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Sample records for internal degloving injury

  1. Microsurgery in 46 cases with total hand degloving injury.

    PubMed

    Ju, Jihui; Li, Jianning; Hou, Ruixing

    2015-10-01

    To summarize the characteristics of total hand degloving injury and investigate the curative effect of microsurgery. A total of 46 patients with total hand degloving injury were enrolled in this study. The injury classification and treatment methods were as follows: Type I (11 cases), treated by replantation of the gloved skin; Type II (6 cases), treated by reconstruction using thumb wrap-around flap and second toe; Type III (4 cases), treated by reconstruction using bilateral second toe with dorsal foot flap; Type IV (9 cases), treated by replantation in situ or reconstruction; Type V (16 cases), treated by replantation or abdominal flap reconstruction. Of the patients who received Type I treatment, five completely survived, whereas eight had finger necrosis. In Type II, both the reconstructed fingers and hand flaps survived. For four patients who received Type III treatment, eight reconstructed fingers survived. In Type IV, two patients with reconstructed fingers survived, whereas the six with replantation in situ had necrosis of the partial palmar or hand dorsum skin. In Type V, nine patients with reconstructed fingers survived, and five cases with abdominal skin flap reconstruction and one case with anterolateral femoral flap survived. The restoration of hand appearance and function was the best in patients who received replantation. For reconstruction cases, however, the hand function was recovered to the basic self-care level. In cases with abdominal flap reconstruction, the hand function showed poor recovery. Total hand degloving injury can be classified into different types according to the injury degree. The appropriate microsurgical treatment based on these types can produce better curative effect. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  2. Vaccum assisted closure: an alternative strategy in the management of degloving injuries of the foot.

    PubMed

    Josty, I C; Ramaswamy, R; Laing, J H

    2001-06-01

    A case of a degloving injury to the foot is presented in a patient who also sustained severe contralateral lower-limb trauma. We report a technique for salvaging the foot by replacing the degloved skin as a full-thickness graft and securing it using the vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) device. A good outcome was achieved and technical tips are provided to facilitate reproduction of the procedure. Copyright 2001 The British Association of Plastic Surgeons.

  3. Diagnosis and Management of Closed Internal Degloving Injuries: The Morel-Lavallée Lesion.

    PubMed

    Jalota, Leena; Ukaigwe, Anene; Jain, Shashank

    2015-07-01

    Morel-Lavallée (ML) lesions are closed degloving injuries described as posttraumatic subcutaneous fluid collections. They are most commonly seen in the proximal thigh. They can present several days to months after the inciting event. A 55-year-old woman with a recent admission for trauma presented to the Emergency Department with increasing swelling and pain in the right thigh for the previous 3 days. Ultrasound of the thigh was negative. Magnetic resonance imaging performed to further evaluate for leg swelling revealed a "Morel-Lavallée lesion" of the thigh that required drainage. The patient recovered completely after the surgery. WHY SHOULD THE EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Emergency physicians should be aware of these rare lesions because they are often mistaken for tumors or hematomas. Early recognition may avoid subsequent complications and help in obtaining prompt specialist care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Morel-Lavallée lesion: A closed degloving injury that requires real attention.

    PubMed

    Nair, Anirudh V; Nazar, Pk; Sekhar, Resmi; Ramachandran, Pv; Moorthy, Srikanth

    2014-07-01

    Morel-Lavallée lesions are post-traumatic, closed degloving injuries occurring deep to subcutaneous plane due to disruption of capillaries resulting in an effusion containing hemolymph and necrotic fat. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the modality of choice in the evaluation of Morel-Lavallée lesion. Early diagnosis and management is essential as any delay in diagnosis or missed lesion will lead to the effusion becoming infected or leading to extensive skin necrosis.

  5. Surgical Reconstruction of Lower Face Degloving.

    PubMed

    Faria, Paulo Esteves Pinto; de Souza Carvalho, Abrahão Cavalcante Gomes; Masalskas, Bárbara; Chihara, Letícia; Sant'Ana, Eduardo; Filho, Osvaldo Magro

    2016-10-01

    One of the most impressive soft tissue injuries is the facial degloving, normally associated with industrial machines and traffic accidents. This injury is characterized by the separation of the skin and cartilage from the bones, compromising the soft tissues correlated in the trauma area, nerves, and blood vessels. A 28-year-old patient, male, was referred to Araçatuba's Santa Casa Hospital, after a motorcycle accident, hitting his face on the sidewalk. The patient was conscious, oriented, denying fainting and unconsciousness during the accident, and complaining of pain in the nasal region of the face. The suture of wounds was performed using 5-0 absorbable sutures for muscle planes, and reconstruction of the septum and nasal cartilages. The skin was sutured with interrupted stitches using 6-0 nylon. After reducing the edema, a slight increase in alar base was observed. Subsequently, the alar base cinch suture was performed aiming to bring the alar bases to a measure of 34.0 mm in diameter. As a conclusion, the knowledge of the anatomy of the region involved, the healing of tissues, and suture techniques for the facial region process were critical to the successful treatment. The evaluation of the alar base in degloving cases can involve aesthetic features.

  6. Partial medial second toe pulp free flap and dermal substitute with skin graft for salvage reconstruction of a complete skin envelope degloving of the small finger.

    PubMed

    Calafat, V; Strugarek, C; Montoya-Faivre, D; Dap, F; Dautel, G

    2018-04-04

    Skin envelope degloving of fingers are rare injuries that require rapid care and surgical treatment. Mostly caused by ring finger injuries, these traumas include bone, tendon and neurovascular pedicle damage. The authors present an unusual case of finger degloving limited exclusively to the skin envelope, without skeletal, tendinous or vascular lesion. This rare case of skin envelope degloving rendered microsurgical revascularization impossible. The authors report the results at 12 months following salvage reconstruction combining a partial second toe pulp free flap for the volar side and a dermal substitute with a thin skin graft for the dorsum. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Case Report: The casting motion to mobilize stiffness technique for rehabilitation after a crush and degloving injury of the hand.

    PubMed

    Midgley, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    Case report. This case report describes the use of the casting motion to mobilize stiffness (CMMS) technique in the management of a crush and degloving injury of the hand. The patient was unable to attend multiple hand therapy sessions due to geographic constraints. The CMMS technique involved the application of a nonremovable plaster of paris cast that selectively immobilizes proximal joints in an ideal position while constraining distal joints to direct desired motion over a long period. This uses active motion only. Traditional hand therapy techniques or modalities are not used. This treatment approach was beneficial to the patient as a minimum of 2 appointments per month were needed to regain functional hand use. To document the use of the CMMS technique as an effective treatment approach in the management of a crush and degloving injury of the hand. The CMMS technique was applied to the patient's left (nondominant) hand 8 weeks after injury. The technique's aim was to improve the 30° flexion deformity of the left wrist and flexion contractures of the index, middle, and ring fingers with a total active motion of 0°. Orthotic devices and traditional therapy were applied once joint stiffness was resolved, and a normal pattern of motion was reinstated. At 6 months, substantial improvement was noted in wrist as well as metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints. Total active motion exceeded 170° in all fingers excellent functional outcome resulted as measured with the upper limb functional index short form-10. The upper limb functional index increased from 0% to 55% of preinjury status (or capacity) over the 18 months of therapy. Brief immobilization through casting causes certain functional losses, but these are temporary and reversible. Finger stiffness, edema, and tissue fibrosis were successfully managed with the CMMS technique without the need for attendance at multiple hand therapy sessions. Level V. Copyright © 2016 Hanley & Belfus. Published by

  8. [DORSALIS PEDIS FLAP SERIES-PARALLEL BIG TOE NAIL COMPOSITE TISSUE FLAP TO REPAIR HAND SKIN OF DEGLOVING INJURY WITH THUMB DEFECT].

    PubMed

    Shi, Pengju; Zhang, Wenlong; Zhao, Gang; Li, Zhigang; Zhao, Shaoping; Zhang, Tieshan

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of dorsalis pedis flap series-parallel big toe nail composite tissue flap in the repairment of hand skin of degloving injury with tumb defect. Between March 2009 and June 2013, 8 cases of hand degloving injury with thumb defect caused by machine twisting were treated. There were 7 males and 1 female with the mean age of 36 years (range, 26-48 years). Injury located at the left hand in 3 cases and at the right hand in 5 cases. The time from injury to hospitalization was 1.5-4.0 hours (mean, 2.5 hours). The defect area was 8 cm x 6 cm to 15 cm x 1 cm. The thumb defect was rated as degree I in 5 cases and as degree II in 3 cases. The contralateral dorsal skin flap (9 cm x 7 cm to 10 cm x 8 cm) combined with ipsilateral big toe nail composite tissue flap (2.5 cm x 1.8 cm to 3.0 cm x 2.0 cm) was used, including 3 parallel anastomosis flaps and 5 series anastomosis flaps. The donor site of the dorsal flap was repaired with thick skin grafts, the stumps wound was covered with tongue flap at the shank side of big toe. Vascular crisis occurred in 1 big toe nail composite tissue flap, margin necrosis occurred in 2 dorsalis pedis flap; the other flaps survived, and primary healing of wound was obtained. The grafted skin at dorsal donor site all survived, skin of hallux toe stump had no necrosis. Eight cases were followed up 4-20 months (mean, 15.5 months). All flaps had soft texture and satisfactory appearance; the cutaneous sensory recovery time was 4-7 months (mean, 5 months). At 4 months after operation, the two-point discrimination of the thumb pulp was 8-10 mm (mean, 9 mm), and the two-point discrimination of dorsal skin flap was 7-9 mm (mean, 8.5 mm). According to Society of Hand Surgery standard for the evaluation of upper part of the function, the results were excellent in 4 cases, good in 3 cases, and fair in 1 case. The donor foot had normal function. Dorsalis pedis flap series-parallel big toe nail composite tissue flap is an ideal

  9. [Trans-scrotal penile degloving, a new procedure for corporoplasties].

    PubMed

    Austoni, Edoardo; Altieri, Vincenzo Maria; Tenaglia, Raffaele

    2012-07-01

    The subcoronal approach is the most widely used skin degloving procedure for corporoplasty. Although it is relatively easy and it fully exposes the corpora cavernosa, it is not free from several complications (subcoronal lymphedema, decrease of glans sensitivity, paraphimosis, distal skin necrosis), which sometimes require a postoperative circumcision, or a preoperative prophylactic circumcision. To describe our own degloving approach, the "Trans-scrotal Penile Degloving (TPD)", that is suitable for most corporoplasties, and to present the outcomes. This is a retrospective analysis conducted on 89 patients (pts) presenting with different penile diseases, and submitted to the TPD during Corporoplasty, from February 2008 to July 2010: Congenital curvature (26 pts); Peyronie's Disease (PD) with penile curvature (18 pts); PD with erectile dysfunction and curvature (25 pts); Redo surgery with complex tunica albuginea remodeling and prosthesis implant (20 pts). The TPD approach calls for a 5 cm incision to be placed ventrally on the scrotal raphe at the penile base: penile degloving is then easily carried out up to the coronal line. Subsequently, the dorsal neurovascular bundle is normally isolated and all types of different corporoplasties can be carried out. Any complication occurring during or after surgery has been registered. Patient follow-up controls were performed on day 7, month 1 and month 3 post-surgery: -No pre- or post-operative circumcision procedures were required; -There was no evidence of post-operative preputial edema or penile skin necrosis or loss of glans sensitivity; -In 6 patients, we noted a mild scrotal sub-dartos hematoma, which reabsorbed spontaneously. TPD, which represents an evolution of our previous combined subcoronal-trans-scrotal approach, may be advantageously performed in most corporoplasties with optimal aesthetic and functional outcomes, and may replace in many cases the subcoronal approach without its associated complications.

  10. A rare case of severe third degree friction burns and large Morel-Lavallee lesion of the abdominal wall.

    PubMed

    Brown, Darnell J; Lu, Kuo Jung G; Chang, Kristina; Levin, Jennifer; Schulz, John T; Goverman, Jeremy

    2018-01-01

    Morel-Lavallee lesions (MLLs) are rare internal degloving injuries typically caused by blunt traumatic injuries and most commonly occur around the hips and in association with pelvic or acetabular fractures. MLL is often overlooked in the setting of poly-trauma; therefore, clinicians must maintain a high degree of suspicion and be familiar with the management of such injuries, especially in obese poly-trauma patients. We present a 30-year-old female pedestrian struck by a motor vehicle who sustained multiple long bone fractures, a mesenteric hematoma, and full-thickness abdominal skin friction burn which masked a significant underlying abdominal MLL. The internal degloving caused significant devascularization of the overlying soft tissue and skin which required surgical drainage of hematoma, abdominal wall reconstruction with tangential excision, allografting, negative pressure wound therapy, and ultimately autografting. MLL is a rare, often overlooked, internal degloving injury. Surgeons must maintain a high index of suspicion when dealing with third degree friction burns as they may mask underlying injuries such as MLL, and a delay in diagnosis can lead to increased morbidity.

  11. Reconstruction of totally degloved fingers: a novel application of the bilobed spiraled innervated radial artery superficial palmar branch perforator flap design provides for primary donor-site closure.

    PubMed

    Chi, Zhenglin; Yang, Peng; Song, Dajiang; Li, Zan; Tang, Liang; Gao, Weiyang; Song, Yonghuan; Chu, Tingang

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the results of resurfacing completely degloved digits using bilobed innervated radial artery superficial palmar branch (RASPB) perforator flap in a spiral fashion. A detailed anatomic study on 30 adult fresh frozen cadavers preinjected with silicone rubber compound to demarcate arterial anatomy documented locations, numbers, and diameters of arteries and skin perforators with surrounding nerves. The flap-raising procedure was performed using four fresh cadaver specimen. We reviewed the reconstruction of 12 digits by using a bilobed spiraled innervated RASPB free perforator flap after non-replantable degloving injury. Two skin paddles were marked out using standard points of reference. At least two separate cutaneous perforator vessels were identified using a hand-held Doppler and were dissected back to the RASPB in retrograde fashion. The skin paddles were then divided between the two cutaneous perforators to provide two separate paddles with a common vascular supply. The skin paddles were stacked in a spiral fashion on the flap inset, effectively increasing the width of the flap to cover the totally degloved finger while still allowing closure of the primary donor-site. The RASPB was present within the flap in all cadavers. The direct perforator and the musculocutaneous perforator were available in 93.33 and 76.67 %, respectively, with neither of them in 6.67 % of the cases. The constantly present two perforators allowed the design of a new bilobed spiraled innervated radial artery superficial palmar branch perforator flap. We used the proposed flap to reconstruct completely degloved digits in 12 patients (mean age 28.6 years; range 17-35 years). With our proposed flap, no flap failure or re-exploration occurred and the donor site was closed primarily in all cases. All the flaps survived uneventfully. Total active motion ranged from 92° to 140° and 111° to 155° in the cases with and without metacarpophalangeal joint involvement, respectively

  12. Complex pelvic ring injuries associated with floating knee in a poly-trauma patient: A case report.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuebin; Guo, Honggang; Cai, Zhiwei; Zhang, Yuan

    2017-12-01

    Complex pelvic ring fracture associated with floating knee is comparatively rare which usually results from high-energy trauma including vehicle-related accidence, falls from height, and earthquake-related injury. To our knowledge, few literatures have documented such injuries in the individual patient. Management of both injuries present challenges for surgical management and postoperative care. The purpose of this study is to prove the feasibility and benefits of damage control orthopedics (DCO). Our case involved a 45-year-old lady who was hit by a dilapidated building. The patient was anxious, pale and hemodynamically stable at the initial examination. The pelvis was unstable and there were obvious deformities in the left lower extremities. Significant degloved injuries in the left leg were noted. Her radiographs and physical examination verified the above signs. Unstable pelvic fractures, multiple fractures of bilateral lower limbs with floating knee injury, multiple pelvic and rib fractures and multiple degloving injuries and soft tissue contusion formed the characteristics of the multiple-injury. The algorithm of DCO was determined as the treatment. Early simplified procedures such as wound debridement, pelvis fixation, closed reduction and EF of the right shoulder joint, and chest wall fixation were conducted as soon as possible. After a period of time, internal fixations were applied to the fracture sites. The subsequent functional exercise was also conducted in accordance with this algorithm. This patient got recovery after the treatments which were guided by the criterion of DCO. The restoration of limb functional and the quality of life greatly improved. The DCO plays a decisive role in the first aid and follow-up treatment of this patient. The guidelines of management of complex pelvic ring injuries and floating knee should be established by authorities.

  13. High-energy roller injuries to the upper extremity.

    PubMed

    Askins, G; Finley, R; Parenti, J; Bush, D; Brotman, S

    1986-12-01

    Eleven cases of high-energy industrial roller injuries treated between 1980 and 1984 were retrospectively reviewed. The dominant extremity was affected in nine. Six patients sustained fractures and/or dislocations, and three of these patients required fasciotomies for clinical signs of impending compartment syndromes. All fracture/dislocations, with the exception of a scapula fracture, anterior dislocation of a thumb interphalangeal joint, and a fractured coronoid process of the ulna, required open reduction with internal fixation. Three patients required split-thickness skin grafting for extensive skin degloving. Two patients required immediate amputation. Late sequelae included prolonged edema, nutritional depletion, neuroma formation of the superficial branch of the radial nerve, late carpal tunnel syndrome, and partial brachial plexus palsy. Industrial roller injuries continue to be an occupational hazard associated with more severe crushing trauma than the low-energy wringer washer injuries first described by MacCollum (11). Attention must be paid to the treatment of crushed skin, muscle, and nerves, fracture stabilization, nutritional support, and occupational therapy. Concurrent monitoring for signs of a developing compartment syndrome and complications of rhabdomyolysis is essential.

  14. Stage III nasopharyngeal angiofibroma: Improving results with endoscopic-assisted midfacial degloving and modification to the Fisch staging system.

    PubMed

    Shah, Saurin R; Keshri, Amit; Patadia, Simple; Sahu, Rabi Narayan; Srivastava, Arun Kumar; Behari, Sanjay

    2015-10-01

    To study outcomes with endoscopic-assisted midfacial degloving for Fisch stage III nasopharyngeal angiofibroma and propose a new staging system. Retrospective study of patients with Fisch stage III juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) including preoperative angiography, intraoperative blood loss and residue/recurrence following surgery. Tertiary care superspecialty referral center. Fifteen consecutive patients with Fisch stage III JNA undergoing operations over a period of 18 months. Preoperative angiography details, intraoperative blood loss, residue/recurrence, complications of surgery. Transarterial embolization with particulate agents followed by endoscopic-assisted midfacial degloving provides excellent outcomes with Fisch stage III JNAs. The modified Fisch staging system proposed would allow better preoperative evaluation and comparison of outcomes with different treatment options for stage III JNAs. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of heparin and hyperbaric oxygenation on necrosis reduction in an animal model for degloving injuries.

    PubMed

    Menon, Douglas Neumar; Teixeira, Letícia; Paurosi, Natalha Bristot; Barros, Marcio Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    to evaluate the efficacy of the treatment with hyperbaric oxygen therapy or with topical and intralesional heparin in an animal model of degloving lesions. we conducted an experimental study with adult, male Wistar rats submitted to degloving of the left hind limb and divided into four groups according to the treatment: Group 1 (control) - without treatment; Group 2 (Heparin) - intralesional application at the time of surgery and topically, in the postoperative period, with heparin spray 10,000IU/mL; Group 3 (hyperbaric oxygenation) - daily sessions of 30 minutes in a hyperbaric chamber with 100% oxygen and 2 ATA pressure; Group 4 (positive control) - administration of a single dose of 45 mg/kg of intraperitoneal allopurinol. On the seventh day, we killed the animals, removed the cutaneous flaps and measured the total and necrotic areas, as well as computed the percentage of necrotic area. the mean percentage of necrosis in the control group was 56.03%; in the positive control group it was 51.36% (p<0.45); in the heparin group, 42.10% (p<0.07); and in the hyperbaric oxygen therapy group, 31.58% (p<0.01) . both hyperbaric oxygen and heparin therapies were effective in reducing the percentage of necrosis in the model studied, although only the hyperbaric oxygenation showed statistical significance. avaliar a eficácia do tratamento com oxigenoterapia hiperbárica ou com heparina tópica e intralesional em modelo animal de desluvamentos. estudo experimental, com ratos adultos machos Wistar, submetidos a desluvamento do membro posterior esquerdo e divididos em quatro grupos, de acordo com o tratamento: Grupo 1 (controle) - sem tratamento; Grupo 2 (Heparina) - aplicação intralesional no momento da cirurgia e tópica, no pós operatório, com spray de heparina 10.000UI/mL; Grupo 3 (oxigenação hiperbárica) - sessões diárias de 30 minutos em câmara hiperbárica com 100% de oxigênio e 2 ATA de pressão; Grupo 4 (controle positivo) - administração de dose única

  16. Microvascular management of ring avulsion injuries.

    PubMed

    Urbaniak, J R; Evans, J P; Bright, D S

    1981-01-01

    Microsurgical revascularization has proved to be a useful method in managing the ring avulsion injury where both neurovascular bundles are damaged with only partial skin avulsion. Representative cases are used to illustrate guidelines for a practical classification for helping to decide the optimal method of treatment of acute ring avulsion injuries in light of digital revascularization techniques. Nine ring fingers were successfully revascularized of 24 acute ring avulsion injuries reviewed. Sensibility recovery was good and a functional range of motion obtained. No patient who has had his ring finger revascularized has requested its amputation because of appearance, painful neuromas, stiffness, or cold intolerance. Complete amputations, especially proximal to the superficialis insertion, and complete degloving injuries of the ring finger are usually best managed by surgical amputation of the digit.

  17. Morel-Lavallée Injuries: A Multimodality Approach to Imaging Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Spain, James A; Rheinboldt, Matthew; Parrish, David; Rinker, Eric

    2017-02-01

    Morel-Lavallée lesions are relatively rare closed degloving injuries caused by a shearing force resulting in separation of the dermis and the hypodermis from the subjacent deeper fascia. Although most commonly encountered lateral to the greater trochanter, these injuries may occur throughout the body in a variety of locations. Separation of the hypodermal tissue planes results in a complex serosanguinous fluid collection with areas of internal fat necrosis. The imaging appearance is variable and nonspecific, potentially mimicking superficial hemorrhagic bursitis, or cystic or necrotic primary soft tissue neoplasms. If not treated in the acute or early subacute setting, these collections are at risk of superinfection, overlying tissue necrosis, and continued expansion. In this article, we will review the pathophysiology, cross-sectional imaging features, and differential diagnostic considerations of Morel-Lavallée lesions as well as discuss management and treatment options. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Injury Risk in International Rugby Union

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Isabel S.; Ranson, Craig; Mathema, Prabhat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Within international Rugby Union, only injury rates during the Rugby World Cup have been reported. Therefore, injury rates and types during other international tournaments are unknown. Purpose: To assess the 3-year incidence, severity, nature, and causes of match and training injuries sustained during different international tournaments played by the Welsh national Rugby Union team. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: Injury data for all players (n = 78) selected for 1 national Rugby Union team over a 3-year period were analyzed using the international consensus statement methods. Player height (cm) and mass (kg) were recorded. Tournaments were grouped for comparisons as: autumn tournaments (2012 and 2013), Rugby World Cup (RWC; 2011), Six Nations (2012, 2013, and 2014), and summer tournaments (2012, 2013, and 2014). Injury incidence (injuries/1000 hours), prevalence (% of players unavailable), and severity (days lost) were calculated for each tournament. Injury location, type, and cause of match and training injuries were analyzed. Results: Match injury incidence was highest during autumn tournaments (262.5/1000 match-hours) and lowest during the RWC (178.6/1000 match-hours). Summer tournaments had the highest training incidence (5.5 injuries/1000 training-hours). Mild injuries were most likely during the RWC (risk ratio [RR], 2.02; 95% CI, 1.26-3.24), while severe injuries were most likely during autumn tournaments (RR, 3.27; 95% CI, 1.70-6.29). Quadriceps hematomas (18.8/1000 match-hours; 95% CI, 11.3-31.1) and concussions (13.8/1000 match-hours; 95% CI, 7.6-24.8) were the most common match injuries, with shoulder dislocations being the most severe (111 mean days lost per injury). Conclusion: Injury rates were considerably higher than those previously reported for multiple teams during RWC tournaments. Further investigation of injury rates and risk factors is recommended to accurately gauge their impact within international Rugby

  19. Blunt, penetrating and ischemic injuries to the penis.

    PubMed

    Mydlo, Jack H; Harris, Constantine F; Brown, Jeffrey G

    2002-10-01

    We describe our experience with treating a series of 40 penile injuries, including 2 gunshot wounds, 1 stab wound, 1 zipper injury and 34 penile fractures, of which 29 were corrected surgically and 5 were managed conservatively, as well as 2 cases of glandular gangrene at 3 large inner city medical centers in a 12-year period. We describe our standard diagnostic and therapeutic modalities, which have evolved with time. Between 1989 and 2000, 34 patients were evaluated after blunt trauma to the erect penis resulted in penile fracture. Four patients had penetrating trauma to a flaccid penis and 2 had localized penile gangrene. Of the patients with blunt trauma 32 were injured during sexual intercourse and 2 were injured during masturbation. A single gunshot wound occurred during a crime, 2 penetrating traumas were intentionally inflicted and the remaining penetrating injury was due to a zipper. The 2 patients with penile gangrene had diabetes and were on dialysis. A total of 32 patients were treated with surgery using a degloving incision. The corpora and urethra were evaluated with radiography or injection of saline intraoperatively. Five patients were treated conservatively for presumed penile fracture after they refused diagnostic confirmation and/or surgery, and the 2 with localized glandular gangrene were also treated conservatively. At followup 35 of the 40 patients available reported erection adequate for intercourse without erectile or voiding dysfunction. Two patients had mild curvature. In our experience a degloving procedure provided the best exposure for blunt and penetrating trauma. All penetrating injuries were débrided before repair. Saline injection showed additional corporeal body and/or urethral pathology, and also assessed the integrity of repair. Distal amputation in patients with localized glandular gangrene may result in sloughing and further complications. However, hyperbaric oxygen and local wound care may be adequate if there is no

  20. Muscle injury is the principal injury type and hamstring muscle injury is the first injury diagnosis during top-level international athletics championships between 2007 and 2015.

    PubMed

    Edouard, Pascal; Branco, Pedro; Alonso, Juan-Manuel

    2016-05-01

    During top-level international athletics championships, muscle injuries are frequent. To analyse the incidence and characteristics of muscle injuries and hamstring muscle injuries (hamstring injuries) occurring during top-level international athletics championships. During 16 international championships held between 2007 and 2015, national medical team and local organising committee physicians reported daily all injuries on a standardised injury report form. Only muscle injuries (muscle tears and muscle cramps) and hamstring injuries have been analysed. 40.9% of all recorded injuries (n=720) were muscle injuries, with 57.5% of them resulting in time loss. The overall incidence of muscle injuries was higher in male athletes than female athletes (51.9±6.0 vs 30.3±5.0 injuries per 1000 registered athletes, respectively; RR=1.71; 95% CI 1.45 to 2.01). Muscle injuries mainly affected the thigh (52.9%) and lower leg (20.1%), and were mostly caused by overuse with sudden onset (38.2%) and non-contact trauma (24.6%). Muscle injury risk varied according to the event groups. Hamstring injuries represented 17.1% of all injuries, with a higher risk in male compared to female athletes (22.4±3.4 vs 11.5±2.6 injuries per 1000 registered athletes, respectively; RR=1.94; 95% CI 1.42 to 2.66). During international athletics championships, muscle injury is the principal type of injury, and among those, the hamstring is the most commonly affected, with a two times higher risk in male than female athletes. Athletes in explosive power events, male athletes and older male athletes, in specific were more at risk of muscle injuries and hamstring injuries. Injury prevention strategies should be sex-specific. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Dislocation of the penis: a rare complication after traumatic pelvic injury

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Mei Chin; Srinivasan, Sivasubramanian; Teh, Hui Seong; Teo, Chang Peng Colin

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic injury to the male external genitalia is frequently encountered, but acute traumatic dislocation of the penile structure is extremely rare, with only a few reports found in the literature. We herein report the case of a 21-year-old man who sustained blunt trauma to the pelvis following a motor vehicle accident, and had features suspicious of penile dislocation. With the use of computed tomography and bedside ultrasonography, a diagnosis of penile dislocation was made, which was subsequently confirmed intraoperatively. Immediate surgical intervention via gentle manipulation of the penile tissue back to its native position was performed in order to restore normal anatomy. The exact mechanism of penile dislocation is not known. However, circumferential laceration around the foreskin causing degloving injury of the penis is suggested in our patient. PMID:25640107

  2. Autologous dermal graft combined with a modified degloving procedure for penile augmentation in young adults: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, G-X; Weng, M; Wang, M-D; Bai, W-J

    2016-09-01

    In order to evaluate the effect of penile enhancement, we retrospectively reviewed the data of the patients operated with autologous dermal graft implantation combined with a modified penile degloving procedure. The patients with the complaints of small penis, asking for penile augmentation, and normal erectile function were psychologically screened and enrolled. Data of follow-up visit including patient demographics, medical history, surgical procedure, patient-reported outcomes were analysed. In all, 30 eligible persons were operated. After degloving of the penis, the suspensory ligament was incised and the tunica albuginea was fixed to the proximal tunica dartos at the penile base. Then, the dermis graft was implanted on the dorsal surface of the tunica albuginea. The file of follow-up visit was available in 17 (57%) patients. The mean age was 23.7 years (19-35 years) and the mean follow-up was 13 months (range, 4-24 months). During the follow-up period, the average gain in the penis length was 2.7 cm in flaccid and 0.8 cm in erection, respectively. And the average gain in the penis circumference was 1.5 cm in flaccid and 1.2 cm in erection, respectively. Also, psychosexual sexual self-esteem and confidence of the patients were significantly improved (p < 0.001). Overall, 13 (76%) patients reported satisfaction with the penile appearance. We believe that the surgery is both safe and effective in the enhancement of the penis, however, further clinical studies with a larger patient population are necessary. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  3. Clinics in diagnostic imaging (164). Morel-Lavallée lesion.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Sook Chuei Wendy; Wong, Bak Siew Steven

    2016-01-01

    A 31-year-old male motorcyclist presented with prepatellar swelling of the left knee after a collision with a car. Magnetic resonance imaging of the knee showed no bony or ligamentous injury to the knee. Instead, a well-defined, thin-walled, T2-weighted hyperintense fluid collection with internal septations was identified in a prefascial location overlying the left patella and patellar tendon. The findings were in keeping with those of a Morel-Lavallée lesion, a closed internal degloving injury. Morel-Lavallée lesions are occasionally encountered after a blunt soft-tissue trauma. The presentation and imaging features are discussed. Copyright © Singapore Medical Association.

  4. Research on injury prevention: time for an international agenda?

    PubMed Central

    Stone, D H

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To propose an initial agenda for a systematic international research strategy designed to meet the information needs of injury prevention worldwide. CRITERIA FOR INCLUSION AND EXCLUSION OF ARTICLES: The world literature since 1977 was surveyed to obtain an overview of the current research effort on injury epidemiology and prevention. Articles were cited to illustrate the breadth and nature of work published on the topic with special reference to the prevention of home and traffic injuries. CONCLUSIONS: There has been a recent upsurge of interest in injury prevention, although much of the work has been descriptive rather than analytical or evaluative. The implementation of existing knowledge has been patchy. To meet the information needs of effective injury prevention, several elements of an international research agenda are proposed. These include: the achievement of a consensus on terminology, definition, and classification; clarification of the roles of social deprivation, gender, risk taking behaviour, personality, stress, alcohol, drugs, chronic illness, and disability in the aetiology of injury; the development of multi-agency models of good injury prevention practice; the evaluation of counter-measures; the development and evaluation of routine injury surveillance systems. PMID:8762374

  5. 20-year experience with iatrogenic penile injury.

    PubMed

    Amukele, Samuel A; Lee, Gene W; Stock, Jeffrey A; Hanna, Moneer K

    2003-10-01

    We review our experience with the management of iatrogenic penile injuries. Apart from circumcision, serious damage to the penis can occur following hypospadias repair, surgery for priapism or total loss of the penis following surgical repair of bladder exstrophy. A retrospective analysis of patients with iatrogenic penile amputation referred to us between 1980 and 2000 was undertaken. Causes of injury and choice of management were reviewed. Of the 13 cases treated during the 20-year period mechanism of primary injury was circumcision in 4, hypospadias repair in 6, priapism in 1, bladder exstrophy repair in 1 and penile carcinoma in 1. A variety of techniques were used for phallic reconstruction. Penile degloving, division of suspensory ligament and rotational skin flaps achieved penile augmentation and enhancement. Reasonable cosmesis and penile length were achieved in all cases. In indicated cases microsurgical phalloplasty was technically feasible. However long-term followup showed various complications including erosions from the use of a penile stiffener. The ultimate goal of reconstructive surgery is to have a penis with normal function and appearance. The management of penile injury requires a wide variety of surgical techniques that are tailored to the individual patient. Expedient penile reconstruction is successful and therapeutic delay is associated with complications.

  6. Interrater reliability of the injury reporting of the injury surveillance system used in international athletics championships.

    PubMed

    Edouard, Pascal; Junge, Astrid; Kiss-Polauf, Marianna; Ramirez, Christophe; Sousa, Monica; Timpka, Toomas; Branco, Pedro

    2018-03-01

    The quality of epidemiological injury data depends on the reliability of reporting to an injury surveillance system. Ascertaining whether all physicians/physiotherapists report the same information for the same injury case is of major interest to determine data validity. The aim of this study was therefore to analyse the data collection reliability through the analysis of the interrater reliability. Cross-sectional survey. During the 2016 European Athletics Advanced Athletics Medicine Course in Amsterdam, all national medical teams were asked to complete seven virtual case reports on a standardised injury report form using the same definitions and classifications of injuries as the international athletics championships injury surveillance protocol. The completeness of data and the Fleiss' kappa coefficients for the inter-rater reliability were calculated for: sex, age, event, circumstance, location, type, assumed cause and estimated time-loss. Forty-one team physicians and physiotherapists of national medical teams participated in the study (response rate 89.1%). Data completeness was 96.9%. The Fleiss' kappa coefficients were: almost perfect for sex (k=1), injury location (k=0.991), event (k=0.953), circumstance (k=0.942), and age (k=0.870), moderate for type (k=0.507), fair for assumed cause (k=0.394), and poor for estimated time-loss (k=0.155). The injury surveillance system used during international athletics championships provided reliable data for "sex", "location", "event", "circumstance", and "age". More caution should be taken for "assumed cause" and "type", and even more for "estimated time-loss". This injury surveillance system displays satisfactory data quality (reliable data and high data completeness), and thus, can be recommended as tool to collect epidemiology information on injuries during international athletics championships. Copyright © 2018 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of injuries experienced by international tourists visiting Australia and Australian residents.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Rebecca J; Williamson, Ann; Chung, Amy Z Q

    2015-03-01

    This article compares the epidemiological profile of injury-related hospitalized morbidity of international tourists in New South Wales (NSW) with the hospitalized injury profile of NSW residents. Injury-related hospitalizations were identified from the NSW Admitted Patients Data Collection during 1 July 2000 to 30 June 2009. Injuries were identified using a principal diagnosis code of injury (ie, ICD-10-AM range S00-T98) and the presence of an external cause code (ie, ICD-10-AM range V00-Y98). Overseas tourists were more likely to be hospitalized for an injury following air and water transport, near-drowning, and pedestrian-related injuries. Sport or leisure-related activities were the most common activity conducted at the time of the incident. International tourists are at a higher risk of experiencing injuries particularly following recreational pursuits, while as a pedestrian, in vehicle crashes for older age groups, as a result of interpersonal violence for young males, and following a poisoning or cut/pierce injury for young females. Prevention measures should be undertaken to limit the incidence of injury among international tourists, particularly during active recreational activities and while using the roadways. © 2011 APJPH.

  8. International urodynamic basic spinal cord injury data set.

    PubMed

    Biering-Sørensen, F; Craggs, M; Kennelly, M; Schick, E; Wyndaele, J-J

    2008-07-01

    To create the International Urodynamic Basic Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Data Set within the framework of the International SCI Data Sets. International working group. The draft of the data set was developed by a working group consisting of members appointed by the Neurourology Committee of the International Continence Society, the European Association of Urology, the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA), the International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS) and a representative of the Executive Committee of the International SCI Standards and Data Sets. The final version of the data set was developed after review and comments by members of the Executive Committee of the International SCI Standards and Data Sets, the ISCoS Scientific Committee, ASIA Board, relevant and interested (international) organizations and societies (around 40) and persons and the ISCoS Council. Endorsement of the data set by relevant organizations and societies will be obtained. To make the data set uniform, each variable and each response category within each variable have been specifically defined in a way that is designed to promote the collection and reporting of comparable minimal data. Variables included in the International Urodynamic Basic SCI Data Set are date of data collection, bladder sensation during filling cystometry, detrusor function, compliance during filing cystometry, function during voiding, detrusor leak point pressure, maximum detrusor pressure, cystometric bladder capacity and post-void residual volume.

  9. Poor outcome of bilateral lower extremity morel-lavallee lesions: a case report.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Sharon S; Molmenti, Ernesto P; Siskind, Eric; Kasabian, Armen K; Huang, Su-I D

    2014-03-01

    The Morel-Lavallee lesion is a closed, internal degloving injury that results when a strong, shearing force is applied parallel to the plane of injury, as is common in vehicular trauma. It is an underdiagnosed entity that is often missed during the initial trauma workup as symptoms can be subtle. There are few reports of lesions occurring below the knee. Most cases affect the proximal thigh and trochanter, as these tend to be dependent areas in high velocity trauma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first literature report of bilateral lower extremity Morel-Lavallee lesions.

  10. The international spinal cord injury pain basic data set.

    PubMed

    Widerström-Noga, E; Biering-Sørensen, F; Bryce, T; Cardenas, D D; Finnerup, N B; Jensen, M P; Richards, J S; Siddall, P J

    2008-12-01

    To develop a basic pain data set (International Spinal Cord Injury Basic Pain Data Set, ISCIPDS:B) within the framework of the International spinal cord injury (SCI) data sets that would facilitate consistent collection and reporting of pain in the SCI population. International. The ISCIPDS:B was developed by a working group consisting of individuals with published evidence of expertise in SCI-related pain regarding taxonomy, psychophysics, psychology, epidemiology and assessment, and one representative of the Executive Committee of the International SCI Standards and Data Sets. The members were appointed by four major organizations with an interest in SCI-related pain (International Spinal Cord Society, ISCoS; American Spinal Injury Association, ASIA; American Pain Society, APS and International Association for the Study of Pain, IASP). The initial ISCIPDS:B was revised based on suggestions from members of the Executive Committee of the International SCI Standards and Data Sets, the ISCoS Scientific Committee, ASIA and APS Boards, and the Neuropathic Pain Special Interest Group of the IASP, individual reviewers and societies and the ISCoS Council. The final ISCIPDS:B contains core questions about clinically relevant information concerning SCI-related pain that can be collected by health-care professionals with expertise in SCI in various clinical settings. The questions concern pain severity, physical and emotional function and include a pain-intensity rating, a pain classification and questions related to the temporal pattern of pain for each specific pain problem. The impact of pain on physical, social and emotional function, and sleep is evaluated for each pain.

  11. Injuries during the international floorball tournaments from 2012 to 2015

    PubMed Central

    Pasanen, Kati; Bruun, Merita; Vasankari, Tommi; Nurminen, Minna; Frey, Walter O

    2017-01-01

    Background Floorball is a running indoor team sport that has growing popularity worldwide. Some prospective studies have investigated injuries in national floorball leagues, but such studies at the international level are lacking. Objective To investigate the incidence and characteristics of injuries during 12 International Floorball Federation (IFF) events. Methods All top-level IFF events from 2012 to 2015 were included in the study. The IFF events were divided into the following groups: Men’s World Floorball Championships (2012 and 2014), Women’s World Floorball Championships (2013 and 2015), Men’s Champions Cup (2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015) and Women’s Champions Cup (2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015). The team medical personnel prospectively recorded the injuries that occurred in games and practices. The time of exposure was calculated for entire teams based on the IFF statistics. Results Sixty-eight injuries were registered among 67 players. Sixty-five of the injuries occurred in games, resulting in an injury incidence of 21.24 per 1000 game hours (95% CI 16.13 to 26.35). There was no significant difference in the incidence of game injuries between females and males (incidence rate ratio 0.68, 95% CI 0.41 to 1.11). The ankle was the most common site of injury (24%), followed by the head (18%) and the knee (18%). Almost half of the injuries (46%) involved joints or ligaments. Conclusions Risk of injury during IFF tournaments was lower than in many other team sports at the highest level of play. Preventive actions should focus on acute ankle and knee injuries as well as head and face injuries. PMID:28890804

  12. Methodological quality of the injury surveillance system used in international athletics championships.

    PubMed

    Edouard, Pascal; Branco, Pedro; Alonso, Juan Manuel; Junge, Astrid

    2016-12-01

    Incidence and prevalence data obtained from injury surveillance studies could be biased by the response rate as well as by the completeness and quality of the reports. It therefore appears crucial to analyse the quality of the injury surveillance system itself and thereby validate the quality of the data. This study aimed to analyse the quality of and compliance with the injury surveillance system implemented during international athletics championships. Prospective, epidemiological study. The national medical teams and the local organising committee physicians daily reported all injuries on a standardised injury report form during 14 international athletics championships from 2007 to 2015. The quality of the injury surveillance system was analysed following the guidelines laid down by the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention. On average 41.7±17.4% (mean±standard deviation) of all registered countries participated in the injury surveillance project, accounting for a coverage of athletes of 79.5±10.2% of all registered athletes. Their medical staff returned 89.2±8.4% of the expected injury report forms (information is missing for one championship). The completeness of injury data provided by medical teams and local organising committee physicians averaged 95.8±6.5%. National medical teams reported 60.6±16.6% of all injuries, and local organising committee physicians 28.7±15.0% whereas 10.6±6.5% of injuries were reported by both. The injury surveillance system used during international athletics championships provided good national medical team participation, coverage of athletes, response rate, and completeness of reports. These parameters should be systematically reported for injury surveillance studies to show the quality of the study. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Injury surveillance in multi-sport events: the International Olympic Committee approach.

    PubMed

    Junge, A; Engebretsen, L; Alonso, J M; Renström, P; Mountjoy, M; Aubry, M; Dvorak, J

    2008-06-01

    The protection of athletes' health by preventing injuries is an important task for international sports federations. Standardised injury surveillance provides not only important epidemiological information, but also directions for injury prevention, and the opportunity for monitoring long-term changes in the frequency and circumstances of injury. Numerous studies have evaluated sports injuries during the season, but few have focused on injuries during major sport events such as World Championships, World Cups or the Olympic Games. To provide an injury surveillance system for multi-sports tournaments, using the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing as an example. A group of experienced researchers reviewed existing injury report systems and developed a scientific sound and concise injury surveillance system for large multi-sport events. The injury report system for multi-sport events is based on an established system for team sports tournaments and has proved feasible for individual sports during the International Association of Athletics Federations World Championships in Athletics 2007. The most important principles and advantages of the system are comprehensive definition of injury, injury report by the physician responsible for the athlete, a single-page report of all injuries, and daily report irrespective of whether or not an injury occurred. Implementation of the injury surveillance system, all definitions, the report form, and the analysis of data are described in detail to enable other researchers to implement the injury surveillance system in any sports tournament. The injury surveillance system has been accepted by experienced team physicians and shown to be feasible for single-sport and multi-sport events. It can be modified depending on the specific objectives of a certain sport or research question; however, a standardised use of injury definition, report forms and methodology will ensure the comparability of results.

  14. Don't Forget the Abdominal Wall: Imaging Spectrum of Abdominal Wall Injuries after Nonpenetrating Trauma.

    PubMed

    Matalon, Shanna A; Askari, Reza; Gates, Jonathan D; Patel, Ketan; Sodickson, Aaron D; Khurana, Bharti

    2017-01-01

    Abdominal wall injuries occur in nearly one of 10 patients coming to the emergency department after nonpenetrating trauma. Injuries range from minor, such as abdominal wall contusion, to severe, such as abdominal wall rupture with evisceration of abdominal contents. Examples of specific injuries that can be detected at cross-sectional imaging include abdominal muscle strain, tear, or hematoma, including rectus sheath hematoma (RSH); traumatic abdominal wall hernia (TAWH); and Morel-Lavallée lesion (MLL) (closed degloving injury). These injuries are often overlooked clinically because of (a) a lack of findings at physical examination or (b) distraction by more-severe associated injuries. However, these injuries are important to detect because they are highly associated with potentially grave visceral and vascular injuries, such as aortic injury, and because their detection can lead to the diagnosis of these more clinically important grave traumatic injuries. Failure to make a timely diagnosis can result in delayed complications, such as bowel hernia with potential for obstruction or strangulation, or misdiagnosis of an abdominal wall neoplasm. Groin injuries, such as athletic pubalgia, and inferior costochondral injuries should also be considered in patients with abdominal pain after nonpenetrating trauma, because these conditions may manifest with referred abdominal pain and are often included within the field of view at cross-sectional abdominal imaging. Radiologists must recognize and report acute abdominal wall injuries and their associated intra-abdominal pathologic conditions to allow appropriate and timely treatment. © RSNA, 2017.

  15. Injuries in men's international ice hockey: a 7-year study of the International Ice Hockey Federation Adult World Championship Tournaments and Olympic Winter Games

    PubMed Central

    Tuominen, Markku; Stuart, Michael J; Aubry, Mark; Kannus, Pekka; Parkkari, Jari

    2015-01-01

    Background Information on ice hockey injuries at the international level is very limited. The aim of the study was to analyse the incidence, type, mechanism and severity of ice hockey injuries in men's international ice hockey tournaments. Methods All the injuries in men's International Ice Hockey Federation World Championship tournaments over a 7-year period were analysed using a strict definition of injury, standardised reporting strategies and an injury diagnosis made by a team physician. Results 528 injuries were recorded in games resulting in an injury rate of 14.2 per 1000 player-games (52.1/1000 player-game hours). Additionally, 27 injuries occurred during practice. For WC A-pool Tournaments and Olympic Winter Games (OWG) the injury rate was 16.3/1000 player-games (59.6/1000 player-game hours). Body checking, and stick and puck contact caused 60.7% of the injuries. The most common types of injuries were lacerations, sprains, contusions and fractures. A laceration was the most common facial injury and was typically caused by a stick. The knee was the most frequently injured part of the lower body and the shoulder was the most common site of an upper body injury. Arenas with flexible boards and glass reduced the risk of injury by 29% (IRR 0.71, (95% CI 0.56 to 0.91)). Conclusions The incidence of injury during international ice hockey competition is relatively high. Arena characteristics, such as flexible boards and glass, appeared to reduce the risk of injury. PMID:25293341

  16. The international spinal cord injury endocrine and metabolic function basic data set.

    PubMed

    Bauman, W A; Biering-Sørensen, F; Krassioukov, A

    2011-10-01

    To develop the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Endocrine and Metabolic Function Basic Data Set within the framework of the International SCI Data Sets that would facilitate consistent collection and reporting of basic endocrine and metabolic findings in the SCI population. International. The International SCI Endocrine and Metabolic Function Data Set was developed by a working group. The initial data set document was revised on the basis of suggestions from members of the Executive Committee of the International SCI Standards and Data Sets, the International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS) Executive and Scientific Committees, American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Board, other interested organizations and societies, and individual reviewers. In addition, the data set was posted for 2 months on ISCoS and ASIA websites for comments. The final International SCI Endocrine and Metabolic Function Data Set contains questions on the endocrine and metabolic conditions diagnosed before and after spinal cord lesion. If available, information collected before injury is to be obtained only once, whereas information after injury may be collected at any time. These data include information on diabetes mellitus, lipid disorders, osteoporosis, thyroid disease, adrenal disease, gonadal disease and pituitary disease. The question of gonadal status includes stage of sexual development and that for females also includes menopausal status. Data will be collected for body mass index and for the fasting serum lipid profile. The complete instructions for data collection and the data sheet itself are freely available on the websites of ISCoS (http://www.iscos.org.uk) and ASIA (http://www.asia-spinalinjury.org).

