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Sample records for internal auditory meatus

  1. [The widened "empty" internal auditory meatus. A new differential diagnosis of the small acousticus neurinoma].

    PubMed

    Grehn, S; Helms, J

    1976-02-01

    Six patients with symptoms suggestive of acoustic neuromas showed a wided, contrastfilled internal auditory meatus during positive contrast meatography on tomographic cuts. These results suggest that widening of the internal auditory meatus may not always be due to a space-occupying lesion. The explanation for these findings is not known. No comparable findings have been published in the relevant literature. Surgical intervention, which is frequently harmful and carried out because of a misdiagnosed acoustic neuroma can only be avoided by carrying out cisternography with positive contrast materials and tomography in the Stenvers' and Schüller projection.

  2. Incidental findings on magnetic resonance imaging of the internal auditory meatus performed to investigate audiovestibular symptoms.

    PubMed

    Htun, H M; Mui, S L; Williams, C; Hans, P S

    2017-01-01

    To determine the frequency of incidental findings found on magnetic resonance imaging scans of the internal auditory meatus performed to investigate audiovestibular symptoms, and to determine how to best manage these when found. A retrospective review was conducted of internal auditory meatus magnetic resonance imaging scans during a three-month period in the radiology department at a UK district general hospital. A total of 109 scans were reviewed. Of these, 92.7 per cent showed no retrocochlear pathology, 0.9 per cent showed vestibular schwannoma, 6.4 per cent revealed vascular loops, and 2.8 per cent showed incidental findings that warranted further action and investigation. Of the scans, 40.4 per cent showed other incidental pathologies such as age-related ischaemic changes, and sinus disease that required no further intervention. Of the magnetic resonance imaging scans reviewed, 49.5 per cent were entirely normal. Almost half of the scans investigating audiovestibular symptoms showed incidental findings. Otolaryngologists should have an understanding of the significance of the most commonly encountered incidental findings, and should counsel patients appropriately and refer them onward when necessary.

  3. Restudy of malformations of the internal auditory meatus, cochlear nerve canal and cochlear nerve.

    PubMed

    Li, Youjin; Yang, Jun; Liu, Jinfen; Wu, Hao

    2015-07-01

    The present study aims to restudy the correlation between the internal auditory meatus (IAM), the cochlear nerve canal (CNC), the cochlear nerve (CN) and inner ear malformations. In this retrospective study design, the abnormal diameter of the IAM, CNC and CN in patients with any kind of inner ear malformations was evaluated using multi-slice spiral computed tomography (MSCT) (37 patients) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (18 patients). Of 37 MSCT-diagnosed patients, 2 had IAM atresia, 11 IAM stenosis, 22 enlarged IAM, and 2 normal IAM with an abnormal CN. MRI diagnoses of 18 patients revealed 8 cases of aplastic CN, 6 hypoplastic CN, and 4 normal CN. CNC stenosis was associated with CN hypoplasia (P < 0.001). Patients with absent or stenotic IAM had less CN development than those with normal or enlarged IAM (P = 0.001). We propose a modification of the existing classification systems with a view to distinguishing malformations of the IAM, CNC and CN.

  4. [Carcinoma of the skin of the external auditory meatus].

    PubMed

    Jesić, S; Radulović, R; Djerić, D; Nesić, V; Dimitrijević, M; Petrović, Z; Arsović, N; Arsić-Mandarić, Z

    2004-01-01

    Carcinoma of the external meatus is a rare disease and a challenge to treat. Demographic and clinical characteristics of this disease are discussed for 14 patients treated in the Institute of Otorhinolaryngonlogy and Maxillofacial Surgery during the period 1993-2003. using four different clasification of the disease. All patients were treated surgically with postoperative radiotherapy. Five years survival is 100% for the II and II stage of the disease for all clasifications, and 75% for the III stage according to Pitsburg clasiffication. Reccurence of the disease in the first year after treatment is 66.6% and, 84% in the second year. The diagnostic protocol is clinical examination, computed tomography of the temporal bone, nuclear magnetic resonance of the temporal bone and endocranium, ultrasound examination of the neck and parotid region and tumor biopsy. The surgical approach could be less radical, through mastoid, with postoperative

  5. [The treatment of otosclerosis using laser assisted stapedotomy with mini incision in external auditory meatus].

    PubMed

    Hao, Xinping; Chen, Shubin; Yu, Zilong; Liang, Fenghe; Li, Yongxin

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the feasibility of the treatment of otosclerosis using laser stapedotomy with mini incision in the external auditory meatus. Thirteen patients(15 ears) with otosclerosis evidence on clinic history. They were all operated using the laser assisted stapedotomy by mini incision in external auditory meatus because of the wide straight canal. Laser resection the tendo musculistapedius and anterior and postrior arch, breaking the articulatioincudostapedia, removing the stapes superstructure, making a hole of 6mm diameter in the rear of stapes footplate by laser drilling, implanting the corresponding length Piston artificial ossicle. All the surgeries were successful and the operation time was about one hour. There was only one patient manifested vertigo and nausea after the operation. But the symptoms improved three days later after the expectant treatment. All the incisions were healed in the externals. There was significant difference between the preoperative and postoperative PTA. The air conduct improved in every frequent and the bone conduct improved in 1 kHz, 2 kHz and 4 kHz. Laser assisted stapedotomy by mini incision in the external auditory meatus in patients having wide straight canal with otosclerosis can shorten the operation time, minimize the tissue damage, fasten the healing of the incision and reduce the complications postoperatively. In addition, the mini incision is beauty and easy to nurse.

  6. Microsurgical Anatomy of the Internal Acoustic Meatus as Seen Using the Retrosigmoid Approach.

    PubMed

    Scerrati, Alba; Lee, Jung-Shun; Zhang, Jun; Ammirati, Mario

    2016-06-01

    To show via a retrosigmoid approach the bony labyrinth anatomy and its relationship with the internal acoustic meatus so as to provide guidelines for a safer drilling to the fundus using this approach. Few studies deal with the complex anatomy of petrous bone structures as observed by a retrosigmoid approach. Ten retrosigmoid approaches were performed bilaterally on five fresh cadaveric heads. Afterward high-resolution computed tomographic scans were obtained. Measurements of landmarks and distances between important topographic structures of the pyramid were obtained on its surface using a navigation system. Semicircular canals, vestibular aqueduct, and internal acoustic meatus were dissected to show their anatomy and relationships. The anatomy of the inner ear structures was shown. Opening of the internal acoustic meatus was accomplished without injury to the labyrinth in 9 out of 10 sides. The distance between the drilled bone of the internal acoustic meatus and the vestibule was calculated on the postoperative computed tomographic scan. The mean value was 1.43 mm (SD, 0.30 mm; range, 1.0-1.8 mm). A better knowledge of the anatomy of the semicircular canals and of the vestibular aqueduct as observed by a retrosigmoid approach, together with their relationships to the fundus and other petrous bone landmarks, can be useful to get a general orientation in acoustic neuroma surgery. Using this information together with the neuronavigation, we were able to successfully open the internal acoustic meatus without entering labyrinthine structures in 90% of the study dissections.

  7. Staphylococcus schleiferi subsp. coagulans subsp. nov., isolated from the external auditory meatus of dogs with external ear otitis.

    PubMed

    Igimi, S; Takahashi, E; Mitsuoka, T

    1990-10-01

    A new subspecies, Staphylococcus schleiferi subsp. coagulans, was isolated from the external auditory meatus of dogs suffering from external ear otitis and is described on the basis of studies of 21 strains. Phenotypic studies showed that these strains are more closely related to Staphylococcus intermedius than to other staphylococci, but DNA hybridization studies indicated that they are closely related to Staphylococcus schleiferi N850274T. On the basis of biochemical distinctiveness (positive test tube coagulase test and different carbohydrate reactions) and the etiological importance (frequent isolation from otitis specimens from dogs) of these strains, we propose to classify them as a subspecies of S. schleiferi. The strains of this new subspecies are coagulase tube test, beta-hemolysin, and heat-stable nuclease positive but clumping factor negative. A simple scheme for the differentiation of S. schleiferi subsp. coagulans from the other coagulase-positive staphylococci is presented. The type strain is GA211 (= JCM 7470).

  8. Histophysiological observations on the external auditory meatus, middle, and inner ear of the Weddell seal (Leptonychotes weddelli).

    PubMed

    Welsch, U; Riedelsheimer, B

    1997-10-01

    The external auditory meatus, middle, and inner ear of the deep-diving Weddell seal (Leptonychotes weddelli) were studied with light microscopic, histological, and histochemical techniques in order to contribute to the open discussion on the orientation of this seal in the darkness of the deep Antarctic seas. The external auditory meatus is characterized by a well-developed venous plexus, single apocrine ceruminous, and numerous holocrine sebaceous glands and an incomplete tube of elastic cartilage. The tympanic membrane is comprised of two layers of radially and concentrically arranged collagen fibers and by elastic fibers which are concentrated in the outer part of the ear drum. The tympanic cavity is lined by a pseudostratified prismatic ciliated epithelium with goblet cells; a plexus of wide venous vessels marks the subepithelial lamina propria. The cochlea is about 10 mm high and forms about two and a half turns. The richly pigmented stria vascularis is well vascularized, while the cell-rich prominentia spiralis contains only single small blood vessels. The organ of Corti contains one row of inner and three rows of outer hair cells. Cells of Hensen, Claudius, and Boettcher are present. The basilar membrane is of comparatively uniform simple structure and is composed of abundant glycoproteins, proteoglycans, collagenous fibers, and the loose tissue of the tympanal layer. The spiral ligament is built up by abundant proteoglycans and a complex system of radial and concentric collagen fibers; close to the osseous wall of the bony cochlea it contains fine elastic fibers. The inner zone of the osseous wall of the cochlea strikingly contains hyaline cartilage. The thin lamina spiralis ossea is covered by a limbus spiralis with interdental cells secreting the lamina tectoria, which has a fibrous texture and contains glycoproteins and negatively charged components.

  9. From external to internal auditory canal: surgical anatomy by an exclusive endoscopic approach.

    PubMed

    Marchioni, Daniele; Alicandri-Ciufelli, Matteo; Mattioli, Francesco; Nogeira, Joao Flavio; Tarabichi, Muuaz; Villari, Domenico; Presutti, Livio

    2013-03-01

    Surgical approaches to the inner ear and internal auditory canal (IAC) are well known and well documented. The objective of this study is to analyze the morphology, and surgical and anatomic findings of an exclusive endoscopic transcanal approach (EETA) to the IAC. Cadaveric dissections were performed on 11 temporal bones, approaching the internal auditory meatus directly through the external ear canal and avoiding mastoidectomy. In all cases, it was possible to dissect the internal carotid artery and jugular bulb with a 0° endoscope, and with good control of these two structures. The medial wall of the bony labyrinth guaranteed good landmarks for IAC dissection, such as the spherical recess, and the labyrinthine tract of the facial nerve. The IAC can be thoroughly visualized in the cadaver using EETA, avoiding mastoidectomy, extensive temporal bone tissue removal and external incisions. Clinically based reports will be required in future to strengthen our preliminary results.

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging of the internal auditory canal

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, D.L.; Herfkins, R.; Koehler, P.R.; Millen, S.J.; Shaffer, K.A.; Williams, A.L.; Haughton, V.M.

    1984-04-01

    Three patients with exclusively or predominantly intracanalicular neuromas and 5 with presumably normal internal auditory canals were examined with prototype 1.4- or 1.5-tesla magnetic resonance (MR) scanners. MR images showed the 7th and 8th cranial nerves in the internal auditory canal. The intracanalicular neuromas had larger diameter and slightly greater signal strength than the nerves. Early results suggest that minimal enlargement of the nerves can be detected even in the internal auditory canal.

  11. Cholesteatoma invasion into the internal auditory canal.

    PubMed

    Migirov, Lela; Bendet, Erez; Kronenberg, Jona

    2009-05-01

    Cholesteatoma invasion into the internal auditory canal (IAC) is rare and usually results in irreversible, complete hearing loss and facial paralysis on the affected side. This retrospective study examines the clinical characteristics of seven patients with cholesteatoma invading the IAC, analyzes possible routes of the cholesteatoma's extension and describes the surgical approaches used and patient outcome. Extension to the IAC was via the supralabyrinthine route in most patients. A subtotal petrosectomy, a translabyrinthine approach or a middle cranial fossa approach combined with radical mastoidectomy were required for the complete removal of the cholesteatoma. All seven patients presented with some preoperative facial nerve palsy. The facial nerve was decompressed in four patients and facial nerve repair was performed in three others, two by hypoglossal-facial anastomosis and one by a greater auricular nerve interposition grafting. All patients ended up with total deafness in the operate ear. At 1 year following surgery, the facial nerve function was House-Brackmann grade III in six cases and grade II in one. In conclusion, cholesteatoma invading the IAC is a separate entity with characteristic clinical presentations, require a unique surgical approach, and result in significant morbidity, such as total deafness in the operated ear and impaired facial movement.

  12. Rare Lesions of the Internal Auditory Canal.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kentaro; Cobb, Mary In-Ping Huang; Zomorodi, Ali R; Cunningham, Calhoun D; Nonaka, Yoichi; Satoh, Shunsuke; Friedman, Allan H; Fukushima, Takanori

    2017-03-01

    Approximately 95% of tumors occurring within the internal auditory canal (IAC) are vestibular schwannomas. Many undergo stereotactic radiation without definitive tissue diagnosis. Rare IAC tumors are not all radiosensitive and are poorly described. Between 1992 and 2015, 289 consecutive patients with IAC lesions operated on were reviewed retrospectively. Fifteen patients (5.2%) (16 operations) had unusual histologic findings, including nonvestibular schwannomas (2 facial schwannomas, 2 cochlear schwannomas, 2 intermedius schwannomas), 3 meningiomas, 3 cavernous hemangiomas, a mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, an arachnoid cyst, and a lipochoristoma. None of these rare tumors could be identified before surgery. Three operative approaches were used: the retrosigmoid approach, middle fossa subtemporal approach, or translabyrinthine approach. Few complications occurred, including facial nerve palsy, loss of hearing, and vestibular function. Five-year average follow-up revealed one patient with recurrence. Clinical examination and imaging alone were insufficient to correctly identify these tumors. Definitive pathologicdiagnosis should be strongly considered to help tailor treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A Challenge for Cochlear Implantation: Duplicated Internal Auditory Canal.

    PubMed

    Binnetoğlu, Adem; Bağlam, Tekin; Sarı, Murat; Gündoğdu, Yavuz; Batman, Çağlar

    2016-08-01

    Duplication of the internal auditory canal is an uncommon, congenital malformation that can be associated with sensorineural hearing loss owing to aplasia/hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Only 14 such cases have been reported to date. We report the case of a 13-month-old girl with bilateral, congenital, sensorineural hearing loss caused by narrow, duplicated internal auditory canals and discuss the challenges encountered in the diagnosis and treatment of this condition.

  14. Duplicate internal auditory canals with facial and vestibulocochlear nerve dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Kew, T Y; Abdullah, A

    2012-01-01

    We report an extremely rare case of duplication of the internal auditory canal associated with dysfunction of both the facial and vestibulocochlear nerves. We also review the literature regarding the integrity of the facial and vestibulocochlear nerves in such cases. A 34-year-old man presented with unilateral, right-sided, sensorineural hearing loss and facial nerve palsy since childhood. Facial nerve function was observed to be House-Brackmann grade III. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated ipsilateral duplicate, vacant internal auditory canals. Based on the clinical presentation, we interpreted these radiological findings as aplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve and severe hypoplasia of the facial nerve. To our best knowledge, this is the first report of vestibulocochlear nerve aplasia and severe facial nerve hypoplasia in a case of ipsilateral duplication of the internal auditory canal. High resolution gradient echo magnetic resonance imaging sequences are advocated for assessment of neural integrity in patients with an abnormal internal auditory canal and facial and/or vestibulocochlear nerve dysfunction.

  15. Reduction of internal noise in auditory perceptual learning.

    PubMed

    Jones, Pete R; Moore, David R; Amitay, Sygal; Shub, Daniel E

    2013-02-01

    This paper examines what mechanisms underlie auditory perceptual learning. Fifteen normal hearing adults performed two-alternative, forced choice, pure tone frequency discrimination for four sessions. External variability was introduced by adding a zero-mean Gaussian random variable to the frequency of each tone. Measures of internal noise, encoding efficiency, bias, and inattentiveness were derived using four methods (model fit, classification boundary, psychometric function, and double-pass consistency). The four methods gave convergent estimates of internal noise, which was found to decrease from 4.52 to 2.93 Hz with practice. No group-mean changes in encoding efficiency, bias, or inattentiveness were observed. It is concluded that learned improvements in frequency discrimination primarily reflect a reduction in internal noise. Data from highly experienced listeners and neural networks performing the same task are also reported. These results also indicated that auditory learning represents internal noise reduction, potentially through the re-weighting of frequency-specific channels.

  16. [Ceruminous gland adenoma of the external auditory canal: a case report].

    PubMed

    Namysłowski, Grzegorz; Scierski, Wojciech; Misiołek, Maciej; Czecior, Eugeniusz; Lange, Dariusz

    2003-01-01

    Ceruminous adenoma (ceruminoma) of the external auditory meatus is a rare neoplasm with benign clinical behavior. This tumor is mainly composed of the ceruminous gland cells (modified apocrine sweat glands). These glands are localized deep in the skin mostly in the cartilaginous part of the external auditory meatus. The most often symptom of the ceruminous adenoma of external auditory meatus is the unilateral conductive hearing loss. Occasionally symptoms of this tumor (pain, otorrhoea) can result from an otitis externa secondary to meatus obstruction. Ceruminous adenoma should be radical excised with adequate margins of the normal tissues. The prognosis of these tumors is good. The difficulties of nomenclature, histological structure of the auditory external meatus ceruminoma, as well as symptomatology, treatment and clinical behavior are discussed on the basis of the literature. A case of histologically confirmed ceruminoma (ceruminous adenoma) of the external auditory meatus in a surgically treated 53 years old men is presented.

  17. Hearing loss and enlarged internal auditory canal in children.

    PubMed

    Santos, Saturnino; Domínguez, M Jesús; Cervera, Javier; Suárez, Alicia; Bueno, Antonio; Bartolomé, Margarita; López, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Among the temporal bone abnormalities that can be found in the etiological study of paediatric sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) by imaging techniques, those related to the internal auditory canal (IAC) are the least frequent. The most prevalent of these abnormalities that is associated with SNHL is stenotic IAC due to its association with cochlear nerve deficiencies. Less frequent and less concomitant with SNHL is the finding of an enlarged IAC (>8mm). Retrospective and descriptive review of clinical associations, imaging, audiological patterns and treatment of 9 children with hearing loss and enlarged IAC in the period 1999 to 2012. Two groups of patients are described. The first, without association with vestibulocochlear dysplasias, consisted of: 2 patients with SNHL without other temporal bone or systemic abnormalities, one with bilateral mixed HL from chromosome 18q deletion, one with a genetic X-linked DFN3 hearing loss, one with unilateral hearing loss in neurofibromatosis type 2 with bilateral acoustic neuroma, and one with unilateral hearing loss with cochlear nerve deficiency. The second group, with association with vestibulocochlear dysplasias, was comprised of: one patient with moderate bilateral mixed hearing loss in branchio-oto-renal syndrome, one with profound unilateral SNHL with recurrent meningitis, and another with profound bilateral SNHL with congenital hypothyroidism. The presence of an enlarged IAC in children can be found in different clinical and audiological settings with relevancies that can range from life-threatening situations, such as recurrent meningitis, to isolated hearing loss with no other associations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  18. Bilateral internal auditory canal gangliogliomas mimicking neurofibromatosis Type II

    PubMed Central

    Hooten, Kristopher G.; Oliveria, Seth F.; Sadrameli, Saeed S.; Gandhi, Shashank; Yachnis, Anthony T.; Lewis, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gangliogliomas are rare low grade, typically well-differentiated, tumors that are composed of mature ganglion cells and neoplastic glial cells. These tumors can appear at virtually any location along the neuroaxis but classically occur in the temporal lobe of young patients. In a small number of cases, gangliogliomas have presented as masses in the brainstem or involving cranial nerves. With the exception of vestibular schwannomas, bilateral tumors in the region of the internal auditory canal (IAC) or cerebellopontine angle (CPA) are exceedingly rare. Case Description: We report a case of a 58-year-old male who presented with hearing loss, tinnitus, and vertigo. Initial magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilateral nonenhancing IAC/CPA tumors. Based on this finding, a presumptive diagnosis of neurofibromatosis Type II was made, which was initially managed conservatively with close observation. He returned for follow-up with worsening vertigo and tinnitus, thus prompting the decision to proceed with surgical resection of the symptomatic mass. Intriguingly, pathological study demonstrated a WHO Grade I ganglioglioma. Description: We report a case of a 58-year-old male who presented with hearing loss, tinnitus, and vertigo. Initial magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilateral nonenhancing IAC/CPA tumors. Based on this finding, a presumptive diagnosis of neurofibromatosis Type II was made, which was initially managed conservatively with close observation. He returned for follow-up with worsening vertigo and tinnitus, thus prompting the decision to proceed with surgical resection of the symptomatic mass. Intriguingly, pathological study demonstrated a WHO Grade I ganglioglioma. Conclusion: This is the first reported case of bilateral IAC/CPA gangliogliomas. When evaluating bilateral IAC/CPA lesions with unusual imaging characteristics, ganglioglioma should be included in the differential diagnosis. PMID:27127704

  19. Pediatric cerebellopontine angle and internal auditory canal tumors: clinical article..

    PubMed

    Holman, Michelle A; Schmitt, William R; Carlson, Matthew L; Driscoll, Colin L W; Beatty, Charles W; Link, Michael J

    2013-10-01

    The aim in this study was to describe the clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, and risk for neurofibromatosis Type 2 (NF2) in pediatric patients presenting with cerebellopontine angle (CPA) and internal auditory canal (IAC) tumors. The authors conducted a retrospective study at a tertiary care academic referral center. All patients with an age ≤ 18 years who had presented with an extraaxial CPA or IAC tumor between 1987 and 2012 were included in the study cohort. Data regarding symptoms, diagnosis, tumor characteristics, and NF2 status were collected and analyzed. Sixty patients (55% female, 45% male) harboring 87 tumors were identified. The mean age at diagnosis was 12.8 years (median 14.0 years, range 0.9-18.9 years). Schwannomas were the most commonly identified lesions (57 of 87 tumors, including 52 vestibular, 3 facial, and 2 trigeminal schwannomas), followed by meningiomas (5 of 87) and epidermoid cysts (4 of 87). Six malignant tumors were diagnosed, including small-cell sarcoma, squamous cell carcinoma, malignant meningioma, atypical rhabdoid-teratoid tumor, endolymphatic sac tumor, and malignant ganglioglioma. Headache, followed by hearing loss and imbalance, was the most common presenting symptom, whereas dysphagia, otalgia, and facial pain were uncommon. Neurofibromatosis Type 2 was diagnosed in 20 (61%) of 33 patients with vestibular schwannoma (VS), while the other 13 patients (39%) had sporadic tumors. Nineteen of the 20 patients with NF2 met the diagnostic criteria for that disorder on initial presentation, and 15 of them presented with bilateral VS. At the last follow-up, 19 of the 20 patients subsequently diagnosed with NF2 demonstrated bilateral VSs, whereas 1 patient with a unilateral VS and multiple other NF2-associated tumors has yet to demonstrate a contralateral VS to date. Only 1 patient presenting with an isolated unilateral VS and no family history of NF2 demonstrated a contralateral VS on subsequent radiological screening

  20. Internal auditory canal meningocele-perilabyrinthine/translabyrinthine fistula: Case report and imaging.

    PubMed

    Truesdale, Carl M; Peterson, Ryan B; Hudgins, Patricia A; Vivas, Esther X

    2016-08-01

    The case of a 17-year-old patient with progressive unilateral sensorineural hearing loss and temporal bone malformations concerning for internal auditory canal meningocele with translabyrinthine/perilabyrinthine cerebrospinal fluid fistula is presented with associated computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. As the second reported case of an unruptured internal auditory canal meningocele with translabyrinthine/perilabyrinthine fistula, the case presents several clinically relevant points for otologists, neurotologists, and neuroradiologists. Although rare, it is an additional entity to consider as a cause of unilateral sensorineural hearing loss and may pose a risk for developing meningitis and possible "gushing" of cerebrospinal fluid should surgical intervention be attempted. Laryngoscope, 126:1931-1934, 2016.

  1. Condylomata acuminata of external urethral meatus causing infravesical obstruction.

    PubMed

    Kilciler, Mete; Bedir, Selahattin; Erdemir, Fikret; Coban, Hidayet; Erten, Koray; Ors, Onder; Ozgok, Yasar

    2007-01-01

    Condyloma acuminata is one of the most common virally transmitted diseases. The most common sites for condyloma in males are the balanopreputial sulcus, frenulum and the glans' mucosa. Condylomata in the urethra is rarely seen occur and most often situated in the distal part of the urethra. A 24-year-male admitted to our clinic with complaint of papillary lesion at the urethral meatus and urinary retention. Physical examination revealed that multiple papillary lesions along the anterior urethra until 1 cm distance from the urethral meatus. Under the clinical diagnosis of condyloma acuminata, he was treated conservatively with radical local excision of the lesion and condyloma acuminatum was verified by histopathological examination. Four months after surgery, there has been no local or remote recurrence.

  2. Ethmoidectomy combined with superior meatus enlargement increases olfactory airflow.

    PubMed

    Nishijima, Hironobu; Kondo, Kenji; Nomura, Tsutomu; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2017-08-01

    The relationship between a particular surgical technique in endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) and airflow changes in the post-operative olfactory region has not been assessed. The present study aimed to compare olfactory airflow after ESS between conventional ethmoidectomy and ethmoidectomy with superior meatus enlargement, using virtual ESS and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. Prospective computational study. Nasal computed tomography images of four adult subjects were used to generate models of the nasal airway. The original preoperative model was digitally edited as virtual ESS by performing uncinectomy, ethmoidectomy, antrostomy, and frontal sinusotomy. The following two post-operative models were prepared: conventional ethmoidectomy with normal superior meatus (ESS model) and ethmoidectomy with superior meatus enlargement (ESS-SM model). The calculated three-dimensional nasal geometries were confirmed using virtual endoscopy to ensure that they corresponded to the post-operative anatomy observed in the clinical setting. Steady-state, laminar, inspiratory airflow was simulated, and the velocity, streamline, and mass flow rate in the olfactory region were compared among the preoperative and two postoperative models. The mean velocity in the olfactory region, number of streamlines bound to the olfactory region, and mass flow rate were higher in the ESS-SM model than in the other models. We successfully used an innovative approach involving virtual ESS, virtual endoscopy, and CFD to assess postoperative outcomes after ESS. It is hypothesized that the increased airflow to the olfactory fossa achieved with ESS-SM may lead to improved olfactory function; however, further studies are required. NA.

  3. Impact Assessment of Urethral Meatus Morphology and Penile Biometry in Transurethral Prostate and Bladder Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Vieiralves, Rodrigo Ribeiro; Conte, Paulo Henrique Pereira; Felici, Eduardo Medina; Rodrigues, Nádia Cristina Pinheiro; de souza, Tomás Accioly; Sampaio, Francisco J. B.

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To analyze the penile and urethral meatus biometry and its correlation with meatoplasty during endoscopic resections. We also propose a new classification for urethral meatus morphology. Materials and Methods. We prospectively studied 105 patients who underwent prostate and bladder transurethral resections. We performed standardized measurement of penile and urethral meatus biometry followed by penile photo in the front position. The need to perform meatoplasty or dilatation during resectoscope introduction was registered. Data were analyzed comparing the correlation between two groups: without intervention (Group A) and with intervention (Group B). Results. We observed in Group A and Group B, respectively, the average length of urethral meatus of 1.07 cm versus 0.75 cm (p < 0.001) and average width of urethral meatus of 0.59 cm versus 0.38 cm (p < 0.001). Considering the morphology of the urethral meatus, we propose a new classification, in the following groups: (a) typical; (b) slit; (c) point-like; (d) horseshoe; and (e) megameatus. The point-like meatus was the one that most needed intervention, followed by the slit and the typical meatus (p < 0.001). Conclusions. Point-like and slit-shaped urethral meatus, as well as reduced length and width of the urethral meatus, are the determining factors. PMID:28298923

  4. Ethmoidectomy combined with superior meatus enlargement increases olfactory airflow

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Kenji; Nomura, Tsutomu; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The relationship between a particular surgical technique in endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) and airflow changes in the post‐operative olfactory region has not been assessed. The present study aimed to compare olfactory airflow after ESS between conventional ethmoidectomy and ethmoidectomy with superior meatus enlargement, using virtual ESS and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. Study Design Prospective computational study. Materials and Methods Nasal computed tomography images of four adult subjects were used to generate models of the nasal airway. The original preoperative model was digitally edited as virtual ESS by performing uncinectomy, ethmoidectomy, antrostomy, and frontal sinusotomy. The following two post‐operative models were prepared: conventional ethmoidectomy with normal superior meatus (ESS model) and ethmoidectomy with superior meatus enlargement (ESS‐SM model). The calculated three‐dimensional nasal geometries were confirmed using virtual endoscopy to ensure that they corresponded to the post‐operative anatomy observed in the clinical setting. Steady‐state, laminar, inspiratory airflow was simulated, and the velocity, streamline, and mass flow rate in the olfactory region were compared among the preoperative and two postoperative models. Results The mean velocity in the olfactory region, number of streamlines bound to the olfactory region, and mass flow rate were higher in the ESS‐SM model than in the other models. Conclusion We successfully used an innovative approach involving virtual ESS, virtual endoscopy, and CFD to assess postoperative outcomes after ESS. It is hypothesized that the increased airflow to the olfactory fossa achieved with ESS‐SM may lead to improved olfactory function; however, further studies are required. Level of Evidence NA. PMID:28894833

  5. The influence of signal type on the internal auditory representation of a room

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teret, Elizabeth

    Currently, architectural acousticians make no real distinction between a room impulse response and the auditory system's internal representation of a room. With this lack of a good model for the auditory representation of a room, it is indirectly assumed that our internal representation of a room is independent of the sound source needed to make the room characteristics audible. The extent to which this assumption holds true is examined with perceptual tests. Listeners are presented with various pairs of signals (music, speech, and noise) convolved with synthesized impulse responses of different reverberation times. They are asked to adjust the reverberation of one of the signals to match the other. Analysis of the data show that the source signal significantly influences perceived reverberance. Listeners are less accurate when matching reverberation times of varied signals than they are with identical signals. Additional testing shows that perception of reverberation can be linked to the existence of transients in the signal.

  6. Aphasia and Auditory Processing after Stroke through an International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Lens

    PubMed Central

    Purdy, Suzanne C.; Wanigasekara, Iruni; Cañete, Oscar M.; Moore, Celia; McCann, Clare M.

    2016-01-01

    Aphasia is an acquired language impairment affecting speaking, listening, reading, and writing. Aphasia occurs in about a third of patients who have ischemic stroke and significantly affects functional recovery and return to work. Stroke is more common in older individuals but also occurs in young adults and children. Because people experiencing a stroke are typically aged between 65 and 84 years, hearing loss is common and can potentially interfere with rehabilitation. There is some evidence for increased risk and greater severity of sensorineural hearing loss in the stroke population and hence it has been recommended that all people surviving a stroke should have a hearing test. Auditory processing difficulties have also been reported poststroke. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) can be used as a basis for describing the effect of aphasia, hearing loss, and auditory processing difficulties on activities and participation. Effects include reduced participation in activities outside the home such as work and recreation and difficulty engaging in social interaction and communicating needs. A case example of a young man (M) in his 30s who experienced a left-hemisphere ischemic stroke is presented. M has normal hearing sensitivity but has aphasia and auditory processing difficulties based on behavioral and cortical evoked potential measures. His principal goal is to return to work. Although auditory processing difficulties (and hearing loss) are acknowledged in the literature, clinical protocols typically do not specify routine assessment. The literature and the case example presented here suggest a need for further research in this area and a possible change in practice toward more routine assessment of auditory function post-stroke. PMID:27489401

  7. Affective auditory stimuli: adaptation of the International Affective Digitized Sounds (IADS-2) for European Portuguese.

    PubMed

    Soares, Ana Paula; Pinheiro, Ana P; Costa, Ana; Frade, Carla Sofia; Comesaña, Montserrat; Pureza, Rita

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we present the normative values of the adaptation of the International Affective Digitized Sounds (IADS-2; Bradley & Lang, 2007a) for European Portuguese (EP). The IADS-2 is a standardized database of 167 naturally occurring sounds that is widely used in the study of emotions. The sounds were rated by 300 college students who were native speakers of EP, in the three affective dimensions of valence, arousal, and dominance, by using the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM). The aims of this adaptation were threefold: (1) to provide researchers with standardized and normatively rated affective sounds to be used with an EP population; (2) to investigate sex and cultural differences in the ratings of affective dimensions of auditory stimuli between EP and the American (Bradley & Lang, 2007a) and Spanish (Fernández-Abascal et al., Psicothema 20:104-113 2008; Redondo, Fraga, Padrón, & Piñeiro, Behavior Research Methods 40:784-790 2008) standardizations; and (3) to promote research on auditory affective processing in Portugal. Our results indicated that the IADS-2 is a valid and useful database of digitized sounds for the study of emotions in a Portuguese context, allowing for comparisons of its results with those of other international studies that have used the same database for stimulus selection. The normative values of the EP adaptation of the IADS-2 database can be downloaded along with the online version of this article.

  8. CT and MR imaging of congential abnormalities of the inner ear and internal auditory canal.

    PubMed

    Casselman, J W; Offeciers, E F; De Foer, B; Govaerts, P; Kuhweide, R; Somers, T

    2001-11-01

    The embryology of the inner ear must be known as many of the inner ear malformations present as a result of the arrest during the various stages of embryology. These malformations are described in this "embryologic" perspective and specific names for certain malformations are no longer used. Both CT and MR can be used to look at inner ear malformations but often both techniques are complementary. However, CT is preferred when associated middle- or external ear malformations must be excluded. Magnetic resonance is preferred when subtle changes in the membranous labyrinth or abnormalities of the nerves in the internal auditory canal must be visualised. The CT and MR technique must however be adapted as more and more subtle congenital malformations can only be seen when the right technique is used. The heavily T2-weighted gradient-echo or fast spin-echo MR techniques are mandatory if malformations of the inner ear must be excluded. The purpose of this paper is to describe the techniques used to study these patients and to give an overview of the most frequent and important congenital malformations which can be found in the inner ear and internal auditory canal/cerebellopontine angle.

  9. MR enhancement of the internal auditory canal induced by tissue implant after resection of acoustic neurinoma.

    PubMed

    Kremer, P; Forsting, M; Hamer, J; Sartor, K

    1998-01-01

    We studied intrameatal changes in MR enhancement induced by free-tissue implant over time after surgery for acoustic neurinoma. Twenty-one patients were examined by MR imaging after suboccipital resection of an acoustic neurinoma. Precontrast and postcontrast MR images were obtained within 3 days after surgery (early MR images), then 6 weeks (intermediate MR images) and 6 months (late MR images) after surgery. A muscle graft as a free-tissue implant was used within the internal auditory canal in 18 of the 21 patients to seal pneumatic cells of the petrosal bone inadvertently opened and to prevent leakage of cerebrospinal fluid. On the early MR images, only minimal leptomeningeal or perineural enhancement was seen in 16 patients. There was no sign of residual tumor; however, enhancement increased and changed from linear to nodular on the intermediate MR images in 16 of the 18 cases in which a muscle graft had been used during surgery, mimicking a small intrameatal tumor. This nodular enhancement was still visible on the late MR images in 13 of the 16 cases. Nodular MR enhancement within the internal auditory canal a few weeks to months after surgery for acoustic neurinoma may be induced by packing material and should be considered when interpreting postoperative MR images.

  10. Affective auditory stimuli: characterization of the International Affective Digitized Sounds (IADS) by discrete emotional categories.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Ryan A; James, Thomas W

    2008-02-01

    Although there are many well-characterized affective visual stimuli sets available to researchers, there are few auditory sets available. Those auditory sets that are available have been characterized primarily according to one of two major theories of affect: dimensional or categorical. Current trends have attempted to utilize both theories to more fully understand emotional processing. As such, stimuli that have been thoroughly characterized according to both of these approaches are exceptionally useful. In an effort to provide researchers with such a stimuli set, we collected descriptive data on the International Affective Digitized Sounds (IADS), identifying which discrete categorical emotions are elicited by each sound. The IADS is a database of 111 sounds characterized along the affective dimensions of valence, arousal, and dominance. Our data complement these characterizations of the IADS, allowing researchers to control for or manipulate stimulus properties in accordance with both theories of affect, providing an avenue for further integration of these perspectives. Related materials may be downloaded from the Psychonomic Society Web archive at www.psychonomic.org/archive.

  11. Evidence that the compound action potential (CAP) from the auditory nerve is a stationary potential generated across dura mater.

    PubMed

    Brown, Daniel J; Patuzzi, Robert B

    2010-08-01

    We have investigated the generation of the compound action potential (CAP) from the auditory nerve of guinea pigs. Responses to acoustic tone-bursts were recorded from the round window (RW), throughout the cochlear fluids, from the surface of the cochlear nucleus, from the central end of the auditory nerve after removal of the cochlear nucleus, from the scalp vertex, and from the contralateral ear. Responses were compared before, during and after experimental manipulations including pharmacological blockade of the auditory nerve, section of the auditory nerve, section of the efferent nerves, removal of the cochlear nucleus, and focal cooling of the cochlear nerve and/or cochlear nucleus. Regardless of the waveform changes occurring with these manipulations, the responses were similar in waveform but inverted polarity across the internal auditory meatus. The CAP waveforms were very similar before and after removal of the cochlear nucleus, apart from transient changes that could last many minutes. This suggests that the main CAP components are generated entirely by the eighth nerve. Based on previous studies and a clear understanding of the generation of extracellular potentials, we suggest that the early components in the responses recorded from the round window, from the cochlear fluids, from the surface of the cochlear nucleus, or from the scalp are a far-field or stationary potential, generated when the circulating action currents associated with each auditory neurone encounters a high extracellular resistance as it passes through the dura mater.

  12. Cerebellopontine angle and internal auditory canal: neurovascular anatomy on gas CT cisternograms

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, C.R.; Hasso, A.N.; Drayer, B.P.; Hinshaw, D.B. Jr.; Thompson, J.R.

    1985-03-01

    The authors reviewed 103 normal gas CT cisternograms to delineate the appearance of normal neurovascular structures in the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) and internal auditory canal (IAC). Cranial nerves VII and VIII were identified in the CPA in 97% of cases, either separately (53%) or as a bundle (44%). Intracanalicular branches of the VIIIth cranial nerve were identified in 20% of cases, and cranial nerve V was visualized in the CPA in 14%. The characteristic vascular loop, usually the anterior inferior cerebellar artery, was visible in 35% of cases, and, in 22% of visualized cases, was in an intracanalicular location. In 10% of cases, greater than 66% of the IAC was occupied by the neurovascular bundle. Familiarity with the normal anatomy and variations seen on gas CT cisternograms is necessary to prevent false-positive interpretations.

  13. Morphometric Analysis of the Internal Auditory Canal by Computed Tomography Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Sergio Ricardo; Ajzen, Sergio; D´Ippolito, Giuseppe; Alonso, Luis; Isotani, Sadao; Lederman, Henrique

    2012-01-01

    Background Many clinical and experimental studies have been done to analyze the anatomical and functional aspects of the internal auditory canal (IAC) in human beings since there are great inter-individual variability and structural variations that may occur regarding the other adjacent structures. Objectives The purpose of this study was to characterize the morphology of the internal auditory canal (IAC) during development using high resolution computed tomography (CT) and to analyze its dimensions, which will be determined by measuring the nearby areas and structures using a system of digital image processing. Patients and Methods CT images of the IAC of 110 normal subjects aged 1 to 92 years (mean age, 46.5 years) of both genders were reviewed to determine the shape, area, opening width (OW), longitudinal length (LL), vertical diameter (VD) and distance from the vestibular aqueduct. Results The shapes observed in children and adults were funnel-shaped (74% and 58.3%, respectively), cylindrical (22% and 30.9%, respectively) and bud-shaped (4% and 10.8%, respectively). The measurements by CT in children were: area= 50.30 mm2, OW = 7.53 mm, length = 11.17 mm, VD = 4.82 mm and the distance between the IAC and the vestibular aqueduct (VA) = 12.63 mm. In adults, the measurements were: area = 44.64 mm2, OW = 7.10 mm, length = 9.84 mm, VD = 4.47 mm and the distance between IAC and VA = 11.17 mm. Conclusions CT images showed that the IAC has different shapes and when the measurements obtained for children were compared with those of adults, the parameters that presented statistically significant differences in either gender were length and diameter. PMID:23329967

  14. Relevance of Whitnall's tubercle and auditory meatus in diagnosing exclusions during skull-photo superimposition.

    PubMed

    Jayaprakash, Paul T; Hashim, Natassha; Yusop, Ridzuan Abd Aziz Mohd

    2015-08-01

    Video vision mixer based skull-photo superimposition is a popular method for identifying skulls retrieved from unidentified human remains. A report on the reliability of the superimposition method suggested increased failure rates of 17.3 to 32% to exclude and 15 to 20% to include skulls while using related and unrelated face photographs. Such raise in failures prompted an analysis of the methods employed for the research. The protocols adopted for assessing the reliability are seen to vary from those suggested by the practitioners in the field. The former include overlaying the skull- and face-images on the basis of morphology by relying on anthropometric landmarks on the front plane of the face-images and evaluating the goodness of match depending on mix-mode images; the latter consist of orienting the skull considering landmarks on both the eye and ear planes of the face- and skull-images and evaluating the match utilizing images seen in wipe-mode in addition to those in mix-mode. Superimposition of a skull with face-images of five living individuals in two sets of experiments, one following the procedure described for the research on reliability and the other applying the methods suggested by the practitioners has shown that overlaying the images on the basis of morphology depending on the landmarks on the front plane alone and assessing the match in mix-mode fails to exclude the skull. However, orienting the skull relying on the relationship between the anatomical landmarks on the skull- and face-images such as Whitnall's tubercle and exocanthus in the front (eye) plane and the porion and tragus in the rear (ear) plane as well as assessing the match using wipe-mode images enables excluding that skull while superimposing with the same set of face-images.

  15. [Osteoma and exostosis of the external auditory meatus: a clinical diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Granell, J; Puig, A; Benito, E

    2003-03-01

    Proliferative osseous lesions usually found in the external ear are exostoses and osteomata. In other sites they are clearly different entities, but in this location histopathologic differential features are not so reliable in the study of the specimens. An occlusive osteomata is shown, with the typical clinical presentation demonstrated in a multiplanar CT. Microscopically, the lesion consisted of mature bone trabeculae, separated by medular spaces with fibrovascular tissue, characteristic features of osteomata. However, in the most superficial areas, lines of bone apposition, like those in exostoses, were found. A literature review confirms the lack of specificity of the histopathologic study, so diagnosis is based on clinical data.

  16. Proceedings of the second international conference on auditory display, ICAD `94

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, G.

    1995-12-31

    ICAD is a forum for presenting research on the use of sound to display data, monitor systems, and provide enhanced user interfaces for computers and virtual reality systems. It is unique in its singular focus on auditory displays and the array of perception, technology, and application areas that this encompasses. Research areas covered by ICAD include: auditory exploration of data via sonification (data controlled sound) and audification (audible playback of data samples); real time monitoring of multivariate data; sound in immersive interfaces (virtual reality) and teleoperation; perceptual issues in auditory display; sound in generalized computer interfaces; technologies supporting auditory display creation; data handling for auditory display systems; applications of auditory display. Included within each of these areas of inquiry are many issues concerning application, theory, hardware/software, and human factors. Integration with speech-audio implementations with graphical display techniques and their concomitant perception issues also pose significant challenges in each area.

  17. Is There a Relationship Between Bell's Palsy and Internal Auditory Canal?

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Hüseyin Baki; Safak Yalcin, Kadihan; Çakan, Doğan; Paksoy, Mustafa; Erdogan, Banu Atalay; Sanli, Arif

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the diameter of internal acoustic canal in patients with Bells palsy to investigate the role of anatomical differences of the temporal bone in etiology of Bell's palsy. Sixty-four patients who were diagnosed as Bells Palsy and temporal bone computed tomography imagings of them were included into the study group (Group 1). The control group (Group 2) was consisted of 35 healthy subjects without Bell's Palsy. All patients had temporal bone computed tomography imaging. The internal auditory canal inlet, mid-canal, outlet and canal lengths were measured at the most distinctive cross-section of the seventh and eighth cranial nerves bifurcation. In the study group, Bells palsy was on the right side in 26 patients (40.6 %) and on the left side in 38 patients (59.4 %). Initial House-Brackmann (HB) score was HB-2 in 29 patients (45.3 %), HB-3 in 18 patients (28.1 %), HB-4 in 13 patients (20.3 %) and HB-5 in 4 patients (6.2 %). At 6-month evaluation, HB-score of the patients were HB-1 in 37 patients (57.8 %), HB-2 in 25 patients (39.1 %) and HB-3 in 2 patients (3.1 %). Internal auditory canal (IAC) measurements of the groups showed that there were no significant differences between the measurements of right-mid canal, right canal length; and left canal outlet and left canal length of the study and control groups. Right inlet and outlet; and left inlet and mid-canal values of the study group (Bell's palsy) were significantly lower than those of the control group. In Bell's palsy group, left inlet, outlet and canal length values were significantly higher than those of the right ones. Correlation analysis showed that there were no significant correlation between paralysis side; initial HB stage; and IAC measurement results. In patients with higher initial HB score, their 6-month later HB-score was also higher. In patients with higher 6-month HB score; R canal inlet, R mid-canal, L-canal inlet, and L-mid canal values were lower. Lower

  18. Use of piezosurgery for internal auditory canal drilling in acoustic neuroma surgery.

    PubMed

    Grauvogel, Juergen; Scheiwe, Christian; Kaminsky, Jan

    2011-10-01

    Piezosurgery is based on microvibrations generated by the piezoelectrical effect and has a selective bone-cutting ability with preservation of soft tissue. This study examined the applicability of Piezosurgery compared to rotating drills (RD) for internal auditory canal (IAC) opening in acoustic neuroma (AN) surgery. Piezosurgery was used in eight patients for IAC drilling in AN surgery. After exposition of the IAC and tumor, the posterior wall of the IAC was drilled using Piezosurgery instead of RD. Piezosurgery was evaluated with respect to practicability, safety, preciseness of bone cutting, preservation of cranial nerves, influences on neurophysiological monitoring, and facial nerve and hearing outcome. Piezosurgery was successfully used for selective bone cutting, while cranial nerves were structurally and functionally preserved, which could be measured by means of neuromonitoring. Piezosurgery guaranteed a safe and precise cut by removing bone layer by layer in a shaping way. Compared to RD, limited influence on neurophysiological monitoring attributable to Piezosurgery was noted, allowing for continuous neuromonitoring. No disadvantage due to microvibrations was noticed concerning hearing function. The angled tip showed better handling in right-sided than in left-sided tumors in the hands of a right-handed surgeon. The short, thick handpiece may be improved for more convenient handling. Piezosurgery is a safe tool for selective bone cutting for opening of the IAC with preservation of facial nerve and hearing function in AN surgery. Piezosurgery has the potential to replace RD for this indication because of its safe and precise bone-cutting properties.

  19. Symmetry of external auditive meatus. A pilot study on human skulls.

    PubMed

    Mizgiryte, Simona; Vaitelis, Julius; Barkus, Arunas; Zaleckas, Linas; Pletkus, Rolandas; Auskalnis, Adomas

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. To evaluate the perpendicularity of the line connecting external auditive meatus to the midsagital plane and the palatal suture as a midsagittal symmetry reference line. Setting and Sample Population - 62 randomly chosen human skulls from osteological collection (Vilnius University). MATERIAL AND METHODS. The skulls were photographed (Nikon 40 D, Nikkor lens 50 mm) from basal, frontobasal and frontal views. Photos were analysed with Adobe Photoshop CS5 (Adobe). The first line connected frontal points of external auditive meatus and the angle to the midsagittal plane was measured. The second line (the palatal suture) was compared to the median sagittal plane. Data was analysed with SPSS 17 (IBM). RESULTS. The mean value for the angles of the line between the external auditive meatus and the midsagittal plane in basal views was 90.12° (SD=1.48°) and in frontobasal 90.36° (SD=2.25°). No statistically significant differences were found between groups of age and sex. The inter-rater agreement for evaluation of the adequacy of palatal suture with the midsagital plane was high (Cohen's Kappa 0.702 (p<0.05)) as well as the coincidence of both lines in basal and frontobasal views (90.3% and 85.5% respectively). CONCLUSION. Considering the limits of this study the angle between external auditive meatus and midsagital skull plane has a characteristic fluctuating asymmetry. The congruence of palatal suture and midsagital plane is debatable.

  20. Endoscopic endonasal retrieval of a nasolacrimal duct stone via the valve of Hasner in the inferior meatus.

    PubMed

    Cnaan, Ran Ben; Moosajee, Mariya; Heatley, Catherine J; Olver, Jane M

    2012-01-01

    A 37 year old man presented with a 6 month history of a right epiphora with associated mucus discharge. Lacrimal irrigation demonstrated right unilateral partial nasolacrimal duct obstruction, confirmed with lacrimal scintigraphy. Nasal endoscopy showed a pale elevation in the right inferior meatus. Endoscopic endonasal examination revealed a yellow-white nasolacrimal duct stone emerging from the valve of Hasner in the inferior meatus. The distal nasolacrimal duct in the lateral wall of the inferior meatus was marsupialised and the stone removed. At 12 months follow-up the patient maintained complete resolution of symptoms.

  1. Multidisciplinary approaches to understanding auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia and nonschizophrenia populations: the International Consortium on Hallucination Research.

    PubMed

    Waters, Flavie

    2012-06-01

    This special theme issue of Schizophrenia Bulletin presents a series of related articles focusing on auditory hallucinations, prepared by members of the International Consortium on Hallucination Research [InCoHR] working groups. The InCoHR is a large collaborative framework that serves as a platform for researchers to meet and collaborate on multidisciplinary projects relating to auditory hallucinations [AH] and discuss methodological issues facing transdiagnostic research. Laroi et al. observe the similarities in characteristic features of AHs in different clinical and nonclinical groups, but they also note that differences exist, reflecting the contribution of disease-related process. Waters et al. use findings of shared cognitive impairments across different diagnostic groups with AHs to propose a novel theoretical cognitive framework. Allen et al. describe that the neurobiological substrates of AHs include neural systems involved in language processing, as well as sensory and nonsensory brain regions and that studies are increasingly using fine-grain analysis of patients' characteristics in analyzing neuroimaging data. Ford et al. discuss different neurophysiological approaches and describes hallucination-related alterations in activity in temporal and frontal regions of the brain and particularly in auditory cortical areas. Finally, Sommer et al. review different treatment options for AHs in schizophrenia and other disorders, including pharmacological treatment, cognitive-behavioral therapy [CBT] and acceptance and commitment therapy [ACT], transcranial magnetic stimulation [TMS], and electroconvulsive therapy [ECT]. These related publications describe the current substance and direction of research on AHs across different diagnostic groups.

  2. Retention and migration of alprostadil cream applied topically to the glans meatus for erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Yeager, J; Beihn, R M

    2005-01-01

    Retention and migration of a specially designed alprostadil transdermal cream was assessed after single-dose administration to the glans meatus of the penis. Seven men were enrolled in this two-way crossover study. Three subjects self-administered the radio-labeled alprostadil transdermal cream (approximately 100 mg of cream containing 300 microg alprostadil) by inserting the tip of the dispenser into the meatus. In three others, the dose was administered by dispensing the cream dropwise into the metal opening without touching the penis (the preferred and directed method). Retention and migration of the cream mass was measured in the penis with a gamma scintillation camera. The alprostadil transdermal cream was retained in the fossa navicularis at or near 99% in five of six subjects regardless of the method of dosing, thus indicating that the cream formulation performed as designed. A mild, transient burning sensation in the penis was the most common adverse event.

  3. Malassezia spp. in acoustic meatus of bats (Molossus molossus) of the Amazon Region, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gandra, Rinaldo Ferreira; Gambale, Walderez; de Cássia Garcia Simão, Rita; da Silva Ruiz, Luciana; Durigon, Edson Luis; de Camargo, Luiz Marcelo Aranha; Giudice, Mauro Cintra; Sanfilippo, Luis Francisco; de Araújo, Jansen; Paula, Claudete Rodrigues

    2008-01-01

    The yeasts of the Malassezia genus are opportunistic microorganisms and can cause human and animal infections. They are commonly isolated from the skin and auricular canal of mammalians, mainly dogs and cats. The present study was aimed to isolate Malassezia spp. from the acoustic meatus of bats (Molossus molossus) in the Montenegro region, "Rondônia", Brazil. From a total of 30 bats studied Malassezia spp. were isolated in 24 (80%) animals, the breakdown by species being as follows (one Malassezia sp. per bat, N = 24): 15 (62.5%) M. pachydermatis, 5 (20.8%) M. furfur, 3 (12.5%) M. globosa and 1 (4.2%) M. sympodialis. This study establishes a new host and anatomic place for Malassezia spp., as it presents the first report ever of the isolation of this genus of yeasts in the acoustic meatus of bats.

  4. Fabrication of a meatus obturator on a titanium framework with a 1-step impression.

    PubMed

    Coskun, Akin; Yaluğ, Suat; Yazicioğlu, Hüseyín

    2006-01-01

    The fabrication of meatal obturator prosthesis with titanium framework using a 1-step final impression procedure is described in the case of a 44-year-old woman with congenital absence of the soft palate. The meatus obturator results in a more stable maxillary prosthesis and permits acceptable speech for a patient with total absence of the soft palate. The fabrication technique is relatively easy and saves time by eliminating some laboratory procedures.

  5. Management of boys with abnormal appearance of meatus at circumcision for balanitis xerotica obliterans

    PubMed Central

    Holbrook, C; Tsang, T

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The aim of this study was to develop a standardised management plan for boys with abnormal appearance of meatus at circumcision for balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO). METHODS Between 1995 and 2008, 107 boys underwent circumcision for BXO (confirmed on histology). Of these, 23 had abnormal appearance of the meatus at operation; their case notes were reviewed for age, presenting symptoms, management, outcome and follow up. RESULTS The age range at operation was 3–15 years (mean: 9 years). Patients commonly presented with phimosis and balanitis. Seven patients had an additional procedure at circumcision: six had meatotomy, one had meatal dilatation. Thirteen were treated with topical steroid cream post-operatively. Eight of these (62%) subsequently required meatotomy. Three patients were observed and did not require further intervention. Meatotomy was required in 9 patients, 6–29 months after circumcision (mean: 11 months). Two patients required dilatation, including one with a previous intraoperative meatotomy, who required multiple dilatations. CONCLUSIONS We propose the following standardised management plan: 1. With clinical evidence of BXO at circumcision, prepuce should be sent for histology. 2. If BXO is confirmed but the meatus appears normal, patients should be seen once post-operatively to give information about meatal stenosis. 3. When the meatus appears scarred with a narrowed lumen at operation, a meatotomy should be performed, with follow up for at least two years. 4. If the lumen is scarred but adequate, patients should be followed up in clinic for the same period for possible development of stenosis. 5. Topical steroid cream can be considered for voiding discomfort without decreased urine stream. PMID:21929920

  6. A Case of Embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma Presenting as a Lobulated Protrusion From the Urethral Meatus at Birth.

    PubMed

    Bethell, George S; Johal, Navroop S; Cuckow, Peter M

    2015-10-01

    This is the first reported case of rhabdomyosarcoma presenting as a mass protruding from the urethral meatus present at birth. A male neonate was transferred to a tertiary pediatric urology center on day 4 of life where the mass was surgically excised. Histology confirmed an embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma and chemotherapy commenced. The patient completed chemotherapy at the age of 8 months. The child is now 3.5 years old and well with no recurrence of disease.

  7. Rare Presentation of Giant Cell Tumor in the Internal Auditory Canal: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Jada, Ajit S; Shrivastava, Raj K; Mannan, Abul; Kobets, Andrew; Manolidis, Spiros

    2015-07-01

    Giant cell tumor (GCT) is a benign but locally aggressive bone tumor that usually involves the end of long bones. It is a relatively common neoplasm in patients, constituting 5 to 10% of all benign bone tumors. Approximately 2% of GCTs occur in the craniofacial skeleton with a predilection for the ethmoid, sphenoid, and temporal bones. The skull base location is unique and not commonly described. Hearing loss, headache, tinnitus, and subcutaneous masses are the most commonly reported symptoms in GCTs of the skull base. In this case report we present the first description of a GCT within the internal auditory canal causing cranial neuropathy and review the recent pertinent literature.

  8. Rare Presentation of Giant Cell Tumor in the Internal Auditory Canal: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Jada, Ajit S.; Shrivastava, Raj K.; Mannan, Abul; Kobets, Andrew; Manolidis, Spiros

    2015-01-01

    Giant cell tumor (GCT) is a benign but locally aggressive bone tumor that usually involves the end of long bones. It is a relatively common neoplasm in patients, constituting 5 to 10% of all benign bone tumors. Approximately 2% of GCTs occur in the craniofacial skeleton with a predilection for the ethmoid, sphenoid, and temporal bones. The skull base location is unique and not commonly described. Hearing loss, headache, tinnitus, and subcutaneous masses are the most commonly reported symptoms in GCTs of the skull base. In this case report we present the first description of a GCT within the internal auditory canal causing cranial neuropathy and review the recent pertinent literature. PMID:26251814

  9. Endoscopic transsphenoidal anterior petrosal approach for locally aggressive tumors involving the internal auditory canal, jugular fossa, and cavernous sinus.

    PubMed

    Shin, Masahiro; Kondo, Kenji; Hanakita, Shunya; Hasegawa, Hirotaka; Yoshino, Masanori; Teranishi, Yu; Kin, Taichi; Saito, Nobuhito

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Reports about endoscopic endonasal surgery for skull base tumors involving the lateral part of petrous apex remain scarce. The authors present their experience with the endoscopic transsphenoidal anterior petrosal (ETAP) approach through the retrocarotid space for tumors involving the internal auditory canal, jugular fossa, and cavernous sinus. METHODS The authors performed the ETAP approach in 10 patients with 11 tumors (bilateral in 1 patient) that extensively occupied the lateral part of petrous apex, e.g., the internal auditory canal and jugular fossa. Eight patients presented with diplopia (unilateral abducens nerve palsy), 3 with tinnitus, and 1 with unilateral hearing loss with facial palsy. After wide anterior sphenoidotomy, the sellar floor, clival recess, and carotid prominence were verified. Tumors were approached via an anteromedial petrosectomy through the retrocarotid triangular space, defined by the cavernous and vertical segments of the internal carotid artery (ICA), the clivus, and the petrooccipital fissure. The surgical window was easily enlarged by drilling the petrous bone along the petrooccipital fissure. After exposure of the tumor and ICA, dissection and resection of the tumor were mainly performed under direct visualization with 30° and 70° endoscopes. RESULTS Gross-total resection was achieved in 8 patients (9 tumors). In a patient with invasive meningioma, the tumor was strongly adherent to the ICA, necessitating partial resection. Postoperatively, all 8 patients who had presented with abducens nerve palsy preoperatively showed improvement within 6 months. In the patient presenting with hearing loss and facial palsy, the facial palsy completely resolved within 3 months, but hearing loss remained. Regarding complications, 3 patients showed mild and transient abducens nerve palsy resolving within 2 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months. Postoperative CSF rhinorrhea requiring surgical repair was observed in 1 patient. No patient

  10. Normal anatomy of the external urethral meatus in boys: implications for hypospadias repair.

    PubMed

    Hutton, Kim A R; Babu, Ramesh

    2007-07-01

    Both papers in this section relate to the always difficult subject of hypospadias repair. One of them describes the anatomy of the external urethral meatus, and the other a technique for repairing coronal or subcoronal hypospadias. To investigate the normal external urethral meatal anatomy in boys, and to examine the proportional relationship between meatal length and degree of ventral glans closure. In all, 92 boys with presumed normal penile anatomy were considered eligible for the study; 17 were not assessed because either the boy or parents declined to participate, leaving 75 boys (mean age 6.9 years, range 0.3-15) who completed the study. Photographic records of the meatal appearance were obtained and meatal height and ventral glans closure measured using ophthalmic callipers. All 75 boys in the study had a vertical slit-like meatus that commenced at the tip of the penis and ran ventrally. The mean (sd) vertical meatal length was 5.4 (1) mm and the mean length of ventral glans closure was 4.7 (1.2) mm. There was an age-dependent increase in meatal length and a similar association was identified for the length of ventral glans closure. There was also a statistically significant proportional relationship between meatal length and length of glans closure (r = 0.36, confidence interval 0.14-0.54, P < 0.002). The position and size of the external urethral meatus in normal boys is consistent, and ventral glans closure is equal to or slightly less than meatal length. These data might be of interest to hypospadiologists in their efforts to reconstruct normal glanular anatomy.

