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Sample records for internal cd levels

  1. Vitamin D, d-dimer, Interferon γ, and sCD14 Levels are Independently Associated with Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome: A Prospective, International Study☆

    PubMed Central

    Musselwhite, Laura W.; Andrade, Bruno B.; Ellenberg, Susan S.; Tierney, Ann; Belaunzaran-Zamudio, Pablo F.; Rupert, Adam; Lederman, Michael M.; Sanne, Ian; Sierra Madero, Juan G.; Sereti, Irini

    2016-01-01

    To determine the immunological profile most important for IRIS prediction, we evaluated 20 baseline plasma biomarkers in Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART). Patients were enrolled in a randomized, placebo-controlled ART initiation trial in South Africa and Mexico to test whether maraviroc could prevent IRIS. Participants were classified prospectively as having IRIS within 6 months of ART initiation. Twenty plasma biomarkers were measured at study enrollment for 267 participants. Biomarkers were tested for predicting IRIS with adjustment for covariates chosen through forward stepwise selection. Sixty-two participants developed IRIS and of these 19 were tuberculosis (TB)-IRIS. Baseline levels of vitamin D and higher d-dimer, interferon gamma (IFNγ), and sCD14 were independently associated with risk of IRIS in multivariate analyses. TB-IRIS cases exhibited a distinct biosignature from IRIS related to other pathogens, with increased levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), sCD14, IFNγ, and lower levels of Hb that could be captured by a composite risk score. Elevated markers of Type 1 T helper (Th1) response, monocyte activation, coagulation and low vitamin D were independently associated with IRIS risk. Interventions that decrease immune activation and increase vitamin D levels warrant further study. PMID:26981576

  2. Internal distribution of Cd in lettuce and resulting effects on Cd trophic transfer to the snail: Achatina fulica.

    PubMed

    Li, Cheng-Cheng; Dang, Fei; Cang, Long; Zhou, Dong-Mei; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M

    2015-09-01

    The mechanisms underlying Cd trophic transfer along the soil-lettuce-snail food chain were investigated. The fate of Cd within cells, revealed by assessment of Cd chemical forms and of subcellular partitioning, differed between the two examined lettuce species that we examined (L. longifolia and L. crispa). The species-specific internal Cd fate not only influenced Cd burdens in lettuce, with higher Cd levels in L. crispa, but also affected Cd transfer efficiency to the consumer snail (Achatina fulica). Especially, the incorporation of Cd chemical forms (Cd in the inorganic, water-soluble and pectates and protein-integrated forms) in lettuce could best explain Cd trophic transfer, when compared to dietary Cd levels alone and/or subcellular Cd partitioning. Trophically available metal on the subcellular partitioning base failed to shed light on Cd transfer in this study. After 28-d of exposure, most Cd was trapped in the viscera of Achatina fulica, and cadmium bio-magnification was noted in the snails, as the transfer factor of lettuce-to-snail soft tissue was larger than one. This study provides a first step to apply a chemical speciation approach to dictate the trophic bioavailability of Cd through the soil-plant-snail system, which might be an important pre-requisite for mechanistic understanding of metal trophic transfer.

  3. [Changes of CD34(+) and CD71(+)CD45(-) cell levels in bone marrow of MDS and AA patients].

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhen-Yu; Tian, Xu; Li, Ying; Yang, Mei-Rong; Zhang, Song; Wang, Xie-Ming; Zhang, Hai-Xia; Cheng, Nai-Yao

    2014-04-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the changes of CD34(+) and CD71(+)CD45(-) cell levels in MDS and AA patients. A total of 25 cases MDS and 43 cases of AA (18 cases SAA and 25 cases of NSAA) from January 2010 to October 2013 in the Department of Hematology, affiliated hospital of Hebei United University were enrolled in this study. The complete blood count, bone marrow smears, bone marrow biopsy, karyotype analysis and bone marrow blood cell immune genotyping (mainly the proportion of CD34(+) cells, CD71(+)CD45(-) cells in nucleated cells) were carried out for all patients; the changes of CD34(+) and CD71(+)CD45(-) cell levels in patients with MDS and AA (SAA NSAA) were compared; the differences of white blood cell count, platelet count and hemoglobin concentration in patients with count of CD71(+)CD45(-) ≥ 15% or <15% were analyzed. The results showed that the count of CD34(+) in MDS group was higher than that in AA (NSAA and SAA) group (P < 0.05). The count of CD71(+)CD45(-) cells in MDS group was higher than that in SAA (P < 0.05), there was no significant difference between NSAA group and MDS group. In MDS group with CD71(+)CD45(-) ≥ 15%, the platelet count was significantly higher than that in NSAA group (P < 0.05); and there was no statistical difference for leukocyte, platelet count and hemoglobin level between MDS and NSAA group with CD71(+)CD45(-) <15% (P > 0.05). It is concluded that the count of CD34(+) cells in MDS patients is significantly higher than that in AA and SAA patients. The count of CD71(+)CD45(-) cells in MDS group is significantly higher than that of SAA group. The platelet count in MDS patients with CD71(+)CD45(-) cells ≥ 15% is significantly higher than that of the NSAA group.

  4. High CD21 expression inhibits internalization of anti-CD19 antibodies and cytotoxicity of an anti-CD19-drug conjugate

    PubMed Central

    Ingle, Gladys S; Chan, Pamela; Elliott, J Michael; Chang, Wesley S; Koeppen, Hartmut; Stephan, Jean-Philippe; Scales, Suzie J

    2008-01-01

    CD19 and CD21 (CR2) are co-receptors found on B-cells and various B-cell lymphomas, including non-Hodgkin lymphoma. To evaluate their suitability as targets for therapy of such lymphomas using internalization-dependent antibody-drug conjugates [such as antibody-4-(N-maleimidomethyl)cyclohexane-1-carboxylate, (N2′-deacetyl-N2′-(3-mercapto-1-oxopropyl)-maytansine) (MCC-DM1) conjugates, which require lysosomal degradation of the antibody moiety for efficacy], we examined uptake of antibodies to CD19 and CD21 in a panel of B-cell lines. Anti-CD21 antibodies were not sufficiently internalized even in the highest CD21-expressing Raji cells, resulting in lack of efficacy with anti-CD21-MCC-DM1 conjugates. Anti-CD19 antibody uptake was variable, and was unexpectedly negatively correlated with CD21 expression. Thus, high CD21-expressing Raji, ARH77 and primary B-cells only very slowly internalized anti-CD19 antibodies, while CD21-negative or low expressing cells, including Ramos and Daudi, rapidly internalized these antibodies in clathrin-coated vesicles followed by lysosomal delivery. Anti-CD19-MCC-DM1 caused greater cytotoxicity in the faster anti-CD19-internalizing cell lines, implying that the rate of lysosomal delivery and subsequent drug release is important. Furthermore, transfection of Ramos cells with CD21 impeded anti-CD19 uptake and decreased anti-CD19-MCC-DM1 efficacy, suggesting that CD21-negative tumours should respond better to such anti-CD19 conjugates. This may have possible clinical implications, as anti-CD21 immunohistochemistry revealed only approximately 30% of 54 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients lack CD21 expression. PMID:17991300

  5. Pb and Cd levels among Korean populations

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, T.; Cha, C.W.; Song, D.B.; Ikeda, M.

    1987-02-01

    World-wide monitoring has been conducted on the exposure of humans to heavy metals such as lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd). The background exposure to Cd appears to be higher among Japanese than among Americans and Europeans, while the exposure of Japanese to Pb appears to be lower than that of Americans and Europeans. Reports are, however, rather scarce on the people in other Asian countries. Surveys of the background exposure to Pb and Cd were conducted in the urban and rural areas in Korea as a joint study of two institutions, one each in Korea and Japan, in a manner so that the data should be comparable to that of a nation-wide survey in Japan. The results are described in the present report.

  6. Levels of expression of complement regulatory proteins CD46, CD55 and CD59 on resting and activated human peripheral blood leucocytes

    PubMed Central

    Christmas, Stephen E; de la Mata Espinosa, Claudia T; Halliday, Deborah; Buxton, Cheryl A; Cummerson, Joanne A; Johnson, Peter M

    2006-01-01

    The cell surface complement regulatory (CReg) proteins CD46, CD55 and CD59 are widely expressed on human lymphoid and non-lymphoid cells. This study aimed to compare systematically levels of CReg expression by different leucocyte subsets and to determine whether levels were increased following activation in vitro. Levels of each CReg protein were similar on freshly isolated monocytes and all major lymphocyte subsets, except that CD4+ cells expressed significantly less CD46 than CD8+ cells (P < 0·05) while the reverse was observed for CD55 (P < 0·02). CD56+ cells, predominantly natural killer cells, expressed significantly lower levels of CD59 than T cells (P < 0·02). CD45RO+ cells had higher levels of surface CD46 and CD59, but lower levels of CD55, than CD45RO– cells (P < 0·02); CD25+ cells also expressed significantly less CD55 than CD25− cells (P < 0·002). Neutrophils expressed higher levels of CD59, but lower levels of CD55, than monocytes. Following activation with phytohaemagglutinin, CD46 was up-regulated on all leucocyte subsets with the exception of CD56+ cells. Both CD55 and CD59 were also markedly up-regulated on monocytes, and CD55 expression was greater on CD8+ than CD4+ cells following activation (P < 0·02). Lipopolysaccharide treatment did not significantly alter B-cell expression of CReg proteins whereas CD55 and CD59, but not CD46, were significantly up-regulated on monocytes (P < 0·02). These observations that CReg proteins are up-regulated on certain activated leucocyte subsets indicate that levels would be increased following immune responses in vivo. This could enhance both protection against local complement activation at inflammatory sites and also the immunoregulatory properties of these leucocytes. PMID:16999828

  7. The distribution of CD56(dim) CD16+ and CD56(bright) CD16- cells are associated with prolactin levels during pregnancy and menstrual cycle in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Martínez-García, Erika A; Sánchez-Hernández, Pedro E; Chavez-Robles, Bernardo; Nuñez-Atahualpa, Lourdes; Martín-Márquez, Beatriz T; Arana-Argaez, Victor E; García-Iglesias, Trinidad; González-López, Laura; Gamez-Nava, Jorge I; Petri, Marcelo H; Velazquez-Rodriguez, Juan; Salazar-Paramo, Mario; Davalos-Rodriguez, Ingrid P; Daneri-Navarro, Adrian; Vázquez-Del Mercado, Mónica

    2011-04-01

    The pregnancy and menstrual cycle (MC) are the main physiologic events linked to the human reproduction. An adequate neuroendocrine axis is mandatory for the homeostasis in both events. To analyze the distribution of NK, T, Treg cells, expression of their receptors and to associate with hormone levels in pregnant and MC in healthy women. We studied two groups of healthy women: 13 pregnant women followed up at 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimesters and 11 women in the 5th and 21st day of the MC. The distribution of NK, T, Treg cells population, expression of their receptors and hormone levels were quantified. In pregnant women, we found an association of NK cells CD56(dim) CD16(+) with prolactin levels. This finding was also was observed for CD56(brigthCD16-) being statistical significant during 1st trimester for both subpopulations. During MC, correlation of CD56(dim) CD16(+) , CD56(bright) CD16(-) cells with prolactin in follicular and luteal phase was found. This is the first report where these cell subpopulations have been analyzed prospectively. Even we can argue the random effect for the small number of women is interesting that prolactin showed the more consistent correlation with CD56(dim) CD16(+) , CD56(brigth) CD16(-) cells during both events studied. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Wafer level CD metrology on photomasks using aerial imaging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherübl, Thomas; Strößner, Ulrich; Seitz, Holger; Birkner, Robert; Richter, Rigo

    2008-05-01

    Recently more and more mask designs for critical layers involve strong OPC which increases the complexity for standard CD SEM mask measurements and conclusive interpretation of results. For wafer printing the wafer level CD is the crucial measure if the mask can be successfully used in production. Recent developments in the AIMSTM software have enabled the user to use the tool for wafer level CD metrology under scanner conditions. The advantage of this methodology is that AIMSTM does see the CD with scanner eyes. All lithographic relevant effects like OPC imaging which can not be measured by other tools like mask CD SEM will be captured optically by the AIMSTM principle. Therefore, measuring the CD uniformity of the mask by using AIMSTM will lead to added value in mask metrology. With decreasing feature sizes the requirements for CD metrology do increase. In this feasibility study a new prototype algorithm for measuring the lithographically relevant AIMSTM CD with sub pixel accuracy has been tested. It will be demonstrated that by using this algorithm line edge and line width roughness can be measured accurately by an AIMSTM image. Furthermore, CD repeatability and tool matching results will be shown.

  9. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef-induced down-modulation of CD4 is due to rapid internalization and degradation of surface CD4.

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, S S; Marsh, J W

    1994-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Nef is a myristylated protein with a relative molecular mass of 27 kDa, is localized to the cytoplasmic surfaces of cellular membranes, and has been reported to down-modulate CD4 in human T cells. To understand the mechanism of HIV-1 Nef-mediated down-modulation of cell surface CD4, we expressed Nef protein in human T-cell line VB. Expression of HIV-1 Nef protein down-modulated surface CD4 molecules. In pulse-chase experiments, CD4 molecules in Nef-expressing cells were synthesized at normal levels. However, the bulk of newly synthesized CD4 protein was degraded with a half-life of approximately 6 h, compared with the 24-h half-life in control cells. This Nef-induced acceleration of CD4 turnover was inhibited by lysosomotropic agents NH4Cl and chloroquine as well as by the protease inhibitor leupeptin. Surface CD4 biotinylation experiments demonstrated that CD4 molecules in Nef-expressing T cells are transported to the plasma membrane with normal kinetics but are then rapidly internalized. Therefore, HIV-1 Nef-induced down-modulation of CD4 is due to rapid internalization of surface CD4 and subsequent degradation by an acid-dependent process, potentially lysosomal. Additionally, in a Nef-expressing cell, we find accelerated dissociation of the T-cell tyrosine kinase p56lck and CD4 but only after the complex reaches the plasma membrane. This implies that HIV-1 Nef protein might play a role in triggering a series of T-cell activation-like events, which contribute to p56lck dissociation and internalization of surface CD4 molecules. Images PMID:8035515

  10. The International Station Meteorological Climate Summary CD-ROM.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarrett, Terry

    1992-10-01

    The International Station Meteorological Climate Summary (ISMCS)is a Compact Disc-Read Only Memory(CD-ROM)containing climatic records for 640 primary weather-observation sites and over 5800 secondary sites around the world. When used with a personal computer(PC) equipped with a CD-ROM drive, the ISMCS provides convenient access to the equivalent of 250 000 pages of climatic tables. The ISMCS was developed at the Federal Climate Complex in Asheville, North Carolina, as part of an ongoing effort to distribute the massive climatic database maintained there. Although the access software included on the ISMCS is written for a DOSPC, methods to access the ISMCS data files from UNIX computers are being developed.

  11. Increased levels of soluble CD163 in periodontitis patients.

    PubMed

    Detzen, Laurent; Chen, Steven C Y; Cheng, Bin; Papapanou, Panos N; Lalla, Evanthia

    2017-06-01

    Soluble CD163 (sCD163) has been implicated as a new biomarker in inflammatory conditions. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess CD163 levels systemically and locally in patients with chronic periodontitis. sCD163 levels were measured by ELISA in serum samples from 70 periodontitis and 70 periodontally healthy subjects, and in saliva samples in a subset of the population. Two gingival biopsies were harvested per subject from 20 periodontitis patients: one from a periodontally affected site, the other from a healthy site, and the relative expression of CD163 mRNA was assessed by real-time PCR. Serum sCD163 was significantly higher in periodontitis patients compared to periodontally healthy subjects (720.0 ± 330.6 ng/ml versus 510.7 ± 219.6 ng/ml, respectively; p < .001). Similarly, sCD163 levels in saliva were significantly increased in periodontitis compared to healthy subjects (3.01 ± 5.07 ng/ml versus 1.98 ± 4.95 ng/ml, respectively; p = .009). Serum and saliva sCD163 levels showed a positive correlation (Kendall's tau .27, p = .018). Importantly, CD163 gene expression was significantly higher in affected sites compared to unaffected sites in periodontitis patients, with a mean fold upregulation of 9.9 (STD: 15.3, p = .010). Our findings suggest that CD163 may be involved in the pathogenesis of periodontitis and its link with systemic conditions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. History in the Making: A Report from Microsoft's First International Conference on CD ROM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, David

    1986-01-01

    Reviews important developments of Microsoft's first international conference on CD ROM, focusing on the announcement of a new medium called Compact Disc-Interactive (CD-I). Discussion covers CD-I's design, applications, kinds of programming made possible compatibility with current CD ROM products, impact on consumer market, and impact on overall…

  13. Electronic Level Alignment in Multicomponent CdSe/CdTe Nanostructures from First Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shenyuan; Prendergast, David; Neaton, Jeffrey

    2010-03-01

    Inorganic CdSe/CdTe nanorod heterojunctions, with type-II level alignment and band gaps in the solar spectrum, comprise ideal model components of nanostructure-based solar cells. Here we perform density functional theory calculations on CdSe/CdTe nanowire heterojunctions, exploring how the electronic properties of their nanoscale interfaces are affected by quantum confinement, and mechanical and electrical boundary conditions. Many-body perturbation theory within the GW approximation is used to predict quantitative bulk band gaps and infer bulk level alignment. We find that band offsets at bulk epitaxial interfaces are quite sensitive to biaxial strain due to lattice mismatch. The computed band gaps of small linear nanorod heterojunctions increase with decreasing diameter due to quantum confinement, but band offsets are seen to be largely unaffected. In the core/shell nanorod heterojunctions, band offsets are strongly dependent on strain and confinement, both of which can be tuned by the core size and shell thickness.

  14. Extended yrast level schemes in ^121,123Cd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, W. B.; Chiara, C. J.

    2010-11-01

    New level structures for ^121,123Cd will be presented that were determined in the study of the ^64Ni- and ^76Ge-induced fission of ^238U at Gammasphere [1]. A number of transitions were previously observed by Hwang et al. from which yrast levels were identified with maximum proposed spins of 27/2- and 23/2- in ^121,123Cd, respectively [2]. If the additional transitions have stretched E2 multipolarity, these level structures would be extended to 31/2- at 4083 keV, and 35/2- at 5365 keV in ^121,123Cd, respectively. These level sequences will be compared to existing levels in the lighter odd-mass Cd nuclei and the isomeric structures and calculations in the heavier odd-mass Cd nuclei.[4pt] [1] C. J. Chiara, I. Stefanescu, A. A. Hecht, R. V. F. Janssens, W. B. Walters, R. Broda, M. P. Carpenter, B. Fornal, G. Gúrdal, C. R. Hoffman, N. Hoteling, B. P. Kay, F. G. Kondev, W. Kr'olas, T. Lauritsen, C. J. Lister, E. A. McCutchan, T. Pawlat, D. Seweryniak, N. Sharp, J. R. Stone, N. J. Stone, X. Wang, A. Wóhr, J. Wrzesinski, S. Zhu, to be submitted for publication in Phys. Rev. C.[0pt] [2] J. K. Hwang et al., J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys. 28, L9 (2002).

  15. Alterations in levels of CD28-/CD8+ suppressor cell precursor and CD45RO+/CD4+ memory T lymphocytes in the peripheral blood of multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed Central

    Crucian, B; Dunne, P; Friedman, H; Ragsdale, R; Pross, S; Widen, R

    1995-01-01

    A comprehensive peripheral blood immunophenotype analysis of 16 multiple sclerosis (MS) patients was performed by three-color flow cytometric analysis, and the results were compared with those for age-matched healthy controls. The cell subsets quantified included T cells (CD3+), B cells (CD19+), NK cells (CD56+), CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, cytotoxic (CD28+) and suppressor precursor (CD28-) CD8+ T cells, CD45RA+ and CD45RO+ T cells (CD4+ and CD8+), and CD5+ T and B cells. Analysis of MS patients' peripheral blood revealed essentially normal levels of total T, B, and NK cells. In agreement with results obtained by other investigators, it was found that MS patients had an increased CD4/CD8 ratio, primarily due to a decrease in CD8+ T cells. MS patients were found to have a significantly decreased level of suppressor precursor (CD28-) CD8+ T cells compared with that of controls but to have normal levels of cytotoxic (CD28+) CD8+ T cells. These data indicate that MS patients do not have a general decrease in CD8+ T cells but that they have a specific decrease in the suppressor precursor subset only and normal levels of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. MS patients also had a significant increase in memory (CD45RO+) CD4+ T cells and displayed a trend towards a decrease in naive (CD45RA+) T cells in the peripheral blood. PMID:7697540

  16. Relationship between the frequency of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells and the level of CD38+CD8+ T cells in untreated HIV-infected individuals

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Tae-Wook; Justement, J. Shawn; Sanford, Christina; Hallahan, Claire W.; Planta, Marie A.; Loutfy, Mona; Kottilil, Shyam; Moir, Susan; Kovacs, Colin; Fauci, Anthony S.

    2004-01-01

    CD8+ T cells are critical for effective host defenses against viral infections. Studies addressing HIV-induced immune responses in infected individuals have suggested that CD8+ T cells play an important role in controlling viral replication. However, despite an abundance of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells, HIV is not contained in many untreated patients. Active HIV replication is associated with numerous immunologic changes, the most notable and consistent of which is an increase in CD8+ T cells expressing CD38. Previous studies have demonstrated that the expression of CD38 on CD8+ T cells is associated with poor prognostic outcome in infected individuals with detectable plasma viremia; however, the relationship between the expression of CD38 and the frequency of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells is unclear. We demonstrate a correlation between levels of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells and levels of CD8+ T cells expressing CD38 in untreated patients. The distribution of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells was heavily skewed toward CD38+CD8+ T cells in patients with a high percentage of CD38+CD8+ T cells. Spontaneous/Fas-mediated apoptosis in CD38+CD8+ T cells was significantly higher in patients with high percentages of CD38+CD8+ T cells. Our data suggest that a substantial proportion of the HIV-specific CD8+ T cells present in CD38+CD8+ T cells in patients with active viral replication arise by HIV-driven aberrant immune activation and may not manifest effective cytolytic activity against infected targets due to a high degree of susceptibility to apoptosis, thus providing an explanation of why HIV is not successfully contained by CD8+ T cells in such individuals. PMID:14983032

  17. CD36 level and trafficking are determinants of lipolysis in adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dequan; Samovski, Dmitri; Okunade, Adewole L; Stahl, Philip D; Abumrad, Nada A; Su, Xiong

    2012-11-01

    CD36 has been linked to the etiology of insulin resistance and inflammation. We explored its function in regulating adipose tissue lipolysis, which influences fat accumulation by liver and muscle and overall metabolism. Knockdown of CD36 in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes decreased lipolysis in response to 10 μM of the β-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol (by 42%), 10 μM of the adenyl cyclase activator forskolin (by 32%), and 500 μM of the phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor isobutylmethylxanthine (by 33%). All three treatments in the knockdown adipocytes were associated with significant decreases of cAMP levels and of the hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and perilipin phosphorylation. An important role for PDE was supported by the lack of inhibition of the lipolysis induced by the poorly hydrolyzable dibutyryl cAMP analog. An additional contributory mechanism was diminished activation of the Src-ERK1/2 pathway. Regulation of lipolysis and lipolytic signaling by CD36 was reproduced with adipose tissue from CD36(-/-) mice. The importance of surface CD36 in this regulation was suggested by the finding that the plasma membrane-impermeable CD36 inhibitor sulfo-N-succinimidyl oleate (20 μM) decreased lipolysis. Interestingly, isoproterenol induced CD36 internalization, and this process was blocked by HSL inhibition, suggesting feedback regulation of adipocyte lipolysis via CD36 trafficking.

  18. Serum CD14 levels in polytraumatized and severely burned patients.

    PubMed Central

    Krüger, C; Schütt, C; Obertacke, U; Joka, T; Müller, F E; Knöller, J; Köller, M; König, W; Schönfeld, W

    1991-01-01

    Recently it has been demonstrated that the CD14 molecule which is expressed on monocytes and macrophages serves as a receptor for lipopolysaccharide (LPS) bound to LPS-binding protein (LBP) and thus mediates LPS-induced tumour necrosis factor (TNF) production. Here we report that CD14 is found as a soluble (s) molecule in serum. In healthy volunteers sCD14 levels (mean +/- s.e.m.) were 3.7 +/- 0.05 micrograms/ml (n = 30, 25-50 years of age) as determined by ELISA (detection limit 20 ng/ml serum) using two monoclonal antibodies in a sandwich technique. In polytraumatized patients (n = 16) significantly decreased levels (1.7 +/- 0.3) were detected immediately after the trauma, which increased to 4.9 +/- 0.3 micrograms/ml within the first 6 days post trauma. sCD14 remained elevated during the first 14 days post trauma in patients with the most severe injuries (injury severity score greater than 45 points), whereas a return to normal levels was observed in patients with an injury score of less than 45 points. In addition, the levels of the high-density lipoproteins that partially inactivate free endotoxin are significantly decreased post trauma. No correlation between parameters of inflammation (C3a and neopterin levels, leucocyte counts, amount of band cells), liver function and sCD14 levels was established. Comparable to polytraumatized patients, increased sCD14 serum levels were observed in five patients with burn trauma (burned area greater than 35%) within the second week post trauma when clinical signs of septicaemia were evident. PMID:1713813

  19. Analysis of the CD161-expressing cell quantities and CD161 expression levels in peripheral blood natural killer and T cells of systemic lupus erythematosus patients.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Lung; Lin, Shih-Chang

    2017-02-01

    Expressed on the cell surface of most of NK cells and some T cells, CD161 has been shown to deliver inhibitory signal in human NK cells. To determine whether the CD161-expressing cell quantities and the cell surface expression levels of CD161 in NK and T cells were altered in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, we analyzed the CD3, CD56 and CD161 expression patterns of peripheral blood lymphocytes by flow cytometric analysis to identify different NK and T cell subpopulations. The cell surface expression levels of CD161 were estimated by the mean florescence intensities (MFIs) of CD161. It was found that SLE patients had lower frequencies of CD161+CD56+CD3- and CD161+CD56+CD3+ cells among the lymphocyte population than normal controls, whereas the frequencies of CD161-CD56+CD3- and CD161+CD56-CD3+ cells were not statistically different between two groups. In addition, SLE patients also had decreased absolute counts of all CD161-expressing NK cells and T cells and had reduced frequencies of CD161+ cells in CD56+CD3-, CD56+CD3+ and CD56-CD3+ cell populations. Moreover, SLE patients had reduced MFIs of CD161 in CD161+CD56+CD3+ and CD161+CD56-CD3+, but not CD161+CD56+CD3-, cell populations. Our results indicated that CD161-expressing cell frequency and the CD161 expression levels were reduced in some NK and T cell subpopulations of SLE patients, suggesting possible important role of CD161 and CD161-expressing immune cells in the SLE pathogenesis.

  20. CD36 level and trafficking are determinants of lipolysis in adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Dequan; Samovski, Dmitri; Okunade, Adewole L.; Stahl, Philip D.; Abumrad, Nada A.; Su, Xiong

    2012-01-01

    CD36 has been linked to the etiology of insulin resistance and inflammation. We explored its function in regulating adipose tissue lipolysis, which influences fat accumulation by liver and muscle and overall metabolism. Knockdown of CD36 in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes decreased lipolysis in response to 10 μM of the β-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol (by 42%), 10 μM of the adenyl cyclase activator forskolin (by 32%), and 500 μM of the phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor isobutylmethylxanthine (by 33%). All three treatments in the knockdown adipocytes were associated with significant decreases of cAMP levels and of the hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and perilipin phosphorylation. An important role for PDE was supported by the lack of inhibition of the lipolysis induced by the poorly hydrolyzable dibutyryl cAMP analog. An additional contributory mechanism was diminished activation of the Src-ERK1/2 pathway. Regulation of lipolysis and lipolytic signaling by CD36 was reproduced with adipose tissue from CD36−/− mice. The importance of surface CD36 in this regulation was suggested by the finding that the plasma membrane-impermeable CD36 inhibitor sulfo-N-succinimidyl oleate (20 μM) decreased lipolysis. Interestingly, isoproterenol induced CD36 internalization, and this process was blocked by HSL inhibition, suggesting feedback regulation of adipocyte lipolysis via CD36 trafficking.—Zhou, D., Samovski, D., Okunade, A. L., Stahl, P. D., Abumrad, N. A., Su, X.. CD36 level and trafficking are determinants of lipolysis in adipocytes. PMID:22815385

  1. Effects of elevated CO2 levels on root morphological traits and Cd uptakes of two Lolium species under Cd stress*

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yan; Tang, Shi-rong; Ju, Xue-hai; Shu, Li-na; Tu, Shu-xing; Feng, Ren-wei; Giusti, Lorenzino

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the combined effects of elevated CO2 levels and cadmium (Cd) on the root morphological traits and Cd accumulation in Lolium multiflorum Lam. and Lolium perenne L. exposed to two CO2 levels (360 and 1000 μl/L) and three Cd levels (0, 4, and 16 mg/L) under hydroponic conditions. The results show that elevated levels of CO2 increased shoot biomass more, compared to root biomass, but decreased Cd concentrations in all plant tissues. Cd exposure caused toxicity to both Lolium species, as shown by the restrictions of the root morphological parameters including root length, surface area, volume, and tip numbers. These parameters were significantly higher under elevated levels of CO2 than under ambient CO2, especially for the number of fine roots. The increases in magnitudes of those parameters triggered by elevated levels of CO2 under Cd stress were more than those under non-Cd stress, suggesting an ameliorated Cd stress under elevated levels of CO2. The total Cd uptake per pot, calculated on the basis of biomass, was significantly greater under elevated levels of CO2 than under ambient CO2. Ameliorated Cd toxicity, decreased Cd concentration, and altered root morphological traits in both Lolium species under elevated levels of CO2 may have implications in food safety and phytoremediation. PMID:21462388

  2. Circulating levels of the innate and humoral immune regulators CD14 and CD23 are associated with adult glioma.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mi; Wiemels, Joseph L; Bracci, Paige M; Wrensch, Margaret R; McCoy, Lucie S; Rice, Terri; Sison, Jennette D; Patoka, Joseph S; Wiencke, John K

    2010-10-01

    Allergy history has been consistently inversely associated with glioma risk. Two serologic markers, soluble CD23 (sCD23) and soluble CD14 (sCD14), are part of the innate and adaptive humoral immune systems and modulate allergic responses in opposite directions, with sCD23 enhancing and sCD14 blunting inflammatory responses. We measured sCD23 and sCD14 in serum from blood that was drawn at a single time point from 1,079 glioma patients postdiagnosis and 736 healthy controls. Glioma was strongly associated with high sCD14 [highest versus lowest quartile odds ratio (OR), 3.94; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 2.98-5.21] and low sCD23 (lowest versus highest quartile OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.89-3.23). Results were consistent across glioma histologic types and grades, but were strongest for glioblastoma. Whereas temozolomide treatment was not associated with either sCD14 or sCD23 levels among cases, those taking dexamethasone had somewhat lower sCD23 levels than those not taking dexamethasone. However, sCD23 was associated with case status regardless of dexamethasone treatment. These results augment the long-observed association between allergies and glioma and support a role for the innate and adaptive humoral functions of the immune system, in particular immunoregulatory proteins, in gliomagenesis.

  3. CD26 Expression on T Helper Populations and sCD26 Serum Levels in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Cordero, Oscar J.; Varela-Calviño, Rubén; López-González, Tania; Calviño-Sampedro, Cristina; Viñuela, Juan E.; Mouriño, Coral; Hernández-Rodríguez, Íñigo; Rodríguez-López, Marina; Aspe de la Iglesia, Bruno; Pego, José María

    2015-01-01

    We studied dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV, CD26) expression in different T helper cells and serum soluble DPP-IV/sCD26 levels in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, correlated these with disease activity score (DAS), and examined how they were affected by different therapies, conventional or biological (anti-TNF, anti-CD20 and anti-IL6R or Ig-CTLA4). The percentage of CD4+CD45R0+CD26- cells was greatly reduced in patients (up to 50%) when compared with healthy subjects. Three other subsets of CD4 cells, including a CD26high Th1-associated population, changed variably with therapies. Data from these subsets (frequency and staining density) significantly correlated with DAS28 or DAS28 components but different in each group of patients undergoing the different therapies. Th17 and Th22 subsets were implicated in RA as independent CCR4+ and CCR4- populations each, with distinct CD26 expression, and were targeted with varying efficiency by each therapy. Serum DPP-IV activity rather than sCD26 levels was lower in RA patients compared to healthy donors. DPP-IV and sCD26 serum levels were found related to specific T cell subsets but not to disease activity. We conclude that, according to their CD26 expression, different cell subsets could serve to monitor RA course, and an uncharacterized T helper CD26- subset, not targeted by therapies, should be monitored for early diagnosis. PMID:26177310

  4. Expansion of CD3+CD4-CD8- T cell population expressing high levels of IL-5 in Omenn's syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Melamed, I; Cohen, A; Roifman, C M

    1994-01-01

    Omenn's syndrome is a fatal, autosomal-recessive combined immune deficiency characterized by several erythematous exfoliative eruptions, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and elevated eosinophil count. In some of these patients an expansion of CD3+CD4-CD8- double negative (DN) T cell population was observed. We show here that the DN population represents a clonal expansion of T cells which preferentially use V beta 14 in their T cell receptor complex. Using polymerase chain reaction, we show that patient's DN cells express spontaneously high levels of IL-5, thus possibly explaining the abundance of eosinophils in this disorder. The increase of IgE observed in patients with Omenn's syndrome is unlikely to be related to IL-4 production, as IL-4 levels in patient samples were low. However, patient's low expression of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), which has been reported to inhibit IgE production, may explain the elevated levels of IgE in this patient. The results thus highlight the importance of the inhibitory effect of IFN-gamma on regulation of IgE production. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8287598

  5. Increasing CACNA1C expression in placenta containing high Cd level: an implication of Cd toxicity.

    PubMed

    Phuapittayalert, Laorrat; Saenganantakarn, Phisid; Supanpaiboon, Wisa; Cheunchoojit, Supaporn; Hipkaeo, Wiphawi; Sakulsak, Natthiya

    2016-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) has known to produce many adverse effects on organs including placenta. Many essential transporters are involved in Cd transport pathways such as DMT-1, ZIP as well as L-VDCC. Fourteen pregnant women participated and were divided into two groups: high and low Cd-exposed (H-Cd, L-Cd) groups on the basis of their residential areas, Cd concentrations in the blood (B-Cd), urine (U-Cd), and placenta (P-Cd). The results showed that the B-Cd and U-Cd were significantly increased in H-Cd group (p < 0.05). Interestingly, the P-Cd in H-Cd group was elevated (p < 0.05) and positively related to their B-Cd and U-Cd values (p < 0.05). However, the mean cord blood Cd (C-Cd) concentration in H-Cd group was not significantly increased about 2.5-fold when comparing to L-Cd group. To determine the Cd accumulation in placental tissues, metallothionein-1A (MT-1A) and metallothionein-2A (MT-2A) expressions were used as biomarkers. The results revealed that mean MT-1A and MT-2A mRNAs and MT-1/2 proteins were up-regulated in H-Cd group (p < 0.05). In addition, the Ca channel alpha 1C (CACNA1C) mRNA and protein expressions were noticeably elevated in H-Cd group (p < 0.05). From these findings, we suggested that CACNA1C might be implicated in Cd transport in human placenta.

  6. Ligand binding determines whether CD46 is internalized by clathrin-coated pits or macropinocytosis.

    PubMed

    Crimeen-Irwin, Blessing; Ellis, Sarah; Christiansen, Dale; Ludford-Menting, Mandy J; Milland, Julie; Lanteri, Marc; Loveland, Bruce E; Gerlier, Denis; Russell, Sarah M

    2003-11-21

    CD46 is a ubiquitous human cell surface receptor for the complement components C3b and C4b and for various pathogens, including the measles virus and human herpes virus 6. Ligand binding to CD46 affects (i) protection of autologous cells from complement attack by breakdown of complement components, (ii) intracellular signals that affect the regulation of immune cell function, (iii) antigen presentation, and (iv) down-regulation of cell surface CD46. Recent evidence indicates that CD46 signaling can link innate and acquired immune function. The molecular mechanisms for these processes and the importance of intracellular trafficking of the receptor have not yet been elucidated. We demonstrate here that, in nonlymphoid cells, CD46 is constitutively internalized via clathrin-coated pits, traffics to multivesicular bodies, and is recycled to the cell surface. However, cross-linking of CD46 at the cell surface, by either multivalent antibody or by measles virus, induces pseudopodia that engulf the ligand in a process similar to macropinocytosis, and leads to the degradation of cell surface CD46. Thus, we have elucidated two pathways for CD46 internalization, which are regulated by the valence of cross-linking of CD46 and which utilize either clathrin-coated pits or pseudopodial extension. This has important implications for CD46 signaling, antigen presentation, CD46 down-regulation, and engulfment of pathogens.

  7. Laser Disks at the Library Door: The Microsoft First International Conference on CD-ROM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, David C.

    1986-01-01

    Description of First International CD-ROM Conference held by Microsoft, Inc., in March, 1986, covers types of participants, hardware and support services, and technical standards and intellectual property rights as market barriers. The importance of librarians planning for CD-ROM is stressed, and a detailed directory of references and contacts is…

  8. CdSe quantum dot internalization by Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kloepfer, Jeremiah A.; Mielke, Randall E.; Nadeau, Jay L.

    2004-01-01

    Biological labeling has been demonstrated with CdSe quantum dots in a variety of animal cells, but bacteria are harder to label because of their cell walls. We discuss the challenges of using minimally coated, bare CdSe quantum dots as luminescent internal labels for bacteria.

  9. CdSe quantum dot internalization by Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kloepfer, Jeremiah A.; Mielke, Randall E.; Nadeau, Jay L.

    2004-01-01

    Biological labeling has been demonstrated with CdSe quantum dots in a variety of animal cells, but bacteria are harder to label because of their cell walls. We discuss the challenges of using minimally coated, bare CdSe quantum dots as luminescent internal labels for bacteria.

  10. Elevated levels of peripheral blood CD14(bright) CD16+ and CD14(dim) CD16+ monocytes may contribute to the development of retinopathy in patients with juvenile onset type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ryba-Stanisławowska, Monika; Myśliwska, Jolanta; Juhas, Ulana; Myśliwiec, Małgorzata

    2015-09-01

    The study aimed to analyze the CD14(bright) CD16(+) and CD14(dim) CD16(+) monocyte subsets in juvenile-onset complication-free diabetes mellitus type 1 in the context of their association with microvascular complications. 61 children with type 1 diabetes and 30 healthy individuals were enrolled in a study. CD14(bright) CD16(+) and CD14(dim) CD16(+) monocytes were quantified in peripheral blood by means of flow cytometry. At the time of sampling blood glucose concentration was taken along with biochemical measurement of renal function, CRP and glycosylated hemoglobin. The Spearman's correlations were used to compare the relationship between CD16(+) monocyte subsets and the clinical parameters that can predict the development of microangiopathies. The flow cytometric analysis of monocyte subsets in peripheral blood of analyzed subjects revealed that the numbers of CD14(bright) CD16(+) and CD14(dim) CD16(+) monocytes were significantly higher in patients with type 1 diabetes than in the healthy individuals. As to the relationship between CD16(+) monocyte subsets and the clinical parameters that can predict development of microangiopathies, it was shown that both CD16(+) subsets were associated with increased risk of retinopathy development, defined as retinopathy development value. Elevated levels of intermediate CD14(bright) CD16(+) and non-classical CD14(dim) CD16(+) monocytes predict development of diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 1 diabetes.

  11. Lead, cadmium and mercury levels in pregnancy: the need for international consensus on levels of concern.

    PubMed

    Taylor, C M; Golding, J; Emond, A M

    2014-02-01

    For heavy metals that have any degree of transfer though the placenta to the fetus, it is unlikely that there are safe limits for maternal blood levels. The only means of reducing fetal exposure is to minimise maternal exposure. There are few recommendations for levels of concern. With the exception of US recommendations for maternal Pb levels, but there are no international levels of concern or cut-off levels specifically for pregnancy for heavy metals, so that comparisons can generally only be made with national reference values relating to similar physiological statuses or age groups. These include recommendations for Cd levels by Germany (reference value for non-smoking adults aged 18-69 years, 1 µg/l) and for Hg by Germany (reference value for adults age 18-60 years with fish intake < or =3 times per month, 2.0 µg/l) and the USA (cut-off level for women, 5.8 µg/dl). To illustrate the lack of cohesion, we present data on blood Pb, Cd and Hg levels from pregnant women enroled in the UK Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children study and compare the values with present levels of concern and recommended cut-off values. We also compare the levels with those found in other groups of pregnant women worldwide to strengthen the database for the development of levels of concern in pregnancy. The need for clarity of terminology in describing levels of concern is discussed. There is a pressing need for international consensus on levels of concern for all age groups and physiological statuses, particularly for pregnancy.

  12. Role of Therapeutic Plasma Exchange in Treatment of Tumefactive Multiple Sclerosis-Associated Low CD4 and CD8 Levels

    PubMed Central

    Lew, Kristen; Mewada, Nishith; Ramanujam, Sahana; Hassanzadeh, Bahareh; Donahue, John E.; Peddareddygari, Leema Reddy; Moser, Robert; Kososky, Charles; Grewal, Raji P.

    2016-01-01

    We report a 35-year-old healthy male who developed central nervous system inflammatory demyelinating disease consistent with tumefactive multiple sclerosis. About 2 weeks after onset of symptoms and prior to initiation of therapy, the patient had lymphopenia and low CD4 and CD8 levels. His lymphocyte count was 400 cells/µl (850–3,900 cells/µl), CD4 was 193 cells/µl (490–1,740 cells/µl) and CD8 was 103 cells/µl (180–1,170 cells/µl). He was treated with intravenous methylprednisolone followed by therapeutic plasma exchange, the levels of CD4 and CD8 normalized, and ultimately, he recovered completely. PMID:27721782

  13. Functional characterization of human CD34+ cells that express low or high levels of the membrane antigen CD111 (nectin 1).

    PubMed

    Belaaloui, G; Imbert, A-M; Bardin, F; Tonnelle, C; Dubreuil, P; Lopez, M; Chabannon, C

    2003-06-01

    Nectins are recently described adhesion molecules that are widely expressed on many tissues, including the hematopoietic tissue. Nectin 1 (CD111) is expressed on a higher proportion of mobilized peripheral blood (mPB) than cord blood (CB) CD34+ cells, and of CD34+/CD38+ cells when compared with CD34+/CD38- cells. We studied functional properties of human CB and mPB CD34+ cells that express low or high levels of CD111. CD34+/CD111(dim) cells contain a higher proportion of cells in G0/G1 phase than CD34+/CD111(bright) cells. CD34+/CD111(bright) cells contain more erythroid progenitors: CFU-E, than their counterparts, which on the opposite contain more HPP-CFC. Limiting dilution analyses demonstrate a higher frequency of immature progenitors: cobblestone-area colony-forming cells, CD34+/CD111(dim) than in CD34+/CD111(bright) cells. In vitro differentiation assays demonstrate a higher frequency of B-, T- and dendritic-cell precursors, but less NK-cell precursors in CD34+/CD111(dim) cells. Evaluation of engraftment in NOD-SCID mice shows that SCID repopulating cells are more frequent among mPB CD34+/CD111(dim) cells. Liquid culture of CD34+/CD111(dim) cells with erythropoietin shows that CD111 expression increases simultaneously with CD36, following CD71 and before glycophorin A expression. In conclusion, immature human hematopoietic progenitors express low levels of CD111 on their surface. During erythroid differentiation CD34+ cells acquire higher levels of the CD111 antigen.

  14. Accumulation and localization of cadmium in potato (Solanum tuberosum) under different soil Cd levels.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhifan; Zhao, Ye; Gu, Lei; Wang, Shuifeng; Li, Yongliang; Dong, Fangli

    2014-06-01

    Phytoavailability and uptake mechanism of Cd in edible plant tissues grown on metal polluted agricultural soils has become a growing concern worldwide. Uptake, transport, accumulation and localization of cadmium in potato organs under different soil Cd levels were investigated using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis. Results indicated that Cd contents in potato organs increased with increasing soil Cd concentrations, and the order of Cd contents in different organs was leaves > stems/roots > tubers. Root-to-stem Cd translocation coefficients ranged from 0.89 to 1.81. Cd localization in potato tissues suggested that leaves and stems should be the main compartment of Cd storage and uptake. Although low concentrations of Cd migrated from the root to tuber, Cd accumulation in the tuber exceeded the standard for food security. Therefore, the planting of potato plants in farmland containing Cd should be closely evaluated due to its potential to present health risks.

  15. Reduced Activated T Lymphocytes (CD4+CD25+) and Plasma Levels of Cytokines in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Natalia Pessoa; Assis, Frankcinéia; Scalzo, Paula Luciana; Vieira, Érica Leandro Marciano; Barbosa, Izabela Guimarães; de Souza, Mariana Soares; Christo, Paulo Pereira; Reis, Helton José; Teixeira, Antonio Lucio

    2017-02-07

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. The cause of neurodegeneration in PD is not completely understood, and evidence has shown that inflammatory/immune changes may be involved in PD pathophysiology. Herein, we aimed to determine the profile of the peripheral immune system in patients with PD in comparison with controls. Forty patients with PD and 25 age- and gender-matched controls were enrolled in this study. From these, 23 PD patients and 21 controls were included in the immunophenotyping analyses. Peripheral blood was drawn on the same day of the clinical assessment and submitted to plasma separation for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or cytometric bead array. Immunophenotyping analyses of the peripheral blood were performed by flow cytometry. We found that patients with PD presented peripheral immune changes evidenced by decreased percentage of T lymphocytes (CD3+ cells), especially activated T lymphocytes (CD4+CD25+ cells), when compared with controls. In line with these results, we also found decreased plasma levels of the cytokines IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF, IFN-γ, and IL-17A in the PD group. In vitro experiments demonstrated that the production of cytokines by peripheral blood mononuclear cells harvested from healthy young donors was reduced after exposure to the anti-parkinsonian drugs levodopa and pramipexole. Our data corroborate the hypothesis that immunological mechanisms are involved in PD. It is not clear whether the differences that we have found are due to adaptive mechanisms or to changes associated with PD, including pharmacological treatment, or even directly related to the disease pathophysiology. Future studies are needed in this regard.

  16. Serum levels of soluble IL-2R, CD4 and CD8 in bronChial asthma

    PubMed Central

    lorenzo, G. Di; Mansueto, P.; Melluso, M.; Morici, G.; Norrito, F.; Cigna, D.; Candore, G.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare serum levels of soluble forms of interleukin-2 receptor, CD4 and CD8, released by lymphocytes during activation of the immune system, in patients with allergic bronchial asthma, with those in healthy subjects. Significantly higher levels of soluble IL-2R and soluble CD4 were found in patients with asthma compared with the control group. In contrast, lower levels of soluble CD8 values were found in patients with asthma compared to the control group. Significant correlations were found for both sIL-2R and sCD4 and these two molecules, with lung function measured as bronchial responsiveness to inhaled methacholine. These results strengthen previous suggestions that in allergic bronchial asthma, activation of T cells plays a significant role in the disease pathogenesis. PMID:18475650

  17. Increased serum IL-2R levels in coeliac disease are related to CD4 but not CD8 antigens.

    PubMed

    Blanco, A; Garrote, J A; Arranz, E; Alonso, M; Clavo, C

    1992-11-01

    Forty-three coeliac children, ranging from 1 year and 3 months to 14 years and 9 months, were studied. Twenty-eight patients were in an active phase of the disease, and 15 were in remission. The criteria of coeliac disease (CD) activity were established according to the results of IgA anti-endomysial antibodies (IgA-AEm). Interleukin 2 receptor (IL-2R) and CD4 and CD8 antigens were measured in serum samples by an ELISA technique using two noncompetitive monoclonal antibodies. Antigliadin antibodies of IgG (IgG-AGA) and IgA (IgA-AGA) classes were also measured. The AEm-positive coeliac patient group showed values of 1,860 +/- 948 U/ml for IL-2R, 430 +/- 228 U/ml for CD8, and 36.8 +/- 25.1 U/ml for CD4. AEm-negative patients showed values of 980 +/- 436 U/ml, 350 +/- 243 U/ml, and 24.1 +/- 20 U/ml, respectively. IL-2R levels were the only ones significantly elevated (p < 0.005) in the active coeliac group. On the other hand, IgG-AGA and IgA-AGA were both clearly increased (p < 0.001). IL-2R levels in active coeliac patients correlated with CD4 levels (p < 0.05), but not with CD8, IgG-AGA, and IgA-AGA levels. We also found a surprising negative correlation between AEm antibodies of IgA2 class with both IL-2R (r = 0.471; p < 0.05) and CD8 (r = 0.616; p < 0.05). The results show that in CD there is a lymphocyte activation affecting mainly CD4+ cells and not correlated with serum AGA levels, suggesting an independence of both immunological phenomena and probably with different locations of origin.

  18. Deep level transient spectroscopy investigation of deep levels in CdS/CdTe thin film solar cells with Te:Cu back contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhao; Li, Bing; Zheng, Xu; Xie, Jing; Huang, Zheng; Liu, Cai; Feng, Liang-Huan; Zheng, Jia-Gui

    2010-02-01

    Deep levels in Cds/CdTe thin film solar cells have a potent influence on the electrical property of these devices. As an essential layer in the solar cell device structure, back contact is believed to induce some deep defects in the CdTe thin film. With the help of deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), we study the deep levels in CdS/CdTe thin film solar cells with Te:Cu back contact. One hole trap and one electron trap are observed. The hole trap H1, localized at Ev + 0.128 eV, originates from the vacancy of Cd (VCd). The electron trap E1, found at Ec -0.178 eV, is considered to be correlated with the interstitial Cuj+ in CdTe.

  19. Serum Levels of Soluble IL-2R, CD4 and CD8 in Chronic Active HCV Positive Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Candore, G.; Cigna, D.; Tripi, S.; Di Gaetano, G.; Migneco, G.; Montalto, G.; Ruggieri, I.; Notarbartolo, A.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare serum levels of soluble forms of interleukin-2 receptor, CD4 and CD8, released by lymphocytes during activation ofthe immune system, in patients with histologically verified chronic active hepatitis associated to hepatitis C virus infection, with those in healthy subjects. Significantly higher levels of soluble IL-2R and soluble CD8 were found in patients with chronic active hepatitis compared with controls. In contrast no difference was found for soluble CD4 values in the two groups. No correlations were found for both sIL-2R and sCD8 and these two molecules with other parameters of liver function. These results indicate that in these patients there is a general activation of the immune system, but the lack of correlation with parameters of liver function strengthens the suggestion that this activation does not play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic type C hepatitis. PMID:18472940

  20. Brief Report: CD14brightCD16- monocytes and sCD14 level negatively associate with CD4-memory T-cell frequency and predict HCV-decline on therapy.

    PubMed

    Judge, Chelsey J; Sandberg, Johan K; Funderburg, Nicholas T; Sherman, Kenneth E; Butt, Adeel A; Kang, Minhee; Landay, Alan L; Lederman, Michael M; Anthony, Donald D

    2016-11-01

    During HIV+ hepatitis C virus (HCV)+ coinfection CD14CD16 monocytes produce soluble immune-activation markers that predict disease progression and poor response to interferon (IFN)-α treatment. We evaluated relationships among immune activation, monocyte phenotype, CD4-memory T cells, and HCV-, cytomegalovirus-, and cytomegalovirus/Epstein-Barr virus/influenza-specific IFN-γ-response before and during IFN-α treatment. Effector-memory and central-memory CD4 T-cell frequencies were lower in HCV+ HIV+ donors than in uninfected donors and correlated negatively with HCV level, CD14CD16 monocytes, and plasma sCD14. sCD14 and CD14CD16 monocytes negatively correlated with IFN-α-dependent HCV decline. CD4 effector-memory T cells positively associated with cytomegalovirus/Epstein-Barr virus/influenza(CEF)-specific IFN-γ response, while sCD14 negatively associated with both CD4 effector-memory T cells and CEF-specific IFN-γ response. These data support a role for memory-CD4 T cells in HCV containment and link immune activation and CD14CD16-monocyte frequency to the failure of IFN-dependent HCV clearance.

  1. Photoemission studies of core level shifts in HgCdTe, CdMnTe, and HgZnTe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, C. K.; Spicer, W. E.; Furdyna, J. K.; Sher, A.

    1987-01-01

    The results of photoemission studies of core level shifts in the Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te, Cd(1-x)Mn(x)Te, and Hg(1-x)Zn(x)Te alloys are discussed. In Hg(0.7)Cd(0.3)Te, the Hg 5d level is found to shift to lower binding energy by 0.1 eV, and the Cd 4d level to shift to higher binding energy by 0.25 eV upon alloying (relative to their binaries). The Born-Haber cycle is used to determine core level binding energies relative to the valence-band maximum in the context of tight-binding theory, and calculated core level shifts upon alloying in HgCdTe are shown to be too small to account for the observed values. A natural valence-band offset between HgTe and CdTe of 0.35 eV is found.

  2. Prenatal Perfluorooctanoic Acid Exposure in CD-1 Mice: Low-Dose Developmental Effects and Internal Dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Macon, Madisa B.; Villanueva, LaTonya R.; Tatum-Gibbs, Katoria; Zehr, Robert D.; Strynar, Mark J.; Stanko, Jason P.; White, Sally S.; Helfant, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is an environmental contaminant that causes adverse developmental effects in laboratory animals. To investigate the low-dose effects of PFOA on offspring, timed-pregnant CD-1 mice were gavage dosed with PFOA for all or half of gestation. In the full-gestation study, mice were administered 0, 0.3, 1.0, and 3.0 mg PFOA/kg body weight (BW)/day from gestation days (GD) 1–17. In the late-gestation study, mice were administered 0, 0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 mg PFOA/kg BW/day from GD 10–17. Exposure to PFOA significantly (p < 0.05) increased offspring relative liver weights in all treatment groups in the full-gestation study and in the 1.0 mg PFOA/kg group in the late-gestation study. In both studies, the offspring of all PFOA-treated dams exhibited significantly stunted mammary epithelial growth as assessed by developmental scoring. At postnatal day 21, mammary glands from the 1.0 mg/kg GD 10–17 group had significantly less longitudinal epithelial growth and fewer terminal end buds compared with controls (p < 0.05). Evaluation of internal dosimetry in offspring revealed that PFOA concentrations remained elevated in liver and serum for up to 6 weeks and that brain concentrations were low and undetectable after 4 weeks. These data indicate that PFOA-induced effects on mammary tissue (1) occur at lower doses than effects on liver weight in CD-1 mice, an observation that may be strain specific, and (2) persist until 12 weeks of age following full-gestational exposure. Due to the low-dose sensitivity of mammary glands to PFOA in CD-1 mice, a no observable adverse effect level for mammary developmental delays was not identified in these studies. PMID:21482639

  3. Low perceived social support is associated with CD8+CD57+ lymphocyte expansion and increased TNF-α levels.

    PubMed

    Copertaro, Alfredo; Bracci, Massimo; Manzella, Nicola; Barbaresi, Mariella; Copertaro, Benedetta; Santarelli, Lory

    2014-01-01

    Social support has been supposed to have a positive impact on the function of the immune system. However, the relationship between perceived social support and immune function has not yet been fully investigated. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated the link between perceived social support and lymphocyte subpopulations and cytokines. 232 healthy subjects provided a blood sample and completed the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) questionnaire. Lymphocyte immunophenotypes and cytokines were determined. Significantly increased CD8+CD57+ lymphocytes and TNF-α levels were found in group with low perceived social support. Multivariate linear regression corrected for possible confounders confirmed a significant role of perceived social support in predicting the number of CD8+CD57+ lymphocyte and TNF-α levels. This study supports the association between perceived social support and immune function. In particular, poor social support may be related to a state of chronic inflammation sustained by CD8+CD57+ lymphocyte expansion and increased TNF-α levels.

  4. Multi-level 3D implementation of thermo-pneumatic pumping on centrifugal microfluidic CD platforms.

    PubMed

    Thio, Tzer Hwai Gilbert; Ibrahim, Fatimah; Al-Faqheri, Wisam; Soin, Norhayati; Abdul Kahar, Maria Kahar Bador; Madou, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Thermo-pneumatic (TP) pumping is a method employing the principle of expanding heated air to transfer fluids back towards the CD center on the centrifugal microfluidic CD platform. While the TP features are easy to fabricate as no moving parts are involved, it consumes extra real estate on the CD, and because heating is involved, it introduces unnecessary heating to the fluids on the CD. To overcome these limitations, we introduce a multi-level 3D approach and implement forced convection heating. In a multi-level 3D CD, the TP features are relocated to a separate top level, while the microfluidic process remains on a lower bottom level. This allows for heat shielding of the fluids in the microfluidic process level, and also improve usage of space on the CD. To aid in future implementations of TP pumping on a multi-level 3D CD, studies on the effect of heat source setting, and the effect of positioning the TP feature (it distance from the CD center) on CD surface heating are also presented. In this work, we successfully demonstrate a multi-level 3D approach to implement TP pumping on the microfluidic CD platform.

  5. Biphasic Dependence of Glioma Survival and Cell Migration on CD44 Expression Level.

    PubMed

    Klank, Rebecca L; Decker Grunke, Stacy A; Bangasser, Benjamin L; Forster, Colleen L; Price, Matthew A; Odde, Thomas J; SantaCruz, Karen S; Rosenfeld, Steven S; Canoll, Peter; Turley, Eva A; McCarthy, James B; Ohlfest, John R; Odde, David J

    2017-01-03

    While several studies link the cell-surface marker CD44 to cancer progression, conflicting results show both positive and negative correlations with increased CD44 levels. Here, we demonstrate that the survival outcomes of genetically induced glioma-bearing mice and of high-grade human glioma patients are biphasically correlated with CD44 level, with the poorest outcomes occurring at intermediate levels. Furthermore, the high-CD44-expressing mesenchymal subtype exhibited a positive trend of survival with increased CD44 level. Mouse cell migration rates in ex vivo brain slice cultures were also biphasically associated with CD44 level, with maximal migration corresponding to minimal survival. Cell simulations suggest that cell-substrate adhesiveness is sufficient to explain this biphasic migration. More generally, these results highlight the potential importance of non-monotonic relationships between survival and biomarkers associated with cancer progression.

  6. Activatory and inhibitory Fcγ receptors augment rituximab-mediated internalization of CD20 independent of signaling via the cytoplasmic domain.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Andrew T; Chan, Claude H T; Klein, Christian; Glennie, Martin J; Beers, Stephen A; Cragg, Mark S

    2015-02-27

    Type I anti-CD20 mAb such as rituximab and ofatumumab engage with the inhibitory FcγR, FcγRIIb on the surface of B cells, resulting in immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) phosphorylation. Internalization of the CD20·mAb·FcγRIIb complex follows, the rate of which correlates with FcγRIIb expression. In contrast, although type II anti-CD20 mAb such as tositumomab and obinutuzumab also interact with and activate FcγRIIb, this interaction fails to augment the rate of CD20·mAb internalization, raising the question of whether ITIM phosphorylation plays any role in this process. We have assessed the molecular requirements for the internalization process and demonstrate that in contrast to internalization of IgG immune complexes, FcγRIIb-augmented internalization of rituximab-ligated CD20 occurs independently of the FcγRIIb ITIM, indicating that signaling downstream of FcγRIIb is not required. In transfected cells, activatory FcγRI, FcγRIIa, and FcγRIIIa augmented internalization of rituximab-ligated CD20 in a similar manner. However, FcγRIIa mediated a slower rate of internalization than cells expressing equivalent levels of the highly homologous FcγRIIb. The difference was maintained in cells expressing FcγRIIa and FcγRIIb lacking cytoplasmic domains and in which the transmembrane domains had been exchanged. This difference may be due to increased degradation of FcγRIIa, which traffics to lysosomes independently of rituximab. We conclude that the cytoplasmic domain of FcγR is not required for promoting internalization of rituximab-ligated CD20. Instead, we propose that FcγR provides a structural role in augmenting endocytosis that differs from that employed during the endocytosis of immune complexes.

  7. Urinary soluble CD163 level reflects glomerular inflammation in human lupus nephritis.

    PubMed

    Endo, Nobuhide; Tsuboi, Naotake; Furuhashi, Kazuhiro; Shi, Yiqin; Du, Qiuna; Abe, Tomoko; Hori, Mayuko; Imaizumi, Takahiro; Kim, Hangsoo; Katsuno, Takayuki; Ozaki, Takenori; Kosugi, Tomoki; Matsuo, Seiichi; Maruyama, Shoichi

    2016-12-01

    In addition to classically activated macrophages that have effector roles in tissue injury, alternatively activated M2 macrophages are involved in the resolution of inflammation in animal models of kidney disease. To clarify the clinical relevance of macrophage phenotypes in human glomerular diseases, we evaluated the renal accumulation of macrophages and plasma and urine levels of CD163, an M2 marker, in lupus nephritis (LN) patients. Kidney biopsies and plasma and urine samples were obtained from LN patients who underwent renal biopsy between 2008 and 2012. CD163(+), CD68(+) and CD204(+) cells were counted in paraffin-embedded and frozen sections. LN histological activity was evaluated semiquantitatively using the biopsy activity index. Plasma and urinary soluble CD163 (sCD163) concentrations were also measured and evaluated for their significance as potential LN biomarkers. Immunohistological analysis of glomeruli from LN patients revealed that >60% of CD68(+) macrophages had merged with CD163(+) cells. The increased number of glomerular CD163(+) macrophages was correlated with LN severity, as determined by the biopsy active index (r = 0.635). Urinary (u-) sCD163 level was strongly correlated with glomerular CD163(+) cell counts and histological disease score as well as urinary monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 levels (r = 0.638 and 0.592, respectively). Furthermore, the u-sCD163 level was higher in patients with active LN than in those with other diseases. Glomerular CD163(+) macrophages are the predominant phenotype in the kidneys of lupus patients. These findings indicate that the u-sCD163 level can serve as a biomarker for macrophage-dependent glomerular inflammation in human LN. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  8. CD-ROM Proceedings International Symposium on Erosion and Landscape Evolution (ISELE)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This CD-ROM contains the abstracts and full papers for the proceedings from the ASABE specialty conference, the International Symposium on Erosion and Landscape Evolution (ISELE), held September 18-21, 2011 at the Hilton Anchorage Hotel in Anchorage, Alaska. Three extended abstracts from the meeting...

  9. International Conference on Technology in Mathematics Teaching (ICTMT 3), Koblenz, 1997. [CD-ROM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraunholz, Wolfgang, Ed.

    This CD-ROM contains the lectures, abstracts, workshops, and posters of all participants in the Third International Conference on Technology in Mathematics Teaching (ICTMT 3). Various topics on teaching mathematics with technology are reviewed and some software and demos are also included. Main talks focus on such topics as graphing calculators,…

  10. Elevated soluble CD23 levels in the sera from patients with localized scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Sato, S; Fujimoto, M; Kikuchi, K; Ihn, H; Tamaki, K; Takehara, K

    1996-02-01

    Soluble CD23 (sCD23) is closely related to B-cell activation and elevated serum levels of sCD23 have been reported in several autoimmune disorders. This study investigated the serum levels of sCD23 and determined the correlation of sCD23 with other immunologic abnormalities and clinical features in localized scleroderma. We examined 49 serum samples by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the following three subgroups: 15 patients with generalized morphoea, 22 with linear scleroderma, and 12 with morphoea. The serum levels of sCD23 were significantly elevated in patients with localized scleroderma, compared with those in healthy individuals. Of the three subgroups of localized scleroderma, patients with generalized morphoea had the highest levels of serum sCD23. The frequency of IgM antihistone antibody (AHA) and IgM rheumatoid factor (RF), the number of linear lesions, and the frequency of muscle involvement were significantly higher in patients with elevated sCD23 levels than in those with normal levels of sCD23. A significant correlation between the serum sCD23 level and the number of involved areas of the body was observed. Our data suggest that the activation of virgin B cells, which is reflected by elevated sCD23 levels, is closely associated with the production of IgM autoantibodies in localized scleroderma and furthermore that the serum levels of sCD23 are a new serological indicator of the severity of localized scleroderma.

  11. The autophagy machinery restrains iNKT cell activation through CD1D1 internalization.

    PubMed

    Keller, Christian W; Loi, Monica; Ewert, Svenja; Quast, Isaak; Theiler, Romina; Gannagé, Monique; Münz, Christian; De Libero, Gennaro; Freigang, Stefan; Lünemann, Jan D

    2017-03-15

    Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are innate T cells with powerful immune regulatory functions that recognize glycolipid antigens presented by the CD1D protein. While iNKT-cell-activating glycolipids are currently being explored for their efficacy to improve immunotherapy against infectious diseases and cancer, little is known about the mechanisms that control CD1D antigen presentation and iNKT cell activation in vivo. CD1D molecules survey endocytic pathways to bind lipid antigens in MHC class II containing compartments (MIICs) before recycling to the plasma membrane. Autophagosomes intersect with MIICs and autophagy-related proteins are known to support antigen loading for increased CD4(+) T cell immunity. Here, we report that mice with dendritic cell (DC)-specific deletion of the essential autophagy gene Atg5 showed better CD1D1-restricted glycolipid presentation in vivo. These effects led to enhanced iNKT cell cytokine production upon antigen recognition and lower bacterial loads during Sphingomonas paucimobilis infection. Enhanced iNKT cell activation was independent of receptor-mediated glycolipid uptake or costimulatory signals. Instead, loss of Atg5 in DCs impaired clathrin-dependent internalization of CD1D1 molecules via the adaptor protein complex 2 (AP2) and, thus, increased surface expression of stimulatory CD1D1-glycolipid complexes. These findings indicate that the autophagic machinery assists in the recruitment of AP2 to CD1D1 molecules resulting in attenuated iNKT cell activation, in contrast to the supporting role of macroautophagy in CD4(+) T cell stimulation.

  12. Improving wafer level CD uniformity for logic applications utilizing mask level metrology and process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Avi; Trautzsch, Thomas; Buttgereit, Ute; Graitzer, Erez; Hanuka, Ori

    2013-09-01

    Critical Dimension Uniformity (CDU) is one of the key parameters necessary to assure good performance and reliable functionality of any integrated circuit (IC). The extension of 193nm based lithography usage combined with design rule shrinkage makes process control, in particular the wafer level CDU control, an extremely important and challenging task in IC manufacturing. In this study the WLCD-CDC closed loop solution offered by Carl Zeiss SMS was examined. This solution aims to improve the wafer level intra-field CDU without the need to run wafer prints and extensive wafer CD metrology. It combines two stand-alone tools: The WLCD tool which measures CD based on aerial imaging technology while applying the exact scanner-used illumination conditions to the photomask and the CDC tool which utilizes an ultra-short femto-second laser to write intra-volume shading elements (Shade-In Elements™) inside the photomask bulk material. The CDC process changes the dose going through the photomask down to the wafer, hence the wafer level intra-field CDU improves. The objective of this study was to evaluate how CDC process is affecting the CD for different type of features and pattern density which are typical for logic and system on chip (SOC) devices. The main findings show that the linearity and proximity behavior is maintained by the CDC process and CDU and CDC Ratio (CDCR) show a linear behavior for the different feature types. Finally, it was demonstrated that the CDU errors of the targeted (critical) feature have been effectively eliminated. In addition, the CDU of all other features have been significantly improved as well.

  13. Quantification of cells with specific phenotypes II: determination of CD4 expression level on reconstituted lyophilized human PBMC labelled with anti-CD4 FITC antibody.

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Stebbings, R; Gaigalas, A K; Sutherland, J; Kammel, M; John, M; Roemer, B; Kuhne, M; Schneider, R J; Braun, M; Engel, A; Dikshit, D; Abbasi, F; Marti, G E; Sassi, M; Revel, L; Kim, S K; Baradez, M; Lekishvili, T; Marshall, D; Whitby, L; Jing, W; Ost, V; Vonsky, M; Neukammer, J

    2015-03-01

    This report focuses on the characterization of CD4 expression level in terms of equivalent number of reference fluorophores (ERF). Twelve different flow cytometer platforms across sixteen laboratories were utilized in this study. As a first step the participants were asked to calibrate the fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) channel of each flow cytometer using commercially available calibration standard consisting of five populations of microspheres. Each population had an assigned value of equivalent fluorescein fluorophores (EFF denotes a special case of the generic term ERF with FITC as the reference fluorophore). The EFF values were assigned at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). A surface-labelled lyophilized cell preparation was provided by the National Institute of Biological Standards and Control (NIBSC), using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) pre-labeled with a FITC conjugated anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody. Three PBMC sample vials, provided to each participant, were used for the CD4 expression analysis. The PBMC are purported to have a fixed number of surface CD4 receptors. On the basis of the microsphere calibration, the EFF value of the PBMC samples was measured to characterize the population average CD4 expression level of the PBMC preparations. Both the results of data analysis performed by each participant and the results of centralized analysis of all participants' raw data are reported. Centralized analysis gave a mean EFF value of 22,300 and an uncertainty of 750, corresponding to 3.3% (level of confidence 68%) of the mean EFF value. The next step will entail the measurement of the ERF values of the lyophilized PBMC stained with labels for other fluorescence channels. The ultimate goal is to show that lyophilized PBMC is a suitable biological reference cell material for multicolor flow cytometry and that it can be used to present multicolor flow cytometry measurements in terms of ABC (antibodies bound per cell

  14. Locomotor activity, ultrasonic vocalization and oxytocin levels in infant CD38 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Xiang; Lopatina, Olga; Higashida, Chiharu; Tsuji, Takahiro; Kato, Ichiro; Takasawa, Shin; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Shigeru; Higashida, Haruhiro

    2008-12-19

    Oxytocin (OT), a neurohormone involved in reproduction, plays a critical role in social behavior in a wide range of mammalian species from rodents to humans. The role of CD38 in regulating OT secretion for social behavior has been demonstrated in adult mice, but has not been examined in pups or during development. Separation from the dam induces stress in 7-day-old mouse pups. During such isolation, locomotor activity was higher in CD38 knockout (CD38(-/-)) pups than in wild-type (CD38(+/+)) or heterozygous (CD38(+/-)) controls. The number of ultrasonic vocalizations was lower in CD38(-/-) pups than in CD38(+/+) pups. However, the difference between the two genotypes was less severe than that in OT knockout or OT receptor knockout mice. To explain this, we measured plasma OT levels. The level was not lower in CD38(-/-) pups during the period 1-3 weeks after birth, but was significantly reduced after weaning (>3 weeks). ADP-ribosyl cyclase activities in the hypothalamus and pituitary were markedly lower from 1 week after birth in CD38(-/-) mice and were consistently lower thereafter to the adult stage (2 months old). These results showed that the reduced severity of behavioral abnormalities in CD38(-/-) pups was due to partial compensation by the high level of plasma OT.

