2016-06-01

    A critical concern with respect to marine animal acoustics is the issue of hearing "sensitivity," as it is widely used as a criterion for the onset of noise-induced effects. Important aspects of research on sensitivity to sound by marine animals include: uncertainties regarding how well these species detect and respond to different sounds; the masking effects of man-made sounds on the detection of biologically important sounds; the question how internal state, motivation, context, and previous experience affect their behavioral responses; and the long-term and cumulative effects of sound exposure. If we are to better understand the sensitivity of marine animals to sound we must concentrate research on these questions. In order to assess population level and ecological community impacts new approaches can possibly be adopted from other disciplines and applied to marine fauna.

  16. Selective memory retrieval of auditory what and auditory where involves the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Kostopoulos, Penelope; Petrides, Michael

    2016-02-16

    There is evidence from the visual, verbal, and tactile memory domains that the midventrolateral prefrontal cortex plays a critical role in the top-down modulation of activity within posterior cortical areas for the selective retrieval of specific aspects of a memorized experience, a functional process often referred to as active controlled retrieval. In the present functional neuroimaging study, we explore the neural bases of active retrieval for auditory nonverbal information, about which almost nothing is known. Human participants were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a task in which they were presented with short melodies from different locations in a simulated virtual acoustic environment within the scanner and were then instructed to retrieve selectively either the particular melody presented or its location. There were significant activity increases specifically within the midventrolateral prefrontal region during the selective retrieval of nonverbal auditory information. During the selective retrieval of information from auditory memory, the right midventrolateral prefrontal region increased its interaction with the auditory temporal region and the inferior parietal lobule in the right hemisphere. These findings provide evidence that the midventrolateral prefrontal cortical region interacts with specific posterior cortical areas in the human cerebral cortex for the selective retrieval of object and location features of an auditory memory experience. PMID:26831102

  17. Auditory Verbal Hallucinations and the Interhemispheric Auditory Pathway in Chronic Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Wigand, Marlene; Kubicki, Marek; von Hohenberg, Christian Clemm; Leicht, Gregor; Karch, Susanne; Eckbo, Ryan; Pelavin, Paula E.; Hawley, Kathryn; Rujescu, Dan; Bouix, Sylvain; Shenton, Martha E.; Mulert, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The interhemispheric auditory pathway has been shown to play a crucial role in the processing of acoustic stimuli, and alterations of structural and functional connectivity between bilateral auditory areas are likely relevant to the pathogenesis of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs). The aim of this study was to examine this pathway in patients with chronic schizophrenia regarding their lifetime history of AVHs. Methods DTI scans were acquired from 33 healthy controls (HC), 24 schizophrenia patients with a history of AVHs (LT-AVH) and 9 schizophrenia patients without any lifetime-hallucinations (N-LT-AVH). The interhemispheric auditory fibre bundles were extracted using streamline tractography. Subsequently, diffusivity indices, namely Fractional Anisotropy (FA), Trace, Mode, Axial and Radial Diffusivity, were calculated. Results FA was decreased over the entire pathway in LT-AVH compared with N-LT-AVH. Moreover, LT-AVH displayed decreased FA and Mode as well as increased Radial Diffusivity in the midsagittal section of the fibre tract. Conclusions These findings indicate complex microstructural changes in the interhemispheric auditory pathway of schizophrenia patients with a history of AVHs. Alterations appear to be absent in patients who have never hallucinated. PMID:25224883

  18. The Effects of Auditory Tact and Auditory Imagining Instructions on the Emergence of Novel Intraverbals.

    PubMed

    Mellor, James R; Barnes, Clarissa S; Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne

    2015-10-01

    The current research investigated whether intraverbals would emerge following auditory tact instruction. Participants were first taught to tact auditory stimuli by providing the name of the item or animal that produces the sound (e.g., saying "eagle" when presented with the recording of an eagle cawing). Following test probes for simple intraverbals as well as intraverbal categorization participants were taught to tact what each auditory stimulus is (e.g., saying "caw" when presented with the recording of an eagle cawing). Following both tact instructional phases, the effects of an auditory imagining instruction procedure on target intraverbals were examined. Results indicate that following both tact instructional phases, intraverbals increased for three of four participants. Auditory imagining instruction was sufficient for two of four participants to reach mastery criterion, and two of four participants needed some direct instruction. Low covariation between simple intraverbal and categorization was also observed. Functional interdependence between tacts and intraverbals and the possible role of a conditioned hearing response are discussed. PMID:27606214

  19. Selective memory retrieval of auditory what and auditory where involves the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Kostopoulos, Penelope; Petrides, Michael

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence from the visual, verbal, and tactile memory domains that the midventrolateral prefrontal cortex plays a critical role in the top–down modulation of activity within posterior cortical areas for the selective retrieval of specific aspects of a memorized experience, a functional process often referred to as active controlled retrieval. In the present functional neuroimaging study, we explore the neural bases of active retrieval for auditory nonverbal information, about which almost nothing is known. Human participants were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a task in which they were presented with short melodies from different locations in a simulated virtual acoustic environment within the scanner and were then instructed to retrieve selectively either the particular melody presented or its location. There were significant activity increases specifically within the midventrolateral prefrontal region during the selective retrieval of nonverbal auditory information. During the selective retrieval of information from auditory memory, the right midventrolateral prefrontal region increased its interaction with the auditory temporal region and the inferior parietal lobule in the right hemisphere. These findings provide evidence that the midventrolateral prefrontal cortical region interacts with specific posterior cortical areas in the human cerebral cortex for the selective retrieval of object and location features of an auditory memory experience. PMID:26831102

  20. Hyperactive auditory processing in Williams syndrome: Evidence from auditory evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Zarchi, Omer; Avni, Chen; Attias, Josef; Frisch, Amos; Carmel, Miri; Michaelovsky, Elena; Green, Tamar; Weizman, Abraham; Gothelf, Doron

    2015-06-01

    The neurophysiologic aberrations underlying the auditory hypersensitivity in Williams syndrome (WS) are not well defined. The P1-N1-P2 obligatory complex and mismatch negativity (MMN) response were investigated in 18 participants with WS, and the results were compared with those of 18 age- and gender-matched typically developing (TD) controls. Results revealed significantly higher amplitudes of both the P1-N1-P2 obligatory complex and the MMN response in the WS participants than in the TD controls. The P1-N1-P2 complex showed an age-dependent reduction in the TD but not in the WS participants. Moreover, high P1-N1-P2 complex was associated with low verbal comprehension scores in WS. This investigation demonstrates that central auditory processing is hyperactive in WS. The increase in auditory brain responses of both the obligatory complex and MMN response suggests aberrant processes of auditory encoding and discrimination in WS. Results also imply that auditory processing may be subjected to a delayed or diverse maturation and may affect the development of high cognitive functioning in WS.

  1. Selective memory retrieval of auditory what and auditory where involves the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Kostopoulos, Penelope; Petrides, Michael

    2016-02-16

    There is evidence from the visual, verbal, and tactile memory domains that the midventrolateral prefrontal cortex plays a critical role in the top-down modulation of activity within posterior cortical areas for the selective retrieval of specific aspects of a memorized experience, a functional process often referred to as active controlled retrieval. In the present functional neuroimaging study, we explore the neural bases of active retrieval for auditory nonverbal information, about which almost nothing is known. Human participants were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a task in which they were presented with short melodies from different locations in a simulated virtual acoustic environment within the scanner and were then instructed to retrieve selectively either the particular melody presented or its location. There were significant activity increases specifically within the midventrolateral prefrontal region during the selective retrieval of nonverbal auditory information. During the selective retrieval of information from auditory memory, the right midventrolateral prefrontal region increased its interaction with the auditory temporal region and the inferior parietal lobule in the right hemisphere. These findings provide evidence that the midventrolateral prefrontal cortical region interacts with specific posterior cortical areas in the human cerebral cortex for the selective retrieval of object and location features of an auditory memory experience.

  2. Fast temporal interactions in human auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Rupp, A; Hack, S; Gutschalk, A; Schneider, P; Picton, T W; Stippich, C; Scherg, M

    2000-11-27

    The temporal resolution of the human primary auditory cortex (AC) was studied using middle-latency evoked fields. Paired sounds with either the same or different spectral characteristics were presented with gaps between the sounds of 1, 4, 8 and 14 ms. Spatio-temporal modelling showed (1) that the response to the second sound was recognizable with gaps of 1 ms and rapidly increased in amplitude with increasing gap durations, (2) an enhanced N40m amplitude at gaps > 4 ms, (3) delayed N19m-P30m latencies when the stimuli were different. The median psychoacoustical thresholds were 1.6 ms for the same stimuli and 2.5 ms for different stimuli, confirming the electrophysiological evidence for rapid pattern-specific temporal processing in human primary auditory cortex.

  3. Cognitive mechanisms associated with auditory sensory gating

    PubMed Central

    Jones, L.A.; Hills, P.J.; Dick, K.M.; Jones, S.P.; Bright, P.

    2016-01-01

    Sensory gating is a neurophysiological measure of inhibition that is characterised by a reduction in the P50 event-related potential to a repeated identical stimulus. The objective of this work was to determine the cognitive mechanisms that relate to the neurological phenomenon of auditory sensory gating. Sixty participants underwent a battery of 10 cognitive tasks, including qualitatively different measures of attentional inhibition, working memory, and fluid intelligence. Participants additionally completed a paired-stimulus paradigm as a measure of auditory sensory gating. A correlational analysis revealed that several tasks correlated significantly with sensory gating. However once fluid intelligence and working memory were accounted for, only a measure of latent inhibition and accuracy scores on the continuous performance task showed significant sensitivity to sensory gating. We conclude that sensory gating reflects the identification of goal-irrelevant information at the encoding (input) stage and the subsequent ability to selectively attend to goal-relevant information based on that previous identification. PMID:26716891

  4. Central auditory neurons have composite receptive fields

    PubMed Central

    Kozlov, Andrei S.; Gentner, Timothy Q.

    2016-01-01

    High-level neurons processing complex, behaviorally relevant signals are sensitive to conjunctions of features. Characterizing the receptive fields of such neurons is difficult with standard statistical tools, however, and the principles governing their organization remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate multiple distinct receptive-field features in individual high-level auditory neurons in a songbird, European starling, in response to natural vocal signals (songs). We then show that receptive fields with similar characteristics can be reproduced by an unsupervised neural network trained to represent starling songs with a single learning rule that enforces sparseness and divisive normalization. We conclude that central auditory neurons have composite receptive fields that can arise through a combination of sparseness and normalization in neural circuits. Our results, along with descriptions of random, discontinuous receptive fields in the central olfactory neurons in mammals and insects, suggest general principles of neural computation across sensory systems and animal classes. PMID:26787894

  5. Deafness in cochlear and auditory nerve disorders.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss is the most common type of hearing impairment worldwide. It arises as a consequence of damage to the cochlea or auditory nerve, and several structures are often affected simultaneously. There are many causes, including genetic mutations affecting the structures of the inner ear, and environmental insults such as noise, ototoxic substances, and hypoxia. The prevalence increases dramatically with age. Clinical diagnosis is most commonly accomplished by measuring detection thresholds and comparing these to normative values to determine the degree of hearing loss. In addition to causing insensitivity to weak sounds, sensorineural hearing loss has a number of adverse perceptual consequences, including loudness recruitment, poor perception of pitch and auditory space, and difficulty understanding speech, particularly in the presence of background noise. The condition is usually incurable; treatment focuses on restoring the audibility of sounds made inaudible by hearing loss using either hearing aids or cochlear implants.

  6. Delayed auditory feedback in polyglot simultaneous interpreters.

    PubMed

    Fabbro, F; Darò, V

    1995-03-01

    Twelve polyglot students of simultaneous interpretation and 12 controls (students of the faculty of Medicine) were submitted to a task of verbal fluency under amplified normal auditory feedback (NAF) and under three delayed auditory feedback (DAF) conditions with three different delay intervals (150, 200, and 250 msec). The control group showed a significant reduction in verbal fluency and a significant increase in the number of mistakes in all three DAF conditions. The interpreters' group, however, did not show any significant speech disruption neither in the subjects' mother tongue (L1) nor in their second language (L2) across all DAF conditions. Interpreters' general high verbal fluency along with their ability to pay less attention to their own verbal output make them more resistant to the interfering effects of DAF on speech. PMID:7757448

  7. Masking in three-dimensional auditory displays.

    PubMed

    Doll, T J; Hanna, T E; Russotti, J S

    1992-06-01

    The extent to which simultaneous inputs in a three-dimensional (3D) auditory display mask one another was studied in a simulated sonar task. The minimum signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) required to detect an amplitude-modulated 500-Hz tone in a background of broadband noise was measured using a loudspeaker array in a free field. Three aspects of the 3D array were varied: angular separation of the sources, degree of correlation of the background noises, and listener head movement. Masking was substantially reduced when the sources were uncorrelated. The SNR needed for detection decreased with source separation, and the rate of decrease was significantly greater with uncorrelated sources than with partially or fully correlated sources. Head movement had no effect on the SNR required for detection. Implications for the design and application of 3D auditory displays are discussed.

  8. REALITY OF AUDITORY HALLUCINATIONS IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, A.

    1982-01-01

    SUMMARY 25 untreated urban living schizophrenics fulfilling the criteria of Feighner et al., having Schneiderian auditory hallucination were studied with the aim of examining the experienced reality of auditory hallucination and the influence on this reality of certain variables. It was found that the hallucinations were more real than unreal. Duration of illness, presence of anxiety prior to hallucination, reality testing ability, duration of each episode of hallucination, and socio-economic status scores influenced the reality negatively. The number of hallucinating days per mouth, position of voice outside sensory range, psychotocism scores, insight scores (higher scores for poorer insight) and duration of hallucination influenced the reality positively. The variables explained 72% of the variations in reality of hallucinations. Findings are discussed and suggestions for future studies are offered. PMID:21965885

  9. Human auditory evoked responses during hangover.

    PubMed

    Järvilehto, T; Laakso, M L; Virsu, V

    1975-05-28

    Auditory evoked responses (AER) to trains of 6 click stimuli (1 click/sec) were studied in 9 subjects under hangover, tired control, and normal control conditions in order to find out whether the symptoms of hyperexcitability during hangover have a correlate in the characteristics of the AER. In addition, the audiograms were measured. AERs to the first click in a stimulus train were markedly smaller during hangover than in the other 2 states. The amplitude levels of the AERs during the repetition of the click stimulus were, however, similar under all three conditions. The audiograms obtained in the three states were similar except for a very slight decrease of auditory threshold sensitivity during hangover as compared with the tired control condition. The results show that the effects of hangover on AERs resemble those of alcohol intoxication. The symptoms of hyperexcitability during hangover cannot be explained in terms of increased peripheral sensitivity.

  10. Twins' reactions to delayed auditory feedback.

    PubMed

    Timmons, B A

    1985-10-01

    10 pairs of identical and 10 pairs of fraternal twins, matched by age, spoke under conditions of 0.0-, 100-, 200-, 300-, 400-, and 500-msec. delayed auditory feedback. Length of spoken passages was controlled. Product-moment and intraclass correlations were calculated for speaking times and disfluencies. Significant Pearson rs for times were noted at 0.0 and 300 msec. for both groups and at 100, 200, and 400 msec. for identical twins, while fraternal twins' times were significantly correlated at 500 msec. Difference scores were significantly correlated at 100, 200, 300, and 400 msec. for identical twins. Disfluencies were significantly correlated for identical twins at 400 msec. Data were combined with those of Timmons' (1969) study, increasing subjects to 21 pairs per group. Intraclass correlations supported the contention that responses of identical twin pairs to delayed auditory feedback were more highly correlated than those for fraternal twin pairs.

  11. Midbrain auditory selectivity to natural sounds

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Cynthia F.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated auditory stimulus selectivity in the midbrain superior colliculus (SC) of the echolocating bat, an animal that relies on hearing to guide its orienting behaviors. Multichannel, single-unit recordings were taken across laminae of the midbrain SC of the awake, passively listening big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus. Species-specific frequency-modulated (FM) echolocation sound sequences with dynamic spectrotemporal features served as acoustic stimuli along with artificial sound sequences matched in bandwidth, amplitude, and duration but differing in spectrotemporal structure. Neurons in dorsal sensory regions of the bat SC responded selectively to elements within the FM sound sequences, whereas neurons in ventral sensorimotor regions showed broad response profiles to natural and artificial stimuli. Moreover, a generalized linear model (GLM) constructed on responses in the dorsal SC to artificial linear FM stimuli failed to predict responses to natural sounds and vice versa, but the GLM produced accurate response predictions in ventral SC neurons. This result suggests that auditory selectivity in the dorsal extent of the bat SC arises through nonlinear mechanisms, which extract species-specific sensory information. Importantly, auditory selectivity appeared only in responses to stimuli containing the natural statistics of acoustic signals used by the bat for spatial orientation—sonar vocalizations—offering support for the hypothesis that sensory selectivity enables rapid species-specific orienting behaviors. The results of this study are the first, to our knowledge, to show auditory spectrotemporal selectivity to natural stimuli in SC neurons and serve to inform a more general understanding of mechanisms guiding sensory selectivity for natural, goal-directed orienting behaviors. PMID:26884152

  12. Neural correlates of auditory scale illusion.

    PubMed

    Kuriki, Shinya; Numao, Ryousuke; Nemoto, Iku

    2016-09-01

    The auditory illusory perception "scale illusion" occurs when ascending and descending musical scale tones are delivered in a dichotic manner, such that the higher or lower tone at each instant is presented alternately to the right and left ears. Resulting tone sequences have a zigzag pitch in one ear and the reversed (zagzig) pitch in the other ear. Most listeners hear illusory smooth pitch sequences of up-down and down-up streams in the two ears separated in higher and lower halves of the scale. Although many behavioral studies have been conducted, how and where in the brain the illusory percept is formed have not been elucidated. In this study, we conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging using sequential tones that induced scale illusion (ILL) and those that mimicked the percept of scale illusion (PCP), and we compared the activation responses evoked by those stimuli by region-of-interest analysis. We examined the effects of adaptation, i.e., the attenuation of response that occurs when close-frequency sounds are repeated, which might interfere with the changes in activation by the illusion process. Results of the activation difference of the two stimuli, measured at varied tempi of tone presentation, in the superior temporal auditory cortex were not explained by adaptation. Instead, excess activation of the ILL stimulus from the PCP stimulus at moderate tempi (83 and 126 bpm) was significant in the posterior auditory cortex with rightward superiority, while significant prefrontal activation was dominant at the highest tempo (245 bpm). We suggest that the area of the planum temporale posterior to the primary auditory cortex is mainly involved in the illusion formation, and that the illusion-related process is strongly dependent on the rate of tone presentation. PMID:27292114

  13. Midbrain auditory selectivity to natural sounds.

    PubMed

    Wohlgemuth, Melville J; Moss, Cynthia F

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated auditory stimulus selectivity in the midbrain superior colliculus (SC) of the echolocating bat, an animal that relies on hearing to guide its orienting behaviors. Multichannel, single-unit recordings were taken across laminae of the midbrain SC of the awake, passively listening big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus. Species-specific frequency-modulated (FM) echolocation sound sequences with dynamic spectrotemporal features served as acoustic stimuli along with artificial sound sequences matched in bandwidth, amplitude, and duration but differing in spectrotemporal structure. Neurons in dorsal sensory regions of the bat SC responded selectively to elements within the FM sound sequences, whereas neurons in ventral sensorimotor regions showed broad response profiles to natural and artificial stimuli. Moreover, a generalized linear model (GLM) constructed on responses in the dorsal SC to artificial linear FM stimuli failed to predict responses to natural sounds and vice versa, but the GLM produced accurate response predictions in ventral SC neurons. This result suggests that auditory selectivity in the dorsal extent of the bat SC arises through nonlinear mechanisms, which extract species-specific sensory information. Importantly, auditory selectivity appeared only in responses to stimuli containing the natural statistics of acoustic signals used by the bat for spatial orientation-sonar vocalizations-offering support for the hypothesis that sensory selectivity enables rapid species-specific orienting behaviors. The results of this study are the first, to our knowledge, to show auditory spectrotemporal selectivity to natural stimuli in SC neurons and serve to inform a more general understanding of mechanisms guiding sensory selectivity for natural, goal-directed orienting behaviors. PMID:26884152

  14. Response recovery in the locust auditory pathway.

    PubMed

    Wirtssohn, Sarah; Ronacher, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Temporal resolution and the time courses of recovery from acute adaptation of neurons in the auditory pathway of the grasshopper Locusta migratoria were investigated with a response recovery paradigm. We stimulated with a series of single click and click pair stimuli while performing intracellular recordings from neurons at three processing stages: receptors and first and second order interneurons. The response to the second click was expressed relative to the single click response. This allowed the uncovering of the basic temporal resolution in these neurons. The effect of adaptation increased with processing layer. While neurons in the auditory periphery displayed a steady response recovery after a short initial adaptation, many interneurons showed nonlinear effects: most prominent a long-lasting suppression of the response to the second click in a pair, as well as a gain in response if a click was preceded by a click a few milliseconds before. Our results reveal a distributed temporal filtering of input at an early auditory processing stage. This set of specified filters is very likely homologous across grasshopper species and thus forms the neurophysiological basis for extracting relevant information from a variety of different temporal signals. Interestingly, in terms of spike timing precision neurons at all three processing layers recovered very fast, within 20 ms. Spike waveform analysis of several neuron types did not sufficiently explain the response recovery profiles implemented in these neurons, indicating that temporal resolution in neurons located at several processing layers of the auditory pathway is not necessarily limited by the spike duration and refractory period.

  15. Sonic morphology: Aesthetic dimensional auditory spatial awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehouse, Martha M.

    The sound and ceramic sculpture installation, " Skirting the Edge: Experiences in Sound & Form," is an integration of art and science demonstrating the concept of sonic morphology. "Sonic morphology" is herein defined as aesthetic three-dimensional auditory spatial awareness. The exhibition explicates my empirical phenomenal observations that sound has a three-dimensional form. Composed of ceramic sculptures that allude to different social and physical situations, coupled with sound compositions that enhance and create a three-dimensional auditory and visual aesthetic experience (see accompanying DVD), the exhibition supports the research question, "What is the relationship between sound and form?" Precisely how people aurally experience three-dimensional space involves an integration of spatial properties, auditory perception, individual history, and cultural mores. People also utilize environmental sound events as a guide in social situations and in remembering their personal history, as well as a guide in moving through space. Aesthetically, sound affects the fascination, meaning, and attention one has within a particular space. Sonic morphology brings art forms such as a movie, video, sound composition, and musical performance into the cognitive scope by generating meaning from the link between the visual and auditory senses. This research examined sonic morphology as an extension of musique concrete, sound as object, originating in Pierre Schaeffer's work in the 1940s. Pointing, as John Cage did, to the corporeal three-dimensional experience of "all sound," I composed works that took their total form only through the perceiver-participant's participation in the exhibition. While contemporary artist Alvin Lucier creates artworks that draw attention to making sound visible, "Skirting the Edge" engages the perceiver-participant visually and aurally, leading to recognition of sonic morphology.