  11. [A case of left internal capsular infarction with auditory hallucination and peculiar amnesia and dysgraphia].

    PubMed

    Lai, C; Okada, Y; Sadoshima, S; Saku, Y; Kuwabara, Y; Fujishima, M

    1990-09-01

    A 46-year-old businessman suddenly became to behave curiously on the morning, September 1, 1988. He forgot how to go through an automatic ticket gate, which he used every day. In his company, he also forgot how to open the cash box, and he wrote a meaningless report for his business. From the night on that day, he had experienced auditory hallucination in which whispering words of some criticism to his performance for a few days. On the next day, he was admitted to a psychiatric hospital because he was suggested to have schizophrenia. By day 6 after the onset, his curious symptoms completely disappeared. However, slight verbal memory disturbance and cognitive dysfunction still remained. Because the brain CT on day 6 showed a small localized subcortical infarction in the left hemisphere he was transferred to our clinic on day 20 to elucidate the relation between the abnormal behavior and the infarction. His blood pressure was 116/64 mmHg and pulse was regular 63/min. He was clear and did not have any neurological deficit. He kept his episodic memory regarding the events at the onset and could almost recall them precisely. Results of standard blood tests, electrocardiogram, ultrasound cardiogram, electroencephalogram as well as cerebral angiography were normal. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed an infarcted lesion in the genu of the left caudate nucleus, adjacent to the anterior part of the thalamus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. [Influence of anatomic variations of the structures of the middle nasal meatus on sinonasal diseases].

    PubMed

    Buljcik-Cupić, Maja M; Savović, Slobodan N; Jovićević, Jasna S

    2008-01-01

    The most common anatomic variations of the structures of the middle nasal meatus are variations of agger nasi cells, variations of the middle turbinate, variations of uncinate process, variations of the ethmoidal bulla, deviations and deformations of nasal septum in the region of the middle nasal meatus, Haller's cell (orbitoethmoidal) and Onodi's cell (sphenoethmoidal cell). In 1997, the Otorhinolaryngology-Head Neck Surgery, Task Force on Chronic Rhinosinusitis defined chronic sinusitis and nasal disease initially by including sinusitis and rhinitis with one term-chronic rhinosinusitis. This was done because it was apparent to many that nasal disoders often affected the sinuses, and vice versa. Also they established baseline parameters, major and minor signs and symptoms, for definition of rhinosinusitis. Two major factors or one major factor and two minor factors constitute a strong history for rhinosinusitis. The following methods were used in the study: 1. Anamnestic data processing about: disease symptoms that were recognized by American Academy for ENT as major and minor criteria in diagnosing nosinusitis; the duration of symptoms; the kind of sinonasal disorder and the secondary disorders. 2. Data processing obtained by anterior/posterior rhinoscopy. 3. Data processing obtained by endoscopic examination. 4. Data processing obtained by CT of paranasal cavities and the nose. The data about anatomic variations were statistically processed by Eives's correlation coefficient that indicates the degree of correlation between sinonasal disorders and anatomic variation. By analyzing the obtained data in the examined patients with sinonasal disorders, anatomic variations were present in over 50% of the patients and are defined by percentage. 1. The deviation of nasal septum in 83.33% patients. 2. The variations of the form of the middle nasal chonha in 58.92% patients. 3. The presence of agger nasi cells in 50% patients. 4. Variations of the form of ethomoidal bulla

  13. External misattribution of internal thoughts and proneness to auditory hallucinations: the effect of emotional valence in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm.

    PubMed

    Kanemoto, Mari; Asai, Tomohisa; Sugimori, Eriko; Tanno, Yoshihiko

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that a tendency to externalize internal thought is related to auditory hallucinations or even proneness to auditory hallucinations (AHp) in the general population. However, although auditory hallucinations are related to emotional phenomena, few studies have investigated the effect of emotional valence on the aforementioned relationship. In addition, we do not know what component of psychotic phenomena relate to externalizing bias. The current study replicated our previous research, which suggested that individual differences in auditory hallucination-like experiences are strongly correlated with the external misattribution of internal thoughts, conceptualized in terms of false memory, using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. We found a significant relationship between experimental performance and total scores on the Launay-Slade Hallucination Scale (LSHS). Among the LSHS factors, only vivid mental image, which is said to be a predictor of auditory hallucinations, was significantly related to experimental performance. We then investigated the potential effect of emotional valence using the DRM paradigm. The results indicate that participants with low scores on the LSHS (the low-AHp group in the current study) showed an increased discriminability index (d') for positive words and a decreased d' for negative words. However, no effects of emotional valence were found for participants with high LSHS scores (high-AHp group). This study indicated that external misattribution of internal thoughts predicts AHp, and that the high-AHp group showed a smaller emotional valence effect in the DRM paradigm compared with the low-AHp group. We discuss this outcome from the perspective of the dual-process activation-monitoring framework in the DRM paradigm in regard to emotion-driven automatic thought in false memory.

  14. External misattribution of internal thoughts and proneness to auditory hallucinations: the effect of emotional valence in the Deese–Roediger–McDermott paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Kanemoto, Mari; Asai, Tomohisa; Sugimori, Eriko; Tanno, Yoshihiko

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that a tendency to externalize internal thought is related to auditory hallucinations or even proneness to auditory hallucinations (AHp) in the general population. However, although auditory hallucinations are related to emotional phenomena, few studies have investigated the effect of emotional valence on the aforementioned relationship. In addition, we do not know what component of psychotic phenomena relate to externalizing bias. The current study replicated our previous research, which suggested that individual differences in auditory hallucination-like experiences are strongly correlated with the external misattribution of internal thoughts, conceptualized in terms of false memory, using the Deese–Roediger–McDermott (DRM) paradigm. We found a significant relationship between experimental performance and total scores on the Launay–Slade Hallucination Scale (LSHS). Among the LSHS factors, only vivid mental image, which is said to be a predictor of auditory hallucinations, was significantly related to experimental performance. We then investigated the potential effect of emotional valence using the DRM paradigm. The results indicate that participants with low scores on the LSHS (the low-AHp group in the current study) showed an increased discriminability index (d′) for positive words and a decreased d′ for negative words. However, no effects of emotional valence were found for participants with high LSHS scores (high-AHp group). This study indicated that external misattribution of internal thoughts predicts AHp, and that the high-AHp group showed a smaller emotional valence effect in the DRM paradigm compared with the low-AHp group. We discuss this outcome from the perspective of the dual-process activation-monitoring framework in the DRM paradigm in regard to emotion-driven automatic thought in false memory. PMID:23847517

  15. Impact of cigarette smoking on the middle meatus microbiome in health and chronic rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Vijay R; Frank, Daniel N

    2015-11-01

    Although cigarette smoking aggravates chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), a detailed examination of the sinus microbiota in CRS and its clinical subtypes has yet to be performed in relation to history of smoking. Consequently, we examined associations between smoking history and sinonasal microbiome alterations in both CRS and non-CRS populations. Middle meatus swabs collected during endoscopic sinus surgery were analyzed by analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences. Multiple analysis of variance tests were performed to determine whether microbiome composition varied with smoking history and other clinical/demographic covariates associated with CRS subtypes. A total 70 CRS patients and 31 control subjects were analyzed. In a univariate analysis, smoking (p = 0.04), preoperative antibiotics (p = 0.03), and purulence (p = 0.0002) were significantly associated with the genus-level composition of the middle meatus microbiota. When included in a multivariable model, smoking was found to have significant interactions with CRS (p = 0.02), polyposis (p = 0.03), purulence (p = 0.0004), and use of saline rinses (p = 0.05). Diverse bacterial taxa differed significantly in abundance between never-smokers and current/former smokers, as well as between different CRS subtypes. Substantial changes in sinus bacterial colonization were observed in smokers and nonsmokers. Although the microbiota of both CRS and non-CRS subjects were altered with smoking history, different bacterial taxa were affected by smoking in the 2 patient groups. Thus, the effects of smoking on the sinus microbiota are likely to be modified by physiological and immunological functions of the underlying sinus mucosa. © 2015 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  16. BDNF increases survival and neuronal differentiation of human neural precursor cells cotransplanted with a nanofiber gel to the auditory nerve in a rat model of neuronal damage.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yu; Palmgren, Björn; Novozhilova, Ekaterina; Englund Johansson, Ulrica; Spieles-Engemann, Anne L; Kale, Ajay; Stupp, Samuel I; Olivius, Petri

    2014-01-01

    To study possible nerve regeneration of a damaged auditory nerve by the use of stem cell transplantation. We transplanted HNPCs to the rat AN trunk by the internal auditory meatus (IAM). Furthermore, we studied if addition of BDNF affects survival and phenotypic differentiation of the grafted HNPCs. A bioactive nanofiber gel (PA gel), in selected groups mixed with BDNF, was applied close to the implanted cells. Before transplantation, all rats had been deafened by a round window niche application of β-bungarotoxin. This neurotoxin causes a selective toxic destruction of the AN while keeping the hair cells intact. Overall, HNPCs survived well for up to six weeks in all groups. However, transplants receiving the BDNF-containing PA gel demonstrated significantly higher numbers of HNPCs and neuronal differentiation. At six weeks, a majority of the HNPCs had migrated into the brain stem and differentiated. Differentiated human cells as well as neurites were observed in the vicinity of the cochlear nucleus. Our results indicate that human neural precursor cells (HNPC) integration with host tissue benefits from additional brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) treatment and that these cells appear to be good candidates for further regenerative studies on the auditory nerve (AN).

  17. Development of an auditory emotion recognition function using psychoacoustic parameters based on the International Affective Digitized Sounds.

    PubMed

    Choi, Youngimm; Lee, Sungjun; Jung, SungSoo; Choi, In-Mook; Park, Yon-Kyu; Kim, Chobok

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an auditory emotion recognition function that could determine the emotion caused by sounds coming from the environment in our daily life. For this purpose, sound stimuli from the International Affective Digitized Sounds (IADS-2), a standardized database of sounds intended to evoke emotion, were selected, and four psychoacoustic parameters (i.e., loudness, sharpness, roughness, and fluctuation strength) were extracted from the sounds. Also, by using an emotion adjective scale, 140 college students were tested to measure three basic emotions (happiness, sadness, and negativity). From this discriminant analysis to predict basic emotions from the psychoacoustic parameters of sound, a discriminant function with overall discriminant accuracy of 88.9% was produced from training data. In order to validate the discriminant function, the same four psychoacoustic parameters were extracted from 46 sound stimuli collected from another database and substituted into the discriminant function. The results showed that an overall discriminant accuracy of 63.04% was confirmed. Our findings provide the possibility that daily-life sounds, beyond voice and music, can be used in a human-machine interface.

  18. Para-meatus skin incision with long channel technique for midshaft hypospadias repair without penile curvature.

    PubMed

    Su, Cheng; Yang, Tianyou; Zhang, Zhichong; Xu, Yeqing; Liang, Qifeng

    2012-05-01

    To report a new surgical technique for midshaft hypospadias repair without penile curvature. From September 2007 to October 2010, 21 patients, aged 13 months to 8.9 years, underwent single-stage hypospadias repair by 1 surgeon. The skin incision was created around the meatus, and a long channel beneath the urethral plate was created through the incision to the apex of the glans. The inner preputial flaps were tubularized into a neourethra, which was then transposed to the ventral channel through a ventrolateral tunnel beneath Buck's fascia. Most of the neourethra was covered by the intact soft tissue of the distal ventral penis. The proximal portion of the neourethra was covered by Buck's and dartos fascia around the skin incision, and the skin incision was closed longitudinally. The length of the urethral defect and channel and the postoperative complications were collected and analyzed. A total of 21 patients underwent single-staged hypospadias repair. The average length of the channel was 30 mm (range 25-35). The average length of the neourethra was 35 mm (range 30 to 40). The mean operative time was 60 minutes (range 50-70). The mean hospital stay was 12 days (range 10-14). With an average follow-up of 20 months (range 6-37), no postoperative complication was detected. This technique provides excellent short-term results for midshaft hypospadias without penile curvature and is a safe and simple solution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Auditory agnosia.

    PubMed

    Slevc, L Robert; Shell, Alison R

    2015-01-01

    Auditory agnosia refers to impairments in sound perception and identification despite intact hearing, cognitive functioning, and language abilities (reading, writing, and speaking). Auditory agnosia can be general, affecting all types of sound perception, or can be (relatively) specific to a particular domain. Verbal auditory agnosia (also known as (pure) word deafness) refers to deficits specific to speech processing, environmental sound agnosia refers to difficulties confined to non-speech environmental sounds, and amusia refers to deficits confined to music. These deficits can be apperceptive, affecting basic perceptual processes, or associative, affecting the relation of a perceived auditory object to its meaning. This chapter discusses what is known about the behavioral symptoms and lesion correlates of these different types of auditory agnosia (focusing especially on verbal auditory agnosia), evidence for the role of a rapid temporal processing deficit in some aspects of auditory agnosia, and the few attempts to treat the perceptual deficits associated with auditory agnosia. A clear picture of auditory agnosia has been slow to emerge, hampered by the considerable heterogeneity in behavioral deficits, associated brain damage, and variable assessments across cases. Despite this lack of clarity, these striking deficits in complex sound processing continue to inform our understanding of auditory perception and cognition.

  20. Auditory Imagination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croft, Martyn

    Auditory imagination is used in this paper to describe a number of issues and activities related to sound and having to do with listening, thinking, recalling, imagining, reshaping, creating, and uttering sounds and words. Examples of auditory imagination in religious and literary works are cited that indicate a belief in an imagined, expected, or…

  1. Visual enhancement of auditory beat perception across auditory interference levels.

    PubMed

    Su, Yi-Huang

    2014-10-01

    This study dealt with audiovisual rhythm perception involving an observed movement. Two experiments investigated whether a visual beat conveyed by a bouncing human point-light figure facilitated beat perception of concurrent auditory rhythms, and whether this enhancement followed a profile of multisensory integration. In Experiment 1, participants listened to three repetitions of a metrically simple rhythm and detected a perturbation in the third repetition. The rhythm was presented alone or with a visual beat in phase to it. Both conditions were presented with or without an auditory interference sequence at four increasing tempi, which served to progressively weaken the beat of the auditory rhythm. In Experiment 2, participants tapped to a regular auditory beat in the same combinations of visual beat and auditory interference. Results showed that the visual beat improved the perception of (Experiment 1) and the synchronization to (Experiment 2) the auditory rhythms. Moreover, in both experiments, visual enhancement was greater when the performance in the unisensory (auditory) conditions was poorer, consistent with the principle of inverse effectiveness. The relative multisensory gain increased as auditory performance deteriorated, except in one intermediate level. Together these results demonstrate that rhythmic visual movement aids auditory rhythm perception, which may be subserved by a perceptually integrated audiovisual beat that couples the internal motor system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Boundary element modeling of the external human auditory system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Timothy; Demkowicz, Leszek; Charles, Richard

    2004-03-01

    In this paper the response of the external auditory system to acoustical waves of varying frequencies and angles of incidence is computed using a boundary element method. The resonance patterns of both the ear canal and the concha are computed and compared with experimental data. Specialized numerical algorithms are developed that allow for the efficient computation of the eardrum pressures. In contrast to previous results in the literature that consider only the ``blocked meatus'' configuration, in this work the simulations are conducted on a boundary element mesh that includes both the external head/ear geometry, as well as the ear canal and eardrum. The simulation technology developed in this work is intended to demonstrate the utility of numerical analysis in studying physical phenomena related to the external auditory system. Later work could extend this towards simulating in situ hearing aids, and possibly using the simulations as a tool for optimizing hearing aid technologies for particular individuals.

  3. Comparison of FSE T2 W PROPELLER and 3D-FIESTA of 3 T MR for the internal auditory canal.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hai-Bo; Yuan, Hui-Shu; Ma, Furong; Zhao, Qiang

    The study compared the use of periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction (PROPELLER) technique fast spin echo (FSE) T2 W and the sequence of three-dimensional fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (3D-FIESTA) technique in the MRI of the internal auditory canal for overall image quality improvement. One hundred thirty-two patients undergoing FSE T2 W PROPELLER and 3D-FIESTA examinations of the internal auditory canal were included. All examinations were performed at 3.0 T with comparison of a sagittal oblique FSE T2 W sequence with the PROPELLER technique to 3D-FIESTA in the same reconstructed orientation with PROPELLER. Image quality was evaluated by two radiologists using a 4-point scale. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare the data of the two techniques. The image quality of FSE T2 W PROPELLER was significantly improved compared to the reconstructed images of 3D-FIESTA. Observer 1: median FSE T2 W with PROPELLER, 4 [mean, 3.455] versus median reconstructed 3D-FIESTA, 3 [mean, 3.15], (P<.001); Observer 2: median FSE T2 W with PROPELLER, 4 [mean, 3.47] versus median reconstructed 3D-FIESTA, 3 [mean, 3.25], (P<.001). Interobserver agreement was good (k value, 0.73) for the rating of the overall image quality. The FSE T2 W PROPELLER technique for MRI of internal auditory canal reduced uncertainty caused by motion artifact and improved the quality of the image compared to the reconstructed 3D-FIESTA. It was affected by different parameters including the blade width, echo train length (ETL). This is explained by data oversampling at the center region of k-space, which requires additional imaging time over conventional MRI techniques. Increasing blade was expected to improve motion correction effects but also the signal-to-noise ratio. ETL increases the image sharpness and the overall image quality. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Sexual dimorphism of the lateral angle of the internal auditory canal and its potential for sex estimation of burned human skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, David; Thompson, Tim J U; Cunha, Eugénia

    2015-09-01

    The potential of the petrous bone for sex estimation has been recurrently investigated in the past because it is very resilient and therefore tends to preserve rather well. The sexual dimorphism of the lateral angle of the internal auditory canal was investigated in two samples of cremated Portuguese individuals in order to assess its usefulness for sex estimation in burned remains. These comprised the cremated petrous bones from fleshed cadavers (N = 54) and from dry and disarticulated bones (N = 36). Although differences between males and females were more patent in the sample of skeletons, none presented a very significant sexual dimorphism, thus precluding any attempt of sex estimation. This may have been the result of a difficult application of the method and of a differential impact of heat-induced warping which is known to be less frequent in cremains from dry skeletons. Results suggest that the lateral angle method cannot be applied to burned human skeletal remains.

  5. Auditory neglect.

    PubMed Central

    De Renzi, E; Gentilini, M; Barbieri, C

    1989-01-01

    Auditory neglect was investigated in normal controls and in patients with a recent unilateral hemispheric lesion, by requiring them to detect the interruptions that occurred in one ear in a sound delivered through earphones either mono-aurally or binaurally. Control patients accurately detected interruptions. One left brain damaged (LBD) patient missed only once in the ipsilateral ear while seven of the 30 right brain damaged (RBD) patients missed more than one signal in the monoaural test and nine patients did the same in the binaural test. Omissions were always more marked in the left ear and in the binaural test with a significant ear by test interaction. The lesion of these patients was in the parietal lobe (five patients) and the thalamus (four patients). The relation of auditory neglect to auditory extinction was investigated and found to be equivocal, in that there were seven RBD patients who showed extinction, but not neglect and, more importantly, two patients who exhibited the opposite pattern, thus challenging the view that extinction is a minor form of neglect. Also visual and auditory neglect were not consistently correlated, the former being present in nine RBD patients without auditory neglect and the latter in two RBD patients without visual neglect. The finding that in some RBD patients with auditory neglect omissions also occurred, though with less frequency, in the right ear, points to a right hemisphere participation in the deployment of attention not only to the contralateral, but also to the ipsilateral space. PMID:2732732

  6. Time sequence of auditory nerve and spiral ganglion cell degeneration following chronic kanamycin-induced deafness in the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Kong, W J; Yin, Z D; Fan, G R; Li, D; Huang, X

    2010-05-17

    We investigated the time sequence of morphological changes of the spiral ganglion cell (SGC) and auditory nerve (AN) following chronic kanamycin-induced deafness. Guinea pigs were treated with kanamycin by subcutaneous injection at 500 mg/kg per day for 7 days. Histological changes in hair cells, SGCs, Schwann cells and the area of the cross-sectional of the AN with vestibular ganglion (VG) in the internal acoustic meatus were quantified at 1, 7, 14, 28, 56 and 70 days after kanamycin treatment. Outer hair cells decreased at 7 and 14 days. Loss of inner hair cells occurred at 14 and 28 days. The cross-sectional area of the AN with VG increased at 1 day and decreased shortly following loss of SGCs and Schwann cells at 7, 14 and 28 days after deafening. There was a similar time course of morphological changes in the overall cochlea and the basal turn. Thus, the effects of kanamycin on hair cells, spiral ganglion and Schwann cells are progressive. Early degeneration of SGC and Schwann cell mainly results from the direct toxic effect of kanamycin. However, multiple factors such as loss of hair cell, degeneration of Schwann cell and the progressive damage of kanamycin, may participate in the late degeneration process of SGCs. The molecular mechanism of the degeneration of SGC and Schwann cell should be investigated in the future. Moreover, there is a different time sequence of cell degeneration between acute and chronic deafness by kanamycin.

  7. Comparison of the risk factors and HPV types in males with anogenital warts with and without involvement of the urethral meatus in western Iran.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Ali; Moradi, Mahmood Reza; Rezaei, Mansour; Kavoussi, Hossein; Madani, Hamid; Mohammadamini, Kiarash; Kavoussi, Reza

    2017-09-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced lesions rarely develop in the urethral meatus (UM); however, their eradication can be problematic. A total of 22 patients with anogenital warts (AGWs) in the UM region and 22 patients with AGWs located at other anatomical sites were included in this cross-sectional study. The presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) types in biopsy samples was determined using the HPV Easy typing kit (GenID GmbH, Germany). Although the patients in the AGW group with involvement of the UM had a higher incidence of reported multiple sexual partners (63.6% vs. 40.9%), larger meatus size (81.8% vs. 36.4%), and more frequent anal (36.4% vs. 18.2%) or unprotected sexual contact (68.2% vs. 36.4%) than those in the AGW group without UM involvement, only the duration of lesions (p = 0.04) and meatus size (p = 0.004) were significantly different in both groups. Low-risk HPV types were found in 75.0% and 69.2% of patients in the AGW groups with and without UM involvement, respectively. We found that a larger UM size was more prone to the development of meatus AGWs; however, being married, delaying sexual debut, and avoidance of multiple sexual partners seemed to be associated with a decreased risk of development of AGWs, especially within the UM region.

  8. External auditory canal atresia of probable congenital origin in a dog.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, K; Piaia, T; Bertolini, G; De Lorenzi, D

    2007-04-01

    A nine-month-old Labrador retriever was referred to the Clinica Veterinaria Privata San Marco because of frequent headshaking and downward turning of the right ear. Clinical examination revealed that there was no external acoustic meatus in the right ear. Computed tomography confirmed that the vertical part of the right auditory canal ended blindly, providing a diagnosis of external auditory canal atresia. Cytological examination and culture of fluid from the canal and the bulla revealed only aseptic cerumen; for this reason, it was assumed that the dog was probably affected by a congenital developmental deformity of the external auditory canal. Reconstructive surgery was performed using a "pull-through" technique. Four months after surgery the cosmetic and functional results were satisfactory.

  9. Auditory system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ades, H. W.

    1973-01-01

    The physical correlations of hearing, i.e. the acoustic stimuli, are reported. The auditory system, consisting of external ear, middle ear, inner ear, organ of Corti, basilar membrane, hair cells, inner hair cells, outer hair cells, innervation of hair cells, and transducer mechanisms, is discussed. Both conductive and sensorineural hearing losses are also examined.

  10. Auditory system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ades, H. W.

    1973-01-01

    The physical correlations of hearing, i.e. the acoustic stimuli, are reported. The auditory system, consisting of external ear, middle ear, inner ear, organ of Corti, basilar membrane, hair cells, inner hair cells, outer hair cells, innervation of hair cells, and transducer mechanisms, is discussed. Both conductive and sensorineural hearing losses are also examined.

  11. Fat graft-assisted internal auditory canal closure after retrosigmoid transmeatal resection of acoustic neuroma: Technique for prevention of cerebrospinal fluid leakage.

    PubMed

    Azad, Tareq; Mendelson, Zachary S; Wong, Anni; Jyung, Robert W; Liu, James K

    2016-02-01

    The retrosigmoid transmeatal approach remains an important strategy in the surgical management of acoustic neuromas. Gross total resection of acoustic neuromas requires removal of tumor within the cerebellopontine angle as well as tumor involving the internal auditory canal (IAC). Drilling into the petrous bone of the IAC can expose petrous air cells, which can potentially result in a fistulous tract to the nasopharynx manifesting as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea. We describe our method of IAC closure using autologous fat graft and assessed the rates of postoperative CSF leakage. We performed a retrospective study of 24 consecutive patients who underwent retrosigmoid transmeatal resection of acoustic neuroma who underwent our method of fat graft-assisted IAC closure. We assessed rates of postoperative CSF leak (incisional leak, rhinorrhea, or otorrhea), pseudomeningocele formation, and occurrence of meningitis. Twenty-four patients (10 males, 14 females) with a mean age of 47 years (range 18-84) underwent fat graft-assisted IAC closure. No lumbar drains were used postoperatively. There were no instances of postoperative CSF leak (incisional leak, rhinorrhea, or otorrhea), pseudomeningocele formation, or occurrence of meningitis. There were no graft site complications. Our results demonstrate that autologous fat grafts provide a safe and effective method of IAC defect closure to prevent postoperative CSF leakage after acoustic tumor removal via a retrosigmoid transmeatal approach. The surgical technique and operative nuances are described.

  12. MR imaging of the internal auditory canal and inner ear at 3T: comparison between 3D driven equilibrium and 3D balanced fast field echo sequences.

    PubMed

    Byun, Jun Soo; Kim, Hyung Jin; Yim, Yoo Jeong; Kim, Sung Tae; Jeon, Pyoung; Kim, Keon Ha; Kim, Sam Soo; Jeon, Yong Hwan; Lee, Jiwon

    2008-01-01

    To compare the use of 3D driven equilibrium (DRIVE) imaging with 3D balanced fast field echo (bFFE) imaging in the assessment of the anatomic structures of the internal auditory canal (IAC) and inner ear at 3 Tesla (T). Thirty ears of 15 subjects (7 men and 8 women; age range, 22-71 years; average age, 50 years) without evidence of ear problems were examined on a whole-body 3T MR scanner with both 3D DRIVE and 3D bFFE sequences by using an 8-channel sensitivity encoding (SENSE) head coil. Two neuroradiologists reviewed both MR images with particular attention to the visibility of the anatomic structures, including four branches of the cranial nerves within the IAC, anatomic structures of the cochlea, vestibule, and three semicircular canals. Although both techniques provided images of relatively good quality, the 3D DRIVE sequence was somewhat superior to the 3D bFFE sequence. The discrepancies were more prominent for the basal turn of the cochlea, vestibule, and all semicircular canals, and were thought to be attributed to the presence of greater magnetic susceptibility artifacts inherent to gradient-echo techniques such as bFFE. Because of higher image quality and less susceptibility artifacts, we highly recommend the employment of 3D DRIVE imaging as the MR imaging choice for the IAC and inner ear.

  13. Successful Fetoscopic Surgery to Release a Complete Obstruction of the Urethral Meatus in a Case of Congenital Megalourethra.

    PubMed

    Migliorelli, Federico; Martínez, José María; Gómez, Olga; Bennasar, M; Crispi, Fatima; García, Luis; Castañón, Montserrat; Gratacós, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    We report the successful use of fetoscopy to treat a case of severe low urinary tract obstruction (LUTO) secondary to a congenital megalourethra. A second trimester male fetus presented at 21 weeks of gestation with massive dilatation of the penile urethra. In addition, bilateral hydronephrosis, an enlarged and hypertrophic bladder, with progressive oligohydramnios were found, suggesting poor prognosis. Extensive counselling was performed and, after the approval from the local ethics committee and informed consent, patients accepted fetal therapy by fetoscopy. The procedure consisted in fetoscopic identification of the tip of the penis and confirmation of the complete absence of the urethral meatus. Thereafter, under combined endoscopic and ultrasound guidance a perforation of the tip of the penis was performed with contact diode laser, until an opening into the urethra was achieved. After the operation, resolution of the cystic penile dilation, with reduction of the penile size, and normalization of the amniotic fluid volume were observed. The pregnancy continued uneventfully and a normal male infant was born at term at the local hospital. The baby was developing normally with normal renal function at 6 months of age. Our report demonstrates that fetoscopic decompression of a distal urethra obstruction can achieve neonatal survival in the rare event of congenital megalourethra.

  14. [Auditory fatigue].

    PubMed

    Sanjuán Juaristi, Julio; Sanjuán Martínez-Conde, Mar

    2015-01-01

    Given the relevance of possible hearing losses due to sound overloads and the short list of references of objective procedures for their study, we provide a technique that gives precise data about the audiometric profile and recruitment factor. Our objectives were to determine peripheral fatigue, through the cochlear microphonic response to sound pressure overload stimuli, as well as to measure recovery time, establishing parameters for differentiation with regard to current psychoacoustic and clinical studies. We used specific instruments for the study of cochlear microphonic response, plus a function generator that provided us with stimuli of different intensities and harmonic components. In Wistar rats, we first measured the normal microphonic response and then the effect of auditory fatigue on it. Using a 60dB pure tone acoustic stimulation, we obtained a microphonic response at 20dB. We then caused fatigue with 100dB of the same frequency, reaching a loss of approximately 11dB after 15minutes; after that, the deterioration slowed and did not exceed 15dB. By means of complex random tone maskers or white noise, no fatigue was caused to the sensory receptors, not even at levels of 100dB and over an hour of overstimulation. No fatigue was observed in terms of sensory receptors. Deterioration of peripheral perception through intense overstimulation may be due to biochemical changes of desensitisation due to exhaustion. Auditory fatigue in subjective clinical trials presumably affects supracochlear sections. The auditory fatigue tests found are not in line with those obtained subjectively in clinical and psychoacoustic trials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Patología Cérvico-Facial. All rights reserved.

  15. Auditory sensitivity to local stimulation of the head surface in a beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas).

    PubMed

    Popov, Vladimir V; Sysueva, Evgeniya V; Nechaev, Dmitry I; Lemazina, Alena A; Supin, Alexander Ya

    2016-08-01

    Using the auditory evoked response technique, sensitivity to local acoustic stimulation of the ventro-lateral head surface was investigated in a beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas). The stimuli were tone pip trains of carrier frequencies ranging from 16 to 128 kHz with a pip rate of 1 kHz. For higher frequencies (90-128 kHz), the low-threshold point was located next to the medial side of the middle portion of the lower jaw. For middle (32-64 kHz) and lower (16-22.5 kHz) frequencies, the low-threshold point was located at the lateral side of the middle portion of the lower jaw. For lower frequencies, there was an additional low-threshold point next to the bulla-meatus complex. Based on these data, several frequency-specific paths of sound conduction to the auditory bulla are suggested: (i) through an area on the lateral surface of the lower jaw and further through the intra-jaw fat-body channel (for a wide frequency range); (ii) through an area on the ventro-lateral head surface and further through the medial opening of the lower jaw and intra-jaw fat-body channel (for a high-frequency range); and (iii) through an area on the lateral (near meatus) head surface and further through the lateral fat-body channel (for a low-frequency range).

  16. Theory of Auditory Thresholds in Primates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Michael J.

    2001-03-01

    The influence of thermal pressure fluctuations at the tympanic membrane has been previously investigated as a possible determinant of the threshold of hearing in humans (L.J. Sivian and S.D. White, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. IV, 4;288(1933).). More recent work has focussed more precisely on the relation between statistical mechanics and sensory signal processing by biological means in creatures' brains (W. Bialek, in ``Physics of Biological Systems: from molecules to species'', H. Flyvberg et al, (Eds), p. 252; Springer 1997.). Clinical data on the frequency dependence of hearing thresholds in humans and other primates (W.C. Stebbins, ``The Acoustic Sense of Animals'', Harvard 1983.) has long been available. I have derived an expression for the frequency dependence of hearing thresholds in primates, including humans, by first calculating the frequency dependence of thermal pressure fluctuations at eardrums from damped normal modes excited in model ear canals of given simple geometry. I then show that most of the features of the clinical data are directly related to the frequency dependence of the ratio of thermal noise pressure arising from without to that arising from within the masking bandwidth which signals must dominate in order to be sensed. The higher intensity of threshold signals in primates smaller than humans, which is clinically observed over much but not all of the human auditory spectrum is shown to arise from their smaller meatus dimensions. note

  17. Comparison of outcomes between endoscopic surgery and conventional nasal packing for epistaxis in the posterior fornix of the inferior nasal meatus

    PubMed Central

    Zou, You; Deng, Yu-Qin; Xiao, Chang-Wu; Kong, Yong-Gang; Xu, Yu; Tao, Ze-Zhang; Chen, Shi-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical features of epistaxis in the posterior fornix of the inferior nasal meatus and compare the treatment outcomes of endoscopic surgery and conventional nasal packing for this intractable form of epistaxis. Methods: Between August 2011 and August 2014, the medical records of 53 adult patients with idiopathic epistaxis in the posterior fornix of the inferior nasal meatus diagnosed by nasal endoscopy were obtained from our department. Of these, 38 patients underwent endoscopic surgery (surgery group) and 15 received a nasal pack (packing group). The patients’ background characteristics, incidence of re-bleeding, extent of discomfort after treatment as assessed using a 10-point visual analogue scale (VAS) and incidence of nasal cavity adhesion after treatment were analysed. Results: There were no significant differences in background characteristics between the two groups. The incidence of re-bleeding (0/38 vs. 4/15, surgery vs. control, P = 0.001), VAS score for discomfort (2.4 ± 1.4 vs. 7.6 ± 1.0, surgery vs. control, P = 0.001) and incidence of nasal cavity adhesion after treatment (2/38 vs. 7/15, surgery vs. control, P = 0.007) were significantly lower in the surgery group than in the packing group. Conclusion: Endoscopic surgery is superior to conventional nasal packing for the management of epistaxis in the posterior fornix of the inferior nasal meatus. During surgery, it is crucial to expose the bleeding sites by shifting the inferior turbinate inward by fracture. PMID:26870097

  18. Auditory Imagery: Empirical Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Timothy L.

    2010-01-01

    The empirical literature on auditory imagery is reviewed. Data on (a) imagery for auditory features (pitch, timbre, loudness), (b) imagery for complex nonverbal auditory stimuli (musical contour, melody, harmony, tempo, notational audiation, environmental sounds), (c) imagery for verbal stimuli (speech, text, in dreams, interior monologue), (d)…

  19. Auditory Imagery: Empirical Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Timothy L.

    2010-01-01

    The empirical literature on auditory imagery is reviewed. Data on (a) imagery for auditory features (pitch, timbre, loudness), (b) imagery for complex nonverbal auditory stimuli (musical contour, melody, harmony, tempo, notational audiation, environmental sounds), (c) imagery for verbal stimuli (speech, text, in dreams, interior monologue), (d)…

  20. Auditory Training for Central Auditory Processing Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Weihing, Jeffrey; Chermak, Gail D.; Musiek, Frank E.

    2015-01-01

    Auditory training (AT) is an important component of rehabilitation for patients with central auditory processing disorder (CAPD). The present article identifies and describes aspects of AT as they relate to applications in this population. A description of the types of auditory processes along with information on relevant AT protocols that can be used to address these specific deficits is included. Characteristics and principles of effective AT procedures also are detailed in light of research that reflects on their value. Finally, research investigating AT in populations who show CAPD or present with auditory complaints is reported. Although efficacy data in this area are still emerging, current findings support the use of AT for treatment of auditory difficulties. PMID:27587909

  1. Mitosis and apoptosis in postnatal auditory system of the C3H/He strain.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, K; Takahashi, K; Kitamura, K; Momoi, T; Yoshikawa, Y

    2001-05-18

    The mouse auditory neurons, hair cells and their supporting cells in the cochlea are considered to be generated mainly in the embryonic days and to be sustained throughout the whole life. In the present study, however, we observed that auditory ganglion cells in the spiral ganglia undergo apoptosis and mitosis in the suckling mouse (1- to 2-week-old C3H/HeJ mice) with a normal auditory system. In spiral ganglia at postnatal days 7 (P7) and 10 (P10), TUNEL (TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling)-positive and morphologically apoptotic ganglion cells were found. Furthermore, by bromodeoxyuridine labeling, mitosis of auditory ganglion cells was found at P10 to P14. In a functional study of auditory brainstem response, we demonstrated that the C3H/HeJ mouse acquires the ability to hear airborne sound at P12 and this is the same time as the opening of their external acoustic meatus (EAM). These results indicate that C3H/HeJ auditory ganglion cells have the ability to proliferate even after opening of the EAM and the initial input of airborne sound. We found that postnatal apoptosis and mitosis after P7 also occurred in the greater epithelial ridge (GER) which is an important organ for maturation of the organ of Corti and is located around the inner hair cells. This indicates that GER cells are not only degenerated but also regenerated until their disappearance around P12. This is the first report on mammals to demonstrate that neuronal mitosis of spiral ganglion cells and that of GER cells occur not only in embryonic and neonatal development but also in postnatal development of the normal auditory system.

  2. Activation of Heschl's gyrus during auditory hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Dierks, T; Linden, D E; Jandl, M; Formisano, E; Goebel, R; Lanfermann, H; Singer, W

    1999-03-01

    Apart from being a common feature of mental illness, auditory hallucinations provide an intriguing model for the study of internally generated sensory perceptions that are attributed to external sources. Until now, the knowledge about the cortical network that supports such hallucinations has been restricted by methodological limitations. Here, we describe an experiment with paranoid schizophrenic patients whose on- and offset of auditory hallucinations could be monitored within one functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) session. We demonstrate an increase of the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal in Heschl's gyrus during the patients' hallucinations. Our results provide direct evidence of the involvement of primary auditory areas in auditory verbal hallucinations and establish novel constraints for psychopathological models.

  3. Auditory imagery: empirical findings.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Timothy L

    2010-03-01

    The empirical literature on auditory imagery is reviewed. Data on (a) imagery for auditory features (pitch, timbre, loudness), (b) imagery for complex nonverbal auditory stimuli (musical contour, melody, harmony, tempo, notational audiation, environmental sounds), (c) imagery for verbal stimuli (speech, text, in dreams, interior monologue), (d) auditory imagery's relationship to perception and memory (detection, encoding, recall, mnemonic properties, phonological loop), and (e) individual differences in auditory imagery (in vividness, musical ability and experience, synesthesia, musical hallucinosis, schizophrenia, amusia) are considered. It is concluded that auditory imagery (a) preserves many structural and temporal properties of auditory stimuli, (b) can facilitate auditory discrimination but interfere with auditory detection, (c) involves many of the same brain areas as auditory perception, (d) is often but not necessarily influenced by subvocalization, (e) involves semantically interpreted information and expectancies, (f) involves depictive components and descriptive components, (g) can function as a mnemonic but is distinct from rehearsal, and (h) is related to musical ability and experience (although the mechanisms of that relationship are not clear).

  4. Auditory-motor learning influences auditory memory for music.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rachel M; Palmer, Caroline

    2012-05-01

    In two experiments, we investigated how auditory-motor learning influences performers' memory for music. Skilled pianists learned novel melodies in four conditions: auditory only (listening), motor only (performing without sound), strongly coupled auditory-motor (normal performance), and weakly coupled auditory-motor (performing along with auditory recordings). Pianists' recognition of the learned melodies was better following auditory-only or auditory-motor (weakly coupled and strongly coupled) learning than following motor-only learning, and better following strongly coupled auditory-motor learning than following auditory-only learning. Auditory and motor imagery abilities modulated the learning effects: Pianists with high auditory imagery scores had better recognition following motor-only learning, suggesting that auditory imagery compensated for missing auditory feedback at the learning stage. Experiment 2 replicated the findings of Experiment 1 with melodies that contained greater variation in acoustic features. Melodies that were slower and less variable in tempo and intensity were remembered better following weakly coupled auditory-motor learning. These findings suggest that motor learning can aid performers' auditory recognition of music beyond auditory learning alone, and that motor learning is influenced by individual abilities in mental imagery and by variation in acoustic features.

  5. Occipital and external acoustic meatus to axis angle as a predictor of the oropharyngeal space in healthy volunteers: a novel parameter for craniocervical junction alignment.

    PubMed

    Morizane, Kazuaki; Takemoto, Mitsuru; Neo, Masashi; Fujibayashi, Shunsuke; Otsuki, Bungo; Kawata, Tomotoshi; Matsuda, Shuichi

    2017-09-26

    The occipito-C2 angle (O-C2a) influences the oropharyngeal space. However, O-C2a has several limitations. There is no normal value of O-C2a due to wide individual variations, and O-C2a does not reflect translation of the cranium to the axis, another factor influencing the oropharyngeal space in patients with atlantoaxial subluxation. To propose a novel parameter that accounts for craniocervical junction alignment (CJA) and the oropharyngeal space. A post-hoc analysis of craniocervical radiological parameters from another study. Forty healthy volunteers. Craniocervical measurement parameters included the occipital and external acoustic meatus to axis angle (O-EAa), C2 tilting angle (C2Ta), O-C2a, and the anterior-posterior distance of the narrowest oropharyngeal airway space (nPAS). This study was not funded by our institution and there was no potential conflict of interest. We collected 40 healthy volunteers' lateral cervical radiographs in neutral, flexion, extension, protrusion, and retraction positions. We measured O-C2a, C2Ta (formed by the inferior endplate of C2 and a line connecting the external acoustic meatus and the midpoint of the endplate of C2 [EA-line]), O-EAa (formed by the McGregor line and the EA-line), and nPAS. We evaluated the interrater and intrarater reliability of O-EAa and C2Ta, and the associations between each of measured parameters. The interrater and intrarater reliability of measuring O-EAa and C2Ta was excellent. Neutral position O-EAa values remained in a narrower range (mean ± standard deviation, 90.0 ± 5.0 degrees) than O-C2a (15.6 ± 6.7 degrees) (Levene's test of equality of variances, p = 0.044). In the linear mixed-effects models, sex, O-C2a, C2Ta and O-EAa were significantly associated with nPAS. Marginal R(2) values for the mixed-effect models, which express the variance explained by fixed effects, were 0.605 and 0.632 for the O-C2a and O-EAa models, respectively. In all models, subaxial alignment (C2-C6a) had no significant

  6. Subcortical Modulation in Auditory Processing and Auditory Hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Ikuta, Toshikazu; DeRosse, Pamela; Argyelan, Miklos; Karlsgodt, Katherine H.; Kingsley, Peter B.; Szeszko, Philip R.; Malhotra, Anil K.

    2015-01-01

    Hearing perception in individuals with auditory hallucinations has not been well studied. Auditory hallucinations have previously been shown to involve primary auditory cortex activation. This activation suggests that auditory hallucinations activate the terminal of the auditory pathway as if auditory signals are submitted from the cochlea, and that a hallucinatory event is therefore perceived as hearing. The primary auditory cortex is stimulated by some unknown source that is outside of the auditory pathway. The current study aimed to assess the outcomes of stimulating the primary auditory cortex through the auditory pathway in individuals who have experienced auditory hallucinations. Sixteen patients with schizophrenia underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) sessions, as well as hallucination assessments. During the fMRI session, auditory stimuli were presented in one-second intervals at times when scanner noise was absent. Participants listened to auditory stimuli of sine waves (SW) (4 kHz-5.5 kHz), English words (EW), and acoustically reversed English words (arEW) in a block design fashion. The arEW were employed to deliver the sound of a human voice with minimal linguistic components. Patients’ auditory hallucination severity was assessed by the auditory hallucination item of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). During perception of arEW when compared with perception of SW, bilateral activation of the globus pallidus correlated with severity of auditory hallucinations. EW when compared with arEW did not correlate with auditory hallucination severity. Our findings suggest that the sensitivity of the globus pallidus to the human voice is associated with the severity of auditory hallucination. PMID:26275927

  7. Cell transplantation to the auditory nerve and cochlear duct.

    PubMed

    Sekiya, Tetsuji; Kojima, Ken; Matsumoto, Masahiro; Kim, Tae-Soo; Tamura, Tetsuya; Ito, Juichi

    2006-03-01

    We have developed a technique to deliver cells to the inner ear without injuring the membranes that seal the endolymphatic and perilymphatic chambers. The integrity of these membranes is essential for normal hearing, and the technique should significantly reduce surgical trauma during cell transplantation. Embryonic stem cells transplanted at the internal auditory meatal portion of an atrophic auditory nerve migrated extensively along it. Four-five weeks after transplantation, the cells were found not only throughout the auditory nerve, but also in Rosenthal's canal and the scala media, the most distal portion of the auditory nervous system where the hair cells reside. Migration of the transplanted cells was more extensive following damage to the auditory nerve. In the undamaged nerve, migration was more limited, but the cells showed more signs of neuronal differentiation. This highlights an important balance between tissue damage and the potential for repair.

  8. Auditory Spatial Layout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wightman, Frederic L.; Jenison, Rick

    1995-01-01

    All auditory sensory information is packaged in a pair of acoustical pressure waveforms, one at each ear. While there is obvious structure in these waveforms, that structure (temporal and spectral patterns) bears no simple relationship to the structure of the environmental objects that produced them. The properties of auditory objects and their layout in space must be derived completely from higher level processing of the peripheral input. This chapter begins with a discussion of the peculiarities of acoustical stimuli and how they are received by the human auditory system. A distinction is made between the ambient sound field and the effective stimulus to differentiate the perceptual distinctions among various simple classes of sound sources (ambient field) from the known perceptual consequences of the linear transformations of the sound wave from source to receiver (effective stimulus). Next, the definition of an auditory object is dealt with, specifically the question of how the various components of a sound stream become segregated into distinct auditory objects. The remainder of the chapter focuses on issues related to the spatial layout of auditory objects, both stationary and moving.

  9. Prevention of cerebrospinal fluid leakage and delayed loss of preserved hearing after vestibular schwannoma removal: reconstruction of the internal auditory canal in the suboccipital transmeatal approach--technical note.

    PubMed

    Yamakami, I; Kobayashi, E; Ono, J; Yamaura, A

    2000-11-01

    The suboccipital transmeatal approach uses packing of a muscle or fat graft into the internal auditory canal (IAC) to prevent postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage. However, preserved hearing after removal of vestibular schwannomas may decline over time because of the progressive constriction of cochlear vascular supply due to scarring of the IAC. We propose a surgical technique for IAC reconstruction, which separates the preserved cochlear nerve and vasculature from the graft, and regains the CSF space in the IAC. Prior to the drilling of the posterior wall of the IAC, the dura mater of the petrous bone forming the posterior wall of the IAC is harvested for IAC reconstruction. After completion of tumor removal, a "roof" of the IAC is reconstructed using the dura mater, and a muscle or fat graft soaked with fibrin glue is placed on the "roof" of the IAC. The IAC was reconstructed using this technique in 26 consecutive patients with vestibular schwannomas who underwent tumor removal via the suboccipital transmeatal approach. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the regained CSF space in the IAC. No delayed hearing loss occurred in four patients with preserved hearing. No CSF leakage occurred after surgery. This new technique of IAC reconstruction may prevent delayed hearing loss as well as postoperative CSF leakage after removal of vestibular schwannomas via the suboccipital transmeatal approach.

  10. Exostoses and cavernous venous formation in the external auditory canal of the hooded seal as a functional physiological organ.

    PubMed

    Stenfors, L E; Sade, J; Hellström, S; Anniko, M; Folkow, L

    2000-10-01

    Exostoses of the external auditory canal (EAC) develop after protracted mechanical, chemical or thermal irritation in particular. This is a common disorder among aquatic sportsmen and has been considered unique to Man. We dissected and photodocumented the EACs of 5 newborn and 3 adult Hooded Seals (Cystophora cristata). Serial sections of the EACs were prepared for light microscopic evaluation after staining with haematoxylin-eosin or toluidine blue. All EACs exhibited a firm, broad-based. mountain peak-shaped exostosis on the floor of the meatus, lateral to the eardrum. In addition, the meatal skin of the bony EAC harboured large venous sinuses. The exostosis and venous sinuses of the seal EAC participate in the protection of the sensitive hearing apparatus, particularly the pars tensa portion of the drum, during divine.

  11. Cremated human remains: is measurement of the lateral angle of the meatus acusticus internus a reliable method of sex determination?

    PubMed

    Masotti, Sabrina; Succi-Leonelli, Elisa; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the lateral angle (LA) method-based on the measurement of the angle at which the internal acoustic canal opens up to the surface of the petrous bone-for sex determination in cremated skeletal remains of Italians. The sample consisted of 160 adult individuals of known age and sex who had recently died and were cremated in the crematorium of Ferrara (northern Italy). Several studies have demonstrated that the petrous portion of the temporal bone may be a valuable tool for sex diagnosis in unburned skeletal remains. Since petrous bones are usually preserved after cremation, this method could be of particular interest in the case of burned skeletal remains. The repeatability of intra- and inter-observer measurements was good. The results indicated that male and female lateral angles were significantly different but that the values did not differ among age-groups. There was no bilateral difference in LA. However, neither the 45° angle, proposed in earlier studies as the sectioning point for this variable from male and female data distributions, nor another angular value allowed satisfactory discrimination between the sexes in our sample. The influence of the "age" factor (about 82 % of females were of ≥ 75 years of age) on the results is critically discussed. The results of this study suggest that the LA method is not sufficiently reliable to assess the sex of elderly Italian individuals from their burned remains and thus should only be used in conjunction with other sexing techniques.

  12. Auditory models for speech analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maybury, Mark T.

    This paper reviews the psychophysical basis for auditory models and discusses their application to automatic speech recognition. First an overview of the human auditory system is presented, followed by a review of current knowledge gleaned from neurological and psychoacoustic experimentation. Next, a general framework describes established peripheral auditory models which are based on well-understood properties of the peripheral auditory system. This is followed by a discussion of current enhancements to that models to include nonlinearities and synchrony information as well as other higher auditory functions. Finally, the initial performance of auditory models in the task of speech recognition is examined and additional applications are mentioned.

  13. Auditory hallucinations induced by trazodone

    PubMed Central

    Shiotsuki, Ippei; Terao, Takeshi; Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Hatano, Koji

    2014-01-01

    A 26-year-old female outpatient presenting with a depressive state suffered from auditory hallucinations at night. Her auditory hallucinations did not respond to blonanserin or paliperidone, but partially responded to risperidone. In view of the possibility that her auditory hallucinations began after starting trazodone, trazodone was discontinued, leading to a complete resolution of her auditory hallucinations. Furthermore, even after risperidone was decreased and discontinued, her auditory hallucinations did not recur. These findings suggest that trazodone may induce auditory hallucinations in some susceptible patients. PMID:24700048

  14. Auditory hallucinations induced by trazodone.

    PubMed

    Shiotsuki, Ippei; Terao, Takeshi; Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Hatano, Koji

    2014-04-03

    A 26-year-old female outpatient presenting with a depressive state suffered from auditory hallucinations at night. Her auditory hallucinations did not respond to blonanserin or paliperidone, but partially responded to risperidone. In view of the possibility that her auditory hallucinations began after starting trazodone, trazodone was discontinued, leading to a complete resolution of her auditory hallucinations. Furthermore, even after risperidone was decreased and discontinued, her auditory hallucinations did not recur. These findings suggest that trazodone may induce auditory hallucinations in some susceptible patients.

  15. Preferred levels of auditory danger signals.

    PubMed

    Zera, J; Nagórski, A

    2000-01-01

    An important issue at the design stage of the auditory danger signal for a safety system is the signal audibility under various conditions of background noise. The auditory danger signal should be clearly audible but it should not be too loud to avoid fright, startling effects, and nuisance complaints. Criteria for designing auditory danger signals are the subject of the ISO 7731 (International Organization for Standardization [ISO], 1986) international standard and the EN 457 European standard (European Committee for Standardization [CEN], 1992). It is required that the A-weighted sound pressure level of the auditory danger signal is higher in level than the background noise by 15 dB. In this paper, the results of an experiment are reported, in which listeners adjusted most preferred levels of 3 danger signals (tone, sweep, complex sound) in the presence of a noise background (pink noise and industrial noise). The measurements were done for 60-, 70-, 80-, and 90-dB A-weighted levels of noise. Results show that for 60-dB level of noise the most preferred level of the danger signal is 10 to 20 dB above the noise level. However, for 90-dB level of noise, listeners selected a level of the danger signal that was equal to the noise level. Results imply that the criterion in the existing standards is conservative as it requires the level of the danger signal to be higher than the level of noise regardless of the noise level.

  16. Auditory Skills Checklist: clinical tool for monitoring functional auditory skill development in young children with cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Meinzen-Derr, Jareen; Wiley, Susan; Creighton, Jodi; Choo, Daniel

    2007-11-01

    The Auditory Skills Checklist (ASC) was developed to address the need for tools to evaluate functional auditory skill progress in very young children with sensorineural hearing loss. We describe the development, validation, and utility of the ASC for use in young children with cochlear implants. Using the ASC, we measured auditory skills in 37 subjects who received cochlear implants at no more than 36 months of age. Repeated measures analysis was conducted to determine expected auditory skill development after implantation. Interrater reliability was tested on a small subset. The ASC was compared to the Infant-Toddler Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale (IT-MAIS) to determine its validity in measuring functional auditory skills. The ASC had excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha, 0.98) and interrater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.99), and was highly correlated with the IT-MAIS (r = 0.90). According to the repeated measures analysis, children who received a cochlear implant at 36 months of age or earlier were expected to increase their ASC score by 8 points every 3 months (beta coefficient, 8.3; p < .001). The ASC is a clinically relevant and easily administered tool for assessing the functional auditory skills of young children with a cochlear implant. By assessing auditory skill development over time with the ASC, we can better realize expectations for a particular child based on his or her age, hearing loss level, and management strategies in place.

  17. Comparison of nasal nitric oxide levels between the inferior turbinate surface and the middle meatus in patients with symptomatic allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Takeno, Sachio; Yoshimura, Haruka; Kubota, Kazunori; Taruya, Takayuki; Ishino, Takashi; Hirakawa, Katsuhiro

    2014-09-01

    Because of the anatomical complexity and the high output of the human nose, it has been unclear whether nasal nitric oxide (NO) serves as a reliable marker of allergic rhinitis (AR). We examined whether nasal NO levels in the inferior turbinate (IT) surface and the middle meatus (MM) differ in symptomatic AR patients. We measured fractional exhaled NO (FeNO) and nasal NO in normal subjects (n = 50) and AR patients with mild symptoms (n = 16) or moderate or severe symptoms (n = 27). Nasal NO measurements were obtained using an electrochemical analyzer connected to a catheter and an air-suction pump (flow rate 50mL/sec). Compared to the normal subjects, the AR patients showed significantly higher nasal FeNO and nasal NO levels in the IT area. No significant difference in the MM area was observed among the three groups. The MM area showed higher NO levels than the IT area in all three groups. The ratio of nasal NO levels of the MM area to the IT area (MM/IT ratio) was significantly lower in the AR groups. The moderate/severe AR patients showed significantly higher nasal NO in the IT area (104.4 vs. 66.2ppb) and lower MM/IT ratios than those in the mild AR patients. The analysis of nasal brushing cells revealed significantly higher eosinophil cationic protein and nitrotyrosine levels in the AR groups. Nasal NO assessment in the IT area directly reflects persistent eosinophilic inflammation and may be a valid marker to estimate the severity of AR.

  18. Central auditory imperception.

    PubMed

    Snow, J B; Rintelmann, W F; Miller, J M; Konkle, D F

    1977-09-01

    The development of clinically applicable techniques for the evaluation of hearing impairment caused by lesions of the central auditory pathways has increased clinical interest in the anatomy and physiology of these pathways. A conceptualization of present understanding of the anatomy and physiology of the central auditory pathways is presented. Clinical tests based on reduction of redundancy of the speech message, degradation of speech and binaural interations are presented. Specifically performance-intensity functions, filtered speech tests, competing message tests and time-compressed speech tests are presented with the emphasis on our experience with time-compressed speech tests. With proper use of these tests not only can central auditory impairments by detected, but brain stem lesions can be distinguished from cortical lesions.

  19. The Drosophila Auditory System

    PubMed Central

    Boekhoff-Falk, Grace; Eberl, Daniel F.

    2013-01-01

    Development of a functional auditory system in Drosophila requires specification and differentiation of the chordotonal sensilla of Johnston’s organ (JO) in the antenna, correct axonal targeting to the antennal mechanosensory and motor center (AMMC) in the brain, and synaptic connections to neurons in the downstream circuit. Chordotonal development in JO is functionally complicated by structural, molecular and functional diversity that is not yet fully understood, and construction of the auditory neural circuitry is only beginning to unfold. Here we describe our current understanding of developmental and molecular mechanisms that generate the exquisite functions of the Drosophila auditory system, emphasizing recent progress and highlighting important new questions arising from research on this remarkable sensory system. PMID:24719289

  20. International.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Linn

    1979-01-01

    The International Geological Correlation Project has attained scientific maturity and broad support and participation by geologists world wide. Its purpose is to provide a mechanism for international cooperation and information exchange about geological problems that transcend national boundaries. (Author/BB)

  1. [The Map of Auditory Function].

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, So; Komura, Yutaka

    2017-04-01

    Brodmann areas 41 and 42 are located in the superior temporal gyrus and regarded as auditory cortices. The fundamental function in audition is frequency analysis; however, the findings on tonotopy maps of the human auditory cortex were not unified until recently when they were compared to the findings on inputs and outputs of the monkey auditory cortex. The auditory cortex shows plasticity after conditioned learning and surgery of cochlear implant. It is also involved in speech perception, music appreciation, and auditory hallucination in schizophrenia through interactions with other brain areas, such as the thalamus, frontal cortex, and limbic systems.

  2. Auditory Fusion in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Sylvia M.; McCroskey, Robert L.

    1980-01-01

    Focuses on auditory fusion (defined in terms of a listerner's ability to distinguish paired acoustic events from single acoustic events) in 3- to 12-year-old children. The subjects listened to 270 pairs of tones controlled for frequency, intensity, and duration. (CM)

  3. Modelling auditory attention.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Emine Merve; Elhilali, Mounya

    2017-02-19

    Sounds in everyday life seldom appear in isolation. Both humans and machines are constantly flooded with a cacophony of sounds that need to be sorted through and scoured for relevant information-a phenomenon referred to as the 'cocktail party problem'. A key component in parsing acoustic scenes is the role of attention, which mediates perception and behaviour by focusing both sensory and cognitive resources on pertinent information in the stimulus space. The current article provides a review of modelling studies of auditory attention. The review highlights how the term attention refers to a multitude of behavioural and cognitive processes that can shape sensory processing. Attention can be modulated by 'bottom-up' sensory-driven factors, as well as 'top-down' task-specific goals, expectations and learned schemas. Essentially, it acts as a selection process or processes that focus both sensory and cognitive resources on the most relevant events in the soundscape; with relevance being dictated by the stimulus itself (e.g. a loud explosion) or by a task at hand (e.g. listen to announcements in a busy airport). Recent computational models of auditory attention provide key insights into its role in facilitating perception in cluttered auditory scenes.This article is part of the themed issue 'Auditory and visual scene analysis'.

  4. Modelling auditory attention

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Emine Merve

    2017-01-01

    Sounds in everyday life seldom appear in isolation. Both humans and machines are constantly flooded with a cacophony of sounds that need to be sorted through and scoured for relevant information—a phenomenon referred to as the ‘cocktail party problem’. A key component in parsing acoustic scenes is the role of attention, which mediates perception and behaviour by focusing both sensory and cognitive resources on pertinent information in the stimulus space. The current article provides a review of modelling studies of auditory attention. The review highlights how the term attention refers to a multitude of behavioural and cognitive processes that can shape sensory processing. Attention can be modulated by ‘bottom-up’ sensory-driven factors, as well as ‘top-down’ task-specific goals, expectations and learned schemas. Essentially, it acts as a selection process or processes that focus both sensory and cognitive resources on the most relevant events in the soundscape; with relevance being dictated by the stimulus itself (e.g. a loud explosion) or by a task at hand (e.g. listen to announcements in a busy airport). Recent computational models of auditory attention provide key insights into its role in facilitating perception in cluttered auditory scenes. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Auditory and visual scene analysis’. PMID:28044012

  5. Incidental Auditory Category Learning

    PubMed Central

    Gabay, Yafit; Dick, Frederic K.; Zevin, Jason D.; Holt, Lori L.