  17. International bowel function basic spinal cord injury data set.

    PubMed

    Krogh, K; Perkash, I; Stiens, S A; Biering-Sørensen, F

    2009-03-01

    International expert working group. To develop an International Bowel Function Basic Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Data Set presenting a standardized format for the collection and reporting of a minimal amount of information on bowel function in daily practice or in research. Working group consisting of members appointed by the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) and the International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS). A draft prepared by the working group was reviewed by Executive Committee of the International SCI Standards and Data Sets, and later by ISCoS Scientific Committee and the ASIA Board. Relevant and interested scientific and professional (international) organizations and societies (approximately 40) were also invited to review the data set and it was posted on the ISCoS and ASIA websites for 3 months to allow comments and suggestions. The ISCoS Scientific Committee, Council and ASIA Board received the data set for final review and approval. The International Bowel Function Basic SCI Data Set includes the following 12 items: date of data collection, gastrointestinal or anal sphincter dysfunction unrelated to SCI, surgical procedures on the gastrointestinal tract, awareness of the need to defecate, defecation method and bowel care procedures, average time required for defecation, frequency of defecation, frequency of fecal incontinence, need to wear pad or plug, medication affecting bowel function/constipating agents, oral laxatives and perianal problems. An International Bowel Function Basic SCI Data Set has been developed.

  18. International spinal cord injury cardiovascular function basic data set.

    PubMed

    Krassioukov, A; Alexander, M S; Karlsson, A-K; Donovan, W; Mathias, C J; Biering-Sørensen, F

    2010-08-01

    To create an International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Cardiovascular Function Basic Data Set within the framework of the International SCI Data Sets. An international working group. The draft of the data set was developed by a working group comprising members appointed by the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA), the International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS) and a representative of the executive committee of the International SCI Standards and Data Sets. The final version of the data set was developed after review by members of the executive committee of the International SCI Standards and Data Sets, the ISCoS scientific committee, ASIA board, relevant and interested international organizations and societies, individual persons with specific interest and the ISCoS Council. To make the data set uniform, each variable and each response category within each variable have been specifically defined in a way that is designed to promote the collection and reporting of comparable minimal data. The variables included in the International SCI Cardiovascular Function Basic Data Set include the following items: date of data collection, cardiovascular history before the spinal cord lesion, events related to cardiovascular function after the spinal cord lesion, cardiovascular function after the spinal cord lesion, medications affecting cardiovascular function on the day of examination; and objective measures of cardiovascular functions, including time of examination, position of examination, pulse and blood pressure. The complete instructions for data collection and the data sheet itself are freely available on the websites of both ISCoS (http://www.iscos.org.uk) and ASIA (http://www.asia-spinalinjury.org).

  19. A PILOT SURVEY ON INJURY AND SAFETY CONCERNS IN INTERNATIONAL SLEDGE HOCKEY

    PubMed Central

    Finlayson, Heather; O'Connor, Russ; Anton, Hugh

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe sledge hockey injury patterns, safety issues and to develop potential injury prevention strategies. Design: Pilot survey study of international sledge hockey professionals, including trainers, physiotherapists, physicians, coaches and/or general managers. Setting: Personal encounter or online correspondence. Respondents: Sledge hockey professionals; a total of 10 respondents from the 5 top-ranked international teams recruited by personal encounter or online correspondence. Main Outcome Measurements: Descriptive Data reports on sledge athlete injury characteristics, quality of rules and enforcement, player equipment, challenges in the medical management during competition, and overall safety. Results: Muscle strains and concussions were identified as common, and injuries were reported to affect the upper body more frequently than the lower body. Overuse and body checking were predominant injury mechanisms. Safety concerns included excessive elbowing, inexperienced refereeing and inadequate equipment standards. Conclusions: This paper is the first publication primarily focused on sledge hockey injury and safety. This information provides unique opportunity for the consideration of implementation and evaluation of safety strategies. Safety interventions could include improved hand protection, cut-resistant materials in high-risk areas, increased vigilance to reduce intentional head-contact, lowered rink boards and modified bathroom floor surfacing. PMID:21904696

  20. Suicide bombing attacks: Can external signs predict internal injuries?

    PubMed

    Almogy, Gidon; Mintz, Yoav; Zamir, Gideon; Bdolah-Abram, Tali; Elazary, Ram; Dotan, Livnat; Faruga, Mohammed; Rivkind, Avraham I

    2006-04-01

    To report the distribution and types of injuries in victims of suicide bombing attacks and to identify external signs that would guide triage and initial management. There is a need for information on the degree to which external injuries indicate internal injuries requiring emergency triage. The medical charts and the trauma registry database of all patients who were admitted to the Hadassah Hospital in Jerusalem from August 2001 to August 2004 following a suicide bombing attack were reviewed and analyzed for injury characteristics, number of body areas injured, presence of blast lung injury (BLI), and need for therapeutic laparotomy. Logistic analysis was performed to identify predictors of BLI and intra-abdominal injury. The study population consisted of 154 patients who were injured as a result of 17 attacks. Twenty-eight patients suffered from BLI (18.2%) and 13 patients (8.4%) underwent therapeutic laparotomy. Patients with penetrating head injury and those with > or =4 body areas injured were significantly more likely to suffer from BLI (odds ratio, 3.47 and 4.12, respectively, P < 0.05). Patients with penetrating torso injury and those with > or =4 body areas injured were significantly more likely to suffer from intra-abdominal injury (odds ratio, 22.27 and 4.89, respectively, P < 0.05). Easily recognizable external signs of trauma can be used to predict the occurrence of BLI and intra-abdominal injury. The importance of these signs needs to be incorporated into triage protocols and used to direct victims to the appropriate level of care both from the scene and in the hospital.

  1. International spinal cord injury pulmonary function basic data set.

    PubMed

    Biering-Sørensen, F; Krassioukov, A; Alexander, M S; Donovan, W; Karlsson, A-K; Mueller, G; Perkash, I; Sheel, A William; Wecht, J; Schilero, G J

    2012-06-01

    To develop the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Pulmonary Function Basic Data Set within the framework of the International SCI Data Sets in order to facilitate consistent collection and reporting of basic bronchopulmonary findings in the SCI population. International. The SCI Pulmonary Function Data Set was developed by an international working group. The initial data set document was revised on the basis of suggestions from members of the Executive Committee of the International SCI Standards and Data Sets, the International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS) Executive and Scientific Committees, American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Board, other interested organizations and societies and individual reviewers. In addition, the data set was posted for 2 months on ISCoS and ASIA websites for comments. The final International SCI Pulmonary Function Data Set contains questions on the pulmonary conditions diagnosed before spinal cord lesion,if available, to be obtained only once; smoking history; pulmonary complications and conditions after the spinal cord lesion, which may be collected at any time. These data include information on pneumonia, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and sleep apnea. Current utilization of ventilator assistance including mechanical ventilation, diaphragmatic pacing, phrenic nerve stimulation and Bi-level positive airway pressure can be reported, as well as results from pulmonary function testing includes: forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second and peak expiratory flow. The complete instructions for data collection and the data sheet itself are freely available on the website of ISCoS (http://www.iscos.org.uk).

  2. International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury: cases with classification challenges.

    PubMed

    Kirshblum, S C; Biering-Sorensen, F; Betz, R; Burns, S; Donovan, W; Graves, D E; Johansen, M; Jones, L; Mulcahey, M J; Rodriguez, G M; Schmidt-Read, M; Steeves, J D; Tansey, K; Waring, W

    2014-03-01

    The International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) is routinely used to determine the levels of injury and to classify the severity of the injury. Questions are often posed to the International Standards Committee of the American Spinal Injury Association regarding the classification. The committee felt that disseminating some of the challenging questions posed, as well as the responses, would be of benefit for professionals utilizing the ISNCSCI. Case scenarios that were submitted to the committee are presented with the responses as well as the thought processes considered by the committee members. The importance of this documentation is to clarify some points as well as update the SCI community regarding possible revisions that will be needed in the future based upon some rules that require clarification.

  3. International urinary tract imaging basic spinal cord injury data set.

    PubMed

    Biering-Sørensen, F; Craggs, M; Kennelly, M; Schick, E; Wyndaele, J-J

    2009-05-01

    To create an International Urinary Tract Imaging Basic Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Data Set within the framework of the International SCI Data Sets. An international working group. The draft of the Data Set was developed by a working group comprising members appointed by the Neurourology Committee of the International Continence Society, the European Association of Urology, the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA), the International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS) and a representative of the Executive Committee of the International SCI Standards and Data Sets. The final version of the Data Set was developed after review and comments by members of the Executive Committee of the International SCI Standards and Data Sets, the ISCoS Scientific Committee, ASIA Board, relevant and interested international organizations and societies (around 40), individual persons with specific expertise and the ISCoS Council. Endorsement of the Data Sets by relevant organizations and societies will be obtained. To make the Data Set uniform, each variable and each response category within each variable have been specifically defined in a way that is designed to promote the collection and reporting of comparable minimal data. The variables included in the International Urinary Tract Imaging Basic SCI Data Set are the results obtained using the following investigations: intravenous pyelography or computer tomography urogram or ultrasound, X-ray, renography, clearance, cystogram, voiding cystogram or micturition cystourogram or videourodynamics. The complete instructions for data collection and the data sheet itself are freely available on the websites of both ISCoS (http://www.iscos.org.uk) and ASIA (http://www.asia-spinalinjury.org).

  4. Evaluation of Hip Internal and External Rotation Range of Motion as an Injury Risk Factor for Hip, Abdominal and Groin Injuries in Professional Baseball Players

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Richard; Zhou, Hanbing; Thompson, Matthew; Dawson, Courtney; Nguyen, Joseph; Coleman, Struan

    2015-01-01

    Normal hip range of motion (ROM) is essential in running and transfer of energy from lower to upper extremities during overhead throwing. Dysfunctional hip ROM may alter lower extremity kinematics and predispose athletes to hip and groin injuries. The purpose of this study is characterize hip internal/external ROM (Arc) and its effect on the risk of hip, hamstring, and groin injuries in professional baseball players. Bilateral hip internal and external ROM was measured on all baseball players (N=201) in one professional organization (major and minor league) during spring training. Players were organized according to their respective positions. All injuries were documented prospectively for an entire MLB season (2010 to 2011). Data was analyzed according to position and injuries during the season. Total number of players (N=201) with an average age of 24±3.6 (range=17-37). Both pitchers (N=93) and catchers (N=22) had significantly decreased mean hip internal rotation and overall hip arc of motion compared to the positional players (N=86). Players with hip, groin, and hamstring injury also had decreased hip rotation arc when compared to the normal group. Overall, there is a correlation between decreased hip internal rotation and total arc of motion with hip, hamstring, and groin injuries. PMID:26793294

  5. Needlestick injury among interns and medical students in the Occupied Palestinian Territory.

    PubMed

    Al-Dabbas, M; Abu-Rmeileh, N M E

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of needlestick injury (NSI) among interns and medical students as well as their knowledge of, attitude towards and their protective strategies against exposure to bloodborne pathogens. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 272 participants using a self-administered questionnaire. Just over 40% of the participants had experienced at least 1 NSI. Wound suturing was the most common cause of injury (33.5%), and the highest incidence (55.5%) was in the emergency room. Failure to report the injury to health representatives was recorded for 48.6% of NSIs. Only 46.7% of the interns had received the hepatitis B vaccine whereas most of the students (76.8%) had completed their vaccination schedule (P < 0.001). Participants were found to be at a high risk of NSIs and bloodborne infections.

  6. Evaluation of playground injuries based on ICD, E codes, international classification of external cause of injury codes (ICECI), and abbreviated injury scale coding systems.

    PubMed

    Tan, N C; Ang, A; Heng, D; Chen, J; Wong, H B

    2007-01-01

    The survey is aimed to describe the epidemiology of playground related injuries in Singapore based on the ICD-9, AIS/ ISS and PTS scoring systems, and mechanisms and causes of such injuries according to E codes and ICECI codes. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey examined children (< 16 years old), who sought treatment for or died of unintentional injuries in the ED of three hospitals, two primary care centers and the sole Forensic Medicine Department of Singapore. A data dictionary was compiled using guidelines from CDC/WHO. The ISS, AIS and PTS, ICD-9, ICECI v1 and E codes were used to describe the details of the injuries. 19,094 childhood injuries were recorded in the database, of which 1617 were playground injuries (8.5%). The injured children (mean age=6.8 years, SD 2.9 years) were predo-minantly male (M:F ratio = 1.71:1). Falls were the most frequent in-juries (70.7%) using ICECI. 25.0% of injuries involved radial and ulnar fractures (ICD-9 code). 99.4% of these injuries were minor, with PTS scores of 9-12. Children aged 6-10 years, were prone to upper limb injuries (71.1%) based on AIS. The use of international coding systems in injury surveillance facilitated standardisation of description and comparison of playground injuries.

  7. Adolescents’ internalizing problems following traumatic brain injury are related to parents’ psychiatric symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Robin L.; Kirkwood, Michael W.; Taylor, H. Gerry; Stancin, Terry; Brown, Tanya M.; Wade, Shari L.

    2013-01-01

    Background A small body of previous research has demonstrated that pediatric traumatic brain injury increases risk for internalizing problems, but findings have varied regarding their predictors and correlates. Methods We examined the level and correlates of internalizing symptoms in 130 teens who had sustained a complicated mild to severe TBI within the past 1 to 6 months. Internalizing problems were measured via both maternal and paternal report Child Behavior Checklist. We also measured family functioning, parent psychiatric symptoms, and post-injury teen neurocognitive function. Results Mean parental ratings of internalizing problems were within the normal range. Depending on informant, 22–26% of the sample demonstrated clinically elevated internalizing problems. In multiple and binary logistic regression models, only parent psychiatric symptoms consistently provided unique prediction of teen internalizing symptoms. For maternal but not paternal report, female gender was associated with greater internalizing problems. Conclusion Parent and teen emotional problems are associated following adolescent TBI. Possible reasons for this relationship, including the effects of TBI on the family unit, are discussed. PMID:22935574

  8. International spinal cord injury skin and thermoregulation function basic data set.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, A K; Krassioukov, A; Alexander, M S; Donovan, W; Biering-Sørensen, F

    2012-07-01

    To create an international spinal cord injury (SCI) skin and thermoregulation basic data set within the framework of the International SCI Data Sets. An international working group. The draft of the data set was developed by a working group comprising members appointed by the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA), the International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS) and a representative of the Executive Committee of the International SCI Standards and Data Sets. The final version of the data set was developed after review and comments by members of the Executive Committee of the International SCI Standards and Data Sets, the ISCoS Scientific Committee, ASIA Board, relevant and interested international organizations and societies, individual persons with specific interest and the ISCoS Council. To make the data set uniform, each variable and each response category within each variable have been specifically defined to promote the collection and reporting of comparable minimal data. Variables included in the present data set are: date of data collection, thermoregulation history after SCI, including hyperthermia or hypothermia (noninfectious or infectious), as well as the history of hyperhidrosis or hypohidrosis above or below level of lesion. Body temperature and the time of measurement are included. Details regarding the presence of any pressure ulcer and stage, location and size of the ulcer(s), date of appearance of the ulcer(s) and whether surgical treatment has been performed are included. The history of any pressure ulcer during the last 12 months is also noted.

  9. [Spanish validation of the International Spinal Cord Injury Pulmonary Function Basic Data Set questionnaire for the study of the repercussion of spinal cord injury in the respiratory system].

    PubMed

    Gómez Garrido, Alba; León Espitia, Ana María; Montesinos Magraner, Lluïsa; Ramirez Galceran, Lucrecia; Soler Canudes, Emilia; González Viejo, Miguel Angel

    2015-12-07

    The dysfunction of the respiratory system and the breathing complications in persons with injured spinal cord has an effect on the morbidity and the mortality of the disease. The objectives were: 1) to translate to Spanish and validate the questionnaire of international consensus: International Spinal Cord Injury Pulmonary Function Basic Data Set, and 2) to determine the influence of chronic spinal cord injury in the respiratory system in terms of respiratory functionalism. Translation to Spanish and validation of the questionnaire of international consensus intended for the study of the pulmonary function in spinal cord injury disease. We tested the reliability of that questionnaire. We conducted a descriptive transversal study to determine the degree of involvement of the respiratory system in spinal cord injury. A percentage of 91.9 did not have any respiratory pathology before spinal cord injury and 54.8% of patients smoked. A percentage of 27.4 of patients presented breathing complications one year after the injury. Results of the respiratory function tests were: FVC 67%, FEV1 72% and PEF 70%. Concordance and reliability were 98%. The Spanish version of the questionnaire of international consensus about the pulmonary function is a useful tool for the study of the respiratory involvement in spinal cord injury. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Towards international consensus on patient harm: perspectives on pressure injury policy.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Debra; Hutchinson, Marie; Barnason, Susan; Li, William; Mannix, Judy; Neville, Stephen; Piper, Donella; Power, Tamara; Smith, Graeme D; Usher, Kim

    2016-10-01

    To analyse influential policies that inform practice related to pressure injury management in Australia, England, Hong Kong, New Zealand, Scotland and the United States of America. Pressure injuries are associated with significant harm to patients, and carry economic consequences for the health sector. Internationally, preventing and managing pressure injuries is a key nursing activity and quality indicator. Comparative review and synthesis of pressure injury policies that inform practice. The predominant focus of policy is on patient risk assessment, compliance with documentation and pressure relief. Financial penalty for institutions is emerging as a strategy where pressure injuries occur. Comparisons of prevalence rates are hampered by the lack of consensus on data collection and reporting. To date there has been little evaluation of policy implementation and implemented policy strategies, associated guidelines remain founded upon expert opinion and low-level evidence. The pressure injury policy agenda has fostered a discourse of attention to incidents, compliance and penalty (sanctions). Prevention and intervention strategies are informed by technical and biomedical interpretations of patient risk and harm, with little attention given to the nature or design of nursing work. Considerable challenges remain if this policy agenda is successfully to eliminate pressure injury as a source of patient harm. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The Emerging Workforce of International University Student Workers: Injury Experience in an Australian University

    PubMed Central

    Pisaniello, Dino; Guerin, Cally

    2018-01-01

    International university students are a growing section of the workforce and are thought to be at greater risk of injury. Qualitative studies have highlighted vulnerabilities, but there is a shortage of quantitative research exploring the injury experience and associated risk factors of this emerging issue. In this study, a total of 466 university student workers across a range of study programs in a single Australian university completed an online survey, with questions relating to their background, working experience, training and injury experience. Risk factors for injury were explored in a multivariate statistical model. More than half had not received any safety training before they started work, and 10% reported having had a work injury. About half of these injuries occurred after training. Statistically significant risk factors for injury included working more than 20 h per week (adjusted odds ratio 2.20 (95% CI 1.03–4.71) and lack of confidence in discussing safety issues (AOR 2.17; 95% CI 1.13–4.16). The findings suggest the need for a more engaging and effective approach to safety education and a limit on working hours. This situation is a moral challenge for universities, in that they are effectively sponsoring young workers in the community. It is recommended that longitudinal studies of international student workers be conducted. PMID:29509703

  12. Estimated Probabililty of Chest Injury During an International Space Station Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Beth E.; Milo, Eric A.; Brooker, John E.; Weaver, Aaron S.; Myers, Jerry G., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) is a decision support tool that is useful to spaceflight mission planners and medical system designers when assessing risks and optimizing medical systems. The IMM project maintains a database of medical conditions that could occur during a spaceflight. The IMM project is in the process of assigning an incidence rate, the associated functional impairment, and a best and a worst case end state for each condition. The purpose of this work was to develop the IMM Chest Injury Module (CIM). The CIM calculates the incidence rate of chest injury per person-year of spaceflight on the International Space Station (ISS). The CIM was built so that the probability of chest injury during one year on ISS could be predicted. These results will be incorporated into the IMM Chest Injury Clinical Finding Form and used within the parent IMM model.

  13. Injuries from Combat Explosions in Iraq: Injury Type, Location, and Severity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    the ICD-9 codes that describe trauma, and constructs a matrix using 12 natures of injury (fractures, dislocations, sprains and strains, internal...versions were used in the analysis. The 11 of the 12 injury natures were collapsed into orthopaedic injuries (fractures, dislocations, sprains and strains...region. Orthopaedic injuries include fractures, dislocations, sprains and strains, amputations, and crush injuries. Internal injuries include internal

  14. 2018 International Olympic Committee Consensus Statement on Prevention, Diagnosis, and Management of Pediatric Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Ardern, Clare L.; Ekås, Guri; Grindem, Hege; Moksnes, Håvard; Anderson, Allen F.; Chotel, Franck; Cohen, Moises; Forssblad, Magnus; Ganley, Theodore J.; Feller, Julian A.; Karlsson, Jón; Kocher, Mininder S.; LaPrade, Robert F.; McNamee, Mike; Mandelbaum, Bert; Micheli, Lyle; Mohtadi, Nicholas G.H.; Reider, Bruce; Roe, Justin P.; Seil, Romain; Siebold, Rainer; Silvers-Granelli, Holly J.; Soligard, Torbjørn; Witvrouw, Erik; Engebretsen, Lars

    2018-01-01

    In October 2017, the International Olympic Committee hosted an international expert group of physical therapists and orthopaedic surgeons who specialize in treating and researching pediatric anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. The purpose of this meeting was to provide a comprehensive, evidence-informed summary to support the clinician and help children with ACL injury and their parents/guardians make the best possible decisions. Representatives from the following societies attended: American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine; European Paediatric Orthopaedic Society; European Society for Sports Traumatology, Knee Surgery, and Arthroscopy; International Society of Arthroscopy, Knee Surgery and Orthopaedic Sports Medicine; Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America; and Sociedad Latinoamericana de Artroscopia, Rodilla, y Deporte. Physical therapists and orthopaedic surgeons with clinical and research experience in the field and an ethics expert with substantial experience in the area of sports injuries also participated. This consensus statement addresses 6 fundamental clinical questions regarding the prevention, diagnosis, and management of pediatric ACL injuries. Injury management is challenging in the current landscape of clinical uncertainty and limited scientific knowledge. Injury management decisions also occur against the backdrop of the complexity of shared decision making with children and the potential long-term ramifications of the injury. PMID:29594177

  15. Morel-Lavallee lesion.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Zhang, Fangjie; Lei, Guanghua

    2014-01-01

    To review current knowledge of the Morel-Lavallee lesion (MLL) to help clinicians become familiar with this entity. Familiarization may decrease missed diagnoses and misdiagnoses. It could also help steer the clinician to the proper treatment choice. A search was performed via PubMed and EMBASE from 1966 to July 2013 using the following keywords: Morel-Lavallee lesion, closed degloving injury, concealed degloving injury, Morel-Lavallee effusion, Morel-Lavallee hematoma, posttraumatic pseudocyst, posttraumatic soft tissue cyst. Chinese and English language literatures relevant to the subject were collected. Their references were also reviewed. Morel-Lavallee lesion is a relatively rare condition involving a closed degloving injury. It is characterized by a filled cystic cavity created by separation of the subcutaneous tissue from the underlying fascia. Apart from the classic location over the region of the greater trochanter, MLLs have been described in other parts of the body. The natural history of MLL has not yet been established. The lesion may decrease in volume, remain stable, enlarge progressively or show a recurrent pattern. Diagnosis of MLL was often missed or delayed. Ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging have great value in the diagnosis of MLL. Treatment of MLL has included compression, local aspiration, open debridement, and sclerodesis. No standard treatment has been established. A diagnosis of MLL should be suspected when a soft, fluctuant area of skin or chronic recurrent fluid collection is found in a region exposed to a previous shear injury. Clinicians and radiologists should be aware of both the acute and chronic appearances to make the correct diagnosis. Treatment decisions should base on association with fractures, the condition of the lesion, symptom and desire of the patient.

  16. 2018 International Olympic Committee consensus statement on prevention, diagnosis and management of paediatric anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries

    PubMed Central

    Ekås, Guri Ranum; Grindem, Hege; Moksnes, Håvard; Anderson, Allen F; Chotel, Franck; Cohen, Moises; Forssblad, Magnus; Ganley, Theodore J; Feller, Julian A; Karlsson, Jón; Kocher, Minider S; LaPrade, Robert F; McNamee, Michael; Mandelbaum, Bert; Micheli, Lyle; Mohtadi, Nicholas; Reider, Bruce; Roe, Justin; Seil, Romain; Siebold, Rainer; Witvrouw, Erik; Engebretsen, Lars

    2018-01-01

    In October 2017, the International Olympic Committee hosted an international expert group of physiotherapists and orthopaedic surgeons who specialise in treating and researching paediatric ACL injuries. Representatives from the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine, European Paediatric Orthopaedic Society, European Society for Sports Traumatology, Knee Surgery & Arthroscopy, International Society of Arthroscopy Knee Surgery and Orthopaedic Sports Medicine, Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America and Sociedad Latinoamericana de Artroscopia, Rodilla y Deporte attended. Physiotherapists and orthopaedic surgeons with clinical and research experience in the field, and an ethics expert with substantial experience in the area of sports injuries also participated. Injury management is challenging in the current landscape of clinical uncertainty and limited scientific knowledge. Injury management decisions also occur against the backdrop of the complexity of shared decision-making with children and the potential long-term ramifications of the injury. This consensus statement addresses six fundamental clinical questions regarding the prevention, diagnosis and management of paediatric ACL injuries. The aim of this consensus statement is to provide a comprehensive, evidence-informed summary to support the clinician, and help children with ACL injury and their parents/guardians make the best possible decisions. PMID:29478021

  17. International lower urinary tract function basic spinal cord injury data set.

    PubMed

    Biering-Sørensen, F; Craggs, M; Kennelly, M; Schick, E; Wyndaele, J-J

    2008-05-01

    To create the International Lower Urinary Tract Function Basic Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Data Set within the framework of the International SCI Data Sets. International working group. The draft of the Data Set was developed by a working group consisting of the members appointed by the International Continence Society, the European Association of Urology, the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA), the International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS) and a representative of the Executive Committee of the International SCI Standards and Data Sets. The final version of the Data Set was developed after review and comments by the members of the Executive Committee of the International SCI Standards and Data Sets, the ISCoS Scientific Committee, ASIA Board, relevant and interested (international) organizations and societies (around 40) and persons, and the ISCoS Council. Endorsement of the Data Set by relevant organizations and societies will be obtained. To make the Data Set uniform, each variable and each response category within each variable have been specifically defined in a way that is designed to promote the collection and reporting of comparable minimal data. Variables included in the International Lower Urinary Tract Function Basic SCI Data Set are as follows: date of data collection, urinary tract impairment unrelated to spinal cord lesion, awareness of the need to empty the bladder, bladder emptying, average number of voluntary bladder emptyings per day during the last week, incontinence within the last 3 months, collecting appliances for urinary incontinence, any drugs for the urinary tract within the last year, surgical procedures on the urinary tract and any change in urinary symptoms within the last year. Complete instruction for data collection, data sheet and training cases available at the website of ISCoS (www.iscos.org.uk) and ASIA (www.asia-spinalinjury.org).

  18. International legal regulation of impact of occupational injuries and diseases on agricultural workers' health.

    PubMed

    Pashkov, Vitalii M; Batyhina, Olena M; Trotska, Maryna V

    Agricultural workers' health depends on many factors: working conditions, security arrangements, medicine, quality of drugs, the environment, etc. Occupational injuries and diseases are also among the factors that can negatively affect their health. To analyze provisions of the international legislation and scientific literature concerning existence of restrictions on impact of occupational injuries and diseases on agricultural workers' health. International acts, data of international organizations and conclusions of scientists have been examined and used in the study. The article also integrates information from scientific journals and monographs from a medical and legal point of view with scientific methods. This article is based on dialectical, comparative, analytic, synthetic and comprehensive research methods. Impact of occupational injuries and diseases on agricultural workers' health has been studied within the system approach, as well as analysis and synthesis. The level of occupational morbidity, traumatism and above all standard of agricultural workers' health depends on the way of occupational safety organization. Working conditions and safety in agricultural industry and therefore the appropriate standard of health remain unsatisfactory in many countries.

  19. International spinal cord injury endocrine and metabolic extended data set.

    PubMed

    Bauman, W A; Wecht, J M; Biering-Sørensen, F

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to develop the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Endocrine and Metabolic Extended Data Set (ISCIEMEDS) within the framework of the International SCI Data Sets that would facilitate consistent collection and reporting of endocrine and metabolic findings in the SCI population. This study was conducted in an international setting. The ISCIEMEDS was developed by a working group. The initial ISCIEMEDS was revised based on suggestions from members of the International SCI Data Sets Committee, the International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS) Executive and Scientific Committees, American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Board, other interested organizations, societies and individual reviewers. The data set was posted for two months on ISCoS and ASIA websites for comments. Variable names were standardized, and a suggested database structure for the ISCIEMEDS was provided by the Common Data Elements (CDEs) project at the National Institute on Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) of the US National Institute of Health (NIH), and are available at https://commondataelements.ninds.nih.gov/SCI.aspx#tab=Data_Standards. The final ISCIEMEDS contains questions on the endocrine and metabolic conditions related to SCI. Because the information may be collected at any time, the date of data collection is important to determine the time after SCI. ISCIEMEDS includes information on carbohydrate metabolism (6 variables), calcium and bone metabolism (12 variables), thyroid function (9 variables), adrenal function (2 variables), gonadal function (7 variables), pituitary function (6 variables), sympathetic nervous system function (1 variable) and renin-aldosterone axis function (2 variables). The complete instructions for data collection and the data sheet itself are freely available on the website of ISCoS (http://www.iscos.org.uk/international-sci-data-sets).

  20. Evidence-Based Practice for the Use of Internal Strategies as a Memory Compensation Technique After Brain Injury: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    OʼNeil-Pirozzi, Therese M; Kennedy, Mary R T; Sohlberg, McKay M

    2016-01-01

    To complete a systematic review of internal memory strategy use with people who have brain injury and provide practitioners with information that will impact their clinical work. A systematic literature search to identify published intervention studies that evaluated an internal memory strategy or technique to improve memory function of individuals with brain injury. Relevant data from reviewed articles were coded using 4 clinical questions targeting participants, interventions, research methods, and outcomes. A comprehensive search identified 130 study citations and abstracts. Forty-six met inclusion/exclusion criteria and were systematically reviewed. Visual imagery was most frequently studied, in isolation or in combination with other internal strategies. Despite significant variability in research methods and outcomes across studies, the evidence provides impetus for use of internal memory strategies with individuals following brain injury. Individuals with traumatic brain injury may benefit from internal memory strategy use, and clinicians should consider internal memory strategy instruction as part of intervention plans. Further research needs to better delineate influences on intervention candidacy and outcomes.

  1. A review of the International Brain Research Foundation novel approach to mild traumatic brain injury presented at the International Conference on Behavioral Health and Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Polito, Mary Zemyan; Thompson, James W G; DeFina, Philip A

    2010-09-01

    "The International Conference on Behavioral Health and Traumatic Brain Injury" held at St. Joseph's Regional Medical Center in Paterson, NJ., from October 12 to 15, 2008, included a presentation on the novel assessment and treatment approach to mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) by Philip A. DeFina, PhD, of the International Brain Research Foundation (IBRF). Because of the urgent need to treat a large number of our troops who are diagnosed with mTBI and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the conference was held to create a report for Congress titled "Recommendations to Improve the Care of Wounded Warriors NOW. March 12, 2009." This article summarizes and adds greater detail to Dr. DeFina's presentation on the current standard and novel ways to approach assessment and treatment of mTBI and PTSD. Pilot data derived from collaborative studies through the IBRF have led to the development of clinical and research protocols utilizing currently accepted, valid, and reliable neuroimaging technologies combined in novel ways to develop "neuromarkers." These neuromarkers are being evaluated in the context of an "Integrity-Deficit Matrix" model to demonstrate their ability to improve diagnostic accuracy, guide treatment programs, and possibly predict outcomes for patients suffering from traumatic brain injury.

  2. New Methodology for an Expert-Designed Map From International Classification of Diseases (ICD) to Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) 3+ Severity Injury.

    PubMed

    Zonfrillo, Mark R; Weaver, Ashley A; Gillich, Patrick J; Price, Janet P; Stitzel, Joel D

    2015-01-01

    There has been a longstanding desire for a map to convert International Classification of Diseases (ICD) injury codes to Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) codes to reflect the severity of those diagnoses. The Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine (AAAM) was tasked by European Union representatives to create a categorical map classifying diagnoses codes as serious injury (Abbreviated Injury Scale [AIS] 3+), minor/moderate injury (AIS 1/2), or indeterminate. This study's objective was to map injury-related ICD-9-CM (clinical modification) and ICD-10-CM codes to these severity categories. Approximately 19,000 ICD codes were mapped, including injuries from the following categories: amputations, blood vessel injury, burns, crushing injury, dislocations/sprains/strains, foreign body, fractures, internal organ, nerve/spinal cord injury, intracranial, laceration, open wounds, and superficial injury/contusion. Two parallel activities were completed to create the maps: (1) An in-person expert panel and (2) an electronic survey. The panel consisted of expert users of AIS and ICD from North America, the United Kingdom, and Australia. The panel met in person for 5 days, with follow-up virtual meetings to create and revise the maps. Additional qualitative data were documented to resolve potential discrepancies in mapping. The electronic survey was completed by 95 injury coding professionals from North America, Spain, Australia, and New Zealand over 12 weeks. ICD-to-AIS maps were created for: ICD-9-CM and ICD-10-CM. Both maps indicated whether the corresponding AIS 2005/Update 2008 severity score for each ICD code was AIS 3+, 1/2, or indeterminable. Though some ICD codes could be mapped to multiple AIS codes, the maximum severity of all potentially mapped injuries determined the final severity categorization. The in-person panel consisted of 13 experts, with 11 Certified AIS specialists (CAISS) with a median of 8 years and an average of 15 years of coding experience

  3. Towards valid 'serious non-fatal injury' indicators for international comparisons based on probability of admission estimates.

    PubMed

    Cryer, Colin; Miller, Ted R; Lyons, Ronan A; Macpherson, Alison K; Pérez, Katherine; Petridou, Eleni Th; Dessypris, Nick; Davie, Gabrielle S; Gulliver, Pauline J; Lauritsen, Jens; Boufous, Soufiane; Lawrence, Bruce; de Graaf, Brandon; Steiner, Claudia A

    2017-02-01

    Governments wish to compare their performance in preventing serious injury. International comparisons based on hospital inpatient records are typically contaminated by variations in health services utilisation. To reduce these effects, a serious injury case definition has been proposed based on diagnoses with a high probability of inpatient admission (PrA). The aim of this paper was to identify diagnoses with estimated high PrA for selected developed countries. The study population was injured persons of all ages who attended emergency department (ED) for their injury in regions of Canada, Denmark, Greece, Spain and the USA. International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 or ICD-10 4-digit/character injury diagnosis-specific ED attendance and inpatient admission counts were provided, based on a common protocol. Diagnosis-specific and region-specific PrAs with 95% CIs were calculated. The results confirmed that femoral fractures have high PrA across all countries studied. Strong evidence for high PrA also exists for fracture of base of skull with cerebral laceration and contusion; intracranial haemorrhage; open fracture of radius, ulna, tibia and fibula; pneumohaemothorax and injury to the liver and spleen. Slightly weaker evidence exists for cerebellar or brain stem laceration; closed fracture of the tibia and fibula; open and closed fracture of the ankle; haemothorax and injury to the heart and lung. Using a large study size, we identified injury diagnoses with high estimated PrAs. These diagnoses can be used as the basis for more valid international comparisons of life-threatening injury, based on hospital discharge data, for countries with well-developed healthcare and data collection systems. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Estimated Probability of Traumatic Abdominal Injury During an International Space Station Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Beth E.; Brooker, John E.; Weavr, Aaron S.; Myers, Jerry G., Jr.; McRae, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) is a decision support tool that is useful to spaceflight mission planners and medical system designers when assessing risks and optimizing medical systems. The IMM project maintains a database of medical conditions that could occur during a spaceflight. The IMM project is in the process of assigning an incidence rate, the associated functional impairment, and a best and a worst case end state for each condition. The purpose of this work was to develop the IMM Abdominal Injury Module (AIM). The AIM calculates an incidence rate of traumatic abdominal injury per person-year of spaceflight on the International Space Station (ISS). The AIM was built so that the probability of traumatic abdominal injury during one year on ISS could be predicted. This result will be incorporated into the IMM Abdominal Injury Clinical Finding Form and used within the parent IMM model.

  5. Clinical assessment of acute lateral ankle sprain injuries (ROAST): 2019 consensus statement and recommendations of the International Ankle Consortium.

    PubMed

    Delahunt, Eamonn; Bleakley, Chris M; Bossard, Daniela S; Caulfield, Brian M; Docherty, Carrie L; Doherty, Cailbhe; Fourchet, François; Fong, Daniel T; Hertel, Jay; Hiller, Claire E; Kaminski, Thomas W; McKeon, Patrick O; Refshauge, Kathryn M; Remus, Alexandria; Verhagen, Evert; Vicenzino, Bill T; Wikstrom, Erik A; Gribble, Phillip A

    2018-06-09

    Lateral ankle sprain injury is the most common musculoskeletal injury incurred by individuals who participate in sports and recreational physical activities. Following initial injury, a high proportion of individuals develop long-term injury-associated symptoms and chronic ankle instability. The development of chronic ankle instability is consequent on the interaction of mechanical and sensorimotor insufficiencies/impairments that manifest following acute lateral ankle sprain injury. To reduce the propensity for developing chronic ankle instability, clinical assessments should evaluate whether patients in the acute phase following lateral ankle sprain injury exhibit any mechanical and/or sensorimotor impairments. This modified Delphi study was undertaken under the auspices of the executive committee of the International Ankle Consortium. The primary aim was to develop recommendations, based on expert (n=14) consensus, for structured clinical assessment of acute lateral ankle sprain injuries. After two modified Delphi rounds, consensus was achieved on the clinical assessment of acute lateral ankle sprain injuries. Consensus was reached on a minimum standard clinical diagnostic assessment. Key components of this clinical diagnostic assessment include: establishing the mechanism of injury, as well as the assessment of ankle joint bones and ligaments. Through consensus, the expert panel also developed the International Ankle Consortium Rehabilitation-Oriented ASsessmenT (ROAST). The International Ankle Consortium ROAST will help clinicians identify mechanical and/or sensorimotor impairments that are associated with chronic ankle instability. This consensus statement from the International Ankle Consortium aims to be a key resource for clinicians who regularly assess individuals with acute lateral ankle sprain injuries. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted

  6. Lower-limb reconstruction with chimeric flaps: The quad flap.

    PubMed

    Azouz, Solomon M; Castel, Nikki A; Vijayasekaran, Aparna; Rebecca, Alanna M; Lettieri, Salvatore C

    2018-05-07

    Early soft-tissue coverage is critical for treating traumatic open lower-extremity wounds. As free-flap reconstruction evolves, injuries once thought to be nonreconstructable are being salvaged. Free-tissue transfer is imperative when there is extensive dead space or exposure of vital structures such as bone, tendon, nerves, or blood vessels. We describe 2 cases of lower-extremity crush injuries salvaged with the quad flap. This novel flap consists of parascapular, scapular, serratus, and latissimus dorsi free flaps in combination on one pedicle. This flap provides the large amount of soft-tissue coverage necessary to cover substantial defects from skin degloving, tibia and fibula fractures, and soft-tissue loss. In case 1, a 51-year-old woman was struck by an automobile and sustained bilateral tibia and fibula fractures, a crush degloving injury of the left leg, and a right forefoot traumatic amputation. She underwent reconstruction with a contralateral quad free flap. In case 2, a 53-year-old man sustained a right tibia plateau fracture with large soft-tissue defects from a motorcycle accident. He had a crush degloving injury of the entire anterolateral compartment over the distal and lower third of the right leg. The large soft-tissue defect was reconstructed with a contralateral quad flap. In both cases, the donor site was closed primarily and without early flap failures. There was one surgical complication, an abscess in case 2; the patient was taken back to the operating room for débridement of necrotic tissue. There have been no long-term complications in either case. Both patients achieved adequate soft-tissue coverage, avoided amputation, and had satisfactory aesthetic and functional outcomes. With appropriate surgical technique and patient selection, the quad-flap technique is promising for reconstructing the lower extremity. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. 2018 International Olympic Committee consensus statement on prevention, diagnosis and management of paediatric anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries.

    PubMed

    Ardern, Clare L; Ekås, Guri Ranum; Grindem, Hege; Moksnes, Håvard; Anderson, Allen F; Chotel, Franck; Cohen, Moises; Forssblad, Magnus; Ganley, Theodore J; Feller, Julian A; Karlsson, Jón; Kocher, Minider S; LaPrade, Robert F; McNamee, Michael; Mandelbaum, Bert; Micheli, Lyle; Mohtadi, Nicholas; Reider, Bruce; Roe, Justin; Seil, Romain; Siebold, Rainer; Silvers-Granelli, Holly J; Soligard, Torbjørn; Witvrouw, Erik; Engebretsen, Lars

    2018-04-01

    In October 2017, the International Olympic Committee hosted an international expert group of physiotherapists and orthopaedic surgeons who specialise in treating and researching paediatric ACL injuries. Representatives from the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine, European Paediatric Orthopaedic Society, European Society for Sports Traumatology, Knee Surgery & Arthroscopy, International Society of Arthroscopy Knee Surgery and Orthopaedic Sports Medicine, Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America and Sociedad Latinoamericana de Artroscopia, Rodilla y Deporte attended. Physiotherapists and orthopaedic surgeons with clinical and research experience in the field, and an ethics expert with substantial experience in the area of sports injuries also participated. Injury management is challenging in the current landscape of clinical uncertainty and limited scientific knowledge. Injury management decisions also occur against the backdrop of the complexity of shared decision-making with children and the potential long-term ramifications of the injury. This consensus statement addresses six fundamental clinical questions regarding the prevention, diagnosis and management of paediatric ACL injuries. The aim of this consensus statement is to provide a comprehensive, evidence-informed summary to support the clinician, and help children with ACL injury and their parents/guardians make the best possible decisions. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Sex differences in injury during top-level international athletics championships: surveillance data from 14 championships between 2007 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Edouard, Pascal; Feddermann-Demont, Nina; Alonso, Juan Manuel; Branco, Pedro; Junge, Astrid

    2015-04-01

    Injury incidence has been reported for international athletics championships from 2007 to 2012. However, it is unclear whether male or female athletes differ in risk and/or characteristics of injuries. To compare the incidences and characteristics of injuries that occurred during international athletics championships between female and male athletes. The national medical team and the local organising committee physicians reported all injuries daily on a standardised injury report form during 14 international championships from 2007 to 2014. Relative risks (RR) of injury, 95% CI and magnitude thresholds were calculated. The rate of injuries per 1000 registered athletes was significantly higher in male (110.3±6.8) than in female (88.5±6.7) athletes (RR=1.25; 95% CI 1.13 to 1.37, small effect size). Male athletes incurred significantly more injuries in the thigh (RR=1.64; 95% CI 1.32 to 2.05, small), lower leg (RR=1.36; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.75, small) and hip/groin injuries (RR=2.26; 95% CI 1.31 to 3.88, moderate), more muscle strains (RR=1.64; 95% CI 1.33 to 2.04, small), cramps (RR=1.81; 95% CI 1.35 to 2.43, small), and especially more thigh strains (RR=1.66; 95% CI 1.25 to 2.19, small), but fewer stress fractures (RR=0.32; 95% CI 0.12 to 0.81, moderate) than female athletes. A higher injury risk of male than of female athletes was observed in sprints (RR=1.32; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.66, small), middle distance runs (RR=1.48; 95% CI 1.06 to 2.06, small), race walks (RR=2.55; 95% CI 1.27 to 5.10, moderate) and jumps (RR=2.13; 95% CI 1.53 to 2.97, moderate). No sex difference was found for cause and severity of injury. Injury risk during international athletics championships differed between female and male athletes for location, type and event groups. Injury prevention strategies should be sex-specific, regarding the differences in injury location and type. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please

  9. Risk factors for injury among construction workers at Denver International Airport.

    PubMed

    Lowery, J T; Borgerding, J A; Zhen, B; Glazner, J E; Bondy, J; Kreiss, K

    1998-08-01

    The Denver International Airport construction project provided a rare opportunity to identify risk factors for injury on a large construction project for which 769 contractors were hired to complete 2,843 construction contracts. Workers' compensation claims and payroll data for individual contracts were recorded in an administrative database developed by the project's Owner-Controlled Insurance Program. From claims andy payroll data linked with employee demographic information, we calculated injury rates per 200,000 person-hours by contract and over contract characteristics of interest. We used Poisson regression models to examine contract-specific risk factors in relation to total injuries, lost-work-time (LWT), and non-LWT injuries. We included contract-specific expected loss rates (ELRs) in the model to control for prevailing risk of work and used logistic regression methods to determine the association between LWT and non-LWT injuries on contracts. Injury rates were highest during the first year of construction, at the beginning of contracts, and among older workers. Risk for total and non-LWT injuries was elevated for building construction contracts, contract for special trades companies (SIC 17), contracts with payrolls over $1 million, and those with overtime payrolls greater than 20%. Risk for LWT injuries only was increased for site development contracts and contract starting in the first year of construction. Contracts experiencing one or more minor injuries were four times as likely to have at least one major injury (OR = 4.0, 95% CI (2.9, 5.5)). Enhancement of DIA's safety infrastructure during the second year of construction appears to have been effective in reducing serious (LWT) injures. The absence of correlation between injury rates among contracts belonging to the same company suggest that targeting of safety resources at the level of the contract may be an effective approach to injury prevention. Interventions focused on high-risk contracts

  10. International spinal cord injury bowel function basic data set (Version 2.0).

    PubMed

    Krogh, K; Emmanuel, A; Perrouin-Verbe, B; Korsten, M A; Mulcahey, M J; Biering-Sørensen, F

    2017-07-01

    International expert working group. To revise the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Bowel Function Basic Data Set as a standardized format for the collecting and reporting of a minimal amount of information on bowel function in clinical practice and research. Working group appointed by the American Spinal injury association (ASIA) and the International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS). The draft prepared by the working group was reviewed by the International SCI Data Set Committee and later by members of the ISCoS Executive and Scientific Committees and the ASIA board. The revised data set was posted on the ASIA and ISCoS websites for 1 month to allow further comments and suggestions. Changes resulting from a Delphi process among experts in children with SCI were included. Members of ISCoS Executive and Scientific Committees and the ASIA board made a final review and approved the data set. The International SCI Bowel Function Basic Data Set (Version 2.0) consists of the following 16 items: date of data collection, gastrointestinal and anal sphincter dysfunction unrelated to SCI, surgical procedures on the gastrointestinal tract, defecation method and bowel-care procedures, average time required for defecation, frequency of defecation, uneasiness, headache or perspiration during defecation, digital stimulation or evacuation of the anorectum, frequency of fecal incontinence, flatus incontinence, need to wear pad or plug, oral laxatives and prokinetics, anti-diarrheal agents, perianal problems, abdominal pain and discomfort and the neurogenic bowel dysfunction score. The International SCI Bowel Function Basic Data Set (Version 2.0) has been developed.