  16. Electrophysiological measurement of human auditory function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galambos, R.

    1975-01-01

    Contingent negative variations in the presence and amplitudes of brain potentials evoked by sound are considered. Evidence is produced that the evoked brain stem response to auditory stimuli is clearly related to brain events associated with cognitive processing of acoustic signals since their properties depend upon where the listener directs his attention, whether the signal is an expected event or a surprise, and when sound that is listened-for is heard at last.

  17. Midbrain auditory selectivity to natural sounds.

    PubMed

    Wohlgemuth, Melville J; Moss, Cynthia F

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated auditory stimulus selectivity in the midbrain superior colliculus (SC) of the echolocating bat, an animal that relies on hearing to guide its orienting behaviors. Multichannel, single-unit recordings were taken across laminae of the midbrain SC of the awake, passively listening big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus. Species-specific frequency-modulated (FM) echolocation sound sequences with dynamic spectrotemporal features served as acoustic stimuli along with artificial sound sequences matched in bandwidth, amplitude, and duration but differing in spectrotemporal structure. Neurons in dorsal sensory regions of the bat SC responded selectively to elements within the FM sound sequences, whereas neurons in ventral sensorimotor regions showed broad response profiles to natural and artificial stimuli. Moreover, a generalized linear model (GLM) constructed on responses in the dorsal SC to artificial linear FM stimuli failed to predict responses to natural sounds and vice versa, but the GLM produced accurate response predictions in ventral SC neurons. This result suggests that auditory selectivity in the dorsal extent of the bat SC arises through nonlinear mechanisms, which extract species-specific sensory information. Importantly, auditory selectivity appeared only in responses to stimuli containing the natural statistics of acoustic signals used by the bat for spatial orientation-sonar vocalizations-offering support for the hypothesis that sensory selectivity enables rapid species-specific orienting behaviors. The results of this study are the first, to our knowledge, to show auditory spectrotemporal selectivity to natural stimuli in SC neurons and serve to inform a more general understanding of mechanisms guiding sensory selectivity for natural, goal-directed orienting behaviors.

  18. Mathematical Modeling of the Auditory Periphery.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshigoe, Shozo

    The auditory periphery is conventionally divided into three parts, namely, the outer, middle, and inner ear (or cochlea). Mathematical modeling of the auditory periphery has been used for increasing our understanding of its mechanics via the simulation of experimental results, and for estimating unknown parameters. The various techniques used in this study for modeling the auditory periphery are: (1) Green function methods for investigation of the external ear directional filter functions; (2) finite difference methods in cochlear mechanical model calculations; (3) dispersion relation tests of the consistency of model calculations; (4) dispersion relation checks of experimental cochlear response data for approximate consistency with the implications of causality, linearity, time translation invariance, and minimum phase behavior; (5) dispersion relation tests of the stability of the linear cochlear models with active elements; (6) the introduction of viscosity effects in cochlear mechanics in order to account for data on the low frequency cochlear input impedance; and (7) the incorporation of a non-linear feedback outer-hair-cell model into a cochlear model in order to account for the physiological and psychological data (such as spontaneous and induced acoustic emissions from human ears and their active non-linear interactions with external stimuli).

  19. Auditory attention causes visual inattentional blindness.

    PubMed

    Pizzighello, Silvia; Bressan, Paola

    2008-01-01

    When engaged in a visual task, we can fail to detect unexpected events that would otherwise be very noticeable. Here we ask whether a common auditory task, such as that of attending to a verbal stream, can also make us blind to the presence of visual objects that we do not anticipate. In two experiments, one hundred and twenty observers watched a dynamic display while performing either a visual or an auditory attention task, or both simultaneously. When observers were listening to verbal material, in order to either understand it or to remember it (auditory task), their probability of detecting an unexpected visual object was no higher than when they were counting bounces of moving items (visual task), although in the former case the observers' eyes and attention could move around the display freely rather than remaining focused on tracked items. Previous research has shown that attending to verbal material does not affect responses to lights flashing at irregular intervals, suggesting that driving performance is not hampered by listening. The lights, however, were expected. Our data imply that listening to the radio while driving, or to a portable audio player while walking or biking, can impair our reactions to objects or events that we do not expect. PMID:18686705

  20. Auditory perception bias in speech imitation

    PubMed Central

    Postma-Nilsenová, Marie; Postma, Eric

    2013-01-01

    In an experimental study, we explored the role of auditory perception bias in vocal pitch imitation. Psychoacoustic tasks involving a missing fundamental indicate that some listeners are attuned to the relationship between all the higher harmonics present in the signal, which supports their perception of the fundamental frequency (the primary acoustic correlate of pitch). Other listeners focus on the lowest harmonic constituents of the complex sound signal which may hamper the perception of the fundamental. These two listener types are referred to as fundamental and spectral listeners, respectively. We hypothesized that the individual differences in speakers' capacity to imitate F0 found in earlier studies, may at least partly be due to the capacity to extract information about F0 from the speech signal. Participants' auditory perception bias was determined with a standard missing fundamental perceptual test. Subsequently, speech data were collected in a shadowing task with two conditions, one with a full speech signal and one with high-pass filtered speech above 300 Hz. The results showed that perception bias toward fundamental frequency was related to the degree of F0 imitation. The effect was stronger in the condition with high-pass filtered speech. The experimental outcomes suggest advantages for fundamental listeners in communicative situations where F0 imitation is used as a behavioral cue. Future research needs to determine to what extent auditory perception bias may be related to other individual properties known to improve imitation, such as phonetic talent. PMID:24204361

  1. Auditory Discrimination Learning: Role of Working Memory.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Xuan; Moore, David R; Guiraud, Jeanne; Molloy, Katharine; Yan, Ting-Ting; Amitay, Sygal

    2016-01-01

    Perceptual training is generally assumed to improve perception by modifying the encoding or decoding of sensory information. However, this assumption is incompatible with recent demonstrations that transfer of learning can be enhanced by across-trial variation of training stimuli or task. Here we present three lines of evidence from healthy adults in support of the idea that the enhanced transfer of auditory discrimination learning is mediated by working memory (WM). First, the ability to discriminate small differences in tone frequency or duration was correlated with WM measured with a tone n-back task. Second, training frequency discrimination around a variable frequency transferred to and from WM learning, but training around a fixed frequency did not. The transfer of learning in both directions was correlated with a reduction of the influence of stimulus variation in the discrimination task, linking WM and its improvement to across-trial stimulus interaction in auditory discrimination. Third, while WM training transferred broadly to other WM and auditory discrimination tasks, variable-frequency training on duration discrimination did not improve WM, indicating that stimulus variation challenges and trains WM only if the task demands stimulus updating in the varied dimension. The results provide empirical evidence as well as a theoretic framework for interactions between cognitive and sensory plasticity during perceptual experience. PMID:26799068

  2. Concentric scheme of monkey auditory cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosaki, Hiroko; Saunders, Richard C.; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2003-04-01

    The cytoarchitecture of the rhesus monkey's auditory cortex was examined using immunocytochemical staining with parvalbumin, calbindin-D28K, and SMI32, as well as staining for cytochrome oxidase (CO). The results suggest that Kaas and Hackett's scheme of the auditory cortices can be extended to include five concentric rings surrounding an inner core. The inner core, containing areas A1 and R, is the most densely stained with parvalbumin and CO and can be separated on the basis of laminar patterns of SMI32 staining into lateral and medial subdivisions. From the inner core to the fifth (outermost) ring, parvalbumin staining gradually decreases and calbindin staining gradually increases. The first ring corresponds to Kaas and Hackett's auditory belt, and the second, to their parabelt. SMI32 staining revealed a clear border between these two. Rings 2 through 5 extend laterally into the dorsal bank of the superior temporal sulcus. The results also suggest that the rostral tip of the outermost ring adjoins the rostroventral part of the insula (area Pro) and the temporal pole, while the caudal tip adjoins the ventral part of area 7a.

  3. The effects of auditory enrichment on gorillas.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Lindsey; Margulis, Susan W

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that auditory enrichment can reduce stereotypic behaviors in captive animals. The purpose of this study was to determine the relative effectiveness of three different types of auditory enrichment-naturalistic sounds, classical music, and rock music-in reducing stereotypic behavior displayed by Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). Three gorillas (one adult male, two adult females) were observed at the Buffalo Zoo for a total of 24 hr per music trial. A control observation period, during which no sounds were presented, was also included. Each music trial consisted of a total of three weeks with a 1-week control period in between each music type. The results reveal a decrease in stereotypic behaviors from the control period to naturalistic sounds. The naturalistic sounds also affected patterns of several other behaviors including locomotion. In contrast, stereotypy increased in the presence of classical and rock music. These results suggest that auditory enrichment, which is not commonly used in zoos in a systematic way, can be easily utilized by keepers to help decrease stereotypic behavior, but the nature of the stimulus, as well as the differential responses of individual animals, need to be considered.

  4. Visual speech gestures modulate efferent auditory system.

    PubMed

    Namasivayam, Aravind Kumar; Wong, Wing Yiu Stephanie; Sharma, Dinaay; van Lieshout, Pascal

    2015-03-01

    Visual and auditory systems interact at both cortical and subcortical levels. Studies suggest a highly context-specific cross-modal modulation of the auditory system by the visual system. The present study builds on this work by sampling data from 17 young healthy adults to test whether visual speech stimuli evoke different responses in the auditory efferent system compared to visual non-speech stimuli. The descending cortical influences on medial olivocochlear (MOC) activity were indirectly assessed by examining the effects of contralateral suppression of transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) at 1, 2, 3 and 4 kHz under three conditions: (a) in the absence of any contralateral noise (Baseline), (b) contralateral noise + observing facial speech gestures related to productions of vowels /a/ and /u/ and (c) contralateral noise + observing facial non-speech gestures related to smiling and frowning. The results are based on 7 individuals whose data met strict recording criteria and indicated a significant difference in TEOAE suppression between observing speech gestures relative to the non-speech gestures, but only at the 1 kHz frequency. These results suggest that observing a speech gesture compared to a non-speech gesture may trigger a difference in MOC activity, possibly to enhance peripheral neural encoding. If such findings can be reproduced in future research, sensory perception models and theories positing the downstream convergence of unisensory streams of information in the cortex may need to be revised.

  5. Object continuity enhances selective auditory attention.

    PubMed

    Best, Virginia; Ozmeral, Erol J; Kopco, Norbert; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G

    2008-09-01

    In complex scenes, the identity of an auditory object can build up across seconds. Given that attention operates on perceptual objects, this perceptual buildup may alter the efficacy of selective auditory attention over time. Here, we measured identification of a sequence of spoken target digits presented with distracter digits from other directions to investigate the dynamics of selective attention. Performance was better when the target location was fixed rather than changing between digits, even when listeners were cued as much as 1 s in advance about the position of each subsequent digit. Spatial continuity not only avoided well known costs associated with switching the focus of spatial attention, but also produced refinements in the spatial selectivity of attention across time. Continuity of target voice further enhanced this buildup of selective attention. Results suggest that when attention is sustained on one auditory object within a complex scene, attentional selectivity improves over time. Similar effects may come into play when attention is sustained on an object in a complex visual scene, especially in cases where visual object formation requires sustained attention.

  6. Auditory perception of a human walker.

    PubMed

    Cottrell, David; Campbell, Megan E J

    2014-01-01

    When one hears footsteps in the hall, one is able to instantly recognise it as a person: this is an everyday example of auditory biological motion perception. Despite the familiarity of this experience, research into this phenomenon is in its infancy compared with visual biological motion perception. Here, two experiments explored sensitivity to, and recognition of, auditory stimuli of biological and nonbiological origin. We hypothesised that the cadence of a walker gives rise to a temporal pattern of impact sounds that facilitates the recognition of human motion from auditory stimuli alone. First a series of detection tasks compared sensitivity with three carefully matched impact sounds: footsteps, a ball bouncing, and drumbeats. Unexpectedly, participants were no more sensitive to footsteps than to impact sounds of nonbiological origin. In the second experiment participants made discriminations between pairs of the same stimuli, in a series of recognition tasks in which the temporal pattern of impact sounds was manipulated to be either that of a walker or the pattern more typical of the source event (a ball bouncing or a drumbeat). Under these conditions, there was evidence that both temporal and nontemporal cues were important in recognising theses stimuli. It is proposed that the interval between footsteps, which reflects a walker's cadence, is a cue for the recognition of the sounds of a human walking.

  7. Duration tuning in the mouse auditory midbrain.

    PubMed

    Brand, A; Urban, R; Grothe, B

    2000-10-01

    Temporal cues, including sound duration, are important for sound identification. Neurons tuned to the duration of pure tones were first discovered in the auditory system of frogs and bats and were discussed as specific adaptations in these animals. More recently duration sensitivity has also been described in the chinchilla midbrain and the cat auditory cortex, indicating that it might be a more general phenomenon than previously thought. However, it is unclear whether duration tuning in mammals is robust in face of changes of stimulus parameters other than duration. Using extracellular single-cell recordings in the mouse inferior colliculus, we found 55% of cells to be sensitive to stimulus duration showing long-pass, short-pass, or band-pass filter characteristics. For most neurons, a change in some other stimulus parameter, (e.g., intensity, frequency, binaural conditions, or using noise instead of pure tones) altered and sometimes abolished duration-tuning characteristics. Thus in many neurons duration tuning is interdependent with other stimulus parameters and, hence, might be context dependent. A small number of inferior colliculus neurons, in particular band-pass neurons, exhibited stable filter characteristics and could therefore be referred to as "duration selective." These findings support the idea that duration tuning is a general phenomenon in the mammalian auditory system.

  8. Motor induced suppression of auditory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Aliu, Sheye O.; Houde, John F.; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.

    2010-01-01

    Sensory responses to stimuli that are triggered by a self-initiated motor act are suppressed when compared with the response to the same stimuli triggered externally, a phenomenon referred to as motor-induced suppression (MIS) of sensory cortical feedback. Studies in the somatosensory system suggest that such suppression might be sensitive to delays between the motor act and the stimulus-onset, and a recent study in the auditory system suggests that such MIS develops rapidly. In three MEG experiments, we characterize the properties of MIS, by examining the M100 response from the auditory cortex to a simple tone triggered by a button press. In Experiment 1, we found that MIS develops for zero-delays but does not generalize to non-zero delays. In Experiment 2, we found that MIS developed for 100 ms delays within 300 trials and occurs in excess of auditory habituation. In Experiment 3, we found that unlike MIS for zero-delays, MIS for non-zero delays does not exhibit sensitivity to sensory, delay or motor-command changes. These results are discussed in relation to suppression to self-produced speech and a general model of sensory motor control. PMID:18593265

  9. Visual and auditory information as determinants of primacy effects.

    PubMed

    Sharps, M J; Price, J L; Bence, V M

    1996-04-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that auditory and visual information have similar mnemonic properties. The relative influence of verbal, auditory, and visual stimulus materials on the primacy effect in free recall was studied. Significant primacy effects were obtained when either verbal or auditory-input stimuli were presented. However, primacy effects were suppressed when pictorial materials were used, principally because of elevation of recall for midlist and later elements. Instructions to use visual mental imagery at encoding suppressed primacy effects for verbal materials, but not for auditory materials, indicating that although auditory information processing is probably similar to phonological processing within working memory, auditory processing may share cognitive resources with visuospatial processing. Results are shown to be predictable and interpretable within the item-specific/relational information distinction of Hunt and Einstein (e.g., 1981), and within the working-memory theory of Baddeley (e.g., 1986).

  10. An immunocytochemical mapping of somatostatin in the cat auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Martín, F; Coveñas, R; Narváez, J A; Tramu, G

    2003-10-01

    Using an indirect immunoperoxidase technique, the localization of somatostatin-28 (1-12)-like immunoreactive fibers and cell bodies in the auditory cortex of the cat (anterior, primary, secondary, temporal, ventral, ventroposterior, posterior and dorsoposterior auditory fields) was studied. In general, the distribution of SOM-ir structures is widespread in the auditory cortex of the feline. A high density of immunoreactive fibers as well as a low density of cell bodies containing somatostatin were observed in all the layers of the eight above-mentioned auditory fields. These data indicate that somatostatin-28 (1-12) could act as a neurotransmitter and/or a neuromodulator in the auditory cortex of the cat. The origin of the SOM-ir fibers in the auditory cortex of the cat, as well as the issue of whether the cell bodies containing somatostatin-28 (1-12) are local or projecting neurons is discussed.

  11. Auditory temporal processing skills in musicians with dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Bishop-Liebler, Paula; Welch, Graham; Huss, Martina; Thomson, Jennifer M; Goswami, Usha

    2014-08-01

    The core cognitive difficulty in developmental dyslexia involves phonological processing, but adults and children with dyslexia also have sensory impairments. Impairments in basic auditory processing show particular links with phonological impairments, and recent studies with dyslexic children across languages reveal a relationship between auditory temporal processing and sensitivity to rhythmic timing and speech rhythm. As rhythm is explicit in music, musical training might have a beneficial effect on the auditory perception of acoustic cues to rhythm in dyslexia. Here we took advantage of the presence of musicians with and without dyslexia in musical conservatoires, comparing their auditory temporal processing abilities with those of dyslexic non-musicians matched for cognitive ability. Musicians with dyslexia showed equivalent auditory sensitivity to musicians without dyslexia and also showed equivalent rhythm perception. The data support the view that extensive rhythmic experience initiated during childhood (here in the form of music training) can affect basic auditory processing skills which are found to be deficient in individuals with dyslexia.

  12. Auditory recognition memory is inferior to visual recognition memory

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Michael A.; Horowitz, Todd S.; Wolfe, Jeremy M.

    2009-01-01

    Visual memory for scenes is surprisingly robust. We wished to examine whether an analogous ability exists in the auditory domain. Participants listened to a variety of sound clips and were tested on their ability to distinguish old from new clips. Stimuli ranged from complex auditory scenes (e.g., talking in a pool hall) to isolated auditory objects (e.g., a dog barking) to music. In some conditions, additional information was provided to help participants with encoding. In every situation, however, auditory memory proved to be systematically inferior to visual memory. This suggests that there exists either a fundamental difference between auditory and visual stimuli, or, more plausibly, an asymmetry between auditory and visual processing. PMID:19307569

  13. Acceleration of visually cued conditioned fear through the auditory pathway.

    PubMed

    Newton, Jessica R; Ellsworth, Charlene; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Tonegawa, Susumu; Sur, Mriganka

    2004-09-01

    Defensive responses elicited by sensory experiences are critical for survival. Mice acquire a conditioned fear response rapidly to an auditory cue but slowly to a visual cue, a difference in learned behavior that is likely to be mediated by direct projections to the lateral amygdala from the auditory thalamus but mainly indirect ones from the visual thalamus. Here, we show that acquisition of visually cued conditioned fear is accelerated in 'rewired' mice that have retinal projections routed to the auditory thalamus. Visual stimuli induce expression of the immediate early gene Fos (also known as c-fos) in the auditory thalamus and the lateral amygdala in rewired mice, similar to the way auditory stimuli do in control mice. Thus, the rewired auditory pathway conveys visual information and mediates rapid activity-dependent plasticity in central structures that influence learned behavior.

  14. [Influence of hypoxia on the human auditory system].

    PubMed

    Lucertini, M; Urbani, L

    1997-02-01

    The present paper presents a review of the literature on "hypoxia and human auditory mechanisms". It examines and discusses, above all, the results obtained in the various studies using pure tone audiometry and auditory evoked potentials. At the present time, the two areas which appear most sensitive to hypoxia are the cochlea and, above all, the telencephalic auditory cortex (specifically those sectors dedicated to cognitive processing of auditory stimulation). However, many other areas which are sensitive to hypoxia, but to a lesser extent, have also been identified, even in other sectors of the auditory pathway. Particularly worthy of note is the effectiveness of the metabolic compensatory mechanisms which come into play upon hypoxic stress. These mechanisms include vasodilation and the presence of metabolic reservoirs. Nevertheless, there are still a number of open questions regarding how the auditory pathway functions in the case of hypoxia; thus the experimental study of hypoxic hypoxia is still an interesting, fruitful research field in audiology.

  15. Neural Hyperactivity of the Central Auditory System in Response to Peripheral Damage

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yi; Song, Qiang; Li, Xinyi; Li, Chunyan

    2016-01-01

    It is increasingly appreciated that cochlear pathology is accompanied by adaptive responses in the central auditory system. The cause of cochlear pathology varies widely, and it seems that few commonalities can be drawn. In fact, despite intricate internal neuroplasticity and diverse external symptoms, several classical injury models provide a feasible path to locate responses to different peripheral cochlear lesions. In these cases, hair cell damage may lead to considerable hyperactivity in the central auditory pathways, mediated by a reduction in inhibition, which may underlie some clinical symptoms associated with hearing loss, such as tinnitus. Homeostatic plasticity, the most discussed and acknowledged mechanism in recent years, is most likely responsible for excited central activity following cochlear damage. PMID:26881094

  16. Auditory Cortical Processing in Real-World Listening: The Auditory System Going Real

    PubMed Central

    Bizley, Jennifer; Shamma, Shihab A.; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2014-01-01

    The auditory sense of humans transforms intrinsically senseless pressure waveforms into spectacularly rich perceptual phenomena: the music of Bach or the Beatles, the poetry of Li Bai or Omar Khayyam, or more prosaically the sense of the world filled with objects emitting sounds that is so important for those of us lucky enough to have hearing. Whereas the early representations of sounds in the auditory system are based on their physical structure, higher auditory centers are thought to represent sounds in terms of their perceptual attributes. In this symposium, we will illustrate the current research into this process, using four case studies. We will illustrate how the spectral and temporal properties of sounds are used to bind together, segregate, categorize, and interpret sound patterns on their way to acquire meaning, with important lessons to other sensory systems as well. PMID:25392481

  17. Auditory cortical processing in real-world listening: the auditory system going real.

    PubMed

    Nelken, Israel; Bizley, Jennifer; Shamma, Shihab A; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2014-11-12

    The auditory sense of humans transforms intrinsically senseless pressure waveforms into spectacularly rich perceptual phenomena: the music of Bach or the Beatles, the poetry of Li Bai or Omar Khayyam, or more prosaically the sense of the world filled with objects emitting sounds that is so important for those of us lucky enough to have hearing. Whereas the early representations of sounds in the auditory system are based on their physical structure, higher auditory centers are thought to represent sounds in terms of their perceptual attributes. In this symposium, we will illustrate the current research into this process, using four case studies. We will illustrate how the spectral and temporal properties of sounds are used to bind together, segregate, categorize, and interpret sound patterns on their way to acquire meaning, with important lessons to other sensory systems as well. PMID:25392481

  18. [Auditory guidance systems for the visually impaired people].