    2015-01-01

    Very little is known about how auditory categories are learned incidentally, without instructions to search for category-diagnostic dimensions, overt category decisions, or experimenter-provided feedback. This is an important gap because learning in the natural environment does not arise from explicit feedback and there is evidence that the learning systems engaged by traditional tasks are distinct from those recruited by incidental category learning. We examined incidental auditory category learning with a novel paradigm, the Systematic Multimodal Associations Reaction Time (SMART) task, in which participants rapidly detect and report the appearance of a visual target in one of four possible screen locations. Although the overt task is rapid visual detection, a brief sequence of sounds precedes each visual target. These sounds are drawn from one of four distinct sound categories that predict the location of the upcoming visual target. These many-to-one auditory-to-visuomotor correspondences support incidental auditory category learning. Participants incidentally learn categories of complex acoustic exemplars and generalize this learning to novel exemplars and tasks. Further, learning is facilitated when category exemplar variability is more tightly coupled to the visuomotor associations than when the same stimulus variability is experienced across trials. We relate these findings to phonetic category learning. PMID:26010588

  6. The human brain maintains contradictory and redundant auditory sensory predictions.

    PubMed

    Pieszek, Marika; Widmann, Andreas; Gruber, Thomas; Schröger, Erich

    2013-01-01

    Computational and experimental research has revealed that auditory sensory predictions are derived from regularities of the current environment by using internal generative models. However, so far, what has not been addressed is how the auditory system handles situations giving rise to redundant or even contradictory predictions derived from different sources of information. To this end, we measured error signals in the event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in response to violations of auditory predictions. Sounds could be predicted on the basis of overall probability, i.e., one sound was presented frequently and another sound rarely. Furthermore, each sound was predicted by an informative visual cue. Participants' task was to use the cue and to discriminate the two sounds as fast as possible. Violations of the probability based prediction (i.e., a rare sound) as well as violations of the visual-auditory prediction (i.e., an incongruent sound) elicited error signals in the ERPs (Mismatch Negativity [MMN] and Incongruency Response [IR]). Particular error signals were observed even in case the overall probability and the visual symbol predicted different sounds. That is, the auditory system concurrently maintains and tests contradictory predictions. Moreover, if the same sound was predicted, we observed an additive error signal (scalp potential and primary current density) equaling the sum of the specific error signals. Thus, the auditory system maintains and tolerates functionally independently represented redundant and contradictory predictions. We argue that the auditory system exploits all currently active regularities in order to optimally prepare for future events.

  7. Cognitive triggers of auditory hallucinations: an experimental investigation.

    PubMed

    Stinson, K; Valmaggia, L R; Antley, A; Slater, M; Freeman, D

    2010-09-01

    It has proved difficult to establish the internal process by which mental events are transformed into auditory hallucinations. The earlier stages of the generation of hallucinations may prove more accessible to research. Cognitions have been reported by patients as a trigger of auditory hallucinations, but the role of these preceding thoughts has not been causally determined. Therefore, the role of cognition in triggering auditory hallucinations was tested in an experimental study. Thirty individuals who experienced auditory hallucinations in social situations entered a neutral social situation presented using virtual reality. Participants randomised to the experimental condition were instructed to think their hallucination-preceding thoughts, and those randomised to the control condition were instructed to think neutral thoughts. Twenty-seven participants (93%) were able to spontaneously identify a cognition which preceded a hallucination. There was no difference between the experimental and control groups in the occurrence or severity of auditory hallucinations in virtual reality. Virtual reality did not lead to physical side effects or an increase in anxiety. The relationship between antecedent cognitions and auditory hallucinations is likely to be more complex than the one tested. It is argued that the effect of cognition on auditory hallucinations may be mediated by affect but this needs to be investigated through further experimental research. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. From sensation to percept: the neural signature of auditory event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Joos, Kathleen; Gilles, Annick; Van de Heyning, Paul; De Ridder, Dirk; Vanneste, Sven

    2014-05-01

    An external auditory stimulus induces an auditory sensation which may lead to a conscious auditory perception. Although the sensory aspect is well known, it is still a question how an auditory stimulus results in an individual's conscious percept. To unravel the uncertainties concerning the neural correlates of a conscious auditory percept, event-related potentials may serve as a useful tool. In the current review we mainly wanted to shed light on the perceptual aspects of auditory processing and therefore we mainly focused on the auditory late-latency responses. Moreover, there is increasing evidence that perception is an active process in which the brain searches for the information it expects to be present, suggesting that auditory perception requires the presence of both bottom-up, i.e. sensory and top-down, i.e. prediction-driven processing. Therefore, the auditory evoked potentials will be interpreted in the context of the Bayesian brain model, in which the brain predicts which information it expects and when this will happen. The internal representation of the auditory environment will be verified by sensation samples of the environment (P50, N100). When this incoming information violates the expectation, it will induce the emission of a prediction error signal (Mismatch Negativity), activating higher-order neural networks and inducing the update of prior internal representations of the environment (P300).

  9. The effects of Vaseline gauze strip, Merocel, and Nasopore on the formation of synechiae and excessive granulation tissue in the middle meatus and the incidence of major postoperative bleeding after endoscopic sinus surgery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying-Piao; Wang, Mao-Che; Chen, Yu-Chun; Leu, Yi-Shing; Lin, Hung-Ching; Lee, Kuo-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) has become the widely accepted procedure for the treatment of medically refractory chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps. Nasal packing is usually placed after ESS to prevent synechia formation and postoperative bleeding and to support wound healing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of three different nasal packing materials [Vaseline gauze strip, Merocel (Metronic Xomed, Jacksonville, FL, USA), and Nasopore (Polyganics, Rozenburglaan, Groningen, The Netherlands)] on the formation of synechiae and excessive granulation tissue in the middle meatus and incidence of major postoperative bleeding in patients who had undergone ESS. A total of 626 patients (1,018 sides) who had undergone ESS were studied retrospectively. Each patient chose one of the three different nasal packing materials according to his or her own preference. The outcome variable was the formation of synechiae and excessive granulation tissue in the middle meatus, which was identified from the medical records of endoscopic evaluations performed 3-4 weeks and 10-12 weeks after surgery. Major postoperative bleeding within 2 weeks after the operation was also documented for analysis. Finally, multiple logistic regression models were used to confirm the results of this study. We did not observe significant intergroup differences in the effect on the formation of synechiae in the middle meatus. Nasopore packing showed a trend toward causing the formation of excessive granulation tissue during the early stages of wound healing (p=0.004). Patients who had received packing with Nasopore had a greater chance of undergoing readmission or additional packing because of major nasal bleeding within the first 2 weeks after the operation (p=0.03). Multivariable logistic regression models showed that Nasopore was a significant factor for the formation of excessive granulation tissue at 3-4 weeks after the operation (p=0.022) and for major postoperative nasal bleeding

  10. Auditory pathways: anatomy and physiology.

    PubMed

    Pickles, James O

    2015-01-01

    This chapter outlines the anatomy and physiology of the auditory pathways. After a brief analysis of the external, middle ears, and cochlea, the responses of auditory nerve fibers are described. The central nervous system is analyzed in more detail. A scheme is provided to help understand the complex and multiple auditory pathways running through the brainstem. The multiple pathways are based on the need to preserve accurate timing while extracting complex spectral patterns in the auditory input. The auditory nerve fibers branch to give two pathways, a ventral sound-localizing stream, and a dorsal mainly pattern recognition stream, which innervate the different divisions of the cochlear nucleus. The outputs of the two streams, with their two types of analysis, are progressively combined in the inferior colliculus and onwards, to produce the representation of what can be called the "auditory objects" in the external world. The progressive extraction of critical features in the auditory stimulus in the different levels of the central auditory system, from cochlear nucleus to auditory cortex, is described. In addition, the auditory centrifugal system, running from cortex in multiple stages to the organ of Corti of the cochlea, is described. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of the auditory system.

    PubMed

    Litovsky, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Auditory development involves changes in the peripheral and central nervous system along the auditory pathways, and these occur naturally, and in response to stimulation. Human development occurs along a trajectory that can last decades, and is studied using behavioral psychophysics, as well as physiologic measurements with neural imaging. The auditory system constructs a perceptual space that takes information from objects and groups, segregates sounds, and provides meaning and access to communication tools such as language. Auditory signals are processed in a series of analysis stages, from peripheral to central. Coding of information has been studied for features of sound, including frequency, intensity, loudness, and location, in quiet and in the presence of maskers. In the latter case, the ability of the auditory system to perform an analysis of the scene becomes highly relevant. While some basic abilities are well developed at birth, there is a clear prolonged maturation of auditory development well into the teenage years. Maturation involves auditory pathways. However, non-auditory changes (attention, memory, cognition) play an important role in auditory development. The ability of the auditory system to adapt in response to novel stimuli is a key feature of development throughout the nervous system, known as neural plasticity.

  12. Animal models for auditory streaming.

    PubMed

    Itatani, Naoya; Klump, Georg M

    2017-02-19

    Sounds in the natural environment need to be assigned to acoustic sources to evaluate complex auditory scenes. Separating sources will affect the analysis of auditory features of sounds. As the benefits of assigning sounds to specific sources accrue to all species communicating acoustically, the ability for auditory scene analysis is widespread among different animals. Animal studies allow for a deeper insight into the neuronal mechanisms underlying auditory scene analysis. Here, we will review the paradigms applied in the study of auditory scene analysis and streaming of sequential sounds in animal models. We will compare the psychophysical results from the animal studies to the evidence obtained in human psychophysics of auditory streaming, i.e. in a task commonly used for measuring the capability for auditory scene analysis. Furthermore, the neuronal correlates of auditory streaming will be reviewed in different animal models and the observations of the neurons' response measures will be related to perception. The across-species comparison will reveal whether similar demands in the analysis of acoustic scenes have resulted in similar perceptual and neuronal processing mechanisms in the wide range of species being capable of auditory scene analysis.This article is part of the themed issue 'Auditory and visual scene analysis'.

  13. Development of the auditory system

    PubMed Central

    Litovsky, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Auditory development involves changes in the peripheral and central nervous system along the auditory pathways, and these occur naturally, and in response to stimulation. Human development occurs along a trajectory that can last decades, and is studied using behavioral psychophysics, as well as physiologic measurements with neural imaging. The auditory system constructs a perceptual space that takes information from objects and groups, segregates sounds, and provides meaning and access to communication tools such as language. Auditory signals are processed in a series of analysis stages, from peripheral to central. Coding of information has been studied for features of sound, including frequency, intensity, loudness, and location, in quiet and in the presence of maskers. In the latter case, the ability of the auditory system to perform an analysis of the scene becomes highly relevant. While some basic abilities are well developed at birth, there is a clear prolonged maturation of auditory development well into the teenage years. Maturation involves auditory pathways. However, non-auditory changes (attention, memory, cognition) play an important role in auditory development. The ability of the auditory system to adapt in response to novel stimuli is a key feature of development throughout the nervous system, known as neural plasticity. PMID:25726262

  14. Auditory Learning. Dimensions in Early Learning Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigmond, Naomi K.; Cicci, Regina

    The monograph discusses the psycho-physiological operations for processing of auditory information, the structure and function of the ear, the development of auditory processes from fetal responses through discrimination, language comprehension, auditory memory, and auditory processes related to written language. Disorders of auditory learning…

  15. Auditory Processing Disorders. Revised. Technical Assistance Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Bureau of Instructional Support and Community Services.

    Designed to assist audiologists in the educational setting in responding to frequently asked questions concerning audiological auditory processing disorder (APD) evaluations, this paper addresses: (1) auditory processes; (2) auditory processing skills; (3) characteristics of auditory processing disorders; (4) causes of auditory overload; (5) why…

  16. Auditory Learning. Dimensions in Early Learning Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigmond, Naomi K.; Cicci, Regina

    The monograph discusses the psycho-physiological operations for processing of auditory information, the structure and function of the ear, the development of auditory processes from fetal responses through discrimination, language comprehension, auditory memory, and auditory processes related to written language. Disorders of auditory learning…

  17. Central auditory disorders: toward a neuropsychology of auditory objects

    PubMed Central

    Goll, Johanna C.; Crutch, Sebastian J.; Warren, Jason D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of review Analysis of the auditory environment, source identification and vocal communication all require efficient brain mechanisms for disambiguating, representing and understanding complex natural sounds as ‘auditory objects’. Failure of these mechanisms leads to a diverse spectrum of clinical deficits. Here we review current evidence concerning the phenomenology, mechanisms and brain substrates of auditory agnosias and related disorders of auditory object processing. Recent findings Analysis of lesions causing auditory object deficits has revealed certain broad anatomical correlations: deficient parsing of the auditory scene is associated with lesions involving the parieto-temporal junction, while selective disorders of sound recognition occur with more anterior temporal lobe or extra-temporal damage. Distributed neural networks have been increasingly implicated in the pathogenesis of such disorders as developmental dyslexia, congenital amusia and tinnitus. Auditory category deficits may arise from defective interaction of spectrotemporal encoding and executive and mnestic processes. Dedicated brain mechanisms are likely to process specialised sound objects such as voices and melodies. Summary Emerging empirical evidence suggests a clinically relevant, hierarchical and fractionated neuropsychological model of auditory object processing that provides a framework for understanding auditory agnosias and makes specific predictions to direct future work. PMID:20975559

  18. Complex Auditory Signals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 56, 1835-1847. Sachs, M. B., and Young, E.ID. (1979). Encoding of steady-state vowels in the auditory nerve...amplitude to the amplitude of that component of the standard in decibels . If the signal amplitude is one-eighth the amplitude of the com- ponent of the...Isolated pure tone appears to have little to do with how we recognize differences between vowels or broadband consonants. The simplicity of

  19. Auditory assessment of alcoholics in abstinence.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Sandra Beatriz Afonso; Jacob, Lilian Cassia Bornia; Alvarenga, Kátia de Freitas; Marques, Jair Mendes; Campêlo, Rafaela Mocellin; Tschoeke, Samira Natacha

    2007-01-01

    Alcoholism is considered the most relevant addiction in the international arena and few investigations have examined the association between sensorineural hearing loss and alcohol abuse, with conflicting results. To analyze the effects of alcohol abuse on the auditory system of alcoholics in abstinence taking into account the duration of alcohol abuse and associated noise exposure. our series comprehended 75 individuals, divided into two groups: trial and control. The audiological assessment was made by means of: pure-tone audiometry, transient evoked otoacoustic emissions, tympanometry. The Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney tests were used in the statistical analysis of the data. the groups of patients who had been alcoholics evidenced a statistically significant worse performance in the audiological assessment. The combined exposure to alcohol and noise was not synergic on the auditory system. long-term alcohol abuse can damage the cochlear function, specifically the outer hair cells.

  20. Early hominin auditory capacities.

    PubMed

    Quam, Rolf; Martínez, Ignacio; Rosa, Manuel; Bonmatí, Alejandro; Lorenzo, Carlos; de Ruiter, Darryl J; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo; Conde Valverde, Mercedes; Jarabo, Pilar; Menter, Colin G; Thackeray, J Francis; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2015-09-01

    Studies of sensory capacities in past life forms have offered new insights into their adaptations and lifeways. Audition is particularly amenable to study in fossils because it is strongly related to physical properties that can be approached through their skeletal structures. We have studied the anatomy of the outer and middle ear in the early hominin taxa Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus and estimated their auditory capacities. Compared with chimpanzees, the early hominin taxa are derived toward modern humans in their slightly shorter and wider external auditory canal, smaller tympanic membrane, and lower malleus/incus lever ratio, but they remain primitive in the small size of their stapes footplate. Compared with chimpanzees, both early hominin taxa show a heightened sensitivity to frequencies between 1.5 and 3.5 kHz and an occupied band of maximum sensitivity that is shifted toward slightly higher frequencies. The results have implications for sensory ecology and communication, and suggest that the early hominin auditory pattern may have facilitated an increased emphasis on short-range vocal communication in open habitats.

  1. Early hominin auditory capacities

    PubMed Central

    Quam, Rolf; Martínez, Ignacio; Rosa, Manuel; Bonmatí, Alejandro; Lorenzo, Carlos; de Ruiter, Darryl J.; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo; Conde Valverde, Mercedes; Jarabo, Pilar; Menter, Colin G.; Thackeray, J. Francis; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2015-01-01

    Studies of sensory capacities in past life forms have offered new insights into their adaptations and lifeways. Audition is particularly amenable to study in fossils because it is strongly related to physical properties that can be approached through their skeletal structures. We have studied the anatomy of the outer and middle ear in the early hominin taxa Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus and estimated their auditory capacities. Compared with chimpanzees, the early hominin taxa are derived toward modern humans in their slightly shorter and wider external auditory canal, smaller tympanic membrane, and lower malleus/incus lever ratio, but they remain primitive in the small size of their stapes footplate. Compared with chimpanzees, both early hominin taxa show a heightened sensitivity to frequencies between 1.5 and 3.5 kHz and an occupied band of maximum sensitivity that is shifted toward slightly higher frequencies. The results have implications for sensory ecology and communication, and suggest that the early hominin auditory pattern may have facilitated an increased emphasis on short-range vocal communication in open habitats. PMID:26601261

  2. Auditory interfaces: The human perceiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colburn, H. Steven

    1991-01-01

    A brief introduction to the basic auditory abilities of the human perceiver with particular attention toward issues that may be important for the design of auditory interfaces is presented. The importance of appropriate auditory inputs to observers with normal hearing is probably related to the role of hearing as an omnidirectional, early warning system and to its role as the primary vehicle for communication of strong personal feelings.

  3. Subcortical processing in auditory communication.

    PubMed

    Pannese, Alessia; Grandjean, Didier; Frühholz, Sascha

    2015-10-01

    The voice is a rich source of information, which the human brain has evolved to decode and interpret. Empirical observations have shown that the human auditory system is especially sensitive to the human voice, and that activity within the voice-sensitive regions of the primary and secondary auditory cortex is modulated by the emotional quality of the vocal signal, and may therefore subserve, with frontal regions, the cognitive ability to correctly identify the speaker's affective state. So far, the network involved in the processing of vocal affect has been mainly characterised at the cortical level. However, anatomical and functional evidence suggests that acoustic information relevant to the affective quality of the auditory signal might be processed prior to the auditory cortex. Here we review the animal and human literature on the main subcortical structures along the auditory pathway, and propose a model whereby the distinction between different types of vocal affect in auditory communication begins at very early stages of auditory processing, and relies on the analysis of individual acoustic features of the sound signal. We further suggest that this early feature-based decoding occurs at a subcortical level along the ascending auditory pathway, and provides a preliminary coarse (but fast) characterisation of the affective quality of the auditory signal before the more refined (but slower) cortical processing is completed.

  4. Temporal prediction errors in visual and auditory cortices.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hweeling; Noppeney, Uta

    2014-04-14

    To form a coherent percept of the environment, the brain needs to bind sensory signals emanating from a common source, but to segregate those from different sources [1]. Temporal correlations and synchrony act as prominent cues for multisensory integration [2-4], but the neural mechanisms by which such cues are identified remain unclear. Predictive coding suggests that the brain iteratively optimizes an internal model of its environment by minimizing the errors between its predictions and the sensory inputs [5,6]. This model enables the brain to predict the temporal evolution of natural audiovisual inputs and their statistical (for example, temporal) relationship. A prediction of this theory is that asynchronous audiovisual signals violating the model's predictions induce an error signal that depends on the directionality of the audiovisual asynchrony. As the visual system generates the dominant temporal predictions for visual leading asynchrony, the delayed auditory inputs are expected to generate a prediction error signal in the auditory system (and vice versa for auditory leading asynchrony). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we measured participants' brain responses to synchronous, visual leading and auditory leading movies of speech, sinewave speech or music. In line with predictive coding, auditory leading asynchrony elicited a prediction error in visual cortices and visual leading asynchrony in auditory cortices. Our results reveal predictive coding as a generic mechanism to temporally bind signals from multiple senses into a coherent percept. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Auditory Discrimination and Auditory Sensory Behaviours in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Catherine R. G.; Happe, Francesca; Baird, Gillian; Simonoff, Emily; Marsden, Anita J. S.; Tregay, Jenifer; Phillips, Rebecca J.; Goswami, Usha; Thomson, Jennifer M.; Charman, Tony

    2009-01-01

    It has been hypothesised that auditory processing may be enhanced in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We tested auditory discrimination ability in 72 adolescents with ASD (39 childhood autism; 33 other ASD) and 57 IQ and age-matched controls, assessing their capacity for successful discrimination of the frequency, intensity and duration…

  6. The Central Auditory Processing Kit[TM]. Book 1: Auditory Memory [and] Book 2: Auditory Discrimination, Auditory Closure, and Auditory Synthesis [and] Book 3: Auditory Figure-Ground, Auditory Cohesion, Auditory Binaural Integration, and Compensatory Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokhemar, Mary Ann

    This kit for assessing central auditory processing disorders (CAPD), in children in grades 1 through 8 includes 3 books, 14 full-color cards with picture scenes, and a card depicting a phone key pad, all contained in a sturdy carrying case. The units in each of the three books correspond with auditory skill areas most commonly addressed in…

  7. The Central Auditory Processing Kit[TM]. Book 1: Auditory Memory [and] Book 2: Auditory Discrimination, Auditory Closure, and Auditory Synthesis [and] Book 3: Auditory Figure-Ground, Auditory Cohesion, Auditory Binaural Integration, and Compensatory Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokhemar, Mary Ann

    This kit for assessing central auditory processing disorders (CAPD), in children in grades 1 through 8 includes 3 books, 14 full-color cards with picture scenes, and a card depicting a phone key pad, all contained in a sturdy carrying case. The units in each of the three books correspond with auditory skill areas most commonly addressed in…

  8. The role of the primary auditory cortex in the neural mechanism of auditory verbal hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Kompus, Kristiina; Falkenberg, Liv E.; Bless, Josef J.; Johnsen, Erik; Kroken, Rune A.; Kråkvik, Bodil; Larøi, Frank; Løberg, Else-Marie; Vedul-Kjelsås, Einar; Westerhausen, René; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are a subjective experience of “hearing voices” in the absence of corresponding physical stimulation in the environment. The most remarkable feature of AVHs is their perceptual quality, that is, the experience is subjectively often as vivid as hearing an actual voice, as opposed to mental imagery or auditory memories. This has lead to propositions that dysregulation of the primary auditory cortex (PAC) is a crucial component of the neural mechanism of AVHs. One possible mechanism by which the PAC could give rise to the experience of hallucinations is aberrant patterns of neuronal activity whereby the PAC is overly sensitive to activation arising from internal processing, while being less responsive to external stimulation. In this paper, we review recent research relevant to the role of the PAC in the generation of AVHs. We present new data from a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, examining the responsivity of the left and right PAC to parametrical modulation of the intensity of auditory verbal stimulation, and corresponding attentional top-down control in non-clinical participants with AVHs, and non-clinical participants with no AVHs. Non-clinical hallucinators showed reduced activation to speech sounds but intact attentional modulation in the right PAC. Additionally, we present data from a group of schizophrenia patients with AVHs, who do not show attentional modulation of left or right PAC. The context-appropriate modulation of the PAC may be a protective factor in non-clinical hallucinations. PMID:23630479

  9. Auditory Reserve and the Legacy of Auditory Experience

    PubMed Central

    Skoe, Erika; Kraus, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Musical training during childhood has been linked to more robust encoding of sound later in life. We take this as evidence for an auditory reserve: a mechanism by which individuals capitalize on earlier life experiences to promote auditory processing. We assert that early auditory experiences guide how the reserve develops and is maintained over the lifetime. Experiences that occur after childhood, or which are limited in nature, are theorized to affect the reserve, although their influence on sensory processing may be less long-lasting and may potentially fade over time if not repeated. This auditory reserve may help to explain individual differences in how individuals cope with auditory impoverishment or loss of sensorineural function. PMID:25405381

  10. Action-related auditory ERP attenuation: Paradigms and hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Horváth, János

    2015-11-11

    A number studies have shown that the auditory N1 event-related potential (ERP) is attenuated when elicited by self-induced or self-generated sounds. Because N1 is a correlate of auditory feature- and event-detection, it was generally assumed that N1-attenuation reflected the cancellation of auditory re-afference, enabled by the internal forward modeling of the predictable sensory consequences of the given action. Focusing on paradigms utilizing non-speech actions, the present review summarizes recent progress on action-related auditory attenuation. Following a critical analysis of the most widely used, contingent paradigm, two further hypotheses on the possible causes of action-related auditory ERP attenuation are presented. The attention hypotheses suggest that auditory ERP attenuation is brought about by a temporary division of attention between the action and the auditory stimulation. The pre-activation hypothesis suggests that the attenuation is caused by the activation of a sensory template during the initiation of the action, which interferes with the incoming stimulation. Although each hypothesis can account for a number of findings, none of them can accommodate the whole spectrum of results. It is suggested that a better understanding of auditory ERP attenuation phenomena could be achieved by systematic investigations of the types of actions, the degree of action-effect contingency, and the temporal characteristics of action-effect contingency representation-buildup and -deactivation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Prediction and Attention. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Auditory neglect and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Gutschalk, Alexander; Dykstra, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Neglect is a neurologic disorder, typically associated with lesions of the right hemisphere, in which patients are biased towards their ipsilesional - usually right - side of space while awareness for their contralesional - usually left - side is reduced or absent. Neglect is a multimodal disorder that often includes deficits in the auditory domain. Classically, auditory extinction, in which left-sided sounds that are correctly perceived in isolation are not detected in the presence of synchronous right-sided stimulation, has been considered the primary sign of auditory neglect. However, auditory extinction can also be observed after unilateral auditory cortex lesions and is thus not specific for neglect. Recent research has shown that patients with neglect are also impaired in maintaining sustained attention, on both sides, a fact that is reflected by an impairment of auditory target detection in continuous stimulation conditions. Perhaps the most impressive auditory symptom in full-blown neglect is alloacusis, in which patients mislocalize left-sided sound sources to their right, although even patients with less severe neglect still often show disturbance of auditory spatial perception, most commonly a lateralization bias towards the right. We discuss how these various disorders may be explained by a single model of neglect and review emerging interventions for patient rehabilitation.

  12. Auditory hallucinations in Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Inzelberg, R.; Kipervasser, S.; Korczyn, A.

    1998-01-01

    Whereas visual hallucinations are often found among patients with Parkinson's disease, the occurrence of auditory hallucinations has never been systematically documented. The occurrence, past and present, of auditory hallucinations has been studied in 121consecutive patients with Parkinson's disease attending a movement disorders clinic. The cognitive state was evaluated using the short mental test (SMT). Hallucinations were reported for 45patients (37%); 35 (29%) had only visual hallucinations and 10(8%) both visual and auditory hallucinations. No patient reported auditory hallucinations unaccompanied by visual hallucinations. The auditory hallucinations occurred repeatedly, consisting of human voices. They were non-imperative (n=9), non-paranoid (n=9), and often incomprehensible (n=5). They were not obviously influenced by the patients' age, duration of disease, or treatment with levodopa. Cognitive impairment was more common among hallucinating patients (64%, 50%, and 25% among patients with visual hallucinations, auditory hallucinations, and non-hallucinating parkinsonian patients respectively). Depression necessitating antidepressants was present in five of 10 and other psychotic features in six patients with auditory hallucinations. It is concluded that auditory hallucinations occur in Parkinson's disease, particularly in patients who also have visual hallucinations and are cognitively impaired.

 PMID:9576549

  13. Issues in Human Auditory Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Lynne A.

    2007-01-01

    The human auditory system is often portrayed as precocious in its development. In fact, many aspects of basic auditory processing appear to be adult-like by the middle of the first year of postnatal life. However, processes such as attention and sound source determination take much longer to develop. Immaturity of higher-level processes limits the…

  14. Word Recognition in Auditory Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, Iain D. J.

    2013-01-01

    Although spoken word recognition is more fundamental to human communication than text recognition, knowledge of word-processing in auditory cortex is comparatively impoverished. This dissertation synthesizes current models of auditory cortex, models of cortical pattern recognition, models of single-word reading, results in phonetics and results in…

  15. Word Recognition in Auditory Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, Iain D. J.

    2013-01-01

    Although spoken word recognition is more fundamental to human communication than text recognition, knowledge of word-processing in auditory cortex is comparatively impoverished. This dissertation synthesizes current models of auditory cortex, models of cortical pattern recognition, models of single-word reading, results in phonetics and results in…

  16. Attention to natural auditory signals.

    PubMed

    Caporello Bluvas, Emily; Gentner, Timothy Q

    2013-11-01

    The challenge of understanding how the brain processes natural signals is compounded by the fact that such signals are often tied closely to specific natural behaviors and natural environments. This added complexity is especially true for auditory communication signals that can carry information at multiple hierarchical levels, and often occur in the context of other competing communication signals. Selective attention provides a mechanism to focus processing resources on specific components of auditory signals, and simultaneously suppress responses to unwanted signals or noise. Although selective auditory attention has been well-studied behaviorally, very little is known about how selective auditory attention shapes the processing on natural auditory signals, and how the mechanisms of auditory attention are implemented in single neurons or neural circuits. Here we review the role of selective attention in modulating auditory responses to complex natural stimuli in humans. We then suggest how the current understanding can be applied to the study of selective auditory attention in the context natural signal processing at the level of single neurons and populations in animal models amenable to invasive neuroscience techniques. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Communication Sounds and the Brain: New Directions and Perspectives".

  17. The Perception of Auditory Motion

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Johahn

    2016-01-01

    The growing availability of efficient and relatively inexpensive virtual auditory display technology has provided new research platforms to explore the perception of auditory motion. At the same time, deployment of these technologies in command and control as well as in entertainment roles is generating an increasing need to better understand the complex processes underlying auditory motion perception. This is a particularly challenging processing feat because it involves the rapid deconvolution of the relative change in the locations of sound sources produced by rotational and translations of the head in space (self-motion) to enable the perception of actual source motion. The fact that we perceive our auditory world to be stable despite almost continual movement of the head demonstrates the efficiency and effectiveness of this process. This review examines the acoustical basis of auditory motion perception and a wide range of psychophysical, electrophysiological, and cortical imaging studies that have probed the limits and possible mechanisms underlying this perception. PMID:27094029

  18. Idealized Computational Models for Auditory Receptive Fields

    PubMed Central

    Lindeberg, Tony; Friberg, Anders

    2015-01-01

    We present a theory by which idealized models of auditory receptive fields can be derived in a principled axiomatic manner, from a set of structural properties to (i) enable invariance of receptive field responses under natural sound transformations and (ii) ensure internal consistency between spectro-temporal receptive fields at different temporal and spectral scales. For defining a time-frequency transformation of a purely temporal sound signal, it is shown that the framework allows for a new way of deriving the Gabor and Gammatone filters as well as a novel family of generalized Gammatone filters, with additional degrees of freedom to obtain different trade-offs between the spectral selectivity and the temporal delay of time-causal temporal window functions. When applied to the definition of a second-layer of receptive fields from a spectrogram, it is shown that the framework leads to two canonical families of spectro-temporal receptive fields, in terms of spectro-temporal derivatives of either spectro-temporal Gaussian kernels for non-causal time or a cascade of time-causal first-order integrators over the temporal domain and a Gaussian filter over the logspectral domain. For each filter family, the spectro-temporal receptive fields can be either separable over the time-frequency domain or be adapted to local glissando transformations that represent variations in logarithmic frequencies over time. Within each domain of either non-causal or time-causal time, these receptive field families are derived by uniqueness from the assumptions. It is demonstrated how the presented framework allows for computation of basic auditory features for audio processing and that it leads to predictions about auditory receptive fields with good qualitative similarity to biological receptive fields measured in the inferior colliculus (ICC) and primary auditory cortex (A1) of mammals. PMID:25822973

  19. Idealized computational models for auditory receptive fields.

    PubMed

    Lindeberg, Tony; Friberg, Anders

    2015-01-01

    We present a theory by which idealized models of auditory receptive fields can be derived in a principled axiomatic manner, from a set of structural properties to (i) enable invariance of receptive field responses under natural sound transformations and (ii) ensure internal consistency between spectro-temporal receptive fields at different temporal and spectral scales. For defining a time-frequency transformation of a purely temporal sound signal, it is shown that the framework allows for a new way of deriving the Gabor and Gammatone filters as well as a novel family of generalized Gammatone filters, with additional degrees of freedom to obtain different trade-offs between the spectral selectivity and the temporal delay of time-causal temporal window functions. When applied to the definition of a second-layer of receptive fields from a spectrogram, it is shown that the framework leads to two canonical families of spectro-temporal receptive fields, in terms of spectro-temporal derivatives of either spectro-temporal Gaussian kernels for non-causal time or a cascade of time-causal first-order integrators over the temporal domain and a Gaussian filter over the logspectral domain. For each filter family, the spectro-temporal receptive fields can be either separable over the time-frequency domain or be adapted to local glissando transformations that represent variations in logarithmic frequencies over time. Within each domain of either non-causal or time-causal time, these receptive field families are derived by uniqueness from the assumptions. It is demonstrated how the presented framework allows for computation of basic auditory features for audio processing and that it leads to predictions about auditory receptive fields with good qualitative similarity to biological receptive fields measured in the inferior colliculus (ICC) and primary auditory cortex (A1) of mammals.

  20. Auditory color constancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kluender, Keith R.; Kiefte, Michael

    2003-10-01

    It is both true and efficient that sensorineural systems respond to change and little else. Perceptual systems do not record absolute level be it loudness, pitch, brightness, or color. This fact has been demonstrated in every sensory domain. For example, the visual system is remarkable at maintaining color constancy over widely varying illumination such as sunlight and varieties of artificial light (incandescent, fluorescent, etc.) for which spectra reflected from objects differ dramatically. Results will be reported for a series of experiments demonstrating how auditory systems similarly compensate for reliable characteristics of spectral shape in acoustic signals. Specifically, listeners' perception of vowel sounds, characterized by both local (e.g., formants) and broad (e.g., tilt) spectral composition, changes radically depending upon reliable spectral composition of precursor signals. These experiments have been conducted using a variety of precursor signals consisting of meaningful and time-reversed vocoded sentences, as well as novel nonspeech precursors consisting of multiple filter poles modulating sinusoidally across a source spectrum with specific local and broad spectral characteristics. Constancy across widely varying spectral compositions shares much in common with visual color constancy. However, auditory spectral constancy appears to be more effective than visual constancy in compensating for local spectral fluctuations. [Work supported by NIDCD DC-04072.

  1. Auditory Cortex Characteristics in Schizophrenia: Associations With Auditory Hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Mørch-Johnsen, Lynn; Nesvåg, Ragnar; Jørgensen, Kjetil N; Lange, Elisabeth H; Hartberg, Cecilie B; Haukvik, Unn K; Kompus, Kristiina; Westerhausen, René; Osnes, Kåre; Andreassen, Ole A; Melle, Ingrid; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Agartz, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated associations between smaller auditory cortex volume and auditory hallucinations (AH) in schizophrenia. Reduced cortical volume can result from a reduction of either cortical thickness or cortical surface area, which may reflect different neuropathology. We investigate for the first time how thickness and surface area of the auditory cortex relate to AH in a large sample of schizophrenia spectrum patients. Schizophrenia spectrum (n = 194) patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging. Mean cortical thickness and surface area in auditory cortex regions (Heschl's gyrus [HG], planum temporale [PT], and superior temporal gyrus [STG]) were compared between patients with (AH+, n = 145) and without (AH-, n = 49) a lifetime history of AH and 279 healthy controls. AH+ patients showed significantly thinner cortex in the left HG compared to AH- patients (d = 0.43, P = .0096). There were no significant differences between AH+ and AH- patients in cortical thickness in the PT or STG, or in auditory cortex surface area in any of the regions investigated. Group differences in cortical thickness in the left HG was not affected by duration of illness or current antipsychotic medication. AH in schizophrenia patients were related to thinner cortex, but not smaller surface area of the left HG, a region which includes the primary auditory cortex. The results support that structural abnormalities of the auditory cortex underlie AH in schizophrenia. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Auditory training improves auditory performance in cochlear implanted children.

    PubMed

    Roman, Stephane; Rochette, Françoise; Triglia, Jean-Michel; Schön, Daniele; Bigand, Emmanuel

    2016-07-01

    While the positive benefits of pediatric cochlear implantation on language perception skills are now proven, the heterogeneity of outcomes remains high. The understanding of this heterogeneity and possible strategies to minimize it is of utmost importance. Our scope here is to test the effects of an auditory training strategy, "sound in Hands", using playful tasks grounded on the theoretical and empirical findings of cognitive sciences. Indeed, several basic auditory operations, such as auditory scene analysis (ASA) are not trained in the usual therapeutic interventions in deaf children. However, as they constitute a fundamental basis in auditory cognition, their development should imply general benefit in auditory processing and in turn enhance speech perception. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether cochlear implanted children could improve auditory performances in trained tasks and whether they could develop a transfer of learning to a phonetic discrimination test. Nineteen prelingually unilateral cochlear implanted children without additional handicap (4-10 year-olds) were recruited. The four main auditory cognitive processing (identification, discrimination, ASA and auditory memory) were stimulated and trained in the Experimental Group (EG) using Sound in Hands. The EG followed 20 training weekly sessions of 30 min and the untrained group was the control group (CG). Two measures were taken for both groups: before training (T1) and after training (T2). EG showed a significant improvement in the identification, discrimination and auditory memory tasks. The improvement in the ASA task did not reach significance. CG did not show any significant improvement in any of the tasks assessed. Most importantly, improvement was visible in the phonetic discrimination test for EG only. Moreover, younger children benefited more from the auditory training program to develop their phonetic abilities compared to older children, supporting the idea that

  3. Auditory distance perception in humans: a review of cues, development, neuronal bases, and effects of sensory loss.

    PubMed

    Kolarik, Andrew J; Moore, Brian C J; Zahorik, Pavel; Cirstea, Silvia; Pardhan, Shahina

    2016-02-01

    Auditory distance perception plays a major role in spatial awareness, enabling location of objects and avoidance of obstacles in the environment. However, it remains under-researched relative to studies of the directional aspect of sound localization. This review focuses on the following four aspects of auditory distance perception: cue processing, development, consequences of visual and auditory loss, and neurological bases. The several auditory distance cues vary in their effective ranges in peripersonal and extrapersonal space. The primary cues are sound level, reverberation, and frequency. Nonperceptual factors, including the importance of the auditory event to the listener, also can affect perceived distance. Basic internal representations of auditory distance emerge at approximately 6 months of age in humans. Although visual information plays an important role in calibrating auditory space, sensorimotor contingencies can be used for calibration when vision is unavailable. Blind individuals often manifest supranormal abilities to judge relative distance but show a deficit in absolute distance judgments. Following hearing loss, the use of auditory level as a distance cue remains robust, while the reverberation cue becomes less effective. Previous studies have not found evidence that hearing-aid processing affects perceived auditory distance. Studies investigating the brain areas involved in processing different acoustic distance cues are described. Finally, suggestions are given for further research on auditory distance perception, including broader investigation of how background noise and multiple sound sources affect perceived auditory distance for those with sensory loss.

  4. Neurologic Deficits Including Auditory Loss and Recovery of Function in Horses with Temporohyoid Osteoarthropathy.

    PubMed

    Aleman, M; Spriet, M; Williams, D C; Nieto, J E

    2016-01-01

    Auditory loss is a common deficit in horses with temporohyoid osteoarthropathy (THO), however, recovery of function is unknown. To investigate neurologic function with emphasis in audition in horses with THO after treatment. To describe anatomical alterations of the petrous temporal bone that might result in auditory loss. Twenty-four horses with a clinical diagnosis of THO. Prospective study. A brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) study was done as part of the criteria for inclusion in horses with a clinical diagnosis of THO from the years of 2005 to 2014. Physical and neurologic status and BAER findings were recorded. Brainstem auditory evoked response variables were compared by using Wilcoxon sign test. Fisher's exact test was also used. Significance was set at P < 0.05. The most common signs included auditory loss (100% of horses), vestibular and facial nerve dysfunction (83%), and exposure ulcerative keratitis (71%). Concurrent left laryngeal hemiparesis was observed in 61% of horses through endoscopy. Auditory dysfunction was bilateral in 50% of the cases (complete and partial), and unilateral affecting more commonly the right ear (R = 8, L = 4). Short- and long-term follow-up revealed persistent auditory loss in all horses based on abnormal response to sound, and further confirmed through a BAER in 8 horses. Auditory dysfunction appears to be a permanent neurologic deficit in horses diagnosed with THO despite overall neurologic improvement. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  5. Cortical auditory disorders: clinical and psychoacoustic features.

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, M F; Geehan, G R

    1988-01-01

    The symptoms of two patients with bilateral cortical auditory lesions evolved from cortical deafness to other auditory syndromes: generalised auditory agnosia, amusia and/or pure word deafness, and a residual impairment of temporal sequencing. On investigation, both had dysacusis, absent middle latency evoked responses, acoustic errors in sound recognition and matching, inconsistent auditory behaviours, and similarly disturbed psychoacoustic discrimination tasks. These findings indicate that the different clinical syndromes caused by cortical auditory lesions form a spectrum of related auditory processing disorders. Differences between syndromes may depend on the degree of involvement of a primary cortical processing system, the more diffuse accessory system, and possibly the efferent auditory system. Images PMID:2450968

  6. Coffee improves auditory neuropathy in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Hong, Bin Na; Yi, Tae Hoo; Park, Raekil; Kim, Sun Yeou; Kang, Tong Ho

    2008-08-29

    Coffee is a widely consumed beverage and has recently received considerable attention for its possible beneficial effects. Auditory neuropathy is a hearing disorder characterized by an abnormal auditory brainstem response. This study examined the auditory neuropathy induced by diabetes and investigated the action of coffee, trigonelline, and caffeine to determine whether they improved diabetic auditory neuropathy in mice. Auditory brainstem responses, auditory middle latency responses, and otoacoustic emissions were evaluated to assess auditory neuropathy. Coffee or trigonelline ameliorated the hearing threshold shift and delayed latency of the auditory evoked potential in diabetic neuropathy. These findings demonstrate that diabetes can produce a mouse model of auditory neuropathy and that coffee consumption potentially facilitates recovery from diabetes-induced auditory neuropathy. Furthermore, the active constituent in coffee may be trigonelline.

  7. Auditory brainstem responses and auditory thresholds in woodpeckers.

    PubMed

    Lohr, Bernard; Brittan-Powell, Elizabeth F; Dooling, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    Auditory sensitivity in three species of woodpeckers was estimated using the auditory brainstem response (ABR), a measure of the summed electrical activity of auditory neurons. For all species, the ABR waveform showed at least two, and sometimes three prominent peaks occurring within 10 ms of stimulus onset. Also ABR peak amplitude increased and latency decreased as a function of increasing sound pressure levels. Results showed no significant differences in overall auditory abilities between the three species of woodpeckers. The average ABR audiogram showed that woodpeckers have lowest thresholds between 1.5 and 5.7 kHz. The shape of the average woodpecker ABR audiogram was similar to the shape of the ABR-measured audiograms of other small birds at most frequencies, but at the highest frequency data suggest that woodpecker thresholds may be lower than those of domesticated birds, while similar to those of wild birds.

  8. Auditory perspective taking.

    PubMed

    Martinson, Eric; Brock, Derek

    2013-06-01

    Effective communication with a mobile robot using speech is a difficult problem even when you can control the auditory scene. Robot self-noise or ego noise, echoes and reverberation, and human interference are all common sources of decreased intelligibility. Moreover, in real-world settings, these problems are routinely aggravated by a variety of sources of background noise. Military scenarios can be punctuated by high decibel noise from materiel and weaponry that would easily overwhelm a robot's normal speaking volume. Moreover, in nonmilitary settings, fans, computers, alarms, and transportation noise can cause enough interference to make a traditional speech interface unusable. This work presents and evaluates a prototype robotic interface that uses perspective taking to estimate the effectiveness of its own speech presentation and takes steps to improve intelligibility for human listeners.

  9. Auditory-olfactory synesthesia coexisting with auditory-visual synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Thomas E; Sandramouli, Soupramanien

    2012-09-01

    Synesthesia is an unusual condition in which stimulation of one sensory modality causes an experience in another sensory modality or when a sensation in one sensory modality causes another sensation within the same modality. We describe a previously unreported association of auditory-olfactory synesthesia coexisting with auditory-visual synesthesia. Given that many types of synesthesias involve vision, it is important that the clinician provide these patients with the necessary information and support that is available.

  10. Auditory short-term memory in the primate auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Scott, Brian H; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2016-06-01

    Sounds are fleeting, and assembling the sequence of inputs at the ear into a coherent percept requires auditory memory across various time scales. Auditory short-term memory comprises at least two components: an active ׳working memory' bolstered by rehearsal, and a sensory trace that may be passively retained. Working memory relies on representations recalled from long-term memory, and their rehearsal may require phonological mechanisms unique to humans. The sensory component, passive short-term memory (pSTM), is tractable to study in nonhuman primates, whose brain architecture and behavioral repertoire are comparable to our own. This review discusses recent advances in the behavioral and neurophysiological study of auditory memory with a focus on single-unit recordings from macaque monkeys performing delayed-match-to-sample (DMS) tasks. Monkeys appear to employ pSTM to solve these tasks, as evidenced by the impact of interfering stimuli on memory performance. In several regards, pSTM in monkeys resembles pitch memory in humans, and may engage similar neural mechanisms. Neural correlates of DMS performance have been observed throughout the auditory and prefrontal cortex, defining a network of areas supporting auditory STM with parallels to that supporting visual STM. These correlates include persistent neural firing, or a suppression of firing, during the delay period of the memory task, as well as suppression or (less commonly) enhancement of sensory responses when a sound is repeated as a ׳match' stimulus. Auditory STM is supported by a distributed temporo-frontal network in which sensitivity to stimulus history is an intrinsic feature of auditory processing. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory.

  11. Altered intrinsic connectivity of the auditory cortex in congenital amusia

    PubMed Central

    Fauvel, Baptiste; Groussard, Mathilde; Caclin, Anne; Albouy, Philippe; Platel, Hervé; Tillmann, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Congenital amusia, a neurodevelopmental disorder of music perception and production, has been associated with abnormal anatomical and functional connectivity in a right frontotemporal pathway. To investigate whether spontaneous connectivity in brain networks involving the auditory cortex is altered in the amusic brain, we ran a seed-based connectivity analysis, contrasting at-rest functional MRI data of amusic and matched control participants. Our results reveal reduced frontotemporal connectivity in amusia during resting state, as well as an overconnectivity between the auditory cortex and the default mode network (DMN). The findings suggest that the auditory cortex is intrinsically more engaged toward internal processes and less available to external stimuli in amusics compared with controls. Beyond amusia, our findings provide new evidence for the link between cognitive deficits in pathology and abnormalities in the connectivity between sensory areas and the DMN at rest. PMID:27009161

  12. Intertrial auditory neural stability supports beat synchronization in preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Kali Woodruff; Tierney, Adam; White-Schwoch, Travis; Kraus, Nina

    2016-01-01

    The ability to synchronize motor movements along with an auditory beat places stringent demands on the temporal processing and sensorimotor integration capabilities of the nervous system. Links between millisecond-level precision of auditory processing and the consistency of sensorimotor beat synchronization implicate fine auditory neural timing as a mechanism for forming stable internal representations of, and behavioral reactions to, sound. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate a systematic relationship between consistency of beat synchronization and trial-by-trial stability of subcortical speech processing in preschoolers (ages 3 and 4 years old). We conclude that beat synchronization might provide a useful window into millisecond-level neural precision for encoding sound in early childhood, when speech processing is especially important for language acquisition and development. PMID:26760457

  13. Auditory Processing Disorder (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... or complicated? Does your child have reading, spelling, writing, or other speech-language difficulties? Are verbal (word) ... can affect following directions and reading, spelling, and writing skills, among others. Auditory attention problems: This is ...

  14. Classroom Demonstrations of Auditory Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haws, LaDawn; Oppy, Brian J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents activities to help students gain understanding about auditory perception. Describes demonstrations that cover topics, such as sound localization, wave cancellation, frequency/pitch variation, and the influence of media on sound propagation. (CMK)

  15. Classroom Demonstrations of Auditory Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haws, LaDawn; Oppy, Brian J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents activities to help students gain understanding about auditory perception. Describes demonstrations that cover topics, such as sound localization, wave cancellation, frequency/pitch variation, and the influence of media on sound propagation. (CMK)

  16. Auditory Processing Disorder in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... free publications Find organizations Related Topics Auditory Neuropathy Autism Spectrum Disorder: Communication Problems in Children Dysphagia Quick Statistics About Voice, Speech, Language Speech and Language Developmental Milestones What Is ...

  17. Auditory Processing Disorder (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... or other speech-language difficulties? Are verbal (word) math problems difficult for your child? Is your child ... inferences from conversations, understanding riddles, or comprehending verbal math problems — require heightened auditory processing and language levels. ...

  18. Role of the auditory system in speech production.

    PubMed

    Guenther, Frank H; Hickok, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reviews evidence regarding the role of auditory perception in shaping speech output. Evidence indicates that speech movements are planned to follow auditory trajectories. This in turn is followed by a description of the Directions Into Velocities of Articulators (DIVA) model, which provides a detailed account of the role of auditory feedback in speech motor development and control. A brief description of the higher-order brain areas involved in speech sequencing (including the pre-supplementary motor area and inferior frontal sulcus) is then provided, followed by a description of the Hierarchical State Feedback Control (HSFC) model, which posits internal error detection and correction processes that can detect and correct speech production errors prior to articulation. The chapter closes with a treatment of promising future directions of research into auditory-motor interactions in speech, including the use of intracranial recording techniques such as electrocorticography in humans, the investigation of the potential roles of various large-scale brain rhythms in speech perception and production, and the development of brain-computer interfaces that use auditory feedback to allow profoundly paralyzed users to learn to produce speech using a speech synthesizer. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Auditory rhythmic cueing in movement rehabilitation: findings and possible mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Rebecca S

    2014-12-19

    Moving to music is intuitive and spontaneous, and music is widely used to support movement, most commonly during exercise. Auditory cues are increasingly also used in the rehabilitation of disordered movement, by aligning actions to sounds such as a metronome or music. Here, the effect of rhythmic auditory cueing on movement is discussed and representative findings of cued movement rehabilitation are considered for several movement disorders, specifically post-stroke motor impairment, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. There are multiple explanations for the efficacy of cued movement practice. Potentially relevant, non-mutually exclusive mechanisms include the acceleration of learning; qualitatively different motor learning owing to an auditory context; effects of increased temporal skills through rhythmic practices and motivational aspects of musical rhythm. Further considerations of rehabilitation paradigm efficacy focus on specific movement disorders, intervention methods and complexity of the auditory cues. Although clinical interventions using rhythmic auditory cueing do not show consistently positive results, it is argued that internal mechanisms of temporal prediction and tracking are crucial, and further research may inform rehabilitation practice to increase intervention efficacy. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Auditory rhythmic cueing in movement rehabilitation: findings and possible mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Rebecca S.

    2014-01-01

    Moving to music is intuitive and spontaneous, and music is widely used to support movement, most commonly during exercise. Auditory cues are increasingly also used in the rehabilitation of disordered movement, by aligning actions to sounds such as a metronome or music. Here, the effect of rhythmic auditory cueing on movement is discussed and representative findings of cued movement rehabilitation are considered for several movement disorders, specifically post-stroke motor impairment, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. There are multiple explanations for the efficacy of cued movement practice. Potentially relevant, non-mutually exclusive mechanisms include the acceleration of learning; qualitatively different motor learning owing to an auditory context; effects of increased temporal skills through rhythmic practices and motivational aspects of musical rhythm. Further considerations of rehabilitation paradigm efficacy focus on specific movement disorders, intervention methods and complexity of the auditory cues. Although clinical interventions using rhythmic auditory cueing do not show consistently positive results, it is argued that internal mechanisms of temporal prediction and tracking are crucial, and further research may inform rehabilitation practice to increase intervention efficacy. PMID:25385780

  1. An Adapting Auditory-motor Feedback Loop Can Contribute to Generating Vocal Repetition

    PubMed Central

    Brainard, Michael S.; Jin, Dezhe Z.

    2015-01-01

    Consecutive repetition of actions is common in behavioral sequences. Although integration of sensory feedback with internal motor programs is important for sequence generation, if and how feedback contributes to repetitive actions is poorly understood. Here we study how auditory feedback contributes to generating repetitive syllable sequences in songbirds. We propose that auditory signals provide positive feedback to ongoing motor commands, but this influence decays as feedback weakens from response adaptation during syllable repetitions. Computational models show that this mechanism explains repeat distributions observed in Bengalese finch song. We experimentally confirmed two predictions of this mechanism in Bengalese finches: removal of auditory feedback by deafening reduces syllable repetitions; and neural responses to auditory playback of repeated syllable sequences gradually adapt in sensory-motor nucleus HVC. Together, our results implicate a positive auditory-feedback loop with adaptation in generating repetitive vocalizations, and suggest sensory adaptation is important for feedback control of motor sequences. PMID:26448054

  2. Genetics of isolated auditory neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Del Castillo, Francisco J; Del Castillo, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    Auditory neuropathies are disorders combining absent or abnormal auditory brainstem responses with preserved otoacoustic emissions and/or cochlear microphonics. These features indicate a normal function of cochlear outer hair cells. Thus, the primary lesion might be located in the inner hair cells, in the auditory nerve or in the intervening synapse. Auditory neuropathy is observed in up to 10 percent of deaf infants and children, either as part of some systemic neurodegenerative diseases or as an isolated entity. Research on the genetic causes of isolated auditory neuropathies has been remarkably successful in the last few years. Here we review the current knowledge on the structure, expression and function of the genes and proteins so far known to be involved in these disorders, as well as the clinical features that are associated with mutations in the different genes. This knowledge is permitting to classify isolated auditory neuropathies into etiologically homogeneous types, so providing clues for the better diagnosis, management and therapy of the affected subjects.

  3. Auditory short-term memory in the primate auditory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Brian H.; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2015-01-01

    Sounds are fleeting, and assembling the sequence of inputs at the ear into a coherent percept requires auditory memory across various time scales. Auditory short-term memory comprises at least two components: an active ‘working memory’ bolstered by rehearsal, and a sensory trace that may be passively retained. Working memory relies on representations recalled from long-term memory, and their rehearsal may require phonological mechanisms unique to humans. The sensory component, passive short-term memory (pSTM), is tractable to study in nonhuman primates, whose brain architecture and behavioral repertoire are comparable to our own. This review discusses recent advances in the behavioral and neurophysiological study of auditory memory with a focus on single-unit recordings from macaque monkeys performing delayed-match-to-sample (DMS) tasks. Monkeys appear to employ pSTM to solve these tasks, as evidenced by the impact of interfering stimuli on memory performance. In several regards, pSTM in monkeys resembles pitch memory in humans, and may engage similar neural mechanisms. Neural correlates of DMS performance have been observed throughout the auditory and prefrontal cortex, defining a network of areas supporting auditory STM with parallels to that supporting visual STM. These correlates include persistent neural firing, or a suppression of firing, during the delay period of the memory task, as well as suppression or (less commonly) enhancement of sensory responses when a sound is repeated as a ‘match’ stimulus. Auditory STM is supported by a distributed temporo-frontal network in which sensitivity to stimulus history is an intrinsic feature of auditory processing. PMID:26541581

  4. Psychology of auditory perception.

    PubMed

    Lotto, Andrew; Holt, Lori

    2011-09-01

    Audition is often treated as a 'secondary' sensory system behind vision in the study of cognitive science. In this review, we focus on three seemingly simple perceptual tasks to demonstrate the complexity of perceptual-cognitive processing involved in everyday audition. After providing a short overview of the characteristics of sound and their neural encoding, we present a description of the perceptual task of segregating multiple sound events that are mixed together in the signal reaching the ears. Then, we discuss the ability to localize the sound source in the environment. Finally, we provide some data and theory on how listeners categorize complex sounds, such as speech. In particular, we present research on how listeners weigh multiple acoustic cues in making a categorization decision. One conclusion of this review is that it is time for auditory cognitive science to be developed to match what has been done in vision in order for us to better understand how humans communicate with speech and music. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 479-489 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.123 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Sex differences in auditory subcortical function.

    PubMed

    Krizman, Jennifer; Skoe, Erika; Kraus, Nina

    2012-03-01

    Sex differences have been demonstrated in the peripheral auditory system as well as in higher-level cognitive processing. Here, we aimed to determine if the subcortical response to a complex auditory stimulus is encoded differently between the sexes. Using electrophysiological techniques, we assessed the auditory brainstem response to a synthesized stop-consonant speech syllable [da] in 76 native-English speaking, young adults (38 female). Timing and frequency components of the response were compared between males and females to determine which aspects of the response are affected by sex. A dissimilarity between males and females was seen in the neural response to the components of the speech stimulus that change rapidly over time; but not in the slower changing, lower frequency information in the stimulus. We demonstrate that, in agreement with the click-evoked brainstem response, females have earlier peaks relative to males in the subcomponents of the response representing the onset of the speech sound. In contrast, the response peaks comprising the frequency-following response, which encode the fundamental frequency (F(0)) of the stimulus, as well as the spectral amplitude of the response to the F(0), is not affected by sex. Notably, the higher-frequency elements of the speech syllable are encoded differently between males and females, with females having greater representation of spectrotemporal information for frequencies above the F(0). Our results provide a baseline for interpreting the higher incidence of language impairment (e.g. dyslexia, autism, specific language impairment) in males, and the subcortical deficits associated with these disorders. These results parallel the subcortical encoding patterns that are documented for good and poor readers in that poor readers differ from good readers on encoding fast but not slow components of speech. This parallel may thus help to explain the higher incidence of reading impairment in males compared to females

  6. Auditory and non-auditory effects of noise on health.

    PubMed

    Basner, Mathias; Babisch, Wolfgang; Davis, Adrian; Brink, Mark; Clark, Charlotte; Janssen, Sabine; Stansfeld, Stephen

    2014-04-12

    Noise is pervasive in everyday life and can cause both auditory and non-auditory health effects. Noise-induced hearing loss remains highly prevalent in occupational settings, and is increasingly caused by social noise exposure (eg, through personal music players). Our understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in noise-induced hair-cell and nerve damage has substantially increased, and preventive and therapeutic drugs will probably become available within 10 years. Evidence of the non-auditory effects of environmental noise exposure on public health is growing. Observational and experimental studies have shown that noise exposure leads to annoyance, disturbs sleep and causes daytime sleepiness, affects patient outcomes and staff performance in hospitals, increases the occurrence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease, and impairs cognitive performance in schoolchildren. In this Review, we stress the importance of adequate noise prevention and mitigation strategies for public health.

  7. Auditory and non-auditory effects of noise on health

    PubMed Central

    Basner, Mathias; Babisch, Wolfgang; Davis, Adrian; Brink, Mark; Clark, Charlotte; Janssen, Sabine; Stansfeld, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Noise is pervasive in everyday life and can cause both auditory and non-auditory health effects. Noise-induced hearing loss remains highly prevalent in occupational settings, and is increasingly caused by social noise exposure (eg, through personal music players). Our understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in noise-induced hair-cell and nerve damage has substantially increased, and preventive and therapeutic drugs will probably become available within 10 years. Evidence of the non-auditory effects of environmental noise exposure on public health is growing. Observational and experimental studies have shown that noise exposure leads to annoyance, disturbs sleep and causes daytime sleepiness, affects patient outcomes and staff performance in hospitals, increases the occurrence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease, and impairs cognitive performance in schoolchildren. In this Review, we stress the importance of adequate noise prevention and mitigation strategies for public health. PMID:24183105

  8. 16 CFR 1203.4 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... that includes the auditory meatuses (the external ear openings) and the inferior orbital rims (the... right and left auditory meatuses. The ISO headforms are marked with a transverse plane corresponding to... the midpoint of the line connecting the superior rims of the right and left auditory meatuses. The...

  9. 16 CFR 1203.4 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... that includes the auditory meatuses (the external ear openings) and the inferior orbital rims (the... right and left auditory meatuses. The ISO headforms are marked with a transverse plane corresponding to... the midpoint of the line connecting the superior rims of the right and left auditory meatuses. The...