  15. Serum levels of total IgE and soluble CD23 in bronchial asthma

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo, G. Di; Mansueto, P.; Melluso, M.; Morici, G.; Cigna, D.; Candore, G.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare, during the pollen season, serum levels of total IgE and soluble CD23 (sCD23) from patients with allergic bronchial asthma, with those from healthy subjects. Significantly higher levels of total IgE and sCD23 were found in patients with asthma compared to the control group. Both in normal controls and in asthmatic patients, a significant correlation was shown between the levels of these two molecules. In asthmatic patients, significant correlations were found for both total IgE and sCD23, with lung function measured as bronchial responsiveness to inhaled methacholine. These results suggest that in asthmatic patients, in addition to the study of total serum IgE levels, the assessment of sCD23 serum levels may be helpful in the evaluation of disease activity. PMID:18475696

  16. Preoperative serum CD26 levels: diagnostic efficiency and predictive value for colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cordero, O J; Ayude, D; Nogueira, M; Rodriguez-Berrocal, F J; Cadena, M Paez de la

    2000-01-01

    CD26 is an ectoenzyme with dipeptidyl peptidase IV activity expressed on a variety of cell types. Although the function of the high concentration of serum-soluble CD26 (sCD26) is unknown, it may be related to the cleavage of biologically active polypeptides. As CD26 or enzymatic activity levels were previously associated with cancer, we examined the potential diagnostic and prognostic value of preoperative sCD26 measurements by ELISA in colorectal carcinoma patients. We found a highly significant difference between sCD26 levels in healthy donors (mean 559.7 ± 125.5 μg l–1) and cancer patients (mean 261.7 ± 138.1 μg l–1) (P < 0.001). A cut-off at 410 μg l–1 gave 90% sensitivity with 90% specificity which means that the diagnostic efficiency of sCD26 is higher than that shown by other markers, particularly in patients at early stages. Moreover, sCD26 as a variable is not related with Dukes’ stage classification, age, gender, tumour location or degree of differentiation. With a follow-up of 2 years until recurrence, preliminary data show that sCD26 can be managed as a prognostic variable of early carcinoma patients. In addition, the origin of sCD26 is discussed. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:11027426

  17. Effects of elevated CO(2) on growth, photosynthesis, elemental composition, antioxidant level, and phytochelatin concentration in Lolium mutiforum and Lolium perenne under Cd stress.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yan; Tang, Shirong; Wang, Ruigang; Ju, Xuehai; Ding, Yongzhen; Tu, Shuxin; Smith, Donald L

    2010-08-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate combined effects of Cd and elevated CO(2) on growth, physiological and physiochemical characteristics, elemental compositions in Lolium mutiforum and Lolium perenne grown in soils amended with three Cd concentrations (0, 25, 100 mg kg(-1)) under two CO(2) levels (375, 810 microLL(-1)). Elevated CO(2) increased net assimilation rate and internal CO(2) concentration, and consequently increased total plant biomass by 51 to 31%. At same spiked Cd level, malondialdehyde content in leaves was lower under elevated than under ambient CO(2), whereas superoxide dismutase activity was higher. Elevated CO(2) decreased Cd, S, and phytochelatin concentrations in roots and shoots to a various degree, depending on plant species and element, but the PC-Cd ratio was not affected. It was concluded that elevated CO(2) ameliorated Cd toxicity in both Lolium species under Cd stress, and that the increase of plant biomass and the alleviation of Cd toxicity with elevated CO(2) for the Lolium species may be more dependent on increased photosynthesis and enhanced antioxidant capacity. Results of the study may provide insights into the interaction between soil Cd contamination and atmospheric CO(2) concentration with regard to plant ability to grow and remove the Cd from soils. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Association between serum soluble CD40 ligand levels and mortality in patients with severe sepsis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction CD40 Ligand (CD40L) and its soluble counterpart (sCD40L) are proteins that exhibit prothrombotic and proinflammatory properties on binding to their cell surface receptor CD40. The results of small clinical studies suggest that sCD40L levels could play a role in sepsis; however, there are no data on the association between sCD40L levels and mortality of septic patients. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether circulating sCD40L levels could be a marker of adverse outcome in a large cohort of patients with severe sepsis. Methods This was a multicenter, observational and prospective study carried out in six Spanish intensive care units. Serum levels of sCD40L, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-10, and plasma levels of tissue factor were measured in 186 patients with severe sepsis at the time of diagnosis. Serum sCD40L was also measured in 50 age- and sex-matched controls. Survival at 30 days was used as the endpoint. Results Circulating sCD40L levels were significantly higher in septic patients than in controls (P = 0.01), and in non-survivors (n = 62) compared to survivors (n = 124) (P = 0.04). However, the levels of CD40L were not different regarding sepsis severity. Logistic regression analysis showed that sCD40L levels >3.5 ng/mL were associated with higher mortality at 30 days (odds ratio = 2.89; 95% confidence interval = 1.37 to 6.07; P = 0.005). The area under the curve of sCD40L levels >3.5 ng/mL as predictor of mortality at 30 days was 0.58 (95% CI = 0.51 to 0.65; P = 0.03). Conclusions In conclusion, circulating sCD40L levels are increased in septic patients and are independently associated with mortality in these patients; thus, its modulation could represent an attractive therapeutic target. PMID:21406105

  19. Enhancement of soluble CD28 levels in the serum of Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhongwen; Yi, Lixian; Tao, Hong; Huang, Jingfang; Jin, Zhenghong; Xiao, Yang; Feng, Caiyun; Sun, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Graves' disease is an autoimmune disease of the thyroid gland mediated by T cells. CD28, a member of costimulatory molecules, plays a pivotal role in regulating T-cell responses. Plasma-soluble CD28 is one form of CD28 in peripheral blood. To investigate the concentrations of soluble CD28 in patients with Graves' disease, we used a sensitive dual monoclonal antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect the soluble form of CD28. Our results suggested that mean concentrations of soluble CD28 in plasma of patients with Graves' disease were 1.79 ±1.52 ng/ml, and levels of soluble CD28 in healthy subjects were only 0.83 ±1.35 ng/ml. Concentrations of soluble CD28 detected in patients with Graves' disease were significantly higher than those of healthy subjects (p < 0.01). Moreover, there was a significant positive correlation between the concentrations of soluble CD28 in plasma and levels of FT3 (r = 0.663), FT4 (r = 0.624) and TRAb (r = 0.728) in serum, but a negative correlation was found between sCD28 levels and TSH (r = -0.726). Through in vitro experiments we observed that engagement of soluble CD28 protein and B7-1/B7-2 molecules expressed on dendritic cells could exert the secretion of cytokine IL-6, which may promote the production of autoantibody and aggravate Graves' disease. Therefore, aberrant elevation of plasma-soluble CD28 in patients with Graves' disease may reflect the dysregulation of immune system, and may serve as a useful biomarker in Graves' disease diagnosis.

  20. CdSe quantum dot internalization by Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kloepfer, Jeremiah A.; Mielke, Randall E.; Nadeau, Jay L.

    2004-06-01

    Biological labeling has been demonstrated with CdSe quantum dots in a variety of animal cells, but bacteria are harder to label because of their cell walls. We discuss the challenges of using minimally coated, bare CdSe quantum dots as luminescent internal labels for bacteria. These quantum dots were solubilized with mercaptoacetic acid and conjugated to adenine. Significant evidence for the internal staining of Bacillus subtilis (Gram positive) and Escherichia coli (Gram negative) using these structures is presented via steady-state emission, epifluorescence microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. In particular, the E. coli adenine auxotroph, and not the wild type, took up adenine coated quantum dots, and this only occurred in adenine deficient growth media. Labeling strength was enhanced by performing the incubation under room light. This process was examined with steady-state emission spectra and time-resolved luminescence profiles obtained from time-correlated-single-photon counting.

  1. Defect Levels and Thermo-Migration of Te Precipitates in CdZnTe:Pb

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.; Gul, R; Carcelen, V; Bolotnikov, A; Camarda, G; James, R; Hong, J; Kimi, S

    2010-01-01

    Semi-insulating Cd{sub 0.9}Zn{sub 0.1}Te:Pb crystals were grown by the vertical Bridgman method. Measurements of the current deep level transient spectroscopy (I-DLTS) revealed three trap levels in this material. Unlike other compensating dopants, CdZnTe:Pb samples do not show any Cd-vacancies defects and A-center levels. We subjected them to temperature-gradient annealing in Cd overpressure at 490-717 C, and recorded an exponential relationship between the annihilation time of Te precipitates and the annealing temperature. The energy resolution of an annealed CdZnTe:Pb detector, tested using a {sup 137}Cs radioactive source, gave an energy resolution of 2.5%.

  2. Cell surface Glut1 levels distinguish human CD4 and CD8 T lymphocyte subsets with distinct effector functions

    PubMed Central

    Cretenet, Gaspard; Clerc, Isabelle; Matias, Maria; Loisel, Severine; Craveiro, Marco; Oburoglu, Leal; Kinet, Sandrina; Mongellaz, Cédric; Dardalhon, Valérie; Taylor, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    CD4 and CD8 T lymphocyte activation requires the generation of sufficient energy to support new biosynthetic demands. Following T cell receptor (TCR) engagement, these requirements are met by an increased glycolysis, due, at least in part, to induction of the Glut1 glucose transporter. As Glut1 is upregulated on tumor cells in response to hypoxia, we assessed whether surface Glut1 levels regulate the antigen responsiveness of human T lymphocytes in both hypoxic and atmospheric oxygen conditions. Notably, Glut1 upregulation in response to TCR stimulation was significantly higher in T lymphocytes activated under hypoxic as compared to atmospheric oxygen conditions. Furthermore, TCR-stimulated human T lymphocytes sorted on the basis of Glut1-Lo and Glut1-Hi profiles maintained distinct characteristics, irrespective of the oxygen tension. While T cells activated in hypoxia divided less than those activated in atmospheric oxygen, Glut1-Hi lymphocytes exhibited increased effector phenotype acquisition, augmented proliferation, and an inverted CD4/CD8 ratio in both oxygen conditions. Moreover, Glut1-Hi T lymphocytes exhibited a significantly enhanced ability to produce IFN-γ and this secretion potential was completely dependent on continued glycolysis. Thus, Glut1 surface levels identify human T lymphocytes with distinct effector functions in both hypoxic and atmospheric oxygen tensions. PMID:27067254

  3. Increased levels of soluble CD226 in sera accompanied by decreased membrane CD226 expression on peripheral blood mononuclear cells from cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhuwei; Zhang, Tao; Zhuang, Ran; Zhang, Yun; Jia, Wei; Song, Chaojun; Yang, Kun; Yang, Angang; Jin, Boquan

    2009-01-01

    Background As a cellular membrane triggering receptor, CD226 is involved in the NK cell- or CTL-mediated lysis of tumor cells of different origin, including freshly isolated tumor cells and tumor cell lines. Here, we evaluated soluble CD226 (sCD226) levels in sera, and membrane CD226 (mCD226) expression on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from cancer patients as well as normal subjects, and demonstrated the possible function and origin of the altered sCD226, which may provide useful information for understanding the mechanisms of tumor escape and for immunodiagnosis and immunotherapy. Results Soluble CD226 levels in serum samples from cancer patients were significantly higher than those in healthy individuals (P < 0.001), while cancer patients exhibited lower PBMC mCD226 expression than healthy individuals (P < 0.001). CD226-Fc fusion protein could significantly inhibit the cytotoxicity of NK cells against K562 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, three kinds of protease inhibitors could notably increase mCD226 expression on PMA-stimulated PBMCs and Jurkat cells with a decrease in the sCD226 level in the cell culture supernatant. Conclusion These findings suggest that sCD226 might be shed from cell membranes by certain proteases, and, further, sCD226 may be used as a predictor for monitoring cancer, and more important, a possible immunotherapy target, which may be useful in clinical application. PMID:19490613

  4. High Levels of IL-10 and CD4+CD25hi+ Treg Cells in Endemic Burkitt’s Lymphoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Futagbi, Godfred; Gyan, Ben; Nunoo, Harriet; Tetteh, John K.A.; Welbeck, Jennifer E.; Renner, Lorna Awo; Ofori, Michael; Dodoo, Daniel; Edoh, Dominic A.; Akanmori, Bartholomew D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The interplay between Epstein-Barr virus infection, malaria, and endemic Burkitt’s Lymphoma is not well understood. Reports show diminished EBV-specific Th1 responses in children living in malaria endemic areas and deficiency of EBNA1-specific IFN-γ T cell responses in children with endemic Burkitt’s Lymphoma (eBL). This study, therefore, examined some factors involved in the loss of EBNA-1-specific T cell responses in eBL. Methods: T-cell subset frequencies, activation, and IFN-γ- or IL-4-specific responses were analyzed by flow-cytometry. Plasma cytokine levels were measured by ELISA. Results: CD4+ and CD8+ cells in age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n = 3) expressed more IFN-γ in response to all immunostimulants than in pediatric endemic BL (eBL) patients (n = 4). In healthy controls, IFN-γ expression was higher than IL-4 expression, whereas in eBL patients the expression of IL-4 by CD4+ cells to EBNA-1 was slightly higher than IFN-γ. Moreover, the blood levels of TNF-α was significantly lower (p = 0.004) while IL-10 was significantly higher (p = 0.038), in eBL patients (n = 21) compared to controls (n = 16). Additionally, the frequency of CD4+CD25hi+ T cells was higher in both age-matched acute uncomplicated malaria (n = 26) and eBL (n = 14) patients compared to healthy controls (n = 19; p = 0.000 and p = 0.027, respectively). Conclusion: The data suggest that reduced Th1 response in eBL might be due to increased levels of IL-10 and T reg cells. PMID:28536409

  5. High Levels of IL-10 and CD4+CD25hi+ Treg Cells in Endemic Burkitt's Lymphoma Patients.

    PubMed

    Futagbi, Godfred; Gyan, Ben; Nunoo, Harriet; Tetteh, John K A; Welbeck, Jennifer E; Renner, Lorna Awo; Ofori, Michael; Dodoo, Daniel; Edoh, Dominic A; Akanmori, Bartholomew D

    2015-08-04

    The interplay between Epstein-Barr virus infection, malaria, and endemic Burkitt's Lymphoma is not well understood. Reports show diminished EBV-specific Th1 responses in children living in malaria endemic areas and deficiency of EBNA1-specific IFN-γ T cell responses in children with endemic Burkitt's Lymphoma (eBL). This study, therefore, examined some factors involved in the loss of EBNA-1-specific T cell responses in eBL. T-cell subset frequencies, activation, and IFN-γ- or IL-4-specific responses were analyzed by flow-cytometry. Plasma cytokine levels were measured by ELISA. CD4+ and CD8+ cells in age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n = 3) expressed more IFN-γ in response to all immunostimulants than in pediatric endemic BL (eBL) patients (n = 4). In healthy controls, IFN-γ expression was higher than IL-4 expression, whereas in eBL patients the expression of IL-4 by CD4+ cells to EBNA-1 was slightly higher than IFN-γ. Moreover, the blood levels of TNF-α was significantly lower (p = 0.004) while IL-10 was significantly higher (p = 0.038), in eBL patients (n = 21) compared to controls (n = 16). Additionally, the frequency of CD4+CD25hi+ T cells was higher in both age-matched acute uncomplicated malaria (n = 26) and eBL (n = 14) patients compared to healthy controls (n = 19; p = 0.000 and p = 0.027, respectively). The data suggest that reduced Th1 response in eBL might be due to increased levels of IL-10 and T reg cells.

  6. Plasma Soluble CD163 Level Independently Predicts All-Cause Mortality in HIV-1-Infected Individuals.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Troels Bygum; Ertner, Gideon; Petersen, Janne; Møller, Holger Jon; Moestrup, Søren K; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Kronborg, Gitte; Benfield, Thomas

    2016-10-15

    CD163, a monocyte- and macrophage-specific scavenger receptor, is shed as soluble CD163 (sCD163) during the proinflammatory response. Here, we assessed the association between plasma sCD163 levels and progression to AIDS and all-cause mortality among individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV). Plasma sCD163 levels were measured in 933 HIV-infected individuals. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) associated with mortality were computed by Cox proportional hazards regression. At baseline, 86% were receiving antiretroviral treatment, 73% had plasma a HIV RNA level of <50 copies/mL, and the median CD4(+) T-cell count was 503 cells/µL. During 10.5 years of follow-up, 167 (17.9%) died. Plasma sCD163 levels were higher in nonsurvivors than in survivors (4.92 mg/L [interquartile range {IQR}, 3.29-8.65 mg/L] vs 3.16 mg/L [IQR, 2.16-4.64 mg/L]; P = .0001). The cumulative incidence of death increased with increasing plasma sCD163 levels, corresponding to a 6% or 35% increased risk of death for each milligram per liter or quartile increase, respectively, in baseline plasma sCD163 level (adjusted HR, 1.06 [95% CI, 1.03-1.09] and 1.35 [95% CI, 1.13-1.63], respectively). Plasma sCD163 was an independent marker of all-cause mortality in a cohort of HIV-infected individuals, suggesting that monocyte/macrophage activation may play a role in HIV pathogenesis and be a target of intervention. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Postoperative serum levels of sCD26 for surveillance in colorectal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    De Chiara, Loretta; Rodríguez-Piñeiro, Ana M; Cordero, Oscar J; Vázquez-Tuñas, Lidia; Ayude, Daniel; Rodríguez-Berrocal, Francisco J; de la Cadena, María Páez

    2014-01-01

    One of the main aims of the follow-up after curative resection of colorectal cancer is the early detection and treatment of tumor recurrence. We previously demonstrated decreased preoperative soluble CD26 (sCD26) levels in serum from colorectal cancer patients. We extended now the study to investigate if sCD26 levels in postoperative serum serve as marker of recurrence of the disease during surveillance. Soluble sCD26 was measured in pre- and postoperative serum samples of 43 patients with primary colorectal cancer. Carcinoembryonic antigen, carbohydrate antigen 19.9 and 72.4 levels were also measured during surveillance. The average follow-up period was 41.8 ± 20.8 months. sCD26 levels during follow-up showed well-defined patterns in patients without disease (n = 28), and in patients with tumor persistence (n = 2), local recurrence (n = 3) or distant metastasis (n = 10). Disease-free patients showed stable levels between 460-850 ng/mL during follow-up, while high (over 850 ng/mL) and unstable sCD26 levels were found before recurrence was diagnosed. The mean maximum/minimum sCD26 ratios during surveillance were 1.52, 2.12 and 2.63 for patients with no recurrence, local recurrence and metastasis, respectively (p = 0.005). From the cut-off obtained from a receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curve built with the maximum/minimum sCD26 ratios and the upper and lower cut-offs of sCD26, we were able to discriminate patients with and without recurrent disease. We propose that the measurement of serum sCD26 during the follow-up of patients diagnosed of colorectal cancer could be valuable for the early detection of local and distant recurrence. A large, randomized, prospective trial should be performed to confirm our findings.

  8. Geropsychology: Integrated Training at the Intern Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyer, Lee; Leventhal, Gerald; Gartenberg, Melissa

    2005-01-01

    The profession of psychology is responding to this culture's rapidly changing problems related to an aging population. A central theme regarding the training of clinical geropsychologists has been that education should be sequentially organized across levels, from undergraduate, to graduate, internship, postdoctoral, and continuing education for…

  9. Push pull microfluidics on a multi-level 3D CD.

    PubMed

    Thio, Tzer Hwai Gilbert; Ibrahim, Fatimah; Al-Faqheri, Wisam; Moebius, Jacob; Khalid, Noor Sakinah; Soin, Norhayati; Kahar, Maria Kahar Bador Abdul; Madou, Marc

    2013-08-21

    A technique known as thermo-pneumatic (TP) pumping is used to pump fluids on a microfluidic compact disc (CD) back towards the CD center against the centrifugal force that pushes liquids from the center to the perimeter of the disc. Trapped air expands in a TP air chamber during heating, and this creates positive pressure on liquids located in chambers connected to that chamber. While the TP air chamber and connecting channels are easy to fabricate in a one-level CD manufacturing technique, this approach provides only one way pumping between two chambers, is real-estate hungry and leads to unnecessary heating of liquids in close proximity to the TP chamber. In this paper, we present a novel TP push and pull pumping method which allows for pumping of liquid in any direction between two connected liquid chambers. To ensure that implementation of TP push and pull pumping also addresses the issue of space and heating challenges, a multi-level 3D CD design is developed, and localized forced convection heating, rather than infra-red (IR) is applied. On a multi-level 3D CD, the TP features are placed on a top level separate from the rest of the microfluidic processes that are implemented on a lower separate level. This approach allows for heat shielding of the microfluidic process level, and efficient usage of space on the CD for centrifugal handling of liquids. The use of localized forced convection heating, rather than infra-red (IR) or laser heating in earlier implementations allows not only for TP pumping of liquids while the CD is spinning but also makes heat insulation for TP pumping and other fluidic functions easier. To aid in future implementations of TP push and pull pumping on a multi-level 3D CD, study on CD surface heating is also presented. In this contribution, we also demonstrate an advanced application of pull pumping through the implementation of valve-less switch pumping.

  10. Orbital alignment at the internal interface of arylthiol functionalized CdSe molecular hybrids

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhi; Schlaf, Rudy; Mazzio, Katherine A.; Okamoto, Ken; Luscombe, Christine K.

    2015-04-21

    Organic-inorganic nanoparticle molecular hybrid materials are interesting candidates for improving exciton separation in organic solar cells. The orbital alignment at the internal interface of cadmium selenide (ArS-CdSe) hybrid materials functionalized with covalently attached arylthiolate moieties was investigated through X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS). A physisorbed interface between arylthiol (ArSH) ligands and CdSe nanoparticles was also investigated for comparison. This interface was created via a multi-step thin film deposition procedure in-vacuo, where the surface was characterized after each experimental step. This enabled the direct comparison of ArSH/CdSe interfaces produced via physisorption and ArS-CdSe covalently attached hybrid materials, which rely on a chemical reaction for their synthesis. All material depositions were performed using an electrospray deposition, which enabled the direct injection of solution-originating molecular species into the vacuum system. This method allows XPS and UPS measurements to be performed immediately after deposition without exposure to the atmosphere. Transmission electron microscopy was used to determine the morphology and particle size of the deposited materials. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy was used to estimate the optical band gap of the CdSe nanoparticles and the HOMO-LUMO gap of the ArSH ligands. These experiments showed that hybridization via covalent bonds results in an orbital realignment at the ArSH/CdSe interface in comparison to the physisorbed interface. The orbital alignment within the hybrid caused a favorable electron injection barrier, which likely facilitates exciton-dissociation while preventing charge-recombination.

  11. Orbital alignment at the internal interface of arylthiol functionalized CdSe molecular hybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhi; Mazzio, Katherine A.; Okamoto, Ken; Luscombe, Christine K.; Schlaf, Rudy

    2015-04-01

    Organic-inorganic nanoparticle molecular hybrid materials are interesting candidates for improving exciton separation in organic solar cells. The orbital alignment at the internal interface of cadmium selenide (ArS-CdSe) hybrid materials functionalized with covalently attached arylthiolate moieties was investigated through X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS). A physisorbed interface between arylthiol (ArSH) ligands and CdSe nanoparticles was also investigated for comparison. This interface was created via a multi-step thin film deposition procedure in-vacuo, where the surface was characterized after each experimental step. This enabled the direct comparison of ArSH/CdSe interfaces produced via physisorption and ArS-CdSe covalently attached hybrid materials, which rely on a chemical reaction for their synthesis. All material depositions were performed using an electrospray deposition, which enabled the direct injection of solution-originating molecular species into the vacuum system. This method allows XPS and UPS measurements to be performed immediately after deposition without exposure to the atmosphere. Transmission electron microscopy was used to determine the morphology and particle size of the deposited materials. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy was used to estimate the optical band gap of the CdSe nanoparticles and the HOMO-LUMO gap of the ArSH ligands. These experiments showed that hybridization via covalent bonds results in an orbital realignment at the ArSH/CdSe interface in comparison to the physisorbed interface. The orbital alignment within the hybrid caused a favorable electron injection barrier, which likely facilitates exciton-dissociation while preventing charge-recombination.

  12. CD44 affects the expression level of FOS‑like antigen 1 in cervical cancer tissues.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Songshu; Zhou, Yanhong; Jiang, Jianfa; Yuan, Le; Xue, Min

    2014-05-01

    Cervical carcinoma is the second most prevalent type of malignancy in females worldwide. The crucial etiological factors involved in the development of cervical carcinoma include infection with the papillomavirus, and the structural or functional mutation of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. CD44 refers to a multifunctional family of type I transmembrane proteins. These proteins have been implicated in numerous biological processes, including cell adhesion, cell migration and metastasis. The present study examined the differences in the expression levels of ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2, CD24, CD44, CD133, cytokeratin (CK) 14 and CK19 between cervical cancer tissues and corresponding normal non-tumor tissues by flow cytometry. Then, the CD44+ or CD44‑ cells from cervical cancer tissues were sorted for identification and confirmation of differential expression by flow cytometry. The results demonstrated that the expression level of CD44 in cervical cancer tissues was higher than in the corresponding non-tumor normal tissues (t=3.12; P=0.0102). Compared with the CD44‑ cells, the FOS-like antigen 1 (Fra-1), nestin, nuclear receptor subfamily 4, group A, member 2, OCT4 and p63 genes were highly expressed in CD44+ cells. The fold changes were 3.55, 3.55, 2.46, 2.87 and 2.56, respectively (P<0.05). However, BMI1 polycomb ring finger oncogene, ck5, tumor protein p53 and lactotransferrin genes exhibited low expression levels in CD44+ cells. It was verified by western blot analysis and flow cytometry that Fra-1 was highly expressed in CD44+ cells. Fra-1 was a potential target of miR-19a and miR-19b. The expression of miR-19a and miR-19b was downregulated by ~50% in CD44+ cells compared with CD44‑ cells. These findings suggested that CD44 dysregulated the activation of the Fra‑1 gene. The interaction of Fra-1 and CD44 may therefore be important in cervical carcinoma.

  13. Analysis of CD14 Expression Levels in Putative Mesenchymal Progenitor Cells Isolated from Equine Bone Marrow

    PubMed Central

    Hackett, Catherine H.; Flaminio, Maria Julia B.F.

    2011-01-01

    A long-term goal of mesenchymal progenitor cell (MPC) research is to identify cell-surface markers to facilitate MPC isolation. One reported MPC feature in humans and other species is lack of CD14 (lipopolysaccharide receptor) expression. The aim of this study was to evaluate CD14 as an MPC sorting marker. Our hypothesis was that cells negatively selected by CD14 expression would enrich MPC colony formation compared with unsorted and CD14-positive fractions. After validation of reagents, bone marrow aspirate was obtained from 12 horses. Fresh and cultured cells were analyzed by flow cytometry and reverse transcription and quantitative polymerase chain reaction to assess dynamic changes in phenotype. In fresh samples, cells did not consistently express protein markers used for lineage classification. Short-term (2-day) culture allowed distinction between hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic populations. Magnetic activated cell sorting was performed on cells from 6 horses to separate adherent CD14+ from CD14− cells. MPC colony formation was assessed at 7 days. Cells positively selected for CD14 expression were significantly more likely to form MPC colonies than both unsorted and negatively selected cells (P ≤ 0.005). MPCs from all fractions maintained low levels of CD14 expression long term, and upregulated CD14 gene and protein expression when stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. The equine CD14 molecule was trypsin-labile, offering a plausible explanation for the discrepancy with MPC phenotypes reported in other species. By definition, MPCs are considered nonhematopoietic because they lack expression of molecules such as CD14. Our results challenge this assumption, as equine MPCs appear to represent a descendant of a CD14-positive cell. PMID:20722500

  14. Delineating CD4 dependency of HIV-1: Adaptation to infect low level CD4 expressing target cells widens cellular tropism but severely impacts on envelope functionality

    PubMed Central

    Beauparlant, David; Rusert, Peter; Magnus, Carsten; Weber, Jacqueline; Uhr, Therese; Clapham, Paul R.; Metzner, Karin J.

    2017-01-01

    A hallmark of HIV-1 infection is the continuously declining number of the virus’ predominant target cells, activated CD4+ T cells. With diminishing CD4+ T cell levels, the capacity to utilize alternate cell types and receptors, including cells that express low CD4 receptor levels such as macrophages, thus becomes crucial. To explore evolutionary paths that allow HIV-1 to acquire a wider host cell range by infecting cells with lower CD4 levels, we dissected the evolution of the envelope-CD4 interaction under in vitro culture conditions that mimicked the decline of CD4high target cells, using a prototypic subtype B, R5-tropic strain. Adaptation to CD4low targets proved to severely alter envelope functions including trimer opening as indicated by a higher affinity to CD4 and loss in shielding against neutralizing antibodies. We observed a strikingly decreased infectivity on CD4high target cells, but sustained infectivity on CD4low targets, including macrophages. Intriguingly, the adaptation to CD4low targets altered the kinetic of the entry process, leading to rapid CD4 engagement and an extended transition time between CD4 and CCR5 binding during entry. This phenotype was also observed for certain central nervous system (CNS) derived macrophage-tropic viruses, highlighting that the functional perturbation we defined upon in vitro adaptation to CD4low targets occurs in vivo. Collectively, our findings suggest that CD4low adapted envelopes may exhibit severe deficiencies in entry fitness and shielding early in their evolution. Considering this, adaptation to CD4low targets may preferentially occur in a sheltered and immune-privileged environment such as the CNS to allow fitness restoring compensatory mutations to occur. PMID:28264054

  15. Low Levels of Peripheral CD161++CD8+ Mucosal Associated Invariant T (MAIT) Cells Are Found in HIV and HIV/TB Co-Infection

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Emily B.; Akilimali, Ngomu Akeem; Govender, Pamla; Sullivan, Zuri A.; Cosgrove, Cormac; Pillay, Mona; Lewinsohn, David M.; Bishai, William R.; Walker, Bruce D.; Ndung'u, Thumbi; Klenerman, Paul; Kasprowicz, Victoria O.

    2013-01-01

    Background High expression of CD161 on CD8+ T cells is associated with a population of cells thought to play a role in mucosal immunity. We wished to investigate this subset in an HIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) endemic African setting. Methods A flow cytometric approach was used to assess the frequency and phenotype of CD161++CD8+ T cells. 80 individuals were recruited for cross-sectional analysis: controls (n = 13), latent MTB infection (LTBI) only (n = 14), pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) only (n = 9), HIV only (n = 16), HIV and LTBI co-infection (n = 13) and HIV and TB co-infection (n = 15). The impact of acute HIV infection was assessed in 5 individuals recruited within 3 weeks of infection. The frequency of CD161++CD8+ T cells was assessed prior to and during antiretroviral therapy (ART) in 14 HIV-positive patients. Results CD161++CD8+ T cells expressed high levels of the HIV co-receptor CCR5, the tissue-homing marker CCR6, and the Mucosal-Associated Invariant T (MAIT) cell TCR Vα7.2. Acute and chronic HIV were associated with lower frequencies of CD161++CD8+ T cells, which did not correlate with CD4 count or HIV viral load. ART was not associated with an increase in CD161++CD8+ T cell frequency. There was a trend towards lower levels of CD161++CD8+ T cells in HIV-negative individuals with active and latent TB. In those co-infected with HIV and TB, CD161++CD8+ T cells were found at low levels similar to those seen in HIV mono-infection. Conclusions The frequencies and phenotype of CD161++CD8+ T cells in this South African cohort are comparable to those published in European and US cohorts. Low-levels of this population were associated with acute and chronic HIV infection. Lower levels of the tissue-trophic CD161++ CD8+ T cell population may contribute to weakened mucosal immune defense, making HIV-infected subjects more susceptible to pulmonary and gastrointestinal infections and detrimentally impacting on host defense against TB

  16. Circulating levels of soluble CD26 are associated with phobic anxiety in women.

    PubMed

    Emanuele, Enzo; Minoretti, Piercarlo; Martinelli, Valentina; Pesenti, Sara; Olivieri, Valentina; Aldeghi, Alessia; Politi, Pierluigi

    2006-09-30

    Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV or CD26) is an ubiquitously expressed protease that could play a role in the pathogenesis of anxiety in view of its capacity to cleave several behaviourally active neuropeptides. Hereto we sought to determine the relationship between phobic anxiety, as measured by the Crown-Crisp index, and circulating levels of soluble CD26 (sCD26) in a large cohort of 1017 Italian women participating in a general health survey. The association between sCD26 levels and phobic anxiety was tested using simple correlation analysis, linear regression and multivariate logistic regression analysis. A highly significant inverse association was found between sCD26 concentrations and anxiety scores both in simple correlation and linear regression analysis. Compared with subjects in the first tertile of sCD26 levels, the age-adjusted odds ratio for scoring >/=6 compared to scoring 0 or 1 was 0.31 (95% CI: 0.18-0.74) for the second and 0.47 (95% CI: 0.34-0.63) for the third tertile. Altogether, our data suggest that reduced plasma sCD26 concentrations could be a marker of high levels of phobic anxiety in women.

  17. Chronic immune activation in common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is associated with elevated serum levels of soluble CD14 and CD25 but not endotoxaemia.

    PubMed

    Litzman, J; Nechvatalova, J; Xu, J; Ticha, O; Vlkova, M; Hel, Z

    2012-12-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), the most frequent symptomatic immunoglobulin primary immunodeficiency, is associated with chronic T cell activation and reduced frequency of CD4(+) T cells. The underlying cause of immune activation in CVID is unknown. Microbial translocation indicated by elevated serum levels of lipopolysaccharide and soluble CD14 (sCD14) has been linked previously to systemic immune activation in human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV-1/AIDS), alcoholic cirrhosis and other conditions. To address the mechanisms of chronic immune activation in CVID, we performed a detailed analysis of immune cell populations and serum levels of sCD14, soluble CD25 (sCD25), lipopolysaccharide and markers of liver function in 35 patients with CVID, 53 patients with selective immunoglobulin (Ig)A deficiency (IgAD) and 63 control healthy subjects. In CVID subjects, the concentration of serum sCD14 was increased significantly and correlated with the level of sCD25, C-reactive protein and the extent of T cell activation. Importantly, no increase in serum lipopolysaccharide concentration was observed in patients with CVID or IgAD. Collectively, the data presented suggest that chronic T cell activation in CVID is associated with elevated levels of sCD14 and sCD25, but not with systemic endotoxaemia, and suggest involvement of lipopolysaccharide-independent mechanisms of induction of sCD14 production. © 2012 The Authors Clinical and Experimental Immunology © 2012 British Society for Immunology.

  18. Chronic immune activation in common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is associated with elevated serum levels of soluble CD14 and CD25 but not endotoxaemia

    PubMed Central

    Litzman, J; Nechvatalova, J; Xu, J; Ticha, O; Vlkova, M; Hel, Z

    2012-01-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), the most frequent symptomatic immunoglobulin primary immunodeficiency, is associated with chronic T cell activation and reduced frequency of CD4+ T cells. The underlying cause of immune activation in CVID is unknown. Microbial translocation indicated by elevated serum levels of lipopolysaccharide and soluble CD14 (sCD14) has been linked previously to systemic immune activation in human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV-1/AIDS), alcoholic cirrhosis and other conditions. To address the mechanisms of chronic immune activation in CVID, we performed a detailed analysis of immune cell populations and serum levels of sCD14, soluble CD25 (sCD25), lipopolysaccharide and markers of liver function in 35 patients with CVID, 53 patients with selective immunoglobulin (Ig)A deficiency (IgAD) and 63 control healthy subjects. In CVID subjects, the concentration of serum sCD14 was increased significantly and correlated with the level of sCD25, C-reactive protein and the extent of T cell activation. Importantly, no increase in serum lipopolysaccharide concentration was observed in patients with CVID or IgAD. Collectively, the data presented suggest that chronic T cell activation in CVID is associated with elevated levels of sCD14 and sCD25, but not with systemic endotoxaemia, and suggest involvement of lipopolysaccharide-independent mechanisms of induction of sCD14 production. PMID:23121673

  19. Ceramide enrichment of the plasma membrane induces CD81 internalization and inhibits hepatitis C virus entry.

    PubMed

    Voisset, Cécile; Lavie, Muriel; Helle, François; Op De Beeck, Anne; Bilheu, Angéline; Bertrand-Michel, Justine; Tercé, François; Cocquerel, Laurence; Wychowski, Czeslaw; Vu-Dac, Ngoc; Dubuisson, Jean

    2008-03-01

    Virus entry is a major step in which host-cell lipids can play an essential role. In this report, we investigated the importance of sphingolipids in hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry. For this purpose, sphingomyelin present in the plasma membrane of target cells was hydrolysed into ceramide by sphingomyelinase treatment. Interestingly, ceramide enrichment of the plasma membrane strongly inhibited HCV entry. To understand how ceramide affected HCV entry, we analysed the effect of ceramide enrichment of the plasma membrane on three cell-surface molecules identified as entry factors for HCV: CD81 tetraspanin, scavenger receptor BI and Claudin-1. These proteins, which we found to be mainly associated with detergent-soluble membranes in Huh-7 cells, were not relocated in detergent-resistant microdomains after sphingomyelin hydrolysis into ceramide. Importantly, ceramide enrichment of the plasma membrane led to a 50% decrease in cell-surface CD81, which was due to its ATP-independent internalization. Our results strongly suggest that the ceramide-induced internalization of CD81 is responsible for the inhibitory effect of ceramide on HCV entry. Together, these data indicate that some specific lipids of the plasma membrane are essential for HCV entry and highlight plasma membrane lipids as potential targets to block HCV entry.

  20. Targeting CD13 (aminopeptidase-N) in turn downregulates ADAM17 by internalization in acute myeloid leukaemia cells.

    PubMed

    Bouchet, Sandrine; Tang, Ruoping; Fava, Fanny; Legrand, Ollivier; Bauvois, Brigitte

    2014-09-30

    Secreted matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 and membrane-anchored aminopeptidase-N/CD13 are abnormally expressed in human acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). We previously showed that CD13 ligation by anti-CD13 monoclonal antibodies can induce apoptosis in AML cells. Here, we assessed ADAM17 expression in primary blood blasts CD13+CD33+ from patients with AML. Primary AML cells expressed ADAM17 transcript and its surface expression was higher in subtype M4 (myelomonocytic) and M5 (monocytic) AML specimens than in M0 and M1/M2 (early and granulocytic) specimens. In AML cell lines defining distinct AML subfamilies (HL-60/M2, NB4/M3, THP-1/M5, U937/M5) and primary AML cells cultured ex vivo, anti-CD13 antibodies downregulated surface CD13 and ADAM17 without affecting MMP-2/-9 release. Knockdown of CD13 by siRNA prevented anti-CD13-mediated ADAM17 downregulation, indicating that CD13 is required for ADAM17 downregulation. Soluble ADAM17 was not detected in the medium of anti-CD13 treated cells, suggesting that ADAM17 was not shed. After ligation by anti-CD13, CD13 and ADAM17 were internalized. Subsequently, we found that ADAM17 interacts with CD13. We postulate that the interaction of ADAM17 with CD13 and its downregulation following CD13 engagement has important implications in AML for the known roles of ADAM17 in tumour-associated cell growth, migration and invasion.

  1. CD163 levels, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion of monocytes in children with pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Aktas Cetin, Esin; Pur Ozyigit, Leyla; Gelmez, Yusuf Metin; Cakir, Erkan; Gedik, Ahmet Hakan; Deniz, Gunnur

    2017-05-01

    Childhood tuberculosis (TB) comprises an important part of the world's TB burden. Monocytes set up the early phase of infection because of innate immune responses. Understanding the changes in monocyte subsets during multisystem infectious diseases may be important for the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the monocyte phenotype together with the cytokine secretion profiles of children with pulmonary tuberculosis. Thirteen patients with pulmonary TB were enrolled as study group, and 14 healthy subjects as control group. Surface expressions of CD16, CD14, CD62L, CD163, CCR2, and HLA-DR of monocytes were analyzed by flow cytometry. The presence of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-10, IL-12, IL-23, and soluble form of CD163 (sCD163) in the antigen- and LPS-stimulated whole blood culture supernatants were detected using ELISA and Luminex. Higher percentages of CD14(++) CD16(+) and CD14(+) CD16(++) monocyte subsets, and CCR2, CD62L and CD163 expression on circulating monocytes in children with pulmonary tuberculosis were obtained. Diminished levels of ESAT-6/CFP-10-induced IL-10 and increased levels of TB-antigen and LPS-stimulated sCD163 were found in childhood with pulmonary TB. High expression of CD14(++) CD16(+) , CD14(+) CD16(++) , CD14(+) CCR2(+) , and CD14(+) CD62L(+) cells in childhood TB, and monocyte-derived cytokines reflected both pro- and anti-inflammatory profiles. Higher sCD163 and CD14(+) CD163(+) monocytes might help physicians in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary TB in children. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2017;52:675-683. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Are increased frequency of macrophage-like and natural killer (NK) cells, together with high levels of NKT and CD4+CD25high T cells balancing activated CD8+ T cells, the key to control Chagas’ disease morbidity?

    PubMed Central

    Vitelli-Avelar, D M; Sathler-Avelar, R; Massara, R L; Borges, J D; Lage, P S; Lana, M; Teixeira-Carvalho, A; Dias, J C P; Elói-Santos, S M; Martins-Filho, O A

    2006-01-01

    The immunological response during early human Trypanosoma cruzi infection is not completely understood, despite its role in driving the development of distinct clinical manifestations of chronic infection. Herein we report the results of a descriptive flow cytometric immunophenotyping investigation of major and minor peripheral blood leucocyte subpopulations in T. cruzi-infected children, characterizing the early stages of the indeterminate clinical form of Chagas’ disease. Our results indicated significant alterations by comparison with uninfected children, including increased values of pre-natural killer (NK)-cells (CD3– CD16+ CD56–), and higher values of proinflammatory monocytes (CD14+ CD16+ HLA-DR++). The higher values of activated B lymphocytes (CD19+ CD23+) contrasted with impaired T cell activation, indicated by lower values of CD4+ CD38+ and CD4+ HLA-DR+ lymphocytes, a lower frequency of CD8+ CD38+ and CD8+ HLA-DR+ cells; a decreased frequency of CD4+ CD25HIGH regulatory T cells was also observed. These findings reinforce the hypothesis that simultaneous activation of innate and adaptive immunity mechanisms in addition to suppression of adaptive cellular immune response occur during early events of Chagas’ disease. Comparative cross-sectional analysis of these immunophenotypes with those exhibited by patients with late chronic indeterminate and cardiac forms of disease suggested that a shift toward high values of macrophage-like cells extended to basal levels of proinflammatory monocytes as well as high values of mature NK cells, NKT and regulatory T cells, may account for limited tissue damage during chronic infection favouring the establishment/maintenance of a lifelong indeterminate clinical form of the disease. On the other hand, development of an adaptive cell-mediated inflammatory immunoprofile characterized by high levels of activated CD8+ cells and basal levels of mature NK cells, NKT and CD4+ CD25HIGH cells might lead to late chronic

  3. Internalization of Met requires the co-receptor CD44v6 and its link to ERM proteins.

    PubMed

    Hasenauer, Susanne; Malinger, Dieter; Koschut, David; Pace, Giuseppina; Matzke, Alexandra; von Au, Anja; Orian-Rousseau, Véronique

    2013-01-01

    Receptor Tyrosine Kinases (RTKs) are involved in many cellular processes and play a major role in the control of cell fate. For these reasons, RTK activation is maintained under tight control. Met is an essential RTK that induces proliferation, differentiation, migration, survival and branching morphogenesis. Deregulation of Met by overexpression, amplification or lack of effective degradation leads to cancer and metastasis. We have shown that Met relies on CD44v6 for its activation and for signaling in several cancer cell lines and also in primary cells. In this paper, we show that internalization of Met is dependent on CD44v6 and the binding of Ezrin to the CD44v6 cytoplasmic domain. Both CD44v6 and Met are co-internalized upon Hepatocyte Growth Factor induction suggesting that Met-induced signaling from the endosomes relies on its collaboration with CD44v6 and the link to the cytoskeleton provided by ERM proteins.

  4. Effect of Sub-Bandgap Illumination on the Internal Electric Field of CdZnTe

    SciTech Connect

    Washington, A.

    2011-09-16

    Post-growth manipulation of the internal electric field in CdZnTe crystals using sub-bandgap illumination is measured as a function of temperature through infrared (IR) transmission measurements. Using near sub-bandgap IR illumination, both the optical de-trapping of charge carriers and the reduction in carrier recombination increased the mobility lifetime in the crystal. The increased carrier transport is a direct result of decreased hole and electron trapping in addition to other underlying mechanisms. Concentration of the electric field near the cathode is also observed. We measured the electric field distribution with sub-bandgap illumination as a function of temperature via the Pockels effect.

  5. Diminished levels of regulatory T cell subsets (CD8+Foxp3, CD4+Foxp3 and CD4+CD39+Foxp3) but increased Foxp3 expression in adipose tissue from overweight subjects.

    PubMed

    Núñez Ruiz, Aleida; Cortés-Garcia, Juan Diego; Cortez-Espinosa, Nancy; Herrera-Rojas, Paola Indira; Ruíz-Rodríguez, Víctor Manuel; Salgado-Bustamante, Mariana; García-Hernández, Mariana Haydee; Reynaga-Hernández, Elizabeth; Martínez-Jimenez, Veronica Del Carmen; Portales-Pérez, Diana Patricia

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to identify regulatory T cell (Treg) subsets residing in adipose tissue, demonstrate their immunosuppressive functions, and assess the possible role of Sirt1 in their function in overweight subjects. Fat samples were obtained by lipoaspiration from healthy overweight (n = 15) and normoweight (n = 11) subjects. We obtained the stromal vascular fraction and then isolated the mononuclear cells by Ficoll-Hypaque sedimentation. The Treg subsets were analyzed by flow cytometry, the expression of Sirt1 and Foxp3 was detected by western blot, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) expression was evaluated by qPCR. We detected low numbers of Treg cell subsets displaying the phenotypes CD4+CD25-Foxp3+, CD8+CD25-Foxp3+, and CD4+CD39+Foxp3+ associated with increased body mass index in overweight subjects. We found lower levels of mRNA SIRT1 expression in adipocytes from overweight subjects than in those from normoweight subjects. In contrast, increased amounts of the Sirt1 and Foxp3 proteins in adipose tissue mononuclear cells from overweight subjects were observed. The immunosuppressive function of CD4+CD25+ Treg cells is higher in cells from obese subject than in those from normoweight subject. Low levels of Treg subsets in overweight subjects with a high percentage of inhibition of proliferation could be related to high levels of the Foxp3 protein. Likewise, the low expression of SIRT1 and PPAR-γ mRNA levels and increased concentration of Sirt1 proteins allows adipose tissue mononuclear cells to respond to stimuli dependent on adenosine receptors and sirtuin pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Decreased plasma levels of soluble CD18 link leukocyte infiltration with disease activity in spondyloarthritis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Spondyloarthritis (SpA) comprises a group of diseases often associated with HLA-B27 and characterized by inflammation of the entheses and joints of the axial skeleton. The inflammatory process in SpA is presumably driven by innate immune cells but is still poorly understood. Thus, new tools for monitoring and treating inflammation are needed. The family of CD18 integrins is pivotal in guiding leukocytes to sites of inflammation, and CD18 hypomorphic mice develop a disease resembling SpA. Previously, we demonstrated that altered soluble CD18 (sCD18) complexes in the blood and synovial fluid of patients with arthritis have anti-inflammatory functions. Here, we study the mechanisms for these alterations and their association with SpA disease activity. Methods Plasma levels of sCD18 in a study population with 84 patients with SpA and matched healthy controls were analyzed with a time-resolved immunoflourometric assay (TRIFMA). Binding of sCD18 to endothelial cells and fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) was studied with confocal microscopy. Shedding of CD18 from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was studied with flow cytometry and TRIFMA. Results Plasma levels of sCD18 were decreased in patients with SpA compared with healthy volunteers (P <0.001), and the lowest levels were in the HLA-B27-positive subgroup (P <0.05). In a multiple regression model, the sCD18 levels exhibited an inverse correlation with the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) (P <0.05), the level of morning stiffness (P <0.05), the Bath Ankylosing Spondilitis Metrology Index (P <0.05), the physician global assessment score (P <0.01), and the sacroiliac magnetic resonance imaging activity score (P <0.05). The mechanisms for these changes could be simulated in vitro. First, sCD18 in plasma adhered to inflammation-induced intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) on endothelial cells and FLS, indicating increased consumption. Second, CD18 shedding from Sp

  7. DETAIL OF UTILITY PIPES AT THE BOTTOM LEVEL OF INTERNAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF UTILITY PIPES AT THE BOTTOM LEVEL OF INTERNAL PLATFORMS, ALTITUDE CHAMBER L, FACING WEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Altitude Chambers, First Street, between Avenue D and Avenue E, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  8. Expression of fas protein on CD4+T cells irradiated by low level He-Ne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Fan; Zhu, Jing; Zhang, Hui-Guo

    2005-07-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence on the Expression of Fas protein on CD4+ T cells irradiated by low level He-Ne laser in the cases of psoriasis. Methods:the expression of CD4+ T Fas protein was determined in the casee of psoriasis(n=5) pre and post-low level laser irradiation(30 min、60min and 120min)by flow cytometry as compared withthe control(n=5). Results:In the cases of psoriasis,the expression of CD4+T FAS protein 21.4+/-3.1% was increased significantly than that of control group 16.8+/-2.1% pre-irradiation, p<0.05in the control,there is no difference between pre and post- irradiation,p>0.05in the cases , the expression of CD4+T Fas protein wae positively corelated to the irradiation times, when the energy density arrived to 22.92J/cm2(60 minutes)and 45.84J/cm2(120minutes), the expression of CD4+ T Fas protein was increased significantly as compared with pre-irradiation,p<0.05.Conclusion: The expression of CD4+T Fas protein may be increased by low level He-Ne laser irradiation ,the uncontrolled status of apoptosis could be corrected.

  9. Defect Levels of Indium-doped CdMnTe Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    K Kim; A Bolotinikov; G Camarda; R Gul; A Hossain; G Yang; Y Cui; R James

    2011-12-31

    Using photoluminescence (PL) and current deep-level transient spectroscopy (I-DLTS), we investigated the electronic defects of indium-doped detector-grade CdMnTe:In (CMT:In) crystals grown by the vertical Bridgman method. We similarly analyzed CdZnTe:In (CZT:In) and undoped CdMnTe (CMT) crystals grown under the amount of same level of excess Te and/or indium doping level to detail the fundamental properties of the electronic defect structure more readily. Extended defects, existing in all the samples, were revealed by synchrotron white beam x-ray diffraction topography and scanning electron microscopy. The electronic structure of CMT is very similar to that of CZT, with shallow traps, A-centers, Cd vacancies, deep levels, and Te antisites. The 1.1-eV deep level, revealed by PL in earlier studies of CZT and CdTe, were attributed to dislocation-induced defects. In our I-DLTS measurements, the 1.1-eV traps showed different activation energies with applied bias voltage and an exponential dependence on the trap-filling time, which are typical characteristics of dislocation-induced defects. We propose a new defect-trap model for indium-doped CMT crystals.

  10. Defect levels of semi-insulating CdMnTe:In crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K. H.; Bolotinikov, A. E.; Camarda, G. S.; Hossain, A.; Gul, R.; Yang, G.; Cui, Y.; Prochazka, J.; Franc, J.; Hong, J.; James, R. B.

    2011-06-01

    Using photoluminescence (PL) and current deep-level transient spectroscopy (I-DLTS), we investigated the electronic defects of indium-doped detector-grade CdMnTe:In (CMT:In) crystals grown by the vertical Bridgman method. We similarly analyzed CdZnTe:In (CZT:In) and undoped CdMnTe (CMT) crystals grown under the amount of same level of excess Te and/or indium doping level to detail the fundamental properties of the electronic defect structure more readily. Extended defects, existing in all the samples, were revealed by synchrotron white beam x-ray diffraction topography and scanning electron microscopy. The electronic structure of CMT is very similar to that of CZT, with shallow traps, A-centers, Cd vacancies, deep levels, and Te antisites. The 1.1-eV deep level, revealed by PL in earlier studies of CZT and CdTe, were attributed to dislocation-induced defects. In our I-DLTS measurements, the 1.1-eV traps showed different activation energies with applied bias voltage and an exponential dependence on the trap-filling time, which are typical characteristics of dislocation-induced defects. We propose a new defect-trap model for indium-doped CMT crystals.

  11. A Higher Risk of Acute Rejection of Human Kidney Allografts Can Be Predicted from the Level of CD45RC Expressed by the Recipients’ CD8 T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ordonez, Laurence; Bernard, Isabelle; Chabod, Marianne; Augusto, Jean-François; Lauwers-Cances, Valerie; Cristini, Christelle; Cuturi, Maria-Cristina; Subra, Jean-François; Saoudi, Abdelhadi

    2013-01-01

    Although transplantation is the common treatment for end-stage renal failure, allograft rejection and marked morbidity from the use of immunosuppressive drugs remain important limitations. A major challenge in the field is to identify easy, reliable and noninvasive biomarkers allowing the prediction of deleterious alloreactive immune responses and the tailoring of immunosuppressive therapy in individuals according to the rejection risk. In this study, we first established that the expression of the RC isoform of the CD45 molecule (CD45RC) on CD4 and CD8 T cells from healthy individuals identifies functionally distinct alloreactive T cell subsets that behave differently in terms of proliferation and cytokine secretion. We then investigated whether the frequency of the recipients CD45RC T cell subsets before transplantation would predict acute graft rejection in a cohort of 89 patients who had undergone their first kidney transplantation. We showed that patients exhibiting more than 54.7% of CD8 CD45RChigh T cells before transplantation had a 6 fold increased risk of acute kidney graft rejection. In contrast, the proportions of CD4 CD45RC T cells were not predictive. Thus, a higher risk of acute rejection of human kidney allografts can be predicted from the level of CD45RC expressed by the recipients’ CD8 T cells. PMID:23894540

  12. Identification of two subpopulations of purified human blood B cells, CD27− CD23+ and CD27high CD80+, that strongly express cell surface Toll-like receptor 9 and secrete high levels of interleukin-6

    PubMed Central

    Cognasse, Fabrice; Hamzeh-Cognasse, Hind; Lafarge, Sandrine; Chavarin, Patricia; Pozzetto, Bruno; Richard, Yolande; Garraud, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    B-cell expression of certain Toll-like receptors (TLRs) is important in linking innate and adaptive immune responses in normal and pathological conditions. The expression of TLR9 plays a role in the recognition of conserved pathogen motifs in a manner that is dependent on B-cell localization, deduced from B-cell phenotype. The nature of TLR9 function is unclear. A first step in unravelling the function of this pattern recognition receptor is to discover the precise nature of the cell types that express TLR9. This study used three-colour flow cytometry to characterize the B lymphocytes from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) that express TLR9 on the surface. We sorted TLR9-positive B and non-B cells from the PBMC population and detected TLR9 expression on naïve and memory B cells. Moreover, we identified two discrete subpopulations of B cells: CD19+ CD27− CD23+ cells and CD19+ CD27high CD80+ cells. These subpopulations expressed high levels of membrane TLR9 and exhibited a strong in vitro response to binding a relevant CpG motif by secreting high levels of interleukin-6 (compared to controls). Our finding that this pattern recognition receptor is expressed on a variety of cell subsets adds to the current understanding of the functional complexity of B-cell membrane TLR9. PMID:18445007

  13. Push pull microfluidics on a multi-level 3D CD

    PubMed Central

    Thio, Tzer Hwai Gilbert; Ibrahim, Fatimah; Al-Faqheri, Wisam; Moebius, Jacob; Khalid, Noor Sakinah; Soin, Norhayati; Kahar, Maria Kahar Bador Abdul; Madou, Marc

    2013-01-01

    A technique known as thermo-pneumatic (TP) pumping is used to pump fluids on a microfluidic compact disc (CD) back towards the CD center against the centrifugal force that pushes liquids from the center to the perimeter of the disc. Trapped air expands in a TP air chamber during heating, and this creates positive pressure on liquids located in chambers connected to that chamber. While the TP air chamber and connecting channels are easy to fabricate in a one-level CD manufacturing technique, this approach provides only one way pumping between two chambers, is real-estate hungry and leads to unnecessary heating of liquids in close proximity to the TP chamber. In this paper, we present a novel TP push and pull pumping method which allows for pumping of liquid in any direction between two connected liquid chambers. To ensure that implementation of TP push and pull pumping also addresses the issue of space and heating challenges, a multi-level 3D CD design is developed, and localized forced convection heating, rather than infra-red (IR) is applied. On a multi-level 3D CD, the TP features are placed on a top level separate from the rest of the microfluidic processes that are implemented on a lower separate level. This approach allows for heat shielding of the microfluidic process levels, and efficient usage of space on the CD for centrifugal handling of liquids. The use of localized forced convection heating, rather than infra-red (IR) or laser heating in earlier implementations allows not only for TP pumping of liquids while the CD is spinning but also makes heat insulation for TP pumping and other fluidic functions easier. To aid in future implementations of TP push and pull pumping on a multi-level 3D CD, study on CD surface heating is also presented. In this contribution, we also demonstrate an advanced application of pull pumping through the implementation of valve-less switch pumping. PMID:23774994

  14. [Clinical value of detecting serum soluble CD163 level in patients with atrial fibrillation].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Shi-Mao; Qin, Yu-Hua; Li, Zuo-Cha; Wei, Ye-Sheng

    2016-10-20

    To investigate the relationship between atrial fibrillation (AF) and serum soluble CD163. A total of 336 patients with heart valve disease were included in this study, including 167 with AF and 169 with sinus rhythm. The clinical data were compared between the two grops, and Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the risk factors associated with AF. The levels of total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin-6 (IL - 6), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and left atrial diameter (LAD) all differed significantly between the two groups (P<0.05). Serum soluble CD163 levels in AF patients were significantly higher than those in patients with sinus rhythm (P<0.05). Serum soluble CD163 was positively correlated with TNF (r=0.244, P=0.244), IL-6 (r=0.186, P=0.186), hs-CRP (r=0.183, P=0.183) and LAD (r=0.194, P=0.194) in patients with AF. Logistic regression analysis showed that LAD, IL-6, TNF, hs-CRP and CD163 were all associated with AF. ROC curve analysis showed that the area under curve of serum soluble CD163 was 0.861 in patients with AF (CI 95%: 0.820-0.901, P<0.01) with a sensitivity and a specificity of 80.8 and 76.9%, respectively. Serum soluble CD163 level may be a risk factor for AF, and an increased soluble CD163 level may indicate active inflammation in AF patients.

  15. Reduced CD18 levels drive regulatory T cell conversion into Th17 cells in the CD18hypo PL/J mouse model of psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kamayani; Gatzka, Martina; Peters, Thorsten; Borkner, Lisa; Hainzl, Adelheid; Wang, Honglin; Sindrilaru, Anca; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin

    2013-03-15

    Defective development and function of CD4(+)CD25(high+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) contribute to the pathogenesis of psoriasis and other autoimmune diseases. Little is known about the influence of adhesions molecules on the differentiation of Foxp3(+) Tregs into proinflammatory Th17 cells occurring in lesional skin and blood of psoriasis patients. In the CD18(hypo) PL/J mouse model of psoriasis, reduced expression of CD18/β2 integrin to 2-16% of wild-type levels is associated with progressive loss of Tregs, impaired cell-cell contact between Tregs and dendritic cells (DCs), as well as Treg dysfunction as reported earlier. In the present investigation, Tregs derived from CD18(hypo) PL/J mice were analyzed for their propensity to differentiate into IL-17-producing Th17 cells in vivo and in in vitro Treg-DC cocultures. Adoptively transferred CD18(hypo) PL/J Tregs were more inclined toward conversion into IL-17-producing Th17 cells in vivo in an inflammatory as well as noninflammatory environment compared with CD18(wt) PL/J Tregs. Addition of neutralizing Ab against CD18 to Treg-DC cocultures in vitro promoted conversion of CD18(wt) PL/J Tregs to Th17 cells in a dose-dependent manner similar to conversion rates of CD18(hypo) PL/J Tregs. Reduced thymic output of naturally occurring Tregs and peripheral conversion of Tregs into Th17 cells therefore both contribute to the loss of Tregs and the psoriasiform dermatitis observed in CD18(hypo) PL/J mice. Our data overall indicate that CD18 expression levels impact Treg development as well as Treg plasticity and that differentiation of Tregs into IL-17-producing Th17 cells is distinctly facilitated by a subtotal deficiency of CD18.

  16. Non-survivor septic patients have persistently higher serum sCD40L levels than survivors.

    PubMed

    Lorente, Leonardo; Martín, María M; Pérez-Cejas, Antonia; Ferreres, José; Solé-Violán, Jordi; Labarta, Lorenzo; Díaz, César; Jiménez, Alejandro

    2017-10-01

    Soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) is a protein with proinflammatory and prothrombotic effects. Previously we found higher circulating sCD40L levels in non-survivor than in survivor patients at sepsis diagnosis. Now some questions arise such as how are serum sCD40L levels during the first week of severe sepsis?, is there an association between serum sCD40L levels during the first week and mortality?, and serum sCD40L levels during the first week could be used as sepsis mortality biomarker?. This study was developed to answer these asks. Study from 6 Spanish Intensive Care Units with 291 severe septic patients. There were determined serum levels of sCD40L and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha during the first week. The end-point study was 30-day mortality. We found that serum sCD40L at days 1, 4, and 8 could predict mortality at 30days, and are associated with mortality. The novel findings of our study were that there were higher serum sCD40L levels persistently during the first week in non-survivor than in survivor patients, that there is an association between serum sCD40L levels during the first week and sepsis mortality, and that serum sCD40L levels during the first week could be used as sepsis mortality biomarker. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Lithographic CD variation in contact, via, local interconnect, and damascene levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trouiller, Yorick; Didiergeorges, Anne; Fanget, Gilles L.; Laviron, Cyrille; Comboroure, Corinne; Quere, Yves

    1999-08-01

    The goal of this paper is to understand the optical phenomena at dielectric levels (contact, local interconnect, via and damascene line levels). The purpose is also to quantify the impact of dielectric and resist thickness variations on the CD range with and without Bottom Anti Reflective Coating (BARC). First we will show how all dielectric levels can be reduced to the stack metal/oxide/BARC/resist, and what are the contributions to resist and dielectric thickness range for each levels. Then a simple model will be developed to understand CD variation in this stack: by extending the Perot-Fabry model to the dielectric levels, developed by Brunner for the gate level, we can obtain a simple relation between the CD variation and all parameters (metal, oxide thickness, resist thickness, BARC absorbency). Experimentally CD variations for damascene line level on 0.18 micrometers technology has been measured depending on oxide thickness and resist thickness and can confirm this model. UV5 resist, AR2 BARC from Shipley and Top ARC from JSR have been used for these experiments.

  18. [Relationship between serum level of CD40 ligand and persistent lone atrial fibrillation].

    PubMed

    Bozçalı, Evin; Polat, Veli; Kutlu, Gönül; Opan, Selçuk; Paker, Nurcan; Uygun, Turgut; Ökçün, Barış; Karakaya, Osman

    2016-07-01

    Inflammation is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation. The relationship between CD40 ligand (CD40L), a prothrombotic and proinflammatory molecule, and lone atrial fibrillation was presently investigated for the first time. Levels of serum CD40L were also tested, regarding potential to distinguish patients with lone atrial fibrillation from healthy individuals. Presently included were 35 patients with lone persistent atrial fibrillation and a control group of 30 healthy individuals. Serum levels of CD40L and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were measured, and transthoracic echocardiography was performed. Mean serum CD40L, hs-CRP, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter, and left atrial diameter values were significantly higher in the group with lone persistent atrial fibrillation than in the control group (7.4±3.5 ng/mL vs 4.3±1.2 ng/mL, p<0.0001; 3.7±1.6 mg/L vs 1.7±0.8 mg/L, p<0.0001; 53.0±4.2 mm vs 46.0±3.8, p<0.0001; 43.5±3.5 mm vs 33.7±3.5, p<0.0001, respectively). Serum CD40L levels were positively correlated with left atrial diameter (r=0.81, p<0.0001) and hs-CRP (r=0.72, p<0.0001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that serum CD40L at the optimal cut-off level of >4.5 ng/mL successfully discriminated patients with lone atrial fibrillation from controls (area under the curve: 0.847; 95% confidence interval: 0.759-0.934; p<0.0001). The present findings suggest that CD40L levels play a crucial role in the development of lone atrial fibrillation. In addition, results support that regular clinical follow-up of these patients is necessary, due to increased cardiovascular disease risk, determined by elevated CD40L levels.

  19. BK Virus Load Associated with Serum Levels of sCD30 in Renal Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Salma N.; Al-Saffer, Jinan M.; Jawad, Rana S.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Rejection is the main drawback facing the renal transplant operations. Complicated and overlapping factors, mainly related to the immune system, are responsible for this rejection. Elevated serum levels of sCD30 were frequently recorded as an indicator for renal allograft rejection, while BV virus is considered as one of the most serious consequences for immunosuppressive treatment of renal transplant recipients (RTRs). Aims. This study aimed to determine the association of BK virus load with serum levels of sCD30 in RTRs suffering from nephropathy. Patients and Methods. A total of 50 RTRs with nephropathy and 30 age-matched apparently healthy individuals were recruited for this study. Serum samples were obtained from each participant. Real-time PCR was used to quantify BK virus load in RTRs serum, while ELISA technique was employed to estimate serum levels of sCD30. Results. Twenty-two percent of RTRs had detectable BKV with mean viral load of 1.094E + 06 ± 2.291E + 06. RTRs showed higher mean serum level of sCD30 (20.669 ± 18.713 U/mL) than that of controls (5.517 ± 5.304 U/mL) with significant difference. BK virus load had significant positive correlation with the serum levels of sCD30 in RTRs group. Conclusion. These results suggest that serum levels of sCD30 could be used as an indicator of BK viremia, and accordingly the immunosuppressive regime should be adjusted. PMID:27051424

  20. Reduction of Fermi level pinning and recombination at polycrystalline CdTe surfaces by laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Simonds, Brian J.; Kheraj, Vipul; Palekis, Vasilios; Ferekides, Christos; Scarpulla, Michael A.

    2015-06-14

    Laser processing of polycrystalline CdTe is a promising approach that could potentially increase module manufacturing throughput while reducing capital expenditure costs. For these benefits to be realized, the basic effects of laser irradiation on CdTe must be ascertained. In this study, we utilize surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS) to investigate the changes to the electronic properties of the surface of polycrystalline CdTe solar cell stacks induced by continuous-wave laser annealing. The experimental data explained within a model consisting of two space charge regions, one at the CdTe/air interface and one at the CdTe/CdS junction, are used to interpret our SPS results. The frequency dependence and phase spectra of the SPS signal are also discussed. To support the SPS findings, low-temperature spectrally-resolved photoluminescence and time-resolved photoluminescence were also measured. The data show that a modest laser treatment of 250 W/cm{sup 2} with a dwell time of 20 s is sufficient to reduce the effects of Fermi level pinning at the surface due to surface defects.

  1. HIV viral load levels and CD4+ cell counts of youth in 14 cities.

    PubMed

    Ellen, Jonathan M; Kapogiannis, Bill; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Xu, Jiahong; Willard, Nancy; Duval, Anna; Pace, Jill; Loeb, Jackie; Monte, Dina; Bethel, James

    2014-05-15

    To describe the HIV viral load and CD4 cell counts of youth (12-24 years) in 14 cities from March 2010 through November 2011. Baseline HIV viral load and CD4 cell count data were electronically abstracted in a central location and in an anonymous manner through a random computer-generated coding system without any ability to link codes to individual cases. Among 1409 HIV reported cases, 852 participants had data on both viral load and CD4 cell counts. Of these youth, 34% had CD4 cell counts of 350 or less, 27% had cell counts from 351 to 500, and 39% had CD4 cell counts greater than 500. Youth whose transmission risk was male-to-male sexual contact had higher viral loads compared with youth whose transmission risk was perinatal or heterosexual contact. Greater than 30% of those who reported male-to-male sexual contact had viral loads greater than 50 000 copies, whereas less than 20% of heterosexual contact youth had viral loads greater than 50 000 copies. There were no differences noted in viral load by type of testing site. Most HIV-infected youth have CD4 cell counts and viral load levels associated with high rates of sexual transmission. Untreated, these youth may directly contribute to high rates of ongoing transmission. It is essential that any public health test and treat strategy place a strong emphasis on youth, particularly young MSM.

  2. Impact of internal climate memory on future sea level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, M.; Karpytchev, M.; Hu, A.; Deser, C.; Lennartz-Sassinek, S.

    2016-12-01

    Estimating the magnitude of sea level rise (SLR) for the end of 21st century is among the primary goals of current climate research. An important practical aspect of this problem is that any projection of the SLR is obtained with uncertainty, which is partly due to internal variability of the Earth climate system. This internal variability is due to complex non-linear interactions within the Earth climate system and can induce diverse quasi-periodic oscillatory modes and a long-term memory behavior. It has been demonstrated that the interplay of long-term memory fluctuations in sea level changes can be modeled by a power-law process. Therefore, this makes possible the uncertainty estimations in sea level trends caused by the internal variability. The obvious question is whether the long-memory of the internal variability is correctly simulated in climate models. In this study, we (1) analyze the scaling behaviour of the sea level fluctuations projected for the 21st century by the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate System Model (NCAR-CCSM) and (2) compare the uncertainties in predicated sea level changes obtained from a NCAR-CCSM multi-member ensemble simulations with estimates derived from the Lennartz-Bunde statistics for the power-law processes.

  3. Investigation of deep level defects in CdTe thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Shankar, H.; Castaldini, A.; Dauksta, E.; Medvid, A.; Cavallini, A.

    2014-02-21

    In the past few years, a large body of work has been dedicated to CdTe thin film semiconductors, as the electronic and optical properties of CdTe nanostructures make them desirable for photovoltaic applications. The performance of semiconductor devices is greatly influenced by the deep levels. Knowledge of parameters of deep levels present in as-grown materials and the identification of their origin is the key factor in the development of photovoltaic device performance. Photo Induced Current Transient Spectroscopy technique (PICTS) has proven to be a very powerful method for the study of deep levels enabling us to identify the type of traps, their activation energy and apparent capture cross section. In the present work, we report the effect of growth parameters and LASER irradiation intensity on the photo-electric and transport properties of CdTe thin films prepared by Close-Space Sublimation method using SiC electrical heating element. CdTe thin films were grown at three different source temperatures (630, 650 and 700 °C). The grown films were irradiated with Nd:YAG LASER and characterized by Photo-Induced Current Transient Spectroscopy, Photocurrent measurementand Current Voltage measurements. The defect levels are found to be significantly influenced by the growth temperature.

  4. Progesterone Levels Associate with a Novel Population of CCR5+CD38+ CD4 T Cells Resident in the Genital Mucosa with Lymphoid Trafficking Potential.

    PubMed

    Swaims-Kohlmeier, Alison; Haaland, Richard E; Haddad, Lisa B; Sheth, Anandi N; Evans-Strickfaden, Tammy; Lupo, L Davis; Cordes, Sarah; Aguirre, Alfredo J; Lupoli, Kathryn A; Chen, Cheng-Yen; Ofotukun, Igho; Hart, Clyde E; Kohlmeier, Jacob E

    2016-07-01

    The female genital tract (FGT) provides a means of entry to pathogens, including HIV, yet immune cell populations at this barrier between host and environment are not well defined. We initiated a study of healthy women to characterize resident T cell populations in the lower FGT from lavage and patient-matched peripheral blood to investigate potential mechanisms of HIV sexual transmission. Surprisingly, we observed FGT CD4 T cell populations were primarily CCR7(hi), consistent with a central memory or recirculating memory T cell phenotype. In addition, roughly half of these CCR7(hi) CD4 T cells expressed CD69, consistent with resident memory T cells, whereas the remaining CCR7(hi) CD4 T cells lacked CD69 expression, consistent with recirculating memory CD4 T cells that traffic between peripheral tissues and lymphoid sites. HIV susceptibility markers CCR5 and CD38 were increased on FGT CCR7(hi) CD4 T cells compared with blood, yet migration to the lymphoid homing chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 was maintained. Infection with GFP-HIV showed that FGT CCR7(hi) memory CD4 T cells are susceptible HIV targets, and productive infection of CCR7(hi) memory T cells did not alter chemotaxis to CCL19 and CCL21. Variations of resident CCR7(hi) FGT CD4 T cell populations were detected during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, and longitudinal analysis showed the frequency of this population positively correlated to progesterone levels. These data provide evidence women may acquire HIV through local infection of migratory CCR7(hi) CD4 T cells, and progesterone levels predict opportunities for HIV to access these novel target cells.

  5. Soluble CD27 Levels in Cerebrospinal Fluid as a Prognostic Biomarker in Clinically Isolated Syndrome.

    PubMed

    van der Vuurst de Vries, Roos M; Mescheriakova, Julia Y; Runia, Tessel F; Jafari, Naghmeh; Siepman, Theodora A M; Hintzen, Rogier Q

    2017-03-01

    There is a growing number of therapies that could be administered after the first symptom of central nervous system demyelination. These drugs can delay multiple sclerosis (MS) diagnosis and slow down future disability. However, treatment of patients with benign course may not be needed; therefore, there is a need for biomarkers to predict long-term prognosis in patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS). To investigate whether the T-cell activation marker soluble CD27 (sCD27) measured in cerebrospinal fluid of patients at time of a first attack is associated with a subsequent diagnosis of MS and a higher relapse rate. This prospective study included 77 patients with CIS between March 2002 and May 2015 in a tertiary referral center for multiple sclerosis, in collaboration with several regional hospitals. Patients with CIS underwent a lumbar puncture and magnetic resonance imaging scan within 6 months after first onset of symptoms. Soluble CD27 levels were determined in cerebrospinal fluid using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cox regression analyses was used to calculate univariate and multivariate hazard ratios for MS diagnosis. Association between sCD27 levels and relapse rate was assessed using a negative binomial regression model. Among 77 patients with CIS, 50 were female (79.5%), and mean (SD) age was 32.7 (7.4) years. Mean (SD) age in the control individuals was 33.4 (9.5) years, and 20 were female (66.7%).Patients with CIS had higher cerebrospinal fluid sCD27 levels than control individuals (geometric mean, 31.3 U/mL; 95% CI, 24.0-40.9 vs mean, 4.67 U/mL; 95% CI, 2.9-7.5; P < .001). During a mean (SD) follow-up of 54.8 (35.1) months, 39 of 77 patients (50.6%) were diagnosed as having MS. In a model adjusted for magnetic resonance imaging and cerebrospinal fluid measurements, sCD27 levels were associated with a diagnosis of MS (hazard ratio, 2.4 per 100 U/mL increase in sCD27 levels; 95% CI, 1.27-4.53; P = .007

  6. Influence of deep level defects on carrier lifetime in CdZnTe:In

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Rongrong; Jie, Wanqi Wang, Ning; Zha, Gangqiang; Xu, Yadong; Wang, Tao; Fu, Xu

    2015-03-07

    The defect levels and carrier lifetime in CdZnTe:In crystal were characterized with photoluminescence, thermally stimulated current measurements, as well as contactless microwave photoconductivity decay (MWPCD) technique. An evaluation equation to extract the recombination lifetime and the reemission time from MWPCD signal is developed based on Hornbeck-Haynes trapping model. An excellent agreement between defect level distribution and carrier reemission time in MWPCD signal reveals the tail of the photoconductivity decay is controlled by the defect level reemission effect. Combining {sup 241}Am gamma ray radiation response measurement and laser beam induced transient current measurement, it predicted that defect level with the reemission time shorter than the collection time could lead to better charge collection efficiency of CdZnTe detector.

  7. Deep trap levels in CdS solar cells observed by capacitance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hmurcik, L.; Ketelsen, L.; Serway, R. A.

    1982-05-01

    Capacitance measurements have been carried out as a function of reverse bias voltage and signal frequency on thin-film and single-crystal CdS solar cells. It is shown that such measurements can reveal abrupt changes in C-V plots which are attributed to the presence of deep trapping states. The anomalous change in capacitance occurs when the bias voltage raises a trapping state above the Fermi level; the strength of the anomalies depends on several factors including temperature, signal frequency, and junction properties. Measurements taken on the CdS cells indicate that at least two deep trapping states are present in the partially formed i layer of CdS, which is consistent with results reported by other workers.

  8. Development of Novel Anti-Cd20 Monoclonal Antibodies and Modulation in Cd20 Levels on Cell Surface: Looking to Improve Immunotherapy Response.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vijay; Gupta, Damodar; Almasan, Alexandru

    2015-11-01

    Rituximab has been revolutionized and validated CD20 targeting monoclonal antibody. Although, it is widely used for lymphoma therapy and many patients have been benefited. However significant numbers of patients are refractory or developed resistance to current therapies due to low level of CD20 expression and/or availability on cells surface. Thus development of novel anti-CD20 mAbs with great cell killing ability and enhance CD20 levels on cell surface can potentially exploit lymphoma therapy. In this scenario, we are summarizing the recently developed mAbs against CD20 and compounds that have ability to induce CD20 expression at significant level. We also are providing information regarding combination strategy for use of radiation and anti-CD20 mAbs in vitro. However, it will need to be determined by rigorous at pre-clinical and clinic testing. We hope this review will be beneficial for current research in the area of immunotherapy or radio-immunotherapy.