    PubMed

    He, Jing; Nie, Min; Luo, Lan; Tong, Shanbao; Niu, Jinhai; Zhu, Yisheng

    2010-04-01

    Visually impaired people face many inconveniences because of the loss of vision. Therefore, scientists are trying to design various guidance systems for improving the lives of the blind. Based on sensory substitution, auditory guidance has become an interesting topic in the field of biomedical engineering. In this paper, we made a state-of-technique review of the auditory guidance system. Although there have been many technical challenges, the auditory guidance system would be a useful alternative for the visually impaired people.

  19. Auditory Cortex Basal Activity Modulates Cochlear Responses in Chinchillas

    PubMed Central

    León, Alex; Elgueda, Diego; Silva, María A.; Hamamé, Carlos M.; Delano, Paul H.

    2012-01-01

    Background The auditory efferent system has unique neuroanatomical pathways that connect the cerebral cortex with sensory receptor cells. Pyramidal neurons located in layers V and VI of the primary auditory cortex constitute descending projections to the thalamus, inferior colliculus, and even directly to the superior olivary complex and to the cochlear nucleus. Efferent pathways are connected to the cochlear receptor by the olivocochlear system, which innervates outer hair cells and auditory nerve fibers. The functional role of the cortico-olivocochlear efferent system remains debated. We hypothesized that auditory cortex basal activity modulates cochlear and auditory-nerve afferent responses through the efferent system. Methodology/Principal Findings Cochlear microphonics (CM), auditory-nerve compound action potentials (CAP) and auditory cortex evoked potentials (ACEP) were recorded in twenty anesthetized chinchillas, before, during and after auditory cortex deactivation by two methods: lidocaine microinjections or cortical cooling with cryoloops. Auditory cortex deactivation induced a transient reduction in ACEP amplitudes in fifteen animals (deactivation experiments) and a permanent reduction in five chinchillas (lesion experiments). We found significant changes in the amplitude of CM in both types of experiments, being the most common effect a CM decrease found in fifteen animals. Concomitantly to CM amplitude changes, we found CAP increases in seven chinchillas and CAP reductions in thirteen animals. Although ACEP amplitudes were completely recovered after ninety minutes in deactivation experiments, only partial recovery was observed in the magnitudes of cochlear responses. Conclusions/Significance These results show that blocking ongoing auditory cortex activity modulates CM and CAP responses, demonstrating that cortico-olivocochlear circuits regulate auditory nerve and cochlear responses through a basal efferent tone. The diversity of the obtained effects

  20. A circuit for motor cortical modulation of auditory cortical activity.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Anders; Schneider, David M; Takatoh, Jun; Sakurai, Katsuyasu; Wang, Fan; Mooney, Richard

    2013-09-01

    Normal hearing depends on the ability to distinguish self-generated sounds from other sounds, and this ability is thought to involve neural circuits that convey copies of motor command signals to various levels of the auditory system. Although such interactions at the cortical level are believed to facilitate auditory comprehension during movements and drive auditory hallucinations in pathological states, the synaptic organization and function of circuitry linking the motor and auditory cortices remain unclear. Here we describe experiments in the mouse that characterize circuitry well suited to transmit motor-related signals to the auditory cortex. Using retrograde viral tracing, we established that neurons in superficial and deep layers of the medial agranular motor cortex (M2) project directly to the auditory cortex and that the axons of some of these deep-layer cells also target brainstem motor regions. Using in vitro whole-cell physiology, optogenetics, and pharmacology, we determined that M2 axons make excitatory synapses in the auditory cortex but exert a primarily suppressive effect on auditory cortical neuron activity mediated in part by feedforward inhibition involving parvalbumin-positive interneurons. Using in vivo intracellular physiology, optogenetics, and sound playback, we also found that directly activating M2 axon terminals in the auditory cortex suppresses spontaneous and stimulus-evoked synaptic activity in auditory cortical neurons and that this effect depends on the relative timing of motor cortical activity and auditory stimulation. These experiments delineate the structural and functional properties of a corticocortical circuit that could enable movement-related suppression of auditory cortical activity. PMID:24005287

  1. Auditory perception vs. recognition: representation of complex communication sounds in the mouse auditory cortical fields.

    PubMed

    Geissler, Diana B; Ehret, Günter

    2004-02-01

    Details of brain areas for acoustical Gestalt perception and the recognition of species-specific vocalizations are not known. Here we show how spectral properties and the recognition of the acoustical Gestalt of wriggling calls of mouse pups based on a temporal property are represented in auditory cortical fields and an association area (dorsal field) of the pups' mothers. We stimulated either with a call model releasing maternal behaviour at a high rate (call recognition) or with two models of low behavioural significance (perception without recognition). Brain activation was quantified using c-Fos immunocytochemistry, counting Fos-positive cells in electrophysiologically mapped auditory cortical fields and the dorsal field. A frequency-specific labelling in two primary auditory fields is related to call perception but not to the discrimination of the biological significance of the call models used. Labelling related to call recognition is present in the second auditory field (AII). A left hemisphere advantage of labelling in the dorsoposterior field seems to reflect an integration of call recognition with maternal responsiveness. The dorsal field is activated only in the left hemisphere. The spatial extent of Fos-positive cells within the auditory cortex and its fields is larger in the left than in the right hemisphere. Our data show that a left hemisphere advantage in processing of a species-specific vocalization up to recognition is present in mice. The differential representation of vocalizations of high vs. low biological significance, as seen only in higher-order and not in primary fields of the auditory cortex, is discussed in the context of perceptual strategies. PMID:15009150

  2. Effect of auditory training on the middle latency response in children with (central) auditory processing disorder.

    PubMed

    Schochat, E; Musiek, F E; Alonso, R; Ogata, J

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the middle latency response (MLR) characteristics (latency and amplitude) in children with (central) auditory processing disorder [(C)APD], categorized as such by their performance on the central auditory test battery, and the effects of these characteristics after auditory training. Thirty children with (C)APD, 8 to 14 years of age, were tested using the MLR-evoked potential. This group was then enrolled in an 8-week auditory training program and then retested at the completion of the program. A control group of 22 children without (C)APD, composed of relatives and acquaintances of those involved in the research, underwent the same testing at equal time intervals, but were not enrolled in the auditory training program. Before auditory training, MLR results for the (C)APD group exhibited lower C3-A1 and C3-A2 wave amplitudes in comparison to the control group [C3-A1, 0.84 microV (mean), 0.39 (SD--standard deviation) for the (C)APD group and 1.18 microV (mean), 0.65 (SD) for the control group; C3-A2, 0.69 microV (mean), 0.31 (SD) for the (C)APD group and 1.00 microV (mean), 0.46 (SD) for the control group]. After training, the MLR C3-A1 [1.59 microV (mean), 0.82 (SD)] and C3-A2 [1.24 microV (mean), 0.73 (SD)] wave amplitudes of the (C)APD group significantly increased, so that there was no longer a significant difference in MLR amplitude between (C)APD and control groups. These findings suggest progress in the use of electrophysiological measurements for the diagnosis and treatment of (C)APD.

  3. Masked auditory thresholds in three species of birds, as measured by the auditory brainstem response (L).

    PubMed

    Noirot, Isabelle C; Brittan-Powell, Elizabeth F; Dooling, Robert J

    2011-06-01

    Auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) were recorded in adult budgerigars, canaries, and zebra finches in quiet and in three levels of white noise for tone stimuli between 1 and 4 kHz. Similar to behavioral results, masked ABR thresholds increased linearly with increasing noise levels. When the three species are considered together, ABR-derived CRs were higher than behavioral CRs by 18-23 dB between 2 and 4 kHz and by about 30 dB at 1 kHz. This study clarifies the utility of using ABRs for estimating masked auditory thresholds in natural environmental noises in species that cannot be tested behaviorally. PMID:21682367

  4. Changes in the adult vertebrate auditory sensory epithelium after trauma.

    PubMed

    Oesterle, Elizabeth C

    2013-03-01

    Auditory hair cells transduce sound vibrations into membrane potential changes, ultimately leading to changes in neuronal firing and sound perception. This review provides an overview of the characteristics and repair capabilities of traumatized auditory sensory epithelium in the adult vertebrate ear. Injured mammalian auditory epithelium repairs itself by forming permanent scars but is unable to regenerate replacement hair cells. In contrast, injured non-mammalian vertebrate ear generates replacement hair cells to restore hearing functions. Non-sensory support cells within the auditory epithelium play key roles in the repair processes.

  5. Restoration of auditory nerve synapses in cats by cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Ryugo, D K; Kretzmer, E A; Niparko, J K

    2005-12-01

    Congenital deafness results in abnormal synaptic structure in endings of the auditory nerve. If these abnormalities persist after restoration of auditory nerve activity by a cochlear implant, the processing of time-varying signals such as speech would likely be impaired. We stimulated congenitally deaf cats for 3 months with a six-channel cochlear implant. The device used human speech-processing programs, and cats responded to environmental sounds. Auditory nerve fibers exhibited a recovery of normal synaptic structure in these cats. This rescue of synapses is attributed to a return of spike activity in the auditory nerve and may help explain cochlear implant benefits in childhood deafness. PMID:16322457

  6. Forebrain pathway for auditory space processing in the barn owl.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Y E; Miller, G L; Knudsen, E I

    1998-02-01

    The forebrain plays an important role in many aspects of sound localization behavior. Yet, the forebrain pathway that processes auditory spatial information is not known for any species. Using standard anatomic labeling techniques, we used a "top-down" approach to trace the flow of auditory spatial information from an output area of the forebrain sound localization pathway (the auditory archistriatum, AAr), back through the forebrain, and into the auditory midbrain. Previous work has demonstrated that AAr units are specialized for auditory space processing. The results presented here show that the AAr receives afferent input from Field L both directly and indirectly via the caudolateral neostriatum. Afferent input to Field L originates mainly in the auditory thalamus, nucleus ovoidalis, which, in turn, receives input from the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus. In addition, we confirmed previously reported projections of the AAr to the basal ganglia, the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICX), the deep layers of the optic tectum, and various brain stem nuclei. A series of inactivation experiments demonstrated that the sharp tuning of AAr sites for binaural spatial cues depends on Field L input but not on input from the auditory space map in the midbrain ICX: pharmacological inactivation of Field L eliminated completely auditory responses in the AAr, whereas bilateral ablation of the midbrain ICX had no appreciable effect on AAr responses. We conclude, therefore, that the forebrain sound localization pathway can process auditory spatial information independently of the midbrain localization pathway. PMID:9463450

  7. Degraded Auditory Processing in a Rat Model of Autism Limits the Speech Representation in Non-primary Auditory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Engineer, C.T.; Centanni, T.M.; Im, K.W.; Borland, M.S.; Moreno, N.A.; Carraway, R.S.; Wilson, L.G.; Kilgard, M.P.

    2014-01-01

    Although individuals with autism are known to have significant communication problems, the cellular mechanisms responsible for impaired communication are poorly understood. Valproic acid (VPA) is an anticonvulsant that is a known risk factor for autism in prenatally exposed children. Prenatal VPA exposure in rats causes numerous neural and behavioral abnormalities that mimic autism. We predicted that VPA exposure may lead to auditory processing impairments which may contribute to the deficits in communication observed in individuals with autism. In this study, we document auditory cortex responses in rats prenatally exposed to VPA. We recorded local field potentials and multiunit responses to speech sounds in primary auditory cortex, anterior auditory field, ventral auditory field. and posterior auditory field in VPA exposed and control rats. Prenatal VPA exposure severely degrades the precise spatiotemporal patterns evoked by speech sounds in secondary, but not primary auditory cortex. This result parallels findings in humans and suggests that secondary auditory fields may be more sensitive to environmental disturbances and may provide insight into possible mechanisms related to auditory deficits in individuals with autism. PMID:24639033

  8. The Vestibular-Auditory Interaction for Auditory Brainstem Response to Low Frequencies

    PubMed Central

    Gohari, Nasrin

    2014-01-01

    Since saccular projection is sound sensitive, the objective is to investigate the possibility that the saccular projections may contribute to auditory brainstem response to 500 HZ tone burst (ABR500 HZ). During the case-control research, twenty healthy controls compared to forty selected case groups as having chronic and resistant BPPV were evaluated in the audiology department of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences (Hamadan, Iran). Assessment is comprised of audiologic examinations, cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs), and ABR500 HZ. We found that forty affected ears of BPPV patients with decreased vestibular excitability as detected by abnormal cVEMPs had abnormal results in ABR500 HZ, whereas unaffected ears presented normal findings. Multiple comparisons of mean p13, n23 latencies, and peak-to-peak amplitudes between three groups (affected, unaffected, and healthy ears) were significant. In conclusion, the saccular nerves can be projective to auditory bundles and interact with auditory brainstem response to low frequencies. Combine the cVEMPs and ABR500 HZ in battery approach tests of vestibular assessment and produce valuable data for judgment on the site of lesion. Regarding vestibular cooperation for making of wave V, it is reasonable that the term of ABR500 HZ is not adequate and the new term or vestibular-auditory brainstem response to 500 HZ tone burst is more suitable. PMID:25006510

  9. Auditory-motor integration of subliminal phase shifts in tapping: better than auditory discrimination would predict.

    PubMed

    Kagerer, Florian A; Viswanathan, Priya; Contreras-Vidal, Jose L; Whitall, Jill

    2014-04-01

    Unilateral tapping studies have shown that adults adjust to both perceptible and subliminal changes in phase or frequency. This study focuses on the phase responses to abrupt/perceptible and gradual/subliminal changes in auditory-motor relations during alternating bilateral tapping. We investigated these responses in participants with and without good perceptual acuity as determined by an auditory threshold test. Non-musician adults (nine per group) alternately tapped their index fingers in synchrony with auditory cues set at a frequency of 1.4 Hz. Both groups modulated their responses (with no after-effects) to perceptible and to subliminal changes as low as a 5° change in phase. The high-threshold participants were more variable than the adults with low threshold in their responses in the gradual condition set. Both groups demonstrated a synchronization asymmetry between dominant and non-dominant hands associated with the abrupt condition and the later blocks of the gradual condition. Our findings extend previous work in unilateral tapping and suggest (1) no relationship between a discrimination threshold and perceptible auditory-motor integration and (2) a noisier sub-cortical circuitry in those with higher thresholds. PMID:24449013

  10. Maturation of the Central Auditory Nervous System in Children with Auditory Processing Disorder.

    PubMed

    Tomlin, Dani; Rance, Gary

    2016-02-01

    Neurodevelopmental delay has been proposed as the underlying cause of the majority of cases of auditory processing disorder (APD). The current study employs the cortical auditory evoked potential (CAEP) to assess if maturational differences of the central auditory nervous system (CANS) can be identified between children who do and do not meet the diagnostic criterion for APD. The P1-N1 complex of the CAEP has previously been used for tracking development of the CANS in children with hearing impairment. Twenty-seven children (7 to 12 years old) who failed an APD behavioral test battery were age-matched (within 3 months) to children who had passed the same battery. CAEP responses to 500-Hz tone burst stimuli were recorded and analyzed for latency and amplitude measures. The P1-N1 complex of the CAEP, which has previously been used for tracking development of the CANS in children with hearing impairment, showed significant group differences. The children diagnosed with APD showed significantly increased latency (∼10 milliseconds) and significantly reduced amplitude (∼10 μV) of the early components of the CAEP compared with children with normal auditory processing. No significant differences were seen in the later P2 wave. The normal developmental course is for a decrease in latency and increase in amplitude as a function of age. The results of this study are, therefore, consistent with an immaturity of the CANS as an underlying cause of APD in children. PMID:27587924

  11. Auditory Processing Disorder and Auditory/Language Interventions: An Evidence-Based Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fey, Marc E.; Richard, Gail J.; Geffner, Donna; Kamhi, Alan G.; Medwetsky, Larry; Paul, Diane; Ross-Swain, Deborah; Wallach, Geraldine P.; Frymark, Tobi; Schooling, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In this systematic review, the peer-reviewed literature on the efficacy of interventions for school-age children with auditory processing disorder (APD) is critically evaluated. Method: Searches of 28 electronic databases yielded 25 studies for analysis. These studies were categorized by research phase (e.g., exploratory, efficacy) and…

  12. Early Blindness Results in Developmental Plasticity for Auditory Motion Processing within Auditory and Occipital Cortex.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Fang; Stecker, G Christopher; Boynton, Geoffrey M; Fine, Ione

    2016-01-01

    Early blind subjects exhibit superior abilities for processing auditory motion, which are accompanied by enhanced BOLD responses to auditory motion within hMT+ and reduced responses within right planum temporale (rPT). Here, by comparing BOLD responses to auditory motion in hMT+ and rPT within sighted controls, early blind, late blind, and sight-recovery individuals, we were able to separately examine the effects of developmental and adult visual deprivation on cortical plasticity within these two areas. We find that both the enhanced auditory motion responses in hMT+ and the reduced functionality in rPT are driven by the absence of visual experience early in life; neither loss nor recovery of vision later in life had a discernable influence on plasticity within these areas. Cortical plasticity as a result of blindness has generally be presumed to be mediated by competition across modalities within a given cortical region. The reduced functionality within rPT as a result of early visual loss implicates an additional mechanism for cross modal plasticity as a result of early blindness-competition across different cortical areas for functional role. PMID:27458357

  13. Training in rapid auditory processing ameliorates auditory comprehension in aphasic patients: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Szelag, Elzbieta; Lewandowska, Monika; Wolak, Tomasz; Seniow, Joanna; Poniatowska, Renata; Pöppel, Ernst; Szymaszek, Aneta

    2014-03-15

    Experimental studies have often reported close associations between rapid auditory processing and language competency. The present study was aimed at improving auditory comprehension in aphasic patients following specific training in the perception of temporal order (TO) of events. We tested 18 aphasic patients showing both comprehension and TO perception deficits. Auditory comprehension was assessed by the Token Test, phonemic awareness and Voice-Onset-Time Test. The TO perception was assessed using auditory Temporal-Order-Threshold, defined as the shortest interval between two consecutive stimuli, necessary to report correctly their before-after relation. Aphasic patients participated in eight 45-minute sessions of either specific temporal training (TT, n=11) aimed to improve sequencing abilities, or control non-temporal training (NT, n=7) focussed on volume discrimination. The TT yielded improved TO perception; moreover, a transfer of improvement was observed from the time domain to the language domain, which was untrained during the training. The NT did not improve either the TO perception or comprehension in any language test. These results are in agreement with previous literature studies which proved ameliorated language competency following the TT in language-learning-impaired or dyslexic children. Our results indicated for the first time such benefits also in aphasic patients. PMID:24388435

  14. Early Blindness Results in Developmental Plasticity for Auditory Motion Processing within Auditory and Occipital Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Fang; Stecker, G. Christopher; Boynton, Geoffrey M.; Fine, Ione

    2016-01-01

    Early blind subjects exhibit superior abilities for processing auditory motion, which are accompanied by enhanced BOLD responses to auditory motion within hMT+ and reduced responses within right planum temporale (rPT). Here, by comparing BOLD responses to auditory motion in hMT+ and rPT within sighted controls, early blind, late blind, and sight-recovery individuals, we were able to separately examine the effects of developmental and adult visual deprivation on cortical plasticity within these two areas. We find that both the enhanced auditory motion responses in hMT+ and the reduced functionality in rPT are driven by the absence of visual experience early in life; neither loss nor recovery of vision later in life had a discernable influence on plasticity within these areas. Cortical plasticity as a result of blindness has generally be presumed to be mediated by competition across modalities within a given cortical region. The reduced functionality within rPT as a result of early visual loss implicates an additional mechanism for cross modal plasticity as a result of early blindness—competition across different cortical areas for functional role. PMID:27458357

  15. "Where do auditory hallucinations come from?"--a brain morphometry study of schizophrenia patients with inner or outer space hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Plaze, Marion; Paillère-Martinot, Marie-Laure; Penttilä, Jani; Januel, Dominique; de Beaurepaire, Renaud; Bellivier, Franck; Andoh, Jamila; Galinowski, André; Gallarda, Thierry; Artiges, Eric; Olié, Jean-Pierre; Mangin, Jean-François; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Cachia, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations are a cardinal symptom of schizophrenia. Bleuler and Kraepelin distinguished 2 main classes of hallucinations: hallucinations heard outside the head (outer space, or external, hallucinations) and hallucinations heard inside the head (inner space, or internal, hallucinations). This distinction has been confirmed by recent phenomenological studies that identified 3 independent dimensions in auditory hallucinations: language complexity, self-other misattribution, and spatial location. Brain imaging studies in schizophrenia patients with auditory hallucinations have already investigated language complexity and self-other misattribution, but the neural substrate of hallucination spatial location remains unknown. Magnetic resonance images of 45 right-handed patients with schizophrenia and persistent auditory hallucinations and 20 healthy right-handed subjects were acquired. Two homogeneous subgroups of patients were defined based on the hallucination spatial location: patients with only outer space hallucinations (N=12) and patients with only inner space hallucinations (N=15). Between-group differences were then assessed using 2 complementary brain morphometry approaches: voxel-based morphometry and sulcus-based morphometry. Convergent anatomical differences were detected between the patient subgroups in the right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ). In comparison to healthy subjects, opposite deviations in white matter volumes and sulcus displacements were found in patients with inner space hallucination and patients with outer space hallucination. The current results indicate that spatial location of auditory hallucinations is associated with the rTPJ anatomy, a key region of the "where" auditory pathway. The detected tilt in the sulcal junction suggests deviations during early brain maturation, when the superior temporal sulcus and its anterior terminal branch appear and merge.

  16. [The cerebral control of the somatosensory and auditory afferent projections to the cerebral cortex in man and animals].