  10. Current understanding of auditory neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Boo, Nem-Yun

    2008-12-01

    Auditory neuropathy is defined by the presence of normal evoked otoacoustic emissions (OAE) and absent or abnormal auditory brainstem responses (ABR). The sites of lesion could be at the cochlear inner hair cells, spiral ganglion cells of the cochlea, synapse between the inner hair cells and auditory nerve, or the auditory nerve itself. Genetic, infectious or neonatal/perinatal insults are the 3 most commonly identified underlying causes. Children usually present with delay in speech and language development while adult patients present with hearing loss and disproportionately poor speech discrimination for the degree of hearing loss. Although cochlear implant is the treatment of choice, current evidence show that it benefits only those patients with endocochlear lesions, but not those with cochlear nerve deficiency or central nervous system disorders. As auditory neuropathy is a disorder with potential long-term impact on a child's development, early hearing screen using both OAE and ABR should be carried out on all newborns and infants to allow early detection and intervention.

  11. Auditory processing in dysphonic children.

    PubMed

    Arnaut, Mirian Aratangy; Agostinho, Caroline Vieira; Pereira, Liliane Desgualdo; Weckx, Luc Louis Maurice; Avila, Clara Regina Brandão de

    2011-06-01

    Contemporary cross-sectional cohort study. There is evidence of the auditory perception influence on the development of oral and written language, as well as on the self-perception of vocal conditions. The auditory system maturation can impact on this process. To characterize the auditory skills of temporal ordering and localization in dysphonic children. We assessed 42 children (4 to 8 years). 31 dysphonic children; Comparison group: 11 children without vocal change complaints. They all had normal auditory thresholds and also normal cochleo-eyelid reflexes. They were submitted to a Simplified assessment of the auditory process (Pereira, 1993). In order to compare the groups, we used the Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis statistical tests. Level of significance: 0.05 (5%). Upon simplified assessment, 100% of the Control Group and 61.29% of the Study Group had normal results. The groups were similar in the localization and verbal sequential memory tests. The nonverbal sequential memory showed worse results on dysphonic children. In this group, the performance was worse among the four to six years. The dysphonic children showed changes on the localization or temporal ordering skills, the skill of non-verbal temporal ordering differentiated the dysphonic group. In this group, the Sound Location improved with age.

  12. Mouse Auditory Brainstem Response Testing

    PubMed Central

    Akil, Omar; Oursler, A. E.; Fan, Kevin; Lustig, Lawrence R.

    2016-01-01

    The auditory brainstem response (ABR) test provides information about the inner ear (cochlea) and the central pathways for hearing. The ABR reflects the electrical responses of both the cochlear ganglion neurons and the nuclei of the central auditory pathway to sound stimulation (Zhou et al., 2006; Burkard et al., 2007). The ABR contains 5 identifiable wave forms, labeled as I-V. Wave I represents the summated response from the spiral ganglion and auditory nerve while waves II-V represent responses from the ascending auditory pathway. The ABR is recorded via electrodes placed on the scalp of an anesthetized animal. ABR thresholds refer to the lowest sound pressure level (SPL) that can generate identifiable electrical response waves. This protocol describes the process of measuring the ABR of small rodents (mouse, rat, guinea pig, etc.), including anesthetizing the mouse, placing the electrodes on the scalp, recording click and tone burst stimuli and reading the obtained waveforms for ABR threshold values. As technology continues to evolve, ABR will likely provide more qualitative and quantitative information regarding the function of the auditory nerve and brainstem pathways involved in hearing.

  13. The Perception of Auditory Motion.

    PubMed

    Carlile, Simon; Leung, Johahn

    2016-04-19

    The growing availability of efficient and relatively inexpensive virtual auditory display technology has provided new research platforms to explore the perception of auditory motion. At the same time, deployment of these technologies in command and control as well as in entertainment roles is generating an increasing need to better understand the complex processes underlying auditory motion perception. This is a particularly challenging processing feat because it involves the rapid deconvolution of the relative change in the locations of sound sources produced by rotational and translations of the head in space (self-motion) to enable the perception of actual source motion. The fact that we perceive our auditory world to be stable despite almost continual movement of the head demonstrates the efficiency and effectiveness of this process. This review examines the acoustical basis of auditory motion perception and a wide range of psychophysical, electrophysiological, and cortical imaging studies that have probed the limits and possible mechanisms underlying this perception. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Auditory agnosia and auditory spatial deficits following left hemispheric lesions: evidence for distinct processing pathways.

    PubMed

    Clarke, S; Bellmann, A; Meuli, R A; Assal, G; Steck, A J

    2000-01-01

    Auditory recognition and auditory spatial functions were studied in four patients with circumscribed left hemispheric lesions. Patient FD was severely deficient in recognition of environmental sounds but normal in auditory localisation and auditory motion perception. The lesion included the left superior, middle and inferior temporal gyri and lateral auditory areas (as identified in previous anatomical studies), but spared Heschl's gyrus, the acoustic radiation and the thalamus. Patient SD had the same profile as FD, with deficient recognition of environmental sounds but normal auditory localisation and motion perception. The lesion comprised the postero-inferior part of the frontal convexity and the anterior third of the temporal lobe; data from non-human primates indicate that the latter are interconnected with lateral auditory areas. Patient MA was deficient in recognition of environmental sounds, auditory localisation and auditory motion perception, confirming that auditory spatial functions can be disturbed by left unilateral damage; the lesion involved the supratemporal region as well as the temporal, postero-inferior frontal and antero-inferior parietal convexities. Patient CZ was severely deficient in auditory motion perception and partially deficient in auditory localisation, but normal in recognition of environmental sounds; the lesion involved large parts of the parieto-frontal convexity and the supratemporal region. We propose that auditory information is processed in the human auditory cortex along two distinct pathways, one lateral devoted to auditory recognition and one medial and posterior devoted to auditory spatial functions.

  15. Devices and Procedures for Auditory Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ling, Daniel

    1986-01-01

    The article summarizes information on assistive devices (hearing aids, cochlear implants, tactile aids, visual aids) and rehabilitation procedures (auditory training, speechreading, cued speech, and speech production) to aid the auditory learning of the hearing impaired.(DB)

  16. Behind the scenes of auditory perception.

    PubMed

    Shamma, Shihab A; Micheyl, Christophe

    2010-06-01

    'Auditory scenes' often contain contributions from multiple acoustic sources. These are usually heard as separate auditory 'streams', which can be selectively followed over time. How and where these auditory streams are formed in the auditory system is one of the most fascinating questions facing auditory scientists today. Findings published within the past two years indicate that both cortical and subcortical processes contribute to the formation of auditory streams, and they raise important questions concerning the roles of primary and secondary areas of auditory cortex in this phenomenon. In addition, these findings underline the importance of taking into account the relative timing of neural responses, and the influence of selective attention, in the search for neural correlates of the perception of auditory streams.

  17. Context effects on auditory distraction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sufen; Sussman, Elyse S.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to test the hypothesis that sound context modulates the magnitude of auditory distraction, indexed by behavioral and electrophysiological measures. Participants were asked to identify tone duration, while irrelevant changes occurred in tone frequency, tone intensity, and harmonic structure. Frequency deviants were randomly intermixed with standards (Uni-Condition), with intensity deviants (Bi-Condition), and with both intensity and complex deviants (Tri-Condition). Only in the Tri-Condition did the auditory distraction effect reflect the magnitude difference among the frequency and intensity deviants. The mixture of the different types of deviants in the Tri-Condition modulated the perceived level of distraction, demonstrating that the sound context can modulate the effect of deviance level on processing irrelevant acoustic changes in the environment. These findings thus indicate that perceptual contrast plays a role in change detection processes that leads to auditory distraction. PMID:23886958

  18. Octave effect in auditory attention

    PubMed Central

    Borra, Tobias; Versnel, Huib; Kemner, Chantal; van Opstal, A. John; van Ee, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    After hearing a tone, the human auditory system becomes more sensitive to similar tones than to other tones. Current auditory models explain this phenomenon by a simple bandpass attention filter. Here, we demonstrate that auditory attention involves multiple pass-bands around octave-related frequencies above and below the cued tone. Intriguingly, this “octave effect” not only occurs for physically presented tones, but even persists for the missing fundamental in complex tones, and for imagined tones. Our results suggest neural interactions combining octave-related frequencies, likely located in nonprimary cortical regions. We speculate that this connectivity scheme evolved from exposure to natural vibrations containing octave-related spectral peaks, e.g., as produced by vocal cords. PMID:24003112

  19. Ageing and the auditory system

    PubMed Central

    Howarth, A; Shone, G R

    2006-01-01

    There are a number of pathophysiological processes underlying age related changes in the auditory system. The effects of hearing loss can have consequences beyond the immediate loss of hearing, and may have profound effects on the functioning of the person. While a deficit in hearing can be corrected to some degree by a hearing aid, auditory rehabilitation requires much more than simply amplifying external sound. It is important that those dealing with elderly people are aware of all the issues involved in age related hearing loss. PMID:16517797

  20. Loudspeaker equalization for auditory research.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Justin A; Tran, Phuong K

    2007-02-01

    The equalization of loudspeaker frequency response is necessary to conduct many types of well-controlled auditory experiments. This article introduces a program that includes functions to measure a loudspeaker's frequency response, design equalization filters, and apply the filters to a set of stimuli to be used in an auditory experiment. The filters can compensate for both magnitude and phase distortions introduced by the loudspeaker. A MATLAB script is included in the Appendix to illustrate the details of the equalization algorithm used in the program.

  1. Multisensory encoding improves auditory recognition.

    PubMed

    Moran, Zachary D; Bachman, Peter; Pham, Phillip; Cho, Seong Hah; Cannon, Tyrone D; Shams, Ladan

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have challenged the long-held belief that recognition is unfailingly degraded by contextual differences between study and test items. In these studies, recognition of pictures presented in silence was better when during study or initial exposure the images were accompanied by a semantically congruent sound rather than silence. In the present study, we sought to examine the generalization of this phenomenon to auditory recognition and found a significant improvement in the recognition of auditory items when coupled with a congruent picture. We discuss these findings within the framework of the redintegration hypothesis of memory retrieval as well as Bayesian inference and learning.

  2. Auditory training in students with learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Fábio Henrique; Capellini, Simone Aparecida

    2010-01-01

    auditory training program in students with learning disabilities. to verify the efficacy of an auditory training program in students with learning disabilities; to compare the results of students with and without learning disabilities, who were and were not submitted to the auditory training program, in pre and post-testing. participants were 40 students who were divided according to the following: GI, subdivided in: GIe (10 students with learning disabilities who were submitted to the program), GIc (10 students with learning difficulties who were not submitted to auditory training) and GII, subdivided in: GIIe (10 students without learning difficulties submitted to the auditory training program) and GIIc (10 students without learning difficulties who were not submitted to auditory training). The auditory training program Audio Training was used. the results indicate that GI presented a lower performance when compared to GII in activities related to auditory skills and phonological awareness. When comparing the pre and post-testing results, GIe and GIIe presented better performances in activities involving auditory skills and phonological awareness after the auditory training program. the performance of the students with learning disabilities in auditory and phonological tasks is lower when compared to the students without learning disabilities. The use of the auditory training program was effective and allowed students to develop these skills.

  3. Feature Assignment in Perception of Auditory Figure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Melissa K.; Samuel, Arthur G.

    2012-01-01

    Because the environment often includes multiple sounds that overlap in time, listeners must segregate a sound of interest (the auditory figure) from other co-occurring sounds (the unattended auditory ground). We conducted a series of experiments to clarify the principles governing the extraction of auditory figures. We distinguish between auditory…

  4. Feature Assignment in Perception of Auditory Figure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Melissa K.; Samuel, Arthur G.

    2012-01-01

    Because the environment often includes multiple sounds that overlap in time, listeners must segregate a sound of interest (the auditory figure) from other co-occurring sounds (the unattended auditory ground). We conducted a series of experiments to clarify the principles governing the extraction of auditory figures. We distinguish between auditory…

  5. Auditory Detection of the Human Brainstem Auditory Evoked Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Gerald, Jr.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This study evaluated whether listeners can distinguish human brainstem auditory evoked responses elicited by acoustic clicks from control waveforms obtained with no acoustic stimulus when the waveforms are presented auditorily. Detection performance for stimuli presented visually was slightly, but consistently, superior to that which occurred for…

  6. Early auditory enrichment with music enhances auditory discrimination learning and alters NR2B protein expression in rat auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jinghong; Yu, Liping; Cai, Rui; Zhang, Jiping; Sun, Xinde

    2009-01-03

    Previous studies have shown that the functional development of auditory system is substantially influenced by the structure of environmental acoustic inputs in early life. In our present study, we investigated the effects of early auditory enrichment with music on rat auditory discrimination learning. We found that early auditory enrichment with music from postnatal day (PND) 14 enhanced learning ability in auditory signal-detection task and in sound duration-discrimination task. In parallel, a significant increase was noted in NMDA receptor subunit NR2B protein expression in the auditory cortex. Furthermore, we found that auditory enrichment with music starting from PND 28 or 56 did not influence NR2B expression in the auditory cortex. No difference was found in the NR2B expression in the inferior colliculus (IC) between music-exposed and normal rats, regardless of when the auditory enrichment with music was initiated. Our findings suggest that early auditory enrichment with music influences NMDA-mediated neural plasticity, which results in enhanced auditory discrimination learning.

  7. Central auditory processing and migraine: a controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to verify and compare central auditory processing (CAP) performance in migraine with and without aura patients and healthy controls. Methods Forty-one volunteers of both genders, aged between 18 and 40 years, diagnosed with migraine with and without aura by the criteria of “The International Classification of Headache Disorders” (ICDH-3 beta) and a control group of the same age range and with no headache history, were included. Gaps-in-noise (GIN), Duration Pattern test (DPT) and Dichotic Digits Test (DDT) tests were used to assess central auditory processing performance. Results The volunteers were divided into 3 groups: Migraine with aura (11), migraine without aura (15), and control group (15), matched by age and schooling. Subjects with aura and without aura performed significantly worse in GIN test for right ear (p = .006), for left ear (p = .005) and for DPT test (p < .001) when compared with controls without headache, however no significant differences were found in the DDT test for the right ear (p = .362) and for the left ear (p = .190). Conclusions Subjects with migraine performed worsened in auditory gap detection, in the discrimination of short and long duration. They also presented impairment in the physiological mechanism of temporal processing, especially in temporal resolution and temporal ordering when compared with controls. Migraine could be related to an impaired central auditory processing. Clinical trial registration Research Ethics Committee (CEP 0480.10) – UNIFESP PMID:25380661

  8. Making and monitoring errors based on altered auditory feedback

    PubMed Central

    Pfordresher, Peter Q.; Beasley, Robertson T. E.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that altered auditory feedback (AAF) disrupts music performance and causes disruptions in both action planning and the perception of feedback events. It has been proposed that this disruption occurs because of interference within a shared representation for perception and action (Pfordresher, 2006). Studies reported here address this claim from the standpoint of error monitoring. In Experiment 1 participants performed short melodies on a keyboard while hearing no auditory feedback, normal auditory feedback, or alterations to feedback pitch on some subset of events. Participants overestimated error frequency when AAF was present but not for normal feedback. Experiment 2 introduced a concurrent load task to determine whether error monitoring requires executive resources. Although the concurrent task enhanced the effect of AAF, it did not alter participants’ tendency to overestimate errors when AAF was present. A third correlational study addressed whether effects of AAF are reduced for a subset of the population who may lack the kind of perception/action associations that lead to AAF disruption: poor-pitch singers. Effects of manipulations similar to those presented in Experiments 1 and 2 were reduced for these individuals. We propose that these results are consistent with the notion that AAF interference is based on associations between perception and action within a forward internal model of auditory-motor relationships. PMID:25191294

  9. Intraoperative auditory monitoring in vestibular schwannoma surgery: new trends.

    PubMed

    Schmerber, Sébastien; Lavieille, Jean-Pierre; Dumas, Georges; Herve, Thierry

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the efficiency of a new method of brainstem auditory-evoked potential (BAEP) monitoring during complete vestibular schwannoma (VS) resection with attempted hearing preservation. Dedicated software providing near real-time recording was developed using a rejection strategy of artifacts based on spectral analysis. A small sample number (maximum 200) is required and results are obtained within 10 s. Fourteen consecutive patients with hearing class A operated on for VS, in an attempt to preserve hearing, participated in the investigation. Postoperatively, 7 patients (50%) had useful hearing (hearing class A, 4/14; hearing class B, 3/14) on the operated side. Seven patients (50%) were reduced to hearing class D. Drilling of the internal auditory canal (IAC) and tumor removal at the lateral end of the IAC were identified as the two most critical steps for achieving hearing preservation. Intraoperative BAEP monitoring was sensitive in detecting auditory damage with useful feedback but its effectiveness in preventing irreversible hearing impairment was not demonstrated in this study. Combined BAEP and direct auditory nerve monitoring using the same equipment will be performed in the future in an attempt to enhance the chances of preventing irreversible hearing damage, and possibly to improve the hearing outcome significantly.

  10. Selective entrainment of brain oscillations drives auditory perceptual organization.

    PubMed

    Costa-Faidella, Jordi; Sussman, Elyse S; Escera, Carles

    2017-07-27

    Perceptual sound organization supports our ability to make sense of the complex acoustic environment, to understand speech and to enjoy music. However, the neuronal mechanisms underlying the subjective experience of perceiving univocal auditory patterns that can be listened to, despite hearing all sounds in a scene, are poorly understood. We hereby investigated the manner in which competing sound organizations are simultaneously represented by specific brain activity patterns and the way attention and task demands prime the internal model generating the current percept. Using a selective attention task on ambiguous auditory stimulation coupled with EEG recordings, we found that the phase of low-frequency oscillatory activity dynamically tracks multiple sound organizations concurrently. However, whereas the representation of ignored sound patterns is circumscribed to auditory regions, large-scale oscillatory entrainment in auditory, sensory-motor and executive-control network areas reflects the active perceptual organization, thereby giving rise to the subjective experience of a unitary percept. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Visual distance cues modulate neuromagnetic auditory N1m responses.

    PubMed

    Altmann, Christian F; Matsuhashi, Masao; Votinov, Mikhail; Goto, Kazuhiro; Mima, Tatsuya; Fukuyama, Hidenao

    2012-11-01

    Auditory distance judgment relies on several acoustic cues and can be modulated by visual information. Sound intensity serves as one such cue as it decreases with increasing distance. In this magnetoencephalography (MEG) experiment, we tested whether N1m MEG responses, previously described to scale with sound intensity, are modulated by visual distance cues. We recorded behavioral and MEG data from 15 healthy normal hearing participants. Noise bursts at different sound pressure levels were paired with synchronous visual cues at different distances. We hypothesized that noise paired with far visual cues will be represented louder and result in increased N1m amplitudes compared to a pairing with close visual cues. This might be based on a compensation of visually induced distance when processing loudness. Psychophysically, we observed no significant modulation of loudness judgments by visual cues. However, N1m MEG responses at about 100ms after stimulus onset were significantly stronger with distal compared to proximal visual cues in the left auditory cortex. Our results suggest an audio-visual interaction at an early stage in the left auditory cortex, possibly related to cue integration for auditory distance processing. Sound distance processing could prove itself as a promising model system for the investigation of intra-modal and cross-modal integration principles. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Auditory and audio-visual processing in patients with cochlear, auditory brainstem, and auditory midbrain implants: An EEG study.

    PubMed

    Schierholz, Irina; Finke, Mareike; Kral, Andrej; Büchner, Andreas; Rach, Stefan; Lenarz, Thomas; Dengler, Reinhard; Sandmann, Pascale

    2017-04-01

    There is substantial variability in speech recognition ability across patients with cochlear implants (CIs), auditory brainstem implants (ABIs), and auditory midbrain implants (AMIs). To better understand how this variability is related to central processing differences, the current electroencephalography (EEG) study compared hearing abilities and auditory-cortex activation in patients with electrical stimulation at different sites of the auditory pathway. Three different groups of patients with auditory implants (Hannover Medical School; ABI: n = 6, CI: n = 6; AMI: n = 2) performed a speeded response task and a speech recognition test with auditory, visual, and audio-visual stimuli. Behavioral performance and cortical processing of auditory and audio-visual stimuli were compared between groups. ABI and AMI patients showed prolonged response times on auditory and audio-visual stimuli compared with NH listeners and CI patients. This was confirmed by prolonged N1 latencies and reduced N1 amplitudes in ABI and AMI patients. However, patients with central auditory implants showed a remarkable gain in performance when visual and auditory input was combined, in both speech and non-speech conditions, which was reflected by a strong visual modulation of auditory-cortex activation in these individuals. In sum, the results suggest that the behavioral improvement for audio-visual conditions in central auditory implant patients is based on enhanced audio-visual interactions in the auditory cortex. Their findings may provide important implications for the optimization of electrical stimulation and rehabilitation strategies in patients with central auditory prostheses. Hum Brain Mapp 38:2206-2225, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Auditory Risk of Air Rifles

    PubMed Central

    Lankford, James E.; Meinke, Deanna K.; Flamme, Gregory A.; Finan, Donald S.; Stewart, Michael; Tasko, Stephen; Murphy, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To characterize the impulse noise exposure and auditory risk for air rifle users for both youth and adults. Design Acoustic characteristics were examined and the auditory risk estimates were evaluated using contemporary damage-risk criteria for unprotected adult listeners and the 120-dB peak limit and LAeq75 exposure limit suggested by the World Health Organization (1999) for children. Study sample Impulses were generated by 9 pellet air rifles and 1 BB air rifle. Results None of the air rifles generated peak levels that exceeded the 140 dB peak limit for adults and 8 (80%) exceeded the 120 dB peak SPL limit for youth. In general, for both adults and youth there is minimal auditory risk when shooting less than 100 unprotected shots with pellet air rifles. Air rifles with suppressors were less hazardous than those without suppressors and the pellet air rifles with higher velocities were generally more hazardous than those with lower velocities. Conclusion To minimize auditory risk, youth should utilize air rifles with an integrated suppressor and lower velocity ratings. Air rifle shooters are advised to wear hearing protection whenever engaging in shooting activities in order to gain self-efficacy and model appropriate hearing health behaviors necessary for recreational firearm use. PMID:26840923

  14. Molecular approach of auditory neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Silva, Magali Aparecida Orate Menezes da; Piatto, Vânia Belintani; Maniglia, Jose Victor

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the otoferlin gene are responsible for auditory neuropathy. To investigate the prevalence of mutations in the mutations in the otoferlin gene in patients with and without auditory neuropathy. This original cross-sectional case study evaluated 16 index cases with auditory neuropathy, 13 patients with sensorineural hearing loss, and 20 normal-hearing subjects. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes, and the mutations in the otoferlin gene sites were amplified by polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism. The 16 index cases included nine (56%) females and seven (44%) males. The 13 deaf patients comprised seven (54%) males and six (46%) females. Among the 20 normal-hearing subjects, 13 (65%) were males and seven were (35%) females. Thirteen (81%) index cases had wild-type genotype (AA) and three (19%) had the heterozygous AG genotype for IVS8-2A-G (intron 8) mutation. The 5473C-G (exon 44) mutation was found in a heterozygous state (CG) in seven (44%) index cases and nine (56%) had the wild-type allele (CC). Of these mutants, two (25%) were compound heterozygotes for the mutations found in intron 8 and exon 44. All patients with sensorineural hearing loss and normal-hearing individuals did not have mutations (100%). There are differences at the molecular level in patients with and without auditory neuropathy. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Delayed Auditory Feedback and Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfordresher, Peter Q.; Dalla Bella, Simone

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that timing of rhythm production is disrupted by delayed auditory feedback (DAF), and that disruption varies with delay length. We tested the hypothesis that disruption depends on the state of the movement trajectory at the onset of DAF. Participants tapped isochronous rhythms at a rate specified by a metronome while hearing DAF…

  16. Perception of Complex Auditory Scenes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-02

    presence of multiple, simultaneous and non-simultaneous sound sources. The research areas supported by this task order included speech...intelligibility and speech segregation, auditory localization, multisensory interactions, and the perception of bone- and tissue-conducted sounds . The work...multiple, simultaneous and non-simultaneous sound sources. The research areas supported by this task order included speech intelligibility and speech

  17. Auditory Temporal Conditioning in Neonates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franz, W. K.; And Others

    Twenty normal newborns, approximately 36 hours old, were tested using an auditory temporal conditioning paradigm which consisted of a slow rise, 75 db tone played for five seconds every 25 seconds, ten times. Responses to the tones were measured by instantaneous, beat-to-beat heartrate; and the test trial was designated as the 2 1/2-second period…

  18. Infant Attention to Auditory Discrepancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, Dennis K.; Kagan, Jerome

    1976-01-01

    Groups of 7 1/2-month-old infants heard 1 of 8 episodes consisting of no, slight, moderate, or large discrepancy between a habituated standard and a transformed auditory stimulus. Patterns of cardiac deceleration supported the hypothesis that attentiveness is an inverted-U function of the degree of discrepancy between stimulus event and schema.…

  19. Factors Affecting Auditory Training Gains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreau, Roberta M.

    1980-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine which of nine variables were most related to success in auditory training, using as Ss 43 students at the National Technical Institute for the Deaf. Findings showed that the single largest contributing factor to postcourse gain was the entering English score. (PHR)

  20. Development of Virtual Auditory Interfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-03-01

    However, externalized in azimuth and elevation (Wightman & the design of auditory interfaces has lagged behind. Kistler, 1989; Begault & Wenzel, 1993...D.R., Sadralodabai, T., Saberi, K. & Strybel, Begault , D.R. & Wenzel, E.M. (1993). Headphone T.Z. (1991). Aurally aided visual search in the

  1. Bilingual Interdependencies in Auditory Perception,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Using an auditory and bilingual version of the Stroop test, it was found that the semantic characteristics of verbal stimuli and the context of the... bilingual Ss are unable to ignore the semantic aspects of stimuli, even though they have no difficulty in keeping their two languages functionally

  2. Auditory Perception of Spatiotemporal Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolkmitt, Frank J.; Brindley, Robin

    1977-01-01

    To test the tendency of subjects to perceptually organize discrete temporal patterns with regard to runs of identical stimulus events, spatiotemporal patterns of white noise were presented for reproduction. It is suggested that changes in runs of auditory patterns are perceptually analogous to changes in contours of visual patterns. (Editor/RK)

  3. Effect of Training and Level of External Auditory Feedback on the Singing Voice: Volume and Quality.

    PubMed

    Bottalico, Pasquale; Graetzer, Simone; Hunter, Eric J

    2016-07-01

    Previous research suggests that classically trained professional singers rely not only on external auditory feedback but also on proprioceptive feedback associated with internal voice sensitivities. The Lombard effect and the relationship between sound pressure level (SPL) and external auditory feedback were evaluated for professional and nonprofessional singers. Additionally, the relationship between voice quality, evaluated in terms of singing power ratio (SPR), and external auditory feedback, level of accompaniment, voice register, and singer gender was analyzed. The subjects were 10 amateur or beginner singers and 10 classically trained professional or semiprofessional singers (10 men and 10 women). Subjects sang an excerpt from the Star-Spangled Banner with three different levels of the accompaniment, 70, 80, and 90 dBA and with three different levels of external auditory feedback. SPL and SPR were analyzed. The Lombard effect was stronger for nonprofessional singers than professional singers. Higher levels of external auditory feedback were associated with a reduction in SPL. As predicted, the mean SPR was higher for professional singers than nonprofessional singers. Better voice quality was detected in the presence of higher levels of external auditory feedback. With an increase in training, the singer's reliance on external auditory feedback decreases. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Continued maturation of auditory brainstem function during adolescence: A longitudinal approach.

    PubMed

    Krizman, Jennifer; Tierney, Adam; Fitzroy, Ahren B; Skoe, Erika; Amar, Jordan; Kraus, Nina

    2015-12-01

    Considerable attention has been devoted to understanding development of the auditory system during the first few years of life, yet comparatively little is known about maturation during adolescence. Moreover, the few studies investigating auditory system maturation in late childhood have employed a cross-sectional approach. To better understand auditory development in adolescence, we used a longitudinal design to measure the subcortical encoding of speech syllables in 74 adolescents at four time points from ages 14 through 17. We find a developmental decrease in the spectral representation of the evoking syllable, trial-by-trial response consistency, and tracking of the amplitude envelope, while timing of the evoked response appears to be stable over this age range. Subcortical auditory development is a protracted process that continues throughout the first two decades of life. Specifically, our data suggest that adolescence represents a transitional point between the enhanced response during childhood and the mature, though smaller, response of adults. That the auditory brainstem has not fully matured by the end of adolescence suggests that auditory enrichment begun later in childhood could lead to enhancements in auditory processing and alter developmental profiles. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Statistical learning and auditory processing in children with music training: An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Mandikal Vasuki, Pragati Rao; Sharma, Mridula; Ibrahim, Ronny; Arciuli, Joanne

    2017-07-01

    The question whether musical training is associated with enhanced auditory and cognitive abilities in children is of considerable interest. In the present study, we compared children with music training versus those without music training across a range of auditory and cognitive measures, including the ability to detect implicitly statistical regularities in input (statistical learning). Statistical learning of regularities embedded in auditory and visual stimuli was measured in musically trained and age-matched untrained children between the ages of 9-11years. In addition to collecting behavioural measures, we recorded electrophysiological measures to obtain an online measure of segmentation during the statistical learning tasks. Musically trained children showed better performance on melody discrimination, rhythm discrimination, frequency discrimination, and auditory statistical learning. Furthermore, grand-averaged ERPs showed that triplet onset (initial stimulus) elicited larger responses in the musically trained children during both auditory and visual statistical learning tasks. In addition, children's music skills were associated with performance on auditory and visual behavioural statistical learning tasks. Our data suggests that individual differences in musical skills are associated with children's ability to detect regularities. The ERP data suggest that musical training is associated with better encoding of both auditory and visual stimuli. Although causality must be explored in further research, these results may have implications for developing music-based remediation strategies for children with learning impairments. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The encoding of auditory objects in auditory cortex: insights from magnetoencephalography.

    PubMed

    Simon, Jonathan Z

    2015-02-01

    Auditory objects, like their visual counterparts, are perceptually defined constructs, but nevertheless must arise from underlying neural circuitry. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings of the neural responses of human subjects listening to complex auditory scenes, we review studies that demonstrate that auditory objects are indeed neurally represented in auditory cortex. The studies use neural responses obtained from different experiments in which subjects selectively listen to one of two competing auditory streams embedded in a variety of auditory scenes. The auditory streams overlap spatially and often spectrally. In particular, the studies demonstrate that selective attentional gain does not act globally on the entire auditory scene, but rather acts differentially on the separate auditory streams. This stream-based attentional gain is then used as a tool to individually analyze the different neural representations of the competing auditory streams. The neural representation of the attended stream, located in posterior auditory cortex, dominates the neural responses. Critically, when the intensities of the attended and background streams are separately varied over a wide intensity range, the neural representation of the attended speech adapts only to the intensity of that speaker, irrespective of the intensity of the background speaker. This demonstrates object-level intensity gain control in addition to the above object-level selective attentional gain. Overall, these results indicate that concurrently streaming auditory objects, even if spectrally overlapping and not resolvable at the auditory periphery, are individually neurally encoded in auditory cortex, as separate objects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Encoding of Auditory Objects in Auditory Cortex: Insights from Magnetoencephalography

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Jonathan Z.

    2014-01-01

    Auditory objects, like their visual counterparts, are perceptually defined constructs, but nevertheless must arise from underlying neural circuitry. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings of the neural responses of human subjects listening to complex auditory scenes, we review studies that demonstrate that auditory objects are indeed neurally represented in auditory cortex. The studies use neural responses obtained from different experiments in which subjects selectively listen to one of two competing auditory streams embedded in a variety of auditory scenes. The auditory streams overlap spatially and often spectrally. In particular, the studies demonstrate that selective attentional gain does not act globally on the entire auditory scene, but rather acts differentially on the separate auditory streams. This stream-based attentional gain is then used as a tool to individually analyze the different neural representations of the competing auditory streams. The neural representation of the attended stream, located in posterior auditory cortex, dominates the neural responses. Critically, when the intensities of the attended and background streams are separately varied over a wide intensity range, the neural representation of the attended speech adapts only to the intensity of that speaker, irrespective of the intensity of the background speaker. This demonstrates object-level intensity gain control in addition to the above object-level selective attentional gain. Overall, these results indicate that concurrently streaming auditory objects, even if spectrally overlapping and not resolvable at the auditory periphery, are individually neurally encoded in auditory cortex, as separate objects. PMID:24841996

  8. Visual face-movement sensitive cortex is relevant for auditory-only speech recognition.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Philipp; Ragert, Patrick; Schelinski, Stefanie; Kiebel, Stefan J; von Kriegstein, Katharina

    2015-07-01

    with the 'auditory-visual view' of auditory speech perception, which assumes that auditory speech recognition is optimized by using predictions from previously encoded speaker-specific audio-visual internal models.

  9. Behavioral semantics of learning and crossmodal processing in auditory cortex: the semantic processor concept.

    PubMed

    Scheich, Henning; Brechmann, André; Brosch, Michael; Budinger, Eike; Ohl, Frank W; Selezneva, Elena; Stark, Holger; Tischmeyer, Wolfgang; Wetzel, Wolfram

    2011-01-01

    Two phenomena of auditory cortex activity have recently attracted attention, namely that the primary field can show different types of learning-related changes of sound representation and that during learning even this early auditory cortex is under strong multimodal influence. Based on neuronal recordings in animal auditory cortex during instrumental tasks, in this review we put forward the hypothesis that these two phenomena serve to derive the task-specific meaning of sounds by associative learning. To understand the implications of this tenet, it is helpful to realize how a behavioral meaning is usually derived for novel environmental sounds. For this purpose, associations with other sensory, e.g. visual, information are mandatory to develop a connection between a sound and its behaviorally relevant cause and/or the context of sound occurrence. This makes it plausible that in instrumental tasks various non-auditory sensory and procedural contingencies of sound generation become co-represented by neuronal firing in auditory cortex. Information related to reward or to avoidance of discomfort during task learning, that is essentially non-auditory, is also co-represented. The reinforcement influence points to the dopaminergic internal reward system, the local role of which for memory consolidation in auditory cortex is well-established. Thus, during a trial of task performance, the neuronal responses to the sounds are embedded in a sequence of representations of such non-auditory information. The embedded auditory responses show task-related modulations of auditory responses falling into types that correspond to three basic logical classifications that may be performed with a perceptual item, i.e. from simple detection to discrimination, and categorization. This hierarchy of classifications determine the semantic "same-different" relationships among sounds. Different cognitive classifications appear to be a consequence of learning task and lead to a recruitment of

  10. An Association between Auditory-Visual Synchrony Processing and Reading Comprehension: Behavioral and Electrophysiological Evidence.

    PubMed

    Mossbridge, Julia; Zweig, Jacob; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2017-03-01

    The perceptual system integrates synchronized auditory-visual signals in part to promote individuation of objects in cluttered environments. The processing of auditory-visual synchrony may more generally contribute to cognition by synchronizing internally generated multimodal signals. Reading is a prime example because the ability to synchronize internal phonological and/or lexical processing with visual orthographic processing may facilitate encoding of words and meanings. Consistent with this possibility, developmental and clinical research has suggested a link between reading performance and the ability to compare visual spatial/temporal patterns with auditory temporal patterns. Here, we provide converging behavioral and electrophysiological evidence suggesting that greater behavioral ability to judge auditory-visual synchrony (Experiment 1) and greater sensitivity of an electrophysiological marker of auditory-visual synchrony processing (Experiment 2) both predict superior reading comprehension performance, accounting for 16% and 25% of the variance, respectively. These results support the idea that the mechanisms that detect auditory-visual synchrony contribute to reading comprehension.

  11. Eye-movements intervening between two successive sounds disrupt comparisons of auditory location

    PubMed Central

    Pavani, Francesco; Husain, Masud; Driver, Jon

    2008-01-01

    Summary Many studies have investigated how saccades may affect the internal representation of visual locations across eye-movements. Here we studied instead whether eye-movements can affect auditory spatial cognition. In two experiments, participants judged the relative azimuth (same/different) of two successive sounds presented from a horizontal array of loudspeakers, separated by a 2.5 secs delay. Eye-position was either held constant throughout the trial (being directed in a fixed manner to the far left or right of the loudspeaker array), or had to be shifted to the opposite side of the array during the retention delay between the two sounds, after the first sound but before the second. Loudspeakers were either visible (Experiment1) or occluded from sight (Experiment 2). In both cases, shifting eye-position during the silent delay-period affected auditory performance in the successive auditory comparison task, even though the auditory inputs to be judged were equivalent. Sensitivity (d′) for the auditory discrimination was disrupted, specifically when the second sound shifted in the opposite direction to the intervening eye-movement with respect to the first sound. These results indicate that eye-movements affect internal representation of auditory location. PMID:18566808

  12. Auditory event files: integrating auditory perception and action planning.

    PubMed

    Zmigrod, Sharon; Hommel, Bernhard

    2009-02-01

    The features of perceived objects are processed in distinct neural pathways, which call for mechanisms that integrate the distributed information into coherent representations (the binding problem). Recent studies of sequential effects have demonstrated feature binding not only in perception, but also across (visual) perception and action planning. We investigated whether comparable effects can be obtained in and across auditory perception and action. The results from two experiments revealed effects indicative of spontaneous integration of auditory features (pitch and loudness, pitch and location), as well as evidence for audio-manual stimulus-response integration. Even though integration takes place spontaneously, features related to task-relevant stimulus or response dimensions are more likely to be integrated. Moreover, integration seems to follow a temporal overlap principle, with features coded close in time being more likely to be bound together. Taken altogether, the findings are consistent with the idea of episodic event files integrating perception and action plans.

  13. Mechanisms for allocating auditory attention: an auditory saliency map.

    PubMed

    Kayser, Christoph; Petkov, Christopher I; Lippert, Michael; Logothetis, Nikos K

    2005-11-08

    Our nervous system is confronted with a barrage of sensory stimuli, but neural resources are limited and not all stimuli can be processed to the same extent. Mechanisms exist to bias attention toward the particularly salient events, thereby providing a weighted representation of our environment. Our understanding of these mechanisms is still limited, but theoretical models can replicate such a weighting of sensory inputs and provide a basis for understanding the underlying principles. Here, we describe such a model for the auditory system-an auditory saliency map. We experimentally validate the model on natural acoustical scenarios, demonstrating that it reproduces human judgments of auditory saliency and predicts the detectability of salient sounds embedded in noisy backgrounds. In addition, it also predicts the natural orienting behavior of naive macaque monkeys to the same salient stimuli. The structure of the suggested model is identical to that of successfully used visual saliency maps. Hence, we conclude that saliency is determined either by implementing similar mechanisms in different unisensory pathways or by the same mechanism in multisensory areas. In any case, our results demonstrate that different primate sensory systems rely on common principles for extracting relevant sensory events.

  14. The auditory brainstem is a barometer of rapid auditory learning.

    PubMed

    Skoe, E; Krizman, J; Spitzer, E; Kraus, N

    2013-07-23

    To capture patterns in the environment, neurons in the auditory brainstem rapidly alter their firing based on the statistical properties of the soundscape. How this neural sensitivity relates to behavior is unclear. We tackled this question by combining neural and behavioral measures of statistical learning, a general-purpose learning mechanism governing many complex behaviors including language acquisition. We recorded complex auditory brainstem responses (cABRs) while human adults implicitly learned to segment patterns embedded in an uninterrupted sound sequence based on their statistical characteristics. The brainstem's sensitivity to statistical structure was measured as the change in the cABR between a patterned and a pseudo-randomized sequence composed from the same set of sounds but differing in their sound-to-sound probabilities. Using this methodology, we provide the first demonstration that behavioral-indices of rapid learning relate to individual differences in brainstem physiology. We found that neural sensitivity to statistical structure manifested along a continuum, from adaptation to enhancement, where cABR enhancement (patterned>pseudo-random) tracked with greater rapid statistical learning than adaptation. Short- and long-term auditory experiences (days to years) are known to promote brainstem plasticity and here we provide a conceptual advance by showing that the brainstem is also integral to rapid learning occurring over minutes. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Auditory Dysfunction in Patients with Cerebrovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Auditory dysfunction is a common clinical symptom that can induce profound effects on the quality of life of those affected. Cerebrovascular disease (CVD) is the most prevalent neurological disorder today, but it has generally been considered a rare cause of auditory dysfunction. However, a substantial proportion of patients with stroke might have auditory dysfunction that has been underestimated due to difficulties with evaluation. The present study reviews relationships between auditory dysfunction and types of CVD including cerebral infarction, intracerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, cerebrovascular malformation, moyamoya disease, and superficial siderosis. Recent advances in the etiology, anatomy, and strategies to diagnose and treat these conditions are described. The numbers of patients with CVD accompanied by auditory dysfunction will increase as the population ages. Cerebrovascular diseases often include the auditory system, resulting in various types of auditory dysfunctions, such as unilateral or bilateral deafness, cortical deafness, pure word deafness, auditory agnosia, and auditory hallucinations, some of which are subtle and can only be detected by precise psychoacoustic and electrophysiological testing. The contribution of CVD to auditory dysfunction needs to be understood because CVD can be fatal if overlooked. PMID:25401133

  16. Functional Organization of the Ventral Auditory Pathway.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Yale E; Bennur, Sharath; Christison-Lagay, Kate; Gifford, Adam M; Tsunada, Joji

    2016-01-01

    The fundamental problem in audition is determining the mechanisms required by the brain to transform an unlabelled mixture of auditory stimuli into coherent perceptual representations. This process is called auditory-scene analysis. The perceptual representations that result from auditory-scene analysis are formed through a complex interaction of perceptual grouping, attention, categorization and decision-making. Despite a great deal of scientific energy devoted to understanding these aspects of hearing, we still do not understand (1) how sound perception arises from neural activity and (2) the causal relationship between neural activity and sound perception. Here, we review the role of the "ventral" auditory pathway in sound perception. We hypothesize that, in the early parts of the auditory cortex, neural activity reflects the auditory properties of a stimulus. However, in latter parts of the auditory cortex, neurons encode the sensory evidence that forms an auditory decision and are causally involved in the decision process. Finally, in the prefrontal cortex, which receives input from the auditory cortex, neural activity reflects the actual perceptual decision. Together, these studies indicate that the ventral pathway contains hierarchical circuits that are specialized for auditory perception and scene analysis.

  17. Adaptation in the auditory system: an overview.

    PubMed

    Pérez-González, David; Malmierca, Manuel S

    2014-01-01

    The early stages of the auditory system need to preserve the timing information of sounds in order to extract the basic features of acoustic stimuli. At the same time, different processes of neuronal adaptation occur at several levels to further process the auditory information. For instance, auditory nerve fiber responses already experience adaptation of their firing rates, a type of response that can be found in many other auditory nuclei and may be useful for emphasizing the onset of the stimuli. However, it is at higher levels in the auditory hierarchy where more sophisticated types of neuronal processing take place. For example, stimulus-specific adaptation, where neurons show adaptation to frequent, repetitive stimuli, but maintain their responsiveness to stimuli with different physical characteristics, thus representing a distinct kind of processing that may play a role in change and deviance detection. In the auditory cortex, adaptation takes more elaborate forms, and contributes to the processing of complex sequences, auditory scene analysis and attention. Here we review the multiple types of adaptation that occur in the auditory system, which are part of the pool of resources that the neurons employ to process the auditory scene, and are critical to a proper understanding of the neuronal mechanisms that govern auditory perception.

  18. Auditory adaptation improves tactile frequency perception.

    PubMed

    Crommett, Lexi E; Pérez-Bellido, Alexis; Yau, Jeffrey M

    2017-01-11

    Our ability to process temporal frequency information by touch underlies our capacity to perceive and discriminate surface textures. Auditory signals, which also provide extensive temporal frequency information, can systematically alter the perception of vibrations on the hand. How auditory signals shape tactile processing is unclear: perceptual interactions between contemporaneous sounds and vibrations are consistent with multiple neural mechanisms. Here we used a crossmodal adaptation paradigm, which separated auditory and tactile stimulation in time, to test the hypothesis that tactile frequency perception depends on neural circuits that also process auditory frequency. We reasoned that auditory adaptation effects would transfer to touch only if signals from both senses converge on common representations. We found that auditory adaptation can improve tactile frequency discrimination thresholds. This occurred only when adaptor and test frequencies overlapped. In contrast, auditory adaptation did not influence tactile intensity judgments. Thus, auditory adaptation enhances touch in a frequency- and feature-specific manner. A simple network model in which tactile frequency information is decoded from sensory neurons that are susceptible to auditory adaptation recapitulates these behavioral results. Our results imply that the neural circuits supporting tactile frequency perception also process auditory signals. This finding is consistent with the notion of supramodal operators performing canonical operations, like temporal frequency processing, regardless of input modality.

  19. Auditory spatial processing in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Golden, Hannah L; Nicholas, Jennifer M; Yong, Keir X X; Downey, Laura E; Schott, Jonathan M; Mummery, Catherine J; Crutch, Sebastian J; Warren, Jason D

    2015-01-01

    The location and motion of sounds in space are important cues for encoding the auditory world. Spatial processing is a core component of auditory scene analysis, a cognitively demanding function that is vulnerable in Alzheimer's disease. Here we designed a novel neuropsychological battery based on a virtual space paradigm to assess auditory spatial processing in patient cohorts with clinically typical Alzheimer's disease (n = 20) and its major variant syndrome, posterior cortical atrophy (n = 12) in relation to healthy older controls (n = 26). We assessed three dimensions of auditory spatial function: externalized versus non-externalized sound discrimination, moving versus stationary sound discrimination and stationary auditory spatial position discrimination, together with non-spatial auditory and visual spatial control tasks. Neuroanatomical correlates of auditory spatial processing were assessed using voxel-based morphometry. Relative to healthy older controls, both patient groups exhibited impairments in detection of auditory motion, and stationary sound position discrimination. The posterior cortical atrophy group showed greater impairment for auditory motion processing and the processing of a non-spatial control complex auditory property (timbre) than the typical Alzheimer's disease group. Voxel-based morphometry in the patient cohort revealed grey matter correlates of auditory motion detection and spatial position discrimination in right inferior parietal cortex and precuneus, respectively. These findings delineate auditory spatial processing deficits in typical and posterior Alzheimer's disease phenotypes that are related to posterior cortical regions involved in both syndromic variants and modulated by the syndromic profile of brain degeneration. Auditory spatial deficits contribute to impaired spatial awareness in Alzheimer's disease and may constitute a novel perceptual model for probing brain network disintegration across the Alzheimer's disease

  20. Auditory feature perception and auditory hallucinatory experiences in schizophrenia spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Schnakenberg Martin, Ashley M; Bartolomeo, Lisa; Howell, Josselyn; Hetrick, William P; Bolbecker, Amanda R; Breier, Alan; Kidd, Gary; O'Donnell, Brian F

    2017-09-21

    Schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SZ) is associated with deficits in auditory perception as well as auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH). However, the relationship between auditory feature perception and auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH), one of the most commonly occurring symptoms in psychosis, has not been well characterized. This study evaluated perception of a broad range of auditory features in SZ and determined whether current AVHs relate to auditory feature perception. Auditory perception, including frequency, intensity, duration, pulse-train and temporal order discrimination, as well as an embedded tone task, was assessed in both AVH (n = 20) and non-AVH (n = 24) SZ individuals and in healthy controls (n = 29) with the Test of Basic Auditory Capabilities (TBAC). The Hamilton Program for Schizophrenia Voices Questionnaire (HPSVQ) was used to assess the experience of auditory hallucinations in patients with SZ. Findings suggest that compared to controls, the SZ group had greater deficits on an array of auditory features, with non-AVH SZ individuals showing the most severe degree of abnormality. IQ and measures of cognitive processing were positively associated with performance on the TBAC for all SZ individuals, but not with the HPSVQ scores. These findings indicate that persons with SZ demonstrate impaired auditory perception for a broad range of features. It does not appear that impaired auditory perception is associated with recent auditory verbal hallucinations, but instead associated with the degree of intellectual impairment in SZ.

  1. The human auditory evoked response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galambos, R.

    1974-01-01

    Figures are presented of computer-averaged auditory evoked responses (AERs) that point to the existence of a completely endogenous brain event. A series of regular clicks or tones was administered to the ear, and 'odd-balls' of different intensity or frequency respectively were included. Subjects were asked either to ignore the sounds (to read or do something else) or to attend to the stimuli. When they listened and counted the odd-balls, a P3 wave occurred at 300msec after stimulus. When the odd-balls consisted of omitted clicks or tone bursts, a similar response was observed. This could not have come from auditory nerve, but only from cortex. It is evidence of recognition, a conscious process.

  2. Aging of the auditory system.

    PubMed

    Roth, Thomas Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Presbycusis or age-related hearing loss (ARHL) affects most elderly people. It is characterized by reduced hearing thresholds and speech understanding with the well-known negative consequences for communication and quality of social life. The hearing loss is connected to age-related histologic changes, as described and classified by Schuknecht. Aging itself is a multifactorial, genetically driven process that is influenced by oxidative stress that gradually leads to reduced endocochlear potential and cell loss of key players in sound transmission and supporting structures. Oxidative stress is caused by damaging factors like noise, infection, and other systemic factors. All reparative mechanisms in acute and chronic cochlear damage attempt to reduce oxidative stress and to balance inner-ear homeostasis. Accurate clinical assessment of ARHL starts with the differentiation between peripheral and central components. Treatment of the peripheral hearing loss often involves hearing aids, whereas auditory and psychologic training seems to be important in central auditory disturbance.

  3. Reality of auditory verbal hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Valkonen-Korhonen, Minna; Holi, Matti; Therman, Sebastian; Lehtonen, Johannes; Hari, Riitta

    2009-01-01

    Distortion of the sense of reality, actualized in delusions and hallucinations, is the key feature of psychosis but the underlying neuronal correlates remain largely unknown. We studied 11 highly functioning subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder while they rated the reality of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The subjective reality of AVH correlated strongly and specifically with the hallucination-related activation strength of the inferior frontal gyri (IFG), including the Broca's language region. Furthermore, how real the hallucination that subjects experienced was depended on the hallucination-related coupling between the IFG, the ventral striatum, the auditory cortex, the right posterior temporal lobe, and the cingulate cortex. Our findings suggest that the subjective reality of AVH is related to motor mechanisms of speech comprehension, with contributions from sensory and salience-detection-related brain regions as well as circuitries related to self-monitoring and the experience of agency. PMID:19620178

  4. Adaptation to delayed auditory feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, D. I.; Lackner, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    Delayed auditory feedback disrupts the production of speech, causing an increase in speech duration as well as many articulatory errors. To determine whether prolonged exposure to delayed auditory feedback (DAF) leads to adaptive compensations in speech production, 10 subjects were exposed in separate experimental sessions to both incremental and constant-delay exposure conditions. Significant adaptation occurred for syntactically structured stimuli in the form of increased speaking rates. After DAF was removed, aftereffects were apparent for all stimulus types in terms of increased speech rates. A carry-over effect from the first to the second experimental session was evident as long as 29 days after the first session. The use of strategies to overcome DAF and the differences between adaptation to DAF and adaptation to visual rearrangement are discussed.

  5. Temporal predictability enhances auditory detection

    PubMed Central

    Lawrance, Emma L. A.; Harper, Nicol S.; Cooke, James E.; Schnupp, Jan W. H.

    2015-01-01

    Periodic stimuli are common in natural environments and are ecologically relevant, for example, footsteps and vocalizations. This study reports a detectability enhancement for temporally cued, periodic sequences. Target noise bursts (embedded in background noise) arriving at the time points which followed on from an introductory, periodic “cue” sequence were more easily detected (by ~1.5 dB SNR) than identical noise bursts which randomly deviated from the cued temporal pattern. Temporal predictability and corresponding neuronal “entrainment” have been widely theorized to underlie important processes in auditory scene analysis and to confer perceptual advantage. This is the first study in the auditory domain to clearly demonstrate a perceptual enhancement of temporally predictable, near-threshold stimuli. PMID:24907846

  6. Temporal predictability enhances auditory detection.

    PubMed

    Lawrance, Emma L A; Harper, Nicol S; Cooke, James E; Schnupp, Jan W H

    2014-06-01

    Periodic stimuli are common in natural environments and are ecologically relevant, for example, footsteps and vocalizations. This study reports a detectability enhancement for temporally cued, periodic sequences. Target noise bursts (embedded in background noise) arriving at the time points which followed on from an introductory, periodic "cue" sequence were more easily detected (by ∼1.5 dB SNR) than identical noise bursts which randomly deviated from the cued temporal pattern. Temporal predictability and corresponding neuronal "entrainment" have been widely theorized to underlie important processes in auditory scene analysis and to confer perceptual advantage. This is the first study in the auditory domain to clearly demonstrate a perceptual enhancement of temporally predictable, near-threshold stimuli.

  7. Summary statistics in auditory perception.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Josh H; Schemitsch, Michael; Simoncelli, Eero P

    2013-04-01

    Sensory signals are transduced at high resolution, but their structure must be stored in a more compact format. Here we provide evidence that the auditory system summarizes the temporal details of sounds using time-averaged statistics. We measured discrimination of 'sound textures' that were characterized by particular statistical properties, as normally result from the superposition of many acoustic features in auditory scenes. When listeners discriminated examples of different textures, performance improved with excerpt duration. In contrast, when listeners discriminated different examples of the same texture, performance declined with duration, a paradoxical result given that the information available for discrimination grows with duration. These results indicate that once these sounds are of moderate length, the brain's representation is limited to time-averaged statistics, which, for different examples of the same texture, converge to the same values with increasing duration. Such statistical representations produce good categorical discrimination, but limit the ability to discern temporal detail.

  8. Vestibular reactions to long-term caloric stimulation of the rabbit labyrinth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorgiladze, G. I.

    1978-01-01

    Long-term, periodically repeated caloric stimulation of the labyrinth receptors of the internal ear was studied on eight rabbits with immobilzed heads. Warm (20 C) water was used as a stimulus in a dose of 40 ml per min injected into the auditory meatus.

  9. Estimation and testing problems in auditory neuroscience via clustering.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Youngdeok; Wright, Samantha; Hanlon, Bret M

    2017-09-01

    The processing of auditory information in neurons is an important area in neuroscience. We consider statistical analysis for an electrophysiological experiment related to this area. The recorded synaptic current responses from the experiment are observed as clusters, where the number of clusters is related to an important characteristic of the auditory system. This number is difficult to estimate visually because the clusters are blurred by biological variability. Using singular value decomposition and a Gaussian mixture model, we develop an estimator for the number of clusters. Additionally, we provide a method for hypothesis testing and sample size determination in the two-sample problem. We illustrate our approach with both simulated and experimental data. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.

  10. Predictive motor control of sensory dynamics in auditory active sensing.

    PubMed

    Morillon, Benjamin; Hackett, Troy A; Kajikawa, Yoshinao; Schroeder, Charles E

    2015-04-01

    Neuronal oscillations present potential physiological substrates for brain operations that require temporal prediction. We review this idea in the context of auditory perception. Using speech as an exemplar, we illustrate how hierarchically organized oscillations can be used to parse and encode complex input streams. We then consider the motor system as a major source of rhythms (temporal priors) in auditory processing, that act in concert with attention to sharpen sensory representations and link them across areas. We discuss the circuits that could mediate this audio-motor interaction, notably the potential role of the somatosensory system. Finally, we reposition temporal predictions in the context of internal models, discussing how they interact with feature-based or spatial predictions. We argue that complementary predictions interact synergistically according to the organizational principles of each sensory system, forming multidimensional filters crucial to perception.

  11. Reading and subcortical auditory function.

    PubMed

    Banai, Karen; Hornickel, Jane; Skoe, Erika; Nicol, Trent; Zecker, Steven; Kraus, Nina

    2009-11-01

    Although it is largely agreed that phonological processing deficits are a major cause of poor reading, the neural origins of phonological processing are not well understood. We now show, for the first time, that phonological decoding, measured with a test of single-nonword reading, is significantly correlated with the timing of subcortical auditory processing and also, to a lesser extent, with the robustness of subcortical representation of the harmonic content of speech, but not with pitch encoding. The relationships we observe between reading and subcortical processing fall along a continuum, with poor readers at one end and good readers at the other. These data suggest that reading skill may depend on the integrity of subcortical auditory mechanisms and are consistent with the idea that subcortical representation of the acoustic features of speech may play a role in normal reading as well as in the development of reading disorders. These data establish a significant link between subcortical auditory function and reading, thereby contributing to the understanding of the biological bases of reading. At a more general level, these findings are among the first to establish a direct relationship between subcortical sensory function and a specific cognitive skill (reading). We argue that this relationship between cortical and subcortical function could be shaped during development by the corticofugal pathway and that this cortical-subcortical link could contribute to the phonological processing deficits experienced by poor readers.

  12. Demodulation processes in auditory perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feth, Lawrence L.

    1994-08-01

    The long range goal of this project is the understanding of human auditory processing of information conveyed by complex, time-varying signals such as speech, music or important environmental sounds. Our work is guided by the assumption that human auditory communication is a 'modulation - demodulation' process. That is, we assume that sound sources produce a complex stream of sound pressure waves with information encoded as variations ( modulations) of the signal amplitude and frequency. The listeners task then is one of demodulation. Much of past. psychoacoustics work has been based in what we characterize as 'spectrum picture processing.' Complex sounds are Fourier analyzed to produce an amplitude-by-frequency 'picture' and the perception process is modeled as if the listener were analyzing the spectral picture. This approach leads to studies such as 'profile analysis' and the power-spectrum model of masking. Our approach leads us to investigate time-varying, complex sounds. We refer to them as dynamic signals and we have developed auditory signal processing models to help guide our experimental work.

  13. Laterality of Basic Auditory Perception

    PubMed Central

    Sininger, Yvonne S.; Bhatara, Anjali

    2010-01-01

    Laterality (left-right ear differences) of auditory processing was assessed using basic auditory skills: 1) gap detection 2) frequency discrimination and 3) intensity discrimination. Stimuli included tones (500, 1000 and 4000 Hz) and wide-band noise presented monaurally to each ear of typical adult listeners. The hypothesis tested was: processing of tonal stimuli would be enhanced by left ear (LE) stimulation and noise by right ear (RE) presentations. To investigate the limits of laterality by 1) spectral width, a narrow band noise (NBN) of 450 Hz bandwidth was evaluated using intensity discrimination and 2) stimulus duration, 200, 500 and 1000 ms duration tones were evaluated using frequency discrimination. Results A left ear advantage (LEA) was demonstrated with tonal stimuli in all experiments but an expected REA for noise stimuli was not found. The NBN stimulus demonstrated no LEA and was characterized as a noise. No change in laterality was found with changes in stimulus durations. The LEA for tonal stimuli is felt to be due to more direct connections between the left ear and the right auditory cortex which has been shown to be primary for spectral analysis and tonal processing. The lack of a REA for noise stimuli is unexplained. Sex differences in laterality for noise stimuli were noted but were not statistically significant. This study did establish a subtle but clear pattern of LEA for processing of tonal stimuli. PMID:22385138

  14. Laterality of basic auditory perception.

    PubMed

    Sininger, Yvonne S; Bhatara, Anjali

    2012-01-01

    Laterality (left-right ear differences) of auditory processing was assessed using basic auditory skills: (1) gap detection, (2) frequency discrimination, and (3) intensity discrimination. Stimuli included tones (500, 1000, and 4000 Hz) and wide-band noise presented monaurally to each ear of typical adult listeners. The hypothesis tested was that processing of tonal stimuli would be enhanced by left ear (LE) stimulation and noise by right ear (RE) presentations. To investigate the limits of laterality by (1) spectral width, a narrow-band noise (NBN) of 450-Hz bandwidth was evaluated using intensity discrimination, and (2) stimulus duration, 200, 500, and 1000 ms duration tones were evaluated using frequency discrimination. A left ear advantage (LEA) was demonstrated with tonal stimuli in all experiments, but an expected REA for noise stimuli was not found. The NBN stimulus demonstrated no LEA and was characterised as a noise. No change in laterality was found with changes in stimulus durations. The LEA for tonal stimuli is felt to be due to more direct connections between the left ear and the right auditory cortex, which has been shown to be primary for spectral analysis and tonal processing. The lack of a REA for noise stimuli is unexplained. Sex differences in laterality for noise stimuli were noted but were not statistically significant. This study did establish a subtle but clear pattern of LEA for processing of tonal stimuli.