  9. CD38 Knockout Mice Show Significant Protection Against Ischemic Brain Damage Despite High Level Poly-ADP-Ribosylation.

    PubMed

    Long, Aaron; Park, Ji H; Klimova, Nina; Fowler, Carol; Loane, David J; Kristian, Tibor

    2017-01-01

    Several enzymes in cellular bioenergetics metabolism require NAD(+) as an essential cofactor for their activity. NAD(+) depletion following ischemic insult can result in cell death and has been associated with over-activation of poly-ADP-ribose polymerase PARP1 as well as an increase in NAD(+) consuming enzyme CD38. CD38 is an NAD(+) glycohydrolase that plays an important role in inflammatory responses. To determine the contribution of CD38 activity to the mechanisms of post-ischemic brain damage we subjected CD38 knockout (CD38KO) mice and wild-type (WT) mice to transient forebrain ischemia. The CD38KO mice showed a significant amelioration in both histological and neurologic outcome following ischemic insult. Decrease of hippocampal NAD(+) levels detected during reperfusion in WT mice was only transient in CD38KO animals, suggesting that CD38 contributes to post-ischemic NAD(+) catabolism. Surprisingly, pre-ischemic poly-ADP-ribose (PAR) levels were dramatically higher in CD38KO animals compared to WT animals and exhibited reduction post-ischemia in contrast to the increased levels in WT animals. The high PAR levels in CD38 mice were due to reduced expression levels of poly-ADP-ribose glycohydrolase (PARG). Thus, the absence of CD38 activity can not only directly affect inflammatory response, but also result in unpredicted alterations in the expression levels of enzymes participating in NAD(+) metabolism. Although the CD38KO mice showed significant protection against ischemic brain injury, the changes in enzyme activity related to NAD(+) metabolism makes the determination of the role of CD38 in mechanisms of ischemic brain damage more complex.

  10. Serum levels of soluble CD30 in chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    PubMed Central

    FATTOVICH, G; VINANTE, F; GIUSTINA, G; MOROSATO, L; ALBERTI, A; RUOL, A; PIZZOLO, G

    1996-01-01

    There is evidence that both cellular and humoral components of the immune response are required for viral clearance to occur in chronic hepatitis B. Recent studies demonstrated that CD30 molecule, a member of the tumour necrosis factor superfamily of membrane cytokine receptors, is expressed on, and released as a soluble molecule (sCD30) by activated T cells producing T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines, which modulate antibody responses. To better characterize the immunoregulatory mechanisms in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, sCD30 values were evaluated by an ELISA in 90 hepatitis B surface (HBsAg)-positive patients with chronic hepatitis, selected on the basis of active viral replication and biochemical activity. At presentation abnormal levels (>20 U/ml) of sCD30 were detected in 57 (63%) out of 90 patients with chronic hepatitis B, and median value was significantly higher in this group of patients compared with that of healthy HBsAg carriers (26.7 versus 10.5 U/ml, P < 0.000 05) and with normal controls (26.7 versus 3 U/ml, P < 0.000 01). Sequential studies of chronic hepatitis B did confirm the association of raised sCD30 levels with the active phase of the illness. On the other hand, a significant decrease was noted when sCD30 levels at diagnosis and after termination of HBV replication and biochemical remission of hepatitis were compared in 10 untreated patients (median, 28 U/ml at entry versus 8 U/ml at remission, P < 0.01) and in six patients responding to interferon-alpha therapy (median, 29.5 U/ml at entry versus 6 U/ml at remission, P < 0.05). The high serum sCD30 levels reported during the active phase of HBsAg-positive chronic hepatitis suggest a certain degree of immune competence of these patients, at least with respect to a Th2-type response. These data are in agreement with recent serologic surveys showing that most chronic hepatitis B patients do demonstrate ongoing humoral immune response to HBV antigens, using novel immunoassays designed to

  11. Low CD36 and LOX-1 Levels and CD36 Gene Subexpression Are Associated with Metabolic Dysregulation in Older Individuals with Abdominal Obesity.

    PubMed

    Madrigal-Ruíz, Perla-Monserrat; Navarro-Hernández, Rosa-Elena; Ruíz-Quezada, Sandra-Luz; Corona-Meraz, Fernanda-Isadora; Vázquez-Del Mercado, Mónica; Gómez-Bañuelos, Eduardo; Castro-Albarran, Jorge; Sandoval-García, Flavio; Flores-Alvarado, Luis-Javier; Martín-Marquez, Beatriz-Teresita

    2016-01-01

    Background. Obesity study in the context of scavenger receptors has been linked to atherosclerosis. CD36 and LOX-1 are important, since they have been associated with atherogenic and metabolic disease but not fat redistribution. The aim of our study was to determinate the association between CD36 and LOX-1 in presence of age and abdominal obesity. Methods. This is a cross-sectional study that included 151 healthy individuals, clinically and anthropometrically classified into two groups by age (<30 and ≥30 years old) and abdominal obesity (according to World Health Organization guidelines). We excluded individuals with any chronic and metabolic illness, use of medication, or smoking. Fasting blood samples were taken to perform determination of CD36 mRNA expression by real-time PCR, lipid profile and metabolic and low grade inflammation markers by routine methods, and soluble scavenger receptors (CD36 and LOX-1) by ELISA. Results. Individuals ≥30 years old with abdominal obesity presented high atherogenic index, lower soluble scavenger receptor levels, and subexpression of CD36 mRNA (54% less). On the other hand, individuals <30 years old with abdominal adiposity presented higher levels in the same parameters, except LOX-1 soluble levels. Conclusion. In this study, individuals over 30 years of age presented low soluble scavenger receptors levels pattern and CD36 gene subexpression, which suggest the chronic metabolic dysregulation in abdominal obesity.

  12. Low CD36 and LOX-1 Levels and CD36 Gene Subexpression Are Associated with Metabolic Dysregulation in Older Individuals with Abdominal Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Albarran, Jorge; Sandoval-García, Flavio; Flores-Alvarado, Luis-Javier

    2016-01-01

    Background. Obesity study in the context of scavenger receptors has been linked to atherosclerosis. CD36 and LOX-1 are important, since they have been associated with atherogenic and metabolic disease but not fat redistribution. The aim of our study was to determinate the association between CD36 and LOX-1 in presence of age and abdominal obesity. Methods. This is a cross-sectional study that included 151 healthy individuals, clinically and anthropometrically classified into two groups by age (<30 and ≥30 years old) and abdominal obesity (according to World Health Organization guidelines). We excluded individuals with any chronic and metabolic illness, use of medication, or smoking. Fasting blood samples were taken to perform determination of CD36 mRNA expression by real-time PCR, lipid profile and metabolic and low grade inflammation markers by routine methods, and soluble scavenger receptors (CD36 and LOX-1) by ELISA. Results. Individuals ≥30 years old with abdominal obesity presented high atherogenic index, lower soluble scavenger receptor levels, and subexpression of CD36 mRNA (54% less). On the other hand, individuals <30 years old with abdominal adiposity presented higher levels in the same parameters, except LOX-1 soluble levels. Conclusion. In this study, individuals over 30 years of age presented low soluble scavenger receptors levels pattern and CD36 gene subexpression, which suggest the chronic metabolic dysregulation in abdominal obesity. PMID:27525284

  13. High sCD40L levels early after trauma are associated with enhanced shock, sympathoadrenal activation, tissue and endothelial damage, coagulopathy and mortality.

    PubMed

    Johansson, P I; Sørensen, A M; Perner, A; Welling, K-L; Wanscher, M; Larsen, C F; Ostrowski, S R

    2012-02-01

    = 0.002) were independent predictors of increased mortality. High early sCD40L levels in trauma patients reflect tissue injury, shock, coagulopathy and sympathoadrenal activation and predict mortality. As sCD40L has pro-inflammatory activity and activates the endothelium, sCD40L may be involved in trauma-induced endothelial damage and coagulopathy. © 2011 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  14. Should legislation regarding maximum Pb and Cd levels in human food also cover large game meat?

    PubMed

    Taggart, Mark A; Reglero, Manuel M; Camarero, Pablo R; Mateo, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Game meat may be contaminated with metals and metalloids if animals reside in anthropogenically polluted areas, or if ammunition used to kill the game contaminates the meat. Muscle tissue from red deer and wild boar shot in Ciudad Real province (Spain) in 2005-06 was analysed for As, Pb, Cu, Zn, Se and Cd. Samples were collected from hunting estates within and outside an area that has been historically used for mining, smelting and refining various metals and metalloids. Meat destined for human consumption, contained more Pb, As and Se (red deer) and Pb (boar) when harvested from animals that had resided in mined areas. Age related accumulation of Cd, Zn and As (in deer) and Cd, Cu and Se (in boar) was also observed. Two boar meat samples contained high Pb, at 352 and 2408 μg/g d.w., and these were likely to have been contaminated by Pb ammunition. Likewise, 19-84% of all samples (depending on species and sampling area) had Pb levels > 0.1 μg/g w.w., the EU maximum residue level (MRL) for farm reared meat. Between 9 and 43% of samples exceeded comparable Cd limits. Such data highlight a discrepancy between what is considered safe for human consumption in popular farmed meat (chicken, beef, lamb), and what in game may often exist. A risk assessment is presented which describes the number of meals required to exceed current tolerable weekly intakes (PTWIs) for Pb and Cd, and the potential contribution of large game consumption to such intake limit criteria.

  15. CdSe quantum-dot-sensitized solar cell with ∼100% internal quantum efficiency.

    PubMed

    Fuke, Nobuhiro; Hoch, Laura B; Koposov, Alexey Y; Manner, Virginia W; Werder, Donald J; Fukui, Atsushi; Koide, Naoki; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Sykora, Milan

    2010-11-23

    We have constructed and studied photoelectrochemical solar cells (PECs) consisting of a photoanode prepared by direct deposition of independently synthesized CdSe nanocrystal quantum dots (NQDs) onto a nanocrystalline TiO(2) film (NQD/TiO(2)), aqueous Na(2)S or Li(2)S electrolyte, and a Pt counter electrode. We show that light harvesting efficiency (LHE) of the NQD/TiO(2) photoanode is significantly enhanced when the NQD surface passivation is changed from tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) to 4-butylamine (BA). In the PEC the use of NQDs with a shorter passivating ligand, BA, leads to a significant enhancement in both the electron injection efficiency at the NQD/TiO(2) interface and charge collection efficiency at the NQD/electrolyte interface, with the latter attributed mostly to a more efficient diffusion of the electrolyte through the pores of the photoanode. We show that by utilizing BA-capped NQDs and aqueous Li(2)S as an electrolyte, it is possible to achieve ∼100% internal quantum efficiency of photon-to-electron conversion, matching the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells.

  16. Effect of Co-planted Purslane (Portulaca Oleracea L.) on Cd Accumulation by Sunflower in Different Levels of Cd Contamination and Salinity: A Pot Study.

    PubMed

    Ashrafi, Ali; Zahedi, Morteza; Soleimani, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metal bioaccumulation can be affected by various crop-weed interactions that potentially exist in agroecosystems. A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the role of rhizosphere interaction of sunflower and purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) weed on cadmium (Cd) uptake and its allocation to sunflower grains. The experimental treatments consisted of two cropping systems (mono and mixed culture), two adjusted salinity levels (0 and 0.5% NaCl) and three artificial levels of Cd in soil (Control, 3 and 6 mg kg(-1)). The results showed that the growth of sunflower in the presence of purslane in comparison to mono culture of sunflower led to change of total Cd content and Cd allocated to grains only in saline conditions. Promoting effects of salinity on Cd concentration of grain were alleviated where sunflower was co-planted with purslane. Besides, supply of Zn in grains of co-planted sunflower was strongly affected by salinity. Results of this study revealed that although co-planted purslane could alter conditions in the shared rhizosphere, it had no effect on enhancing Cd uptake by neighboring sunflower directly.

  17. Changes in serum hyaluronic acid levels and expression of CD44 and CD44 mRNA in hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells after major hepatectomy in cirrhotic rats.

    PubMed

    Saegusa, Shotaro; Isaji, Shuji; Kawarada, Yoshifumi

    2002-06-01

    Serum hyaluronic acid (HA) is widely distributed in connective tissues, and the majority of circulating HA is degraded by hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs) via a receptor recycling pathway. Our previous clinical study revealed that monitoring serum HA levels after hepatectomy is useful in predicting the development of liver failure. In the present study, to determine the mechanism of the high HA levels after hepatectomy, especially in patients with liver cirrhosis, expression of the major HA receptor, CD44, and its mRNA was investigated in SECs isolated from rats with thioacetamide-induced liver cirrhosis subjected to 70% hepatectomy (group I) and from rats with a normal liver that were subjected to 70% hepatectomy (group II). The 48-hour postoperative survival rate in group I (13.3%) was significantly lower than in group II (100%). In group II, the expression of CD44 mRNA had increased significantly at 6 hours after hepatectomy, and this was followed by progressive increases in expression of CD44, indicating activation of SEC function. The increased serum HA levels after hepatectomy in group II became normal as CD44 expression increased. By contrast, the expression of CD44 and CD44 mRNA in group I was markedly attenuated after hepatectomy. The very low CD44 expression was followed by a significant and sustained increase in serum HA levels, indicating functional failure of the SECs. These results suggest that the significantly impaired functional reserve of SECs in liver cirrhosis is associated with increased mortality after 70% hepatectomy.

  18. Ebola Virus Disease Is Characterized by Poor Activation and Reduced Levels of Circulating CD16+ Monocytes.

    PubMed

    Lüdtke, Anja; Ruibal, Paula; Becker-Ziaja, Beate; Rottstegge, Monika; Wozniak, David M; Cabeza-Cabrerizo, Mar; Thorenz, Anja; Weller, Romy; Kerber, Romy; Idoyaga, Juliana; Magassouba, N'Faly; Gabriel, Martin; Günther, Stephan; Oestereich, Lisa; Muñoz-Fontela, César

    2016-10-15

    A number of previous studies have identified antigen-presenting cells (APCs) as key targets of Ebola virus (EBOV), but the role of APCs in human Ebola virus disease (EVD) is not known. We have evaluated the phenotype and kinetics of monocytes, neutrophils, and dendritic cells (DCs) in peripheral blood of patients for whom EVD was diagnosed by the European Mobile Laboratory in Guinea. Acute EVD was characterized by reduced levels of circulating nonclassical CD16(+) monocytes with a poor activation profile. In survivors, CD16(+) monocytes were activated during recovery, coincident with viral clearance, suggesting an important role of this cell subset in EVD pathophysiology. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Investigation of the origin of deep levels in CdTe doped with Bi

    SciTech Connect

    Saucedo, E.; Franc, J.; Elhadidy, H.; Horodysky, P.; Ruiz, C. M.; Bermudez, V.; Sochinskii, N. V.

    2008-05-01

    Combining optical (low temperature photoluminescence), electrical (thermoelectric effect spectroscopy), and structural (synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction) methods, the defect structure of CdTe doped with Bi was studied in crystals with dopant concentration in the range of 10{sup 17}-10{sup 19} at./cm{sup 3}. The semi-insulating state observed in crystals with low Bi concentration is assigned to the formation of a shallow donor level and a deep donor recombination center. Studying the evolution of lattice parameter with temperature, we postulate that the deep center is formed by a Te-Te dimer and their formation is explained by a tetrahedral to octahedral distortion, due to the introduction of Bi in the CdTe lattice. We also shows that this model agrees with the electrical, optical, and transport charge properties of the samples.

  20. Deep electronic levels in high-pressure Bridgman Cd{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Te

    SciTech Connect

    Szeles, C.; Shan, Y.Y.; Lynn, K.G.; Eissler, E.E.

    1995-12-01

    The behavior of deep electronic levels was studied as a function of Zn concentration in CdZnTe crystals grown by the high-pressure Bridgman technique using thermoelectric effect spectroscopy. A significant increase of the thermal ionization energies of hole traps was observed with the increasing Zn content of the ternary compound. The effect explains the stronger hole trapping and the resulting much shorter hole lifetime usually observed in CdZnTe as compared to CdTe. The behavior also suggests increased carrier recombination and explains the strong deterioration of electron collection in detectors fabricated from CdZnTe of high Zn concentration.

  1. Serum levels of the soluble haemoglobin scavenger receptor CD163 in MPO-ANCA-associated renal vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Nagai, M; Hirayama, K; Ebihara, I; Higuchi, T; Shimohata, H; Kobayashi, M

    2016-10-01

    The contribution of infections to the mortality of patients with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) is important, and early and careful infection control is necessary. We investigated the usefulness of the serum-soluble haemoglobin scavenger receptor CD163 for detecting the presence of infectious complications regardless of disease activity. Soluble CD163 in serum obtained from 45 Japanese patients with myeloperoxidase (MPO)-AAV was measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We evaluated 36 samples from active-vasculitis patients, 36 samples from inactive-vasculitis patients without infection, and 19 samples from inactive-vasculitis patients with infectious complications. Serum-soluble CD163 was also measured in 15 infectious patients without vasculitis and in 30 normal controls. The mean serum-soluble CD163 level was higher in the patients with infectious complications than in the active-vasculitis patients, inactive-vasculitis patients, and normal controls. There were significant positive correlations between serum-soluble CD163 levels and white blood cell (WBC) count, serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, and serum albumin levels, but only serum CRP levels were correlated with serum-soluble CD163 levels in a multiple regression analysis. On the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve, serum-soluble CD163 levels had 80.6% sensitivity and 86.7% specificity for differentiating patients with infection from those without infection. Among the active-vasculitis patients, the mean serum-soluble CD163 level of the patients with alveolar haemorrhage was significantly lower than that of the patients with interstitial lung diseases and that of the patients without pulmonary lesions. The serum-soluble CD163 level may be a useful marker for the detection of infectious complications in MPO-AAV patients.

  2. CD4(+), CD25(+), FOXP3 (+) T Regulatory Cell Levels in Obese, Asthmatic, Asthmatic Obese, and Healthy Children.

    PubMed

    Donma, Metin; Karasu, Erkut; Ozdilek, Burcu; Turgut, Burhan; Topcu, Birol; Nalbantoglu, Burcin; Donma, Orkide

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this prospective case control study is to determine CD4(+), CD25(+), and FoxP3(+) T regulatory cells (Tregs) and T helper cells (Ths) in obese, asthmatic, asthmatic obese, and healthy children. Obese (n = 40), asthmatic (n = 40), asthmatic obese (n = 40), and healthy children (n = 40) were included in this study. Blood samples collected from children were marked with CD4, CD25, ve Foxp3 in order to detect Tregs and Ths by flow cytometric method. Statistical analyses were performed. p ≤ 0.05 was chosen as meaningful threshold. Tregs exhibiting anti-inflammatory nature were significantly lower in obese (0.16 %; p ≤ 0.001), asthmatic (0.25 %; p ≤ 0.01), and asthmatic obese (0.29 %; p ≤ 0.05) groups than control group (0.38 %). Ths were counted higher in asthma group than control (p ≤ 0.01) and obese (p ≤ 0.001) groups. T cell immunity plays important roles in chronic inflammatory diseases such as obesity and asthma pathogeneses. Decreased numbers of Tregs found in obese, asthmatic, and asthmatic obese children might represent a challenge of these cells.

  3. Comparative studies on Pb and Cd levels in parasites of terrestrial and aquatic animals

    SciTech Connect

    Sures, B.; Taraschewski, H.

    1995-12-31

    Several fish parasites (Acanthocephala, Cestoda, Nematoda) and organs of their respective intermediate and final hosts were analyzed for heavy metals by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ET-AAS). Pb and Cd were also quantified in the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica as well as in different organs of the large intestinal roundworm Ascaris suum. The levels of these heavy metals in the parasites were compared to those of muscle, liver, kidney and intestine of the respective definitive hosts cattle and swine obtained from a slaughter house. Most parasites accumulated significantly higher levels of metals than their final hosts. This was most conspicuous in acanthocephalans which contained up to 3 {times} 10{sup 3} fold more lead than the muscle of their fish hosts and up to 1.1 {times} 10{sup 4} more lead than the water surrounding the fish. In these helminths cadmium was enriched up to 400 fold compared to the muscle of the fish and up to 2.7 {times} 10{sup 4} compared to the water. In contrast to the accumulation capacity of adult acanthocephalans their larvae contained about 30 to 180 times less Pb and Cd. Thus, the predominant accumulation of both metals appears in the adult worms. The cestodes of fish and the liver flukes of cattle accumulated the metals up to 200 fold compared to the muscle of their hosts. The nematodes did not contain higher levels of the metals than their hosts. Thus, parasites, especially acanthocephalans, seem to be sensitive bioindicators of Pb and Cd in their environments.

  4. High level of PD-1 expression on hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells during acute HCV infection, irrespective of clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Kasprowicz, Victoria; Schulze Zur Wiesch, Julian; Kuntzen, Thomas; Nolan, Brian E; Longworth, Steven; Berical, Andrew; Blum, Jenna; McMahon, Cory; Reyor, Laura L; Elias, Nahel; Kwok, William W; McGovern, Barbara G; Freeman, Gordon; Chung, Raymond T; Klenerman, Paul; Lewis-Ximenez, Lia; Walker, Bruce D; Allen, Todd M; Kim, Arthur Y; Lauer, Georg M

    2008-03-01

    We monitored expression of PD-1 (a mediator of T-cell exhaustion and viral persistence) on hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells from blood and liver during acute and chronic infections and after the resolved infection stage. PD-1 expression on HCV-specific T cells was high early in acute infection irrespective of clinical outcome, and most cells continued to express PD-1 in resolved and chronic stages of infection; intrahepatic expression levels were especially high. Our results suggest that an analysis of PD-1 expression alone is not sufficient to predict infection outcome or to determine T-cell functionality in HCV infection.

  5. CD4 count levels and pattern of respiratory complications in HIV seropositive patients in Calabar, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Peters, E J; Essien, O E; Immananagha, K K; Inah, G A; Philip-Ephraim, E E; Agbulu, R E

    2007-01-01

    A prospective observational study was carried out to describe the pattern of pulmonary complications in hospitalized patients with Human Immune-deficiency Virus (HIV) infection at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar between January 2005 to December 2006. One hundred and twenty-four patients which consists 60 males and 64 females, aged between 20-60 who met the inclusion criteria formed the subjects for the study. The mean age of the subjects was 34.60 +/-1.2 years. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain the demographic data, clinical information and CD4 lymphocyte count. Radiological analysis of chest was done with the chest X-ray of each subject. Chronic productive cough topped the list of respiratory symptoms (89%) followed by chest pain (74%) and dyspnea (62 %). Lung consolidation was the commonest respiratory sign as seen in 44 % of the cases. Hilar lymphadenopathy was seen in (35 %), Pleural effusion (32%), lung fibrosis (21%) and finger clubbing (15%). The clinical and radiological pattern of most patients with chronic cough was highly suggestive of mycobacterial infection such as tuberculosis, although only 40% of cases had positive acid fast bacilli. The mean CD4 lymphocyte count level was 174.8 +/- 5.4 cells/microlitre and this may be responsible for the respiratory findings as opportunistic lung infections are said to be commoner at CD4 count levels below 200 cells/microlitre. However, four patients had mediasternal masses which may suggest neoplasms. Concerted efforts and continuous evaluation of these patients are needed to determine the spectrum of respiratory illnesses among HIV positive patients in Calabar.

  6. Adhesion of CdTe quantum dots on model membranes and internalization into RBL-2H3 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mengmeng; Wei, Xiaoran; Ding, Lei; Hu, Jingtian; Jiang, Wei

    2017-03-08

    Quantum dots (QDs) have attracted broad attention due to their special optical properties and promising prospect in medical and biological applications. However, the process of QDs on cell membrane is worth further investigations because such process may lead to harmful effects on organisms and also important for QD application. In this study, adhesion of amino- and carboxyl-coated CdTe QDs (A-QDs and C-QDs) on cell membrane and the subsequent internalization are studied using a series of endocytosis-free model membranes, including giant and small unilamellar vesicles, supported lipid bilayers and giant plasma membrane vesicles (GPMVs). The adhered QD amounts on model membranes are quantified by a quartz crystal microbalance. The CdTe QD adhesion on model membranes is governed by electrostatic forces. Positively charged A-QDs adhere on GPMV surface and passively penetrate the plasma membrane via endocytosis-free mechanism, but negatively charged C-QDs cannot. Rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells are exposed to CdTe QDs to monitor the QD internalization process. Both A- and C-QDs are internalized by RBL-2H3 cells mainly via endocytosis. CdTe QDs do not accumulate on the plasma membrane of living cells due to the fast endocytosis and the weakened electrostatic attraction in biological medium, resulting in low chance of passive penetration. The suspended cells after trypsin digestion take more QDs than the adherent cells. A-QDs cause lower cell viability than C-QDs, probably because the approach of positively charged QDs to cells is favored and the smaller aggregates of A-QDs.

  7. Human α(2)β(1)(HI) CD133(+VE) epithelial prostate stem cells express low levels of active androgen receptor.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Stuart C; Hepburn, Anastasia C; Wilson, Laura; Coffey, Kelly; Ryan-Munden, Claudia A; Pal, Deepali; Leung, Hing Y; Robson, Craig N; Heer, Rakesh

    2012-01-01

    Stem cells are thought to be the cell of origin in malignant transformation in many tissues, but their role in human prostate carcinogenesis continues to be debated. One of the conflicts with this model is that cancer stem cells have been described to lack androgen receptor (AR) expression, which is of established importance in prostate cancer initiation and progression. We re-examined the expression patterns of AR within adult prostate epithelial differentiation using an optimised sensitive and specific approach examining transcript, protein and AR regulated gene expression. Highly enriched populations were isolated consisting of stem (α(2)β(1)(HI) CD133(+VE)), transiently amplifying (α(2)β(1)(HI) CD133(-VE)) and terminally differentiated (α(2)β(1)(LOW) CD133(-VE)) cells. AR transcript and protein expression was confirmed in α(2)β(1)(HI) CD133(+VE) and CD133(-VE) progenitor cells. Flow cytometry confirmed that median (±SD) fraction of cells expressing AR were 77% (±6%) in α(2)β(1)(HI) CD133(+VE) stem cells and 68% (±12%) in α(2)β(1)(HI) CD133(-VE) transiently amplifying cells. However, 3-fold lower levels of total AR protein expression (peak and median immunofluorescence) were present in α(2)β(1)(HI) CD133(+VE) stem cells compared with differentiated cells. This finding was confirmed with dual immunostaining of prostate sections for AR and CD133, which again demonstrated low levels of AR within basal CD133(+VE) cells. Activity of the AR was confirmed in prostate progenitor cells by the expression of low levels of the AR regulated genes PSA, KLK2 and TMPRSS2. The confirmation of AR expression in prostate progenitor cells allows integration of the cancer stem cell theory with the established models of prostate cancer initiation based on a functional AR. Further study of specific AR functions in prostate stem and differentiated cells may highlight novel mechanisms of prostate homeostasis and insights into tumourigenesis.

  8. Slovak Flood Forecasting Service at the National and International Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leskova, Danica; Mikuličková, Michaela

    2017-04-01

    National Flood Forecasting Service is based on national legislation /Slovak legislation/ so that it could deal with the flood situation at the local level. Information about international rivers, e.g.: Danube, March (Morava), Uh, and Latorica are received on the basis of bilateral agreements. An important supplementary information is the European Flood Awareness System (EFAS). In this presentation a forecasting system POVAPSYS, which has been in Slovakia in use since 2016, is also shown. The Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute (SHMI) is a partner of EFAS, but simultaneously is a part of consortium of the EFAS Dissemination Centre, and its role is to analyze results of models, to analyze hydrometeorological situation, to disseminate information, and to send flood notifications to the EFAS partners. Both systems will be presented.

  9. 124In Levels Populated in the β-decay of 124Cd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchelder, J. C.; Brewer, N. T.; Gross, C. J.; Grzywacz, R.; Hamilton, J. H.; Karny, M.; Fijalkowska, A.; Liu, S. H.; Miernik, K.; Padgett, S. W.; Paulauskas, S. V.; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Ramayya, A. V.; Stracener, D. W.; Wolińska-Cichocka, M.

    2016-09-01

    The β-decay of 124Cd into levels in 124In was reinvestigated at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF). Fifty MeV protons were bombarded on aranium targets and the induced fission products were mass separated and deposited on a moving tape in the center of an array of γ-detectors. The resulting γ- γ coincidences revealed appreciable disagreement with previous work and has resulted in a revised ordering of the low energy states in 124In. The resulting partial decay scheme has four energy levels, three of which are new. This work has been supported by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Physics under Contracts DE-AC02-05CH11231, DOE-AC05-00OR22725, DE-FG05-88ER40407, DE-FG02-96ER40983.

  10. Watershed soil Cd loss after long-term agricultural practice and biochar amendment under four rainfall levels.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Wei; Huang, Weijia; Hao, Xin; Tysklind, Mats; Haglund, Peter; Hao, Fanghua

    2017-10-01

    Some heavy metals in farmland soil can be transported into the waterbody, affecting the water quality and sediment at the watershed outlet, which can be used to determine the historical loss pattern. Cd is a typical heavy metal leached from farmland that is related to phosphate fertilizers and carries serious environmental risk. The spatial-vertical pattern of Cd in soil and the vertical trend of Cd in the river sediment core were analyzed, which showed the migration and accumulation of Cd in the watershed. To prevent watershed Cd loss, biochar was employed, and leaching experiments were conducted to investigate the Cd loss from soil depending on the initial concentration. Four rainfall intensities, 1.25 mm/h, 2.50 mm/h, 5.00 mm/h, and 10.00 mm/h, were used to simulate typical rainfall scenarios for the study area. Biochar was prepared from corn straw after pretreatment with ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP) and pyrolysis at 400 °C under anoxic conditions. To identify the effects of biochar amendment on Cd migration, the biochar was mixed with soil for 90 days at concentrations of 0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 3.0%, and 5.0% soil by weight. The results showed that the Cd leaching load increased as the initial load and rainfall intensity increased and that eluviation caused surface Cd to diffuse to the deep soils. The biochar application caused more of the heavy metals to be immobilized in the amended soil rather than transported into the waterbody. The sorption efficiency of the biochar for Cd increased as the addition level increased to 3%, which showed better performance than the 5% addition level under some initial concentration and rainfall conditions. The research indicated that biochar is a potential material to prevent diffuse heavy metal pollution and that a lower addition makes the application more feasible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Educational Research at International Level: Features, Expectations and Limitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carelli, M. Dino

    1976-01-01

    Offers a short review of the major characteristics and limitations of international educational research institutions. One of its major concerns is to contrast the role of international vis a vis national institutions in educational research. (Editor/RK)

  12. High levels of functional endopeptidase 24.11 (CD10) activity on human thymocytes: preferential expression on immature subsets.

    PubMed Central

    Mari, B; Breittmayer, J P; Guerin, S; Belhacene, N; Peyron, J F; Deckert, M; Rossi, B; Auberger, P

    1994-01-01

    Although it is now well established that cells of the immune system express most of the exopeptidases described so far, little information is available concerning the identification and the characterization of the peptidases associated with the surface of human thymocytes. In the present study we have focused on CD10 expression on thymocytes using both FACS and enzymatic analysis. Unfractionated intact human thymocytes were shown to express significant levels of CD10-specific enzymatic activity, as assessed by the hydrolysis of the neutral endopeptidase (NEP) substrate Suc-Ala-Ala-Phe-pNA and of D-Ala2-Leu-enkephalin, a typical NEP substrate. CD10 activity was abolished by specific NEP inhibitors, including thiorphan, retrothiorphan and phosphoramidon. Moreover, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that intact thymocytes and purified NEP hydrolysed thymopentin, a thymic factor known to induce the maturation of prothymocytes into thymocytes. Finally, CD 10/NEP was preferentially associated with CD3- CD3low and immature CD4- CD8- thymocytes. The data demonstrate for the first time that human thymocytes express functional NEP and suggest a role for this enzyme in the maturation of human thymocytes. PMID:7959879

  13. The impact of potential political security level on international tourism

    Treesearch

    Young-Rae Kim; Chang Huh; Seung Hyun Kim

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of potential political security in an effort to fill in two foregoing research gaps in international tourism. To investigate the relationship between political security and international tourism, a simple regression model was employed. Secondary data were collected from a variety of sources, such as international...

  14. 75 FR 63526 - In the Matter of: Camera Platforms International, Inc., Castleguard Energy, Inc., CD Warehouse...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ..., Inc., Ceatech USA, Inc., Cedyco Corp., Cell Robotics International, Inc., Cell Wireless Corp., Cellcom... information concerning the securities of Cell Robotics International, Inc. because it has not filed any...

  15. Circulating promyelocytes and low levels of CD16 expression on polymorphonuclear leukocytes accompany early-onset periodontitis.

    PubMed Central

    Nemoto, E; Nakamura, M; Shoji, S; Horiuchi, H

    1997-01-01

    Early-onset periodontitis (EOP) is characterized by rapidly progressive alveolar bone loss, chemotactic defects of neutrophils, and significant familial aggregation. We found immature myeloid lineage cells, defined as promyelocytes, in the peripheral blood in patients with EOP. A hematological examination of peripheral blood cells showed normal reference values regarding cell proportions. Flow cytometry revealed significantly lower expression of CD16, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein, on peripheral neutrophils in patients compared with those in age- and sex-matched healthy controls, whereas the levels of CD11a and CD11b expression were similar. The chemotactic response of neutrophils was lower toward not only formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine but also complement fragment C5a than that of healthy controls. The expression of another GPI-anchored protein, CD14, was equally expressed by controls and patients. Therefore, the low level of CD16 expression was not due to the incomplete synthesis of the GPI anchor. GPI anchors of CD16 on neutrophils from controls and patients were both partially resistant to phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C. The presence of promyelocytes in peripheral blood, low expression of CD16, and low chemotactic response of neutrophils suggest that patients with EOP have an abnormal maturation system in myeloid lineage cells in the bone marrow, which may be associated with the onset and course of EOP. PMID:9284170

  16. Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Exhibit Heterogeneous CD52 Expression Levels and Show Differential Sensitivity to Alemtuzumab Mediated Cytolysis

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Sambasiva P.; Sancho, Jose; Campos-Rivera, Juanita; Boutin, Paula M.; Severy, Peter B.; Weeden, Timothy; Shankara, Srinivas; Roberts, Bruce L.; Kaplan, Johanne M.

    2012-01-01

    Alemtuzumab is a monoclonal antibody that targets cell surface CD52 and is effective in depleting lymphocytes by cytolytic effects in vivo. Although the cytolytic effects of alemtuzumab are dependent on the density of CD52 antigen on cells, there is scant information regarding the expression levels of CD52 on different cell types. In this study, CD52 expression was assessed on phenotypically distinct subsets of lymphoid and myeloid cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from normal donors. Results demonstrate that subsets of PBMCs express differing levels of CD52. Quantitative analysis showed that memory B cells and myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) display the highest number while natural killer (NK) cells, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) and basophils have the lowest number of CD52 molecules per cell amongst lymphoid and myeloid cell populations respectively. Results of complement dependent cytolysis (CDC) studies indicated that alemtuzumab mediated profound cytolytic effects on B and T cells with minimal effect on NK cells, basophils and pDCs, correlating with the density of CD52 on these cells. Interestingly, despite high CD52 levels, mDCs and monocytes were less susceptible to alemtuzumab-mediated CDC indicating that antigen density alone does not define susceptibility. Additional studies indicated that higher expression levels of complement inhibitory proteins (CIPs) on these cells partially contributes to their resistance to alemtuzumab mediated CDC. These results indicate that alemtuzumab is most effective in depleting cells of the adaptive immune system while leaving innate immune cells relatively intact. PMID:22761788

  17. Circadian rhythm in circulating CD16-positive natural killer (NK) cells in macaque monkeys, implication of plasma cortisol levels.

    PubMed

    Terao, Keiji; Suzuki, Juri; Ohkura, Satoshi

    2002-10-01

    The daily change in both percentage and absolute number of circulating major lymphocyte subset was determined with young Japanese monkeys and rhesus monkeys. The blood sample was collected at four hour-intervals beginning at 16:00 for 24 hours under the condition of applying tethering system by which blood samples could be collected without restraint. During the dark period (from 20:00 to 08:00), the number of peripheral lymphocytes increased and that of granulocytes decreased, resulting in no significant change in the number of total peripheral white blood cells. The absolute number of CD4+ T, CD8+ T, and CD20+ B cells showed the significant daily change similar to that in number of peripheral lymphocytes, indicating no proportional change in these subsets. The typical proportional change was observed in CD16+ natural killer (NK) cells and the percentage of CD16+ cells decreased during dark period (from 20:00 to 04:00) and increased in the morning (from 08:00 to 12:00). The NK activity determined by killing K562 target cells showed the same changing pattern as that of percentage in CD16+ NK cells. The changing pattern of both percentage and activity of NK cells was consistent with that of plasma cortisol levels. In addition, the intravenous injection of 300 g/kg of cortisol induced increase in plasma cortisol levels and decrease in percentage of CD16+ NK cells during the first 60 min after cortisol injection. These results strongly suggest that the levels of peripheral functional CD16+ NK cells might be directly regulated by plasma cortisol level in macaque monkeys.

  18. Salivary-soluble CD44 levels in smokers and non-smokers with chronic periodontitis: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ghallab, Noha; Shaker, Olfat

    2010-05-01

    Smoking is the most important environmental risk factor for periodontal disease. Elevated levels of serum-soluble CD44 (sCD44) have been detected in smokers and also have been recognized as a diagnostic marker in some smoking-induced diseases. The present study investigates the salivary sCD44 profiles of smokers and non-smokers with and without chronic periodontitis in response to scaling and root planing (SRP). The study included 44 subjects divided into two groups: 22 patients with chronic periodontitis and 22 periodontally healthy subjects. Both groups were equally subdivided into smokers (n = 11) and non-smokers (n = 11). Plaque index, gingival index, probing depth, and clinical attachment level were recorded only for chronic periodontitis patients. Salivary samples were collected from all 44 patients at baseline and after 1 month of SRP from the 22 chronic periodontitis patients. Assay for salivary sCD44 was carried out by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Baseline salivary sCD44 profiles were significantly higher when smokers were compared to non-smokers in both chronic periodontitis patients and the control subjects (P <0.001) with the highest levels recorded in smokers within the chronic periodontitis group. There was a significant decline in salivary sCD44 levels after treatment in the chronic periodontitis group for both smokers and non-smokers (P <0.01); however, the difference between groups was insignificant. Salivary sCD44 might be considered a biomarker of periodontal destruction in smokers and non-smokers. The research opens the door to further research into a role for CD44 as a diagnostic marker for periodontitis.

  19. Landau level splitting in Cd3As2 under high magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Cao, Junzhi; Liang, Sihang; Zhang, Cheng; Liu, Yanwen; Huang, Junwei; Jin, Zhao; Chen, Zhi-Gang; Wang, Zhijun; Wang, Qisi; Zhao, Jun; Li, Shiyan; Dai, Xi; Zou, Jin; Xia, Zhengcai; Li, Liang; Xiu, Faxian

    2015-07-13

    Three-dimensional topological Dirac semimetals (TDSs) are a new kind of Dirac materials that exhibit linear energy dispersion in the bulk and can be viewed as three-dimensional graphene. It has been proposed that TDSs can be driven to other exotic phases like Weyl semimetals, topological insulators and topological superconductors by breaking certain symmetries. Here we report the first transport experiment on Landau level splitting in TDS Cd3As2 single crystals under high magnetic fields, suggesting the removal of spin degeneracy by breaking time reversal symmetry. The detected Berry phase develops an evident angular dependence and possesses a crossover from non-trivial to trivial state under high magnetic fields, a strong hint for a fierce competition between the orbit-coupled field strength and the field-generated mass term. Our results unveil the important role of symmetry breaking in TDSs and further demonstrate a feasible path to generate a Weyl semimetal phase by breaking time reversal symmetry.

  20. Post-transplant monitoring of soluble CD30 level as predictor of graft outcome: a single center experience from China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; Wu, Weizhen; Yang, Shunliang; Wang, Qinghua; Tan, Jianming

    2012-12-01

    There are no reliable parameters for post-transplantation immunological monitoring, which might enable recipient-tailored immunosuppressive therapy. 250 renal graft recipients were enrolled and detected for sCD30 level pre-transplantation, and on days 5 and 14, and on months 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 60 post-transplantation. Analysis was performed on correlation between sCD30 level and acute rejection, lung infection, or graft loss respectively. sCD30 levels descended to a nadir with a mean of 10.2 ± 3.8 U/mL on day 30 post-transplantation, then rose gradually, and approached 21.8 ± 10.1 U/mL on month 3, 34.2 ± 16.5 U/mL on month 6, and 42.9 ± 29.5 U/mL on month 12, then presented a stable level. Recipients with AR had significantly higher sCD30 levels than those without AR on days 5 and 14 post-transplantation. Recipients with pneumonia had significantly lower sCD30 levels within 3 months post-transplantation than those without pneumonia. Significantly higher sCD30 levels were recorded in recipients who suffered graft loss than those with normal graft function on days 5 and 14, and on months 6, 12, and 24. High sCD30 level (≥ 48.3 U/mL) at month 12 post-transplantation has an obvious detrimental effect on renal graft survival (p=0.000, HR=9.075). Serum sCD30 level might reflect immune state of renal graft recipients. Post-transplantation sequential monitoring of sCD30 level is necessary, which might not only identify recipients at the risk of acute rejection and graft loss, but also chosen as an independent predictor of pneumonia in renal transplant recipients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Recent international developments in low-level waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, S.J.; Lakey, L.T.; Harmon, K.M.

    1986-11-01

    Recent international developments in low-level waste (LLW) disposal have included a move away from ocean dumping and a trend towards engineered and deeper dispoosal. Siting efforts have accelerated as interim storage facilities and existing sites reach capacity. The suspension of ocean dumping by the London Dumping Conventions of 1983 and 1985 has affected the LLW disposal practices of several countries, including the United Kingdom, Belgium, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Japan. Their plans now include disposal in trenches, shallow concrete pits, deep mines, sub-seabed caverns, horizontal mountain tunnels, and long-term storage facilities. Other recent developments include selection of the semi-desert Vaalputs site in South Africa, licensing activities for the Konrad mine site in the Federal Republic of Germany, design of at-reactor sites in Finland, and construction of a Baltic Sea site in Sweden. Also, the French have recently selected the Aube site for engineered disposal in monoliths and tumuli, now used at the La Manche site.

  2. High interindividual variability in the CD4/CD8 T cell ratio and natalizumab concentration levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Harrer, A; Pilz, G; Wipfler, P; Oppermann, K; Sellner, J; Hitzl, W; Haschke-Becher, E; Afazel, S; Rispens, T; van der Kleij, D; Trinka, E; Kraus, J

    2015-01-01

    Strongly decreased leucocyte counts and a reduced CD4/CD8 T cell ratio in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of natalizumab (NZB)-treated multiple sclerosis (MS) patients may have implications on central nervous (CNS) immune surveillance. With regard to NZB-associated progressive multi-focal leucoencephalopathy, we aimed at delineating a relationship between free NZB, cell-bound NZB, adhesion molecule (AM) expression and the treatment-associated shift in the CSF T cell ratio. Peripheral blood (PB) and CSF T cells from 15 NZB-treated MS patients, and CSF T cells from 10 patients with non-inflammatory neurological diseases and five newly diagnosed MS patients were studied. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), leucocyte function antigen-1 (LFA-1), very late activation antigen-4 (VLA-4), NZB saturation levels, and T cell ratios were analysed by flow cytometry. NZB concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Lower NZB saturation levels (P < 0·02) and a higher surface expression of ICAM-1 and LFA-1 (P < 0·001) were observed on CSF CD8 T cells. CSF T cell ratios (0·3–2·1) and NZB concentrations (0·01–0·42 µg/ml) showed a pronounced interindividual variance. A correlation between free NZB, cell-bound NZB or AM expression levels and the CSF T cell ratio was not found. Extremely low NZB concentrations and a normalized CSF T cell ratio were observed in one case. The differential NZB saturation and AM expression of CSF CD8 T cells may contribute to their relative enrichment in the CSF. The reduced CSF T cell ratio appeared sensitive to steady-state NZB levels, as normalization occurred quickly. The latter may be important concerning a fast reconstitution of CNS immune surveillance. PMID:25603898

  3. Levels at Streamflow Gaging Stations--A CD-ROM Based Training Class

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nolan, K. Michael; Jacobson, Nathan; Erickson, Robert; Landon, Stanley

    2003-01-01

    Streamgages record the elevation of the water surface above some reference surface, or datum. This datum is assumed to remain unchanged throughout the life of the gage. However, the elevation of gages and their supporting structures often change over time as a result of earthmovement, floods, ice, and debris. The surveying practice of leveling is used to establish datum for new gage structures and to check for vertical movement of those structures over time. Vertical changes in gage structures can affect stage-discharge relations and, thus, could result in incorrect discharge determinations. Datum checks are used to correct stage-discharge relations and allow the USGS to document gage datum throughout the life of a gage. This training presentation describes methods currently used by the U.S. Geological Survey to run levels at gaging stations. The presentation is narrated, but you control the pace of the presentation. If the computer you are using can view 'MPEG' videos you will be able to take advantage of videos found within the presentation. A test, found at the end of the presentation, can be taken to assess how well you understood the training material. The class is registered as class SW1307 with the National Training Center of the U.S. Geologcial Survey. The presentation was developed using Macromedia Director 8.5(1) and is contained in the file 'WRI-4002.exe', which should auto-launch after the CD-ROM is inserted in the PC. The program only runs on a windows-based personal computer (PC). A sound card and speakers are necessary to take advantage of the narration that accompanies the presentation. Text of narrations is provided, if you are unable to listen to the narrations. Instructions for installing and running the presentation are included in the file ' Intro.html'. The file 'Intro.html' is on the CD-ROM containing the presentation and is available from the presentation's help menu.

  4. International Education: A Tertiary-Level Industry Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, Vikash

    2006-01-01

    Recent developments in the international education industry are notable in three respects. First, international student mobility has more than doubled in the last two decades or so. Second, programme mobility encompassing distance education has also led to new forms of cross-border education. Third, institution mobility through such commercial…

  5. Levels of regulatory T cells CD69(+)NKG2D(+)IL-10(+) are increased in patients with autoimmune thyroid disorders.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Muñoz, Ana; Vitales-Noyola, Marlen; Ramos-Levi, Ana; Serrano-Somavilla, Ana; González-Amaro, Roberto; Marazuela, Mónica

    2016-03-01

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid disorders (AITD). New subsets of CD4(+)CD69(+) and CD4(+)NKG2D(+) T lymphocytes that behave as regulatory cells have been recently reported. The role of these immunoregulatory lymphocytes has not been previously explored in AITD. We analyzed by multi-parametric flow cytometry different Treg cell subsets in peripheral blood from 32 patients with AITD and 19 controls, and in thyroid tissue from seven patients. The suppressive activity was measured by an assay of inhibition of lymphocyte activation. We found a significant increased percentage of CD4(+)CD69(+)IL-10(+), CD4(+)CD69(+)NKG2D(+), and CD4(+)CD69(+)IL-10(+)NKG2D(+) cells, in peripheral blood from GD patients compared to controls. The increase in CD4(+)CD69(+)IL-10(+) and CD4(+)CD69(+)IL-10(+)NKG2D(+) T cells was especially remarkable in patients with active Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO), and a significant positive correlation between GO activity and CD4(+)CD69(+)IL-10(+) or CD4(+)CD69(+)IL-10(+)NKG2D(+) cells was also found. In addition, these cells were increased in patients with a more severe and/or prolonged disease. Thyroid from AITD patients showed an increased proportion of CD69(+) regulatory T cells subpopulations compared to autologous peripheral blood. The presence of CD69(+), NKG2D(+), and IL-10(+) cells was confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy. In vitro functional assays showed that CD69(+) Treg cells exerted an important suppressive effect on the activation of T effector cells in controls, but not in AITD patients. Our findings suggest that the levels of CD69(+) regulatory lymphocytes are increased in AITD patients, but they are apparently unable to down-modulate the autoimmune response and tissue damage.

  6. Levels of expression of Fcgamma receptor IIA (CD32) are decreased on peripheral blood monocytes in patients with severe atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, J R; Howes, P S; Waters, M A; Hynes, M L; Schnurr, P P; Demidenko, E; Bech, F R; Morganelli, P M

    2001-03-01

    To obtain information in vivo concerning the role of Fcgamma receptors (FcgammaR) in atherosclerosis, we used quantitative flow cytometry to measure the levels of expression of FcgammaRI and FcgammaRIIA on peripheral monocytes in patients with severe atherosclerosis. Expression of several other markers was also measured. We found that differences in the levels of expression of FcgammaRI were not statistically significant when compared between patients and control subjects. For FcgammaRIIA, levels of expression were decreased in the patient group, a difference that was statistically significant. Levels of expression of CD14 and CD36 were also significantly decreased in the patient group. The decrease in expression of FcgammaRIIA was statistically significant when the effects of current cigarette smoking status or medication use, including statins, were taken into account. There was also a positive and statistically significant correlation between high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and levels of expression of FcgammaRIIA for all subjects. In contrast, decreased levels of expression of CD14 and CD36 were strongly associated with current smoking status or statin use. In summary, levels of expression of FcgammaRIIA on peripheral blood monocytes were significantly decreased in patients with clinical atherosclerosis. Additional studies are warranted to determine if levels of expression of FcgammaRIIA have utility as a phenotypic marker for assessing relative risk of atherosclerotic disease.

  7. Data on heavy metal levels (Cd, Co, and Cu) in wheat grains cultured in Dashtestan County, Iran.

    PubMed

    Esmaili, Abdolhamid; Noroozi Karbasdehi, Vahid; Saeedi, Reza; Javad Mohammadi, Mohammad; Sobhani, Tayebeh; Dobaradaran, Sina

    2017-10-01

    Due to importance of wheat as the most popular food, in this data article, we determined the accumulation of heavy metal levels including Cd, Co, and Cu in wheat grains in Dashtestan county, Iran. The concentration levels of heavy metals in wheat grains cultured were determined by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS).

  8. Identification of a millisecond isomeric state in 129Cd81via the detection of internal conversion and Compton electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Taprogge, J.; Jungclaus, A.; Grawe, H.; Nishimura, S.; Xu, Z. Y.; Doornenbal, P.; Lorusso, G.; Nacher, E.; Simpson, G. S.; Soderstrom, P. A.; Sumikama, T.; Kondev, F. G.

    2014-11-10

    The decay of an isomeric state in the neutron-rich nucleus 129Cd has been observed via the detection of internal conversion and Compton electrons providing first experimental information on excited states in this nucleus. The isomer was populated in the projectile fission of a 238U beam at the Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory at RIKEN. From the measured yields of γ-rays and internal conversion electrons, a multipolarity of E 3 was tentatively assigned to the isomeric transition. A half-life of T1/2=3.6(2) msT1/2=3.6(2) ms was determined for the new state which was assigned a spin of (21/2+)(21/2+), based on a comparison to shell model calculations performed using state-of-the-art realistic effective interactions.

  9. Identification of a millisecond isomeric state in Cd12981 via the detection of internal conversion and Compton electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taprogge, J.; Jungclaus, A.; Grawe, H.; Nishimura, S.; Xu, Z. Y.; Doornenbal, P.; Lorusso, G.; Nácher, E.; Simpson, G. S.; Söderström, P.-A.; Sumikama, T.; Baba, H.; Browne, F.; Fukuda, N.; Gernhäuser, R.; Gey, G.; Inabe, N.; Isobe, T.; Jung, H. S.; Kameda, D.; Kim, G. D.; Kim, Y.-K.; Kojouharov, I.; Kubo, T.; Kurz, N.; Kwon, Y. K.; Li, Z.; Sakurai, H.; Schaffner, H.; Steiger, K.; Suzuki, H.; Takeda, H.; Vajta, Zs.; Watanabe, H.; Wu, J.; Yagi, A.; Yoshinaga, K.; Benzoni, G.; Bönig, S.; Chae, K. Y.; Coraggio, L.; Covello, A.; Daugas, J.-M.; Drouet, F.; Gadea, A.; Gargano, A.; Ilieva, S.; Kondev, F. G.; Kröll, T.; Lane, G. J.; Montaner-Pizá, A.; Moschner, K.; Mücher, D.; Naqvi, F.; Niikura, M.; Nishibata, H.; Odahara, A.; Orlandi, R.; Patel, Z.; Podolyák, Zs.; Wendt, A.

    2014-11-01

    The decay of an isomeric state in the neutron-rich nucleus 129Cd has been observed via the detection of internal conversion and Compton electrons providing first experimental information on excited states in this nucleus. The isomer was populated in the projectile fission of a 238U beam at the Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory at RIKEN. From the measured yields of γ-rays and internal conversion electrons, a multipolarity of E3 was tentatively assigned to the isomeric transition. A half-life of T1/2 = 3.6 (2) ms was determined for the new state which was assigned a spin of (21 /2+), based on a comparison to shell model calculations performed using state-of-the-art realistic effective interactions.

  10. Identification of a millisecond isomeric state in 129Cd81 via the detection of internal conversion and Compton electrons

    DOE PAGES

    Taprogge, J.; Jungclaus, A.; Grawe, H.; ...

    2014-09-26

    The decay of an isomeric state in the neutron-rich nucleus 129Cd has been observed via the detection of internal conversion and Compton electrons providing first experimental information on excited states in this nucleus. The isomer was populated in the projectile fission of a 238U beam at the Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory at RIKEN. From the measured yields of γ-rays and internal conversion electrons, a multipolarity of E3 was tentatively assigned to the isomeric transition. A half-life of T1/2=3.6(2) ms was determined for the new state which was assigned a spin of (21/2+), based on a comparison to shell model calculationsmore » performed using state-of-the-art realistic effective interactions.« less

  11. High soluble CD30 levels and associated anti-HLA antibodies in patients with failed renal allografts.

    PubMed

    Karahan, Gonca E; Caliskan, Yasar; Ozdilli, Kursat; Kekik, Cigdem; Bakkaloglu, Huseyin; Caliskan, Bahar; Turkmen, Aydin; Sever, Mehmet S; Oguz, Fatma S

    2017-01-13

    Serum soluble CD30 (sCD30), a 120-kD glycoprotein that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor receptor family, has been suggested as a marker of rejection in kidney transplant patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between sCD30 levels and anti-HLA antibodies, and to compare sCD30 levels in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) with and without failed renal allografts and transplant recipients with functioning grafts. 100 patients undergoing HD with failed grafts (group 1), 100 patients undergoing HD who had never undergone transplantation (group 2), and 100 kidney transplant recipients (group 3) were included in this study. Associations of serum sCD30 levels and anti-HLA antibody status were analyzed in these groups. The sCD30 levels of group 1 and group 2 (154 ± 71 U/mL and 103 ± 55 U/mL, respectively) were significantly higher than those of the transplant recipients (group 3) (39 ± 21 U/mL) (p<0.001 and p<0.001). The serum sCD30 levels in group 1 (154 ± 71 U/mL) were also significantly higher than group 2 (103 ± 55 U/mL) (p<0.001). Anti-HLA antibodies were detected in 81 (81%) and 5 (5%) of patients in groups 1 and 2, respectively (p<0.001). When multiple regression analysis was performed to predict sCD30 levels, the independent variables in group 1 were the presence of class I anti-HLA antibodies (β = 0.295; p = 0.003) and age (β = -0.272; p = 0.005), and serum creatinine (β = 0.218; p = 0.027) and presence of class II anti-HLA antibodies (standardized β = 0.194; p = 0.046) in group 3. Higher sCD30 levels and anti-HLA antibodies in patients undergoing HD with failed renal allografts may be related to higher inflammatory status in these patients.

  12. Soluble CD163, a product of monocyte/macrophage activation, is inversely associated with haemoglobin levels in placental malaria.

    PubMed

    Chua, Caroline Lin Lin; Brown, Graham V; Hamilton, John A; Molyneux, Malcolm E; Rogerson, Stephen J; Boeuf, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    In Plasmodium falciparum malaria, activation of monocytes and macrophages (monocytes/macrophages) can result in the production of various inflammatory mediators that contribute to immunopathology. Soluble CD163 (sCD163) is a specific marker of monocyte/macrophage activation typically found at increased levels during various inflammatory conditions and can be associated with poor clinical outcomes. To better understand the relationships between levels of sCD163 and clinical parameters in women with placental malaria, we measured plasma sCD163 levels in maternal peripheral and placental blood compartments at delivery and determined their correlations with birth weight and maternal haemoglobin concentrations. sCD163 levels were negatively correlated with birth weight only in the placental compartment (r = -0.145, p = 0.03) and were inversely correlated with maternal haemoglobin concentrations, both in peripheral blood (r = -0.238, p = 0.0004) and in placental blood (r = -0.259, p = 0.0001). These inverse relationships suggest a potential role for monocyte/macrophage activation in the pathogenesis of malaria in pregnancy, particularly in relation to malaria-associated anaemia.

  13. Baseline CD4 T Cell Level Predicts Recovery Rate after Initiation of ART in HIV Infected Nigerians.

    PubMed

    Adewumi, Olubusuyi M; Odaibo, Georgina N; Olaleye, Olufemi D

    2016-01-01

    The most characteristic immunologic disorder in HIV infection is the progressive loss of CD4 T lymphocytes, thus, it remains the most important and commonly used marker for monitoring of immune status of HIV-infected individuals. This study monitored CD4 T lymphocyte cell dynamics among HIV patients on ART, and consequently defined an optimal baseline level required for enhanced ARV treatment. Ninety-eight (M = 33; F = 65) out of 106 consenting HIV-infected ARV-naïve patients enrolled and monitored for 24 months were considered in the analysis. The patients were classified into four groups based on baseline CD4 T lymphocyte cell levels, and specific parameters were evaluated at interval. Median CD4 T lymphocyte increased from 114 (Range: 6-330) at baseline to highest 357 (Range: 15-1036) cells/μL at 18 months of therapy. Fifty (51.0%), 58(59.2%), 75(76.5%), 69(70.4%), 63(64.3%), and 69(70.4%) doubled their preceding CD4 levels during the 3(rd), 6(th), 9(th), 12(th), 18(th), and 24(th) months of ART, respectively. Maximum 337, 302, 360, and 475 cells/μL of blood were attained by groups commenced on ART with baseline CD4 ≤ 50, 51-100, 101-200, and 201-350 cells/μL of blood, respectively. The results show that higher baseline CD4 T lymphocyte cell level correlates with enhanced restoration and plateau after commencement of ART.

  14. [Expression Level of Membrane-associated Proteins Numb in Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma and Its Relationship with Ovarian Cancer Stem Cell Markers CD117, CD133, ALDH1.

    PubMed

    Jing, Hong; Liu, Xiao-Yu; Chen, Ya-Li; Bai, Li-Ping; Zheng, Ai

    2016-11-01

    To explore the expression level of membrane-associated protein Numb in epithelial ovarian carcinoma and its relationship with ovarian cancer stem cell markers CD117,CD133,acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 1(ALDH1). A total of 136 patients who had ovarian tumors and 22 patients who had not ovarian tumors in Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics,West China Second University Hospital,Sichuan University were chosen as the study subjects.According to the histopathologic examination results,they were divided into epithelial ovarian carcinoma group (n=92),ovarian borderline tumor group (n=23),ovarian benign tumor group (n=21) and normal ovary group (n=22).Expression levels of Numb protein,CD117,CD133 and ALDH1 in ovarian tissue were detected by immunohistochemical SP method and these several kinds of protein expression differences and correlation statistical analysis were performend. 1 The positive expression rate of Numb protein in epithelial ovarian carcinoma group was higher than that in benign tumor or normal ovary group,also Numb protein positive expression rate in ovarian borderline tumor group was higher than that in normal ovary group,and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05).2 Numb protein positive expression rate in ovarian tissue in patients with epithelial ovarian carcinoma FIGO stage1-2 was lower than that in stage 3-4,also the same in no lymph nodes metastasis compared with lymph nodes invasion,and the differences of positive expression rate were statistically significant (P<0.05).While there were no significant differences among different age,histopathological types,pathological grades and residual tumor size (P>0.05).3 There was no correlation between Numb protein and CD117 and CD133 positive expression rate in epithelial ovarian carcinoma tissue [correlation coefficient (r)=0.116,P=0.261; r=0.083,P=0.425].However,the positive expression rate of Numb protein and ALDH1 was positively correlated (r=0.296,P=0.261). The expression of Numb protein

  15. International low level waste disposal practices and facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Nutt, W.M.

    2011-12-19

    The safe management of nuclear waste arising from nuclear activities is an issue of great importance for the protection of human health and the environment now and in the future. The primary goal of this report is to identify the current situation and practices being utilized across the globe to manage and store low and intermediate level radioactive waste. The countries included in this report were selected based on their nuclear power capabilities and involvement in the nuclear fuel cycle. This report highlights the nuclear waste management laws and regulations, current disposal practices, and future plans for facilities of the selected international nuclear countries. For each country presented, background information and the history of nuclear facilities are also summarized to frame the country's nuclear activities and set stage for the management practices employed. The production of nuclear energy, including all the steps in the nuclear fuel cycle, results in the generation of radioactive waste. However, radioactive waste may also be generated by other activities such as medical, laboratory, research institution, or industrial use of radioisotopes and sealed radiation sources, defense and weapons programs, and processing (mostly large scale) of mineral ores or other materials containing naturally occurring radionuclides. Radioactive waste also arises from intervention activities, which are necessary after accidents or to remediate areas affected by past practices. The radioactive waste generated arises in a wide range of physical, chemical, and radiological forms. It may be solid, liquid, or gaseous. Levels of activity concentration can vary from extremely high, such as levels associated with spent fuel and residues from fuel reprocessing, to very low, for instance those associated with radioisotope applications. Equally broad is the spectrum of half-lives of the radionuclides contained in the waste. These differences result in an equally wide variety of

  16. Cell membrane CD44v6 levels in squamous cell carcinoma of the lung: association with high cellular proliferation and high concentrations of EGFR and CD44v5.

    PubMed

    Ruibal, Álvaro; Aguiar, Pablo; Del Río, María Carmen; Nuñez, Matilde Isabel; Pubul, Virginia; Herranz, Michel

    2015-02-18

    Membranous CD44v6 levels in tumors and surrounding samples obtained from 94 patients with squamous cell lung carcinomas were studied and compared to clinical stage, cellular proliferation, membranous CD44v5 levels, epidermal growth factor receptor EGFR and cytoplasmatic concentrations of CYFRA 21.1. CD44v6 positive values were observed in 33/38 non-tumor samples and in 76/94 tumor samples, but there were not statistically significant differences between both subgroups. In CD44v6 positive tumor samples, CD44v6 was not associated with clinical stage, histological grade, ploidy and lymph node involvement, but significant association was found with high cellular proliferation. Likewise, CD44v6 positive tumors had significantly higher levels of EGFR and CD44v5. In patients with squamous cell lung carcinomas and clinical stage I, positive CD44v6 cases were associated with the same parameters. Furthermore, positive CD44v5 squamous tumors were associated significantly with histological grade III and lower levels of CYFRA21.1. Our findings support the value of CD44v6 as a possible indicator of poor outcome in patients with squamous lung carcinomas.

  17. Subgap time of flight: A spectroscopic study of deep levels in semi-insulating CdTe:Cl

    SciTech Connect

    Pousset, J.; Farella, I.; Cola, A.; Gambino, S.

    2016-03-14

    We report on a study of deep levels in semi-insulating CdTe:Cl by means of a time-of-flight spectral approach. By varying the wavelength of a pulsed optical source within the CdTe energy gap, transitions to/from localized levels generate free carriers which are analysed through the induced photocurrent transients. Both acceptor-like centers, related to the A-center, and a midgap level, 0.725 eV from the valence band, have been detected. The midgap level is close to the Fermi level and is possibly a recombination center responsible for the compensation mechanism. When the irradiance is varied, either linear or quadratic dependence of the electron and hole collected charge are observed, depending on the dominant optical transitions. The analysis discloses the potentiality of such a novel approach exploitable in the field of photorefractive materials as well as for deep levels spectroscopy.

  18. Subgap time of flight: A spectroscopic study of deep levels in semi-insulating CdTe:Cl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pousset, J.; Farella, I.; Gambino, S.; Cola, A.

    2016-03-01

    We report on a study of deep levels in semi-insulating CdTe:Cl by means of a time-of-flight spectral approach. By varying the wavelength of a pulsed optical source within the CdTe energy gap, transitions to/from localized levels generate free carriers which are analysed through the induced photocurrent transients. Both acceptor-like centers, related to the A-center, and a midgap level, 0.725 eV from the valence band, have been detected. The midgap level is close to the Fermi level and is possibly a recombination center responsible for the compensation mechanism. When the irradiance is varied, either linear or quadratic dependence of the electron and hole collected charge are observed, depending on the dominant optical transitions. The analysis discloses the potentiality of such a novel approach exploitable in the field of photorefractive materials as well as for deep levels spectroscopy.

  19. [Levels of phthalate internal exposure levels in pregnant women and influencing factors].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yue; Shi, Mingming; Chen, Biqin; Lin, Jianfeng; Yang, Songjing; Zhu, Baoping; Zhuang, Baoling; Jia, Yuzhu; Huang, Zhenxiang; Chen, Jing; Liu, Huifen; Chen, Jianghui; Su, Yanhua; Ke, Xiayi; Zhao, Benhua

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the levels and influencing factors of phthalate internal exposure in pregnant women (gestation age ≤ 16 weeks). During April to June in 2013, 1 020 pregnant women (gestation age ≤ 16 weeks) who had established the maternal care manual were recruited in maternal and child health hospital of Siming District, Xiamen city. Participators were asked to complete a questionnaire to obtain information on socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle behaviors, and antenatal examination and to provide a urine sample. Finally, 998 pregnant women who provided a urine sample and completed the questionnaire were enrolled. Adopting systematic sampling method, 100 ones were selected randomly among 998 pregnant women. High performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandern mass was used to determine the concentration of five phthalate monoesters in each urine, including mono-n-methyl phthalate (MMP), mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP). Based on the measurements and questionnaire data, multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze the association between the phthalate monoester levels and potential influential factors. The detection rates of MMP, MEP, MBP, MBzP and MEHP in 100 pregnant urine samples were 94%, 93%, 87%, 83%, 99%, respectively. And the urinary median uncorrected concentrations of MMP, MEP, MBP, MBzP and MEHP in 100 urine samples were 20.56, 17.62, 10.15, 2.03, and 5.12 ng/ml, respectively. Specific gravity-corrected concentration were 20.81, 20.36, 12.88, 2.58, 5.00 ng/ml, respectively. The results of multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that: education degree was negatively associated with urinary concentration of MMP, MEP, MBP, MBzP and MEHP, OR (95% CI) were 0.495 (0.253-0.966), 0.380 (0.191-0.755), 0.379 (0.186-0.774), 0.401 (0.196-0.819), 0.373(0.183-0.762), respectively. Participants who had hair permed and dyed during

  20. Direct ex vivo analysis of human CD4(+) memory T cell activation requirements at the single clonotype level.

    PubMed

    Bitmansour, Arlene D; Douek, Daniel C; Maino, Vernon C; Picker, Louis J

    2002-08-01

    CD4(+) memory T cells continuously integrate signals transmitted through the TCR and costimulatory molecules, only responding when the intensity of such signals exceeds an intrinsic activation threshold. Recent data suggest that these activation thresholds can be regulated independently of TCR specificity, and that threshold tuning may constitute a major mechanism for controlling T cell effector activity. In this work we take advantage of the profound clonotypic hierarchies of the large human CD4(+) T cell response to CMV to study activation thresholds of fresh (unexpanded) memory T cells at the clonotypic level. We identified dominant responses to CMV matrix determinants mediated by single TCRB sequences within particular TCR-Vbeta families. The specific response characteristics of these single, Ag-specific, TCRB-defined clonotypes could be unequivocally determined in fresh PBMC preparations by cytokine flow cytometry with gating on the appropriate Vbeta family. These analyses revealed 1) optimal peptides capable of eliciting specific responses by themselves at doses as low as 2 pg/ml, with each log increase in dose eliciting ever-increasing frequencies of responding cells over a 4- to 5-log range; 2) significant augmentation of response frequencies at all submaximal peptide doses by CD28- and CD49d-mediated costimulation; 3) differential dose response and costimulatory characteristics for IFN-gamma and IL-2 responses; and 4) no association of activation requirements with the CD27-defined CD4(+) T cell memory differentiation pathway. Taken together these data confirm that triggering heterogeneity exists within individual CD4(+) memory T cell clonotypes in vivo and demonstrate that such single clonotypes can manifest qualitatively different functional responses depending on epitope dose and relative levels of costimulation.

  1. Landau level splitting in Cd3As2 under high magnetic fields

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Junzhi; Liang, Sihang; Zhang, Cheng; Liu, Yanwen; Huang, Junwei; Jin, Zhao; Chen, Zhi-Gang; Wang, Zhijun; Wang, Qisi; Zhao, Jun; Li, Shiyan; Dai, Xi; Zou, Jin; Xia, Zhengcai; Li, Liang; Xiu, Faxian

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional topological Dirac semimetals (TDSs) are a new kind of Dirac materials that exhibit linear energy dispersion in the bulk and can be viewed as three-dimensional graphene. It has been proposed that TDSs can be driven to other exotic phases like Weyl semimetals, topological insulators and topological superconductors by breaking certain symmetries. Here we report the first transport experiment on Landau level splitting in TDS Cd3As2 single crystals under high magnetic fields, suggesting the removal of spin degeneracy by breaking time reversal symmetry. The detected Berry phase develops an evident angular dependence and possesses a crossover from non-trivial to trivial state under high magnetic fields, a strong hint for a fierce competition between the orbit-coupled field strength and the field-generated mass term. Our results unveil the important role of symmetry breaking in TDSs and further demonstrate a feasible path to generate a Weyl semimetal phase by breaking time reversal symmetry. PMID:26165390

  2. Levels of circulating CD34+/KDR+ cells do not predict coronary in-stent restenosis.

    PubMed

    Haine, Steven E; Van Craenenbroeck, Emeline M; Hoymans, Vicky Y; Miljoen, Hielko P; Vandendriessche, Tom R; Claeys, Marc J; Frederix, Geert; Conraads, Viviane M; Bosmans, Johan M; Vrints, Christiaan J

    2014-01-01

    Angiographic and clinical parameters are poor predictors of in-stent restenosis. Bone marrow-derived CD34(+) cells that coexpress a receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor (kinase insert domain receptor [KDR]) are committed to endothelial lineage. Mobilization and infusion of CD34(+)/KDR(+) cells accelerates re-endothelialization and reduces neointimal thickness in vascular injury models. Bioengineered stents capturing CD34(+) cells also show expedited re-endothelialization. We examined whether circulating CD34(+)/KDR(+) cell counts can be used to predict restenosis in a bare-metal stent (BMS). CD34(+)/KDR(+) cells were counted by flow cytometry in 124 nondiabetic patients before BMS implantation and the relation to in-stent late luminal loss (LLL) was examined by angiography at 6 months (primary end point). Neointima was also quantified as the maximum percentage area stenosis (M%AS) and percentage volume intima hyperplasia (%VIH) on intravascular ultrasonography (secondary end points). Multiple linear regression analysis, taking into account implanted stent length and diameter, revealed no relation between CD34(+)/KDR(+) cell counts and LLL (partial regression coefficient b = 0.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.19-0.42; P = 0.46). Similarly, no relation between CD34(+)/KDR(+) cell counts and M%AS or %VIH could be demonstrated. Moreover, the increase in CD34(+)/KDR(+) cell counts over 6 months was unrelated to LLL (b = -0.15; 95% CI, -0.42-0.12; P = 0.28), M%AS, and %VIH. Although our study does not exclude a pathophysiologic role for CD34(+)/KDR(+) cells in the formation of neointima, cell counts before percutaneous coronary intervention proved to be unrelated to LLL or intravascular ultrasonographically derived restenosis parameters in coronary BMSs at 6 months. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Plasma levels of soluble CD27: a simple marker to monitor immune activation during potent antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected subjects

    PubMed Central

    DE MILITO, A; ALEMAN, S; MARENZI, R; SÖNNERBORG, A; FUCHS, D; ZAZZI, M; CHIODI, F

    2002-01-01

    Plasma levels of soluble CD27 (sCD27) are elevated in diseases characterized by T cell activation and are used as a marker of immune activation. We assessed the usefulness of determining plasma sCD27 as a marker for monitoring immune activation in HIV-1-infected patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). A first cross-sectional examination of 68 HIV-1-infected and 18 normal subjects showed high levels of sCD27 in HIV-1 infection; plasma sCD27 was correlated to HIV-1 viraemia and inversely correlated to CD4+ T cell count. Twenty-six HIV-1-infected patients undergoing HAART were studied at baseline and after 6, 12, 18 and 24 months of therapy. Seven additional patients under HAART were analysed at baseline, during and after interruption of therapy. In the total population, HAART induced a significant and progressive reduction, but not a normalization, of plasma levels of sCD27 after 24 months. A full normalization of plasma sCD27 was observed in the virological responders (undetectable HIV-1 RNA at months 18 and 24) and also in patients with moderate immunodeficiency at baseline (CD4+ T cell count >200 cells/mm3). Changes in plasma neopterin paralleled the changes in sCD27 but only baseline sCD27 levels were predictive of a greater increase in CD4+ T cell count during the follow-up. Discontinuation of therapy resulted in a rapid increase of sCD27 plasma levels associated with viraemia rebound and drop in CD4+ T cell count. Our findings suggest that plasma sCD27 may represent an alternative and simple marker to monitor immune activation during potent antiretroviral therapy. HIV-1-induced immune activation can be normalized by HAART in successfully treated patients where the disease is not advanced. PMID:11966765

  4. Interim Report of the Committee for Teaching English to C-D Level Pupils in Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harari, Esther

    1975-01-01

    This report concerns teaching English in Israeli schools to culturally deprived C-D level students. Discussion centers on problems of dropping out of the program, problems of grouping by achievement, and suggested solutions to these. (Available from English Inspectorate, Ministry of Education and Culture, P. O. Box 292, Jerusalem, Israel.) (CHK)

  5. Student Interactions with CD-ROM Storybooks: A Look at Potential Relationships between Multiple Intelligence Strengths and Levels of Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, Celia A.