    PubMed

    Liubimov, N N; Orlova, T V; Liubimov, S N

    1998-01-01

    The main purpose of the present paper was consisted in studying of topology (spreading) of the somatosensory and auditory projections in cortex of both brain hemispheres in humans under different functional states conditions: during quiet walking state and during realization of the meditative programme. At the same time for the purpose of verification these steering mechanisms a number of experiments were realized in animals with neurosurgical cutting of brainstem ascending projections, which control the transfer of somatosensory and auditory sensibility. Experimental study was realized with two groups of subjects--8 subjects (age from 25 to 35 years old) and 25 (age from 25 to 40 years old) subjects practicing technique of Transcendental Meditation (TM). In addition to the mentioned above group some groups of animals were used in the experiments. Among them there were used the groups of monkeys (8 macaque rhesus and macaque nemestrina) and cats (10 animals) in conditions of acute experiment, under tiopenthal anesthesia. Two experimental methods were used in the study: electrophysiological for subjects and neurosurgical, additionally for animals. For evaluation of the brain reactivity in subjects registration of the somatosensory, to median nerve stimulation, and auditory, to bilateral application of auditory clicks, evoked potentials (EPs) in the symmetrical cortical structures of the brain was used. Registration of the somatosensory and auditory evoked potentials in animals was realized not only from the cortex, but from the brainstem somatosensory and auditory structures. SSEP in subjects-meditators were registered before and during meditation programme. In animals SSEP and AEP registration on the corresponding stimuli realized before and after neurosurgical operation--section of the midbrain tegmentum. Specific alterations of the early (up to 80 ms) and late components SSEP and AEP complexes in forms of topology spreading and diminution of registration areas of

  17. Neurophysiological Studies of Auditory Verbal Hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Judith M.; Dierks, Thomas; Fisher, Derek J.; Herrmann, Christoph S.; Hubl, Daniela; Kindler, Jochen; Koenig, Thomas; Mathalon, Daniel H.; Spencer, Kevin M.; Strik, Werner; van Lutterveld, Remko

    2012-01-01

    We discuss 3 neurophysiological approaches to study auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH). First, we describe “state” (or symptom capture) studies where periods with and without hallucinations are compared “within” a patient. These studies take 2 forms: passive studies, where brain activity during these states is compared, and probe studies, where brain responses to sounds during these states are compared. EEG (electroencephalography) and MEG (magnetoencephalography) data point to frontal and temporal lobe activity, the latter resulting in competition with external sounds for auditory resources. Second, we discuss “trait” studies where EEG and MEG responses to sounds are recorded from patients who hallucinate and those who do not. They suggest a tendency to hallucinate is associated with competition for auditory processing resources. Third, we discuss studies addressing possible mechanisms of AVH, including spontaneous neural activity, abnormal self-monitoring, and dysfunctional interregional communication. While most studies show differences in EEG and MEG responses between patients and controls, far fewer show symptom relationships. We conclude that efforts to understand the pathophysiology of AVH using EEG and MEG have been hindered by poor anatomical resolution of the EEG and MEG measures, poor assessment of symptoms, poor understanding of the phenomenon, poor models of the phenomenon, decoupling of the symptoms from the neurophysiology due to medications and comorbidites, and the possibility that the schizophrenia diagnosis breeds truer than the symptoms it comprises. These problems are common to studies of other psychiatric symptoms and should be considered when attempting to understand the basic neural mechanisms responsible for them. PMID:22368236

  18. Multiprofessional committee on auditory health: COMUSA.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Doris Ruthy; Marone, Silvio Antonio Monteiro; Mendes, Beatriz C A; Cruz, Oswaldo Laercio Mendonça; Nóbrega, Manoel de

    2010-01-01

    Created in 2007, COMUSA is a multiprofessional committee comprising speech therapy, otology, otorhinolaryngology and pediatrics with the aim of debating and countersigning auditory health actions for neonatal, lactating, preschool and school children, adolescents, adults and elderly persons. COMUSA includes representatives of the Brazilian Audiology Academy (Academia Brasileira de Audiologia or ABA), the Brazilian Otorhinolaryngology and Cervicofacial Surgery Association (Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico Facial or ABORL), the Brazilian Phonoaudiology Society (Sociedade Brasileira de Fonoaudiologia or SBFa), the Brazilian Otology Society (Sociedade Brasileira de Otologia or SBO), and the Brazilian Pediatrics Society (Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria or SBP).

  19. Solitary fibrous tumor of the auditory canal.

    PubMed

    Rezk, Sherif; Yousef, Mohammad; Zamansky, Marshall; Khan, Ashraf

    2004-12-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is an uncommon spindle cell neoplasm of increasing incidence that was originally described to be of pleural origin; however, more recently, SFT has been reported in extrapleural sites, including the orbit, liver, salivary glands, tongue, nose, paranasal sinuses, larynx, retroperitoneum, meninges, and thyroid. The increase in the number of SFTs does not necessarily mean increased incidence of this tumor but rather an increased understanding of this tumor, especially recognition of this tumor in extrapleural locations, which has been aided by immunohistochemical analysis. We report a case of SFT in the auditory canal, which to our knowledge has not been previously reported, as evident by morphologic findings and immunophenotype.

  20. [Frey's syndrome of the external auditory canal].

    PubMed

    Constantinidis, J; Kyriafinis, G; Ereliadis, S; Daniilidis, J

    2004-10-01

    Frey's syndrome of the external auditory canal is extremely rare. A 55-year old woman presented with a 6 month history of unilateral gustatory otorrhea. She never complained of hearing impairment, tinnitus, vertigo or otalgia. No trauma or surgical signs were evident near the ear or parotid gland. Examination of the ear showed an intact tympanic membrane without disease. A diagnosis of gustatory sweating syndrome was suggested by the observation of sweat production after chewing and by Minor's starch-iodine test. Symptoms were relieved after tympanic neurectomy. The pathogenesis, differential diagnosis and treatment options are discussed.

  1. Left auditory cortex gamma synchronization and auditory hallucination symptoms in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Kevin M; Niznikiewicz, Margaret A; Nestor, Paul G; Shenton, Martha E; McCarley, Robert W

    2009-01-01

    Background Oscillatory electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormalities may reflect neural circuit dysfunction in neuropsychiatric disorders. Previously we have found positive correlations between the phase synchronization of beta and gamma oscillations and hallucination symptoms in schizophrenia patients. These findings suggest that the propensity for hallucinations is associated with an increased tendency for neural circuits in sensory cortex to enter states of oscillatory synchrony. Here we tested this hypothesis by examining whether the 40 Hz auditory steady-state response (ASSR) generated in the left primary auditory cortex is positively correlated with auditory hallucination symptoms in schizophrenia. We also examined whether the 40 Hz ASSR deficit in schizophrenia was associated with cross-frequency interactions. Sixteen healthy control subjects (HC) and 18 chronic schizophrenia patients (SZ) listened to 40 Hz binaural click trains. The EEG was recorded from 60 electrodes and average-referenced offline. A 5-dipole model was fit from the HC grand average ASSR, with 2 pairs of superior temporal dipoles and a deep midline dipole. Time-frequency decomposition was performed on the scalp EEG and source data. Results Phase locking factor (PLF) and evoked power were reduced in SZ at fronto-central electrodes, replicating prior findings. PLF was reduced in SZ for non-homologous right and left hemisphere sources. Left hemisphere source PLF in SZ was positively correlated with auditory hallucination symptoms, and was modulated by delta phase. Furthermore, the correlations between source evoked power and PLF found in HC was reduced in SZ for the LH sources. Conclusion These findings suggest that differential neural circuit abnormalities may be present in the left and right auditory cortices in schizophrenia. In addition, they provide further support for the hypothesis that hallucinations are related to cortical hyperexcitability, which is manifested by an increased propensity

  2. From ear to hand: the role of the auditory-motor loop in pointing to an auditory source

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, Eric O.; Babayan, Bénédicte M.; Bevilacqua, Frédéric; Noisternig, Markus; Warusfel, Olivier; Roby-Brami, Agnes; Hanneton, Sylvain; Viaud-Delmon, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Studies of the nature of the neural mechanisms involved in goal-directed movements tend to concentrate on the role of vision. We present here an attempt to address the mechanisms whereby an auditory input is transformed into a motor command. The spatial and temporal organization of hand movements were studied in normal human subjects as they pointed toward unseen auditory targets located in a horizontal plane in front of them. Positions and movements of the hand were measured by a six infrared camera tracking system. In one condition, we assessed the role of auditory information about target position in correcting the trajectory of the hand. To accomplish this, the duration of the target presentation was varied. In another condition, subjects received continuous auditory feedback of their hand movement while pointing to the auditory targets. Online auditory control of the direction of pointing movements was assessed by evaluating how subjects reacted to shifts in heard hand position. Localization errors were exacerbated by short duration of target presentation but not modified by auditory feedback of hand position. Long duration of target presentation gave rise to a higher level of accuracy and was accompanied by early automatic head orienting movements consistently related to target direction. These results highlight the efficiency of auditory feedback processing in online motor control and suggest that the auditory system takes advantages of dynamic changes of the acoustic cues due to changes in head orientation in order to process online motor control. How to design an informative acoustic feedback needs to be carefully studied to demonstrate that auditory feedback of the hand could assist the monitoring of movements directed at objects in auditory space. PMID:23626532

  3. Infants' Visual Localization of Visual and Auditory Targets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bechtold, A. Gordon; And Others

    This study is an investigation of 2-month-old infants' abilities to visually localize visual and auditory peripheral stimuli. Each subject (N=40) was presented with 50 trials; 25 of these visual and 25 auditory. The infant was placed in a semi-upright infant seat positioned 122 cm from the center speaker of an arc formed by five loudspeakers. At…

  4. A Pilot Study of Auditory Integration Training in Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimland, Bernard; Edelson, Stephen M.

    1995-01-01

    The effectiveness of Auditory Integration Training (AIT) in 8 autistic individuals (ages 4-21) was evaluated using repeated multiple criteria assessment over a 3-month period. Compared to matched controls, subjects' scores improved on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist and Fisher's Auditory Problems Checklist. AIT did not decrease sound sensitivity.…

  5. Auditory Deprivation and Early Conductive Hearing Loss from Otitis Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunnarson, Adele D.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This article reviews auditory deprivation effects on anatomy, physiology, and behavior in animals and discusses the sequelae of otitis media with effusion (OME) in children. Focused on are central auditory processing disorders associated with early fluctuating hearing loss from OME. (DB)

  6. Enhanced Generalization of Auditory Conditioned Fear in Juvenile Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ito, Wataru; Pan, Bing-Xing; Yang, Chao; Thakur, Siddarth; Morozov, Alexei

    2009-01-01

    Increased emotionality is a characteristic of human adolescence, but its animal models are limited. Here we report that generalization of auditory conditioned fear between a conditional stimulus (CS+) and a novel auditory stimulus is stronger in 4-5-wk-old mice (juveniles) than in their 9-10-wk-old counterparts (adults), whereas nonassociative…

  7. Auditory perceptual simulation: Simulating speech rates or accents?

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peiyun; Christianson, Kiel

    2016-07-01

    When readers engage in Auditory Perceptual Simulation (APS) during silent reading, they mentally simulate characteristics of voices attributed to a particular speaker or a character depicted in the text. Previous research found that auditory perceptual simulation of a faster native English speaker during silent reading led to shorter reading times that auditory perceptual simulation of a slower non-native English speaker. Yet, it was uncertain whether this difference was triggered by the different speech rates of the speakers, or by the difficulty of simulating an unfamiliar accent. The current study investigates this question by comparing faster Indian-English speech and slower American-English speech in the auditory perceptual simulation paradigm. Analyses of reading times of individual words and the full sentence reveal that the auditory perceptual simulation effect again modulated reading rate, and auditory perceptual simulation of the faster Indian-English speech led to faster reading rates compared to auditory perceptual simulation of the slower American-English speech. The comparison between this experiment and the data from Zhou and Christianson (2016) demonstrate further that the "speakers'" speech rates, rather than the difficulty of simulating a non-native accent, is the primary mechanism underlying auditory perceptual simulation effects. PMID:27177077

  8. Auditory Processing Theories of Language Disorders: Past, Present, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to provide information that will assist readers in understanding and interpreting research literature on the role of auditory processing in communication disorders. Method: A narrative review was used to summarize and synthesize the literature on auditory processing deficits in children with auditory…

  9. Perceptual Load Influences Auditory Space Perception in the Ventriloquist Aftereffect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eramudugolla, Ranmalee; Kamke, Marc. R.; Soto-Faraco, Salvador; Mattingley, Jason B.

    2011-01-01

    A period of exposure to trains of simultaneous but spatially offset auditory and visual stimuli can induce a temporary shift in the perception of sound location. This phenomenon, known as the "ventriloquist aftereffect", reflects a realignment of auditory and visual spatial representations such that they approach perceptual alignment despite their…

  10. A Dual-Process Account of Auditory Change Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAnally, Ken I.; Martin, Russell L.; Eramudugolla, Ranmalee; Stuart, Geoffrey W.; Irvine, Dexter R. F.; Mattingley, Jason B.

    2010-01-01

    Listeners can be "deaf" to a substantial change in a scene comprising multiple auditory objects unless their attention has been directed to the changed object. It is unclear whether auditory change detection relies on identification of the objects in pre- and post-change scenes. We compared the rates at which listeners correctly identify changed…

  11. Visual and Auditory Input in Second-Language Speech Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardison, Debra M.

    2010-01-01

    The majority of studies in second-language (L2) speech processing have involved unimodal (i.e., auditory) input; however, in many instances, speech communication involves both visual and auditory sources of information. Some researchers have argued that multimodal speech is the primary mode of speech perception (e.g., Rosenblum 2005). Research on…

  12. Multimodal Geographic Information Systems: Adding Haptic and Auditory Display.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeong, Wooseob; Gluck, Myke

    2003-01-01

    Investigated the feasibility of adding haptic and auditory displays to traditional visual geographic information systems (GISs). Explored differences in user performance, including task completion time and accuracy, and user satisfaction with a multimodal GIS which was implemented with a haptic display, auditory display, and combined display.…

  13. Auditory Discrimination and Identification in Foreign Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Louis

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the validity of the assumption that auditory discrimination and pronunciation in a foreign language are closely related. If the assumption were to be well-founded, then it might be possible for foreign language students with high auditory discrimination ability to work alone in the language…

  14. The Diagnosis and Management of Auditory Processing Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a personal perspective on auditory processing disorder (APD), with reference to the recent clinical forum on APD and the needs of clinical speech-language pathologists and audiologists. Method: The Medical Research Council-Institute of Hearing Research (MRC-IHR) has been engaged in research into APD and auditory learning for 8…

  15. Characteristics of Auditory Processing Disorders: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wit, Ellen; Visser-Bochane, Margot I.; Steenbergen, Bert; van Dijk, Pim; van der Schans, Cees P.; Luinge, Margreet R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this review article is to describe characteristics of auditory processing disorders (APD) by evaluating the literature in which children with suspected or diagnosed APD were compared with typically developing children and to determine whether APD must be regarded as a deficit specific to the auditory modality or as a…

  16. Auditory Dysfunction and Its Communicative Impact in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, Brad W.

    1982-01-01

    The origins and nature of auditory dysfunction in school age children and the role of the audiologist in the evaluation of the learning disabled child are reviewed. Specific structures and mechanisms responsible for the reception and perception of auditory signals are specified. (Author/SEW)

  17. Impact of Educational Level on Performance on Auditory Processing Tests.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Cristina F B; Rabelo, Camila M; Silagi, Marcela L; Mansur, Letícia L; Schochat, Eliane

    2016-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that a higher level of education is associated with better performance on cognitive tests among middle-aged and elderly people. However, the effects of education on auditory processing skills have not yet been evaluated. Previous demonstrations of sensory-cognitive interactions in the aging process indicate the potential importance of this topic. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to investigate the performance of middle-aged and elderly people with different levels of formal education on auditory processing tests. A total of 177 adults with no evidence of cognitive, psychological or neurological conditions took part in the research. The participants completed a series of auditory assessments, including dichotic digit, frequency pattern and speech-in-noise tests. A working memory test was also performed to investigate the extent to which auditory processing and cognitive performance were associated. The results demonstrated positive but weak correlations between years of schooling and performance on all of the tests applied. The factor "years of schooling" was also one of the best predictors of frequency pattern and speech-in-noise test performance. Additionally, performance on the working memory, frequency pattern and dichotic digit tests was also correlated, suggesting that the influence of educational level on auditory processing performance might be associated with the cognitive demand of the auditory processing tests rather than auditory sensory aspects itself. Longitudinal research is required to investigate the causal relationship between educational level and auditory processing skills.

  18. Auditory cortex involvement in emotional learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Grosso, A; Cambiaghi, M; Concina, G; Sacco, T; Sacchetti, B

    2015-07-23

    Emotional memories represent the core of human and animal life and drive future choices and behaviors. Early research involving brain lesion studies in animals lead to the idea that the auditory cortex participates in emotional learning by processing the sensory features of auditory stimuli paired with emotional consequences and by transmitting this information to the amygdala. Nevertheless, electrophysiological and imaging studies revealed that, following emotional experiences, the auditory cortex undergoes learning-induced changes that are highly specific, associative and long lasting. These studies suggested that the role played by the auditory cortex goes beyond stimulus elaboration and transmission. Here, we discuss three major perspectives created by these data. In particular, we analyze the possible roles of the auditory cortex in emotional learning, we examine the recruitment of the auditory cortex during early and late memory trace encoding, and finally we consider the functional interplay between the auditory cortex and subcortical nuclei, such as the amygdala, that process affective information. We conclude that, starting from the early phase of memory encoding, the auditory cortex has a more prominent role in emotional learning, through its connections with subcortical nuclei, than is typically acknowledged.

  19. Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials in Unsuccessful Cochlear Implant Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munivrana, Boska; Mildner, Vesna

    2013-01-01

    In some cochlear implant users, success is not achieved in spite of optimal clinical factors (including age at implantation, duration of rehabilitation and post-implant hearing level), which may be attributed to disorders at higher levels of the auditory pathway. We used cortical auditory evoked potentials to investigate the ability to perceive…

  20. Comparing Monotic and Diotic Selective Auditory Attention Abilities in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherry, Rochelle; Rubinstein, Adrienne

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Some researchers have assessed ear-specific performance of auditory processing ability using speech recognition tasks with normative data based on diotic administration. The present study investigated whether monotic and diotic administrations yield similar results using the Selective Auditory Attention Test. Method: Seventy-two typically…

  1. Auditory Cortex Is Required for Fear Potentiation of Gap Detection

    PubMed Central

    Weible, Aldis P.; Liu, Christine; Niell, Cristopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Auditory cortex is necessary for the perceptual detection of brief gaps in noise, but is not necessary for many other auditory tasks such as frequency discrimination, prepulse inhibition of startle responses, or fear conditioning with pure tones. It remains unclear why auditory cortex should be necessary for some auditory tasks but not others. One possibility is that auditory cortex is causally involved in gap detection and other forms of temporal processing in order to associate meaning with temporally structured sounds. This predicts that auditory cortex should be necessary for associating meaning with gaps. To test this prediction, we developed a fear conditioning paradigm for mice based on gap detection. We found that pairing a 10 or 100 ms gap with an aversive stimulus caused a robust enhancement of gap detection measured 6 h later, which we refer to as fear potentiation of gap detection. Optogenetic suppression of auditory cortex during pairing abolished this fear potentiation, indicating that auditory cortex is critically involved in associating temporally structured sounds with emotionally salient events. PMID:25392510

  2. Basic Auditory Processing and Developmental Dyslexia in Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Hsiao-Lan Sharon; Huss, Martina; Hamalainen, Jarmo A.; Goswami, Usha

    2012-01-01

    The present study explores the relationship between basic auditory processing of sound rise time, frequency, duration and intensity, phonological skills (onset-rime and tone awareness, sound blending, RAN, and phonological memory) and reading disability in Chinese. A series of psychometric, literacy, phonological, auditory, and character…

  3. Impact of Educational Level on Performance on Auditory Processing Tests

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Cristina F. B.; Rabelo, Camila M.; Silagi, Marcela L.; Mansur, Letícia L.; Schochat, Eliane

    2016-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that a higher level of education is associated with better performance on cognitive tests among middle-aged and elderly people. However, the effects of education on auditory processing skills have not yet been evaluated. Previous demonstrations of sensory-cognitive interactions in the aging process indicate the potential importance of this topic. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to investigate the performance of middle-aged and elderly people with different levels of formal education on auditory processing tests. A total of 177 adults with no evidence of cognitive, psychological or neurological conditions took part in the research. The participants completed a series of auditory assessments, including dichotic digit, frequency pattern and speech-in-noise tests. A working memory test was also performed to investigate the extent to which auditory processing and cognitive performance were associated. The results demonstrated positive but weak correlations between years of schooling and performance on all of the tests applied. The factor “years of schooling” was also one of the best predictors of frequency pattern and speech-in-noise test performance. Additionally, performance on the working memory, frequency pattern and dichotic digit tests was also correlated, suggesting that the influence of educational level on auditory processing performance might be associated with the cognitive demand of the auditory processing tests rather than auditory sensory aspects itself. Longitudinal research is required to investigate the causal relationship between educational level and auditory processing skills. PMID:27013958

  4. 21 CFR 874.1090 - Auditory impedance tester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 874.1090 Auditory impedance tester. (a) Identification. An auditory impedance tester is a device that is intended to change the air pressure in the... evaluate the functional condition of the middle ear. The device is used to determine abnormalities in...

  5. 21 CFR 874.1090 - Auditory impedance tester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 874.1090 Auditory impedance tester. (a) Identification. An auditory impedance tester is a device that is intended to change the air pressure in the... evaluate the functional condition of the middle ear. The device is used to determine abnormalities in...

  6. Multimodal Geographic Information Systems: Adding Haptic and Auditory Displays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeong, Wooseob

    2001-01-01

    This study consists of two experiments. Pitch, volume, and tempo in auditory-haptic geographic information systems were compared in terms of effectiveness for multimodal interface; volume was determined to be better. Auditory display with volume and haptic display with vibration were compared and the results showed that, in more complex geographic…

  7. Multimodal Bivariate Thematic Maps: Auditory and Haptic Display.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeong, Wooseob; Gluck, Myke

    2002-01-01

    Explores the possibility of multimodal bivariate thematic maps by utilizing auditory and haptic (sense of touch) displays. Measured completion time of tasks and the recall (retention) rate in two experiments, and findings confirmed the possibility of using auditory and haptic displays in geographic information systems (GIS). (Author/LRW)

  8. Auditory-Visual Transfer in Four-Month-Old Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendelson, Morton J.; Ferland, Mark B.