  11. Evaluation of severe and fatal injuries in extreme and contact sports: an international multicenter analysis.

    PubMed

    Weber, Christian D; Horst, Klemens; Nguyen, Anthony R; Lefering, Rolf; Pape, Hans-Christoph; Hildebrand, Frank

    2018-04-19

    The participation in extreme and contact sports has grown internationally, despite the significant risk for major and multiple injuries. We conducted this multicenter study to evaluate sport-specific injury patterns and mechanisms, to characterize individuals at risk and to identify possible approaches for prevention. We compared demographic data, severity and patterns of injuries; and the pre- and in-hospital management from an international population-based prospective trauma database (TraumaRegister DGU®). The registry was screened for sport-related injuries, and only patients with major injuries [Injury Severity Score (ISS) ≥ 9 points] related to extreme or contact sports activities were included (January 1, 2002, to December 31, 2012). Parameters were compared for different types of sports activities: (1) Airborne sports, (2) Climbing, (3) Skateboarding/Skating, (4) Contact sports. The following countries participated: Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Finland, Slovenia, Belgium, Luxembourg, and The Netherlands. Statistical analyses were performed with SPSS (Version 22, IBM Inc., Armonk, New York). A total of 278 athletes were identified within the study period and classified into four groups: Airborne sports (n = 105) were associated with the highest injury severity (ISS 22.4 ± 14.6), followed by climbing (n = 35, ISS 16.5 ± 12), skating (n = 67, ISS 15.2 ± 10.3) and contact sports (n = 71, ISS 10.4 ± 9.2). Especially high falls resulted in a significant rate of spinal injuries in airborne activities (68.6%, p < 0.001) and in climbing accidents (45.7%). Skating was associated with the highest rate of loss of consciousness (LOC) at scene (27.1%), the highest pre-hospital intubation rate (33.3%), and also the highest in-hospital mortality (15.2%, p < 0.001), related to major head injuries. Extreme and contact sports related major injuries predominantly affect young male athletes. Especially skaters are at risk for

  12. International Spinal Cord Injury Data Sets for non-traumatic spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    New, P W; Marshall, R

    2014-02-01

    Multifaceted: extensive discussions at workshop and conference presentations, survey of experts and feedback. Present the background, purpose and development of the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Data Sets for Non-Traumatic SCI (NTSCI), including a hierarchical classification of aetiology. International. Consultation via e-mail, presentations and discussions at ISCoS conferences (2006-2009), and workshop (1 September 2008). The consultation processes aimed to: (1) clarify aspects of the classification structure, (2) determine placement of certain aetiologies and identify important missing causes of NTSCI and (3) resolve coding issues and refine definitions. Every effort was made to consider feedback and suggestions from participants. The International Data Sets for NTSCI includes basic and an extended versions. The extended data set includes a two-axis classification system for the causes of NTSCI. Axis 1 consists of a five-level, two-tier (congenital-genetic and acquired) hierarchy that allows for increasing detail to specify the aetiology. Axis 2 uses the International Statistical Classification of Diseases (ICD) and Related Health Problems for coding the initiating diseases(s) that may have triggered the events that resulted in the axis 1 diagnosis, where appropriate. Additional items cover the timeframe of onset of NTSCI symptoms and presence of iatrogenicity. Complete instructions for data collection, data sheet and training cases are available at the websites of ISCoS (http://www.iscos.org.uk) and ASIA (http://www.asia-spinalinjury.org). The data sets should facilitate comparative research involving NTSCI participants, especially epidemiological studies and prevention projects. Further work is anticipated to refine the data sets, particularly regarding iatrogenicity.

  13. Injuries occurring in medical students during international medical rotations: a strategy toward maximizing safety.

    PubMed

    Galvin, Shannon; Robertson, Russell; Hargarten, Stephen

    2012-06-01

    The number of medical students traveling to nations outside the United States is steadily increasing. The Association of American Medical Colleges graduation questionnaire notes an increase from 2,838 students in 2001 to 3,799 students in 2009, the last year for which information is available. The risk of having any type of illness during international travel approaches 50%. Up to 19% of students will seek medical care on their return to the United States for illnesses. Most illnesses are benign and self limited. However, when deaths do occur, the leading causes are motor vehicle crashes and drownings. If air medical evacuation occurs, the most likely cause is an injury event. The authors review the literature to determine the risk of and type of illnesses and injuries suffered by travelers while overseas, especially medical volunteers. We describe the major categories of illness and injury risk and propose reasonable risk reduction and prevention strategies for prevention for injury, a relatively neglected area. We recommend that medical schools provide pre-travel training that includes injury prevention so that students are prepared not only for illness prevention but also for injury prevention. A focus on injury prevention, especially from motor vehicle crashes and drowning, is warranted given their role in causing death and serious injury to traveling students.

  14. Adolescents' pain experiences following acute blunt traumatic injury: struggle for internal control.

    PubMed

    Crandall, Margie; Kools, Susan; Miaskowski, Christine; Savedra, Marilyn

    2007-10-01

    Although blunt trauma injury is a common cause for adolescent pain, little is known about the experience of pain as perceived by adolescents. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 13 adolescents following blunt trauma injury. Two age-appropriate valid measures (i.e., Adolescent Pediatric Pain Tool and Temporal Dot Matrix) were incorporated into the interviews to elaborate their pain experiences. Grounded theory method was used to analyze data and build substantive theory. Adolescents' behavioral and cognitive actions (i.e., "internal control") to manage and endure pain were influenced by their pain perceptions, physical losses, and clinicians' actions. Nurses, family members, and peers have a crucial role in alleviating adolescents' distress and pain.

  15. Concomitant aortic valve and internal mammary artery injuries in blunt chest trauma: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chun-Chieh; Hsieh, Chi-Hsun; Wang, Yu-Chun; Chung, Ping-Kuei; Chen, Ray-Jade

    2009-01-01

    We report a case of concomitant injury to the aortic valve and internal mammary artery (IMA) from nonpenetrating chest trauma. To our knowledge, this is the first such case to be reported. Transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) following diagnostic angiography offers an effective and minimally invasive treatment for traumatic IMA injuries. Because there might be an asymptomatic interval after traumatic aortic valve injuries, serial physical examinations and repeated echocardiography should be mandatory for patients with de novo heart failure after blunt chest trauma. Transesophageal echocardiography can provide a clearer image of cardiac injuries than transthoracic echocardiography, particularly if there is extensive anterior mediastinal hematoma resulting from IMA trauma.

  16. Correlation of glenohumeral internal rotation deficit and total rotational motion to shoulder injuries in professional baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Wilk, Kevin E; Macrina, Leonard C; Fleisig, Glenn S; Porterfield, Ronald; Simpson, Charles D; Harker, Paul; Paparesta, Nick; Andrews, James R

    2011-02-01

    Glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD) indicates a 20° or greater loss of internal rotation of the throwing shoulder compared with the nondominant shoulder. To determine whether GIRD and a deficit in total rotational motion (external rotation + internal rotation) compared with the nonthrowing shoulder correlate with shoulder injuries in professional baseball pitchers. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Over 3 competitive seasons (2005 to 2007), passive range of motion measurements were evaluated on the dominant and nondominant shoulders for 170 pitcher-seasons. This included 122 professional pitchers during the 3 seasons of data collection, in which some pitchers were measured during multiple seasons. Ranges of motion were measured with a bubble goniometer during the preseason, by the same examiner each year. External and internal rotation of the glenohumeral joint was assessed with the participant supine and the arm abducted 90° in the plane of the scapula, with the scapula stabilized anteriorly at the coracoid process. The reproducibility of the test methods had an intraclass correlation coefficient of .81. Days in which the player was unable to participate because of injury or surgery were recorded during the season by the medical staff of the team and defined as an injury. Pitchers with GIRD (n = 40) were nearly twice as likely to be injured as those without but without statistical significance (P = .17). Pitchers with total rotational motion deficit greater than 5° had a higher rate of injury. Minor league pitchers were more likely than major league pitchers to be injured. However, when players were injured, major league pitchers missed a significantly greater number of games than minor league pitchers. Compared with pitchers without GIRD, pitchers with GIRD appear to be at a higher risk for injury and shoulder surgery.

  17. Glenohumeral Internal Rotation Deficit and Injuries: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Jordan E.; Fullmer, Joshua A.; Nielsen, Chaseton M.; Johnson, Joshua K.; Moorman, Claude T.

    2018-01-01

    Background: There is an association between throwing activity and glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD). An 18° to 20° deficit has been adopted as the standard definition of pathological GIRD, but specific findings as to how GIRD relates to an injury are inconsistent. Purpose: To systematically review the literature to clarify the definition of GIRD diagnosis for adolescent and adult overhead athletes and to examine the association between GIRD and an increased risk of injuries in these athletes. Study Design: Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was performed. Observational studies comparing glenohumeral internal rotation range of motion (ROM) in injured and uninjured overhead athletes were included for the meta-analysis. Studies of adolescent and adult athletes were analyzed separately. ROM was compared for the injured and uninjured groups, and a weighted mean GIRD was estimated. To account for potential heterogeneity across studies, both fixed- and random-effects models were used to calculate a standardized mean difference (SMD). Results: Nine studies of level 3 or 4 evidence were included. From these, 12 study groups (4 adolescent, 8 adult) comprising 819 overhead athletes (226 injured, 593 uninjured) were included in the meta-analysis. The estimated SMD in GIRD between the injured and uninjured groups was 0.46 (95% CI, 0.15-0.77; P < .01) for the overall sample. The between-group effect was larger for adults (SMD, 0.60 [95% CI, 0.18 to 1.02]; P < .01) than adolescents (SMD, 0.20 [95% CI, –0.24 to 0.63]; P = .13). The weighted mean GIRD for the injured and uninjured groups was 13.8° ± 5.6° and 9.6° ± 3.0°, respectively, which also differed by age group. Moderate study heterogeneity was observed (I 2 = 69.0%). Conclusion: Based on this systematic review, the current definition of pathological GIRD may be too conservative, and a distinct definition may be required for adolescent and adult

  18. Evaluating the potential for internal injuries from a pulsed 3.8-micron laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Thomas E.; Fitzhugh, Dawn C.; McPherson, Nicole; Winston, Golda C. H.; Winston, Tridaugh D.; Randolph, Donald Q.

    2005-04-01

    The goal of this study is to determine if a high energy laser pulse can cause internal injury that cannot be grossly visualized. High power lasers are currently in development such as the Medical Free Electron Laser (MFEL), the Anti-Ballistic Laser (ABL) and the Tactical High Energy Laser (THEL) and the potential exists for human exposure. Little is known about the effects of these high output lasers on internal organs when a thoracic exposure occurs. This study utilized a 3.8 micron single 8 microsecond pulse laser for all exposures. Yucatan miniature pigs were exposed to a single pulse over the sternum. In addition, some animals were also exposed in the axillary region. Creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and troponin levels were measured prior to and post exposure to assess cardiac muscle damage. Gross and histologic changes were determined for the porcine skin, lung tissue, and cardiac muscle. This study explores if a greater than class 4 laser classification is warranted based on the potential for thoracic injury.

  19. Defining traumatic brain injury in children and youth using international classification of diseases version 10 codes: a systematic review protocol.

    PubMed

    Chan, Vincy; Thurairajah, Pravheen; Colantonio, Angela

    2013-11-13

    Although healthcare administrative data are commonly used for traumatic brain injury research, there is currently no consensus or consistency on using the International Classification of Diseases version 10 codes to define traumatic brain injury among children and youth. This protocol is for a systematic review of the literature to explore the range of International Classification of Diseases version 10 codes that are used to define traumatic brain injury in this population. The databases MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process, Embase, PsychINFO, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews will be systematically searched. Grey literature will be searched using Grey Matters and Google. Reference lists of included articles will also be searched. Articles will be screened using predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria and all full-text articles that meet the predefined inclusion criteria will be included for analysis. The study selection process and reasons for exclusion at the full-text level will be presented using a PRISMA study flow diagram. Information on the data source of included studies, year and location of study, age of study population, range of incidence, and study purpose will be abstracted into a separate table and synthesized for analysis. All International Classification of Diseases version 10 codes will be listed in tables and the codes that are used to define concussion, acquired traumatic brain injury, head injury, or head trauma will be identified. The identification of the optimal International Classification of Diseases version 10 codes to define this population in administrative data is crucial, as it has implications for policy, resource allocation, planning of healthcare services, and prevention strategies. It also allows for comparisons across countries and studies. This protocol is for a review that identifies the range and most common diagnoses used to conduct surveillance for traumatic brain injury in children and youth. This

  20. Injury Surveillance Among NASA Astronauts Using the Barell Injury Diagnosis Matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, J. D.; Laughlin, M. S.; Eudy, D. L.; Wear, M. L.; VanBaalen, M. G.

    2014-01-01

    Astronauts perform physically demanding tasks and risk incurring musculoskeletal injuries during both groundbased training and missions. Increased injury rates throughout the history of the U.S. space program have been attributed to numerous factors, including an aging astronaut corps, increased Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) and Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) training to construct the International Space Station, and improved clinical operations that promote injury prevention and reporting. With NASA program changes through the years (including retirement of the Shuttle program) and an improved training environment (including a new astronaut gym), there is no surveillance program to systematically track injury rates. A limited number of research projects have been conducted over the past 20 years to evaluate musculoskeletal injuries: (1) to evaluate orthopedic injuries from 1987 to 1995, (2) to describe upper extremity injuries, (3) to evaluate EVA spacesuit training related injuries, and (4) to evaluate in-flight musculoskeletal injuries. Nevertheless, there has been no consistently performed comprehensive assessment of musculoskeletal injuries among astronauts. The Barell Injury Diagnosis Matrix was introduced at the 2001 meeting of the International Collaborative Effort (ICE) on Injury Statistics. The Matrix proposes a standardized method of classifying body region by nature of injury. Diagnoses are coded using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) coding system. The purpose of this study is to assess the usefulness and complexity of the Barell Injury Diagnosis Matrix to classify and track musculoskeletal injuries among NASA astronauts.

  1. Exploring musculoskeletal injuries in the podiatry profession: an international cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Williams, Cylie M; Penkala, Stefania; Smith, Peter; Haines, Terry; Bowles, Kelly-Ann

    2017-01-01

    Workplace injury is an international costly burden. Health care workers are an essential component to managing musculoskeletal disorders, however in doing this, they may increase their own susceptibility. While there is substantial evidence about work-related musculoskeletal disorders across the health workforce, understanding risk factors in specific occupational groups, such as podiatry, is limited. The primary aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and intensity of work related low back pain in podiatrists. This was an international cross-sectional survey targeting podiatrists in Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom. The survey had two components; general demographic variables and variables relating to general musculoskeletal pain in general or podiatry work-related musculoskeletal pain. Multivariable regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with musculoskeletal stiffness and pain and low back pain intensity. Thematic analysis was used to group comments podiatrists made about their musculoskeletal health. There were 948 survey responses (5% of Australian, New Zealand and United Kingdom registered podiatrists). There were 719 (76%) podiatrists reporting musculoskeletal pain as a result of their work practices throughout their career. The majority of injuries reported were in the first five years of practice ( n  = 320, 45%). The body area reported as being the location of the most significant injury was the low back (203 of 705 responses, 29%). Being female ( p  < 0.001) and working in private practice ( p  = 0.003) was associated with musculoskeletal pain or stiffness in the past 12 months. There were no variables associated with pain or stiffness in the past four weeks. Being female was the only variable associated with higher pain ( p  = 0.018). There were four main themes to workplace musculoskeletal pain: 1. Organisational and procedural responses to injury, 2. Giving up work, taking time off, reducing

  2. International Spinal Cord Injury Core Data Set (version 2.0)-including standardization of reporting.

    PubMed

    Biering-Sørensen, F; DeVivo, M J; Charlifue, S; Chen, Y; New, P W; Noonan, V; Post, M W M; Vogel, L

    2017-08-01

    The study design includes expert opinion, feedback, revisions and final consensus. The objective of the study was to present the new knowledge obtained since the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Core Data Set (Version 1.0) published in 2006, and describe the adjustments made in Version 2.0, including standardization of data reporting. International. Comments received from the SCI community were discussed in a working group (WG); suggestions from the WG were reviewed and revisions were made. All suggested revisions were considered, and a final version was circulated for final approval. The International SCI Core Data Set (Version 2.0) consists of 25 variables. Changes made to this version include the deletion of one variable 'Total Days Hospitalized' and addition of two variables 'Date of Rehabilitation Admission' and 'Date of Death.' The variable 'Injury Etiology' was extended with six non-traumatic categories, and corresponding 'Date of Injury' for non-traumatic cases, was defined as the date of first physician visit for symptoms related to spinal cord dysfunction. A category reflecting transgender was added. A response category was added to the variable on utilization of ventilatory assistance to document the use of continuous positive airway pressure for sleep apnea. Other clarifications were made to the text. The reporting of the pediatric SCI population was updated as age groups 0-5, 6-12, 13-14, 15-17 and 18-21. Collection of the core data set should be a basic requirement of all studies of SCI to facilitate accurate descriptions of patient populations and comparison of results across published studies from around the world.

  3. Chronic Morel-Lavallée Lesion: A Novel Minimally Invasive Method of Treatment.

    PubMed

    Mettu, Ramireddy; Surath, Harsha Vardhan; Chayam, Hanumantha Rao; Surath, Amaranth

    2016-11-01

    A Morel-Lavallée lesion is a closed internal degloving injury resulting from a shearing force applied to the skin. The etiology of this condition may be motor vehicle accidents, falls, contact sports (ie, football, wrestling),1 and iatrogenic after mammoplasty or abdominal liposuction.2 Common sites of the lesions include the pelvis and/or thigh.3 Isolated Morel-Lavallée lesions without underlying fracture are likely to be missed, which result in chronicity. Management of this condition often requires extensive surgical procedures such as debridement, sclerotherapy, serial percutaneous drainage, negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT), and skin grafting.4,5 The authors wish to highlight a minimally invasive technique for the treatment of chronic Morel-Lavallée lesions.

  4. Development of the International Spinal Cord Injury Activities and Participation Basic Data Set.

    PubMed

    Post, M W; Charlifue, S; Biering-Sørensen, F; Catz, A; Dijkers, M P; Horsewell, J; Noonan, V K; Noreau, L; Tate, D G; Sinnott, K A

    2016-07-01

    Consensus decision-making process. The objective of this study was to develop an International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Activities and Participation (A&P) Basic Data Set. International working group. A committee of experts was established to select and define A&P data elements to be included in this data set. A draft data set was developed and posted on the International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS) and American Spinal Injury Association websites and was also disseminated among appropriate organizations for review. Suggested revisions were considered, and a final version of the A&P Data Set was completed. Consensus was reached to define A&P and to incorporate both performance and satisfaction ratings. Items that were considered core to each A&P domain were selected from two existing questionnaires. Four items measuring activities were selected from the Spinal Cord Independence Measure III to provide basic data on task execution in activities of daily living. Eight items were selected from the Craig Handicap Assessment and Reporting Technique to provide basic data on the frequency of participation. An additional rating of satisfaction on a three-point scale for each item completes the total of 24 A&P variables. Collection of the International SCI A&P Basic Data Set variables in all future research on SCI outcomes is advised to facilitate comparison of results across published studies from around the world. Additional standardised instruments to assess activities of daily living or participation can be administered, depending on the purpose of a particular study.

  5. [Internal fixation with one-hole microplate for the treatment of collateral ligament injuries of the metacarpophalangeal joint of the thumb combined with fracture].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi-Xun; Sun, De-Tao; Chen, Xu-Hui; Li, Jun; Cui, Yan; Hu, Ji-Chao; Shu, Zheng-Hua; He, Jian; Ding, Chao-Qi; Chen, Bo

    2015-03-01

    To study clinical effects of one-hole microplate internal fixation for the treatment of collateral ligament injuries of the metacarpophalangeal joint of the thumb combined with fracture. Twenty-two patients (16 males, 6 females) with collateral ligament injuries of the metacarpophalangeal joint of the thumb combined fracture were treated with one-hole microplate internal fixation. The age of the patients ranged from 18 to 53 years old with a mean age of 28.5 years old. The duration from injury to surgery ranged from 2 hours to 2 months, and the mean time was 6 days. All the patients had collateral ligament injuries combined with fracture of the metacarpophalangeal joint of the thumb. Thirteen patients had injuries in the right hand and 9 patients had injuries in the left hand. There were 18 cases of closed wound and 4 cases of open wound. Eighteen patients had fresh injuries (< 2 weeks) and 4 had old injuries (> 2 weeks). Sixteen patients had injuries in the ulnar collateral ligament of the thumb combined with fracture, 6 patients had radial collateral ligament injuries of the thumb combined with fracture, 4 cases of which were complicated with injuries of abductor pollicis brevis and the end of the flexor pollicis brevis tender. The size of the avulsed fragment was about 3.0 mm x 4.0 mm to 6.0 mm x 7.0 mm. The incisions of 22 patients healed by first intention. The follow-up periods ranged from 6 months to 5 years old,with an average of 2.5 years old. The thumb function was evaluated by Saetta and other evaluation criteria, and 20 patients got an excellent result and 2 good. The application of one-hole microplate internal fixation in treating collateral ligament injuries with fracture of the metacarpophalangeal joint of the thumb is an effective method.

  6. Dorsal vein injuries observed during penile exploration for suspected penile fracture.

    PubMed

    Bar-Yosef, Yuval; Greenstein, Alexander; Beri, Avi; Lidawi, Ghalib; Matzkin, Haim; Chen, Juza

    2007-07-01

    Penile fracture is a rare injury, bearing potential impairment of erectile function if not treated. Patients with clinical presentation of a penile fracture commonly undergo early surgical exploration with the intention to repair a tunica albuginea tear. We present a group of men who presented with a penile hematoma following trauma to the erect penis. Exploration revealed an intact tunica albuginea and a dorsal vein tear. Eighteen men (mean age 38 years, range 20-55) presented with suspected penile fracture during an 8-year period. One man presented twice. Two of the patients were managed expectantly and the remaining 16 patients underwent 17 immediate surgical explorations. Explorations were performed under general anesthesia, using a circumferential subcoronal incision and degloving of the penile skin. The tunica albuginea of both penile sides as well as the penile urethra were examined for injuries. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed for etiology, symptoms, signs of physical examination, and information on findings of surgical exploration. Data on erectile function, medical treatment for erectile dysfunction, and penile curvature were obtained during follow-up. In nine of the 17 procedures the tunica albuginea was intact and the only pathological finding was a ruptured dorsal vein. One procedure was negative for both tunical and vascular injury. A tunical tear was detected in the remaining seven procedures. At a mean follow-up of 40 months (range 4-91), five patients required medical treatment for erectile dysfunction, including the two who were managed expectantly, two with a tunical tear, and one with a venous tear. Dorsal vein tears may mimic penile fracture. Suggestive findings following trauma to the erect penis prompted exploration for suspected tunica albuginea tear. In less than half of the men was the diagnosis of penile fracture established and treated at surgery.

  7. Injury prevention and other international public health initiatives.

    PubMed

    Razzak, Junaid A; Sasser, Scott M; Kellermann, Arthur L

    2005-02-01

    Injuries, whether caused by unintentional or intentional events, area significant public health problem. The burden of injury is greatest in low-and middle-income countries and among individuals of low socioeconomic status living in high-income countries. Most of these injuries are prevent-able. Emergency physicians can play an important role in reducing the global burden of injuries by providing expert care and by identifying, implementing, and evaluating population-based countermeasures to prevent and control injuries. The strategy used in a particular country depends in large part on the nature of the local problem, the concerns of the population, the availability of resources, and competing demands. Even simple countermeasures may have a big impact in reducing the global burden of death and disability due to injury.

  8. Internal decapitation: survival after head to neck dissociation injuries.

    PubMed

    Ben-Galim, Peleg J; Sibai, Tarek A; Hipp, John A; Heggeness, Michael H; Reitman, Charles A

    2008-07-15

    Case series. To describe survival and outcomes after occipitocervical dissociation injuries. Historically, occipitocervical dissociation injuries have a high rate of associated neurologic deficit with a relatively high incidence of mortality. Six patients with occipitocervical dissociation injuries are reported and their management and imaging findings reviewed. Possible contributory factors for survival are discussed. All patients had upper neck and head dissociation injuries. The pattern of injury in all of these cases included a distraction type mechanism. All cases demonstrated soft tissue disruption in the zone of injury, which was consistent and apparent on all imaging studies. In these patients, the extent and severity of injury was more apparent on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) than on radiograph or computed tomography scan. Management of these injuries included immobilization followed by surgery with particular care taken to avoid application of distraction forces to the neck. Patients with occipitocervical dissociation injuries may survive their injury and even retain neurologic integrity. Initial in-line head stabilization is emphasized to prevent catastrophic neurologic injury. The resting osseous relationships and vertebral alignment at the time of imaging evaluation may be deceivingly normal, and the damage often primarily or exclusively involves disruption of the perivertebral soft tissue structures. Prevertebral soft tissue swelling was apparent in all cases. For these injuries that involve primarily damage to the ligamentous structures, MRI seems to be the optimal test for revealing the magnitude of the injury.

  9. A 51-year-old woman crushed by an elephant trunk.

    PubMed

    Tsung, Ann H; Allen, Brandon R

    2015-03-01

    Wild and exotic animal attacks are not common in the United States. Animal-related injuries in the United States are usually caused by dog bites, followed by cattle and horse injuries. Exotic animal attacks can occur when the animals are provoked, depressed, or housed improperly by owners. We report the case of a 51-year-old woman who sustained multiple systemic traumatic injuries after she was pinned to a fence by an elephant's trunk. Upon arrival in the emergency department, she was hypothermic with a temperature of 35.1ºC (95.1ºF), hypotensive to 94/60 mm Hg after 5 L crystalloid, tachycardic at 108 beats/min, and intubated with oxygen saturation of 100%. Tranexamic acid was administered in addition to starting a massive transfusion protocol. Injuries included bilateral multiple rib fractures, left abdominal wall degloving injury, right pneumothorax, right hemothorax, left chest wall puncture wound, grade IV splenic laceration, 3 grade III liver lacerations, retroperitoneal hematoma, and degloving injuries to bilateral posterior thighs requiring more than 30 operations. Why should an emergency physician be aware of this? Several factors need to be considered when evaluating animal-related injuries, including type, age, and sex of the animal. Multisystem traumatic injuries should be assumed when a large animal is involved. Prehospital care and transport time are vital to a patient's survival in both urban and rural settings. During the initial resuscitation, administering antibiotics tailored to the specific animal can greatly decrease risk of infection and morbidity. Additionally, tetanus immunoglobulin, tetanus toxoid, and rabies immunoglobulin and vaccine may be needed, unless the victim has been previously vaccinated. Copyright © 2015 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Endoscopic treatment of Morel-Lavallee lesion.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunghoon

    2016-05-01

    Morel-Lavallee lesion is a closed degloving soft tissue injury in which subcutaneous tissue is torn from the underlying muscular fascia. The tear leads to venolymphatic leak, and concomitant adipose tissue necrosis from the force of the trauma causes swelling and possible infection at the site of injury. The traditional treatment for the lesion is surgical drainage and debridement. In this report, an endoscopic method is described, which achieves the goal of an open surgical debridement but minimizes surgical morbidity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sacral morel-lavallée lesion: a not-so-rare diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Tresley, Jonathan; Jose, Jean; Saraf-Lavi, Efrat; Sklar, Evelyn

    2014-12-01

    Morel-Lavallée lesions are closed soft tissue degloving injuries with a propensity to become infected, arising in the lumbosacral region or even the scalp, common anatomical locations in neuroradiological studies. The radiologist must recognize this entity, its traumatic etiology, and treatment options. Our patient's Morel-Lavallée lesion was evaluated with ultrasound and MRI, demonstrating a predominantly hemorrhagic lesion successfully managed by aspiration.

  12. Training model for control of an internal carotid artery injury during transsphenoidal surgery.

    PubMed

    Muto, Jun; Carrau, Ricardo L; Oyama, Kenichi; Otto, Brad A; Prevedello, Daniel M

    2017-01-01

    As the adoption of endoscopic endonasal approaches (EEA) continues to proliferate, increasing numbers of internal carotid artery (ICA) injuries are reported. The objective of this study was to develop a synthetic ICA injury-training model that could mimic this clinical scenario and be portable, repeatable, reproducible, and without risk of biological contamination. Based on computed tomography of a human head, we constructed a synthetic model using selective laser sintering with polyamide nylon and glass beads. Subsequently, the model was connected to a pulsatile pump using 6-mm silicon tubing. The pump maintains a pulsatile flow of an artificial blood-like fluid at a variable pressure to simulate heart beats. Volunteer surgeons with different levels of training and experience were provided simulation training sessions with the models. Pre- and posttraining questionnaires were completed by each of the participants. Pre- and posttraining questionnaires suggest that repeated simulation sessions improve the surgical skills and self-confidence of trainees. This ICA injury model is portable; reproducible; and avoids ethical, biohazard, religious, and legal problems associated with cadaveric models. A synthetic ICA injury model for EEA allows recurring training that may improve the surgeon's ability to maintain endoscopic visualization, control catastrophic bleeding, decrease psychomotor stress, and develop effective team strategies to achieve hemostasis. NA Laryngoscope, 127:38-43, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  13. Penile Fracture Following a Fall in a 7-Year-Old Male.

    PubMed

    Meenakshi-Sundaram, Bhalaajee; Coco, Caitlin T; Furr, James R; Shaw, Marshall D; Frimberger, Dominic C

    2017-08-01

    We report a rare case of isolated penile fracture in a prepubescent male caused by an accidental fall. The patient presented with swelling and ecchymosis on the base of the penis and along the penile shaft. A flexible cystoscopy was performed, which did not reveal any concomitant urethral injury. The penis was degloved and the corporal tear was closed with absorbable suture. Due to the location of the injury, ventral mobilization of the urethra was required. The pathophysiology of penile fracture as well as the diagnosis and management of this rare injury are discussed in this report. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Gunshot injuries.

    PubMed

    Hinkle, J; Betz, S

    1995-05-01

    If current trends for this nation continue, by the year 2003 the number of people killed by firearms will exceed the number of people killed in motor vehicle accidents. Critical care practitioners must understand the mechanism of injury associated with firearm injuries to provide optimal care. This article reviews internal, exterior, and terminal ballistics, bullet design, wound classification, and initial assessment and treatment of firearm injuries.

  15. The discrepant severity of external and internal injuries in a traffic accident: The cushioning effect via a human body against direct impact: Autopsy cases.

    PubMed

    Nishitani, Yoko; Okazaki, Shunichiro; Suzuki, Kengo; Imabayashi, Kiyomi; Katada, Ryuichi; Matsumoto, Hiroshi

    2009-06-01

    Traffic accidents cause unexpectedly severe injuries of internal organs despite tiny injuries observed on the external body. A 51-year-old woman (subject 1) and a 54-year-old man (subject 2) were found dead on a road. Subject 1 had subcutaneous and intramuscular bleeding with décollement on the posterior aspect of her body, including upper cervical spine dislocation. Subject 2 did not exhibit any apparent findings on autopsy that were indicative of a direct injury by a motor vehicle, but had severe internal organ injuries, including the transection at the pontomedullary junction. We surmise that subjects 1 and 2 were walking in line with the vehicle which collided with them from behind, and then the body of subject 1 cushioned the direct impact of the vehicle against subject 2. This report illustrates the need of forensic autopsy for victims with no severe external injuries.

  16. Distribution of internal pressure around bony prominences: implications to deep tissue injury and effectiveness of intermittent electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Solis, Leandro R; Liggins, Adrian; Uwiera, Richard R E; Poppe, Niek; Pehowich, Enid; Seres, Peter; Thompson, Richard B; Mushahwar, Vivian K

    2012-08-01

    The overall goal of this project is to develop interventions for the prevention of deep tissue injury (DTI), a form of pressure ulcers that originates in deep tissue around bony prominences. The present study focused on: (1) obtaining detailed measures of the distribution of pressure experienced by tissue around the ischial tuberosities, and (2) investigating the effectiveness of intermittent electrical stimulation (IES), a novel strategy for the prevention of DTI, in alleviating pressure in regions at risk of breakdown due to sustained loading. The experiments were conducted in adult pigs. Five animals had intact spinal cords and healthy muscles and one had a spinal cord injury that led to substantial muscle atrophy at the time of the experiment. A force-controlled servomotor was used to load the region of the buttocks to levels corresponding to 25%, 50% or 75% of each animal's body weight. A pressure transducer embedded in a catheter was advanced into the tissue to measure pressure along a three dimensional grid around the ischial tuberosity of one hind leg. For all levels of external loading in intact animals, average peak internal pressure was 2.01 ± 0.08 times larger than the maximal interfacial pressure measured at the level of the skin. In the animal with spinal cord injury, similar absolute values of internal pressure as that in intact animals were recorded, but the substantial muscle atrophy produced larger maximal interfacial pressures. Average peak internal pressure in this animal was 1.43 ± 0.055 times larger than the maximal interfacial pressure. Peak internal pressure was localized within a ±2 cm region medio-laterally and dorso-ventrally from the bone in intact animals and ±1 cm in the animal with spinal cord injury. IES significantly redistributed internal pressure, shifting the peak values away from the bone in spinally intact and injured animals. These findings provide critical information regarding the relationship between internal and

  17. A six year prospective study of the incidence and causes of head and neck injuries in international football.

    PubMed

    Fuller, C W; Junge, A; Dvorak, J

    2005-08-01

    To identify those risk factors that have the greatest impact on the incidence of head and neck injuries in international football. A case-control study of players sustaining head and neck injuries during 20 FIFA tournaments (men and women) from 1998 to 2004. Video recordings of incidents were used to identify a range of parameters associated with the incidents. Team physicians provided medical reports describing the nature of each injury. chi2 tests (p< or =0.01) and 95% confidence intervals were used to assess differences in distribution and incidence of injury, respectively. In total, 248 head and neck injuries were recorded of which 163 were identified and analysed on video sequences. The commonest injuries were contusions (53%), lacerations (20%), and concussions (11%). The incidence of all head and neck injuries was 12.5/1000 player hours (men 12.8, women 11.5) and 3.7 for lost-time injuries (men 3.5, women 4.1). The commonest causes of injury involved aerial challenges (55%) and the use of the upper extremity (33%) or head (30%). The unfair use of the upper extremity was significantly more likely to cause an injury than any other player action. Only one injury (a neck muscle strain) occurred as a result of heading the ball throughout the 20 tournaments equivalent to 0.05 injuries/1000 player hours. Players' actions most likely to cause a head or neck injury were the use of the upper extremity or the head but in the majority of cases these challenges were deemed to be fair and within the laws of the game.

  18. Process evaluation of software using the international classification of external causes of injuries for collecting burn injury data at burn centers in the United States.

    PubMed

    Villaveces, Andrés; Peck, Michael; Faraklas, Iris; Hsu-Chang, Naiwei; Joe, Victor; Wibbenmeyer, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    Detailed information on the cause of burns is necessary to construct effective prevention programs. The International Classification of External Causes of Injury (ICECI) is a data collection tool that allows comprehensive categorization of multiple facets of injury events. The objective of this study was to conduct a process evaluation of software designed to improve the ease of use of the ICECI so as to identify key additional variables useful for understanding the occurrence of burn injuries, and compare this software with existing data-collection practices conducted for burn injuries. The authors completed a process evaluation of the implementation and ease of use of the software in six U.S. burn centers. They also collected preliminary burn injury data and compared them with existing variables reported to the American Burn Association's National Burn Repository (NBR). The authors accomplished their goals of 1) creating a data-collection tool for the ICECI, which can be linked to existing operational programs of the NBR, 2) training registrars in the use of this tool, 3) establishing quality-control mechanisms for ensuring accuracy and reliability, 4) incorporating ICECI data entry into the weekly routine of the burn registrar, and 5) demonstrating the quality differences between data collected using this tool and the NBR. Using this or similar tools with the ICECI structure or key selected variables can improve the quantity and quality of data on burn injuries in the United States and elsewhere and thus can be more useful in informing prevention strategies.

  19. Defining pediatric traumatic brain injury using International Classification of Diseases Version 10 Codes: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Chan, Vincy; Thurairajah, Pravheen; Colantonio, Angela

    2015-02-04

    Although healthcare administrative data are commonly used for traumatic brain injury (TBI) research, there is currently no consensus or consistency on the International Classification of Diseases Version 10 (ICD-10) codes used to define TBI among children and youth internationally. This study systematically reviewed the literature to explore the range of ICD-10 codes that are used to define TBI in this population. The identification of the range of ICD-10 codes to define this population in administrative data is crucial, as it has implications for policy, resource allocation, planning of healthcare services, and prevention strategies. The databases MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process, Embase, PsychINFO, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were systematically searched. Grey literature was searched using Grey Matters and Google. Reference lists of included articles were also searched for relevant studies. Two reviewers independently screened all titles and abstracts using pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. A full text screen was conducted on articles that met the first screen inclusion criteria. All full text articles that met the pre-defined inclusion criteria were included for analysis in this systematic review. A total of 1,326 publications were identified through the predetermined search strategy and 32 articles/reports met all eligibility criteria for inclusion in this review. Five articles specifically examined children and youth aged 19 years or under with TBI. ICD-10 case definitions ranged from the broad injuries to the head codes (ICD-10 S00 to S09) to concussion only (S06.0). There was overwhelming consensus on the inclusion of ICD-10 code S06, intracranial injury, while codes S00 (superficial injury of the head), S03 (dislocation, sprain, and strain of joints and ligaments of head), and S05 (injury of eye and orbit) were only used by articles that examined head injury, none of which specifically examined children and

  20. Acute kidney injury in the ICU: from injury to recovery: reports from the 5th Paris International Conference.

    PubMed

    Bellomo, Rinaldo; Ronco, Claudio; Mehta, Ravindra L; Asfar, Pierre; Boisramé-Helms, Julie; Darmon, Michael; Diehl, Jean-Luc; Duranteau, Jacques; Hoste, Eric A J; Olivier, Joannes-Boyau; Legrand, Matthieu; Lerolle, Nicolas; Malbrain, Manu L N G; Mårtensson, Johan; Oudemans-van Straaten, Heleen M; Parienti, Jean-Jacques; Payen, Didier; Perinel, Sophie; Peters, Esther; Pickkers, Peter; Rondeau, Eric; Schetz, Miet; Vinsonneau, Christophe; Wendon, Julia; Zhang, Ling; Laterre, Pierre-François

    2017-12-01

    The French Intensive Care Society organized its yearly Paris International Conference in intensive care on June 18-19, 2015. The main purpose of this meeting is to gather the best experts in the field in order to provide the highest quality update on a chosen topic. In 2015, the selected theme was: "Acute Renal Failure in the ICU: from injury to recovery." The conference program covered multiple aspects of renal failure, including epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment and kidney support system, prognosis and recovery together with acute renal failure in specific settings. The present report provides a summary of every presentation including the key message and references and is structured in eight sections: (a) diagnosis and evaluation, (b) old and new diagnosis tools, (c) old and new treatments, (d) renal replacement therapy and management, (e) acute renal failure witness of other conditions, (f) prognosis and recovery, (g) extracorporeal epuration beyond the kidney, (h) the use of biomarkers in clinical practice http://www.srlf.org/5th-paris-international-conference-jeudi-18-et-vendredi-19-juin-2015/ .

  1. Ulnar nerve injury associated with trampoline injuries.

    PubMed

    Maclin, Melvin M; Novak, Christine B; Mackinnon, Susan E

    2004-08-01

    This study reports three cases of ulnar neuropathy after trampoline injuries in children. A chart review was performed on children who sustained an ulnar nerve injury from a trampoline accident. In all cases, surgical intervention was required. Injuries included upper-extremity fractures in two cases and an upper-extremity laceration in one case. All cases required surgical exploration with internal neurolysis and ulnar nerve transposition. Nerve grafts were used in two cases and an additional nerve transfer was used in one case. All patients had return of intrinsic hand function and sensation after surgery. Children should be followed for evolution of ulnar nerve neuropathy after upper-extremity injury with consideration for electrical studies and surgical exploration if there is no improvement after 3 months.

  2. The Morel-Lavallée Lesion: Diagnosis and Management.

    PubMed

    Scolaro, John A; Chao, Tom; Zamorano, David P

    2016-10-01

    The Morel-Lavallée lesion is a closed soft-tissue degloving injury commonly associated with high-energy trauma. The thigh, hip, and pelvic region are the most commonly affected locations. Timely identification and management of a Morel-Lavallée lesion is crucial because distracting injuries in the polytraumatized patient can result in a missed or delayed diagnosis. Bacterial colonization of these closed soft-tissue injuries has resulted in their association with high rates of perioperative infection. Recently, MRI has been used to characterize and classify these lesions. Definitive management is dictated by the size, location, and age of the injury and ranges from percutaneous drainage to open débridement and irrigation. Chronic lesions may lead to the development of pseudocysts and contour deformities of the extremity.

  3. Military Blast Injury and Chronic Neurodegeneration: Research Presentations from the 2015 International State-of-the-Science Meeting.

    PubMed

    Agoston, Denes; Arun, Peethambaran; Bellgowan, Patrick; Broglio, Steven; Cantu, Robert; Cook, David; da Silva, Uade Olaghere; Dickstein, Dara; Elder, Gregory; Fudge, Elizabeth; Gandy, Sam; Gill, Jessica; Glenn, John F; Gupta, Raj K; Hinds, Sidney; Hoffman, Stuart; Lattimore, Theresa; Lin, Alexander; Lu, Kun Ping; Maroon, Joseph; Okonkwo, David; Perl, Daniel; Robinson, Meghan; Rosen, Charles; Smith, Douglas

    2017-09-01

    Blast-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a signature injury of recent military conflicts, leading to increased Department of Defense (DoD) interest in its potential long-term effects, such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). The DoD Blast Injury Research Program Coordinating Office convened the 2015 International State-of-the-Science Meeting to discuss the existing evidence regarding a causal relationship between TBI and CTE. Over the course of the meeting, experts across government, academia, and the sports community presented cutting edge research on the unique pathological characteristics of blast-related TBI, blast-related neurodegenerative mechanisms, risk factors for CTE, potential biomarkers for CTE, and treatment strategies for chronic neurodegeneration. The current paper summarizes these presentations. Although many advances have been made to address these topics, more research is needed to establish the existence of links between the long-term effects of single or multiple blast-related TBI and CTE.

  4. International spinal cord injury male sexual function and female sexual and reproductive function basic data sets-version 2.0.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Marcalee S; New, Peter W; Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Courtois, Frederique; Popolo, Giulio Del; Elliott, Stacy; Kiekens, Carlotte; Vogel, Lawrence; Previnaire, Jean G

    2017-01-01

    Data set review and modification. To describe modifications in the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Male Sexual Function Basic Data Set Version 2.0 and the International SCI Female Sexual and Reproductive Function Basic Data Set Version 2.0. International expert work group using on line communication. An international team of experts was compiled to review and revise the International SCI Male Sexual Function and Female Sexual and Reproductive Function Basic Data Sets Version 1.0. The group adapted Version 1.0 based upon review of published research, suggestions from concerned individuals and on line work group consensus. The revised data sets were then posted on the International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS) and American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) websites for 2 months for review. Subsequently, the data sets were approved by the ISCoS Scientific and Executive Committees and ASIA board of directors. The data sets were modified to a self-report format. They were reviewed for appropriateness for the pediatric age group and adapted to include a new variable to address the issue of sexual orientation. A clarification of the difference between the data sets and the autonomic standards was also developed. Sexuality is a continuously evolving topic. Modifications were needed to address this topic in a comprehensive fashion. It is recommended that Version 2.0 of these data sets are used for ongoing documentation of sexual status in the medical record and for documentation of sexual concerns during on-going research.

  5. [One-stage operation for pelvis and acetabular fractures combined with Morel-Lavallée injury by internal fixation associated with vacuum sealing drainage].

    PubMed

    Wei, Dan; Wang, Yue; Yuan, Jiabin; Tang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Bin; Lu, Bing; Tan, Bo

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the methods and effectiveness of one-stage operation for pelvis and acetabular fractures combined with Morel-Lavallée injury by internal fixation associated with vacuum sealing drainage (VSD). Between June 2008 and October 2012, 15 cases of pelvis and acetabular fractures combined with Morel-Lavallée injury were treated. There were 5 males and 10 females, aged from 18 to 67 years (mean, 36.8 years). Fractures were caused by traffic accident in 11 cases and crashing injury of heavy object in 4 cases. The time from injury to hospitalization was 3 hours to 9 days (mean, 5.4 days). Morel-Lavallée injury located in the above posterior superior iliac spine in 4 cases, greater trochanter in 7 cases, and anterior proximal thigh in 4 cases. In 10 cases complicated by pelvic fracture, there were 1 case of anteroposterior compression type, 3 cases of lateral compression type, 5 cases of vertical shear type, and 1 case of compound injury type; in 5 cases complicated by acetabular fracture, there were 1 case of transverse fracture, 1 case of posterior wall and posterior column fracture, 1 case of transverse acetabulum plus posterior wall fracture, and 2 cases of both columns fracture. Open reduction and internal fixation were used to treat pelvic and acetabular fractures, and VSD to treat Morel-Lavallée injury. When the drainage volume was less than 20 mL/d, interrupted wound suture or free skin grafting was performed. The hospitalization time was 16-31 days (mean, 20.8 days). Thirteen cases were followed up 4-16 months (mean, 7.8 months). The healing time of Morel-Lavallée injury was 16-36 days after operation (mean, 21.3 days). All the wounds had primary healing, and no infection occurred. The X-ray films showed that all fractures healed, with a mean healing time of 13.6 weeks (range, 11-18 weeks). At 6.5 months after operation, according to Majeed function scoring system in 8 cases of pelvic fracture, the results were excellent in 5 cases, good in 2 cases

  6. Psychometric properties of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health set for spinal cord injury nursing based on Rasch analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Kun; Yan, Tiebin; You, Liming; Xie, Sumei; Li, Yun; Tang, Jie; Wang, Yingmin; Gao, Yan

    2018-02-01

    To examine the psychometric properties of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) set for spinal cord injury nursing (ICF-SCIN) using Rasch analysis. A total of 140 spinal cord injury patients were recruited between December 2013 and March 2014 through convenience sampling. Nurses used the components body functions (BF), body structures (BS), and activities and participation (AP) of the ICF-SCIN to rate the patients' functioning. Rasch analysis was performed using RUMM 2030 software. In each component, categories were rescored from 01234 to 01112 because of reversed thresholds. Nine testlets were created to overcome local dependency. Four categories which fit to the Rasch model poorly were deleted. After modification, the components BF, BS, and AP showed good fit to the Rasch model with a Bonferroni-adjusted significant level (χ 2  =   86.29, p = 0.006; χ 2  =   22.44, p = 0.130; χ 2  =   39.92, p = 0.159). The person separation indices (PSIs) for the three components were 0.80, 0.54, and 0.97, respectively. No differential item functioning (DIF) was detected across age, gender, or educational level. The fit properties of the ICF set were satisfactory after modifications. The ICF-SCIN has the potential as a nursing assessment instrument for measuring the functioning of patients with spinal cord injury. Implications for rehabilitation The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) set for spinal cord injury nursing contains a group of categories which can reflect the functioning of spinal cord injury patients from the perspective of nurses. The components body functions (BF), body structures (BS), and activities and participation (AP) of the ICF set for spinal cord injury achieved the fit to the Rasch model through rescoring, generating testlets, and deleting categories with poor fit. The ICF set for spinal cord injury nursing (ICF-SCIN) has the potential to be used as a

  7. Performance of International Classification of Diseases-based injury severity measures used to predict in-hospital mortality: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Gagné, Mathieu; Moore, Lynne; Beaudoin, Claudia; Batomen Kuimi, Brice Lionel; Sirois, Marie-Josée

    2016-03-01

    The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is the main classification system used for population-based injury surveillance activities but does not contain information on injury severity. ICD-based injury severity measures can be empirically derived or mapped, but no single approach has been formally recommended. This study aimed to compare the performance of ICD-based injury severity measures to predict in-hospital mortality among injury-related admissions. A systematic review and a meta-analysis were conducted. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Global Health databases were searched from their inception through September 2014. Observational studies that assessed the performance of ICD-based injury severity measures to predict in-hospital mortality and reported discriminative ability using the area under a receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were included. Metrics of model performance were extracted. Pooled AUC were estimated under random-effects models. Twenty-two eligible studies reported 72 assessments of discrimination on ICD-based injury severity measures. Reported AUC ranged from 0.681 to 0.958. Of the 72 assessments, 46 showed excellent (0.80 ≤ AUC < 0.90) and 6 outstanding (AUC ≥ 0.90) discriminative ability. Pooled AUC for ICD-based Injury Severity Score (ICISS) based on the product of traditional survival proportions was significantly higher than measures based on ICD mapped to Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) scores (0.863 vs. 0.825 for ICDMAP-ISS [p = 0.005] and ICDMAP-NISS [p = 0.016]). Similar results were observed when studies were stratified by the type of data used (trauma registry or hospital discharge) or the provenance of survival proportions (internally or externally derived). However, among studies published after 2003 the Trauma Mortality Prediction Model based on ICD-9 codes (TMPM-9) demonstrated superior discriminative ability than ICISS using the product of traditional survival proportions (0.850 vs. 0.802, p = 0.002). Models

  8. Decreased Shoulder External Rotation and Flexion Are Greater Predictors of Injury Than Internal Rotation Deficits: Analysis of 132 Pitcher-Seasons in Professional Baseball.