    2012-01-01

    This study looked at the potential relationship that may exist between students' intelligence strengths, in particular their spatial and kinesthetic strengths, and their combined cognitive and metacognitive levels of interaction with a CD-ROM storybook. The multiple intelligence strengths of a sample of students, measured via the MIDAS/My…

  6. Student Interactions with CD-ROM Storybooks: A Look at Potential Relationships between Multiple Intelligence Strengths and Levels of Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, Celia A.

    2012-01-01

    This study looked at the potential relationship that may exist between students' intelligence strengths, in particular their spatial and kinesthetic strengths, and their combined cognitive and metacognitive levels of interaction with a CD-ROM storybook. The multiple intelligence strengths of a sample of students, measured via the MIDAS/My…

  7. Higher levels of IL-6, CD4 turnover and Treg frequency are already present before cART in HIV-infected subjects with later low CD4 recovery.

    PubMed

    Rosado-Sánchez, Isaac; Jarrín, Inmaculada; Pozo-Balado, María M; de Pablo-Bernal, Rebeca S; Herrero-Fernández, Inés; Alvarez-Ríos, Ana I; Rodríguez-Gallego, Esther; Genebat, Miguel; Vera, Mar; Berenguer, Juan; Martín, María L; Bernal, Enrique; Vidal, Francesc; Blanco, Julià; Leal, Manuel; Pacheco, Yolanda M

    2017-06-01

    Immunological characterization of HIV-infected subjects with low CD4-recovery (LR-subjects) has been extensively performed after a variable period of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). We now explore immunological alterations present before the cART onset. In a case-control study, we selected pre-cART samples of HIV-subjects with and without low CD4-recovery after cART (n = 21 per group). CD4 T-cell activation, senescence and exhaustion related markers were not found specifically altered before cART initiation. On the other hand, we found that LR-subjects before cART already showed increased levels of IL6 (p = 0.009) and increased frequencies of Ki67+CD4(+) T-cells (p = 0.026), CD45RA-CD27+CD4(+) T-cells (p = 0.008) and Treg (p = 0.001), as well as increased expression of CD95 and CD127 on CD4 T-cells (p = 0.016; p = 0.032, respectively). These parameters characterize the immunological damage in LR-subjects before the cART onset and could be associated to the mechanisms hindering the subsequent CD4 recovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Pollution of mycological surfaces in hospital emergency departments correlates positively with blood NKT CD3+ 16+ 56+ and negatively with CD4+ cell levels of their staff

    PubMed Central

    Suska, Milena; Kiepura, Anna; Winnicka, Izabela; Leszczyński, Paweł; Bielawska-Drózd, Agata; Cieślik, Piotr; Kubiak, Leszek; Depczyńska, Daria; Brewczyńska, Aleksandra; Skopińska-Różewska, Ewa; Kocik, Janusz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was the assessment of the putative influence of yeast and filamentous fungi in healthcare and control (office) workplaces (10 of each kind) on immune system competence measured by NK (natural killer), CD4+, and NKT (natural killer T lymphocyte) cell levels in the blood of the personnel employed at these workplaces. Imprints from floors and walls were collected in winter. The blood was taken in spring the following year, from 40 men, 26 to 53 years old, healthcare workers of hospital emergency departments (HED), who had been working for at least five years in their current positions, and from 36 corresponding controls, working in control offices. Evaluation of blood leukocyte subpopulations was done by flow cytometry. The qualitative analysis of the surface samples revealed a prevalence of strains belonging to Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. genus. There was no statistically significant difference between the level of NKT; however, the percentage of NK cells was lower in the blood of HED workers than in the blood of offices personnel. Spearman analysis revealed the existence of positive correlation (r = 0.4677, p = 0.002) between the total CFU/25 cm2 obtained by imprinting method from walls and floors of HED and the percentage of NKT (CD3+16+56+) lymphocytes collected from the blood of their personnel, and negative correlation (r = –0. 3688, p = 0.019) between this parameter of fungal pollution and the percentage of CD4+ lymphocytes in the blood of HED staff. No other correlations were found. PMID:27095925

  9. Effect of Te Inclusions on Internal Electric Field of CdMnTe Gamma-Ray Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Babalola, O.S.; Bolotnikov, A.; Egarievwe, S.; Hossain, A.; Burger, A.; James, R.

    2009-08-02

    We studied two separate as-grown CdMnTe crystals by Infrared (IR) microscopy and Pockels effect imaging, and then developed an algorithm to analyze and visualize the electric field within the crystals’ bulk. In one of the two crystals the size and distribution of inclusions within the bulk promised to be more favorable in terms of efficiency as a detector crystal. However, the Te inclusions were arranged in characteristic ‘planes’. Pockels imaging revealed an accumulation of charges in the region of these planes. We demonstrated that the planes induced stress within the bulk of the crystal that accumulated charges, thereby causing non-uniformity of the internal electric field and degrading the detector’s performance.

  10. Levels of circulating myeloid subpopulations and of heme oxygenase-1 do not predict CD4+ T cell recovery after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy for HIV disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The level (or frequency) of circulating monocyte subpopulations such as classical (CD14hiCD16-) and non-classical (CD14dimCD16+) monocytes varies during the course of HIV disease progression and antiretroviral therapy (ART). We hypothesized that such variation and/or differences in the degree to which these cells expressed the immunoregulatory enzyme, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), would be associated with CD4+ T cell recovery after the initiation of ART. This hypothesis was tested in a cross-sectional study of four groups of HIV-infected subjects, including those who were seronegative, untreated virologic controllers [detectable viral load (VL) of <1000 copies/mL], untreated virologic non-controllers [VL > 10,000 copies/mL], and ART-mediated virologic controllers [VL < 75 copies/mL]. A longitudinal analysis of ART-treated subjects was also performed along with regression analysis to determine which biomarkers were associated with and/or predictive of CD4+ T cell recovery. Suppressive ART was associated with increased levels of classical monocyte subpopulations (CD14hiCD16-) and decreased levels of non-classical monocyte populations (CD14dimCD16+). Among peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), HO-1 was found to be most highly up-regulated in CD14+ monocytes after ex vivo stimulation. Neither the levels of monocyte subpopulations nor of HO-1 expression in CD14+ monocytes were significantly associated with the degree of CD4+ T cell recovery. Monocyte subpopulations and HO-1 gene expression were, however, restored to normal levels by suppressive ART. These results suggest that the level of circulating monocyte subpopulations and their expression of HO-1 have no evident relationship to CD4+ T cell recovery after the initiation of ART. PMID:25180041

  11. Effectiveness of UK and International A-Level Assessment in Predicting Performance in Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, David M.; Rienties, Bart

    2014-01-01

    In many universities, admissions decisions are made based upon the advanced-level (A-Level) results. The purpose of this study was to assess the value of A-level and international equivalents as a predictor of early achievement in higher education. About 135 UK and 92 international undergraduate engineering students from 35 countries were assessed…

  12. Effectiveness of UK and International A-Level Assessment in Predicting Performance in Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, David M.; Rienties, Bart

    2014-01-01

    In many universities, admissions decisions are made based upon the advanced-level (A-Level) results. The purpose of this study was to assess the value of A-level and international equivalents as a predictor of early achievement in higher education. About 135 UK and 92 international undergraduate engineering students from 35 countries were assessed…

  13. Numerical modeling of HgCdTe solidification: Effects of phase diagram, double-diffusion convection and microgravity level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bune, Andris V.; Gillies, Donald C.; Lehozky, Sandor L.

    1997-01-01

    A numerical model of HgCdTe solidification was implemented using finite the element code FIDAP. Model verification was done using both experimental data and numerical test problems. The model was used to evaluate possible effects of double-diffusion convection in molten material, and microgravity level on concentration distribution in the solidified HgCdTe. Particular attention was paid to incorporation of HgCdTe phase diagram. It was found, that below a critical microgravity amplitude, the maximum convective velocity in the melt appears virtually independent on the microgravity vector orientation. Good agreement between predicted interface shape and an interface obtained experimentally by quenching was achieved. The results of numerical modeling are presented in the form of video film.

  14. Circulating CD36 and fractalkine levels are associated with vulnerable plaque progression in patients with unstable angina pectoris.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui Jian; Yang, Ming; Li, Ji Fu; Xue, Li; Chen, Yu Guo; Chen, Wen Qiang

    2014-11-01

    The chemokine, fractalkine, independently enhances the vulnerability of coronary atherosclerotic plaques. The present study investigated the combined effects of CD36 and fractalkine on coronary plaque progression in patients with unstable angina pectoris. In the present study, 120 unstable angina pectoris patients undergoing coronary angiography and intravascular ultrasound were divided into two groups: an intermediate lesion group (lumen diameter stenosis 50-70%, 80 patients) and a severe lesion group (at least one lesion with lumen diameter stenosis > 70%, 40 patients). The control group consisted of 40 healthy age- and sex-matched subjects. Concentrations of CD36 and fractalkine were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Major adverse cardiovascular events were monitored over a 2-year follow up. Intravascular ultrasound showed that patients with severe lesions had more calcified and mixed plaques, and a larger plaque area and plaque burden than patients with intermediate lesions (P < 0.05-0.01). More patients with severe lesions underwent stent deployment (P < 0.05) than those with intermediate lesions. CD36 and fractalkine concentrations were significantly higher in the severe lesion patients (P < 0.05), and both had significant positive correlations (P < 0.05) with the plaque burden of atherosclerotic lesions. Using the matched nested case-control study, we found that CD36 and fractalkine levels were higher in patients with recurrent major adverse cardiovascular events than controls (P < 0.05). In conclusion, CD36 and fractalkine both promote, and might synergistically enhance, the progression of coronary atherosclerotic plaques.

  15. The importance of CD39, CD43, CD81, and CD95 expression for differentiating B cell lymphoma by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Chandra Chiappin; Auat, Mariangeles; Santos-Pirath, Iris Mattos; Rudolf-Oliveira, Renata Cristina Messores; da Silva, Jessica Pires; Lange, Bárbara Gil; Siegel, Danielle; de Moraes, Ana Carolina Rabello; Del Moral, Joanita Angela Gonzaga; Santos-Silva, Maria Claudia

    2017-05-16

    B cell lymphomas' (BCL) current diagnosis is usually based on a combination of morphology, immunophenotype, recurrent cytogenetic aberration and clinical features. However, even with these diagnostic tools, a definitive diagnosis can be difficult to achieve. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the profile of CD39, CD43, CD81, and CD95 expressions in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), follicular lymphoma (FL), and Burkitt lymphoma (BL) cases. To address this issue, we investigated the expression of CD39, CD43, CD81, and CD95 by eight-color flow cytometry in retrospective cases from 2014 to 2016. The study included 27 adult patients diagnosed with DLBCL, FL, and BL during the study period. Four patients were diagnosed with germinal center B cell-like DLBCL (GCB DLBCL), seven with non-GCB DLBCL, nine with FL, and seven with BL. CD39 seems to be especially relevant to differentiate non-GCB DLBCL from BL and from FL. BL showed stronger expression of CD43 when compared to FL and GCB DLBCL. Moreover, CD43 may help to distinguish non-GCB DLBCL from GCB DLBCL. CD81 expression was much stronger in BL when compared to the other three groups of patients. Lastly, CD95 may also help to distinguish BL from the other subtypes, as BL cells expressed this antigen at low levels. In combination, CD39, CD43, CD81, and CD95 expressions appear to be helpful to distinguish CD10(+) BCL, particularly BL. Phenotypic distinction between FL and GCB DLBCL remains challenging and requires further studies. © 2017 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2017 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  16. Deep levels in high resistive CdTe and CdZnTe explored by photo-Hall effect and photoluminescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musiienko, Artem; Grill, Roman; Hlídek, Pavel; Moravec, Pavel; Belas, Eduard; Zázvorka, Jakub; Korcsmáros, Gabriel; Franc, Jan; Vasylchenko, Igor

    2017-01-01

    High resistive CdTe and CdZnTe single crystals were measured by photo-Hall effect spectroscopy (PHES) and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) with the aim of discovering the position of deep levels (DLs) in the band gap. Illumination in the range of 0.65-1.77 eV, room temperature, and DC electrical measurements were used in the case of PHES. Low temperature (4 K) photoluminescence spectra were recorded in the spectral range above 0.47 eV. Eight samples, both n-type and p-type, were studied and typical shapes of spectra were collected, compared and interpreted for both spectroscopy methods. It was shown that a simple single-level model of PHES often fails in the interpretation of DLs distant from the midgap. Eight DLs with the energy E c - 0.65 eV, E c - 0.8 eV, E c - 0.9 eV, E c - (1.10-1.15) eV, E v + 0.70 eV, E v + 0.85 eV, E v + 1.0 eV, and E c - 1.25 eV were interpreted. A memory effect characterized by a relaxation time of about 60 s was observed at the 0.8 eV level and allowed us to determine the 1.7 × 10-17 cm2 capture cross-section of electrons on this level. It is argued that PHES is a convenient complementary method to identify and characterize DLs, including DLs inaccessible by thermal emission techniques. DLs observed by PHES were consistently verified by PL.

  17. Internalization of IgG-Coated Targets Results in Activation and Secretion of Soluble CD40 Ligand and RANTES by Human Platelets ▿

    PubMed Central

    Antczak, Adam J.; Vieth, Joshua A.; Singh, Navinderjit; Worth, Randall G.

    2011-01-01

    Platelets are crucial elements for maintenance of hemostasis. Other functions attributable to platelets are now being appreciated, such as their role in inflammatory reactions and host defense. Platelets have been reported to bind immunological stimuli like IgG complexes, and for nearly 50 years it has been speculated that platelets may participate in immunological reactions. Platelets have been reported to bind and internalize various substances, similar to other leukocytes, such as macrophages and dendritic cells. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that human platelets can bind and internalize IgG-coated particles, similar to leukocytes. To this end, we observed that interaction with IgG-coated beads resulted in platelet activation (as measured by CD62P expression), internalization of targets, and significant soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) and RANTES (regulated upon activation, normal T cell expresses and secreted) secretion. Blocking FcγRIIA with monoclonal antibody (MAb) IV.3 or inhibiting actin remodeling with cytochalasin D inhibited platelet activation, internalization, and cytokine production. These data suggest that platelets are capable of mediating internalization of IgG-coated particles, resulting in platelet activation and release of both sCD40L and RANTES. PMID:21177916

  18. Molecular mechanisms of accommodation in Escherichia coli to toxic levels of Cd2+.

    PubMed

    Mitra, R S; Gray, R H; Chin, B; Bernstein, I A

    1975-03-01

    Cells of Escherichia coli strain B develop large intracellular vacuoles and exhibit an abnormally long lag phase when inoculated into a defined medium to glucose and salts containing 3 times 10-6 M Cd2+. Early in this lag, about 95% of the cells fail to form colonies when plated on nutrient broth-NaCl-agar. Prior to the initiation of proliferation, the morphology of these cells becomes normal. They regain viability in the absence of deoxyribonucleic acid replication. The rate and extent of growth are normal once proliferation begins. This reversible phenomenon of accommodation to a growth-inhibiting concentration of Cd2+ does not appear to result from a selection of mutant cells. Cells which are proliferating in the presence of Cd2+ accumulate the ion to a very high concentration. In membranes and 31% in the cytoplasm. In unaccommodated cells, the figures are 2%, 75%, and 23%, respectively. The activity of alkaline phosphatase, a zinc-metalloenzyme which is inhibited by cadmum and is located between cell wall and membrane, is not abnormally low in accommodated cells, suggesting that the cadmim is compartmentalized in these cells. Molecular sieve chromatography of cell extracts shows that the Cd2+ is associated with two classes of macromolecules. It appears that accommodation of E. coli to the presence of Cd2+ involves exclusion of the ion from the cell and reversal of damage caused by prior exposure to the ion.

  19. Molecular mechanisms of accommodation in Escherichia coli to toxic levels of Cd2+.

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, R S; Gray, R H; Chin, B; Bernstein, I A

    1975-01-01

    Cells of Escherichia coli strain B develop large intracellular vacuoles and exhibit an abnormally long lag phase when inoculated into a defined medium to glucose and salts containing 3 times 10-6 M Cd2+. Early in this lag, about 95% of the cells fail to form colonies when plated on nutrient broth-NaCl-agar. Prior to the initiation of proliferation, the morphology of these cells becomes normal. They regain viability in the absence of deoxyribonucleic acid replication. The rate and extent of growth are normal once proliferation begins. This reversible phenomenon of accommodation to a growth-inhibiting concentration of Cd2+ does not appear to result from a selection of mutant cells. Cells which are proliferating in the presence of Cd2+ accumulate the ion to a very high concentration. In membranes and 31% in the cytoplasm. In unaccommodated cells, the figures are 2%, 75%, and 23%, respectively. The activity of alkaline phosphatase, a zinc-metalloenzyme which is inhibited by cadmum and is located between cell wall and membrane, is not abnormally low in accommodated cells, suggesting that the cadmim is compartmentalized in these cells. Molecular sieve chromatography of cell extracts shows that the Cd2+ is associated with two classes of macromolecules. It appears that accommodation of E. coli to the presence of Cd2+ involves exclusion of the ion from the cell and reversal of damage caused by prior exposure to the ion. Images PMID:1090597

  20. Effects of Crystal Growth Methods on Deep-Level Defects and Electrical Properties of CdZnTe:In Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lingyan; Jie, Wanqi; Zhou, Boru; Fu, Xu; Zha, Gangqiang; Wang, Tao; Xu, Yadong; Feng, Tao; Chen, Xi

    2015-01-01

    Deep-level defects in CdZnTe:In (CZT) crystals grown by the modified vertical Bridgman (MVB) method and the traveling heater method (THM) were comparatively studied by thermally stimulated current (TSC) measurements. The trap density of Cd vacancy-related acceptor defects is found to be lower in THM-grown crystals compared with crystals grown by the MVB method, since the relatively low growth temperature of the THM will greatly reduce the loss of Cd and decrease the generation of Cd vacancies. Tellurium antisite-related deep donors are dominant in MVB-grown CZT, and Te interstitial-related deep acceptors are dominant in THM-grown CZT crystals grown by the Te-rich solution technique. The compensation of donor and acceptor defects leads to a low concentration of net free electrons in n-type MVB-grown CZT and a relatively high concentration of net free holes in p-type THM-grown CZT. The Fermi level in MVB-grown CZT is positioned below the conduction band by the antisite-related deep donor, while that in THM-grown CZT is positioned above the valence band by the interstitial-related deep acceptor.

  1. Increased levels of adenosine and ecto 5'-nucleotidase (CD73) activity precede renal alterations in experimental diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Oyarzún, C; Salinas, C; Gómez, D; Jaramillo, K; Pérez, G; Alarcón, S; Podestá, L; Flores, C; Quezada, C; San Martín, R

    The pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN) has not been clearly established, making diagnosis and patient management difficult. Recent studies using experimental diabetic models have implicated adenosine signaling with renal cells dysfunction. Therefore, the study of the biochemical mechanisms that regulate extracellular adenosine availability during DN is of emerging interest. Using streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats we demonstrated that urinary levels of adenosine were early increased. Further analyses showed an increased expression of the ecto 5'-nucleotidase (CD73), which hydrolyzes AMP to adenosine, at the renal proximal tubules and a higher enzymatic activity in tubule extracts. These changes precede the signs of diabetic kidney injury recognized by significant proteinuria, morphological alterations and the presence of the renal fibrosis markers alpha smooth muscle actin and fibronectin, collagen deposits and thickening of the glomerular basement membrane. In the proximal tubule cell line HK2 we identified TGF-β as a key modulator of CD73 activity. Importantly, the increased activity of CD73 could be screened in urinary sediments from diabetic rats. In conclusion, the increase of CD73 activity is a key component in the production of high levels of adenosine and emerges as a new tool for the early diagnosis of tubular injury in diabetic kidney disease.

  2. Internal electric-field-lines distribution in CdZnTe detectors measured using X-ray mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Bolotnikov,A.E.; , .; Camarda, G.S.; Cui, Y.; Hossain, A.; Yang, G.; Yao, H.W.; James, R.B.

    2009-10-19

    The ideal operation of CdZnTe devices entails having a uniformly distributed internal electric field. Such uniformity especially is critical for thick long-drift-length detectors, such as large-volume CPG and 3-D multi-pixel devices. Using a high-spatial resolution X-ray mapping technique, we investigated the distribution of the electric field in real devices. Our measurements demonstrate that in thin detectors, <5 mm, the electric field-lines tend to bend away from the side surfaces (i.e., a focusing effect). In thick detectors, >1 cm, with a large aspect ratio (thickness-to-width ratio), we observed two effects: the electric field lines bending away from or towards the side surfaces, which we called, respectively, the focusing field-line distribution and the defocusing field-line distribution. In addition to these large-scale variations, the field-line distributions were locally perturbed by the presence of extended defects and residual strains existing inside the crystals. We present our data clearly demonstrating the non-uniformity of the internal electric field.

  3. Circulating CD36 and oxLDL levels are associated with cardiovascular risk factors in young subjects

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) results from a combination of abnormalities in lipoprotein metabolism, oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and susceptibility to thrombosis. Atherosclerosis is the major cause of CVD. CD36 has been shown to play a critical role in the development of atherosclerotic lesions by its capacity to bind and promote endocytosis of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and is implicated in the formation of foam cells. The purpose of this research was to evaluate whether there is an association of sCD36 and oxLDL levels with cardiovascular risk factors in young subjects. Methods A total of 188 subjects, 18 to 25 years old, 133 normal-weight and 55 obese subjects from the state of Guerrero, Mexico were recruited in the study. The lipid profile and glucose levels were measured by enzymatic colorimetric assays. Enzyme-linked immunosorbant assays (ELISA) for oxLDL and sCD36 were performed. Statistical analyses of data were performed with Wilcoxon- Mann Whitney and chi-square tests as well as with multinomial regression. Results TC, LDL-C, TG, oxLDL and sCD36 levels were higher in obese subjects than in normal-weight controls, as well as, monocyte and platelet counts (P < 0.05). Obese subjects had 5.8 times higher risk of sCD36 in the third tertil (>97.8 ng/mL) than normal-weight controls (P = 0.014), and 7.4 times higher risk of oxLDL levels in third tertile (>48 U/L) than control group. The subjects with hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, fasting impaired LDL-C had a higher risk of oxLDL levels in the third tertile (>48 U/L) than the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusions Circulating CD36 and oxLDL levels are associated with cardiovascular risk factors in young subjects and may be potential early markers for cardiovascular disease (CVD). PMID:24766787

  4. Circulating CD36 and oxLDL levels are associated with cardiovascular risk factors in young subjects.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Arellano, Luz E; Muñoz-Valle, José F; De la Cruz-Mosso, Ulises; Salgado-Bernabé, Aralia B; Castro-Alarcón, Natividad; Parra-Rojas, Isela

    2014-04-28

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) results from a combination of abnormalities in lipoprotein metabolism, oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and susceptibility to thrombosis. Atherosclerosis is the major cause of CVD. CD36 has been shown to play a critical role in the development of atherosclerotic lesions by its capacity to bind and promote endocytosis of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and is implicated in the formation of foam cells. The purpose of this research was to evaluate whether there is an association of sCD36 and oxLDL levels with cardiovascular risk factors in young subjects. A total of 188 subjects, 18 to 25 years old, 133 normal-weight and 55 obese subjects from the state of Guerrero, Mexico were recruited in the study. The lipid profile and glucose levels were measured by enzymatic colorimetric assays. Enzyme-linked immunosorbant assays (ELISA) for oxLDL and sCD36 were performed. Statistical analyses of data were performed with Wilcoxon- Mann Whitney and chi-square tests as well as with multinomial regression. TC, LDL-C, TG, oxLDL and sCD36 levels were higher in obese subjects than in normal-weight controls, as well as, monocyte and platelet counts (P < 0.05). Obese subjects had 5.8 times higher risk of sCD36 in the third tertil (>97.8 ng/mL) than normal-weight controls (P = 0.014), and 7.4 times higher risk of oxLDL levels in third tertile (>48 U/L) than control group. The subjects with hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, fasting impaired LDL-C had a higher risk of oxLDL levels in the third tertile (>48 U/L) than the control group (P < 0.05). Circulating CD36 and oxLDL levels are associated with cardiovascular risk factors in young subjects and may be potential early markers for cardiovascular disease (CVD).

  5. Association of T CD4 lymphocyte levels and subgingival microbiota of chronic periodontitis in HIV-infected Brazilians under HAART.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Lucio de Souza; Ferreira, Sônia Maria; Silva, Arley; Villoria, German Eduardo; Costinha, Lúcia Helena; Souto, Renata; Uzeda, Milton De; Colombo, Ana Paula

    2004-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the subgingival microbiota of HIV-infected patients with chronic periodontitis and different T CD4 lymphocyte levels under HAART. 64 HIV+ patients (mean age 34.5 +/- 7.3; 75% males) were distributed into Group I: chronic periodontitis (> or = 3 sites with probing pocket depth (PPD) and/or clinical attachment level (CAL) > or = 5 mm); and Group II: periodontal health (no sites with PPD > 3 mm and/or CAL > 4 mm). All subjects received conventional periodontal therapy. Periodontal clinical parameters were evaluated at 6 sites/tooth in all teeth at baseline and 4 months after therapy. The levels of T CD4 were obtained from the patient's medical record. Subgingival plaque samples were taken from the 6 sites with the largest pocket depth in each subject of Group I, and 6 randomly selected sites in subjects of Group II. The presence of 22 subgingival species was determined using the checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization method. Significant microbiological differences within and among groups were sought using Wilcoxon signed-rank and Mann-Whitney tests, respectively. Relationships between T CD4 levels and microbiological parameters were determined using Kruskal-Wallis test. Sixty-one percent of the HIV-infected patients represented AIDS cases, although 69% of them were periodontally healthy. The T CD4 lymphocyte mean level was 333 cells/mm3 and viral load was 12,815 +/- 24,607 copies/mm3. Yet, the prevalence of chronic periodontitis was relatively low (36%). Several periodontal pathogens, in particular T. forsythensis (P < .05), were more prevalent in HIV-positive patients with periodontitis than in HIV-positive subjects with periodontal health. Most of the species decreased in frequency after therapy, particularly P. gingivalis (P < .05). E. faecalis and F. nucleatum were significantly more prevalent in the subgingival microbiota of patients with chronic periodontitis and lower levels of T CD4 (P < .05), while beneficial species tended

  6. [Levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane internal exposure levels in pregnant women of Xiamen and influencing factors].

    PubMed

    Yu, X S; He, J; Chen, J H; Lai, Z B; Su, Y H; Shi, M M; Huang, Z X; Cheng, Q J; Ke, X Y; Zhao, B H

    2016-11-06

    Objective: To investigate the level of and factors influencing internal exposure to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in pregnant women. Methods: In all, 1 064 pregnant women were recruited in a hospital of Xiamen. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire to obtain data on sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle. Peripheral venous blood and cord blood samples were collected. Of the 1 064 pregnant women, 600 were enrolled in this study after completing the questionnaire and providing peripheral venous blood and cord blood. Among those women, 150 were selected randomly using a systematic sampling method. A gas chromatography coupled electron capture detector was used to determine the concentration of six DDT homologues: p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), o,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (o,p'-DDT), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p'-DDD), o,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (o,p'-DDD), p,p'-dichlorodiphenylethylene (p,p'-DDE), and o,p'-dichlorodiphenylethylene (o,p'-DDE) . Pregnant women were divided into two groups according to DDT concentration: a low concentration group (detection value≤P50) and a high concentration group (detection value>P50). multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze the association between the DDT levels and potential influencing factors which investigated in the questionnaire. Results: The detection rates of p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, o,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE and o,p'-DDE in the peripheral venous blood samples from the 150 pregnant women were 83.3% (125), 29.3% (44), 58.0% (87), 24.0% (36), 82.0% (123), and 34.7% (52), respectively. The median concentrations were 1.56, 0.03, 0.07, 0.03, 0.93 and 0.03 μg/ml, respectively. The detection rates of p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, o,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE and o,p'-DDE in the cord blood samples were 69.3% (104), 10.7% (16), 29.3% (44), 20.7% (31), 81.3% (122) and 45.3% (68), and the median concentrations were 0.41, 0.03, 0.03, 0.03, 0.42 and 0.03

  7. Relationship between circulating syndecan-1 levels (CD138s) and serum free light chains in monoclonal gammopathies.

    PubMed

    Cigliana, Giovanni; Torti, Eleonora; Gulli, Francesca; De Santis, Elena; Dell'Abate, Maria Teresa; Colacicco, Luigi; Pisani, Francesco; Conti, Laura; Basile, Umberto

    2015-04-23

    Monoclonal gammopathies encompass a wide range of diseases characterized by the monoclonal expansion of a B-cell clone. Despite emerging therapeutic strategies, chances of survival of patients who are affected are still scarce, which implies that new tools are necessary not only for the diagnosis but also for the follow-up of patients affected by such diseases. In this context, the use of free light chains (FLCs) has been incorporated into many guidelines. Likewise, tumor microenvironment is consistently gaining importance as role player in tumor pathogenesis. Specifically, Syndecan-1 (CD138), a heparan-sulfate proteoglycan is attracting interests as it is highly expressed and shed by myeloma plasma-cells. The aim of our study was to analyze CD138 levels in the serum of patients affected by multiple myeloma or light chain only disease, and to compare the values obtained with free light chain (FLC) kappa, lambda and FLC ratio in both groups of patients. 84 patients affected by Multiple Myeloma and Light Chain Myeloma were recruited for this study. Serum CD138 was assessed by ELISA (Diaclone Research, France) and FLC values were quantified by nephelometry (Freelite TM Human Kappa and Lambda Free Kits, The Binding Site, UK). Data was analyzed by GraphPad Prism software and Statgraph. We observed higher CD138 mean values in myeloma patients compared to the light chain only myeloma group. A positive linear regression of CD138 and FLC was observed in the light chain only cohort as opposed to myeloma patients which show an inverse trend. The study highlighted an existing relationship between FLCs and CD138 and wishes to seek also a correlation in order to rapidly and efficiently perform diagnosis and different diagnostic schemes.

  8. Factorial and Item-Level Invariance of an Emotional Intelligence Scale across Groups of International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chuang; Kim, Do-Hong; Ng, Kok-Mun

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the factorial and item-level invariance of Wong and Law's emotional intelligence scale (WLEIS) in a sample of 375 international students in U.S. universities. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and differential item functioning (DIF) analysis were employed at the test and item level, respectively. International students from…

  9. Factorial and Item-Level Invariance of an Emotional Intelligence Scale across Groups of International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chuang; Kim, Do-Hong; Ng, Kok-Mun

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the factorial and item-level invariance of Wong and Law's emotional intelligence scale (WLEIS) in a sample of 375 international students in U.S. universities. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and differential item functioning (DIF) analysis were employed at the test and item level, respectively. International students from…

  10. Time-motion analysis of international and national level futsal.

    PubMed

    Dogramaci, Sera N; Watsford, Mark L; Murphy, Aron J

    2011-03-01

    Futsal is the Fédération de Internationale Football Association's officially recognized five-a-side indoor soccer, which although increasing in popularity worldwide, lacks the Australian or other English language research necessary to enable the growth of the sport. The purpose of this study was to establish a comprehensive overview of the demands of futsal by a time-motion analysis on 8 Australian National Team players and 10 State League Team players over 4 futsal matches. The study analyzed 6 locomotor activity categories, focusing on total distance covered, total duration of activities, total frequency of activities, effort distance, and effort duration. The national team covered a 42% greater overall distance than the state league team. In terms of relative data normalized for match duration, only the standing duration value was significantly different between the teams. Furthermore, futsal players of elite and subelite level in Australia perform a change in activity every 8-9 seconds on the court, and the national team athletes attained a higher, yet nonsignificant, average match-play velocity. This may be because of the national futsal athletes participating in an extended game duration, potentially suggesting that higher levels of competition facilitate a higher intensity of match play and greater physiological demands on individual players. Apart from the differences in timing structure and overall metabolic work, there was no real difference between the levels of competition within the Australian futsal analysis, although at higher levels of competition, there may be a need for more recovery because of the elevated intensity of the match. When comparing the data with other countries, however, Australian futsal players produce less distance and duration than Spanish futsal players.

  11. Tet38 Efflux Pump Affects Staphylococcus aureus Internalization by Epithelial Cells through Interaction with CD36 and Contributes to Bacterial Escape from Acidic and Nonacidic Phagolysosomes.

    PubMed

    Truong-Bolduc, Q C; Khan, N S; Vyas, J M; Hooper, D C

    2017-02-01

    We previously reported that the Tet38 efflux pump is involved in internalization of Staphylococcus aureus by A549 lung epithelial cells. A lack of tet38 reduced bacterial uptake by A549 cells to 36% of that of the parental strain RN6390. Using invasion assays coupled with confocal microscopy imaging, we studied the host cell receptor(s) responsible for bacterial uptake via interaction with Tet38. We also assessed the ability of S. aureus to survive following alkalinization of the phagolysosomes by chloroquine. Antibody to the scavenger receptor CD36 reduced the internalization of S. aureus RN6390 by A549 cells, but the dependence on CD36 was reduced in QT7 tet38, suggesting that an interaction between Tet38 and CD36 contributed to S. aureus internalization. Following fusion of the S. aureus-associated endosomes with lysosomes, alkalinization of the acidic environment with chloroquine led to a rapid increase in the number of S. aureus RN6390 bacteria in the cytosol, followed by a decrease shortly thereafter. This effect of chloroquine was not seen in the absence of intact Tet38 in mutant QT7. These data taken together suggest that Tet38 plays a role both in bacterial internalization via interaction with CD36 and in bacterial escape from the phagolysosomes.

  12. Direct Observation of Landau Level Resonance and Mass Generation in Dirac Semimetal Cd3As2 Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiang; Cheng, Peihong; Zhang, Longqiang; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Junyong; Liu, Yanwen; Sun, Qingqing; Zhou, Peng; Zhang, David Wei; Hu, Zhigao; Wan, Xiangang; Yan, Hugen; Li, Zhiqiang; Xiu, Faxian

    2017-04-12

    Three-dimensional topological Dirac semimetals have hitherto stimulated unprecedented research interests as a new class of quantum materials. Breaking certain types of symmetries has been proposed to enable the manipulation of Dirac fermions, and that was soon realized by external modulations such as magnetic fields. However, an intrinsic manipulation of Dirac states, which is more efficient and desirable, remains a significant challenge. Here, we report a systematic study of quasi-particle dynamics and band evolution in Cd3As2 thin films with controlled chromium (Cr) doping by both magneto-infrared spectroscopy and electrical transport. We observe the √B relation of inter-Landau-level resonance in Cd3As2, an important signature of ultrarelativistic massless state inaccessible in previous optical experiments. A crossover from quantum to quasi-classical behavior makes it possible to directly probe the mass of Dirac fermions. Importantly, Cr doping allows for a Dirac mass acquisition and topological phase transition enabling a desired dynamic control of Dirac fermions. Corroborating with the density-functional theory calculations, we show that the mass generation can be explained by the explicit C4 rotation symmetry breaking and the resultant Dirac gap engineering through Cr substitution for Cd atoms. The manipulation of the system symmetry and Dirac mass in Cd3As2 thin films provides a tuning knob to explore the exotic states stemming from the parent phase of Dirac semimetals.

  13. Study on abnormal intra-field CD uniformity induced by Efese-tilt application upon complex leveling scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Guogui; Hao, Jingan; Cai, Boxiu; Xing, Bin; Yao, Xin; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Tianhui; Lin, Yi-Shih; Wu, Qiang; Shi, Xuelong

    2014-03-01

    Critical dimension uniformity (CDU) of hole layer is becoming more and more crucial and tightened alongside with the technology node being driven into 28 nm and beyond, since the critical dimension (CD) variation of 2-dimensional (2D) hole pattern is intrinsically harder to control than that of 1D pattern (line/space). As the process window becomes more marginal with the more advanced technology node, although at the cost of contrast loss, EFESE tilt (focus drilling method) is one handy trick for its DOF enhancement capability (1-3). We observed an abnormal up to 6 nm ADI CD trend-down in Y-direction (exposure scan direction) in the strictly repeated via-hole patterns within an about 8 mm x 6 mm chip in condition 1 wafer with pre-layer patterns (short as C1 wafer) where EFESE tilt is applied. No CD trend-down or trend up in X-direction. This C1 hole layer uses EFESE tilt to improve DOF. This CD trend-down phenomenon is thoroughly investigated and a model of "effective EFESE tilt" is proposed and verified. Based on the model, we made a further step into the assessment of another focus drilling method, i.e. EFESE High Range (HR) and evaluate its performance under the same complex leveling scheme. Through all this analysis, we give an insight of the safety zone for applying EFESE tilt for future reference.

  14. Microporous Cd(II) metal-organic framework as fluorescent sensor for nitroaromatic explosives at the sub-ppm level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xing-Po; Han, Lu-Lu; Wang, Zhi; Guo, Ling-Yu; Sun, Di

    2016-03-01

    A novel Cd(II) metal-organic framework (MOF) based on a rigid biphenyltetracarboxylic acid, [Cd4(bptc)2(DMA)4(H2O)2·4DMA] (1) was successfully synthesized under the solvothermal condition and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and further consolidated by elemental analyses, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), infrared spectra (IR) and luminescent measurements. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that compound 1 is 4-connected PtS (Point symbol: {42·84}) network based on [Cd2(COO)4] secondary building units (SBUs). Its inherent porous and emissive characteristics make them to be a suitable fluorescent probe to sense small solvents and nitroaromatic explosives. Compound 1 shows obviously solvent-dependent emissive behaviors, especially for acetone with very high fluorescence quenching effect. Moreover, compound 1 displays excellent sensing of nitroaromatic explosives at sub-ppm level, giving a detection limit of 0.43 ppm and 0.37 ppm for nitrobenzene (NB) and p-nitrotoluene (PNT), respectively. This shows this Cd(II) MOF can be used as fluorescence probe for the detection of nitroaromatic explosives.

  15. The effects of a CD-ROM textbook on student achievement and cognition-level attainment of undergraduate biology students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludrick, Brad Burton

    Purpose of the study. This study was designed to measure the effects of CD-ROM textbook integration on student achievement and student cognition-level-attainment for undergraduate general biology students. Four sections of general biology were selected as the study group. Two sections served as the experimental group receiving CD-ROM textbook integration. The remaining two sections served as the control group, and were taught biological content utilizing a traditional textbook. Procedure. This study employed a pre-experimental research design, static group comparison (Ary, Jacobs, & Razavieh, 1996: 331), to determine if a CD-ROM textbook had significant effects on student cognition-level-attainment and content achievement of undergraduate biology students. The study was conducted during the 2001 spring semester at Southeastern Oklahoma State University. The duration of the treatment was approximately sixteen weeks. Four sections of general biology (N = 101) were selected as the study group. Two of the four sections of general biology (n = 48) were randomly selected by the researcher via coin toss to serve as the experimental group, Group A, and were taught biological content utilizing a CD-ROM Textbook. The remaining two sections of general biology (n = 53) served as the control group, Group B, and were taught biological content utilizing a traditional textbook. Various statistical tests were used in analysis of the data. The ten null hypotheses were tested at the .05 level of significance. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences program (SPSS), version 9.0 (SPSS, 1999), was used to process the data. Results. The results determined by this study were the overall effects of the CD-ROM textbook did not significantly differ from the effects of the traditional textbook on student content achievement and cognition-level-attainment. Conclusions. The utilization of CD-ROM textbook instruction is not superior at improving student achievement of biology content, as

  16. Does provision of point-of-care CD4 technology and early knowledge of CD4 levels affect early initiation and retention on antiretroviral treatment in HIV-positive pregnant women in the context of Option B+ for PMTCT?

    PubMed

    Mangwiro, Alexio-Zambezi; Makomva, Kudzai; Bhattacharya, Antoinette; Bhattacharya, Gaurav; Gotora, Tendai; Owen, Mila; Mushavi, Angela; Mangwanya, Douglas; Zinyowera, Sekesai; Rusakaniko, Simbarashe; Mugurungi, Owen; Zizhou, Simukai; Busumani, William; Masuka, Nyasha

    2014-11-01

    Evidence for Elimination (E4E) is a collaborative project established in 2012 as part of the INSPIRE (INtegrating and Scaling up PMTCT through Implementation REsearch) initiative. E4E is a cluster-randomized trial with 2 arms; Standard of care and "POC Plus" [in which point-of-care (POC) CD4 devices and related counseling support are provided]; aimed at improving retention-in-care of HIV-infected pregnant women and mothers. In November 2013, Zimbabwe adopted Option B+ for HIV-positive pregnant women under which antiretroviral treatment eligibility is no longer based on CD4 count. However, Ministry of Health and Child Care guidelines still require baseline and 6-monthly CD4 testing for treatment monitoring, until viral load testing becomes widely available. Considering the current limited capacity for viral-load testing, the significant investments in CD4 testing already made and the historical reliance on CD4 by health care workers for determining eligibility for antiretroviral treatment, E4E seeks to compare the impact of the provision of POC CD4 technology and early knowledge of CD4 levels on retention-in-care at 12 months, with the current standard of routine, laboratory-based CD4 testing. The study also compares rates of initiation and time-to-initiation between the 2 arms and according to level of maternal CD4 count, the cost of retaining HIV-positive pregnant women in care and the acceptability and feasibility of POC CD4 in the context of Option B+. Outcome measures are derived from routine health systems data. E4E will provide data on POC CD4 testing and retention-in-care associated with Option B+ and serve as an early learning platform to inform implementation of Option B+ in Zimbabwe.

  17. Point Defects in Pb-, Bi-, and In-Doped CdZnTe Detectors: Deep-Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gul, R.; Keeter, K.; Rodriguez, R.; Bolotnikov, A. E.; Hossain, A.; Camarda, G. S.; Kim, K. H.; Yang, G.; Cui, Y.; Carcelen, V.; Franc, J.; Li, Z.; James, R. B.

    2012-03-01

    We studied, by current deep-level transient spectroscopy (I-DLTS), point defects induced in CdZnTe detectors by three dopants: Pb, Bi, and In. Pb-doped CdZnTe detectors have a new acceptor trap at around 0.48 eV. The absence of a VCd trap suggests that all Cd vacancies are compensated by Pb interstitials after they form a deep-acceptor complex [[PbCd]+-V{Cd/2-}]-. Bi-doped CdZnTe detectors had two distinct traps: a shallow trap at around 36 meV and a deep donor trap at around 0.82 eV. In detectors doped with In, we noted three well-known traps: two acceptor levels at around 0.18 eV (A-centers) and 0.31 eV (VCd), and a deep trap at around 1.1 eV.

  18. Molecular control of quantum-dot internal electric field and its application to CdSe-based solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaacobi-Gross, Nir; Soreni-Harari, Michal; Zimin, Marina; Kababya, Shifi; Schmidt, Asher; Tessler, Nir

    2011-12-01

    Inorganic nanocrystals are attractive materials for solar-cell applications. However, the performance of such devices is often limited by an insufficient alignment of energy levels in the nanocrystals. Here, we report that by attaching two different molecules to a single quantum dot or nanocrystal one can induce electric fields large enough to significantly alter the electronic and optoelectronic properties of the quantum dot. This electric field is created within the nanocrystals owing to a mixture of amine- and thiol-anchor-group ligands. Examining the steady state as well as temporal evolution of the optical properties and the nuclear magnetic resonances of the nanocrystals we found that the first excitonic peak shifts as a function of the capping-layer composition. We also demonstrate that the use of a mixed-ligand-induced electric field markedly enhances the charge generation efficiency in layer-by-layer CdSe-nanocrystal-based solar cells, thus improving the overall cell efficiency.

  19. Hot electron extraction from CdTe quantum dots via beta carotene molecular energy levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pazhanivel, T.; Nataraj, D.; Devarajan, V. P.; Senthil, K.; Seol, M.; Yong, K.

    2012-06-01

    We report our findings related to hot electron extraction from CdTe quantum dots, and we were able to do this by using beta carotene as an electron acceptor. Transient absorption spectra with two slow recovering negative bleaches at the absorption maximum of the molecule and quantum dot have indicated the slowing down of cooling process and the existence of hot carriers in this hybrid system.

  20. AEG-1 expression correlates with CD133 and PPP6c levels in human glioma tissues

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jia; Chen, Xin; Xi, Ruxing; Chang, Yuwei; Zhang, Xuanwei; Zhang, Xiaozhi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) is associated with tumor genesis and progression in a variety of human cancers. This study aimed to explore the significance of AEG-1 in glioma and investigate whether it correlated with radioresistance of glioma cells. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the intensity of AEG-1, CD133 and PPP6c protein expression in glioma tissues increased significantly, mainly in the cytoplasm. The expression rate of AEG-1, CD133 and PPP6c were 85.9% (67/78), 60.3% (47/78) and 65.8% (51/78), respectively. AEG-1 expression was correlated with age (r = 0.227, P = 0.045), clinical stage (r = 0.491, P<0.001) and clinical grade (r = 0.450, P<0.001). No correlation was found between AEG-1 expression and other clinicopathologic parameters (P>0.05). The expression of AEG-1 was positively correlated with the expression of CD133 (r = 0.240, P  =  0.035) and PPP6c (r =  0.250, P  =  0.027). In addition, retrieved data on TCGA implied co-occurrence of genomic alterations of AEG-1 and PPP6c in glioblastoma. Our findings indicate that AEG-1 is positively correlated with CD133 and AEG-1 expression. It may play an important role in the progression of glioma and may serve as potential novel marker of chemoresistance and radioresistance. PMID:25332711

  1. Potentially therapeutic levels of anti-sickling globin gene expression following lentivirus-mediated gene transfer in sickle cell disease bone marrow CD34+ cells.

    PubMed

    Urbinati, Fabrizia; Hargrove, Phillip W; Geiger, Sabine; Romero, Zulema; Wherley, Jennifer; Kaufman, Michael L; Hollis, Roger P; Chambers, Christopher B; Persons, Derek A; Kohn, Donald B; Wilber, Andrew

    2015-05-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) can be cured by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. However, this is only possible when a matched donor is available, making the development of gene therapy using autologous hematopoietic stem cells a highly desirable alternative. We used a culture model of human erythropoiesis to directly compare two insulated, self-inactivating, and erythroid-specific lentiviral vectors, encoding for γ-globin (V5m3-400) or a modified β-globin (βAS3-FB) for production of antisickling hemoglobin (Hb) and correction of red cell deformability after deoxygenation. Bone marrow CD34+ cells from three SCD patients were transduced using V5m3-400 or βAS3-FB and compared with mock-transduced SCD or healthy donor CD34+ cells. Lentiviral transduction did not impair cell growth or differentiation, as gauged by proliferation and acquisition of erythroid markers. Vector copy number averaged approximately one copy per cell, and corrective globin mRNA levels were increased more than sevenfold over mock-transduced controls. Erythroblasts derived from healthy donor and mock-transduced SCD cells produced a low level of fetal Hb that was increased to 23.6 ± 4.1% per vector copy for cells transduced with V5m3-400. Equivalent levels of modified normal adult Hb of 17.6 ± 3.8% per vector copy were detected for SCD cells transduced with βAS3-FB. These levels of antisickling Hb production were sufficient to reduce sickling of terminal-stage red blood cells upon deoxygenation. We concluded that the achieved levels of fetal Hb and modified normal adult Hb would likely prove therapeutic to SCD patients who lack matched donors. Copyright © 2015 ISEH - International Society for Experimental Hematology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. α1Proteinase Inhibitor Regulates CD4+ Lymphocyte Levels and Is Rate Limiting in HIV-1 Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bristow, Cynthia L.; Babayeva, Mariya A.; LaBrunda, Michelle; Mullen, Michael P.; Winston, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Background The regulation of adult stem cell migration through human hematopoietic tissue involves the chemokine CXCL12 (SDF-1) and its receptor CXCR4 (CD184). In addition, human leukocyte elastase (HLE) plays a key role. When HLE is located on the cell surface (HLECS), it acts not as a proteinase, but as a receptor for α1proteinase inhibitor (α1PI, α1antitrypsin, SerpinA1). Binding of α1PI to HLECS forms a motogenic complex. We previously demonstrated that α1PI deficiency attends HIV-1 disease and that α1PI augmentation produces increased numbers of immunocompetent circulating CD4+ lymphocytes. Herein we investigated the mechanism underlying the α1PI deficiency that attends HIV-1 infection. Methods and Findings Active α1PI in HIV-1 subjects (median 17 µM, n = 35) was significantly below normal (median 36 µM, p<0.001, n = 30). In HIV-1 uninfected subjects, CD4+ lymphocytes were correlated with the combined factors α1PI, HLECS+ lymphocytes, and CXCR4+ lymphocytes (r2 = 0.91, p<0.001, n = 30), but not CXCL12. In contrast, in HIV-1 subjects with >220 CD4 cells/µl, CD4+ lymphocytes were correlated solely with active α1PI (r2 = 0.93, p<0.0001, n = 26). The monoclonal anti-HIV-1 gp120 antibody 3F5 present in HIV-1 patient blood is shown to bind and inactivate human α1PI. Chimpanzee α1PI differs from human α1PI by a single amino acid within the 3F5-binding epitope. Unlike human α1PI, chimpanzee α1PI did not bind 3F5 or become depleted following HIV-1 challenge, consistent with the normal CD4+ lymphocyte levels and benign syndrome of HIV-1 infected chimpanzees. The presence of IgG-α1PI immune complexes correlated with decreased CD4+ lymphocytes in HIV-1 subjects. Conclusions This report identifies an autoimmune component of HIV-1 disease that can be overcome therapeutically. Importantly, results identify an achievable vaccine modification with the novel objective to protect against AIDS as opposed to the current objective to

  3. Systems Biological Analysis of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Internalization Dynamics for Altered Receptor Levels*

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt-Glenewinkel, Hannah; Reinz, Eileen; Eils, Roland; Brady, Nathan R.

    2009-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) overexpression is a hallmark of many cancers. EGFR endocytosis is a critical step in signal attenuation, raising the question of how receptor expression levels affect the internalization process. Here we combined quantitative experimental and mathematical modeling approaches to investigate the role of the EGFR expression level on the rate of receptor internalization. Using tetramethylrhodamine-labeled EGF, we established assays for quantifying EGF-triggered EGFR internalization by both high resolution confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. We determined that the flow cytometry approach was more sensitive for examining large populations of cells. Mathematical modeling was used to investigate the relationship between EGF internalization kinetics, EGFR expression, and internalization machinery. We predicted that the standard parameter used to assess internalization kinetics, the temporal evolution r(t) of the ratio of internalized versus surface-located ligand·receptor complexes, does not describe a straight line, as proposed previously. Instead, a convex or concave curve occurs depending on whether initial receptor numbers or internalization adaptors are limiting the uptake reaction, respectively. To test model predictions, we measured EGF-EGFR binding and internalization in cells expressing different levels of green fluorescent protein-EGFR. As expected, surface binding of rhodamine-labeled EGF increased with green fluorescent protein-EGFR expression level. Unexpectedly, internalization of ligand· receptor complexes increased linearly with increasing receptor expression level, suggesting that receptors and not internalization adaptors were limiting the uptake in our experimental model. Finally, determining the ratio of internalized versus surface-located ligand·receptor complexes for this cell line confirmed that it follows a convex curve, supporting our model predictions. PMID:19297331

  4. Monocyte expression and soluble levels of the haemoglobin receptor (CD163/sCD163) and the mannose receptor (MR/sMR) in septic and critically ill non-septic ICU patients.

    PubMed

    Kjærgaard, Anders G; Rødgaard-Hansen, Sidsel; Dige, Anders; Krog, Jan; Møller, Holger J; Tønnesen, Else

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of sepsis is challenging and there is an unmet need for sensitive and specific diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. Following activation of macrophages and monocytes, the haptoglobin-haemoglobin receptor (CD163) and the mannose receptor (MR) are shed into the circulation (sCD163 and sMR). We investigated monocyte expression of CD163 and MR, and levels of sCD163 and sMR in septic and non-septic patients, and in healthy controls. We hypothesised that these receptors are elevated during sepsis and can be used diagnostic and prognostic. Twenty-one patients with severe sepsis or septic shock and 15 critically ill non-septic patients were included in this prospective observational study at three ICUs at Aarhus University Hospital and Randers Regional Hospital, Denmark. Fifteen age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers served as controls. Levels of sCD163 and sMR were measured using a sandwich ELISA and monocyte expression of CD163 and MR was evaluated by flow cytometry during the first four days of ICU stay. The diagnostic and prognostic values of the receptors were assessed using AUROC curves. At ICU admission and during the observation period, monocyte expression of CD163 and levels of sCD163 and sMR were significantly higher in septic patients compared with non-septic patients and healthy controls (p<0.01 for all comparisons). Monocytes did not express MR. The diagnostic values estimated by AUROC were 1.00 for sMR, 0.95 for sCD163, 0.87 for CRP, and 0.75 for monocyte-bound CD163. Among the septic patients, monocyte expression of CD163 was higher in non-survivors compared with survivors at ICU admission (p = 0.02) and during the observation period (p = 0.006). The prognostic value of monocyte-bound CD163 estimated by AUROC at ICU admission was 0.82. The macrophage-specific markers CD163, sCD163, and sMR are increased in septic patients. Particularly sMR is a promising new biomarker of sepsis.

  5. IL-2 Modulates the TCR Signaling Threshold for CD8 but Not CD4 T Cell Proliferation on a Single-Cell Level.

    PubMed

    Au-Yeung, Byron B; Smith, Geoffrey Alexander; Mueller, James L; Heyn, Cheryl S; Jaszczak, Rebecca Garrett; Weiss, Arthur; Zikherman, Julie

    2017-03-15

    Lymphocytes integrate Ag and cytokine receptor signals to make cell fate decisions. Using a specific reporter of TCR signaling that is insensitive to cytokine signaling, Nur77-eGFP, we identify a sharp, minimal threshold of cumulative TCR signaling required for proliferation in CD4 and CD8 T cells that is independent of both Ag concentration and affinity. Unexpectedly, IL-2 reduces this threshold in CD8 but not CD4 T cells, suggesting that integration of multiple mitogenic inputs may alter the minimal requirement for TCR signaling in CD8 T cells. Neither naive CD4 nor naive CD8 T cells are responsive to low doses of IL-2. We show that activated CD8 T cells become responsive to low doses of IL-2 more quickly than CD4 T cells, and propose that this relative delay in turn accounts for the differential effects of IL-2 on the minimal TCR signaling threshold for proliferation in these populations. In contrast to Nur77-eGFP, c-Myc protein expression integrates mitogenic signals downstream of both IL-2 and the TCR, yet marks an invariant minimal threshold of cumulative mitogenic stimulation required for cell division. Our work provides a conceptual framework for understanding the regulation of clonal expansion of CD8 T cells by subthreshold TCR signaling in the context of mitogenic IL-2 signals, thereby rendering CD8 T cells exquisitely dependent upon environmental cues. Conversely, CD4 T cell proliferation requires an invariant minimal intensity of TCR signaling that is not modulated by IL-2, thereby restricting responses to low-affinity or low-abundance self-antigens even in the context of an inflammatory milieu.

  6. Unchanged Levels of Soluble CD14 and IL-6 Over Time Predict Serious Non-AIDS Events in HIV-1-Infected People.

    PubMed

    Sunil, Meena; Nigalye, Maitreyee; Somasunderam, Anoma; Martinez, Maria Laura; Yu, Xiaoying; Arduino, Roberto C; Utay, Netanya S; Bell, Tanvir K

    2016-12-01

    HIV-1-infected persons have increased risk of serious non-AIDS events (SNAEs) despite suppressive antiretroviral therapy. Increased circulating levels of soluble CD14 (sCD14), soluble CD163 (sCD163), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) at a single time point have been associated with SNAEs. However, whether changes in these biomarker levels predict SNAEs in HIV-1-infected persons is unknown. We hypothesized that greater decreases in inflammatory biomarkers would be associated with fewer SNAEs. We identified 39 patients with SNAEs, including major cardiovascular events, end stage renal disease, decompensated cirrhosis, non-AIDS-defining malignancies, and death of unknown cause, and age- and sex-matched HIV-1-infected controls. sCD14, sCD163, and IL-6 were measured at study enrollment (T1) and proximal to the event (T2) or equivalent duration in matched controls. Over ∼34 months, unchanged rather than decreasing levels of sCD14 and IL-6 predicted SNAEs. Older age and current illicit substance abuse, but not HCV coinfection, were associated with SNAEs. In a multivariate analysis, older age, illicit substance use, and unchanged IL-6 levels remained significantly associated with SNAEs. Thus, the trajectories of sCD14 and IL-6 levels predict SNAEs. Interventions to decrease illicit substance use may decrease the risk of SNAEs in HIV-1-infected persons.

  7. A High Level of Soluble CD40L Is Associated with P. aeruginosa Infection in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Adriana Ester; Jaime-Pérez, José Carlos; Cordero-Pérez, Paula; Galindo-Rodríguez, Gabriela; Muñoz-Espinosa, Linda Elsa; Villarreal-Villarreal, César Daniel; Mercado-Longoria, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the concentration of sCD40L, a product of platelet activation, correlates with the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the airway of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and to determine its possible clinical association. Sixty patients with CF, ranging in age from 2 months to 36 years, were studied. The demographics, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) genotype, spirometry measurements, radiographic and tomographic scans, platelet count in peripheral blood, sCD40L, IL-6, TNF-α and ICAM1 data were collected. Infection-colonization of the airway was evaluated using sputum and throat swab cultures; the levels of anti-Pseudomonas aeruginosa antibodies (Anti-PaAb) were evaluated. Patients with CF and chronic colonization had anti-PaAb values of 11.6 ± 2.1 ELISA units (EU) and sCD40L in plasma of 1530.9 ±1162.3 pg/mL; those with intermittent infection had 5.7 ± 2.7 EU and 2243.6 ± 1475.9 pg/mL; and those who were never infected had 3.46 ± 1.8 EU (p≤0.001) and 1008.1 ± 746.8 pg/mL (p≤0.01), respectively. The cutoff value of sCD40L of 1255 pg/mL was associated with an area under the ROC (receiver operating characteristic curve) of 0.84 (95% CI, 0.71 to 0.97), reflecting P. aeruginosa infection with a sensitivity of 73% and a specificity of 89%. Lung damage was determined using the Brasfield Score, the Bhalla Score, and spirometry (FVC%, FEV1%) and found to be significantly different among the groups (p≤0.001). Circulating sCD40L levels are increased in patients with cystic fibrosis and P. aeruginosa infection. Soluble CD40L appears to reflect infection and provides a tool for monitoring the evolution of lung deterioration.

  8. A High Level of Soluble CD40L Is Associated with P. aeruginosa Infection in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Jaime-Pérez, José Carlos; Cordero-Pérez, Paula; Galindo-Rodríguez, Gabriela; Muñoz-Espinosa, Linda Elsa; Villarreal-Villarreal, César Daniel; Mercado-Longoria, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the concentration of sCD40L, a product of platelet activation, correlates with the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the airway of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and to determine its possible clinical association. Methods Sixty patients with CF, ranging in age from 2 months to 36 years, were studied. The demographics, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) genotype, spirometry measurements, radiographic and tomographic scans, platelet count in peripheral blood, sCD40L, IL-6, TNF-α and ICAM1 data were collected. Infection-colonization of the airway was evaluated using sputum and throat swab cultures; the levels of anti-Pseudomonas aeruginosa antibodies (Anti-PaAb) were evaluated. Results Patients with CF and chronic colonization had anti-PaAb values of 11.6 ± 2.1 ELISA units (EU) and sCD40L in plasma of 1530.9 ±1162.3 pg/mL; those with intermittent infection had 5.7 ± 2.7 EU and 2243.6 ± 1475.9 pg/mL; and those who were never infected had 3.46 ± 1.8 EU (p≤0.001) and 1008.1 ± 746.8 pg/mL (p≤0.01), respectively. The cutoff value of sCD40L of 1255 pg/mL was associated with an area under the ROC (receiver operating characteristic curve) of 0.84 (95% CI, 0.71 to 0.97), reflecting P. aeruginosa infection with a sensitivity of 73% and a specificity of 89%. Lung damage was determined using the Brasfield Score, the Bhalla Score, and spirometry (FVC%, FEV1%) and found to be significantly different among the groups (p≤0.001). Conclusion Circulating sCD40L levels are increased in patients with cystic fibrosis and P. aeruginosa infection. Soluble CD40L appears to reflect infection and provides a tool for monitoring the evolution of lung deterioration. PMID:28030642

  9. Self inhibition of phagocytosis: the affinity of ‘Marker of Self’ CD47 for SIRPα dictates potency of inhibition but only at low expression levels

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Richard K.; Rodriguez, Pia L.; Discher, Dennis E.

    2010-01-01

    Phagocytes engulf foreign cells but not ‘self’ in part because self cells express CD47 as a ligand for signal regulatory protein SIRPα, which inhibits phagocytosis. Motivated by reports of upregulation of CD47 on both normal and cancerous stem cells [1] and also by polymorphisms in SIRPα [2], we show here that inhibition of engulfment correlates with affinity of CD47 for SIRPα – but only at low levels of CD47. One common human polymorph of SIRPα is studied and binds more strongly to human-CD47 than to mouse-CD47 (Kd ≈ 0.12 μM and 6.9 μM, respectively) and does not bind sheep red blood cells (RBC) – which are well-established targets of human macrophages; in comparison, a common mouse polymorph of SIRPα binds with similar affinity to human and mouse CD47 (Kd ≈ 0.22 μM). Using immunoglobulin (IgG)-opsonized particles with varying levels of either human- or mouse-CD47, the effective inhibition constants Ki for blocking phagocytosis are then determined with both human- and mouse-derived macrophages. Only human phagocytes show significant differences in man versus mouse Ki's and only at CD47 levels below normal densities for RBCs. While phospo-signaling through human-SIRPα shows similar trends, consistent again with the affinity differences, saturating levels of CD47 (> Ki) can signal and inhibit phagocytosis regardless of man versus mouse. Quantitative analyses here prompt more complete characterizations of both CD47 levels and SIRPα polymorphisms when attempting to study in vivo effects of these key proteins in innate immunity. PMID:20299253

  10. Different Levels of T-Cell Receptor Triggering Induce Distinct Functions in Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Virus-Specific Human CD4+ T-Cell Clones

    PubMed Central

    Diepolder, Helmut M.; Gruener, Norbert H.; Gerlach, J. Tilman; Jung, Maria-Christina; Wierenga, Eddy A.; Pape, Gerd R.

    2001-01-01

    CD4+ T cells play a major role in the host defense against viruses and intracellular microbes. During the natural course of such an infection, specific CD4+ T cells are exposed to a wide range of antigen concentrations depending on the body compartment and the stage of disease. While epitope variants trigger only subsets of T-cell effector functions, the response of virus-specific CD4+ T cells to various concentrations of the wild-type antigen has not been systematically studied. We stimulated hepatitis B virus core- and hepatitis C virus NS3-specific CD4+ T-cell clones which had been isolated from patients with acute hepatitis during viral clearance with a wide range of specific antigen concentrations and determined the phenotypic changes and the induction of T-cell effector functions in relation to T-cell receptor internalization. A low antigen concentration induced the expression of T-cell activation markers and adhesion molecules in CD4+ T-cell clones in the absence of cytokine secretion and proliferation. The expression of CD25, HLA-DR, CD69, and intercellular cell adhesion molecule 1 increased as soon as T-cell receptor internalization became detectable. A 30- to 100-fold-higher antigen concentration, corresponding to the internalization of 20 to 30% of T-cell receptor molecules, however, was required for the induction of proliferation as well as for gamma interferon and interleukin-4 secretion. These data indicate that virus-specific CD4+ T cells can respond to specific antigen in a graded manner depending on the antigen concentration, which may have implications for a coordinate regulation of specific CD4+ T-cell responses. PMID:11483723

  11. Detection and quantification limits: basic concepts, international harmonization, and outstanding ("low-level") issues.

    PubMed

    Currie, L A

    2004-01-01

    A brief review is given of concepts, basic definitions, and terminology for metrological detection and quantification capabilities, representing harmonized recommendations and norms of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), respectively. Treatment of the (low-level) blank and variance function are discussed in some detail, together with special problems arising with detection decisions and the reporting of low-level data. Key references to the international documents follow, as well as specialized references addressing very low-level counting data, skewed environmental blank distributions, and multiple and multivariate detection decisions.

  12. Plasma mitochondrial DNA levels are inversely associated with HIV-RNA levels and directly with CD4 counts: potential role as a biomarker of HIV replication.

    PubMed

    Pernas, Berta; Rego-Pérez, Ignacio; Tabernilla, Andrés; Balboa, Vanesa; Relaño, Sara; Grandal, Marta; Crespo, Manuel; Mena, Álvaro; Castro-Iglesias, Ángeles; Blanco, Francisco J; Poveda, Eva

    2017-08-31

    To evaluate plasma mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) levels among HIV-infected patients and its potential role as a biomarker of residual viral replication. HIV-infected patients on follow-up at a reference hospital in north-west Spain were selected. DNA was isolated from plasma samples and mtDNA levels were assessed using a quantitative real-time PCR assay. HIV-RNA levels and CD4+ cell counts were evaluated in the same blood samples used for plasma mtDNA quantification. Epidemiological and clinical variables were included for the analysis. A total of 235 HIV-infected patients were included. Mean plasma mtDNA levels were 217 ± 656 copies/μL for naive (31.9%) and 364 ± 939 copies/μL for HIV-infected patients receiving ART and with suppressed viraemia ( P  =   0.043). Among the latter, mean plasma mtDNA levels were 149 ± 440 copies/μL for those with low-level viraemia (LLV; HIV-RNA 20-200 copies/mL), 265 ± 723 copies/μL for those with detected-not-quantified (DNQ) viraemia (HIV-RNA <20 copies/mL) and 644 ± 1310 copies/μL for those with not-detected (ND) viraemia. Of note, a linear trend ( P  =   0.006) was observed among virologically suppressed (LLV, DNQ and ND) patients. ND patients had higher mtDNA levels compared with LLV patients ( P  =   0.057). Moreover, mtDNA levels were inversely associated with HIV-RNA levels (Spearman's rho -0.191, P  =   0.003) and directly associated with CD4+ counts (Spearman's rho 0.131, P  =   0.046). Increased plasma mtDNA levels are associated with lower HIV-RNA levels and higher CD4+ cell counts. Among ART-suppressed patients, mtDNA levels were significantly higher in those with complete virological suppression (ND) than in those with LLV. These data suggest that plasma mtDNA levels might serve as a biomarker of residual HIV replication.

  13. Abalone visceral extract inhibit tumor growth and metastasis by modulating Cox-2 levels and CD8+ T cell activity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Choong-Gu; Kwon, Ho-Keun; Ryu, Jae Ha; Kang, Sung Jin; Im, Chang-Rok; Ii Kim, Jae; Im, Sin-Hyeog

    2010-10-20

    Abalone has long been used as a valuable food source in East Asian countries. Although the nutritional importance of abalone has been reported through in vitro and in vivo studies, there is little evidence about the potential anti-tumor effects of abalone visceral extract. The aim of the present study is to examine anti-tumor efficacy of abalone visceral extract and to elucidate its working mechanism. In the present study, we used breast cancer model using BALB/c mouse-derived 4T1 mammary carcinoma and investigated the effect of abalone visceral extract on tumor development. Inhibitory effect against tumor metastasis was assessed by histopathology of lungs. Cox-2 productions by primary and secondary tumor were measured by real-time RT-PCR and immunoblotting (IB). Proliferation assay based on [3H]-thymidine incorporation and measurement of cytokines and effector molecules by RT-PCR were used to confirm tumor suppression efficacy of abalone visceral extract by modulating cytolytic CD8+ T cells. The cytotoxicity of CD8+ T cell was compared by JAM test. Oral administration of abalone visceral extract reduced tumor growth (tumor volume and weight) and showed reduced metastasis as confirmed by decreased level of splenomegaly (spleen size and weight) and histological analysis of the lung metastasis (gross analysis and histological staining). Reduced expression of Cox-2 (mRNA and protein) from primary tumor and metastasized lung was also detected. In addition, treatment of abalone visceral extract increased anti-tumor activities of CD8+ T cells by increasing the proliferation capacity and their cytolytic activity. Our results suggest that abalone visceral extract has anti-tumor effects by suppressing tumor growth and lung metastasis through decreasing Cox-2 expression level as well as promoting proliferation and cytolytic function of CD8+ T cells.

  14. Abalone visceral extract inhibit tumor growth and metastasis by modulating Cox-2 levels and CD8+ T cell activity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Abalone has long been used as a valuable food source in East Asian countries. Although the nutritional importance of abalone has been reported through in vitro and in vivo studies, there is little evidence about the potential anti-tumor effects of abalone visceral extract. The aim of the present study is to examine anti-tumor efficacy of abalone visceral extract and to elucidate its working mechanism. Methods In the present study, we used breast cancer model using BALB/c mouse-derived 4T1 mammary carcinoma and investigated the effect of abalone visceral extract on tumor development. Inhibitory effect against tumor metastasis was assessed by histopathology of lungs. Cox-2 productions by primary and secondary tumor were measured by real-time RT-PCR and immunoblotting (IB). Proliferation assay based on [3H]-thymidine incorporation and measurement of cytokines and effector molecules by RT-PCR were used to confirm tumor suppression efficacy of abalone visceral extract by modulating cytolytic CD8+ T cells. The cytotoxicity of CD8+ T cell was compared by JAM test. Results Oral administration of abalone visceral extract reduced tumor growth (tumor volume and weight) and showed reduced metastasis as confirmed by decreased level of splenomegaly (spleen size and weight) and histological analysis of the lung metastasis (gross analysis and histological staining). Reduced expression of Cox-2 (mRNA and protein) from primary tumor and metastasized lung was also detected. In addition, treatment of abalone visceral extract increased anti-tumor activities of CD8+ T cells by increasing the proliferation capacity and their cytolytic activity. Conclusions Our results suggest that abalone visceral extract has anti-tumor effects by suppressing tumor growth and lung metastasis through decreasing Cox-2 expression level as well as promoting proliferation and cytolytic function of CD8+ T cells. PMID:20961430

  15. CD56(bright) NK IL-7Rα expression negatively associates with HCV level, and IL-7-induced NK function is impaired during HCV and HIV infections.

    PubMed

    Judge, Chelsey J; Kostadinova, Lenche; Sherman, Kenneth E; Butt, Adeel A; Falck-Ytter, Yngve; Funderburg, Nicholas T; Landay, Alan L; Lederman, Michael M; Sieg, Scott F; Sandberg, Johan K; Anthony, Donald D

    2017-07-01

    Several lines of evidence support the concept that NK cells play an important role in control of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection via cytokine secretion and cytotoxicity. IL-7 is a homeostatic cytokine with a role in T cell development, activation, proliferation, and cytokine secretion. The IL-7Rα chain [cluster of differentiation (CD)127] is expressed on NK cells, with greatest abundance on the CD56(bright)CD16(dim/-) (CD56(bright)) subset. Here, we measured CD127 expression on CD56(bright), CD56(dim)CD16(+) (CD56(dim)), or CD56(neg)CD16(+) (CD56(neg)) NK cell subsets of 25 uninfected donors (UD); 34 chronic HCV-infected, treatment-naïve; 25 HIV-infected, virally suppressed on antiretroviral therapy (ART); and 42 HCV-HIV-coinfected subjects on ART. Interestingly, CD127 expression on CD56(bright) NK cells negatively correlated with HCV plasma levels in HCV monoinfection and HCV-HIV coinfection. IL-7 induced CD69 expression, as well as IFN-γ production, in CD56(bright) NK cells and also enhanced the IFN-α-induced CD69 expression on these cells. The latter was impaired in HIV infection. Furthermore, IL-7 induced B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) expression and cell cycling of CD56(bright) NK cells, and this effect was impaired in HCV- and HIV-infected subjects. Whereas IL-7-stimulated CD56(bright) NK cell degranulation appeared intact in all cohorts, we observed impaired IL-7-activated NK cell cytolytic function in HCV- and HIV-infected subjects. Finally, IL-7-induced phosphorylation of STAT-5 (pSTAT-5) signaling was impaired in NK cells of subjects with chronic viral infection, and this was reversible upon 6 mo of viral suppression with IFN-free HCV therapy. These results implicate that IL-7-dependent NK cell activation and effector function may be other host immune surveillance mechanisms that are impaired in viral infections. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  16. MicroRNA-150 modulates intracellular Ca (2+) levels in naïve CD8(+) T cells by targeting TMEM20.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Don; Jung, Hong-Ryul; Seo, Sang-Hwan; Oh, Se-Chan; Ban, Youngho; Tan, Xiaoxia; Min Kim, Jung; Hyun Lee, Sang; Koh, Duk-Su; Jung, Haiyoung; Park, Young-Jun; Ran Yoon, Suk; Doh, Junsang; Ha, Sang-Jun; Choi, Inpyo; Greenberg, Philip D

    2017-06-01

    Regulation of intracellular Ca(2+) signaling is a major determinant of CD8(+) T cell responsiveness, but the mechanisms underlying this regulation of Ca(2+) levels, especially in naïve CD8(+) T cells, are not fully defined. Here, we showed that microRNA-150 (miR-150) controls intracellular Ca(2+) levels in naïve CD8(+) T cells required for activation by suppressing TMEM20, a negative regulator of Ca(2+) extrusion. miR-150 deficiency increased TMEM20 expression, which resulted in increased intracellular Ca(2+) levels in naïve CD8(+) T cells. The subsequent increase in Ca(2+) levels induced expression of anergy-inducing genes, such as Cbl-b, Egr2, and p27, through activation of NFAT1, as well as reduced cell proliferation, cytokine production, and the antitumor activity of CD8(+) T cells upon antigenic stimulation. The anergy-promoting molecular milieu and function induced by miR-150 deficiency were rescued by reinstatement of miR-150. Additionally, knockdown of TMEM20 in miR-150-deficient naïve CD8(+) T cells reduced intracellular Ca(2+) levels. Our findings revealed that miR-150 play essential roles in controlling intracellular Ca(2+) level and activation in naïve CD8(+) T cells, which suggest a mechanism to overcome anergy induction by the regulation of intracellular Ca(2+) levels.