    1982-01-01

    Twenty-seven 4-month-old infants heard a repetitive auditory rhythm, then viewed silent film of puppet opening/closing its mouth, either in the familiar rhythm or a novel rhythm. Results showed infants exposed to the novel condition watched the film longer than infants shown the familiar condition, providing evidence for auditory-visual transfer…

  9. Auditory perceptual simulation: Simulating speech rates or accents?

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peiyun; Christianson, Kiel

    2016-07-01

    When readers engage in Auditory Perceptual Simulation (APS) during silent reading, they mentally simulate characteristics of voices attributed to a particular speaker or a character depicted in the text. Previous research found that auditory perceptual simulation of a faster native English speaker during silent reading led to shorter reading times that auditory perceptual simulation of a slower non-native English speaker. Yet, it was uncertain whether this difference was triggered by the different speech rates of the speakers, or by the difficulty of simulating an unfamiliar accent. The current study investigates this question by comparing faster Indian-English speech and slower American-English speech in the auditory perceptual simulation paradigm. Analyses of reading times of individual words and the full sentence reveal that the auditory perceptual simulation effect again modulated reading rate, and auditory perceptual simulation of the faster Indian-English speech led to faster reading rates compared to auditory perceptual simulation of the slower American-English speech. The comparison between this experiment and the data from Zhou and Christianson (2016) demonstrate further that the "speakers'" speech rates, rather than the difficulty of simulating a non-native accent, is the primary mechanism underlying auditory perceptual simulation effects.

  10. Auditory Temporal Processing Deficits in Children with Reading Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen-Mimran, Ravit; Sapir, Shimon

    2007-01-01

    The role of central auditory processing in reading skill development and reading disorders is unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine whether individuals with specific reading disabilities (SRD) have deficits in processing rapidly presented, serially ordered non-speech auditory signals. To this end, we compared 12 children with SRD and…

  11. Use of auditory learning to manage listening problems in children

    PubMed Central

    Moore, David R.; Halliday, Lorna F.; Amitay, Sygal

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews recent studies that have used adaptive auditory training to address communication problems experienced by some children in their everyday life. It considers the auditory contribution to developmental listening and language problems and the underlying principles of auditory learning that may drive further refinement of auditory learning applications. Following strong claims that language and listening skills in children could be improved by auditory learning, researchers have debated what aspect of training contributed to the improvement and even whether the claimed improvements reflect primarily a retest effect on the skill measures. Key to understanding this research have been more circumscribed studies of the transfer of learning and the use of multiple control groups to examine auditory and non-auditory contributions to the learning. Significant auditory learning can occur during relatively brief periods of training. As children mature, their ability to train improves, but the relation between the duration of training, amount of learning and benefit remains unclear. Individual differences in initial performance and amount of subsequent learning advocate tailoring training to individual learners. The mechanisms of learning remain obscure, especially in children, but it appears that the development of cognitive skills is of at least equal importance to the refinement of sensory processing. Promotion of retention and transfer of learning are major goals for further research. PMID:18986969

  12. Auditory and visual spatial impression: Recent studies of three auditoria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Andy; Cabrera, Densil

    2004-10-01

    Auditory spatial impression is widely studied for its contribution to auditorium acoustical quality. By contrast, visual spatial impression in auditoria has received relatively little attention in formal studies. This paper reports results from a series of experiments investigating the auditory and visual spatial impression of concert auditoria. For auditory stimuli, a fragment of an anechoic recording of orchestral music was convolved with calibrated binaural impulse responses, which had been made with the dummy head microphone at a wide range of positions in three auditoria and the sound source on the stage. For visual stimuli, greyscale photographs were used, taken at the same positions in the three auditoria, with a visual target on the stage. Subjective experiments were conducted with auditory stimuli alone, visual stimuli alone, and visual and auditory stimuli combined. In these experiments, subjects rated apparent source width, listener envelopment, intimacy and source distance (auditory stimuli), and spaciousness, envelopment, stage dominance, intimacy and target distance (visual stimuli). Results show target distance to be of primary importance in auditory and visual spatial impression-thereby providing a basis for covariance between some attributes of auditory and visual spatial impression. Nevertheless, some attributes of spatial impression diverge between the senses.

  13. Auditory Processing Learning Disability, Suicidal Ideation, and Transformational Faith

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Frank S.; Yocum, Russell G.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this personal experience as a narrative investigation is to describe how an auditory processing learning disability exacerbated--and how spirituality and religiosity relieved--suicidal ideation, through the lived experiences of an individual born and raised in the United States. The study addresses: (a) how an auditory processing…

  14. Auditory Processing Efficiency and Temporal Resolution in Children and Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Penelope R.; Hartley, Douglas E.H.; Glasberg, Brian R.; Moore, Brian C.J.; Moore, David R.

    2004-01-01

    Children have higher auditory backward masking (BM) thresholds than adults. One explanation for this is poor temporal resolution, resulting in difficulty separating brief or rapidly presented sounds. This implies that the auditory temporal window is broader in children than in adults. Alternatively, elevated BM thresholds in children may indicate…

  15. Natural stimuli improve auditory BCIs with respect to ergonomics and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höhne, Johannes; Krenzlin, Konrad; Dähne, Sven; Tangermann, Michael

    2012-08-01

    Moving from well-controlled, brisk artificial stimuli to natural and less-controlled stimuli seems counter-intuitive for event-related potential (ERP) studies. As natural stimuli typically contain a richer internal structure, they might introduce higher levels of variance and jitter in the ERP responses. Both characteristics are unfavorable for a good single-trial classification of ERPs in the context of a multi-class brain-computer interface (BCI) system, where the class-discriminant information between target stimuli and non-target stimuli must be maximized. For the application in an auditory BCI system, however, the transition from simple artificial tones to natural syllables can be useful despite the variance introduced. In the presented study, healthy users (N = 9) participated in an offline auditory nine-class BCI experiment with artificial and natural stimuli. It is shown that the use of syllables as natural stimuli does not only improve the users’ ergonomic ratings; also the classification performance is increased. Moreover, natural stimuli obtain a better balance in multi-class decisions, such that the number of systematic confusions between the nine classes is reduced. Hopefully, our findings may contribute to make auditory BCI paradigms more user friendly and applicable for patients.

  16. A role for descending auditory cortical projections in songbird vocal learning

    PubMed Central

    Mandelblat-Cerf, Yael; Las, Liora; Denisenko, Natalia; Fee, Michale S

    2014-01-01

    Many learned motor behaviors are acquired by comparing ongoing behavior with an internal representation of correct performance, rather than using an explicit external reward. For example, juvenile songbirds learn to sing by comparing their song with the memory of a tutor song. At present, the brain regions subserving song evaluation are not known. In this study, we report several findings suggesting that song evaluation involves an avian 'cortical' area previously shown to project to the dopaminergic midbrain and other downstream targets. We find that this ventral portion of the intermediate arcopallium (AIV) receives inputs from auditory cortical areas, and that lesions of AIV result in significant deficits in vocal learning. Additionally, AIV neurons exhibit fast responses to disruptive auditory feedback presented during singing, but not during nonsinging periods. Our findings suggest that auditory cortical areas may guide learning by transmitting song evaluation signals to the dopaminergic midbrain and/or other subcortical targets. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02152.001 PMID:24935934

  17. Maturation of human auditory cortex: implications for speech perception.

    PubMed

    Moore, Jean K

    2002-05-01

    This project traced the maturation of the human auditory cortex from midgestation to young adulthood, using immunostaining of axonal neurofilaments to determine the time of onset of rapid conduction. The study identified 3 developmental periods, each characterized by maturation of a different axonal system. During the perinatal period (3rd trimester to 4th postnatal month), neurofilament expression occurs only in axons of the marginal layer. These axons drive the structural and functional development of cells in the deeper cortical layers, but do not relay external stimuli. In early childhood (6 months to 5 years), maturing thalamocortical afferents to the deeper cortical layers are the first source of input to the auditory cortex from lower levels of the auditory system. During later childhood (5 to 12 years), maturation of commissural and association axons in the superficial cortical layers allows communication between different subdivisions of the auditory cortex, thus forming a basis for more complex cortical processing of auditory stimuli. PMID:12018354

  18. Comparisons of memory for nonverbal auditory and visual sequential stimuli.

    PubMed

    McFarland, D J; Cacace, A T

    1995-01-01

    Properties of auditory and visual sensory memory were compared by examining subjects' recognition performance of randomly generated binary auditory sequential frequency patterns and binary visual sequential color patterns within a forced-choice paradigm. Experiment 1 demonstrated serial-position effects in auditory and visual modalities consisting of both primacy and recency effects. Experiment 2 found that retention of auditory and visual information was remarkably similar when assessed across a 10s interval. Experiments 3 and 4, taken together, showed that the recency effect in sensory memory is affected more by the type of response required (recognition vs. reproduction) than by the sensory modality employed. These studies suggest that auditory and visual sensory memory stores for nonverbal stimuli share similar properties with respect to serial-position effects and persistence over time.

  19. Mapping unpleasantness of sounds to their auditory representation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sukhbinder; Forster, Helen M; Bailey, Peter; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2008-12-01

    Certain sounds, for example, the squeal of chalk on a blackboard, are typically perceived as highly unpleasant. This study addressed the question of what aspects of the auditory representation of such sounds are associated with judgments of unpleasantness. Participants rated the perceived unpleasantness of a large number of sounds that included "griding" and other unpleasant sounds. A multivariate partial least-squares (PLS) model was then built to relate the ratings of unpleasantness with an auditory representation derived from a model of processing in the auditory pathway. The "existence region" of unpleasantness in the auditory space of frequency-temporal modulation was determined after the PLS model had been validated by predicting the unpleasantness of novel sounds from the auditory representation. It was observed that the existence region corresponded to spectral frequencies between 2500 and 5500 Hz, and temporal modulations in the range 1-16 Hz.

  20. The onset of visual experience gates auditory cortex critical periods

    PubMed Central

    Mowery, Todd M.; Kotak, Vibhakar C.; Sanes, Dan H.

    2016-01-01

    Sensory systems influence one another during development and deprivation can lead to cross-modal plasticity. As auditory function begins before vision, we investigate the effect of manipulating visual experience during auditory cortex critical periods (CPs) by assessing the influence of early, normal and delayed eyelid opening on hearing loss-induced changes to membrane and inhibitory synaptic properties. Early eyelid opening closes the auditory cortex CPs precociously and dark rearing prevents this effect. In contrast, delayed eyelid opening extends the auditory cortex CPs by several additional days. The CP for recovery from hearing loss is also closed prematurely by early eyelid opening and extended by delayed eyelid opening. Furthermore, when coupled with transient hearing loss that animals normally fully recover from, very early visual experience leads to inhibitory deficits that persist into adulthood. Finally, we demonstrate a functional projection from the visual to auditory cortex that could mediate these effects. PMID:26786281

  1. Double dissociation of 'what' and 'where' processing in auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Lomber, Stephen G; Malhotra, Shveta

    2008-05-01

    Studies of cortical connections or neuronal function in different cerebral areas support the hypothesis that parallel cortical processing streams, similar to those identified in visual cortex, may exist in the auditory system. However, this model has not yet been behaviorally tested. We used reversible cooling deactivation to investigate whether the individual regions in cat nonprimary auditory cortex that are responsible for processing the pattern of an acoustic stimulus or localizing a sound in space could be doubly dissociated in the same animal. We found that bilateral deactivation of the posterior auditory field resulted in deficits in a sound-localization task, whereas bilateral deactivation of the anterior auditory field resulted in deficits in a pattern-discrimination task, but not vice versa. These findings support a model of cortical organization that proposes that identifying an acoustic stimulus ('what') and its spatial location ('where') are processed in separate streams in auditory cortex. PMID:18408717

  2. Overview of Central Auditory Processing Deficits in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Atcherson, Samuel R.; Nagaraj, Naveen K.; Kennett, Sarah E.W.; Levisee, Meredith

    2015-01-01

    Although there are many reported age-related declines in the human body, the notion that a central auditory processing deficit exists in older adults has not always been clear. Hearing loss and both structural and functional central nervous system changes with advancing age are contributors to how we listen, hear, and process auditory information. Even older adults with normal or near normal hearing sensitivity may exhibit age-related central auditory processing deficits as measured behaviorally and/or electrophysiologically. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of assessment and rehabilitative approaches for central auditory processing deficits in older adults. It is hoped that the outcome of the information presented here will help clinicians with older adult patients who do not exhibit the typical auditory processing behaviors exhibited by others at the same age and with comparable hearing sensitivity all in the absence of other health-related conditions. PMID:27516715

  3. Overview of Central Auditory Processing Deficits in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Atcherson, Samuel R; Nagaraj, Naveen K; Kennett, Sarah E W; Levisee, Meredith

    2015-08-01

    Although there are many reported age-related declines in the human body, the notion that a central auditory processing deficit exists in older adults has not always been clear. Hearing loss and both structural and functional central nervous system changes with advancing age are contributors to how we listen, hear, and process auditory information. Even older adults with normal or near normal hearing sensitivity may exhibit age-related central auditory processing deficits as measured behaviorally and/or electrophysiologically. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of assessment and rehabilitative approaches for central auditory processing deficits in older adults. It is hoped that the outcome of the information presented here will help clinicians with older adult patients who do not exhibit the typical auditory processing behaviors exhibited by others at the same age and with comparable hearing sensitivity all in the absence of other health-related conditions. PMID:27516715

  4. Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potential in HIV-Positive Adults

    PubMed Central

    Matas, Carla Gentile; Samelli, Alessandra Giannella; Angrisani, Rosanna Giaffredo; Magliaro, Fernanda Cristina Leite; Segurado, Aluísio C.

    2015-01-01

    Background To characterize the findings of brainstem auditory evoked potential in HIV-positive individuals exposed and not exposed to antiretroviral treatment. Material/Methods This research was a cross-sectional, observational, and descriptive study. Forty-five HIV-positive individuals (18 not exposed and 27 exposed to the antiretroviral treatment – research groups I and II, respectively – and 30 control group individuals) were assessed through brainstem auditory evoked potential. Results There were no significant between-group differences regarding wave latencies. A higher percentage of altered brainstem auditory evoked potential was observed in the HIV-positive groups when compared to the control group. The most common alteration was in the low brainstem. Conclusions HIV-positive individuals have a higher percentage of altered brainstem auditory evoked potential that suggests central auditory pathway impairment when compared to HIV-negative individuals. There was no significant difference between individuals exposed and not exposed to antiretroviral treatment. PMID:26485202

  5. Altered auditory function in rats exposed to hypergravic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. A.; Hoffman, L.; Horowitz, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of an orthodynamic hypergravic field of 6 G on the brainstem auditory projections was studied in rats. The brain temperature and EEG activity were recorded in the rats during 6 G orthodynamic acceleration and auditory brainstem responses were used to monitor auditory function. Results show that all animals exhibited auditory brainstem responses which indicated impaired conduction and transmission of brainstem auditory signals during the exposure to the 6 G acceleration field. Significant increases in central conduction time were observed for peaks 3N, 4P, 4N, and 5P (N = negative, P = positive), while the absolute latency values for these same peaks were also significantly increased. It is concluded that these results, along with those for fields below 4 G (Jones and Horowitz, 1981), indicate that impaired function proceeds in a rostro-caudal progression as field strength is increased.

  6. Attention, Awareness, and the Perception of Auditory Scenes

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Joel S.; Gregg, Melissa K.; Weintraub, David M.; Alain, Claude

    2011-01-01

    Auditory perception and cognition entails both low-level and high-level processes, which are likely to interact with each other to create our rich conscious experience of soundscapes. Recent research that we review has revealed numerous influences of high-level factors, such as attention, intention, and prior experience, on conscious auditory perception. And recently, studies have shown that auditory scene analysis tasks can exhibit multistability in a manner very similar to ambiguous visual stimuli, presenting a unique opportunity to study neural correlates of auditory awareness and the extent to which mechanisms of perception are shared across sensory modalities. Research has also led to a growing number of techniques through which auditory perception can be manipulated and even completely suppressed. Such findings have important consequences for our understanding of the mechanisms of perception and also should allow scientists to precisely distinguish the influences of different higher-level influences. PMID:22347201

  7. Estimating Subglottal Pressure via Airflow Interruption with Auditory Masking

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Matthew R.; Jiang, Jack J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Current noninvasive measurement of subglottal pressure using airflow interruption often produces inconsistent results due to the elicitation of audio-laryngeal reflexes. Auditory feedback could be considered as a means of ensuring measurement accuracy and precision. The purpose of this study was to determine if auditory masking could be used with the airflow interruption system to improve intrasubject consistency. Study Design A prerecorded sample of subject phonation was played on a loop over headphones during the trials with auditory masking. This provided subjects with a target pitch and blocked out distracting ambient noise created by the airflow interrupter. Methods Subglottal pressure was noninvasively measured using the airflow interruption system. Thirty subjects, divided into two equal groups, performed ten trials without auditory masking and ten trials with auditory masking. Group one performed the normal trials first, followed by the trials with auditory masking. Group two performed the auditory masking trials first, followed by the normal trials. Results Intrasubject consistency was improved by adding auditory masking, resulting in a decrease in average intrasubject standard deviation from 0.93 ± 0.51 to 0.47 ± 0.22 cmH2O (p < .001). Conclusions Auditory masking can be used effectively to combat audio-laryngeal reflexes and aid subjects in maintaining constant glottal configuration and frequency, thereby increasing intrasubject consistency when measuring subglottal pressure. By considering auditory feedback, a more reliable method of measurement was developed. This method could be employed by clinicians, as reliable, immediately available values of subglottal pressure are useful in evaluating laryngeal health and monitoring treatment progress. PMID:18538988

  8. Auditory complaints in scuba divers: an overview.

    PubMed

    Evens, Rachel A; Bardsley, Barry; C Manchaiah, Vinaya K

    2012-03-01

    Pre-1970s, diving was seen as a predominantly male working occupation. Since then it has become a popular hobby, with increasing access to SCUBA diving while on holiday. For a leisure activity, diving puts the auditory system at the risk of a wide variety of complaints. However, there is still insufficient consensus on the frequency of these conditions, which ultimately would require more attention from hearing-healthcare professionals. A literature search of epidemiology studies of eight auditory complaints was conducted, using both individual and large-scale diving studies, with some reference to large-scale non-diving populations . A higher incidence was found for middle ear barotrauma, eustachian tube dysfunction, and alternobaric vertigo with a high correlation among females. Comparing these findings with a non-diving population found no statistically significant difference for hearing loss or tinnitus. Increased awareness of health professionals is required, training, and implementation of the Frenzel technique would help resolve the ambiguities of the Valsalva technique underwater. PMID:23448900

  9. Happiness increases distraction by auditory deviant stimuli.

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Unguetti, Antonia Pilar; Parmentier, Fabrice B R

    2016-08-01

    Rare and unexpected changes (deviants) in an otherwise repeated stream of task-irrelevant auditory distractors (standards) capture attention and impair behavioural performance in an ongoing visual task. Recent evidence indicates that this effect is increased by sadness in a task involving neutral stimuli. We tested the hypothesis that such effect may not be limited to negative emotions but reflect a general depletion of attentional resources by examining whether a positive emotion (happiness) would increase deviance distraction too. Prior to performing an auditory-visual oddball task, happiness or a neutral mood was induced in participants by means of the exposure to music and the recollection of an autobiographical event. Results from the oddball task showed significantly larger deviance distraction following the induction of happiness. Interestingly, the small amount of distraction typically observed on the standard trial following a deviant trial (post-deviance distraction) was not increased by happiness. We speculate that happiness might interfere with the disengagement of attention from the deviant sound back towards the target stimulus (through the depletion of cognitive resources and/or mind wandering) but help subsequent cognitive control to recover from distraction. PMID:26302716

  10. Cooperative Nonlinearities in Auditory Cortical Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Atencio, Craig A.; Sharpee, Tatyana O.; Schreiner, Christoph E.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Cortical receptive fields represent the signal preferences of sensory neurons. Receptive fields are thought to provide a representation of sensory experience from which the cerebral cortex may make interpretations. While it is essential to determine a neuron’s receptive field, it remains unclear which features of the acoustic environment are specifically represented by neurons in the primary auditory cortex (AI). We characterized cat AI spectrotemporal receptive fields (STRFs) by finding both the spike-triggered average (STA) and stimulus dimensions that maximized the mutual information between response and stimulus. We derived a nonlinearity relating spiking to stimulus projection onto two maximally informative dimensions (MIDs). The STA was highly correlated with the first MID. Generally, the nonlinearity for the first MID was asymmetric and often monotonic in shape, while the second MID nonlinearity was symmetric and non-monotonic. The joint nonlinearity for both MIDs revealed that most first and second MIDs were synergistic, and thus should be considered conjointly. The difference between the nonlinearities suggests different possible roles for the MIDs in auditory processing. PMID:18579084

  11. Happiness increases distraction by auditory deviant stimuli.

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Unguetti, Antonia Pilar; Parmentier, Fabrice B R

    2016-08-01

    Rare and unexpected changes (deviants) in an otherwise repeated stream of task-irrelevant auditory distractors (standards) capture attention and impair behavioural performance in an ongoing visual task. Recent evidence indicates that this effect is increased by sadness in a task involving neutral stimuli. We tested the hypothesis that such effect may not be limited to negative emotions but reflect a general depletion of attentional resources by examining whether a positive emotion (happiness) would increase deviance distraction too. Prior to performing an auditory-visual oddball task, happiness or a neutral mood was induced in participants by means of the exposure to music and the recollection of an autobiographical event. Results from the oddball task showed significantly larger deviance distraction following the induction of happiness. Interestingly, the small amount of distraction typically observed on the standard trial following a deviant trial (post-deviance distraction) was not increased by happiness. We speculate that happiness might interfere with the disengagement of attention from the deviant sound back towards the target stimulus (through the depletion of cognitive resources and/or mind wandering) but help subsequent cognitive control to recover from distraction.

  12. Increased auditory cortical representation in musicians.

    PubMed

    Pantev, C; Oostenveld, R; Engelien, A; Ross, B; Roberts, L E; Hoke, M

    1998-04-23

    Acoustic stimuli are processed throughout the auditory projection pathway, including the neocortex, by neurons that are aggregated into 'tonotopic' maps according to their specific frequency tunings. Research on animals has shown that tonotopic representations are not statically fixed in the adult organism but can reorganize after damage to the cochlea or after training the intact subject to discriminate between auditory stimuli. Here we used functional magnetic source imaging (single dipole model) to measure cortical representations in highly skilled musicians. Dipole moments for piano tones, but not for pure tones of similar fundamental frequency (matched in loudness), were found to be enlarged by about 25% in musicians compared with control subjects who had never played an instrument. Enlargement was correlated with the age at which musicians began to practise and did not differ between musicians with absolute or relative pitch. These results, when interpreted with evidence for modified somatosensory representations of the fingering digits in skilled violinists, suggest that use-dependent functional reorganization extends across the sensory cortices to reflect the pattern of sensory input processed by the subject during development of musical skill.