    PubMed

    Camp, Christopher L; Zajac, John M; Pearson, David B; Sinatro, Alec M; Spiker, Andrea M; Werner, Brian C; Altchek, David W; Coleman, Struan H; Dines, Joshua S

    2017-09-01

    The primary aims of this work were to (1) describe normal range of motion (ROM) profiles for elite pitchers, (2) describe the characteristics of shoulder and elbow injuries in professional pitchers over a 6-year period in one Major League Baseball organization, and (3) identify ROM measures that were independently associated with a future shoulder or elbow injury. Over 6 seasons (2010-2015), a preseason assessment was performed on all pitchers invited to Major League Baseball Spring Training for a single organization. ROM measures included shoulder flexion, horizontal adduction, external rotation (ER), internal rotation, as well as elbow flexion and extension, were measured for both the dominant and nondominant arm, and total range of motion and deficits were calculated. All noncontact shoulder and elbow injuries were identified. Using multivariate binomial logistic regression analysis to control for age, height, weight, and all other ROM measures, the factors associated with an increased risk of subsequent shoulder or elbow injury were identified. A total of 53 shoulder (n = 25) and elbow (n = 28) injuries occurred during 132 pitcher seasons (n = 81 pitchers). The most significant categorical risk factor associated with increased elbow injury rates was the presence of a shoulder flexion deficit >5° (odds ratio [OR] 2.83; P = .042). For continuous variables, the risk of elbow injury increased by 7% for each degree of increased shoulder ER deficit (OR 1.07; P = .030) and 9% for each degree of decreased shoulder flexion (OR 1.09; P = .017). None of the measures significantly correlated with shoulder injuries. Preseason shoulder ER and flexion deficits are independent risk factors for the development of elbow injuries during the upcoming season. Although prior work has supported the importance of reducing glenohumeral internal rotation deficits in pitchers, this study demonstrates that deficits in shoulder ER and flexion are more significant predictors of

  9. Surgeon experience with penile fracture.

    PubMed

    Mydlo, J H

    2001-08-01

    The experience of a single surgeon with a series of 34 penile fractures, including 29 corrected surgically and 5 managed conservatively, at 3 large inner city medical centers in an 11-year period is presented. Standard diagnostic and therapeutic modalities are described that have evolved with time. Between 1989 and 1999, 34 patients 18 to 38 years old (mean age 27 at presentation) were evaluated after blunt trauma to the erect penis. The interval from injury to presentation was between 6 and 72 hours. Of these patients 32 and 2 had been injured during sexual intercourse and masturbation, respectively. Surgery in 29 cases involved a degloving incision, and intraoperative evaluation of the corpora and urethra by radiography or saline injection. Five patients were treated conservatively for presumed penile fracture after they refused diagnostic confirmation and/or surgery. Injury involved unilateral and bilateral corporeal rupture in 25 and 3 cases, respectively, and urethral injury in 5. Urinalysis in 6 patients demonstrated microscopic hematuria with 5 to 10 red blood cells, although there were several false-negative urethrograms and cavernosograms. At followup 33 of the 34 patients available reported erection adequate for intercourse without erectile or voiding dysfunction, while 2 reported mild to moderate curvature. A degloving procedure with a urethral catheter in place provides the best exposure and orientation. In addition, saline injection may demonstrate additional corporeal body and/or urethral pathology as well as assess the integrity of repair. Although surgical repair was not associated with serious sequelae, a small subgroup of patients with presumed penile fracture also had no sequelae.

  10. Injury incidence in hip hop dance.

    PubMed

    Ojofeitimi, S; Bronner, S; Woo, H

    2012-06-01

    Hip hop dance has rapidly become a popular international art form. There is limited information on injury patterns in this population. The purpose of this study was to determine injury incidence and patterns among three groups of hip hop dancers. Three hundred and twelve intermediate, advanced, and expert hip hop dancers were recruited at battles, dance conferences, clubs, and on dance related web sites within the United States and internationally. A Web-based survey was conducted over a 6-month period. Inclusion criteria included intermediate and advanced level dancers over the age of 13. Dancers were divided into three main categories: Breakers, Popper/Lockers, and New Schoolers. Separate analysis of variances were used to compare injury pattern differences between groups. Two hundred and thirty-two dancers reported a total of 738 injuries. Five hundred and six of these (sustained by 205 dancers) were time-loss (TL) injuries. Annual injury incidence was 237% (162% involving TL). Lower extremity injuries were 52% and upper extremity injuries 32% of total injuries. Breakers had a higher injury incidence compared with Popper/Lockers, and New Schoolers. Hip hop dancers report injury rates that are higher than other dance forms but similar to gymnastics. These dancers should be educated concerning injury prevention, biomechanics, and use of protective equipment. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Microsurgical scalp reconstruction after a mountain lion attack.

    PubMed

    Hazani, Ron; Buntic, Rudolf F; Brooks, Darrell

    2008-09-01

    Mountain lion attacks on humans are rare and potentially fatal. Although few victims experience minor injuries, permanent disfigurement and disability is common among survivors of these assaults. Since 1986, a steady number of mountain lion attacks have been noted in California. We report a recent attack of a cougar on a couple hiking in California's Prairie Creek Redwoods State Park. The victim sustained a significant scalp injury that led to a life-threatening soft-tissue infection. We present an analysis of the injury pattern as it relates to the bite marks, the resulting degloving injury, and the surgical reconstruction. We also offer a current survey of the pathogens often found in cats' and mountain lions' bite wounds and the appropriate antibiotic treatment. Given the infrequency at which clinicians encounter mountain lion injuries, we recommend that after initial management and exclusion of life threatening injuries patients be transferred to a tertiary care facility capable of managing the various reconstructive challenges such as the one presented in this case.

  12. Brain Regions Associated With Internalizing and Externalizing Psychiatric Symptoms in Patients With Penetrating Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Huey, Edward D; Lee, Seonjoo; Lieberman, Jeffrey A; Devanand, D P; Brickman, Adam M; Raymont, Vanessa; Krueger, Frank; Grafman, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    A factor structure underlying DSM-IV diagnoses has been previously reported in neurologically intact patients. The authors determined the brain regions associated with factors underlying DSM-IV diagnoses and compared the ability of DSM-IV diagnoses, factor scores, and self-report measures to account for the neuroanatomical findings in patients with penetrating brain injuries. This prospective cohort study included 254 Vietnam War veterans: 199 with penetrating brain injuries and 55 matched control participants. Measures include DSM-IV diagnoses (from a Structured Clinical Interview for DSM), self-report measures of depression and anxiety, and CT scans. Factors underlying DSM-IV diagnoses were determined using an exploratory factor analysis and correlated with percent of brain regions affected. The ability of the factor scores, DSM-IV diagnoses, and the self-report psychiatric measures to account for the anatomical variance was compared with multiple regressions. Internalizing and externalizing factors were identified in these brain-injured patients. Damage to the left amygdala and bilateral basal ganglia was associated with lower internalizing factor scores, and damage to the left medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) with higher, and bilateral hippocampi with lower, externalizing factor scores. Factor scores best predicted left amygdala and bilateral hippocampal involvement, whereas DSM-IV diagnoses best predicted bilateral basal ganglia and left OFC involvement. Damage to the limbic areas involved in the processing of emotional and reward information, including structures involved in the National Institute of Mental Health's Research Domain Criteria Negative Valence Domain, influences the development of internalizing and externalizing psychiatric symptoms. Self-report measures underperformed DSM-IV and factor scores in predicting neuroanatomical findings.

  13. Complex bile duct injuries: management

    PubMed Central

    Ardiles, V.; Pekolj, J.

    2008-01-01

    Background. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the present treatment of choice for patients with gallbladder stones, despite its being associated with a higher incidence of biliary injuries compared with the open procedure. Injuries occurring during the laparoscopic approach seem to be more complex. A complex biliary injury is a disease that is difficult to diagnose and treat. We considered complex injuries: 1) injuries that involve the confluence; 2) injuries in which repair attempts have failed; 3) any bile duct injury associated with a vascular injury; 4) or any biliary injury in association with portal hypertension or secondary biliary cirrhosis. The present review is an evaluation of our experience in the treatment of these complex biliary injuries and an analysis of the international literature on the management of patients. PMID:18695753

  14. A comparison of participation outcome measures and the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Core Sets for traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Chung, Pearl; Yun, Sarah Jin; Khan, Fary

    2014-02-01

    To compare the contents of participation outcome measures in traumatic brain injury with the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Core Sets for traumatic brain injury. A systematic search with an independent review process selected relevant articles to identify outcome measures in participation in traumatic brain injury. Instruments used in two or more studies were linked to the ICF categories, which identified categories in participation for comparison with the ICF Core Sets for traumatic brain injury. Selected articles (n = 101) identified participation instruments used in two or more studies (n = 9): Community Integration Questionnaire, Craig Handicap Assessment and Reporting Technique, Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory-4 Participation Index, Sydney Psychosocial Reintegration Scale Version-2, Participation Assessment with Recombined Tool-Objective, Community Integration Measure, Participation Objective Participation Subjective, Community Integration Questionnaire-2, and Quality of Community Integration Questionnaire. Each instrument was linked to 4-35 unique second-level ICF categories, of which 39-100% related to participation. Instruments addressed 86-100% and 50-100% of the participation categories in the Comprehensive and Brief ICF Core Sets for traumatic brain injury, respectively. Participation measures in traumatic brain injury were compared with the ICF Core Sets for traumatic brain injury. The ICF Core Sets for traumatic brain injury could contribute to the development and selection of participation measures.

  15. Symphyseal internal rod fixation versus standard plate fixation for open book pelvic ring injuries: a biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Osterhoff, G; Tiziani, S; Hafner, C; Ferguson, S J; Simmen, H-P; Werner, C M L

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the biomechanical stability of a novel technique for symphyseal internal rod fixation (SYMFIX) using a multiaxial spinal screw-rod implant that allows for direct reduction and can be performed percutaneously and compares it to standard internal plate fixation of the symphysis. Standard plate fixation (PLATE, n = 6) and the SYMFIX (n = 6) were tested on pelvic composite models with a simulated open book injury using a universal testing machine. On a previously described testing setup, 500 consecutive cyclic loadings were applied with sinusoidal resulting forces of 200 N. Displacement under loading was measured using an optoelectronic camera system and construct rigidity was calculated as a function of load and displacement. The rigidity of the PLATE construct was 122.8 N/mm (95 % CI: 110.7-134.8), rigidity of the SYMFIX construct 119.3 N/mm (95 % CI: 105.8-132.7). Displacement in the symphyseal area was mean 0.007 mm (95 % CI: 0.003-0.012) in the PLATE group and 0.021 mm (95 % CI: 0.011-0.031) in the SYMFIX group. Displacement in the sacroiliac joint area was mean 0.156 mm (95 % CI: 0.051-0.261) in the PLATE group and 0.120 mm (95 % CI: 0.039-0.201) in the SYMFIX group. In comparison to standard internal plate fixation for the stabilization of open book pelvic ring injuries, symphyseal internal rod fixation using a multiaxial spinal screw-rod implant in vitro shows a similar rigidity and comparable low degrees of displacement.

  16. Pediatricians' involvement in gun injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Olson, L M; Christoffel, K K; O'Connor, K G

    2007-04-01

    Injuries from small arms are of concern internationally. The health perspective is an emerging aspect of international work to reduce these injuries. This aspect has been evident in US firearm injury prevention work for over a decade, exhibited by strong statements from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) to remove firearms from children's environments. To assess trends among US pediatricians related to firearm injury prevention counseling practices and attitudes toward gun legislation. National random sample, mailed surveys of AAP members: (1) 1994 (response rate = 68.9%, n = 982); (2) 2000 (response rate = 62.4%, n = 922). chi(2) Tests were used to assess bivariate relationships and logistic regression to assess multivariate relationships regarding counseling practices. Respondents in both years believed that violence prevention should be a priority for pediatricians (91.4% and 92.0%) and reported always or sometimes recommending handgun removal from the home (46.2% and 55.9%, respectively). In 2000, 74% of the respondents were comfortable discussing firearm safety; fewer thought they had sufficient training (32.7%) or time (27.5%) to discuss firearms. In 1994 and 2000, the likelihood of counseling on handgun removal was positively related to recent experience treating a gun injury, female sex and not owning a gun. In both years, >80% of pediatricians thought that gun control legislation or regulations would reduce injury and death. US pediatricians continue to adopt policies promoting gun injury prevention. The practices and attitudes of pediatricians may be important for public education strategies regarding firearm injury prevention in the US and internationally.

  17. Descriptive Epidemiology of Collegiate Women's Softball Injuries: National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System, 1988–1989 Through 2003–2004

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Stephen W; Hamstra-Wright, Karrie L; Dick, Randall; Grove, Katie A; Agel, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To review 16 years of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) injury surveillance data for women's softball and to identify potential areas for injury prevention initiatives. Background: The NCAA Injury Surveillance System has tracked injuries in all divisions of NCAA softball from the 1988– 1989 to the 2003–2004 seasons. This report describes what was found and why the findings are important for the safety, enhancement, and continued growth of the sport. Main Results: Across all divisions, preseason practice injury rates were more than double the regular-season practice injury rates (3.65 versus 1.68 injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures, rate ratio = 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.0, 2.4, P < .01). The rate of injury in a game was 1.6 times that in a practice (4.30 versus 2.67 injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures, rate ratio = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.5, 1.7). A total of 51.2% of game injuries resulted from “other-contact” mechanisms, whereas 55% of practice injuries resulted from noncontact mechanisms. In games, ankle ligament sprains and knee internal derangements accounted for 19% of injuries. Twenty-three percent of all game injuries were due to sliding, most of which were ankle sprains. In practices, ankle ligament sprains, quadriceps and hamstring strains, shoulder strains and tendinitis, knee internal derangements, and lower back strains (combined) accounted for 38% of injuries. Recommendations: Ankle ligament sprains, knee internal derangements, sliding injuries, and overuse shoulder and low back injuries were among the most common conditions in NCAA women's softball. Preventive efforts should focus on sliding technique regardless of skill level, potential equipment changes, neuromuscular training programs, position-specific throwing programs, and mechanisms of low back injury. Further research is needed on the development and effects of these preventive efforts, as well as in the area of windmill-pitching biomechanics. PMID:17710178

  18. International standards for neurological classification of spinal cord injury: classification skills of clinicians versus computational algorithms.

    PubMed

    Schuld, C; Franz, S; van Hedel, H J A; Moosburger, J; Maier, D; Abel, R; van de Meent, H; Curt, A; Weidner, N; Rupp, R

    2015-04-01

    This is a retrospective analysis. The objective of this study was to describe and quantify the discrepancy in the classification of the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) by clinicians versus a validated computational algorithm. European Multicenter Study on Human Spinal Cord Injury (EMSCI). Fully documented ISNCSCI data sets from EMSCI's first years (2003-2005) classified by clinicians (mostly spinal cord medicine residents, who received in-house ISNCSCI training by senior SCI physicians) were computationally reclassified. Any differences in the scoring of sensory and motor levels, American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS) or the zone of partial preservation (ZPP) were quantified. Four hundred and twenty ISNCSCI data sets were evaluated. The lowest agreement was found in motor levels (right: 62.1%, P=0.002; left: 61.8%, P=0.003), followed by motor ZPP (right: 81.6%, P=0.74; left 80.0%, P=0.27) and then AIS (83.4%, P=0.001). Sensory levels and sensory ZPP showed the best concordance (right sensory level: 90.8%, P=0.66; left sensory level: 90.0%, P=0.30; right sensory ZPP: 91.0%, P=0.18; left sensory ZPP: 92.2%, P=0.03). AIS B was most often misinterpreted as AIS C and vice versa (AIS B as C: 29.4% and AIS C as B: 38.6%). Most difficult classification tasks were the correct determination of motor levels and the differentiation between AIS B and AIS C/D. These issues should be addressed in upcoming ISNCSCI revisions. Training is strongly recommended to improve classification skills for clinical practice, as well as for clinical investigators conducting spinal cord studies. This study is partially funded by the International Foundation for Research in Paraplegia, Zurich, Switzerland.

  19. International classification of functioning, disability and health categories for spinal cord injury nursing in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Kun; Yan, Tiebin; You, Liming; Li, Rui; Ross, Amy Miner

    2015-01-01

    To explore a set of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) categories that cover the spinal cord injury (SCI) nursing practice in China through a national expert survey. An internet-based email survey was used. An original set of ICF categories specifically for SCI nursing has been developed from the preliminary studies based on an international perspective. For cultural adaptation in China, a national expert survey was conducted with Chinese experts on SCI nursing to identify the ICF categories that were specifically for SCI nursing in China. The ICF categories which received more than 80% support from the experts would be reported. Twenty-nine Chinese experts on SCI nursing participated. There were 81 ICF categories which received more than 80% agreement among the experts, including 33 Body Functions categories, eight Body Structures, 24 Activities and Participation, six Environmental Factors and 10 Personal Factors items. A set of ICF categories that cover the SCI nursing practice in China was identified. It reflects the main issues that Chinese nurses focus on in caring SCI patients. These categories can facilitate Chinese nurses to use the ICF in multidisciplinary teamwork and improve the participation of nurses in the team. Implications for Rehabilitation In China, nurses lack of an effective model or tool to communicate with the other health professionals in the rehabilitation team for spinal cord injury (SCI) patients. International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) is a tool for multidisciplinary use, which can promote the communication and collaboration in the healthcare team by establishing a common language across different disciplines and sectors. This set of ICF categories developed from this study can serve as a roadmap for important items for use in clinical practice of Chinese SCI nursing.

  20. Drug and herb induced liver injury: Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale for causality assessment

    PubMed Central

    Teschke, Rolf; Wolff, Albrecht; Frenzel, Christian; Schwarzenboeck, Alexander; Schulze, Johannes; Eickhoff, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Causality assessment of suspected drug induced liver injury (DILI) and herb induced liver injury (HILI) is hampered by the lack of a standardized approach to be used by attending physicians and at various subsequent evaluating levels. The aim of this review was to analyze the suitability of the liver specific Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) scale as a standard tool for causality assessment in DILI and HILI cases. PubMed database was searched for the following terms: drug induced liver injury; herb induced liver injury; DILI causality assessment; and HILI causality assessment. The strength of the CIOMS lies in its potential as a standardized scale for DILI and HILI causality assessment. Other advantages include its liver specificity and its validation for hepatotoxicity with excellent sensitivity, specificity and predictive validity, based on cases with a positive reexposure test. This scale allows prospective collection of all relevant data required for a valid causality assessment. It does not require expert knowledge in hepatotoxicity and its results may subsequently be refined. Weaknesses of the CIOMS scale include the limited exclusion of alternative causes and qualitatively graded risk factors. In conclusion, CIOMS appears to be suitable as a standard scale for attending physicians, regulatory agencies, expert panels and other scientists to provide a standardized, reproducible causality assessment in suspected DILI and HILI cases, applicable primarily at all assessing levels involved. PMID:24653791

  1. Comparisons of survival predictions using survival risk ratios based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision and Abbreviated Injury Scale trauma diagnosis codes.

    PubMed

    Clarke, John R; Ragone, Andrew V; Greenwald, Lloyd

    2005-09-01

    We conducted a comparison of methods for predicting survival using survival risk ratios (SRRs), including new comparisons based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) versus Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) six-digit codes. From the Pennsylvania trauma center's registry, all direct trauma admissions were collected through June 22, 1999. Patients with no comorbid medical diagnoses and both ICD-9 and AIS injury codes were used for comparisons based on a single set of data. SRRs for ICD-9 and then for AIS diagnostic codes were each calculated two ways: from the survival rate of patients with each diagnosis and when each diagnosis was an isolated diagnosis. Probabilities of survival for the cohort were calculated using each set of SRRs by the multiplicative ICISS method and, where appropriate, the minimum SRR method. These prediction sets were then internally validated against actual survival by the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit statistic. The 41,364 patients had 1,224 different ICD-9 injury diagnoses in 32,261 combinations and 1,263 corresponding AIS injury diagnoses in 31,755 combinations, ranging from 1 to 27 injuries per patient. All conventional ICD-9-based combinations of SRRs and methods had better Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit statistic fits than their AIS-based counterparts. The minimum SRR method produced better calibration than the multiplicative methods, presumably because it did not magnify inaccuracies in the SRRs that might occur with multiplication. Predictions of survival based on anatomic injury alone can be performed using ICD-9 codes, with no advantage from extra coding of AIS diagnoses. Predictions based on the single worst SRR were closer to actual outcomes than those based on multiplying SRRs.

  2. Pediatricians’ involvement in gun injury prevention

    PubMed Central

    Olson, L M; Christoffel, K K; O’Connor, K G

    2007-01-01

    Background: Injuries from small arms are of concern internationally. The health perspective is an emerging aspect of international work to reduce these injuries. This aspect has been evident in US firearm injury prevention work for over a decade, exhibited by strong statements from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) to remove firearms from children’s environments. Objectives: To assess trends among US pediatricians related to firearm injury prevention counseling practices and attitudes toward gun legislation. Design: National random sample, mailed surveys of AAP members: (1) 1994 (response rate  = 68.9%, n = 982); (2) 2000 (response rate  = 62.4%, n = 922). χ2 Tests were used to assess bivariate relationships and logistic regression to assess multivariate relationships regarding counseling practices. Results: Respondents in both years believed that violence prevention should be a priority for pediatricians (91.4% and 92.0%) and reported always or sometimes recommending handgun removal from the home (46.2% and 55.9%, respectively). In 2000, 74% of the respondents were comfortable discussing firearm safety; fewer thought they had sufficient training (32.7%) or time (27.5%) to discuss firearms. In 1994 and 2000, the likelihood of counseling on handgun removal was positively related to recent experience treating a gun injury, female sex and not owning a gun. In both years, >80% of pediatricians thought that gun control legislation or regulations would reduce injury and death. Conclusions: US pediatricians continue to adopt policies promoting gun injury prevention. The practices and attitudes of pediatricians may be important for public education strategies regarding firearm injury prevention in the US and internationally. PMID:17446249

  3. Morel-Lavallée Lesion: Presenting Etiology of Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia in an Adolescent Athlete: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Hadley, Christopher; Wowkanech, Charles; Eck, Brandon; Austin, Luke; Sankar, Wudbhav; Tjoumakaris, Fotios

    2016-01-01

    A 16-year-old boy presented with a concealed degloving lesion of the knee, a Morel-Lavallée lesion, 3 weeks after an injury to the right knee while playing basketball. An incidental hematologic finding led to the additional diagnosis of chronic myelogenous leukemia. Morel-Lavallée lesions often can be overlooked and appear to be subcutaneous hematomas. This case was complicated further by a leukemic condition that was likely the causative mechanism for the recalcitrant nature of the lesion in this athlete.

  4. Performance of International Classification of Diseases-based injury severity measures used to predict in-hospital mortality and intensive care admission among traumatic brain-injured patients.

    PubMed

    Gagné, Mathieu; Moore, Lynne; Sirois, Marie-Josée; Simard, Marc; Beaudoin, Claudia; Kuimi, Brice Lionel Batomen

    2017-02-01

    The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is the main classification system used for population-based traumatic brain injury (TBI) surveillance activities but does not contain direct information on injury severity. International Classification of Diseases-based injury severity measures can be empirically derived or mapped to the Abbreviated Injury Scale, but no single approach has been formally recommended for TBI. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of different ICD-based injury severity measures for predicting in-hospital mortality and intensive care unit (ICU) admission in TBI patients. We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study. We identified all patients 16 years or older with a TBI diagnosis who received acute care between April 1, 2006, and March 31, 2013, from the Quebec Hospital Discharge Database. The accuracy of five ICD-based injury severity measures for predicting mortality and ICU admission was compared using measures of discrimination (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC]) and calibration (calibration plot and the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit statistic). Of 31,087 traumatic brain-injured patients in the study population, 9.0% died in hospital, and 34.4% were admitted to the ICU. Among ICD-based severity measures that were assessed, the multiplied derivative of ICD-based Injury Severity Score (ICISS-Multiplicative) demonstrated the best discriminative ability for predicting in-hospital mortality (AUC, 0.858; 95% confidence interval, 0.852-0.864) and ICU admissions (AUC, 0.813; 95% confidence interval, 0.808-0.818). Calibration assessments showed good agreement between observed and predicted in-hospital mortality for ICISS measures. All severity measures presented high agreement between observed and expected probabilities of ICU admission for all deciles of risk. The ICD-based injury severity measures can be used to accurately predict in-hospital mortality and ICU admission in TBI

  5. Subscapularis slide correction of the shoulder internal rotation contracture after brachial plexus birth injury: technique and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Immerman, Igor; Valencia, Herbert; DiTaranto, Patricia; DelSole, Edward M; Glait, Sergio; Price, Andrew E; Grossman, John A I

    2013-03-01

    Internal rotation contracture is the most common shoulder deformity in patients with brachial plexus birth injury. The purpose of this investigation is to describe the indications, technique, and results of the subscapularis slide procedure. The technique involves the release of the subscapularis muscle origin off the scapula, with preservation of anterior shoulder structures. A standard postoperative protocol is used in all patients and includes a modified shoulder spica with the shoulder held in 60 degrees of external rotation and 30 degrees of abduction, aggressive occupational and physical therapy, and subsequent shoulder manipulation under anesthesia with botulinum toxin injections as needed. Seventy-one patients at 2 institutions treated with subscapularis slide between 1997 and 2010, with minimum follow-up of 39.2 months, were identified. Patients were divided into 5 groups based on the index procedure performed: subscapularis slide alone (group 1); subscapularis slide with a simultaneous microsurgical reconstruction (group 2); primary microsurgical brachial plexus reconstruction followed later by a subscapularis slide (group 3); primary microsurgical brachial plexus reconstruction followed later by a subscapularis slide combined with tendon transfers for shoulder external rotation (group 4); and subscapularis slide with simultaneous tendon transfers, with no prior brachial plexus surgery (group 5). Full passive external rotation equivalent to the contralateral side was achieved in the operating room in all cases. No cases resulted in anterior instability or internal rotation deficit. Internal rotation contracture of the shoulder after brachial plexus birth injury can be effectively managed with the technique of subscapularis slide.

  6. Association of prehospitalization aspirin therapy and acute lung injury: results of a multicenter international observational study of at-risk patients.

    PubMed

    Kor, Daryl J; Erlich, Jason; Gong, Michelle N; Malinchoc, Michael; Carter, Rickey E; Gajic, Ognjen; Talmor, Daniel S

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate the association between prehospitalization aspirin therapy and incident acute lung injury in a heterogeneous cohort of at-risk medical patients. This is a secondary analysis of a prospective multicenter international cohort investigation. Multicenter observational study including 20 US hospitals and two hospitals in Turkey. Consecutive, adult, nonsurgical patients admitted to the hospital with at least one major risk factor for acute lung injury. None. Baseline characteristics and acute lung injury risk factors/modifiers were identified. The presence of aspirin therapy and the propensity to receive this therapy were determined. The primary outcome was acute lung injury during hospitalization. Secondary outcomes included intensive care unit and hospital mortality and intensive care unit and hospital length of stay. Twenty-two hospitals enrolled 3855 at-risk patients over a 6-month period. Nine hundred seventy-six (25.3%) were receiving aspirin at the time of hospitalization. Two hundred forty (6.2%) patients developed acute lung injury. Univariate analysis noted a reduced incidence of acute lung injury in those receiving aspirin therapy (odds ratio [OR], 0.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.46-0.90; p = .010). This association was attenuated in a stratified analysis based on deciles of aspirin propensity scores (Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel pooled OR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.48-1.03; p = .072). After adjusting for the propensity to receive aspirin therapy, no statistically significant associations between prehospitalization aspirin therapy and acute lung injury were identified; however, a prospective clinical trial to further evaluate this association appears warranted.

  7. Primary Arthrodesis versus Open Reduction and Internal Fixation for Low-Energy Lisfranc Injuries in a Young Athletic Population.

    PubMed

    Cochran, Grant; Renninger, Christopher; Tompane, Trevor; Bellamy, Joseph; Kuhn, Kevin

    2017-09-01

    There are 2 Level I studies comparing open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) and primary arthrodesis (PA) in high-energy Lisfranc injuries. There are no studies comparing ORIF and PA in young athletic patients with low-energy injuries. All operatively managed low-energy Lisfranc injuries sustained by active duty military personnel at a single institution were identified from 2010 to 2015. The injury pattern, method of treatment, and complications were reviewed. Implant removal rates, fitness test scores, return to military duty rates, and Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) scores were compared. Thirty-two patients were identified with the average age of 28 years. PA was performed in 14 patients with ORIF in 18. The PA group returned to full duty at an average of 4.5 months whereas the ORIF group returned at an average of 6.7 months ( P = .0066). The PA group ran their fitness test an average of 9 seconds per mile slower than their preoperative average whereas the ORIF group ran it an average of 39 seconds slower per mile ( P = .032). There were no differences between the 2 groups in the FAAM scores at an average of 35 months. Implant removal was performed in 15 (83%) in the ORIF group and 2 (14%) in the PA group ( P = .005). Low-energy Lisfranc injuries treated with primary arthrodesis had a lower implant removal rate, an earlier return to full military activity, and better fitness test scores after 1 year, but there was no difference in FAAM scores after 3 years. Level III, comparative cohort study.

  8. Injury surveillance in the World Football Tournaments 1998–2012

    PubMed Central

    Junge, Astrid; Dvorak, Jiri

    2013-01-01

    Background International sports bodies should protect the health of their athletes, and injury surveillance is an important pre-requisite for injury prevention. The Fédération International de Football Association (FIFA) has systematically surveyed all football injuries in their tournaments since 1998. Aims Analysis of the incidence, characteristics and changes of football injury during international top-level tournaments 1998–2012. Methods All newly incurred football injuries during the FIFA tournaments and the Olympic Games were reported by the team physicians on a standardised injury report form after each match. The average response rate was 92%. Results A total of 3944 injuries were reported from 1546 matches, equivalent to 2.6 injuries per match. The majority of injuries (80%) was caused by contact with another player, compared with 47% of contact injuries by foul play. The most frequently injured body parts were the ankle (19%), lower leg (16%) and head/neck (15%). Contusions (55%) were the most common type of injury, followed by sprains (17%) and strains (10%). On average, 1.1 injuries per match were expected to result in absence from a match or training. The incidence of time-loss injuries was highest in the FIFA World Cups and lowest in the FIFA U17 Women's World Cups. The injury rates in the various types of FIFA World Cups had different trends over the past 14 years. Conclusions Changes in the incidence of injuries in top-level tournaments might be influenced by the playing style, refereeing, extent and intensity of match play. Strict application of the Laws of the Games is an important means of injury prevention. PMID:23632746

  9. Injury Profile of American Women's Rugby-7s.

    PubMed

    Ma, Richard; Lopez, Victor; Weinstein, Meryle G; Chen, James L; Black, Christopher M; Gupta, Arun T; Harbst, Justin D; Victoria, Christian; Allen, Answorth A

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study is to determine incidence (injuries/1000 playing hours (ph)), severity (days of absence), and cause of match injuries in US women's Rugby-7s. We performed a prospective epidemiological study (2010-2013) of injury of 3876 under-19 to elite/national female Rugby-7s players (nonelite = 3324, elite = 552) on 323 teams (nonelite = 277, elite = 46), applying methodology and injury definitions compliant with the international consensus statement on rugby research. Injuries occurred in USA Rugby-sanctioned tournament series: USA Rugby Local Area (2010), Territorial Union (2011-2013), National and All-Star Sevens Series, and USA Sevens Invitational (2011-2012) and Collegiate Rugby Championships (2012). One hundred and twenty time-loss injuries were encountered (elite, n = 15; 13%) with an injury rate of 46.3 injuries/1000 ph. Injury rates in nonelite were 49.3/1000 ph, and in national level (elite) candidates, 32.6/1000 ph (RR = 1.5, P = 0.130). Mean days missed found elite level players at 74.9 d per injury, whereas nonelite at 41.8 d (P = 0.090). Acute injuries were significant (95%, RR = 1.9, P < 0.001), resulting in immediate removal from the pitch (56%, P < 0.001). The main mechanism of injury occurred when tackling players (73%, P < 0.001). The most common type of injury seen were ligament sprains (37%, 13.9/1000 ph), involving the lower extremity (45%, 20.5/1000 ph). The most common body parts injured were the knee and head/face (16%, 7.3/1000 ph). Time-loss injuries occurred with frequency in the US women's Rugby-7s tournaments. Overall injury rates in US women are lower than those in international elite men and women's Rugby-7s. The head and neck area in our female players was injured at greater rates (16%) than in international male Rugby-7s (5%). Injury prevention in US women's Rugby-7s must focus on injuries of the knee, head, and neck. Understanding risk factors will allow safe return-to-play decisions and formulate injury prevention

  10. Incidence and prevalence of elite male cricket injuries using updated consensus definitions.

    PubMed

    Orchard, John W; Kountouris, Alex; Sims, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    T20 (Twenty20 or 20 over) cricket has emerged in the last decade as the most popular form of cricket (in terms of spectator attendances). International consensus cricket definitions, first published in 2005, were updated in 2016 to better reflect the rise to prominence of T20 cricket. Injury incidence and prevalence rates were calculated using the new international methods and units for elite senior male Australian cricketers over the past decade (season 2006-2007 to season 2015-2016 inclusive). Over the past 10 seasons, average match injury incidence, for match time-loss injuries, was 155 injuries/1,000 days of play, with the highest daily rates in 50-over cricket, followed by 20-over cricket and First-Class matches. Annual injury incidence was 64 injuries/100 players per season, and average annual injury prevalence was 12.5% (although fast bowlers averaged 20.6%, much higher than other positions). The most common injury was the hamstring strain (seasonal incidence 8.7 injuries/100 players per season). The most prevalent injury was lumbar stress fractures (1.9% of players unavailable at all times owing to these injuries, which represents 15% of all missed playing time). The hamstring strain has emerged from being one of the many common injuries in elite cricket a decade ago to being clearly the most common injury in the sport at the elite level. This is presumably in association with increased T20 cricket. Lumbar stress fractures in fast bowlers are still the most prevalent injury in the sport of cricket at the elite level, although these injuries are more associated with high workloads arising from the longer forms of the game. Domestic and international matches have very similar match injury incidence rates across the formats, but injury prevalence is higher in international players as they play for most of the year without a substantial off-season.

  11. Sports injury or trauma? Injuries of the competition off-road motorcyclist.

    PubMed

    Colburn, Nona T; Meyer, Richard D

    2003-03-01

    A prospective analysis of the injuries of off-road competition motorcyclist at four International Six Day Enduro (ISDE) events was performed utilizing the injury severity score (ISS) and the abbreviated injury scale (AIS). Of the 1787 participants, approximately 10% received injuries that required attention from a medical response unit. The majority (85%) sustained a mild injury (mean ISS 3.9). Loss of control while jumping and striking immovable objects were important risk determinants for serious injury. Although seasoned in off-road experiences, mean 15.3 years, 54% of those injured were first year rookies to the ISDE event. Speeds were below 50 km/h in the majority of accidents (80%), and were not statistically correlated with severity. The most frequently injured anatomical regions were the extremities (57%). The most common types of injury were ligamentous (50%). Seventy-seven percent of all fractures were AIS grades 1 and 2. The most common fractures were those of the foot and ankle (36%). Multiple fractures involving different anatomical regions, or a combination of serious injuries was seen with only one rider. When compared to the injuries of the street motorcyclist, competition riders had lower AIS grades of head and limb trauma. Off-road motorcycle competition is a relatively safe sport with injury rates comparably less than those of contact sports such as American football and hockey.

  12. Consensus statement on injury definitions and data collection procedures for studies of injuries in rugby union

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Colin W; Molloy, Michael G; Bagate, Christian; Bahr, Roald; Brooks, John H M; Donson, Hilton; Kemp, Simon P T; McCrory, Paul; McIntosh, Andrew S; Meeuwisse, Willem H; Quarrie, Kenneth L; Raftery, Martin; Wiley, Preston

    2007-01-01

    Wide variations in the definitions and methodologies used for studies of injuries in rugby union have created inconsistencies in reported data and made interstudy comparisons of results difficult. The International Rugby Board established a Rugby Injury Consensus Group (RICG) to reach an agreement on the appropriate definitions and methodologies to standardise the recording of injuries and reporting of studies in rugby union. The RICG reviewed the consensus definitions and methodologies previously published for football (soccer) at a meeting in Dublin in order to assess their suitability for and application to rugby union. Following this meeting, iterative draft statements were prepared and circulated to members of the RICG for comment; a follow‐up meeting was arranged in Dublin, at which time all definitions and procedures were finalised. At this stage, all authors confirmed their agreement with the consensus statement. The agreed document was presented to and approved by the International Rugby Board Council. Agreement was reached on definitions for injury, recurrent injury, non‐fatal catastrophic injury, and training and match exposures, together with criteria for classifying injuries in terms of severity, location, type, diagnosis and causation. The definitions and methodology presented in this consensus statement for rugby union are similar to those proposed for football. Adoption of the proposals presented in this consensus statement should ensure that more consistent and comparable results will be obtained from studies of injuries within rugby union. PMID:17452684

  13. Delayed Presentation of a Chronic Morel-Lavallée Lesion.

    PubMed

    Christian, David; Leland, Hyuma A; Osias, Walter; Eberlin, Seth; Howell, Lori

    2016-07-01

    Morel-Lavellée lesions are soft tissue degloving injuries resulting from shearing trauma that induces separation of the superficial and deep fascias creating a potential space that becomes filled with hemolymph. Here we present a case of a 28-year-old male presenting with a persistent Type I Morel-Lavallée lesion 2.5 years after an automobile versus pedestrian accident. These lesions can be visualized via computed tomography, plain film and ultrasound, but magnetic resonance imaging is the modality of choice for their identification and characterization.

  14. Pedestrian Injuries By Source: Serious and Disabling Injuries in US and European Cases

    PubMed Central

    Mallory, Ann; Fredriksson, Rikard; Rosén, Erik; Donnelly, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    US and European pedestrian crash cases were analyzed to determine frequency of injury by body region and by the vehicle component identified as the injury source. US pedestrian data was drawn from the Pedestrian Crash Data Study (PCDS). European pedestrian data was drawn from the German In-Depth Accident Study (GIDAS). Results were analyzed in terms of both serious injury (AIS 3+) and disabling injury estimated with the Functional Capacity Index (FCI). The results are presented in parallel for a more complete international perspective on injuries and injury sources. Lower extremity injury from bumper impact and head&face injury from windshield impact were the most frequent combinations for both serious and disabling injuries. Serious lower extremity injuries from bumper contact occurred in 43% of seriously injured pedestrian cases in US PCDS data and 35% of European GIDAS cases. Lower-extremity bumper injuries also account for more than 20% of disability in both datasets. Serious head &face injuries from windshield contact occur in 27% of PCDS and 15% of GIDAS serious injury cases. While bumper impacts primarily result in lower extremity injury and windshield impacts are most often associated with head & face injuries, the hood and hood leading edge are responsible for serious and disabling injuries to a number of different body regions. Therefore, while it is appropriate to focus on lower extremity injury when studying bumper performance and on head injury risk when studying windshield impact, pedestrian performance of other components may require better understanding of injury risk for multiple body regions. PMID:23169112

  15. The Application of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health to Functional Auditory Consequences of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Werff, Kathy R. Vander

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the auditory consequences of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) within the context of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Because of growing awareness of mTBI as a public health concern and the diverse and heterogeneous nature of the individual consequences, it is important to provide audiologists and other health care providers with a better understanding of potential implications in the assessment of levels of function and disability for individual interdisciplinary remediation planning. In consideration of body structures and function, the mechanisms of injury that may result in peripheral or central auditory dysfunction in mTBI are reviewed, along with a broader scope of effects of injury to the brain. The activity limitations and participation restrictions that may affect assessment and management in the context of an individual's personal factors and their environment are considered. Finally, a review of management strategies for mTBI from an audiological perspective as part of a multidisciplinary team is included. PMID:27489400

  16. How much is too much? (Part 1) International Olympic Committee consensus statement on load in sport and risk of injury.

    PubMed

    Soligard, Torbjørn; Schwellnus, Martin; Alonso, Juan-Manuel; Bahr, Roald; Clarsen, Ben; Dijkstra, H Paul; Gabbett, Tim; Gleeson, Michael; Hägglund, Martin; Hutchinson, Mark R; Janse van Rensburg, Christa; Khan, Karim M; Meeusen, Romain; Orchard, John W; Pluim, Babette M; Raftery, Martin; Budgett, Richard; Engebretsen, Lars

    2016-09-01

    Athletes participating in elite sports are exposed to high training loads and increasingly saturated competition calendars. Emerging evidence indicates that poor load management is a major risk factor for injury. The International Olympic Committee convened an expert group to review the scientific evidence for the relationship of load (defined broadly to include rapid changes in training and competition load, competition calendar congestion, psychological load and travel) and health outcomes in sport. We summarise the results linking load to risk of injury in athletes, and provide athletes, coaches and support staff with practical guidelines to manage load in sport. This consensus statement includes guidelines for (1) prescription of training and competition load, as well as for (2) monitoring of training, competition and psychological load, athlete well-being and injury. In the process, we identified research priorities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Injuries from combat explosions in Iraq: injury type, location, and severity.

    PubMed

    Eskridge, Susan L; Macera, Caroline A; Galarneau, Michael R; Holbrook, Troy L; Woodruff, Susan I; MacGregor, Andrew J; Morton, Deborah J; Shaffer, Richard A

    2012-10-01

    Explosions have caused a greater percentage of injuries in Iraq and Afghanistan than in any other large-scale conflict. Improvements in body armour and field medical care have improved survival and changed the injury profile of service personnel. This study's objective was to determine the nature, body region, and severity of injuries caused by an explosion episode in male service personnel. A descriptive analysis was conducted of 4623 combat explosion episodes in Iraq between March 2004 and December 2007. The Barell matrix was used to describe the nature and body regions of injuries due to a combat explosion. A total of 17,637 International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes were assigned to the 4623 explosion episodes, with an average of 3.8 ICD-9 codes per episode. The most frequent single injury type was a mild traumatic brain injury (TBI; 10.8%). Other frequent injuries were open wounds in the lower extremity (8.8%) and open wounds of the face (8.2%), which includes tympanic membrane rupture. The extremities were the body regions most often injured (41.3%), followed by head and neck (37.4%) and torso (8.8%). The results of this study support previous observations of TBI as a pre-eminent injury of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, with mild TBI as the most common single injury in this large cohort of explosion episodes. The extremities had the highest frequency of injuries for any one body region. The majority of the explosion episodes resulted in more than one injury, and the variety of injuries across nearly every body region and injury type suggests a complex nature of explosion injuries. Understanding the constellation of injuries commonly caused by explosions will assist in the mitigation, treatment, and rehabilitation of the effects of these injuries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A Simple Strategy in Avulsion Flap Injury: Prediction of Flap Viability Using Wood's Lamp Illumination and Resurfacing with a Full-thickness Skin Graft.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyoseob; Han, Dae Hee; Lee, Il Jae; Park, Myong Chul

    2014-03-01

    Extensive degloving injuries of the extremities usually result in necrosis of the flap, necessitating comprehensive skin grafting. Provided there is a sufficient tool to evaluate flap viability, full-thickness skin can be used from a nonviable avulsed flap. We used a Wood's lamp to determine the viability of avulsed flaps in the operation field after intravenous injection of fluorescein dye. We experienced 13 cases during 16 months. Fifteen minutes after the intravenous injection of fluorescein dye, the avulsed skin flaps were examined and non-fluorescent areas were marked under Wood's lamp illumination. The marked area was defatted for full-thickness skin grafting. The fluorescent areas were sutured directly without tension. The non-fluorescent areas were covered by defatted skin. Several days later, there was soft tissue necrosis within the flap area. We measured necrotic area and revised the flap. Among all the cases, necrotic area was 21.3% of the total avulsed area. However, if we exclude three cases, one of a carelessly managed patient and two cases of the flaps were inappropriately applied, good results were obtained, with a necrotic area of only 8.4%. Eight patients needed split-thickness skin grafts, and heel pad reconstruction was performed with free flap. A full-thickness skin graft from an avulsed flap is a good method for addressing aesthetic concerns without producing donor site morbidity. Fluorescein dye is a useful, simple, and cost-effective tool for evaluating flap viability. Avulsed flap injuries can be managed well with Wood's lamp illumination and a full-thickness skin graft.

  19. Incidence and prevalence of elite male cricket injuries using updated consensus definitions

    PubMed Central

    Orchard, John W; Kountouris, Alex; Sims, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Background T20 (Twenty20 or 20 over) cricket has emerged in the last decade as the most popular form of cricket (in terms of spectator attendances). International consensus cricket definitions, first published in 2005, were updated in 2016 to better reflect the rise to prominence of T20 cricket. Methods Injury incidence and prevalence rates were calculated using the new international methods and units for elite senior male Australian cricketers over the past decade (season 2006–2007 to season 2015–2016 inclusive). Results Over the past 10 seasons, average match injury incidence, for match time-loss injuries, was 155 injuries/1,000 days of play, with the highest daily rates in 50-over cricket, followed by 20-over cricket and First-Class matches. Annual injury incidence was 64 injuries/100 players per season, and average annual injury prevalence was 12.5% (although fast bowlers averaged 20.6%, much higher than other positions). The most common injury was the hamstring strain (seasonal incidence 8.7 injuries/100 players per season). The most prevalent injury was lumbar stress fractures (1.9% of players unavailable at all times owing to these injuries, which represents 15% of all missed playing time). Discussion The hamstring strain has emerged from being one of the many common injuries in elite cricket a decade ago to being clearly the most common injury in the sport at the elite level. This is presumably in association with increased T20 cricket. Lumbar stress fractures in fast bowlers are still the most prevalent injury in the sport of cricket at the elite level, although these injuries are more associated with high workloads arising from the longer forms of the game. Domestic and international matches have very similar match injury incidence rates across the formats, but injury prevalence is higher in international players as they play for most of the year without a substantial off-season. PMID:28008292

  20. Injury surveillance in a rugby tournament.

    PubMed Central

    Wekesa, M; Asembo, J M; Njororai, W W

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate injuries in international rugby football. METHODS--All injuries that led to temporary stoppage of the game or to the substitution of a player during the Rugby World Cup prequalifying tournament were recorded. Six matches were played, involving the Arabian Gulf, Kenya, Namibia, and Zimbabwe. RESULTS--47 injuries were recorded, giving an injury rate of eight per match. The number of injuries decreased from 38.3% in the first matches to 23.4% in the final ones. The most serious injury was a concussion and the majority of the injuries affected soft tissues. Anatomically, the lower limbs suffered most injuries (46.8%), followed by the head (21.3%), trunk (17.0%), and upper limbs (12.8%). Slightly more injuries occurred in the defensive half of the field of play (53.2%) than in the offensive half (46.8%). More injuries occurred in the second half (61.7%) than in the first half (38.3%). CONCLUSIONS--Protective equipment should be introduced to minimise the number and seriousness of injuries in rugby. PMID:8665122

  1. Morel-Lavallee Lesions-Review of Pathophysiology, Clinical Findings, Imaging Findings and Management.

    PubMed

    Diviti, Sreelatha; Gupta, Nishant; Hooda, Kusum; Sharma, Komal; Lo, Lawrence

    2017-04-01

    Morel-Lavallee lesion is a post-traumatic soft tissue degloving injury. This is commonly associated with sports injury caused by a shearing force resulting in separation of the hypodermis from the deeper fascia. Most common at the greater trochanter, these injuries also occur at flank, buttock, lumbar spine, scapula and the knee. Separation of the tissue planes result in a complex serosanguinous fluid collection with areas of fat within it. The imaging appearance is variable and non specific, potentially mimicking simple soft tissue haematoma, superficial bursitis or necrotic soft tissue neoplasms. If not treated in the acute or early sub acute settings, these collections are at risk for superinfection, overlying tissue necrosis and continued expansion. In this review article, we discuss the clinical presentation, pathophysiology, imaging features and differential diagnostic considerations of Morel-Lavallee lesions. Role of imaging in guiding prompt and appropriate treatment has also been discussed.