  17. Effect of Soil Amendments on Cd accumulation by Spinach from a Cd-Mineralized Soil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cadmium mineralized soils occur in many nations. When these soils are non-calcareous, crops and especially leafy vegetables such as lettuce and spinach accumulate levels of Cd which exceed international standards. Lockwood loam from Monterey Co., CA, has been found to cause excessive Cd in leafy veg...

  18. Normal CD4+ T lymphocyte levels in HIV seronegative individuals in the Manya/Yilo Krobo communities in the Eastern region of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Ampofo, William; Torpey, Kwasi; Mukadi, Y D; Koram, Kwadwo; Nolan, Kisten; Amenyah, Richard; Kaitoo, Ekow; Antwi, Phyllis; Ofori-Adjei, David; Lamptey, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the normal levels of CD4+ T lymphocytes in healthy individuals who were HIV seronegative in the Manya and Yilo Krobo Districts of Ghana's Eastern Region. This enabled comparisons with normal CD4 count ranges established by the World Health Organization (WHO). The study population consisted of 249 HIV-seronegative clients from a mobile free Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) service in communities of the two districts during a one-month period. The mean CD4 count of these individuals was 1067 cells/microl with women demonstrating higher baseline CD4 counts than men. This study found a WHO comparable HIV seronegative baseline CD4 count as well as gender-based differences in the CD4 count and CD4/CD8 ratio. Establishment of the adult baseline for the country provides important demographic data and indicates the appropriateness of current global treatment guidelines with regards to CD4 levels in Ghana.

  19. Decreased Circulating Interleukin-35 Levels Are Related to Interleukin-4-Producing CD8+ T Cells in Patients with Allergic Asthma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Li, Ping; Yang, Jiong

    2015-08-01

    Interleukin (IL)-35 is a newly discovered suppressive cytokine and has been shown to alleviate inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate immunomodulatory capacity of IL-35 in patients with allergic asthma. IL-35 mRNA expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). The frequencies of cytotoxic T cells (Tc)1, Tc2 and Tc17 cells were measured by flow cytometry. Plasma levels of IL-35, interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-4, and IL-17 were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The correlations between plasma IL-35 levels and Tc1, Tc2, and Tc17 cytokine production in allergic asthmatics (n = 25) and healthy controls (n = 12) were analyzed by Pearson's test. IL-35 protein and mRNA expression levels were down-regulated in allergic asthmatics compared with healthy controls. The frequencies of Tc2 and Tc17 cells were significantly increased in patients with asthma, and the frequency of Tc1 cells did not differ between asthmatic patients and healthy controls. Similarly, plasma levels of IL-4 and IL-17 were significantly increased in asthmatic patients, while there was no difference in IFN-γ levels between allergic asthma patients and healthy controls. More importantly, plasma IL-35 protein levels were negatively correlated with the frequency of IL-4-producing CD8+ T (Tc2) cells and with the IL-4 level in patients with allergic asthma. Our results suggest that decreased circulating IL-35 levels could contribute to the pathogenesis of allergic asthma by regulating CD8+ T cells.

  20. INTERIOR OF ALTITUDE CHAMBER L FROM 16’8” LEVEL OF INTERNAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF ALTITUDE CHAMBER L FROM 16’-8” LEVEL OF INTERNAL PLATFORMS, FACING NORTH - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Altitude Chambers, First Street, between Avenue D and Avenue E, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  1. INTERIOR OF ALTITUDE CHAMBER L FROM 6’4” LEVEL OF INTERNAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF ALTITUDE CHAMBER L FROM 6’-4” LEVEL OF INTERNAL PLATFORMS, FACING WEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Altitude Chambers, First Street, between Avenue D and Avenue E, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  2. DETAIL OF HEATER PANEL, 2’2” LEVEL OF INTERNAL PLATFORMS, ALTITUDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF HEATER PANEL, -2’-2” LEVEL OF INTERNAL PLATFORMS, ALTITUDE CHAMBER L, FACING NORTH - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Altitude Chambers, First Street, between Avenue D and Avenue E, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  3. INTERIOR OF ALTITUDE CHAMBER L FROM 6’4” LEVEL OF INTERNAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF ALTITUDE CHAMBER L FROM 6’-4” LEVEL OF INTERNAL PLATFORMS, FACING EAST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Altitude Chambers, First Street, between Avenue D and Avenue E, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  4. INTERIOR OF ALTITUDE CHAMBER L FROM 16’8” LEVEL OF INTERNAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF ALTITUDE CHAMBER L FROM 16’-8” LEVEL OF INTERNAL PLATFORMS, FACING SOUTH - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Altitude Chambers, First Street, between Avenue D and Avenue E, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  5. Heavy metal (Pd, Cd, Fe, Zn and Mn) levels in sediments from Nigerian Coastal waters.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguguah, N. M.

    2016-02-01

    Sediments collected during a pollution monitoring cruise carried out on Nigerian coastal waters by Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and Marine Research Lagos was analysed for heavy metals. A trawler MS Suzzannah with an on board GPS was used to locate bearings of 25 sampling points (N06o30 and E003o30). Eckman grab was deployed and used in collecting bottom sediments. The sediment were air dried and digested using the method of GEF GCLME. The samples were analysed in five replicates for heavy metals (Pd, Cd, Fe, Zn and Mn) using Varian AA 600 Atomic Absorption Spectrometer. The highest concentration of Pb was transect R (10.93) and the least concentration (0.059) was in transect C. The highest concentration of Cd was transect H (0.75) and the least concentration (0.044) was in transect C. The highest concentration of Fe was transect M (203.582) and the least concentration (2.232) was in transect C. The highest concentration of Zn was transect H (4.595) and the least concentration (0.174) was in transect F. The highest concentration of Mn was transect H (209.251) and the least concentration (0.167) was in transect C.

  6. Validation of cytogenetic risk groups according to International Prognostic Scoring Systems by peripheral blood CD34+FISH: results from a German diagnostic study in comparison with an international control group

    PubMed Central

    Braulke, Friederike; Platzbecker, Uwe; Müller-Thomas, Catharina; Götze, Katharina; Germing, Ulrich; Brümmendorf, Tim H.; Nolte, Florian; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Giagounidis, Aristoteles A. N.; Lübbert, Michael; Greenberg, Peter L.; Bennett, John M.; Solé, Francesc; Mallo, Mar; Slovak, Marilyn L.; Ohyashiki, Kazuma; Le Beau, Michelle M.; Tüchler, Heinz; Pfeilstöcker, Michael; Nösslinger, Thomas; Hildebrandt, Barbara; Shirneshan, Katayoon; Aul, Carlo; Stauder, Reinhard; Sperr, Wolfgang R.; Valent, Peter; Fonatsch, Christa; Trümper, Lorenz; Haase, Detlef; Schanz, Julie

    2015-01-01

    International Prognostic Scoring Systems are used to determine the individual risk profile of myelodysplastic syndrome patients. For the assessment of International Prognostic Scoring Systems, an adequate chromosome banding analysis of the bone marrow is essential. Cytogenetic information is not available for a substantial number of patients (5%–20%) with dry marrow or an insufficient number of metaphase cells. For these patients, a valid risk classification is impossible. In the study presented here, the International Prognostic Scoring Systems were validated based on fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses using extended probe panels applied to cluster of differentiation 34 positive (CD34+) peripheral blood cells of 328 MDS patients of our prospective multicenter German diagnostic study and compared to chromosome banding results of 2902 previously published patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. For cytogenetic risk classification by fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses of CD34+ peripheral blood cells, the groups differed significantly for overall and leukemia-free survival by uni- and multivariate analyses without discrepancies between treated and untreated patients. Including cytogenetic data of fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses of peripheral CD34+ blood cells (instead of bone marrow banding analysis) into the complete International Prognostic Scoring System assessment, the prognostic risk groups separated significantly for overall and leukemia-free survival. Our data show that a reliable stratification to the risk groups of the International Prognostic Scoring Systems is possible from peripheral blood in patients with missing chromosome banding analysis by using a comprehensive probe panel (clinicaltrials.gov identifier:01355913). PMID:25344522

  7. CD41 T cell recovery during suppression of HIV replication: an international comparison of the immunological efficacy of antiretroviral therapy in North America, Asia and Africa.

    PubMed

    Geng, Elvin H; Neilands, Torsten B; Thièbaut, Rodolphe; Bwana, Mwebesa Bosco; Nash, Denis; Moore, Richard D; Wood, Robin; Zannou, Djimon Marcel; Althoff, Keri N; Lim, Poh Lian; Nachega, Jean B; Easterbrook, Philippa J; Kambugu, Andrew; Little, Francesca; Nakigozi, Gertrude; Nakanjako, Damalie; Kiggundu, Valerian; Ki Li, Patrick Chung; Bangsberg, David R; Fox, Matthew P; Prozesky, HansW; Hunt, Peter W; Davies, Mary-Ann; Reynolds, Steven J; Egger, Matthias; Yiannoutsos, Constantin T; Vittinghoff, Eric V; Deeks, Steven G; Martin, Jeffrey N

    2015-02-01

    Even among HIV-infected patients who fully suppress plasma HIV RNA replication on antiretroviral therapy, genetic (e.g. CCL3L1 copy number), viral (e.g. tropism) and environmental (e.g. chronic exposure to microbial antigens) factors influence CD4 recovery. These factors differ markedly around the world and therefore the expected CD4 recovery during HIV RNA suppression may differ globally. We evaluated HIV-infected adults from North America, West Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa and Asia starting non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitorbased regimens containing efavirenz or nevirapine, who achieved at least one HIV RNA level <500/ml in the first year of therapy and observed CD4 changes during HIV RNA suppression. We used a piecewise linear regression to estimate the influence of region of residence on CD4 recovery, adjusting for socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. We observed 28 217 patients from 105 cohorts over 37 825 person-years. After adjustment, patients from East Africa showed diminished CD4 recovery as compared with other regions. Three years after antiretroviral therapy initiation, the mean CD4 count for a prototypical patient with a pre-therapy CD4 count of 150/ml was 529/ml [95% confidence interval (CI): 517–541] in North America, 494/ml (95% CI: 429–559) in West Africa, 515/ml (95% CI: 508–522) in Southern Africa, 503/ml (95% CI: 478–528) in Asia and 437/ml (95% CI: 425–449) in East Africa. CD4 recovery during HIV RNA suppression is diminished in East Africa as compared with other regions of the world, and observed differences are large enough to potentially influence clinical outcomes. Epidemiological analyses on a global scale can identify macroscopic effects unobservable at the clinical, national or individual regional level.

  8. Soluble CD163 levels are elevated in cerebrospinal fluid and serum in people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus and are associated with impaired peripheral nerve function.

    PubMed

    Kallestrup, M; Møller, H J; Tankisi, H; Andersen, H

    2015-01-01

    To measure soluble CD163 levels in the cerebrospinal fluid and serum of people with Type 2 diabetes, with and without polyneuropathy, and to relate the findings to peripheral nerve function. A total of 22 people with Type 2 diabetes and 12 control subjects without diabetes were included in this case-control study. Participants with diabetes were divided into those with neuropathy (n = 8) and those without neuropathy (n = 14) based on clinical examination, vibratory perception thresholds and nerve conduction studies. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid soluble CD163 levels were analysed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Soluble CD163 levels were significantly higher in the cerebrospinal fluid and serum of the participants with Type 2 diabetes compared with the control participants [cerebrospinal fluid: median (range) 107 (70-190) vs 84 (54-115) μg/l, P < 0.01 and serum: 2305 (920-7060) vs 1420 (780-2740) μg/l, P < 0.01). Cerebrospinal fluid soluble CD163 was positively related to impaired peripheral nerve conduction (nerve conduction study rank score: r = 0.42; P = 0.0497) and there was a trend for higher levels of soluble CD163 in the cerebrospinal fluid and serum in participants with neuropathy than in those without neuropathy [cerebrospinal fluid: median (range) 131 (86-173) vs 101 (70-190) μg/l, P = 0.08 and serum: 3725 (920-7060) vs 2220 (1130-4780), P = 0.06). Cerebrospinal fluid soluble CD163 level is associated with impaired peripheral nerve function. Higher levels of soluble CD163 in people with diabetic polyneuropathy suggest that inflammation plays a role in the development of neural impairment. The relationship between cerebrospinal fluid soluble CD163 level and peripheral nerve conduction indicates that soluble CD163 may be a potential biomarker for the severity of diabetic polyneuropathy. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.

  9. Effects of Pb plus Cd mixtures on toxicity, and internal electrolyte and osmotic balance in the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Clemow, Yvonne H; Wilkie, Michael P

    2015-04-01

    The physiological and toxicological effects of Cd and Pb have been thoroughly studied, but relatively little work has been done to determine how mixtures of these metals affect fishes in soft (<100 μmol L(-1)Ca(2+)) slightly acidic (pH ∼6) waters typical of many lakes in the Canadian Shield and other regions. Recently, it has been suggested that acute exposure to Cd plus Pb mixtures (3h) had greater than additive effects on both Ca(2+) and Na(+) influx, which could potentially exacerbate disturbances to ion balance and result in greater toxicity in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The goal of the present study was to test this hypothesis by assessing the physiological and toxicological effects of Cd plus Pb mixtures over longer time periods (3-5 days), but at relatively low, more environmentally relevant concentrations of these metals. Accordingly, toxicity and measurements of blood acid-base regulation (PaO2, pHa), hematology (Ht, Hb, MCHC, and Protein), ionic composition (body ions and plasma Ca(2+), Na(+), Cl(-), osmolality), unidirectional Na(+) fluxes and branchial Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity were measured in rainbow trout exposed to Cd plus Pb mixtures. Experiments on rainbow trout, implanted with dorsal aortic catheters for repetitive blood sampling, demonstrated that exposure to Pb alone (26 nmol PbL(-1)) was less toxic than Cd alone (6 nmol CdL(-1)), which was much less toxic to the fish than a Cd plus Pb mixture (7 nmol CdL(-1) plus 45 nmol PbL(-1)), which led to greater than additive 80% mortality by 5d. Both Cd and Pb inhibited Na(+) influx over 3d exposure to the metals, which was partially offset by decreases in the diffusive efflux (outflux) of Na(+) across the gill. Despite an absence of detectable effects of Pb alone on plasma ion balance, Cd plus Pb mixtures exacerbated Cd-induced reductions in plasma Ca(2+) concentration, and resulted in pronounced reductions in plasma Na(+), Cl(-), and osmolality. No effects on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity

  10. Trace level determination of u, zn, cd, pb and cu in drinking water samples.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Mukesh; Singh, Surinder; Mahajan, Rakesh Kumar

    2006-01-01

    The concentration of uranium has been assessed in drinking water samples collected from different locations in Bathinda district, Punjab, India. The water samples are taken from hand pumps and tube wells. Uranium is determined using fission track technique. Uranium concentration in the water samples varies from 2.23+/- 0.05 to 87.05+/- 0.29 microg/L. These values are compared with safe limit values recommended for drinking water. The uranium concentration in almost all drinking water samples is found to be more than the safe limit. Analysis of some heavy metals viz. Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu in water is made. The concentration of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chlorine and total hardness along with the pH value and conductivity of the water samples are measured. Some of the samples show stunningly high values of these parameters.

  11. Elimination of cadmium from Cd-contaminated Tilapia zilli in media containing EDTA and freshwater: Changes in protein levels

    SciTech Connect

    Kargin, F.

    1996-10-01

    Cadmium is not an essential metal for aquatic organisms. It enters the aquatic environment through anthropogenic sources such as industry and agriculture. Kay et al. indicated that in the USA and Belgium 40-50% of Salmo gairdneri contained 1-20 {mu}g Cd/L. Various agents are known to reduce metal accumulation in tissues of aquantic animals. This study investigates cadmium elimination from the tissues of cadmium contaminated Tilapia zilli and changes in protein levels in the tissues after exposures to cadmium, EDTA and freshwater. 18 refs., 2 tabs.

  12. β decay of semi-magic 130Cd: Revision and extension of the level scheme of 130In

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungclaus, A.; Grawe, H.; Nishimura, S.; Doornenbal, P.; Lorusso, G.; Simpson, G. S.; Söderström, P.-A.; Sumikama, T.; Taprogge, J.; Xu, Z. Y.; Baba, H.; Browne, F.; Fukuda, N.; Gernhäuser, R.; Gey, G.; Inabe, N.; Isobe, T.; Jung, H. S.; Kameda, D.; Kim, G. D.; Kim, Y.-K.; Kojouharov, I.; Kubo, T.; Kurz, N.; Kwon, Y. K.; Li, Z.; Sakurai, H.; Schaffner, H.; Shimizu, Y.; Steiger, K.; Suzuki, H.; Takeda, H.; Vajta, Zs.; Watanabe, H.; Wu, J.; Yagi, A.; Yoshinaga, K.; Benzoni, G.; Bönig, S.; Chae, K. Y.; Coraggio, L.; Daugas, J.-M.; Drouet, F.; Gadea, A.; Gargano, A.; Ilieva, S.; Itaco, N.; Kondev, F. G.; Kröll, T.; Lane, G. J.; Montaner-Pizá, A.; Moschner, K.; Mücher, D.; Naqvi, F.; Niikura, M.; Nishibata, H.; Odahara, A.; Orlandi, R.; Patel, Z.; Podolyák, Zs.; Wendt, A.

    2016-08-01

    The β decay of the semi-magic nucleus 130Cd has been studied at the RIBF facility at the RIKEN Nishina Center. The high statistics of the present experiment allowed for a revision of the established level scheme of 130In and the observation of additional β feeding to high-lying core-excited states in 130In. The experimental results are compared to shell-model calculations employing a model space consisting of the full major N =50 - 82 neutron and Z =28 - 50 proton shells and the NA-14 interaction, and good agreement is found.

  13. Immune memory in CD4+ CD45RA+ T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Richards, D; Chapman, M D; Sasama, J; Lee, T H; Kemeny, D M

    1997-01-01

    This study addresses the question of whether human peripheral CD4+ CD45RA+ T cells possess antigen-specific immune memory. CD4+ CD45RA+ T cells were isolated by a combination of positive and negative selection. Putative CD4+ CD45RA+ cells expressed CD45RA (98.9%) and contained < 0.1% CD4+ CD45RO+ and < 0.5% CD4+ CD45RA+ CD45RO+ cells. Putative CD45RO+ cells expressed CD45RO (90%) and contained 9% CD45RA+ CD45RO+ and < 0.1% CD4+ CD45RA+ cells. The responder frequency of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus-stimulated CD4+ CD45RA+ and CD4+ CD45RO+ T cells was determined in two atopic donors and found to be 1:11,314 and 1:8031 for CD4+ CD45RA+ and 1:1463 and 1:1408 for CD4+ CD45RO+ T cells. The responder frequencies of CD4+ CD45RA+ and CD4+ CD45RO+ T cells from two non-atopic, but exposed, donors were 1:78031 and 1:176,903 for CD4+ CD45RA+ and 1:9136 and 1:13,136 for CD4+ CD45RO+ T cells. T cells specific for D. pteronyssinus were cloned at limiting dilution following 10 days of bulk culture with D. pteronyssinus antigen. Sixty-eight clones were obtained from CD4+ CD45RO+ and 24 from CD4+ CD45RA+ T cells. All clones were CD3+ CD4+ CD45RO+ and proliferated in response to D. pteronyssinus antigens. Of 40 clones tested, none responded to Tubercule bacillus purified protein derivative (PPD). No difference was seen in the pattern of interleukin-4 (IL-4) or interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) producing clones derived from CD4+ CD45RA+ and CD4+ CD45RO+ precursors, although freshly isolated and polyclonally activated CD4+ CD45RA+ T cells produced 20-30-fold lower levels of IL-4 and IFN-gamma than their CD4+ CD45RO+ counterparts. Sixty per cent of the clones used the same pool of V beta genes. These data support the hypothesis that immune memory resides in CD4+ CD45RA+ as well as CD4+ CD45RO+ T cells during the chronic immune response to inhaled antigen. PMID:9301520

  14. Plasma levels of soluble CD30 are increased in children with chronic renal failure and with primary growth deficiency and decrease during treatment with recombination human growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Barbano, G; Cappa, F; Prigione, I; Pistoia, V; Cohen, A; Chiesa, S; Gusmano, R; Perfumo, F

    2001-09-01

    Previous studies have suggested that in vivo Th2 lymphocyte activation is related to increased soluble CD30 (sCD30) plasma levels. As various hormones (dehydroepiandrosterone, glucocorticoids, progesterone) can regulate the Th1/Th2 balance, and because growth hormone (GH) enhances lymphocyte function, we measured sCD30 plasma levels, before and after treatment with recombinant human GH (rhGH), in children with growth failure due to chronic renal failure (CRF) or to isolated GH deficiency in order to evaluate the potential effects of rhGH treatment on Th1/Th2 balance. sCD30 plasma levels were determined by ELISA assay in 30 children with CRF (mean age 10.7+/-3.7 years), in five children with isolated GH deficiency (mean age 11.4+/-2.6 years), and in 10 normal controls (mean age 10.1+/-3.5 years). sCD30 levels were higher in the 30 children with CRF than in the 10 controls (179.8+/-79.4 vs 11.3+/-10.9 U/ml, P<0.001) exhibiting an inverse correlation with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (r=-0.7860, P<0.001). In 11 children with CRF, after 19.9+/-16.7 months of rhGH treatment, a decrease of sCD30 plasma level (170+/-50 vs 134+/-49 U/ml, P<0.01) was observed. The five children with primary GH deficiency had higher sCD30 plasma level than controls (mean 147+/-105 vs 11+/-10 U/ml, P<0.004) and sCD30 plasma levels decreased to 95.2+/-109.6 U/ml after rhGH treatment. The finding that rhGH treatment decreased sCD30 plasma levels in children with CRF, and that children with primary GH deficiency had higher sCD30 plasma levels than controls, suggest that GH may regulate CD30 expression and possibly the balance of Th1/Th2. Whether the uraemia-induced increase in sCD30 is due to decreased renal excretion, to overproduction or both, remains to be determined.

  15. Plasma Levels of Neopterin and C-Reactive Protein (CRP) in Tuberculosis (TB) with and without HIV Coinfection in Relation to CD4 Cell Count.

    PubMed

    Skogmar, Sten; Schön, Thomas; Balcha, Taye Tolera; Sturegård, Erik; Jansson, Marianne; Björkman, Per

    2015-01-01

    While the risk of TB is elevated in HIV-positive subjects with low CD4 cell counts, TB may in itself be associated with CD4 lymphocytopenia. We investigated markers of immune activation (neopterin) and inflammation (CRP) in TB patients with and without HIV coinfection and their association with CD4 cell levels, and determined their predictive capacity as alternative markers of advanced immunosuppression. Participants selected from a cohort of adults with TB at Ethiopian health centers (195 HIV+/TB+, 170 HIV-/TB+) and 31 controls were tested for plasma levels of neopterin and CRP. Baseline levels of neopterin and CRP were correlated to CD4 cell count before and after anti-TB treatment (ATT). The performance to predict CD4 cell strata for both markers were investigated using receiver operating curves. Levels of both biomarkers were elevated in TB patients (neopterin: HIV+/TB+ 54 nmol/l, HIV-/TB+ 23 nmol/l, controls 3.8 nmol/l; CRP: HIV+/TB+ 36 μg/ml, HIV-/TB+ 33 μg/ml, controls 0.5 μg/ml). Neopterin levels were inversely correlated (-0.53, p<0.001) to CD4 cell count, whereas this correlation was weaker for CRP (-0.25, p<0.001). Neither of the markers had adequate predictive value for identification of subjects with CD4 cell count <100 cells/mm3 (area under the curve [AUC] 0.64 for neopterin, AUC 0.59 for CRP). Neopterin levels were high in adults with TB, both with and without HIV coinfection, with inverse correlation to CD4 cell count. This suggests that immune activation may be involved in TB-related CD4 lymphocytopenia. However, neither neopterin nor CRP showed promise as alternative tests for immunosuppression in patients coinfected with HIV and TB.

  16. Plasma Levels of Neopterin and C-Reactive Protein (CRP) in Tuberculosis (TB) with and without HIV Coinfection in Relation to CD4 Cell Count

    PubMed Central

    Skogmar, Sten; Schön, Thomas; Balcha, Taye Tolera; Sturegård, Erik; Jansson, Marianne; Björkman, Per

    2015-01-01

    Background While the risk of TB is elevated in HIV-positive subjects with low CD4 cell counts, TB may in itself be associated with CD4 lymphocytopenia. We investigated markers of immune activation (neopterin) and inflammation (CRP) in TB patients with and without HIV coinfection and their association with CD4 cell levels, and determined their predictive capacity as alternative markers of advanced immunosuppression. Methods Participants selected from a cohort of adults with TB at Ethiopian health centers (195 HIV+/TB+, 170 HIV-/TB+) and 31 controls were tested for plasma levels of neopterin and CRP. Baseline levels of neopterin and CRP were correlated to CD4 cell count before and after anti-TB treatment (ATT). The performance to predict CD4 cell strata for both markers were investigated using receiver operating curves. Results Levels of both biomarkers were elevated in TB patients (neopterin: HIV+/TB+ 54 nmol/l, HIV-/TB+ 23 nmol/l, controls 3.8 nmol/l; CRP: HIV+/TB+ 36 μg/ml, HIV-/TB+ 33 μg/ml, controls 0.5 μg/ml). Neopterin levels were inversely correlated (-0.53, p<0.001) to CD4 cell count, whereas this correlation was weaker for CRP (-0.25, p<0.001). Neither of the markers had adequate predictive value for identification of subjects with CD4 cell count <100 cells/mm3 (area under the curve [AUC] 0.64 for neopterin, AUC 0.59 for CRP). Conclusion Neopterin levels were high in adults with TB, both with and without HIV coinfection, with inverse correlation to CD4 cell count. This suggests that immune activation may be involved in TB-related CD4 lymphocytopenia. However, neither neopterin nor CRP showed promise as alternative tests for immunosuppression in patients coinfected with HIV and TB. PMID:26630153

  17. New insight into the 1.1-eV trap level in CdTe-based semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K. H.; Choi, J. H.; Bolotnikov, A. E.; Camarda, G. S.; Hossain, A.; Yang, G.; Cui, Y.; James, R. B.

    2013-02-01

    We investigated trap levels in detector-grade CdZnTe (CZT) material grown by using three different methods, viz, the Bridgman, traveling heater method (THM), and high-pressure Bridgman method (HPB), by current deep-level transient spectroscopy (I-DLTS). All CZT detectors contained deep trap levels located at around 1.1 eV (which we designated DE1), which has been attributed to Te vacancies induced one. However, our crystal growth and characterization results indicated that dislocations induced by Te secondary defects (inclusions/precipitates)were a more probable origin than Te vacancies. Also, a theoretical calculation of the electron de-trapping time associated with DE1 can explain well the abnormal residual current behavior at temperatures slightly above room temperature. Our results show better control of the concentrations and the sizes of Te secondary defects is critical to improving the detector's performance at room temperature by reducing lagging effects.

  18. The expression levels of CD44v6 are correlated with the invasiveness of hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro, but do not appear to be clinically significant.

    PubMed

    Mima, Kosuke; Okabe, Hirohisa; Ishimoto, Takatsugu; Hayashi, Hiromitsu; Nakagawa, Shigeki; Kuroki, Hideyuki; Miyake, Keisuke; Takamori, Hiroshi; Beppu, Toru; Baba, Hideo

    2012-05-01

    The finding that the expression of a variant isoform of CD44 induced a metastatic phenotype in locally growing tumor cells has attracted considerable attention. A number of studies have analyzed the expression of CD44v6 in human tumors of different origins. However, the findings of these studies have been controversial. Therefore, in the present study, we assessed the association between CD44v6 expression and the invasive capacity of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines and also investigated the clinical significance of CD44v6 in 150 HCC patients by immunohistochemical analysis. The HCC cell lines with a high CD44v6 expression, including HLF, HLE and SK HEP-1, showed high invasive potential, whereas those with a low CD44v6 expression, including PLC/PRF/5 and HuH1, showed low invasiveness. Despite these observations, we did not find any significant correlation between CD44v6 expression and clinicopathological factors in patients. By contrast, there was a weak correlation between a low CD44v6 expression and vascular invasion in HCC patients (P=0.080). Kaplan-Meier curves revealed that a high CD44v6 expression was not significantly associated with disease-free survival (P=0.736) or overall survival (P=0.736). Our study suggests that the expression levels of CD44v6 are correlated with the invasiveness of HCC in vitro, but do not appear to be clinically significant. Future experiments should investigate the role of the various CD44 isoforms, including the CD44 standard isoform, in HCC cell lines and in patients with HCC.

  19. Hydration level is an internal variable for computing motivation to obtain water rewards in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Minamimoto, Takafumi; Yamada, Hiroshi; Hori, Yukiko; Suhara, Tetsuya

    2012-05-01

    In the process of motivation to engage in a behavior, valuation of the expected outcome is comprised of not only external variables (i.e., incentives) but also internal variables (i.e., drive). However, the exact neural mechanism that integrates these variables for the computation of motivational value remains unclear. Besides, the signal of physiological needs, which serves as the primary internal variable for this computation, remains to be identified. Concerning fluid rewards, the osmolality level, one of the physiological indices for the level of thirst, may be an internal variable for valuation, since an increase in the osmolality level induces drinking behavior. Here, to examine the relationship between osmolality and the motivational value of a water reward, we repeatedly measured the blood osmolality level, while 2 monkeys continuously performed an instrumental task until they spontaneously stopped. We found that, as the total amount of water earned increased, the osmolality level progressively decreased (i.e., the hydration level increased) in an individual-dependent manner. There was a significant negative correlation between the error rate of the task (the proportion of trials with low motivation) and the osmolality level. We also found that the increase in the error rate with reward accumulation can be well explained by a formula describing the changes in the osmolality level. These results provide a biologically supported computational formula for the motivational value of a water reward that depends on the hydration level, enabling us to identify the neural mechanism that integrates internal and external variables.

  20. CD154 expression is associated with neutralizing antibody titer levels post- Influenza vaccination in stem cell transplant patients and healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Seidel, Aprille; Smith, David; Yung, Edward; Aquino, Lia; Srivastava, Tumul; Pullarkat, Vinod; Spielberger, Ricardo; Forman, Stephen J.; Diamond, Don J.

    2010-01-01

    Background We undertook a prospective longitudinal study to examine humoral and cellular immune responses to influenza vaccination in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) patients and healthy adults. Methods Healthy volunteers and HCT patients had blood samples taken prior to influenza vaccination and 30, 90, and 180 days post-vaccination. Serum from pre and post-vaccination time points were tested for influenza A IgG and IgM by ELISA as well as tested for neutralizing antibody (NAb) titers via hemagluttination inhibition assay. Polychromatic flow cytometry was used to examine CD4+ T cells for levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, and CD154 (CD40 ligand) expression after stimulation with inactivated flu virus. Results In healthy subjects, we found a significant increase in Influenza A IgG and IgM levels as well as an increase in NAb titers pre and post-influenza vaccination. Notably, NAb titers of most HCT patients did not rise to a protective level post-vaccination. CD4+ T cell expression of CD154 and cytokine responses were significantly reduced in HCT recipients compared to healthy adults. Conclusions A lack of B cell reconstitution and dysfunctional CD4 T cell co-stimulation (as marked by low CD154 expression) is associated with low NAb levels post-vaccination in HCT patients. PMID:20457264

  1. Increased Serum CD14 Level Is Associated with Depletion of TNF-α in Monocytes in Migraine Patients during Interictal Period.

    PubMed

    Michalak, Slawomir; Kalinowska-Lyszczarz, Alicja; Wegrzyn, Danuta; Niezgoda, Adam; Losy, Jacek; Osztynowicz, Krystyna; Kozubski, Wojciech

    2017-02-13

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the levels of circulating CD14 in relation to the expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in monocytes, and serum levels of TNF-α and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 (MIP-1) in migraine patients. Numerous studies revealed controversial changes in the components of the immune system during attacks and the interictal period in migraine patients. Our study included 40 migraineurs and 39 controls. The levels of TNF-α, MIP-1 and CD14 were measured in peripheral monocytes and in sera with the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) method, and the monocyte expression of TNF-α was also analysed by immunostaining. Serum CD14 concentrations were higher and the expression of TNF-α in monocytes was decreased in migraineurs. The serum MIP-1 level correlated with Verbal Rating Scale (VRS); the MIP-1:CD14 ratio in monocytes correlated with Visual Analogue Scale (VAS); the MIP-1:CD14 ratio correlated with Migraine Severity (MIGSEV)-Pain scores; and serum CD14 concentration correlated with migraine duration in years. Increased serum CD14 and depletion of TNF-α in monocytes can orchestrate other components of the immune system during the interictal period.

  2. Increased Serum CD14 Level Is Associated with Depletion of TNF-α in Monocytes in Migraine Patients during Interictal Period

    PubMed Central

    Michalak, Slawomir; Kalinowska-Lyszczarz, Alicja; Wegrzyn, Danuta; Niezgoda, Adam; Losy, Jacek; Osztynowicz, Krystyna; Kozubski, Wojciech

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the levels of circulating CD14 in relation to the expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in monocytes, and serum levels of TNF-α and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 (MIP-1) in migraine patients. Numerous studies revealed controversial changes in the components of the immune system during attacks and the interictal period in migraine patients. Our study included 40 migraineurs and 39 controls. The levels of TNF-α, MIP-1 and CD14 were measured in peripheral monocytes and in sera with the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) method, and the monocyte expression of TNF-α was also analysed by immunostaining. Serum CD14 concentrations were higher and the expression of TNF-α in monocytes was decreased in migraineurs. The serum MIP-1 level correlated with Verbal Rating Scale (VRS); the MIP-1:CD14 ratio in monocytes correlated with Visual Analogue Scale (VAS); the MIP-1:CD14 ratio correlated with Migraine Severity (MIGSEV)-Pain scores; and serum CD14 concentration correlated with migraine duration in years. Increased serum CD14 and depletion of TNF-α in monocytes can orchestrate other components of the immune system during the interictal period. PMID:28208835

  3. Soluble levels of CD27 and CD30 are associated with risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in three Chinese prospective cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Bassig, Bryan A.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Koh, Woon-Puay; Gao, Yu-Tang; Purdue, Mark P.; Butler, Lesley M.; Adams-Haduch, Jennifer; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Kemp, Troy J.; Wang, Renwei; Pinto, Ligia A.; Zheng, Tongzhang; Ji, Bu-Tian; Hosgood, H. Dean; Hu, Wei; Yang, Gong; Zhang, Heping; Chow, Wong-Ho; Kim, Christopher; Seow, Wei Jie; Zheng, Wei; Yuan, Jian-Min; Lan, Qing; Rothman, Nathaniel

    2015-01-01

    Prospective studies conducted in Western populations have suggested that alterations in soluble CD27 (sCD27) and soluble CD30 (sCD30), two markers indicative of B-cell activation, are associated with risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Given that the characteristics of NHL in East Asia differ from the West, and mechanistic commonalities between these populations with respect to the role of intermediate endpoint biomarkers in lymphomagenesis have not been explored, we conducted a pooled nested case-control study from three prospective studies of Chinese men and women including 218 NHL cases and 218 individually matched controls. Compared to the lowest quartile, ORs (95% CIs) for the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th quartiles of sCD27 were 1.60 (0.83-3.09), 1.94 (0.98-3.83), and 4.45 (2.25-8.81), respectively (ptrend = 0.000005). The corresponding ORs for sCD30 were 1.74 (0.85-3.58), 1.86 (0.94-3.67), and 5.15 (2.62-10.12) (ptrend = 0.0000002). These associations remained statistically significant in individuals diagnosed with NHL 10 or more years after blood draw. Notably, the magnitude of the associations with NHL risk was very similar to those in Western populations in previous studies. These findings of the similar association between sCD27 or sCD30 and NHL risk across different populations support an important underlying mechanism of B-cell activation in lymphomagenesis. PMID:26095604

  4. CD8+ T cells promote proliferation of benign prostatic hyperplasia epithelial cells under low androgen level via modulation of CCL5/STAT5/CCND1 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Hu, Shuai; Liu, Jie; Cui, Yun; Fan, Yu; Lv, Tianjing; Liu, Libo; Li, Jun; He, Qun; Han, Wenke; Yu, Wei; Sun, Yin; Jin, Jie

    2017-02-20

    Previous studies by our group have shown that low intra-prostatic dihydrotestosterone (DHT) induced BPH epithelial cells (BECs) to recruit CD8+ T cells. However, the influence of the recruited CD8+ T cells on BECs under a low androgen level is still unknown. Here, we found CD8+ T cells have the capacity to promote proliferation of BECs in low androgen condition. Mechanism dissection revealed that interaction between CD8+ T cells and BECs through secretion of CCL5 might promote the phosphorylation of STAT5 and a higher expression of CCND1 in BECs. Suppressed CCL5/STAT5 signals via CCL5 neutralizing antibody or STAT5 inhibitor Pimozide led to reverse CD8+ T cell-enhanced BECs proliferation. IHC analysis from Finasteride treated patients showed PCNA expression in BECs was highly correlated to the level of CD8+ T cell infiltration and the expression of CCL5. Consequently, our data indicated infiltrating CD8+ T cells could promote the proliferation of BECs in low androgen condition via modulation of CCL5/STAT5/CCND1 signaling. The increased secretion of CCL5 from the CD8+ T cells/BECs interaction might help BECs survive in a low DHT environment. Targeting these signals may provide a new potential therapeutic approach to better treat BPH patients who failed the therapy of 5α-reductase inhibitors.

  5. CD8+ T cells promote proliferation of benign prostatic hyperplasia epithelial cells under low androgen level via modulation of CCL5/STAT5/CCND1 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Hu, Shuai; Liu, Jie; Cui, Yun; Fan, Yu; Lv, Tianjing; Liu, Libo; Li, Jun; He, Qun; Han, Wenke; Yu, Wei; Sun, Yin; Jin, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies by our group have shown that low intra-prostatic dihydrotestosterone (DHT) induced BPH epithelial cells (BECs) to recruit CD8+ T cells. However, the influence of the recruited CD8+ T cells on BECs under a low androgen level is still unknown. Here, we found CD8+ T cells have the capacity to promote proliferation of BECs in low androgen condition. Mechanism dissection revealed that interaction between CD8+ T cells and BECs through secretion of CCL5 might promote the phosphorylation of STAT5 and a higher expression of CCND1 in BECs. Suppressed CCL5/STAT5 signals via CCL5 neutralizing antibody or STAT5 inhibitor Pimozide led to reverse CD8+ T cell-enhanced BECs proliferation. IHC analysis from Finasteride treated patients showed PCNA expression in BECs was highly correlated to the level of CD8+ T cell infiltration and the expression of CCL5. Consequently, our data indicated infiltrating CD8+ T cells could promote the proliferation of BECs in low androgen condition via modulation of CCL5/STAT5/CCND1 signaling. The increased secretion of CCL5 from the CD8+ T cells/BECs interaction might help BECs survive in a low DHT environment. Targeting these signals may provide a new potential therapeutic approach to better treat BPH patients who failed the therapy of 5α-reductase inhibitors. PMID:28216616

  6. Diminished CD4+/CD25+ T cell and increased IFN-gamma levels occur in dogs vaccinated with Leishmune in an endemic area for visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Valéria Marçal Felix; Ikeda, Fabiana Augusta; Rossi, Cláudio N; Feitosa, Mary Marcondes; Vasconcelos, Rosemeride Oliveira; Nunes, Caris Maroni; Goto, Hiro

    2010-06-15

    The Leishmune vaccine has been used in endemic areas to prevent canine visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil, but cytokine production induced by vaccination has rarely been investigated in dogs. This study aimed to evaluate the immune response of dogs vaccinated with Leishmune FML vaccine (Fort Dodge) against total antigen of Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi (TAg) and FML. Twenty healthy dogs from Araçatuba, São Paulo, Brazil, an endemic leishmaniasis area, received three consecutive subcutaneous injection of Leishmune vaccine at 21-day intervals. PBMC were isolated before and 10 days after completing vaccination and lymphoproliferative response and antibody production against FML or total promastigote antigen were tested. Cytokines IFN-gamma, IL-4 and TNF-alpha were measured in culture supernatant and CD4+/CD25+ and CD8+/CD25+ T cell presence was determined. Analysis of the data indicated that the vaccine conferred humoral responses (100%) against both antigens and cellular immunity to FML (85%) and total antigen (80%), the supernatant of cultured cells stimulated with TAg and FML showed an increase in IFN-gamma (P<0.05), and the vaccine reduced CD4+/CD25+ T cell presence compared to that observed before vaccination. These responses may constitute part of the immune mechanism induced by Leishmune.

  7. Mean Levels and Correlates of Perfectionism in International Baccalaureate and General Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaunessy, Elizabeth; Suldo, Shannon M.; Friedrich, Allison

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the mean levels of perfectionism among 178 general education students and 141 students enrolled in the International Baccalaureate (IB) program, a rigorous academic curriculum. The study also explored perfectionism in relation to grade level and student outcomes (psychological functioning, academic achievement).…

  8. Job Satisfaction Levels of U.S. and International College and University Media Specialists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Robert G.

    1994-01-01

    Examined the job satisfaction levels of American and international college and university media specialists. Discusses findings in terms of the work itself, human relations and related policies, and the physical-economic environment. An average level of "general satisfaction" was found, and the greatest differences in job satisfaction…

  9. Mean Levels and Correlates of Perfectionism in International Baccalaureate and General Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaunessy, Elizabeth; Suldo, Shannon M.; Friedrich, Allison

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the mean levels of perfectionism among 178 general education students and 141 students enrolled in the International Baccalaureate (IB) program, a rigorous academic curriculum. The study also explored perfectionism in relation to grade level and student outcomes (psychological functioning, academic achievement).…

  10. Determination of contamination levels of Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, and Mn caused by former lead mining gallery.

    PubMed

    Bakırdere, Sezgin; Bölücek, Cemal; Yaman, Mehmet

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, levels of metal contamination caused by former lead mining area were figured out. For this purpose, Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, and Mn were determined not only in sediment samples taken from different places of the mining area but also in some plants taken around the mining place. In the digestion of plant samples, dry ashing procedure was applied. Flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS) was used in the determination of analytes of interest. All the parameters in digestion and detection procedures were optimized to obtain efficient digestion and high sensitivities for analytes. Standard addition and direct calibration methods were applied to find whether there was any matrix interference to affect the determination of analytes. Mn concentration was found to be the highest for each sample analyzed. Lead concentration was found to be between 41 and 249 mg/kg in soil/sediment samples and between 2.2 and 1003 mg/kg in plant samples. The highest contamination levels for all of the analytes with the exception of Cd were found in current sediment sample.

  11. Evaluation of soluble CD200 levels in type 2 diabetic foot and nephropathic patients: Association with disease activity

    PubMed Central

    Arik, Hasan Onur; Yalcin, Arzu Didem; Celik, Betul; Seyman, Derya; Tetik, Gulsum; Gursoy, Bensu; Kose, Sukran; Gumuslu, Saadet

    2014-01-01

    Background CD200 (OX-2) is a novel immune-effective molecule, existing in a cell membrane-bound form, as well as in a soluble form in serum (s OX-2), which acts to regulate inflammatory and acquired immune responses. Material/Methods We planned this study to evaluate the sOX-2 levels of type 2 diabetic foot (group B), and compare it with that of healthy controls (group A). The patient group had the following values: DM period: 27.9±10.3 year [mean ±SD], HbA1c: 9.52±2.44% [mean ±SD]. Results Blood samples for sCD200 measurement were always taken in the morning between 8 and 10 A.M.. The results were reported as means of duplicate measurements. Concentrations of sOX-2 in the serum samples were quantified using an ELISA kit. Serum hs-CRP levels were measured using an hs-CRP assay kit. The sOX-2 level in group B was 173.8±3.1 and in group A was 70.52±1.2 [p<0.0001). In subgroup analysis of T2DM-DFI patients, we noticed that sOX-2 levels were higher in WGS (Wagner grading system) I and II patients than in WGS III and IV patients. The HbA1c, BUN, creatinine, hs-CRP levels, and sedimentation rates were higher in the patient group (p<0.0001, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.005, and p<0.0001, respectively). Conclusions We suggest that there are vascular, immunologic, and neurologic components in DFI, whereas autoimmune diseases and inflammatory skin disorders have only an immunologic component. This is possibly evidence of a pro-inflammatory effect seen in DFI as a vascular complication. PMID:24964809

  12. A Leukemia-Associated CD34/CD123/CD25/CD99+ Immunophenotype Identifies FLT3-Mutated Clones in Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Angelini, Daniela F; Ottone, Tiziana; Guerrera, Gisella; Lavorgna, Serena; Cittadini, Michela; Buccisano, Francesco; De Bardi, Marco; Gargano, Francesca; Maurillo, Luca; Divona, Mariadomenica; Noguera, Nélida I; Consalvo, Maria Irno; Borsellino, Giovanna; Bernardi, Giorgio; Amadori, Sergio; Venditti, Adriano; Battistini, Luca; Lo-Coco, Francesco

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated leukemia-associated immunophenotypes (LAIP) and their correlation with fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) and nucleophosmin (NPM1) gene mutational status in order to contribute a better identification of patients at highest risk of relapse in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Bone marrow samples from 132 patients with AML were analyzed by nine-color multiparametric flow cytometry. We confirmed the presence of the mutation in diagnostic samples and in sorted cells by conventional RT-PCR and by patient-specific RQ-PCR. Within the CD34(+) cell fraction, we identified a discrete population expressing high levels of the IL3 receptor α-chain (CD123) and MIC-2 (CD99) in combination with the IL2 receptor α-chain (CD25). The presence of this population positively correlated with the internal tandem duplications (ITD) mutation in the FLT3 gene (r = 0.71). Receiver operating characteristics showed that, within the CD34(+) cell fraction a percentage of CD123/CD99/CD25(+) cells ≥11.7% predicted FLT3-ITD mutations with a specificity and sensitivity of >90%. CD34/CD123/CD99/CD25(+) clones were also detectable at presentation in 3 patients with FLT3 wild-type/NPM1(+) AML who relapsed with FLT3-ITD/NPM1(+) AML. Quantitative real-time PCR designed at relapse for each FLT3-ITD in these three cases confirmed the presence of low copy numbers of the mutation in diagnostic samples. Our results suggest that the CD34/CD25/CD123/CD99(+) LAIP is strictly associated with FLT3-ITD-positive cells. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. Cloning and high level expression of the biologically active extracellular domain of Macaca mulatta CD40 in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shengyun; Wan, Lin; Yang, Hao; Cheng, Jingqiu; Lu, Xiaofeng

    2016-03-01

    The CD40-mediated immune response contributes to a wide variety of chronic inflammatory diseases. CD40 antagonists have potential as novel therapies for immune disorders. However, the CD40 pathway has not been well characterized in the rhesus monkey Macaca mulatta, which is a valuable animal model for human immune disease. An 834 bp transcript was cloned from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of rhesus monkey using specific primers designed according to the predicted sequence of M. mulatta CD40 (mmCD40) in GenBank. Sequence analysis demonstrated that mmCD40 is highly homologous to human CD40 (hCD40), with an amino acid sequence identity of 94%. Genes encoding the extracellular domain of mmCD40 and the Fc fragment of the hIgG1 were inserted into a pPIC9K plasmid to produce mmCD40Ig by Pichia pastoris. Approximately 15-20 mg of the mmCD40Ig protein with ∼90% purity could be recovered from 1 L of culture. The purified mmCD40Ig protein can form dimers and can specifically bind CD40L-positive cells. Additionally, the mmCD40Ig protein can bind hCD40L protein in phosphate buffered saline and form a stable combination in a size-exclusion chromatography assay using a Superdex 200 column. Moreover, mmCD40Ig is as efficient as M. mulatta CTLA4Ig (mmCTLA4Ig) to suppress Con A-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation. Additionally, mmCD40Ig only showed mild immunosuppressive activity in a one-way mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) system. These results suggest that mmCD40Ig secreted by P. pastoris was productive and functional, and it could be used as a tool for pathogenesis and therapies for chronic inflammatory diseases in a M. mulatta model.

  14. Study of Deep Levels in Mesa-Type HgCdTe Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshino, Junya; Morimoto, Jun; Wada, Hideo

    1998-07-01

    The deep levels in the p+-on-n mesa-type Hg1-xCdxTe (x=0.222) device fabricated on the Si substrate by the molecular beam epitaxy method have been studied using the isothermal capacitance transient spectroscopy (ICTS) method and the spectral analysis of deep level transient spectroscopy (SADLTS) method. The value of the activation energy and the capture cross section could not be determined by means of ICTS because the apparent peaks were not obtained in the ICTS spectrum. However, five deep levels have been confirmed by SADLTS and the activation energies and the capture cross sections for each level were calculated. The confirmed levels existed from 19.7 meV to 45.7 meV below the conduction band edge. Three deeper levels are considered to be related to the Hg vacancy, whereas two shallower levels are considered to be related to the impurity in the n-type region. Moreover it is suggested that three deeper levels may assist the tunneling current in the reverse bias region. On the other hand, the obtained values of the capture cross sections ranged from 10-18 to 10-11 cm2.

  15. Factors associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms among international university students in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Lee, Romeo B; Maria, Madelene Sta; Estanislao, Susana; Rodriguez, Cristina

    2013-11-01

    Over the years, the number of international university students has been increasing in the Philippines. Depression tends to be common among this demographic sector, because of the varying challenges and expectations associated with studying abroad. Depression can be prevented if its symptoms, particularly those at higher levels, are identified and addressed early and effectively. This survey examined the social and demographic factors that are significantly associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms. One hundred twenty-six international university students were interviewed using the University Students Depression Inventory. Of the 13 factors analyzed, 3 were found with statistically significant associations with more intense levels of depressive symptoms. These factors were: level of satisfaction with one's financial condition, level of closeness with parents, and level of closeness with peers. In identifying international students with greater risk for depression, characteristics related to their financial condition and primary group relationships can be considered. There is a need to carry out more studies to confirm this initial evidence. The findings can help guide further discourse, research and program to benefit international students with higher levels of depressive symptoms.

  16. Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH)-based method for estimating Cd-induced differences in gene expression at cultivar level and identification of genes induced by Cd in two water spinach cultivars.

    PubMed

    Huang, Baifei; Xin, Junliang; Yang, Zhongyi; Zhou, Yihui; Yuan, Jiangang; Gong, Yulian

    2009-10-14

    The abilities to accumulate cadmium (Cd) are different among cultivars (cv.) in many species. The characteristic of Cd concentration among cultivars is heritable and is probably controlled by genes, but rather limited information about the relevant genes in vegetable crops has been published. In the present study, a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) approach was used to identify genes induced by Cd in two water spinach (an important vegetable in southern China) cultivars that differ in Cd accumulation in their edible parts. The two cultivars were cv. Qiangkunqinggu (QK), a low Cd accumulative cultivar and cv. Taiwan 308 (TW), a high Cd accumulative cultivar. In the construction of QK and TW libraries, the plants without Cd treatment were taken as drivers and the plants exposed to 6 mg L(-1) Cd for 24 h as testers. Four hundred clones were sequenced, and 164 nonrepeated sequences (112 from the QK library and 52 from the TW library) were assigned to being functional genes or proteins. A tremendous difference in Cd-induced gene expressions between the two libraries was observed. In the QK library, genes implicated in disease/defense comprised one of the largest sets (20.6%), whereas the proportion was only 8.8% in the TW library. An MT3 gene (Q5), a wound inductive gene (Q22), an antioxidation relevant gene (Q34), a lectin gene (Q45), an f-box family protein gene (Q319), a 20S proteasome subunit gene (T17), a multidrug resistance associated protein gene (T156), and a cationic amino acid transporter gene (T218) were selected to compare semiquantitatively their expression between cv. QK and cv. TW using the RT-PCR method, and obvious differences were detected. The relationships between the identified differences in the expressions of the genes and the Cd accumulation of the two cultivars were discussed, and it was concluded that the SSH approach is useful for finding the difference in expression of Cd-induced gene even at the cultivar level and is applicable

  17. Assessment of the impact of malaria on CD4+ T Cells and haemoglobin levels of HIV-malaria co-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Tagoe, Daniel Nii Aryee; Boachie, Joseph

    2012-09-17

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and malaria destroy important cells required for proper immunological and haematological functioning of the body. This research therefore aimed to assess the effect of malaria on CD4+ and haemoglobin (Hb) levels of HIV-malaria co-infected patients. The study was performed by sampling 220 adult HIV patients on highly active anti retroviral therapy (HAART) who routinely visited the Tema General Hospital in Ghana. Blood samples were obtained for both blood film microscopy identification of malaria parasites and analysis using rapid diagnostic test kits. A BD Facscount Analyzer was used in the quantification of CD4+ levels. Of the 220 patients sampled, 34 (15.5%) were HIV-malaria co-infected, all of whom (34; 100%) had CD4+ counts below the normal range, while 23 (12.9%) of the HIV mono-infected patients had normal CD4+ counts. Almost all HIV-malaria co-infected patients (33; 97.1%) had low Hb levels, whereas 79 (42.5%) of the HIV mono-infected patients had normal Hb. Malaria infection strongly correlated positively and significantly with both low CD4+ count (χ2 = 0.828, P = 0.003) and Hb (χ2 = 0.817, P = 0.004) levels. Malaria co-infection with HIV decreases CD4+ T cells and Hb levels in patients. It is therefore recommended that HIV patients in malaria endemic areas should adhere to malaria preventive measures.

  18. Comparison between SVPWM two level in internal and external circle of hexagon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giyantara, Andhika; Rameli, Mochammad

    2017-01-01

    This study presents a space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) method. Switching time for SVPWM two level is used to generate a sinusoidal waveform from the inverter. This waveform using as input for the induction motor. Usually, we use the internal circle to generate sinusoidal method. However, from the calculation, we can get two different equations, for the internal circle in hexagon and external circle for the hexagon. Comparison between voltage vector in the internal and external circle of hexagon using THD (Total Harmonic Distortion) value for each circle.

  19. Inferior clinical outcome of the CD4+ cell count-guided antiretroviral treatment interruption strategy in the SMART study: role of CD4+ Cell counts and HIV RNA levels during follow-up.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Jens D; Babiker, Abdel; El-Sadr, Wafaa; Emery, Sean; Grund, Birgit; Neaton, James D; Neuhaus, Jacquie; Phillips, Andrew N

    2008-04-15

    The SMART study compared 2 strategies for using antiretroviral therapy-drug conservation (DC) and viral suppression (VS)-in 5,472 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with CD4+ cell counts >350 cells/microL. Rates and predictors of opportunistic disease or death (OD/death) and the relative risk (RR) in DC versus VS groups according to the latest CD4+ cell count and HIV RNA level are reported. During a mean of 16 months of follow-up, DC patients spent more time with a latest CD4+ cell count <350 cells/microL (for DC vs. VS, 31% vs. 8%) and with a latest HIV RNA level >400 copies/mL (71% vs. 28%) and had a higher rate of OD/death (3.4 vs. 1.3/100 person-years) than VS patients. For periods of follow- up with a CD4+ cell count <350 cells/microL, rates of OD/death were increased but similar in the 2 groups (5.7 vs. 4.6/100 person-years), whereas the rates were higher in DC versus VS patients (2.3 vs. 1.0/100 person-years; RR, 2.3 [95% confidence interval, 1.5-3.4]) for periods with the latest CD4+ cell count >or= 350 cells/microL-an increase explained by the higher HIV RNA levels in the DC group. The higher risk of OD/death in DC patients was associated with (1) spending more follow-up time with relative immunodeficiency and (2) living longer with uncontrolled HIV replication even at higher CD4+ cell counts. Ongoing HIV replication at a given CD4+ cell count places patients at an excess risk of OD/death.

  20. Atorvastatin effect on circulating and leukocyte-produced CD40 ligand concentrations in people with normal cholesterol levels: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Zineh, Issam; Welder, Gregory J; DeBella, Amy E; Arant, Christopher B; Wessel, Timothy R; Schofield, Richard S

    2006-11-01

    To investigate whether atorvastatin decreases serum or leukocyte-produced CD40 ligand (CD40L) levels and whether these effects are dependent on reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) levels in people without overt dyslipidemia. Prospective pilot study. University research center. Twenty-five normocholesterolemic volunteers (mean age 32 +/- 11 yrs; 15 women, 10 men) without cardiovascular disease. After a 2-week drug-free run-in period, subjects received atorvastatin 80 mg/day orally for 16 weeks. All lipoprotein level measurements were performed with the subject in the fasting state. The CD40L concentrations were measured by immunofluorescence detection in serum and leukocyte culture supernates after 24-hour incubation, and treatment effect was analyzed. Baseline mean +/- SD total cholesterol, LDL, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were 179 +/- 33, 97 +/- 29, 62 +/- 20, and 102 +/- 69 mg/dl, respectively. Mean changes in each of these levels, respectively, after 16 weeks of atorvastatin were -34%, -59%, +3%, and -23%. The median serum CD40L level was lower at 16 weeks (2.3 ng/ml, interquartile range [IQR] 1.2-5.0 ng/ml) than at baseline (3.0 ng/ml, IQR 2.1-3.7 ng/ml), but the change was not significant (p=0.24). However, atorvastatin significantly lowered CD40L produced from leukocytes by 57% (21 pg/mg of protein [IQR 10-38 pg/mg] vs 49 pg/mg [IQR 21-149 pg/mg], p=0.045). Effects were independent of reduction in cholesterol levels. Although atorvastatin did not significantly lower serum CD40L levels, significant reduction in leukocyte production was seen independent of degree of LDL reduction. These pilot data suggest a potential benefit in normocholesterolemic individuals that should be further investigated, and that leukocyte CD40L concentrations should be considered in the drug response.

  1. Activity profile of international-level soccer referees during competitive matches.

    PubMed

    Castagna, Carlo; Abt, Grant; D'Ottavio, Stefano

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the activity profile of soccer referees competing at international level. Thirteen international-level soccer referees (INRG, age 38 +/- 3 years, height 182.0 +/- 6.5 cm, and body mass 78.8 +/- 7.0 kg) were observed during official international matches using a match analysis system (Play Controller, Phromos, Italy) that enabled speeds and times collection for 11 arbitrarily chosen match categories. For comparison, 13 Italian elite-level soccer referees (NRG, age 37 +/- 3 years, height 182.5 +/- 3.5 cm, and body mass 77.1 +/- 6.5 kg) were examined during domestic official first division matches (Serie A). Results showed that NRG covered more distance during matches than the INRG (12,956 +/- 548 m and 11,218 +/- 1,056 m, respectively; p < 0.05). Running faster than 18 km.h(-1), NRG covered more distance than INRG (2,378 +/- 423 m and 1,642 +/- 689 m, respectively; p < 0.05). No between-halves differences in the distance covered at speed faster than 18 km.h(-1) were observed in each group. The main finding of this study is that international-level referees during international competitions are less active than national-level officials directing domestic matches. This unexpected result may suggest the need for specific training for the international referees, as recent reports have shown that better positioning is associated with longer space coverage during competitive matches. Across-halves, high-intensity, space-coverage conservation should be regarded as a peculiarity of the elite-level soccer referee.

  2. Internal curvature signal and noise in low- and high-level vision

    PubMed Central

    Grabowecky, Marcia; Kim, Yee Joon; Suzuki, Satoru

    2011-01-01

    How does internal processing contribute to visual pattern perception? By modeling visual search performance, we estimated internal signal and noise relevant to perception of curvature, a basic feature important for encoding of three-dimensional surfaces and objects. We used isolated, sparse, crowded, and face contexts to determine how internal curvature signal and noise depended on image crowding, lateral feature interactions, and level of pattern processing. Observers reported the curvature of a briefly flashed segment, which was presented alone (without lateral interaction) or among multiple straight segments (with lateral interaction). Each segment was presented with no context (engaging low-to-intermediate-level curvature processing), embedded within a face context as the mouth (engaging high-level face processing), or embedded within an inverted-scrambled-face context as a control for crowding. Using a simple, biologically plausible model of curvature perception, we estimated internal curvature signal and noise as the mean and standard deviation, respectively, of the Gaussian-distributed population activity of local curvature-tuned channels that best simulated behavioral curvature responses. Internal noise was increased by crowding but not by face context (irrespective of lateral interactions), suggesting prevention of noise accumulation in high-level pattern processing. In contrast, internal curvature signal was unaffected by crowding but modulated by lateral interactions. Lateral interactions (with straight segments) increased curvature signal when no contextual elements were added, but equivalent interactions reduced curvature signal when each segment was presented within a face. These opposing effects of lateral interactions are consistent with the phenomena of local-feature contrast in low-level processing and global-feature averaging in high-level processing. PMID:21209356

  3. Numerical Modeling of HgCdTe Solidification: Effects of Phase Diagram, Double-Diffusion Convection and Microgravity Level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bune, Andris V.; Gillies, Donald C.; Lehoczky, Sandor L.

    1997-01-01

    Melt convection, along with species diffusion and segregation on the solidification interface are the primary factors responsible for species redistribution during HgCdTe crystal growth from the melt. As no direct information about convection velocity is available, numerical modeling is a logical approach to estimate convection. Furthermore influence of microgravity level, double-diffusion and material properties should be taken into account. In the present study, HgCdTe is considered as a binary alloy with melting temperature available from a phase diagram. The numerical model of convection and solidification of binary alloy is based on the general equations of heat and mass transfer in two-dimensional region. Mathematical modeling of binary alloy solidification is still a challenging numericial problem. A Rigorous mathematical approach to this problem is available only when convection is not considered at all. The proposed numerical model was developed using the finite element code FIDAP. In the present study, the numerical model is used to consider thermal, solutal convection and a double diffusion source of mass transport.

  4. Rituximab activates Syk and AKT in CD20-positive B cell lymphoma cells dependent on cell membrane cholesterol levels.

    PubMed

    Nozaki, Yumi; Mitsumori, Toru; Yamamoto, Takeo; Kawashima, Ichiro; Shobu, Yuki; Hamanaka, Satoshi; Nakajima, Kei; Komatsu, Norio; Kirito, Keita

    2013-08-01

    The introduction of rituximab, an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, has dramatically improved the treatment outcomes of patients with B cell lymphoma. Nevertheless, the clinical response to rituximab varies, and a subpopulation of patients does not respond well to this antibody. Although several molecular events have been shown to be involved in the mechanism of action of rituximab, recent studies have demonstrated that intracellular signaling pathways and the direct effects of rituximab on cell membrane components are responsible for the antilymphoma action of this drug. In the present study, we demonstrated that rituximab activated Syk and Akt, molecules with antiapoptotic functions, in several CD20-positive lymphoma cell lines. Notably, rituximab activated Syk and Akt in all the tested primary lymphoma samples from six patients. Our results show that the cholesterol levels in lymphoma cell membranes have a crucial role in the regulation of Syk and Akt. The depletion of cholesterol from the cell membrane completely blocked rituximab-induced Syk and Akt activation. Simvastatin, an inhibitor of cholesterol synthesis, also abrogated rituximab-mediated Syk and Akt activation. Finally, we report that rituximab inhibited the apoptosis induced by chemotherapeutic drugs, which was observed solely in Akt-activated cells. This work demonstrates for the first time that rituximab paradoxically works to suppress apoptosis under certain conditions in a manner that is dependent on the cell membrane cholesterol level. Our observations provide novel insights and suggest that the cell membrane cholesterol level represents a new biomarker for predicting patient response to rituximab. Furthermore, the modulation of lipid rafts could provide a new strategy for enhancing the antilymphoma action of rituximab. Copyright © 2013 ISEH - Society for Hematology and Stem Cells. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. In utero exposure to benzene increases embryonic c-Myb and Pim-1 protein levels in CD-1 mice

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Joanne; Winn, Louise M.

    2008-05-01

    Benzene is a known human leukemogen, but its role as an in utero leukemogen remains controversial. Epidemiological studies have correlated parental exposure to benzene with an increased incidence of childhood leukemias. We hypothesize that in utero exposure to benzene may cause leukemogenesis by affecting the embryonic c-Myb/Pim-1 signaling pathway and that this is mediated by oxidative stress. To investigate this hypothesis, pregnant CD-1 mice were treated with either 800 mg/kg of benzene or corn oil (i.p.) on days 10 and 11 of gestation and in some cases pretreated with 25 kU/kg of PEG-catalase. Phosphorylated and total embryonic c-Myb and Pim-1 protein levels were assessed using Western blotting and maternal and embryonic oxidative stress were assessed by measuring reduced to oxidized glutathione ratios. Our results show increased oxidative stress at 4 and 24 h after exposure, increased phosphorylated Pim-1 protein levels 4 h after benzene exposure, and increased Pim-1 levels at 24 and 48 h after benzene exposure. Embryonic c-Myb levels were elevated at 24 h after exposure. PEG-catalase pretreatment prevented benzene-mediated increases in embryonic c-Myb and Pim-1 protein levels, and benzene-induced oxidative stress. These results support a role for ROS in c-Myb and Pim-1 alterations after in utero benzene exposure.

  6. Monoacylglycerol lipase inhibition-induced changes in plasma corticosterone levels, anxiety and locomotor activity in male CD1 mice.

    PubMed

    Aliczki, Mano; Zelena, Dora; Mikics, Eva; Varga, Zoltan K; Pinter, Otto; Bakos, Nikoletta Venczkone; Varga, Janos; Haller, Jozsef

    2013-05-01

    The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis is strongly controlled by the endocannabinoid system. The specific impact of enhanced 2-arachidonoylglycerol signaling on corticosterone plasma levels, however, was not investigated so far. Here we studied the effects of the recently developed monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitor JZL184 on basal and stress-induced corticosterone levels in male CD1 mice, and found that this compound dramatically increased basal levels without affecting stress responses. Since acute changes in corticosterone levels can affect behavior, JZL184 was administered concurrently with the corticosterone synthesis inhibitor metyrapone, to investigate whether the previously shown behavioral effects of JZL184 are dependent on corticosterone. We found that in the elevated plus-maze, the effects of JZL184 on "classical" anxiety-related measures were abolished by corticosterone synthesis blockade. By contrast, effects on the "ethological" measures of anxiety (i.e. risk assessment) were not affected by metyrapone. In the open-field, the locomotion-enhancing effects of the compound were not changed either. These findings show that monoacylglycerol lipase inhibition dramatically increases basal levels of corticosterone. This endocrine effect partly affects the anxiolytic, but not the locomotion-enhancing effects of monoacylglycerol lipase blockade. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Apoptosis induction in Jurkat cells and sCD95 levels in women's sera are related with the risk of developing cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar-Lemarroy, Adriana; Romero-Ramos, Jose E; Olimon-Andalon, Vicente; Hernandez-Flores, Georgina; Lerma-Diaz, Jose M; Ortiz-Lazareno, Pablo C; Morgan-Villela, Gilberto; del Toro-Arreola, Susana; Bravo-Cuellar, Alejandro; Jave-Suarez, Luis F

    2008-01-01

    Background Currently, there is clear evidence that apoptosis plays an important role in the development and progression of tumors. One of the best characterized apoptosis triggering systems is the CD95/Fas/APO-1 pathway; previous reports have demonstrated high levels of soluble CD95 (sCD95) in serum of patients with some types of cancer. Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide. As a first step in an attempt to design a minimally invasive test to predict the risk of developing cervical cancer in patients with precancerous lesions, we used a simple assay based on the capacity of human serum to induce apoptosis in Jurkat cells. We evaluated the relationship between sCD95 levels and the ability to induce apoptosis in Jurkat cells in cervical cancer patients and controls. Methods Jurkat cells were exposed to serum from 63 women (20 healthy volunteers, 21 with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade I [CIN 1] and 22 with cervical-uterine carcinoma). The apoptotic rate was measured by flow cytometry using Annexin-V-Fluos and Propidium Iodide as markers. Serum levels of sCD95 and soluble CD95 ligand (sCD95L) were measured by ELISA kits. Results We found that serum from almost all healthy women induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells, while only fifty percent of the sera from women with CIN 1 induced cell death in Jurkat cells. Interestingly, only one serum sample from a patient with cervical-uterine cancer was able to induce apoptosis, the rest of the sera protected Jurkat cells from this killing. We were able to demonstrate that elimination of Jurkat cells was mediated by the CD95/Fas/Apo-1 apoptotic pathway. Furthermore, the serum levels of sCD95 measured by ELISA were significantly higher in women with cervical cancer. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that there is a strong correlation between low levels of sCD95 in serum of normal women and higher apoptosis induction in Jurkat cells. We suggest that an analysis of the apoptotic rate induced

  8. Correlation between Intravoxel Incoherent Motion Magnetic Resonance Imaging Derived Metrics and Serum Soluble CD40 Ligand Level in an Embolic Canine Stroke Model.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao-Quan; Wu, Chen-Jiang; Lu, Shan-Shan; Gao, Qian-Qian; Zu, Qing-Quan; Liu, Xing-Long; Shi, Hai-Bin; Liu, Sheng

    2017-01-01

    To determine the relationship between intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) imaging derived quantitative metrics and serum soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) level in an embolic canine stroke model. A middle cerebral artery occlusion model was established in 24 beagle dogs. Experimental dogs were divided into low- and high-sCD40L group according to serum sCD40L level at 4.5 hours after establishing the model. IVIM imaging was scanned at 4.5 hours after model establishment using 10 b values ranging from 0 to 900 s/mm(2). Quantitative metrics diffusion coefficient (D), pseudodiffusion coefficient (D(*)), and perfusion fraction (f) of ischemic lesions were calculated. Quantitative metrics of ischemic lesions were normalized by contralateral hemisphere using the following formula: normalized D = Dstroke / Dcontralateral. Differences in IVIM metrics between the low- and high-sCD40L groups were compared using t test. Pearson's correlation analyses were performed to determine the relationship between IVIM metrics and serum sCD40L level. The high-sCD40L group showed significantly lower f and normalized f values than the low-sCD40L group (f, p < 0.001; normalized f, p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in D(*), normalized D(*), D, or normalized D value between the two groups (All p > 0.05). Both f and normalized f values were negatively correlated with serum sCD40L level (f, r = -0.789, p < 0.001; normalized f, r = -0.823, p < 0.001). However, serum sCD40L level had no significant correlation with D(*), normalized D(*), D, or normalized D (All p > 0.05). The f value derived from IVIM imaging was negatively correlated with serum sCD40L level. f value might serve as a potential imaging biomarker to assess the formation of microvascular thrombosis in hyperacute period of ischemic stroke.

  9. Apoptosis induction in Jurkat cells and sCD95 levels in women's sera are related with the risk of developing cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Lemarroy, Adriana; Romero-Ramos, Jose E; Olimon-Andalon, Vicente; Hernandez-Flores, Georgina; Lerma-Diaz, Jose M; Ortiz-Lazareno, Pablo C; Morgan-Villela, Gilberto; Del Toro-Arreola, Susana; Bravo-Cuellar, Alejandro; Jave-Suarez, Luis F

    2008-04-11

    Currently, there is clear evidence that apoptosis plays an important role in the development and progression of tumors. One of the best characterized apoptosis triggering systems is the CD95/Fas/APO-1 pathway; previous reports have demonstrated high levels of soluble CD95 (sCD95) in serum of patients with some types of cancer. Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide. As a first step in an attempt to design a minimally invasive test to predict the risk of developing cervical cancer in patients with precancerous lesions, we used a simple assay based on the capacity of human serum to induce apoptosis in Jurkat cells. We evaluated the relationship between sCD95 levels and the ability to induce apoptosis in Jurkat cells in cervical cancer patients and controls. Jurkat cells were exposed to serum from 63 women (20 healthy volunteers, 21 with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade I [CIN 1] and 22 with cervical-uterine carcinoma). The apoptotic rate was measured by flow cytometry using Annexin-V-Fluos and Propidium Iodide as markers. Serum levels of sCD95 and soluble CD95 ligand (sCD95L) were measured by ELISA kits. We found that serum from almost all healthy women induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells, while only fifty percent of the sera from women with CIN 1 induced cell death in Jurkat cells. Interestingly, only one serum sample from a patient with cervical-uterine cancer was able to induce apoptosis, the rest of the sera protected Jurkat cells from this killing. We were able to demonstrate that elimination of Jurkat cells was mediated by the CD95/Fas/Apo-1 apoptotic pathway. Furthermore, the serum levels of sCD95 measured by ELISA were significantly higher in women with cervical cancer. Our results demonstrate that there is a strong correlation between low levels of sCD95 in serum of normal women and higher apoptosis induction in Jurkat cells. We suggest that an analysis of the apoptotic rate induced by serum in Jurkat cells and the

  10. Serum IL8 and mRNA level of CD11b in circulating neutrophils are increased in clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis with active interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jing; Chen, Jie; Yan, Qingran; Guo, Qiang; Bao, Chunde

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess serum IL8 and the potential activity of circulating neutrophils on relative messenger RNA (mRNA) levels and their relationship with disease activity in clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis (CADM) associated with interstitial lung disease (ILD). We studied 18 CADM patients and compared them with 18 classic dermatomyositis (DM) patients and 18 healthy control subjects. Serum IL8 level and mRNA expressions of neutrophils (chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 1 (CXCR1), cluster of differentiation molecule 11b (CD11b), cluster of differentiation 64 (CD64), myeloid cell leukemia 1 (MCL1), interleukin-18 (IL18)) were detected. The overproduction of serum IL8 level was most significant in the CADM group with active period. The mRNA expressions of CD11b, IL18, and MCL1 were greatly increased in the neutrophils in patients with CADM compared with DM or healthy controls. Up-expressions of CD11b, IL18, and MCL1 were detected in the neutrophils in CADM patients of active period compared with remission period. A positive correlation was found between CD11b mRNA level and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) score, in CADM associated with ILD. Serum IL8 level and mRNA levels of CD11b, MCL1, and IL18 in circulating neutrophils are related with the disease activity of CADM-ILD. The mRNA level of CD11b is positively correlated with HRCT score in CADM-ILD.