  13. Auditory complaints in scuba divers: an overview.

    PubMed

    Evens, Rachel A; Bardsley, Barry; C Manchaiah, Vinaya K

    2012-03-01

    Pre-1970s, diving was seen as a predominantly male working occupation. Since then it has become a popular hobby, with increasing access to SCUBA diving while on holiday. For a leisure activity, diving puts the auditory system at the risk of a wide variety of complaints. However, there is still insufficient consensus on the frequency of these conditions, which ultimately would require more attention from hearing-healthcare professionals. A literature search of epidemiology studies of eight auditory complaints was conducted, using both individual and large-scale diving studies, with some reference to large-scale non-diving populations . A higher incidence was found for middle ear barotrauma, eustachian tube dysfunction, and alternobaric vertigo with a high correlation among females. Comparing these findings with a non-diving population found no statistically significant difference for hearing loss or tinnitus. Increased awareness of health professionals is required, training, and implementation of the Frenzel technique would help resolve the ambiguities of the Valsalva technique underwater.

  14. Selective attention in an insect auditory neuron.

    PubMed

    Pollack, G S

    1988-07-01

    Previous work (Pollack, 1986) showed that an identified auditory neuron of crickets, the omega neuron, selectively encodes the temporal structure of an ipsilateral sound stimulus when a contralateral stimulus is presented simultaneously, even though the contralateral stimulus is clearly encoded when it is presented alone. The present paper investigates the physiological basis for this selective response. The selectivity for the ipsilateral stimulus is a result of the apparent intensity difference of ipsi- and contralateral stimuli, which is imposed by auditory directionality; when simultaneous presentation of stimuli from the 2 sides is mimicked by presenting low- and high-intensity stimuli simultaneously from the ipsilateral side, the neuron responds selectively to the high-intensity stimulus, even though the low-intensity stimulus is effective when it is presented alone. The selective encoding of the more intense (= ipsilateral) stimulus is due to intensity-dependent inhibition, which is superimposed on the cell's excitatory response to sound. Because of the inhibition, the stimulus with lower intensity (i.e., the contralateral stimulus) is rendered subthreshold, while the stimulus with higher intensity (the ipsilateral stimulus) remains above threshold. Consequently, the temporal structure of the low-intensity stimulus is filtered out of the neuron's spike train. The source of the inhibition is not known. It is not a consequence of activation of the omega neuron. Its characteristics are not consistent with those of known inhibitory inputs to the omega neuron.

  15. Auditory Preferences of Young Children with and without Hearing Loss for Meaningful Auditory-Visual Compound Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zupan, Barbra; Sussman, Joan E.

    2009-01-01

    Experiment 1 examined modality preferences in children and adults with normal hearing to combined auditory-visual stimuli. Experiment 2 compared modality preferences in children using cochlear implants participating in an auditory emphasized therapy approach to the children with normal hearing from Experiment 1. A second objective in both…

  16. Auditory Masking Effects on Speech Fluency in Apraxia of Speech and Aphasia: Comparison to Altered Auditory Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacks, Adam; Haley, Katarina L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To study the effects of masked auditory feedback (MAF) on speech fluency in adults with aphasia and/or apraxia of speech (APH/AOS). We hypothesized that adults with AOS would increase speech fluency when speaking with noise. Altered auditory feedback (AAF; i.e., delayed/frequency-shifted feedback) was included as a control condition not…

  17. The Effect of Gender on the N1-P2 Auditory Complex while Listening and Speaking with Altered Auditory Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swink, Shannon; Stuart, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The effect of gender on the N1-P2 auditory complex was examined while listening and speaking with altered auditory feedback. Fifteen normal hearing adult males and 15 females participated. N1-P2 components were evoked while listening to self-produced nonaltered and frequency shifted /a/ tokens and during production of /a/ tokens during nonaltered…

  18. Quantitative Meta-Analysis on State and Trait Aspects of Auditory Verbal Hallucinations in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Kühn, Simone; Gallinat, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) have a high prevalence in schizophrenic patients. An array of studies have explored the neural correlates of AVHs by means of functional neuroimaging and have associated AVHs with diverse brain regions, some of which have been shown to be involved in speech generation, speech perception, and auditory stimulus processing. We divided these studies into “state” studies comparing periods of presence and absence of AVHs within-subject and “trait” studies comparing patients experiencing AVHs with patients without AVHs or healthy controls during tasks with verbal material. We set out to test the internal consistency and possible dissociations of the neural correlates of AVHs. We used activation likelihood estimation to perform quantitative meta-analyses on brain regions reported in state and trait studies on AVHs to assess significant concordance across studies. State studies were associated with activation in bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, bilateral postcentral gyrus, and left parietal operculum. Trait studies on the other hand showed convergence of decreases in hallucinating subjects in left superior temporal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, anterior cingulate cortex, and left premotor cortex activity. Based on the clear dissociation of brain regions that show convergence across state in comparison to trait studies, we conclude that the state of experiencing AVHs is primarily related brain regions that have been implicated in speech production ie, Broca’s area, whereas the general trait that makes humans prone to AVHs seems to be related to brain areas involved in auditory stimuli processing and speech perception, ie, auditory cortex. PMID:21177743

  19. Incorporating Auditory Models in Speech/Audio Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamoorthi, Harish

    2011-12-01

    Following the success in incorporating perceptual models in audio coding algorithms, their application in other speech/audio processing systems is expanding. In general, all perceptual speech/audio processing algorithms involve minimization of an objective function that directly/indirectly incorporates properties of human perception. This dissertation primarily investigates the problems associated with directly embedding an auditory model in the objective function formulation and proposes possible solutions to overcome high complexity issues for use in real-time speech/audio algorithms. Specific problems addressed in this dissertation include: 1) the development of approximate but computationally efficient auditory model implementations that are consistent with the principles of psychoacoustics, 2) the development of a mapping scheme that allows synthesizing a time/frequency domain representation from its equivalent auditory model output. The first problem is aimed at addressing the high computational complexity involved in solving perceptual objective functions that require repeated application of auditory model for evaluation of different candidate solutions. In this dissertation, a frequency pruning and a detector pruning algorithm is developed that efficiently implements the various auditory model stages. The performance of the pruned model is compared to that of the original auditory model for different types of test signals in the SQAM database. Experimental results indicate only a 4-7% relative error in loudness while attaining up to 80-90 % reduction in computational complexity. Similarly, a hybrid algorithm is developed specifically for use with sinusoidal signals and employs the proposed auditory pattern combining technique together with a look-up table to store representative auditory patterns. The second problem obtains an estimate of the auditory representation that minimizes a perceptual objective function and transforms the auditory pattern back to

  20. Anthropometry of external auditory canal by non-contactable measurement.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jen-Fang; Lee, Kun-Che; Wang, Ren-Hung; Chen, Yen-Sheng; Fan, Chun-Chieh; Peng, Ying-Chin; Tu, Tsung-Hsien; Chen, Ching-I; Lin, Kuei-Yi

    2015-09-01

    Human ear canals cannot be measured directly with existing general measurement tools. Furthermore, general non-contact optical methods can only conduct simple peripheral measurements of the auricle and cannot obtain the internal ear canal shape-related measurement data. Therefore, this study uses the computed tomography (CT) technology to measure the geometric shape of the ear canal and the shape of the ear canal using a non-invasive method, and to complete the anthropometry of external auditory canal. The results of the study show that the average height and width of ear canal openings, and the average depth of the first bend for men are generally longer, wider and deeper than those for women. In addition, the difference between the height and width of the ear canal opening is about 40% (p < 0.05). Hence, the circular cross-section shape of the earplugs should be replaced with an elliptical cross-section shape during manufacturing for better fitting.

  1. Neuronal oscillations as a mechanistic substrate of auditory temporal prediction

    PubMed Central

    Morillon, Benjamin; Schroeder, Charles E.

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal oscillations are comprised of rhythmic fluctuations of excitability that are synchronized in ensembles of neurons and thus function as temporal filters that dynamically organize sensory processing. When perception relies on anticipatory mechanisms, ongoing oscillations also provide a neurophysiological substrate for temporal prediction. In this article we review evidence for this account with a focus on auditory perception. We argue that such “oscillatory temporal predictions” can selectively amplify neuronal sensitivity to inputs that occur in a predicted, task-relevant rhythm and optimize temporal selection. We elaborate this argument for a prototypic example, speech processing, where information is present at multiple time scales, with delta, theta, and low-gamma oscillations being specifically and simultaneously engaged, enabling multiplexing. We then consider the origin of temporal predictions, specifically the idea that the motor system is involved in the generation of such prior information. Finally, we place temporal predictions in the general context of internal models, discussing how they interact with feature-based or spatial predictions. We propose that complementary predictions interact synergistically according to a dominance hierarchy, shaping perception in the form of a multidimensional filter mechanism. PMID:25773613

  2. Anthropometry of external auditory canal by non-contactable measurement.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jen-Fang; Lee, Kun-Che; Wang, Ren-Hung; Chen, Yen-Sheng; Fan, Chun-Chieh; Peng, Ying-Chin; Tu, Tsung-Hsien; Chen, Ching-I; Lin, Kuei-Yi

    2015-09-01

    Human ear canals cannot be measured directly with existing general measurement tools. Furthermore, general non-contact optical methods can only conduct simple peripheral measurements of the auricle and cannot obtain the internal ear canal shape-related measurement data. Therefore, this study uses the computed tomography (CT) technology to measure the geometric shape of the ear canal and the shape of the ear canal using a non-invasive method, and to complete the anthropometry of external auditory canal. The results of the study show that the average height and width of ear canal openings, and the average depth of the first bend for men are generally longer, wider and deeper than those for women. In addition, the difference between the height and width of the ear canal opening is about 40% (p < 0.05). Hence, the circular cross-section shape of the earplugs should be replaced with an elliptical cross-section shape during manufacturing for better fitting. PMID:25959317

  3. Otoacoustic Emissions (Part I) and central auditory effects: A moderated discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Wei; Verhulst, Sarah

    2015-12-01

    The following is an edited transcript of a recorded discussion session on the topics of "Otoacoustic Emissions" and "Central Auditory Effects". The discussion, moderated by the authors, took place at the 12th International Workshop on the Mechanics of Hearing held at Cape Sounio, Greece, in June 2014. All participants knew that the session was being recorded. In view of both the spontaneous nature of the discussion and the editing, however, this transcript may not represent the considered or final views of the participants, and may not represent a consensus of experts in the field. The reader is advised to consult additional independent publications.

  4. Infants' Localization of Sounds in the Horizontal Plane: Effects of Auditory and Visual Cues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrongiello, Barbara A.; Rocca, Patrick T.

    1987-01-01

    Discrepancy between angl head turn and loudspeaker location was measured on infants in auditory-alone and auditory-visual trials. Age and loudspeaker location had no effect on performance in auditory-visual trials. However, in auditory-alone trials, there were significant age differences. (PCB)

  5. LAMP: 100+ Systematic Exercise Lessons for Developing Linguistic Auditory Memory Patterns in Beginning Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valett, Robert E.

    Research findings on auditory sequencing and auditory blending and fusion, auditory-visual integration, and language patterns are presented in support of the Linguistic Auditory Memory Patterns (LAMP) program. LAMP consists of 100 developmental lessons for young students with learning disabilities or language problems. The lessons are included in…

  6. A Developmental Study of Visual and Auditory Short-Term Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Alexander W.; Allik, Judith P.

    Kindergarten, second-grade, fifth-grade, and college subjects were tested in a serial-position recall task under each of four conditions: Visual stimuli/visual recall cue, visual stimuli/auditory recall cue, auditory stimuli/visual recall cue, auditory stimuli/auditory recall cue. Visual stimuli were pictures of common animals and objects;…

  7. The Role of Auditory Cues in the Spatial Knowledge of Blind Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Papadimitriou, Kimon; Koutsoklenis, Athanasios

    2012-01-01

    The study presented here sought to explore the role of auditory cues in the spatial knowledge of blind individuals by examining the relation between the perceived auditory cues and the landscape of a given area and by investigating how blind individuals use auditory cues to create cognitive maps. The findings reveal that several auditory cues…

  8. Ontogenetic Change in the Auditory Conditioned Stimulus Pathway for Eyeblink Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, John H.; Campolattaro, Matthew M.

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments examined the neural mechanisms underlying the ontogenetic emergence of auditory eyeblink conditioning. Previous studies found that the medial auditory thalamus is necessary for eyeblink conditioning with an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS) in adult rats. In experiment 1, stimulation of the medial auditory thalamus was used as a…

  9. Auditory P3 latency and amplitude: relationships to earlier exogenous auditory events.

    PubMed

    Spongberg, T; Decker, T N

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship for latency and amplitude between exogenous auditory potentials arising at the level of cranial nerve VIII and continuing through the level of the cortex and the auditory P3 endogenous potential. Thirty-four normal hearing adults participated in the study. Binaural ABR, MLR, LCR, and P3 recordings were obtained using 2 kHz tone bursts as the stimulus. Relationships between peak latencies and amplitudes from the early, middle, and late potentials were analyzed using Pearson Product-Moment correlation procedures and multiple regression analyses. Results indicated no significant positive relationships for latency or amplitude between early, middle, or late exogenous potentials and the endogenous P3 potential. Pa of the MLR and P3 demonstrated significant latency/amplitude trading functions. The present data support the hypothesis that P3 latency and amplitude are not related to the latencies and amplitudes of the exogenous responses.

  10. Stream segregation in the anesthetized auditory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Scholes, Chris; Palmer, Alan R.; Sumner, Christian J.

    2015-01-01

    Auditory stream segregation describes the way that sounds are perceptually segregated into groups or streams on the basis of perceptual attributes such as pitch or spectral content. For sequences of pure tones, segregation depends on the tones' proximity in frequency and time. In the auditory cortex (and elsewhere) responses to sequences of tones are dependent on stimulus conditions in a similar way to the perception of these stimuli. However, although highly dependent on stimulus conditions, perception is also clearly influenced by factors unrelated to the stimulus, such as attention. Exactly how ‘bottom-up’ sensory processes and non-sensory ‘top-down’ influences interact is still not clear. Here, we recorded responses to alternating tones (ABAB …) of varying frequency difference (FD) and rate of presentation (PR) in the auditory cortex of anesthetized guinea-pigs. These data complement previous studies, in that top-down processing resulting from conscious perception should be absent or at least considerably attenuated. Under anesthesia, the responses of cortical neurons to the tone sequences adapted rapidly, in a manner sensitive to both the FD and PR of the sequences. While the responses to tones at frequencies more distant from neuron best frequencies (BFs) decreased as the FD increased, the responses to tones near to BF increased, consistent with a release from adaptation, or forward suppression. Increases in PR resulted in reductions in responses to all tones, but the reduction was greater for tones further from BF. Although asymptotically adapted responses to tones showed behavior that was qualitatively consistent with perceptual stream segregation, responses reached asymptote within 2 s, and responses to all tones were very weak at high PRs (>12 tones per second). A signal-detection model, driven by the cortical population response, made decisions that were dependent on both FD and PR in ways consistent with perceptual stream segregation. This

  11. Brainstem auditory evoked potential in clinical hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Kirti; Kumar, Naresh; Behera, Joshil Kumar; Sood, Sushma; Das, Sibadatta; Madan, Harnam Singh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The association of hypothyroidism with impairment of hearing is known to occur. It may be of any kind i. e., conductive, sensorineural or mixed. The aim of this study is to assess auditory pathway by brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) in newly diagnosed patients of clinical hypothyroidism and healthy sex- and age-matched controls. Materials and Methods: The study included 25 healthy age- and sex-matched controls (Group I) and 25 patients of newly diagnosed clinical hypothyroidism (Group II). The recording was taken by using RMS EMG EP MK2 equipment. Statistical Analysis Used: Unpaired Student's t test. Results: There was a significant increase in wave IV (5.16 ± 0.85 ms) and wave V (6.17 ± 0.89 ms) latencies of right ear BAEP of Group II in comparison to wave IV (4.66 ± 0.39 ms) and wave V (5.49 ± 0.26 ms) of Group I. Wave V of left ear BAEP of Group II was also prolonged (6 ± 0.61 ms) in comparison to Group I (5.47 ± 0.35 ms). There was a significant difference in inter-peak latencies IPL I -V (4.44 ± 0.66 ms) and IPL III -V (2.2 ± 0.5 ms) of right ear BAEP of Group II in comparison to IPL I -V (3.94 ± 0.31 ms) and IPL III -V (1.84 ± 0.34 ms) of Group I. A significant prolongation was also found of IPL I -V (4.36 ± 0.59 ms) and IPL III -V (2.2 ± 0.42 ms) of left ear BAEP of Group II in comparison to IPL I -V (3.89 ± 0.3 ms) and IPL III -V (1.85 ± 0.3 ms) of Group I. Conclusion: Prolongation of wave IV and V along with inter-peak latencies in BAEP of both ears suggests that central auditory pathway is affected significantly in clinical hypothyroid patients. PMID:26229759

  12. Localized Cell and Drug Delivery for Auditory Prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Hendricks, Jeffrey L.; Chikar, Jennifer A.; Crumling, Mark A.; Raphael, Yehoash; Martin, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Localized cell and drug delivery to the cochlea and central auditory pathway can improve the safety and performance of implanted auditory prostheses (APs). While generally successful, these devices have a number of limitations and adverse effects including limited tonal and dynamic ranges, channel interactions, unwanted stimulation of non-auditory nerves, immune rejection, and infections including meningitis. Many of these limitations are associated with the tissue reactions to implanted auditory prosthetic devices and the gradual degeneration of the auditory system following deafness. Strategies to reduce the insertion trauma, degeneration of target neurons, fibrous and bony tissue encapsulation, and immune activation can improve the viability of tissue required for AP function as well as improve the resolution of stimulation for reduced channel interaction and improved place-pitch and level discrimination. Many pharmaceutical compounds have been identified that promote the viability of auditory tissue and prevent inflammation and infection. Cell delivery and gene therapy have provided promising results for treating hearing loss and reversing degeneration. Currently, many clinical and experimental methods can produce extremely localized and sustained drug delivery to address AP limitations. These methods provide better control over drug concentrations while eliminating the adverse effects of systemic delivery. Many of these drug delivery techniques can be integrated into modern auditory prosthetic devices to optimize the tissue response to the implanted device and reduce the risk of infection or rejection. Together, these methods and pharmaceutical agents can be used to optimize the tissue-device interface for improved AP safety and effectiveness. PMID:18573323

  13. Auditory-Perceptual Learning Improves Speech Motor Adaptation in Children

    PubMed Central

    Shiller, Douglas M.; Rochon, Marie-Lyne

    2015-01-01

    Auditory feedback plays an important role in children’s speech development by providing the child with information about speech outcomes that is used to learn and fine-tune speech motor plans. The use of auditory feedback in speech motor learning has been extensively studied in adults by examining oral motor responses to manipulations of auditory feedback during speech production. Children are also capable of adapting speech motor patterns to perceived changes in auditory feedback, however it is not known whether their capacity for motor learning is limited by immature auditory-perceptual abilities. Here, the link between speech perceptual ability and the capacity for motor learning was explored in two groups of 5–7-year-old children who underwent a period of auditory perceptual training followed by tests of speech motor adaptation to altered auditory feedback. One group received perceptual training on a speech acoustic property relevant to the motor task while a control group received perceptual training on an irrelevant speech contrast. Learned perceptual improvements led to an enhancement in speech motor adaptation (proportional to the perceptual change) only for the experimental group. The results indicate that children’s ability to perceive relevant speech acoustic properties has a direct influence on their capacity for sensory-based speech motor adaptation. PMID:24842067

  14. Biological impact of music and software-based auditory training

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, Nina

    2012-01-01

    Auditory-based communication skills are developed at a young age and are maintained throughout our lives. However, some individuals – both young and old – encounter difficulties in achieving or maintaining communication proficiency. Biological signals arising from hearing sounds relate to real-life communication skills such as listening to speech in noisy environments and reading, pointing to an intersection between hearing and cognition. Musical experience, amplification, and software-based training can improve these biological signals. These findings of biological plasticity, in a variety of subject populations, relate to attention and auditory memory, and represent an integrated auditory system influenced by both sensation and cognition. Learning outcomes The reader will (1) understand that the auditory system is malleable to experience and training, (2) learn the ingredients necessary for auditory learning to successfully be applied to communication, (3) learn that the auditory brainstem response to complex sounds (cABR) is a window into the integrated auditory system, and (4) see examples of how cABR can be used to track the outcome of experience and training. PMID:22789822

  15. Auditory-visual crossmodal integration in perception of face gender.

    PubMed

    Smith, Eric L; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2007-10-01

    Whereas extensive neuroscientific and behavioral evidence has confirmed a role of auditory-visual integration in representing space [1-6], little is known about the role of auditory-visual integration in object perception. Although recent neuroimaging results suggest integrated auditory-visual object representations [7-11], substantiating behavioral evidence has been lacking. We demonstrated auditory-visual integration in the perception of face gender by using pure tones that are processed in low-level auditory brain areas and that lack the spectral components that characterize human vocalization. When androgynous faces were presented together with pure tones in the male fundamental-speaking-frequency range, faces were more likely to be judged as male, whereas when faces were presented with pure tones in the female fundamental-speaking-frequency range, they were more likely to be judged as female. Importantly, when participants were explicitly asked to attribute gender to these pure tones, their judgments were primarily based on relative pitch and were uncorrelated with the male and female fundamental-speaking-frequency ranges. This perceptual dissociation of absolute-frequency-based crossmodal-integration effects from relative-pitch-based explicit perception of the tones provides evidence for a sensory integration of auditory and visual signals in representing human gender. This integration probably develops because of concurrent neural processing of visual and auditory features of gender.

  16. Spatial processing in the auditory cortex of the macaque monkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recanzone, Gregg H.

    2000-10-01

    The patterns of cortico-cortical and cortico-thalamic connections of auditory cortical areas in the rhesus monkey have led to the hypothesis that acoustic information is processed in series and in parallel in the primate auditory cortex. Recent physiological experiments in the behaving monkey indicate that the response properties of neurons in different cortical areas are both functionally distinct from each other, which is indicative of parallel processing, and functionally similar to each other, which is indicative of serial processing. Thus, auditory cortical processing may be similar to the serial and parallel "what" and "where" processing by the primate visual cortex. If "where" information is serially processed in the primate auditory cortex, neurons in cortical areas along this pathway should have progressively better spatial tuning properties. This prediction is supported by recent experiments that have shown that neurons in the caudomedial field have better spatial tuning properties than neurons in the primary auditory cortex. Neurons in the caudomedial field are also better than primary auditory cortex neurons at predicting the sound localization ability across different stimulus frequencies and bandwidths in both azimuth and elevation. These data support the hypothesis that the primate auditory cortex processes acoustic information in a serial and parallel manner and suggest that this may be a general cortical mechanism for sensory perception.