  15. Differential responses of primary auditory cortex in autistic spectrum disorder with auditory hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Junko; Kagitani-Shimono, Kuriko; Goto, Tetsu; Sanefuji, Wakako; Yamamoto, Tomoka; Sakai, Saeko; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Hirata, Masayuki; Mohri, Ikuko; Yorifuji, Shiro; Taniike, Masako

    2012-01-25

    The aim of this study was to investigate the differential responses of the primary auditory cortex to auditory stimuli in autistic spectrum disorder with or without auditory hypersensitivity. Auditory-evoked field values were obtained from 18 boys (nine with and nine without auditory hypersensitivity) with autistic spectrum disorder and 12 age-matched controls. Autistic disorder with hypersensitivity showed significantly more delayed M50/M100 peak latencies than autistic disorder without hypersensitivity or the control. M50 dipole moments in the hypersensitivity group were larger than those in the other two groups [corrected]. M50/M100 peak latencies were correlated with the severity of auditory hypersensitivity; furthermore, severe hypersensitivity induced more behavioral problems. This study indicates auditory hypersensitivity in autistic spectrum disorder as a characteristic response of the primary auditory cortex, possibly resulting from neurological immaturity or functional abnormalities in it.

  16. Auditory processing disorder in perisylvian syndrome.

    PubMed

    Boscariol, Mirela; Garcia, Vera Lúcia; Guimarães, Catarina Abraão; Montenegro, Maria Augusta; Hage, Simone Rocha Vasconcelos; Cendes, Fernando; Guerreiro, Marilisa Mantovani

    2010-04-01

    We hypothesized that the processing of auditory information by the perisylvian polymicrogyric cortex may be different from the normal cortex. To characterize the auditory processing in bilateral perisylvian syndrome, we examined ten patients with perisylvian polymicrogyria (Group I) and seven control children (Group II). Group I was composed by four children with bilateral perisylvian polymicrogyria and six children with bilateral posterior perisylvian polymicrogyria. The evaluation included neurological and neuroimaging investigation, intellectual quotient and audiological assessment (audiometry and behavior auditory tests). The results revealed a statistically significant difference between the groups in the behavioral auditory tests, such as, digits dichotic test, nonverbal dichotic test (specifically in right attention), and random gap detection/random gap detection expanded tests. Our data showed abnormalities in the auditory processing of children with perisylvian polymicrogyria, suggesting that perisylvian polymicrogyric cortex is functionally abnormal. We also found a correlation between the severity of our auditory findings and the extent of the cortical abnormality.

  17. Auditory sequence analysis and phonological skill.

    PubMed

    Grube, Manon; Kumar, Sukhbinder; Cooper, Freya E; Turton, Stuart; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2012-11-07

    This work tests the relationship between auditory and phonological skill in a non-selected cohort of 238 school students (age 11) with the specific hypothesis that sound-sequence analysis would be more relevant to phonological skill than the analysis of basic, single sounds. Auditory processing was assessed across the domains of pitch, time and timbre; a combination of six standard tests of literacy and language ability was used to assess phonological skill. A significant correlation between general auditory and phonological skill was demonstrated, plus a significant, specific correlation between measures of phonological skill and the auditory analysis of short sequences in pitch and time. The data support a limited but significant link between auditory and phonological ability with a specific role for sound-sequence analysis, and provide a possible new focus for auditory training strategies to aid language development in early adolescence.

  18. Auditory spatial processing in the human cortex.

    PubMed

    Salminen, Nelli H; Tiitinen, Hannu; May, Patrick J C

    2012-12-01

    The auditory system codes spatial locations in a way that deviates from the spatial representations found in other modalities. This difference is especially striking in the cortex, where neurons form topographical maps of visual and tactile space but where auditory space is represented through a population rate code. In this hemifield code, sound source location is represented in the activity of two widely tuned opponent populations, one tuned to the right and the other to the left side of auditory space. Scientists are only beginning to uncover how this coding strategy adapts to various spatial processing demands. This review presents the current understanding of auditory spatial processing in the cortex. To this end, the authors consider how various implementations of the hemifield code may exist within the auditory cortex and how these may be modulated by the stimulation and task context. As a result, a coherent set of neural strategies for auditory spatial processing emerges.

  19. Auditory Motion Elicits a Visual Motion Aftereffect

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Christopher C.; Ehrsson, H. Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The visual motion aftereffect is a visual illusion in which exposure to continuous motion in one direction leads to a subsequent illusion of visual motion in the opposite direction. Previous findings have been mixed with regard to whether this visual illusion can be induced cross-modally by auditory stimuli. Based on research on multisensory perception demonstrating the profound influence auditory perception can have on the interpretation and perceived motion of visual stimuli, we hypothesized that exposure to auditory stimuli with strong directional motion cues should induce a visual motion aftereffect. Here, we demonstrate that horizontally moving auditory stimuli induced a significant visual motion aftereffect—an effect that was driven primarily by a change in visual motion perception following exposure to leftward moving auditory stimuli. This finding is consistent with the notion that visual and auditory motion perception rely on at least partially overlapping neural substrates. PMID:27994538

  20. Phonological Processing in Human Auditory Cortical Fields

    PubMed Central

    Woods, David L.; Herron, Timothy J.; Cate, Anthony D.; Kang, Xiaojian; Yund, E. W.

    2011-01-01

    We used population-based cortical-surface analysis of functional magnetic imaging data to characterize the processing of consonant–vowel–consonant syllables (CVCs) and spectrally matched amplitude-modulated noise bursts (AMNBs) in human auditory cortex as subjects attended to auditory or visual stimuli in an intermodal selective attention paradigm. Average auditory cortical field (ACF) locations were defined using tonotopic mapping in a previous study. Activations in auditory cortex were defined by two stimulus-preference gradients: (1) Medial belt ACFs preferred AMNBs and lateral belt and parabelt fields preferred CVCs. This preference extended into core ACFs with medial regions of primary auditory cortex (A1) and the rostral field preferring AMNBs and lateral regions preferring CVCs. (2) Anterior ACFs showed smaller activations but more clearly defined stimulus preferences than did posterior ACFs. Stimulus preference gradients were unaffected by auditory attention suggesting that ACF preferences reflect the automatic processing of different spectrotemporal sound features. PMID:21541252

  1. Auditory sequence analysis and phonological skill

    PubMed Central

    Grube, Manon; Kumar, Sukhbinder; Cooper, Freya E.; Turton, Stuart; Griffiths, Timothy D.

    2012-01-01

    This work tests the relationship between auditory and phonological skill in a non-selected cohort of 238 school students (age 11) with the specific hypothesis that sound-sequence analysis would be more relevant to phonological skill than the analysis of basic, single sounds. Auditory processing was assessed across the domains of pitch, time and timbre; a combination of six standard tests of literacy and language ability was used to assess phonological skill. A significant correlation between general auditory and phonological skill was demonstrated, plus a significant, specific correlation between measures of phonological skill and the auditory analysis of short sequences in pitch and time. The data support a limited but significant link between auditory and phonological ability with a specific role for sound-sequence analysis, and provide a possible new focus for auditory training strategies to aid language development in early adolescence. PMID:22951739

  2. Feel the Noise: Relating Individual Differences in Auditory Imagery to the Structure and Function of Sensorimotor Systems

    PubMed Central

    Lima, César F.; Lavan, Nadine; Evans, Samuel; Agnew, Zarinah; Halpern, Andrea R.; Shanmugalingam, Pradheep; Meekings, Sophie; Boebinger, Dana; Ostarek, Markus; McGettigan, Carolyn; Warren, Jane E.; Scott, Sophie K.

    2015-01-01

    Humans can generate mental auditory images of voices or songs, sometimes perceiving them almost as vividly as perceptual experiences. The functional networks supporting auditory imagery have been described, but less is known about the systems associated with interindividual differences in auditory imagery. Combining voxel-based morphometry and fMRI, we examined the structural basis of interindividual differences in how auditory images are subjectively perceived, and explored associations between auditory imagery, sensory-based processing, and visual imagery. Vividness of auditory imagery correlated with gray matter volume in the supplementary motor area (SMA), parietal cortex, medial superior frontal gyrus, and middle frontal gyrus. An analysis of functional responses to different types of human vocalizations revealed that the SMA and parietal sites that predict imagery are also modulated by sound type. Using representational similarity analysis, we found that higher representational specificity of heard sounds in SMA predicts vividness of imagery, indicating a mechanistic link between sensory- and imagery-based processing in sensorimotor cortex. Vividness of imagery in the visual domain also correlated with SMA structure, and with auditory imagery scores. Altogether, these findings provide evidence for a signature of imagery in brain structure, and highlight a common role of perceptual–motor interactions for processing heard and internally generated auditory information. PMID:26092220

  3. Effects of Methylphenidate (Ritalin) on Auditory Performance in Children with Attention and Auditory Processing Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillery, Kim L.; Katz, Jack; Keller, Warren D.

    2000-01-01

    A double-blind, placebo-controlled study examined effects of methylphenidate (Ritalin) on auditory processing in 32 children with both attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and central auditory processing (CAP) disorder. Analyses revealed that Ritalin did not have a significant effect on any of the central auditory processing measures, although…

  4. Auditory Training and Its Effects upon the Auditory Discrimination and Reading Readiness of Kindergarten Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Minga Mustard

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effects of a systematic auditory training program on the auditory discrimination ability and reading readiness of 55 white, middle/upper middle class kindergarten students. Following pretesting with the "Wepman Auditory Discrimination Test,""The Clymer-Barrett Prereading Battery," and the…

  5. Effects of Methylphenidate (Ritalin) on Auditory Performance in Children with Attention and Auditory Processing Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillery, Kim L.; Katz, Jack; Keller, Warren D.

    2000-01-01

    A double-blind, placebo-controlled study examined effects of methylphenidate (Ritalin) on auditory processing in 32 children with both attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and central auditory processing (CAP) disorder. Analyses revealed that Ritalin did not have a significant effect on any of the central auditory processing measures, although…

  6. Auditory, Visual, and Auditory-Visual Perception of Vowels by Hearing-Impaired Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hack, Zarita Caplan; Erber, Norman P.

    1982-01-01

    Vowels were presented through auditory, visual, and auditory-visual modalities to 18 hearing impaired children (12 to 15 years old) having good, intermediate, and poor auditory word recognition skills. All the groups had difficulty with acoustic information and visual information alone. The first two groups had only moderate difficulty identifying…

  7. The Effects of Auditory Stimulation on Auditory Processing Disorder: A Summary of the Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Swain, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    The study's purpose is to determine the efficacy of the Tomatis Method of auditory stimulation as a therapeutic intervention for Auditory Processing Disorders (APD). Forty-one subjects (18 females, 23 males; 4.3-19.8 years old) were evaluated for APD. Performance on standardized tests indicated weaknesses with auditory processing skills. Each…

  8. Auditory, Visual, and Auditory-Visual Perception of Vowels by Hearing-Impaired Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hack, Zarita Caplan; Erber, Norman P.

    1982-01-01

    Vowels were presented through auditory, visual, and auditory-visual modalities to 18 hearing impaired children (12 to 15 years old) having good, intermediate, and poor auditory word recognition skills. All the groups had difficulty with acoustic information and visual information alone. The first two groups had only moderate difficulty identifying…

  9. Auditory, visual and auditory-visual memory and sequencing performance in typically developing children.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Roshni; Yathiraj, Asha

    2017-09-01

    The study evaluated whether there exists a difference/relation in the way four different memory skills (memory score, sequencing score, memory span, & sequencing span) are processed through the auditory modality, visual modality and combined modalities. Four memory skills were evaluated on 30 typically developing children aged 7 years and 8 years across three modality conditions (auditory, visual, & auditory-visual). Analogous auditory and visual stimuli were presented to evaluate the three modality conditions across the two age groups. The children obtained significantly higher memory scores through the auditory modality compared to the visual modality. Likewise, their memory scores were significantly higher through the auditory-visual modality condition than through the visual modality. However, no effect of modality was observed on the sequencing scores as well as for the memory and the sequencing span. A good agreement was seen between the different modality conditions that were studied (auditory, visual, & auditory-visual) for the different memory skills measures (memory scores, sequencing scores, memory span, & sequencing span). A relatively lower agreement was noted only between the auditory and visual modalities as well as between the visual and auditory-visual modality conditions for the memory scores, measured using Bland-Altman plots. The study highlights the efficacy of using analogous stimuli to assess the auditory, visual as well as combined modalities. The study supports the view that the performance of children on different memory skills was better through the auditory modality compared to the visual modality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The Identification and Remediation of Auditory Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kottler, Sylvia B.

    1972-01-01

    Procedures and sample activities are provided for both identifying and training children with auditory perception problems related to sound localization, sound discrimination, and sound sequencing. (KW)

  11. [Auditory Neuropathy: Clinical Evaluation and Diagnostic Approach].

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Guilherme Machado; Leão, Beatriz Prista; Ramos, Priscila Zonzini; Guimarães, Alexandre Caixeta; Castilho, Arthur Menino; Sartorato, Edi Lúcia

    2016-06-01

    Auditory neuropathy is a condition in which there is a change in the neuronal transmission of the auditory stimuli. Our objective was to describe the patients' series within the clinical spectrum of auditory neuropathy. We designed a transversal, retrospective study, with a description of a consecutive case series. Auditory neuropathy was defined by the presence of acoustic otoemissions plus absent/abnormal auditory brainstem responses with cochlear microphonism. 34 patients with bilateral hearing loss, 23 males and 11 females, were included in the study. Eighty percent of the cases had congenital onset of hearing loss. Acoustic otoemissions were absent in 67% of them. Cochlear microfonism was present in 79% of all cases. Prenatal, perinatal or ambiental factors were present in 35.2% of the cases. Medical literature shows great variability in findings related to auditory neuropathy, both in its etiology and epidemiological data. Auditory neuropathy presents a broad spectrum of changes that may result from mild to severe changes in the functioning of the auditory pathway, and in our sample we observed that 80% of Auditory neuropathy have congenital onset of hearing loss and/or with cochlear microphonism identified. 91% of patients experience significant hearing impairment and 53% suffer from severe or profound deafness.

  12. Corticofugal modulation of peripheral auditory responses

    PubMed Central

    Terreros, Gonzalo; Delano, Paul H.

    2015-01-01

    The auditory efferent system originates in the auditory cortex and projects to the medial geniculate body (MGB), inferior colliculus (IC), cochlear nucleus (CN) and superior olivary complex (SOC) reaching the cochlea through olivocochlear (OC) fibers. This unique neuronal network is organized in several afferent-efferent feedback loops including: the (i) colliculo-thalamic-cortico-collicular; (ii) cortico-(collicular)-OC; and (iii) cortico-(collicular)-CN pathways. Recent experiments demonstrate that blocking ongoing auditory-cortex activity with pharmacological and physical methods modulates the amplitude of cochlear potentials. In addition, auditory-cortex microstimulation independently modulates cochlear sensitivity and the strength of the OC reflex. In this mini-review, anatomical and physiological evidence supporting the presence of a functional efferent network from the auditory cortex to the cochlear receptor is presented. Special emphasis is given to the corticofugal effects on initial auditory processing, that is, on CN, auditory nerve and cochlear responses. A working model of three parallel pathways from the auditory cortex to the cochlea and auditory nerve is proposed. PMID:26483647

  13. Functional mapping of the primate auditory system.

    PubMed

    Poremba, Amy; Saunders, Richard C; Crane, Alison M; Cook, Michelle; Sokoloff, Louis; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2003-01-24

    Cerebral auditory areas were delineated in the awake, passively listening, rhesus monkey by comparing the rates of glucose utilization in an intact hemisphere and in an acoustically isolated contralateral hemisphere of the same animal. The auditory system defined in this way occupied large portions of cerebral tissue, an extent probably second only to that of the visual system. Cortically, the activated areas included the entire superior temporal gyrus and large portions of the parietal, prefrontal, and limbic lobes. Several auditory areas overlapped with previously identified visual areas, suggesting that the auditory system, like the visual system, contains separate pathways for processing stimulus quality, location, and motion.

  14. A really complicated problem: Auditory scene analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yost, William A.

    2004-05-01

    It has been more than a decade since Al Bregman and other authors brought the challenge of auditory scene analysis back to the attention of auditory science. While a lot of research has been done on and around this topic, an accepted theory of auditory scene analysis has not evolved. Auditory science has little, if any, information about how the nervous system solves this problem, and there have not been any major successes in developing computational methods that solve the problem for most real-world auditory scenes. I will argue that the major reason that more has not been accomplished is that auditory scene analysis is a really hard problem. If one starts with a single sound source and tries to understand how the auditory system determines this single source, the problem is already very complicated without adding other sources that occur at the same time as is the typical depiction of the auditory scene. In this paper I will illustrate some of the challenges that exist for determining the auditory scene that have not received a lot of attention, as well as some of the more discussed aspects of the challenge. [Work supported by NIDCD.

  15. Auditory and audiovisual inhibition of return.

    PubMed

    Spence, C; Driver, J

    1998-01-01

    Two experiments examined any inhibition-of-return (IOR) effects from auditory cues and from preceding auditory targets upon reaction times (RTs) for detecting subsequent auditory targets. Auditory RT was delayed if the preceding auditory cue was on the same side as the target, but was unaffected by the location of the auditory target from the preceding trial, suggesting that response inhibition for the cue may have produced its effects. By contrast, visual detection RT was inhibited by the ipsilateral presentation of a visual target on the preceding trial. In a third experiment, targets could be unpredictably auditory or visual, and no peripheral cues intervened. Both auditory and visual detection RTs were now delayed following an ipsilateral versus contralateral target in either modality on the preceding trial, even when eye position was monitored to ensure central fixation throughout. These data suggest that auditory target-target IOR arises only when target modality is unpredictable. They also provide the first unequivocal evidence for cross-modal IOR, since, unlike other recent studies (e.g., Reuter-Lorenz, Jha, & Rosenquist, 1996; Tassinari & Berlucchi, 1995; Tassinari & Campara, 1996), the present cross-modal effects cannot be explained in terms of response inhibition for the cue. The results are discussed in relation to neurophysiological studies and audiovisual links in saccade programming.

  16. [Auditory processing evaluation in children born preterm].

    PubMed

    Gallo, Júlia; Dias, Karin Ziliotto; Pereira, Liliane Desgualdo; Azevedo, Marisa Frasson de; Sousa, Elaine Colombo

    2011-01-01

    To verify the performance of children born preterm on auditory processing evaluation, and to correlate the data with behavioral hearing assessment carried out at 12 months of age, comparing the results to those of auditory processing evaluation of children born full-term. Participants were 30 children with ages between 4 and 7 years, who were divided into two groups: Group 1 (children born preterm), and Group 2 (children born full-term). The auditory processing results of Group 1 were correlated to data obtained from the behavioral auditory evaluation carried out at 12 months of age. The results were compared between groups. Subjects in Group 1 presented at least one risk indicator for hearing loss at birth. In the behavioral auditory assessment carried out at 12 months of age, 38% of the children in Group 1 were at risk for central auditory processing deficits, and 93.75% presented auditory processing deficits on the evaluation. Significant differences were found between the groups for the temporal order test, the PSI test with ipsilateral competitive message, and the speech-in-noise test. The delay in sound localization ability was associated to temporal processing deficits. Children born preterm have worse performance in auditory processing evaluation than children born full-term. Delay in sound localization at 12 months is associated to deficits on the physiological mechanism of temporal processing in the auditory processing evaluation carried out between 4 and 7 years.

  17. Auditory perception modulated by word reading.

    PubMed

    Cao, Liyu; Klepp, Anne; Schnitzler, Alfons; Gross, Joachim; Biermann-Ruben, Katja

    2016-10-01

    Theories of embodied cognition positing that sensorimotor areas are indispensable during language comprehension are supported by neuroimaging and behavioural studies. Among others, the auditory system has been suggested to be important for understanding sound-related words (visually presented) and the motor system for action-related words. In this behavioural study, using a sound detection task embedded in a lexical decision task, we show that in participants with high lexical decision performance sound verbs improve auditory perception. The amount of modulation was correlated with lexical decision performance. Our study provides convergent behavioural evidence of auditory cortex involvement in word processing, supporting the view of embodied language comprehension concerning the auditory domain.

  18. Central auditory function of deafness genes.

    PubMed

    Willaredt, Marc A; Ebbers, Lena; Nothwang, Hans Gerd

    2014-06-01

    The highly variable benefit of hearing devices is a serious challenge in auditory rehabilitation. Various factors contribute to this phenomenon such as the diversity in ear defects, the different extent of auditory nerve hypoplasia, the age of intervention, and cognitive abilities. Recent analyses indicate that, in addition, central auditory functions of deafness genes have to be considered in this context. Since reduced neuronal activity acts as the common denominator in deafness, it is widely assumed that peripheral deafness influences development and function of the central auditory system in a stereotypical manner. However, functional characterization of transgenic mice with mutated deafness genes demonstrated gene-specific abnormalities in the central auditory system as well. A frequent function of deafness genes in the central auditory system is supported by a genome-wide expression study that revealed significant enrichment of these genes in the transcriptome of the auditory brainstem compared to the entire brain. Here, we will summarize current knowledge of the diverse central auditory functions of deafness genes. We furthermore propose the intimately interwoven gene regulatory networks governing development of the otic placode and the hindbrain as a mechanistic explanation for the widespread expression of these genes beyond the cochlea. We conclude that better knowledge of central auditory dysfunction caused by genetic alterations in deafness genes is required. In combination with improved genetic diagnostics becoming currently available through novel sequencing technologies, this information will likely contribute to better outcome prediction of hearing devices.

  19. Premotor cortex is sensitive to auditory-visual congruence for biological motion.

    PubMed

    Wuerger, Sophie M; Parkes, Laura; Lewis, Penelope A; Crocker-Buque, Alex; Rutschmann, Roland; Meyer, Georg F

    2012-03-01

    The auditory and visual perception systems have developed special processing strategies for ecologically valid motion stimuli, utilizing some of the statistical properties of the real world. A well-known example is the perception of biological motion, for example, the perception of a human walker. The aim of the current study was to identify the cortical network involved in the integration of auditory and visual biological motion signals. We first determined the cortical regions of auditory and visual coactivation (Experiment 1); a conjunction analysis based on unimodal brain activations identified four regions: middle temporal area, inferior parietal lobule, ventral premotor cortex, and cerebellum. The brain activations arising from bimodal motion stimuli (Experiment 2) were then analyzed within these regions of coactivation. Auditory footsteps were presented concurrently with either an intact visual point-light walker (biological motion) or a scrambled point-light walker; auditory and visual motion in depth (walking direction) could either be congruent or incongruent. Our main finding is that motion incongruency (across modalities) increases the activity in the ventral premotor cortex, but only if the visual point-light walker is intact. Our results extend our current knowledge by providing new evidence consistent with the idea that the premotor area assimilates information across the auditory and visual modalities by comparing the incoming sensory input with an internal representation.

  20. Role of auditory feedback in speech produced by cochlear implanted adults and children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharadwaj, Sneha V.; Tobey, Emily A.; Assmann, Peter F.; Katz, William F.

    2002-05-01

    A prominent theory of speech production proposes that speech segments are largely controlled by reference to an internal model, with minimal reliance on auditory feedback. This theory also maintains that suprasegmental aspects of speech are directly regulated by auditory feedback. Accordingly, if a talker is briefly deprived of auditory feedback speech segments should not be affected, but suprasegmental properties should show significant change. To test this prediction, comparisons were made between speech samples obtained from cochlear implant users who repeated words under two conditions (1) implant device turned ON, and (2) implant switched OFF immediately before the repetition of each word. To determine whether producing unfamiliar speech requires greater reliance on auditory feedback than producing familiar speech, English and French words were elicited from English-speaking subjects. Subjects were congenitally deaf children (n=4) and adventitiously deafened adults (n=4). Vowel fundamental frequency and formant frequencies, vowel and syllable durations, and fricative spectral moments were analyzed. Preliminary data only partially confirm the predictions, in that both segmental and suprasegmental aspects of speech were significantly modified in the absence of auditory feedback. Modifications were greater for French compared to English words, suggesting greater reliance on auditory feedback for unfamiliar words. [Work supported by NIDCD.

  1. Stuart Gatehouse: The International Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Van Tasell, Dianne J.; Levitt, Harry

    2008-01-01

    The international contributions of Stuart Gatehouse are reviewed in three areas: as a scientist, as an advisor to health policy makers, and as a participant in international conferences. He was able, as no other auditory scientist of his time, to bridge the gap between scientific and clinical research. His ability to apply sound scientific principles to issues of clinical importance was most apparent in his work in three main areas of his research: acclimatization to amplified speech, auditory disability and hearing aid benefit, and candidature for linear and nonlinear signal processing. PMID:18567589

  2. Dynamics of auditory-vocal interaction in monkey auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Eliades, Steven J; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2005-10-01

    Single neurons in the primate auditory cortex exhibit vocalization-related modulations (excitatory or inhibitory) during self-initiated vocal production. Previous studies have shown that these modulations of cortical activity are variable in individual neurons' responses to multiple instances of vocalization and diverse between different cortical neurons. The present study investigated dynamic patterns of vocalization-related modulations and demonstrated that much of the variability in cortical modulations was related to the acoustic structures of self-produced vocalization. We found that suppression of single unit activity during multi-phrased vocalizations was temporally specific in that it was maintained during each phrase, but was released between phrases. Furthermore, the degree of suppression or excitation was correlated to the mean energy and frequency of the produced vocalizations, accounting for much of the response variability between multiple instances of vocalization. Simultaneous recordings of pairs of neurons from a single electrode revealed that the modulations by self-produced vocalizations in nearby neurons were largely uncorrelated. Additionally, vocalization-induced suppression was found to be preferentially distributed to upper cortical layers. Finally, we showed that the summation of all auditory cortical activity during vocalization, including both single and multi-unit responses, was weakly excitatory, consistent with observations from studies of the human brain during speech.

  3. The Cognitive Neuropsychology of Auditory Hallucinations: A Parallel Auditory Pathways Framework

    PubMed Central

    Badcock, Johanna C.

    2010-01-01

    Auditory hallucinations are generally defined as false perceptions. Recent developments in auditory neuroscience have rapidly increased our understanding of normal auditory perception revealing (partially) separate pathways for the identification (“what”) and localization (“where”) of auditory objects. The current review offers a reexamination of the nature of auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia using this object-based framework. First, the structural and functional organization of auditory what and where pathways is briefly described. Then, using recent functional neuroimaging data from healthy subjects and patients with schizophrenia, key phenomenological features of hallucinations are linked to abnormal processing both within and between these pathways. Finally, current cognitive explanations of hallucinations, based on intrusive cognitions and impaired source memory, are briefly outlined and set within this framework to provide an integrated cognitive neuropsychological model of auditory hallucinations. PMID:18835839

  4. The cognitive neuropsychology of auditory hallucinations: a parallel auditory pathways framework.

    PubMed

    Badcock, Johanna C

    2010-05-01

    Auditory hallucinations are generally defined as false perceptions. Recent developments in auditory neuroscience have rapidly increased our understanding of normal auditory perception revealing (partially) separate pathways for the identification ("what") and localization ("where") of auditory objects. The current review offers a reexamination of the nature of auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia using this object-based framework. First, the structural and functional organization of auditory what and where pathways is briefly described. Then, using recent functional neuroimaging data from healthy subjects and patients with schizophrenia, key phenomenological features of hallucinations are linked to abnormal processing both within and between these pathways. Finally, current cognitive explanations of hallucinations, based on intrusive cognitions and impaired source memory, are briefly outlined and set within this framework to provide an integrated cognitive neuropsychological model of auditory hallucinations.

  5. Active auditory mechanics in mosquitoes.

    PubMed Central

    Göpfert, M. C.; Robert, D.

    2001-01-01

    In humans and other vertebrates, hearing is improved by active contractile properties of hair cells. Comparable active auditory mechanics is now demonstrated in insects. In mosquitoes, Johnston's organ transduces sound-induced vibrations of the antennal flagellum. A non-muscular 'motor' activity enhances the sensitivity and tuning of the flagellar mechanical response in physiologically intact animals. This motor is capable of driving the flagellum autonomously, amplifying sound-induced vibrations at specific frequencies and intensities. Motor-related electrical activity of Johnston's organ strongly suggests that mosquito hearing is improved by mechanoreceptor motility. PMID:11270428

  6. Feedback delays eliminate auditory-motor learning in speech production.

    PubMed

    Max, Ludo; Maffett, Derek G

    2015-03-30

    Neurologically healthy individuals use sensory feedback to alter future movements by updating internal models of the effector system and environment. For example, when visual feedback about limb movements or auditory feedback about speech movements is experimentally perturbed, the planning of subsequent movements is adjusted - i.e., sensorimotor adaptation occurs. A separate line of studies has demonstrated that experimentally delaying the sensory consequences of limb movements causes the sensory input to be attributed to external sources rather than to one's own actions. Yet similar feedback delays have remarkably little effect on visuo-motor adaptation (although the rate of learning varies, the amount of adaptation is only moderately affected with delays of 100-200ms, and adaptation still occurs even with a delay as long as 5000ms). Thus, limb motor learning remains largely intact even in conditions where error assignment favors external factors. Here, we show a fundamentally different result for sensorimotor control of speech articulation: auditory-motor adaptation to formant-shifted feedback is completely eliminated with delays of 100ms or more. Thus, for speech motor learning, real-time auditory feedback is critical. This novel finding informs theoretical models of human motor control in general and speech motor control in particular, and it has direct implications for the application of motor learning principles in the habilitation and rehabilitation of individuals with various sensorimotor speech disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Auditory Processing Disorder and Foreign Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veselovska, Ganna

    2015-01-01

    This article aims at exploring various strategies for coping with the auditory processing disorder in the light of foreign language acquisition. The techniques relevant to dealing with the auditory processing disorder can be attributed to environmental and compensatory approaches. The environmental one involves actions directed at creating a…

  8. Auditory Processing Disorders: An Overview. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciocci, Sandra R.

    This digest presents an overview of children with auditory processing disorders (APDs), children who can typically hear information but have difficulty attending to, storing, locating, retrieving, and/or clarifying that information to make it useful for academic and social purposes. The digest begins by describing central auditory processing and…

  9. Auditory-Oral Matching Behavior in Newborns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xin; Striano, Tricia; Rakoczy, Hannes

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-five newborn infants were tested for auditory-oral matching behavior when presented with the consonant sound /m/ and the vowel sound /a/--a precursor behavior to vocal imitation. Auditory-oral matching behavior by the infant was operationally defined as showing the mouth movement appropriate for producing the model sound just heard (mouth…

  10. Primary Auditory Cortex Regulates Threat Memory Specificity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigestrand, Mattis B.; Schiff, Hillary C.; Fyhn, Marianne; LeDoux, Joseph E.; Sears, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    Distinguishing threatening from nonthreatening stimuli is essential for survival and stimulus generalization is a hallmark of anxiety disorders. While auditory threat learning produces long-lasting plasticity in primary auditory cortex (Au1), it is not clear whether such Au1 plasticity regulates memory specificity or generalization. We used…

  11. Auditory Processing Disorder and Foreign Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veselovska, Ganna

    2015-01-01

    This article aims at exploring various strategies for coping with the auditory processing disorder in the light of foreign language acquisition. The techniques relevant to dealing with the auditory processing disorder can be attributed to environmental and compensatory approaches. The environmental one involves actions directed at creating a…

  12. Further Evidence of Auditory Extinction in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Rebecca Shisler; Basilakos, Alexandra; Love-Myers, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Preliminary research ( Shisler, 2005) suggests that auditory extinction in individuals with aphasia (IWA) may be connected to binding and attention. In this study, the authors expanded on previous findings on auditory extinction to determine the source of extinction deficits in IWA. Method: Seventeen IWA (M[subscript age] = 53.19 years)…

  13. The Auditory Analysis Test: An Initial Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosner, Jerome; Simon, Dorothea P.

    A new test for auditory perception (Auditory Analysis Test) was given to 284 kindergarten through grade 6 children. The instrument, consisting of 40 items, asks the testee to repeat a spoken word, then to repeat it again without certain specified phonemic elements--such as a beginning, ending or medially-positioned sound. Seven categories of item…

  14. Changing Auditory Time with Prismatic Goggles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnani, Barbara; Pavani, Francesco; Frassinetti, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the spatial organization of auditory time and the effects of the manipulation of spatial attention on such a representation. In two experiments, we asked 28 adults to classify the duration of auditory stimuli as "short" or "long". Stimuli were tones of high or low pitch, delivered left or right of the…

  15. Dialect, Auditory Discrimination and Phonics Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sardy, Susan Jane

    This study investigated relationships between residential segregation in a large urban area and selected auditory discrimination and phonics skills among 240 lower and middle class Negro, Puerto Rican, and White fourth graders. Two tests were developed and taped specifically for use with earphones in this study: a 41-item Auditory Discrimination…

  16. Auditory-Oral Matching Behavior in Newborns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xin; Striano, Tricia; Rakoczy, Hannes

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-five newborn infants were tested for auditory-oral matching behavior when presented with the consonant sound /m/ and the vowel sound /a/--a precursor behavior to vocal imitation. Auditory-oral matching behavior by the infant was operationally defined as showing the mouth movement appropriate for producing the model sound just heard (mouth…

  17. Primary Auditory Cortex Regulates Threat Memory Specificity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigestrand, Mattis B.; Schiff, Hillary C.; Fyhn, Marianne; LeDoux, Joseph E.; Sears, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    Distinguishing threatening from nonthreatening stimuli is essential for survival and stimulus generalization is a hallmark of anxiety disorders. While auditory threat learning produces long-lasting plasticity in primary auditory cortex (Au1), it is not clear whether such Au1 plasticity regulates memory specificity or generalization. We used…

  18. Benign lesions of the external auditory canal.

    PubMed

    Tran, L P; Grundfast, K M; Selesnick, S H

    1996-10-01

    Benign mass lesions of the external auditory canal, such as exostoses and osteomas, are common findings on physical examination but most often do not require treatment. The differential diagnosis of lesions in the external auditory canal, however, should not be limited to those benign processes discussed here, but should also include infectious, dermatologic, congenital, and malignant processes.

  19. Auditory Conceptualization: A New Dimension to Phonics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Marilyn

    A teaching technique that leads to auditory conceptualization--the ability to determine the number and order of sounds embedded within syllables--shows promise of measurably improving the reading proficiency of children of all ability levels. Based on C. and P. Lindamood's published technique, "Auditory Discrimination in Depth," the…

  20. Further Evidence of Auditory Extinction in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Rebecca Shisler; Basilakos, Alexandra; Love-Myers, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Preliminary research ( Shisler, 2005) suggests that auditory extinction in individuals with aphasia (IWA) may be connected to binding and attention. In this study, the authors expanded on previous findings on auditory extinction to determine the source of extinction deficits in IWA. Method: Seventeen IWA (M[subscript age] = 53.19 years)…

  1. Passive auditory stimulation improves vision in hemianopia.

    PubMed

    Lewald, Jörg; Tegenthoff, Martin; Peters, Sören; Hausmann, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Techniques employed in rehabilitation of visual field disorders such as hemianopia are usually based on either visual or audio-visual stimulation and patients have to perform a training task. Here we present results from a completely different, novel approach that was based on passive unimodal auditory stimulation. Ten patients with either left or right-sided pure hemianopia (without neglect) received one hour of unilateral passive auditory stimulation on either their anopic or their intact side by application of repetitive trains of sound pulses emitted simultaneously via two loudspeakers. Immediately before and after passive auditory stimulation as well as after a period of recovery, patients completed a simple visual task requiring detection of light flashes presented along the horizontal plane in total darkness. The results showed that one-time passive auditory stimulation on the side of the blind, but not of the intact, hemifield of patients with hemianopia induced an improvement in visual detections by almost 100% within 30 min after passive auditory stimulation. This enhancement in performance was reversible and was reduced to baseline 1.5 h later. A non-significant trend of a shift of the visual field border toward the blind hemifield was obtained after passive auditory stimulation. These results are compatible with the view that passive auditory stimulation elicited some activation of the residual visual pathways, which are known to be multisensory and may also be sensitive to unimodal auditory stimuli as were used here. DRKS00003577.

  2. Speech perception as complex auditory categorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Lori L.

    2002-05-01

    Despite a long and rich history of categorization research in cognitive psychology, very little work has addressed the issue of complex auditory category formation. This is especially unfortunate because the general underlying cognitive and perceptual mechanisms that guide auditory category formation are of great importance to understanding speech perception. I will discuss a new methodological approach to examining complex auditory category formation that specifically addresses issues relevant to speech perception. This approach utilizes novel nonspeech sound stimuli to gain full experimental control over listeners' history of experience. As such, the course of learning is readily measurable. Results from this methodology indicate that the structure and formation of auditory categories are a function of the statistical input distributions of sound that listeners hear, aspects of the operating characteristics of the auditory system, and characteristics of the perceptual categorization system. These results have important implications for phonetic acquisition and speech perception.

  3. Functional Groups in the Avian Auditory System

    PubMed Central

    Woolley, Sarah M. N.; Gill, Patrick R.; Fremouw, Thane; Theunissen, Frédéric E.

    2009-01-01

    Auditory perception depends on the coding and organization of the information-bearing acoustic features of sounds by auditory neurons. We report here that auditory neurons can be classified into functional groups each of which plays a specific role in extracting distinct complex sound features. We recorded the electrophysiological responses of single auditory neurons in the songbird midbrain and forebrain to conspecific song, measured their tuning by calculating spectrotemporal receptive fields (STRFs) and classified them using multiple cluster analysis methods. Based on STRF shape, cells clustered into functional groups that divided the space of acoustical features into regions that represent cues for the fundamental acoustic percepts of pitch, timbre and rhythm. Four major groups were found in the midbrain and five major groups were found in the forebrain. Comparing STRFs in midbrain and forebrain neurons suggested that both inheritance and emergence of tuning properties occur as information ascends the auditory processing stream. PMID:19261874

  4. Perirhinal Cortex Supports Acquired Fear of Auditory Objects

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Sun Jung; Brown, Thomas H.

    2009-01-01

    Damage to rat perirhinal cortex (PR) profoundly impairs fear conditioning to 22 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), but has no effect on fear conditioning to continuous tones. The most obvious difference between these two sounds is that continuous tones have no internal temporal structure, whereas USVs consist of strings of discrete calls separated by temporal discontinuities. PR was hypothesized to support the fusion or integration of discontinuous auditory segments into unitary representations or “auditory objects”. This transform was suggested to be necessary for normal fear conditioning to occur. These ideas naturally assume that the effect of PR damage on auditory fear conditioning is not peculiar to 22 kHz USVs. The present study directly tested these ideas by using a different set of continuous and discontinuous auditory cues. Control and PR-damaged rats were fear-conditioned to a 53 kHz USV, a 53 kHz continuous tone, or a 53 kHz discontinuous tone. The continuous and discontinuous tones matched the 53 kHz USV in terms of duration, loudness, and principle frequency. The on/off pattern of the discontinuous tone matched the pattern of the individual calls of the 53 kHz USV. The on/off pattern of the 50 kHz USV was very different from the patterns in the 22 kHz USVs that have been comparably examined. Rats with PR damage were profoundly impaired in fear conditioning to both discontinuous cues, but they were unimpaired in conditioning to the continuous cue. The implications of this temporal discontinuity effect are explored in terms of contemporary ideas about PR function. PMID:19185613

  5. Tactile feedback improves auditory spatial localization.

    PubMed

    Gori, Monica; Vercillo, Tiziana; Sandini, Giulio; Burr, David

    2014-01-01

    Our recent studies suggest that congenitally blind adults have severely impaired thresholds in an auditory spatial bisection task, pointing to the importance of vision in constructing complex auditory spatial maps (Gori et al., 2014). To explore strategies that may improve the auditory spatial sense in visually impaired people, we investigated the impact of tactile feedback on spatial auditory localization in 48 blindfolded sighted subjects. We measured auditory spatial bisection thresholds before and after training, either with tactile feedback, verbal feedback, or no feedback. Audio thresholds were first measured with a spatial bisection task: subjects judged whether the second sound of a three sound sequence was spatially closer to the first or the third sound. The tactile feedback group underwent two audio-tactile feedback sessions of 100 trials, where each auditory trial was followed by the same spatial sequence played on the subject's forearm; auditory spatial bisection thresholds were evaluated after each session. In the verbal feedback condition, the positions of the sounds were verbally reported to the subject after each feedback trial. The no feedback group did the same sequence of trials, with no feedback. Performance improved significantly only after audio-tactile feedback. The results suggest that direct tactile feedback interacts with the auditory spatial localization system, possibly by a process of cross-sensory recalibration. Control tests with the subject rotated suggested that this effect occurs only when the tactile and acoustic sequences are spatially congruent. Our results suggest that the tactile system can be used to recalibrate the auditory sense of space. These results encourage the possibility of designing rehabilitation programs to help blind persons establish a robust auditory sense of space, through training with the tactile modality.

  6. A Brain System for Auditory Working Memory.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sukhbinder; Joseph, Sabine; Gander, Phillip E; Barascud, Nicolas; Halpern, Andrea R; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2016-04-20

    The brain basis for auditory working memory, the process of actively maintaining sounds in memory over short periods of time, is controversial. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in human participants, we demonstrate that the maintenance of single tones in memory is associated with activation in auditory cortex. In addition, sustained activation was observed in hippocampus and inferior frontal gyrus. Multivoxel pattern analysis showed that patterns of activity in auditory cortex and left inferior frontal gyrus distinguished the tone that was maintained in memory. Functional connectivity during maintenance was demonstrated between auditory cortex and both the hippocampus and inferior frontal cortex. The data support a system for auditory working memory based on the maintenance of sound-specific representations in auditory cortex by projections from higher-order areas, including the hippocampus and frontal cortex. In this work, we demonstrate a system for maintaining sound in working memory based on activity in auditory cortex, hippocampus, and frontal cortex, and functional connectivity among them. Specifically, our work makes three advances from the previous work. First, we robustly demonstrate hippocampal involvement in all phases of auditory working memory (encoding, maintenance, and retrieval): the role of hippocampus in working memory is controversial. Second, using a pattern classification technique, we show that activity in the auditory cortex and inferior frontal gyrus is specific to the maintained tones in working memory. Third, we show long-range connectivity of auditory cortex to hippocampus and frontal cortex, which may be responsible for keeping such representations active during working memory maintenance. Copyright © 2016 Kumar et al.

  7. High resolution auditory perception system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Iftekhar; Ghatol, Ashok

    2005-04-01

    Blindness is a sensory disability which is difficult to treat but can to some extent be helped by artificial aids. The paper describes the design aspects of a high resolution auditory perception system, which is designed on the principle of air sonar with binaural perception. This system is a vision substitution aid for enabling blind persons. The blind person wears ultrasonic eyeglasses which has ultrasonic sensor array embedded on it. The system has been designed to operate in multiresolution modes. The ultrasonic sound from the transmitter array is reflected back by the objects, falling in the beam of the array and is received. The received signal is converted to a sound signal, which is presented stereophonically for auditory perception. A detailed study has been done as the background work required for the system implementation; the appropriate range analysis procedure, analysis of space-time signals, the acoustic sensors study, amplification methods and study of the removal of noise using filters. Finally the system implementation including both the hardware and the software part of it has been described. Experimental results on actual blind subjects and inferences obtained during the study have also been included.

  8. Auditory Midbrain Implant: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hubert H.; Lenarz, Minoo; Lenarz, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The auditory midbrain implant (AMI) is a new hearing prosthesis designed for stimulation of the inferior colliculus in deaf patients who cannot sufficiently benefit from cochlear implants. The authors have begun clinical trials in which five patients have been implanted with a single shank AMI array (20 electrodes). The goal of this review is to summarize the development and research that has led to the translation of the AMI from a concept into the first patients. This study presents the rationale and design concept for the AMI as well a summary of the animal safety and feasibility studies that were required for clinical approval. The authors also present the initial surgical, psychophysical, and speech results from the first three implanted patients. Overall, the results have been encouraging in terms of the safety and functionality of the implant. All patients obtain improvements in hearing capabilities on a daily basis. However, performance varies dramatically across patients depending on the implant location within the midbrain with the best performer still not able to achieve open set speech perception without lip-reading cues. Stimulation of the auditory midbrain provides a wide range of level, spectral, and temporal cues, all of which are important for speech understanding, but they do not appear to sufficiently fuse together to enable open set speech perception with the currently used stimulation strategies. Finally, several issues and hypotheses for why current patients obtain limited speech perception along with several feasible solutions for improving AMI implementation are presented. PMID:19762428

  9. Auditory target detection in reverberation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurek, Patrick M.; Freyman, Richard L.; Balakrishnan, Uma

    2004-04-01

    Measurements and theoretical predictions of auditory target detection in simulated reverberant conditions are reported. The target signals were pulsed 13-octave bands of noise and the masker signal was a continuous wideband noise. Target and masker signals were passed through a software simulation of a reverberant room with a rigid sphere modeling a listener's head. The location of the target was fixed while the location of the masker was varied in the simulated room. Degree of reverberation was controlled by varying the uniform acoustic absorption of the simulated room's surfaces. The resulting target and masker signals were presented to the listeners over headphones in monaural-left, monaural-right, or binaural listening modes. Changes in detection performance in the monaural listening modes were largely predictable from the changes in target-to-masker ratio in the target band, but with a few dB of extra masking in reverberation. Binaural detection performance was generally well predicted by applying Durlach's [in Foundations of Modern Auditory Theory (Academic, New York, 1972)] equalization-cancellation theory to the direct-plus-reverberant ear signals. Predictions in all cases were based on a statistical description of room acoustics and on acoustic diffraction by a sphere. The success of these detection models in the present well-controlled reverberant conditions suggests that they can be used to incorporate listening mode and source location as factors in speech-intelligibility predictions.

  10. Lexical Influences on Auditory Streaming

    PubMed Central

    Billig, Alexander J.; Davis, Matthew H.; Deeks, John M.; Monstrey, Jolijn; Carlyon, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Biologically salient sounds, including speech, are rarely heard in isolation. Our brains must therefore organize the input arising from multiple sources into separate “streams” and, in the case of speech, map the acoustic components of the target signal onto meaning. These auditory and linguistic processes have traditionally been considered to occur sequentially and are typically studied independently [1, 2]. However, evidence that streaming is modified or reset by attention [3], and that lexical knowledge can affect reports of speech sound identity [4, 5], suggests that higher-level factors may influence perceptual organization. In two experiments, listeners heard sequences of repeated words or acoustically matched nonwords. After several presentations, they reported that the initial /s/ sound in each syllable formed a separate stream; the percept then fluctuated between the streamed and fused states in a bistable manner. In addition to measuring these verbal transformations, we assessed streaming objectively by requiring listeners to detect occasional targets—syllables containing a gap after the initial /s/. Performance was better when streaming caused the syllables preceding the target to transform from words into nonwords, rather than from nonwords into words. Our results show that auditory stream formation is influenced not only by the acoustic properties of speech sounds, but also by higher-level processes involved in recognizing familiar words. PMID:23891107

  11. Auditory adaptation in voice perception.

    PubMed

    Schweinberger, Stefan R; Casper, Christoph; Hauthal, Nadine; Kaufmann, Jürgen M; Kawahara, Hideki; Kloth, Nadine; Robertson, David M C; Simpson, Adrian P; Zäske, Romi

    2008-05-06

    Perceptual aftereffects following adaptation to simple stimulus attributes (e.g., motion, color) have been studied for hundreds of years. A striking recent discovery was that adaptation also elicits contrastive aftereffects in visual perception of complex stimuli and faces [1-6]. Here, we show for the first time that adaptation to nonlinguistic information in voices elicits systematic auditory aftereffects. Prior adaptation to male voices causes a voice to be perceived as more female (and vice versa), and these auditory aftereffects were measurable even minutes after adaptation. By contrast, crossmodal adaptation effects were absent, both when male or female first names and when silently articulating male or female faces were used as adaptors. When sinusoidal tones (with frequencies matched to male and female voice fundamental frequencies) were used as adaptors, no aftereffects on voice perception were observed. This excludes explanations for the voice aftereffect in terms of both pitch adaptation and postperceptual adaptation to gender concepts and suggests that contrastive voice-coding mechanisms may routinely influence voice perception. The role of adaptation in calibrating properties of high-level voice representations indicates that adaptation is not confined to vision but is a ubiquitous mechanism in the perception of nonlinguistic social information from both faces and voices.

  12. Factors affecting predicted speech intelligibility with cochlear implants in an auditory model for electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Fredelake, Stefan; Hohmann, Volker

    2012-05-01

    A model of the auditory response to stimulation with cochlear implants (CIs) was used to predict speech intelligibility in electric hearing. The model consists of an auditory nerve cell population that generates delta pulses as action potentials in response to temporal and spatial excitation with a simulated CI signal processing strategy. The auditory nerve cells are modeled with a leaky integrate-and-fire model with membrane noise. Refractory behavior is introduced by raising the threshold potential with an exponentially decreasing function. Furthermore, the action potentials are delayed to account for latency and jitter. The action potentials are further processed by a central model stage, which includes spatial and temporal integration, resulting in an internal representation of the sound presented. Multiplicative noise is included in the internal representations to limit resolution. Internal representations of complete word sets for a sentence intelligibility test were computed and classified using a Dynamic-Time-Warping classifier to quantify information content and to estimate speech intelligibility. The number of auditory nerve cells, the spatial spread of the electrodes' electric field, and the internal noise intensity were found to have a major impact on the modeled speech intelligibility, whereas the influence of refractory behavior, membrane noise, and latency and jitter was minor. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparative Auditory Mechanics: From Species to Species and From Base to Apex—A Moderated Discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Nigel P.; Manley, Geoffrey A.

    2011-11-01

    A discussion moderated by the authors on the topics "Comparative Auditory Mechanics" and "Mechanics in the Apex of the Cochlea" was held on 20 July 2011 at the 11th International Mechanics of Hearing Workshop in Williamstown, Massachusetts. The paper provides an edited transcript of the session.

  14. Auditory agnosia due to long-term severe hydrocephalus caused by spina bifida - specific auditory pathway versus nonspecific auditory pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Kaga, Kimitaka; Hayashi, Akimasa

    2011-07-01

    A 27-year-old female showed auditory agnosia after long-term severe hydrocephalus due to congenital spina bifida. After years of hydrocephalus, she gradually suffered from hearing loss in her right ear at 19 years of age, followed by her left ear. During the time when she retained some ability to hear, she experienced severe difficulty in distinguishing verbal, environmental, and musical instrumental sounds. However, her auditory brainstem response and distortion product otoacoustic emissions were largely intact in the left ear. Her bilateral auditory cortices were preserved, as shown by neuroimaging, whereas her auditory radiations were severely damaged owing to progressive hydrocephalus. Although she had a complete bilateral hearing loss, she felt great pleasure when exposed to music. After years of self-training to read lips, she regained fluent ability to communicate. Clinical manifestations of this patient indicate that auditory agnosia can occur after long-term hydrocephalus due to spina bifida; the secondary auditory pathway may play a role in both auditory perception and hearing rehabilitation.

  15. Relationship between Sympathetic Skin Responses and Auditory Hypersensitivity to Different Auditory Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Kato, Fumi; Iwanaga, Ryoichiro; Chono, Mami; Fujihara, Saori; Tokunaga, Akiko; Murata, Jun; Tanaka, Koji; Nakane, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Goro

    2014-07-01

    [Purpose] Auditory hypersensitivity has been widely reported in patients with autism spectrum disorders. However, the neurological background of auditory hypersensitivity is currently not clear. The present study examined the relationship between sympathetic nervous system responses and auditory hypersensitivity induced by different types of auditory stimuli. [Methods] We exposed 20 healthy young adults to six different types of auditory stimuli. The amounts of palmar sweating resulting from the auditory stimuli were compared between groups with (hypersensitive) and without (non-hypersensitive) auditory hypersensitivity. [Results] Although no group × type of stimulus × first stimulus interaction was observed for the extent of reaction, significant type of stimulus × first stimulus interaction was noted for the extent of reaction. For an 80 dB-6,000 Hz stimulus, the trends for palmar sweating differed between the groups. For the first stimulus, the variance became larger in the hypersensitive group than in the non-hypersensitive group. [Conclusion] Subjects who regularly felt excessive reactions to auditory stimuli tended to have excessive sympathetic responses to repeated loud noises compared with subjects who did not feel excessive reactions. People with auditory hypersensitivity may be classified into several subtypes depending on their reaction patterns to auditory stimuli.

  16. Auditory midbrain processing is differentially modulated by auditory and visual cortices: An auditory fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Gao, Patrick P; Zhang, Jevin W; Fan, Shu-Juan; Sanes, Dan H; Wu, Ed X

    2015-12-01

    The cortex contains extensive descending projections, yet the impact of cortical input on brainstem processing remains poorly understood. In the central auditory system, the auditory cortex contains direct and indirect pathways (via brainstem cholinergic cells) to nuclei of the auditory midbrain, called the inferior colliculus (IC). While these projections modulate auditory processing throughout the IC, single neuron recordings have samples from only a small fraction of cells during stimulation of the corticofugal pathway. Furthermore, assessments of cortical feedback have not been extended to sensory modalities other than audition. To address these issues, we devised blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigms to measure the sound-evoked responses throughout the rat IC and investigated the effects of bilateral ablation of either auditory or visual cortices. Auditory cortex ablation increased the gain of IC responses to noise stimuli (primarily in the central nucleus of the IC) and decreased response selectivity to forward species-specific vocalizations (versus temporally reversed ones, most prominently in the external cortex of the IC). In contrast, visual cortex ablation decreased the gain and induced a much smaller effect on response selectivity. The results suggest that auditory cortical projections normally exert a large-scale and net suppressive influence on specific IC subnuclei, while visual cortical projections provide a facilitatory influence. Meanwhile, auditory cortical projections enhance the midbrain response selectivity to species-specific vocalizations. We also probed the role of the indirect cholinergic projections in the auditory system in the descending modulation process by pharmacologically blocking muscarinic cholinergic receptors. This manipulation did not affect the gain of IC responses but significantly reduced the response selectivity to vocalizations. The results imply that auditory cortical

  17. Auditory Processing of Older Adults with Probable Mild Cognitive Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Jerri D.; Lister, Jennifer J.; Elias, Maya N.; Tetlow, Amber M.; Sardina, Angela L.; Sadeq, Nasreen A.; Brandino, Amanda D.; Bush, Aryn L. Harrison

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Studies suggest that deficits in auditory processing predict cognitive decline and dementia, but those studies included limited measures of auditory processing. The purpose of this study was to compare older adults with and without probable mild cognitive impairment (MCI) across two domains of auditory processing (auditory performance in…

  18. Auditory memory distortion for spoken prose.

    PubMed

    Hutchison, Joanna L; Hubbard, Timothy L; Ferrandino, Blaise; Brigante, Ryan; Wright, Jamie M; Rypma, Bart

    2012-11-01

    Observers often remember a scene as containing information that was not presented but that would have likely been located just beyond the observed boundaries of the scene. This effect is called boundary extension (BE; e.g., Intraub & Richardson, 1989). Previous studies have observed BE in memory for visual and haptic stimuli, and the present experiments examined whether BE occurred in memory for auditory stimuli (prose, music). Experiments 1 and 2 varied the amount of auditory content to be remembered. BE was not observed, but when auditory targets contained more content, boundary restriction (BR) occurred. Experiment 3 presented auditory stimuli with less content and BR also occurred. In Experiment 4, white noise was added to stimuli with less content to equalize the durations of auditory stimuli, and BR still occurred. Experiments 5 and 6 presented trained stories and popular music, and BR still occurred. This latter finding ruled out the hypothesis that the lack of BE in Experiments 1-4 reflected a lack of familiarity with the stimuli. Overall, memory for auditory content exhibited BR rather than BE, and this pattern was stronger if auditory stimuli contained more content. Implications for the understanding of general perceptual processing and directions for future research are discussed.

  19. Human auditory neuroimaging of intensity and loudness.

    PubMed

    Uppenkamp, Stefan; Röhl, Markus

    2014-01-01

    The physical intensity of a sound, usually expressed in dB on a logarithmic ratio scale, can easily be measured using technical equipment. Loudness is the perceptual correlate of sound intensity, and is usually determined by means of some sort of psychophysical scaling procedure. The interrelation of sound intensity and perceived loudness is still a matter of debate, and the physiological correlate of loudness perception in the human auditory pathway is not completely understood. Various studies indicate that the activation in human auditory cortex is more a representation of loudness sensation rather than of physical sound pressure level. This raises the questions (1), at what stage or stages in the ascending auditory pathway is the transformation of the physical stimulus into its perceptual correlate completed, and (2), to what extent other factors affecting individual loudness judgements might modulate the brain activation as registered by auditory neuroimaging. An overview is given about recent studies on the effects of sound intensity, duration, bandwidth and individual hearing status on the activation in the human auditory system, as measured by various approaches in auditory neuroimaging. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Human Auditory Neuroimaging.

  20. Functional imaging of auditory scene analysis.

    PubMed

    Gutschalk, Alexander; Dykstra, Andrew R

    2014-01-01

    Our auditory system is constantly faced with the task of decomposing the complex mixture of sound arriving at the ears into perceptually independent streams constituting accurate representations of individual sound sources. This decomposition, termed auditory scene analysis, is critical for both survival and communication, and is thought to underlie both speech and music perception. The neural underpinnings of auditory scene analysis have been studied utilizing invasive experiments with animal models as well as non-invasive (MEG, EEG, and fMRI) and invasive (intracranial EEG) studies conducted with human listeners. The present article reviews human neurophysiological research investigating the neural basis of auditory scene analysis, with emphasis on two classical paradigms termed streaming and informational masking. Other paradigms - such as the continuity illusion, mistuned harmonics, and multi-speaker environments - are briefly addressed thereafter. We conclude by discussing the emerging evidence for the role of auditory cortex in remapping incoming acoustic signals into a perceptual representation of auditory streams, which are then available for selective attention and further conscious processing. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Human Auditory Neuroimaging.

  1. Auditory Memory Distortion for Spoken Prose

    PubMed Central

    Hutchison, Joanna L.; Hubbard, Timothy L.; Ferrandino, Blaise; Brigante, Ryan; Wright, Jamie M.; Rypma, Bart

    2013-01-01

    Observers often remember a scene as containing information that was not presented but that would have likely been located just beyond the observed boundaries of the scene. This effect is called boundary extension (BE; e.g., Intraub & Richardson, 1989). Previous studies have observed BE in memory for visual and haptic stimuli, and the present experiments examined whether BE occurred in memory for auditory stimuli (prose, music). Experiments 1 and 2 varied the amount of auditory content to be remembered. BE was not observed, but when auditory targets contained more content, boundary restriction (BR) occurred. Experiment 3 presented auditory stimuli with less content and BR also occurred. In Experiment 4, white noise was added to stimuli with less content to equalize the durations of auditory stimuli, and BR still occurred. Experiments 5 and 6 presented trained stories and popular music, and BR still occurred. This latter finding ruled out the hypothesis that the lack of BE in Experiments 1–4 reflected a lack of familiarity with the stimuli. Overall, memory for auditory content exhibited BR rather than BE, and this pattern was stronger if auditory stimuli contained more content. Implications for the understanding of general perceptual processing and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:22612172

  2. Auditory motion processing after early blindness

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Fang; Stecker, G. Christopher; Fine, Ione

    2014-01-01

    Studies showing that occipital cortex responds to auditory and tactile stimuli after early blindness are often interpreted as demonstrating that early blind subjects “see” auditory and tactile stimuli. However, it is not clear whether these occipital responses directly mediate the perception of auditory/tactile stimuli, or simply modulate or augment responses within other sensory areas. We used fMRI pattern classification to categorize the perceived direction of motion for both coherent and ambiguous auditory motion stimuli. In sighted individuals, perceived motion direction was accurately categorized based on neural responses within the planum temporale (PT) and right lateral occipital cortex (LOC). Within early blind individuals, auditory motion decisions for both stimuli were successfully categorized from responses within the human middle temporal complex (hMT+), but not the PT or right LOC. These findings suggest that early blind responses within hMT+ are associated with the perception of auditory motion, and that these responses in hMT+ may usurp some of the functions of nondeprived PT. Thus, our results provide further evidence that blind individuals do indeed “see” auditory motion. PMID:25378368

  3. Feature Assignment in Perception of Auditory Figure

    PubMed Central

    Gregg, Melissa K.; Samuel, Arthur G.