  11. Greek Mythology: Literature Curriculum, Levels C-D [Grades Three and Four]; Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon Univ., Eugene. Oregon Elementary English Project.

    This curriculum guide is intended to introduce elementary school students to Greek mythology. The authors suggest that the selections be presented by the teacher as lively and imaginative stories; the more abstract aspects of the myths should be largely ignored until students reach the junior high school level. In addition to the myths themselves,…

  12. International aspects of the management of low-level dumping of radioactive wastes in the oceans

    SciTech Connect

    Templeton, W.L.

    1982-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: international regulations governing radioactive waste disposal; radiological principles as applied to disposal to the environment; historical dumping practices; assessment of the North East Atlantic dump site; IAEA generic studies; and national and international implications. A recent analysis of international issues associated with ocean disposal of low-level radioactive wastes indicated a number of points which impact on US needs and policies and need resolution. The first is that the development of adequate international criteria and standards will assist the US in evaluating the option of using the oceans for the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes. Secondly, it is essential that international cooperation in research and radiological surveillance be expanded. Thirdly, the delays in the agreements on international mechanisms, criteria and standards, sometimes as a direct result of a lack of coordinated US policies makes the implementation of the intent of the London Dumping Convention and the NEA mechanism more difficult. Last of all in the unresolved question of how the US should apply the London Convention to the 200 mile exclusive economic zone. (ATT)

  13. Surveillance, detection and response: managing emerging diseases at national and international levels.

    PubMed

    Jebara, K Ben

    2004-08-01

    Globalisation is leading to a rise in the emergence of diseases and the author describes the new challenges that this brings for individual countries and the international community. The paper describes the existing international early warning systems and response mechanisms, discusses the role of international organisations in managing diseases that have the potential for cross-border spread, and underlines the importance of disease surveillance, detection and response at national level. While international collaboration exists in dealing with disease emergency situations, there is a need to develop regional and international contingency plans that can be launched as soon as an emergency situation arises. This will only be possible if there is the political will to tackle problems wherever they occur. The Global Early Warning System, which is a system currently being developed jointly by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the World Organisation for Animal Health and the World Health Organization, could provide an effective framework in which to achieve a higher level of international emergency preparedness.

  14. Conformational Motions and Functionally Key Residues for Vitamin B12 Transporter BtuCD-BtuF Revealed by Elastic Network Model with a Function-Related Internal Coordinate.

    PubMed

    Su, Ji-Guo; Zhang, Xiao; Zhao, Shu-Xin; Li, Xing-Yuan; Hou, Yan-Xue; Wu, Yi-Dong; Zhu, Jian-Zhuo; An, Hai-Long

    2015-08-04

    BtuCD-BtuF from Escherichia coli is a binding protein-dependent adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporter system that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to transmit vitamin B12 across cellular membranes. Experimental studies have showed that during the transport cycle, the transporter undergoes conformational transitions between the "inward-facing" and "outward-facing" states, which results in the open-closed motions of the cytoplasmic gate of the transport channel. The opening-closing of the channel gate play critical roles for the function of the transporter, which enables the substrate vitamin B12 to be translocated into the cell. In the present work, the extent of opening of the cytoplasmic gate was chosen as a function-related internal coordinate. Then the mean-square fluctuation of the internal coordinate, as well as the cross-correlation between the displacement of the internal coordinate and the movement of each residue in the protein, were calculated based on the normal mode analysis of the elastic network model to analyze the function-related motions encoded in the structure of the system. In addition, the key residues important for the functional motions of the transporter were predicted by using a perturbation method. In order to facilitate the calculations, the internal coordinate was introduced as one of the axes of the coordinate space and the conventional Cartesian coordinate space was transformed into the internal/Cartesian space with linear approximation. All the calculations were carried out in this internal/Cartesian space. Our method can successfully identify the functional motions and key residues for the transporter BtuCD-BtuF, which are well consistent with the experimental observations.

  15. Exploring Resonance Levels and Nanostructuring in the PbTe-CdTe System and Enhancement of the Thermoelectric Figure of Merit

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Kyunghan; Han, Mi-Kyung; He, Jiaqing; Androulakis, John; Ballikaya, Sedat; Uher, Ctirad; Dravid, Vinayak; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2010-04-14

    We explored the effect of Cd substitution on the thermoelectric properties of PbTe in an effort to test a theoretical hypothesis that Cd atoms on Pb sites of the rock salt lattice can increase the Seebeck coefficient via the formation of a resonance level in the density of states near the Fermi energy. We find that the solubility of Cd is less than previously reported, and CdTe precipitation occurs to create nanostructuring, which strongly suppresses the lattice thermal conductivity. We present detailed characterization including structural and spectroscopic data, transmission electron microscopy, and thermoelectric transport properties of samples of PbTe-x% CdTe-0.055% PbI2 (x = 1, 3, 5, 7, 10), PbTe-1% CdTe-y% PbI2 (y = 0.03, 0.045, 0.055, 0.08, 0.1, 0.2), PbTe-5% CdTe-y% PbI2 (y = 0.01, 0.03, 0.055, 0.08), and PbTe-1% CdTe-z% Sb (z = 0.3, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6). All samples follow the Pisarenko relationship, and no enhancement of the Seebeck coefficient was observed that could be attributed to a resonance level or a distortion in the density of states. A maximum ZT of 1.2 at 720 K was achieved for the PbTe-1% CdTe-0.055% PbI2 sample arising from a high power factor of 17 μW/(cm K2) and a very low lattice thermal conductivity of 0.5 W/(m K) at 720 K.

  16. Endogenous jasmonic and salicylic acids levels in the Cd-hyperaccumulator Noccaea (Thlaspi) praecox exposed to fungal infection and/or mechanical stress.

    PubMed

    Llugany, M; Martin, S R; Barceló, J; Poschenrieder, C

    2013-08-01

    Sensitivity to Erysiphe in Noccaea praecox with low metal supply is related to the failure in enhancing SA. Cadmium protects against fungal-infection by direct toxicity and/or enhanced fungal-induced JA signaling. Metal-based defense against biotic stress is an attractive hypothesis on evolutionary advantages of plant metal hyperaccumulation. Metals may compensate for a defect in biotic stress signaling in hyperaccumulators (metal-therapy) by either or both direct toxicity to pathogens and by metal-induced alternative signaling pathways. Jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) are well-established components of stress signaling pathways. However, few studies evaluate the influence of metals on endogenous concentrations of these defense-related hormones. Even less data are available for metal hyperaccumulators. To further test the metal-therapy hypothesis we analyzed endogenous SA and JA concentrations in Noccaea praecox, a cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator. Plants treated or not with Cd, were exposed to mechanical wounding, expected to enhance JA signaling, and/or to infection by biotrophic fungus Erysiphe cruciferarum for triggering SA. JA and SA were analyzed in leaf extracts using LC-ESI(-)-MS/MS. Plants without Cd were more susceptible to fungal attack than plants receiving Cd. Cadmium alone tended to increase leaf SA but not JA. Either or both fungal attack and mechanical wounding decreased SA levels and enhanced JA in the Cd-rich leaves of plants exposed to Cd. High leaf Cd in N. praecox seems to hamper biotic-stress-induced SA, while triggering JA signaling in response to fungal attack and wounding. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the endogenous JA and SA levels in a Cd-hyperaccumulator exposed to different biotic and abiotic stresses. Our results support the view of a defect in SA stress signaling in Cd hyperaccumulating N. praecox.

  17. Improvement of radiopurity level of enriched 116CdWO4 and ZnWO4 crystal scintillators by recrystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barabash, A. S.; Belli, P.; Bernabei, R.; Borovlev, Yu. A.; Cappella, F.; Caracciolo, V.; Cerulli, R.; Danevich, F. A.; Incicchitti, A.; Kobychev, V. V.; Konovalov, S. I.; Laubenstein, M.; Mokina, V. M.; Polischuk, O. G.; Safonova, O. E.; Shlegel, V. N.; Tretyak, V. I.; Tupitsyna, I. A.; Umatov, V. I.; Zhdankov, V. N.

    2016-10-01

    As low as possible radioactive contamination of a detector plays a crucial role to improve sensitivity of a double beta decay experiment. The radioactive contamination of a sample of 116CdWO4 crystal scintillator by thorium was reduced by a factor ≈10, down to the level 0.01 mBq/kg (228Th), by exploiting the recrystallization procedure. The total alpha activity of uranium and thorium daughters was reduced by a factor ≈3, down to 1.6 mBq/kg. No change in the specific activity (the total α activity and 228Th) was observed in a sample of ZnWO4 crystal produced by recrystallization after removing ≈0.4 mm surface layer of the crystal.

  18. Macrophage entry mediated by HIV Envs from brain and lymphoid tissues is determined by the capacity to use low CD4 levels and overall efficiency of fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Elaine R.; Dunfee, Rebecca L.; Stanton, Jennifer; Bogdan, Derek; Taylor, Joann; Kunstman, Kevin; Bell, Jeanne E.; Wolinsky, Steven M.; Gabuzda, Dana . E-mail: dana_gabuzda@dfci.harvard.edu

    2007-03-30

    HIV infects macrophages and microglia in the central nervous system (CNS), which express lower levels of CD4 than CD4+ T cells in peripheral blood. To investigate mechanisms of HIV neurotropism, full-length env genes were cloned from autopsy brain and lymphoid tissues from 4 AIDS patients with HIV-associated dementia (HAD). Characterization of 55 functional Env clones demonstrated that Envs with reduced dependence on CD4 for fusion and viral entry are more frequent in brain compared to lymphoid tissue. Envs that mediated efficient entry into macrophages were frequent in brain but were also present in lymphoid tissue. For most Envs, entry into macrophages correlated with overall fusion activity at all levels of CD4 and CCR5. gp160 nucleotide sequences were compartmentalized in brain versus lymphoid tissue within each patient. Proline at position 308 in the V3 loop of gp120 was associated with brain compartmentalization in 3 patients, but mutagenesis studies suggested that P308 alone does not contribute to reduced CD4 dependence or macrophage-tropism. These results suggest that HIV adaptation to replicate in the CNS selects for Envs with reduced CD4 dependence and increased fusion activity. Macrophage-tropic Envs are frequent in brain but are also present in lymphoid tissues of AIDS patients with HAD, and entry into macrophages in the CNS and other tissues is dependent on the ability to use low receptor levels and overall efficiency of fusion.

  19. Graded levels of IRF4 regulate CD8+ T cell differentiation and expansion, but not attrition, in response to acute virus infection1

    PubMed Central

    Nayar, Ribhu; Schutten, Elizabeth; Bautista, Bianca; Daniels, Keith; Prince, Amanda L.; Enos, Megan; Brehm, Michael A.; Swain, Susan L.; Welsh, Raymond M.; Berg, Leslie J.

    2014-01-01

    In response to acute virus infections, CD8+ T cells differentiate to form a large population of short-lived effectors and a stable pool of long-lived memory cells. The characteristics of the CD8+ T cell response are influenced by TCR affinity, antigen dose, and the inflammatory cytokine milieu dictated by the infection. To address the mechanism by which differences in TCR signal strength could regulate CD8+ T cell differentiation, we investigated the transcription factor, IRF4. We show that IRF4 is transiently upregulated to differing levels in murine CD8+ T cells, based on the strength of TCR signaling. In turn, IRF4 controls the magnitude of the CD8+ T cell response to acute virus infection in a dose-dependent manner. Modest differences in IRF4 expression dramatically influence the numbers of short-lived effector cells at the peak of the infection, but have no impact on the kinetics of the infection or on the rate of T cell contraction. Further, the expression of key transcription factors such as TCF1 and Eomes are highly sensitive to graded levels of IRF4. In contrast, T-bet expression is less dependent on IRF4 levels, and is influenced by the nature of the infection. These data indicate that IRF4 is a key component that translates the strength of TCR signaling into a graded response of virus-specific CD8+ T cells. PMID:24835398

  20. Internalization of Tissue Factor-Rich Microvesicles by Platelets Occurs Independently of GPIIb-IIIa, and Involves CD36 Receptor, Serotonin Transporter and Cytoskeletal Assembly.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Vilchez, Irene; Diaz-Ricart, Maribel; Galan, Ana M; Roque, Merce; Caballo, Carolina; Molina, Patricia; White, James G; Escolar, Gines

    2016-02-01

    Platelets are important in hemostasis, but also detect particles and pathogens in the circulation. Phagocytic and endocytic activities of platelets are widely recognized; however, receptors and mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. We previously demonstrated that platelets internalize and store phospholipid microvesicles enriched in human tissue factor (TF+MVs) and that platelet-associated TF enhances thrombus formation at sites of vascular damage. Here, we investigate the mechanisms implied in the interactions of TF+MVs with platelets and the effects of specific inhibitory strategies. Aggregometry and electron microscopy were used to assess platelet activation and TF+MVs uptake. Cytoskeletal assembly and activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and RhoA were analyzed by western blot and ELISA. Exposure of platelets to TF+MVs caused reversible platelet aggregation, actin polymerization and association of contractile proteins to the cytoskeleton being maximal at 1 min. The same kinetics were observed for activation of PI3K and translocation of RhoA to the cytoskeleton. Inhibitory strategies to block glycoprotein IIb-IIIa (GPIIb-IIIa), scavenger receptor CD36, serotonin transporter (SERT) and PI3K, fully prevented platelet aggregation by TF+MVs. Ultrastructural techniques revealed that uptake of TF+MVs was efficiently prevented by anti-CD36 and SERT inhibitor, but only moderately interfered by GPIIb-IIIa blockade. We conclude that internalization of TF+MVs by platelets occurs independently of receptors related to their main hemostatic function (GPIIb-IIIa), involves the scavenger receptor CD36, SERT and engages PI3-Kinase activation and cytoskeletal assembly. CD36 and SERT appear as potential therapeutic targets to interfere with the association of TF+MVs with platelets and possibly downregulate their prothrombotic phenotype.

  1. Germline variants in ETV6 underlie reduced platelet formation, platelet dysfunction and increased levels of circulating CD34+ progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Poggi, Marjorie; Canault, Matthias; Favier, Marie; Turro, Ernest; Saultier, Paul; Ghalloussi, Dorsaf; Baccini, Veronique; Vidal, Lea; Mezzapesa, Anna; Chelghoum, Nadjim; Mohand-Oumoussa, Badreddine; Falaise, Céline; Favier, Rémi; Ouwehand, Willem H.; Fiore, Mathieu; Peiretti, Franck; Morange, Pierre Emmanuel; Saut, Noémie; Bernot, Denis; Greinacher, Andreas; BioResource, NIHR; Nurden, Alan T.; Nurden, Paquita; Freson, Kathleen; Trégouët, David-Alexandre; Raslova, Hana; Alessi, Marie-Christine

    2017-01-01

    Variants in ETV6, which encodes a transcription repressor of the E26 transformation-specific family, have recently been reported to be responsible for inherited thrombocytopenia and hematologic malignancy. We sequenced the DNA from cases with unexplained dominant thrombocytopenia and identified six likely pathogenic variants in ETV6, of which five are novel. We observed low repressive activity of all tested ETV6 variants, and variants located in the E26 transformation-specific binding domain (encoding p.A377T, p.Y401N) led to reduced binding to corepressors. We also observed a large expansion of megakaryocyte colony-forming units derived from variant carriers and reduced proplatelet formation with abnormal cytoskeletal organization. The defect in proplatelet formation was also observed in control CD34+ cell-derived megakaryocytes transduced with lentiviral particles encoding mutant ETV6. Reduced expression levels of key regulators of the actin cytoskeleton CDC42 and RHOA were measured. Moreover, changes in the actin structures are typically accompanied by a rounder platelet shape with a highly heterogeneous size, decreased platelet arachidonic response, and spreading and retarded clot retraction in ETV6 deficient platelets. Elevated numbers of circulating CD34+ cells were found in p.P214L and p.Y401N carriers, and two patients from different families suffered from refractory anemia with excess blasts, while one patient from a third family was successfully treated for acute myeloid leukemia. Overall, our study provides novel insights into the role of ETV6 as a driver of cytoskeletal regulatory gene expression during platelet production, and the impact of variants resulting in platelets with altered size, shape and function and potentially also in changes in circulating progenitor levels. PMID:27663637

  2. Correlation of combustor acoustic power levels inferred from internal fluctuating pressure measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonglahn, U. H.

    1978-01-01

    Combustion chamber acoustic power levels inferred from internal fluctuating pressure measurements are correlated with operating conditions and chamber geometries over a wide range. The variables include considerations of chamber design (can, annular, and reverse-flow annular) and size, number of fuel nozzles, burner staging and fuel split, airflow and heat release rates, and chamber inlet pressure and temperature levels. The correlated data include those obtained with combustion component development rigs as well as engines.

  3. Increased susceptibility of CD4+ T cells from elderly individuals to HIV-1 infection and apoptosis is associated with reduced CD4 and enhanced CXCR4 and FAS surface expression levels.

    PubMed

    Heigele, Anke; Joas, Simone; Regensburger, Kerstin; Kirchhoff, Frank

    2015-10-09

    Elderly HIV-1 infected individuals progress to AIDS more frequently and rapidly than people becoming infected at a young age. To identify possible reasons for these differences in clinical progression, we performed comprehensive phenotypic analyses of CD4+ T cells from uninfected young and elderly individuals, and examined their susceptibility to HIV-1 infection and programmed death. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from older people contain an increased percentage of central memory and Th17 CD4+ T cells that are main target cells of HIV-1 and strongly reduced proportions of naïve T cells that are poorly susceptible to HIV-1. Unstimulated T cells from elderly individuals expressed higher levels of activation markers, death receptors, and the viral CXCR4 co-receptor than those from young individuals but responded poorly to stimulation. CD4+ T cells from older individuals were highly susceptible to CXCR4- and CCR5-tropic HIV-1 infection but produced significantly lower quantities of infectious virus than cells from young individuals because they were highly prone to apoptosis and thus presumably had a very short life span. The increased susceptibility of T cells from the elderly to HIV-1 infection correlated directly with CXCR4 and inversely with CD4 expression. The levels of apoptosis correlated with the cell surface expression of FAS but not with the expression of programmed death receptor 1 (PD1) or tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). Increased levels of activated and highly susceptible HIV-1 target cells, reduced CD4 and enhanced CXCR4 cell surface expression, together with the high susceptibility to FAS-induced programmed cell death may contribute to the rapid CD4+ T cell depletion and accelerated clinical course of infection in elderly HIV-1-infected individuals.

  4. INTERIOR OF ALTITUDE CHAMBER L FROM 16’8” LEVEL OF INTERNAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF ALTITUDE CHAMBER L FROM 16’-8” LEVEL OF INTERNAL PLATFORMS SHOWING WALL-MOUNTED STAIRS, FACING WEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Altitude Chambers, First Street, between Avenue D and Avenue E, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  5. DETAIL OF FIRE HOSE ON 16’8” LEVEL OF INTERNAL PLATFORMS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF FIRE HOSE ON 16’-8” LEVEL OF INTERNAL PLATFORMS, ALTITUDE CHAMBER L, FACING NORTHWEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Altitude Chambers, First Street, between Avenue D and Avenue E, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  6. DETAIL OF LOAD BANK ON 6’4” LEVEL OF INTERNAL PLATFORMS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF LOAD BANK ON 6’-4” LEVEL OF INTERNAL PLATFORMS, ALTITUDE CHAMBER L, FACING NORTH - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Altitude Chambers, First Street, between Avenue D and Avenue E, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  7. Improving International-Level Chess Players' Performance with an Acceptance-Based Protocol: Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Francisco J.; Luciano, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    This study compared an individual, 4-hr intervention based on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) versus a no-contact control condition in improving the performance of international-level chess players. Five participants received the brief ACT protocol, with each matched to another chess player with similar characteristics in the control…

  8. Investigations of internal noise levels for different target sizes, contrasts, and noise structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Minah; Choi, Shinkook; Baek, Jongduk

    2014-03-01

    To describe internal noise levels for different target sizes, contrasts, and noise structures, Gaussian targets with four different sizes (i.e., standard deviation of 2,4,6 and 8) and three different noise structures(i.e., white, low-pass, and highpass) were generated. The generated noise images were scaled to have standard deviation of 0.15. For each noise type, target contrasts were adjusted to have the same detectability based on NPW, and the detectability of CHO was calculated accordingly. For human observer study, 3 trained observers performed 2AFC detection tasks, and correction rate, Pc, was calculated for each task. By adding proper internal noise level to numerical observer (i.e., NPW and CHO), detectability of human observer was matched with that of numerical observers. Even though target contrasts were adjusted to have the same detectability of NPW observer, detectability of human observer decreases as the target size increases. The internal noise level varies for different target sizes, contrasts, and noise structures, demonstrating different internal noise levels should be considered in numerical observer to predict the detection performance of human observer.

  9. Improving International-Level Chess Players' Performance with an Acceptance-Based Protocol: Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Francisco J.; Luciano, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    This study compared an individual, 4-hr intervention based on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) versus a no-contact control condition in improving the performance of international-level chess players. Five participants received the brief ACT protocol, with each matched to another chess player with similar characteristics in the control…

  10. International EFL/ESL Master Students' Adaptation Strategies for Academic Writing Practices at Tertiary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Manjet Kaur Mehar

    2017-01-01

    The present research provides insights into the different forms of adaptation strategies employed by international graduate students to overcome the challenges faced in the academic writing practices and gain access to their disciplinary communities of practice at Master's level. Qualitative data was collected through semi-structured in-depth…

  11. Mapping Zn, Cu and Cd contents at the small catchment level after dispersion of contaminants by agricultural practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal Vázquez, E.; Mirás-Avalos, J. M.; Paz-Ferreiro, J.

    2009-04-01

    Dispersion of trace metals into the rural environment through the use of sewage sludge, fertilizers and manure has been worldwide reported. In El Abelar (Coruña province, Spain), pig slurry was discharged during years intensively into an agricultural field by means of a device which constituted a point source of contamination. The application point was located near the head of an elementary basin, so that slurry was dispersed by runoff into neighboring grassland and maize fields. In addition, diffuse pollution was also present in the study area as a consequence of cattle grazing. Water quality was monitored during and after slurry application at the outlet of a small catchment (about 10.7 ha in surface) draining the study fields. High levels of nutrients, including heavy metals, were found in drainage water. The main objectives of this paper are to determine the spatial variability of Cu, Zn and Cd as extracted by NO3H, EDTA and Ca2Cl and to evaluate the risk of accumulation of these heavy metals at the small catchment level. A set of 55 soil samples were taken from the top soil layer (0-20 cm) of the studied catchment, following a random sampling scheme. Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and Cd contents were determined i) after digestion by nitric acid in a microwave (USEPA-SW-846 3051) ii) after extraction with EDTA and iii) after extraction with Cl2Ca. Element contents in the extracts were determined by ICP-MS. Summary statistics indicate that variability in Cu, Zn and Cd contents over the study area was very high. For example, after NO3H digestion Zn contents ranged from 29.66 to 141.77 3 mg kg-1 and Cu contents varied from 10.45 to 72.7 3 mg kg-1. High Cu and Zn contents result from accumulation as a consequence of slurry discharge. Also, some hot spots with high levels of Cd (> 3 mg kg-1 after NO3H) with respect to background values were recorded. Geostatistics provides all necessary tools to analyze the spatial variability of soil properties over a landscape. The spatial

  12. Reduced sTWEAK and Increased sCD163 Levels in HIV-Infected Patients: Modulation by Antiretroviral Treatment, HIV Replication and HCV Co-Infection

    PubMed Central

    Beltrán, Luis M.; García Morillo, José S.; Egido, Jesús; Noval, Manuel Leal; Ferrando-Martinez, Sara; Blanco-Colio, Luis M.; Genebat, Miguel; Villar, José R.; Moreno-Luna, Rafael; Moreno, Juan Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease due to increased inflammation and persistent immune activation. CD163 is a macrophage scavenger receptor that is involved in monocyte-macrophage activation in HIV-infected patients. CD163 interacts with TWEAK, a member of the TNF superfamily. Circulating levels of sTWEAK and sCD163 have been previously associated with cardiovascular disease, but no previous studies have fully analyzed their association with HIV. Objective The aim of this study was to analyze circulating levels of sTWEAK and sCD163 as well as other known markers of inflammation (hsCRP, IL-6 and sTNFRII) and endothelial dysfunction (sVCAM-1 and ADMA) in 26 patients with HIV before and after 48 weeks of antiretroviral treatment (ART) and 23 healthy subjects. Results Patients with HIV had reduced sTWEAK levels and increased sCD163, sVCAM-1, ADMA, hsCRP, IL-6 and sTNFRII plasma concentrations, as well as increased sCD163/sTWEAK ratio, compared with healthy subjects. Antiretroviral treatment significantly reduced the concentrations of sCD163, sVCAM-1, hsCRP and sTNFRII, although they remained elevated when compared with healthy subjects. Antiretroviral treatment had no effect on the concentrations of ADMA and sTWEAK, biomarkers associated with endothelial function. The use of protease inhibitors as part of antiretroviral therapy and the presence of HCV-HIV co-infection and/or active HIV replication attenuated the ART-mediated decrease in sCD163 plasma concentrations. Conclusion HIV-infected patients showed a proatherogenic profile characterized by increased inflammatory, immune-activation and endothelial-dysfunction biomarkers that partially improved after ART. HCV-HIV co-infection and/or active HIV replication enhanced immune activation despite ART. PMID:24594990

  13. A low level of dietary selenium has both beneficial and toxic effects and is protective against Cd-toxicity in the least killifish Heterandria formosa.

    PubMed

    Xie, Lingtian; Wu, Xing; Chen, Hongxing; Dong, Wu; Cazan, Alfy Morales; Klerks, Paul L

    2016-10-01

    As an essential element, selenium (Se) is beneficial at low levels yet toxic at high levels. The present study assessed the effects of dietary exposure to Se in the least killifish Heterandria formosa, and investigated how this exposure influences the effects of a subsequent exposure to cadmium (Cd). The fish were pre-exposed to an environmentally relevant concentration (2 μg g(-1) dry wt) of dietary selenite (Se(4+)) or seleno-l-methionine (Se-Met) for 10 d. The same fish were then exposed to 0.5 mg L(-1) of Cd for 5 d. Both Se(IV) and Se-Met rapidly accumulated in H. formosa. Results for the two Se species were generally similar in this study. Fish exposed to Se had lower levels of lipid peroxidation (measured as levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances or TBARS) and a higher catalase (CAT) activity. In contrast, their Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity was reduced. The Cd exposure resulted in an increase in lipid peroxidation and decreases in the activities of catalase and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. The Cd-exposed H. formosa that were pre-exposed to Se had lower Cd body burdens, less lipid peroxidation, and higher catalase activity, than did fish not pre-exposed to Se. The Se exposure did not have a protective effect on the Cd-induced reduction in Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity. These results clearly demonstrate that a Se-enriched diet reduces some (but not all) forms of Cd-toxicity and that Se can simultaneously have beneficial and detrimental effects, making it difficult to predict the net outcome of changes in dietary Se levels for fish.

  14. Dendritic cells generated in the presence of vitamin D3 and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide secrete IL-8, IL-1β, IL-10 and induce relatively low levels of CD4+CD25hiFoxp3+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Sindy M; Rodríguez, Luz Stella

    2016-06-03

    Vitamin D3 (VD3) has been described as a modulator of immune system cells, including dendritic cells (DC). Previous studies have shown its importance in in vitro generation of tolerogenic DC, which have a similar function and phenotype to that of CD141 dermal DCs that produce IL-10 and induce (LTreg) CD4+ T regulator cells.  This paper presents a study that compares the phenotype and cytokines produced by DC generated in presence and absence of VD3, which were matured with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and their ability to induce LTreg from naïve allogeneic CD4+ T cells.  In order to compare them, peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated to select monocytes CD14+ T cells and differentiate them in vitro from DC in the presence and absence of VD3, and to mature them with LPS. Phenotype and cytokine levels were also analyzed in the culture supernatants. Dendritic cells were then co-cultured with naïve allogeneic CD4+ T cells and the frequencies of LTreg were determined (naïve-activated).  The results showed that unstimulated DC generated with VD3 kept the CD14. When activated with LPS, they expressed lower levels of C83, CD83 and CD86; HLA-DR; higher amounts of IL-1β, IL-8, IL-10, and tended to lessen IL-6, IL-12p70 and TGF-β1, compared to DCs not treated with VD3. The frequency of naïve LTreg was similar, although immature DC generated with VD3 tended to induce activated LTregs.  Based on these results, it is possible to conclude that DCs generated with VD3 and treated with LPS presented a 'semi-mature' phenotype, and were able to secrete pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Besides, they did not increase their capacity to promote the polarization of naïve allogenic CD4+ T cells towards LTregs.

  15. The electrical properties and defect levels of Al doped CdZnTe crystal for detector applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, Ruihua; Jie, Wanqi; Zha, Gangqiang; Liu, Weihua; Xu, Yadong; Fu, Li; Wang, Tao

    2009-07-01

    CdZnTe (CZT) is one of the most promising materials for room-temperature X-ray and Gamma-ray detectors. The electrical properties of CZT crystal decide the performance of CZT detector to a large degree. For high quality CZT crystal using as detector, both high resistivity and high carrier transport properties are necessary. In this paper, the electrical properties and defect levels of Al-doped CZT (CZT:Al) crystal were discussed. Utilizing the thermally stimulated current (TSC) spectroscope measurement, the defect levels in CZT:Al crystal and their level-model were determined and inferred. The carrier transport properties of the CZT:Al were charactered with the carrier mobility-lifetime (μτ) products determined by the peak channel of241Am alpha particle 5.48 MeV spectrum as a function of the bias voltage. Fitted by the single carrier Hecht equation, the μτ for the electron was evaluated to be 4.6×10-4 cm2Â.V-1.

  16. Genetic heterogeneity in Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) and CdLS-like phenotypes with observed and predicted levels of mosaicism

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Morad; Poke, Gemma; Ferry, Quentin; Williamson, Kathleen; Aldridge, Roland; Meynert, Alison M; Bengani, Hemant; Chan, Cheng Yee; Kayserili, Hülya; Avci, Şahin; Hennekam, Raoul C M; Lampe, Anne K; Redeker, Egbert; Homfray, Tessa; Ross, Alison; Falkenberg Smeland, Marie; Mansour, Sahar; Parker, Michael J; Cook, Jacqueline A; Splitt, Miranda; Fisher, Richard B; Fryer, Alan; Magee, Alex C; Wilkie, Andrew; Barnicoat, Angela; Brady, Angela F; Cooper, Nicola S; Mercer, Catherine; Deshpande, Charu; Bennett, Christopher P; Pilz, Daniela T; Ruddy, Deborah; Cilliers, Deirdre; Johnson, Diana S; Josifova, Dragana; Rosser, Elisabeth; Thompson, Elizabeth M; Wakeling, Emma; Kinning, Esther; Stewart, Fiona; Flinter, Frances; Girisha, Katta M; Cox, Helen; Firth, Helen V; Kingston, Helen; Wee, Jamie S; Hurst, Jane A; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Tolmie, John; Vogt, Julie; Tatton–Brown, Katrina; Chandler, Kate; Prescott, Katrina; Wilson, Louise; Behnam, Mahdiyeh; McEntagart, Meriel; Davidson, Rosemarie; Lynch, Sally-Ann; Sisodiya, Sanjay; Mehta, Sarju G; McKee, Shane A; Mohammed, Shehla; Holden, Simon; Park, Soo-Mi; Holder, Susan E; Harrison, Victoria; McConnell, Vivienne; Lam, Wayne K; Green, Andrew J; Donnai, Dian; Bitner-Glindzicz, Maria; Donnelly, Deirdre E; Nellåker, Christoffer; Taylor, Martin S; FitzPatrick, David R

    2014-01-01

    Background Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a multisystem disorder with distinctive facial appearance, intellectual disability and growth failure as prominent features. Most individuals with typical CdLS have de novo heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in NIPBL with mosaic individuals representing a significant proportion. Mutations in other cohesin components, SMC1A, SMC3, HDAC8 and RAD21 cause less typical CdLS. Methods We screened 163 affected individuals for coding region mutations in the known genes, 90 for genomic rearrangements, 19 for deep intronic variants in NIPBL and 5 had whole-exome sequencing. Results Pathogenic mutations [including mosaic changes] were identified in: NIPBL 46 [3] (28.2%); SMC1A 5 [1] (3.1%); SMC3 5 [1] (3.1%); HDAC8 6 [0] (3.6%) and RAD21 1 [0] (0.6%). One individual had a de novo 1.3 Mb deletion of 1p36.3. Another had a 520 kb duplication of 12q13.13 encompassing ESPL1, encoding separase, an enzyme that cleaves the cohesin ring. Three de novo mutations were identified in ANKRD11 demonstrating a phenotypic overlap with KBG syndrome. To estimate the number of undetected mosaic cases we used recursive partitioning to identify discriminating features in the NIPBL-positive subgroup. Filtering of the mutation-negative group on these features classified at least 18% as ‘NIPBL-like’. A computer composition of the average face of this NIPBL-like subgroup was also more typical in appearance than that of all others in the mutation-negative group supporting the existence of undetected mosaic cases. Conclusions Future diagnostic testing in ‘mutation-negative’ CdLS thus merits deeper sequencing of multiple DNA samples derived from different tissues. PMID:25125236

  17. The effectiveness of the anti-CD11d treatment is reduced in rat models of spinal cord injury that produce significant levels of intraspinal hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Geremia, N M; Hryciw, T; Bao, F; Streijger, F; Okon, E; Lee, J H T; Weaver, L C; Dekaban, G A; Kwon, B K; Brown, A

    2017-09-01

    We have previously reported that administration of a CD11d monoclonal antibody (mAb) improves recovery in a clip-compression model of SCI. In this model the CD11d mAb reduces the infiltration of activated leukocytes into the injured spinal cord (as indicated by reduced intraspinal MPO). However not all anti-inflammatory strategies have reported beneficial results, suggesting that success of the CD11d mAb treatment may depend on the type or severity of the injury. We therefore tested the CD11d mAb treatment in a rat hemi-contusion model of cervical SCI. In contrast to its effects in the clip-compression model, the CD11d mAb treatment did not improve forelimb function nor did it significantly reduce MPO levels in the hemi-contused cord. To determine if the disparate results using the CD11d mAb were due to the biomechanical nature of the cord injury (compression SCI versus contusion SCI) or to the spinal level of the injury (12th thoracic level versus cervical) we further evaluated the CD11d mAb treatment after a T12 contusion SCI. In contrast to the T12 clip compression SCI, the CD11d mAb treatment did not improve locomotor recovery or significantly reduce MPO levels after T12 contusion SCI. Lesion analyses revealed increased levels of hemorrhage after contusion SCI compared to clip-compression SCI. SCI that is accompanied by increased intraspinal hemorrhage would be predicted to be refractory to the CD11d mAb therapy as this approach targets leukocyte diapedesis through the intact vasculature. These results suggest that the disparate results of the anti-CD11d treatment in contusion and clip-compression models of SCI are due to the different pathophysiological mechanisms that dominate these two types of spinal cord injuries. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. High levels of viral suppression among East African HIV-infected women and men in serodiscordant partnerships initiating antiretroviral therapy with high CD4 counts and during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Mujugira, Andrew; Baeten, Jared; Kidoguchi, Lara; Haberer, Jessica; Celum, Connie; Donnell, Deborah; Ngure, Kenneth; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Mugo, Nelly; Asiimwe, Stephen; Odoyo, Josephine; Tindimwebwa, Edna; Bulya, Nulu; Katabira, Elly; Heffron, Renee

    2017-09-13

    People who are asymptomatic and feel healthy, including pregnant women, may be less motivated to initiate ART or achieve high adherence. We assessed whether ART initiation, and viral suppression 6, 12 and 24-months after ART initiation, were lower in HIV-infected members of serodiscordant couples who initiated during pregnancy or with higher CD4 counts. We used data from the Partners Demonstration Project, an open-label study of the delivery of integrated PrEP and ART (at any CD4 count) for HIV prevention among high-risk HIV serodiscordant couples in Kenya and Uganda. Differences in viral suppression (HIV RNA <400 copies/ml) among people initiating ART at different CD4 count levels (≤350, 351-500, and >500 cells/mm3) and during pregnancy were estimated using Poisson regression. Of 865 HIV-infected participants retained after becoming eligible for ART during study follow-up, 95% initiated ART. Viral suppression 24-months after ART initiation was high overall (97%), and comparable among those initiating ART at CD4 counts >500, 351-500 and ≤350 cells/mm3 (96% vs 97% vs 97%; relative risk [RR] 0.98; 95% CI: 0.93-1.03 for CD4 >500 vs <350 and RR 0.99; 95% CI: (0.93-1.06) for CD4 351-500 vs ≤350). Viral suppression was as likely among women initiating ART primarily to prevent perinatal transmission as ART initiation for other reasons (p=0.9 at 6 months and p=0.5 at 12 months). Nearly all HIV-infected partners initiating ART were virally suppressed by 24 months, irrespective of CD4 count or pregnancy status. These findings suggest that people initiating ART at high CD4 counts or due to pregnancy can adhere to ART as well as those starting treatment with symptomatic HIV disease or low CD4 counts.

  19. Elevated granzyme B+ B-cell level in SIV-infection correlate with viral load and low CD4 T-cell count

    PubMed Central

    Kotb, Ahmad; Klippert, Antonina; Daskalaki, Maria; Sauermann, Ulrike; Stahl-Hennig, Christiane; Neumann, Berit

    2017-01-01

    Granzyme B-expressing (GrB+) B cells are thought to contribute to immune dysfunctions in HIV patients, but so far their exact role is unknown. This report demonstrates for the first time the existence of GrB+ B cells in SIV-infected rhesus macaques, which represent the most commonly used nonhuman primate model for HIV research. Similar to HIV patients, we found significantly higher frequencies of these cells in the blood of chronically SIV-infected rhesus monkeys compared with uninfected healthy ones. These frequencies correlated with plasma viral load and inversely with absolute CD4 T-cell counts. When investigating GrB+ B cells in different compartments, levels were highest in blood, spleen and bone marrow, but considerably lower in lymph nodes and tonsils. Analysis of expression of various surface markers on this particular B-cell subset in SIV-infected macaques revealed differences between the phenotype in macaques and in humans. GrB+ B cells in SIV-infected rhesus macaques exhibit an elevated expression of CD5, CD10, CD25 and CD27, while expression of CD19, CD185 and HLA-DR is reduced. In contrast to human GrB+ B cells, we did not observe a significantly increased expression of CD43 and CD86. B-cell receptor stimulation in combination with IL-21 of purified B cells from healthy animals led to the induction of GrB expression. Furthermore, initial functional analyses indicated a regulatory role on T-cell proliferation. Overall, our data pave the way for longitudinal analyses including studies on the functionality of GrB+ B cells in the nonhuman primate model for AIDS. PMID:27779180

  20. International Mussel Watch: A global assessment of environmental levels of chemical contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The primary goal of the International Mussel Watch is to ascertain and assess the levels of chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticide (CHP) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in bivalves collected from coastal marine waters throughout the world. Increased use of these persistent toxic biocides may result in contamination of living coastal resources from whole ecosystems to specific food resources with consequent implication for human health and the integrity of marine communities. Another goal for the International Mussel Watch Project will be to help develop a sustainable activity for observation and monitoring chemical contamination in especially susceptible regions of the world's oceans.

  1. Cortisol increases CXCR4 expression but does not affect CD62L and CCR7 levels on specific T cell subsets in humans.

    PubMed

    Besedovsky, Luciana; Linz, Barbara; Dimitrov, Stoyan; Groch, Sabine; Born, Jan; Lange, Tanja

    2014-06-01

    Glucocorticoids are well known to affect T cell migration, leading to a redistribution of the cells from blood to the bone marrow, accompanied by a concurrent suppression of lymph node homing. Despite numerous studies in this context, with most of them employing synthetic glucocorticoids in nonphysiological doses, the mechanisms of this redistribution are not well understood. Here, we investigated in healthy men the impact of cortisol at physiological concentrations on the expression of different migration molecules on eight T cell subpopulations in vivo and in vitro. Hydrocortisone (cortisol, 22 mg) infused during nocturnal rest when endogenous cortisol levels are low, compared with placebo, differentially reduced numbers of T cell subsets, with naive CD4(+) and CD8(+) subsets exhibiting the strongest reduction. Hydrocortisone in vivo and in vitro increased CXCR4 expression, which presumably mediates the recruitment of T cells to the bone marrow. Expression of the lymph node homing receptor CD62L on total CD3(+) and CD8(+) T cells appeared reduced following hydrocortisone infusion. However, this was due to a selective extravasation of CD62L(+) T cell subsets, as hydrocortisone affected neither CD62L expression on a subpopulation level nor CD62L expression in vitro. Corresponding results in the opposite direction were observed after blocking of endogenous cortisol synthesis by metyrapone. CCR7, another lymph node homing receptor, was also unaffected by hydrocortisone in vitro. Thus, cortisol seems to redirect T cells to the bone marrow by upregulating their CXCR4 expression, whereas its inhibiting effect on T cell homing to lymph nodes is apparently regulated independently of the expression of classical homing receptors.

  2. The NK Cell Response to Mouse Cytomegalovirus Infection Affects the Level and Kinetics of the Early CD8+ T-Cell Response

    PubMed Central

    Mitrović, Maja; Arapović, Jurica; Jordan, Stefan; Fodil-Cornu, Nassima; Ebert, Stefan; Vidal, Silvia M.; Krmpotić, Astrid; Reddehase, Matthias J.

    2012-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells and CD8+ T cells play a prominent role in the clearance of mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection. The role of NK cells in modulating the CD8+ T-cell response to MCMV infection is still the subject of intensive research. For analyzing the impact of NK cells on mounting of a CD8+ T-cell response and the contribution of these cells to virus control during the first days postinfection (p.i.), we used C57BL/6 mice in which NK cells are specifically activated through the Ly49H receptor engaged by the MCMV-encoded ligand m157. Our results indicate that the requirement for CD8+ T cells in early MCMV control inversely correlates with the engagement of Ly49H. While depletion of CD8+ T cells has only a minor effect on the early control of wild-type MCMV, CD8+ T cells are essential in the control of Δm157 virus. The frequencies of virus epitope-specific CD8+ T cells and their activation status were higher in mice infected with Δm157 virus. In addition, these mice showed elevated levels of alpha interferon (IFN-α) and several other proinflammatory cytokines as early as 1.5 days p.i. Although the numbers of conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) were reduced later during infection, particularly in Δm157-infected mice, they were not significantly affected at the peak of the cytokine response. Altogether, we concluded that increased antigen load, preservation of early cDCs' function, and higher levels of innate cytokines collectively account for an enhanced CD8+ T-cell response in C57BL/6 mice infected with a virus unable to activate NK cells via the Ly49H–m157 interaction. PMID:22156533

  3. International Conference on Very Large Data Bases (VLDB 2001) (27th) Held 11 - 14 September 2001. Proceedings (CD-ROM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    DATA BASES, *DATA MANAGEMENT, * ELECTRONIC COMMERCE , *KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT, DATA PROCESSING, GLOBAL, SYMPOSIA, OPTIMIZATION, INFORMATION SYSTEMS, SEMANTICS, MOBILE, ITALY, INTERNATIONAL, INTERNET, INFORMATION SCIENCES, INTRANET.

  4. The use of transplanted cultured tropical oysters (Saccostrea commercialis) to monitor Cd levels in North Queensland coastal waters (Australia).

    PubMed

    Olivier, Frédérique; Ridd, Michael; Klumpp, David

    2002-10-01

    Bivalves are commonly used to detect metal pollution in the marine environment. Commercially cultured Milky oysters (Saccostrea commercialis) were transplanted in various sites along the North Queensland coast and analyzed for two metals of potentially anthropogenic origin (Cd, Zn). To provide additional information, naturally occurring Black Lip oysters (Saccostrea echinata) were also collected at the transplantation sites. The study demonstrated that the oysters species transplanted are good bioindicators of these metal concentrations in tropical waters, sensitive to variations in the environment at concentrations which are much smaller than pollution signals commonly reported for temperate waters. Three transplant experiments were carried out from May 1999 to February 2000. Milky oysters transplanted to offshore areas (Orpheus Is., Kelso Reef) accumulated Cd in the soft parts whereas oysters sampled from cages placed in Ross Creek and the Herbert River estuaries showed a decrease in Cd concentration, which resulted from an increase in dry weight. Dry weight appeared to be an important covariant affecting Cd concentration in the oysters whereas it does not unambiguously affect Zn concentrations. For the duration of the experiments, oysters sampled from the Magnetic Is. reference site showed effectively constant Cd concentrations and total Cd contents which indicates that any seasonal cycle affecting metal concentration is weak. It was found that Cd accumulation in oysters increased as ambient dissolved Cd concentration decreased, from which it was concluded that for these oysters, the predominant source of Cd was from the particulate phase rather than the dissolved phase.

  5. Spatial Patterns of Sea Level Variability Associated with Natural Internal Climate Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Weiqing; Meehl, Gerald A.; Stammer, Detlef; Hu, Aixue; Hamlington, Benjamin; Kenigson, Jessica; Palanisamy, Hindumathi; Thompson, Philip

    2016-10-01

    Sea level rise (SLR) can exert significant stress on highly populated coastal societies and low-lying island countries around the world. Because of this, there is huge societal demand for improved decadal predictions and future projections of SLR, particularly on a local scale along coastlines. Regionally, sea level variations can deviate considerably from the global mean due to various geophysical processes. These include changes of ocean circulations, which partially can be attributed to natural, internal modes of variability in the complex Earth's climate system. Anthropogenic influence may also contribute to regional sea level variations. Separating the effects of natural climate modes and anthropogenic forcing, however, remains a challenge and requires identification of the imprint of specific climate modes in observed sea level change patterns. In this paper, we review our current state of knowledge about spatial patterns of sea level variability associated with natural climate modes on interannual-to-multidecadal timescales, with particular focus on decadal-to-multidecadal variability. Relevant climate modes and our current state of understanding their associated sea level patterns and driving mechanisms are elaborated separately for the Pacific, the Indian, the Atlantic, and the Arctic and Southern Oceans. We also discuss the issues, challenges and future outlooks for understanding the regional sea level patterns associated with climate modes. Effects of these internal modes have to be taken into account in order to achieve more reliable near-term predictions and future projections of regional SLR.

  6. Spatial Patterns of Sea Level Variability Associated with Natural Internal Climate Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Weiqing; Meehl, Gerald A.; Stammer, Detlef; Hu, Aixue; Hamlington, Benjamin; Kenigson, Jessica; Palanisamy, Hindumathi; Thompson, Philip

    2017-01-01

    Sea level rise (SLR) can exert significant stress on highly populated coastal societies and low-lying island countries around the world. Because of this, there is huge societal demand for improved decadal predictions and future projections of SLR, particularly on a local scale along coastlines. Regionally, sea level variations can deviate considerably from the global mean due to various geophysical processes. These include changes of ocean circulations, which partially can be attributed to natural, internal modes of variability in the complex Earth's climate system. Anthropogenic influence may also contribute to regional sea level variations. Separating the effects of natural climate modes and anthropogenic forcing, however, remains a challenge and requires identification of the imprint of specific climate modes in observed sea level change patterns. In this paper, we review our current state of knowledge about spatial patterns of sea level variability associated with natural climate modes on interannual-to-multidecadal timescales, with particular focus on decadal-to-multidecadal variability. Relevant climate modes and our current state of understanding their associated sea level patterns and driving mechanisms are elaborated separately for the Pacific, the Indian, the Atlantic, and the Arctic and Southern Oceans. We also discuss the issues, challenges and future outlooks for understanding the regional sea level patterns associated with climate modes. Effects of these internal modes have to be taken into account in order to achieve more reliable near-term predictions and future projections of regional SLR.

  7. The butanol fraction of Eclipta prostrata (Linn) effectively reduces serum lipid levels and improves antioxidant activities in CD rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Ik; Lee, Sung-Hyen; Choi, Jin-Ho; Lillehoj, Hyun Soon; Yu, Mi-Hee; Lee, Gun-Soon

    2008-08-01

    Eclipta prostrata (Linn) has been used as a traditional medicinal plant to prevent lipidemia and atherosclerosis in Asia. However, its functional properties and the underlying mechanism of action have not been clearly defined. This study was conducted to elucidate the biological basis for hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities of E. prostrata. Charles River Sprague-Dawley CD rats (specific pathogen-free/viral antibody-free Crj/Bgi male, 180 +/- 10 g) were fed experimental diets supplemented with 0 mg (control), 25 mg (E25), 50 mg (E50), or 100 mg (E100) of a freeze-dried butanol fraction of E. prostrata per kilogram of diet for 6 weeks. Serum triacylglycerol and total cholesterol levels were significantly lower in the E50 and E100 groups by 9.8% to 19.0% and by 10.7% to 13.4%, respectively, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels were significantly reduced in the same groups by 10.3% to 13.0% compared with the untreated control group. The E50 and E100 groups also showed significantly increased high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels (13.0%-19.1%) compared with the control group. Atherogenic indices were decreased by 9.8% to 30.5% in all groups fed diets supplemented with E. prostrata. Furthermore, serum hydroxyl radical, lipid peroxide, and oxidized protein levels were significantly decreased in the E50 and E100 groups. These results clearly demonstrate the effects of E. prostrata on serum lipid and oxidative metabolism in rats. The health-promoting effects of E. prostrata, which were demonstrated in this study in a rat model, may have implications for atherosclerosis and hypercholesterolemia in humans.

  8. Elevated cerebral cortical CD24 levels in patients and mice with traumatic brain injury: a potential negative role in nuclear factor κb/inflammatory factor pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Ling, Hai-Ping; You, Wan-Chun; Liu, Huan-Dong; Sun, Qing; Zhou, Meng-Liang; Shen, Wei; Zhao, Jin-Bing; Zhu, Lin; Hang, Chun-Hua

    2014-02-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that sterile inflammatory response contributes to secondary brain injury following traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, the specific mechanisms remain largely unknown, as is whether CD24, known as an important regulator in the non-infectious inflammatory response, plays a role in secondary brain injury after TBI. Here, the expression of CD24 was detected in samples from patients with TBI by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), western blotting, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. RNA interference was used to investigate the effects of CD24 on inflammatory response in a mouse model of TBI. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) DNA-binding activity was measured by electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and the levels of downstream pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and Interleukin 1β (IL-1β) were detected by real-time PCR. The results indicated that both the mRNA and protein levels of CD24 were markedly elevated after TBI in humans and mice, showing a time-dependent expression. The expression of CD24 could be observed in neurons, astrocytes and microglia in both humans and mice. Meanwhile, downregulation of CD24 significantly induced an increase of NF-κB DNA-binding activity and mRNA levels of TNF-α and IL-1β. These findings indicated that CD24 expression could negatively regulate the NF-κB/inflammatory factor pathway after experimental TBI in mice, thus providing a novel target for therapeutic intervention of TBI.

  9. Cyclosporin A inhibits CD11a/CD18 adhesion molecules due to inhibition of TNFα and IL-1β levels in the mouse model of pleurisy induced by carrageenan

    PubMed Central

    Dalmarco, Eduardo Monguilhott; Medeiros, Yara Santos

    2008-01-01

    The mouse model of pleurisy induced by carrageenan is characterized by a significant enhancement of cell migration due to neutrophils 4 h after pleurisy induction. Forty-eight hours after pleurisy induction, a significant increase in cell migration due to mononuclear cells occurs. Recently, studies in our laboratory have demonstrated that cyclosporine A (CsA) inhibits leukocyte migration in the pleural cavity and lungs in the mouse model of pleurisy induced by carrageenan. In the present work we evaluated whether CsA was able to downregulate CD11a/CD18 adhesion molecule in the lungs, as well as TNFα and IL-1β levels in the fluid leakage of the pleural cavity in this model. Our results showed that CsA significantly decreased CD11a/CD18 in the lungs, as well as TNFα and IL-1β levels in the fluid leakage of the pleural cavity 4 h and 48 h after pleurisy induction. It is our hypothesis that the inhibitory effect elicited by CsA upon these adhesion molecules may be also be attributed to the downregulation of TNFα and IL-1β cytokines. PMID:19262158

  10. NK depletion results in increased CCL22 secretion and Treg levels in Lewis lung carcinoma via the accumulation of CCL22-secreting CD11b+CD11c+ cells.

    PubMed

    Mailloux, Adam W; Clark, Anna-Maria A; Young, M Rita I

    2010-12-01

    Tumor-induced immune suppression involves the accumulation of suppressive infiltrates in the tumor microenvironment such as regulatory T-cells (Tregs). Previous studies demonstrated that NK-dependant increases in CCL22 secretion selectively recruit Tregs toward murine lungs bearing Lewis Lung Carcinoma (LLC). To extend the in vitro studies, the present studies utilized in vivo depletion of NK cells to ascertain the contribution of NK-derived CCL22 toward total CCL22 and subsequent Treg levels in both normal and LLC-bearing lungs. However, NK depletion had the unexpected effect of increasing both CCL22 secretion and Treg levels in the lungs of NK-depleted LLC-bearing mice. This was concurrent with an increase in tumor burden. Flow cytometry and a series of both immunomagnetic and FACS isolations were used to identify the CCL22-producing cellular fractions in LLC-bearing lungs. A novel CD11b(+)CD11c(+) cell population was identified that accumulates in large numbers in NK-depleted LLC-bearing lung tissue. These CD11b(+)CD11c(+) cells secreted large amounts of CCL22 that may overcompensate for the loss of NK-derived CCL22 in the lungs of NK-depleted LLC-bearing mice. Taken together, these data suggest that NK cells play both a positive and negative role in the regulation of CCL22 secretion and, in turn, the recruitment of Tregs toward LLC-bearing lungs.

  11. Prolonged prenatal exposure to low-level ozone affects aggressive behaviour as well as NGF and BDNF levels in the central nervous system of CD-1 mice.

    PubMed

    Santucci, Daniela; Sorace, Alberto; Francia, Nadia; Aloe, Luigi; Alleva, Enrico

    2006-01-06

    The long-term effects on isolation-induced aggressive behaviour and central NGF and BDNF levels of gestational exposures to ozone (O(3)) were evaluated in adult CD-1 mice. Females were exposed to O(3), at the dose of 0.0, 0.3 or 0.6 ppm from 30 days prior the formation of breeding pairs until gestational day 17. Litters were fostered at birth to untreated dams and, at adulthood, male offspring underwent five successive daily encounters (15 min each) with a standard opponent of the same strain, sex, weight and age. The encounters on day 1, 3 and 5 were videotaped and agonistic and non-agonistic behavioural items finely scored. O(3)-exposed mice showed a significant increase in freezing and defensive postures, a decrease in nose-sniffing behaviour and reduced progressively the aggressive behavioural profile displayed on day 1. Reduced NGF levels in the hippocampus and increased BDNF in the striatum were also found upon O(3) exposure.

  12. Contribution of cerebrospinal fluid sCD19 levels to the detection of CNS lymphoma and its impact on disease outcome.

    PubMed

    Muñiz, Carmen; Martín-Martín, Lourdes; López, Antonio; Sánchez-González, Blanca; Salar, Antonio; Almeida, Julia; Sancho, Juan-Manuel; Ribera, José María; Heras, Cecilia; Peñalver, Francisco Javier; Gómez, Marta; González-Barca, Eva; Alonso, Natalia; Navarro, Belén; Olave, Teresa; Sala, Francisco; Conde, Eulogio; Márquez, José Antonio; Cabezudo, Elena; Cladera, Antonia; García-Malo, María; Caballero, María Dolores; Orfao, Alberto

    2014-03-20

    Flow cytometry (FCM) is more sensitive than conventional cytology for detection of occult leptomeningeal lymphoma; however, some FCM-negative patients show central nervous system (CNS) recurrence. Here, we evaluated the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of 13 B-cell-associated markers and their contribution to the diagnosis of CNS lymphoma in 91 diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) and 22 Burkitt lymphomas (BLs). From all markers tested, CD19 was the most informative. Thus, higher soluble CD19 (sCD19) levels were associated with a greater frequency of neurological symptoms in DLBCL and BL and with parenchymal CNS lymphoma in DLBCL; sCD19 emerged as a powerful predictor of event-free and overall survival in DLBCL and BL, particularly when combined with FCM detection of CNS disease. These results support the utility of combined FCM detection of lymphoma cells and assessment of sCD19 levels in CSF, for more accurate identification of CNS disease in DLBCL and BL patients.

  13. Classroom-level adversity: Associations with children's internalizing and externalizing behaviors across elementary school.

    PubMed

    Abry, Tashia; Bryce, Crystal I; Swanson, Jodi; Bradley, Robert H; Fabes, Richard A; Corwyn, Robert F

    2017-03-01

    Concerns regarding the social-behavioral maladjustment of U.S. youth have spurred efforts among educators and policymakers to identify and remedy educational contexts that exacerbate children's anxiety, depression, aggression, and misconduct. However, investigations of the influence of collective classroom student characteristics on individuals' social-behavioral functioning are few. The present study examined concurrent and longitudinal relations between adversity factors facing the collective classroom student group and levels of children's internalizing and externalizing behaviors across the elementary school years, and whether the pattern of relations differed for girls and boys. First-, third-, and fifth-grade teachers reported on the extent to which adversity-related factors (e.g., home/family life, academic readiness, social readiness, English proficiency, tardiness/absenteeism, student mobility, health) presented a challenge in their classrooms (i.e., classroom-level adversity [CLA]). Mothers reported on their child's internalizing and externalizing behavior at each grade. Autoregressive, lagged panel models controlled for prior levels of internalizing and externalizing behavior, mothers' education, family income-to-needs, and class size. For all children at each grade, CLA was concurrently and positively associated with externalizing behavior. For first-grade girls, but not boys, CLA was also concurrently and positively associated with internalizing behavior. Indirect effects suggested CLA influenced later internalizing and externalizing behavior through its influence on maladjustment in a given year. Discussion highlights possible methods of intervention to reduce CLA or the negative consequences associated with being in a higher-adversity classroom. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. CD81 association with SAMHD1 enhances HIV-1 reverse transcription by increasing dNTP levels.

    PubMed

    Rocha-Perugini, Vera; Suárez, Henar; Álvarez, Susana; López-Martín, Soraya; Lenzi, Gina M; Vences-Catalán, Felipe; Levy, Shoshana; Kim, Baek; Muñoz-Fernández, María A; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco; Yáñez-Mó, Maria

    2017-09-04

    In this study, we report that the tetraspanin CD81 enhances human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 reverse transcription in HIV-1-infected cells. This is enabled by the direct interaction of CD81 with the deoxynucleoside triphosphate phosphohydrolase SAMHD1. This interaction prevents endosomal accumulation and favours the proteasome-dependent degradation of SAMHD1. Consequently, CD81 depletion results in SAMHD1 increased expression, decreasing the availability of deoxynucleoside triphosphates (dNTP) and thus HIV-1 reverse transcription. Conversely, CD81 overexpression, but not the expression of a CD81 carboxy (C)-terminal deletion mutant, increases cellular dNTP content and HIV-1 reverse transcription. Our results demonstrate that the interaction of CD81 with SAMHD1 controls the metabolic rate of HIV-1 replication by tuning the availability of building blocks for reverse transcription, namely dNTPs. Together with its role in HIV-1 entry and budding into host cells, the data herein indicate that HIV-1 uses CD81 as a rheostat that controls different stages of the infection.CD81 is shown to interact with SAMHD1 and lead to its proteasomal degradation, thereby impacting dNTP availability and enhancing HIV-1 reverse transcription in primary human T cells.

  15. Long-Term Internal Variability Effects on Centennial Dynamic Sea Level Projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadi Bordbar, Mohammad; Martin, Thomas; Park, Wonsun; Latif, Mojib

    2015-04-01

    The Earth's surface is warming in response to anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide (CO2). Sea level rise is one of the most pressing aspects of global warming with far-reaching consequences for coastal societies. However, sea level rise did and will strongly vary from coast to coast. Here we investigate the long-term internal variability effects on centennial projections of dynamic sea level (DSL), the local departure from the globally averaged sea level. A large ensemble of global warming integrations was conducted with a climate model, where each ensemble member was forced by identical CO2-increase but started from different atmospheric and oceanic initial conditions taken from an unforced millennial control run. In large parts of the mid- and high latitudes, the ensemble spread of the projected centennial DSL trends is of the same order of magnitude as the globally averaged steric sea level rise, suggesting internal variability cannot be ignored when assessing 21st century DSL changes. This conclusion is also supported by analyzing projections with other climate models. The ensemble spread is strongly reduced in the mid- to high latitudes if only the atmospheric initial conditions are perturbed; suggesting uncertainty in the projected centennial DSL trends there is largely due to the lack of ocean information. Thus climate model projections of regional sea level would benefit from ocean initialization.

  16. Studies of deep trapping levels in undoped and Sn-doped Cd1-xZnxTe by thermoelectric effect spectroscopy and thermally stimulated current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krsmanovic, Nemanja; Hunt, Alan W.; Lynn, Kelvin G.; Flint, Patrick J.; Glass, Howard L.

    2000-11-01

    Thermoelectric effect spectroscopy (TEES) and thermally stimulated current (TSC) were used to study the deep trapping levels in undoped and Sn doped Cd1-xZnxTe crystals. Temperature maximum, varying heating rate and initial rise methods were used to extract activation energies and trapping cross sections of the deep trapping levels in the samples. The concentration of deep levels was estimated from the resistivity data using Neumark model. The pure sample had deep trapping levels with ionization energies of EV + 0.73 eV and EV + 0.74 eV. The concentration of the deep levels was estimated at 500 ppb. These deep levels were associated with intrinsic defects due to Cd vacancies and Te antisites. In the Sn doped samples deep levels at EV + 0.34 eV, EV + 0.55 eV and EV + 0.73 eV were observed. The level at EV + 0.55 eV was associated with Sn, while the EV + 0.34 eV and EV + 0.73 eV levels were associated with Cd vacancies. The concentration of these levels was estimated a 10000 ppb. The pulse height measurements on these samples indicated that Sn doping did not improve the detector performance.

  17. High Aminopeptidase N/CD13 Levels Characterize Human Amniotic Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Drive Their Increased Adipogenic Potential in Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    Iaffaldano, Laura; Nardelli, Carmela; Raia, Maddalena; Mariotti, Elisabetta; Ferrigno, Maddalena; Quaglia, Filomena; Labruna, Giuseppe; Capobianco, Valentina; Capone, Angela; Maruotti, Giuseppe Maria; Pastore, Lucio; Di Noto, Rosa; Martinelli, Pasquale; Del Vecchio, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Maternal obesity is associated to increased fetal risk of obesity and other metabolic diseases. Human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (hA-MSCs) have not been characterized in obese women. The aim of this study was to isolate and compare hA-MSC immunophenotypes from obese (Ob-) and normal weight control (Co-) women, to identify alterations possibly predisposing the fetus to obesity. We enrolled 16 Ob- and 7 Co-women at delivery (mean/SEM prepregnancy body mass index: 40.3/1.8 and 22.4/1.0 kg/m2, respectively), and 32 not pregnant women. hA-MSCs were phenotyped by flow cytometry; several maternal and newborn clinical and biochemical parameters were also measured. The expression of membrane antigen CD13 was higher on Ob-hA-MSCs than on Co-hA-MSCs (P=0.005). Also, serum levels of CD13 at delivery were higher in Ob- versus Co-pregnant women and correlated with CD13 antigen expression on Ob-hA-MSCs (r2=0.84, P<0.0001). Adipogenesis induction experiments revealed that Ob-hA-MSCs had a higher adipogenic potential than Co-hA-MSCs as witnessed by higher peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and aP2 mRNA levels (P=0.05 and P=0.05, respectively), at postinduction day 14 associated with increased CD13 mRNA levels from baseline to day 4 postinduction (P<0.05). Adipogenesis was similar in the two sets of hA-MSCs after CD13 silencing, whereas it was increased in Co-hA-MSCs after CD13 overexpression. CD13 expression was high also in Ob-h-MSCs from umbilical cords or visceral adipose tissue of not pregnant women. In conclusion, antigen CD13, by influencing the adipogenic potential of hA-MSCs, could be an in utero risk factor for obesity. Our data strengthen the hypothesis that high levels of serum and MSC CD13 are obesity markers. PMID:23488598

  18. High aminopeptidase N/CD13 levels characterize human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells and drive their increased adipogenic potential in obese women.

    PubMed

    Iaffaldano, Laura; Nardelli, Carmela; Raia, Maddalena; Mariotti, Elisabetta; Ferrigno, Maddalena; Quaglia, Filomena; Labruna, Giuseppe; Capobianco, Valentina; Capone, Angela; Maruotti, Giuseppe Maria; Pastore, Lucio; Di Noto, Rosa; Martinelli, Pasquale; Sacchetti, Lucia; Del Vecchio, Luigi

    2013-08-15

    Maternal obesity is associated to increased fetal risk of obesity and other metabolic diseases. Human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (hA-MSCs) have not been characterized in obese women. The aim of this study was to isolate and compare hA-MSC immunophenotypes from obese (Ob-) and normal weight control (Co-) women, to identify alterations possibly predisposing the fetus to obesity. We enrolled 16 Ob- and 7 Co-women at delivery (mean/SEM prepregnancy body mass index: 40.3/1.8 and 22.4/1.0 kg/m2, respectively), and 32 not pregnant women. hA-MSCs were phenotyped by flow cytometry; several maternal and newborn clinical and biochemical parameters were also measured. The expression of membrane antigen CD13 was higher on Ob-hA-MSCs than on Co-hA-MSCs (P = 0.005). Also, serum levels of CD13 at delivery were higher in Ob- versus Co-pregnant women and correlated with CD13 antigen expression on Ob-hA-MSCs (r2 = 0.84, P < 0.0001). Adipogenesis induction experiments revealed that Ob-hA-MSCs had a higher adipogenic potential than Co-hA-MSCs as witnessed by higher peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and aP2 mRNA levels (P = 0.05 and P = 0.05, respectively), at postinduction day 14 associated with increased CD13 mRNA levels from baseline to day 4 postinduction (P < 0.05). Adipogenesis was similar in the two sets of hA-MSCs after CD13 silencing, whereas it was increased in Co-hA-MSCs after CD13 overexpression. CD13 expression was high also in Ob-h-MSCs from umbilical cords or visceral adipose tissue of not pregnant women. In conclusion, antigen CD13, by influencing the adipogenic potential of hA-MSCs, could be an in utero risk factor for obesity. Our data strengthen the hypothesis that high levels of serum and MSC CD13 are obesity markers.

  19. Heavy metal levels (Pb, Cd, Cr and Hg) in the adult general population near an urban solid waste incinerator.

    PubMed

    Zubero, Miren Begoña; Aurrekoetxea, Juan José; Ibarluzea, Jesús María; Arenaza, Maria Jesús; Rodríguez, Carlos; Sáenz, José Ramón

    2010-09-15

    In 2005 an urban solid waste incinerator (SWI) was commissioned in Bilbao (Basque Country, Spain). Serum and urine samples were collected from 95 and 107 volunteers in 2006 and 2008 respectively, of which 62 were repeats from the same individuals. Blood lead levels (BPb) were determined, as were the concentrations of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr) and mercury (Hg) in urine (UCd, UCr and UHg). The town of Alonsotegi and a borough of Bilbao (Altamira, Rekalde) were considered to be close, less than 2 km from the plant, and correspond to an urban environment with high traffic density. The areas of reference were a borough of Bilbao (Santutxu-Zurbaran), 5 km from the plant, also in an urban area with high traffic density, and a small town with little industrial activity and low traffic density (Balmaseda) 20 km from the plant; neither of these is downwind from the site with respect to prevailing winds. There was a significant correlation for BPb, r=0.63 (p<0.001), between the two surveys. However, there was no linear correlation for the other three metals (UCd, UCr and UHg), between the two sampling periods (p>0.05). Multiple linear regression models did not show increases over time of the levels of BPb, UCd, UCr and UHg in the areas close to the SWI compared to those of areas located further away, after adjusting for confounding variables. These results reinforce the hypothesis that populations near modern plants for solid waste incineration do not manifest increased levels of heavy metals. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Expression of the CD11c gene in subcutaneous adipose tissue is associated with cytokine level and insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tao, Tao; Li, Shengxian; Zhao, Aimin; Zhang, Yanyun; Liu, Wei

    2012-11-01

    Alterations in the phenotypes of macrophages in adipose tissue play a key role in inflammation and insulin resistance (IR). The phenotypes of macrophages in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and the relationship between proinflammation markers and IR in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) remain unclear. The objectives of this study are to characterize the gene expression of macrophage markers and cytokines in the SAT of PCOS women and to estimate their relationships with circulating levels of cytokines and IR. The cross-sectional study involves 16 PCOS women and 18 normal control women. Cytokines and macrophage markers in the circulation and SAT were determined using ELISA, quantitative PCR, or immunofluorescence staining. IR was estimated using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). The gene expression levels of CD11c along with TNF α and leptin in SAT remained significantly higher in PCOS women than in normal women (P<0.05). However, no significant differences were found in CD68 mRNA expression in SAT between women with and without PCOS (P>0.05). Furthermore, CD11c mRNA abundance provided a stronger contribution to models predicting serum levels of TNFα (sTNFα) than did CD68 mRNA abundance. Lastly, increased sTNFα was associated with increased HOMA-IR in PCOS women, and this association was independent of both overall and visceral adiposity. The high expression level of CD11c mRNA in SAT was proved to be an important feature in PCOS women. Furthermore, CD11c mRNA abundance made a stronger contribution to models predicting sTNFα in which existing proinflammatory properties might significantly contribute to the pathogenesis of IR in PCOS women.

  1. Coregulatory Interactions among CD8α Dendritic Cells, the Latency-Associated Transcript, and Programmed Death 1 Contribute to Higher Levels of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Latency

    PubMed Central

    Mott, Kevin R.; Allen, Sariah J.; Zandian, Mandana

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The latency-associated transcript (LAT) of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), CD8α+ dendritic cells (DCs), and programmed death 1 (PD-1) have all been implicated in the HSV-1 latency-reactivation cycle. It is not known, however, whether an interaction between LAT and CD8α+ DCs regulates latency and T-cell exhaustion. To address this question, we used LAT-expressing [LAT(+)] and LAT-negative [LAT(−)] viruses. Depletion of DCs in mice ocularly infected with LAT(+) virus resulted in a reduction in the number of T cells expressing PD-1 in the trigeminal ganglia (TG), whereas depletion of DCs in mice similarly infected with LAT(−) virus did not alter PD-1 expression. CD8α+ DCs, but not CD4+ DCs, infected with LAT(+) virus had higher levels of ICP0, ICP4, thymidine kinase (TK), and PD-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) transcripts than those infected with LAT(−) virus. Coculture of infected bone marrow (BM)-derived DCs from wild-type (WT) mice, but not infected DCs from CD8α−/− mice, with WT naive T cells contributed to an increase in PD-1 expression. Transfer of bone marrow from WT mice but not CD8α−/− mice to recipient Rag1−/− mice increased the number of latent viral genomes in reconstituted mice infected with the LAT(+) virus. Collectively, these data indicated that a reduction in latency correlated with a decline in the levels of CD8α+ DCs and PD-1 expression. In summary, our results demonstrate an interaction among LAT, PD-1, and CD11c CD8α+ cells that regulates latency in the TG of HSV-1-infected mice. IMPORTANCE Very little is known regarding the interrelationship of LAT, PD-1, and CD8α+ DCs and how such interactions might contribute to relative numbers of latent viral genomes. We show here that (i) in both in vivo and in vitro studies, deficiency of CD8α+ DCs significantly reduced T-cell exhaustion in the presence of LAT(+) virus but not LAT(−) virus; (ii) HSV-1 infectivity was significantly lower in LAT(−)-infected DCs than in their LAT

  2. International.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Linn

    1979-01-01

    The International Geological Correlation Project has attained scientific maturity and broad support and participation by geologists world wide. Its purpose is to provide a mechanism for international cooperation and information exchange about geological problems that transcend national boundaries. (Author/BB)

  3. Serum Levels of Soluble CD26/Dipeptidyl Peptidase-IV in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Its Association with Metabolic Syndrome and Therapy with Antidiabetic Agents in Malaysian Subjects.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Radwan H; Huri, Hasniza Zaman; Al-Hamodi, Zaid; Salem, Sameer D; Muniandy, Sekaran

    2015-01-01

    A soluble form of CD26/dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (sCD26/DPP-IV) induces DPP-IV enzymatic activity that degrades incretin. We investigated fasting serum levels of sCD26/DPP-IV and active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in Malaysian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS), as well as the associations between sCD26/DPP-IV levels, MetS, and antidiabetic therapy. We assessed sCD26/DPP-IV levels, active GLP-1 levels, body mass index (BMI), glucose, insulin, A1c, glucose homeostasis indices, and lipid profiles in 549 Malaysian subjects (including 257 T2DM patients with MetS, 57 T2DM patients without MetS, 71 non-diabetics with MetS, and 164 control subjects without diabetes or metabolic syndrome). Fasting serum levels of sCD26/DPP-IV were significantly higher in T2DM patients with and without MetS than in normal subjects. Likewise, sCD26/DPP-IV levels were significantly higher in patients with T2DM and MetS than in non-diabetic patients with MetS. However, active GLP-1 levels were significantly lower in T2DM patients both with and without MetS than in normal subjects. In T2DM subjects, sCD26/DPP-IV levels were associated with significantly higher A1c levels, but were significantly lower in patients using monotherapy with metformin. In addition, no significant differences in sCD26/DPP-IV levels were found between diabetic subjects with and without MetS. Furthermore, sCD26/DPP-IV levels were negatively correlated with active GLP-1 levels in T2DM patients both with and without MetS. In normal subjects, sCD26/DPP-IV levels were associated with increased BMI, cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-c) levels. Serum sCD26/DPP-IV levels increased in T2DM subjects with and without MetS. Active GLP-1 levels decreased in T2DM patients both with and without MetS. In addition, sCD26/DPP-IV levels were associated with Alc levels and negatively correlated with active GLP-1 levels. Moreover, metformin monotherapy was associated with reduced sCD

  4. Direct detection of sulfide ions [S2-] in aqueous media based on fluorescence quenching of functionalized CdS QDs at trace levels: analytical applications to environmental analysis.