  2. [Injuries to car passengers protected by air bags].

    PubMed

    Sefrin, P; Kuhnigk, H; Koburg, R

    2004-11-01

    The air bag, like the seatbelt, is a further development of the inside protection of motorcar passengers. However, the airbag has also been made responsible for severe internal injuries. In a retrospective case control study, 394 accidents in which the air bag was released were analysed. At least medium severe injuries (Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale: MAIS > or = 2) occurred in 69 cases. Three different patterns of injury were distinguished depending on the level of difficulty of diagnosis by the emergency physician. Damage to the vehicles was scored in five intensities or damage grades. Thoracic injury was most frequently diagnosed in the patients (in 61.5 % of cases), followed by injuries to the lower (50.8 %) and upper extremities (47.7 %). Single injuries with a grade of severity of 2 (MAIS) predominated (59.7 %). In most of the cases the injury was easy to diagnose (64.6 %) because of external signs, in 24.6 % internal injuries were assumed and in only 10.8 % were there no sings of damage to body cavities. Most frequent were occult injuries in the thoracic region (100 %) and in the abdomen (74.4 %). However, occult injuries did not always conform to the grade of deformation to the vehicle, since in 66.7 % the grade of damage was 3. This was not true for the remaining types of injury because external injuries increased with the grade of damage to the vehicle. After the release of the air bag, occult injuries of the body cavities have to be expected, even if there are no signs of external injury. Women under 35 years of age are particularly endangered. There exists no minimum velocity for the occurrence of injuries to the body cavities because harm can simply be a result of the release of the air bag.

  3. Purines: forgotten mediators in traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Edwin K; Boison, Detlev; Schwarzschild, Michael A; Kochanek, Patrick M

    2016-04-01

    Recently, the topic of traumatic brain injury has gained attention in both the scientific community and lay press. Similarly, there have been exciting developments on multiple fronts in the area of neurochemistry specifically related to purine biology that are relevant to both neuroprotection and neurodegeneration. At the 2105 meeting of the National Neurotrauma Society, a session sponsored by the International Society for Neurochemistry featured three experts in the field of purine biology who discussed new developments that are germane to both the pathomechanisms of secondary injury and development of therapies for traumatic brain injury. This included presentations by Drs. Edwin Jackson on the novel 2',3'-cAMP pathway in neuroprotection, Detlev Boison on adenosine in post-traumatic seizures and epilepsy, and Michael Schwarzschild on the potential of urate to treat central nervous system injury. This mini review summarizes the important findings in these three areas and outlines future directions for the development of new purine-related therapies for traumatic brain injury and other forms of central nervous system injury. In this review, novel therapies based on three emerging areas of adenosine-related pathobiology in traumatic brain injury (TBI) were proposed, namely, therapies targeting 1) the 2',3'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) pathway, 2) adenosine deficiency after TBI, and 3) augmentation of urate after TBI. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  4. Rehabilitation outcomes following traumatic spinal cord injury in a tertiary spinal cord injury centre: a comparison with an international standard.

    PubMed

    Chan, S C C; Chan, A P S

    2005-08-01

    Retrospective descriptive analysis of data of patients with traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) in a tertiary SCI centre. To identify the characteristics of the rehabilitation outcomes of patients with different levels of traumatic SCI and to compare the results with data reported in the American Consortium for Spinal Cord Medicine. A newly established tertiary SCI centre in Tai Po Hospital, Tai Po, Hong Kong. A total of 33 patients with traumatic SCI admitted in 2002 were included in the study. They were classified into different ASIA subgroups based on their levels and completeness of injury. The functional status changes measured by the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) (on admission, placement and upon discharge, and at 1 and 3 months post discharge) and discharge placement were recorded as rehabilitation outcomes. A total, 24 patients were tetraplegic while nine were paraplegic. Seven and two from tetraplegic and paraplegic groups were readmitted with late complications due to urinary tract infection, spasticity and/or occurrence of pressure sores. The mean age was found to be 48.36 (SD=15.64) years. In all, 16 (48.48%) sustained the injury from falling from height. The trend of FIM motor scores at discharge across different ASIA subgroups appeared to be comparable to those reported in the American Consortium for Spinal Cord Medicine with scores generally lower. Significant functional improvements during the hospital phase were found in the two tetraplegic and paraplegic ASIA D subgroups (t3=3.430, P<0.05; t2=4.083, P=0.55, respectively). Significant differences were also revealed among subgroups (F(7,32)=6.625, P<0.0005) with lower level tetraplegic groups appearing to stay much longer in the rehabilitation centre. In all, 64.5% of newly diagnosed patients returned to live in the community. This report gives a preliminary overview on the characteristics of rehabilitation outcomes in one of the SCI centres in Hong Kong in relation to the international

  5. Us Navy Active Duty Eye Injury Summary Calendar Year 2017

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This document reports eye injuries within active duty members of the United States Navy for calendar year 2017. Ocular injuries are defined by...specific medical diagnostic codes (International Classification of Diseases). Injuries are categories by type, cause, and occupation. These categories are ...stratified between ambulatory and inpatient. Additionally, data on deployment associated eye injuries are included.

  6. Associations Among Hip and Shoulder Range of Motion and Shoulder Injury in Professional Baseball Players

    PubMed Central

    Scher, Steve; Anderson, Kyle; Weber, Nick; Bajorek, Jeff; Rand, Kevin; Bey, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: The overhead throwing motion is complex, and restrictions in range of motion (ROM) at the hip may place additional demands on the shoulder that lead to injury. However, the relationship between hip and shoulder ROM in athletes with and without a history of shoulder injury is unknown. Objective: To (1) determine if differences exist in hip and shoulder ROM between professional baseball players with a history of shoulder injury and those with no history of shoulder injury and (2) assess relationships between hip and shoulder ROM in these players. Design: Cross-sectional study. Patients or Other Participants: Fifty-seven professional baseball players. Main Outcome Measure(s): Outcome measures consisted of hip extension and internal rotation, shoulder internal and external rotation, glenohumeral internal-rotation deficit, and history of shoulder injury. Differences in shoulder and hip ROM were assessed with a 1-way analysis of variance. Associations between hip and shoulder ROM were assessed with linear regression. Results: Nonpitchers with a history of shoulder injury had more external rotation and less internal rotation of the shoulder than nonpitchers with no history of shoulder injury. Glenohumeral internal-rotation deficit was greater in both pitchers and nonpitchers with a history of shoulder injury. The relationship between dominant hip extension and shoulder external rotation was significant for pitchers with a history of shoulder injury and nonpitchers with a history of shoulder injury. Conclusions: Shoulder injury may be associated with specific measures of hip and shoulder ROM, and hip extension and shoulder external rotation may be related in baseball players with a history of shoulder injury. Additional research is necessary to understand the specific mechanisms of shoulder injury in the throwing athlete. PMID:20210623

  7. Lawn-mower injuries in children.

    PubMed

    Love, S M; Grogan, D P; Ogden, J A

    1988-01-01

    The power lawn mower is capable of inflicting serious injury, particularly to the pediatric population. A total of 27 patients who had sustained lawn-mower injuries were reviewed to identify those factors responsible for power-mower accidents and to determine an effective treatment regimen for these patients. The injuries included amputations in 19, major lacerations in 34, and fractures in 23 extremities. Aggressive treatment of both the soft tissue and bony injuries was necessary. Fractures were treated with either open reduction and internal fixation or external fixation, as appropriate, and early soft tissue coverage. The results were satisfactory in the majority of patients, but often required multiple surgical procedures over a number of years. The incidence of these injuries can be reduced by educating the public about the potential dangers of these machines, and by encouraging the use of proper safety procedures.

  8. Injuries caused by sharp instruments among healthcare workers--international and Polish perspectives.

    PubMed

    Goniewicz, Mariusz; Włoszczak-Szubzda, Anna; Niemcewicz, Marcin; Witt, Magdalena; Marciniak-Niemcewicz, Anna; Jarosz, Mirosław Jerzy

    2012-01-01

    Health care workers (HCW) worldwide are especially exposed to injury by sharp instruments in the course of their duty. The most often executed procedures with injury risk are: intramuscular or subcutaneous injection (22%), taking blood samples, or during intravenous cannulation (20%), and repeatedly replacing the cap on an already used needle (30%). Even a minor sharp injury with only a small loss of blood carries the risk of transfer of over 20 pathogens: Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), HIV/AIDS virus, malaria, syphilis, tuberculosis, brucellosis, herpes virus and diphtheria. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that more than two million health care workers experience the stressful event of a percutaneous injury with a contaminated sharp object each year (25-90% of them, however, remain unreported). These exposures result in about 16,000 infections with HCV, 66,000 with HBV and about 1,000 (200-5000) with HIV, which lead to about 1,100 deaths or significant disability. Exposures to sharp injuries and their consequences are highly preventable through simple interventions, such as HBV vaccination, education and providing containers for sharp instruments. Specific guidelines, similar to the American Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations that have lowered by up to 88% of needle stabbing incidents, should be introduced by the European Union (EU) and other countries. The results of a review of reports leads to the following conclusions: 1) elaboration and implementation of new State regulations, especially in EU countries and in countries where such regulations do not exist; 2) the training of health care personnel should always be undertaken for new employees, and periodically for those already employed; 3) periodical control by appointed inspectors of knowledge of procedures for the prevention of injuries by sharp instruments among health care workers; 4) introducing and training in the use of equipment, which can

  9. Musculoskeletal Injury in Professional Dancers: Prevalence and Associated Factors: An International Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Craig L; Cassidy, J David; Côté, Pierre; Boyle, Eleanor; Ramel, Eva; Ammendolia, Carlo; Hartvigsen, Jan; Schwartz, Isabella

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with injury in professional ballet and modern dancers, and assess if dancers are reporting their injuries and explore reasons for not reporting injuries. Cross-sectional study. Participants were recruited from nine professional ballet and modern dance companies in Canada, Denmark, Israel, and Sweden. Professional ballet and modern dancers. Sociodemographic variables included age, sex, height, weight, and before-tax yearly or monthly income. Dance specific characteristics included number of years in present dance company, number of years dancing professionally, number of years dancing total, and rank in the company. Self-reported injury and Self-Estimated Functional Inability because of Pain. A total of 260 dancers participated in the study with an overall response rate of 81%. The point prevalence of self-reported injury in professional ballet and modern dancers was 54.8% (95% CI, 47.7-62.1) and 46.3% (95% CI, 35.5-57.1), respectively. Number of years dancing professionally (OR = 4.4, 95% CI, 1.6-12.3) and rank (OR = 2.4, 95% CI, 1.2-4.8) were associated with injury in ballet dancers. More than 15% of all injured dancers had not reported their injury and their reasons for not reporting injury varied. The prevalence of injury is high in professional dancers with a significant percentage not reporting their injuries for a variety of reasons. Number of years dancing and rank are associated with injury in professional ballet dancers.

  10. Injury risk is low among world-class volleyball players: 4-year data from the FIVB Injury Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Bere, Tone; Kruczynski, Jacek; Veintimilla, Nadège; Hamu, Yuichiro; Bahr, Roald

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known about the rate and pattern of injuries in international volleyball competition. Objective To describe the risk and pattern of injuries among world-class players based on data from the The International Volleyball Federation (FIVB) Injury Surveillance System (ISS) (junior and senior, male and female). Methods The FIVB ISS is based on prospective registration of injuries by team medical staff during all major FIVB tournaments (World Championships, World Cup, World Grand Prix, World League, Olympic Games). This paper is based on 4-year data (September 2010 to November 2014) obtained through the FIVB ISS during 32 major FIVB events (23 senior and 9 junior). Results The incidence of time-loss injuries during match play was 3.8/1000 player hours (95% CI 3.0 to 4.5); this was greater for senior players than for junior players (relative risk: 2.04, 1.29 to 3.21), while there was no difference between males and females (1.04, 0.70 to 1.55). Across all age and sex groups, the ankle was the most commonly injured body part (25.9%), followed by the knee (15.2%), fingers/thumb (10.7%) and lower back (8.9%). Injury incidence was greater for centre players and lower for liberos than for other player functions; injury patterns also differed between player functions. Conclusions Volleyball is a very safe sport, even at the highest levels of play. Preventive measures should focus on acute ankle and finger sprains, and overuse injuries in the knee, lower back and shoulder. PMID:26194501

  11. Injury in China: a systematic review of injury surveillance studies conducted in Chinese hospital emergency departments

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Injuries represent a significant and growing public health concern in China. This Review was conducted to document the characteristics of injured patients presenting to the emergency department of Chinese hospitals and to assess of the nature of information collected and reported in published surveillance studies. Methods A systematic search of MEDLINE and China Academic Journals supplemented with a hand search of journals was performed. Studies published in the period 1997 to 2007 were included and research published in Chinese was the focus. Search terms included emergency, injury, medical care. Results Of the 268 studies identified, 13 were injury surveillance studies set in the emergency department. Nine were collaborative studies of which eight were prospective studies. Of the five single centre studies only one was of a prospective design. Transport, falls and industrial injuries were common mechanisms of injury. Study strengths were large patient sample sizes and for the collaborative studies a large number of participating hospitals. There was however limited use of internationally recognised injury classification and severity coding indices. Conclusion Despite the limited number of studies identified, the scope of each highlights the willingness and the capacity to conduct surveillance studies in the emergency department. This Review highlights the need for the adoption of standardized injury coding indices in the collection and reporting of patient health data. While high level injury surveillance systems focus on population-based priority setting, this Review demonstrates the need to establish an internationally comparable trauma registry that would permit monitoring of the trauma system and would by extension facilitate the optimal care of the injured patient through the development of informed quality assurance programs and the implementation of evidence-based health policy. PMID:22029774

  12. Traumatic Brain Injury as a Cause of Behavior Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordlund, Marcia R.

    There is increasing evidence that many children and adolescents who display behavior disorders have sustained a traumatic brain injury. Traumatic brain injury can take the following forms: closed head trauma in which the brain usually suffers diffuse damage; open head injury which usually results in specific focal damage; or internal trauma (e.g.,…

  13. Occult abusive injuries in children brought for care after intimate partner violence: An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Tiyyagura, Gunjan; Christian, Cindy; Berger, Rachel; Lindberg, Daniel

    2018-05-01

    Children in homes with intimate partner violence (IPV) are at increased risk for physical abuse. We determined the frequency and injury patterns in children who underwent child abuse consultation after IPV exposure by retrospectively analyzing the "Examination of Siblings To Recognize Abuse" cohort of children referred for physical abuse. Children were selected who presented after IPV exposure. Among 2890 children evaluated by child abuse pediatricians, 61 (2.1%) patients presented after IPV exposure. Of the 61, 11 (18.0%) were exposed to IPV, but had no direct involvement in the IPV event, 36 (59.0%) sustained inadvertent trauma during IPV, and 14 (23.0%) were directly assaulted during IPV. Thirty-six patients (59.0%) had an injury: 31 (51.0%) had cutaneous injuries and 15 (24.6%) had internal injuries including fracture(s), intracranial or intra-abdominal injury. Of the 15 patients with internal injuries, 14 (93.3%) were less than 12 months old. Among the 36 patients with injuries, 16 (44.4%) had no report of direct injury, a report of a mechanism that did not explain the identified injuries, or a report of trauma without a specific mechanism. Five (13.9%) did not have physical examination findings to suggest the extent of their internal injuries. Injuries are present in a significant proportion of children presenting to Emergency Departments after IPV exposure. History and physical examination alone are insufficient to detect internal injuries especially in infants. These preliminary results support the need for future, prospective studies of occult injury in children exposed to IPV. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Morel-Lavallee Lesion in the Upper Extremity.

    PubMed

    Cochran, Grant K; Hanna, Kathryn H

    2017-01-01

    Background: The Morel-Lavallee lesion (MLL) is a closed internal degloving injury that results from shearing of the skin and subcutaneous tissue from the underlying fascia. Disruption of the perforating blood vessels and lymphatics results in a lesion filled with serosanguinous fluid and necrotized fat. MLLs are most commonly described in association with pelvic and lower extremity trauma, and there are limited reports of these lesions in other locations. Methods: This case report describes a 58-year-old male referred from his primary care physician with a soft tissue mass in the upper arm. Careful history discovered prior trauma with extensive bruising and MRI revealed a large encapsulated mass consistent with MLL. Results: An open debridement with excision of pseudocapsule was performed. Meticulous closure over a drain was performed and the patient healed without complication or recurrence. Intra-operative cultures were negative and pathology was consistent with MLL. Conclusion: MLL should always be considered in the setting of previous trauma regardless the location. In the chronic setting an open approach with excision of pseudocapsule can have an acceptable result.

  15. Lisfranc injuries in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hill, Jaclyn F; Heyworth, Benton E; Lierhaus, Anneliese; Kocher, Mininder S; Mahan, Susan T

    2017-03-01

    In this descriptive analysis of pediatric Lisfranc injuries, records of 56 children treated for bony or ligamentous Lisfranc injuries over a 12-year period were reviewed. Overall, 51% of fractures and 82% of sprains were sports-related (P=0.03). A total of 34% of the cohort underwent open reduction internal fixation, which was more common among patients with closed physes (67%). Full weight bearing was allowed in open reduction internal fixation patients at a mean of 14.5 weeks, compared to 6.5 weeks in the nonoperative group. Complications were rare (4%) and included physeal arrest in one patient and a broken, retained implant in one patient.

  16. Internally and externally generated emotions in people with acquired brain injury: preservation of emotional experience after right hemisphere lesions

    PubMed Central

    Salas Riquelme, Christian E.; Radovic, Darinka; Castro, Osvaldo; Turnbull, Oliver H.

    2015-01-01

    The study of emotional changes after brain injury has contributed enormously to the understanding of the neural basis of emotion. However, little attention has been placed on the methods used to elicit emotional responses in people with brain damage. Of particular interest are subjects with right hemisphere [RH] cortical lesions, who have been described as presenting impairment in emotional processing. In this article, an internal and external mood induction procedure [MIP] was used to trigger positive and negative emotions, in a sample of 10 participants with RH damage, and 15 healthy controls. Emotional experience was registered by using a self-report questionnaire. As observed in previous studies, internal and external MIPs were equally effective in eliciting the target emotion, but the internal procedure generated higher levels of intensity. Remarkably, participants with RH lesions were equally able to experience both positive and negative affect. The results are discussed in relation to the role of the RH in the capacity to experience negative emotions. PMID:25762951

  17. Internally and externally generated emotions in people with acquired brain injury: preservation of emotional experience after right hemisphere lesions.

    PubMed

    Salas Riquelme, Christian E; Radovic, Darinka; Castro, Osvaldo; Turnbull, Oliver H

    2015-01-01

    The study of emotional changes after brain injury has contributed enormously to the understanding of the neural basis of emotion. However, little attention has been placed on the methods used to elicit emotional responses in people with brain damage. Of particular interest are subjects with right hemisphere [RH] cortical lesions, who have been described as presenting impairment in emotional processing. In this article, an internal and external mood induction procedure [MIP] was used to trigger positive and negative emotions, in a sample of 10 participants with RH damage, and 15 healthy controls. Emotional experience was registered by using a self-report questionnaire. As observed in previous studies, internal and external MIPs were equally effective in eliciting the target emotion, but the internal procedure generated higher levels of intensity. Remarkably, participants with RH lesions were equally able to experience both positive and negative affect. The results are discussed in relation to the role of the RH in the capacity to experience negative emotions.

  18. Expanding Hematoma's Life-Threatening Neck and Face Emergency Management of Ballistic Injuries.

    PubMed

    Shuker, Sabri T

    2016-07-01

    This article aims to bring attention to the morbidity and fatality of hemorrhage, how expanding hematoma and air compromise neck/face N/F injuries and present challenges. Large neck vessel ballistic injuries may lead to hemorrhage and expanding hematoma, resulting in airway compromise, due to injuries to the internal and/or external carotid arteries, internal jugular veins "internal carotid artery, external carotid artery, internal jugular vein," and the external carotid artery deep branches. This also leads to injuries to the cervical fascial layers (barriers of deep spaces) that facilitate pooling blood and hematoma into compartmental and large potential space which effects the pharynx, larynx, esophagus, and trachea.The expanding hematomas distort neck anatomical landmarks so "no neck zones" classifications are applicable. As the spectrum of injuries continues to evolve, the clinical characterization needs a new categorization based on compartmental hematoma and potential space anatomical location like retropharyngeal, parapharyngeal, sublingual, submandibular spaces, retrobulbar, and cheek compartment space hematomas.Presence of symptoms and location of the hematoma generally dictate what type of procedure is needed and how urgently it needs to be appropriately performed.Two unusual patients of pseudoaneurysms facial artery injuries with extravasation of blood producing a pulsating hematoma are referred to. Another patient considers large internal carotid artery injuries pseudoaneurysms revealed in angiography.The immediate management of life-saving patients requires aggressive airway maintenance at the scene, conscious victim will often obtain a posture that clears his airway and the semiconscious or unconscious put him in prone position. Air compromise may need emergency intubation, large bore cannula cricothyroidotomy, cricothyrotomy and at medical facilities tracheostomy.

  19. Injury risk is low among world-class volleyball players: 4-year data from the FIVB Injury Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Bere, Tone; Kruczynski, Jacek; Veintimilla, Nadège; Hamu, Yuichiro; Bahr, Roald

    2015-09-01

    Little is known about the rate and pattern of injuries in international volleyball competition. To describe the risk and pattern of injuries among world-class players based on data from the The International Volleyball Federation (FIVB) Injury Surveillance System (ISS) (junior and senior, male and female). The FIVB ISS is based on prospective registration of injuries by team medical staff during all major FIVB tournaments (World Championships, World Cup, World Grand Prix, World League, Olympic Games). This paper is based on 4-year data (September 2010 to November 2014) obtained through the FIVB ISS during 32 major FIVB events (23 senior and 9 junior). The incidence of time-loss injuries during match play was 3.8/1000 player hours (95% CI 3.0 to 4.5); this was greater for senior players than for junior players (relative risk: 2.04, 1.29 to 3.21), while there was no difference between males and females (1.04, 0.70 to 1.55). Across all age and sex groups, the ankle was the most commonly injured body part (25.9%), followed by the knee (15.2%), fingers/thumb (10.7%) and lower back (8.9%). Injury incidence was greater for centre players and lower for liberos than for other player functions; injury patterns also differed between player functions. Volleyball is a very safe sport, even at the highest levels of play. Preventive measures should focus on acute ankle and finger sprains, and overuse injuries in the knee, lower back and shoulder. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Large Morel-Lavallée lesion presenting as fungating mass with skin ulceration.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Christine E; Wachtel, Sarah; Leef, George; Ozdalga, Errol

    2016-01-01

    A Morel-Lavallée lesion, a type of soft tissue degloving injury that has also been referred to as a chronic expanding hematoma, is a relatively rare condition that usually develops following traumatic injury. Here, we present a case of a 60-year-old male with a Morel-Lavallée lesion diagnosed over 5 years after a traumatic injury of the hip. He presented with a large fungating mass and overlying skin ulceration, which was highly suspicious for sarcoma. However, lack of other systemic findings and constitutional complaints, as well as negative imaging studies, did not support a diagnosis of malignancy. This information, combined with the history of remote trauma to the affected area, instead led us to suspect the alternative diagnosis of a Morel-Lavallée lesion. The diagnosis was later confirmed by pathology showing a chronic expanding hematoma. To our knowledge, a Morel-Lavallée lesion presenting as a fungating mass has not been previously described.

  1. Relevance of the international spinal cord injury basic data sets to youth: an Inter-Professional review with recommendations.

    PubMed

    Carroll, A; Vogel, L C; Zebracki, K; Noonan, V K; Biering-Sørensen, F; Mulcahey, M J

    2017-09-01

    Mixed methods, using the Modified Delphi Technique and Expert Panel Review. To evaluate the utility and relevance of the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Core and Basic Data Sets for children and youth with SCI. International. Via 20 electronic surveys, an interprofessional sample of healthcare professionals with pediatric SCI experience participated in an iterative critical review of the International SCI Data Sets, and submitted suggestions for modifications for use with four pediatric age groups. A panel of 5 experts scrutinized the utility of all data sets, correlated any modifications with the developing National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) pediatric SCI Common Data Elements (CDE) and distributed final recommendations for modifications required to the adult data sets to the International SCI Data Set Committee and the associated Working Groups. Two International SCI Data Sets were considered relevant and appropriate for use with children without any changes. Three were considered not appropriate or applicable for use with children, regardless of age. Recommendations were made for five data sets to enhance their relevance and applicability to children across the age groups, and recommendations for seven data sets were specific to infants and younger children. The results of this critical review are significant in that substantive recommendations to align the International SCI Core and Basic Data Sets to pediatric practice were made. This project was funded by the Rick Hansen Institute Grant# 2015-27.

  2. Occupational injuries identified by an emergency department based injury surveillance system in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Noe, R; Rocha, J; Clavel-Arcas, C; Aleman, C; Gonzales, M; Mock, C

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To identify and describe the work related injuries in both the formal and informal work sectors captured in an emergency department based injury surveillance system in Managua, Nicaragua. Setting: Urban emergency department in Managua, Nicaragua serving 200–300 patients per day. Methods: Secondary analysis from the surveillance system data. All cases indicating an injury while working and seen for treatment at the emergency department between 1 August 2001 and 31 July 2002 were included. There was no exclusion based on place of occurrence (home, work, school), age, or gender. Results: There were 3801 work related injuries identified which accounted for 18.6% of the total 20 425 injures captured by the surveillance system. Twenty seven work related fatalities were recorded, compared with the 1998 International Labor Organization statistic of 25 occupational fatalities for all of Nicaragua. Injuries occurring outside of a formal work location accounted for more than 60% of the work related injuries. Almost half of these occurred at home, while 19% occurred on the street. The leading mechanisms for work related injuries were falls (30%), blunt objects (28%), and stabs/cuts (23%). Falls were by far the most severe mechanism in the study, causing 37% of the work related deaths and more than half of the fractures. Conclusions: Occupational injuries are grossly underreported in Nicaragua. This study demonstrated that an emergency department can be a data source for work related injuries in developing countries because it captures both the formal and informal workforce injuries. Fall prevention initiatives could significantly reduce the magnitude and severity of occupational injuries in Managua, Nicaragua. PMID:15314050

  3. Management of maxillofacial injuries in Iraq.

    PubMed

    Kummoona, Raja

    2011-09-01

    These clinical studies reflect the experience of the author in managing 673 patients treated during the last 8 years. All patients were treated in the Maxillofacial Unit, Surgical Specialties Hospital, Medical City, Baghdad, and in the author's private clinic. Included patients were 530 males and 143 females; patients' age ranged between 1 year and 75 years (mean, 38 y). Distribution of injuries was as follows: fracture of the mandible, 287 (42.64%); middle third injuries, 39 (5.79%); orbital injuries, 236 (35.07%; including 12 cases with cranioorbital injuries); injuries in children, 27 (4.0%); fracture of the zygoma, 52 (7.73%); and fracture of the nose, 40 (5.94%).Maxillofacial injuries in this study were classified as follows: (1) craniomaxillofacial with head injuries and cerebrospinal fluid leak; (2) fracture of the middle third including Le Fort I, II, and III and midline split in the face; (3) fracture of the mandible as an isolated injury or as part of a facial skeleton injury; and (4) isolated complex injuries of the zygoma, the orbital skeleton, and the nasoethmoidal region.The technique used for treating middle third injuries was external fixation either by halo frame (with vertical rods and cheek wires) or by box frame (using 4 external pins connected by rods) or internal fixation by suspending the middle third with internal wires (0.5 mm stainless steel) from the zygomatic process of the frontal bone beneath the zygomatic arch down the lower arch bar. Fractures of the mandible were treated by gunning splint with intermaxillary fixation (IMF) or with open reduction and fixation by stainless steel wire with IMF or by IMF screw or by an arch bar and IMF. Other fractures such as fracture of the orbit were treated by bone graft, sialastic, or lyophilized dura with open reduction. Fractures of the zygoma were treated by open reduction and fixation with stainless steel wire and bone graft or by reduction without fixation. Fractures of the nose were treated

  4. Definition, Management, and Outcomes of Acute Kidney Injury: An International Survey of Nephrologists.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Umar; Tober, Aaron; Chinchilli, Vernon; Reeves, W Brian; Ghahramani, Nasrollah

    2017-12-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a complex disease burdened by uncertainties of definition, management strategies, and prognosis. This study explores the relationship between demographic characteristics of nephrologists and their perceptions about the definition, management, and follow-up of AKI. We developed a Web-based survey, the International Survey on Acute Kidney Injury (ISAKI), consisting of 29 items in 4 categories: (1) demographic and practice characteristics, (2) definition of AKI, (3) management of renal replacement therapy (RRT) in AKI, and (4) sequelae of AKI. A multivariable stepwise logistic regression model was used to examine relationships between the dependent variables and the demographic characteristics of the respondents. Responses from 743 nephrologists from 90 countries were analyzed. The majority (60%) of respondents reported using RIFLE and/or AKIN criteria regularly to define AKI, although US nephrologists were less likely to do so (OR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.42-0.85). The most common initial RRT modality was intermittent hemodialysis (63.5%), followed by continuous RRT (23.8%). Faculty affiliation was associated with a higher likelihood of using a dialysis schedule of ≥4 times a week (OR: 1.75; 95% CI: 1.20-2.55). The respondents believed that a single episode of AKI increases the likelihood of development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) (55%), subsequent AKI (36%), and rapid progression of preexisting CKD (87%). US nephrologists were less likely to recommend follow-up after resolution of AKI (OR: 0.15; 95% CI: 0.07-0.33). Our findings highlight the need for a widely accepted consensus definition of AKI, a uniform approach to management, and improved follow-up after resolution of AKI episodes.

  5. The Role of Distal Minority Stress and Internalized Transnegativity in Suicidal Ideation and Nonsuicidal Self-Injury Among Transgender Adults.

    PubMed

    Staples, Jennifer M; Neilson, Elizabeth C; Bryan, Amanda E B; George, William H

    Transgender people are at elevated risk for nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal ideation compared to the general population. Transgender (trans) refers to a diverse group of people who experience incongruence between their gender identity and sex assigned at birth. The present study is guided by the minority stress model and the psychological mediation framework, which postulate that sexual minority groups experience elevated stress as a result of anti-minority prejudice, contributing to negative mental health outcomes. This study utilized these theories to investigate the role of internalized transnegativity-internalization of negative societal attitudes about one's trans identity-in the relationships of distal trans stress to suicidal ideation and NSSI. A U.S. national sample of trans adults (N = 237) completed a battery of online measures. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to compare models with mediation and moderation effects. Results suggested that internalized transnegativity acts as both a mediator and a moderator in the relationship between distal trans stress and suicidal ideation. Log likelihood comparisons suggested moderation models had the superior fit for these data. Results suggest that clinical interventions should directly target individuals' internalized transnegativity as well as societal-level transnegativity.

  6. Damage Control Resuscitation Supplemented with Vasopressin in a Severe Polytrauma Model with Traumatic Brain Injury and Uncontrolled Internal Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Dickson, J Michael; Wang, Xu; St John, Alexander E; Lim, Esther B; Stern, Susan A; White, Nathan J

    2018-03-14

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hemorrhagic shock (HS) are the leading causes of traumatic death worldwide and particularly on the battlefield. They are especially challenging when present simultaneously (polytrauma), and clear blood pressure end points during fluid resuscitation are not well described for this situation. The goal of this study is to evaluate for any benefit of increasing blood pressure using a vasopressor on brain blood flow during initial fluid resuscitation in a swine polytrauma model. We used a swine polytrauma model with simultaneous TBI, femur fracture, and HS with uncontrolled noncompressible internal bleeding from an aortic tear injury. Five animals were assigned to each of three experimental groups (hydroxyethyl starch only [HES], HES + 0.4 U/kg vasopressin, and no fluid resuscitation [No Fluids]). Fluids were given as two 10 mL/kg boluses according to tactical field care guidelines. Primary outcomes were mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and brain blood flow at 60 min. Secondary outcomes were blood flows in the heart, intestine, and kidney; arterial blood lactate level; and survival at 6 hr. Organ blood flow was measured using injection of colored microspheres. Five animals were tested in each of the three groups. There was a statistically significant increase in MAP with vasopressin compared with other experimental groups, but no significant increase in brain blood flow during the first 60 min of resuscitation. The vasopressin group also exhibited greater total internal hemorrhage volume and rate. There was no difference in survival at 6 hours. In this experimental swine polytrauma model, increasing blood pressure with vasopressin did not improve brain perfusion, likely due to increased internal hemorrhage. Effective hemostasis should remain the top priority for field treatment of the polytrauma casualty with TBI.

  7. Traumatic brain injury in the elderly: increased mortality and worse functional outcome at discharge despite lower injury severity.

    PubMed

    Susman, Mark; DiRusso, Stephen M; Sullivan, Thomas; Risucci, Donald; Nealon, Peter; Cuff, Sara; Haider, Adil; Benzil, Deborah

    2002-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare data obtained from a statewide data set for elderly patients (age > 64 years) that presented with traumatic brain injury with data from nonelderly patients (age > 15 and < 65 years) with similar injuries. The New York State Trauma Registry from January 1994 through December 1995, from trauma centers and community hospitals excluding New York City (45,982 patients), was examined. Head-injured patients were identified by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision diagnosis codes. A relative head injury severity scale (RHISS) was constructed on the basis of groups of these codes (range, 0 = none to 3 = severe). Comparisons were made with nonelderly patients for mortality, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score at admission and discharge, Injury Severity Score, New Injury Severity Score, and RHISS. Outcome was assessed by a Functional Independence Measure score in three major domains: expression, locomotion, and feeding. Data were analyzed by the chi2 test and Mann-Whitney U test, with p < 0.05 considered significant. There were 11,772 patients with International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision diagnosis of head injury, of which 3,244 (27%) were elderly. There were more male subjects in the nonelderly population (78% male subjects) compared with the elderly population (50% men). Mortality was 24.0% in the elderly population compared with 12.8% in the nonelderly population (risk ratio, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.99-2.43). The elderly nonsurvivors were statistically older, and mortality rate increased with age. Stratified by GCS score, there was a higher percentage of nonsurvivors in the elderly population, even in the group with only moderately depressed GCS score (GCS score of 13-15; risk ratio, 7.8; 95% confidence interval, 6.1-9.9 for elderly vs. nonelderly). Functional outcome in all three domains was significantly worse in the elderly survivors compared with the nonelderly survivors. Elderly traumatic

  8. Suicide Attempt Self-Injury Interview (SASII): Development, Reliability, and Validity of a Scale to Assess Suicide Attempts and Intentional Self-Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linehan, Marsha M.; Comtois, Katherine Anne; Brown, Milton Z.; Heard, Heidi L.; Wagner, Amy

    2006-01-01

    The authors describe the development of the Suicide Attempt Self-Injury Interview (SASII), an instrument designed to assess the factors involved in nonfatal suicide attempts and intentional self-injury. Using 4 cohorts of participants, authors generated SASII items and evaluated them with factor and content analyses and internal consistency…

  9. Interpersonal processes and self-injury: a qualitative study using Bricolage.

    PubMed

    Rayner, G; Warne, T

    2016-02-01

    Literature on self-injury has recognized the impact on the relationship between clients and staff. There is an absence of a detailed account of interpersonal processes surrounding self-injury. A Bricolage qualitative research approach was carried out in the United Kingdom that explored the interpersonal processes surrounding self-injury. Three pairs of clients and staff were interviewed about an incident of self-injury. The interviews were thematically analysed and then synthesized producing a deeper exploration of the relationship between the client and staff. An interpersonal trigger followed by anger and shame, resulted in self-injury to 'numb' these experiences. Self-injury is conceptualized as a safety behaviour to avoid shame and anger and then as a maintenance cycle that traps the client in a reinforcing and rejecting relationship. Staff interviewed were able to reflect with the clients and help them reframe these experiences. Mental Health Nurses can work with clients to understand their own interpersonal cycles of self-injury. They can then reflect on their own roles in this process and avoid reinforcing the clients' negative beliefs. WHAT THE STUDY ADDS TO INTERNATIONAL EVIDENCE: This is the first international paper to explore the interconnection between the client and a professional helper in their lived experiences of self-injury. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Liver injury after aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid treatment of hemorrhoids.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Kenichi; Kawashima, Reimi; Hirose, Yuki; Shibata, Keiko; Akasu, Takafumi; Hagiwara, Noriko; Yokota, Takeharu; Imai, Nami; Iwaku, Akira; Kobayashi, Go; Kobayashi, Hirohiko; Kinoshita, Akiyoshi; Fushiya, Nao; Kijima, Hiroyuki; Koike, Kazuhiko; Saruta, Masayuki

    2017-07-21

    We are reporting a rare case of acute liver injury that developed after an internal hemorrhoid treatment with the aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid (ALTA) regimen. A 41-year-old man developed a fever and liver injury after undergoing internal hemorrhoid treatment with a submucosal injection of ALTA with lidocaine. The acute liver injury was classified clinically as hepatocellular and pathologically as cholestastic. We could not classify the mechanism of injury. High eosinophil and immunoglobulin E levels characterized the injury, and a drug lymphocyte stimulation test was negative on postoperative day 25. Fluid replacement for two weeks after hospitalization improved the liver injury. ALTA therapy involves injecting chemicals into the submucosa, from the rectum to the anus, and this is the first description of a case that developed a severe liver disorder after this treatment; hence, an analysis of future cases as they accumulate is desirable.

  11. Injury trends in rock climbers: evaluation of a case series of 911 injuries between 2009 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Schöffl, Volker; Popp, Dominik; Küpper, Thomas; Schöffl, Isabelle

    2015-03-01

    Rock climbing is a widely performed sport. This prospective single-institution study evaluated the demographics of climbing-related injuries to improve our comprehension of current injury characteristics. During a 4-year period, 836 patients with a total of 911 independent climbing injuries were prospectively evaluated using a standard questionnaire and examination protocol. Of all injuries, 833 were on the upper extremities, 58 on the lower. Seventeen injuries were Union International des Associations d'Alpinisme (UIAA) grade 1 injuries, 881 were grade 2, and 13 were grade 3. No higher UIAA graded injuries occurred. Overall, 380 were acute injuries (359 were seen in clinic, 21 were seen through the emergency department), and 531 were overstrain injuries (all seen in clinic). Finger injuries accounted for 52% of all injuries, the shoulder being the second most frequent location. Pulley injuries were the most frequent finger injuries. Of 20 injured young climbers under the age of 15 years, 14 had an epiphyseal fracture (all epiphyseal fractures: mean age 14 years, range 12 to 15 years). Male climbers were significantly older (P < .05), had more climbing years (P < .05), and were climbing at a higher climbing level (P < .01). Older, more experienced climbers had significantly more overstrain injuries than acute injuries (P < .05). When comparing this study with our previous study from 1998 to 2001, there are some notable differences. Although pulley injuries are still the most common climbing injury, there are now more A4 pulley injuries than A2. Shoulder injuries are becoming more common, as are epiphyseal fractures among young climbers. It is important to understand current patterns of climbing injuries so that health providers can target interventions appropriately. Copyright © 2015 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Occupational exposure of interns to blood in an area of high HIV seroprevalence.

    PubMed

    Karstaedt, A S; Pantanowitz, L

    2001-01-01

    To determine the epidemiology of work-related exposure to blood among interns. Interns were invited to complete anonymously a questionnaire concerning their past percutaneous and mucocutaneous exposures to blood. Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital, Soweto, and Johannesburg Hospital, Gauteng, where HIV infection is common among patients. Ninety-eight interns (96%) were surveyed. Sixty-nine per cent of interns reported one or more percutaneous exposures to blood during the intern year, and 33% of interns recalled accidental percutaneous exposure to HIV-infected blood. Forty-five per cent recalled a mucocutaneous exposure to HIV-positive blood. Only 28 (64%) of 44 percutaneous injuries from HIV-infected patients were reported. During their student clinical training, 56% of interns had suffered a penetrating injury, and 18% recollected needlestick injuries involving HIV-infected patients. The most common mechanisms of injury included unexpected patient movement (23%), needle recapping (17%), and withdrawal of the needle (17%). Half of the injuries occurred during the first 4 months of internship. Only 22% of intern percutaneous exposures could have been avoided by following universal precautions. Intern and medical student exposure to blood is extremely common, but is markedly underreported. Strict compliance with universal precautions will not prevent the majority of exposures. Priorities should be the introduction of safer techniques and equipment, skills training and methods of reporting blood exposures.

  13. Proposed standards for reporting outcomes of treating biliary injuries.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jai Young; Baron, Todd H; Carr-Locke, David L; Chapman, William C; Costamagna, Guido; de Santibanes, Eduardo; Dominguez Rosado, Ismael; Garden, O James; Gouma, Dirk; Lillemoe, Keith D; Angel Mercado, Miguel; Mullady, Daniel K; Padbury, Robert; Picus, Daniel; Pitt, Henry A; Sherman, Stuart; Shlansky-Goldberg, Richard; Tornqvist, Bjorn; Strasberg, Steven M

    2018-04-01

    There is no standard nor widely accepted way of reporting outcomes of treatment of biliary injuries. This hinders comparison of results among approaches and among centers. This paper presents a proposal to standardize terminology and reporting of results of treating biliary injuries. The proposal was developed by an international group of surgeons, biliary endoscopists and interventional radiologists. The method is based on the concept of "patency" and is similar to the approach used to create reporting standards for arteriovenous hemodialysis access. The group considered definitions and gradings under the following headings: Definition of Patency, Definition of Index Treatment Periods, Grading of Severity of Biliary Injury, Grading of Patency, Metrics, Comparison of Surgical to Non Surgical Treatments and Presentation of Case Series. A standard procedure for reporting outcomes of treating biliary injuries has been produced. It is applicable to presenting results of treatment by surgery, endoscopy, and interventional radiology. Copyright © 2017 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Measuring body structures and body functions from the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health perspective: considerations for biomedical parameters in spinal cord injury research.

    PubMed

    Eriks-Hoogland, Inge E; Brinkhof, Martin W G; Al-Khodairy, Abdul; Baumberger, Michael; Brechbühl, Jörg; Curt, Armin; Mäder, Mark; Stucki, Gerold; Post, Marcel W M

    2011-11-01

    The aims of this study were to provide a selection of biomedical domains based on the comprehensive International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) core sets for spinal cord injury (SCI) and to present an overview of the corresponding measurement instruments. Based on the Biomedical Domain Set, the SCI literature, the International Spinal Cord Society international data sets, and the Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Evidence project publications were used to derive category specifications for use in SCI research. Expert opinion was used to derive a priority selection. The same sources were used to determine candidate measurement instruments for the specification of body functions and body structures using an example, and guiding principles were applied to select the most appropriate biomedical measurement instrument(s) for use in an SCI research project. Literature searches were performed for 41 second-level ICF body functions categories and for four second-level ICF body structures categories. For some of these categories, only a few candidate measurement instruments were found with limited variation in the type of measurement instruments. An ICF-based measurement set for biomedical aspects of functioning with SCI was established. For some categories of the ICF core sets for SCI, there is a need to develop measurement instruments.

  15. Endoscopic debridement and fibrin glue injection of a chronic Morel-Lavallée lesion of the knee in a professional soccer player: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Koc, Baris B; Somorjai, Nicolaas; P M Kiesouw, Egid; Vanderdood, Kurt; Meesters-Caberg, Marleen; Draijer, Frits W; Jansen, Edwin J P

    2017-01-01

    A Morel-Lavallée lesion is a post-traumatic closed degloving injury of soft tissue. The lesion is due to a shearing trauma with separation of subcutaneous tissue from underlying fascia. When conservative treatment fails, surgical treatment is imperative. Commonly, open drainage and debridement is performed. This case report describes a Morel-Lavallée lesion of the knee in a professional soccer player who was successfully treated with endoscopic debridement and fibrin glue injection after failure of conservative management. This method achieves the goal of an open surgical debridement without exposing patients to an increased morbidity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. A Huge Morel-Lavallée Lesion Treated Using a Quilting Suture Method: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Seo, Bommie F; Kang, In Sook; Jeong, Yeon Jin; Moon, Suk Ho

    2014-06-01

    The Morel-Lavallée lesion is a collection of serous fluid that develops after closed degloving injuries and after surgical procedures particularly in the pelvis and abdomen. It is a persistent seroma and is usually resistant to conservative methods of treatment such as percutaneous drainage and compression. Various methods of curative treatment have been reported in the literature, such as application of fibrin sealant, doxycycline, or alcohol sclerodhesis. We present a case of a huge recurrent Morel-Lavallée lesion in the lower back and buttock region that was treated with quilting sutures, fibrin sealant, and compression, with a review of the literature. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Plasma copeptin level predicts acute traumatic coagulopathy and progressive hemorrhagic injury after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ding-Bo; Yu, Wen-Hua; Dong, Xiao-Qiao; Du, Quan; Shen, Yong-Feng; Zhang, Zu-Yong; Zhu, Qiang; Che, Zhi-Hao; Liu, Qun-Jie; Wang, Hao; Jiang, Li; Du, Yuan-Feng

    2014-08-01

    Higher plasma copeptin levels correlate with poor clinical outcomes after traumatic brain injury. Nevertheless, their links with acute traumatic coagulopathy and progressive hemorrhagic injury are unknown. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the relationship between plasma copeptin levels, acute traumatic coagulopathy and progressive hemorrhagic injury in patients with severe traumatic brain injury. We prospectively studied 100 consecutive patients presenting within 6h from head trauma. Progressive hemorrhagic injury was present when the follow-up computerized tomography scan reported any increase in size or number of the hemorrhagic lesion, including newly developed ones. Acute traumatic coagulopathy was defined as an activated partial thromboplastic time greater than 40s and/or international normalized ratio greater than 1.2 and/or a platelet count less than 120×10(9)/L. We measured plasma copeptin levels on admission using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in a blinded fashion. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, plasma copeptin level emerged as an independent predictor of progressive hemorrhagic injury and acute traumatic coagulopathy. Using receiver operating characteristic curves, we calculated areas under the curve for progressive hemorrhagic injury and acute traumatic coagulopathy. The predictive performance of copeptin was similar to that of Glasgow Coma Scale score. However, copeptin did not obviously improve the predictive value of Glasgow Coma Scale score. Thus, copeptin may help in the prediction of progressive hemorrhagic injury and acute traumatic coagulopathy after traumatic brain injury. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Injury in elite New Zealand cricketers 2002-2008: descriptive epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Frost, Warren Leonard; Chalmers, David John

    2014-06-01

    To describe the incidence, prevalence, nature and severity of injury to elite New Zealand cricketers for the 2002/2003 to 2007/2008 seasons. Prospective cohort. Elite cricket in New Zealand. 248 elite male cricketers. Incidence and prevalence rates. The overall match injury incidence rate for the international competition (51.6 injuries per 10 000 player-hours; 95% CI 40.1 to 65.3) was almost twice that of the domestic competition (27.2; 23.5 to 31.4). The prevalence rate for the international competition (12%; 11.3% to 12.8%) was significantly higher than that for the domestic competition (9.7%; 9.4% to 10.1%). Overall, 79.5% of injuries occurred in matches and 48.7% of all injuries were sustained while bowling. The lower limb was the body region most commonly injured (43.5%), the most common specific diagnosis was hamstring strains/tears (11.1%) and the injuries contributing the highest proportion of match days lost were stress fractures to the low back (22%). The findings of this study support ongoing injury surveillance in New Zealand and other test cricket playing nations for the purpose of describing injury and monitoring the effect of interventions over time. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Management of comminuted but continuous mandible defects after gunshot injuries.