    2012-01-01

    Because the environment often includes multiple sounds that overlap in time, listeners must segregate a sound of interest (the auditory figure) from other co-occurring sounds (the unattended auditory ground). We conducted a series of experiments to clarify the principles governing the extraction of auditory figures. We distinguish between auditory “objects” (relatively punctate events, such as a dog's bark) and auditory “streams” (sounds involving a pattern over time, such as a galloping rhythm). In Experiments 1 and 2, on each trial two sounds -- an object (a vowel) and a stream (a series of tones) – were presented with one target feature that could be perceptually grouped with either source. In each block of these experiments, listeners were required to attend to one of the two sounds, and report its perceived category. Across several experimental manipulations, listeners were more likely to allocate the feature to an impoverished object if the result of the grouping was a good, identifiable object. Perception of objects was quite sensitive to feature variation (noise masking), whereas perception of streams was more robust to feature variation. In Experiment 3, the number of sound sources competing for the feature was increased to three. This produced a shift toward relying more on spatial cues than on the potential contribution of the feature to an object's perceptual quality. The results support a distinction between auditory objects and streams, and provide new information about the way that the auditory world is parsed. PMID:22288691

  4. Spatial auditory processing in pinnipeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Marla M.

    Given the biological importance of sound for a variety of activities, pinnipeds must be able to obtain spatial information about their surroundings thorough acoustic input in the absence of other sensory cues. The three chapters of this dissertation address spatial auditory processing capabilities of pinnipeds in air given that these amphibious animals use acoustic signals for reproduction and survival on land. Two chapters are comparative lab-based studies that utilized psychophysical approaches conducted in an acoustic chamber. Chapter 1 addressed the frequency-dependent sound localization abilities at azimuth of three pinniped species (the harbor seal, Phoca vitulina, the California sea lion, Zalophus californianus, and the northern elephant seal, Mirounga angustirostris). While performances of the sea lion and harbor seal were consistent with the duplex theory of sound localization, the elephant seal, a low-frequency hearing specialist, showed a decreased ability to localize the highest frequencies tested. In Chapter 2 spatial release from masking (SRM), which occurs when a signal and masker are spatially separated resulting in improvement in signal detectability relative to conditions in which they are co-located, was determined in a harbor seal and sea lion. Absolute and masked thresholds were measured at three frequencies and azimuths to determine the detection advantages afforded by this type of spatial auditory processing. Results showed that hearing sensitivity was enhanced by up to 19 and 12 dB in the harbor seal and sea lion, respectively, when the signal and masker were spatially separated. Chapter 3 was a field-based study that quantified both sender and receiver variables of the directional properties of male northern elephant seal calls produce within communication system that serves to delineate dominance status. This included measuring call directivity patterns, observing male-male vocally-mediated interactions, and an acoustic playback study

  5. Molecular study of patients with auditory neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Guilherme Machado De; Ramos, Priscila Zonzini; Castilho, Arthur Menino; Guimarães, Alexandre Caixeta; Sartorato, Edi Lúcia

    2016-07-01

    Auditory neuropathy is a type of hearing loss that constitutes a change in the conduct of the auditory stimulus by the involvement of inner hair cells or auditory nerve synapses. It is characterized by the absence or alteration of waves in the examination of brainstem auditory evoked potentials, with otoacoustic and/or cochlear microphonic issues. At present, four loci associated with non‑syndromic auditory neuropathy have been mapped: Autosomal recessive deafness‑9 [DFNB9; the otoferlin (OTOF) gene] and autosomal recessive deafness‑59 [DFNB59; the pejvakin (PJVK) gene], associated with autosomal recessive inheritance; the autosomal dominant auditory neuropathy gene [AUNA1; the diaphanous‑3 (DIAPH3) gene]; and AUNX1, linked to chromosome X. Furthermore, mutations of connexin 26 [the gap junction β2 (GJB2) gene] have also been associated with the disease. OTOF gene mutations exert a significant role in auditory neuropathy. In excess of 80 pathogenic mutations have been identified in individuals with non‑syndromic deafness in populations of different origins, with an emphasis on the p.Q829X mutation, which was found in ~3% of cases of deafness in the Spanish population. The identification of genetic alterations responsible for auditory neuropathy is one of the challenges contributing to understand the molecular bases of the different phenotypes of hearing loss. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate molecular changes in the OTOF gene in patients with auditory neuropathy, and to develop a DNA chip for the molecular diagnosis of auditory neuropathy using mass spectrometry for genotyping. Genetic alterations were investigated in 47 patients with hearing loss and clinical diagnosis of auditory neuropathy, and the c.35delG mutation in the GJB2 gene was identified in three homozygous patients, and the heterozygous parents of one of these cases. Additionally, OTOF gene mutations were tracked by complete sequencing of 48 exons, although these results

  6. Auditory display for the blind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fish, R. M. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A system for providing an auditory display of two-dimensional patterns as an aid to the blind is described. It includes a scanning device for producing first and second voltages respectively indicative of the vertical and horizontal positions of the scan and a further voltage indicative of the intensity at each point of the scan and hence of the presence or absence of the pattern at that point. The voltage related to scan intensity controls transmission of the sounds to the subject so that the subject knows that a portion of the pattern is being encountered by the scan when a tone is heard, the subject determining the position of this portion of the pattern in space by the frequency and interaural difference information contained in the tone.

  7. Physiological Measures of Auditory Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollmeier, Birger; Riedel, Helmut; Mauermann, Manfred; Uppenkamp, Stefan

    When acoustic signals enter the ears, they pass several processing stages of various complexities before they will be perceived. The auditory pathway can be separated into structures dealing with sound transmission in air (i.e. the outer ear, ear canal, and the vibration of tympanic membrane), structures dealing with the transformation of sound pressure waves into mechanical vibrations of the inner ear fluids (i.e. the tympanic membrane, ossicular chain, and the oval window), structures carrying mechanical vibrations in the fluid-filled inner ear (i.e. the cochlea with basilar membrane, tectorial membrane, and hair cells), structures that transform mechanical oscillations into a neural code, and finally several stages of neural processing in the brain along the pathway from the brainstem to the cortex.

  8. Central auditory testing and dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Welsh, L W; Welsh, J J; Healy, M P

    1980-06-01

    A group of dyslexic pupils with normal end organ function was studied by a central auditory battery to determine whether a hearing disability existed. The clinical features of dyslexia are presented with emphasis on the psychological developmental and functional disorders associated with this reading problem. The central battery of Willeford was selected as the test medium and the results of the 77 dyslexic students were compared to the normative data. The model proposed by Sparks, et al., is accepted as the mechanism for dichotic audition. Reference is made to the organic basis of reading disorders from lesion in the calcarine area to the angular gyrus. The competing sentence test, binaural fusion, rapidly alternating speech perception, and filtered speech are described in detail and are organic foundation for the study. The authors indentified a high rate of failure in this investigation. Over 50% of the dyslexic students failed two of the four tests, and each of the 77 failed at least one component. The most sensitive tests were binaural fusion and filtered speech with less variation from the norm in the remaining two components. The effect of maturation in central audition was measured in each of the four tests. The data suggest: 1. the scores are lower in the early ages in each test; 2. that rapidly alternating speech and competing sentences approach the normal range albeit somewhat delayed; and 3. that binaural fusion and filtered speech improve in score somewhat but rather moderately and never approach the normal range. Based upon the central auditory data and in conjunction with the anatomical pathways of vision, the authors suggest the site of lesion to be in the temporo-parietal cortex and the association fibers.

  9. Competition and convergence between auditory and cross-modal visual inputs to primary auditory cortical areas

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Yu-Ting; Hua, Tian-Miao

    2011-01-01

    Sensory neocortex is capable of considerable plasticity after sensory deprivation or damage to input pathways, especially early in development. Although plasticity can often be restorative, sometimes novel, ectopic inputs invade the affected cortical area. Invading inputs from other sensory modalities may compromise the original function or even take over, imposing a new function and preventing recovery. Using ferrets whose retinal axons were rerouted into auditory thalamus at birth, we were able to examine the effect of varying the degree of ectopic, cross-modal input on reorganization of developing auditory cortex. In particular, we assayed whether the invading visual inputs and the existing auditory inputs competed for or shared postsynaptic targets and whether the convergence of input modalities would induce multisensory processing. We demonstrate that although the cross-modal inputs create new visual neurons in auditory cortex, some auditory processing remains. The degree of damage to auditory input to the medial geniculate nucleus was directly related to the proportion of visual neurons in auditory cortex, suggesting that the visual and residual auditory inputs compete for cortical territory. Visual neurons were not segregated from auditory neurons but shared target space even on individual target cells, substantially increasing the proportion of multisensory neurons. Thus spatial convergence of visual and auditory input modalities may be sufficient to expand multisensory representations. Together these findings argue that early, patterned visual activity does not drive segregation of visual and auditory afferents and suggest that auditory function might be compromised by converging visual inputs. These results indicate possible ways in which multisensory cortical areas may form during development and evolution. They also suggest that rehabilitative strategies designed to promote recovery of function after sensory deprivation or damage need to take into

  10. Comparison of Pre-Attentive Auditory Discrimination at Gross and Fine Difference between Auditory Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Sanju, Himanshu Kumar; Kumar, Prawin

    2016-10-01

    Introduction Mismatch Negativity is a negative component of the event-related potential (ERP) elicited by any discriminable changes in auditory stimulation. Objective The present study aimed to assess pre-attentive auditory discrimination skill with fine and gross difference between auditory stimuli. Method Seventeen normal hearing individual participated in the study. To assess pre-attentive auditory discrimination skill with fine difference between auditory stimuli, we recorded mismatch negativity (MMN) with pair of stimuli (pure tones), using /1000 Hz/ and /1010 Hz/ with /1000 Hz/ as frequent stimulus and /1010 Hz/ as infrequent stimulus. Similarly, we used /1000 Hz/ and /1100 Hz/ with /1000 Hz/ as frequent stimulus and /1100 Hz/ as infrequent stimulus to assess pre-attentive auditory discrimination skill with gross difference between auditory stimuli. The study included 17 subjects with informed consent. We analyzed MMN for onset latency, offset latency, peak latency, peak amplitude, and area under the curve parameters. Result Results revealed that MMN was present only in 64% of the individuals in both conditions. Further Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) showed no significant difference in all measures of MMN (onset latency, offset latency, peak latency, peak amplitude, and area under the curve) in both conditions. Conclusion The present study showed similar pre-attentive skills for both conditions: fine (1000 Hz and 1010 Hz) and gross (1000 Hz and 1100 Hz) difference in auditory stimuli at a higher level (endogenous) of the auditory system.

  11. Auditory, visual, and auditory-visual processing performance in typically developing children: modality independence versus dependence.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Roshni; Yathiraj, Asha

    2015-02-01

    The study was carried out to determine whether cross-modal interactions occur during processing of auditory and/or visual signals that require separation/closure, integration, and duration pattern perception in typically developing children. Thirty typically developing children were evaluated on three auditory processing tests (speech-in-noise test in Indian-English, dichotic-consonant vowel test, and duration pattern test) that tapped separation/closure, integration and duration pattern perception. The children were also evaluated on the visual and auditory-visual analogues of the auditory tests. Differences in modality were found in each of the processes that were tested. The performance when the auditory and visual modalities were tested simultaneously was significantly higher than the auditory or visual modality for tests that involved separation/closure and integration. In contrast, scores on the analogous auditory-visual duration pattern test were significantly higher than the auditory test but not the visual analogous test. Further, the scores of the auditory modality were significantly poorer than the visual modality for separation/closure and duration patterning but not for integration. Findings of the study indicate that performance on higher level processing varies depending on the modality that is assessed and supports the presence of cross-modality interactions.

  12. Coordinated forms of noradrenergic plasticity in the locus coeruleus and primary auditory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Ana Raquel O.; Froemke, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    The cerebral cortex is plastic and represents the world according to the significance of sensory stimuli. However, cortical networks are embodied within complex circuits including neuromodulatory systems such as the noradrenergic locus coeruleus, providing information about internal state and behavioral relevance. While norepinephrine is important for cortical plasticity, it is unknown how modulatory neurons themselves respond to changes of sensory input. Here we examine how locus coeruleus neurons are modified by experience, and the consequences of locus coeruleus plasticity on cortical representations and sensory perception. We made whole-cell recordings from rat locus coeruleus and primary auditory cortex (AI), pairing sounds with locus coeruleus activation. Although initially unresponsive, locus coeruleus neurons developed and maintained auditory responses afterwards. Locus coeruleus plasticity induced changes in AI responses lasting at least hours and improved auditory perception for days to weeks. Our results demonstrate that locus coeruleus is highly plastic, leading to substantial changes in regulation of brain state by norepinephrine. PMID:26301326

  13. Reconstructing Speech from Human Auditory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Pasley, Brian N.; David, Stephen V.; Mesgarani, Nima; Flinker, Adeen; Shamma, Shihab A.; Crone, Nathan E.; Knight, Robert T.; Chang, Edward F.

    2012-01-01

    How the human auditory system extracts perceptually relevant acoustic features of speech is unknown. To address this question, we used intracranial recordings from nonprimary auditory cortex in the human superior temporal gyrus to determine what acoustic information in speech sounds can be reconstructed from population neural activity. We found that slow and intermediate temporal fluctuations, such as those corresponding to syllable rate, were accurately reconstructed using a linear model based on the auditory spectrogram. However, reconstruction of fast temporal fluctuations, such as syllable onsets and offsets, required a nonlinear sound representation based on temporal modulation energy. Reconstruction accuracy was highest within the range of spectro-temporal fluctuations that have been found to be critical for speech intelligibility. The decoded speech representations allowed readout and identification of individual words directly from brain activity during single trial sound presentations. These findings reveal neural encoding mechanisms of speech acoustic parameters in higher order human auditory cortex. PMID:22303281

  14. Reconstructing speech from human auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Pasley, Brian N; David, Stephen V; Mesgarani, Nima; Flinker, Adeen; Shamma, Shihab A; Crone, Nathan E; Knight, Robert T; Chang, Edward F

    2012-01-01

    How the human auditory system extracts perceptually relevant acoustic features of speech is unknown. To address this question, we used intracranial recordings from nonprimary auditory cortex in the human superior temporal gyrus to determine what acoustic information in speech sounds can be reconstructed from population neural activity. We found that slow and intermediate temporal fluctuations, such as those corresponding to syllable rate, were accurately reconstructed using a linear model based on the auditory spectrogram. However, reconstruction of fast temporal fluctuations, such as syllable onsets and offsets, required a nonlinear sound representation based on temporal modulation energy. Reconstruction accuracy was highest within the range of spectro-temporal fluctuations that have been found to be critical for speech intelligibility. The decoded speech representations allowed readout and identification of individual words directly from brain activity during single trial sound presentations. These findings reveal neural encoding mechanisms of speech acoustic parameters in higher order human auditory cortex.

  15. Auditory neuroplasticity, hearing loss and cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Ryugo, David

    2015-07-01

    Data from our laboratory show that the auditory brain is highly malleable by experience. We establish a base of knowledge that describes the normal structure and workings at the initial stages of the central auditory system. This research is expanded to include the associated pathology in the auditory brain stem created by hearing loss. Utilizing the congenitally deaf white cat, we demonstrate the way that cells, synapses, and circuits are pathologically affected by sound deprivation. We further show that the restoration of auditory nerve activity via electrical stimulation through cochlear implants serves to correct key features of brain pathology caused by hearing loss. The data suggest that rigorous training with cochlear implants and/or hearing aids offers the promise of heretofore unattained benefits.

  16. Auditory-vocal mirroring in songbirds.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Mirror neurons are theorized to serve as a neural substrate for spoken language in humans, but the existence and functions of auditory-vocal mirror neurons in the human brain remain largely matters of speculation. Songbirds resemble humans in their capacity for vocal learning and depend on their learned songs to facilitate courtship and individual recognition. Recent neurophysiological studies have detected putative auditory-vocal mirror neurons in a sensorimotor region of the songbird's brain that plays an important role in expressive and receptive aspects of vocal communication. This review discusses the auditory and motor-related properties of these cells, considers their potential role on song learning and communication in relation to classical studies of birdsong, and points to the circuit and developmental mechanisms that may give rise to auditory-vocal mirroring in the songbird's brain.

  17. Auditory stimulation and cardiac autonomic regulation

    PubMed Central

    Valenti, Vitor E.; Guida, Heraldo L.; Frizzo, Ana C. F.; Cardoso, Ana C. V.; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos M.; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have already demonstrated that auditory stimulation with music influences the cardiovascular system. In this study, we described the relationship between musical auditory stimulation and heart rate variability. Searches were performed with the Medline, SciELO, Lilacs and Cochrane databases using the following keywords: “auditory stimulation”, “autonomic nervous system”, “music” and “heart rate variability”. The selected studies indicated that there is a strong correlation between noise intensity and vagal-sympathetic balance. Additionally, it was reported that music therapy improved heart rate variability in anthracycline-treated breast cancer patients. It was hypothesized that dopamine release in the striatal system induced by pleasurable songs is involved in cardiac autonomic regulation. Musical auditory stimulation influences heart rate variability through a neural mechanism that is not well understood. Further studies are necessary to develop new therapies to treat cardiovascular disorders. PMID:22948465

  18. Auditory Perception and Reading: A Closer Look.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harber, Jean R.

    1981-01-01

    Two studies are reported in which the relationship between sound blending and auditory closure and reading performance (word analysis skills, oral reading, and silent reading) was explored in learning disabled youngsters (6 to 11 years old). (Author)

  19. Perceptual learning in the developing auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Bao, Shaowen

    2015-03-01

    A hallmark of the developing auditory cortex is the heightened plasticity in the critical period, during which acoustic inputs can indelibly alter cortical function. However, not all sounds in the natural acoustic environment are ethologically relevant. How does the auditory system resolve relevant sounds from the acoustic environment in such an early developmental stage when most associative learning mechanisms are not yet fully functional? What can the auditory system learn from one of the most important classes of sounds, animal vocalizations? How does naturalistic acoustic experience shape cortical sound representation and perception? To answer these questions, we need to consider an unusual strategy, statistical learning, where what the system needs to learn is embedded in the sensory input. Here, I will review recent findings on how certain statistical structures of natural animal vocalizations shape auditory cortical acoustic representations, and how cortical plasticity may underlie learned categorical sound perception. These results will be discussed in the context of human speech perception.

  20. Auditory pathways: are 'what' and 'where' appropriate?

    PubMed

    Hall, Deborah A

    2003-05-13

    New evidence confirms that the auditory system encompasses temporal, parietal and frontal brain regions, some of which partly overlap with the visual system. But common assumptions about the functional homologies between sensory systems may be misleading.

  1. The Goldilocks Effect in Infant Auditory Attention

    PubMed Central

    Kidd, Celeste; Piantadosi, Steven T.; Aslin, Richard N.

    2015-01-01

    Infants must learn about many cognitive domains (e.g., language, music) from auditory statistics, yet capacity-limited cognitive resources restrict the quantity that they can encode. While we know infants can attend to only a subset of available acoustic input, few previous studies have directly examined infant auditory attention—and none have directly tested theorized mechanisms of attentional selection based on stimulus complexity. Using model-based behavioral methods that were recently developed to examine visual attention in infants (e.g., Kidd, Piantadosi, & Aslin, 2012), we demonstrate that 7- to 8-month-old infants selectively attend to non-social auditory stimuli that are intermediately predictable/complex with respect to their current implicit beliefs and expectations. Our results provide evidence of a broad principle of infant attention across modalities and suggest that sound-to-sound transitional statistics heavily influence the allocation of auditory attention in human infants. PMID:24990627

  2. Quantitative proteomics of auditory fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ingie; Kang, Taewook; Yun, Ki Na; Yoo, YongCheol; Park, Sungmo; Kim, Jihye; An, Bobae; Song, Sukwoon; Lee, Sukwon; Kim, Jeongyeon; Song, Beomjong; Kwon, Kyung-Hoon; Kim, Jin Young; Park, Young Mok; Choi, Sukwoo

    2013-04-26

    Auditory fear conditioning is a well-characterized rodent learning model where a neutral auditory cue is paired with an aversive outcome to induce associative fear memory. The storage of long-term auditory fear memory requires long-term potentiation (LTP) in the lateral amygdala and de novo protein synthesis. Although many studies focused on individual proteins have shown their contribution to LTP and fear conditioning, non-biased genome-wide studies have only recently been possible with microarrays, which nevertheless fall short of measuring changes at the level of proteins. Here we employed quantitative proteomics to examine the expression of hundreds of proteins in the lateral amygdala in response to auditory fear conditioning. We found that various proteins previously implicated in LTP, learning and axon/dendrite growth were regulated by fear conditioning. A substantial number of proteins that were regulated by fear conditioning have not yet been studied specifically in learning or synaptic plasticity.

  3. Interactive rhythmic auditory stimulation reinstates natural 1/f timing in gait of Parkinson's patients.

    PubMed

    Hove, Michael J; Suzuki, Kazuki; Uchitomi, Hirotaka; Orimo, Satoshi; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) and basal ganglia dysfunction impair movement timing, which leads to gait instability and falls. Parkinsonian gait consists of random, disconnected stride times--rather than the 1/f structure observed in healthy gait--and this randomness of stride times (low fractal scaling) predicts falling. Walking with fixed-tempo Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation (RAS) can improve many aspects of gait timing; however, it lowers fractal scaling (away from healthy 1/f structure) and requires attention. Here we show that interactive rhythmic auditory stimulation reestablishes healthy gait dynamics in PD patients. In the experiment, PD patients and healthy participants walked with a) no auditory stimulation, b) fixed-tempo RAS, and c) interactive rhythmic auditory stimulation. The interactive system used foot sensors and nonlinear oscillators to track and mutually entrain with the human's step timing. Patients consistently synchronized with the interactive system, their fractal scaling returned to levels of healthy participants, and their gait felt more stable to them. Patients and healthy participants rarely synchronized with fixed-tempo RAS, and when they did synchronize their fractal scaling declined from healthy 1/f levels. Five minutes after removing the interactive rhythmic stimulation, the PD patients' gait retained high fractal scaling, suggesting that the interaction stabilized the internal rhythm generating system and reintegrated timing networks. The experiment demonstrates that complex interaction is important in the (re)emergence of 1/f structure in human behavior and that interactive rhythmic auditory stimulation is a promising therapeutic tool for improving gait of PD patients.

  4. Hearing loss and the central auditory system: Implications for hearing aids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisina, Robert D.

    2003-04-01

    Hearing loss can result from disorders or damage to the ear (peripheral auditory system) or the brain (central auditory system). Here, the basic structure and function of the central auditory system will be highlighted as relevant to cases of permanent hearing loss where assistive devices (hearing aids) are called for. The parts of the brain used for hearing are altered in two basic ways in instances of hearing loss: (1) Damage to the ear can reduce the number and nature of input channels that the brainstem receives from the ear, causing plasticity of the central auditory system. This plasticity may partially compensate for the peripheral loss, or add new abnormalities such as distorted speech processing or tinnitus. (2) In some situations, damage to the brain can occur independently of the ear, as may occur in cases of head trauma, tumors or aging. Implications of deficits to the central auditory system for speech perception in noise, hearing aid use and future innovative circuit designs will be provided to set the stage for subsequent presentations in this special educational session. [Work supported by NIA-NIH Grant P01 AG09524 and the International Center for Hearing & Speech Research, Rochester, NY.

  5. Perceptual consequences of disrupted auditory nerve activity.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Fan-Gang; Kong, Ying-Yee; Michalewski, Henry J; Starr, Arnold

    2005-06-01

    Perceptual consequences of disrupted auditory nerve activity were systematically studied in 21 subjects who had been clinically diagnosed with auditory neuropathy (AN), a recently defined disorder characterized by normal outer hair cell function but disrupted auditory nerve function. Neurological and electrophysical evidence suggests that disrupted auditory nerve activity is due to desynchronized or reduced neural activity or both. Psychophysical measures showed that the disrupted neural activity has minimal effects on intensity-related perception, such as loudness discrimination, pitch discrimination at high frequencies, and sound localization using interaural level differences. In contrast, the disrupted neural activity significantly impairs timing related perception, such as pitch discrimination at low frequencies, temporal integration, gap detection, temporal modulation detection, backward and forward masking, signal detection in noise, binaural beats, and sound localization using interaural time differences. These perceptual consequences are the opposite of what is typically observed in cochlear-impaired subjects who have impaired intensity perception but relatively normal temporal processing after taking their impaired intensity perception into account. These differences in perceptual consequences between auditory neuropathy and cochlear damage suggest the use of different neural codes in auditory perception: a suboptimal spike count code for intensity processing, a synchronized spike code for temporal processing, and a duplex code for frequency processing. We also proposed two underlying physiological models based on desynchronized and reduced discharge in the auditory nerve to successfully account for the observed neurological and behavioral data. These methods and measures cannot differentiate between these two AN models, but future studies using electric stimulation of the auditory nerve via a cochlear implant might. These results not only show the unique

  6. Auditory dysfunction in patients with Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Profant, Oliver; Roth, Jan; Bureš, Zbyněk; Balogová, Zuzana; Lišková, Irena; Betka, Jan; Syka, Josef

    2017-10-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal, dominantly inherited, neurodegenerative disease. The main clinical features are motor impairment, progressive cognitive deterioration and behavioral changes. The aim of our study was to find out whether patients with HD suffer from disorders of the auditory system. A group of 17 genetically verified patients (11 males, 6 females) with various stages of HD (examined by UHDRS - motor part and total functional capacity, MMSE for cognitive functions) underwent an audiological examination (high frequency pure tone audiometry, otoacoustic emissions, speech audiometry, speech audiometry in babble noise, auditory brainstem responses). Additionally, 5 patients underwent a more extensive audiological examination, focused on central auditory processing. The results were compared with a group of age-matched healthy volunteers. Our results show that HD patients have physiologic hearing thresholds, otoacoustic emissions and auditory brainstem responses; however, they display a significant decrease in speech understanding, especially under demanding conditions (speech in noise) compared to age-matched controls. Additional auditory tests also show deficits in sound source localization, based on temporal and intensity cues. We also observed a statistically significant correlation between the perception of speech in noise, and motoric and cognitive functions. However, a correlation between genetic predisposition (number of triplets) and function of inner ear was not found. We conclude that HD negatively influences the function of the central part of the auditory system at cortical and subcortical levels, altering predominantly speech processing and sound source lateralization. We have thoroughly characterized auditory pathology in patients with HD that suggests involvement of central auditory and cognitive areas. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Auditory scene analysis by echolocation in bats.

    PubMed

    Moss, C F; Surlykke, A

    2001-10-01

    Echolocating bats transmit ultrasonic vocalizations and use information contained in the reflected sounds to analyze the auditory scene. Auditory scene analysis, a phenomenon that applies broadly to all hearing vertebrates, involves the grouping and segregation of sounds to perceptually organize information about auditory objects. The perceptual organization of sound is influenced by the spectral and temporal characteristics of acoustic signals. In the case of the echolocating bat, its active control over the timing, duration, intensity, and bandwidth of sonar transmissions directly impacts its perception of the auditory objects that comprise the scene. Here, data are presented from perceptual experiments, laboratory insect capture studies, and field recordings of sonar behavior of different bat species, to illustrate principles of importance to auditory scene analysis by echolocation in bats. In the perceptual experiments, FM bats (Eptesicus fuscus) learned to discriminate between systematic and random delay sequences in echo playback sets. The results of these experiments demonstrate that the FM bat can assemble information about echo delay changes over time, a requirement for the analysis of a dynamic auditory scene. Laboratory insect capture experiments examined the vocal production patterns of flying E. fuscus taking tethered insects in a large room. In each trial, the bats consistently produced echolocation signal groups with a relatively stable repetition rate (within 5%). Similar temporal patterning of sonar vocalizations was also observed in the field recordings from E. fuscus, thus suggesting the importance of temporal control of vocal production for perceptually guided behavior. It is hypothesized that a stable sonar signal production rate facilitates the perceptual organization of echoes arriving from objects at different directions and distances as the bat flies through a dynamic auditory scene. Field recordings of E. fuscus, Noctilio albiventris, N

  8. Music perception, pitch, and the auditory system.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Josh H; Oxenham, Andrew J

    2008-08-01

    The perception of music depends on many culture-specific factors, but is also constrained by properties of the auditory system. This has been best characterized for those aspects of music that involve pitch. Pitch sequences are heard in terms of relative as well as absolute pitch. Pitch combinations give rise to emergent properties not present in the component notes. In this review we discuss the basic auditory mechanisms contributing to these and other perceptual effects in music.

  9. [Auditory evoked potentials: basics and clinical applications].

    PubMed

    Radeloff, A; Cebulla, M; Shehata-Dieler, W

    2014-09-01

    Auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) are elicited at various levels of the auditory system following acoustic stimulation. Electrocochleography is a technique for recording AEPs of the inner ear. The recording is performed by means of a needle electrode placed on the promontory or non-invasive with tympanic membrane or ear canal electrodes. Clinically, electrocochleography is used for the diagnosis of auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) and endolymphatic hydrops. According to their latencies, AEPs of the central auditory pathway are subdivided into early, middle and late (cortical) AEPs. These AEPs are recorded via surface scalp electrodes. Normally, the larger EEG masks AEPs. For unmasking the AEP, several techniques are applied. Early AEPs or auditory brainstem responses (ABR) are the most widely used AEPs for functional evaluation of the auditory pathway. In contrast to otoacoustic emissions, early AEPs can detect ANSD. Thus, they are more suitable for hearing screening in newborns. For this purpose automated procedures are implemented. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Long Latency Auditory Evoked Potentials during Meditation.

    PubMed

    Telles, Shirley; Deepeshwar, Singh; Naveen, Kalkuni Visweswaraiah; Pailoor, Subramanya

    2015-10-01

    The auditory sensory pathway has been studied in meditators, using midlatency and short latency auditory evoked potentials. The present study evaluated long latency auditory evoked potentials (LLAEPs) during meditation. Sixty male participants, aged between 18 and 31 years (group mean±SD, 20.5±3.8 years), were assessed in 4 mental states based on descriptions in the traditional texts. They were (a) random thinking, (b) nonmeditative focusing, (c) meditative focusing, and (d) meditation. The order of the sessions was randomly assigned. The LLAEP components studied were P1 (40-60 ms), N1 (75-115 ms), P2 (120-180 ms), and N2 (180-280 ms). For each component, the peak amplitude and peak latency were measured from the prestimulus baseline. There was significant decrease in the peak latency of the P2 component during and after meditation (P<.001; analysis of variance and post hoc analysis with Bonferroni adjustment). The P1, P2, and N2 components showed a significant decrease in peak amplitudes during random thinking (P<.01; P<.001; P<.01, respectively) and nonmeditative focused thinking (P<.01; P<.01; P<.05, respectively). The results suggest that meditation facilitates the processing of information in the auditory association cortex, whereas the number of neurons recruited was smaller in random thinking and non-meditative focused thinking, at the level of the secondary auditory cortex, auditory association cortex and anterior cingulate cortex.

  11. Conducting polymer electrodes for auditory brainstem implants

    PubMed Central

    Guex, Amélie A.; Vachicouras, Nicolas; Hight, Ariel E.; Brown, M. Christian; Lee, Daniel J.; Lacour, Stéphanie P.

    2015-01-01

    The auditory brainstem implant (ABI) restores hearing in patients with damaged auditory nerves. One of the main ideas to improve the efficacy of ABIs is to increase spatial specificity of stimulation, in order to minimize extra-auditory side-effects and to maximize the tonotopy of stimulation. This study reports on the development of a microfabricated conformable electrode array with small (100 μm diameter) electrode sites. The latter are coated with a conducting polymer, PEDOT:PSS, to offer high charge injection properties and to safely stimulate the auditory system with small stimulation sites. We report on the design and fabrication of the polymer implant, and characterize the coatings in physiological conditions in vitro and under mechanical deformation. We characterize the coating electrochemically and during bending tests. We present a proof of principle experiment where the auditory system is efficiently activated by the flexible polymeric interface in a rat model. These results demonstrate the potential of using conducting polymer coatings on small electrode sites for electrochemically safe and efficient stimulation of the central auditory system. PMID:26207184

  12. Auditory Localisation Biases Increase with Sensory Uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Sara E.; Jones, Pete R.; Rubin, Gary S.; Nardini, Marko

    2017-01-01

    Psychophysical studies have frequently found that adults with normal hearing exhibit systematic errors (biases) in their auditory localisation judgments. Here we tested (i) whether systematic localisation errors could reflect reliance on prior knowledge, as has been proposed for other systematic perceptual biases, and (ii) whether auditory localisation biases can be reduced following training with accurate visual feedback. Twenty-four normal hearing participants were asked to localise the position of a noise burst along the azimuth before, during, and after training with visual feedback. Consistent with reliance on prior knowledge to reduce sensory uncertainty, we found that auditory localisation biases increased when auditory localisation uncertainty increased. Specifically, participants mis-localised auditory stimuli as being more eccentric than they were, and did so more when auditory uncertainty was greater. However, biases also increased with eccentricity, despite no corresponding increase in uncertainty, which is not readily explained by use of a simple prior favouring peripheral locations. Localisation biases decreased (improved) following training with visual feedback, but the reliability of the visual feedback stimulus did not change the effects of training. We suggest that further research is needed to identify alternative mechanisms, besides use of prior knowledge, that could account for increased perceptual biases under sensory uncertainty. PMID:28074913

  13. Auditory processing in fragile x syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rotschafer, Sarah E; Razak, Khaleel A

    2014-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is an inherited form of intellectual disability and autism. Among other symptoms, FXS patients demonstrate abnormalities in sensory processing and communication. Clinical, behavioral, and electrophysiological studies consistently show auditory hypersensitivity in humans with FXS. Consistent with observations in humans, the Fmr1 KO mouse model of FXS also shows evidence of altered auditory processing and communication deficiencies. A well-known and commonly used phenotype in pre-clinical studies of FXS is audiogenic seizures. In addition, increased acoustic startle response is seen in the Fmr1 KO mice. In vivo electrophysiological recordings indicate hyper-excitable responses, broader frequency tuning, and abnormal spectrotemporal processing in primary auditory cortex of Fmr1 KO mice. Thus, auditory hyper-excitability is a robust, reliable, and translatable biomarker in Fmr1 KO mice. Abnormal auditory evoked responses have been used as outcome measures to test therapeutics in FXS patients. Given that similarly abnormal responses are present in Fmr1 KO mice suggests that cellular mechanisms can be addressed. Sensory cortical deficits are relatively more tractable from a mechanistic perspective than more complex social behaviors that are typically studied in autism and FXS. The focus of this review is to bring together clinical, functional, and structural studies in humans with electrophysiological and behavioral studies in mice to make the case that auditory hypersensitivity provides a unique opportunity to integrate molecular, cellular, circuit level studies with behavioral outcomes in the search for therapeutics for FXS and other autism spectrum disorders.

  14. Electromagnetic recording of the auditory system.

    PubMed

    Poeppel, David; Hickok, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Auditory processing is remarkably fast and sensitive to the precise temporal structure of acoustic signals over a range of scales, from submillisecond phenomena such as localization to the construction of elementary auditory attributes at tens of milliseconds to basic properties of speech and music at hundreds of milliseconds. In light of the rapid (and often transitory) nature of auditory phenomena, in order to investigate the neurocomputational basis of auditory perception and cognition, a technique with high temporal resolution is appropriate. Here we briefly outline the utility of magnetoencephalography (MEG) for the study of the neural basis of audition. The basics of MEG are outlined in brief, and some of the most-used neural responses are described. We discuss the classic transient evoked fields (e.g., M100), responses elicited by change in a stimulus (e.g., pitch-onset response), the auditory steady-state response, and neural oscillations (e.g., theta-phase tracking). Because of the high temporal resolution and the good spatial resolution of MEG, paired with the convenient location of human auditory cortex for MEG-based recording, electromagnetic recording of this type is well suited to investigate various aspects from audition, from crafted laboratory experiments on pitch perception or scene analysis to naturalistic speech and music tasks. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Optogenetic stimulation of the auditory pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Victor H.; Gehrt, Anna; Reuter, Kirsten; Jing, Zhizi; Jeschke, Marcus; Mendoza Schulz, Alejandro; Hoch, Gerhard; Bartels, Matthias; Vogt, Gerhard; Garnham, Carolyn W.; Yawo, Hiromu; Fukazawa, Yugo; Augustine, George J.; Bamberg, Ernst; Kügler, Sebastian; Salditt, Tim; de Hoz, Livia; Strenzke, Nicola; Moser, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Auditory prostheses can partially restore speech comprehension when hearing fails. Sound coding with current prostheses is based on electrical stimulation of auditory neurons and has limited frequency resolution due to broad current spread within the cochlea. In contrast, optical stimulation can be spatially confined, which may improve frequency resolution. Here, we used animal models to characterize optogenetic stimulation, which is the optical stimulation of neurons genetically engineered to express the light-gated ion channel channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2). Optogenetic stimulation of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) activated the auditory pathway, as demonstrated by recordings of single neuron and neuronal population responses. Furthermore, optogenetic stimulation of SGNs restored auditory activity in deaf mice. Approximation of the spatial spread of cochlear excitation by recording local field potentials (LFPs) in the inferior colliculus in response to suprathreshold optical, acoustic, and electrical stimuli indicated that optogenetic stimulation achieves better frequency resolution than monopolar electrical stimulation. Virus-mediated expression of a ChR2 variant with greater light sensitivity in SGNs reduced the amount of light required for responses and allowed neuronal spiking following stimulation up to 60 Hz. Our study demonstrates a strategy for optogenetic stimulation of the auditory pathway in rodents and lays the groundwork for future applications of cochlear optogenetics in auditory research and prosthetics. PMID:24509078

  16. Fine-grained auditory discrimination: factor structures.

    PubMed

    Elliott, L L; Hammer, M A

    1993-04-01

    This research tested the hypothesis that as children's language development matures, factor-analytic structural changes occur that are associated with measurements of fine-grained auditory discrimination, receptive vocabulary, receptive language, speech production, and three performance subtests of the WISC-R. Among 6- to 7-year-old children, the percent of total variance attributed to the factor defined by fine-grained auditory discrimination measures was approximately 43% for children who were intellectually impaired (Experiment 2), 27% for youngsters who had language-learning problems, and 16% for regularly progressing children (Experiment 1). The WISC-R subtest scores, generally, did not load on the auditory discrimination factor. The difference in variance explained by the auditory discrimination factor was interpreted as representing greater relative importance of auditory discrimination among children with less-well-developed language competencies than among children with more mature language skills. This interpretation was strengthened by the finding of no distinct auditory discrimination factor for 8- to 11-year-old children who were either regularly progressing or language-disabled even though the language/speech factor at this age closely resembled that found among younger children. Results were consonant with Ackerman's (1987) model, suggesting that task-specific variance associated with tasks that remain resource-dependent may diminish after practice and experience.

  17. Speech Evoked Auditory Brainstem Response in Stuttering

    PubMed Central

    Tahaei, Ali Akbar; Ashayeri, Hassan; Pourbakht, Akram; Kamali, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Auditory processing deficits have been hypothesized as an underlying mechanism for stuttering. Previous studies have demonstrated abnormal responses in subjects with persistent developmental stuttering (PDS) at the higher level of the central auditory system using speech stimuli. Recently, the potential usefulness of speech evoked auditory brainstem responses in central auditory processing disorders has been emphasized. The current study used the speech evoked ABR to investigate the hypothesis that subjects with PDS have specific auditory perceptual dysfunction. Objectives. To determine whether brainstem responses to speech stimuli differ between PDS subjects and normal fluent speakers. Methods. Twenty-five subjects with PDS participated in this study. The speech-ABRs were elicited by the 5-formant synthesized syllable/da/, with duration of 40 ms. Results. There were significant group differences for the onset and offset transient peaks. Subjects with PDS had longer latencies for the onset and offset peaks relative to the control group. Conclusions. Subjects with PDS showed a deficient neural timing in the early stages of the auditory pathway consistent with temporal processing deficits and their abnormal timing may underlie to their disfluency. PMID:25215262

  18. Speech evoked auditory brainstem response in stuttering.

    PubMed

    Tahaei, Ali Akbar; Ashayeri, Hassan; Pourbakht, Akram; Kamali, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Auditory processing deficits have been hypothesized as an underlying mechanism for stuttering. Previous studies have demonstrated abnormal responses in subjects with persistent developmental stuttering (PDS) at the higher level of the central auditory system using speech stimuli. Recently, the potential usefulness of speech evoked auditory brainstem responses in central auditory processing disorders has been emphasized. The current study used the speech evoked ABR to investigate the hypothesis that subjects with PDS have specific auditory perceptual dysfunction. Objectives. To determine whether brainstem responses to speech stimuli differ between PDS subjects and normal fluent speakers. Methods. Twenty-five subjects with PDS participated in this study. The speech-ABRs were elicited by the 5-formant synthesized syllable/da/, with duration of 40 ms. Results. There were significant group differences for the onset and offset transient peaks. Subjects with PDS had longer latencies for the onset and offset peaks relative to the control group. Conclusions. Subjects with PDS showed a deficient neural timing in the early stages of the auditory pathway consistent with temporal processing deficits and their abnormal timing may underlie to their disfluency.

  19. Investigating bottom-up auditory attention

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Emine Merve; Elhilali, Mounya

    2014-01-01

    Bottom-up attention is a sensory-driven selection mechanism that directs perception toward a subset of the stimulus that is considered salient, or attention-grabbing. Most studies of bottom-up auditory attention have adapted frameworks similar to visual attention models whereby local or global “contrast” is a central concept in defining salient elements in a scene. In the current study, we take a more fundamental approach to modeling auditory attention; providing the first examination of the space of auditory saliency spanning pitch, intensity and timbre; and shedding light on complex interactions among these features. Informed by psychoacoustic results, we develop a computational model of auditory saliency implementing a novel attentional framework, guided by processes hypothesized to take place in the auditory pathway. In particular, the model tests the hypothesis that perception tracks the evolution of sound events in a multidimensional feature space, and flags any deviation from background statistics as salient. Predictions from the model corroborate the relationship between bottom-up auditory attention and statistical inference, and argues for a potential role of predictive coding as mechanism for saliency detection in acoustic scenes. PMID:24904367

  20. Vestibular influence on auditory metrical interpretation.

    PubMed

    Phillips-Silver, Jessica; Trainor, Laurel J

    2008-06-01

    When we move to music we feel the beat, and this feeling can shape the sound we hear. Previous studies have shown that when people listen to a metrically ambiguous rhythm pattern, moving the body on a certain beat--adults, by actively bouncing themselves in synchrony with the experimenter, and babies, by being bounced passively in the experimenter's arms--can bias their auditory metrical representation so that they interpret the pattern in a corresponding metrical form [Phillips-Silver, J., & Trainor, L. J. (2005). Feeling the beat: Movement influences infant rhythm perception. Science, 308, 1430; Phillips-Silver, J., & Trainor, L. J. (2007). Hearing what the body feels: Auditory encoding of rhythmic movement. Cognition, 105, 533-546]. The present studies show that in adults, as well as in infants, metrical encoding of rhythm can be biased by passive motion. Furthermore, because movement of the head alone affected auditory encoding whereas movement of the legs alone did not, we propose that vestibular input may play a key role in the effect of movement on auditory rhythm processing. We discuss possible cortical and subcortical sites for the integration of auditory and vestibular inputs that may underlie the interaction between movement and auditory metrical rhythm perception.

  1. Glial Cell Contributions to Auditory Brainstem Development

    PubMed Central

    Cramer, Karina S.; Rubel, Edwin W

    2016-01-01

    Glial cells, previously thought to have generally supporting roles in the central nervous system, are emerging as essential contributors to multiple aspects of neuronal circuit function and development. This review focuses on the contributions of glial cells to the development of auditory pathways in the brainstem. These pathways display specialized synapses and an unusually high degree of precision in circuitry that enables sound source localization. The development of these pathways thus requires highly coordinated molecular and cellular mechanisms. Several classes of glial cells, including astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia, have now been explored in these circuits in both avian and mammalian brainstems. Distinct populations of astrocytes are found over the course of auditory brainstem maturation. Early appearing astrocytes are associated with spatial compartments in the avian auditory brainstem. Factors from late appearing astrocytes promote synaptogenesis and dendritic maturation, and astrocytes remain integral parts of specialized auditory synapses. Oligodendrocytes play a unique role in both birds and mammals in highly regulated myelination essential for proper timing to decipher interaural cues. Microglia arise early in brainstem development and may contribute to maturation of auditory pathways. Together these studies demonstrate the importance of non-neuronal cells in the assembly of specialized auditory brainstem circuits. PMID:27818624

  2. Sensorineural hearing loss and auditory perceptual organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Joseph W.; Grose, John H.; Buss, Emily

    2004-05-01

    This talk will consider the implications of sensorineural hearing loss for auditory perceptual organization. In everyday environments, the listener is often faced with the difficulty of processing a target sound that intermingles acoustically with one or more extraneous sounds. Under such circumstances, several auditory processes enable the complex waveforms reaching the two ears to be interpreted in terms of putative auditory objects giving rise to the target and extraneous sounds. Such processes of perceptual organization depend upon the central analysis of cues that allow distributed spectral information to be either linked together or split apart on the basis of details related to such variables as synchrony of onset/modulation, harmonic relation, rhythm, and interaural differences. Efficient perceptual organization must depend not only upon such central auditory analyses but also upon the fidelity with which the peripheral auditory system encodes the spectral and temporal characteristics of sound. We will consider the implications of sensorineural hearing loss for perceptual organization in terms of both peripheral and central auditory processes.

  3. Visual influences on auditory spatial learning

    PubMed Central

    King, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    The visual and auditory systems frequently work together to facilitate the identification and localization of objects and events in the external world. Experience plays a critical role in establishing and maintaining congruent visual–auditory associations, so that the different sensory cues associated with targets that can be both seen and heard are synthesized appropriately. For stimulus location, visual information is normally more accurate and reliable and provides a reference for calibrating the perception of auditory space. During development, vision plays a key role in aligning neural representations of space in the brain, as revealed by the dramatic changes produced in auditory responses when visual inputs are altered, and is used throughout life to resolve short-term spatial conflicts between these modalities. However, accurate, and even supra-normal, auditory localization abilities can be achieved in the absence of vision, and the capacity of the mature brain to relearn to localize sound in the presence of substantially altered auditory spatial cues does not require visuomotor feedback. Thus, while vision is normally used to coordinate information across the senses, the neural circuits responsible for spatial hearing can be recalibrated in a vision-independent fashion. Nevertheless, early multisensory experience appears to be crucial for the emergence of an ability to match signals from different sensory modalities and therefore for the outcome of audiovisual-based rehabilitation of deaf patients in whom hearing has been restored by cochlear implantation. PMID:18986967

  4. The Development of Auditory Perception in Children Following Auditory Brainstem Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Colletti, Liliana; Shannon, Robert V.; Colletti, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    Auditory brainstem implants (ABI) can provide useful auditory perception and language development in deaf children who are not able to use a cochlear implant (CI). We prospectively followed-up a consecutive group of 64 deaf children up to 12 years following ABI implantation. The etiology of deafness in these children was: cochlear nerve aplasia in 49, auditory neuropathy in 1, cochlear malformations in 8, bilateral cochlear post-meningitic ossification in 3, NF2 in 2, and bilateral cochlear fractures due to a head injury in 1. Thirty five children had other congenital non-auditory disabilities. Twenty two children had previous CIs with no benefit. Fifty eight children were fitted with the Cochlear 24 ABI device and six with the MedEl ABI device and all children followed the same rehabilitation program. Auditory perceptual abilities were evaluated on the Categories of Auditory Performance (CAP) scale. No child was lost to follow-up and there were no exclusions from the study. All children showed significant improvement in auditory perception with implant experience. Seven children (11%) were able to achieve the highest score on the CAP test; they were able to converse on the telephone within 3 years of implantation. Twenty children (31.3%) achieved open set speech recognition (CAP score of 5 or greater) and 30 (46.9%) achieved a CAP level of 4 or greater. Of the 29 children without non-auditory disabilities, 18 (62%) achieved a CAP score of 5 or greater with the ABI. All children showed continued improvements in auditory skills over time. The long-term results of ABI implantation reveal significant auditory benefit in most children, and open set auditory recognition in many. PMID:25377987

  5. Auditory processing disorders: relationship to cognitive processes and underlying auditory neural integrity.

    PubMed

    Allen, Prudence; Allan, Chris

    2014-02-01

    Auditory processing disorder (APD) in children has been reported and discussed in the clinical and research literature for many years yet there remains poor agreement on diagnostic criteria, the relationship between APD and cognitive skills, and the importance of assessing underlying neural integrity. The present study used a repeated measures design to examine the relationship between a clinical APD diagnosis achieved with behavioral tests used in many clinics, cognitive abilities measured with standardized tests of intelligence, academic achievement, language, phonology, memory and attention and measures of auditory neural integrity as measured with acoustic reflex thresholds and auditory brainstem responses. Participants were 63 children, 7-17 years of age, who reported listening difficulties in spite of normal hearing thresholds. Parents/guardians completed surveys about the child's auditory and attention behavior while children completed an audiologic examination that included 5 behavioral tests of auditory processing ability. Standardized tests that examined intelligence, academic achievement, language, phonology, memory and attention, and objective tests auditory function included crossed and uncrossed acoustic reflex thresholds and auditory brainstem responses (ABR) were also administered to each child. Forty of the children received an APD diagnosis based on the 5 behavioral tests and 23 did not. The groups of children performed similarly on intelligence measures but the children with an APD diagnosis tended to perform more poorly on other cognitive measures. Auditory brainstem responses and acoustic reflex thresholds were often abnormal in both groups of children. Results of this study suggest that a purely behavioral test battery may be insufficient to accurately identify all children with auditory processing disorders. Physiologic test measures, including acoustic reflex and auditory brainstem response tests, are important indicators of auditory

  6. Central auditory onset responses, and temporal asymmetries in auditory perception.

    PubMed

    Phillips, D P; Hall, S E; Boehnke, S E

    2002-05-01

    Historically, central auditory responses have been studied for their sensitivity to various parameters of tone and noise burst stimulation, with response rate plotted as a function of the stimulus variable. The responses themselves are often quite brief, and locked in time to stimulus onset. In the stimulus amplitude domain, it has recently become clear that these responses are actually driven by properties of the stimulus' onset transient, and this has had important implications for how we interpret responses to manipulations of tone (or noise) burst plateau level. That finding was important in its own right, but a more general scrutiny of the available neurophysiological and psychophysical evidence reveals that there is a significant asymmetry in the neurophysiological and perceptual processing of stimulus onsets and offsets: sound onsets have a more elaborate neurophysiological representation, and receive a greater perceptual weighting. Hypotheses about origins of the asymmetries, derived independently from psychophysics and from neurophysiology, have in common a response threshold mechanism which adaptively tracks the ongoing level of stimulation.

  7. Interpretive Performance of the Internal Narrator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plax, Pamela M.

    Internal narration is a "direct quotation of the mind" without authorial intervention, in which the reader overhears characters thinking silently. Dramatic interpretation and internal narration share the characteristics of primarily auditory expression and symbolic use of images. One of the most widely read and taught examples of this…

  8. Selective impairment of auditory selective attention under concurrent cognitive load.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, Kerstin; Stahl, Christoph

    2012-06-01

    Load theory predicts that concurrent cognitive load impairs selective attention. For visual stimuli, it has been shown that this impairment can be selective: Distraction was specifically increased when the stimulus material used in the cognitive load task matches that of the selective attention task. Here, we report four experiments that demonstrate such selective load effects for auditory selective attention. The effect of two different cognitive load tasks on two different auditory Stroop tasks was examined, and selective load effects were observed: Interference in a nonverbal-auditory Stroop task was increased under concurrent nonverbal-auditory cognitive load (compared with a no-load condition), but not under concurrent verbal-auditory cognitive load. By contrast, interference in a verbal-auditory Stroop task was increased under concurrent verbal-auditory cognitive load but not under nonverbal-auditory cognitive load. This double-dissociation pattern suggests the existence of different and separable verbal and nonverbal processing resources in the auditory domain.

  9. Auditory Discrimination of Normal and Learning Disabled Children: A Comparison of Their Performance on the Goldman-Fristoe-Woodcock Test of Auditory Discrimination and Wepman Auditory Discrimination Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houck, Cherry K.; And Others

    Examined was the performance of 18 normal and 20 learning disabled (LD) 8- to 9-year-old children on two competitive measures of auditory discrimination. Ss were administered the Wepman Auditory Discrimination Test (1974) and the Goldman, Fristoe, Woodcock Test of Auditory Discrimination (1970). Results suggested that little correlation exists…

  10. Auditory processing deficits in reading disabled adults.

    PubMed

    Amitay, Sygal; Ahissar, Meray; Nelken, Israel

    2002-09-01

    The nature of the auditory processing deficit of disabled readers is still an unresolved issue. The quest for a fundamental, nonlinguistic, perceptual impairment has been dominated by the hypothesis that the difficulty lies in processing sequences of stimuli at presentation rates of tens of milliseconds. The present study examined this hypothesis using tasks that require processing of a wide range of stimulus time constants. About a third of the sampled population of disabled readers (classified as "poor auditory processors") had difficulties in most of the tasks tested: detection of frequency differences, detection of tones in narrowband noise, detection of amplitude modulation, detection of the direction of sound sources moving in virtual space, and perception of the lateralized position of tones based on their interaural phase differences. Nevertheless, across-channel integration was intact in these poor auditory processors since comodulation masking release was not reduced. Furthermore, phase locking was presumably intact since binaural masking level differences were normal. In a further examination of temporal processing, participants were asked to discriminate two tones at various intervals where the frequency difference was ten times each individual's frequency just noticeable difference (JND). Under these conditions, poor auditory processors showed no specific difficulty at brief intervals, contrary to predictions under a fast temporal processing deficit assumption. The complementary subgroup of disabled readers who were not poor auditory processors showed some difficulty in this condition when compared with their direct controls. However, they had no difficulty on auditory tasks such as amplitude modulation detection, which presumably taps processing of similar time scales. These two subgroups of disabled readers had similar reading performance but those with a generally poor auditory performance scored lower on some cognitive tests. Taken together, these

  11. Developing Auditory Skills: A Guide to Auditory Communication Activities. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marvich, Judith W.; Lederman, Norman

    The manual provides information about the development of auditory communication training for hearing impaired students. Two models of auditory training are reviewed: the Model Secondary School for the Deaf, which posits five areas of training, including awareness, attention, identification/recognition, message analysis, and…

  12. Auditory scene analysis and sensory memory: the role of the auditory N100m.

    PubMed

    May, P J C; Tiitinen, H

    2004-11-30

    We consider the neural dynamics underlying auditory streaming, the perceptual grouping of transient auditory events, by using neural modeling and magnetoencephalographic (MEG) measurements in humans. We demonstrate that spatial variations in the strength of feedback inhibition leads to differential amplitude modulation (AM) tuning resembling that found in animal models. In our model, neurons respond selectively to stimuli presented at different onset-to-onset interstimulus intervals (ISIs), and their summed activity (corresponding to the MEG signal) exhibits both transient and sustained responses (SRs) at fast ISIs. In MEG measurements utilizing 2-s trains of 50-ms stimuli presented at 0-1950 ms ISIs, we observed the transient N100m and SRs predicted by the model, with a prominent SR emerging for discrete stimuli at ISIs below 200 ms. Our results explain why, at fast stimulus rates, the amplitude of the auditory N100m appears to be strongly attenuated even though auditory cortex continues to respond vigorously to the stimuli. The results suggest that the longer and shorter forms of auditory sensory memory may be reflected in the N100m and the SR, respectively. As the emergence of the SR coincides with the stimuli being perceived as auditory streams, our study suggests that auditory sensory memory as indexed by transient and sustained cortical activity might underlie auditory scene analysis.

  13. Auditory Highlighting as a Strategy for Improving Listening Comprehension. Auditory Learning Monograph Series 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, James W.

    Fifty-eight students (in grades 5 and 6) of average or near-average intelligence (who were reading 2 or more years below their normal expected level and who learned best through the auditory modality) took part in a study to evaluate the following areas: the effectiveness of two auditory highlighting procedures for increasing listening…

  14. Reconsidering Tonotopic Maps in the Auditory Cortex and Lemniscal Auditory Thalamus in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tsukano, Hiroaki; Horie, Masao; Ohga, Shinpei; Takahashi, Kuniyuki; Kubota, Yamato; Hishida, Ryuichi; Takebayashi, Hirohide; Shibuki, Katsuei

    2017-01-01

    The auditory thalamus and auditory cortex (AC) are pivotal structures in the central auditory system. However, the thalamocortical mechanisms of processing sounds are largely unknown. Investigation of this process benefits greatly from the use of mice because the mouse is a powerful animal model in which various experimental techniques, especially genetic tools, can be applied. However, the use of mice has been limited in auditory research, and thus even basic anatomical knowledge of the mouse central auditory system has not been sufficiently collected. Recently, optical imaging combined with morphological analyses has enabled the elucidation of detailed anatomical properties of the mouse auditory system. These techniques have uncovered fine AC maps with multiple frequency-organized regions, each of which receives point-to-point thalamocortical projections from different origins inside the lemniscal auditory thalamus, the ventral division of the medial geniculate body (MGv). This precise anatomy now provides a platform for physiological research. In this mini review article, we summarize these recent achievements that will facilitate physiological investigations in the mouse auditory system. PMID:28293178

  15. [Imperative auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Erkwoh, R; Eming-Erdmann, A; Willmes, K

    2001-05-01

    Command hallucinations are a subtype of auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia. More likely than any other schizophrenic symptom, they may have an impact on the individual's behavior. In the forensic literature, aspects of dangerous actions induced by psychotic motivation have been discussed. From the psychiatric point of view, the main problem is the unpredictability of behavioral consequences. The present study examines psychopathological details of command hallucinations in 31 hospitalized schizophrenic patients, 10 females and 21 males, using a questionnaire including 24 items. The predictive accuracy of a distinct set of signs was rated concerning compliance vs. resistance of hallucinated commands. The predictors are: identifying the hallucinated voice, being affected by emotions after hallucinations, and misregarding the voice as being real. In the presence of these conditions, behavioral consequences are predicted by a value which was 6.7 times higher than that without any information about predictors. In the absence of these conditions, resistance of command voices is predicted by a value of 7.

  16. Peripheral auditory tuning for vowels.

    PubMed

    Namasivayam, Aravind Kumar; Le, Duc James; Hard, Jennifer; Lewis, Samantha Evelyn; Neufeld, Chris; van Lieshout, Pascal

    2013-12-01

    In this study, 35 young, healthy adults were tested on whether speech-like stimuli evoke a unique response in the auditory efferent system. To this end, descending cortical influences on medial olivocochlear (MOC) activity were indirectly evaluated by studying the effects of contralateral suppression on distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) under four conditions: (a) in the absence of any contralateral noise (Baseline), (b) presence of contralateral broadband noise (Noise Baseline), (c) vowel discrimination-in-noise task (VDN) and (d) tone discrimination-in-noise (TDN) task. A statistically significant release from suppression was evident across all tested DPOAE frequencies (1, 1.5 and 2 kHz) only for the VDN task (p < 0.05), which yielded greater release from suppression than the TDN task. These findings indicate that during active listening in the presence of noise, the MOC activity may be differentially modulated depending on the type of stimulus (vowel vs. tone). Specifically, in the presence of background noise, vowels may show a greater release from suppression in the cochlea than frequency, intensity and duration matched tones.