  17. Missing a trick: Auditory load modulates conscious awareness in audition.

    PubMed

    Fairnie, Jake; Moore, Brian C J; Remington, Anna

    2016-07-01

    In the visual domain there is considerable evidence supporting the Load Theory of Attention and Cognitive Control, which holds that conscious perception of background stimuli depends on the level of perceptual load involved in a primary task. However, literature on the applicability of this theory to the auditory domain is limited and, in many cases, inconsistent. Here we present a novel "auditory search task" that allows systematic investigation of the impact of auditory load on auditory conscious perception. An array of simultaneous, spatially separated sounds was presented to participants. On half the trials, a critical stimulus was presented concurrently with the array. Participants were asked to detect which of 2 possible targets was present in the array (primary task), and whether the critical stimulus was present or absent (secondary task). Increasing the auditory load of the primary task (raising the number of sounds in the array) consistently reduced the ability to detect the critical stimulus. This indicates that, at least in certain situations, load theory applies in the auditory domain. The implications of this finding are discussed both with respect to our understanding of typical audition and for populations with altered auditory processing. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. Auditory-perceptual learning improves speech motor adaptation in children.

    PubMed

    Shiller, Douglas M; Rochon, Marie-Lyne

    2014-08-01

    Auditory feedback plays an important role in children's speech development by providing the child with information about speech outcomes that is used to learn and fine-tune speech motor plans. The use of auditory feedback in speech motor learning has been extensively studied in adults by examining oral motor responses to manipulations of auditory feedback during speech production. Children are also capable of adapting speech motor patterns to perceived changes in auditory feedback; however, it is not known whether their capacity for motor learning is limited by immature auditory-perceptual abilities. Here, the link between speech perceptual ability and the capacity for motor learning was explored in two groups of 5- to 7-year-old children who underwent a period of auditory perceptual training followed by tests of speech motor adaptation to altered auditory feedback. One group received perceptual training on a speech acoustic property relevant to the motor task while a control group received perceptual training on an irrelevant speech contrast. Learned perceptual improvements led to an enhancement in speech motor adaptation (proportional to the perceptual change) only for the experimental group. The results indicate that children's ability to perceive relevant speech acoustic properties has a direct influence on their capacity for sensory-based speech motor adaptation.

  19. Translation and adaptation of functional auditory performance indicators (FAPI)

    PubMed Central

    FERREIRA, Karina; MORET, Adriane Lima Mortari; BEVILACQUA, Maria Cecilia; JACOB, Regina de Souza Tangerino

    2011-01-01

    Work with deaf children has gained new attention since the expectation and goal of therapy has expanded to language development and subsequent language learning. Many clinical tests were developed for evaluation of speech sound perception in young children in response to the need for accurate assessment of hearing skills that developed from the use of individual hearing aids or cochlear implants. These tests also allow the evaluation of the rehabilitation program. However, few of these tests are available in Portuguese. Evaluation with the Functional Auditory Performance Indicators (FAPI) generates a child's functional auditory skills profile, which lists auditory skills in an integrated and hierarchical order. It has seven hierarchical categories, including sound awareness, meaningful sound, auditory feedback, sound source localizing, auditory discrimination, short-term auditory memory, and linguistic auditory processing. FAPI evaluation allows the therapist to map the child's hearing profile performance, determine the target for increasing the hearing abilities, and develop an effective therapeutic plan. Objective Since the FAPI is an American test, the inventory was adapted for application in the Brazilian population. Material and Methods The translation was done following the steps of translation and back translation, and reproducibility was evaluated. Four translated versions (two originals and two back-translated) were compared, and revisions were done to ensure language adaptation and grammatical and idiomatic equivalence. Results The inventory was duly translated and adapted. Conclusion Further studies about the application of the translated FAPI are necessary to make the test practicable in Brazilian clinical use. PMID:22230992

  20. A corollary discharge maintains auditory sensitivity during sound production.

    PubMed

    Poulet, James F A; Hedwig, Berthold

    2002-08-22

    Speaking and singing present the auditory system of the caller with two fundamental problems: discriminating between self-generated and external auditory signals and preventing desensitization. In humans and many other vertebrates, auditory neurons in the brain are inhibited during vocalization but little is known about the nature of the inhibition. Here we show, using intracellular recordings of auditory neurons in the singing cricket, that presynaptic inhibition of auditory afferents and postsynaptic inhibition of an identified auditory interneuron occur in phase with the song pattern. Presynaptic and postsynaptic inhibition persist in a fictively singing, isolated cricket central nervous system and are therefore the result of a corollary discharge from the singing motor network. Mimicking inhibition in the interneuron by injecting hyperpolarizing current suppresses its spiking response to a 100-dB sound pressure level (SPL) acoustic stimulus and maintains its response to subsequent, quieter stimuli. Inhibition by the corollary discharge reduces the neural response to self-generated sound and protects the cricket's auditory pathway from self-induced desensitization.

  1. Auditory brainstem response to complex sounds: a tutorial

    PubMed Central

    Skoe, Erika; Kraus, Nina

    2010-01-01

    This tutorial provides a comprehensive overview of the methodological approach to collecting and analyzing auditory brainstem responses to complex sounds (cABRs). cABRs provide a window into how behaviorally relevant sounds such as speech and music are processed in the brain. Because temporal and spectral characteristics of sounds are preserved in this subcortical response, cABRs can be used to assess specific impairments and enhancements in auditory processing. Notably, subcortical function is neither passive nor hardwired but dynamically interacts with higher-level cognitive processes to refine how sounds are transcribed into neural code. This experience-dependent plasticity, which can occur on a number of time scales (e.g., life-long experience with speech or music, short-term auditory training, online auditory processing), helps shape sensory perception. Thus, by being an objective and non-invasive means for examining cognitive function and experience-dependent processes in sensory activity, cABRs have considerable utility in the study of populations where auditory function is of interest (e.g., auditory experts such as musicians, persons with hearing loss, auditory processing and language disorders). This tutorial is intended for clinicians and researchers seeking to integrate cABRs into their clinical and/or research programs. PMID:20084007

  2. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials and middle latency auditory evoked potentials in young children.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jin Jun; Khurana, Divya S; Kothare, Sanjeev V

    2013-03-01

    Measurements of brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) and middle latency auditory evoked potentials (MLAEP) are readily available neurophysiologic assessments. The generators for BAEP are believed to involve the structures of cochlear nerve, cochlear nucleus, superior olive complex, dorsal and rostral pons, and lateral lemniscus. The generators for MLAEP are assumed to be located in the subcortical area and auditory cortex. BAEP are commonly used in evaluating children with autistic and hearing disorders. However, measurement of MLAEP is rarely performed in young children. To explore the feasibility of this procedure in young children, we retrospectively reviewed our neurophysiology databank and charts for a 3-year period to identify subjects who had both BAEP and MLAEP performed. Subjects with known or identifiable central nervous system abnormalities from the history, neurologic examination and neuroimaging studies were excluded. This cohort of 93 children up to 3 years of age was divided into 10 groups based on the age at testing (upper limits of: 1 week; 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 months; 2 years; and 3 years of age). Evolution of peak latency, interpeak latency and amplitude of waveforms in BAEP and MLAEP were demonstrated. We concluded that measurement of BAEP and MLAEP is feasible in children, as early as the first few months of life. The combination of both MLAEP and BAEP may increase the diagnostic sensitivity of neurophysiologic assessment of the integrity or functional status of both the peripheral (acoustic nerve) and the central (brainstem, subcortical and cortical) auditory conduction systems in young children with developmental speech and language disorders.

  3. Salicylate-induced peripheral auditory changes and tonotopic reorganization of auditory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Stolzberg, Daniel; Chen, Guang-Di; Allman, Brian L.; Salvi, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    The neuronal mechanism underlying the phantom auditory perception of tinnitus remains at present elusive. For over 25 years, temporary tinnitus following acute salicylate intoxication in rats has been used as a model to understand how a phantom sound can be generated. Behavioral studies have indicated the pitch of salicylate-induced tinnitus in the rat is approximately 16 kHz. In order to better understand the origin of the tinnitus pitch, in the present study, measurements were made at the levels of auditory input and output; both cochlear and cortical physiological recordings were performed in ketamine/xylazine anesthetized rats. Both compound action potentials and distortion product otoacoustic emission measurements revealed a salicylate-induced band-pass-like cochlear deficit in which the reduction of cochlear input was least at 16 kHz and significantly greater at high and low frequencies. In a separate group of rats, frequency receptive fields of primary auditory cortex neurons were tracked using multichannel microelectrodes before and after systemic salicylate treatment. Tracking frequency receptive fields following salicylate revealed a population of neurons that shifted their frequency of maximum sensitivity (i.e., characteristic frequency) towards the tinnitus frequency region of the tonotopic axis (~16 kHz). The data presented here supports the hypothesis that salicylateinduced tinnitus results from an expanded cortical representation of the tinnitus pitch determined by an altered profile of input from the cochlea. Moreover, the pliability of cortical frequency receptive fields during salicylate-induced tinnitus is likely due to salicylate’s direct action on intracortical inhibitory networks. Such a disproportionate representation of middle frequencies in the auditory cortex following salicylate may result in a finer analysis of signals within this region which may pathologically enhance the functional importance of spurious neuronal activity

  4. Diffusion tensor imaging and MR morphometry of the central auditory pathway and auditory cortex in aging.

    PubMed

    Profant, O; Škoch, A; Balogová, Z; Tintěra, J; Hlinka, J; Syka, J

    2014-02-28

    Age-related hearing loss (presbycusis) is caused mainly by the hypofunction of the inner ear, but recent findings point also toward a central component of presbycusis. We used MR morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with a 3T MR system with the aim to study the state of the central auditory system in a group of elderly subjects (>65years) with mild presbycusis, in a group of elderly subjects with expressed presbycusis and in young controls. Cortical reconstruction, volumetric segmentation and auditory pathway tractography were performed. Three parameters were evaluated by morphometry: the volume of the gray matter, the surface area of the gyrus and the thickness of the cortex. In all experimental groups the surface area and gray matter volume were larger on the left side in Heschl's gyrus and planum temporale and slightly larger in the gyrus frontalis superior, whereas they were larger on the right side in the primary visual cortex. Almost all of the measured parameters were significantly smaller in the elderly subjects in Heschl's gyrus, planum temporale and gyrus frontalis superior. Aging did not change the side asymmetry (laterality) of the gyri. In the central part of the auditory pathway above the inferior colliculus, a trend toward an effect of aging was present in the axial vector of the diffusion (L1) variable of DTI, with increased values observed in elderly subjects. A trend toward a decrease of L1 on the left side, which was more pronounced in the elderly groups, was observed. The effect of hearing loss was present in subjects with expressed presbycusis as a trend toward an increase of the radial vectors (L2L3) in the white matter under Heschl's gyrus. These results suggest that in addition to peripheral changes, changes in the central part of the auditory system in elderly subjects are also present; however, the extent of hearing loss does not play a significant role in the central changes. PMID:24333969

  5. Psychophysical and Neural Correlates of Auditory Attraction and Aversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patten, Kristopher Jakob

    This study explores the psychophysical and neural processes associated with the perception of sounds as either pleasant or aversive. The underlying psychophysical theory is based on auditory scene analysis, the process through which listeners parse auditory signals into individual acoustic sources. The first experiment tests and confirms that a self-rated pleasantness continuum reliably exists for 20 various stimuli (r = .48). In addition, the pleasantness continuum correlated with the physical acoustic characteristics of consonance/dissonance (r = .78), which can facilitate auditory parsing processes. The second experiment uses an fMRI block design to test blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) changes elicited by a subset of 5 exemplar stimuli chosen from Experiment 1 that are evenly distributed over the pleasantness continuum. Specifically, it tests and confirms that the pleasantness continuum produces systematic changes in brain activity for unpleasant acoustic stimuli beyond what occurs with pleasant auditory stimuli. Results revealed that the combination of two positively and two negatively valenced experimental sounds compared to one neutral baseline control elicited BOLD increases in the primary auditory cortex, specifically the bilateral superior temporal gyrus, and left dorsomedial prefrontal cortex; the latter being consistent with a frontal decision-making process common in identification tasks. The negatively-valenced stimuli yielded additional BOLD increases in the left insula, which typically indicates processing of visceral emotions. The positively-valenced stimuli did not yield any significant BOLD activation, consistent with consonant, harmonic stimuli being the prototypical acoustic pattern of auditory objects that is optimal for auditory scene analysis. Both the psychophysical findings of Experiment 1 and the neural processing findings of Experiment 2 support that consonance is an important dimension of sound that is processed in a manner that aids

  6. Air pollution is associated with brainstem auditory nuclei pathology and delayed brainstem auditory evoked potentials

    PubMed Central

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; D’Angiulli, Amedeo; Kulesza, Randy J; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Osnaya, Norma; Romero, Lina; Keefe, Sheyla; Herritt, Lou; Brooks, Diane M; Avila-Ramirez, Jose; Delgado-Chávez, Ricardo; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; González-González, Luis Oscar

    2011-01-01

    We assessed brainstem inflammation in children exposed to air pollutants by comparing brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) and blood inflammatory markers in children age 96.3± 8.5 months from highly polluted (n=34) versus a low polluted city (n=17). The brainstems of nine children with accidental deaths were also examined. Children from the highly polluted environment had significant delays in wave III (t(50)=17.038; p<0.0001) and wave V (t(50)=19.730; p<0.0001) but no delay in wave I (p=0.548). They also had significantly longer latencies than controls for interwave intervals I–III, III–V, and I–V (all t(50)> 7.501; p<0.0001), consisting with delayed central conduction time of brainstem neural transmission. Highly exposed children showed significant evidence of inflammatory markers and their auditory and vestibular nuclei accumulated α synuclein and/or β amyloid 1–42. Medial superior olive neurons, critically involved in BAEPs, displayed significant pathology. Children’s exposure to urban air pollution increases their risk for auditory and vestibular impairment. PMID:21458557

  7. Air pollution is associated with brainstem auditory nuclei pathology and delayed brainstem auditory evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; D'Angiulli, Amedeo; Kulesza, Randy J; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Osnaya, Norma; Romero, Lina; Keefe, Sheyla; Herritt, Lou; Brooks, Diane M; Avila-Ramirez, Jose; Delgado-Chávez, Ricardo; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; González-González, Luis Oscar

    2011-06-01

    We assessed brainstem inflammation in children exposed to air pollutants by comparing brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) and blood inflammatory markers in children age 96.3±8.5 months from highly polluted (n=34) versus a low polluted city (n=17). The brainstems of nine children with accidental deaths were also examined. Children from the highly polluted environment had significant delays in wave III (t(50)=17.038; p<0.0001) and wave V (t(50)=19.730; p<0.0001) but no delay in wave I (p=0.548). They also had significantly longer latencies than controls for interwave intervals I-III, III-V, and I-V (all t(50)>7.501; p<0.0001), consisting with delayed central conduction time of brainstem neural transmission. Highly exposed children showed significant evidence of inflammatory markers and their auditory and vestibular nuclei accumulated α synuclein and/or β amyloid(1-42). Medial superior olive neurons, critically involved in BAEPs, displayed significant pathology. Children's exposure to urban air pollution increases their risk for auditory and vestibular impairment. PMID:21458557

  8. Auditory brainstem responses in the Eastern Screech Owl: An estimate of auditory thresholds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brittan-Powell, Elizabeth F.; Lohr, Bernard; Hahn, D. Caldwell; Dooling, Robert J.

    2005-07-01

    The auditory brainstem response (ABR), a measure of neural synchrony, was used to estimate auditory sensitivity in the eastern screech owl (Megascops asio). The typical screech owl ABR waveform showed two to three prominent peaks occurring within 5 ms of stimulus onset. As sound pressure levels increased, the ABR peak amplitude increased and latency decreased. With an increasing stimulus presentation rate, ABR peak amplitude decreased and latency increased. Generally, changes in the ABR waveform to stimulus intensity and repetition rate are consistent with the pattern found in several avian families. The ABR audiogram shows that screech owls hear best between 1.5 and 6.4 kHz with the most acute sensitivity between 4-5.7 kHz. The shape of the average screech owl ABR audiogram is similar to the shape of the behaviorally measured audiogram of the barn owl, except at the highest frequencies. Our data also show differences in overall auditory sensitivity between the color morphs of screech owls.

  9. Auditory brainstem responses in the Eastern Screech Owl: An estimate of auditory thresholds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brittan-Powell, E.F.; Lohr, B.; Hahn, D.C.; Dooling, R.J.

    2005-01-01

    The auditory brainstem response (ABR), a measure of neural synchrony, was used to estimate auditory sensitivity in the eastern screech owl (Megascops asio). The typical screech owl ABR waveform showed two to three prominent peaks occurring within 5 ms of stimulus onset. As sound pressure levels increased, the ABR peak amplitude increased and latency decreased. With an increasing stimulus presentation rate, ABR peak amplitude decreased and latency increased. Generally, changes in the ABR waveform to stimulus intensity and repetition rate are consistent with the pattern found in several avian families. The ABR audiogram shows that screech owls hear best between 1.5 and 6.4 kHz with the most acute sensitivity between 4?5.7 kHz. The shape of the average screech owl ABR audiogram is similar to the shape of the behaviorally measured audiogram of the barn owl, except at the highest frequencies. Our data also show differences in overall auditory sensitivity between the color morphs of screech owls.

  10. Auditory-motor entrainment and phonological skills: precise auditory timing hypothesis (PATH)

    PubMed Central

    Tierney, Adam; Kraus, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Phonological skills are enhanced by music training, but the mechanisms enabling this cross-domain enhancement remain unknown. To explain this cross-domain transfer, we propose a precise auditory timing hypothesis (PATH) whereby entrainment practice is the core mechanism underlying enhanced phonological abilities in musicians. Both rhythmic synchronization and language skills such as consonant discrimination, detection of word and phrase boundaries, and conversational turn-taking rely on the perception of extremely fine-grained timing details in sound. Auditory-motor timing is an acoustic feature which meets all five of the pre-conditions necessary for cross-domain enhancement to occur (Patel, 2011, 2012, 2014). There is overlap between the neural networks that process timing in the context of both music and language. Entrainment to music demands more precise timing sensitivity than does language processing. Moreover, auditory-motor timing integration captures the emotion of the trainee, is repeatedly practiced, and demands focused attention. The PATH predicts that musical training emphasizing entrainment will be particularly effective in enhancing phonological skills. PMID:25505879

  11. Auditory short-term memory in the Japanese monkey.

    PubMed

    Kojima, S

    1985-01-01

    Auditory short-term memory in Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata) was studied using a GO/NO GO auditory delayed matching to sample task. Three temporal parameters: delay interval, intertrial interval and sample stimulus duration were manipulated. Delayed matching performance deteriorated as the delay interval was lengthened, and reached a near chance level at 16 sec. Longer intertrial intervals and sample duration ameliorated performance. When the number of the sample stimulus was increased to 3 tones to examine a serial position effect, a primary effect was not observed, although a recency effect was obtained. The fragility of auditory delayed matching performance was discussed.

  12. Pleomorphic Adenoma of the External Auditory Canal: A Rare Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Jaber, Samir; Rudic, Milan; Keogh, Ivan James

    2015-01-01

    A 55-year-old male presented with a nine-month history of gradually enlarging, painless mass in the right external auditory canal associated with hearing loss and occasional bleeding. Examination demonstrated complete obstruction of the outer 1/3 of the external auditory canal by a firm, pink, rubbery mass. CT scan of the temporal bone showed tumor mass with no evidence of bone destruction. The tumor was excised and histopathology confirmed a diagnosis of ceruminous pleomorphic adenoma of the external auditory canal. Six months following the surgery, patient is free of any recurrent disease. PMID:26106498

  13. Human auditory evoked potentials. II - Effects of attention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Picton, T. W.; Hillyard, S. A.

    1974-01-01

    Attention directed toward auditory stimuli, in order to detect an occasional fainter 'signal' stimulus, caused a substantial increase in the N1 (83 msec) and P2 (161 msec) components of the auditory evoked potential without any change in preceding components. This evidence shows that human auditory attention is not mediated by a peripheral gating mechanism. The evoked response to the detected signal stimulus also contained a large P3 (450 msec) wave that was topographically distinct from the preceding components. This late positive wave could also be recorded in response to a detected omitted stimulus in a regular train and therefore seemed to index a stimulus-independent perceptual decision process.

  14. Unpleasant auditory illusions and related avoidance behaviour in a child.

    PubMed

    Barba, Carmen; Guerrini, Renzo

    2008-03-01

    Auditory aura is a rare symptom in focal epilepsy. It has been described in autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features, but is, in general, poorly documented. We report on a 7-year-old, right-handed boy, who suffered seizures characterized by positive auditory illusions with verbal and gestural automatisms and noticeable attempts at covering his ears. Clinical evaluation and video-recording of the seizures, confirmed that most of the ictal behavior was deliberately directed at trying to prevent the unpleasant sensations reaching his ears. [Published with video sequences]. PMID:18367430

  15. [EFFECT OF HYPOXIA ON THE CHARACTERISTICS OF HUMAN AUDITORY PERCEPTION].

    PubMed

    Ogorodnikova, E A; Stolvaroya, E I; Pak, S P; Bogomolova, G M; Korolev, Yu N; Golubev, V N; Lesova, E M

    2015-12-01

    The effect of normobaric hypoxic hypoxia (single and interval training) on the characteristics of human hearing was investigated. The hearing thresholds (tonal audiograms), reaction time of subjects in psychophysical experiments (pause detection, perception of rhythm and target words), and short-term auditory memory were measured before and after hypoxia. The obtained data revealed improvement of the auditory sensitivity and characteristics of working memory, and increasing of response speed. It was demonstrated that interval hypoxic training had positive effect on the processes of auditory perception. PMID:26987233

  16. Central auditory skills in blind and sighted subjects.

    PubMed

    Muchnik, C; Efrati, M; Nemeth, E; Malin, M; Hildesheimer, M

    1991-01-01

    Three different central auditory skills were compared and evaluated in 56 blind and 40 sighted subjects. The study consisted of three experiments conducted in three subgroups. Experiment A was performed in order to evaluate the localization function; experiment B for the temporal auditory resolution ability of the blind adult, and experiment C to test the ability of the blind person to discriminate speech material in noise. In all three experiments the blind subjects obtained significantly better results than the sighted subjects. From these results it was concluded that there is supporting evidence of a certain superiority of the blind individual with regard to central auditory function. PMID:1842264

  17. Biological impact of music and software-based auditory training.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Nina

    2012-01-01

    Auditory-based communication skills are developed at a young age and are maintained throughout our lives. However, some individuals - both young and old - encounter difficulties in achieving or maintaining communication proficiency. Biological signals arising from hearing sounds relate to real-life communication skills such as listening to speech in noisy environments and reading, pointing to an intersection between hearing and cognition. Musical experience, amplification, and software-based training can improve these biological signals. These findings of biological plasticity, in a variety of subject populations, relate to attention and auditory memory, and represent an integrated auditory system influenced by both sensation and cognition. PMID:22789822

  18. Auditory map plasticity: Diversity in causes and consequences

    PubMed Central

    Schreiner, Christoph E.; Polley, Daniel B.