    PubMed

    Rana, Majeed; Warraich, Riaz; Rashad, Ashkan; von See, Constantin; Channar, Kashif A; Rana, Madiha; Stoetzer, Marcus; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius

    2014-01-01

    Firearm injuries continue as a major public health problem, contributing significant morbidity, mortality, and expense to our society. There are four main steps in the management of patients with gunshot wounds to the face: securing an airway, controlling haemorrhage, identifying other injuries and definitive repair of the traumatic facial deformities. The objective of this study was to determine late outcome of two treatment options by open reduction and internal fixation versus closed reduction and maxillomandibular fixation (MMF) in the treatment of gunshot injuries of the mandible. Sixty patients of gunshot injury were randomly allocated in two groups. In group A, 30 patients were treated by open reduction and internal fixation and in group B, 30 patients were treated by closed reduction and maxillomandibular fixation. Patients were discharged as the treatment completed and recalled for follow up. Up to 3 months after injury, fortnightly complications like infection, malocclusion, malunion of fractured fragments, facial asymmetry, sequestration of bone and exposed plates were evaluated and the differences between two groups were assessed. The follow-up period ranged from 3 months to 10 months. Patients treated by open reduction tended to have less complications as compared to closed reduction. Based on this study open reduction and internal fixation is the best available method for the treatment of gunshot mandible fractures without continuity defect. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. An international age- and gender-controlled model for the Spinal Cord Injury Ability Realization Measurement Index (SCI-ARMI).

    PubMed

    Scivoletto, Giorgio; Glass, Clive; Anderson, Kim D; Galili, Tal; Benjamin, Yoav; Front, Lilach; Aidinoff, Elena; Bluvshtein, Vadim; Itzkovich, Malka; Aito, Sergio; Baroncini, Ilaria; Benito-Penalva, Jesùs; Castellano, Simona; Osman, Aheed; Silva, Pedro; Catz, Amiram

    2015-01-01

    Background. A quadratic formula of the Spinal Cord Injury Ability Realization Measurement Index (SCI-ARMI) has previously been published. This formula was based on a model of Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM95), the 95th percentile of the SCIM III values, which correspond with the American Spinal Injury Association Motor Scores (AMS) of SCI patients. Objective. To further develop the original formula. Setting. Spinal cord injury centers from 6 countries and the Statistical Laboratory, Tel-Aviv University, Israel. Methods. SCIM95 of 661 SCI patients was modeled, using a quantile regression with or without adjustment for age and gender, to calculate SCI-ARMI values. SCI-ARMI gain during rehabilitation and its correlations were examined. Results. A new quadratic SCIM95 model was created. This resembled the previously published model, which yielded similar SCIM95 values in all the countries, after adjustment for age and gender. Without this adjustment, however, only 86% of the non-Israeli SCIM III observations were lower than those SCIM95 values (P < .0001). Adding the variables age and gender to the new model affected the SCIM95 value significantly (P < .04). Adding country information did not add a significant effect (P > .1). SCI-ARMI gain was positive (38.8 ± 22 points, P < .0001) and correlated weakly with admission age and AMS. Conclusions. The original quadratic SCI-ARMI formula is valid for an international population after adjustment for age and gender. The new formula considers more factors that affect functional ability following SCI. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Evaluation of a Shoulder Injury Prevention Program in Wheelchair Basketball.

    PubMed

    Wilroy, Jereme; Hibberd, Elizabeth

    2017-11-15

    Previous literature has theorized that alterations in shoulder physical characteristics are present in wheelchair athletes and contribute to shoulder pain and injury. Limited empirical evidence is present that evaluates the effectiveness of a shoulder injury prevention program focusing on improving these altered characteristics. To evaluate the effectiveness of a 6-week intervention program at improving characteristics that increases the risk of developing pain or shoulder injury. Pre and post-test. Home-based and controlled laboratory. Seven collegiate wheelchair athletes. Shoulder range of motion (ROM) and scapular muscle strength were assessed, and a 5-minute injury prevention program was taught to participants. Participants completed the intervention 3 times per week for 6 weeks. Following completion of the program, a post-intervention screening was performed. Internal/external rotation ROM, retraction strength, and internal/external rotation strength. Participants experienced a significant improvement in dominant limb shoulder internal rotation ROM (t6=3.56,p=0.012) with an average increase of 11.4° of IR ROM, and a significant improvement in dominant limb shoulder external rotation (ER) ROM (t6=2.79,p=0.032) with an average increase of 8.0° of ER ROM. There were no significant increases in shoulder IR or ER strength and scapular retraction strength (p>0.05). Improvements in ROM have previously been linked to decreases in shoulder pain and injury in other upper-extremity dominant sports by improving scapular kinematics. These results provide evidence that a 6-week strengthening and stretching intervention program may decrease risk factors for shoulder injury in wheelchair athletics.

  2. 75 FR 1301 - Damages Received on Account of Personal Physical Injuries or Physical Sickness; Hearing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 [REG-127270-06] RIN 1545-BF81 Damages Received on Account of Personal Physical Injuries or Physical Sickness; Hearing AGENCY: Internal... from gross income for amounts received on account of personal physical injuries or physical sickness...

  3. Investigating the relationship between internal tibial torsion and medial collateral ligament injury in patients undergoing knee arthroscopy due to tears in the posterior one third of the medial meniscus.

    PubMed

    Guler, Olcay; Isyar, Mehmet; Karataş, Dilek; Ormeci, Tugrul; Cerci, Halis; Mahirogulları, Mahir

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the relationship between medial collateral ligament (MCL) injury and degree of internal tibial torsion in patients who had undergone arthroscopic resection due to tears in the posterior one third of the medial meniscus. Seventy-one patients were allocated into two groups with respect to foot femur angle (FFA) and transmalleolar angle (TMA) (Group 1 31 patients with FFA<8° and Group 2 40 patients with FFA≥8°). The groups were compared in terms of valgus instability, Lysholm score, magnetic resonance view, FFA, and TMA, both before and after the operation. Lysholm scores were higher in Group 2 at both postoperative week 1 (p<0.001) and month 1 (p=0.045) relative to Group 1. Preoperative cartilage injury was encountered more frequently in Group 1 (p=0.037) than in Group 2. MCL injury was detected more frequently in Group 1 compared to Group 2 postoperatively at week 1 (p=0.001). We conclude that FFA and TFA, indicators of internal tibial torsion, may serve as markers for foreseeing clinical improvement and complications following arthroscopic surgery. level III retrospective comparative study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Good validity of the international spinal cord injury quality of life basic data set.

    PubMed

    Post, M W M; Adriaansen, J J E; Charlifue, S; Biering-Sørensen, F; van Asbeck, F W A

    2016-04-01

    Cross-sectional validation study. To examine the construct and concurrent validity of the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Quality of Life (QoL) Basic Data Set. Dutch community. People 28-65 years of age, who obtained their SCI between 18 and 35 years of age, were at least 10 years post SCI and were wheelchair users in daily life. MEASURE(S): The International SCI QoL Basic Data Set consists of three single items on satisfaction with life as a whole, physical health and psychological health (0=complete dissatisfaction; 10=complete satisfaction). Reference measures were the Mental Health Inventory-5 and three items of the World Health Organization Quality of Life measure. Data of 261 participants were available. Mean time after SCI was 24.1 years (s.d. 9.1); 90.4% had a traumatic SCI, 81.5% a motor complete SCI and 40% had tetraplegia. Mean age was 47.9 years (s.d. 8.8) and 73.2% were male. Mean scores were 6.9 (s.d. 1.9) for general QoL, 5.8 (s.d. 2.2) for physical health and 7.1 (s.d. 1.9) for psychological health. No floor or ceiling effects were found. Strong inter-correlations (0.48-0.71) were found between the items, and Cronbach's alpha of the scale was good (0.81). Correlations with the reference measures showed the strongest correlations between the WHOQOL general satisfaction item and general QoL (0.64), the WHOQOL health and daily activities items and physical health (0.69 and 0.60) and the Mental Health Inventory-5 and psychological health (0.70). This first validity study of the International SCI QoL Basic Data Set shows that it appears valid for persons with SCI.

  5. Trampolines in New Zealand: a decade of injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Chalmers, D J; Hume, P A; Wilson, B D

    1994-01-01

    Despite international concern about the safety of trampolines, they have become increasingly popular in New Zealand. While internationally attention has centred on a relatively few cases of catastrophic cervical spine injury, little research effort has been directed at placing these incidents in a wider context. To redress this, a descriptive epidemiological study of trampoline-related injury in New Zealand was undertaken. National hospitalization and mortality data for a 10-year period revealed 2098 hospitalizations and two deaths. The incidence rate for hospitalizations increased from 3.1 per 100,000 population per year in 1979 to 9.3 in 1988. Of the hospitalized victims, 71% were injured on home trampolines and 80% fell from the trampoline to the surrounding surface. Fractures were the commonest type of injury (68%), and the body site most frequently involved was the upper limb (53%). There was no evidence of a high incidence of severe head and neck injuries. It was concluded that, although existing trampoline standards addressed many of the issues raised by this research, measures to reduce the impact of falls from trampolines to the ground and to prohibit the provision of trampolines as 'play equipment' are required. PMID:7894953

  6. Trampolines in New Zealand: a decade of injuries.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, D J; Hume, P A; Wilson, B D

    1994-12-01

    Despite international concern about the safety of trampolines, they have become increasingly popular in New Zealand. While internationally attention has centred on a relatively few cases of catastrophic cervical spine injury, little research effort has been directed at placing these incidents in a wider context. To redress this, a descriptive epidemiological study of trampoline-related injury in New Zealand was undertaken. National hospitalization and mortality data for a 10-year period revealed 2098 hospitalizations and two deaths. The incidence rate for hospitalizations increased from 3.1 per 100,000 population per year in 1979 to 9.3 in 1988. Of the hospitalized victims, 71% were injured on home trampolines and 80% fell from the trampoline to the surrounding surface. Fractures were the commonest type of injury (68%), and the body site most frequently involved was the upper limb (53%). There was no evidence of a high incidence of severe head and neck injuries. It was concluded that, although existing trampoline standards addressed many of the issues raised by this research, measures to reduce the impact of falls from trampolines to the ground and to prohibit the provision of trampolines as 'play equipment' are required.

  7. Core Self-Evaluations as Personal Factors in the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Model: An Application in Persons with Spinal Cord Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaghmanian, Rana; Smedema, Susan Miller; Thompson, Kerry

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate Chan, Gelman, Ditchman, Kim, and Chiu's (2009) revised World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) model using core self-evaluations (CSE) to account for Personal Factors in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). Method: One hundred eighty-seven adults with SCI were…

  8. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries in Baseball Players.

    PubMed

    Dugas, Jeffrey R; Bedford, Benjamin B; Andrachuk, John S; Scillia, Anthony J; Aune, Kyle T; Cain, E Lyle; Andrews, James R; Fleisig, Glenn S

    2016-11-01

    To determine common mechanisms of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in baseball players and to quantify the rate of return to play after primary surgical reconstruction and review intermediate clinical outcomes. Surgical injuries involving the ACL in youth, high school, collegiate, and professional baseball players were queried for an 11-year period (2001 to 2011). Over the study period, 42 baseball players were identified who had undergone arthroscopically assisted primary ACL reconstruction by 1 of 3 attending surgeons. Retrospective chart review was performed for all 42 patients to evaluate variables of age, level of competition, position, mechanism of injury, graft choice, and associated meniscal injuries. Twenty-six patients were reached for telephone survey and International Knee Documentation Committee questionnaire and they answered questions about their original injury and playing history. The most common mechanism of injury was fielding, followed by base running. Infielders and outfielders (32% each) were the most commonly injured position, followed by pitchers (29%). Among the 32 players for whom it could be determined, 30 (94%) were able to return to playing baseball at a mean follow-up of 4.2 years (range 1.0 to 9.9 years). The mean International Knee Documentation Committee score was 84.0 (range 63 to 91). Among the 26 patients contacted for telephone interview, no one required revision ACL surgery, but 3 required a subsequent procedure for meniscal tear. Twenty-five patients (96%) denied any episodes of instability in the knee after reconstruction. The overwhelming majority of baseball players that sustain ACL injuries do so while fielding or base running. Outfielders are significantly more likely than infielders to suffer ACL injuries while fielding versus base running. The results with respect to return to play are promising, as nearly all patients were able to return to baseball and none required a revision ACL surgery at a mean follow

  9. Comparison of injury mortality risk in motor vehicle crash versus other etiologies.

    PubMed

    Kilgo, Patrick D; Weaver, Ashley A; Barnard, Ryan T; Love, Timothy P; Stitzel, Joel D

    2014-06-01

    The mortality risk ratio (MRR), a measure of the proportion of people who died that sustained a given injury, is reported to be among the most powerful discriminators of mortality following trauma. The primary aim was to determine whether mechanistic differences exist and are quantifiable when comparing MRR-based injury severity across two broadly defined etiologies (motor vehicle crash (MVC) versus non-MVC) for the clarification of important injury types that have some room for improvement by emergency treatment and vehicle design. All International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision (ICD-9) coded injuries in the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB) database were stratified into MVC and non-MVC groups and the MRR for each injury was computed within each group. Injuries were classified as 11 different types for MRR comparison between etiologies. Overall, MRRs for specific injuries were 10-18% lower for MVC compared to non-MVC etiologies. MVCs however produced much higher mean MRRs for crushing injuries (0.184 versus 0.072) and internal injuries to the thorax, abdomen, and pelvis (0.200 versus 0.169). Non-MVCs produced much higher MRRs for intracranial injuries (0.199 versus 0.250). Analysis of the top 95% most frequent MVC injuries revealed higher MVC MRR values for 78% of the injuries with MRR ratios indicating an average 50% increase in a given injury's MRR when MVC was the etiology. Addressing the large differences in MRR in between etiologies for identical injuries could provide a reduction in fatalities and may be important to patient triage and vehicle safety design. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Incidence of Concurrent Peroneal Nerve Injury in Multiligament Knee Injuries and Outcomes after Knee Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Worley, John R; Brimmo, Olubusola; Nuelle, Clayton W; Cook, James L; Stannard, James P

    2018-06-13

    The purpose of this study was to determine incidence of concurrent peroneal nerve injury and to compare outcomes in patients with and without peroneal nerve injury after surgical treatment for multiligament knee injuries (MLKIs). A retrospective study of 357 MLKIs was conducted. Patients with two or more knee ligaments requiring surgical reconstruction were included. Mean follow-up was 35 months (0-117). Incidence of concurrent peroneal nerve injury was noted and patients with and without nerve injury were evaluated for outcomes. Concurrent peroneal nerve injury occurred in 68 patients (19%). In patients with nerve injury, 45 (73%) returned to full duty at work; 193 (81%) patients without nerve injury returned to full duty ( p  = 0.06). In patients with nerve injury, 37 (60%) returned to their previous level of activity; 148 (62%) patients without nerve injury returned to their previous level of activity ( p  = 0.41). At final follow-up, there were no significant differences in level of pain (mean visual analog scale 1.6 vs. 2; p  = 0.17), Lysholm score (mean 88.6 vs. 88.8; p  = 0.94), or International Knee Documentation Committee score (mean 46.2 vs. 47.8; p  = 0.67) for patients with or without peroneal nerve injury, respectively. Postoperative range of motion (ROM) (mean 121 degrees) was significantly lower ( p  = 0.02) for patients with nerve injury compared with patients without nerve injury (mean 127 degrees). Concurrent peroneal nerve injury occurred in 19% of patients in this large cohort suffering MLKIs. After knee reconstruction surgery, patients with concurrent peroneal nerve injuries had significantly lower knee ROM and trended toward a lower rate of return to work. However, outcomes with respect to activity level, pain, and function were not significantly different between the two groups. This study contributes to our understanding of patient outcomes in patients with concurrent MLKI and peroneal nerve injury, with a focus on

  11. Isolated scaphoid dislocation associated with axial carpal dissociation: an unusual injury report.

    PubMed

    Horton, Todd; Shin, Alexander Y; Cooney, William P

    2004-11-01

    We present a report of a patient with an isolated scaphoid dislocation associated with a hyperextension and axial loading injury of the carpus required a careful and extensive clinical and radiographic evaluation leading to surgical intervention to reduce and stabilize the scaphoid and to reduce and hold internally the axial carpal injury. Knowledge of the anatomy and the potential injury patterns of the carpus will aid the hand surgeon with injury recognition and proper treatment.

  12. [Acute intestinal strangulation after Scarpa's triangle cow horn injury].

    PubMed

    Abita, T; Durand-Fontanier, S; Ternengo, D; Valleix, D; Descottes, B

    2008-01-01

    A 52 year-old man, treated by neuroleptic drugs, presented with a cow horn injury in the right Scarpa's triangle. The surgical management found no injury of femoral vessels. Surgical hemostasis of superficial vessels was performed. An ileal strangulation appeared three days later. At laparotomy, we found an internal parietal wound. Here we explain the mechanism of this strangulation.

  13. Evaluation of Internal Construct Validity and Unidimensionality of the Brachial Assessment Tool, A Patient-Reported Outcome Measure for Brachial Plexus Injury.

    PubMed

    Hill, Bridget; Pallant, Julie; Williams, Gavin; Olver, John; Ferris, Scott; Bialocerkowski, Andrea

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the internal construct validity and dimensionality of a new patient-reported outcome measure for people with traumatic brachial plexus injury (BPI) based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health definition of activity. Cross-sectional study. Outpatient clinics. Adults (age range, 18-82y) with a traumatic BPI (N=106). There were 106 people with BPI who completed a 51-item 5-response questionnaire. Responses were analyzed in 4 phases (missing responses, item correlations, exploratory factor analysis, and Rasch analysis) to evaluate the properties of fit to the Rasch model, threshold response, local dependency, dimensionality, differential item functioning, and targeting. Not applicable, as this study addresses the development of an outcome measure. Six items were deleted for missing responses, and 10 were deleted for high interitem correlations >.81. The remaining 35 items, while demonstrating fit to the Rasch model, showed evidence of local dependency and multidimensionality. Items were divided into 3 subscales: dressing and grooming (8 items), arm and hand (17 items), and no hand (6 items). All 3 subscales demonstrated fit to the model with no local dependency, minimal disordered thresholds, no unidimensionality or differential item functioning for age, time postinjury, or self-selected dominance. Subscales were combined into 3 subtests and demonstrated fit to the model, no misfit, and unidimensionality, allowing calculation of a summary score. This preliminary analysis supports the internal construct validity of the Brachial Assessment Tool, a unidimensional targeted 4-response patient-reported outcome measure designed to solely assess activity after traumatic BPI regardless of level of injury, age at recruitment, premorbid limb dominance, and time postinjury. Further examination is required to determine test-retest reliability and responsiveness. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine

  14. Improved characterization of combat injury.

    PubMed

    Champion, Howard R; Holcomb, John B; Lawnick, Mary M; Kelliher, Timothy; Spott, Mary Ann; Galarneau, Michael R; Jenkins, Donald H; West, Susan A; Dye, Judy; Wade, Charles E; Eastridge, Brian J; Blackbourne, Lorne H; Shair, Ellen Kalin

    2010-05-01

    Combat injury patterns differ from civilian trauma in that the former are largely explosion-related, comprising multiple mechanistic and fragment injuries and high-kinetic-energy bullets. Further, unlike civilians, U.S. armed forces combatants are usually heavily protected with helmets and Kevlar body armor with ceramic plate inserts. Searchable databases providing actionable, statistically valid knowledge of body surface entry wounds and resulting organ injury severity are essential to understanding combat trauma. Two tools were developed to address these unique aspects of combat injury: (1) the Surface Wound Mapping (SWM) database and Surface Wound Analysis Tool (SWAT) software that were developed to generate 3D density maps of point-of-surface wound entry and resultant anatomic injury severity; and (2) the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) 2005-Military that was developed by a panel of military trauma surgeons to account for multiple injury etiology from explosions and other high-kinetic- energy weapons. Combined data from the Joint Theater Trauma Registry, Navy/Marine Combat Trauma Registry, and the Armed Forces Medical Examiner System Mortality Trauma Registry were coded in AIS 2005-Military, entered into the SWM database, and analyzed for entrance site and wounding path. When data on 1,151 patients, who had a total of 3,500 surface wounds and 12,889 injuries, were entered into SWM, surface wounds averaged 3.0 per casualty and injuries averaged 11.2 per casualty. Of the 3,500 surface wounds, 2,496 (71%) were entrance wounds with 6,631 (51%) associated internal injuries, with 2.2 entrance wounds and 5.8 associated injuries per casualty (some details cannot be given because of operational security). Crude deaths rates were calculated using Maximum AIS-Military. These new tools have been successfully implemented to describe combat injury, mortality, and distribution of wounds and associated injuries. AIS 2005-Military is a more precise assignment of severity to

  15. Interrater reliability of the Korean version of the International Spinal Cord Injury Basic Pain Data Set.

    PubMed

    Kim, H R; Kim, H B; Lee, B S; Ko, H Y; Shin, H I

    2014-11-01

    To provide a Korean translation of the International Spinal Cord Injury Basic Pain Data Set (ISCIBPDS) and evaluate the interrater reliability of the translated version. Survey of community-dwelling people with spinal cord injury (SCI) in South Korea. The initial translation was performed by two translators with an in-depth knowledge of SCI, and was then checked by another person with a similar background. A total of 115 SCI participants (87 men, 28 women; 48.4±14.1 years) were evaluated using the Korean version of the ISCIBPDS by two different raters. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) or Cohen's kappa (κ) was used for analysis. All 115 participants had at least one pain problem on both surveys. Seventeen (14.8%) participants described their pain as a single pain problem to one rater while reporting the same pain as two or more different pain problems to the other rater. Twenty-two (19.1%) other participants reported their pain problems in a different order of severity on the surveys. The Korean version of the ISCIBPDS had acceptable interrater reliability, except in the 'limit activities (how much do you limit your activities in order to keep your pain from getting worse?)' item (ICC=0.318). Provision of criteria for pain separation may facilitate the consistent application of ISCIBPDS. In addition, the ISCIBPDS, which evaluated pain problems separately, reflected the multiple and complex characteristics of SCI-related pain; this was a strength of this data set.

  16. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Primary Arthrodesis Versus Open Reduction Internal Fixation for Primarily Ligamentous Lisfranc Injuries.

    PubMed

    Albright, Rachel H; Haller, Sarah; Klein, Erin; Baker, Jeffrey R; Weil, Lowell; Weil, Lowell S; Fleischer, Adam E

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether surgical intervention with open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) or primary arthrodesis (PA) for Lisfranc injuries is more cost effective. We conducted a formal cost-effectiveness analysis using a Markov model and decision tree to explore the healthcare costs and health outcomes associated with a scenario of ORIF versus PA for 45 years postoperatively. The outcomes assessed included long-term costs, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and incremental cost per QALY gained. The costs were evaluated from the healthcare system perspective and are expressed in U.S. dollars at a 2017 price base. ORIF was always associated with greater costs compared with PA and was less effective in the long term. When calculating the cost required to gain 1 additional QALY, the PA group cost $1429/QALY and the ORIF group cost $3958/QALY. The group undergoing PA overall spent, on average, $43,192 less than the ORIF group, and PA was overall a more effective technique. Strong dominance compared with ORIF was demonstrated in multiple scenarios, and the model's conclusions were unchanged in the sensitivity analysis even after varying the key assumptions. ORIF failed to show functional or financial benefits. In conclusion, from a healthcare system's standpoint, PA would clearly be the preferred treatment strategy for predominantly ligamentous Lisfranc injuries and dislocations. Copyright © 2017 The American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Endoscopic surgical management of a large Morel-Lavallée lesion.

    PubMed

    Walls, Andrew; McMahon, Samuel E; MacDonald, Jonathan; Bunn, Jonathan

    2017-09-23

    The Morel-Lavallée lesion is a closed degloving injury that usually occurs following high-energy trauma. We present a case demonstrating endoscopic management of this lesion. A 44-year-old man fell from scaffolding. Initial assessment demonstrated no significant injury. An ultrasound scan 2 days post injury revealed a large fluid collection along the lateral right thigh. This subsequently became infected and did not respond to antibiotic therapy.Due to the extent of the lesion, we were reluctant to perform a traditional open drainage. An endoscopic probe was inserted at the proximal and distal poles of the lesion and the wound debrided.This resulted in a rapid improvement in symptoms and a complete resolution of the lesion at 1 year postsurgery, with no wound-associated morbidity.This is only the second description of endoscopic debridement of a large, acute Morel-Lavallée lesion, with an excellent outcome. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Wound ballistics of firearm-related injuries--part 2: mechanisms of skeletal injury and characteristics of maxillofacial ballistic trauma.

    PubMed

    Stefanopoulos, P K; Soupiou, O T; Pazarakiotis, V C; Filippakis, K

    2015-01-01

    Maxillofacial firearm-related injuries vary in extent and severity because of the characteristics and behaviour of the projectile(s), and the complexity of the anatomical structures involved, whereas the degree of tissue disruption is also affected by the distance of the shot. In low-energy injuries there is limited damage to the underlying skeleton, which usually dominates the clinical picture, dictating a more straightforward therapeutic approach. High-energy injuries are associated with extensive hard and soft tissue disruption, and are characterized by a surrounding zone of damaged tissue that is prone to progressive necrosis as a result of compromised blood supply and wound sepsis. Current treatment protocols for these injuries emphasize the importance of serial debridement for effective wound control while favouring early definitive reconstruction. Copyright © 2014 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Injuries in professional male football players in Kosovo: a descriptive epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Shalaj, I; Tishukaj, F; Bachl, N; Tschan, H; Wessner, B; Csapo, R

    2016-08-12

    The incidence and severity of football-related injuries has been found to differ strongly between professional leagues from different countries. The aims of this study were to record the incidence, type and severity of injuries in Kosovarian football players and investigate the relationship between injury incidence rates (IRs), players' age and playing positions. Players' age, anthropometric characteristics and playing positions, training and match exposure as well as injury occurrences were monitored in 11 teams (143 players) of Kosovo's top division during the 2013/14 season. The exact type, severity and duration of football-related injuries were documented following International Federation of Football Associations (FIFA) recommendations. A total of 272 injuries were observed, with traumatic injuries accounting for 71 %. The overall injury IR was 7.38 (CI: 7.14, 7.63) injuries per 1,000 exposure hours and ~11x lower during training as opposed to matches. Strains and ruptures of thigh muscles, ligamentous injuries of the knee as well as meniscus or other cartilage tears represented the most frequent differential diagnoses. While no statistical differences were found between players engaged in different playing positions, injury IR was found to be higher by 10-13 % in younger (IR = 7.63; CI: 7.39, 7.87) as compared to middle-aged (IR = 6.95; CI: 6.41, 7.54) and older players (IR = 6.76; CI: 5.71, 8.00). The total injury IR in elite football in Kosovo is slightly lower than the international average, which may be related to lesser match exposure. Typical injury patterns agree well with previously reported data. Our finding that injury IR was greater in younger players is related to a higher rate of traumatic injuries and may indicate a more aggressive and risky style of play in this age group.

  20. Pelvic ring injuries: Surgical management and long-term outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Halawi, Mohamad J.

    2016-01-01

    Pelvic ring injuries present a therapeutic challenge to the orthopedic surgeon. Management is based on the patient's physiological status, fracture classification, and associated injuries. Surgical stabilization is indicated in unstable injury patterns and those that fail nonsurgical management. The optimal timing for definitive fixation is not clearly defined, but early stabilization is recommended. Surgical techniques include external fixation, open reduction and internal fixation, and minimally invasive percutaneous osteosynthesis. Special considerations are required for concomitant acetabular fractures, sacral fractures, and those occurring in skeletally immature patients. Long-term outcomes are limited by lack of pelvis-specific outcome measures and burden of associated injuries. PMID:26908968

  1. International standards for neurological classification of spinal cord injury: impact of the revised worksheet (revision 02/13) on classification performance.

    PubMed

    Schuld, Christian; Franz, Steffen; Brüggemann, Karin; Heutehaus, Laura; Weidner, Norbert; Kirshblum, Steven C; Rupp, Rüdiger

    2016-09-01

    Prospective cohort study. Comparison of the classification performance between the worksheet revisions of 2011 and 2013 of the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI). Ongoing ISNCSCI instructional courses of the European Multicenter Study on Human Spinal Cord Injury (EMSCI). For quality control all participants were requested to classify five ISNCSCI cases directly before (pre-test) and after (post-test) the workshop. One hundred twenty-five clinicians working in 22 SCI centers attended the instructional course between November 2011 and March 2015. Seventy-two clinicians completed the post-test with the 2011 revision of the worksheet and 53 with the 2013 revision. Not applicable. The clinicians' classification performance assessed by the percentage of correctly determined motor levels (ML) and sensory levels, neurological levels of injury (NLI), ASIA Impairment Scales and zones of partial preservations. While no group differences were found in the pre-tests, the overall performance (rev2011: 92.2% ± 6.7%, rev2013: 94.3% ± 7.7%; P = 0.010), the percentage of correct MLs (83.2% ± 14.5% vs. 88.1% ± 15.3%; P = 0.046) and NLIs (86.1% ± 16.7% vs. 90.9% ± 18.6%; P = 0.043) improved significantly in the post-tests. Detailed ML analysis revealed the largest benefit of the 2013 revision (50.0% vs. 67.0%) in a case with a high cervical injury (NLI C2). The results from the EMSCI ISNCSCI post-tests show a significantly better classification performance using the revised 2013 worksheet presumably due to the body-side based grouping of myotomes and dermatomes and their correct horizontal alignment. Even with these proven advantages of the new layout, the correct determination of MLs in the segments C2-C4 remains difficult.

  2. The injury mortality burden in Guinea

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The injury mortality burden of Guinea has been rarely addressed. The paper aimed to report patterns of injury mortality burden in Guinea. Methods We retrieved the mortality data from the Guinean Annual Health Statistics Report 2007. The information about underlying cause of deaths was collected based on Guinean hospital discharge data, Hospital Mortuary and City Council Mortuary data. The causes of death are coded in the 9th International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9). Multivariate Poisson regression was used to test the impacts of sex and age on mortality rates. The statistical analyses were performed using Statatm 10.0. Results In 2007, 7066 persons were reported dying of injuries in Guinea (mortality: 72.8 per 100,000 population). Transportation, fire/burn, falls, homicide and drowning were the five leading causes of fatal injuries for the whole population, accounting for 37%, 22%, 12%, 10% and 6% of total deaths, respectively. In general, age-specific injury causes displayed similar patterns of the whole population except that poisoning replaced falls as a leading cause among children under five years old. Males were at 30-50% more risk of dying from six commonest causes than females and old age groups had higher injury mortality rates than younger age groups. Conclusion Transportation, fire/burn, falls, homicide, and drowning accounted for the majority of total injury mortality burden in Guinea. Males and old adults were high-risk population of fatal injuries and should be targeted by injury prevention. Lots of work is needed to improve weak capacities for injury control in order to reduce the injury mortality burden. PMID:22937768

  3. Lateral Pectoral Nerve Injury Mimicking Cervical Radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Aktas, Ilknur; Palamar, Deniz; Akgun, Kenan

    2015-07-01

    The lateral pectoral nerve (LPN) is commonly injured along with the brachial plexus, but its isolated lesions are rare. Here, we present a case of an isolated LPN lesion confused with cervical radiculopathy. A 41-year-old man was admitted to our clinic because of weakness in his right arm. Previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination revealed right posterolateral protrusion at the C6-7 level. At the initial assessment, atrophy of the right pectoralis major muscle was evident, and mild weakness of the right shoulder adductor, internal rotator, and flexor muscles was observed. Therefore, electrodiagnostic evaluation was performed, and a diagnosis of isolated LPN injury was made. Nerve injury was thought to have been caused by weightlifting exercises and traction injury. Lateral pectoral nerve injury can mimic cervical radiculopathy, and MRI examination alone may lead to misdiagnosis. Repeated physical examinations during the evaluation and treatment phase will identify the muscle atrophy that occurs 1 or more months after the injury.

  4. Cougar attacks on children: injury patterns and treatment.

    PubMed

    Kadesky, K M; Manarey, C; Blair, G K; Murphy, J J; Verchere, C; Atkinson, K

    1998-06-01

    Cougar attacks on humans appear to be on the rise. A review of all attacks on children was performed to determine the method of attack and injury patterns so that a treatment regimen as well as possible preventative measures could be determined. A review of all attacks, including attacks on children, was performed, including three recent attacks treated at our institution. Situation, adult supervision, patient age, injuries recorded, survival, and mode of attack, if known, were reviewed. There were 50 documented attacks on children with a 25% fatality rate. Most children were not alone at the time of the attack (92%), and in many instances adult supervision was present or nearby. Severe head and neck lacerations along with puncture wounds were the most common injury. Examples of typical cervical injuries include a nonfatal vertebral artery injury, phrenic nerve injury, a fatal internal carotid artery injury, and a fatal cervical spine injury. The cougar was rabid in two cases. Pasteurella resulted in late infections in two patients. Based on the pattern of injuries, the authors recommend aggressive evaluation for occult cervical injuries as well as surgical debridement. Antibiotics should cover oropharyngeal flora including Pasteurella multocida. Rabies prophylaxis is indicated. Adult supervision in wilderness areas is not necessarily protective.

  5. Management of concealed penis with modified penoplasty.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian-Guo; Lv, Chuan; Wang, Yu-Chong; Zhu, Ji; Xue, Chun-Yu

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the effect of penile degloving in combination with penoscrotal angle reconstruction for the correction of concealed penis. A foreskin circumcision incision was made along the coronal sulcus. After a sharp dissection under the superficial layer of tunica albuginea, the penile shaft was degloved to release the fibrous bands of the tunica dartos. Through a longitudinal incision or Z-plasty at the penoscrotal junction, securing of the tunica albuginea to the proximal tunica dartos was performed. The penoscrotal angle was reconstructed. This procedure effectively corrected the concealed penis, while correcting other problems such as phimosis. From August 2008 to August 2013, we performed 41 procedures for concealed penis. Correction was successful in all patients with an improved median length of 2.1 cm in the flaccid state. Follow-up ranged from 6 months to 2 years, and satisfactory cosmetic outcomes were obtained without scars or erectile discomfort. Our technique includes degloving and penoscrotal angle reconstruction, which provides proper visualization for fixation of the penile base. The longitudinal or Z-plasty incision also opened the degloving dead cavity, which was good for drainage. The procedure is straight forward with good functional and cosmetic outcomes and is thus ideal for correction of the concealed penis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Pelvic crescent fractures: variations in injury mechanism and radiographic pattern.

    PubMed

    Gehlert, Rick J; Xing, Zhiqing; DeCoster, Thomas A

    2014-01-01

    Pelvic crescent fracture, also known as sacroiliac fracture-dislocation, is traditionally considered as a lateral compression injury and a vertically stable injury. Thirty consecutive cases were analyzed and it was found that 63% of cases were caused by lateral compression (LC), 27% by anteroposterior compression (APC), and 10% by vertical shear (VS). APC and VS injuries cause significant displacement of the anterior iliac fragment, but 21% of LC injury cases showed minimal displacement and were treated successfully with nonoperative treatment. Different injury mechanisms also produce different types of pelvic instability. More important, different injury mechanisms produce distinct radiographic fracture patterns regarding the obliquity of the fracture line and fracture surface. These differences in the fracture pattern will influence the decision of internal fixation options. Therefore, treatment of pelvic crescent fractures should be based on individual analysis of injury mechanism and radiographic fracture pattern.

  7. Burden of injury during the complex political emergency in northern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Lett, Ronald R.; Kobusingye, Olive Chifefe; Ekwaru, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Background War injury is a public health problem that warrants global attention. This study aims to determine the burden of injury during a complex emergency in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods To determine the magnitude, causes, distribution, risk factors and cumulative burden of injury in a population experiencing armed conflict in northern Uganda since 1986 and to evaluate the living conditions and access to care for injury victims, we took a multistage, stratified, random sampling from the Gulu district to determine the rates of injury from 1994 to 1999. The Gulu district is endemic for malaria, tuberculosis, HIV and malnutrition and has a high maternal death rate. It is 1 of 3 districts in northern Uganda affected by war since 1986. The study participants included 8595 people from 1475 households. Of these, 73.0% lived in temporary housing, 46.0% were internally displaced and 81.0% were under 35 years of age. Trained interviewers administered a 3-part household survey in the local language. Quantitative data on injury, household environment, health care and demography were analyzed. Qualitative data from part 3 of the survey will be reported elsewhere. A similar rural district (Mukono) not affected by war was used for comparison. We studied injury risk factors, mortality and disability rates, accumulated deaths, access to care and living conditions. Results Of the study population, 14% were injured annually: gunshot injuries were the leading cause of death. The annual death rate from war injury was 7.8/1000 (95% confidence interval [CI] 7.0–8.5) and the disability rate was 11.3/1000 (95% CI 10.4–12.2). The annual excess injury mortality was 6.85/1000. Only 4.5% of the injured were combatants. Fifty percent of the injured received first aid, but only 13.0% of those who died reached hospital. The injury mortality in Gulu was 8.35-fold greater than that for Mukono. Conclusions The crisis in Gulu can be considered a complex political emergency. Protracted conflicts

  8. A novel decision tree approach based on transcranial Doppler sonography to screen for blunt cervical vascular injuries.

    PubMed

    Purvis, Dianna; Aldaghlas, Tayseer; Trickey, Amber W; Rizzo, Anne; Sikdar, Siddhartha

    2013-06-01

    Early detection and treatment of blunt cervical vascular injuries prevent adverse neurologic sequelae. Current screening criteria can miss up to 22% of these injuries. The study objective was to investigate bedside transcranial Doppler sonography for detecting blunt cervical vascular injuries in trauma patients using a novel decision tree approach. This prospective pilot study was conducted at a level I trauma center. Patients undergoing computed tomographic angiography for suspected blunt cervical vascular injuries were studied with transcranial Doppler sonography. Extracranial and intracranial vasculatures were examined with a portable power M-mode transcranial Doppler unit. The middle cerebral artery mean flow velocity, pulsatility index, and their asymmetries were used to quantify flow patterns and develop an injury decision tree screening protocol. Student t tests validated associations between injuries and transcranial Doppler predictive measures. We evaluated 27 trauma patients with 13 injuries. Single vertebral artery injuries were most common (38.5%), followed by single internal carotid artery injuries (30%). Compared to patients without injuries, mean flow velocity asymmetry was higher for single internal carotid artery (P = .003) and single vertebral artery (P = .004) injuries. Similarly, pulsatility index asymmetry was higher in single internal carotid artery (P = .015) and single vertebral artery (P = .042) injuries, whereas the lowest pulsatility index was elevated for bilateral vertebral artery injuries (P = .006). The decision tree yielded 92% specificity, 93% sensitivity, and 93% correct classifications. In this pilot feasibility study, transcranial Doppler measures were significantly associated with the blunt cervical vascular injury status, suggesting that transcranial Doppler sonography might be a viable bedside screening tool for trauma. Patient-specific hemodynamic information from transcranial Doppler assessment has the potential to alter

  9. [The incidence and patterns of unintentional injuries in daily life in Korea: a nationwide study].

    PubMed

    Park, Kunhee; Eun, Sang Jun; Lee, Eun-Jung; Lee, Chae-Eun; Park, Doo Yong; Han, Kyounghun; Kim, Yoon; Lee, Jin-Seok

    2008-07-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the cumulative incidence rate (CIR) of unintentional injuries in Korean daily life and to describe the pattern of unintentional injuries. The study population was the people who used the National Health Insurance because of injuries (ICD code: S00-T98) during 2006. The stratified sample according to gender, age and the severity of injury (NISS, New Injury Severity Score) was randomly selected. The questions on the questionnaire were developed as a reference for an international classification tool (ICECI, International Classification of External Causes of Injury). The questions included the locations of injury, the mechanisms of injury and the results of injury. Moreover, we used age, gender, region and income variables for analysis. The CIR of unintentional injuries that occurred in daily life for 1 year per 100,000 persons was 17,606, and the CIR of severe injuries was 286. Many injuries were occurred at home (29.6%), public places (19.0%), school (13.7%) and near home (12.0%). The major mechanisms of injuries were slipping (48.8%), contact (14.0%), physical over-exertion (13.8%), and fall (6.6%). Infants and old aged people were vulnerable to injuries, and those who lived rural area and who were in a low income level were vulnerable too. We signified the risk groups and risk settings of unintentional injuries in Korean daily life. These results could contribute to establishing strategies for injury prevention and implementing these strategies.

  10. Anterior cruciate ligament injury/reinjury in alpine ski racing: a narrative review

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Matthew J; Aagaard, Per; Herzog, Walter

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present review was to: 1) provide an overview of the current understanding on the epidemiology, etiology, risk factors, and prevention methods for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in alpine ski racing; and 2) provide an overview of what is known pertaining to ACL reinjury and return to sport after ACL injury in alpine ski racing. Given that most of the scientific studies on ACL injuries in alpine ski racing have been descriptive, and that very few studies contributed higher level scientific evidence, a nonsystematic narrative review was employed. Three scholarly databases were searched for articles on ACL injury or knee injury in alpine ski racing. Studies were classified according to their relevance in relation to epidemiology, etiology, risk factors, and return to sport/reinjury prevention. Alpine ski racers (skiers) were found to be at high risk for knee injuries, and ACL tears were the most frequent diagnosis. Three primary ACL injury mechanism were identified that involved tibial internal rotation and anteriorly directed shear forces from ski equipment and the environment. While trunk muscle strength imbalance and genetics were found to be predictive of ACL injuries in development-level skiers, there was limited scientific data on ACL injury risk factors among elite skiers. Based on expert opinion, research on injury risk factors should focus on equipment design, course settings/speed, and athlete factors (eg, fitness). While skiers seem to make a successful recovery following ACL injury, there may be persistent neuromuscular deficits. Future research efforts should be directed toward prospective studies on ACL injury/reinjury prevention in both male and female skiers and toward the effects of knee injury on long-term health outcomes, such as the early development of osteoarthritis. International collaborations may be necessary to generate sufficient statistical power for ACL injury/reinjury prevention research in alpine ski racing

  11. Assessment of Injuries During Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu Competition.

    PubMed

    Scoggin, James F; Brusovanik, Georgiy; Izuka, Byron H; Zandee van Rilland, Eddy; Geling, Olga; Tokumura, Seren

    2014-02-01

    Brazilian jiu-jitsu (BJJ) is a unique style of martial arts with rapid growth in the United States and internationally. Although studies have examined injuries in other martial arts and combat sports, to date, no published medical study has examined injuries in BJJ competitions. (1) To estimate the incidence of injuries in BJJ competitions and (2) to identify and describe the types and mechanisms of injuries associated with competitive BJJ. Descriptive epidemiology study. Injury data were obtained from records of on-site medical coverage at 8 statewide BJJ tournaments in Hawaii, USA, between 2005 and 2011. The identified injury incidence on the day of matches was 9.2 per 1000 exposures (46 injuries out of 5022 exposures, ie, match participations). Orthopaedic injuries were the most common and accounted for 78% of all injuries (n = 36), followed by costochondral or rib injuries (n = 7) and lacerations requiring medical care (n = 3). The elbow was found to be the joint most commonly injured during BJJ competitions, with the arm bar being the most common mechanism. We propose that this BJJ-specific injury mechanism, the "arm bar," be recognized as another mechanism of hyperextension injury to the elbow in sports. Comparison of the BJJ injury data with injury data reported for judo, taekwondo, wrestling, and mixed martial arts showed that BJJ competitors were at substantially lower risk of injury compared with these other sports. With orthopaedic injuries being most common and the elbow being the area most vulnerable to injury in BJJ, it is important that participants, referees, and physicians be properly educated about the unique mechanisms of injury that can occur, particularly to the elbow.

  12. Maxillofacial trauma - Underestimation of cervical spine injury.

    PubMed

    Reich, Waldemar; Surov, Alexey; Eckert, Alexander Walter

    2016-09-01

    Undiagnosed cervical spine injury can have devastating results. The aim of this study was to analyse patients with primary maxillofacial trauma and a concomitant cervical spine injury. It is hypothetised that cervical spine injury is predictable in maxillofacial surgery. A monocentric clinical study was conducted over a 10-year period to analyse patients with primary maxillofacial and associated cervical spine injuries. Demographic data, mechanism of injury, specific trauma and treatments provided were reviewed. Additionally a search of relevant international literature was conducted in PubMed by terms "maxillofacial" AND "cervical spine" AND "injury". Of 3956 patients, n = 3732 (94.3%) suffered from craniomaxillofacial injuries only, n = 174 (4.4%) from cervical spine injuries only, and n = 50 (1.3%) from both craniomaxillofacial and cervical spine injuries. In this study cohort the most prevalent craniofacial injuries were: n = 41 (44%) midfacial and n = 21 (22.6%) skull base fractures. Cervical spine injuries primarily affected the upper cervical spine column: n = 39 (58.2%) vs. n = 28 (41.8%). Only in 3 of 50 cases (6%), the cervical spine injury was diagnosed coincidentally, and the cervical spine column was under immobilised. The operative treatment rate for maxillofacial injuries was 36% (n = 18), and for cervical spine injuries 20% (n = 10). The overall mortality rate was 8% (n = 4). The literature search yielded only 12 papers (11 retrospective and monocentric cohort studies) and is discussed before our own results. In cases of apparently isolated maxillofacial trauma, maxillofacial surgeons should be aware of a low but serious risk of underestimating an unstable cervical spine injury. Copyright © 2016 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Predicted Unfavorable Neurologic Outcome Is Overestimated by the Marshall Computed Tomography Score, Corticosteroid Randomization After Significant Head Injury (CRASH), and International Mission for Prognosis and Analysis of Clinical Trials in Traumatic Brain Injury (IMPACT) Models in Patients with Severe Traumatic Brain Injury Managed with Early Decompressive Craniectomy.

    PubMed

    Charry, Jose D; Tejada, Jorman H; Pinzon, Miguel A; Tejada, Wilson A; Ochoa, Juan D; Falla, Manuel; Tovar, Jesus H; Cuellar-Bahamón, Ana M; Solano, Juan P

    2017-05-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is of public health interest and produces significant mortality and disability in Colombia. Calculators and prognostic models have been developed to establish neurologic outcomes. We tested prognostic models (the Marshall computed tomography [CT] score, International Mission for Prognosis and Analysis of Clinical Trials in Traumatic Brain Injury (IMPACT), and Corticosteroid Randomization After Significant Head Injury) for 14-day mortality, 6-month mortality, and 6-month outcome in patients with TBI at a university hospital in Colombia. A 127-patient cohort with TBI was treated in a regional trauma center in Colombia over 2 years and bivariate and multivariate analyses were used. Discriminatory power of the models, their accuracy, and precision was assessed by both logistic regression and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Shapiro-Wilk, χ 2 , and Wilcoxon test were used to compare real outcomes in the cohort against predicted outcomes. The group's median age was 33 years, and 84.25% were male. The injury severity score median was 25, and median Glasgow Coma Scale motor score was 3. Six-month mortality was 29.13%. Six-month unfavorable outcome was 37%. Mortality prediction by Marshall CT score was 52.8%, P = 0.104 (AUC 0.585; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0 0.489-0.681), the mortality prediction by CRASH prognosis calculator was 59.9%, P < 0.001 (AUC 0.706; 95% CI 0.590-0.821), and the unfavorable outcome prediction by IMPACT was 77%, P < 0.048 (AUC 0.670; 95% CI 0.575-0.763). In a university hospital in Colombia, the Marshall CT score, IMPACT, and Corticosteroid Randomization After Significant Head Injury models overestimated the adverse neurologic outcome in patients with severe head trauma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. USE OF CORTICAL BONE FENESTRATION, AUTOGENOUS FREE SKIN GRAFT, AND THERMOGRAPHY FOR WOUND TREATMENT AND MONITORING IN A RED WOLF (CANIS RUFUS GREGORYI).

    PubMed

    Hurley-Sanders, Jennifer L; Sladky, Kurt K; Nolan, Elizabeth C; Loomis, Michael R

    2015-09-01

    A 2-yr-old female red wolf (Canis rufus gregoryi) sustained a degloving injury to the left thoracic limb while in a display habitat. Initial attempts to resolve the extensive wound by using conservative measures were unsuccessful. Subsequent treatment using a free skin graft consisted first of establishment of an adequate granulation bed via cortical bone fenestration. After establishment of a healthy granulation bed was achieved, free skin graft was harvested and transposed over the bed. To monitor viability and incorporation of the graft, serial thermographic imaging was performed. Thermography noninvasively detects radiant heat patterns and can be used to assess vascularization of tissue, potentially allowing early detection of graft failure. In this case, thermography documented successful graft attachment.