  17. Central auditory development after long-term cochlear implant use.

    PubMed

    Jiwani, Salima; Papsin, Blake C; Gordon, Karen A

    2013-09-01

    We aimed to determine whether long-term cortical auditory development is altered or delayed in children using cochlear implants relative to their normal hearing peers. We hypothesized that cortical development in children using unilateral cochlear implants follows a normal trajectory with long-term auditory input when the duration of bilateral auditory deprivation in childhood is limited. Electrically-evoked cortical responses were recorded in 79 children who received one cochlear implant within 2.03 ± 1.36 years of bilateral deafness and had up to ∼16 years of time-in-sound experience, and in 58 peers with normal hearing. Amplitude differences between the responses from children using cochlear implants and with normal hearing were calculated between 0 and 300 ms. Responses from cochlear implant users remain different from those of their normal hearing peers. These differences decreased over time, but were not eliminated even after 10 years of time-in-sound. Specifically, the P(1)-N(1)-P(2)-N(2) complex, typical of a normally mature response, began to emerge by 10 years of time-in-sound experience, but the amplitudes of peaks P(2) and N(2) became abnormally large. Mature-like cortical responses emerge in children after long-term unilateral cochlear implant use, however, differences from normal persist. Maturation of cortical responses with long-term cochlear implant use potentially underlies functional improvements in hearing. Persistent differences from normal could reflect an increase in attention or multi-sensory processing during listening. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of an Auditory Lateralization Training in Children Suspected to Central Auditory Processing Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lotfi, Yones; Moosavi, Abdollah; Bakhshi, Enayatollah; Sadjedi, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Central auditory processing disorder [(C)APD] refers to a deficit in auditory stimuli processing in nervous system that is not due to higher-order language or cognitive factors. One of the problems in children with (C)APD is spatial difficulties which have been overlooked despite their significance. Localization is an auditory ability to detect sound sources in space and can help to differentiate between the desired speech from other simultaneous sound sources. Aim of this research was investigating effects of an auditory lateralization training on speech perception in presence of noise/competing signals in children suspected to (C)APD. Subjects and Methods In this analytical interventional study, 60 children suspected to (C)APD were selected based on multiple auditory processing assessment subtests. They were randomly divided into two groups: control (mean age 9.07) and training groups (mean age 9.00). Training program consisted of detection and pointing to sound sources delivered with interaural time differences under headphones for 12 formal sessions (6 weeks). Spatial word recognition score (WRS) and monaural selective auditory attention test (mSAAT) were used to follow the auditory lateralization training effects. Results This study showed that in the training group, mSAAT score and spatial WRS in noise (p value≤0.001) improved significantly after the auditory lateralization training. Conclusions We used auditory lateralization training for 6 weeks and showed that auditory lateralization can improve speech understanding in noise significantly. The generalization of this results needs further researches. PMID:27626084

  19. Auditory and motor imagery modulate learning in music performance.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rachel M; Palmer, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Skilled performers such as athletes or musicians can improve their performance by imagining the actions or sensory outcomes associated with their skill. Performers vary widely in their auditory and motor imagery abilities, and these individual differences influence sensorimotor learning. It is unknown whether imagery abilities influence both memory encoding and retrieval. We examined how auditory and motor imagery abilities influence musicians' encoding (during Learning, as they practiced novel melodies), and retrieval (during Recall of those melodies). Pianists learned melodies by listening without performing (auditory learning) or performing without sound (motor learning); following Learning, pianists performed the melodies from memory with auditory feedback (Recall). During either Learning (Experiment 1) or Recall (Experiment 2), pianists experienced either auditory interference, motor interference, or no interference. Pitch accuracy (percentage of correct pitches produced) and temporal regularity (variability of quarter-note interonset intervals) were measured at Recall. Independent tests measured auditory and motor imagery skills. Pianists' pitch accuracy was higher following auditory learning than following motor learning and lower in motor interference conditions (Experiments 1 and 2). Both auditory and motor imagery skills improved pitch accuracy overall. Auditory imagery skills modulated pitch accuracy encoding (Experiment 1): Higher auditory imagery skill corresponded to higher pitch accuracy following auditory learning with auditory or motor interference, and following motor learning with motor or no interference. These findings suggest that auditory imagery abilities decrease vulnerability to interference and compensate for missing auditory feedback at encoding. Auditory imagery skills also influenced temporal regularity at retrieval (Experiment 2): Higher auditory imagery skill predicted greater temporal regularity during Recall in the presence of

  20. Auditory and motor imagery modulate learning in music performance

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Rachel M.; Palmer, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Skilled performers such as athletes or musicians can improve their performance by imagining the actions or sensory outcomes associated with their skill. Performers vary widely in their auditory and motor imagery abilities, and these individual differences influence sensorimotor learning. It is unknown whether imagery abilities influence both memory encoding and retrieval. We examined how auditory and motor imagery abilities influence musicians' encoding (during Learning, as they practiced novel melodies), and retrieval (during Recall of those melodies). Pianists learned melodies by listening without performing (auditory learning) or performing without sound (motor learning); following Learning, pianists performed the melodies from memory with auditory feedback (Recall). During either Learning (Experiment 1) or Recall (Experiment 2), pianists experienced either auditory interference, motor interference, or no interference. Pitch accuracy (percentage of correct pitches produced) and temporal regularity (variability of quarter-note interonset intervals) were measured at Recall. Independent tests measured auditory and motor imagery skills. Pianists' pitch accuracy was higher following auditory learning than following motor learning and lower in motor interference conditions (Experiments 1 and 2). Both auditory and motor imagery skills improved pitch accuracy overall. Auditory imagery skills modulated pitch accuracy encoding (Experiment 1): Higher auditory imagery skill corresponded to higher pitch accuracy following auditory learning with auditory or motor interference, and following motor learning with motor or no interference. These findings suggest that auditory imagery abilities decrease vulnerability to interference and compensate for missing auditory feedback at encoding. Auditory imagery skills also influenced temporal regularity at retrieval (Experiment 2): Higher auditory imagery skill predicted greater temporal regularity during Recall in the presence of

  1. Experience and information loss in auditory and visual memory.

    PubMed

    Gloede, Michele E; Paulauskas, Emily E; Gregg, Melissa K

    2017-07-01

    Recent studies show that recognition memory for sounds is inferior to memory for pictures. Four experiments were conducted to examine the nature of auditory and visual memory. Experiments 1-3 were conducted to evaluate the role of experience in auditory and visual memory. Participants received a study phase with pictures/sounds, followed by a recognition memory test. Participants then completed auditory training with each of the sounds, followed by a second memory test. Despite auditory training in Experiments 1 and 2, visual memory was superior to auditory memory. In Experiment 3, we found that it is possible to improve auditory memory, but only after 3 days of specific auditory training and 3 days of visual memory decay. We examined the time course of information loss in auditory and visual memory in Experiment 4 and found a trade-off between visual and auditory recognition memory: Visual memory appears to have a larger capacity, while auditory memory is more enduring. Our results indicate that visual and auditory memory are inherently different memory systems and that differences in visual and auditory recognition memory performance may be due to the different amounts of experience with visual and auditory information, as well as structurally different neural circuitry specialized for information retention.

  2. Perceptual Plasticity for Auditory Object Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Heald, Shannon L. M.; Van Hedger, Stephen C.; Nusbaum, Howard C.

    2017-01-01

    In our auditory environment, we rarely experience the exact acoustic waveform twice. This is especially true for communicative signals that have meaning for listeners. In speech and music, the acoustic signal changes as a function of the talker (or instrument), speaking (or playing) rate, and room acoustics, to name a few factors. Yet, despite this acoustic variability, we are able to recognize a sentence or melody as the same across various kinds of acoustic inputs and determine meaning based on listening goals, expectations, context, and experience. The recognition process relates acoustic signals to prior experience despite variability in signal-relevant and signal-irrelevant acoustic properties, some of which could be considered as “noise” in service of a recognition goal. However, some acoustic variability, if systematic, is lawful and can be exploited by listeners to aid in recognition. Perceivable changes in systematic variability can herald a need for listeners to reorganize perception and reorient their attention to more immediately signal-relevant cues. This view is not incorporated currently in many extant theories of auditory perception, which traditionally reduce psychological or neural representations of perceptual objects and the processes that act on them to static entities. While this reduction is likely done for the sake of empirical tractability, such a reduction may seriously distort the perceptual process to be modeled. We argue that perceptual representations, as well as the processes underlying perception, are dynamically determined by an interaction between the uncertainty of the auditory signal and constraints of context. This suggests that the process of auditory recognition is highly context-dependent in that the identity of a given auditory object may be intrinsically tied to its preceding context. To argue for the flexible neural and psychological updating of sound-to-meaning mappings across speech and music, we draw upon examples

  3. Hippocampus responds to auditory change in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Ruusuvirta, T; Astikainen, P; Wikgren, J; Nokia, M

    2010-09-29

    Any change or novelty in the auditory environment is potentially important for survival. The cortex has been implicated in the detection of auditory change whereas the hippocampus has been associated with the detection of auditory novelty. Local field potentials (LFPs) were recorded from the CA1 area of the hippocampus in waking rabbits. In the oddball condition, a rare tone of one frequency (deviant) randomly replaced a repeated tone of another frequency (standard). In the equal-probability condition, the standard was replaced by a set of tones of nine different frequencies in order to remove the repetitive auditory background of the deviant (now labelled as control-deviant) while preserving its temporal probability. In the oddball condition, evoked potentials at 36-80 ms post-stimulus were found to have greater amplitude towards negative polarity for the deviant relative to the standard. No significant differences in response amplitudes were observed between the control-deviant and the standard. These findings suggest that the hippocampus plays a role in auditory change detection.

  4. Facilitated auditory detection for speech sounds.

    PubMed

    Signoret, Carine; Gaudrain, Etienne; Tillmann, Barbara; Grimault, Nicolas; Perrin, Fabien

    2011-01-01

    If it is well known that knowledge facilitates higher cognitive functions, such as visual and auditory word recognition, little is known about the influence of knowledge on detection, particularly in the auditory modality. Our study tested the influence of phonological and lexical knowledge on auditory detection. Words, pseudo-words, and complex non-phonological sounds, energetically matched as closely as possible, were presented at a range of presentation levels from sub-threshold to clearly audible. The participants performed a detection task (Experiments 1 and 2) that was followed by a two alternative forced-choice recognition task in Experiment 2. The results of this second task in Experiment 2 suggest a correct recognition of words in the absence of detection with a subjective threshold approach. In the detection task of both experiments, phonological stimuli (words and pseudo-words) were better detected than non-phonological stimuli (complex sounds), presented close to the auditory threshold. This finding suggests an advantage of speech for signal detection. An additional advantage of words over pseudo-words was observed in Experiment 2, suggesting that lexical knowledge could also improve auditory detection when listeners had to recognize the stimulus in a subsequent task. Two simulations of detection performance performed on the sound signals confirmed that the advantage of speech over non-speech processing could not be attributed to energetic differences in the stimuli.

  5. Theoretical and experimental studies of auditory processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamma, Shihab; Krishnaprasad, P. S.

    1994-03-01

    Over the last year, work has progressed in the three basic areas that are emphasized in this proposal: (1) Peripheral auditory implementations; (2) Auditory cortical processing; and (3) Theoretical analysis of neural network architectures. In the first topic, we have completed a detailed analysis and implementation of the early auditory model originally formulated in the previous grant period. Specifically, we have determined the underlying mechanisms that give rise to noise robustness and self-normalization in the early auditory spectra. A patented VLSI implementation of the model has been accomplished. In the second area of research, we have completed a survey of response properties in the anterior auditory field, especially with regard to the cells' responses to FM and single tone stimuli. Finally, in the third focus area, we have developed new recursive algorithms (mimicing recursive neural network architectures) for building systematically, approximate basis function representations. The new algorithms known as orthogonal matching pursuit algorithms are applicable to a wide class of problems, ranging from fitting radial basis function approximations to wavelet-bases models for transfer functions of linear systems.

  6. Egocentric and allocentric representations in auditory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Brimijoin, W. Owen; Bizley, Jennifer K.

    2017-01-01

    A key function of the brain is to provide a stable representation of an object’s location in the world. In hearing, sound azimuth and elevation are encoded by neurons throughout the auditory system, and auditory cortex is necessary for sound localization. However, the coordinate frame in which neurons represent sound space remains undefined: classical spatial receptive fields in head-fixed subjects can be explained either by sensitivity to sound source location relative to the head (egocentric) or relative to the world (allocentric encoding). This coordinate frame ambiguity can be resolved by studying freely moving subjects; here we recorded spatial receptive fields in the auditory cortex of freely moving ferrets. We found that most spatially tuned neurons represented sound source location relative to the head across changes in head position and direction. In addition, we also recorded a small number of neurons in which sound location was represented in a world-centered coordinate frame. We used measurements of spatial tuning across changes in head position and direction to explore the influence of sound source distance and speed of head movement on auditory cortical activity and spatial tuning. Modulation depth of spatial tuning increased with distance for egocentric but not allocentric units, whereas, for both populations, modulation was stronger at faster movement speeds. Our findings suggest that early auditory cortex primarily represents sound source location relative to ourselves but that a minority of cells can represent sound location in the world independent of our own position. PMID:28617796

  7. Auditory Training With Frequent Communication Partners

    PubMed Central

    Spehar, Brent; Sommers, Mitchell; Barcroft, Joe

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Individuals with hearing loss engage in auditory training to improve their speech recognition. They typically practice listening to utterances spoken by unfamiliar talkers but never to utterances spoken by their most frequent communication partner (FCP)—speech they most likely desire to recognize—under the assumption that familiarity with the FCP's speech limits potential gains. This study determined whether auditory training with the speech of an individual's FCP, in this case their spouse, would lead to enhanced recognition of their spouse's speech. Method Ten couples completed a 6-week computerized auditory training program in which the spouse recorded the stimuli and the participant (partner with hearing loss) completed auditory training that presented recordings of their spouse. Results Training led participants to better discriminate their FCP's speech. Responses on the Client Oriented Scale of Improvement (Dillon, James, & Ginis, 1997) indicated subjectively that training reduced participants' communication difficulties. Peformance on a word identification task did not change. Conclusions Results suggest that auditory training might improve the ability of older participants with hearing loss to recognize the speech of their spouse and might improve communication interactions between couples. The results support a task-appropriate processing framework of learning, which assumes that human learning depends on the degree of similarity between training tasks and desired outcomes. PMID:27567016

  8. Malignant Melanoma of the External Auditory Canal

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Prasanna; Ravikumar, A; Joseph, Leena Dennis; Rajendiran, Swaminathan

    2014-01-01

    Primary malignant melanoma of the external auditory canal is rarely reported. Malignant melanoma of the ear is estimated to occur in 1-4% of all skin melanomas and about 7-20% of melanomas of the head and neck region. The pathophysiology of these tumours is different from other skin lesions because of their anatomical and functional characteristics. The case presented is of a 11 year old female child with malignant melanoma of the external auditory canal confined to the right side, who initially presented with right ear pain, bleeding, post auricular swelling and also a mass in the external auditory canal which was thought to be an aural polyp in the right ear. Excision of the tumour was accomplished by a radical mastoidectomy. It was confirmed to be malignant melanoma after histopathological examination and Immunohistochemistry. Despite all efforts, the patient succumbed to the disease after receiving three cycles of chemotherapy. Even though this malignancy is rarely found in the external auditory canal, it should be expanded into the differential diagnosis of an aural polyp and a post aural abscess. The incidence, symptoms, investigations, treatment and prognosis of malignant melanoma of the external auditory canal is discussed in this article. PMID:25302202

  9. Auditory gap detection in the early blind.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Kurt E; Stevens, Alexander A

    2006-01-01

    For blind individuals, audition provides critical information for interacting with the environment. Individuals blinded early in life (EB) typically show enhanced auditory abilities relative to sighted controls as measured by tasks requiring complex discrimination, attention and memory. In contrast, few deficits have been reported on tasks involving auditory sensory thresholds (e.g., Yates, J.T., Johnson, R.M., Starz, W.J., 1972. Loudness perception of the blind. Audiology 11(5), 368-376; Starlinger, I., Niemeyer, W., 1981. Do the blind hear better? Investigations on auditory processing in congenital or early acquired blindness. I. Peripheral functions. Audiology 20(6), 503-509). A study of gap detection stands at odds with this distinction [Muchnik, C., Efrati, M., Nemeth, E., Malin, M., Hildesheimer, M., 1991. Central auditory skills in blind and sighted subjects. Scand. Audiol. 20(1), 19-23]. In the current investigation we re-examined gap detection abilities in the EB using a single-interval, yes/no method. A group of younger sighted control individuals (SCy) was included in the analysis in addition to EB and sighted age matched control individuals (SCm) in order to examine the effect of age on gap detection performance. Estimates of gap detection thresholds for EB subjects were nearly identical to SCm subjects and slightly poorer relative to the SCy subjects. These results suggest some limits on the extent of auditory temporal advantages in the EB.

  10. Egocentric and allocentric representations in auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Town, Stephen M; Brimijoin, W Owen; Bizley, Jennifer K

    2017-06-01

    A key function of the brain is to provide a stable representation of an object's location in the world. In hearing, sound azimuth and elevation are encoded by neurons throughout the auditory system, and auditory cortex is necessary for sound localization. However, the coordinate frame in which neurons represent sound space remains undefined: classical spatial receptive fields in head-fixed subjects can be explained either by sensitivity to sound source location relative to the head (egocentric) or relative to the world (allocentric encoding). This coordinate frame ambiguity can be resolved by studying freely moving subjects; here we recorded spatial receptive fields in the auditory cortex of freely moving ferrets. We found that most spatially tuned neurons represented sound source location relative to the head across changes in head position and direction. In addition, we also recorded a small number of neurons in which sound location was represented in a world-centered coordinate frame. We used measurements of spatial tuning across changes in head position and direction to explore the influence of sound source distance and speed of head movement on auditory cortical activity and spatial tuning. Modulation depth of spatial tuning increased with distance for egocentric but not allocentric units, whereas, for both populations, modulation was stronger at faster movement speeds. Our findings suggest that early auditory cortex primarily represents sound source location relative to ourselves but that a minority of cells can represent sound location in the world independent of our own position.

  11. Comparison of perceptual properties of auditory streaming between spectral and amplitude modulation domains.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Shimpei; Otsuka, Sho; Furukawa, Shigeto; Kashino, Makio

    2017-03-18

    The two-tone sequence (ABA_), which comprises two different sounds (A and B) and a silent gap, has been used to investigate how the auditory system organizes sequential sounds depending on various stimulus conditions or brain states. Auditory streaming can be evoked by differences not only in the tone frequency ("spectral cue": ΔFTONE, TONE condition) but also in the amplitude modulation rate ("AM cue": ΔFAM, AM condition). The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between the perceptual properties of auditory streaming for the TONE and AM conditions. A sequence with a long duration (400 repetitions of ABA_) was used to examine the property of the bistability of streaming. The ratio of feature differences that evoked an equivalent probability of the segregated percept was close to the ratio of the Q-values of the auditory and modulation filters, consistent with a "channeling theory" of auditory streaming. On the other hand, for values of ΔFAM and ΔFTONE evoking equal probabilities of the segregated percept, the number of perceptual switches was larger for the TONE condition than for the AM condition, indicating that the mechanism(s) that determine the bistability of auditory streaming are different between or sensitive to the two domains. Nevertheless, the number of switches for individual listeners was positively correlated between the spectral and AM domains. The results suggest a possibility that the neural substrates for spectral and AM processes share a common switching mechanism but differ in location and/or in the properties of neural activity or the strength of internal noise at each level.

  12. Impaired auditory-to-motor entrainment in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Te Woerd, Erik S; Oostenveld, Robert; De Lange, Floris Pieter; Praamstra, Peter

    2017-02-08

    Several electrophysiological studies suggest that PD patients have a reduced tendency to entrain to regular environmental patterns. Here we investigate whether this reduced entrainment concerns a generalized deficit or is confined to movement-related activity, leaving sensory entrainment intact. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) was recorded during a rhythmic auditory target detection task in 14 PD patients and 14 control subjects. Participants were instructed to press a button when hearing a target tone amidst an isochronous sequence of standard tones. The variable pitch of standard tones indicated the probability of the next tone to be a target. In addition, targets were occasionally omitted to evaluate entrainment uncontaminated by stimulus effects. Response times were not significantly different between groups and both groups benefited equally from the predictive value of standard tones. Analyses of oscillatory beta power over auditory cortices showed equal entrainment to the tones in both groups. By contrast, oscillatory beta power and event-related fields (ERFs) demonstrated a reduced engagement of motor cortical areas in PD patients, expressed in the modulation depth of beta power, in the response to omitted stimuli, and in an absent motor area P300 effect. Together, these results show equally strong entrainment of neural activity over sensory areas in controls and patients, but, in patients, a deficient translation of the adjustment to the task rhythm to motor circuits. We suggest that the reduced activation does not merely reflect altered resonance to rhythmic external events, but a compromised recruitment of an endogenous response reflecting internal rhythm generation.

  13. Auditory brainstem responses to stop consonants predict literacy.

    PubMed

    Neef, Nicole E; Schaadt, Gesa; Friederici, Angela D

    2017-03-01

    Precise temporal coding of speech plays a pivotal role in sound processing throughout the central auditory system, which, in turn, influences literacy acquisition. The current study tests whether an electrophysiological measure of this precision predicts literacy skills. Complex auditory brainstem responses were analysed from 62 native German-speaking children aged 11-13years. We employed the cross-phaseogram approach to compute the quality of the electrophysiological stimulus contrast [da] and [ba]. Phase shifts were expected to vary with literacy. Receiver operating curves demonstrated a feasible sensitivity and specificity of the electrophysiological measure. A multiple regression analysis resulted in a significant prediction of literacy by delta cross-phase as well as phonological awareness. A further commonality analysis separated a unique variance that was explained by the physiological measure, from a unique variance that was explained by the behavioral measure, and common effects of both. Despite multicollinearities between literacy, phonological awareness, and subcortical differentiation of stop consonants, a combined assessment of behavior and physiology strongly increases the ability to predict literacy skills. The strong link between the neurophysiological signature of sound encoding and literacy outcome suggests that the delta cross-phase could indicate the risk of dyslexia and thereby complement subjective psychometric measures for early diagnoses. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. EEG Responses to Auditory Stimuli for Automatic Affect Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Hettich, Dirk T.; Bolinger, Elaina; Matuz, Tamara; Birbaumer, Niels; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang; Spüler, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Brain state classification for communication and control has been well established in the area of brain-computer interfaces over the last decades. Recently, the passive and automatic extraction of additional information regarding the psychological state of users from neurophysiological signals has gained increased attention in the interdisciplinary field of affective computing. We investigated how well specific emotional reactions, induced by auditory stimuli, can be detected in EEG recordings. We introduce an auditory emotion induction paradigm based on the International Affective Digitized Sounds 2nd Edition (IADS-2) database also suitable for disabled individuals. Stimuli are grouped in three valence categories: unpleasant, neutral, and pleasant. Significant differences in time domain domain event-related potentials are found in the electroencephalogram (EEG) between unpleasant and neutral, as well as pleasant and neutral conditions over midline electrodes. Time domain data were classified in three binary classification problems using a linear support vector machine (SVM) classifier. We discuss three classification performance measures in the context of affective computing and outline some strategies for conducting and reporting affect classification studies. PMID:27375410

  15. EEG Responses to Auditory Stimuli for Automatic Affect Recognition.

    PubMed

    Hettich, Dirk T; Bolinger, Elaina; Matuz, Tamara; Birbaumer, Niels; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang; Spüler, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Brain state classification for communication and control has been well established in the area of brain-computer interfaces over the last decades. Recently, the passive and automatic extraction of additional information regarding the psychological state of users from neurophysiological signals has gained increased attention in the interdisciplinary field of affective computing. We investigated how well specific emotional reactions, induced by auditory stimuli, can be detected in EEG recordings. We introduce an auditory emotion induction paradigm based on the International Affective Digitized Sounds 2nd Edition (IADS-2) database also suitable for disabled individuals. Stimuli are grouped in three valence categories: unpleasant, neutral, and pleasant. Significant differences in time domain domain event-related potentials are found in the electroencephalogram (EEG) between unpleasant and neutral, as well as pleasant and neutral conditions over midline electrodes. Time domain data were classified in three binary classification problems using a linear support vector machine (SVM) classifier. We discuss three classification performance measures in the context of affective computing and outline some strategies for conducting and reporting affect classification studies.

  16. Auditory stroop and absolute pitch: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Katrin; Mueller, Karsten; Koelsch, Stefan

    2013-07-01

    To date, the underlying cognitive and neural mechanisms of absolute pitch (AP) have remained elusive. In the present fMRI study, we investigated verbal and tonal perception and working memory in musicians with and without absolute pitch. Stimuli were sine wave tones and syllables (names of the scale tones) presented simultaneously. Participants listened to sequences of five stimuli, and then rehearsed internally either the syllables or the tones. Finally participants indicated whether a test stimulus had been presented during the sequence. For an auditory stroop task, half of the tonal sequences were congruent (frequencies of tones corresponded to syllables which were the names of the scale tones) and half were incongruent (frequencies of tones did not correspond to syllables). Results indicate that first, verbal and tonal perception overlap strongly in the left superior temporal gyrus/sulcus (STG/STS) in AP musicians only. Second, AP is associated with the categorical perception of tones. Third, the left STG/STS is activated in AP musicians only for the detection of verbal-tonal incongruencies in the auditory stroop task. Finally, verbal labelling of tones in AP musicians seems to be automatic. Overall, a unique feature of AP appears to be the similarity between verbal and tonal perception. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The interaction between duration, velocity and repetitive auditory stimulation.

    PubMed

    Makin, Alexis D J; Poliakoff, Ellen; Dillon, Joe; Perrin, Aimee; Mullet, Thomas; Jones, Luke A

    2012-03-01

    Repetitive auditory stimulation (with click trains) and visual velocity signals both have intriguing effects on the subjective passage of time. Previous studies have established that prior presentation of auditory clicks increases the subjective duration of subsequent sensory input, and that faster moving stimuli are also judged to have been presented for longer (the time dilation effect). However, the effect of clicks on velocity estimation is unknown, and the nature of the time dilation effect remains ambiguous. Here were present a series of five experiments to explore these phenomena in more detail. Participants viewed a rightward moving grating which traveled at velocities ranging from 5 to 15°/s and which lasted for durations of 500 to 1500 ms. Gratings were preceded by clicks, silence or white noise. It was found that both clicks and higher velocities increased subjective duration. It was also found that the time dilation effect was a constant proportion of stimulus duration. This implies that faster velocity increases the rate of the pacemaker component of the internal clock. Conversely, clicks increased subjective velocity, but the magnitude of this effect was not proportional to actual velocity. Through considerations of these results, we conclude that clicks independently affect velocity and duration representations.

  18. Auditory imagery and the poor-pitch singer.

    PubMed

    Pfordresher, Peter Q; Halpern, Andrea R

    2013-08-01

    The vocal imitation of pitch by singing requires one to plan laryngeal movements on the basis of anticipated target pitch events. This process may rely on auditory imagery, which has been shown to activate motor planning areas. As such, we hypothesized that poor-pitch singing, although not typically associated with deficient pitch perception, may be associated with deficient auditory imagery. Participants vocally imitated simple pitch sequences by singing, discriminated pitch pairs on the basis of pitch height, and completed an auditory imagery self-report questionnaire (the Bucknell Auditory Imagery Scale). The percentage of trials participants sung in tune correlated significantly with self-reports of vividness for auditory imagery, although not with the ability to control auditory imagery. Pitch discrimination was not predicted by auditory imagery scores. The results thus support a link between auditory imagery and vocal imitation.

  19. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genetics Home Health Conditions ADPEAF autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features Enable Javascript to view the ... Open All Close All Description Autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features ( ADPEAF ) is an uncommon form ...

  20. Musical experience shapes top-down auditory mechanisms: evidence from masking and auditory attention performance.

    PubMed

    Strait, Dana L; Kraus, Nina; Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; Ashley, Richard

    2010-03-01

    A growing body of research suggests that cognitive functions, such as attention and memory, drive perception by tuning sensory mechanisms to relevant acoustic features. Long-term musical experience also modulates lower-level auditory function, although the mechanisms by which this occurs remain uncertain. In order to tease apart the mechanisms that drive perceptual enhancements in musicians, we posed the question: do well-developed cognitive abilities fine-tune auditory perception in a top-down fashion? We administered a standardized battery of perceptual and cognitive tests to adult musicians and non-musicians, including tasks either more or less susceptible to cognitive control (e.g., backward versus simultaneous masking) and more or less dependent on auditory or visual processing (e.g., auditory versus visual attention). Outcomes indicate lower perceptual thresholds in musicians specifically for auditory tasks that relate with cognitive abilities, such as backward masking and auditory attention. These enhancements were observed in the absence of group differences for the simultaneous masking and visual attention tasks. Our results suggest that long-term musical practice strengthens cognitive functions and that these functions benefit auditory skills. Musical training bolsters higher-level mechanisms that, when impaired, relate to language and literacy deficits. Thus, musical training may serve to lessen the impact of these deficits by strengthening the corticofugal system for hearing. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Auditory detection and localization of approaching vehicles.

    PubMed

    Barton, Benjamin K; Ulrich, Thomas A; Lew, Roger

    2012-11-01

    Pedestrians must use a variety of cues when making safe decisions, many of which require processing of auditory information. We examined detection and localization of approaching vehicles using auditory cues. 50 adults ages 18-49 were presented with actual sounds of vehicles approaching at 5, 12, 25, and 35 mph. Three indices were of interest: the distance at which vehicles were detected, participants' decision regarding the direction from which vehicles were approaching, and their determination of the vehicles' arrival at their location. Participants more easily detected vehicles moving at higher speeds and vehicles approaching from the right. Determination of the direction of approach reached 90% accuracy or better when vehicles were traveling at, or greater than, 12 mph, and were more approaching from the right. Determination of vehicle arrival deteriorated significantly as speeds increased. Implications of the use of auditory cues in pedestrian settings, and future directions, are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Electrophysiological measurement of human auditory function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galambos, R.

    1975-01-01

    Knowledge of the human auditory evoked response is reviewed, including methods of determining this response, the way particular changes in the stimulus are coupled to specific changes in the response, and how the state of mind of the listener will influence the response. Important practical applications of this basic knowledge are discussed. Measurement of the brainstem evoked response, for instance, can state unequivocally how well the peripheral auditory apparatus functions. It might then be developed into a useful hearing test, especially for infants and preverbal or nonverbal children. Clinical applications of measuring the brain waves evoked 100 msec and later after the auditory stimulus are undetermined. These waves are clearly related to brain events associated with cognitive processing of acoustic signals, since their properties depend upon where the listener directs his attention and whether how long he expects the signal.

  3. Are Auditory Percepts Determined by Experience?

    PubMed Central

    Monson, Brian B.; Han, Shui’Er; Purves, Dale

    2013-01-01

    Audition–what listeners hear–is generally studied in terms of the physical properties of sound stimuli and physiological properties of the auditory system. Based on recent work in vision, we here consider an alternative perspective that sensory percepts are based on past experience. In this framework, basic auditory qualities (e.g., loudness and pitch) are based on the frequency of occurrence of stimulus patterns in natural acoustic stimuli. To explore this concept of audition, we examined five well-documented psychophysical functions. The frequency of occurrence of acoustic patterns in a database of natural sound stimuli (speech) predicts some qualitative aspects of these functions, but with substantial quantitative discrepancies. This approach may offer a rationale for auditory phenomena that are difficult to explain in terms of the physical attributes of the stimuli as such. PMID:23667666

  4. Applied research in auditory data representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frysinger, Steve P.

    1990-08-01

    A class of data displays, characterized generally as Auditory Data Representation, is described and motivated. This type of data representation takes advantage of the tremendous pattern recognition capability of the human auditory channel. Audible displays offer an alternative means of conveying quantitative data to the analyst to facilitate information extraction, and are successfully used alone and in conjunction with visual displays. The Auditory Data Representation literature is reviewed, along with elements of the allied fields of investigation, Psychoacoustics and Musical Perception. A methodology for applied research in this field, based upon the well-developed discipline of psychophysics, is elaborated using a recent experiment as a case study. This method permits objective estimation of a data representation technique by comparing it to alternative displays for the pattern recognition task at hand. The psychophysical threshold of signal to noise level, for constant pattern recognition performance, is the measure of display effectiveness.

  5. Are auditory percepts determined by experience?

    PubMed

    Monson, Brian B; Han, Shui'Er; Purves, Dale

    2013-01-01

    Audition--what listeners hear--is generally studied in terms of the physical properties of sound stimuli and physiological properties of the auditory system. Based on recent work in vision, we here consider an alternative perspective that sensory percepts are based on past experience. In this framework, basic auditory qualities (e.g., loudness and pitch) are based on the frequency of occurrence of stimulus patterns in natural acoustic stimuli. To explore this concept of audition, we examined five well-documented psychophysical functions. The frequency of occurrence of acoustic patterns in a database of natural sound stimuli (speech) predicts some qualitative aspects of these functions, but with substantial quantitative discrepancies. This approach may offer a rationale for auditory phenomena that are difficult to explain in terms of the physical attributes of the stimuli as such.

  6. Morphological and physiological development of auditory synapses

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wei-Ming; Goodrich, Lisa V.

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic communication requires gathering, transforming, and interpreting diverse sound cues. To achieve this, all the spatial and temporal features of complex sound stimuli must be captured in the firing patterns of the primary sensory neurons and then accurately transmitted along auditory pathways for additional processing. The mammalian auditory system relies on several synapses with unique properties in order to meet this task: the auditory ribbon synapses, the endbulb of Held, and the calyx of Held. Each of these synapses develops morphological and electrophysiological characteristics that enable the remarkably precise signal transmission necessary for conveying the miniscule differences in timing that underly sound localization. In this article, we review the current knowledge of how these synapses develop and mature to acquire the specialized features necessary for the sense of hearing. PMID:24508369

  7. The mitochondrial connection in auditory neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Cacace, Anthony T; Pinheiro, Joaquim M B

    2011-01-01

    'Auditory neuropathy' (AN), the term used to codify a primary degeneration of the auditory nerve, can be linked directly or indirectly to mitochondrial dysfunction. These observations are based on the expression of AN in known mitochondrial-based neurological diseases (Friedreich's ataxia, Mohr-Tranebjærg syndrome), in conditions where defects in axonal transport, protein trafficking, and fusion processes perturb and/or disrupt mitochondrial dynamics (Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, autosomal dominant optic atrophy), in a common neonatal condition known to be toxic to mitochondria (hyperbilirubinemia), and where respiratory chain deficiencies produce reductions in oxidative phosphorylation that adversely affect peripheral auditory mechanisms. This body of evidence is solidified by data derived from temporal bone and genetic studies, biochemical, molecular biologic, behavioral, electroacoustic, and electrophysiological investigations.

  8. Phonetic categorization in auditory word perception.

    PubMed

    Ganong, W F

    1980-02-01

    To investigate the interaction in speech perception of auditory information and lexical knowledge (in particular, knowledge of which phonetic sequences are words), acoustic continua varying in voice onset time were constructed so that for each acoustic continuum, one of the two possible phonetic categorizations made a word and the other did not. For example, one continuum ranged between the word dash and the nonword tash; another used the nonword dask and the word task. In two experiments, subjects showed a significant lexical effect--that is, a tendency to make phonetic categorizations that make words. This lexical effect was greater at the phoneme boundary (where auditory information is ambiguous) than at the ends of the condinua. Hence the lexical effect must arise at a stage of processing sensitive to both lexical knowledge and auditory information.

  9. [Functional neuroimaging of auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Font, M; Parellada, E; Fernández-Egea, E; Bernardo, M; Lomeña, F

    2003-01-01

    The neurobiological bases underlying the generation of auditory hallucinations, a distressing and paradigmatic symptom of schizophrenia, are still unknown in spite of in-depth phenomenological descriptions. This work aims to make a critical review of the latest published literature in recent years, focusing on functional neuroimaging studies (PET, SPECT, fMRI) of auditory hallucinations. Thus, the studies are classified according to whether they are sensory activation, trait and state. The two main hypotheses proposed to explain the phenomenon, external speech vs. subvocal or inner speech, are also explained. Finally, the latest unitary theory as well as the limitations the studies published are commented on. The need to continue investigating in this field, that is still underdeveloped, is posed in order to understand better the etiopathogenesis of auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia.

  10. Auditory Alterations in Children Infected by Human Immunodeficiency Virus Verified Through Auditory Processing Test

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Ana Carla Leite; Alfaya, Lívia Marangoni; Gonçales, Alina Sanches; Frizzo, Ana Claudia Figueiredo; Isaac, Myriam de Lima

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The auditory system of HIV-positive children may have deficits at various levels, such as the high incidence of problems in the middle ear that can cause hearing loss. Objective The objective of this study is to characterize the development of children infected by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in the Simplified Auditory Processing Test (SAPT) and the Staggered Spondaic Word Test. Methods We performed behavioral tests composed of the Simplified Auditory Processing Test and the Portuguese version of the Staggered Spondaic Word Test (SSW). The participants were 15 children infected by HIV, all using antiretroviral medication. Results The children had abnormal auditory processing verified by Simplified Auditory Processing Test and the Portuguese version of SSW. In the Simplified Auditory Processing Test, 60% of the children presented hearing impairment. In the SAPT, the memory test for verbal sounds showed more errors (53.33%); whereas in SSW, 86.67% of the children showed deficiencies indicating deficit in figure-ground, attention, and memory auditory skills. Furthermore, there are more errors in conditions of background noise in both age groups, where most errors were in the left ear in the Group of 8-year-olds, with similar results for the group aged 9 years. Conclusion The high incidence of hearing loss in children with HIV and comorbidity with several biological and environmental factors indicate the need for: 1) familiar and professional awareness of the impact on auditory alteration on the developing and learning of the children with HIV, and 2) access to educational plans and follow-up with multidisciplinary teams as early as possible to minimize the damage caused by auditory deficits. PMID:28050213

  11. Auditory Alterations in Children Infected by Human Immunodeficiency Virus Verified Through Auditory Processing Test.

    PubMed

    Romero, Ana Carla Leite; Alfaya, Lívia Marangoni; Gonçales, Alina Sanches; Frizzo, Ana Claudia Figueiredo; Isaac, Myriam de Lima

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The auditory system of HIV-positive children may have deficits at various levels, such as the high incidence of problems in the middle ear that can cause hearing loss. Objective The objective of this study is to characterize the development of children infected by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in the Simplified Auditory Processing Test (SAPT) and the Staggered Spondaic Word Test. Methods We performed behavioral tests composed of the Simplified Auditory Processing Test and the Portuguese version of the Staggered Spondaic Word Test (SSW). The participants were 15 children infected by HIV, all using antiretroviral medication. Results The children had abnormal auditory processing verified by Simplified Auditory Processing Test and the Portuguese version of SSW. In the Simplified Auditory Processing Test, 60% of the children presented hearing impairment. In the SAPT, the memory test for verbal sounds showed more errors (53.33%); whereas in SSW, 86.67% of the children showed deficiencies indicating deficit in figure-ground, attention, and memory auditory skills. Furthermore, there are more errors in conditions of background noise in both age groups, where most errors were in the left ear in the Group of 8-year-olds, with similar results for the group aged 9 years. Conclusion The high incidence of hearing loss in children with HIV and comorbidity with several biological and environmental factors indicate the need for: 1) familiar and professional awareness of the impact on auditory alteration on the developing and learning of the children with HIV, and 2) access to educational plans and follow-up with multidisciplinary teams as early as possible to minimize the damage caused by auditory deficits.

  12. What Determines Auditory Distraction? On the Roles of Local Auditory Changes and Expectation Violations

    PubMed Central

    Röer, Jan P.; Bell, Raoul; Buchner, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Both the acoustic variability of a distractor sequence and the degree to which it violates expectations are important determinants of auditory distraction. In four experiments we examined the relative contribution of local auditory changes on the one hand and expectation violations on the other hand in the disruption of serial recall by irrelevant sound. We present evidence for a greater disruption by auditory sequences ending in unexpected steady state distractor repetitions compared to auditory sequences with expected changing state endings even though the former contained fewer local changes. This effect was demonstrated with piano melodies (Experiment 1) and speech distractors (Experiment 2). Furthermore, it was replicated when the expectation violation occurred after the encoding of the target items (Experiment 3), indicating that the items' maintenance in short-term memory was disrupted by attentional capture and not their encoding. This seems to be primarily due to the violation of a model of the specific auditory distractor sequences because the effect vanishes and even reverses when the experiment provides no opportunity to build up a specific neural model about the distractor sequence (Experiment 4). Nevertheless, the violation of abstract long-term knowledge about auditory regularities seems to cause a small and transient capture effect: Disruption decreased markedly over the course of the experiments indicating that participants habituated to the unexpected distractor repetitions across trials. The overall pattern of results adds to the growing literature that the degree to which auditory distractors violate situation-specific expectations is a more important determinant of auditory distraction than the degree to which a distractor sequence contains local auditory changes. PMID:24400081

  13. The dorsal auditory pathway is involved in performance of both visual and auditory rhythms.

    PubMed

    Karabanov, Anke; Blom, Orjan; Forsman, Lea; Ullén, Fredrik

    2009-01-15

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the effect of two factors on the neural control of temporal sequence performance: the modality in which the rhythms had been trained, and the modality of the pacing stimuli preceding performance. The rhythms were trained 1-2 days before scanning. Each participant learned two rhythms: one was presented visually, the other auditorily. During fMRI, the rhythms were performed in blocks. In each block, four beats of a visual or auditory pacing metronome were followed by repetitive self-paced rhythm performance from memory. Data from the self-paced performance phase was analysed in a 2x2 factorial design, with the two factors Training Modality (auditory or visual) and Metronome Modality (auditory or visual), as well as with a conjunction analysis across all active conditions, to identify activations that were independent of both Training Modality and Metronome Modality. We found a significant main effect only for visual versus auditory Metronome Modality, in the left angular gyrus, due to a deactivation of this region after auditory pacing. The conjunction analysis revealed a set of brain areas that included dorsal auditory pathway areas (left temporo-parietal junction area and ventral premotor cortex), dorsal premotor cortex, the supplementary and presupplementary premotor areas, the cerebellum and the basal ganglia. We conclude that these regions are involved in controlling performance of well-learned rhythms, regardless of the modality in which the rhythms are trained and paced. This suggests that after extensive short-term training, all rhythms, even those that were both trained and paced in visual modality, had been transformed into auditory-motor representations. The deactivation of the angular cortex following auditory pacing may represent cross-modal auditory-visual inhibition.

  14. The development of auditory perception in children after auditory brainstem implantation.

    PubMed

    Colletti, Liliana; Shannon, Robert V; Colletti, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    Auditory brainstem implants (ABIs) can provide useful auditory perception and language development in deaf children who are not able to use a cochlear implant (CI). We prospectively followed up a consecutive group of 64 deaf children up to 12 years following ABI surgery. The etiology of deafness in these children was: cochlear nerve aplasia in 49, auditory neuropathy in 1, cochlear malformations in 8, bilateral cochlear postmeningitic ossification in 3, neurofibromatosis type 2 in 2, and bilateral cochlear fractures due to a head injury in 1. Thirty-five children had other congenital nonauditory disabilities. Twenty-two children had previous CIs with no benefit. Fifty-eight children were fitted with the Cochlear 24 ABI device and 6 with the MedEl ABI device, and all children followed the same rehabilitation program. Auditory perceptual abilities were evaluated on the Categories of Auditory Performance (CAP) scale. No child was lost to follow-up, and there were no exclusions from the study. All children showed significant improvement in auditory perception with implant experience. Seven children (11%) were able to achieve the highest score on the CAP test; they were able to converse on the telephone within 3 years of implantation. Twenty children (31.3%) achieved open set speech recognition (CAP score of 5 or greater) and 30 (46.9%) achieved a CAP level of 4 or greater. Of the 29 children without nonauditory disabilities, 18 (62%) achieved a CAP score of 5 or greater with the ABI. All children showed continued improvements in auditory skills over time. The long-term results of ABI surgery reveal significant auditory benefit in most children, and open set auditory recognition in many.

  15. Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder Masquerading as Social Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Mukund G.; Mishra, Shree; Varambally, Shivarama; Nagarajarao, Shivashankar; Gangadhar, Bangalore N.

    2015-01-01

    The authors report a case of a 47-year-old man who presented with treatment-resistant anxiety disorder. Behavioral observation raised clinical suspicion of auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder. The presence of auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder was confirmed on audiological investigations. The patient was experiencing extreme symptoms of anxiety, which initially masked the underlying diagnosis of auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder. Challenges in diagnosis and treatment of auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder are discussed. PMID:26351622

  16. Auditory Localization Performance with Gamma Integrated Eye and Ear Protection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person...front-back confusions). 15. SUBJECT TERMS auditory localization, TCAPS, hearing protection, eye protection, auditory situation awareness 16. SECURITY...documented effects have led to the inclusion of auditory localization ability as a measure of auditory “situation awareness ” for TCAPS, and it has been

  17. [Auditory perception and language: functional imaging of speech sensitive auditory cortex].

    PubMed

    Samson, Y; Belin, P; Thivard, L; Boddaert, N; Crozier, S; Zilbovicius, M

    2001-09-01

    Since the description of cortical deafness, it has been known that the superior temporal cortex is bilaterally involved in the initial stages of language auditory perception but the precise anatomical limits and the function of this area remain debated. Here we reviewed more than 40 recent papers of positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging related to language auditory perception, and we performed a meta-analysis of the localization of the peaks of activation in the Talairach's space. We found 8 studies reporting word versus non-word listening contrasts with 54 activation peaks in the temporal lobes. These peaks clustered in a bilateral and well-limited area of the temporal superior cortex, which is here operationally defined as the speech sensitive auditory cortex. This area is more than 4cm long, located in the superior temporal gyrus and the superior temporal sulcus, both anterior and posterior to Heschl's gyrus. It do not include the primary auditory cortex nor the ascending part of the planum temporale. The speech sensitive auditory cortex is not activated by pure tones, environmental sounds, or attention directed toward elementary components of a sound such as intensity, pitch, or duration, and thus has some specificity for speech signals. The specificity is not perfect, since we found a number of non-speech auditory stimuli activating the speech sensitive auditory cortex. Yet the latter studies always involve auditory perception mechanisms which are also relevant to speech perception either at the level of primitive auditory scene analysis processes, or at the level of specific schema-based recognition processes. The dorsal part of the speech sensitive auditory cortex may be involved in primitive scene analysis processes, whereas distributed activation of this area may contribute to the emergence of a broad class of "voice" schemas and of more specific "speech schemas/phonetic modules" related to different languages. In addition

  18. Binaural auditory processing in multiple sclerosis subjects.

    PubMed

    Levine, R A; Gardner, J C; Stufflebeam, S M; Fullerton, B C; Carlisle, E W; Furst, M; Rosen, B R; Kiang, N Y

    1993-06-01

    In order to relate human auditory processing to physiological and anatomical experimental animal data, we have examined the interrelationships between behavioral, electrophysiological and anatomical data obtained from human subjects with focal brainstem lesions. Thirty-eight subjects with multiple sclerosis were studied with tests of interaural time and level discrimination (just noticeable differences or jnds), brainstem auditory evoked potentials and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Interaural testing used two types of stimuli, high-pass (> 4000 Hz) and low-pass (< 1000 Hz) noise bursts. Abnormal time jnds (Tjnd) were far more common than abnormal level jnds (70% vs 11%); especially for the high-pass (Hp) noise (70% abnormal vs 40% abnormal for low-pass (Lp) noise). The HpTjnd could be abnormal with no other abnormalities; however, whenever the BAEPs, LpTjnd and/or level jnds were abnormal HpTjnd was always abnormal. Abnormal wave III amplitude was associated with abnormalities in both time jnds, but abnormal wave III latency with only abnormal HpTjnds. Abnormal wave V amplitude, when unilateral, was associated with a major HpTjnd abnormality, and, when bilateral, with both HpTjnd and LpTjnd major abnormalities. Sixteen of the subjects had their MR scans obtained with a uniform protocol and could be analyzed with objective criteria. In all four subjects with lesions involving the pontine auditory pathway, the BAEPs and both time jnds were abnormal. Of the twelve subjects with no lesions involving the pontine auditory pathway, all had normal BAEPs and level jnds, ten had normal LpTjnds, but only five had normal HpTjnds. We conclude that interaural time discrimination is closely related to the BAEPs and is dependent upon the stimulus spectrum. Redundant encoding of low-frequency sounds in the discharge patterns of auditory neurons, may explain why the HpTjnd is a better indicator of neural desynchrony than the LpTjnd. Encroachment of MS lesions upon the pontine

  19. Auditory dysfunction in Ramsay Hunt syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Iragui, V J

    1986-01-01

    A 48-year-old woman with a Ramsay Hunt syndrome due to herpes zoster had a hearing deficit. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) localised the site of dysfunction to the ipsilateral eighth nerve. Clinical improvement was associated with improvement of the BAEP. Conventional audiological studies and BAEPs provided no evidence of involvement of the cochlea or the brainstem. In Ramsay Hunt syndrome, BAEPs may help to localise the site of involvement within the auditory pathway and follow the course of the disease. PMID:3746312

  20. Auditory Integration Training: The Magical Mystery Cure.

    PubMed

    Tharpe, Anne Marie

    1999-10-01

    Since its introduction in this country at the beginning of the decade, auditory integration training (AIT) has generated enthusiasm in parents and some clinicians, and harsh criticism by others. AIT has been promoted as a non-invasive treatment for auditory disorders that are believed to lead to attention and behavior problems. It has been particularly popular as a treatment for autism. Although parents cite numerous anecdotal reports of treatment success, many professionals frown on AIT's widespread practice prior to undergoing scientific scrutiny. The reasons for cautious evaluation of AIT prior to implementation in clinical practice are reviewed, along with a brief summary of current research findings.

  1. The many facets of auditory display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blattner, Meera M.

    1995-01-01

    In this presentation we will examine some of the ways sound can be used in a virtual world. We make the case that many different types of audio experience are available to us. A full range of audio experiences include: music, speech, real-world sounds, auditory displays, and auditory cues or messages. The technology of recreating real-world sounds through physical modeling has advanced in the past few years allowing better simulation of virtual worlds. Three-dimensional audio has further enriched our sensory experiences.

  2. Auditory Spatial Receptive Fields Created by Multiplication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña, José Luis; Konishi, Masakazu

    2001-04-01

    Examples of multiplication by neurons or neural circuits are scarce, although many computational models use this basic operation. The owl's auditory system computes interaural time (ITD) and level (ILD) differences to create a two-dimensional map of auditory space. Space-specific neurons are selective for combinations of ITD and ILD, which define, respectively, the horizontal and vertical dimensions of their receptive fields. A multiplication of separate postsynaptic potentials tuned to ITD and ILD, rather than an addition, can account for the subthreshold responses of these neurons to ITD-ILD pairs. Other nonlinear processes improve the spatial tuning of the spike output and reduce the fit to the multiplicative model.

  3. Phonetic invariance in the human auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Aulanko, R; Hari, R; Lounasmaa, O V; Näätänen, R; Sams, M

    1993-09-30

    Neuromagnetic signals evoked by synthesized syllables (/bae/ and /gae/) were recorded over the left auditory cortex of healthy humans. The fundamental frequencies of the syllables varied as if the same speaker had pronounced them at 16 different pitches. Specific mismatch responses to infrequent syllables among frequent syllables of the other type indicated that phonetically invariant information had been extracted at the level of the auditory cortex from the extensive irrelevant pitch variation. Such a detection mechanism is necessary for perceiving speech sounds in natural situations with a great deal of acoustic variation present.

  4. Auditory neuroscience: Development, transduction, and integration

    PubMed Central

    Hudspeth, A. J.; Konishi, Masakazu

    2000-01-01

    Hearing underlies our ability to locate sound sources in the environment, our appreciation of music, and our ability to communicate. Participants in the National Academy of Sciences colloquium on Auditory Neuroscience: Development, Transduction, and Integration presented research results bearing on four key issues in auditory research. How does the complex inner ear develop? How does the cochlea transduce sounds into electrical signals? How does the brain's ability to compute the location of a sound source develop? How does the forebrain analyze complex sounds, particularly species-specific communications? This article provides an introduction to the papers stemming from the meeting. PMID:11050196

  5. Developing and Presenting Auditory Demonstrations: Two Sound Editor Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firment, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    Experiencing examples of auditory phenomena can clarify textbook and lecture explanations. The addition of visual displays to auditory demonstrations can make them more understandable. Two sound editor programs, Audacity[R] and Adobe Audition Pro 2.0[R], provide excellent capabilities for the display and authoring of auditory demonstrations.…

  6. Comorbidity of Auditory Processing, Language, and Reading Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Mridula; Purdy, Suzanne C.; Kelly, Andrea S.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The authors assessed comorbidity of auditory processing disorder (APD), language impairment (LI), and reading disorder (RD) in school-age children. Method: Children (N = 68) with suspected APD and nonverbal IQ standard scores of 80 or more were assessed using auditory, language, reading, attention, and memory measures. Auditory processing…

  7. Auditory Stream Biasing in Children with Reading Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouimet, Tialee; Balaban, Evan

    2010-01-01

    Reading impairments have previously been associated with auditory processing differences. We examined "auditory stream biasing", a global aspect of auditory temporal processing. Children with reading impairments, control children and adults heard a 10 s long stream-bias-inducing sound sequence (a repeating 1000 Hz tone) and a test sequence (eight…

  8. 21 CFR 874.1090 - Auditory impedance tester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Auditory impedance tester. 874.1090 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 874.1090 Auditory impedance tester. (a) Identification. An auditory impedance tester is a device that is intended to change the air pressure in...

  9. 21 CFR 874.1090 - Auditory impedance tester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Auditory impedance tester. 874.1090 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 874.1090 Auditory impedance tester. (a) Identification. An auditory impedance tester is a device that is intended to change the air pressure in...

  10. 21 CFR 874.1090 - Auditory impedance tester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Auditory impedance tester. 874.1090 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 874.1090 Auditory impedance tester. (a) Identification. An auditory impedance tester is a device that is intended to change the air pressure in...

  11. 21 CFR 874.1090 - Auditory impedance tester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Auditory impedance tester. 874.1090 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 874.1090 Auditory impedance tester. (a) Identification. An auditory impedance tester is a device that is intended to change the air pressure in...

  12. 21 CFR 874.1090 - Auditory impedance tester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Auditory impedance tester. 874.1090 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 874.1090 Auditory impedance tester. (a) Identification. An auditory impedance tester is a device that is intended to change the air pressure in...

  13. The Use of Decoy Sentences to Measure Auditory Training Gains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mapes, Frances M.; Moreau, Roberta

    1980-01-01

    To investigate students' ability to generalize auditory skills, precourse to postcourse measures were compared for an auditory training group (N=42) and a control group (N=7) on three auditory discimination measures: (1) the training sentences, (2) related but nontrained sentences (decoy sentences), and (3) a modified rhyme test. (Author/PHR)

  14. Auditory Hypersensitivity in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucker, Jay R.

    2013-01-01

    A review of records was completed to determine whether children with auditory hypersensitivities have difficulty tolerating loud sounds due to auditory-system factors or some other factors not directly involving the auditory system. Records of 150 children identified as not meeting autism spectrum disorders (ASD) criteria and another 50 meeting…

  15. New Approaches to Studying Auditory Processing in Marine Mammals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. New Approaches to Studying Auditory Processing in...mammals process and respond to complex, real-world sounds by developing new experimental approaches to studying marine mammal auditory perception...The results of this study would provide new methodologies to enable the study of more complex features of auditory perception such as subjective

  16. Auditory Temporal Processing as a Specific Deficit among Dyslexic Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fostick, Leah; Bar-El, Sharona; Ram-Tsur, Ronit

    2012-01-01

    The present study focuses on examining the hypothesis that auditory temporal perception deficit is a basic cause for reading disabilities among dyslexics. This hypothesis maintains that reading impairment is caused by a fundamental perceptual deficit in processing rapid auditory or visual stimuli. Since the auditory perception involves a number of…

  17. Differential effects of rhythmic auditory stimulation and neurodevelopmental treatment/Bobath on gait patterns in adults with cerebral palsy: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo Ji; Kwak, Eunmi E; Park, Eun Sook; Cho, Sung-Rae

    2012-10-01

    To investigate the effects of rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS) on gait patterns in comparison with changes after neurodevelopmental treatment (NDT/Bobath) in adults with cerebral palsy. A repeated-measures analysis between the pretreatment and posttreatment tests and a comparison study between groups. Human gait analysis laboratory. Twenty-eight cerebral palsy patients with bilateral spasticity participated in this study. The subjects were randomly allocated to either neurodevelopmental treatment (n = 13) or rhythmic auditory stimulation (n = 15). Gait training with rhythmic auditory stimulation or neurodevelopmental treatment was performed three sessions per week for three weeks. Temporal and kinematic data were analysed before and after the intervention. Rhythmic auditory stimulation was provided using a combination of a metronome beat set to the individual's cadence and rhythmic cueing from a live keyboard, while neurodevelopmental treatment was implemented following the traditional method. Temporal data, kinematic parameters and gait deviation index as a measure of overall gait pathology were assessed. Temporal gait measures revealed that rhythmic auditory stimulation significantly increased cadence, walking velocity, stride length, and step length (P < 0.05). Kinematic data demonstrated that anterior tilt of the pelvis and hip flexion during a gait cycle was significantly ameliorated after rhythmic auditory stimulation (P < 0.05). Gait deviation index also showed modest improvement in cerebral palsy patients treated with rhythmic auditory stimulation (P < 0.05). However, neurodevelopmental treatment showed that internal and external rotations of hip joints were significantly improved, whereas rhythmic auditory stimulation showed aggravated maximal internal rotation in the transverse plane (P < 0.05). Gait training with rhythmic auditory stimulation or neurodevelopmental treatment elicited differential effects on gait patterns in adults with cerebral palsy.

  18. Analysis of auditory function using brainstem auditory evoked potentials and auditory steady state responses in infants with perinatal brain injury.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Aguirre, Alma Janeth; Santiago-Rodríguez, Efraín; Harmony, Thalía; Fernández-Bouzas, Antonio; Porras-Kattz, Eneida

    2010-02-01

    Approximately 2-4 % of newborns with perinatal risk factors present hearing loss. The aim of this study was to analyse the auditory function in infants with perinatal brain injury (PBI). Brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs), auditory steady state responses (ASSRs), and tympanometry studies were carried out in 294 infants with PBI (586 ears, two infants had unilateral microtia-atresia). BAEPs were abnormal in 158 (27%) ears, ASSRs in 227 (39%), and tympanometry anomalies were present in 131 (22%) ears. When ASSR thresholds were compared with BAEPs, the assessment yielded 92% sensitivity and 68% specificity. When ASSR thresholds were compared with tympanometry results as an indicator of middle-ear pathology, the assessment gave 96% sensitivity and 77% specificity. When BAEP thresholds were compared with tympanometry results, sensitivity was 35% and specificity 95%. In conclusion, BAEPs are useful test for neonatal auditory screening; they identify with more accuracy sensorineural hearing losses. ASSRs are more pertinent for identifying conductive hearing loss associated with middle-ear pathology. The consistency and accuracy of these results could be considered in additional studies.

  19. Hearing, Auditory Processing, and Language Skills of Male Youth Offenders and Remandees in Youth Justice Residences in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lount, Sarah A.; Purdy, Suzanne C.; Hand, Linda

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: International evidence suggests youth offenders have greater difficulties with oral language than their nonoffending peers. This study examined the hearing, auditory processing, and language skills of male youth offenders and remandees (YORs) in New Zealand. Method: Thirty-three male YORs, aged 14-17 years, were recruited from 2 youth…

  20. Hearing, Auditory Processing, and Language Skills of Male Youth Offenders and Remandees in Youth Justice Residences in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lount, Sarah A.; Purdy, Suzanne C.; Hand, Linda

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: International evidence suggests youth offenders have greater difficulties with oral language than their nonoffending peers. This study examined the hearing, auditory processing, and language skills of male youth offenders and remandees (YORs) in New Zealand. Method: Thirty-three male YORs, aged 14-17 years, were recruited from 2 youth…

  1. Cortical auditory evoked potentials in the assessment of auditory neuropathy: two case studies.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Wendy; Golding, Maryanne; Dillon, Harvey

    2007-05-01

    Infants with auditory neuropathy and possible hearing impairment are being identified at very young ages through the implementation of hearing screening programs. The diagnosis is commonly based on evidence of normal cochlear function but abnormal brainstem function. This lack of normal brainstem function is highly problematic when prescribing amplification in young infants because prescriptive formulae require the input of hearing thresholds that are normally estimated from auditory brainstem responses to tonal stimuli. Without this information, there is great uncertainty surrounding the final fitting. Cortical auditory evoked potentials may, however, still be evident and reliably recorded to speech stimuli presented at conversational levels. The case studies of two infants are presented that demonstrate how these higher order electrophysiological responses may be utilized in the audiological management of some infants with auditory neuropathy.

  2. Synchronous auditory nerve activity in the carboplatin-chinchilla model of auditory neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Cowper-Smith, C. D.; Dingle, R. N.; Guo, Y.; Burkard, R.; Phillips, D. P.

    2010-01-01

    Two hallmark features of auditory neuropathy (AN) are normal outer hair cell function in the presence of an absent∕abnormal auditory brainstem response (ABR). Studies of human AN patients are unable to determine whether disruption of the ABR is the result of a reduction of neural input, a loss of auditory nerve fiber (ANF) synchrony, or both. Neurophysiological data from the carboplatin model of AN reveal intact neural synchrony in the auditory nerve and inferior colliculus, despite significant reductions in neural input. These data suggest that (1), intact neural synchrony is available to support an ABR following carboplatin treatment and, (2), impaired spike timing intrinsic to neurons is required for the disruption of the ABR observed in human AN. PMID:20649190

  3. Effects of training and motivation on auditory P300 brain-computer interface performance.

    PubMed

    Baykara, E; Ruf, C A; Fioravanti, C; Käthner, I; Simon, N; Kleih, S C; Kübler, A; Halder, S

    2016-01-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) technology aims at helping end-users with severe motor paralysis to communicate with their environment without using the natural output pathways of the brain. For end-users in complete paralysis, loss of gaze control may necessitate non-visual BCI systems. The present study investigated the effect of training on performance with an auditory P300 multi-class speller paradigm. For half of the participants, spatial cues were added to the auditory stimuli to see whether performance can be further optimized. The influence of motivation, mood and workload on performance and P300 component was also examined. In five sessions, 16 healthy participants were instructed to spell several words by attending to animal sounds representing the rows and columns of a 5 × 5 letter matrix. 81% of the participants achieved an average online accuracy of ⩾ 70%. From the first to the fifth session information transfer rates increased from 3.72 bits/min to 5.63 bits/min. Motivation significantly influenced P300 amplitude and online ITR. No significant facilitative effect of spatial cues on performance was observed. Training improves performance in an auditory BCI paradigm. Motivation influences performance and P300 amplitude. The described auditory BCI system may help end-users to communicate independently of gaze control with their environment. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Brainstem auditory evoked potentials as a method to assist the diagnosis of brain death].