    PubMed

    Gore, Anil H; Vatre, Sandip B; Anbhule, Prashant V; Han, Sung-Hwan; Patil, Shivajirao R; Kolekar, Govind B

    2013-03-07

    A novel, simple but highly selective fluorescent probe is developed for the direct detection of sulfide ions [S(2-)] based on the fluorescence quenching of the functionalized CdS QDs in aqueous solution at trace levels and successfully applied for quantitation of S(2-) from water samples in a complex matrix exclusive of pretreatment by standard addition method.

  5. Infusing Interactive, Multimedia CD-ROM Technology into the First-Year College-Level Geology Curriculum: Recent Examples from Radford University, United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sethi, Parvinder S.; Newbill, Phyllis Leary

    In recent years, several CD-ROM-based instructional technology applications have been developed for use in both high school and college level classrooms. As multimedia authoring techniques evolve as important tools for teaching, it is imperative that teachers and multimedia authors understand the importance of focusing on specifically how the…

  6. Mixed-polarization phenotype of ascites-associated macrophages in human ovarian carcinoma: correlation of CD163 expression, cytokine levels and early relapse.

    PubMed

    Reinartz, Silke; Schumann, Tim; Finkernagel, Florian; Wortmann, Annika; Jansen, Julia M; Meissner, Wolfgang; Krause, Michael; Schwörer, Anne-Marie; Wagner, Uwe; Müller-Brüsselbach, Sabine; Müller, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is typically accompanied by the occurrence of malignant ascites containing large number of macrophages. It has been suggested that these tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are skewed to alternative polarization (M2) and thereby play an essential role in therapy resistance and metastatic spread. In our study, we have investigated the nature, regulation and clinical correlations of TAM polarization in serous ovarian cancer. Macrophage polarization markers on TAMs and ascites cytokine levels were analyzed for 30 patients and associated with relapse-free survival (RFS) in a prospective study with 20 evaluable patients. Surface expression of the M2 marker CD163 on TAMs was inversely associated with RFS (p < 0.01). However, global gene expression profiles determined for 17 of these patients revealed a mixed-polarization phenotype unrelated to the M1/M2 classification. CD163 surface expression also correlated with the ascites levels of IL-6 and IL-10 (p < 0.05), both cytokines induced CD163 expression, and their ascites levels showed a clear inverse association with RFS (p < 0.01). These findings define a subgroup of patients with high CD163 expression, high IL-6 and/or IL-10 levels and poor clinical outcome. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of UICC.

  7. Examining the Dynamic Structure of Daily Internalizing and Externalizing Behavior at Multiple Levels of Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wright, Aidan G C; Beltz, Adriene M; Gates, Kathleen M; Molenaar, Peter C M; Simms, Leonard J

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric diagnostic covariation suggests that the underlying structure of psychopathology is not one of circumscribed disorders. Quantitative modeling of individual differences in diagnostic patterns has uncovered several broad domains of mental disorder liability, of which the Internalizing and Externalizing spectra have garnered the greatest support. These dimensions have generally been estimated from lifetime or past-year comorbidity patters, which are distal from the covariation of symptoms and maladaptive behavior that ebb and flow in daily life. In this study, structural models are applied to daily diary data (Median = 94 days) of maladaptive behaviors collected from a sample (N = 101) of individuals diagnosed with personality disorders (PDs). Using multilevel and unified structural equation modeling, between-person, within-person, and person-specific structures were estimated from 16 behaviors that are encompassed by the Internalizing and Externalizing spectra. At the between-person level (i.e., individual differences in average endorsement across days) we found support for a two-factor Internalizing-Externalizing model, which exhibits significant associations with corresponding diagnostic spectra. At the within-person level (i.e., dynamic covariation among daily behavior pooled across individuals) we found support for a more differentiated, four-factor, Negative Affect-Detachment-Hostility-Disinhibition structure. Finally, we demonstrate that the person-specific structures of associations between these four domains are highly idiosyncratic.

  8. CD11c(+) macrophages and levels of TNF-α and MMP-3 are increased in synovial and adipose tissues of osteoarthritic mice with hyperlipidaemia.

    PubMed

    Uchida, K; Satoh, M; Inoue, G; Onuma, K; Miyagi, M; Iwabuchi, K; Takaso, M

    2015-06-01

    To understand more clearly the link between osteoarthritis and hyperlipidaemia, we investigated the inflammatory macrophage subsets and macrophage-regulated matrix metalloprotease-3 (MMP-3) and A disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin motifs-4 (ADAMTS4) in synovial (ST) and adipose tissues (AT) of osteoarthritic mice with hyperlipidaemia (STR/Ort). CD11c(+) F4/80(+) CD11b(+) macrophage populations in the ST and AT of 9-month-old STR/Ort and C57BL/6J mice were characterized and compared by flow cytometry and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses. Expression of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, MMP-3 and ADAMTS4, and the response of these factors to anionic liposomal clodronate induced-macrophage depletion were also evaluated by real-time PCR. Expression of TNF-α in CD11c(+) cells, which were isolated by magnetic beads, was compared to CD11c(-) cells. In addition, the effect of TNF-α on cultured synovial fibroblasts and adipocytes was investigated. CD11c(+) F4/80(+) CD11b(+) macrophages were increased in ST and AT of STR/Ort mice. The CD11c(+) cell fraction highly expressed TNF-α. Expression of TNF-α and MMP3 was increased in ST and AT, and was decreased upon macrophage depletion. TNF-α treatment of cultured synovial fibroblasts and adipocytes markedly up-regulated MMP-3. CD11c(+) F4/80(+) CD11b(+) macrophages were identified as a common inflammatory subset in the AT and ST of STR/Ort mice with hyperlipidaemia. The induction of inflammation in AT and ST may be part of a common mechanism that regulates MMP3 expression through TNF-α. Our findings suggest that increased numbers of CD11c(+) macrophages and elevated levels of TNF-α and MMP-3 in AT and ST may explain the relationship between hyperlipidaemia and OA. © 2015 British Society for Immunology.

  9. Baseline Naive CD4+ T-cell Level Predicting Immune Reconstitution in Treated HIV-infected Late Presenters

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Fu-Ping; Li, Yi-Jia; Qiu, Zhi-Feng; Lv, Wei; Han, Yang; Xie, Jing; Li, Yan-Ling; Song, Xiao-Jing; Du, Shan-Shan; Mehraj, Vikram; Li, Tai-Sheng; Routy, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Background: Among HIV-infected patients initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART), early changes in CD4+ T-cell subsets are well described. However, HIV-infected late presenters initiating treatment present with a suboptimal CD4+ T-cell reconstitution and remain at a higher risk for AIDS and non-AIDS events. Therefore, factors associated with CD4+ T-cell reconstitution need to be determined in this population, which will allow designing effective immunotherapeutic strategies. Methods: Thirty-one adult patients with baseline CD4+ T-cell count <350 cells/mm3 exhibiting viral suppression after ART initiation were followed in the HIV/AIDS research center of Peking Union Medical College Hospital in Beijing, China, from October 2002 to September 2013. Changes in T-cell subsets and associated determinants were measured. Results: Median baseline CD4+ T-cell count was 70 cells/mm3. We found a biphasic reconstitution of T-cell subsets and immune activation: a rapid change during the first 6 months followed by a more gradual change over the subsequent 8 years. Baseline CD4+ T-cell count >200 cells/mm3 in comparison to CD4+ T-cell count ≤200 cells/mm3 was associated with more complete immune Reconstitution (77.8% vs. 27.3% respectively; P = 0.017) and normalized CD4/CD8 ratio. We showed that the baseline percentage of naive CD4+ T-cell was a predictive marker for complete immune reconstitution (area under receiver operating characteristic curve 0.907), and 12.4% as cutoff value had a sensitivity of 84.6% and a specificity of 88.2%. Conclusions: Baseline naive CD4+ T-cell percentage may serve as a predictive marker for optimal immune reconstitution during long-term therapy. Such study findings suggest that increasing thymic output should represent an avenue to improve patients who are diagnosed late in the course of infection. PMID:27824000

  10. [Studying the dynamics of the levels CD4+CD25+, CD4+ HLA-DR4 + and CD4+CD95+ cells in the semen of men with oligosymptomatic forms of chronic urogenital infection complicated infertility under the influence of fortege].

    PubMed

    Tsiporenko, S Iu

    2013-09-01

    The markers of activating of lymphocytes in sperm of men with the oligosymptomatic forms of chronic urogenital infection depending on fertility. It is set that the increasing of correlation of CD25/CD95 brings to growth of pathological forms of spermatozoa and, consequently, to the decline of impregnating ability of men. Fortege application leads to the normalization of this correlation and a reduction of pathological forms of sperm and thus to the increasing of the fertilizing potential.

  11. Coexistence of strongly and weakly confined energy levels in (Cd,Zn)Se quantum dots: Tailoring the near-band-edge and defect-levels for white light emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Tapan Kumar; Ilaiyaraja, P.; Sudakar, C.

    2017-05-01

    We demonstrate white light emission (WLE) from (Cd,Zn)Se system, which is a composite of Zn alloyed CdSe quantum dot and ZnSe-amorphous (ZnSe-a) phase. Detailed structural and photoluminescence emission studies on pure CdSe and (Cd,Zn)Se show cubic zinc blende structure in the size range of 2.5 to 5 nm. (Cd,Zn)Se quantum dots (QDs) also have a significant fraction of ZnSe-a phase. The near-band-edge green-emission in crystalline CdSe and (Cd,Zn)Se is tunable between 500 to 600 nm. The (Cd,Zn)Se system also exhibits a broad, deep defect level (DL) red-emission in the range 600 to 750 nm and a sharp ZnSe near-band-edge blue-emission (ZS-NBE) between 445 to 465 nm. While DL and CdSe near-band-edge (CS-NBE) emissions significantly shift with the size of QD due to strong confinement effect, the ZS-NBE show minimal change in peak position indicating a weak confinement effect. The intensities of ZS-NBE and DL emissions also exhibit a strong dependence on the QD size. A gamut of emission colors is obtained by combining the CS-NBE with the ZS-NBE emission and broad DL emission in (Cd,Zn)Se system. Interestingly, we find the convergence of Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates towards the white light with increasing Zn concentration in CdSe. We demonstrate by combining these three emissions in a proper weight ratio WLE can be achieved. Cd1-yZnySe (y = 0. 5; QD size ˜4.9 nm) alloy with a maximum quantum yield of 57% exhibits CIE coordinates of (0.39, 0.4), color rendering index (CRI) of 82, correlated color temperature (CCT) of 3922 K, and Duv of 0.0078 which is very promising for white light applications.

  12. Short-term declines in CD4 levels associated with cocaine use in HIV-1 seropositive, minority injecting drug users.

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, N. S.; Brown, L. S.; Makuch, R. W.

    1993-01-01

    This study evaluates the association of cocaine use with short-term change in CD4 counts among human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) seropositive, minority injecting drug users prior to the introduction of zidovudine (AZT). Ninety-eight HIV-1 seropositive subjects were recruited from six inner-city, methadone maintenance clinics. A baseline assessment included a short questionnaire regarding drug behavior and quantitation of CD4 cell counts. These measures were repeated on all subjects 3 to 4 months later. Thirty-eight subjects reported using cocaine between baseline and 4-month follow-up evaluations. Males and African Americans were more likely to be cocaine users (P < .01). Cocaine users were more likely to engage in heroin and needle use (P < .001). Cocaine users experienced a significant decline in CD4 cells compared with nonusers (P = .013); no marked difference in CD4 decline was noted between heroin users and nonusers (P = .19). Multivariate analysis showed that a decline in CD4 counts was 2.82 times more likely to occur in cocaine users than in cocaine nonusers (90% two-sided confidence interval of 1.08, 7.37). These findings support the hypothesis of a possible link between cocaine use and short-term CD4 decline in HIV-1 seropositive injecting drug users. PMID:8478971

  13. The entry-level occupational therapy clinical doctorate: advantages, challenges, and international issues to consider.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ted; Crabtree, Jeffrey L; Mu, Keli; Wells, Joe

    2015-04-01

    Internationally, occupational therapy education has gone through several paradigm shifts during the last few decades, moving from certificate to diploma to bachelors to masters and now in some instances to clinical doctorate as the entry-level professional credential to practice. In the United States there is a recommendation under consideration by the American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA) that by 2025, all occupational therapy university programs will move to the clinical doctorate level. It should be noted, however, that the AOTA Board can only make recommendations and it is the Accreditation Council for Occupational Therapy Education (ACOTE) who has regulatory authority to approve such a change. What are the potential implications for the profession, our clients, and funders of occupational therapy services? What are the primary drivers for the move towards the clinical doctorate being the educational entry point? Is the next step in the evolution of occupational therapy education globally a shift to the entry-level clinical doctorate? This article reviews current literature and discusses issues about the occupational therapy entry-level clinical doctorate. The published evidence available about the occupational therapy entry-level clinical doctorate is summarized and the perceived or frequently cited pros and cons of moving to the clinical doctorate as the singular entry point to occupational therapy practice are considered. The potential impacts of the introduction of the clinical doctorate as the entry-to-practice qualification across the United States on the occupational therapy community internationally will be briefly discussed. If the United States moves toward the entry-level clinical doctorate as the only educational starting point for the profession, will other jurisdictions follow suit? Further discourse and investigation of this issue both inside and outside of the United States is needed so that informed decisions can be made.

  14. Integrin β3 and CD44 levels determine the effects of the OPN-a splicing variant on lung cancer cell growth

    PubMed Central

    Sheu, Gwo-Tarng; Chang, Hui-Yi; Chen, Mei-Yu; Lin, Yu-Ying; Chuang, Cheng-Yen; Hsu, Shih-Lan; Chang, Jinghua Tsai

    2016-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN), a phosphorylated glycoprotein, is frequently overexpressed in cancer. Among the three OPN isoforms, OPN-a is the most highly expressed in lung cancer cell lines and lung tumors. Overexpression of OPN-a greatly reduced CL1-5 lung adenocarcinoma cell growth, but had no effect on growth in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells. Examination of the expression of integrins and CD44, which are possible OPN-a receptors, revealed that differences in integrin β3 levels might explain this discrepancy between CL1-5 and A549 cells. When integrin β3 was ectopically expressed in A549 cells, OPN-a inhibited their growth, whereas OPN-a increased cell growth following integrin β3 knockdown in CL1-5 cells. This OPN-a-induced increase in growth appeared to result from activation of the CD44/NFκB pathway. Our results demonstrated that OPN-a inhibits growth of cells with high integrin β3 levels and increases growth via activation of the CD44/NFκB pathway in cells with low integrin β3 levels. Thus, OPN-a, integrin β3, and CD44 interact to affect lung cancer cell growth, and this study may aid in the development of cancer treatment strategies involving these molecules. PMID:27487131

  15. Effects of a 28-Day Cage-Change Interval on Intracage Ammonia Levels, Nasal Histology, and Perceived Welfare of CD1 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Vogelweid, Catherine M; Zapien, Kathleen A; Honigford, Matthew J; Li, Linghui; Li, Hua; Marshall, Heather

    2011-01-01

    We measured daily intracage ammonia levels and performed weekly assessments of CD1 male, female, and breeder mice housed within disposable, ventilated cages that remained unchanged for 28 d. We tested housing groups comprising 1, 3, or 5 sex-matched mice per cage and breeder pairs with litters. Mice housed in cages with higher concentrations of ammonia developed degeneration and inflammatory lesions in the nasal passages. Mean ammonia exposure levels that caused rhinitis were 181 ppm for 18 d. Ammonia exposures of 93 ppm for 16 d caused necrosis of the olfactory epithelium, whereas 52 ppm for 13 d caused epithelial degeneration. Observers could not detect visible signs of rhinitis or identify cages with elevated ammonia levels, nor did they identify any sick or distressed mice. Observers consistently assigned poorer welfare scores as cages became dirtier. We conclude that we can extend the cage-change interval to at least 28 d for disposable, ventilated caging housing a single CD1 mouse. Cages containing 3 CD1 mice of either sex should be changed biweekly, and cages containing 5 CD1 mice or breeder pairs should be changed at least once weekly. PMID:22330779

  16. Fermi level stabilization and band edge energies in Cd{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}O alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Detert, Douglas M.; Tom, Kyle B.; Dubon, Oscar D.; Battaglia, Corsin; Javey, Ali; Denlinger, Jonathan D.; Lim, Sunnie H. N.; Anders, André; Yu, Kin M.; Walukiewicz, Wladek

    2014-06-21

    We have measured the band edge energies of Cd{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}O thin films as a function of composition by three independent techniques: we determine the Fermi level stabilization energy by pinning the Fermi level with ion irradiation, measure the binding energy of valence band states and core levels by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and probe shifts in the conduction band and valence band density of states using soft X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy, respectively. The three techniques find consensus in explaining the origin of compositional trends in the optical-bandgap narrowing upon Cd incorporation in wurtzite ZnO and widening upon Zn incorporation in rocksalt CdO. The conduction band minimum is found to be stationary for both wurtzite and rocksalt alloys, and a significant upward rise of the valence band maximum accounts for the majority of these observed bandgap changes. Given these band alignments, alloy disorder scattering is found to play a negligible role in decreasing the electron mobility for all alloys. These band alignment details, combined with the unique optical and electrical properties of the two phase regimes, make CdZnO alloys attractive candidates for photoelectrochemical water splitting applications.

  17. Factors associated with the level of CD4 cell counts at HIV diagnosis in a French cohort: a quantile regression approach.

    PubMed

    Bruneau, Léa; Billaud, Eric; Raffi, François; Hanf, Matthieu

    2017-03-01

    The consensus definition of late presentation for human immunodeficiency virus patient based on a CD4 threshold of 350 cells/mm(3) has limitations concerning risk factors identification since there is growing biomedical justification for earlier initiation of treatment. The objective was to overcome this problem by simultaneously determining factors associated with different levels of CD4 counts at the time of diagnosis. Between January 2000 and July 2014, 1179 patients with a first human immunodeficiency virus diagnosis and entering care in a French human immunodeficiency virus reference center were enrolled. Factors associated with each 5 percentile from 5th to 95th quantile of CD4 counts at diagnosis were simultaneously studied in a multivariable quantile regression model. At each of the quantiles, the factors identified as negatively associated with CD4 count at diagnosis were older age, male sex , foreign patients, hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus co-infection, employment status, non-MSM transmission, heterosexual transmission, suburban and rural's place of residence and earlier period of diagnosis. Association with CD4 count was not uniformly significant, most factors being significant for some quantiles. The only significant determinant for all quantiles was being born in a foreign country. These results are particularly helpful in the context of human immunodeficiency virus clinical care, management and prevention.

  18. Blood level of CD45+ platelets and development of restenosis after drug-eluting stent implantation in patients with stable coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Gabbasov, Zufar; Kozlov, Sergey; Byazrova, Svetlana; Saburova, Olga; Melnikov, Ivan; Caprnda, Martin; Curilla, Eduard; Gaspar, Ludovit; Kruzliak, Peter; Smirnov, Vladimir

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess CD45-positive platelets (CD45+ platelets) involvement in restenosis development after drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). The study comprised 126 male and female patients with stable angina pectoris, who underwent elective coronary stenting with DES and follow-up angiography within 6-12 months. The patients were assigned to the group with restenosis (n = 53) or group without restenosis (n = 73) according to the follow-up angiograms. In both groups we compared the level in blood of CD45+ platelets, the clinical, laboratory and angiographic variables, which may affect the development of restenosis. We have also constructed a logit regression model for prognosis of restenosis occurrence after DES implantation. The blood count of CD45+ platelets was higher in patients with restenosis than in patients without: 0.82 % (0.58; 1.12) vs. 0.34 % (0.20; 0.68), p < 0.001, data are expressed as median (lower quartile; upper quartile). By binary comparisons of more than 35 different clinical, laboratory and angiographic variables we identified 8 significant risk factors for the development of stent restenosis after DES. In order to define the risk of the development of restenosis, we have built a logit regression model. The resulting logit regression equation included the level of CD45+ platelets, the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), small diameter arteries stenting and the number of simultaneously implanted stents in one patient. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis has demonstrated the high prognostic value of the resulting logit regression equation with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.91 % (p < 0.001). The acquired data indicate the presence of a close relationship between circulating CD45+ platelets and restenosis development after DES implantation in patients with stable CAD.

  19. Integrated Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Analysis for Determining the Minimal Anticipated Biological Effect Level of a Novel Anti-CD28 Receptor Antagonist BMS-931699.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zheng; Wang, Haiqing; Salcedo, Theodora W; Suchard, Suzanne J; Xie, Jenny H; Schneeweis, Lumelle A; Fleener, Catherine A; Calore, James D; Shi, Rong; Zhang, Sean X Y; Rodrigues, A David; Car, Bruce D; Marathe, Punit H; Nadler, Steven G

    2015-12-01

    BMS-931699 (lulizumab pegol), a domain antibody (dAb) conjugated with 40-kDa branched polyethylene glycol, is a human anti-CD28 receptor antagonist under development for the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. In the present work, the minimal anticipated biologic effect level (MABEL) was determined for BMS-931699 by integrating all the available preclinical data. The relevance of the in vitro mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) assay to a whole blood CD28 receptor occupancy (RO) assessment, as well as the relationship between the CD28 RO and the inhibition of T-cell-dependent antibody response to keyhole limpet hemocyanin in vivo, was demonstrated through an integrated pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis using anti-hCD28 dAb-001 (differing from BMS-931699 by two additional amino acids at the N-terminus) and a mouse surrogate. Based on this analysis, the EC10 value (0.32 nM) from the human MLR assay and the human plasma volume (0.04 l/kg) were employed to calculate the MABEL (0.01 mg) of BMS-931699 in humans, with a CD28 RO predicted to be ≤10%. The estimated MABEL dose was threefold higher than the value derived from the binding constant and twofold less than the MABEL converted from animal efficacy studies based on the body surface area. Furthermore, it was 2900-fold lower than the human equivalent dose derived from the no observed adverse effect level in monkeys (15 mg/kg/week for 5 doses, intravenous dosing) with a 10-fold safety factor applied. Therefore, the MABEL dose represented a sound approach to mitigate any potential risk in targeting CD28 and was successfully used as the first-in-human starting dose for BMS-931699. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  20. Alirocumab, a Therapeutic Human Antibody to PCSK9, Does Not Affect CD81 Levels or Hepatitis C Virus Entry and Replication into Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, Aarti; Gusarova, Viktoria; Stahl, Neil; Gurnett-Bander, Anne; Kyratsous, Christos A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PSCK9) is secreted mainly from the liver and binds to the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), reducing LDLR availability and thus resulting in an increase in LDL-cholesterol. While the LDLR has been implicated in the cell entry process of the hepatitis C virus (HCV), overexpression of an artificial non-secreted, cell membrane-bound form of PCSK9 has also been shown to reduce surface expression of CD81, a major component of the HCV entry complex, leading to concerns that pharmacological inhibition of PCSK9 may increase susceptibility to HCV infection by increasing either CD81 or LDLR availability. Here, we evaluated effects of PCSK9 and PCSK9 blockade on CD81 levels and HCV entry with a physiologically relevant model using native secreted PCSK9 and a monoclonal antibody to PCSK9, alirocumab. Methods and Results Flow cytometry and Western blotting of human hepatocyte Huh-7 cells showed that, although LDLR levels were reduced when cells were exposed to increasing PCSK9 concentrations, there was no correlation between total or surface CD81 levels and the presence and amount of soluble PCSK9. Moreover, inhibiting PCSK9 with the monoclonal antibody alirocumab did not affect expression levels of CD81. In an in vitro model of HCV entry, addition of soluble PCSK9 or treatment with alirocumab had no effect on the ability of either lentiviral particles bearing the HCV glycoproteins or JFH-1 based cell culture virus to enter hepatocytes. Consistent with these in vitro findings, no differences were observed in hepatic CD81 levels using in vivo mouse models, including Pcsk9-/- mice compared with wild-type controls and hyperlipidemic mice homozygous for human Pcsk9 and heterozygous for Ldlr deletion, treated with either alirocumab or isotype control antibody. Conclusion These results suggest that inhibition of PCSK9 with alirocumab has no effect on CD81 and does not result in increased susceptibility to HCV entry

  1. Neopterin and Soluble CD14 Levels as Indicators of Immune Activation in Cases with Indeterminate Pattern and True Positive HIV-1 Infection.

    PubMed

    Uysal, Hayriye Kırkoyun; Sohrabi, Pari; Habip, Zafer; Saribas, Suat; Kocazeybek, Emre; Seyhan, Fatih; Calışkan, Reyhan; Bonabi, Esad; Yuksel, Pelin; Birinci, Ilhan; Uysal, Omer; Kocazeybek, Bekir

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the roles of the plasma immune activation biomarkers neopterin and soluble CD14 (sCD14) in the indirect assessment of the immune activation status of patients with the indeterminate HIV-1 (IHIV-1) pattern and a true HIV-1-positive infection (PCG). This cross-sectional and descriptive study included eighty-eight patients with the IHIV-1 pattern, 100 patients in the PCG, and 100 people in a healthy control group (HCG). Neopterin and sCD14 levels were determined by competitive and sandwich ELISA methods, respectively. Mean neopterin and sCD14 levels among those with the IHIV-1 pattern were significantly lower than among the PCG (p < 0.001 and p = 0.001, respectively), but they were similiar to those in the HCG (p = 0.57 and p = 0.66, respectively. Mean neopterin and sCD14 levels among the PCG were found to be significantly higher than among those with the IHIV-1 pattern (p < 0.001 and p = 0.001, respectively) and among those in the HCG (p = 0.001, p < 0.001, respectively). Neopterin did not have adequate predictive value for identifying those in the PCG (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.534; 95% CI, 0.463-0.605; p = 0.4256); sCD14 also had poor predictive value but high specificity (100%) for identifying those in the PCG (AUC = 0.627; 95% CI, 0.556-0.694; p = 0.0036). While low levels of these two biomarkers were detected among those with the IHIV-1 pattern, they were found in high levels among those in the PCG. These two markers obviously cannot be used as a sceening test because they have low sensitivies. Taken together, we suggest that neopterin and sCD14 may be helpful because they both have high specificity (92%-100%) as indirect non-specific markers for predicting the immune activation status of individuals, whether or not they have true positive HIV-1.

  2. Inhibition of G-Protein βγ Signaling Decreases Levels of Messenger RNAs Encoding Proinflammatory Cytokines in T Cell Receptor-Stimulated CD4+ T Helper Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hynes, Thomas R.; Yost, Evan A.; Hartle, Cassandra M.; Ott, Braden J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Inhibition of G-protein βγ (Gβγ) signaling was found previously to enhance T cell receptor (TCR)-stimulated increases in interleukin 2 (IL-2) mRNA in CD4+ T helper cells, suggesting that Gβγ might be a useful drug target for treating autoimmune diseases, as low dose IL-2 therapy can suppress autoimmune responses. Because IL-2 may counteract autoimmunity in part by shifting CD4+ T helper cells away from the Type 1 T helper cell (TH1) and TH17 subtypes towards the TH2 subtype, the purpose of this study was to determine if blocking Gβγ signaling affected the balance of TH1, TH17, and TH2 cytokine mRNAs produced by CD4+ T helper cells. Methods: Gallein, a small molecule inhibitor of Gβγ, and siRNA-mediated silencing of the G-protein β1 subunit (Gβ1) were used to test the effect of blocking Gβγ on mRNA levels of cytokines in primary human TCR-stimulated CD4+ T helper cells. Results: Gallein and Gβ1 siRNA decreased interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and IL-17A mRNA levels in TCR-stimulated CD4+ T cells grown under TH1-promoting conditions. Inhibiting Gβγ also decreased mRNA levels of STAT4, which plays a positive role in TH1 differentiation and IL-17A production. Moreover, mRNA levels of the STAT4-regulated TH1-associated proteins, IL-18 receptor β chain (IL-18Rβ), mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 8 (MAP3K8), lymphocyte activation gene 3 (LAG-3), natural killer cell group 7 sequence (NKG7), and oncostatin M (OSM) were also decreased upon Gβγ inhibition. Gallein also increased IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, and IL-13 mRNA levels in TCR-stimulated memory CD4+ T cells grown in TH2-promoting conditions. Conclusions: Inhibiting Gβγ to produce these shifts in cytokine mRNA production might be beneficial for patients with autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Crohn’s disease (CD), psoriasis, multiple sclerosis (MS), and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT), in which both IFN-γ and IL-17A are elevated. PMID:27095999

  3. Neopterin and Soluble CD14 Levels as Indicators of Immune Activation in Cases with Indeterminate Pattern and True Positive HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Uysal, Hayriye Kırkoyun; Sohrabi, Pari; Habip, Zafer; Saribas, Suat; Kocazeybek, Emre; Seyhan, Fatih; Calışkan, Reyhan; Bonabi, Esad; Yuksel, Pelin; Birinci, Ilhan; Uysal, Omer; Kocazeybek, Bekir

    2016-01-01

    Background We aimed to evaluate the roles of the plasma immune activation biomarkers neopterin and soluble CD14 (sCD14) in the indirect assessment of the immune activation status of patients with the indeterminate HIV-1 (IHIV-1) pattern and a true HIV-1-positive infection (PCG). Methods This cross-sectional and descriptive study included eighty-eight patients with the IHIV-1 pattern, 100 patients in the PCG, and 100 people in a healthy control group (HCG). Neopterin and sCD14 levels were determined by competitive and sandwich ELISA methods, respectively. Results Mean neopterin and sCD14 levels among those with the IHIV-1 pattern were significantly lower than among the PCG (p < 0.001 and p = 0.001, respectively), but they were similiar to those in the HCG (p = 0.57 and p = 0.66, respectively. Mean neopterin and sCD14 levels among the PCG were found to be significantly higher than among those with the IHIV-1 pattern (p < 0.001 and p = 0.001, respectively) and among those in the HCG (p = 0.001, p < 0.001, respectively). Neopterin did not have adequate predictive value for identifying those in the PCG (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.534; 95% CI, 0.463–0.605; p = 0.4256); sCD14 also had poor predictive value but high specificity (100%) for identifying those in the PCG (AUC = 0.627; 95% CI, 0.556–0.694; p = 0.0036). Conclusions While low levels of these two biomarkers were detected among those with the IHIV-1 pattern, they were found in high levels among those in the PCG. These two markers obviously cannot be used as a sceening test because they have low sensitivies. Taken together, we suggest that neopterin and sCD14 may be helpful because they both have high specificity (92%-100%) as indirect non-specific markers for predicting the immune activation status of individuals, whether or not they have true positive HIV-1. PMID:27031691

  4. High conservation level of CD8(+) T cell immunogenic regions within an unusual H1N2 human influenza variant.

    PubMed

    Komadina, Naomi; Quiñones-Parra, Sergio M; Kedzierska, Katherine; McCaw, James M; Kelso, Anne; Leder, Karin; McVernon, Jodie

    2016-10-01

    Current seasonal influenza vaccines require regular updates due to antigenic drift causing loss of effectiveness and therefore providing little or no protection against novel influenza A subtypes. Next generation vaccines capable of eliciting CD8(+) T cell (CTL) mediated cross-protective immunity may offer a long-term alternative strategy. However, measuring pre- and existing levels of CTL cross-protection in humans is confounded by differences in infection histories across individuals. During 2000-2003, H1N2 viruses circulated persistently in the human population for the first time and we hypothesized that the viral nucleoprotein (NP) contained novel CTL epitopes that may have contributed to the survival of the viruses. This study describes the immunogenic NP peptides of H1N1, H2N2, and H3N2 influenza viruses isolated from humans over the past century, 1918-2003, by comparing this historical dataset to reference NP peptides from H1N2 that circulated in humans during 2000-2003. Observed peptides sequences ranged from highly conserved (15%) to highly variable (12%), with variation unrelated to reported immunodominance. No unique NP peptides which were exclusive to the H1N2 viruses were noted. However, the virus had inherited the NP from a recently emerged H3N2 variant containing novel peptides, which may have assisted its persistence. Any advantage due to this novelty was subsequently lost with emergence of a newer H3N2 variant in 2003. Our approach has potential to provide insight into the population context in which influenza viruses emerge, and may help to inform immunogenic peptide selection for CTL-inducing influenza vaccines. J. Med. Virol. 88:1725-1732, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. CD163 and CD206 expression does not correlate with tolerance and cytokine production in LPS-tolerant human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Alves-Januzzi, Amanda Barba; Brunialti, Milena Karina Colo; Salomao, Reinaldo

    2017-05-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-tolerant monocytes produce small amounts of inflammatory cytokines, which is one of the characteristics of the alternative activated macrophages (AAM). These cells exhibited an increased expression of CD206 and CD163. Given the functional similarities of AAMs with the modulation of monocytes' functions observed during sepsis and LPS-tolerance, we evaluated whether the inhibition of inflammatory cytokine production by LPS-tolerant monocytes is associated with the phenotype of cells expressing CD206 and CD163. We investigated whether tolerant human monocytes would modulate their expression of CD206 and CD163, markers of alternative activation, and whether the level of their expression would be related to cytokines detection. Tolerance to LPS was induced in peripheral blood mononuclear cell by pre-incubating the cells with increasing concentrations of LPS. The expression of CD206 and CD163 and intracellular TNF-α and IL-6 was determined 24 h after LPS challenge by flow cytometry. No differences in CD163 expression were observed between tolerant and non-tolerant cells, while the expression of CD206, which was decreased following LPS stimulation in non-tolerized cells, was further reduced in tolerant cells. Decreased production of inflammatory cytokines was observed in the tolerized cells, regardless of the expression of CD163 and CD206, with the exception of IL-6 in CD206+ monocytes, which was similarly expressed in both tolerized and non-tolerized cells. The effect of LPS in the expression of CD163 and CD206 on monocytes is not reverted in LPS tolerant cells, and the inhibition of inflammatory cytokines in tolerant cells is not related with modulation of these receptors. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  6. Digital low level rf control system with four different intermediate frequencies for the International Linear Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wibowo, Sigit Basuki; Matsumoto, Toshihiro; Michizono, Shinichiro; Miura, Takako; Qiu, Feng; Liu, Na

    2017-09-01

    A field programmable gate array-based digital low level rf (LLRF) control system will be used in the International Linear Collider (ILC) in order to satisfy the rf stability requirements. The digital LLRF control system with four different intermediate frequencies has been developed to decrease the required number of analog-to-digital converters in this system. The proof of concept of this technique was demonstrated at the Superconducting RF Test Facility in the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Japan. The amplitude and phase stability has fulfilled the ILC requirements.

  7. An evaluation of internal event level 1 PRA methods used in NUREG-1150

    SciTech Connect

    Camp, A.L.; Cramond, W.R.

    1989-01-01

    As part of the effort to support NUREG-1150, Sandia National Laboratories and its subcontractors have developed innovative techniques for efficiently performing internal event Level I probabilistic risk assessments. This methodology is one of the alternatives for industry to use in performing individual plant evaluations in the future. While this new methodology was very successful, there are some areas where improvements can be made. This paper evaluates the strengths and weaknesses of the methodology and makes some important recommendations for modifications in order to provide insights to future users. 10 refs.

  8. Rorschach intercoder reliability for protocol-level comprehensive system variables in an international sample.

    PubMed

    Sahly, Jennifer; Shaffer, Thomas W; Erdberg, Philip; O'Toole, Siobhan

    2011-11-01

    This study examines the intercoder reliability of Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS; Exner, 2001) protocol-level variables. A large international sample was combined to obtain intercoder agreement for 489 Rorschach protocols coded using the CS. Intercoder agreement was calculated using an Iota coefficient, a statistical coefficient similar to kappa that is corrected for chance. Iota values for the variables analyzed ranged from .31 to 1.00, with 2 in the poor range of agreement, 4 in the fair range, 25 in the good range, and 116 in the excellent range of agreement. Discrepancies between variables are discussed.

  9. Systemic Cytokine Levels Do Not Predict CD4+ T-Cell Recovery After Suppressive Combination Antiretroviral Therapy in Chronic Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Philip J.; Zhang, Jinbing; Worlock, Andrew; Nair, Sangeetha V.; Anastos, Kathryn; Minkoff, Howard L.; Villacres, Maria C.; Young, Mary; Greenblatt, Ruth M.; Desai, Seema; Landay, Alan L.; Gange, Stephen J.; Nugent, C. Thomas; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Keating, Sheila M.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Subjects on suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) who do not achieve robust reconstitution of CD4+ T cells face higher risk of complications and death. We studied participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study with good (immunological responder [IR]) or poor (immunological nonresponder [INR]) CD4+ T-cell recovery after suppressive cART (n = 50 per group) to determine whether cytokine levels or low-level viral load correlated with INR status. Methods. A baseline sample prior to viral control and 2 subsequent samples 1 and 2 years after viral control were tested. Serum levels of 30 cytokines were measured at each time point, and low-level human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral load and anti-HIV antibody levels were measured 2 years after viral suppression. Results. There were minimal differences in cytokine levels between IR and INR subjects. At baseline, macrophage inflammatory protein-3β levels were higher in IR subjects; after 1 year of suppressive cART, soluble vascular endothelial growth factor-R3 levels were higher in IR subjects; and after 2 years of suppressive cART, interferon gamma-induced protein 10 levels were higher in INR subjects. Very low-level HIV viral load and anti-HIV antibody levels did not differ between IR and INR subjects. Conclusions. These results imply that targeting residual viral replication might not be the optimum therapeutic approach for INR subjects. PMID:26966697

  10. Schistosoma haematobium infection and CD4+ T-cell levels: a cross-sectional study of young South African women.

    PubMed

    Kleppa, Elisabeth; Klinge, Kari F; Galaphaththi-Arachchige, Hashini Nilushika; Holmen, Sigve D; Lillebø, Kristine; Onsrud, Mathias; Gundersen, Svein Gunnar; Taylor, Myra; Ndhlovu, Patricia; Kjetland, Eyrun F

    2015-01-01

    Schistosoma (S.) haematobium causes urogenital schistosomiasis and has been hypothesized to adversely impact HIV transmission and progression. On the other hand it has been hypothesized that HIV could influence the manifestations of schistosomiasis. In this cross-sectional study, we explored the association between urogenital S. haematobium infection and CD4 cell counts in 792 female high-school students from randomly selected schools in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. We also investigated the association between low CD4 cell counts in HIV positive women and the number of excreted schistosome eggs in urine. Sixteen percent were HIV positive and 31% had signs of urogenital schistosomiasis (as determined by genital sandy patches and / or abnormal blood vessels on ectocervix / vagina by colposcopy or presence of eggs in urine). After stratifying for HIV status, participants with and without urogenital schistosomiasis had similar CD4 cell counts. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in prevalence of urogenital schistosomiasis in HIV positive women with low and high CD4 cell counts. There was no significant difference in the number of eggs excreted in urine when comparing HIV positive and HIV negative women. Our findings indicate that urogenital schistosomiasis do not influence the number of circulating CD4 cells.

  11. Antibody Response to Achromobacter xylosoxidans during HIV Infection Is Associated with Lower CD4 Levels and Increased Lymphocyte Activation

    PubMed Central

    Purnajo, Intan; Richman, Douglas D.; Smith, Davey M.; Gianella, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation during HIV infection is associated with worse disease outcomes and progression. Many mechanisms have been indicted, including HIV itself, coinfections, and gut microbial translocation. Concerning microbial translocation, we hypothesized that adaptive immune responses to a specific bacterial species known to be present in gut-associated lymphoid tissue are higher among HIV-infected individuals than among HIV-uninfected controls and are associated with T cell activation and lower CD4 T cell counts. By characterizing the IgG response to Achromobacter xylosoxidans, we found that HIV-infected participants who were immunoresponsive (n = 48) had significantly lower CD4 percentages (P = 0.01), greater CD4 activation (percentages of RA− CD38+) (P = 0.03), and higher soluble CD14 (P = 0.01). HIV-positive individuals had higher anti-A. xylosoxidans IgG titers than HIV-uninfected individuals (P = 0.04). The results suggest an abnormal adaptive immune activation to gut microflora during HIV infection. PMID:24173027

  12. Antibody response to Achromobacter xylosoxidans during HIV infection is associated with lower CD4 levels and increased lymphocyte activation.

    PubMed

    Tatro, Erick T; Purnajo, Intan; Richman, Douglas D; Smith, Davey M; Gianella, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation during HIV infection is associated with worse disease outcomes and progression. Many mechanisms have been indicted, including HIV itself, coinfections, and gut microbial translocation. Concerning microbial translocation, we hypothesized that adaptive immune responses to a specific bacterial species known to be present in gut-associated lymphoid tissue are higher among HIV-infected individuals than among HIV-uninfected controls and are associated with T cell activation and lower CD4 T cell counts. By characterizing the IgG response to Achromobacter xylosoxidans, we found that HIV-infected participants who were immunoresponsive (n = 48) had significantly lower CD4 percentages (P = 0.01), greater CD4 activation (percentages of RA(-) CD38(+)) (P = 0.03), and higher soluble CD14 (P = 0.01). HIV-positive individuals had higher anti-A. xylosoxidans IgG titers than HIV-uninfected individuals (P = 0.04). The results suggest an abnormal adaptive immune activation to gut microflora during HIV infection.

  13. The yellow catfish, Pelteobagrus fulvidraco (Siluriformes) metallothionein cDNA: molecular cloning and transcript expression level in response to exposure to the heavy metals Cd, Cu, and Zn.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Hyoung; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Dahms, Hans-Uwe; Lee, Young-Mi; Han, Kyung-Nam; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2012-10-01

    Metallothionein (MT) has been used extensively as a potential molecular biomarker to detect heavy metal pollution in aquatic organisms. In order to investigate the modulation effect of heavy metals and to establish suitable biomarkers for the monitoring of heavy metal pollution, Pelteobagrus fulvidraco metallothionein gene was characterized as the first report in the family Bagridae. Pf-MT transcript was detected at high levels in liver, gonad, kidney, and brain compared to other tissues. A time-course study in response to waterborne Cd (5 ppm) revealed that a significant increase in the Pf-MT transcript abundance was observed at 6 h in gill, kidney, and liver. These elevated levels were kept for 96 h, implying that Cd distributed fast into different organs and was involved in the tissue-specific induction pattern. We observed a significant Pf-MT transcript increase in liver tissues at 48 h, followed by gill at 12 h and intestine at 48 h after Cd exposure. This indicates hepatic MT expression as a potential biomarker of acute Cd exposure in this species. Cd-binding ability of recombinant Pf-MT protein provided evidence for sensitivity to Cd and other heavy metal exposure. In the case of Zn exposure (1 ppm), a significant increase in Pf-MT transcript abundance was observed at 12 h, and a peak induction level reaching sixfold at 24 h was kept until 48 h, showing similar transcript induction patterns with Cd. A high level of Pf-MT mRNA after exposure to Cu (1 ppm) was observed at 12 h that gradually increased until 96 h with a 12-fold induction, revealing a long-lasting induction and somewhat dissimilar pattern compared to other metals in liver. Our results demonstrate that Pf-MT can be induced by heavy metals in a tissue-specific and metal-specific manner and plays probably a conserved role in metal detoxification. This study provides new information on P. fulvidraco metallothionein gene for the use of biomarkers indicating metal pollution in fish.

  14. Relationship between the Level of Circulating CD45(+) Platelets and Development of Restenosis after Implantation of Drug-Eluting Stents to Patients with Coronary Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Gabbasov, Z A; Kozlov, S G; Byazrova, S V; Mel'nikov, I S; Saburova, O S

    2017-02-01

    The study was carried out in 126 patients with stable angina pectoris, who underwent elective coronary artery stenting with drug-eluting stents and follow-up angiography within 6-12 months thereafter. Five significant risk factors of restenosis were identified by binary comparisons of different variables. The logistic regression equation that included the level of CD45-positive platelets, diabetes, small vessel stenting, number of simultaneously implanted stents in one patient, and lesion length demonstrates the highest level of prediction of in-stent restenosis (OR=22.8; p<0.001). ROC-analysis demonstrated high prognostic value of the logit model (area under ROC curve 0.87, p<0.001). The data suggest that a close relationship exists between the development of restenosis and the level of circulating CD45(+) platelets.

  15. A study to establish international diagnostic reference levels for paediatric computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Vassileva, J; Rehani, M; Kostova-Lefterova, D; Al-Naemi, H M; Al Suwaidi, J S; Arandjic, D; Bashier, E H O; Kodlulovich Renha, S; El-Nachef, L; Aguilar, J G; Gershan, V; Gershkevitsh, E; Gruppetta, E; Hustuc, A; Jauhari, A; Kharita, Mohammad Hassan; Khelassi-Toutaoui, N; Khosravi, H R; Khoury, H; Kralik, I; Mahere, S; Mazuoliene, J; Mora, P; Muhogora, W; Muthuvelu, P; Nikodemova, D; Novak, L; Pallewatte, A; Pekarovič, D; Shaaban, M; Shelly, E; Stepanyan, K; Thelsy, N; Visrutaratna, P; Zaman, A

    2015-07-01

    The article reports results from the largest international dose survey in paediatric computed tomography (CT) in 32 countries and proposes international diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in terms of computed tomography dose index (CTDI vol) and dose length product (DLP). It also assesses whether mean or median values of individual facilities should be used. A total of 6115 individual patient data were recorded among four age groups: <1 y, >1-5 y, >5-10 y and >10-15 y. CTDIw, CTDI vol and DLP from the CT console were recorded in dedicated forms together with patient data and technical parameters. Statistical analysis was performed, and international DRLs were established at rounded 75th percentile values of distribution of median values from all CT facilities. The study presents evidence in favour of using median rather than mean of patient dose indices as the representative of typical local dose in a facility, and for establishing DRLs as third quartile of median values. International DRLs were established for paediatric CT examinations for routine head, chest and abdomen in the four age groups. DRLs for CTDI vol are similar to the reference values from other published reports, with some differences for chest and abdomen CT. Higher variations were observed between DLP values, based on a survey of whole multi-phase exams. It may be noted that other studies in literature were based on single phase only. DRLs reported in this article can be used in countries without sufficient medical physics support to identify non-optimised practice. Recommendations to improve the accuracy and importance of future surveys are provided.

  16. A Threshold Level of Intratumor CD8+ T-cell PD1 Expression Dictates Therapeutic Response to Anti-PD1.

    PubMed

    Ngiow, Shin Foong; Young, Arabella; Jacquelot, Nicolas; Yamazaki, Takahiro; Enot, David; Zitvogel, Laurence; Smyth, Mark J

    2015-09-15

    Despite successes, thus far, a significant proportion of the patients treated with anti-PD1 antibodies have failed to respond. We use mouse tumor models of anti-PD1 sensitivity and resistance and flow cytometry to assess tumor-infiltrating immune cells immediately after therapy. We demonstrate that the expression levels of T-cell PD1 (PD1(lo)), myeloid, and T-cell PDL1 (PDL1(hi)) in the tumor microenvironment inversely correlate and dictate the efficacy of anti-PD1 mAb and function of intratumor CD8(+) T cells. In sensitive tumors, we reveal a threshold for PD1 downregulation on tumor-infiltrating CD8(+) T cells below which the release of adaptive immune resistance is achieved. In contrast, PD1(hi) T cells in resistant tumors fail to be rescued by anti-PD1 therapy and remain dysfunctional unless intratumor PDL1(lo) immune cells are targeted. Intratumor Tregs are partly responsible for the development of anti-PD1-resistant tumors and PD1(hi) CD8(+) T cells. Our analyses provide a framework to interrogate intratumor CD8(+) T-cell PD1 and immune PDL1 levels and response in human cancer.

  17. Development of an immune function assay by measuring intracellular adenosine triphosphate (iATP) levels in mitogen-stimulated CD4+ T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Naderi, Hadi; Najafi, Alireza; Khoshroo, Mohammad; Tajik, Nader

    2016-01-01

    We developed an immune function assay for monitoring CD4+ T cells activity based on changes in intracellular adenosine triphosphate (iATP) levels after phytohemagglutinin (PHA) stimulation. Blood samples were obtained from 40 healthy subjects and 30 RTRs and incubated with 5 µg/mL of PHA for 15-18 hr at 37°C and 5% CO2. Afterward, the CD4+ T cells were separated by antibody-coated magnetic beads and lysed. Then, iATP content in unstimulated and stimulated conditions was measured by luciferin-luciferase reaction using a log-log standard curve. The iATP levels showed significant increase in CD4+ T cells in both healthy persons (mean: 550 ± 142 ng/mL vs. 109 ± 54 ng/mL) and RTRs (mean: 394 ± 160 ng/mL vs. 52 ± 37 ng/mL) after PHA stimulation (P < 0.001). However, the iATP production in RTRs was significantly lower than that in healthy individuals; both prior to and after stimulation with PHA (P < 0.001). No gender-specific difference in iATP production was observed between women and men subjects. This rapid and low-cost assay reflects the degree of immune cell function through assessment of CD4+ T cells activation. Thus, it can be used for evaluation of immune system status in immunodeficient individuals as well as in immunosuppressed transplant recipients who needs drug adjustment.

  18. Internally ratiometric fluorescent sensors for evaluation of intracellular GTP levels and distribution.

    PubMed

    Bianchi-Smiraglia, Anna; Rana, Mitra S; Foley, Colleen E; Paul, Leslie M; Lipchick, Brittany C; Moparthy, Sudha; Moparthy, Kalyana; Fink, Emily E; Bagati, Archis; Hurley, Edward; Affronti, Hayley C; Bakin, Andrei V; Kandel, Eugene S; Smiraglia, Dominic J; Feltri, Maria Laura; Sousa, Rui; Nikiforov, Mikhail A

    2017-10-01

    GTP is a major regulator of multiple cellular processes, but tools for quantitative evaluation of GTP levels in live cells have not been available. We report the development and characterization of genetically encoded GTP sensors, which we constructed by inserting a circularly permuted yellow fluorescent protein (cpYFP) into a region of the bacterial G protein FeoB that undergoes a GTP-driven conformational change. GTP binding to these sensors results in a ratiometric change in their fluorescence, thereby providing an internally normalized response to changes in GTP levels while minimally perturbing those levels. Mutations introduced into FeoB to alter its affinity for GTP created a series of sensors with a wide dynamic range. Critically, in mammalian cells the sensors showed consistent changes in ratiometric signal upon depletion or restoration of GTP pools. We show that these GTP evaluators (GEVALs) are suitable for detection of spatiotemporal changes in GTP levels in living cells and for high-throughput screening of molecules that modulate GTP levels.

  19. International Olympic Committee consensus statement on thermoregulatory and altitude challenges for high-level athletes.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, M F; Bahr, R; Bärtsch, P; Bourdon, L; Calbet, J A L; Carlsen, K H; Castagna, O; González-Alonso, J; Lundby, C; Maughan, R J; Millet, G; Mountjoy, M; Racinais, S; Rasmussen, P; Singh, D G; Subudhi, A W; Young, A J; Soligard, T; Engebretsen, L

    2012-09-01

    Challenging environmental conditions, including heat and humidity, cold, and altitude, pose particular risks to the health of Olympic and other high-level athletes. As a further commitment to athlete safety, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) Medical Commission convened a panel of experts to review the scientific evidence base, reach consensus, and underscore practical safety guidelines and new research priorities regarding the unique environmental challenges Olympic and other international-level athletes face. For non-aquatic events, external thermal load is dependent on ambient temperature, humidity, wind speed and solar radiation, while clothing and protective gear can measurably increase thermal strain and prompt premature fatigue. In swimmers, body heat loss is the direct result of convection at a rate that is proportional to the effective water velocity around the swimmer and the temperature difference between the skin and the water. Other cold exposure and conditions, such as during Alpine skiing, biathlon and other sliding sports, facilitate body heat transfer to the environment, potentially leading to hypothermia and/or frostbite; although metabolic heat production during these activities usually increases well above the rate of body heat loss, and protective clothing and limited exposure time in certain events reduces these clinical risks as well. Most athletic events are held at altitudes that pose little to no health risks; and training exposures are typically brief and well-tolerated. While these and other environment-related threats to performance and safety can be lessened or averted by implementing a variety of individual and event preventative measures, more research and evidence-based guidelines and recommendations are needed. In the mean time, the IOC Medical Commission and International Sport Federations have implemented new guidelines and taken additional steps to mitigate risk even further.

  20. Examining the Dynamic Structure of Daily Internalizing and Externalizing Behavior at Multiple Levels of Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Aidan G. C.; Beltz, Adriene M.; Gates, Kathleen M.; Molenaar, Peter C. M.; Simms, Leonard J.

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric diagnostic covariation suggests that the underlying structure of psychopathology is not one of circumscribed disorders. Quantitative modeling of individual differences in diagnostic patterns has uncovered several broad domains of mental disorder liability, of which the Internalizing and Externalizing spectra have garnered the greatest support. These dimensions have generally been estimated from lifetime or past-year comorbidity patters, which are distal from the covariation of symptoms and maladaptive behavior that ebb and flow in daily life. In this study, structural models are applied to daily diary data (Median = 94 days) of maladaptive behaviors collected from a sample (N = 101) of individuals diagnosed with personality disorders (PDs). Using multilevel and unified structural equation modeling, between-person, within-person, and person-specific structures were estimated from 16 behaviors that are encompassed by the Internalizing and Externalizing spectra. At the between-person level (i.e., individual differences in average endorsement across days) we found support for a two-factor Internalizing–Externalizing model, which exhibits significant associations with corresponding diagnostic spectra. At the within-person level (i.e., dynamic covariation among daily behavior pooled across individuals) we found support for a more differentiated, four-factor, Negative Affect-Detachment-Hostility-Disinhibition structure. Finally, we demonstrate that the person-specific structures of associations between these four domains are highly idiosyncratic. PMID:26732546

  1. Promotion of the Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation to the international level based on journal metrics

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Sun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use journal metrics to confirm that the Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation has been promoted to the international level after changing its language to English-only in April 2013. Journal metrics, including the number of articles per year, countries of authors, countries of the editorial board members, impact factor, total citations, and the Hirsch index, were counted or calculated based on the journal homepage and the Web of Science Core Collection in December 2016. The number of citable articles was 52, 62, 59, and 74 in 2013, 2014, 2015, and 2016, respectively. All authors were from Korea in 2013 and 2014, but the authors were from 11 countries in 2015 and from 16 countries in 2016. The editorial board members are currently from 11 countries. The impact factor without self-citations for 2015 was 0.912, corresponding to a Journal Citation Reports ranking of 32.9% out of 82 journals in the category of sport sciences. The total citations increased from 1 in 2013 to 130 in 2016. This journal was cited in 208 other source journals in the Web of Science. The citing authors were from 47 countries. The Hirsch index was 7, and review articles were the most frequently cited articles. The above results show a rapid development to the international level over 4 years. The introduction of digital technology to journals to improve their accessibility across multiple platforms is recommended. PMID:28119870

  2. Promotion of the Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation to the international level based on journal metrics.

    PubMed

    Huh, Sun

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to use journal metrics to confirm that the Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation has been promoted to the international level after changing its language to English-only in April 2013. Journal metrics, including the number of articles per year, countries of authors, countries of the editorial board members, impact factor, total citations, and the Hirsch index, were counted or calculated based on the journal homepage and the Web of Science Core Collection in December 2016. The number of citable articles was 52, 62, 59, and 74 in 2013, 2014, 2015, and 2016, respectively. All authors were from Korea in 2013 and 2014, but the authors were from 11 countries in 2015 and from 16 countries in 2016. The editorial board members are currently from 11 countries. The impact factor without self-citations for 2015 was 0.912, corresponding to a Journal Citation Reports ranking of 32.9% out of 82 journals in the category of sport sciences. The total citations increased from 1 in 2013 to 130 in 2016. This journal was cited in 208 other source journals in the Web of Science. The citing authors were from 47 countries. The Hirsch index was 7, and review articles were the most frequently cited articles. The above results show a rapid development to the international level over 4 years. The introduction of digital technology to journals to improve their accessibility across multiple platforms is recommended.

  3. Anti-CMV-IgG Positivity of Donors Is Beneficial for alloHSCT Recipients with Respect to the Better Short-Term Immunological Recovery and High Level of CD4+CD25high Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Jaskula, Emilia; Dlubek, Dorota; Tarnowska, Agnieszka; Lange, Janusz; Mordak-Domagala, Monika; Suchnicki, Krzysztof; Sedzimirska, Mariola; Borowik, Agata; Mizia, Sylwia; Lange, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from anti-cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin G (anti-CMV-IgG) positive donors facilitated immunological recovery post-transplant, which may indicate that chronic CMV infection has an effect on the immune system. This can be seen in the recipients after reconstitution with donor lymphocytes. We evaluated the composition of lymphocytes at hematologic recovery in 99 patients with hematologic malignancies post hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Anti-CMV-IgG seropositivity of the donor was associated with higher proportions of CD4+ (227.963 ± 304.858 × 106 vs. 102.050 ± 17.247 × 106 cells/L, p = 0.009) and CD4+CD25high (3.456 ± 0.436 × 106 vs. 1.589 ± 0.218 × 106 cells/L, p = 0.003) lymphocytes in the blood at hematologic recovery. The latter parameter exerted a diverse influence on the risk of acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) if low (1.483 ± 0.360 × 106 vs. 3.778 ± 0.484 × 106 cells/L, p < 0.001) and de novo chronic GvHD (cGvHD) if high (3.778 ± 0.780 × 106 vs. 2.042 ± 0.261 × 106 cells/L, p = 0.041). Higher values of CD4+ lymphocytes in patients who received transplants from anti-CMV-IgG-positive donors translated into a reduced demand for IgG support (23/63 vs. 19/33, p = 0.048), and these patients also exhibited reduced susceptibility to cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) and/or human herpes 6 virus (HHV6) infection/reactivation (12/50 vs. 21/47, p = 0.032). Finally, high levels (≥0.4%) of CD4+CD25high lymphocytes were significantly associated with better post-transplant survival (56% vs. 38%, four-year survival, p = 0.040). Donors who experience CMV infection/reactivation provide the recipients with lymphocytes, which readily reinforce the recovery of the transplanted patients’ immune system. PMID:25807050

  4. Tunneling splittings in vibronic energy levels of CD3F+ (X∼2 E) studied by high resolution photoelectron spectroscopy and ab initio calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Zuyang; Sun, Wei; Wang, Jia; Mo, Yuxiang

    2015-05-01

    The energy levels of CD3F+ (X∼2 E) have been measured up to 1400 cm-1 above the ground vibrational state using the one-photon zero-kinetic energy photoelectron (ZEKE) spectroscopic method. The spin-vibronic energy levels have also been calculated using an ab initio diabatic model. The potential energy surfaces of CD3F+ were calculated from those of CH3F+ using a transformation of the normal coordinates. The calculations show that tunneling splittings of vibrational energy levels exist due to the three equivalent wells caused by the linear-plus-strong quadratic Jahn-Teller coupling. The splittings are smaller than those in CH3F+. The experimental spectrum was assigned based on the fundamental vibrational modes calculated at the energy minimum. The calculated spin-vibronic energy levels are in good agreement with the experimental data. The tunneling splitting pairs for the fundamental vibrations related to the CD3 rock were observed. The first adiabatic ionization energy was determined as 101 534 ± 3 cm-1 or 12.5886 ± 0.0004 eV.

  5. Prediction of noise levels and annoyance from aircraft run-ups at Vancouver International Airport.

    PubMed

    Scherebnyj, Katrina; Hodgson, Murray

    2007-10-01

    Annoyance complaints resulting from engine run-ups have been increasing at Vancouver International Airport for several years. To assist the Airport in managing run-up noise levels, a prediction tool based on a Green's function parabolic equation (GFPE) model has been consolidated, evaluated, and applied. It was extended to include more realistic atmospheric and ground input parameters. Measurements were made of the noise-radiation characteristics of a CRJ200 jet aircraft. The GFPE model was validated by comparing predictions with results in the literature. A sensitivity analysis showed that predicted levels are relatively insensitive to small variations in geometry and ground impedance, but relatively sensitive to variations in wind speed, atmosphere type, and aircraft heading and power setting. Predicted noise levels were compared with levels measured at noise monitoring terminals. For the four cases for which all input information was available, agreement was within 10 dBA. For events for which some information had to be estimated, predictions were within 20 dBA. The predicted annoyance corresponding to the run-up events considered ranged from 1.8% to 9.5% of people awoken, suggesting that noise complaints can be expected.

  6. Qualities of life, educational level and human development: an international investigation of health.

    PubMed

    Skevington, Suzanne M

    2010-10-01

    This study investigated the relationship between health-related quality of life (QoL), educational level and culture, using a high quality cross-cultural generic measure (WHOQOL-BREF) containing 25 international dimensions organised in physical, psychological, social and environmental domains. Cross-cultural data from 9,404 sick and well adults in 13 countries showed that environmental QoL increased positively and sequentially from no education to tertiary education. The other three domains increased only up to secondary school level. These MANCOVA results were significantly influenced by health status, age, culture and economic development level. More positive feelings, less dependence on medication and treatment, better perceptions of financial resources, physical environment, and opportunities for information and skills, represent adult QoL advantages to those who received tertiary education compared with secondary schooling. Developing countries reported poorer environmental, psychological and physical QoL than developed countries, although social QoL was good, and no different for the two development bands. Only psychological QoL distinguished between every educational level, in developing countries. Increased positive feelings serve to link better mental health with more education. Across each domain, secondary and tertiary education was associated with better QoL in developing countries. The results support a QoL case for universal secondary education on which better health and health care may be built.

  7. Identification of the ectoenzyme CD38 as a marker of committed preadipocytes.

    PubMed

    Carrière, A; Jeanson, Y; Côté, J-A; Dromard, C; Galinier, A; Menzel, S; Barreau, C; Dupuis-Coronas, S; Arnaud, E; Girousse, A; Cuminetti, V; Paupert, J; Cousin, B; Sengenes, C; Koch-Nolte, F; Tchernof, A; Casteilla, L

    2017-06-14

    Characterisation of the adipocyte cellular lineage is required for a better understanding of white adipose tissue homoeostasis and expansion. Although several studies have focused on the phenotype of the most immature adipocyte progenitors, very few tools exist to identify committed cells. In haematopoiesis, the CD38 ectoenzyme is largely used to delineate various stages of stem cell lineage commitment. We hypothesise that this marker could be used to identify committed preadipocytes. Complementary strategies including flow cytometry, cell-sorting approaches, immunohistochemistry and primary cultures of murine adipose progenitors isolated from different fat pads of control or high-fat diet exposed C57BL/6 J mice were used to determine the molecular expression profile, proliferative and differentiation potentials of adipose progenitors expressing the CD38 molecule. We demonstrate here that a subpopulation of CD45(-) CD31(-) CD34(+) adipose progenitors express the cell surface protein CD38. Using a cell-sorting approach, we found that native CD45(-) CD31(-) CD34(+) CD38(+) (CD38(+)) adipose cells expressed lower CD34 mRNA and protein levels and higher levels of adipogenic genes such as Pparg, aP2, Lpl and Cd36 than did the CD45(-) CD31(-) CD34(+) CD38(-) (CD38(-)) population. When cultivated, CD38(+) cells displayed reduced proliferative potential, assessed by BrdU incorporation and colony-forming unit assays, and greater adipogenic potential. In vitro, both CD38 mRNA and protein levels were increased during adipogenesis and CD38(-) cells converted into CD38(+) cells when committed to the adipogenic differentiation programme. We also found that obesity development was associated with an increase in the number of CD38(+) adipose progenitors, this effect being more pronounced in intra-abdominal than in subcutaneous fat, suggesting a higher rate of adipocyte commitment in visceral depots. Together, these data demonstrate that CD38 represents a new marker that

  8. [Correlation between Expression of CD200 and Regulatory T Cells in Multiple Myeloma and Its Significance in Prognostic Stratification].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ming-Xia; Wan, Wen-Li; Li, Hai-Shen; Wang, Yan-Fang; Wang, Jing; Ling, Hui-Sen; Yan, Xin-Xing; Ke, Xiao-Yan

    2016-10-01

    To study the correlation between expression of CD200 and regulatory T cells (Tregs) in multiple myeloma(MM) patients and to explore its significance in prognostic stratification. CD200 and other immunophenotypes, including CD38, CD138, CD56, CD19, CD20, CD117, cytoplasm light chain Kappa and Lambda in bone marrow samples, and Tregs in peripheral blood were detected by flow cytometry from 78 newly diagnosed MM patients. Serum concentrations of hemoglobin(Hb), β2 microglobulin (β2-MG) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were detected, respectively. The new risk stratification of patients was carried out according to international stage system (ISS) and cytogenetic characteristics. The correlation between expression of CD200 and Tregs in MM patients was analyzed and their differences in prognosis were compared. The positive rate of CD200 expression was 71.79% in 78 patients (56/78). The expression of CD200 in sex and age of patients was no significant different. The expression of CD117 in CD200(+) group was significantly higher than that of in CD200(-) group (P=0.032). There was no significant difference in the expression of CD20, CD56 and CD19 between 2 groups. The level of Hb in CD200(+) group was significantly lower than that in CD200(-) group (P=0.035). The level of β2-MG in CD200(+) group was significantly higher than that in CD200(-) group (P=0.013). There was no significant difference in the level of LDH between 2 groups. In CD200(+) group, 17 patients were in stageⅠ, accounting for 58.62% (17/29), 30 patients were in stageⅡ, accounting for 75% (30/40), 9 patients were in stage Ⅲ, accounting for 100% (9/9). With the increase of CD200 expression intensity, the risk of prognostic stratification went up (P=0). The brighter CD200 expressed, the worse the prognosis was. The percentage of Trges in CD200(+) group was significantly higher than that of in CD200(-) group (P=0.043). The content of Tregs was positively correlated with the expression of CD200 (r=0

  9. Low dietary levels of Al, Pb and Cd may affect the non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity in caged honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Maxime; Aras, Philippe; Jumarie, Catherine; Boily, Monique

    2016-02-01

    Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the abnormally high mortality rate observed in bee populations in Europe and North America. While studies based on the effects of pesticides are paramount, the metals present in agroecosystems are often overlooked. Sources of metals are linked to the nature of soils and to agricultural practices, namely the use of natural or chemical nutrients as well as residual materials from waste-water treatment sludge. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of metals on honey bees exposed for 10 days to environmentally realistic concentrations of Al, Pb and Cd (dissolved in syrup). The monitoring of syrup consumption combined with the quantification of metals in bees revealed the following order for metal bioconcentration ratios: Cd > Pb > Al. Alpha-tocopherol, metallothionein-like proteins (MTLPs) and lipid peroxidation were quantified. When bees were exposed to increasing amounts of Cd, a marked augmentation of MTLPs levels was found. Lead (Pb) and Cd caused an increase in α-tocopherol content, while alteration of lipid peroxidation was observed only with Al exposure. These findings raise concerns about the bioavailability and the additional threat posed by metals for pollinators in agricultural areas while providing new insights for potential use of the honey bee as a sentinel species for metal exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Costimulation improves the killing capability of T cells redirected to tumor cells expressing low levels of CD33: description of a novel modular targeting system.

    PubMed

    Arndt, C; Feldmann, A; von Bonin, M; Cartellieri, M; Ewen, E-M; Koristka, S; Michalk, I; Stamova, S; Berndt, N; Gocht, A; Bornhäuser, M; Ehninger, G; Schmitz, M; Bachmann, M

    2014-01-01

    Owing to their clinical success, there is growing interest in novel bispecific antibodies (bsAbs) for retargeting of T cells to tumor cells including for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). One potential target for retargeting of T cells to AML blasts is the surface molecule CD33. Here we describe a novel modular targeting platform that consists of a universal effector module (EM) and individual target modules (TMs). Both modules can form an immune complex via a peptide epitope. The resulting targeting complex can functionally replace a conventional bsAb. By fusion of a costimulatory domain (for example, the extracellular CD137 ligand domain) to the TM, the targeting complex can even provide a costimulatory signal to the redirected T cells at their side of interaction with the tumor cell. Furthermore, we observed that an efficient killing of tumor cells expressing low levels of the tumor target CD33 becomes critical at low effector-to-target cell ratios but can be improved by costimulation via CD137 using our novel targeting system.

  11. Unbiased analysis of TCRα/β chains at the single-cell level in human CD8+ T-cell subsets.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoming; Saito, Masumichi; Sato, Yoshinori; Chikata, Takayuki; Naruto, Takuya; Ozawa, Tatsuhiko; Kobayashi, Eiji; Kishi, Hiroyuki; Muraguchi, Atsushi; Takiguchi, Masafumi

    2012-01-01

    T-cell receptor (TCR) α/β chains are expressed on the surface of CD8(+) T-cells and have been implicated in antigen recognition, activation, and proliferation. However, the methods for characterization of human TCRα/β chains have not been well established largely because of the complexity of their structures owing to the extensive genetic rearrangements that they undergo. Here we report the development of an integrated 5'-RACE and multiplex PCR method to amplify the full-length transcripts of TCRα/β at the single-cell level in human CD8(+) subsets, including naive, central memory, early effector memory, late effector memory, and effector phenotypic cells. Using this method, with an approximately 47% and 62% of PCR success rate for TCRα and for TCRβ chains, respectively, we were able to analyze more than 1,000 reads of transcripts of each TCR chain. Our comprehensive analysis revealed the following: (1) chimeric rearrangements of TCRδ-α, (2) control of TCRα/β transcription with multiple transcriptional initiation sites, (3) altered utilization of TCRα/β chains in CD8(+) subsets, and (4) strong association between the clonal size of TCRα/β chains and the effector phenotype of CD8(+) T-cells. Based on these findings, we conclude that our method is a useful tool to identify the dynamics of the TCRα/β repertoire, and provides new insights into the study of human TCRα/β chains.

  12. Energy Band Gap, Intrinsic Carrier Concentration and Fermi Level of CdTe Bulk Crystal between 304 K and 1067 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua

    2007-01-01

    Optical transmission measurements were performed on CdTe bulk single crystal. It was found that when a sliced and polished CdTe wafer was used, a white film started to develop when the sample was heated above 530 K and the sample became opaque. Therefore, a bulk crystal of CdTe was first grown in the window area by physical vapor transport; the optical transmission was then measured and from which the energy band gap was derived between 304 and 1067 K. The band gaps of CdTe can be fit well as a function of temperature using the Varshini expression: Eg (e V) = 1.5860 - 5.9117xl0(exp -4) T(sup 2)/(T + 160). Using the band gap data, the high temperature electron-hole equilibrium was calculated numerically by assuming the Kane's conduction band structure and a heavy-hole parabolic valance band. The calculated intrinsic carrier concentrations agree well with the experimental data reported previously. The calculated intrinsic Fermi levels between 270 and 1200 K were also presented.

  13. Energy Band Gap, Intrinsic Carrier Concentration and Fermi Level of CdTe Bulk Crystal between 304 K and 1067 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua

    2007-01-01

    Optical transmission measurements were performed on CdTe bulk single crystal. It was found that when a sliced and polished CdTe wafer was used, a white film started to develop when the sample was heated above 530 K and the sample became opaque. Therefore, a bulk crystal of CdTe was first grown in the window area by physical vapor transport; the optical transmission was then measured and from which the energy band gap was derived between 304 and 1067 K. The band gaps of CdTe can be fit well as a function of temperature using the Varshini expression: Eg (e V) = 1.5860 - 5.9117xl0(exp -4) T(sup 2)/(T + 160). Using the band gap data, the high temperature electron-hole equilibrium was calculated numerically by assuming the Kane's conduction band structure and a heavy-hole parabolic valance band. The calculated intrinsic carrier concentrations agree well with the experimental data reported previously. The calculated intrinsic Fermi levels between 270 and 1200 K were also presented.

  14. The effects of deep-level defects on the electrical properties of Cd0.9Zn0.1Te crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pengfei; Nan, Ruihua; Jian, Zengyun

    2017-06-01

    The deep-level defects of CdZnTe (CZT) crystals grown by the modified vertical Bridgman (MVB) method act as trapping centers or recombination centers in the band gap, which have significant effects on its electrical properties. The resistivity and electron mobility-lifetime product of high resistivity Cd0.9Zn0.1Te wafer marked CZT1 and low resistivity Cd0.9Zn0.1Te wafer marked CZT2 were tested respectively. Their deep-level defects were identified by thermally stimulated current (TSC) spectroscopy and thermoelectric effect spectroscopy (TEES) respectively. Then the trap-related parameters were characterized by the simultaneous multiple peak analysis (SIMPA) method. The deep donor level ({E}{{DD}}) dominating dark current was calculated by the relationship between dark current and temperature. The Fermi-level was characterized by current-voltage measurements of temperature dependence. The width of the band gap was characterized by ultraviolet-visible-infrared transmittance spectroscopy. The results show the traps concentration and capture cross section of CZT1 are lower than CZT2, so its electron mobility-lifetime product is greater than CZT2. The Fermi-level of CZT1 is closer to the middle gap than CZT2. The degree of Fermi-level pinned by {E}{{DD}} of CZT1 is larger than CZT2. It can be concluded that the resistivity of CZT crystals increases as the degree of Fermi-level pinned near the middle gap by the deep donor level enlarges. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51502234) and the Scientific Research Plan Projects of Shaanxi Provincial Department of Education of China (No. 15JS040).

  15. Metal uptake of tomato and alfalfa plants as affected by water source, salinity, and Cd and Zn levels under greenhouse conditions.

    PubMed

    Gharaibeh, Mamoun A; Marschner, Bernd; Heinze, Stefanie

    2015-12-01

    Irrigation with wastewater is a promising option to improve crop yields and to reduce pressure on freshwater sources. However, heavy metal concentrations in wastewater may cause health concerns. A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted in order to determine cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) concentrations in sandy soil and plant tissues of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). A 2 × 2 × 4 × 2 factorial treatment arrangement was utilized. Two water sources, fresh (FW) or treated wastewater (TWW), at two salinity levels (1 and 3 dS m(-1)) containing different levels of Cd and Zn were used. Samples were collected after a 90-day growth period. It was observed that the growth of both plants was depressed at the highest metal level (L3). Metal accumulation in plant parts increased with the increase of metal concentration and salinity in irrigation water. At low salinity, water source was the main factor which controlled metal accumulation, whereas, at high salinity, chloride appeared to be the principal factor controlling metal uptake regardless of water source. Metal translocation from roots to shoots increased in TWW-irrigated plants, even in the controls. Tomatoes accumulated Cd up to and above critical levels safe for human consumption, even though Cd concentration in irrigation water did not exceed the current recommended values. Therefore, food production in sandy soils may well pose a health hazard when irrigated with TWW containing heavy metals. Complexation with dissolved organic compounds (DOC) in TWW may be to be the principal factor responsible for increased metal uptake and transfer at low salinity, thereby increasing the risk of heavy metal contamination of food and forage crops.