  15. Management of the Morel-Lavallée Lesion.

    PubMed

    Greenhill, Dustin; Haydel, Christopher; Rehman, Saqib

    2016-01-01

    Morel-Lavallée lesions are closed degloving injuries sustained during violent soft tissue shear that separate the subdermal fat from its strong underlying fascia. Lesions most often occur in the peritrochanteric region, and patients may have concomitant polytrauma. As a result, a hematoma develops that has a high rate of acute bacterial colonization and chronic recurrence. Conservative treatment outcomes are best for those managed acutely. However, diagnosis is often delayed or missed. Furthermore, there is no universally accepted treatment algorithm. Diagnosis and treatment depend on a surgeon's thorough understanding of the cause, pathophysiology, imaging characteristics, and treatment options of Morel-Lavallée lesions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Transfer of free fillet lateral arm flap for facial reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Bayram, Fazli Cengiz; Dadaci, Mehmet; Ince, Bilsev; Altuntas, Zeynep

    2014-07-01

    We describe a 16-year-old male patient who had a major right facial degloving injury resulting in a soft-tissue defect with exposed zygoma as well as temporal and frontal bones. Multiple operations were undertaken in a staged manner for reconstruction. Lateral arm free fillet flap transfer was initially performed with fixation of bones with miniplates, which is followed by flap debulking, lateral canthopexy, scalp tissue expansion for hairline reconstruction, as well as ear reconstruction with costal cartilage and local flap techniques. After a follow-up period of 2 years, a good and impressive reconstructive result was achieved through the use of multiple contemporary reconstructive procedures after a successful free fillet flap transfer from an amputated part.

  17. Sports injuries in Brazilian blind footballers.

    PubMed

    Magno e Silva, M P; Morato, M P; Bilzon, J L J; Duarte, E

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the characteristics and prevalence of sports-related injuries in visually disabled athletes of the Brazilian football 5-a-side team. The participants were 13 male athletes, all classified as B1 visual class, members of the Brazilian team, who played in five consecutive international competitions. Data were collected using the Brazilian Paralympic Committee and the Brazilian Confederation of Sports for the Blind report form. From the total of 13 athletes, 11 succumbed to some form of injury during the 5 competitions, which incorporated 23 matches, representing a prevalence of 84.6%. A total of 35 sports injuries were recorded, giving a clinical incidence of 2.7 injuries per athlete and an injury risk of 0.85 and an incidence rate of 0.12 injuries per match. Traumatic injuries (80%) were more common than overuse injuries (20%) (p<0.05). The highest distribution of injury was in the lower limbs (80%), followed by the head (8.6%), spine (5.7%) and upper limbs (5.7%). The body regions most affected were the knee (28.6%), feet (17.1%), ankle (11.4%) and thigh (11.4%). Contusions (31.4%), sprains (25.7%) and tendinopathy (8.6%) were the most frequent diagnoses. This is the first study to describe the nature and prevalence of sports-related injuries in 5-a-side football in blind athletes. The results are important in guiding strategies to inform the implementation of preventive pathways and provide a strong rationale for the compulsory use of additional protective equipment. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. [Surgical treatment strategy of the floating shoulder injury].

    PubMed

    Song, Zhe; Xue, Han-Zhong; Li, Zhong; Zhuang, Yan; Wang, Qian; Ma, Teng; Zhang, Kun

    2013-10-18

    To discuss the clinical characteristics and the surgical treatment strategy of the floating shoulder injury. 26 cases with the floating shoulder injury between January 2006 and January 2012 were retrospectively evaluated. There were 15 males and 11 females with an average age of 35.2 (22-60) years. According to Wong's classification of floating shoulder injury: type IA, 3 cases; type IB, 9 cases; type II, 4 cases; type IIIA, 6 cases; type IIIB, 4 cases. All the 26 cases had accepted the surgical treatment. We observed the postoperative fracture reduction, damage repair, fracture healing and internal fixation through the X-ray films. We also evaluated the shoulder function regularly according to the Constant scores and Herscovici evaluation criteria. The 26 cases were followed up for an average of 16.8 (12-24) months.All the fractures healed for a mean time of 2.4 months, the mean Constant score was 89.4 (60-100). The effect of Herscovici evaluation criteria: excellent, 15 cases; good, 8 cases;fair, 3 cases;the excellent rate 88.5%. Open reduction and internal fixation is an effective method for the treatment of floating shoulder injury, but we should select the reset sequence and fixation methods according to the type of fracture and degree of displacement.

  19. Penile fracture: preoperative evaluation and surgical technique for optimal patient outcome.

    PubMed

    Kamdar, Ciamack; Mooppan, Unni M M; Kim, Hong; Gulmi, Frederick A

    2008-12-01

    To review the preoperative diagnostic evaluation and surgical treatment of penile fracture, as the condition is a urological emergency that requires immediate surgical exploration and repair. Between January 2003 and October 2007 eight patients presented to the emergency department with penile fracture after sexual intercourse. The clinical presentation, preoperative evaluation and imaging, surgical technique, and postoperative care were assessed to determine the optimal patient outcome. Seven of the eight patients were treated surgically and one refused surgical intervention. Four cases involved unilateral corporal injury, two involved unilateral corporal injury with an associated urethral injury, and one involved bilateral corporal injury with an associated urethral injury. Although retrograde urethrogram were taken of all three urethral injuries, none of them revealed the injury. Diagnostic cavernosography or magnetic resonance imaging were not used in any of the patients. No complications occurred in the patients treated surgically. Preoperative imaging should not delay surgical repair. If an associated urethral injury is suspected, flexible cystoscopy is recommended in the operating room, as opposed to a retrograde urethrogram. A subcoronal circumcising incision is recommended to deglove the entire penile shaft and have complete access to all three corporal bodies, as well as the neurovascular bundle. Saline mixed with indigo carmine can be injected both into the corpora cavernosum or corpus spongiosum via the glans penis, after a tourniquet is placed at the base of the penis, to evaluate the surgical repair and to determine if there are any missed injuries.

  20. Non-contact ACL injuries in female athletes: an International Olympic Committee current concepts statement

    PubMed Central

    Renstrom, P; Ljungqvist, A; Arendt, E; Beynnon, B; Fukubayashi, T; Garrett, W; Georgoulis, T; Hewett, T E; Johnson, R; Krosshaug, T; Mandelbaum, B; Micheli, L; Myklebust, G; Roos, E; Roos, H; Schamasch, P; Shultz, S; Werner, S; Wojtys, E; Engebretsen, L

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury remains high in young athletes. Because female athletes have a much higher incidence of ACL injuries in sports such as basketball and team handball than male athletes, the IOC Medical Commission invited a multidisciplinary group of ACL expert clinicians and scientists to (1) review current evidence including data from the new Scandinavian ACL registries; (2) critically evaluate high-quality studies of injury mechanics; (3) consider the key elements of successful prevention programmes; (4) summarise clinical management including surgery and conservative management; and (5) identify areas for further research. Risk factors for female athletes suffering ACL injury include: (1) being in the preovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle compared with the postovulatory phase; (2) having decreased intercondylar notch width on plain radiography; and (3) developing increased knee abduction moment (a valgus intersegmental torque) during impact on landing. Well-designed injury prevention programmes reduce the risk of ACL for athletes, particularly women. These programmes attempt to alter dynamic loading of the tibiofemoral joint through neuromuscular and proprioceptive training. They emphasise proper landing and cutting techniques. This includes landing softly on the forefoot and rolling back to the rearfoot, engaging knee and hip flexion and, where possible, landing on two feet. Players are trained to avoid excessive dynamic valgus of the knee and to focus on the “knee over toe position” when cutting. PMID:18539658

  1. Penetrating injuries of the face.

    PubMed

    Gaboriau, H P; Kreutziger, K L

    1998-01-01

    In dealing with gunshot wounds to the face, the emergency department physician should have a basic knowledge of ballistics. Securing an airway (either intubation or surgical airway) should be the top priority. The location of the wound dictates which patient should be intubated. Plain x-ray films of the face and skull, as well as CT scan in certain situations, allow determination of the extent of damages to the skeleton as well as intracranial injuries. Clinical symptoms suggesting an underlying vascular injury require an angiogram. After thorough debridement of the wounds, fractures are treated either with open-reduction and internal fixation or closed-reduction and intermaxillary fixation.

  2. Prospective multifactorial analysis of preseason risk factors for shoulder and elbow injuries in high school baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Shitara, Hitoshi; Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Shimoyama, Daisuke; Ichinose, Tsuyoshi; Tajika, Tsuyoshi; Osawa, Toshihisa; Iizuka, Haku; Takagishi, Kenji

    2017-10-01

    To prospectively identify preseason physical factors for shoulder and elbow injuries during the season in high school baseball pitchers. The study included 105 high school baseball pitchers [median age 16 (15-17) years]. The range of motion of the shoulder (90° abducted external and internal rotation) and elbow (extension/flexion), shoulder muscle strength (abduction and prone internal and external rotation), shoulder and elbow laxity, horizontal flexion, and scapular dyskinesis were assessed. After the season, the participants completed questionnaires regarding shoulder and/or elbow injuries, with injury defined as an inability to play for ≥1 week due to elbow/shoulder problems. The results of two groups (injured and noninjured) were compared using t tests and Chi-square analyses. Stepwise forward logistic regression models were developed to identify risk factors. Twenty-one injuries were observed. In univariate analysis, 90° abducted internal rotation and total arc of the dominant shoulder and the ratio of prone external rotation in the dominant to nondominant sides in the injured group were significantly less than those in the noninjured group (P = 0.02, 0.04, and 0.01, respectively). In logistic regression analysis, 90° abducted internal rotation in the dominant shoulder and prone external rotation ratio were significantly associated with injuries (P = 0.02 and 0.03, respectively). A low prone external rotation ratio and decreased 90° abducted internal rotation in the dominant shoulder in the preseason were significant risk factors for shoulder and elbow injuries in high school baseball pitchers. The results may contribute to reduce the incidence of these injuries. II.

  3. Assessment of Injuries During Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu Competition

    PubMed Central

    Scoggin, James F.; Brusovanik, Georgiy; Izuka, Byron H.; Zandee van Rilland, Eddy; Geling, Olga; Tokumura, Seren

    2014-01-01

    Background: Brazilian jiu-jitsu (BJJ) is a unique style of martial arts with rapid growth in the United States and internationally. Although studies have examined injuries in other martial arts and combat sports, to date, no published medical study has examined injuries in BJJ competitions. Purpose: (1) To estimate the incidence of injuries in BJJ competitions and (2) to identify and describe the types and mechanisms of injuries associated with competitive BJJ. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: Injury data were obtained from records of on-site medical coverage at 8 statewide BJJ tournaments in Hawaii, USA, between 2005 and 2011. Results: The identified injury incidence on the day of matches was 9.2 per 1000 exposures (46 injuries out of 5022 exposures, ie, match participations). Orthopaedic injuries were the most common and accounted for 78% of all injuries (n = 36), followed by costochondral or rib injuries (n = 7) and lacerations requiring medical care (n = 3). The elbow was found to be the joint most commonly injured during BJJ competitions, with the arm bar being the most common mechanism. We propose that this BJJ-specific injury mechanism, the “arm bar,” be recognized as another mechanism of hyperextension injury to the elbow in sports. Conclusion: Comparison of the BJJ injury data with injury data reported for judo, taekwondo, wrestling, and mixed martial arts showed that BJJ competitors were at substantially lower risk of injury compared with these other sports. With orthopaedic injuries being most common and the elbow being the area most vulnerable to injury in BJJ, it is important that participants, referees, and physicians be properly educated about the unique mechanisms of injury that can occur, particularly to the elbow. PMID:26535299

  4. Pedestrian injury risk functions based on contour lines of equal injury severity using real world pedestrian/passenger-car accident data

    PubMed Central

    Niebuhr, Tobias; Junge, Mirko; Achmus, Stefanie

    2013-01-01

    Injury risk assessment plays a pivotal role in the assessment of the effectiveness of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) as they specify the injury reduction potential of the system. The usual way to describe injury risks is by use of injury risk functions, i.e. specifying the probability of an injury of a given severity occurring at a specific technical accident severity (collision speed). A method for the generation of a family of risk functions for different levels of injury severity is developed. The injury severity levels are determined by use of a rescaled version of the Injury Severity Score (ISS) namely the ISSx. The injury risk curves for each collision speed is then obtained by fixing the boundary conditions and use of a case-by-case validated GIDAS subset of pedestrian-car accidents (N=852). The resultant functions are of exponential form as opposed to the frequently used logistic regression form. The exponential approach in combination with the critical speed value creates a new injury risk pattern better fitting for high speed/high energy crashes. Presented is a family of pedestrian injury risk functions for an arbitrary injury severity. Thus, the effectiveness of an ADAS can be assessed for mitigation of different injury severities using the same injury risk function and relying on the internal soundness of the risk function with regard to different injury severity levels. For the assessment of emergency braking ADAS, a Zone of Effective Endangerment Increase (ZEEI), the speed interval in which a one percent speed increase results at least in a one percent of injury risk increase, is defined. The methodology presented is kept in such general terms that a direct adaption to other accident configurations is easily done. PMID:24406954

  5. Deaths from international terrorism compared with road crash deaths in OECD countries.

    PubMed

    Wilson, N; Thomson, G

    2005-12-01

    To estimate the relative number of deaths in member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) from international terrorism and road crashes. Data on deaths from international terrorism (US State Department database) were collated (1994-2003) and compared to the road injury deaths (year 2000 and 2001 data) from the OECD International Road Transport Accident Database. In the 29 OECD countries for which comparable data were available, the annual average death rate from road injury was approximately 390 times that from international terrorism. The ratio of annual road to international terrorism deaths (averaged over 10 years) was lowest for the United States at 142 times. In 2001, road crash deaths in the US were equal to those from a September 11 attack every 26 days. There is a large difference in the magnitude of these two causes of deaths from injury. Policy makers need to be aware of this when allocating resources to preventing these two avoidable causes of mortality.

  6. Veterinary Forensics: Firearms and Investigation of Projectile Injury.

    PubMed

    Bradley-Siemens, N; Brower, A I

    2016-09-01

    Projectile injury represents an estimated 14% of reported animal cruelty cases in the United States. Cases involving projectiles are complicated by gross similarities to other common types of injury, including bite wounds and motor vehicle injuries, by weapons and ammunition not commonly recognized or understood by veterinary medical professionals, and by required expertise beyond that employed in routine postmortem examination. This review describes the common types of projectile injuries encountered within the United States, as well as firearms and ammunition associated with this form of injury. The 3 stages of ballistics-internal, external, and terminal-and wounding capacity are discussed. A general understanding of firearms, ammunition, and ballistics is necessary before pursuing forensic projectile cases. The forensic necropsy is described, including gunshot wound examination, projectile trajectories, different imaging procedures, collection and storage of projectile evidence, and potential advanced techniques for gunpowder analysis. This review presents aspects of projectile injury investigation that must be considered in tandem with standard postmortem practices and procedures to ensure reliable conclusions are reached for medicolegal as well as diagnostic purposes. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. A high rate of injury during the 1995 Rugby World Cup.

    PubMed

    Jakoet, I; Noakes, T D

    1998-01-01

    the world would explain why they are at the highest risk of injury. The high frequency of injury in international rugby has implications for: (i) the frequency with which such matches should be played; and (ii) the number of players needed to complete a season of international rugby.

  8. Posttraumatic cerebral infarction due to progressive occlusion of the internal carotid artery after minor head injury in childhood: a case report.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Hiroaki; Kohno, Kanehisa

    2011-07-01

    Although minor head injury in childhood is a common occurrence and usually no complications, posttraumatic cerebral infarction has rarely been reported. Such infarction is characterized by occlusion of the lateral lenticulostriate artery. The authors report an atypical case of posttraumatic occlusion of the internal carotid artery (ICA) after minor head injury in childhood. A healthy 16-year-old boy was hit on the head by a pitch while playing baseball. He developed a transient ischemic attack involving the left extremities 15 min after the accident. Initial magnetic resonance imaging revealed neither hemorrhage nor infarction, and MR angiography demonstrated mild stenosis of the right carotid fork. Conservative therapy was started. However, 24 h after the accident, he suddenly developed left hemiparesis. Emergent neuroimaging demonstrated progressive occlusion of the supraclinoid portion of the right ICA and cerebral infarction of the deep white matter in the right frontal lobe. The hemiparesis deteriorated and the infarction area continued to expand on a daily. The patient underwent emergent superficial temporally artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) bypass. Intraoperative observation demonstrated that the supraclinoid portion of the right ICA was not thrombosed but pale with low tension and did not appear dissected. He fully recovered by 2 weeks after the operation. Postoperative investigations showed gradual improvement of the ICA occlusion. Minor head injury can cause cerebral infarction in childhood, although this is rare. If conservative therapy cannot prevent progressive cerebral infarction, STA-MCA bypass should be considered in case of the ICA occlusion.

  9. Penetrating Obturator Artery Injury after Gunshot Wounds: A Successful Multidisciplinary Trauma Team Approach to a Potentially Lethal Injury.

    PubMed

    Maraqa, Tareq I; Shin, Ji-Sun J; Diallo, Ismael; Sachwani-Daswani, Gul R; Mercer, Leo C

    2017-11-17

    Obturator artery injury (OAI) from pelvic gunshot wounds (GSW) is a rarely reported condition. Hemorrhages from pelvic trauma (PT) are mostly venous. Arterial hemorrhages represent about 10-20% of PTs. When arterial hemorrhages from PT occur, they are a severe and deadly complication often causing significant hemodynamic instability and eventual shock. A  23-year-old male presented to our emergency service via a private vehicle with multiple gunshot wounds to both thighs and to the lower back, resulted in rectal and obturator artery (OA) injuries. The patient underwent a successful coil-embolization of the right OA. Given the density of structures within the pelvis, patients who sustain gunshot wounds to the pelvic region are at high risk for injury to the small bowel, sigmoid colon, rectum, bladder, and/or vascular structures. While bleeding is the major cause of early mortality in PT, rectal injuries carry the highest mortality due to visceral injuries. A high clinical index of suspicion is needed to diagnose an iliac artery injury or injury to its branches. Prompt computed tomographic angiogram (CTA) and embolization of the OA is the best method to control and stop the bleeding and improve the mortality outcome. Clinicians caring for patients presenting with pelvic gunshot wounds should pay attention to the delayed presentation of internal hemorrhage from the OAs. A multidisciplinary team approach is crucial in the successful management of penetrating injuries to the obturator artery.

  10. Characteristics of injuries caused by paragliding accidents: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Canbek, Umut; İmerci, Ahmet; Akgün, Ulaş; Yeşil, Murat; Aydin, Ali; Balci, Yasemin

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to analyze the characteristics and risk factors relating to fatalities and injuries caused by paragliding. The judicial examination reports and hospital documents of 82 patients traumatized in 64 accidents during 242 355 paragliding jumps between August 2004 and September 2011 were analyzed. In these accidents, 18 of the 82 patients lost their lives. In the patients with a confirmed cause of accident, most of them were involved with multiple fractures and internal organ injuries (n=8, 44.4%). We investigated the incidence of paragliding injuries, the types of the injuries, and the severity of affected anatomical regions. The findings are significant for the prevention of paragliding injuries and future research.

  11. The incidence of injury in elite camogie, an in-season prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Blake, Catherine

    2018-01-01

    Background Camogie is a stickhandling, high-velocity, multidirectional field sport for females which is native to Ireland, but is also played internationally. Aim To establish the incidence, nature and severity of injuries in elite camogie players. Methods A prospective, observational cohort study was carried out during the Provincial Championships and extending into the All-Ireland Championship until a participating team was eliminated (11 weeks). A purposive sample of 62 players from 3 of the total 11 senior intercounty teams participated to generate geographical representation. Injury data were recorded and classified by team physiotherapists using a time loss definition, consistent with consensus statements. A concurrent measure of exposure to matches and training was recorded. Results Twenty-one incidents of injury were recorded with 14 players injured. Injury incidence rate was 26.4 (95% CI 13.44 to 47.16) per 1000 match hours and 4.2 (95% CI 2.12 to 7.46) per 1000 training hours. There were 11 contact and 10 non-contact injuries. The lower limb accounted for 71.4% (n=15), the upper limb 9.5% (n=2) and the trunk and head 19.1% (n=4) of injuries. The main tissues injured were both muscle and ligament, representing 57.2% (n=6 each). The mean duration time loss from sport per injury was 12.14 days. Conclusion These results provide data on the incidence, nature and severity of camogie injuries using definitions that reflect international consensus statements. Further study of injury incidence over a full season or multiple seasons is recommended. PMID:29719725

  12. Percutaneous drainage of Morel-Lavallée lesions when the diagnosis is delayed.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Biao; Zhang, Chi; Luo, Cong-feng

    2014-10-01

    Morel-Lavallée lesions are a closed internal degloving, and open débridement can damage the only remaining blood supply to the skin. We performed percutaneous draining and débridement to treat 8 patients in whom the diagnosis of Morel-Lavallée lesions was delayed more than 1 week. Here we discuss our treatment procedures and the outcomes in these 8 patients. We consider percutaneous drainage to be an effective treatment for patients with delayed diagnosis of Morel-Lavallée lesions.

  13. A high-frequency lung injury mechanism in blunt thoracic impact.

    PubMed

    Grimal, Quentin; Naïli, Salah; Watzky, Alexandre

    2005-06-01

    When a mechanical load is applied very rapidly to the thoracic wall, part of the internal damage is suspected to be due to a "high-frequency" injury mechanism, that is, a phenomenon in which waves are involved. This paper addresses a specific high-frequency mechanism for lung injury in which a stress wave is generated through rapid acceleration of the body wall. Displacement-related injuries, which are rather "low-frequency" phenomena, are not considered. The present work was done in the context of assessing behind armor blunt trauma (injury to thoracic organs occurring when a bullet is stopped by a body armor) through mathematical modeling. One aspect of the thorax response to high-speed blunt impact and an associated injury mechanism are investigated based on an idealized model of thorax and a set of computations presented in previous papers. The injury mechanism considered elucidates a possible mathematical relationship between the acceleration at the surface of the thoracic wall and the occurrence of lung injury.

  14. Descriptive epidemiology of Paralympic sports injuries.

    PubMed

    Webborn, Nick; Emery, Carolyn

    2014-08-01

    Paralympic sports have seen an exponential increase in participation since 16 patients took part in the first Stoke Mandeville Games on the opening day of the 1948 London Olympic Games. More than 4,000 athletes took part in the London 2012 Paralympic Games. Few sporting events have seen such rapid evolution. This rapid pace of change also has meant challenges for understanding the injury risks of participation, not only because of the variety of sports, impairment types, the evolution of adapted equipment but also because of the inclusion of additional impairment types and development of new sports over time. Early studies were limited in scope but patterns of injuries are slowly emerging within Winter and Summer Paralympic sports. The IPC's London 2012 study is the largest to date with a prospective cohort study involving 49,910 athlete-days. The results identified large differences across sports and highlighted the need for longitudinal sport specific studies rather than solely games-time studies. This will require collaboration with international sports federations to examine injury patterns and risk factors for injury in this population to appropriately inform injury prevention strategies. Further studies will also need to address the impact of sporting participation, injury, and future health. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevention of non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injuries in soccer players. Part 1: Mechanisms of injury and underlying risk factors.

    PubMed

    Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Myer, Gregory D; Silvers, Holly J; Samitier, Gonzalo; Romero, Daniel; Lázaro-Haro, Cristina; Cugat, Ramón

    2009-07-01

    Soccer is the most commonly played sport in the world, with an estimated 265 million active soccer players by 2006. Inherent to this sport is the higher risk of injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) relative to other sports. ACL injury causes the most time lost from competition in soccer which has influenced a strong research focus to determine the risk factors for injury. This research emphasis has afforded a rapid influx of literature defining potential modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors that increase the risk of injury. The purpose of the current review is to sequence the most recent literature that reports potential mechanisms and risk factors for non-contact ACL injury in soccer players. Most ACL tears in soccer players are non-contact in nature. Common playing situations precluding a non-contact ACL injury include: change of direction or cutting maneuvers combined with deceleration, landing from a jump in or near full extension, and pivoting with knee near full extension and a planted foot. The most common non-contact ACL injury mechanism include a deceleration task with high knee internal extension torque (with or without perturbation) combined with dynamic valgus rotation with the body weight shifted over the injured leg and the plantar surface of the foot fixed flat on the playing surface. Potential extrinsic non-contact ACL injury risk factors include: dry weather and surface, and artificial surface instead of natural grass. Commonly purported intrinsic risk factors include: generalized and specific knee joint laxity, small and narrow intercondylar notch width (ratio of notch width to the diameter and cross sectional area of the ACL), pre-ovulatory phase of menstrual cycle in females not using oral contraceptives, decreased relative (to quadriceps) hamstring strength and recruitment, muscular fatigue by altering neuromuscular control, decreased "core" strength and proprioception, low trunk, hip, and knee flexion angles, and high

  16. Complications in transorbital penetrating injury by bamboo branch: A case report.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lei; He, Xiaojun; Chen, Jie; Ni, Shuang; Jiang, Biao; Hua, Jian-Ming

    2018-05-01

    Wooden transorbital penetrating injury is an uncommon and serious trauma that may cause multiply complications. Here we describe a 62-year-old Chinese woman with a transorbital penetrating injury caused by a long bamboo branch. Computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging showed the presence of a wooden foreign body. Cerebrovascular digital subtraction angiography and temporary balloon occlusion were performed with general anesthesia. Anti-inflammatory therapy was subsequently administered. Retention of wooden foreign body, orbital cellulitis, and traumatic aneurysm at the right internal carotid artery were diagnosed 1 month later. Coil embolization of the right internal carotid artery aneurysm and endoscopic sinus surgery were then performed, and postoperative condition was monitored and recorded. Penetrating transorbital injury complications may occur because of retained wooden foreign bodies near the intracranial arteries. Reasonable surgical intervention and special attention should be performed in this kind of trauma.

  17. Active Rehabilitation-a community peer-based approach for persons with spinal cord injury: international utilisation of key elements.

    PubMed

    Divanoglou, A; Tasiemski, T; Augutis, M; Trok, K

    2017-06-01

    Active Rehabilitation (AR) is a community peer-based approach that started in Sweden in 1976. As a key component of the approach, AR training camps provide intensive, goal-oriented, intentional, group-based, customised training and peer-support opportunities in a community environment for individuals with spinal cord injury. Prospective cross-sectional study. To describe the profile of the organisations that use components of the AR approach, and to explore the characteristics and the international variations of the approach. Twenty-two organisations from 21 countries from Europe, Asia and Africa reported using components of the AR approach during the past 10 years. An electronic survey was developed and distributed through a personalised email. Sampling involved a prospective identification of organisations that met the inclusion criteria and snowball strategies. While there were many collaborating links between the organisations, RG Active Rehabilitation from Sweden and Motivation Charitable Trust from the United Kingdom were identified as key supporting organisations. The 10 key elements of the AR approach were found to be used uniformly across the participating organisations. Small variations were associated with variations in country income and key supporting organisation. This is the first study to describe the key elements and international variations of the AR approach. This will provide the basis for further studies exploring the effectiveness of the approach, it will likely facilitate international collaboration on research and operational aspects and it could potentially support higher integration in the health-care system and long-term funding of these programmes.

  18. Metallic foreign body in the sphenoid sinus after ballistic injury: a case report.

    PubMed

    Akhaddar, A; Abouchadi, A; Jidal, M; Gazzaz, M; Elmostarchid, B; Naama, O; Rzin, A; Boucetta, M

    2008-05-01

    Paranasal sinus injuries by foreign bodies have a lower incidence compared with facial injuries. Among them, penetrating maxillofacial injuries to the sphenoid sinus and skull base remain rare. We report the case of a 41-year-old man who presented with, after a missile-related maxillofacial injury, a metallic foreign body enclosed within the sphenoid sinus with carotid-canal fracture. Angiographic evaluation showed a mass in the right internal carotid artery. The foreign object was successfully extracted through a transmaxillary sublabial approach with a good outcome. We discuss the extensive preoperative evaluation and interdisciplinary management of this unusual injury.

  19. Deaths from international terrorism compared with road crash deaths in OECD countries

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, N; Thomson, G

    2005-01-01

    Methods: Data on deaths from international terrorism (US State Department database) were collated (1994–2003) and compared to the road injury deaths (year 2000 and 2001 data) from the OECD International Road Transport Accident Database. Results: In the 29 OECD countries for which comparable data were available, the annual average death rate from road injury was approximately 390 times that from international terrorism. The ratio of annual road to international terrorism deaths (averaged over 10 years) was lowest for the United States at 142 times. In 2001, road crash deaths in the US were equal to those from a September 11 attack every 26 days. Conclusions: There is a large difference in the magnitude of these two causes of deaths from injury. Policy makers need to be aware of this when allocating resources to preventing these two avoidable causes of mortality. PMID:16326764

  20. Nutrition, illness, and injury in aquatic sports.

    PubMed

    Pyne, David B; Verhagen, Evert A; Mountjoy, Margo

    2014-08-01

    In this review, we outline key principles for prevention of injury and illness in aquatic sports, detail the epidemiology of injury and illness in aquatic athletes at major international competitions and in training, and examine the relevant scientific evidence on nutrients for reducing the risk of illness and injury. Aquatic athletes are encouraged to consume a well-planned diet with sufficient calories, macronutrients (particularly carbohydrate and protein), and micronutrients (particularly iron, zinc, and vitamins A, D, E, B6, and B12) to maintain health and performance. Ingesting carbohydrate via sports drinks, gels, or sports foods during prolonged training sessions is beneficial in maintaining energy availability. Studies of foods or supplements containing plant polyphenols and selected strains of probiotic species are promising, but further research is required. In terms of injury, intake of vitamin D, protein, and total caloric intake, in combination with treatment and resistance training, promotes recovery back to full health and training.

  1. Electric injury, Part II: Specific injuries.

    PubMed

    Fish, R M

    2000-01-01

    Electric injury can cause disruption of cardiac rhythm and breathing, burns, fractures, dislocations, rhabdomyolysis, eye and ear injury, oral and gastrointestinal injury, vascular damage, disseminated intravascular coagulation, peripheral and spinal cord injury, and Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy. Secondary trauma from falls, fires, flying debris, and inhalation injury can complicate the clinical picture. Diagnostic and treatment considerations for electric injuries are described in this article, which is the second part of a three-part series on electric injuries.

  2. Injuries from roadside improvised explosive devices.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, Arul; Harrisson, Stuart E; Clasper, Jon C; Stewart, Michael P M

    2008-10-01

    After the invasion of Iraq in April 2003, coalition forces have remained in the country in a bid to maintain stability and support the local security forces. The improvised explosive device (IED) has been widely used by the insurgents and is the leading cause of death and injury among Coalition troops in the region. From January 2006, data were prospectively collected on 100 consecutive casualties who were either injured or killed in hostile action. Mechanism of injury, new Injury Severity Score (NISS), The International Classification of Disease-9th edition diagnosis, anatomic pattern of wounding, and operative management were recorded in a trauma registry. The weapon incident reports were analyzed to ascertain the type of IED employed. Of the 100 casualties injured in hostile action, 53 casualties were injured by IEDs in 23 incidents (mean 2.3 casualties per incident). Twenty-one of 23 (91.3%) of the IEDs employed were explosive formed projectile (EFP) type. Twelve casualties (22.6%) were either killed or died of wounds. Median NISS score of survivors was 3 (range, 1-50). All fatalities sustained unsurvivable injuries with a NISS score of 75. Primary blast injuries were seen in only 2 (3.8%) and thermal injuries in 8 casualties (15.1%). Twenty (48.7%) of survivors underwent surgery by British surgeons in the field hospital. At 18 months follow, all but one of the United Kingdom Service personnel had returned to military employment. The injury profile seen with EFP-IEDs does not follow the traditional pattern of injuries seen with conventional high explosives. Primary blast injuries were uncommon despite all casualties being in close proximity to the explosion. When the EFP-IED is detonated, the EFP produced results in catastrophic injuries to casualties caught in its path, but causes relatively minor injuries to personnel sited adjacent to its trajectory. Improvements in vehicle protection may prevent the EFP from entering the passenger compartments and thereby

  3. Aviation-related injury morbidity and mortality: data from U.S. health information systems.

    PubMed

    Baker, Susan P; Brady, Joanne E; Shanahan, Dennis F; Li, Guohua

    2009-12-01

    Information about injuries sustained by survivors of airplane crashes is scant, although some information is available on fatal aviation-related injuries. Objectives of this study were to explore the patterns of aviation-related injuries admitted to U.S. hospitals and relate them to aviation deaths in the same period. The Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) contains information for approximately 20% of all hospital admissions in the United States each year. We identified patients in the HCUP NIS who were hospitalized during 2000-2005 for aviation-related injuries based on the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, codes E840-E844. Injury patterns were also examined in relation to information from multiple-cause-of-death public-use data files 2000-2005. Nationally, an estimated 6080 patients in 6 yr, or 1013 admissions annually (95% confidence interval 894-1133), were hospitalized for aviation-related injuries, based on 1246 patients in the sample. The average hospital stay was 6.3 d and 2% died in hospital. Occupants of non-commercial aircraft accounted for 32% of patients, parachutists for 29%; occupants of commercial aircraft and of unpowered aircraft each constituted 11%. Lower-limb fracture was the most common injury in each category, constituting 27% of the total, followed by head injury (11%), open wound (10%), upper extremity fracture, and internal injury (9%). Among fatalities, head injury (38%) was most prominent. An average of 753 deaths occurred annually; for each death there were 1.3 hospitalizations. Aviation-related injuries result in approximately 1000 hospitalizations each year in the United States, with an in-hospital mortality rate of 2%. The most common injury sustained by aviation crash survivors is lower-limb fracture.

  4. Aviation-Related Injury Morbidity and Mortality: Data from U.S. Health Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Susan P.; Brady, Joanne E.; Shanahan, Dennis F.; Li, Guohua

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Information about injuries sustained by survivors of airplane crashes is scant, although some information is available on fatal aviation-related injuries. Objectives of this study were to explore the patterns of aviation-related injuries admitted to U.S. hospitals and relate them to aviation deaths in the same period. Methods The Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) contains information for approximately 20% of all hospital admissions in the United States each year. We identified patients in the HCUP NIS who were hospitalized during 2000–2005 for aviation-related injuries based on the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, codes E840–E844. Injury patterns were also examined in relation to information from multiple-cause-of-death public-use data files 2000–2005. Results Nationally, an estimated 6080 patients in 6 yr, or 1013 admissions annually (95% confidence interval 894–1133), were hospitalized for aviation-related injuries, based on 1246 patients in the sample. The average hospital stay was 6.3 d and 2% died in hospital. Occupants of noncommercial aircraft accounted for 32% of patients, parachutists for 29%; occupants of commercial aircraft and of unpowered aircraft each constituted 11%. Lower-limb fracture was the most common injury in each category, constituting 27% of the total, followed by head injury (11%), open wound (10%), upper extremity fracture, and internal injury (9%). Among fatalities, head injury (38%) was most prominent. An average of 753 deaths occurred annually; for each death there were 1.3 hospitalizations. Conclusions Aviation-related injuries result in approximately 1000 hospitalizations each year in the United States, with an in-hospital mortality rate of 2%. The most common injury sustained by aviation crash survivors is lower-limb fracture. PMID:20027845

  5. Characteristics of injuries caused by paragliding accidents: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Canbek, Umut; İmerci, Ahmet; Akgün, Ulaş; Yeşil, Murat; Aydin, Ali; Balci, Yasemin

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study was undertaken to analyze the characteristics and risk factors relating to fatalities and injuries caused by paragliding. METHODS: The judicial examination reports and hospital documents of 82 patients traumatized in 64 accidents during 242 355 paragliding jumps between August 2004 and September 2011 were analyzed. RESULTS: In these accidents, 18 of the 82 patients lost their lives. In the patients with a confirmed cause of accident, most of them were involved with multiple fractures and internal organ injuries (n=8, 44.4%). CONCLUSION: We investigated the incidence of paragliding injuries, the types of the injuries, and the severity of affected anatomical regions. The findings are significant for the prevention of paragliding injuries and future research. PMID:26401185

  6. Global collaboration on road traffic injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Peden, Margie

    2005-06-01

    Worldwide, nearly 1.2 million people are killed in road traffic crashes every year and 20 million to 50 million more are injured or disabled. These injuries account for 2.1% of global mortality and 2.6% of all disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost. Low- and middle-income countries account for about 85% of the deaths and 90% of the DALYs lost annually. Without appropriate action, by 2020, road traffic injuries are predicted to be the third leading contributor to the global burden of disease. The economic cost of road traffic crashes is enormous. Globally it is estimated that US$518 billion is spent on road traffic crashes with low- and middle-income countries accounting for US$65 billion--more than these countries receive in development assistance. But these costs are just the tip of the iceberg. For everyone killed, injured or disabled by a road traffic crash there are countless others deeply affected. Many families are driven into poverty by the expenses of prolonged medical care, loss of a family breadwinner or the added burden of caring for the disabled. There is an urgent need for global collaboration on road traffic injury prevention. Since 2000, WHO has stepped up its response to the road safety crisis by firstly developing a 5-year strategy for road traffic injury prevention and following this by dedicating World Health Day 2004 to road safety and launching the WHO/World Bank World Report on Road Traffic Injury Prevention at the global World Health Day event in Paris, France. This short article highlights the main messages from the World Report and the six recommendations for action on road safety at a national and international level. It goes on to briefly discuss other international achievements since World Health Day and calls for countries to take up the challenge of implementing the recommendations of the World Report.

  7. Match and training injuries in rugby league: a review of published studies.

    PubMed

    King, Doug A; Hume, Patria A; Milburn, Peter D; Guttenbeil, Dain

    2010-02-01

    Rugby league is an international collision sport played by junior, amateur, semiprofessional and professional players. The game requires participants to be involved in physically demanding activities such as running, tackling, passing and sprinting, and musculoskeletal injuries are common. A review of injuries in junior and senior rugby league players published in Sports Medicine in 2004 reported that injuries to the head and neck and muscular injuries were common in senior rugby league players, while fractures and injuries to the knee were common in junior players. This current review updates the descriptive data on rugby league epidemiology and adds information for semiprofessional, amateur and junior levels of participation in both match and training environments using studies identified through searches of PubMed, CINHAL, Ovid, MEDLINE, SCOPUS and SportDiscus databases. This review also discusses the issues surrounding the definitions of injury exposure, injury rate, injury severity and classification of injury site and type for rugby league injuries. Studies on the incidence of injuries in rugby league have suffered from inconsistencies in the injury definitions utilized. Some studies on rugby league injuries have utilized a criterion of a missed matchas an injury definition, total injury incidences or a combination of both time-loss and non-time-loss injuries, while other studies have incorporated a medical treatment injury definition. Efforts to establish a standard definition for rugby league injuries have been difficult, especially as some researchers were not in favour of a definition that was all-encompassing and enabled non-time-loss injuries to be recorded. A definition of rugby league injury has been suggested based on agreement by a group of international researchers. The majority of injuries occur in the match environment, with rates typically increasing as the playing level increases. However, professional level injury rates were reportedly less

  8. Anal sphincter injury in vaginal deliveries complicated by shoulder dystocia.

    PubMed

    Hehir, Mark P; Rubeo, Zachary; Flood, Karen; Mardy, Anne H; O'Herlihy, Colm; Boylan, Peter C; D'Alton, Mary E

    2018-03-01

    Shoulder dystocia is an obstetric emergency that occurs in 0.2-3% of all cephalic vaginal deliveries. We hypothesized that because of the difficult nature of deliveries complicated by shoulder dystocia, the condition may be associated with anal sphincter injury. We sought to identify risk factors for obstetric anal sphincter injury in women with shoulder dystocia. This retrospective analysis included all cases of shoulder dystocia from 2007 to 2011 at two large tertiary referral centers, in the USA and Ireland. Details of maternal demographics, intrapartum characteristics, and delivery outcomes in cases of shoulder dystocia were analyzed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to describe the association between shoulder dystocia and anal sphincter injury. There were 685 cases of shoulder dystocia, and the rate of shoulder dystocia was similar at both institutions. The incidence of anal sphincter injury was 8.8% (60 out of 685). The rate was 14% (45 out of 324) in nulliparas and 4.2% (15 out of 361) in multiparas. Women with sphincter injury were more likely to be nulliparous (75% [45 out of 60] vs 45% [279 out of 625]; p < 0.0001), have had an operative vaginal delivery (50% [30 out of 60] vs 36% [226 out of 625]; p = 0.03) and require internal maneuvers (50% [30 out of 60] vs 32% [198 out of 625], p = 0.004) than those with an intact sphincter. On multivariate regression analysis, these predictors of sphincter injury remained significant when adjusted for other risk factors. Episiotomy was negatively associated with sphincter injury on multivariate regression analysis. In a retrospective cohort of 685 women with shoulder dystocia, the risk of anal sphincter injury is 9%. Risk factors include nulliparity, operative vaginal delivery, and use of internal maneuvers, whereas episiotomy was found to have a protective effect against anal sphincter injury during cases of shoulder dystocia.

  9. The management of complex pancreatic injuries.

    PubMed

    Krige, J E J; Beningfield, S J; Nicol, A J; Navsaria, P

    2005-08-01

    pancreatoduodenectomy. Internal drainage or complex defunctioning procedures are not useful in the emergency management of pancreatic injuries, and can be avoided without increasing morbidity. Unstable patients may require initial damage control before later definitive surgery. Successful treatment of complex injuries of the head of the pancreas depends largely on initial correct assessment and appropriate treatment. The management of these severe proximal pancreatic injuries remains one of the most difficult challenges in abdominal trauma surgery, and optimal results are most likely to be obtained by an experienced multidisciplinary team.

  10. The epidemiology of injuries in contact flag football.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Yonatan; Myklebust, Grethe; Nyska, Meir; Palmanovich, Ezequiel; Victor, Jan; Witvrouw, Erik

    2013-01-01

    To characterize the epidemiology of injuries in post-high school male and female athletes in the rapidly growing international sport of contact flag football. Prospective injury-observational study. Kraft Stadium, Jerusalem, Israel. A total of 1492 players, consisting of men (n = 1252, mean age, 20.49 ± 5.11) and women (n = 240, mean age, 21.32 ± 8.95 years), participated in 1028 games over a 2-season period (2007-2009). All time-loss injuries sustained in game sessions were recorded by the off-the-field medical personnel and followed up by a more detailed phone injury surveillance questionnaire. One hundred sixty-three injuries were reported, comprising 1 533 776 athletic exposures (AEs). The incidence rate was 0.11 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.09-0.12] per 1000 AEs, and incidence proportion was 10.66% (95% CI, 9.10-12.22). Seventy-six percent of the injuries were extrinsic in nature. Thirty percent of the injuries were to the fingers, thumb, and wrist, 17% to the knee, 17% to the head/face, 13% to the ankle, and 11% to the shoulder. Contact flag football results in a significant amount of moderate to severe injuries. These data may be used in the development of a formal American flag football injury database and in the development and implementation of a high-quality, randomized, prospective injury prevention study. This study should include the enforcement of the no-pocket rule, appropriate headgear, self-fitting mouth guards, the use of ankle braces, and changing the blocking rules of the game.

  11. Morel-Lavallee Lesion: Case Report with Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Padmanabhan, Elamparidhi; Rudrappa, Ramesh Kumar; Bhavishya, Talluri; Rajakumar, Sibhithran; Selvakkalanjiyam, Sivaranjinie

    2017-07-01

    Morel-Lavallee lesions are closed degloving soft tissue injuries which occur because of trauma and in which the skin and subcutaneous tissue are separated from superficial fascia. This shear trauma results in creation of a potential space filled with serosanguinous fluid, blood and necrotic fat. We discuss a case of 52-year-old female with history of trauma one week back, who presented with a boggy swelling over the postero-lateral aspect of proximal forearm and distal arm. Local examination showed fluctuating fluid collection. MRI showed variable intensity fluid collection in a potential space between the subcutaneous tissue and deep fascia in arm and forearm. Percutaneous decompression and evacuation of the collection with systemic antibiotic therapy resulted in rapid improvement.

  12. Can a Morel-Lavallée lesion be misdiagnosed as a mass like lesion?

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoon Jae; Kim, Jun Hyeok; Kim, Ji Young; Han, Hyun Ho

    2017-12-01

    The Morel-Lavallée lesion (MLL) is a post-traumatic closed soft tissue degloving injury. Common complaints of MLL patients are a haematoma or fluid collection on the trunk or the lower extremity. However, the authors introduce unique cases of MLL that present an atypical appearance. The fluid collection was not apparent, and the capsule formation was not detected on preoperative image study. The main complaint of patients was the uncomfortable mass-like lesion that was regarded as a simple benign lump. The purpose of this case study is to introduce the atypical cases of MLL and to help other physicians make accurate diagnosis based on trial and error of our cases. © 2017 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The injury List of All Deficits (LOAD) Framework--conceptualizing the full range of deficits and adverse outcomes following injury and violence.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Ronan A; Finch, Caroline F; McClure, Rod; van Beeck, Ed; Macey, Steven

    2010-09-01

    Over recent years, there has been increasing recognition that the burden of injuries and violence includes more than just the direct and indirect monetary costs associated with their medical outcomes. However, quantification of the total burden has been seriously hampered by lack of a framework for considering the range of outcomes which comprise the burden, poor identification of the outcomes and their imprecise measurement. This article proposes a new conceptual framework, the List of All Deficits (or LOAD) Framework, that has been developed from extensive expert discussion and consensus meetings to facilitate the measurement of the full burden of injuries and violence. The LOAD Framework recognises the multidimensional nature of injury burden across individual, family and societal domains. This classification of potential consequences of injury was built on the International Classification of Functioning concept of disability. Examples of empirical support for each consequence were obtained from the scientific literature. Determining the multidimensional injury burden requires the assessment and combination of 20 domains of potential consequences. The resulting LOAD Framework classification and concept diagram describes 12 groups of injury consequences for individuals, three for family and close friends and five for wider society. Understanding the extent of the negative implications (or deficits) of injury, through application of the LOAD Framework, is needed to put existing burden of injury studies into context and to highlight the inter-relationship between the direct and indirect burden of injury relative to other conditions.

  14. Reconstruction after complex facial trauma: achieving optimal outcome through multiple contemporary surgeries.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Rohit; Pu, Lee L Q

    2013-04-01

    Major facial trauma injuries often require complex repair. Traditionally, the reconstruction of such injuries has primarily utilized only free tissue transfer. However, the advent of newer, contemporary procedures may lead to potential reconstructive improvement through the use of complementary procedures after free flap reconstruction. An 18-year-old male patient suffered a major left facial degloving injury resulting in soft-tissue defect with exposed zygoma, and parietal bone. Multiple operations were undertaken in a staged manner for reconstruction. A state-of-the-art free anterolateral thigh (ALT) perforator flap and Medpor implant reconstruction of the midface were initially performed, followed by flap debulking, lateral canthopexy, midface lift with redo canthopexy, scalp tissue expansion for hairline reconstruction, and epidermal skin grafting for optimal skin color matching. Over a follow-up period of 2 years, a good and impressive reconstructive result was achieved through the use of multiple contemporary reconstructive procedures following an excellent free ALT flap reconstruction. Multiple staged reconstructions are essential in producing an optimal outcome in this complex facial injury that would likely not have been produced through a 1-stage traditional free flap reconstruction. Utilizing multiple, sequential contemporary surgeries may substantially improve outcome through the enhancement and refinement of results based on possibly the best initial soft-tissue reconstruction.