    PubMed

    Jardim, Mônica; Person, Osmar Clayton; Rapoport, Priscila Bogar

    2008-01-01

    brainstem auditory evoked potentials in brain death. to verify the agreement between the response in the auditory brainstem audiometry and the clinical outcome, analyzing the pattern of responses to electric stimulation. a cross-sectional study performed in 30 patients with Glasgow coma score of 3, submitted to the auditory brainstem audiometry and followed up until their clinical outcome: recovery or death. The test was considered positive to brain death when there was no registry of waves or when there was only the registry of wave I; and negative when there were two or more waves, independently of their latencies. Among the patients who presented positive results for brain death (86.66%), all died; the only patient who recovered presented a negative result, indicating a specificity of 100%. Internal consistency of data was also observed, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.562, obtained using the Cronbach s test; and a significant agreement between the test and the clinical outcome using the Kappa s test, with a confidence interval of 95% (K = 0.545; p = 0.015). in the present study, the brainstem auditory evoked potential demonstrated to be highly specific in death prediction of patients in Glasgow coma score of 3, and was useful in assisting the diagnosis of brain death.

  5. Stochastic resonance at the periphery of auditory system: A simulation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimskaya-Korsakova, L. K.

    2004-03-01

    An auditory nerve fiber model is studied. The model includes the formation of the response of the basilar membrane, formation of the receptor potential of the internal hair cell, formation of the synaptic potential of the auditory nerve fiber, and transformation of the synaptic potential into a sequence of spikes. The role of this transformation, as well as the role of changes in the excitability of the fiber after the spike generation in the coding of amplitude-modulated signals is revealed for the cases of signals of medium (i.e., corresponding to the sloping part of the curve representing the mean firing rate of an auditory nerve fiber as a function of the stimulus level) and subthreshold levels. Simulated experiments show that the coding of the envelope of a medium-level amplitude-modulated signal is a dynamic process, which includes fine tuning (adaptation) of the threshold of the auditory nerve fiber to the stimulus level. The coding of the signal envelope is little affected by the slope of the dependence of the mean firing rate on the stimulus level. However, fibers with steep input-output characteristics may exhibit stochastic resonance properties. Owing to these properties, such fibers are capable of reproducing the envelope of a subthreshold modulated signal when weak noise is added to it. Ways are considered for extending the range of subthreshold signal and noise levels within which the envelope of a modulated signal is reproduced (or the phenomenon of stochastic resonance is observed).

  6. Temporal envelope processing in the human auditory cortex: response and interconnections of auditory cortical areas.

    PubMed

    Gourévitch, Boris; Le Bouquin Jeannès, Régine; Faucon, Gérard; Liégeois-Chauvel, Catherine

    2008-03-01

    Temporal envelope processing in the human auditory cortex has an important role in language analysis. In this paper, depth recordings of local field potentials in response to amplitude modulated white noises were used to design maps of activation in primary, secondary and associative auditory areas and to study the propagation of the cortical activity between them. The comparison of activations between auditory areas was based on a signal-to-noise ratio associated with the response to amplitude modulation (AM). The functional connectivity between cortical areas was quantified by the directed coherence (DCOH) applied to auditory evoked potentials. This study shows the following reproducible results on twenty subjects: (1) the primary auditory cortex (PAC), the secondary cortices (secondary auditory cortex (SAC) and planum temporale (PT)), the insular gyrus, the Brodmann area (BA) 22 and the posterior part of T1 gyrus (T1Post) respond to AM in both hemispheres. (2) A stronger response to AM was observed in SAC and T1Post of the left hemisphere independent of the modulation frequency (MF), and in the left BA22 for MFs 8 and 16Hz, compared to those in the right. (3) The activation and propagation features emphasized at least four different types of temporal processing. (4) A sequential activation of PAC, SAC and BA22 areas was clearly visible at all MFs, while other auditory areas may be more involved in parallel processing upon a stream originating from primary auditory area, which thus acts as a distribution hub. These results suggest that different psychological information is carried by the temporal envelope of sounds relative to the rate of amplitude modulation.

  7. The role of early auditory development in attachment and communication.

    PubMed

    Moon, Christine

    2011-12-01

    Auditory perception and learning take place during the third trimester of gestation. Fetuses and newborns who lack typical auditory experience can go on to develop typical socioemotional attachment and language, given a supportive environment. For hospitalized preterm infants in developmentally sensitive neonatal intensive care units, detrimental effects of deviant early auditory experience may be remediated by later experience, but much is unknown about the causes of language deficits of prematurity. Prenatal auditory stimulation programs that incorporate audio speakers against the maternal belly should be discouraged because of possible overstimulation effects on the developing auditory system and sleep/wake state organization. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Human aging compromises attentional control of auditory perception.

    PubMed

    Passow, Susanne; Westerhausen, René; Wartenburger, Isabell; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Heekeren, Hauke R; Lindenberger, Ulman; Li, Shu-Chen

    2012-03-01

    Older adults often experience hearing difficulties in multitalker situations. Attentional control of auditory perception is crucial in situations where a plethora of auditory inputs compete for further processing. We combined an intensity-modulated dichotic listening paradigm with attentional manipulations to study adult age differences in the interplay between perceptual saliency and attentional control of auditory processing. When confronted with two competing sources of verbal auditory input, older adults modulated their attention less flexibly and were more driven by perceptual saliency than younger adults. These findings suggest that aging severely impairs the attentional regulation of auditory perception.

  9. Information Processing in Auditory-Visual Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henker, Barbara A.; Whalen, Carol K.

    1972-01-01

    The present study used a set of bimodal (auditory-visual) conflict designed specifically for the preschool child. The basic component was a match-to-sample sequence designed to reduce the often-found contaminating factors in studies with young children: failure to understand or remember instructions, inability to perform the indicator response, or…

  10. Integration and segregation in auditory scene analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sussman, Elyse S.

    2005-03-01

    Assessment of the neural correlates of auditory scene analysis, using an index of sound change detection that does not require the listener to attend to the sounds [a component of event-related brain potentials called the mismatch negativity (MMN)], has previously demonstrated that segregation processes can occur without attention focused on the sounds and that within-stream contextual factors influence how sound elements are integrated and represented in auditory memory. The current study investigated the relationship between the segregation and integration processes when they were called upon to function together. The pattern of MMN results showed that the integration of sound elements within a sound stream occurred after the segregation of sounds into independent streams and, further, that the individual streams were subject to contextual effects. These results are consistent with a view of auditory processing that suggests that the auditory scene is rapidly organized into distinct streams and the integration of sequential elements to perceptual units takes place on the already formed streams. This would allow for the flexibility required to identify changing within-stream sound patterns, needed to appreciate music or comprehend speech..

  11. Integration and segregation in auditory scene analysis.

    PubMed

    Sussman, Elyse S

    2005-03-01

    Assessment of the neural correlates of auditory scene analysis, using an index of sound change detection that does not require the listener to attend to the sounds [a component of event-related brain potentials called the mismatch negativity (MMN)], has previously demonstrated that segregation processes can occur without attention focused on the sounds and that within-stream contextual factors influence how sound elements are integrated and represented in auditory memory. The current study investigated the relationship between the segregation and integration processes when they were called upon to function together. The pattern of MMN results showed that the integration of sound elements within a sound stream occurred after the segregation of sounds into independent streams and, further, that the individual streams were subject to contextual effects. These results are consistent with a view of auditory processing that suggests that the auditory scene is rapidly organized into distinct streams and the integration of sequential elements to perceptual units takes place on the already formed streams. This would allow for the flexibility required to identify changing within-stream sound patterns, needed to appreciate music or comprehend speech.

  12. Psychological and Associative Meaning in Auditory Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarte, Robert; And Others

    In 1964 Tarte, Gadlin, and Ehrlich found a correlation between Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) and associative meaning in an auditory recognition task. This study attempted to replicate the results and examine the critical variables involved. One hundred eighty female college students served as subjects. Each heard ten accelerated words followed by…

  13. Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norrix, Linda W.; Velenovsky, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder, or ANSD, can be a confusing diagnosis to physicians, clinicians, those diagnosed, and parents of children diagnosed with the condition. The purpose of this review is to provide the reader with an understanding of the disorder, the limitations in current tools to determine site(s) of lesion, and…

  14. Speech Perception in Individuals with Auditory Neuropathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeng, Fan-Gang; Liu, Sheng

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Speech perception in participants with auditory neuropathy (AN) was systematically studied to answer the following 2 questions: Does noise present a particular problem for people with AN: Can clear speech and cochlear implants alleviate this problem? Method: The researchers evaluated the advantage in intelligibility of clear speech over…

  15. Information Processing in Auditory-Visual Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henker, Barbara A.; Whalen, Carol K.

    1972-01-01

    The present study used a set of bimodal (auditory-visual) conflict designed specifically for the preschool child. The basic component was a match-to-sample sequence designed to reduce the often-found contaminating factors in studies with young children: failure to understand or remember instructions, inability to perform the indicator response, or…

  16. Auditory risk estimates for youth target shooting

    PubMed Central

    Meinke, Deanna K.; Murphy, William J.; Finan, Donald S.; Lankford, James E.; Flamme, Gregory A.; Stewart, Michael; Soendergaard, Jacob; Jerome, Trevor W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To characterize the impulse noise exposure and auditory risk for youth recreational firearm users engaged in outdoor target shooting events. The youth shooting positions are typically standing or sitting at a table, which places the firearm closer to the ground or reflective surface when compared to adult shooters. Design Acoustic characteristics were examined and the auditory risk estimates were evaluated using contemporary damage-risk criteria for unprotected adult listeners and the 120-dB peak limit suggested by the World Health Organization (1999) for children. Study sample Impulses were generated by 26 firearm/ammunition configurations representing rifles, shotguns, and pistols used by youth. Measurements were obtained relative to a youth shooter’s left ear. Results All firearms generated peak levels that exceeded the 120 dB peak limit suggested by the WHO for children. In general, shooting from the seated position over a tabletop increases the peak levels, LAeq8 and reduces the unprotected maximum permissible exposures (MPEs) for both rifles and pistols. Pistols pose the greatest auditory risk when fired over a tabletop. Conclusion Youth should utilize smaller caliber weapons, preferably from the standing position, and always wear hearing protection whenever engaging in shooting activities to reduce the risk for auditory damage. PMID:24564688

  17. Bilingualism Influences Inhibitory Control in Auditory Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenfeld, Henrike K.; Marian, Viorica

    2011-01-01

    Bilinguals have been shown to outperform monolinguals at suppressing task-irrelevant information. The present study aimed to identify how processing linguistic ambiguity during auditory comprehension may be associated with inhibitory control. Monolinguals and bilinguals listened to words in their native language (English) and identified them among…

  18. Multivariate sensitivity to voice during auditory categorization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yune Sang; Peelle, Jonathan E; Kraemer, David; Lloyd, Samuel; Granger, Richard

    2015-09-01

    Past neuroimaging studies have documented discrete regions of human temporal cortex that are more strongly activated by conspecific voice sounds than by nonvoice sounds. However, the mechanisms underlying this voice sensitivity remain unclear. In the present functional MRI study, we took a novel approach to examining voice sensitivity, in which we applied a signal detection paradigm to the assessment of multivariate pattern classification among several living and nonliving categories of auditory stimuli. Within this framework, voice sensitivity can be interpreted as a distinct neural representation of brain activity that correctly distinguishes human vocalizations from other auditory object categories. Across a series of auditory categorization tests, we found that bilateral superior and middle temporal cortex consistently exhibited robust sensitivity to human vocal sounds. Although the strongest categorization was in distinguishing human voice from other categories, subsets of these regions were also able to distinguish reliably between nonhuman categories, suggesting a general role in auditory object categorization. Our findings complement the current evidence of cortical sensitivity to human vocal sounds by revealing that the greatest sensitivity during categorization tasks is devoted to distinguishing voice from nonvoice categories within human temporal cortex.

  19. AUDITORY DISCRIMINATION AND LEARNING--SOCIAL FACTORS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DEUTSCH, CYNTHIA P.

    EVIDENCE SUGGESTS READING ABILITY IS RELATED TO OTHER COMMUNICATION SKILLS SUCH AS LISTENING AND SPEAKING. DISTRUPTION IN THE PROCESS OF RECEIVING, ANALYZING, AND UTILIZING AUDITORY STIMULI MAY HAVE DELETERIOUS EFFECTS UPON A CHILD'S DEVELOPMENT OF READING SKILLS, ESPECIALLY IF THIS DISRUPTION OCCURS IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN. THOSE GROWING UP IN…

  20. Auditory Integration Training: The Magical Mystery Cure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tharpe, Anne Marie

    1999-01-01

    This article notes the enthusiastic reception received by auditory integration training (AIT) for children with a wide variety of disorders including autism but raises concerns about this alternative treatment practice. It offers reasons for cautious evaluation of AIT prior to clinical implementation and summarizes current research findings. (DB)

  1. Reading adn Auditory-Visual Equivalences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidman, Murray

    1971-01-01

    A retarded boy, unable to read orally or with comprehension, was taught to match spoken to printed words and was then capable of reading comprehension (matching printed words to picture) and oral reading (naming printed words aloud), demonstrating that certain learned auditory-visual equivalences are sufficient prerequisites for reading…

  2. Speech Perception in Individuals with Auditory Neuropathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeng, Fan-Gang; Liu, Sheng

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Speech perception in participants with auditory neuropathy (AN) was systematically studied to answer the following 2 questions: Does noise present a particular problem for people with AN: Can clear speech and cochlear implants alleviate this problem? Method: The researchers evaluated the advantage in intelligibility of clear speech over…

  3. Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norrix, Linda W.; Velenovsky, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder, or ANSD, can be a confusing diagnosis to physicians, clinicians, those diagnosed, and parents of children diagnosed with the condition. The purpose of this review is to provide the reader with an understanding of the disorder, the limitations in current tools to determine site(s) of lesion, and…

  4. Auditory Integration Training: The Magical Mystery Cure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tharpe, Anne Marie

    1999-01-01

    This article notes the enthusiastic reception received by auditory integration training (AIT) for children with a wide variety of disorders including autism but raises concerns about this alternative treatment practice. It offers reasons for cautious evaluation of AIT prior to clinical implementation and summarizes current research findings. (DB)

  5. Auditory Icons: Using Sound in Computer Interfaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaver, W. W.

    1987-01-01

    An appoach to the use of sound in computer interfaces, proposed in this article, emphasizes the role of sound in conveying information about the world to the listener. This approach argues that auditory icons, i.e., caricatures of naturally occurring sounds, provide a natural way to represent dimensional data as well as conceptual objects in a…

  6. Auditory Handicaps and Reading: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geoffrion, Leo D., Comp.; Schuster, Karen E., Comp.

    This annotated bibliography on the reading achievement of the deaf is designed to aid those who wish to learn more about how children with severe auditory handicaps read. The various sections focus on the severity of the reading deficit of deaf students, the findings of basic research on how they read, and some of the instructional approaches…

  7. Late Maturation of Auditory Perceptual Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huyck, Julia Jones; Wright, Beverly A.

    2011-01-01

    Adults can improve their performance on many perceptual tasks with training, but when does the response to training become mature? To investigate this question, we trained 11-year-olds, 14-year-olds and adults on a basic auditory task (temporal-interval discrimination) using a multiple-session training regimen known to be effective for adults. The…

  8. Auditory Processing Disorder: School Psychologist Beware?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovett, Benjamin J.

    2011-01-01

    An increasing number of students are being diagnosed with auditory processing disorder (APD), but the school psychology literature has largely neglected this controversial condition. This article reviews research on APD, revealing substantial concerns with assessment tools and diagnostic practices, as well as insufficient research regarding many…

  9. AUDITORY FACTORS IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE ACQUISITION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LEUTENEGGER, RALPH R.; AND OTHERS

    INFORMATION ON THE AUDITORY SKILLS OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE STUDENTS WAS OBTAINED AND A STUDY WAS MADE OF THE RELATIONSHIP OF THOSE SKILLS TO EASE OF MASTERY OF FRENCH AND SPANISH. THIS RESEARCH WAS CONDUCTED TO ANSWER QUESTIONS RAISED BY THE CURRENT TREND IN LANGUAGE INSTRUCTION TOWARD THE DEVELOPMENT OF AUDIOLINGUAL SKILLS BY PREDOMINANTLY AURAL…

  10. Neurodynamics, tonality, and the auditory brainstem response.

    PubMed

    Large, Edward W; Almonte, Felix V

    2012-04-01

    Tonal relationships are foundational in music, providing the basis upon which musical structures, such as melodies, are constructed and perceived. A recent dynamic theory of musical tonality predicts that networks of auditory neurons resonate nonlinearly to musical stimuli. Nonlinear resonance leads to stability and attraction relationships among neural frequencies, and these neural dynamics give rise to the perception of relationships among tones that we collectively refer to as tonal cognition. Because this model describes the dynamics of neural populations, it makes specific predictions about human auditory neurophysiology. Here, we show how predictions about the auditory brainstem response (ABR) are derived from the model. To illustrate, we derive a prediction about population responses to musical intervals that has been observed in the human brainstem. Our modeled ABR shows qualitative agreement with important features of the human ABR. This provides a source of evidence that fundamental principles of auditory neurodynamics might underlie the perception of tonal relationships, and forces reevaluation of the role of learning and enculturation in tonal cognition.

  11. Auditory Phenotype of Smith-Magenis Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brendal, Megan A.; King, Kelly A.; Zalewski, Christopher K.; Finucane, Brenda M.; Introne, Wendy; Brewer, Carmen C.; Smith, Ann C. M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the auditory phenotype of a large cohort with Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS), a rare disorder including physical anomalies, cognitive deficits, sleep disturbances, and a distinct behavioral phenotype. Method: Hearing-related data were collected for 133 individuals with SMS aged 1-49 years. Audiogram…

  12. Auditory Evoked Responses in Neonates by MEG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Pavon, J. C.; Sosa, M.; Lutter, W. J.; Maier, M.; Wakai, R. T.

    2008-08-01

    Magnetoencephalography is a biomagnetic technique with outstanding potential for neurodevelopmental studies. In this work, we have used MEG to determinate if newborns can discriminate between different stimuli during the first few months of life. Five neonates were stimulated during several minutes with auditory stimulation. The results suggest that the newborns are able to discriminate between different stimuli despite their early age.

  13. Context effects in auditory implicit memory.

    PubMed

    Besken, Miri; Mulligan, Neil W

    2010-10-01

    The context effect in implicit memory is the finding that presentation of words in meaningful context reduces or eliminates repetition priming compared to words presented in isolation. Virtually all of the research on the context effect has been conducted in the visual modality but preliminary results raise the question of whether context effects are less likely in auditory priming. Context effects in the auditory modality were systematically examined in five experiments using the auditory implicit tests of word-fragment and word-stem completion. The first three experiments revealed the classical context effect in auditory priming: Words heard in isolation produced substantial priming, whereas there was little priming for the words heard in meaningful passages. Experiments 4 and 5 revealed that a meaningful context is not required for the context effect to be obtained: Words presented in an unrelated audio stream produced less priming than words presented individually and no more priming than words presented in meaningful passages. Although context effects are often explained in terms of the transfer-appropriate processing (TAP) framework, the present results are better explained by Masson and MacLeod's (2000) reduced-individuation hypothesis.

  14. Auditory Training with Frequent Communication Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tye-Murray, Nancy; Spehar, Brent; Sommers, Mitchell; Barcroft, Joe

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Individuals with hearing loss engage in auditory training to improve their speech recognition. They typically practice listening to utterances spoken by unfamiliar talkers but never to utterances spoken by their most frequent communication partner (FCP)--speech they most likely desire to recognize--under the assumption that familiarity…

  15. Auditory and visual scene analysis: an overview.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Hirohito M; van Loon, Anouk M; Kawahara, Jun-Ichiro; Moore, Brian C J

    2017-02-19

    We perceive the world as stable and composed of discrete objects even though auditory and visual inputs are often ambiguous owing to spatial and temporal occluders and changes in the conditions of observation. This raises important questions regarding where and how 'scene analysis' is performed in the brain. Recent advances from both auditory and visual research suggest that the brain does not simply process the incoming scene properties. Rather, top-down processes such as attention, expectations and prior knowledge facilitate scene perception. Thus, scene analysis is linked not only with the extraction of stimulus features and formation and selection of perceptual objects, but also with selective attention, perceptual binding and awareness. This special issue covers novel advances in scene-analysis research obtained using a combination of psychophysics, computational modelling, neuroimaging and neurophysiology, and presents new empirical and theoretical approaches. For integrative understanding of scene analysis beyond and across sensory modalities, we provide a collection of 15 articles that enable comparison and integration of recent findings in auditory and visual scene analysis.This article is part of the themed issue 'Auditory and visual scene analysis'.

  16. Developmental Changes in Auditory Temporal Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrongiello, Barbara A.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Infants, preschoolers, and adults were tested to determine the shortest time interval at which they would respond to the precedence effect, an auditory phenomenon produced by presenting the same sound through two loudspeakers with the input to one loudspeaker delayed in relation to the other. Results revealed developmental differences in threshold…

  17. Effects of Context on Auditory Stream Segregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Joel S.; Carter, Olivia L.; Lee, Suh-Kyung; Hannon, Erin E.; Alain, Claude

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined the effect of preceding context on auditory stream segregation. Low tones (A), high tones (B), and silences (-) were presented in an ABA-pattern. Participants indicated whether they perceived 1 or 2 streams of tones. The A tone frequency was fixed, and the B tone was the same as the A tone or had 1 of 3 higher frequencies.…

  18. Auditory Evoked Responses in Neonates by MEG

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez-Pavon, J. C.; Sosa, M.; Lutter, W. J.; Maier, M.; Wakai, R. T.

    2008-08-11

    Magnetoencephalography is a biomagnetic technique with outstanding potential for neurodevelopmental studies. In this work, we have used MEG to determinate if newborns can discriminate between different stimuli during the first few months of life. Five neonates were stimulated during several minutes with auditory stimulation. The results suggest that the newborns are able to discriminate between different stimuli despite their early age.

  19. Auditory Processing Disorders: Acquisition and Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, David R.

    2007-01-01

    Auditory processing disorder (APD) describes a mixed and poorly understood listening problem characterised by poor speech perception, especially in challenging environments. APD may include an inherited component, and this may be major, but studies reviewed here of children with long-term otitis media with effusion (OME) provide strong evidence…

  20. Central Auditory Processing Disorders: Mostly Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masters, M. Gay; Stecker, Nancy A.; Katz, Jack

    This book offers the latest available information on central auditory processing disorders (CAPDs) drawn from a State University of New York at Buffalo conference on CAPDs in September of 1996. It is divided into three parts: introduction, management approaches, and specific methods and populations. Chapters include: (1) "Overview and Update…

  1. Multivariate sensitivity to voice during auditory categorization

    PubMed Central

    Peelle, Jonathan E.; Kraemer, David; Lloyd, Samuel; Granger, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Past neuroimaging studies have documented discrete regions of human temporal cortex that are more strongly activated by conspecific voice sounds than by nonvoice sounds. However, the mechanisms underlying this voice sensitivity remain unclear. In the present functional MRI study, we took a novel approach to examining voice sensitivity, in which we applied a signal detection paradigm to the assessment of multivariate pattern classification among several living and nonliving categories of auditory stimuli. Within this framework, voice sensitivity can be interpreted as a distinct neural representation of brain activity that correctly distinguishes human vocalizations from other auditory object categories. Across a series of auditory categorization tests, we found that bilateral superior and middle temporal cortex consistently exhibited robust sensitivity to human vocal sounds. Although the strongest categorization was in distinguishing human voice from other categories, subsets of these regions were also able to distinguish reliably between nonhuman categories, suggesting a general role in auditory object categorization. Our findings complement the current evidence of cortical sensitivity to human vocal sounds by revealing that the greatest sensitivity during categorization tasks is devoted to distinguishing voice from nonvoice categories within human temporal cortex. PMID:26245316

  2. Auditory and visual scene analysis: an overview

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    We perceive the world as stable and composed of discrete objects even though auditory and visual inputs are often ambiguous owing to spatial and temporal occluders and changes in the conditions of observation. This raises important questions regarding where and how ‘scene analysis’ is performed in the brain. Recent advances from both auditory and visual research suggest that the brain does not simply process the incoming scene properties. Rather, top-down processes such as attention, expectations and prior knowledge facilitate scene perception. Thus, scene analysis is linked not only with the extraction of stimulus features and formation and selection of perceptual objects, but also with selective attention, perceptual binding and awareness. This special issue covers novel advances in scene-analysis research obtained using a combination of psychophysics, computational modelling, neuroimaging and neurophysiology, and presents new empirical and theoretical approaches. For integrative understanding of scene analysis beyond and across sensory modalities, we provide a collection of 15 articles that enable comparison and integration of recent findings in auditory and visual scene analysis. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Auditory and visual scene analysis’. PMID:28044011

  3. Central Auditory Processing Disorders: Mostly Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masters, M. Gay; Stecker, Nancy A.; Katz, Jack

    This book offers the latest available information on central auditory processing disorders (CAPDs) drawn from a State University of New York at Buffalo conference on CAPDs in September of 1996. It is divided into three parts: introduction, management approaches, and specific methods and populations. Chapters include: (1) "Overview and Update…

  4. Late Maturation of Auditory Perceptual Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huyck, Julia Jones; Wright, Beverly A.

    2011-01-01

    Adults can improve their performance on many perceptual tasks with training, but when does the response to training become mature? To investigate this question, we trained 11-year-olds, 14-year-olds and adults on a basic auditory task (temporal-interval discrimination) using a multiple-session training regimen known to be effective for adults. The…

  5. Affective Priming with Auditory Speech Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degner, Juliane

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments explored the applicability of auditory stimulus presentation in affective priming tasks. In Experiment 1, it was found that standard affective priming effects occur when prime and target words are presented simultaneously via headphones similar to a dichotic listening procedure. In Experiment 2, stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was…

  6. Automated auditory recognition training and testing

    PubMed Central

    Gess, Austen; Schneider, David M.; Vyas, Akshat; Woolley, Sarah M. N.

    2011-01-01

    Laboratory training and testing of auditory recognition skills in animals is important for understanding animal communication systems that depend on auditory cues. Songbirds are commonly studied because of their exceptional ability to learn complex vocalizations. In recent years, mounting interest in the perceptual abilities of songbirds has increased the demand for laboratory behavioural training and testing paradigms. Here, we describe and demonstrate the success of a method for auditory discrimination experiments, including all the necessary hardware, training procedures and freely-available, versatile software. The system can run several behavioural training and testing paradigms, including operant (go-nogo, stimulus preference, and two-alternative forced choice) and classical conditioning tasks. The software and some hardware components can be used with any laboratory animal that learns and responds to sensory cues. The peripheral hardware and training procedures are designed for use with songbirds and auditory stimuli. Using the go-nogo paradigm of the training system, we show that adult zebra finches learn to recognize and correctly classify individual female calls and male songs. We also show that learning the task generalizes to new stimulus classes; birds that learned the task with calls subsequently learned to recognize songs faster than did birds that learned the task and songs at the same time. PMID:21857717

  7. Fine-Grained Auditory Discrimination: Factor Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Lois L.; Hammer, Michael A.

    1993-01-01

    This study, with 161 children with and without language learning problems, tested the hypothesis that as children's language development matures, factor-analytic structural changes occur that are associated with measurements of fine-grained auditory discrimination, receptive vocabulary, receptive language, speech production, and 3 performance…

  8. Developmental Changes in Auditory Temporal Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrongiello, Barbara A.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Infants, preschoolers, and adults were tested to determine the shortest time interval at which they would respond to the precedence effect, an auditory phenomenon produced by presenting the same sound through two loudspeakers with the input to one loudspeaker delayed in relation to the other. Results revealed developmental differences in threshold…

  9. The Goldilocks Effect in Infant Auditory Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Celeste; Piantadosi, Steven T.; Aslin, Richard N.

    2014-01-01

    Infants must learn about many cognitive domains (e.g., language, music) from auditory statistics, yet capacity limits on their cognitive resources restrict the quantity that they can encode. Previous research has established that infants can attend to only a subset of available acoustic input. Yet few previous studies have directly examined infant…

  10. Auditory Processing Disorders: Acquisition and Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, David R.

    2007-01-01

    Auditory processing disorder (APD) describes a mixed and poorly understood listening problem characterised by poor speech perception, especially in challenging environments. APD may include an inherited component, and this may be major, but studies reviewed here of children with long-term otitis media with effusion (OME) provide strong evidence…

  11. Auditory Temporal Pattern Discrimination and Reading Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAnally, Ken I.; Castles, Anne; Bannister, Susan

    2004-01-01

    The relation between reading ability and performance on an auditory temporal pattern discrimination task was investigated in children who were either good or delayed readers. The stimuli in the primary task consisted of sequences of tones, alternating between high and low frequencies. The threshold interstimulus interval (ISI) for discrimination…

  12. Auditory Training with Frequent Communication Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tye-Murray, Nancy; Spehar, Brent; Sommers, Mitchell; Barcroft, Joe

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Individuals with hearing loss engage in auditory training to improve their speech recognition. They typically practice listening to utterances spoken by unfamiliar talkers but never to utterances spoken by their most frequent communication partner (FCP)--speech they most likely desire to recognize--under the assumption that familiarity…

  13. Auditory Temporal Pattern Discrimination and Reading Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAnally, Ken I.; Castles, Anne; Bannister, Susan

    2004-01-01

    The relation between reading ability and performance on an auditory temporal pattern discrimination task was investigated in children who were either good or delayed readers. The stimuli in the primary task consisted of sequences of tones, alternating between high and low frequencies. The threshold interstimulus interval (ISI) for discrimination…

  14. Affective Priming with Auditory Speech Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degner, Juliane

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments explored the applicability of auditory stimulus presentation in affective priming tasks. In Experiment 1, it was found that standard affective priming effects occur when prime and target words are presented simultaneously via headphones similar to a dichotic listening procedure. In Experiment 2, stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was…

  15. Auditory and Articulatory Aspects of Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruber, Frederic A.

    The author addresses the need for a new acoustic recognition strategy, extending the position that any adequate grammar of a language must distinguish between auditory and articulatory knowledge. Reviewing the existing literature and theories of language and its acquisition, the author discusses their limitations and inadequacies in accounting for…

  16. Suggested Outline for Auditory Perception Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Clare A.

    Presented are suggestions for speech therapists to use in auditory perception training and screening of language handicapped children in kindergarten through grade 3. Directions are given for using the program, which is based on games. Each component is presented in terms of purpose, materials, a description of the game, and directions for…

  17. Relation between Working Memory Capacity and Auditory Stream Segregation in Children with Auditory Processing Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lotfi, Yones; Mehrkian, Saiedeh; Moossavi, Abdollah; Zadeh, Soghrat Faghih; Sadjedi, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study assessed the relationship between working memory capacity and auditory stream segregation by using the concurrent minimum audible angle in children with a diagnosed auditory processing disorder (APD). Methods: The participants in this cross-sectional, comparative study were 20 typically developing children and 15 children with a diagnosed APD (age, 9–11 years) according to the subtests of multiple-processing auditory assessment. Auditory stream segregation was investigated using the concurrent minimum audible angle. Working memory capacity was evaluated using the non-word repetition and forward and backward digit span tasks. Nonparametric statistics were utilized to compare the between-group differences. The Pearson correlation was employed to measure the degree of association between working memory capacity and the localization tests between the 2 groups. Results: The group with APD had significantly lower scores than did the typically developing subjects in auditory stream segregation and working memory capacity. There were significant negative correlations between working memory capacity and the concurrent minimum audible angle in the most frontal reference location (0° azimuth) and lower negative correlations in the most lateral reference location (60° azimuth) in the children with APD. Conclusion: The study revealed a relationship between working memory capacity and auditory stream segregation in children with APD. The research suggests that lower working memory capacity in children with APD may be the possible cause of the inability to segregate and group incoming information. PMID:26989281

  18. Noise perception in the workplace and auditory and extra-auditory symptoms referred by university professors.

    PubMed

    Servilha, Emilse Aparecida Merlin; Delatti, Marina de Almeida

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the correlation between noise in the work environment and auditory and extra-auditory symptoms referred by university professors. Eighty five professors answered a questionnaire about identification, functional status, and health. The relationship between occupational noise and auditory and extra-auditory symptoms was investigated. Statistical analysis considered the significance level of 5%. None of the professors indicated absence of noise. Responses were grouped in Always (A) (n=21) and Not Always (NA) (n=63). Significant sources of noise were both the yard and another class, which were classified as high intensity; poor acoustic and echo. There was no association between referred noise and health complaints, such as digestive, hormonal, osteoarticular, dental, circulatory, respiratory and emotional complaints. There was also no association between referred noise and hearing complaints, and the group A showed higher occurrence of responses regarding noise nuisance, hearing difficulty and dizziness/vertigo, tinnitus, and earache. There was association between referred noise and voice alterations, and the group NA presented higher percentage of cases with voice alterations than the group A. The university environment was considered noisy; however, there was no association with auditory and extra-auditory symptoms. The hearing complaints were more evident among professors in the group A. Professors' health is a multi-dimensional product and, therefore, noise cannot be considered the only aggravation factor.

  19. Biological impact of auditory expertise across the life span: musicians as a model of auditory learning

    PubMed Central

    Strait, Dana L.; Kraus, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Experience-dependent characteristics of auditory function, especially with regard to speech-evoked auditory neurophysiology, have garnered increasing attention in recent years. This interest stems from both pragmatic and theoretical concerns as it bears implications for the prevention and remediation of language-based learning impairment in addition to providing insight into mechanisms engendering experience-dependent changes in human sensory function. Musicians provide an attractive model for studying the experience-dependency of auditory processing in humans due to their distinctive neural enhancements compared to nonmusicians. We have only recently begun to address whether these enhancements are observable early in life, during the initial years of music training when the auditory system is under rapid development, as well as later in life, after the onset of the aging process. Here we review neural enhancements in musically trained individuals across the life span in the context of cellular mechanisms that underlie learning, identified in animal models. Musicians’ subcortical physiologic enhancements are interpreted according to a cognitive framework for auditory learning, providing a model by which to study mechanisms of experience-dependent changes in auditory function in humans. PMID:23988583

  20. Spectrotemporal resolution tradeoff in auditory processing as revealed by human auditory brainstem responses and psychophysical indices.

    PubMed

    Bidelman, Gavin M; Syed Khaja, Ameenuddin

    2014-06-20

    Auditory filter theory dictates a physiological compromise between frequency and temporal resolution of cochlear signal processing. We examined neurophysiological correlates of these spectrotemporal tradeoffs in the human auditory system using auditory evoked brain potentials and psychophysical responses. Temporal resolution was assessed using scalp-recorded auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) elicited by paired clicks. The inter-click interval (ICI) between successive pulses was parameterized from 0.7 to 25 ms to map ABR amplitude recovery as a function of stimulus spacing. Behavioral frequency difference limens (FDLs) and auditory filter selectivity (Q10 of psychophysical tuning curves) were obtained to assess relations between behavioral spectral acuity and electrophysiological estimates of temporal resolvability. Neural responses increased monotonically in amplitude with increasing ICI, ranging from total suppression (0.7 ms) to full recovery (25 ms) with a temporal resolution of ∼3-4 ms. ABR temporal thresholds were correlated with behavioral Q10 (frequency selectivity) but not FDLs (frequency discrimination); no correspondence was observed between Q10 and FDLs. Results suggest that finer frequency selectivity, but not discrimination, is associated with poorer temporal resolution. The inverse relation between ABR recovery and perceptual frequency tuning demonstrates a time-frequency tradeoff between the temporal and spectral resolving power of the human auditory system.

  1. Absence of both auditory evoked potentials and auditory percepts dependent on timing cues.

    PubMed

    Starr, A; McPherson, D; Patterson, J; Don, M; Luxford, W; Shannon, R; Sininger, Y; Tonakawa, L; Waring, M

    1991-06-01

    An 11-yr-old girl had an absence of sensory components of auditory evoked potentials (brainstem, middle and long-latency) to click and tone burst stimuli that she could clearly hear. Psychoacoustic tests revealed a marked impairment of those auditory perceptions dependent on temporal cues, that is, lateralization of binaural clicks, change of binaural masked threshold with changes in signal phase, binaural beats, detection of paired monaural clicks, monaural detection of a silent gap in a sound, and monaural threshold elevation for short duration tones. In contrast, auditory functions reflecting intensity or frequency discriminations (difference limens) were only minimally impaired. Pure tone audiometry showed a moderate (50 dB) bilateral hearing loss with a disproportionate severe loss of word intelligibility. Those auditory evoked potentials that were preserved included (1) cochlear microphonics reflecting hair cell activity; (2) cortical sustained potentials reflecting processing of slowly changing signals; and (3) long-latency cognitive components (P300, processing negativity) reflecting endogenous auditory cognitive processes. Both the evoked potential and perceptual deficits are attributed to changes in temporal encoding of acoustic signals perhaps occurring at the synapse between hair cell and eighth nerve dendrites. The results from this patient are discussed in relation to previously published cases with absent auditory evoked potentials and preserved hearing.

  2. Interhemispheric auditory connectivity: structure and function related to auditory verbal hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Steinmann, Saskia; Leicht, Gregor; Mulert, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are one of the most common and most distressing symptoms of schizophrenia. Despite fundamental research, the underlying neurocognitive and neurobiological mechanisms are still a matter of debate. Previous studies suggested that "hearing voices" is associated with a number of factors including local deficits in the left auditory cortex and a disturbed connectivity of frontal and temporoparietal language-related areas. In addition, it is hypothesized that the interhemispheric pathways connecting right and left auditory cortices might be involved in the pathogenesis of AVH. Findings based on Diffusion-Tensor-Imaging (DTI) measurements revealed a remarkable interindividual variability in size and shape of the interhemispheric auditory pathways. Interestingly, schizophrenia patients suffering from AVH exhibited increased fractional anisotropy (FA) in the interhemispheric fibers than non-hallucinating patients. Thus, higher FA-values indicate an increased severity of AVH. Moreover, a dichotic listening (DL) task showed that the interindividual variability in the interhemispheric auditory pathways was reflected in the behavioral outcome: stronger pathways supported a better information transfer and consequently improved speech perception. This detection indicates a specific structure-function relationship, which seems to be interindividually variable. This review focuses on recent findings concerning the structure-function relationship of the interhemispheric pathways in controls, hallucinating and non-hallucinating schizophrenia patients and concludes that changes in the structural and functional connectivity of auditory areas are involved in the pathophysiology of AVH.

  3. Cortical auditory evoked potential (P1): a potential objective indicator for auditory rehabilitation outcome.

    PubMed

    Thabet, Mirahan T; Said, Nithreen M

    2012-12-01

    Cortical auditory evoked potentials are a non-invasive tool that can provide objective information on maturation of the auditory pathways. This work was designed to study the role of cortical auditory evoked potential (P1) in assessment of the benefits of amplification and aural rehabilitation in hearing impaired children. The study consisted of 31 children classified into 2 groups. Study group included 18 hearing impaired children ranging in age 4-14 years old and classified into two subgroups according to adequacy of aural rehabilitation. A control group consisted of 13 normal hearing children ranging in age from 5 to 13 years. All children were subjected to history taking, basic audiological evaluation, intelligence quotient and language assessment. Cortical auditory evoked potential (P1) was measured using synthesized speech syllable /da/ as a recording stimulus that was presented binaurally via a loudspeaker. P1 was recorded in all children with significantly prolonged latencies in hearing impaired children with inadequate rehabilitation. P1 latency was correlated to hearing loss duration in hearing impaired children with inadequate aural rehabilitation. Auditory experience was correlated with P1 latency in hearing impaired children with adequate aural rehabilitation. Cortical auditory evoked potential (P1) might provide a clinical tool to monitor aural rehabilitation outcome and to guide intervention choices. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Auditory pathology in cri-du-chat (5p-) syndrome: phenotypic evidence for auditory neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Swanepoel, D

    2007-10-01

    5p-(cri-du-chat syndrome) is a well-defined clinical entity presenting with phenotypic and cytogenetic variability. Despite recognition that abnormalities in audition are common, limited reports on auditory functioning in affected individuals are available. The current study presents a case illustrating the auditory functioning in a 22-month-old patient diagnosed with 5p- syndrome, karyotype 46,XX,del(5)(p13). Auditory neuropathy was diagnosed based on abnormal auditory evoked potentials with neural components suggesting severe to profound hearing loss in the presence of cochlear microphonic responses and behavioral reactions to sound at mild to moderate hearing levels. The current case and a review of available reports indicate that auditory neuropathy or neural dys-synchrony may be another phenotype of the condition possibly related to abnormal expression of the protein beta-catenin mapped to 5p. Implications are for routine and diagnostic specific assessments of auditory functioning and for employment of non-verbal communication methods in early intervention.

  5. Interhemispheric auditory connectivity: structure and function related to auditory verbal hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Steinmann, Saskia; Leicht, Gregor; Mulert, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are one of the most common and most distressing symptoms of schizophrenia. Despite fundamental research, the underlying neurocognitive and neurobiological mechanisms are still a matter of debate. Previous studies suggested that “hearing voices” is associated with a number of factors including local deficits in the left auditory cortex and a disturbed connectivity of frontal and temporoparietal language-related areas. In addition, it is hypothesized that the interhemispheric pathways connecting right and left auditory cortices might be involved in the pathogenesis of AVH. Findings based on Diffusion-Tensor-Imaging (DTI) measurements revealed a remarkable interindividual variability in size and shape of the interhemispheric auditory pathways. Interestingly, schizophrenia patients suffering from AVH exhibited increased fractional anisotropy (FA) in the interhemispheric fibers than non-hallucinating patients. Thus, higher FA-values indicate an increased severity of AVH. Moreover, a dichotic listening (DL) task showed that the interindividual variability in the interhemispheric auditory pathways was reflected in the behavioral outcome: stronger pathways supported a better information transfer and consequently improved speech perception. This detection indicates a specific structure-function relationship, which seems to be interindividually variable. This review focuses on recent findings concerning the structure-function relationship of the interhemispheric pathways in controls, hallucinating and non-hallucinating schizophrenia patients and concludes that changes in the structural and functional connectivity of auditory areas are involved in the pathophysiology of AVH. PMID:24574995

  6. 40 Hz auditory steady state response to linguistic features of stimuli during auditory hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Ying, Jun; Yan, Zheng; Gao, Xiao-rong

    2013-10-01

    The auditory steady state response (ASSR) may reflect activity from different regions of the brain, depending on the modulation frequency used. In general, responses induced by low rates (≤40 Hz) emanate mostly from central structures of the brain, and responses from high rates (≥80 Hz) emanate mostly from the peripheral auditory nerve or brainstem structures. Besides, it was reported that the gamma band ASSR (30-90 Hz) played an important role in working memory, speech understanding and recognition. This paper investigated the 40 Hz ASSR evoked by modulated speech and reversed speech. The speech was Chinese phrase voice, and the noise-like reversed speech was obtained by temporally reversing the speech. Both auditory stimuli were modulated with a frequency of 40 Hz. Ten healthy subjects and 5 patients with hallucination symptom participated in the experiment. Results showed reduction in left auditory cortex response when healthy subjects listened to the reversed speech compared with the speech. In contrast, when the patients who experienced auditory hallucinations listened to the reversed speech, the auditory cortex of left hemispheric responded more actively. The ASSR results were consistent with the behavior results of patients. Therefore, the gamma band ASSR is expected to be helpful for rapid and objective diagnosis of hallucination in clinic.

  7. Repeated restraint stress impairs auditory attention and GABAergic synaptic efficacy in the rat auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Miguel Ángel; Pérez-Valenzuela, Catherine; Rojas-Thomas, Felipe; Ahumada, Juan; Fuenzalida, Marco; Dagnino-Subiabre, Alexies

    2013-08-29

    Chronic stress induces dendritic atrophy in the rat primary auditory cortex (A1), a key brain area for auditory attention. The aim of this study was to determine whether repeated restraint stress affects auditory attention and synaptic transmission in A1. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained in a two-alternative choice task (2-ACT), a behavioral paradigm to study auditory attention in rats. Trained animals that reached a performance over 80% of correct trials in the 2-ACT were randomly assigned to control and restraint stress experimental groups. To analyze the effects of restraint stress on the auditory attention, trained rats of both groups were subjected to 50 2-ACT trials one day before and one day after of the stress period. A difference score was determined by subtracting the number of correct trials after from those before the stress protocol. Another set of rats was used to study the synaptic transmission in A1. Restraint stress decreased the number of correct trials by 28% compared to the performance of control animals (p < 0.001). Furthermore, stress reduced the frequency of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSC) and miniature IPSC in A1, whereas glutamatergic efficacy was not affected. Our results demonstrate that restraint stress decreased auditory attention and GABAergic synaptic efficacy in A1. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Biological impact of auditory expertise across the life span: musicians as a model of auditory learning.

    PubMed

    Strait, Dana L; Kraus, Nina

    2014-02-01

    Experience-dependent characteristics of auditory function, especially with regard to speech-evoked auditory neurophysiology, have garnered increasing attention in recent years. This interest stems from both pragmatic and theoretical concerns as it bears implications for the prevention and remediation of language-based learning impairment in addition to providing insight into mechanisms engendering experience-dependent changes in human sensory function. Musicians provide an attractive model for studying the experience-dependency of auditory processing in humans due to their distinctive neural enhancements compared to nonmusicians. We have only recently begun to address whether these enhancements are observable early in life, during the initial years of music training when the auditory system is under rapid development, as well as later in life, after the onset of the aging process. Here we review neural enhancements in musically trained individuals across the life span in the context of cellular mechanisms that underlie learning, identified in animal models. Musicians' subcortical physiologic enhancements are interpreted according to a cognitive framework for auditory learning, providing a model in which to study mechanisms of experience-dependent changes in human auditory function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Auditory peripersonal space in humans: a case of auditory-tactile extinction.

    PubMed

    Làdavas, E; Pavani, F; Farnè, A

    2001-01-01

    Animal experiments have shown that the spatial correspondence between auditory and tactile receptive fields of ventral pre-motor neurons provides a map of auditory peripersonal space around the head. This allows neurons to localize a near sound with respect to the head. In the present study, we demonstrated the existence of an auditory peripersonal space around the head in humans. In a right-brain damaged patient with tactile extinction, a sound delivered near the ipsilesional side of the head extinguished a tactile stimulus delivered to the contralesional side of the head (cross-modal auditory-tactile extinction). In contrast, when an auditory stimulus was presented far from the head, cross-modal extinction was dramatically reduced. This spatially specific cross-modal extinction was found only when a complex sound like a white noise burst was presented; pure tones did not produce spatially specific cross-modal extinction. These results show a high degree of functional similarity between the characteristics of the auditory peripersonal space representation in humans and monkeys. This similarity suggests that analogous physiological substrates might be responsible for coding this multisensory integrated representation of peripersonal space in human and non-human primates.

  10. Rapid measurement of auditory filter shape in mice using the auditory brainstem response and notched noise.

    PubMed

    Lina, Ioan A; Lauer, Amanda M

    2013-04-01

    The notched noise method is an effective procedure for measuring frequency resolution and auditory filter shapes in both human and animal models of hearing. Briefly, auditory filter shape and bandwidth estimates are derived from masked thresholds for tones presented in noise containing widening spectral notches. As the spectral notch widens, increasingly less of the noise falls within the auditory filter and the tone becomes more detectible until the notch width exceeds the filter bandwidth. Behavioral procedures have been used for the derivation of notched noise auditory filter shapes in mice; however, the time and effort needed to train and test animals on these tasks renders a constraint on the widespread application of this testing method. As an alternative procedure, we combined relatively non-invasive auditory brainstem response (ABR) measurements and the notched noise method to estimate auditory filters in normal-hearing mice at center frequencies of 8, 11.2, and 16 kHz. A complete set of simultaneous masked thresholds for a particular tone frequency were obtained in about an hour. ABR-derived filter bandwidths broadened with increasing frequency, consistent with previous studies. The ABR notched noise procedure provides a fast alternative to estimating frequency selectivity in mice that is well-suited to high through-put or time-sensitive screening.

  11. Efficacy of auditory training in elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Morais, Aline Albuquerque; Rocha-Muniz, Caroline Nunes; Schochat, Eliane

    2015-01-01

    Auditory training (AT) has been used for auditory rehabilitation in elderly individuals and is an effective tool for optimizing speech processing in this population. However, it is necessary to distinguish training-related improvements from placebo and test-retest effects. Thus, we investigated the efficacy of short-term AT [acoustically controlled auditory training (ACAT)] in elderly subjects through behavioral measures and P300. Sixteen elderly individuals with auditory processing disorder (APD) received an initial evaluation (evaluation 1 - E1) consisting of behavioral and electrophysiological tests (P300 evoked by tone burst and speech sounds) to evaluate their auditory processing. The individuals were divided into two groups. The Active Control Group (n = 8) underwent placebo training. The Passive Control Group (n = 8) did not receive any intervention. After 12 weeks, the subjects were revaluated (evaluation 2 - E2). Then, all of the subjects underwent ACAT. Following another 12 weeks (eight training sessions), they underwent the final evaluation (evaluation 3 - E3). There was no significant difference between E1 and E2 in the behavioral test [F(9.6) = 0.06, p = 0.92, λ de Wilks = 0.65)] or P300 [F(8.7) = 2.11, p = 0.17, λ de Wilks = 0.29] (discarding the presence of placebo effects and test-retest). A significant improvement was observed between the pre- and post-ACAT conditions (E2 and E3) for all auditory skills according to the behavioral methods [F(4.27) = 0.18, p = 0.94, λ de Wilks = 0.97]. However, the same result was not observed for P300 in any condition. There was no significant difference between P300 stimuli. The ACAT improved the behavioral performance of the elderly for all auditory skills and was an effective method for hearing rehabilitation.

  12. Efficacy of Auditory Training in Elderly Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Morais, Aline Albuquerque; Rocha-Muniz, Caroline Nunes; Schochat, Eliane

    2015-01-01

    Auditory training (AT) has been used for auditory rehabilitation in elderly individuals and is an effective tool for optimizing speech processing in this population. However, it is necessary to distinguish training-related improvements from placebo and test–retest effects. Thus, we investigated the efficacy of short-term AT [acoustically controlled auditory training (ACAT)] in elderly subjects through behavioral measures and P300. Sixteen elderly individuals with auditory processing disorder (APD) received an initial evaluation (evaluation 1 – E1) consisting of behavioral and electrophysiological tests (P300 evoked by tone burst and speech sounds) to evaluate their auditory processing. The individuals were divided into two groups. The Active Control Group (n = 8) underwent placebo training. The Passive Control Group (n = 8) did not receive any intervention. After 12 weeks, the subjects were revaluated (evaluation 2 – E2). Then, all of the subjects underwent ACAT. Following another 12 weeks (eight training sessions), they underwent the final evaluation (evaluation 3 – E3). There was no significant difference between E1 and E2 in the behavioral test [F(9.6) = 0.06, p = 0.92, λ de Wilks = 0.65)] or P300 [F(8.7) = 2.11, p = 0.17, λ de Wilks = 0.29] (discarding the presence of placebo effects and test–retest). A significant improvement was observed between the pre- and post-ACAT conditions (E2 and E3) for all auditory skills according to the behavioral methods [F(4.27) = 0.18, p = 0.94, λ de Wilks = 0.97]. However, the same result was not observed for P300 in any condition. There was no significant difference between P300 stimuli. The ACAT improved the behavioral performance of the elderly for all auditory skills and was an effective method for hearing rehabilitation. PMID:26042031

  13. A case study of the changes in the speech-evoked auditory brainstem response associated with auditory training in children with auditory processing disorders.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurti, Sridhar; Forrester, Jennifer; Rutledge, Casey; Holmes, Georgia W

    2013-04-01

    Studies related to plasticity and learning-related phenomena have primarily focused on higher-order processes of the auditory system, such as those in the auditory cortex and limited information is available on learning- and plasticity-related processes in the auditory brainstem. A clinical electrophysiological test of speech-evoked ABR known as BioMARK has been developed to evaluate brainstem responses to speech sounds in children with language learning disorders. Fast ForWord (FFW) was used as an auditory intervention program in the current study and pre- intervention and post-intervention speech-evoked ABR (BioMARK) measures were compared in 2 school-aged children with auditory processing disorders (APD). Significant changes were noted from pre-intervention to post-intervention and reflect plasticity in the auditory brainstem's neural activity to speech stimuli. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Auditory Spatial Attention Representations in the Human Cerebral Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Lingqiang; Michalka, Samantha W.; Rosen, Maya L.; Sheremata, Summer L.; Swisher, Jascha D.; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G.; Somers, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Auditory spatial attention serves important functions in auditory source separation and selection. Although auditory spatial attention mechanisms have been generally investigated, the neural substrates encoding spatial information acted on by attention have not been identified in the human neocortex. We performed functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments to identify cortical regions that support auditory spatial attention and to test 2 hypotheses regarding the coding of auditory spatial attention: 1) auditory spatial attention might recruit the visuospatial maps of the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) to create multimodal spatial attention maps; 2) auditory spatial information might be encoded without explicit cortical maps. We mapped visuotopic IPS regions in individual subjects and measured auditory spatial attention effects within these regions of interest. Contrary to the multimodal map hypothesis, we observed that auditory spatial attentional modulations spared the visuotopic maps of IPS; the parietal regions activated by auditory attention lacked map structure. However, multivoxel pattern analysis revealed that the superior temporal gyrus and the supramarginal gyrus contained significant information about the direction of spatial attention. These findings support the hypothesis that auditory spatial information is coded without a cortical map representation. Our findings suggest that audiospatial and visuospatial attention utilize distinctly different spatial coding schemes. PMID:23180753

  15. Auditory spatial attention representations in the human cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Kong, Lingqiang; Michalka, Samantha W; Rosen, Maya L; Sheremata, Summer L; Swisher, Jascha D; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G; Somers, David C

    2014-03-01

    Auditory spatial attention serves important functions in auditory source separation and selection. Although auditory spatial attention mechanisms have been generally investigated, the neural substrates encoding spatial information acted on by attention have not been identified in the human neocortex. We performed functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments to identify cortical regions that support auditory spatial attention and to test 2 hypotheses regarding the coding of auditory spatial attention: 1) auditory spatial attention might recruit the visuospatial maps of the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) to create multimodal spatial attention maps; 2) auditory spatial information might be encoded without explicit cortical maps. We mapped visuotopic IPS regions in individual subjects and measured auditory spatial attention effects within these regions of interest. Contrary to the multimodal map hypothesis, we observed that auditory spatial attentional modulations spared the visuotopic maps of IPS; the parietal regions activated by auditory attention lacked map structure. However, multivoxel pattern analysis revealed that the superior temporal gyrus and the supramarginal gyrus contained significant information about the direction of spatial attention. These findings support the hypothesis that auditory spatial information is coded without a cortical map representation. Our findings suggest that audiospatial and visuospatial attention utilize distinctly different spatial coding schemes.

  16. McGurk illusion recalibrates subsequent auditory perception.

    PubMed

    Lüttke, Claudia S; Ekman, Matthias; van Gerven, Marcel A J; de Lange, Floris P

    2016-09-09

    Visual information can alter auditory perception. This is clearly illustrated by the well-known McGurk illusion, where an auditory/aba/ and a visual /aga/ are merged to the percept of 'ada'. It is less clear however whether such a change in perception may recalibrate subsequent perception. Here we asked whether the altered auditory perception due to the McGurk illusion affects subsequent auditory perception, i.e. whether this process of fusion may cause a recalibration of the auditory boundaries between phonemes. Participants categorized auditory and audiovisual speech stimuli as /aba/, /ada/ or /aga/ while activity patterns in their auditory cortices were recorded using fMRI. Interestingly, following a McGurk illusion, an auditory /aba/ was more often misperceived as 'ada'. Furthermore, we observed a neural counterpart of this recalibration in the early auditory cortex. When the auditory input /aba/ was perceived as 'ada', activity patterns bore stronger resemblance to activity patterns elicited by /ada/ sounds than when they were correctly perceived as /aba/. Our results suggest that upon experiencing the McGurk illusion, the brain shifts the neural representation of an /aba/ sound towards /ada/, culminating in a recalibration in perception of subsequent auditory input.

  17. McGurk illusion recalibrates subsequent auditory perception

    PubMed Central

    Lüttke, Claudia S.; Ekman, Matthias; van Gerven, Marcel A. J.; de Lange, Floris P.

    2016-01-01

    Visual information can alter auditory perception. This is clearly illustrated by the well-known McGurk illusion, where an auditory/aba/ and a visual /aga/ are merged to the percept of ‘ada’. It is less clear however whether such a change in perception may recalibrate subsequent perception. Here we asked whether the altered auditory perception due to the McGurk illusion affects subsequent auditory perception, i.e. whether this process of fusion may cause a recalibration of the auditory boundaries between phonemes. Participants categorized auditory and audiovisual speech stimuli as /aba/, /ada/ or /aga/ while activity patterns in their auditory cortices were recorded using fMRI. Interestingly, following a McGurk illusion, an auditory /aba/ was more often misperceived as ‘ada’. Furthermore, we observed a neural counterpart of this recalibration in the early auditory cortex. When the auditory input /aba/ was perceived as ‘ada’, activity patterns bore stronger resemblance to activity patterns elicited by /ada/ sounds than when they were correctly perceived as /aba/. Our results suggest that upon experiencing the McGurk illusion, the brain shifts the neural representation of an /aba/ sound towards /ada/, culminating in a recalibration in perception of subsequent auditory input. PMID:27611960

  18. Impairment of auditory spatial localization in congenitally blind human subjects.

    PubMed

    Gori, Monica; Sandini, Giulio; Martinoli, Cristina; Burr, David C

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated enhanced auditory processing in the blind, suggesting that they compensate their visual impairment in part with greater sensitivity of the other senses. However, several physiological studies show that early visual deprivation can impact negatively on auditory spatial localization. Here we report for the first time severely impaired auditory localization in the congenitally blind: thresholds for spatially bisecting three consecutive, spatially-distributed sound sources were seriously compromised, on average 4.2-fold typical thresholds, and half performing at random. In agreement with previous studies, these subjects showed no deficits on simpler auditory spatial tasks or with auditory temporal bisection, suggesting that the encoding of Euclidean auditory relationships is specifically compromised in the congenitally blind. It points to the importance of visual experience in the construction and calibration of auditory spatial maps, with implications for rehabilitation strategies for the congenitally blind.

  19. Neural mechanisms underlying auditory feedback control of speech.

    PubMed

    Tourville, Jason A; Reilly, Kevin J; Guenther, Frank H

    2008-02-01

    The neural substrates underlying auditory feedback control of speech were investigated using a combination of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and computational modeling. Neural responses were measured while subjects spoke monosyllabic words under two conditions: (i) normal auditory feedback of their speech and (ii) auditory feedback in which the first formant frequency of their speech was unexpectedly shifted in real time. Acoustic measurements showed compensation to the shift within approximately 136 ms of onset. Neuroimaging revealed increased activity in bilateral superior temporal cortex during shifted feedback, indicative of neurons coding mismatches between expected and actual auditory signals, as well as right prefrontal and Rolandic cortical activity. Structural equation modeling revealed increased influence of bilateral auditory cortical areas on right frontal areas during shifted speech, indicating that projections from auditory error cells in posterior superior temporal cortex to motor correction cells in right frontal cortex mediate auditory feedback control of speech.

  20. The role of auditory feedback in vocal learning and maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Tschida, Katherine; Mooney, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Auditory experience is critical for the acquisition and maintenance of learned vocalizations in both humans and songbirds. Despite the central role of auditory feedback in vocal learning and maintenance, where and how auditory feedback affects neural circuits important to vocal control remain poorly understood. Recent studies of singing birds have uncovered neural mechanisms by which feedback perturbations affect vocal plasticity and also have identified feedback-sensitive neurons at or near sites of auditory and vocal motor interaction. Additionally, recent studies in marmosets have underscored that even in the absence of vocal learning, vocalization remains flexible in the face of changing acoustical environments, pointing to rapid interactions between auditory and vocal motor systems. Finally, recent studies show that a juvenile songbird’s initial auditory experience of a song model has long-lasting effects on sensorimotor neurons important to vocalization, shedding light on how auditory memories and feedback interact to guide vocal learning. PMID:22137567