    2014-01-01

    Auditory cortical maps have been a long-standing focus of studies that assess the expression, mechanisms, and consequences of sensory plasticity. Here we discuss recent progress in understanding how auditory experience transforms spatially organized sound representations at higher levels of the central auditory pathways. New insights into the mechanisms underlying map changes have been achieved and more refined interpretations of various map plasticity effects and their consequences in terms of behavioral corollaries and learning as well as other cognitive aspects have been offered. The systematic organizational principles of cortical sound processing remains a key-aspect in studying and interpreting the role of plasticity in hearing. PMID:24492090

  19. Biological impact of music and software-based auditory training.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Nina

    2012-01-01

    Auditory-based communication skills are developed at a young age and are maintained throughout our lives. However, some individuals - both young and old - encounter difficulties in achieving or maintaining communication proficiency. Biological signals arising from hearing sounds relate to real-life communication skills such as listening to speech in noisy environments and reading, pointing to an intersection between hearing and cognition. Musical experience, amplification, and software-based training can improve these biological signals. These findings of biological plasticity, in a variety of subject populations, relate to attention and auditory memory, and represent an integrated auditory system influenced by both sensation and cognition.

  20. Human auditory evoked potentials. I - Evaluation of components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Picton, T. W.; Hillyard, S. A.; Krausz, H. I.; Galambos, R.

    1974-01-01

    Fifteen distinct components can be identified in the scalp recorded average evoked potential to an abrupt auditory stimulus. The early components occurring in the first 8 msec after a stimulus represent the activation of the cochlea and the auditory nuclei of the brainstem. The middle latency components occurring between 8 and 50 msec after the stimulus probably represent activation of both auditory thalamus and cortex but can be seriously contaminated by concurrent scalp muscle reflex potentials. The longer latency components occurring between 50 and 300 msec after the stimulus are maximally recorded over fronto-central scalp regions and seem to represent widespread activation of frontal cortex.

  1. Low Power Adder Based Auditory Filter Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Jayanthi, V. S.

    2014-01-01

    Cochlea devices are powered up with the help of batteries and they should possess long working life to avoid replacing of devices at regular interval of years. Hence the devices with low power consumptions are required. In cochlea devices there are numerous filters, each responsible for frequency variant signals, which helps in identifying speech signals of different audible range. In this paper, multiplierless lookup table (LUT) based auditory filter is implemented. Power aware adder architectures are utilized to add the output samples of the LUT, available at every clock cycle. The design is developed and modeled using Verilog HDL, simulated using Mentor Graphics Model-Sim Simulator, and synthesized using Synopsys Design Compiler tool. The design was mapped to TSMC 65 nm technological node. The standard ASIC design methodology has been adapted to carry out the power analysis. The proposed FIR filter architecture has reduced the leakage power by 15% and increased its performance by 2.76%. PMID:25506073

  2. The affective Auditory Verbal Learning Test.

    PubMed

    Snyder, K A; Harrison, D W

    1997-01-01

    The study of emotion is hindered by the lack of tests for affect perception or comprehension. One solution is to develop affective versions of well-known tests. Using an index of word norms (Toglia & Battig, 1978), positively and negatively valenced word lists were developed as alternate forms of the affectively neutral Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVL; Rey, 1964). Participants (N=102) received either the original RAVL list, the positively valenced list, or the negatively valenced list. Results are depicted across acquisition trials and location within the list for comparison of primacy and recency effects. Each word list yielded comparable patterns of acquisition. Participants receiving the negative list evidenced an enhanced primacy effect, while participants receiving the positive list evidenced an enhanced recency effect. The positive and negative lists may prove useful in the evaluation of individuals with affective disorders and may provide an alternative for affect induction through an active learning paradigm.

  3. Early hominin auditory ossicles from South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Quam, Rolf M.; de Ruiter, Darryl J.; Masali, Melchiorre; Arsuaga, Juan-Luis; Martínez, Ignacio; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo

    2013-01-01

    The middle ear ossicles are only rarely preserved in fossil hominins. Here, we report the discovery of a complete ossicular chain (malleus, incus, and stapes) of Paranthropus robustus as well as additional ear ossicles from Australopithecus africanus. The malleus in both early hominin taxa is clearly human-like in the proportions of the manubrium and corpus, whereas the incus and stapes resemble African and Asian great apes more closely. A deep phylogenetic origin is proposed for the derived malleus morphology, and this may represent one of the earliest human-like features to appear in the fossil record. The anatomical differences found in the early hominin incus and stapes, along with other aspects of the outer, middle, and inner ear, are consistent with the suggestion of different auditory capacities in these early hominin taxa compared with modern humans. PMID:23671079

  4. Hearing Restoration with Auditory Brainstem Implant

    PubMed Central

    NAKATOMI, Hirofumi; MIYAWAKI, Satoru; KIN, Taichi; SAITO, Nobuhito

    2016-01-01

    Auditory brainstem implant (ABI) technology attempts to restore hearing in deaf patients caused by bilateral cochlear nerve injury through the direct stimulation of the brainstem, but many aspects of the related mechanisms remain unknown. The unresolved issues can be grouped into three topics: which patients are the best candidates; which type of electrode should be used; and how to improve restored hearing. We evaluated our experience with 11 cases of ABI placement. We found that if at least seven of eleven electrodes of the MED-EL ABI are effectively placed in a patient with no deformation of the fourth ventricle, open set sentence recognition of approximately 20% and closed set word recognition of approximately 65% can be achieved only with the ABI. Appropriate selection of patients for ABI placement can lead to good outcomes. Further investigation is required regarding patient selection criteria and methods of surgery for effective ABI placement. PMID:27464470

  5. Low power adder based auditory filter architecture.

    PubMed

    Rahiman, P F Khaleelur; Jayanthi, V S

    2014-01-01

    Cochlea devices are powered up with the help of batteries and they should possess long working life to avoid replacing of devices at regular interval of years. Hence the devices with low power consumptions are required. In cochlea devices there are numerous filters, each responsible for frequency variant signals, which helps in identifying speech signals of different audible range. In this paper, multiplierless lookup table (LUT) based auditory filter is implemented. Power aware adder architectures are utilized to add the output samples of the LUT, available at every clock cycle. The design is developed and modeled using Verilog HDL, simulated using Mentor Graphics Model-Sim Simulator, and synthesized using Synopsys Design Compiler tool. The design was mapped to TSMC 65 nm technological node. The standard ASIC design methodology has been adapted to carry out the power analysis. The proposed FIR filter architecture has reduced the leakage power by 15% and increased its performance by 2.76%.

  6. Resting Heart Rate and Auditory Evoked Potential

    PubMed Central

    Fiuza Regaçone, Simone; Baptista de Lima, Daiane Damaris; Engrácia Valenti, Vitor; Figueiredo Frizzo, Ana Cláudia

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between rest heart rate (HR) and the components of the auditory evoked-related potentials (ERPs) at rest in women. We investigated 21 healthy female university students between 18 and 24 years old. We performed complete audiological evaluation and measurement of heart rate for 10 minutes at rest (heart rate monitor Polar RS800CX) and performed ERPs analysis (discrepancy in frequency and duration). There was a moderate negative correlation of the N1 and P3a with rest HR and a strong positive correlation of the P2 and N2 components with rest HR. Larger components of the ERP are associated with higher rest HR. PMID:26504838

  7. On the externalization of auditory images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durlach, N. I.; Rigopulos, A.; Pang, X. D.; Woods, W. S.; Kulkarni, A.; Colburn, H. S.; Wenzel, E. M.

    1992-01-01

    An acoustic image is said to be 'externalized' if the sound source appears to the listener to lie outside the head. The purpose of the note is to put the phenomenon of externalization of auditory images in proper perspective. It points out that the listener's pinnae (the so-called 'pinna factor') is only one of many factors that determine the extent to which a sound image is externalized and that the relative importance of these factors is not yet clear. The note begins with some general comments on externalization. It then considers the effect of reverberation. It examines head movements, visual effects, and other factors. It concludes with remarks on externalization's relation to head-related transfer functions (HRTFs), the pinna factor, and improved experimental instrumentation.

  8. Multichannel Spatial Auditory Display for Speed Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.; Erbe, Tom

    1994-01-01

    A spatial auditory display for multiple speech communications was developed at NASA/Ames Research Center. Input is spatialized by the use of simplifiedhead-related transfer functions, adapted for FIR filtering on Motorola 56001 digital signal processors. Hardware and firmware design implementations are overviewed for the initial prototype developed for NASA-Kennedy Space Center. An adaptive staircase method was used to determine intelligibility levels of four-letter call signs used by launch personnel at NASA against diotic speech babble. Spatial positions at 30 degree azimuth increments were evaluated. The results from eight subjects showed a maximum intelligibility improvement of about 6-7 dB when the signal was spatialized to 60 or 90 degree azimuth positions.

  9. Biomedical Simulation Models of Human Auditory Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bicak, Mehmet M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Detailed acoustic engineering models that explore noise propagation mechanisms associated with noise attenuation and transmission paths created when using hearing protectors such as earplugs and headsets in high noise environments. Biomedical finite element (FE) models are developed based on volume Computed Tomography scan data which provides explicit external ear, ear canal, middle ear ossicular bones and cochlea geometry. Results from these studies have enabled a greater understanding of hearing protector to flesh dynamics as well as prioritizing noise propagation mechanisms. Prioritization of noise mechanisms can form an essential framework for exploration of new design principles and methods in both earplug and earcup applications. These models are currently being used in development of a novel hearing protection evaluation system that can provide experimentally correlated psychoacoustic noise attenuation. Moreover, these FE models can be used to simulate the effects of blast related impulse noise on human auditory mechanisms and brain tissue.

  10. Multichannel spatial auditory display for speech communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, D. R.; Erbe, T.; Wenzel, E. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    A spatial auditory display for multiple speech communications was developed at NASA/Ames Research Center. Input is spatialized by the use of simplified head-related transfer functions, adapted for FIR filtering on Motorola 56001 digital signal processors. Hardware and firmware design implementations are overviewed for the initial prototype developed for NASA-Kennedy Space Center. An adaptive staircase method was used to determine intelligibility levels of four-letter call signs used by launch personnel at NASA against diotic speech babble. Spatial positions at 30 degrees azimuth increments were evaluated. The results from eight subjects showed a maximum intelligibility improvement of about 6-7 dB when the signal was spatialized to 60 or 90 degrees azimuth positions.

  11. Practiced musical style shapes auditory skills.

    PubMed

    Vuust, Peter; Brattico, Elvira; Seppänen, Miia; Näätänen, Risto; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2012-04-01

    Musicians' processing of sounds depends highly on instrument, performance practice, and level of expertise. Here, we measured the mismatch negativity (MMN), a preattentive brain response, to six types of musical feature change in musicians playing three distinct styles of music (classical, jazz, and rock/pop) and in nonmusicians using a novel, fast, and musical sounding multifeature MMN paradigm. We found MMN to all six deviants, showing that MMN paradigms can be adapted to resemble a musical context. Furthermore, we found that jazz musicians had larger MMN amplitude than all other experimental groups across all sound features, indicating greater overall sensitivity to auditory outliers. Furthermore, we observed a tendency toward shorter latency of the MMN to all feature changes in jazz musicians compared to band musicians. These findings indicate that the characteristics of the style of music played by musicians influence their perceptual skills and the brain processing of sound features embedded in music.

  12. Early hominin auditory ossicles from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Quam, Rolf M; de Ruiter, Darryl J; Masali, Melchiorre; Arsuaga, Juan-Luis; Martínez, Ignacio; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo

    2013-05-28

    The middle ear ossicles are only rarely preserved in fossil hominins. Here, we report the discovery of a complete ossicular chain (malleus, incus, and stapes) of Paranthropus robustus as well as additional ear ossicles from Australopithecus africanus. The malleus in both early hominin taxa is clearly human-like in the proportions of the manubrium and corpus, whereas the incus and stapes resemble African and Asian great apes more closely. A deep phylogenetic origin is proposed for the derived malleus morphology, and this may represent one of the earliest human-like features to appear in the fossil record. The anatomical differences found in the early hominin incus and stapes, along with other aspects of the outer, middle, and inner ear, are consistent with the suggestion of different auditory capacities in these early hominin taxa compared with modern humans. PMID:23671079

  13. Discrimination of auditory stimuli during isoflurane anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Manuel J; Navas, Jinna A; Greene, Stephen A; Rector, David M

    2008-10-01

    Deep isoflurane anesthesia initiates a burst suppression pattern in which high-amplitude bursts are preceded by periods of nearly silent electroencephalogram. The burst suppression ratio (BSR) is the percentage of suppression (silent electroencephalogram) during the burst suppression pattern and is one parameter used to assess anesthesia depth. We investigated cortical burst activity in rats in response to different auditory stimuli presented during the burst suppression state. We noted a rapid appearance of bursts and a significant decrease in the BSR during stimulation. The BSR changes were distinctive for the different stimuli applied, and the BSR decreased significantly more when stimulated with a voice familiar to the rat as compared with an unfamiliar voice. These results show that the cortex can show differential sensory responses during deep isoflurane anesthesia.

  14. Beaked whale auditory evoked potential hearing measurements.

    PubMed

    Cook, Mandy L H; Varela, René A; Goldstein, Juli D; McCulloch, Stephen D; Bossart, Gregory D; Finneran, James J; Houser, Dorian; Mann, David A

    2006-05-01

    Several mass strandings of beaked whales have recently been correlated with military exercises involving mid-frequency sonar highlighting unknowns regarding hearing sensitivity in these species. We report the hearing abilities of a stranded juvenile beaked whale (Mesoplodon europaeus) measured with auditory evoked potentials. The beaked whale's modulation rate transfer function (MRTF) measured with a 40-kHz carrier showed responses up to an 1,800 Hz amplitude modulation (AM) rate. The MRTF was strongest at the 1,000 and 1,200 Hz AM rates. The envelope following response (EFR) input-output functions were non-linear. The beaked whale was most sensitive to high frequency signals between 40 and 80 kHz, but produced smaller evoked potentials to 5 kHz, the lowest frequency tested. The beaked whale hearing range and sensitivity are similar to other odontocetes that have been measured.

  15. Predictive uncertainty in auditory sequence processing.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Niels Chr; Pearce, Marcus T

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies of auditory expectation have focused on the expectedness perceived by listeners retrospectively in response to events. In contrast, this research examines predictive uncertainty-a property of listeners' prospective state of expectation prior to the onset of an event. We examine the information-theoretic concept of Shannon entropy as a model of predictive uncertainty in music cognition. This is motivated by the Statistical Learning Hypothesis, which proposes that schematic expectations reflect probabilistic relationships between sensory events learned implicitly through exposure. Using probability estimates from an unsupervised, variable-order Markov model, 12 melodic contexts high in entropy and 12 melodic contexts low in entropy were selected from two musical repertoires differing in structural complexity (simple and complex). Musicians and non-musicians listened to the stimuli and provided explicit judgments of perceived uncertainty (explicit uncertainty). We also examined an indirect measure of uncertainty computed as the entropy of expectedness distributions obtained using a classical probe-tone paradigm where listeners rated the perceived expectedness of the final note in a melodic sequence (inferred uncertainty). Finally, we simulate listeners' perception of expectedness and uncertainty using computational models of auditory expectation. A detailed model comparison indicates which model parameters maximize fit to the data and how they compare to existing models in the literature. The results show that listeners experience greater uncertainty in high-entropy musical contexts than low-entropy contexts. This effect is particularly apparent for inferred uncertainty and is stronger in musicians than non-musicians. Consistent with the Statistical Learning Hypothesis, the results suggest that increased domain-relevant training is associated with an increasingly accurate cognitive model of probabilistic structure in music. PMID:25295018

  16. Predictive uncertainty in auditory sequence processing.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Niels Chr; Pearce, Marcus T

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies of auditory expectation have focused on the expectedness perceived by listeners retrospectively in response to events. In contrast, this research examines predictive uncertainty-a property of listeners' prospective state of expectation prior to the onset of an event. We examine the information-theoretic concept of Shannon entropy as a model of predictive uncertainty in music cognition. This is motivated by the Statistical Learning Hypothesis, which proposes that schematic expectations reflect probabilistic relationships between sensory events learned implicitly through exposure. Using probability estimates from an unsupervised, variable-order Markov model, 12 melodic contexts high in entropy and 12 melodic contexts low in entropy were selected from two musical repertoires differing in structural complexity (simple and complex). Musicians and non-musicians listened to the stimuli and provided explicit judgments of perceived uncertainty (explicit uncertainty). We also examined an indirect measure of uncertainty computed as the entropy of expectedness distributions obtained using a classical probe-tone paradigm where listeners rated the perceived expectedness of the final note in a melodic sequence (inferred uncertainty). Finally, we simulate listeners' perception of expectedness and uncertainty using computational models of auditory expectation. A detailed model comparison indicates which model parameters maximize fit to the data and how they compare to existing models in the literature. The results show that listeners experience greater uncertainty in high-entropy musical contexts than low-entropy contexts. This effect is particularly apparent for inferred uncertainty and is stronger in musicians than non-musicians. Consistent with the Statistical Learning Hypothesis, the results suggest that increased domain-relevant training is associated with an increasingly accurate cognitive model of probabilistic structure in music.

  17. Predictive uncertainty in auditory sequence processing

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Niels Chr.; Pearce, Marcus T.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies of auditory expectation have focused on the expectedness perceived by listeners retrospectively in response to events. In contrast, this research examines predictive uncertainty—a property of listeners' prospective state of expectation prior to the onset of an event. We examine the information-theoretic concept of Shannon entropy as a model of predictive uncertainty in music cognition. This is motivated by the Statistical Learning Hypothesis, which proposes that schematic expectations reflect probabilistic relationships between sensory events learned implicitly through exposure. Using probability estimates from an unsupervised, variable-order Markov model, 12 melodic contexts high in entropy and 12 melodic contexts low in entropy were selected from two musical repertoires differing in structural complexity (simple and complex). Musicians and non-musicians listened to the stimuli and provided explicit judgments of perceived uncertainty (explicit uncertainty). We also examined an indirect measure of uncertainty computed as the entropy of expectedness distributions obtained using a classical probe-tone paradigm where listeners rated the perceived expectedness of the final note in a melodic sequence (inferred uncertainty). Finally, we simulate listeners' perception of expectedness and uncertainty using computational models of auditory expectation. A detailed model comparison indicates which model parameters maximize fit to the data and how they compare to existing models in the literature. The results show that listeners experience greater uncertainty in high-entropy musical contexts than low-entropy contexts. This effect is particularly apparent for inferred uncertainty and is stronger in musicians than non-musicians. Consistent with the Statistical Learning Hypothesis, the results suggest that increased domain-relevant training is associated with an increasingly accurate cognitive model of probabilistic structure in music. PMID:25295018

  18. Object representation in the human auditory system

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, István; van Zuijen, Titia L.; Sussman, Elyse; Horváth, János; Näätänen, Risto

    2010-01-01

    One important principle of object processing is exclusive allocation. Any part of the sensory input, including the border between two objects, can only belong to one object at a time. We tested whether tones forming a spectro-temporal border between two sound patterns can belong to both patterns at the same time. Sequences were composed of low-, intermediate- and high-pitched tones. Tones were delivered with short onset-to-onset intervals causing the high and low tones to automatically form separate low and high sound streams. The intermediate-pitch tones could be perceived as part of either one or the other stream, but not both streams at the same time. Thus these tones formed a pitch ’border’ between the two streams. The tones were presented in a fixed, cyclically repeating order. Linking the intermediate-pitch tones with the high or the low tones resulted in the perception of two different repeating tonal patterns. Participants were instructed to maintain perception of one of the two tone patterns throughout the stimulus sequences. Occasional changes violated either the selected or the alternative tone pattern, but not both at the same time. We found that only violations of the selected pattern elicited the mismatch negativity event-related potential, indicating that only this pattern was represented in the auditory system. This result suggests that individual sounds are processed as part of only one auditory pattern at a time. Thus tones forming a spectro-temporal border are exclusively assigned to one sound object at any given time, as are spatio-temporal borders in vision. PMID:16836636

  19. Auditory spatial localization: Developmental delay in children with visual impairments.

    PubMed

    Cappagli, Giulia; Gori, Monica

    2016-01-01

    For individuals with visual impairments, auditory spatial localization is one of the most important features to navigate in the environment. Many works suggest that blind adults show similar or even enhanced performance for localization of auditory cues compared to sighted adults (Collignon, Voss, Lassonde, & Lepore, 2009). To date, the investigation of auditory spatial localization in children with visual impairments has provided contrasting results. Here we report, for the first time, that contrary to visually impaired adults, children with low vision or total blindness show a significant impairment in the localization of static sounds. These results suggest that simple auditory spatial tasks are compromised in children, and that this capacity recovers over time. PMID:27002960

  20. Unconscious learning of auditory discrimination using mismatch negativity (MMN) neurofeedback.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ming; Iizuka, Hiroyuki; Naruse, Yasushi; Ando, Hideyuki; Maeda, Taro

    2014-10-24

    Neurofeedback is a strong direct training method for brain function, wherein brain activity patterns are measured and displayed as feedback, and trainees try to stabilize the feedback signal onto certain desirable states to regulate their own mental states. Here, we introduce a novel neurofeedback method, using the mismatch negativity (MMN) responses elicited by similar sounds that cannot be consciously discriminated. Through neurofeedback training, without participants' attention to the auditory stimuli or awareness of what was to be learned, we found that the participants could unconsciously achieve a significant improvement in the auditory discrimination of the applied stimuli. Our method has great potential to provide effortless auditory perceptual training. Based on this method, participants do not need to make an effort to discriminate auditory stimuli, and can choose tasks of interest without boredom due to training. In particular, it could be used to train people to recognize speech sounds that do not exist in their native language and thereby facilitate foreign language learning.