  16. Rapid clearance of herpes simplex virus type 2 by CD8+ T cells requires high level expression of effector T cell functions

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Michelle H.; Bird, Melanie D.; Chu, Chin-Fun; Johnson, Alison J.; Friedrich, Brian M.; Allman, Windy R.; Milligan, Gregg N.

    2011-01-01

    CD8+ T cells are important for resolution of HSV-2 lesions from the female genital epithelium. It is uncertain whether optimal clearance of viruses such as HSV-2 that cause a limited, non-systemic infection solely requires expression of effector functions by infiltrating CD8+ T lymphocytes, or if the clearance rate is reflective of the expression level of critical effector functions. To address this, CD8+ T cells from normal OT-I mice or OT-I mice deficient in IFNγ (IFNγ−/−) or the IFNγ receptor (IFNγR−/−) were activated in vitro in the presence of IFNγ or IL-4 to generate a series of effector populations (Tc1 and Tc2-like respectively) that secreted different levels of IFNγ and expressed different levels of HSV-specific cytolytic function. Compared with Tc1 cells, Tc2-like cells produced the type 2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-5, exhibited decreased IFNγ secretion, diminished proliferation in vitro, and decreased antigen-specific cytolysis in vivo. Clearance of an ovalbumin-expressing HSV-2 strain (HSV-2 tk− OVA) by adoptively transferred Tc2-like cells was delayed relative to Tc1 cell recipients. Because donor Tc2-like cells proliferated in vivo and infiltrated the infected genital epithelium similar to Tc1 cells, the diminished virus clearance by Tc2-like effector cells correlated with reduced expression of critical effector functions. Together, these results suggest that high level expression of protective T cell functions by effector T cells is necessary for optimal clearance of HSV-2 from the genital epithelium. These results have important implications for vaccines designed to elicit CD8+ T cells against viruses such as HSV-2 that infect the genital tract. PMID:21444117

  17. Rapid clearance of herpes simplex virus type 2 by CD8+ T cells requires high level expression of effector T cell functions.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Michelle H; Bird, Melanie D; Chu, Chin-Fun; Johnson, Alison J; Friedrich, Brian M; Allman, Windy R; Milligan, Gregg N

    2011-04-01

    CD8(+) T cells are important for resolution of HSV-2 lesions from the female genital epithelium. It is uncertain whether optimal clearance of viruses such as HSV-2 that cause a limited, non-systemic infection solely requires expression of effector functions by infiltrating CD8(+) T lymphocytes, or if the clearance rate is reflective of the expression level of critical effector functions. To address this, CD8(+) T cells from normal OT-I mice or OT-I mice deficient in IFNγ (IFNγ(-/-)) or the IFNγ receptor (IFNγR(-/-)) were activated in vitro in the presence of IFNγ or IL-4 to generate a series of effector populations (Tc1 and Tc2-like respectively) that secreted different levels of IFNγ and expressed different levels of HSV-specific cytolytic function. Compared with Tc1 cells, Tc2-like cells produced the type 2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-5, exhibited decreased IFNγ secretion, diminished proliferation in vitro, and decreased antigen-specific cytolysis in vivo. Clearance of an ovalbumin-expressing HSV-2 strain (HSV-2 tk(-) OVA) by adoptively transferred Tc2-like cells was delayed relative to Tc1 cell recipients. Because donor Tc2-like cells proliferated in vivo and infiltrated the infected genital epithelium similar to Tc1 cells, the diminished virus clearance by Tc2-like effector cells correlated with reduced expression of critical effector functions. Together, these results suggest that high level expression of protective T cell functions by effector T cells is necessary for optimal clearance of HSV-2 from the genital epithelium. These results have important implications for vaccines designed to elicit CD8(+) T cells against viruses such as HSV-2 that infect the genital tract.

  18. An Examination of Individual Level Factors in Stress and Coping Processes: Perspectives of Chinese International Students in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Kun; Berliner, David C.

    2011-01-01

    No empirical research has focused solely upon understanding the stress and coping processes of Chinese international students in the United States. This qualitative inquiry examines the individual-level variables that affect the stress-coping process of Chinese international students and how they conceptualize and adapt to their stress at an…

  19. Training Level, Acculturation, Role Ambiguity, and Multicultural Discussions in Training and Supervising International Counseling Students in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Kok-Mun; Smith, Shannon D.

    2012-01-01

    This research partially replicated Nilsson and Anderson's "Professional Psychology: Research and Practice" (2004) study on training and supervising international students. It investigated the relationships among international counseling students' training level, acculturation, supervisory working alliance (SWA), counseling self-efficacy (COSE),…

  20. An Examination of Individual Level Factors in Stress and Coping Processes: Perspectives of Chinese International Students in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Kun; Berliner, David C.

    2011-01-01

    No empirical research has focused solely upon understanding the stress and coping processes of Chinese international students in the United States. This qualitative inquiry examines the individual-level variables that affect the stress-coping process of Chinese international students and how they conceptualize and adapt to their stress at an…

  1. Training Level, Acculturation, Role Ambiguity, and Multicultural Discussions in Training and Supervising International Counseling Students in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Kok-Mun; Smith, Shannon D.

    2012-01-01

    This research partially replicated Nilsson and Anderson's "Professional Psychology: Research and Practice" (2004) study on training and supervising international students. It investigated the relationships among international counseling students' training level, acculturation, supervisory working alliance (SWA), counseling self-efficacy (COSE),…

  2. Blood Lead Levels in Andean Infants and Young Children in Ecuador: An International Comparison.

    PubMed

    Allen Counter, S; Buchanan, Leo H; Ortega, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Lead (Pb) exposure in infants and children remains an international health concern. Blood lead (PbB) levels of a cohort of 130 Ecuadorian infants and young children aged 0.33 to 5.8 yr were compared to values reported for similar age groups in Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America, and the United States. The mean PbB level for the total group of 130 Ecuadorian infants and young children in this study was 29.4 μg/dl (SD: 24.3; range: 3.0-128.2; median: 21.7; geometric mean: 20.7 μg/dl). The mean PbB level for the 0-2 yr age group (infants) was 33.6 μg/dl (SD: 28.9; median: 22.0; range: 3.9-119.7; geometric mean: 23.6 μg/dl), while the average PbB level for the 3-5 yr age group (young children) was 27.9 μg/dl (SD: 22.5: median: 22; range: 3-128.2; geometric mean: 19.8 μg/dl). The difference between the mean PbB levels for the infants and young children was not statistically significant. The average PbB level of 32.6 μg/dl for males was not statistically different from the mean PbB level of 26.3 μg/dl for females. The PbB levels observed in Ecuadorian infants and young children in this investigation were elevated above the World Health Organization (WHO) level of concern of 10 μg/dl and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) current reference value of 5 μg/dl. Values were comparable to concentrations found in Pakistan, where occupational use of Pb is prevalent. These findings further indicate that infants and young children exposed to Pb from Pb glazing of ceramics in Andean Ecuadorian villages exhibit greater potential metal-mediated poisoning than children of similar ages in Asia, Europe, other Latin American countries, and the United States.

  3. Evaluation of internal contamination levels after a radiological dispersal device incident using portal monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.C.; Hertel, Nolan; Ansari, A.; Manger, Ryan P; Freibert, E.J.

    2012-01-01

    Following a radioactive dispersal device (RDD) incident, it may be necessary to evaluate the internal contamination levels of a large number of potentially affected individuals to determine if immediate medical follow-up is necessary. Since the current laboratory capacity to screen for internal contamination is limited, rapid field screening methods can be useful in prioritizing individuals. This study evaluated the suitability of a radiation portal monitor for such screening. A model of the portal monitor was created for use with models of six anthropomorphic phantoms in Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code Version 5 (MCNP) X-5 Monte Carlo Team (MCNP A General Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code Version 5. LA-CP-03-0245. Vol. 2. Los Alamos National Laboratory, 2004.). The count rates of the portal monitor were simulated for inhalation and ingestion of likely radionuclides from an RDD for each of the phantoms. The time-dependant organ concentrations of the radionuclides were determined using Dose and Risk Calculation Software Eckerman, Leggett, Cristy, Nelson, Ryman, Sjoreen and Ward (Dose and Risk Calculation Software Ver. 8.4. ORNL/TM-2001/190. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 2006.). Portal monitor count rates corresponding to a committed effective dose E(50) of 10 mSv are reported.

  4. Evaluation of internal contamination levels after a radiological dispersal device incident using portal monitors.

    PubMed

    Palmer, R C; Hertel, N E; Ansari, A; Manger, R P; Freibert, E J

    2012-08-01

    Following a radioactive dispersal device (RDD) incident, it may be necessary to evaluate the internal contamination levels of a large number of potentially affected individuals to determine if immediate medical follow-up is necessary. Since the current laboratory capacity to screen for internal contamination is limited, rapid field screening methods can be useful in prioritising individuals. This study evaluated the suitability of a radiation portal monitor for such screening. A model of the portal monitor was created for use with models of six anthropomorphic phantoms in Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code Version 5 (MCNP) X-5 Monte Carlo Team (MCNP-A General Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code Version 5. LA-CP-03-0245. Vol. 2. Los Alamos National Laboratory, 2004.). The count rates of the portal monitor were simulated for inhalation and ingestion of likely radionuclides from an RDD for each of the phantoms. The time-dependant organ concentrations of the radionuclides were determined using Dose and Risk Calculation Software Eckerman, Leggett, Cristy, Nelson, Ryman, Sjoreen and Ward (Dose and Risk Calculation Software Ver. 8.4. ORNL/TM-2001/190. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 2006.). Portal monitor count rates corresponding to a committed effective dose E(50) of 10 mSv are reported.

  5. Overview of the International Space Station System Level Trace Contaminant Injection Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tatara, James D.; Perry, Jay L.; Franks, Gerald D.

    1997-01-01

    Trace contaminant control onboard the International Space Station will be accomplished not only by the Trace Contaminant Control Subassembly but also by other Environmental Control and Life Support System subassemblies. These additional removal routes include absorption by humidity condensate in the Temperature and Humidity Control Condensing Heat Exchanger and adsorption by the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly. The Trace Contaminant Injection Test, which was performed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, investigated the system-level removal of trace contaminants by the International Space Station Atmosphere Revitalization, and Temperature/Humidity Control Subsystems, (November-December 1997). It is a follow-on to the Integrated Atmosphere Revitalization Test conducted in 1996. An estimate for the magnitude of the assisting role provided by the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly and the Temperature and Humidity Control unit was obtained. In addition, data on the purity of Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly carbon dioxide product were obtained to support Environmental Control and Life Support System Air Revitalization Subsystem loop closure.

  6. High-resolution study of the 113Cd(n,γ) spectrum by statistical decay model with discrete levels and transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belgya, Tamás; Szentmiklósi, László; Massarczyk, Ralph; Schwengner, Ronald; Junghans, Arnd R.; Grosse, Eckart

    2017-09-01

    The gamma-ray spectrum and the decay scheme of 114Cd obtained from a radiative neutron capture experiment on 113Cd samples are modelled in the framework of extreme statistical model. The unfolding of the experimental spectrum with proper normalization yields a total capture cross section of 21640 b and an average gamma-ray multiplicity of 4.1. Using the extreme statistical model the development of the low energy decay scheme of 114Cd is in progress. In the model the constant-temperature level density is used, where the temperature parameter was very sensitive to the shape of the modelled gamma-ray spectrum. Using this sensitivity T = 0.62 MeV was obtained with the constraint of good description of low energy level density and the level density at the binding energy. This is in full agreement with our earlier publication. For the description of the continuum shape of the unfolded spectrum the inclusion of low energy enhancement for the photon strength function was an important new addition.

  7. Evaluation of toxic metal (Hg, Cd, Pb), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs), and pesticide (DDTs) levels in aromatic herbs collected in selected areas of Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Storelli, Maria Maddalena

    2014-01-01

    This study provides, for the first time, data regarding levels of toxic metals (Hg, Cd, and Pb) and organochlorine compounds (PCBs and DDTs) in various aromatic herbs as rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), sage (Salvia officinalis), laurel (Laurus nobilis), oregano (Origanum vulgare), and spearmint (Mentha viridis) collected in some towns of the Southern Italy with different anthropogenic and population pressure. Metal and organochlorine compound concentrations were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer and gas-chromatography mass spectrometer (GC/MS), respectively. Pb emerged as the most abundant element, followed by Cd and Hg, while between organochlorine compounds, PCB concentrations were higher than those of DDTs. The pollutant concentrations were found to vary depending on the different herbs. The highest Pb levels were observed in rosemary (1.66 μg g(-1) dry weight) and sage (1.41 μg g(-1) dry weight), this latter showing also the highest Cd concentrations (0.75 μg g(-1) dry weight). For PCBs, the major concentrations were found in rosemary (2.75 ng g(-1) dry weight) and oregano (2.39 ng g(-1) dry weight). The principal component analysis applied in order to evaluate possible similarities and/or differences in the contamination levels among sampling sites indicated differences area-specific contamination.

  8. Early deprivation and home basal cortisol levels: a study of internationally adopted children.

    PubMed

    Kertes, Darlene A; Gunnar, Megan R; Madsen, Nicole J; Long, Jeffrey D

    2008-01-01

    Animal studies reveal that early deprivation impairs regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis, potentially increasing vulnerability to stressors throughout life. To examine early deprivation effects on basal HPA axis activity in humans, basal cortisol levels were examined in 164 internationally adopted children who had experienced varying degrees of preadoption deprivation. Duration of institutional care, age at adoption, and parent ratings of preadoption neglect indexed a latent factor of Deprived Care. Adoption measures of height and weight standardized to World Health Organisation norms indexed a latent factor of Growth Delay that was viewed as another reflection of deprivation. Cortisol samples were collected 3.3-11.6 years postadoption (Md = 7.3 years) at home on 3 days approximately 30 min after wakeup and before bedtime. Both early a.m. levels and the decrease in cortisol across the day were examined. A structural equation model revealed that preadoption Deprived Care predicted Growth Delay at adoption and Growth Delay predicted higher morning cortisol levels and a larger diurnal cortisol decrease.

  9. Chemosensory assessment of sperm competition levels and the evolution of internal spermatophore guarding

    PubMed Central

    Carazo, P; Font, E; Alfthan, B

    2006-01-01

    Males of many species adjust their reproductive behaviour according to the perceived risk of sperm competition. Although this phenomenon is widespread in insects and other animals, the mechanisms that allow mates to assess sperm competition levels remain largely unexplored. In this study, we analysed the mating behaviour of pairs of Tenebrio molitor beetles under three odour treatments representing increasing levels of sperm competition risk (SCR) and sperm competition intensity (SCI). Copula duration and male and female post-copulatory behaviour varied significantly with odour treatment. Both copula duration and post-copulatory associations (PCAs) increased significantly in odour treatments reflecting high male density. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report that insects may assess the actual density of potential competitors at the time of mating, a cue to SCR and SCI, on the basis of chemical cues. In T. molitor, males inhibit sperm release from the spermatophore of a rival male when remating takes place at short intervals. We show that, when sperm competition levels are high, PCAs increase female remating interval just above that necessary to prevent spermatophore inhibition by rival males. This finding strongly suggests that strategic male behaviour plays a ‘spermatophore guarding’ role in this species. Although common in insects with external spermatophore transfer, spermatophore guarding is not expected in species with rapid ejaculate transfer and internal spermatophore delivery. Our results reveal that spermatophore guarding may evolve, even under these circumstances, as an evolutionary response to short-term spermatophore inhibition or displacement mechanisms. PMID:17148255

  10. Three Levels of Push-Pull Dynamics among Chinese International Students' Decision to Study Abroad in the Canadian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jun Mian

    2017-01-01

    The extant literature on student migration flows generally focus on the traditional push-pull factors of migration at the individual level. Such a tendency excludes the broader levels affecting international student mobility. This paper proposes a hybrid of three levels of push-pull dynamics (micro-individual decision-making, meso-academic…

  11. Absolute frequency measurement at 10-16 level based on the international atomic time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachisu, H.; Fujieda, M.; Kumagai, M.; Ido, T.

    2016-06-01

    Referring to International Atomic Time (TAI), we measured the absolute frequency of the 87Sr lattice clock with its uncertainty of 1.1 x 10-15. Unless an optical clock is continuously operated for the five days of the TAI grid, it is required to evaluate dead time uncertainty in order to use the available five-day average of the local frequency reference. We homogeneously distributed intermittent measurements over the five-day grid of TAI, by which the dead time uncertainty was reduced to low 10-16 level. Three campaigns of the five (or four)-day consecutive measurements have resulted in the absolute frequency of the 87Sr clock transition of 429 228 004 229 872.85 (47) Hz, where the systematic uncertainty of the 87Sr optical frequency standard amounts to 8.6 x 10-17.

  12. Trypanosoma cruzi Epimastigotes Are Able to Manage Internal Cholesterol Levels under Nutritional Lipid Stress Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Miria Gomes; Visbal, Gonzalo; Salgado, Leonardo T.; Vidal, Juliana Cunha; Godinho, Joseane L. P.; De Cicco, Nuccia N. T.; Atella, Geórgia C.; de Souza, Wanderley; Cunha-e-Silva, Narcisa

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes store high amounts of cholesterol and cholesteryl esters in reservosomes. These unique organelles are responsible for cellular digestion by providing substrates for homeostasis and parasite differentiation. Here we demonstrate that under nutritional lipid stress, epimastigotes preferentially mobilized reservosome lipid stocks, instead of lipid bodies, leading to the consumption of parasite cholesterol reservoirs and production of ergosterol. Starved epimastigotes acquired more LDL-NBD-cholesterol by endocytosis and distributed the exogenous cholesterol to their membranes faster than control parasites. Moreover, the parasites were able to manage internal cholesterol levels, alternating between consumption and accumulation. With normal lipid availability, parasites esterified cholesterol exhibiting an ACAT-like activity that was sensitive to Avasimibe in a dose-dependent manner. This result also implies that exogenous cholesterol has a role in lipid reservoirs in epimastigotes. PMID:26068009

  13. Trypanosoma cruzi Epimastigotes Are Able to Manage Internal Cholesterol Levels under Nutritional Lipid Stress Conditions.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Miria Gomes; Visbal, Gonzalo; Salgado, Leonardo T; Vidal, Juliana Cunha; Godinho, Joseane L P; De Cicco, Nuccia N T; Atella, Geórgia C; de Souza, Wanderley; Cunha-e-Silva, Narcisa

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes store high amounts of cholesterol and cholesteryl esters in reservosomes. These unique organelles are responsible for cellular digestion by providing substrates for homeostasis and parasite differentiation. Here we demonstrate that under nutritional lipid stress, epimastigotes preferentially mobilized reservosome lipid stocks, instead of lipid bodies, leading to the consumption of parasite cholesterol reservoirs and production of ergosterol. Starved epimastigotes acquired more LDL-NBD-cholesterol by endocytosis and distributed the exogenous cholesterol to their membranes faster than control parasites. Moreover, the parasites were able to manage internal cholesterol levels, alternating between consumption and accumulation. With normal lipid availability, parasites esterified cholesterol exhibiting an ACAT-like activity that was sensitive to Avasimibe in a dose-dependent manner. This result also implies that exogenous cholesterol has a role in lipid reservoirs in epimastigotes.

  14. Relationship between carbon dioxide levels and reported headaches on the international space station.

    PubMed

    Law, Jennifer; Van Baalen, Mary; Foy, Millennia; Mason, Sara S; Mendez, Claudia; Wear, Mary L; Meyers, Valerie E; Alexander, David

    2014-05-01

    Because of anecdotal reports of CO(2)-related symptoms onboard the International Space Station (ISS), the relationship between CO(2) and in-flight headaches was analyzed. Headache reports and CO(2) measurements were obtained, and arithmetic means and single-point maxima were determined for 24-hour and 7-day periods. Multiple imputation addressed missing data, and logistic regression modeled the relationship between CO(2), headache probability, and covariates. CO(2) level, age at launch, time in-flight, and data source were significantly associated with headache. For each 1-mm Hg increase in CO(2), the odds of a crew member reporting a headache doubled. To keep the risk of headache below 1%, average 7-day CO(2) would need to be maintained below 2.5 mm Hg (current ISS range: 1 to 9 mm Hg). Although headache incidence was not high, results suggest an increased susceptibility to physiological effects of CO(2) in-flight.

  15. International program to study subseabed disposal of high-level radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Carlin, E.M.; Hinga, K.R.; Knauss, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the international program to study seabed disposal of nuclear wastes. Its purpose is to inform legislators, other policy makers, and the general public as to the history of the program, technological requirements necessary for feasibility assessment, legal questions involved, international coordination of research, national policies, and research and development activities. Each of these major aspects of the program is presented in a separate section. The objective of seabed burial, similar to its continental counterparts, is to contain and to isolate the wastes. The subseabed option should not be confuesed with past practices of ocean dumping which have introduced wastes into ocean waters. Seabed disposal refers to the emplacement of solidified high-level radioactive waste (with or without reprocessing) in certain geologically stable sediments of the deep ocean floor. Specially designed surface ships would transport waste canisters from a port facility to the disposal site. Canisters would be buried from a few tens to a few hundreds of meters below the surface of ocean bottom sediments, and hence would not be in contact with the overlying ocean water. The concept is a multi-barrier approach for disposal. Barriers, including waste form, canister, ad deep ocean sediments, will separate wastes from the ocean environment. High-level wastes (HLW) would be stabilized by conversion into a leach-resistant solid form such as glass. This solid would be placed inside a metallic canister or other type of package which represents a second barrier. The deep ocean sediments, a third barrier, are discussed in the Feasibility Assessment section. The waste form and canister would provide a barrier for several hundred years, and the sediments would be relied upon as a barrier for thousands of years. 62 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  16. Global energy and water cycle experiment (GEWEX) continental-scale international project (GCIP); reference data sets CD-ROM

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rea, Alan; Cederstrand, Joel R.

    1994-01-01

    The data sets on this compact disc are a compilation of several geographic reference data sets of interest to the global-change research community. The data sets were chosen with input from the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Continental-Scale International Project (GCIP) Data Committee and the GCIP Hydrometeorology and Atmospheric Subpanels. The data sets include: locations and periods of record for stream gages, reservoir gages, and meteorological stations; a 500-meter-resolution digital elevation model; grid-node locations for the Eta numerical weather-prediction model; and digital map data sets of geology, land use, streams, large reservoirs, average annual runoff, average annual precipitation, average annual temperature, average annual heating and cooling degree days, hydrologic units, and state and county boundaries. Also included are digital index maps for LANDSAT scenes, and for the U.S. Geological Survey 1:250,000, 1:100,000, and 1:24,000-scale map series. Most of the data sets cover the conterminous United States; the digital elevation model also includes part of southern Canada. The stream and reservoir gage and meteorological station files cover all states having area within the Mississippi River Basin plus that part of the Mississippi River Basin lying within Canada. Several data-base retrievals were processed by state, therefore many sites outside the Mississippi River Basin are included.

  17. Metal-induced stress in bivalves living along a gradient of Cd contamination: relating sub-cellular metal distribution to population-level responses.

    PubMed

    Perceval, Olivier; Couillard, Yves; Pinel-Alloul, Bernadette; Giguère, Anik; Campbell, Peter G C

    2004-09-20

    The use of biomarkers to assess the impacts of contaminants on aquatic ecosystems has noticeably increased over the past few years. Few of these studies, however, have contributed to the prediction of ecologically significant effects (i.e., at the population or community levels). The present field study was designed to evaluate the potential of metallothionein (MT) and sub-cellular metal partitioning measurements for predicting toxic effects at higher levels of the biological organization in freshwater bivalves (Pyganodon grandis) chronically exposed to Cd. For that purpose, we quantitatively sampled P. grandis populations in the littoral zone of nine lakes on the Precambrian Canadian Shield during two consecutive summers (1998 and 1999); lakes were characterized by contrasting Cd levels but similar trophic status. We tested relationships between the population status of P. grandis (i.e., growth parameters, density, biomass, secondary production, turnover ratio and cumulative fecundity) and (i) ambient Cd concentrations, (ii) sub-organismal responses (MT concentrations in the gill cytosol of individuals and Cd concentrations in three metal-ligand pools identified as M-HMW, the high molecular weight pool, M-MT, the metallothionein-like pool and M-LMW, the low molecular weight pool) and (iii) ecological confounding factors (food resources, presence of host fishes for the obligatory parasitic larval stage of P. grandis). Our results show that littoral density, live weight, dry viscera biomass, production and cumulative fecundity decreased with increasing concentrations of the free-cadmium ion in the environment (Pearson's r ranging from -0.63 to -0.78). On the other hand, theoretical maximum shell lengths (L( infinity )) in our populations were related to both the dissolved Ca concentration and food quality (sestonic C and N concentrations). Overall, Cd concentrations in the gill cytosolic HMW pool of the individual molluscs were the biomarker response that was most

  18. The Market Place: An Internal View of the Future of CD-ROM--The Perspective of the H. W. Wilson Company.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Frank W.; Loeding, Deborah Voigt

    1989-01-01

    Discussion of technological developments in library reference services focuses on contributions of the H. W. Wilson Company and highlights CD-ROM technology. Topics discussed include online access; menu-driven systems; CD-ROM hardware and software concerns; user response to CD-ROM; quality control of databases; pricing considerations; and future…

  19. Increased monocyte turnover from bone marrow correlates with severity of SIV encephalitis and CD163 levels in plasma.

    PubMed

    Burdo, Tricia H; Soulas, Caroline; Orzechowski, Krystyna; Button, Jessica; Krishnan, Anitha; Sugimoto, Chie; Alvarez, Xavier; Kuroda, Marcelo J; Williams, Kenneth C

    2010-04-15

    Cells of the myeloid lineage are significant targets for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in humans and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in monkeys. Monocytes play critical roles in innate and adaptive immunity during inflammation. We hypothesize that specific subsets of monocytes expand with AIDS and drive central nervous system (CNS) disease. Additionally, there may be expansion of cells from the bone marrow through blood with subsequent macrophage accumulation in tissues driving pathogenesis. To identify monocytes that recently emigrated from bone marrow, we used 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling in a longitudinal study of SIV-infected CD8+ T lymphocyte depleted macaques. Monocyte expansion and kinetics in blood was assessed and newly migrated monocyte/macrophages were identified within the CNS. Five animals developed rapid AIDS with differing severity of SIVE. The percentages of BrdU+ monocytes in these animals increased dramatically, early after infection, peaking at necropsy where the percentage of BrdU+ monocytes correlated with the severity of SIVE. Early analysis revealed changes in the percentages of BrdU+ monocytes between slow and rapid progressors as early as 8 days and consistently by 27 days post infection. Soluble CD163 (sCD163) in plasma correlated with the percentage of BrdU+ monocytes in blood, demonstrating a relationship between monocyte activation and expansion with disease. BrdU+ monocytes/macrophages were found within perivascular spaces and SIVE lesions. The majority (80-90%) of the BrdU+ cells were Mac387+ that were not productively infected. There was a minor population of CD68+BrdU+ cells (<10%), very few of which were infected (<1% of total BrdU+ cells). Our results suggest that an increased rate of monocyte recruitment from bone marrow into the blood correlates with rapid progression to AIDS, and the magnitude of BrdU+ monocytes correlates with the severity of SIVE.

  20. Memory CD4 T cell subsets are kinetically heterogeneous and replenished from naive T cells at high levels

    PubMed Central

    Gossel, Graeme; Hogan, Thea; Cownden, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Characterising the longevity of immunological memory requires establishing the rules underlying the renewal and death of peripheral T cells. However, we lack knowledge of the population structure and how self-renewal and de novo influx contribute to the maintenance of memory compartments. Here, we characterise the kinetics and structure of murine CD4 T cell memory subsets by measuring the rates of influx of new cells and using detailed timecourses of DNA labelling that also distinguish the behaviour of recently divided and quiescent cells. We find that both effector and central memory CD4 T cells comprise subpopulations with highly divergent rates of turnover, and show that inflows of new cells sourced from the naive pool strongly impact estimates of memory cell lifetimes and division rates. We also demonstrate that the maintenance of CD4 T cell memory subsets in healthy mice is unexpectedly and strikingly reliant on this replenishment. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.23013.001 PMID:28282024

  1. Angiogenesis related genes NOS3, CD14, MMP3 and IL4R are associated to VEGF gene expression and circulating levels in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Abdelsalam; Stathopoulou, Maria G; Dadé, Sébastien; Ndiaye, Ndeye Coumba; Azimi-Nezhad, Mohsen; Murray, Helena; Masson, Christine; Lamont, John; Fitzgerald, Peter; Visvikis-Siest, Sophie

    2015-10-05

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a key role in angiogenesis. The aim was to assess the genetic connections between the angiogenesis-related NOS3, CD14, MMP3, IL4R, IL4 genes and VEGF expression and plasma levels. The associations between VEGF plasma levels with the polymorphisms of NOS3, CD14, MMP3, IL4R, and IL4 were assessed in 403 healthy unrelated adults. The epistatic and environmental interactions were explored, including four VEGF-related polymorphisms previously identified. The VEGF expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was quantified (n = 65) for the VEGF121, VEGF145, VEGF165, and VEGF189 isoforms. The polymorphism rs1799983 of NOS3 was associated with the sum of all VEGF isoforms mRNA levels (P = 0.032) and VEGF145 (P = 0.033). Rs1800779 of NOS3 interacted with rs3918226 of the same gene and with the rs2569190 of CD14 (P = 0.022, P = 0.042, respectively) for VEGF plasma levels. Other epistatic interactions included the rs1801275 of IL4R with the rs6921438 (VEGF-related variant) and rs3025058 of MMP3 (P = 0.042, P = 0.010 respectively) and the rs2569190 of CD14 with the rs3025058 of MMP3 (P = 0.0119). We also identified an interaction of rs1800779 with obesity, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides (P = 0.018, P = 0.005, P = 0.043, respectively) as well as the interaction of rs6921438 with hypertension (P = 0.028). Our findings indicated that genetic variants of NOS3, CD14, MMP3 and IL4R are implicated in the determination of VEGF expression and plasma levels. Thus, they support the hypothesis that in physiological conditions there are complex biological relationships between pathways (such as angiogenesis and inflammation), which are involved in the development of chronic diseases.

  2. Toward standardizing and reporting colorectal cancer screening indicators on an international level: The International Colorectal Cancer Screening Network.

    PubMed

    Benson, Victoria S; Atkin, Wendy S; Green, Jane; Nadel, Marion R; Patnick, Julietta; Smith, Robert A; Villain, Patricia

    2012-06-15

    The International Colorectal Cancer Screening Network was established in 2003 to promote best practice in the delivery of organized colorectal cancer screening programs. To facilitate evaluation of such programs, we defined a set of universally applicable colorectal cancer screening measures and indicators. To test the feasibility of data collection, we requested data on these variables and basic program characteristics from 26 organized full programs and 9 pilot programs in 24 countries. The size of the target population for each program varied considerably from a few thousand to 36 million. The majority of programs used fecal occult blood tests for primary screening, with more using guaiac than immunochemical tests. There was wide variation in the ability of screening programs to report the requested measures and in the values reported. In general, pilot programs were more likely to provide screening measure values than were full programs. As expected, detection rates for polyps and neoplasia were substantially higher in programs screening with endoscopy than in those using fecal occult blood tests. It is hoped that the screening measures and indicators, once revised in the light of this survey, will be adopted and used by existing programs and those in the early planning stages, allowing international comparison with the goal of improved colorectal cancer screening quality. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  3. Human myeloma cells express the CD38 ligand CD31.

    PubMed

    Vallario, A; Chilosi, M; Adami, F; Montagna, L; Deaglio, S; Malavasi, F; Caligaris-Cappio, F

    1999-05-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) plasma cells (PC) are CD38+. A ligand for CD38 is the adhesion molecule CD31. By flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry we have investigated whether malignant PC co-express CD38 and CD31. All 68 patients studied were CD38+. 14/14 monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance (MGUS) and 39/39 plasmacytic MM patients co-expressed CD38 and CD31 at high density. Only 1/11 plasmablastic MM and 1/4 plasma cell leukaemias (PCL) expressed CD31. These data indicated that PC malignancies co-expressed high levels of both CD38 and its ligand CD31, with the exception of plasmablastic MM and PCL.

  4. Effect of hard-drug use on CD4 cell percentage, HIV RNA level, and progression to AIDS-defining class C events among HIV-infected women.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Lorna E; Frederick, Margaret; Pitt, Jane; Cheng, Irene; Watts, D Heather; Buschur, Shelley; Green, Karen; Zorrilla, Carmen; Landesman, Sheldon H; Hershow, Ronald C

    2004-11-01

    In vitro and animal studies suggest that cocaine and heroin increase HIV replication and suppress immune function, whereas epidemiologic studies are inconclusive regarding their effect on HIV infection progression. The authors prospectively examined the association between illicit-drug use and 4 outcome measures (CD4 cell percentage, HIV RNA level, survival to class C diagnosis of HIV infection, and death) in a national cohort of HIV-infected women. Women enrolled between 1989 and 1995 were followed for 5 years and repeatedly interviewed about illicit ("hard")--drug use. Up to 3 periodic urine screens validated self-reported use. Outcomes were compared between hard-drug users (women using cocaine, heroin, methadone, or injecting drugs) and nonusers, adjusting for age, antiretroviral therapy, number of pregnancies, smoking, and baseline CD4 cell percentage. Of 1148 women, 40% reported baseline hard-drug use during pregnancy. In multivariate analyses, hard-drug use was not associated with change in CD4 cell percentage (P = 0.84), HIV RNA level (P = 0.48), or all-cause mortality (relative hazard = 1.10; 95% confidence interval, 0.61-1.98). Hard-drug users did, however, exhibit a higher risk of developing class C diagnoses (relative hazard = 1.65; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-2.72), especially herpes, pulmonary tuberculosis, and recurrent pneumonia. Hard-drug-using women may have a higher risk for nonfatal opportunistic infections.

  5. International safeguards relevant to geologic disposal of high-level wastes and spent fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Pillay, K.K.S.; Picard, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    Spent fuels from once-through fuel cycles placed in underground repositories have the potential to become attractive targets for diversion and/or theft because of their valuable material content and decreasing radioactivity. The first geologic repository in the US, as currently designed, will contain approximately 500 Mt of plutonium, 60,000 Mt of uranium and a host of other fissile and strategically important elements. This paper identifies some of the international safeguards issues relevant to the various proposed scenarios for disposing of the spent fuel. In the context of the US program for geologic disposal of spent fuels, this paper highlights several issues that should be addressed in the near term by US industries, the Department of Energy, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission before the geologic repositories for spent fuels become a reality. Based on US spent fuel discharges, an example is presented to illustrate the enormity of the problem of verifying spent fuel inventories. The geologic disposal scenario for high-level wastes originating from defense facilities produced a practicably irrecoverable'' waste form. Therefore, safeguards issues for geologic disposal of high-level waste now in the US are less pressing. 56 refs. , 2 figs.

  6. Comparison of basic physical fitness, aerobic capacity, and isokinetic strength between national and international level high school freestyle swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Young-Hyeon; Yu, Jae-Ho; Lee, Suk Min

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to compare basic physical fitness, aerobic capacity, and isokinetic strength between international and national level freestyle high school student swimmers. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 28 participants (14 international level swimmers and 14 national level freestyle high school student swimmers) with no known pathology were included. We used a cross-sectional study to examine three variables: basic physical fitness, aerobic capacity, and isokinetic strength. [Results] The mean values of these variables in the international level swimmers were higher than those in the national level swimmers. Swimmers are generally physically fit with a good competition record. [Conclusion] An appropriate training program, which considers specific individual characteristics is likely to have a positive impact on the improvement of total physical fitness, and subsequently, on the performance of the freestyle high school swimmer. PMID:27134379

  7. Comparison of basic physical fitness, aerobic capacity, and isokinetic strength between national and international level high school freestyle swimmers.

    PubMed

    Bae, Young-Hyeon; Yu, Jae-Ho; Lee, Suk Min

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to compare basic physical fitness, aerobic capacity, and isokinetic strength between international and national level freestyle high school student swimmers. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 28 participants (14 international level swimmers and 14 national level freestyle high school student swimmers) with no known pathology were included. We used a cross-sectional study to examine three variables: basic physical fitness, aerobic capacity, and isokinetic strength. [Results] The mean values of these variables in the international level swimmers were higher than those in the national level swimmers. Swimmers are generally physically fit with a good competition record. [Conclusion] An appropriate training program, which considers specific individual characteristics is likely to have a positive impact on the improvement of total physical fitness, and subsequently, on the performance of the freestyle high school swimmer.

  8. Reciprocal Relationships between Teacher Ratings of Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors in Adolescents with Different Levels of Cognitive Abilities.

    PubMed

    Morin, Alexandre J S; Arens, A Katrin; Maïano, Christophe; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Tracey, Danielle; Parker, Philip D; Craven, Rhonda G

    2017-04-01

    Are internalizing and externalizing behavior problems interrelated via mutually reinforcing relationships (with each behavior leading to increases over time in levels of the other behavior) or mutually suppressing relationships (with each behavior leading to decreases over time in levels of the other behavior)? Past research on the directionality of these relationships has led to ambiguous results, particularly in adolescence. Furthermore, the extent to which prior results will generalize to adolescents with low levels of cognitive abilities remains unknown. This second limit is particularly important, given that these adolescents are known to present higher levels of externalizing and internalizing behaviors than their peers with average-to-high levels of cognitive abilities, and that the mechanisms involved in the reciprocal relationships between these two types of behaviors may differ across both populations. This study examines the directionality of the longitudinal relationships between externalizing and internalizing behavior problems as rated by teachers across three measurement waves (corresponding to Grades 8-10) in matched samples of 138 adolescents (34.78 % girls) with low levels of cognitive abilities and 556 adolescents (44.88 % girls) with average-to-high levels of cognitive abilities. The results showed that the measurement structure was fully equivalent across time periods and groups of adolescents, revealing high levels of developmental stability in both types of problems, and moderately high levels of cross-sectional associations. Levels of both internalizing and externalizing behaviors were higher among adolescents with low levels of cognitive abilities relative to those with average-to-high levels of cognitive abilities. Finally, the predictive analyses revealed negative reciprocal longitudinal relationships (i.e., mutually suppressing relationships) between externalizing and internalizing problems, a result that was replicated within

  9. Levels and correlates of internalized homophobia among men who have sex with men in Pretoria, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Vu, Lung; Tun, Waimar; Sheehy, Meredith; Nel, Dawie

    2012-04-01

    This study examines levels and correlates of internalized homophobia among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Pretoria, South Africa. Using respondent-driven sampling, we recruited 324 MSM from February to August 2009. Results were adjusted using RDSAT analysis to yield population-based estimates. High levels of internalized homophobia exist among South African MSM: 10-15% reported "often/very often" and over 20% reported "sometimes" having feelings of internalized homophobia. A greater level of internalized homophobia was significantly associated with a lower level of education [Adjusted Odds Ratio = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.1-4.9], a higher level of HIV misinformation [AOR = 2.7; 95% CI: 1.3-5.3], bisexual identity (vs. homosexual) [AOR = 5.5; 95% CI: 2.5-12.0], and HIV-related conspiracy beliefs [AOR = 2.4; 95% CI: 1.02-5.8]. These findings contribute valuable information to our understanding of internalized homophobia in South Africa, highlighting the need to empower the gay community, promote self-acceptance of homosexual identity, and address conspiracy beliefs among MSM to reduce internalized homophobia and increase access to HIV prevention interventions.

  10. Sourcing of the WHO human papillomavirus type 18 international standards for HPV antibody levels.

    PubMed

    Faust, Helena; Eklund, Carina; Sukvirach, Sukhon; Ngamkham, Jarunya; Dillner, Joakim

    2016-05-01

    HPV serology is important for studies of vaccine immunogenicity, but can not be performed in a comparable manner without international standardisation. To find suitable candidate sera from naturally infected persons for use as International Standards (IS) for antibodies to high-risk HPVs, with priority for HPV-18. 946 healthy Thai women (median age 44, range 18-83) and 61 cervical cancer patients were screened using an HPV pseudovirion-Luminex assay to detect antibodies to genital (HPV-6,-11,-16,-18,-31,-33,-45,-52,-58,-68) and non-genital HPV types (HPV-5,-15,-32,-38 and -76). Suitable candidate sera should ideally be mono-specific (have reactivity against only one genital HPV) and have high antibody levels that are stable over time. Seroprevalences of HPV-16,-31,-52 and -58 were at least twice as high among cancer patients compared to healthy individuals. Thirteen healthy women who met the IS inclusion criteria in initial testing also consented to blood-bag donations. Donations from 2 women with high HPV-18 Ab titers were pooled to the HPV-18 candidate IS, later established as the WHO official IS for HPV antibodies. Sera that could potentially be used as candidate IS for other oncogenic HPVs have also been identified. In the Thai population, seroepidemiology implicated HPV types HPV-16,-31,-52 and -58 as particularly associated with cervical cancer. A well characterized cohort study has allowed sourcing of materials for an IS for HPV-18 antibodies and could conceivably be used for IS for other HPV types as well. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Surveillance and control of infectious diseases at local, national and international levels.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, J

    2005-04-01

    New emerging and re-emerging threats, the weight of public opinion and new technology for surveillance and treatment are likely to impact on how, and if, effective surveillance can be performed in the future. If surveillance fails to address the needs of practitioners and policy-makers, it is likely that there will be loss of confidence. Current surveillance systems are reasonably effective at detecting significant events that are localised in time and space. It is more difficult to detect diffuse and progressive events with a slow increase over time or sporadic and widespread events without obvious links to time, place or person. Detection of these events relies on good data collection, comparative background data and sophisticated analytical tools. To improve surveillance systems, we need methods with the appropriate sensitivity and specificity for the outputs desired. Targeted surveillance should enable better ascertainment of those cases which must be considered and those which can be dismissed. New methods, such as mathematical modelling and geographical information systems, support conventional surveillance in moving events into the known and predictable category. It is important to integrate surveillance across local, regional and international levels and to base surveillance on local public health structures. The purpose and value of data aggregation at each level and the amount of detail needed at each level must be carefully evaluated. The key to all these improvements is developing the workforce. Surveillance needs individuals with a broad range of skills: clinical, epidemiological, anthropological, and mathematical; in particular, people who can think laterally. These individuals must be encouraged through effective training courses, good mentorship, networking and clear career structures.

  12. Tracking the performance, energetics and biomechanics of international versus national level swimmers during a competitive season.

    PubMed

    Costa, Mário J; Bragada, José A; Mejias, Jean E; Louro, Hugo; Marinho, Daniel A; Silva, António J; Barbosa, Tiago M

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to track and compare the changes of performance, energetic and biomechanical profiles of international (Int) and national (Nat) level swimmers during a season. Ten Portuguese male swimmers (four Int and six Nat level subjects) were evaluated on three different time periods (TP(1), TP(2), TP(3)) of the 2009-2010 season. Swimming performance was assessed based on official time's lists of the 200-m freestyle event. An incremental set of 7 × 200 m swims was applied to assess the energetic and biomechanical data. Measurements were made of: (1) velocity at the 4 mmol of lactate levels (V4), stroke index at V4 (SI@V4) and propelling efficiency at V4 (η (p)@V4), as energetic estimators; (2) stroke length at V4 (SL@V4) and stroke frequency at V4 (SF@V4), as biomechanical variables. The results demonstrated no significant variations in all variables throughout the season. The inter-group comparison pointed out higher values for Int swimmers, with statistical differences for the 200 m performance in all time periods. Near values of the statistical significance were demonstrated for the SI@V4 in TP(1) and TP(3). The tracking based on K values was high only for the SI@V4. It is concluded that a high stability can be observed for elite swimmers performance, energetic and biomechanical profiles throughout a single season. Int swimmers are able to maintain a higher energetic and biomechanical capacity than Nat ones at all times. The SI@V4 may be used as an indicator of performance variation.

  13. Increased international normalized ratio level in hepatocellular carcinoma patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Gao, Chun; Fang, Long; Yao, Shu-Kun

    2013-04-21

    To determine the association of diabetes mellitus (DM) and international normalized ratio (INR) level in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. Our present study included 375 HCC patients who were treated at the China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Ministry of Health (Beijing, China), in the period from January 2003 to April 2012, and with a hospital discharge diagnosis of HCC. The demographic, clinical, laboratory, metabolic and instrumental features were analyzed. χ² test, Student's t test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to compare the differences between HCC patients with and without DM. Unconditional multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to determine the association of DM and INR level in HCC patients. A sub-group analysis was performed to assess the effect of liver cirrhosis or hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection on the results. The Pearson correlation test was used to determine the relationship between INR level and fasting glucose. In addition, association between diabetes duration, and diabetes treatment and INR level was determined considering the potentially different effects. Of the total, 63 (16.8%) patients were diabetic (diabetic group) and 312 (83.2%) patients were diagnosed without diabetes (non-diabetic group). Their mean age was 56.4 ± 11.0 years and 312 (83.2%) patients were male. Compared with patients without DM, the HCC patients with diabetes were older (59.5 ± 10.3 vs 55.8 ± 11.1, P = 0.015), had a lower incidence of HBV infection (79.4% vs 89.1%, P = 0.033), had increased levels of systolic blood pressure (SBP) (133 ± 17 vs 129 ± 16 mmHg, P = 0.048) and INR (1.31 ± 0.44 vs 1.18 ± 0.21, P = 0.001), had lower values of hemoglobin (124.4 ± 23.9 vs 134.2 ± 23.4, P = 0.003) and had a platelet count (median/interquartile-range: 113/64-157 vs 139/89-192, P = 0.020). There was no statistically significant difference in the percentages of males, overweight or obesity, drinking, smoking, cirrhosis and Child classification. After

  14. Increased international normalized ratio level in hepatocellular carcinoma patients with diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui; Gao, Chun; Fang, Long; Yao, Shu-Kun

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To determine the association of diabetes mellitus (DM) and international normalized ratio (INR) level in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. METHODS: Our present study included 375 HCC patients who were treated at the China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Ministry of Health (Beijing, China), in the period from January 2003 to April 2012, and with a hospital discharge diagnosis of HCC. The demographic, clinical, laboratory, metabolic and instrumental features were analyzed. χ2 test, Student’s t test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to compare the differences between HCC patients with and without DM. Unconditional multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to determine the association of DM and INR level in HCC patients. A sub-group analysis was performed to assess the effect of liver cirrhosis or hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection on the results. The Pearson correlation test was used to determine the relationship between INR level and fasting glucose. In addition, association between diabetes duration, and diabetes treatment and INR level was determined considering the potentially different effects. RESULTS: Of the total, 63 (16.8%) patients were diabetic (diabetic group) and 312 (83.2%) patients were diagnosed without diabetes (non-diabetic group). Their mean age was 56.4 ± 11.0 years and 312 (83.2%) patients were male. Compared with patients without DM, the HCC patients with diabetes were older (59.5 ± 10.3 vs 55.8 ± 11.1, P = 0.015), had a lower incidence of HBV infection (79.4% vs 89.1%, P = 0.033), had increased levels of systolic blood pressure (SBP) (133 ± 17 vs 129 ± 16 mmHg, P = 0.048) and INR (1.31 ± 0.44 vs 1.18 ± 0.21, P = 0.001), had lower values of hemoglobin (124.4 ± 23.9 vs 134.2 ± 23.4, P = 0.003) and had a platelet count (median/interquartile-range: 113/64-157 vs 139/89-192, P = 0.020). There was no statistically significant difference in the percentages of males, overweight or obesity, drinking, smoking, cirrhosis and

  15. Fabrication of magnetic hydroxypropyl cellulose-g-poly(acrylic acid) porous spheres via Pickering high internal phase emulsion for removal of Cu(2+) and Cd(2.).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yongfeng; Zheng, Yian; Zong, Li; Wang, Feng; Wang, Aiqin

    2016-09-20

    A series of magnetic hydroxypropyl cellulose-g-poly(acrylic acid) porous spheres were prepared via O/W Pickering high internal phase emulsions (HIPEs) integrated precipitation polymerization. The structure and composition of modified Fe3O4 and porous structures were characterized by TEM, XRD, TGA and SEM. The results indicated that the silanized Fe3O4 can influence greatly the pore structure of magnetic porous sphere in addition to non-negligible impacts of the proportion of mixed solvent and co-surfactant. The adsorption experiment demonstrated that the adsorption equilibrium can be reached within 40min and the maximal adsorption capacity was 300.00mg/g for Cd(2+) and 242.72mg/g for Cu(2+), suggesting its fast adsorption kinetics and high adsorption capacity. After five adsorption-desorption cycles, no significant changes in the adsorption capacity were observed, suggesting its excellent reusability. The magnetic porous sphere can be easily separated from the solution and then find its potential as a recyclable material for highly efficient removal of heavy metals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. CD318 is a ligand for CD6.

    PubMed

    Enyindah-Asonye, Gospel; Li, Yan; Ruth, Jeffrey H; Spassov, Danislav S; Hebron, Katie E; Zijlstra, Andries; Moasser, Mark M; Wang, Benlian; Singer, Nora G; Cui, Huadong; Ohara, Ray A; Rasmussen, Stephanie M; Fox, David A; Lin, Feng

    2017-08-15

    It has been proposed that CD6, an important regulator of T cells, functions by interacting with its currently identified ligand, CD166, but studies performed during the treatment of autoimmune conditions suggest that the CD6-CD166 interaction might not account for important functions of CD6 in autoimmune diseases. The antigen recognized by mAb 3A11 has been proposed as a new CD6 ligand distinct from CD166, yet the identity of it is hitherto unknown. We have identified this CD6 ligand as CD318, a cell surface protein previously found to be present on various epithelial cells and many tumor cells. We found that, like CD6 knockout (KO) mice, CD318 KO mice are also protected in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. In humans, we found that CD318 is highly expressed in synovial tissues and participates in CD6-dependent adhesion of T cells to synovial fibroblasts. In addition, soluble CD318 is chemoattractive to T cells and levels of soluble CD318 are selectively and significantly elevated in the synovial fluid from patients with rheumatoid arthritis and juvenile inflammatory arthritis. These results establish CD318 as a ligand of CD6 and a potential target for the diagnosis and treatment of autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis and inflammatory arthritis.

  17. Diffuse alopecia areata is associated with intense inflammatory infiltration and CD8+ T cells in hair loss regions and an increase in serum IgE level.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ying; Zhang, Bin; Caulloo, Sillani; Chen, Xiaohong; Li, Yang; Zhang, Xingqi

    2012-01-01

    Mechanism leading to an abrupt hair loss in diffuse alopecia areata (AA) remains unclear. To explore the characteristics of diffuse AA and possible factors involved in its pathogenesis. Clinical and laboratory data of 17 diffuse AA patients and 37 patchy AA patients were analyzed retrospectively. Serum IgE level was evaluated in all diffuse and patchy AA patients, as well as 27 healthy subjects without hair loss to serve as normal control. Univariate analysis was performed using Fisher's exact test and Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Associations between inflammatory cell infiltration and laboratory values were analyzed using Spearman rank correlation test. The mean age of patients with diffuse AA was 27 years with a mean disease duration of 1.77 months. All of them presented in spring or summer with an acute onset of diffuse hair loss preceded by higher incidence of scalp pruritus. Although no statistically significant difference on the incidence of atopic disease among three groups has been found, serum IgE level in diffuse AA was higher than that in healthy controls, but was comparable to that in patchy AA group. Histopathology of lesional scalp biopsies showed more intense infiltration comprising of mononuclear cells, eosinophils, CD3 + , and CD8 + T cells around hair bulbs in diffuse AA group than in patchy AA group. Moreover, IgE level in diffuse AA patients positively correlated with intensity of infiltration by mononuclear cells, eosinophils, and CD8 + T cells. Hypersensitivity may be involved in pathogenesis of diffuse AA. The acute onset of diffuse AA may be related to intense local inflammatory infiltration of hair loss region and an increase in serum IgE level.

  18. Relationship Between Carbon Dioxide Levels and Reported Congestion and Headaches on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Robert; Wear, Mary; Young, Millennia; Cobel, Christopher; Mason, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Congestion is commonly reported during spaceflight, and most crewmembers have reported using medications for congestion during International Space Station (ISS) missions. Although congestion has been attributed to fluid shifts during spaceflight, fluid status reaches equilibrium during the first week after launch while congestion continues to be reported throughout long duration missions. Congestion complaints have anecdotally been reported in relation to ISS CO2 levels; this evaluation was undertaken to determine whether or not an association exists. METHODS: Reported headaches, congestion symptoms, and CO2 levels were obtained for ISS expeditions 2-31, and time-weighted means and single-point maxima were determined for 24-hour (24hr) and 7-day (7d) periods prior to each weekly private medical conference. Multiple imputation addressed missing data, and logistic regression modeled the relationship between probability of reported event of congestion or headache and CO2 levels, adjusted for possible confounding covariates. The first seven days of spaceflight were not included to control for fluid shifts. Data were evaluated to determine the concentration of CO2 required to maintain the risk of congestion below 1% to allow for direct comparison with a previously published evaluation of CO2 concentrations and headache. RESULTS: This study confirmed a previously identified significant association between CO2 and headache and also found a significant association between CO2 and congestion. For each 1-mm Hg increase in CO2, the odds of a crew member reporting congestion doubled. The average 7-day CO2 would need to be maintained below 1.5 mmHg to keep the risk of congestion below 1%. The predicted probability curves of ISS headache and congestion curves appear parallel when plotted against ppCO2 levels with congestion occurring at approximately 1mmHg lower than a headache would be reported. DISCUSSION: While the cause of congestion is multifactorial, this study showed

  19. A Crucial Role of Rh Substituent Ion in Photoinduced Internal Electron Transfer and Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity of CdS-Ti(5.2-x)/6 Rhx /2 O2 Nanohybrids.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jang Mee; Jin, Hyung Bin; Kim, In Young; Jo, Yun Kyung; Hwang, Jung-Wook; Wang, Kang-Kyun; Kim, Min Gyu; Kim, Yong-Rok; Hwang, Seong-Ju

    2015-11-18

    The photocatalytic activity and photostability of CdS quantum dot (QD) can be remarkably enhanced by hybridization with Rh-substituted layered titanate nanosheet even at very low Rh substitution rate (<1%). Mesoporous CdS-Ti(5.2-x)/6 Rhx/2O2 nanohybrids are synthesized by a self-assembly of exfoliated Ti(5.2-x)/6 Rhx/2O2 nanosheets with CdS QDs. The partial substitution of Rh(3+)/Rh(4+) ions for Ti(4+) ions in layered titanate is quite effective in enhancing an electronic coupling between hybridized CdS and titanate components via the formation of interband Rh 4d states. A crucial role of Rh substituent ion in the internal electron transfer is obviously evidenced from in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy showing the elongation of (RhO) bond under visible light irradiation. This is the first spectroscopic evidence for the important role of substituent ion in the photoinduced electron transfer of hybrid-type photocatalyst. The CdS-Ti(5.2-x)/6 Rhx/2O2 nanohybrids show much higher photocatalytic activity for H2 production and better photostability than do CdS and unsubstituted CdS-TiO2 nanohybrid. This result is ascribable to the enhancement of visible light absorptivity, the depression of electron-hole recombination, and the enhanced hole curing of CdS upon Rh substitution. The present study underscores that the hybridization with composition-controlled inorganic nanosheet provides a novel efficient methodology to optimize the photo-related functionalities of semiconductor nanocrystal. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Influence of a Diester Glucocorticoid Spray on the Cortisol Level and the CCR4+ CD4+ Lymphocytes in Dogs with Atopic Dermatitis: Open Study

    PubMed Central

    Fujimura, Masato; Ishimaru, Hironobu

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of 0.00584% hydrocortisone aceponate spray (HCA; Cortavance Virbac SA, Carros, France) on blood serum cortisol levels and peripheral blood CCR4+ CD4+ T-lymphocyte levels in dogs with atopic dermatitis. Patients were randomly divided into group I (N = 8) and group II (N = 8). The dogs in group I were sprayed with HCA on the affected skin once a day for three weeks. The dogs in group II were treated once a day for 3 days followed by no treatment for 4 days for a total of three weeks. For the dogs in group I and group II the CADESI-03 scores before and after use of HCA showed significant reduction (P < 0.01). The postcortisol level after the use of HCA in group I showed 36.0% decrease and showed significant suppression (P < 0.01). By comparison, the use of HCA on group II did not show decrease in postcortisol levels. There was a tendency of suppression for hypothalamus—pituitary gland—adrenal gland system, but it was not serious influence. In addition, there was no influence on peripheral blood CCR4+ CD4+ lymphocytes percentage in dogs in group I after treatment with HCA. PMID:26464935

  1. Determination of normal concentration levels of Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Se and Zn in hair of the child population in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Benes, B; Sladká, J; Spevácková, V; Smid, J

    2003-12-01

    Knowledge of normal levels of concentrations of trace elements (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Se and Zn) in the population serve, among others, in the designing of regulations of exposure limits and prevention of diseases caused by deficiency in essential trace elements. Concentrations of the named elements in the hair of children in the Czech population were determined by means of atomic absorption spectrometry. The samples of hair were collected during 1994- 2001 from 3,556 children (1,741 boys and 1,815 girls, average age 9.9 years). Mineralization in a microwave digestion system was used following a washing procedure. The accuracy of results was checked by means of the control materials CRM Human Hair GBW 07601. Values of concentrations of the trace elements in hair found for children were (in medians) 0.14 microg Cd.g(-1), 0.22 microg Cr.g(-1), 12 microg Cu.g(-1), 0.19 microg Hg.g(-1), 1.6 microg Pb.g(-1), 0.22 microg Se.g(-1) and 124 microg Zn.g(-1), respectively. Statistically significant differences between boys and girls were found for Cd, Cu and Zn. Concentrations of the elements under study correspond to the published values for the non-exposed population.

  2. Effect of suction pipe leaning angle and water level on the internal flow of pump sump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Z.-M.; Lee, Y.-B.; Kim, K.-Y.; Park, S.-H.; Choi, Y.-D.

    2016-11-01

    The pump sump, which connects forebay and intake of pump station, supplies good flow condition for the intake of the pump. If suction sumps are improperly shaped or sized, air entraining vortices or submerged vortices may develop. This may greatly affect pump operation if vortices grow to an appreciable extent. Moreover, the noise and vibration of the pump can be increased by the remaining of vortices in the pump flow passage. Therefore, the vortices in the pump flow passage have to be reduced for a good performance of pump sump station. In this study, the effect of suction pipe leaning angle on the pump sump internal flow with different water level has been investigated by CFD analysis. Moreover, an elbow type pipe was also investigated. There are 3 leaning angles with 0°, 45° and 90° for the suction pipe. The suction pipe inlet centre is kept same for all the cases. In addition, the three different water levels of H/D=1.85, 1.54, and 1.31, is applied to different suction pipe types. The result shows that the amount of air sucked into the suction pipe increases with increasing the suction pipe leaning angle. Especially for the horizontal suction pipe, there is maximum air sucked into the suction pipe. However, there is certain effect of the elbow type bell mouth installation in the horizontal suction pipe on suppressing the amount of air sucked into the pipe. Moreover, vertical suction pipe plays an effective role on reducing the free surface vortex intake area.

  3. Acceptable levels for ingestion of dimethylsilanediol in water on the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Raghupathy; James, John T; McCoy, Torin

    2012-06-01

    Water is recovered aboard the International Space Station (ISS) from humidity condensate and treated urine. The product water is monitored for total organic carbon (TOC). In 2010 the TOC readings indicated that a new contaminant had entered the potable water and was steadily increasing toward the TOC screening limit of 3 mg x L(-1). In a ground-based laboratory, chemists discovered that dimethylsilanediol (DMSD) was the principal new contaminant. As no standard existed for safe levels of DMSD in water, the Toxicology Office at Johnson Space Center was asked to set such a standard. The Toxicology Office used methods developed over the past decade, in collaboration with the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology, for setting Spacecraft Water Exposure Guidelines (SWEGs). These methods require a thorough literature search and development of an acceptable concentration (AC) for each potential toxic effect, keeping in mind that the adverse effects that accompany spaceflight could increase toxicity for certain end points. Benchmark dose modeling was encouraged if sufficient data were available. The most sensitive AC becomes the driver for the SWEG. Hematotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, and possibly neurotoxicity were the most sensitive toxicological endpoints for DMSD. The SWEG for DMSD for 100 d of ingestion was set at 35 mg x L(-1), which is equivalent to 9 mg x L(-1) as TOC. This is well above the TOC SWEG of 3 mg x L(-1) and the peak DMSD level of processed water observed on orbit, which was 2.2 mg x L(-1) asTOC (8.5 mg x L(-10 of DMSD).

  4. Blood lead levels in candy sellers working near an international road in Kocaeli, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Hamzaoglu, Onur; Caglayan, Cigdem; Yavuz, Cavit I; Sevin, Erce

    2007-01-01

    The authors' purpose in this study was to examine the effects on health, as measured by blood lead levels (BLLs), of living and working near the D-100 international road, which passes through Kocaeli, Turkey. In this cross-sectional study, the authors examine BLLs in 3 groups to determine the health effects of exposure to motorized road transport. By comparing the 3 groups, the investigators found that the mean BLL was 4.23 +/- 1.59 microg/dL in a group of candy sellers who worked beside the road, 4.18 +/- 2.07 microg/dL in a group of city residents, and 3.82 +/- 1.71 microg/dL in a group of village residents. (The latter 2 groups were not in close proximity to the road, and the authors used their measurements for comparison.) The difference in BLLs between the candy sellers and the village residents was statistically significant (p < .05). No significant difference in BLLs was determined between city and village residents or between candy sellers and city residents (p > .05). The authors recommend limiting the use of the D-100's city section to only local traffic and preventing heavy cargo vehicles from passing through.

  5. Level of user satisfaction with hearing AIDS and environment: the international outcome inventory for hearing AIDS.

    PubMed

    Kozlowski, Lorena; Almeida, Gleide; Ribas, Angela

    2014-07-01

    Introduction The main function of hearing is to enable oral communication. Hearing loss impairs communication skills. Objective To evaluate the level of user satisfaction with hearing aids. Methods This is a cross-sectional group study comprising 108 subjects (56% men and 44% women). The average age of the subjects was 77 years. These subjects had been recently fitted with their hearing aids and showed sensorineural (90%) and mixed (10%) hearing loss as determined via the Questionnaire International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids Outcome Inventory (IOI-HA), which determined the benefit and satisfaction obtained by sound amplification. Results The hearing aids improved the quality of life of 52.78% of the patients, which was revealed by their high scores (mean = 27.3). The relationship of the user with the environment was significantly better (p < 0.001) than that of the user with the hearing aid. Conclusion IOI-HA is a simple and easy-to-use tool. Based on the results of this study, we can show a high degree of satisfaction with their hearing aids in the majority of the participants, which improved the quality of life.

  6. Patient-level costs of major cardiovascular conditions: a review of the international literature

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Gina; Gandra, Shravanthi R; Halbert, Ronald J; Richhariya, Akshara; Nordyke, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Objective Robust cost estimates of cardiovascular (CV) events are required for assessing health care interventions aimed at reducing the economic burden of major adverse CV events. This review synthesizes international cost estimates of CV events. Methods MEDLINE database was searched electronically for English language studies published during 2007–2012, with cost estimates for CV events of interest – unstable angina, myocardial infarction, heart failure, stroke, and CV revascularization. Included studies provided at least one estimate of patient-level direct costs in adults for any identified country. Information on study characteristics and cost estimates were collected. All costs were adjusted for inflation to 2013 values. Results Across the 114 studies included, the average cost was US $6,466 for unstable angina, $11,664 for acute myocardial infarction, $11,686 for acute heart failure, $11,635 for acute ischemic stroke, $37,611 for coronary artery bypass graft, and $13,501 for percutaneous coronary intervention. The ranges for cost estimates varied widely across countries with US cost estimate being at least twice as high as European Union costs for some conditions. Few studies were found on populations outside the US and European Union. Conclusion This review showed wide variation in the cost of CV events within and across countries, while showcasing the continuing economic burden of CV disease. The variability in costs was primarily attributable to differences in study population, costing methodologies, and reporting differences. Reliable cost estimates for assessing economic value of interventions in CV disease are needed. PMID:27703385

  7. Mercury concentration in the feathers of birds from various trophic levels in Fereydunkenar International wetland (Iran).

    PubMed

    Ahmadpour, Mousa; Lan-Hai, Li; Ahmadpour, Mohsen; Hoseini, Seyed Hamid; Mashrofeh, Abdolreza; Binkowski, Łukasz J

    2016-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the main global pollutants that may biomagnify in food nets, especially in wetlands. Birds may be useful in the biomonitoring of Hg in such habitats and may even serve in vivo samples. This paper examined Hg concentration in the feathers of seven bird species foraging on Fereydunkenar International wetland (in 2013). Mean Hg concentrations found ranged from 0.005 ± 0.002 μg g(-1) d.w. (dry weight) (Common hoopoe) to 0.38 ± 0.047 μg g(-1) d.w. (Greylag goose). Significant differences in Hg concentrations were noted between bird species as well as between trophic levels (one-way ANOVAs, p < 0.001). The decrease in mean Hg concentration in feathers was as follows: Greylag goose > Northern pintail ≥ Gadwall ≥ Mallard > Eurasian bittern ≥ Little bittern > Common hoopoe. The position in the trophic chain significantly influenced Hg concentrations, which were the highest in omnivorous species. Hg concentrations may also depend on migration routes and breeding habitats, but the evaluation of the exposure exceeds the ambit of this paper. The Hg concentrations found generally were low, lower than the safe thresholds reported in the literature.

  8. Level of User Satisfaction with Hearing Aids and Environment: The International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids

    PubMed Central

    Kozlowski, Lorena; Almeida, Gleide; Ribas, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The main function of hearing is to enable oral communication. Hearing loss impairs communication skills. Objective To evaluate the level of user satisfaction with hearing aids. Methods This is a cross-sectional group study comprising 108 subjects (56% men and 44% women). The average age of the subjects was 77 years. These subjects had been recently fitted with their hearing aids and showed sensorineural (90%) and mixed (10%) hearing loss as determined via the Questionnaire International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids Outcome Inventory (IOI-HA), which determined the benefit and satisfaction obtained by sound amplification. Results The hearing aids improved the quality of life of 52.78% of the patients, which was revealed by their high scores (mean = 27.3). The relationship of the user with the environment was significantly better (p < 0.001) than that of the user with the hearing aid. Conclusion IOI-HA is a simple and easy-to-use tool. Based on the results of this study, we can show a high degree of satisfaction with their hearing aids in the majority of the participants, which improved the quality of life. PMID:25992097

  9. Development of derived investigation levels for use in internal dosimetry at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.

    1991-12-31

    The objective was to determine if the routine intemal dosimetry program at the West Valley Demonstration Project is capable of meeting the performance objective of 1 mSv annual effective dose equivalent due to internal contamination. With the use of the computer code REMedy the annual effective dose equivalent is calculated. Some of the radionuclides of concern result in an annual effective dose equivalent that exceeds the performance objective. Although the results exceed the performance objective, in all but two cases they do not exceed the US DOE regulatory limits. In these instances the Th-232 and Am-241 were determined to exceed the committed dose equivalent limit to their limiting tissue. In order to document the potential missed dose for regulatory compliance, Sr-90 is used as an indicator for Th-232. For Am-241 an investigation as to whether or not the minimum detectable amount can be lowered is performed. The derived investigation levels as a result of this project are 4.9E3 Bq/lung count for Co-60, 2.2E4 Bq/lung count for Cs-137, 1.9 Bq/1 for Sr-90 and for radionuclides other than Sr-90 any value greater than or equal to three standard deviations above their net count is considered to require further investigation.

  10. Increased Level of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells, Programmed Death Receptor Ligand 1/Programmed Death Receptor 1, and Soluble CD25 in Sokal High Risk Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Christiansson, Lisa; Söderlund, Stina; Svensson, Emma; Mustjoki, Satu; Bengtsson, Mats; Simonsson, Bengt; Olsson-Strömberg, Ulla; Loskog, Angelica S. I.

    2013-01-01

    Immunotherapy (eg interferon α) in combination with tyrosine kinase inhibitors is currently in clinical trials for treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Cancer patients commonly have problems with so called immune escape mechanisms that may hamper immunotherapy. Hence, to study the function of the immune system in CML is of interest. In the present paper we have identified immune escape mechanisms in CML with focus on those that directly hamper T cells since these cells are important to control tumor progression. CML patient samples were investigated for the presence of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), expression of programmed death receptor ligand 1/programmed death receptor 1 (PD-L1/PD-1), arginase 1 and soluble CD25. MDSC levels were increased in samples from Sokal high risk patients (p<0,05) and the cells were present on both CD34 negative and CD34 positive cell populations. Furthermore, expression of the MDSC-associated molecule arginase 1, known to inhibit T cells, was increased in the patients (p = 0,0079). Myeloid cells upregulated PD-L1 (p<0,05) and the receptor PD-1 was present on T cells. However, PD-L1 blockade did not increase T cell proliferation but upregulated IL-2 secretion. Finally, soluble CD25 was increased in high risk patients (p<0,0001). In conclusion T cells in CML patients may be under the control of different immune escape mechanisms that could hamper the use of immunotherapy in these patients. These escape mechanisms should be monitored in trials to understand their importance and how to overcome the immune suppression. PMID:23383287

  11. An NK cell line (haNK) expressing high levels of granzyme and engineered to express the high affinity CD16 allele.

    PubMed

    Jochems, Caroline; Hodge, James W; Fantini, Massimo; Fujii, Rika; Morillon, Y Maurice; Greiner, John W; Padget, Michelle R; Tritsch, Sarah R; Tsang, Kwong Yok; Campbell, Kerry S; Klingemann, Hans; Boissel, Laurent; Rabizadeh, Shahrooz; Soon-Shiong, Patrick; Schlom, Jeffrey

    2016-12-27

    Natural killer (NK) cells are known to play a role in mediating innate immunity, in enhancing adaptive immune responses, and have been implicated in mediating anti-tumor responses via antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) by reactivity of CD16 with the Fc region of human IgG1 antibodies. The NK-92 cell line, derived from a lymphoma patient, has previously been well characterized and adoptive transfer of irradiated NK-92 cells has demonstrated safety and shown preliminary evidence of clinical benefit in cancer patients. The NK-92 cell line, devoid of CD16, has now been engineered to express the high affinity (ha) CD16 V158 FcγRIIIa receptor, as well as engineered to express IL-2; IL-2 has been shown to replenish the granular stock of NK cells, leading to enhanced perforin- and granzyme-mediated lysis of tumor cells. The studies reported here show high levels of granzyme in haNK cells, and demonstrate the effects of irradiation of haNK cells on multiple phenotypic markers, viability, IL-2 production, and lysis of a spectrum of human tumor cells. Studies also compare endogenous irradiated haNK lysis of tumor cells with that of irradiated haNK-mediated ADCC using cetuximab, trastuzumab and pertuzumab monoclonal antibodies. These studies thus provide the rationale for the potential use of irradiated haNK cells in adoptive transfer studies for a range of human tumor types. Moreover, since only approximately 10% of humans are homozygous for the high affinity V CD16 allele, these studies also provide the rationale for the use of irradiated haNK cells in combination with IgG1 anti-tumor monoclonal antibodies.

  12. An NK cell line (haNK) expressing high levels of granzyme and engineered to express the high affinity CD16 allele

    PubMed Central

    Jochems, Caroline; Hodge, James W.; Fantini, Massimo; Fujii, Rika; Maurice, Y. Morillon; Greiner, John W.; Padget, Michelle R.; Tritsch, Sarah R.; Tsang, Kwong Yok; Campbell, Kerry S.; Klingemann, Hans; Boissel, Laurent; Rabizadeh, Shahrooz; Soon-Shiong, Patrick; Schlom, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are known to play a role in mediating innate immunity, in enhancing adaptive immune responses, and have been implicated in mediating anti-tumor responses via antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) by reactivity of CD16 with the Fc region of human IgG1 antibodies. The NK-92 cell line, derived from a lymphoma patient, has previously been well characterized and adoptive transfer of irradiated NK-92 cells has demonstrated safety and shown preliminary evidence of clinical benefit in cancer patients. The NK-92 cell line, devoid of CD16, has now been engineered to express the high affinity (ha) CD16 V158 FcγRIIIa receptor, as well as engineered to express IL-2; IL-2 has been shown to replenish the granular stock of NK cells, leading to enhanced perforin- and granzyme-mediated lysis of tumor cells. The studies reported here show high levels of granzyme in haNK cells, and demonstrate the effects of irradiation of haNK cells on multiple phenotypic markers, viability, IL-2 production, and lysis of a spectrum of human tumor cells. Studies also compare endogenous irradiated haNK lysis of tumor cells with that of irradiated haNK-mediated ADCC using cetuximab, trastuzumab and pertuzumab monoclonal antibodies. These studies thus provide the rationale for the potential use of irradiated haNK cells in adoptive transfer studies for a range of human tumor types. Moreover, since only approximately 10% of humans are homozygous for the high affinity V CD16 allele, these studies also provide the rationale for the use of irradiated haNK cells in combination with IgG1 anti-tumor monoclonal antibodies. PMID:27861156

  13. Manifestation of the Se, Cd and Mo levels in different components of the peripheral blood of Sprague-Dawley rats poisoned via the respiratory tract.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong-Fang; Sun, Xuan; Cao, Bing; Wen, Hua; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Duo-Jian; Yan, Lai-Lai; Liu, Ya-Qiong; Lu, Qing-Bin; Wang, Jing-Yu

    2015-0