  15. Craniomaxillofacial falling bullet injuries and management.

    PubMed

    Shuker, Sabri T; Sadda, Raid

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to bring attention to craniocerebral maxillofacial perforating/penetrating injuries due to AK-47 Kalashnikov falling bullets (FBs); these dangerous injuries to both civilians and soldiers are rare. A review of the literature shows no reports on AK-47 FBs leading to double craniocerebral perforation and settling into the maxillofacial region. The number of victims, the AK-47's availability, the associated morbidity and mortality rates, and the rarity of cases prompted this article. The treatment of injuries to the craniocerebral facial clinical profile due to FBs is challenging, and an understanding of the neurosurgical and maxillofacial management of these low-velocity FB injuries is required. We treated 11 cases due to AK-47 rifle FBs and 1 due to anti-aircraft Dashka 12.7-mm FBs. Craniocerebral facial injuries were treated and lodged bullets removed from different challenging locations in the base of the skull, without increasing morbidity and with avoidance of unnecessary surgical trauma to the affected area by the bullets. The required identification of such injuries can be difficult, and the removal of the lodged bullet to prevent secondary complications and reduce the chance of secondary infection can be graver than in other parts of the body. AK-47 FBs are a major public health concern internationally and require serious attention in terms of protection and management for civilians and soldiers in uniform. Copyright 2010 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. EMU Shoulder Injury Tiger Team Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David R.; Johnson, Brian J.

    2003-01-01

    The number and complexity of extravehicular activities required for the completion and maintenance of the International Space Station is unprecedented. It is not surprising that training to perform these space walks presents a risk of overuse musculoskeletal injuries. The goal of this tiger team, created in December 2002, was to identify the different factors contributing to the risk of EVA training-related shoulder injury in the Neutral Buoyancy Lab at the Sonny Carter Training Facility and to make recommendations that would either significantly reduce or eliminate those risks. Since 1999, concerns have been expressed about the risk of shoulder injury associated with EVA training at the NBL, particularly in inverted body positions (McMonigal, 1999). A survey was developed and administered to 42 astronauts and astronaut candidates; the results suggest a causal relationship between EVA training at the NBL and the observed injuries. Also, during the tiger team review, it became evident that training in the extravehicular mobility unit may also result in other types of injuries, including fingernail delamination, elbow pain, knee pain, foot pain, and nerve compression leading to transient loss of sensation in certain areas of the upper or lower extremity. A multi-directorate team to detect, evaluate and respond to the medical issues associated with EVA training should be implemented immediately and given the appropriate resources and authority to reduce the risk of injury to crew during training to a level as low as reasonably achievable.

  17. [Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of severe traumatic brain injury. Part 2. Intensive care and neuromonitoring].

    PubMed

    Potapov, A A; Krylov, V V; Gavrilov, A G; Kravchuk, A D; Likhterman, L B; Petrikov, S S; Talypov, A E; Zakharova, N E; Oshorov, A V; Sychev, A A; Alexandrova, E V; Solodov, A A

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the major causes of death and disability in young and middle-aged people. The most problematic group is comprised of patients with severe TBI who are in a coma. The adequate diagnosis of primary brain injuries and timely prevention and treatment of the secondary injury mechanisms largely define the possibility of reducing mortality and severe disabling consequences. When developing these guidelines, we used our experience in the development of international and national recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of mild traumatic brain injury, penetrating gunshot wounds to the skull and brain, severe traumatic brain injury, and severe consequences of brain injuries, including a vegetative state. In addition, we used international and national guidelines for the diagnosis, intensive care, and surgical treatment of severe traumatic brain injury, which had been published in recent years. The proposed guidelines concern intensive care of severe TBI in adults and are particularly intended for neurosurgeons, neurologists, neuroradiologists, anesthesiologists, and intensivists who are routinely involved in the treatment of these patients.

  18. Forecasting impact injuries of unrestrained occupants in railway vehicle passenger compartments.

    PubMed

    Xie, Suchao; Zhou, Hui

    2014-01-01

    In order to predict the injury parameters of the occupants corresponding to different experimental parameters and to determine impact injury indices conveniently and efficiently, a model forecasting occupant impact injury was established in this work. The work was based on finite experimental observation values obtained by numerical simulation. First, the various factors influencing the impact injuries caused by the interaction between unrestrained occupants and the compartment's internal structures were collated and the most vulnerable regions of the occupant's body were analyzed. Then, the forecast model was set up based on a genetic algorithm-back propagation (GA-BP) hybrid algorithm, which unified the individual characteristics of the back propagation-artificial neural network (BP-ANN) model and the genetic algorithm (GA). The model was well suited to studies of occupant impact injuries and allowed multiple-parameter forecasts of the occupant impact injuries to be realized assuming values for various influencing factors. Finally, the forecast results for three types of secondary collision were analyzed using forecasting accuracy evaluation methods. All of the results showed the ideal accuracy of the forecast model. When an occupant faced a table, the relative errors between the predicted and experimental values of the respective injury parameters were kept within ± 6.0 percent and the average relative error (ARE) values did not exceed 3.0 percent. When an occupant faced a seat, the relative errors between the predicted and experimental values of the respective injury parameters were kept within ± 5.2 percent and the ARE values did not exceed 3.1 percent. When the occupant faced another occupant, the relative errors between the predicted and experimental values of the respective injury parameters were kept within ± 6.3 percent and the ARE values did not exceed 3.8 percent. The injury forecast model established in this article reduced repeat experiment times

  19. Medial collateral ligament injuries and subsequent load on the anterior cruciate ligament: a biomechanical evaluation in a cadaveric model.

    PubMed

    Battaglia, Michael J; Lenhoff, Mark W; Ehteshami, John R; Lyman, Stephen; Provencher, Matthew T; Wickiewicz, Thomas L; Warren, Russell F

    2009-02-01

    Numerous studies have documented the effect of complete medial collateral ligament injury on anterior cruciate ligament loads; few have addressed how partial medial collateral ligament disruption affects knee kinematics. To determine knee kinematics and subsequent change in anterior cruciate ligament load in a partial and complete medial collateral ligament injury model. Controlled laboratory study. Ten human cadaveric knees were sequentially tested by a robot with the medial collateral ligament intact, in a partial injury model, and in a complete injury model with a universal force-moment sensor measuring system. Tibial translation, rotation, and anterior cruciate ligament load were measured under 3 conditions: anterior load (125 N), valgus load (10 N x m), and internal-external rotation torque (4 N x m; all at 0 degrees and 30 degrees of flexion). Anterior and posterior translation did not statistically increase with a partial or complete medial collateral ligament injury at 0 degrees and 30 degrees of flexion. In response to a 125 N anterior load, at 0 degrees , the anterior cruciate ligament load increased 8.7% (from 99.5 to 108.2 N; P = .006) in the partial injury and 18.3% (117.7 N; P < .001) in the complete injury; at 30 degrees , anterior cruciate ligament load was increased 12.3% (from 101.7 to 114.2 N; P = .001) in the partial injury and 20.6% (122.7 N; P < .001) in the complete injury. In response to valgus torque (10 N x m) at 30 degrees , anterior cruciate ligament load was increased 55.3% (30.4 to 47.2 N; P = .044) in the partial injury model and 185% (86.8 N; P = .001) in the complete injury model. In response to internal rotation torque (4 N.m) at 30 degrees , anterior cruciate ligament load was increased 29.3% (27.6 to 35.7 N; P = .001) in the partial injury model and 65.2% (45.6 N; P < .001) in the complete injury model. The amount of internal rotation at 30 degrees of flexion was significantly increased in the complete injury model (22.8 degrees

  20. A systematic review of military head injuries.

    PubMed

    Carr, Debra J; Lewis, E; Horsfall, I

    2017-02-01

    This commissioned review discusses military head injuries caused by non-ballistic impacts, penetrating fragments and bullets (including parts of bullets) and behind helmet blunt trauma (BHBT). A systematic review of the literature was conducted using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses method. The openly accessible literature was reviewed to investigate military head injuries and their severity. Fifty-four sources were identified that included pertinent openly accessible information relevant to this topic. Limited injury data exist for non-ballistic head injuries for UK forces, although some international data exist for parachutists. The majority of fatal head injuries are due to projectiles penetrating through the face rather than through the area of the head covered by the helmet. Penetrating head injuries are primarily caused by fragments, but helmets are more commonly perforated by high-energy rifle bullets than by fragments. No reports of a BHBT injury have been located in the literature. The description of body segment varies among articles and this makes comparisons among datasets difficult. There is a lack of detail regarding the precise position and severity of injuries, and long-term outcome for casualties. It is demonstrated that wearing military helmets reduces fatalities on and off the battlefield. The risk of BHBT injuries is widely referred to, but evidence of their occurrence is not provided by the authors that describe the risk of BHBT occurring. Further research into the causes and severity of head injuries would be useful for designers of military helmets and other associated personal protective equipment, particularly as advances in materials technology means lighter, thinner and more protective helmets are achievable. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. Injury deaths among Finnish residents travelling abroad.

    PubMed

    Lunetta, Philippe

    2010-09-01

    The increasing international mobility raises the possibility of foreign nationals dying abroad. Here, a descriptive, retrospective and population-based study of deaths abroad among Finnish residents from 1969 to 2007 is presented. The data were collected from the Statistics Finland data based on certificates of cause of death issued after repatriation of the corpse and after review of medical documents or a medico-legal autopsy. The frequency of injury deaths, proportional mortality rates (PMRs) and mortality risk estimates (MREs) were measured. During the study period, 6894 Finnish residents died abroad. Spain, Sweden and Thailand were the top three destination countries for number of deaths, accounting together for 40.3% of all the deaths. Cardiovascular diseases were the most common cause of deaths. The overall injury deaths represented 26.7% of all deaths abroad and occurred at a higher proportion than in Finland (PMR: 3.3). The most common injury deaths were traffic accident and drowning, which together represented more than 50% of all unintentional injury deaths. High PMRs were found for traffic accidents in Russia, Germany and the US and for drowning in Spain, Portugal, Greece and Turkey. The MRE for injury deaths was 73.5 per 100,000 person-years of exposure. Finnish travellers abroad are a population subgroup with a high risk of injury death. Common travel health interventions must be backed by actions to prevent injuries abroad, particularly traffic accident and drowning.

  2. Injury surveillance in construction: eye injuries.

    PubMed

    Welch, L S; Hunting, K L; Mawudeku, A

    2001-07-01

    Occupational eye injuries are both common and preventable. About 20% of occupational eye injuries occur in construction. To investigate the nature of eye injuries among construction workers, we analyzed a large data set of construction worker injuries. In addition, we interviewed 62 workers with eye injuries to further explore circumstances of eye injury and workers' attitudes and behavior toward the use of eye protection. Eleven percent (363 cases) of the 3,390 construction workers in our data set were treated for eye injuries. Welders, plumbers, insulators, painters/glaziers, supervisors, and electricians had a higher proportion of all injuries due to eye injuries than other trades. Nearly half of the diagnoses were abrasions (46%) followed by foreign objects or splash in the eye (29%), conjunctivitis (10%), and burns (5%). In the interviews with 62 workers, we found that employers very frequently required eye protection for all tasks or for high-risk tasks, and workers report wearing eye protection regularly. However, most did not wear eye protection with top and side shields; if we believe the injuries occurred because a particle or liquid passed between the glasses and the workers' faces, increased use of goggles or full shields would have prevented two-thirds of this group of injuries.

  3. Head injuries presenting to emergency departments in the United States from 1990 to 1999 for ice hockey, soccer, and football.

    PubMed

    Delaney, J Scott

    2004-03-01

    To examine the number and rates of head injuries occurring in the community as a whole for the team sports of ice hockey, soccer, and football by analyzing data from patients presenting to US emergency departments (EDs) from 1990 to 1999. Retrospective analysis. Data compiled for the US Consumer Product Safety Commission using the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System were used to generate estimates for the total number of head injuries, concussions, internal head injuries, and skull fractures occurring on a national level from the years 1990 to 1999. These data were combined with yearly participation figures to generate rates of injuries presenting to the ED for each sport. There were an estimated 17,008 head injuries from ice hockey, 86,697 from soccer, and 204,802 from football that presented to US EDs from 1990 to 1999. The total number of concussions presenting to EDs in the United States over the same period was estimated to be 4820 from ice hockey, 21,715 from soccer, and 68,861 from football. While the rates of head injuries, concussions, and combined concussions/internal head injuries/skull fractures presenting to EDs per 10,000 players were not always statistically similar for all 3 sports in each year data were available, they were usually comparable. While the total numbers of head injuries, concussions, and combined concussions/skull fractures/internal head injuries presenting to EDs in the United States are different for ice hockey, soccer, and football for the years studied, the yearly rates for these injuries are comparable among all 3 sports.

  4. Risk Factors for Knee Injury in Golf: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Baker, Matthew L; Epari, Devakar R; Lorenzetti, Silvio; Sayers, Mark; Boutellier, Urs; Taylor, William R

    2017-12-01

    Golf is commonly considered a low-impact sport that carries little risk of injury to the knee and is generally allowed following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Kinematic and kinetic studies of the golf swing have reported results relevant to the knee, but consensus as to the loads experienced during a swing and how the biomechanics of an individual's technique may expose the knee to risk of injury is lacking. Our objective was to establish (1) the prevalence of knee injury resulting from participation in golf and (2) the risk factors for knee injury from a biomechanical perspective, based on an improved understanding of the internal loading conditions and kinematics that occur in the knee from the time of addressing the ball to the end of the follow-through. A systematic literature search was conducted to determine the injury rate, kinematic patterns, loading, and muscle activity of the knee during golf. A knee injury prevalence of 3-18% was established among both professional and amateur players, with no clear dependence on skill level or sex; however, older players appear at greater risk of injury. Studies reporting kinematics indicate that the lead knee is exposed to a complex series of motions involving rapid extension and large magnitudes of tibial internal rotation, conditions that may pose risks to the structures of a natural knee or TKA. To date, the loads experienced by the lead knee during a golf swing have been reported inconsistently in the literature. Compressive loads ranging from 100 to 440% bodyweight have been calculated and measured using methods including inverse dynamics analysis and instrumented knee implants. Additionally, the magnitude of loading appears to be independent of the club used. This review is the first to highlight the lack of consensus regarding knee loading during the golf swing and the associated risks of injury. Results from the literature suggest the lead knee is subject to a higher magnitude of stress and more demanding

  5. Outcomes of internal fixation in a combat environment.

    PubMed

    Stinner, Daniel J; Keeney, James A; Hsu, Joseph R; Rush, Jeremy K; Cho, Mickey S; Wenke, Joseph C; Ficke, James R

    2010-01-01

    Due to the nature of the wounds and environment, internal fixation in battlefield treatment facilities is discouraged despite the lack of data. The purpose of this review is to describe the outcomes of fractures that were internally fixed in the combat environment. The records of patients who had internal fixation performed in the theater of combat operations were reviewed. Demographics, injury characteristics, procedure history, and outcomes were recorded and analyzed. Forty-seven patients had internal fixation performed on 50 fractures in a combat theater hospital. Hip, forearm, and ankle fractures made up the majority of cases with 14 (28%), 14 (28%), and 10 (20%), respectively. Sixteen (32%) fractures were open. The average Injury Severity Score was 11.4 +/- 1.1 (range, 4-34). Thirty-nine fractures (78%) healed without incidence. There was one (2%) infection and one (2%) acute surgical complication. Ten (20%) fractures, including the one infection, required additional procedures. Because internal fixation in the combat environment was used judiciously, complications were not higher than previously reported.

  6. Descriptive Epidemiology of Collegiate Men's Football Injuries: National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System, 1988–1989 Through 2003–2004

    PubMed Central

    Dick, Randall; Ferrara, Michael S; Agel, Julie; Courson, Ron; Marshall, Stephen W; Hanley, Michael J; Reifsteck, Fred

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To review 16 years of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) injury surveillance data for men's football and identify potential areas for injury prevention initiatives. Background: Football is a high-velocity collision sport in which injuries are expected. Football tends to have one of the highest injury rates in sports. Epidemiologic data helps certified athletic trainers and other clinicians identify injury trends and patterns to appropriately design and institute injury prevention protocols and then measure their effects. Main Results: During the 16-year reporting period, about 19% of the Division I, II, and III NCAA institutions sponsoring football participated in the Injury Surveillance System. The results from the 16-year study period show little variation in the injury rates over time: games averaged 36 injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures (A-Es); fall practice, approximately 4 injuries per 1000 A-Es; and spring practice, about 10 injuries per 1000 A-Es. The game injury rate was more than 9 times higher than the in-season practice injury rate (35.90 versus 3.80 injuries per 1000 A-Es, rate ratio = 9.1, 95% confidence interval = 9.0, 9.2), and the spring practice injury rate was more than 2 times higher than the fall practice injury rate (9.62 versus 3.80 injuries per 1000 A-Es, rate ratio = 2.5, 95% confidence interval = 2.5, 2.6). The rate ratio for games versus fall practices was greatest for upper leg contusions (18.1 per 1000 A-Es), acromioclavicular joint sprains (14.0 per 1000 A-Es), knee internal derangements (13.4 per 1000 A-Es), ankle ligament sprains (12.0 per 1000 A-Es), and concussions (11.1 per 1000 A-Es). Recommendations: Football is a complex sport that requires a range of skills performed by athletes with a wide variety of body shapes and types. Injury risks are greatest during games. Thus, injury prevention measures should focus on position-specific activities to reduce the injury rate. As equipment technology improves for

  7. Elbow injuries at the London 2012 Summer Olympic Games: demographics and pictorial imaging review.

    PubMed

    Bethapudi, Sarath; Robinson, Philip; Engebretsen, Lars; Budgett, Richard; Vanhegan, Ivor S; O'Connor, Philip

    2013-09-01

    Elbow injuries in Olympic sports and their imaging findings have not been described previously. The main objective of this article is to analyze the demographic data on imaging of elbow injuries at the London 2012 Summer Olympic Games and to review the spectrum of imaging findings. Elbow injuries were seen in a wide variety of sports. Judo and weight-lifting contributed nearly half of all injuries, with only a surprisingly small number of injuries seen in throwing athletes. Knowledge of elbow anatomy coupled with awareness of types of elbow injuries and their prevalence in various sports will contribute toward improving diagnostic accuracy, handling of workload, and overall provision of services at similar major international sporting events in the future.

  8. Injury Characteristics of Low-Energy Lisfranc Injuries Compared With High-Energy Injuries.

    PubMed

    Renninger, Christopher H; Cochran, Grant; Tompane, Trevor; Bellamy, Joseph; Kuhn, Kevin

    2017-09-01

    Lisfranc injuries result from high- and low-energy mechanisms though the literature has been more focused on high-energy mechanisms. A comparison of high-energy (HE) and low-energy (LE) injury patterns is lacking. The objective of this study was to report injury patterns in LE Lisfranc joint injuries and compare them to HE injury patterns. Operative Lisfranc injuries were identified over a 5-year period. Patient demographics, mechanism of injury, injury pattern, associated injuries, missed diagnoses, clinical course, and imaging studies were reviewed and compared. HE mechanism was defined as motor vehicle crash, motorcycle crash, direct crush, and fall from greater than 4 feet and LE mechanism as athletic activity, ground level twisting, or fall from less than 4 feet. Thirty-two HE and 48 LE cases were identified with 19.3 months of average follow-up. There were no differences in demographics or missed diagnosis frequency (21% HE vs 18% LE). Time to seek care was not significantly different. HE injuries were more likely to have concomitant nonfoot fractures (37% vs 6%), concomitant foot fractures (78% vs 4%), cuboid fractures (31% vs 6%), metatarsal base fractures (84% vs 29%), displaced intra-articular fractures (59% vs 4%), and involvement of all 5 rays (23% vs 6%). LE injuries were more commonly ligamentous (68% vs 16%), with fewer rays involved (2.7 vs 4.1). LE mechanisms were a more common cause of Lisfranc joint injury in this cohort. These mechanisms generally resulted in an isolated, primarily ligamentous injury sparing the lateral column. Both types had high rates of missed injury that could result in delayed treatment. Differences in injury patterns could help direct future research to optimize treatment algorithms. Level III, comparative series.

  9. Descriptive Epidemiology of Collegiate Women's Lacrosse Injuries: National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System, 1988–1989 Through 2003–2004

    PubMed Central

    Dick, Randall; Lincoln, Andrew E; Agel, Julie; Carter, Elizabeth A; Marshall, Stephen W; Hinton, Richard Y

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To review 16 years of National Collegiate Athletic Association injury surveillance data for women's lacrosse and identify potential areas for injury prevention initiatives. Background: Women's lacrosse is a fast-paced, primarily noncontact sport. Participation in collegiate women's lacrosse almost doubled between the 1988–1989 and 2003–2004 seasons. Lacrosse equipment consists of sticks made of wood or a synthetic material and a hard rubber ball. Until recently, mouth guards were the only required protective equipment. Main Results: Collegiate women's lacrosse game injury rates increased over the 16-year study period. More than 60% of all severe game injuries were lower extremity sprains and strains and knee internal derangements, most frequently the result of noncontact incidents. The most common injury scenarios by injury mechanism and player activity were no contact while ball handling (16.4%) and contact from a stick while ball handling (10.5%). Contact from a stick or a ball accounted for 5.6% and 5.2% of injuries sustained during shooting activities, respectively. Approximately 22% of all game and 12% of all practice injuries involved the head and neck. Contact from a stick accounted for the majority (56.0%) of above-the-neck injuries in games; contact from the ball accounted for 20.0% of these injuries. Participants had 5 times the risk of sustaining a concussion in a game as in a practice (0.70 versus 0.15 injuries per 1000 athletic-exposures, rate ratio = 4.7, 95% confidence interval = 3.8, 6.5). Recommendations: To reduce the lower extremity injuries that comprise the greatest injury burden in women's lacrosse, future researchers should evaluate proprioceptive, plyometric, and balance training interventions designed specifically for female players. Other research areas of great interest involve determining whether protective eyewear (mandated in 2004) reduces injuries to the eye, orbit, and nasal area and identifying any unintended

  10. An examination of the frequency and severity of injuries and incidents at three levels of professional football

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, R. D.; Fuller, C. W.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of injury to professional footballers during European international and English Premier and First Division league matches. METHODS: Videotaped recordings of 29, 49, and 93 matches from the 1996 European Championship, 1996/1997 English Premier season and 1994 to 1997 English First Division seasons respectively were analysed. During each match, several relevant variables, including the number of fouls, injuries, time of incident, player identity, and injury mechanism, were recorded. RESULTS: Significantly more free kicks were awarded during international matches than during league matches; however, there were no significant differences between the numbers of free kicks awarded over the three First Division seasons assessed. Between 1.7 and 3.0% of fouls resulted in a player requiring treatment for injury, but only 15-28% of all injuries resulted from foul play. In all "non-foul" situations, in which injury resulted, at least 60% still involved player to player contact. No significant differences in injury frequency were observed between playing positions or match halves. CONCLUSIONS: The results equate to a total of 808 players per season from the estimated 2600 players in the four English professional football leagues sustaining a match injury that caused them to miss at least one game. The large number of underlying "non-injury" incidents is identified as the reason for this level of injury rather than a higher ratio of "injury" to "non-injury" incidents in professional football compared with other occupations. 


 PMID:9865406

  11. Can child injury prevention include healthy risk promotion?

    PubMed Central

    Brussoni, Mariana; Brunelle, Sara; Pike, Ian; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Herrington, Susan; Turner, Heather; Belair, Scott; Logan, Louise; Fuselli, Pamela; Ball, David J

    2015-01-01

    To reflect on the role of risk-taking and risky play in child development and consider recommendations for the injury prevention field, a symposium was held prior to the November 2013 Canadian Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion Conference. Delegates heard from Canadian and international researchers, practitioners and play safety experts on child development, play space design and playground safety, provision of recreation, and legal and societal perceptions of risk and hazard. The presenters provided multidisciplinary evidence and perspectives indicating the potential negative effect on children's development of approaches to injury prevention that prioritise safety and limit children's opportunities for risky play. Delegates considered the state of the field of injury prevention and whether alternative approaches were warranted. Each presenter prepared a discussion paper to provide the opportunity for dialogue beyond attendees at the symposium. The resulting discussion papers provide a unique opportunity to consider and learn from multiple perspectives in order to develop a path forward. PMID:25535208

  12. Suicide bombers form a new injury profile.

    PubMed

    Aharonson-Daniel, Limor; Klein, Yoram; Peleg, Kobi

    2006-12-01

    Recent explosions of suicide bombers introduced new and unique profiles of injury. Explosives frequently included small metal parts, increasing severity of injuries, challenging both physicians and healthcare systems. Timely detonation in crowded and confined spaces further increased explosion effect. Israel National Trauma Registry data on hospitalized terror casualties between October 1, 2000 and December 31, 2004 were analyzed. A total of 1155 patients injured by explosion were studied. Nearly 30% suffered severe to critical injuries (ISS > or = 16); severe injuries (AIS > or = 3) were more prevalent than in other trauma. Triage has changed as metal parts contained in bombs penetrate the human body with great force and may result in tiny entry wounds easily concealed by hair, clothes etc. A total of 36.6% had a computed tomography (CT), 26.8% had ultrasound scanning, and 53.2% had an x-ray in the emergency department. From the emergency department, 28.3% went directly to the operating room, 10.1% to the intensive care unit, and 58.4% directly to the ward. Injuries were mostly internal, open wounds, and burns, with an excess of injuries to nerves and to blood vessels compared with other trauma mechanisms. A high rate of surgical procedures was recorded, including thoracotomies, laparotomies, craniotomies, and vascular surgery. In certain cases, there were simultaneous multiple injuries that required competing forms of treatment, such as burns and blast lung. Bombs containing metal fragments detonated by suicide bombers in crowded locations change patterns and severity of injury in a civil population. Specific injuries will require tailored approaches, an open mind, and close collaboration and cooperation between trauma surgeons to share experience, opinions, and ideas. Findings presented have implications for triage, diagnosis, treatment, hospital organization, and the definition of surge capacity.

  13. Biomechanical analysis of ankle ligamentous sprain injury cases from televised basketball games: Understanding when, how and why ligament failure occurs.

    PubMed

    Panagiotakis, Emmanouil; Mok, Kam-Ming; Fong, Daniel Tik-Pui; Bull, Anthony M J

    2017-12-01

    Ankle sprains due to landing on an opponent's foot are common in basketball. There is no analysis to date that provides a quantification of this injury mechanism. The aim of this study was to quantify the kinematics of this specific injury mechanism and relate this to lateral ankle ligament biomechanics. Case series. The model-based image-matching technique was used to quantify calcaneo-fibular-talar kinematics during four ankle inversion sprain injury incidents in televised NBA basketball games. The four incidents follow the same injury pattern in which the players of interest step onto an opponent's foot with significant inversion and a diagnosed ankle injury. A geometric analysis was performed to calculate the in vivo ligament strains and strain rates for the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) and the calcaneofibular ligament (CFL). Despite the controlled selection of cases, the results show that there are two distinct injury mechanisms: sudden inversion and internal rotation with low levels of plantarflexion; and a similar mechanism without internal rotation. The first of these mechanisms results in high ATFL and CFL strains, whereas the second of these strains the CFL in isolation. The injury mechanism combined with measures of the ligament injury in terms of percentage of strain to failure correlate directly with the severity of the injury quantified by return-to-sport. The opportunity to control excessive internal rotation through proprioceptive training and/or prophylactic footwear or bracing could be utilised to reduce the severity of common ankle injuries in basketball. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pectoralis Major Injury During Basic Airborne Training.

    PubMed

    McIntire, Sean; Boujie, Lee; Leasiolagi, John

    2016-01-01

    Injuries involving rupture of the pectoralis major are relatively rare. When they do occur, it is mostly frequently in a young, athletic man. The most common cause is weight lifting that results in eccentric muscle contraction (muscle contraction against an overbearing force, leading to muscle lengthening)-specifically, the bench press. Other mechanisms for this injury include forceful abduction and external rotation of the arm. Injury can occur anywhere along the pectoralis major from its medial origin on the sternum and clavicle to its lateral tendinous insertion on the humerus. At the time of injury, patients may report feeling a tearing sensation or hearing a pop, with immediate onset of pain. Physical examination findings can include a deformed appearance of the chest, ecchymosis of the chest and upper arm, pain and weakness with arm adduction and internal rotation, or noticeable asymmetry of the anterior axilla with arm abduction. Magnetic resonance imaging is the imaging study of choice to aid diagnosis. In a young and active population, such as the Special Operations community, appropriate and timely diagnosis is important because surgical intervention often is recommended. This report presents the case of an active-duty Servicemember who sustained a pectoralis major injury while exiting an aircraft during the Basic Airborne Course. 2016.

  15. Operative management of penetrating carotid artery injuries.

    PubMed

    Reva, V A; Pronchenko, A A; Samokhvalov, I M

    2011-07-01

    To analyse management and outcomes of carotid artery (CA) injuries. Retrospective study of the patients in the combat operations in Chechnya (1999-2002) and in peacetime (2003-2009). A total of 46 patients with missile (27) and stab (19) wounds, who had common and internal CA injury, underwent an open surgery. Temporary shunts (TSs) were placed in eight patients with more severe injuries. Retrospective analysis of patients' data. CA ligation and CA repair were performed in 9 and 37 patients, respectively. Of the nine patients with CA ligation, five developed neurologic deficit; the remaining four patients died (100% of poor outcomes). Of the 37 patients with blood flow restoration, nine patients died and neurologic deficit persisted in two patients (30% of poor outcomes) (p < 0.05). Among patients with TS, three patients died and two had stable neurologic deficit (63% of poor results). Of the patients without TS, 10 patients died and five had neurologic disorders (56% of poor outcomes) (p = 0.53). CA repair is the method of choice in CA injury. TS use does not result in a decreased mortality rate or neurologic deficit reduction in patients with severe injuries. Copyright © 2011 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Child Injury Deaths: Comparing Prevention Information from Two Coding Systems

    PubMed Central

    Schnitzer, Patricia G.; Ewigman, Bernard G.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives The International Classification of Disease (ICD) external cause of injury E-codes do not sufficiently identify injury circumstances amenable to prevention. The researchers developed an alternative classification system (B-codes) that incorporates behavioral and environmental factors, for use in childhood injury research, and compare the two coding systems in this paper. Methods All fatal injuries among children less than age five that occurred between January 1, 1992, and December 31, 1994, were classified using both B-codes and E-codes. Results E-codes identified the most common causes of injury death: homicide (24%), fires (21%), motor vehicle incidents (21%), drowning (10%), and suffocation (9%). The B-codes further revealed that homicides (51%) resulted from the child being shaken or struck by another person; many fires deaths (42%) resulted from children playing with matches or lighters; drownings (46%) usually occurred in natural bodies of water; and most suffocation deaths (68%) occurred in unsafe sleeping arrangements. Conclusions B-codes identify additional information with specific relevance for prevention of childhood injuries. PMID:15944169

  17. A novel approach to enhance ACL injury prevention programs.

    PubMed

    Gokeler, Alli; Seil, Romain; Kerkhoffs, Gino; Verhagen, Evert

    2018-06-18

    Efficacy studies have demonstrated decreased anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury rates for athletes participating in injury prevention programs. Typically, ACL injury prevention programs entail a combination of plyometrics, strength training, agility and balance exercises. Unfortunately, improvements of movement patterns are not sustained over time. The reason may be related to the type of instructions given during training. Encouraging athletes to consciously control knee movements during exercises may not be optimal for the acquisition of complex motor skills as needed in complex sports environments. In the motor learning domain, these types of instructions are defined as an internal attentional focus. An internal focus, on one's own movements results in a more conscious type of control that may hamper motor learning. It has been established in numerous studies that an external focus of attention facilitates motor learning more effectively due to the utilization of automatic motor control. Subsequently, the athlete has more recourses available to anticipate on situations on the field and take appropriate feed forward directed actions. The purpose of this manuscript was to present methods to optimize motor skill acquisition of athletes and elaborate on athletes' behavior.

  18. Descriptive epidemiology of collegiate women's gymnastics injuries: National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System, 1988-1989 through 2003-2004.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Stephen W; Covassin, Tracey; Dick, Randall; Nassar, Lawrence G; Agel, Julie

    2007-01-01

    To review 16 years of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) injury surveillance data for women's gymnastics and identify potential areas for injury prevention initiatives. In the 1988-1989 academic year, 112 schools were sponsoring varsity women's gymnastics teams, with approximately 1550 participants. By 2003-2004, the number of varsity teams had decreased 23% to 86, involving 1380 participants. Significant participation reductions during this time were particularly apparent in Divisions II and III. A significant annual average decrease was noted in competition (-4.0%, P < .01) but not in practice (-1.0%, P = .35) injury rates during the sample period. Over the 16 years, the rate of injury in competition was more than 2 times higher than in practice (15.19 versus 6.07 injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures; rate ratio = 2.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.3, 2.8). A total of 53% of all competition and 69% of all practice injuries were to the lower extremity. A participant was almost 6 times more likely to sustain a knee internal derangement injury in competition than in practice (rate ratio = 5.7, 95% CI = 4.5, 7.3) and almost 3 times more likely to sustain an ankle ligament sprain (rate ratio = 2.7, 95% CI = 2.1, 3.4). The majority of competition injuries (approximately 70%) resulted from either landings in floor exercises or dismounts. Gymnasts with a previous history of ankle sprain should either wear an ankle brace or use prophylactic tape on their ankles to decrease the risk of recurrent injury. Preventive efforts may incorporate more neuromuscular training and core stability programs in the off-season and preseason conditioning to enhance proper landing and skill mechanics. Equipment manufacturers are encouraged to reevaluate the design of the landing mats to allow for better absorption of forces.

  19. Prevention of shoulder injuries in overhead athletes: a science-based approach

    PubMed Central

    Cools, Ann M.; Johansson, Fredrik R.; Borms, Dorien; Maenhout, Annelies

    2015-01-01

    The shoulder is at high risk for injury during overhead sports, in particular in throwing or hitting activities, such as baseball, tennis, handball, and volleyball. In order to create a scientific basis for the prevention of recurrent injuries in overhead athletes, four steps need to be undertaken: (1) risk factors for injury and re-injury need to be defined; (2) established risk factors may be used as return-to-play criteria, with cut-off values based on normative databases; (3) these variables need to be measured using reliable, valid assessment tools and procedures; and (4) preventative training programs need to be designed and implemented into the training program of the athlete in order to prevent re-injury. In general, three risk factors have been defined that may form the basis for recommendations for the prevention of recurrent injury and return to play after injury: glenohumeral internal-rotation deficit (GIRD); rotator cuff strength, in particular the strength of the external rotators; and scapular dyskinesis, in particular scapular position and strength. PMID:26537804

  20. Implementing a sharps injury reduction program at a charity hospital in India.

    PubMed

    Gramling, Joshua J; Nachreiner, Nancy

    2013-08-01

    Health care workers in India are at high risk of developing bloodborne infections from needlestick injuries. Indian hospitals often do not have the resources to invest in safety devices and protective equipment to decrease this risk. In collaboration with hospital staff, the primary author implemented a sharps injury prevention and biomedical waste program at an urban 60-bed charity hospital in northern India. The program aligned with hospital organizational objectives and was designed to be low-cost and sustainable. Occupational health nurses working in international settings or with international workers should be aware of employee and employer knowledge and commitment to occupational health and safety. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Rugby World Cup 2015: World Rugby injury surveillance study.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Colin W; Taylor, Aileen; Kemp, Simon P T; Raftery, Martin

    2017-01-01

    To determine the incidence, severity and nature of injuries sustained during the Rugby World Cup (RWC) 2015 together with the inciting events leading to the injuries. A prospective, whole population study. 639 international rugby players representing 20 countries. The study protocol followed the definitions and procedures recommended in the consensus statement for epidemiological studies in rugby union; output measures included players' age (years), stature (cm), body mass (kg) and playing position, and the group-level incidence (injuries/1000 player-hours), mean and median severity (days-absence), location (%), type (%) and inciting event (%) for match and training injuries. Incidence of injury was 90.1 match injuries/1000 player-match-hours (backs: 100.4; forwards: 81.1) and 1.0 training injuries/1000 player-training-hours (backs: 0.9; forwards: 1.2). The mean severity of injuries was 29.8 days-absence (backs: 30.4; forwards: 29.1) during matches and 14.4 days-absence (backs: 6.3; forwards: 19.8) during training. During matches, head/face (22.0%), knee (16.2%), muscle-strain (23.1%) and ligament-sprain (23.1%) and, during training, lower limb (80.0%) and muscle-strain (60.0%) injuries were the most common locations and types of injury. Being-tackled (24.7%) was the most common inciting event for injury during matches and rugby-skills-contact activities (70.0%) the most common during training. While the incidence, nature and inciting events associated with match injuries at RWC 2015 were similar to those reported previously for RWCs 2007 and 2011, there were increasing trends in the mean severity and total days-absence through injury. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Rugby injuries.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Andrew S

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to review critically the existing studies on the epidemiology of pediatric rugby injuries and discuss suggestions for injury prevention and further research. Data were sourced from the sports medicine and science literature mainly since 1990, and from a prospective injury surveillance project in rugby undertaken by the University of New South Wales (UNSW) in Sydney during 2002. Literature searches were performed using Medline and SportsDiscus. Reported injury rates were between 7 and 18 injuries per 1,000 hours played, with the rate of injuries resulting in loss of playing or training time measured at 6.5-10.6 per 1,000 hours played. Injury rates increased with age and level of qualification. Head injury and concussion accounted for 10-40% of all injuries. In the UNSW study, concussion accounted for 25% of injuries resulting in loss of playing or training time in the under 13 year age group. Upper and lower extremity injuries were equally apportioned, with musculoskeletal injuries being the main type of injury. Fractures were observed in the upper extremity and ankle, and joint/ligament injuries affected the shoulder, knee and ankle. The tackle was associated with around 50% of all injuries. The scrum produced fewer injuries, but is historically associated with spinal cord injury. Rugby is a contact sport with injury risks related to physical contact, primarily in the tackle. Most injuries affect the musculoskeletal system, with the exception of concussion. Spinal cord injury is rare, but catastrophic. Research is required to understand better injury risks and to reduce the incidence of shoulder, knee and ankle joint injuries, concussion and spinal injury.

  3. [Boxing-related cranial injury in children: a case report].

    PubMed

    Timsit, S; Rougeau, T; Grevent, D; Chéron, G

    2012-11-01

    No pediatric recommendations exist in France on the exercise of boxing by children and adolescents despite the risk of traumatic injury, sometimes serious. We report the case of a 15-year-old boy who participated in amateur boxing and had a subdural hematoma. Brain injuries and concussions are frequent and multiple. Severity is not always correlated with the intensity of the blows. There are age-related features. Several international medical organizations oppose boxing for children and adolescents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevalence of injuries in Wushu competition during the 1st Asian Martial Arts Games 2009.

    PubMed

    Yiemsiri, Pichet; Wanawan, Amarin

    2014-02-01

    To determine the prevalence and characteristic of injuries in Wushu Competition during the IP' Asian MartialArts Games 2009. Sixty international athletes (38 males) participating in Wushu Competition during the 1st Asian Martial Arts Games 2009. Injuries were recorded on injury report forms to document any injuries seen and treatment provided by tournament physician during competitions. The injury forms described the athlete s causes, type, site, and severity of the injuries. There were 60 international athletes the average age were 22.49 +/- 3.75 years. The prevalence ofinjuries was 228.07/ 1000 athlete exposure (AE). The prevalence in males andfemales was 161.76/1000 AE and 326.09/1000 AE, respectively. The most common injured body parts in males were lower extremities 102.94/1000 AE, followed by head and face injuries 58.82/1000 AE. The most common injured body parts in females were lower extremities 282.61/1000 AE. The most common types of injuries in males were contusions 58.82/1000 AE, concussion 29.41/1000 AE and strain-sprain 29.41/1000 AE. In females the most common type of injury were contusion 195.65/1000 AEfollowed by strain-sprain 130.43/1000 AE. The most common mechanism of injury in males werereceiving a punch 58.82/1000 AE, receiving a kick 44.12/1000 AE and delivering a kick 44.12/1000 AE. Meanwhile, in females common mechanisms were receiving a kick 152.17/1000 AE followed by delivering a kick 130.43/1000 AE. High prevalence of injuries in Wushu competition during the 1" Asian MartialArts Games 2009 revealedfemale injuries were higher than male and had a higher prevalence compared with Muay Thai or Taekwondo competitions.

  5. Could current factors be associated with retrospective sports injuries in Brazilian jiu-jitsu? A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    das Graças, Dayana; Nakamura, Letícia; Barbosa, Fernando Sérgio Silva; Martinez, Paula Felippe; Reis, Filipe Abdalla; Oliveira-Junior, Silvio Assis de

    2017-01-01

    Brazilian jiu-jitsu is characterized by musculoskeletal disorders and high occurrence of sports injuries. The present study was aimed to analyze some internal factors, as well as to describe occurrence and characteristics of retrospective musculoskeletal injuries in different age groups of Brazilian jiu-jitsu practitioners. One hundred ninety-three Brazilian jiu-jitsu practitioners, which were divided into three age groups: Adolescent, Adult, and Master. Besides anthropometric characterization, standard clinical tests were conducted to analyze the global and segmental joint flexibility, lumbar spine range of motion, and handgrip strength. Sports injury occurrence and total physical activity were obtained from an adapted morbidity survey and International Physical Activity Questionnaire - Short Form (IPAQ-SF), respectively. A total of 247 cases of retrospective injuries was registered (1.27 injury/ participant). Occurrence of rectus femoral muscle retraction in the right leg was increased within Master. Adult and Master have exhibited higher occurrence of sports injuries than Adolescent group ( p  < 0.05). Joint injuries were the most common sports-related injuries by all Brazilian jiu-jitsu practitioners. While female gender and exposure time constituted the most predictive variables for sports injury occurrence in Adolescent, graduation level was more associated with sports injuries occurrence in Adult. Joint injuries derived from combat demands were the main sports injury in all age categories of Brazilian jiu-jitsu. Master subjects presented a higher occurrence of clinical changes and retrospective musculoskeletal injuries in relation to other age groups. Female gender and exposure time constituted the main predictive factors in adolescent subjects, while graduation category was more directly associated with retrospective injury onset in the Adult group.

  6. Spikes in acute workload are associated with increased injury risk in elite cricket fast bowlers.

    PubMed

    Hulin, Billy T; Gabbett, Tim J; Blanch, Peter; Chapman, Paul; Bailey, David; Orchard, John W

    2014-04-01

    To determine if the comparison of acute and chronic workload is associated with increased injury risk in elite cricket fast bowlers. Data were collected from 28 fast bowlers who completed a total of 43 individual seasons over a 6-year period. Workloads were estimated by summarising the total number of balls bowled per week (external workload), and by multiplying the session rating of perceived exertion by the session duration (internal workload). One-week data (acute workload), together with 4-week rolling average data (chronic workload), were calculated for external and internal workloads. The size of the acute workload in relation to the chronic workload provided either a negative or positive training-stress balance. A negative training-stress balance was associated with an increased risk of injury in the week after exposure, for internal workload (relative risk (RR)=2.2 (CI 1.91 to 2.53), p=0.009), and external workload (RR=2.1 (CI 1.81 to 2.44), p=0.01). Fast bowlers with an internal workload training-stress balance of greater than 200% had a RR of injury of 4.5 (CI 3.43 to 5.90, p=0.009) compared with those with a training-stress balance between 50% and 99%. Fast bowlers with an external workload training-stress balance of more than 200% had a RR of injury of 3.3 (CI 1.50 to 7.25, p=0.033) in comparison to fast bowlers with an external workload training-stress balance between 50% and 99%. These findings demonstrate that large increases in acute workload are associated with increased injury risk in elite cricket fast bowlers.

  7. Subjective complaints after acquired brain injury: presentation of the Brain Injury Complaint Questionnaire (BICoQ).

    PubMed

    Vallat-Azouvi, Claire; Paillat, Cyrille; Bercovici, Stéphanie; Morin, Bénédicte; Paquereau, Julie; Charanton, James; Ghout, Idir; Azouvi, Philippe

    2018-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to present a new complaint questionnaire designed to assess a wide range of difficulties commonly reported by patients with acquired brain injury. Patients (n =  619) had been referred to a community re-entry service at a chronic stage after brain injury, mainly traumatic brain injury (TBI). The Brain Injury Complaint Questionnaire (BICoQ) includes 25 questions in the following domains: cognition, behavior, fatigue and sleep, mood, and somatic problems. A self and a proxy questionnaire were given. An additional question was given to the relative, about the patient's awareness of his difficulties. The questionnaires had a good internal coherence, as measured with Cronbach's alpha. The most frequent complaints were, in decreasing order, mental slowness, memory troubles, fatigue, concentration difficulties, anxiety, and dual tasking problems. Principal component analysis with varimax rotation yielded six underlying factors explaining 50.5% of total variance: somatic concerns, cognition, and lack of drive, lack of control, psycholinguistic disorders, mood, and mental fatigue/slowness. About 52% of patients reported fewer complaints than their proxy, suggesting lack of awareness. The total complaint scores were not significantly correlated with any injury severity measure, but were significantly correlated with disability and poorer quality of life (Note: only factor 2 [cognition/lack of drive] was significantly related to disability.) The BICoQ is a simple scale that can be used in addition to traditional clinical and cognitive assessment measures, and to assess awareness of everyday life problems. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Incidence and lifetime costs of injuries in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Corso, P; Finkelstein, E; Miller, T; Fiebelkorn, I; Zaloshnja, E

    2006-01-01

    Background Standardized methodologies for assessing economic burden of injury at the national or international level do not exist. Objective To measure national incidence, medical costs, and productivity losses of medically treated injuries using the most recent data available in the United States, as a case study for similarly developed countries undertaking economic burden analyses. Method The authors combined several data sets to estimate the incidence of fatal and non‐fatal injuries in 2000. They computed unit medical and productivity costs and multiplied these costs by corresponding incidence estimates to yield total lifetime costs of injuries occurring in 2000. Main outcome measures Incidence, medical costs, productivity losses, and total costs for injuries stratified by age group, sex, and mechanism. Results More than 50 million Americans experienced a medically treated injury in 2000, resulting in lifetime costs of $406 billion; $80 billion for medical treatment and $326 billion for lost productivity. Males had a 20% higher rate of injury than females. Injuries resulting from falls or being struck by/against an object accounted for more than 44% of injuries. The rate of medically treated injuries declined by 15% from 1985 to 2000 in the US. For those aged 0–44, the incidence rate of injuries declined by more than 20%; while persons aged 75 and older experienced a 20% increase. Conclusions These national burden estimates provide unequivocal evidence of the large health and financial burden of injuries. This study can serve as a template for other countries or be used in intercountry comparisons. PMID:16887941

  9. Population-based epidemiology of non-fatal injuries in Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Esmatolsadat; Zangi, Mahdi; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Soares, Joaquim; Viitasara, Eija; Mohammadi, Reza

    2018-01-01

    Background: Our aim in this survey was to explore descriptive epidemiology of injuries in Tehran in 2012 and to report the recalled estimates of injury incidence rates. Methods: A population survey was conducted in Tehran during 2012, within which a total of 8626 participants were enrolled. The cluster sampling was used to draw samples in 100 clusters with a pre-specified cluster size of 25 households per cluster. Data were collected on demographic features, accident and injury characteristics based on the International Classification of Diseases (ICD10). Results: A total of 618 injuries per 3 months were reported, within which 597 cases (96.6%)were unintentional injuries. More than 82% of all injuries were those caused by exposure to inanimate mechanical forces, traffic accidents, falls and burns. Above 80% of the traffic injuries happened among men (P<0.001). About 43% of the unintentional injuries were mild injuries.After the age of 40, women, unlike men, had higher risks for being injured. The estimated annual incidence rate for all types of injuries was 284.8 per 1000 (95% CI: 275.4-294.4) and for unintentional injuries was 275.2 per 1000. Conclusion: Injuries are major health problems in Tehran with a highly reported incidence. The status is not substantially improved over the recent years which urges the need to be adequately and emergently addressed. As the incidence rate was estimated based on participant recalls, the real incidence rate may even be higher than those reported in the current study.

  10. [Lightning strikes and lightning injuries in prehospital emergency medicine. Relevance, results, and practical implications].

    PubMed

    Hinkelbein, J; Spelten, O; Wetsch, W A

    2013-01-01

    Up to 32.2% of patients in a burn center suffer from electrical injuries. Of these patients, 2-4% present with lightning injuries. In Germany, approximately 50 people per year are injured by a lightning strike and 3-7 fatally. Typically, people involved in outdoor activities are endangered and affected. A lightning strike usually produces significantly higher energy doses as compared to those in common electrical injuries. Therefore, injury patterns vary significantly. Especially in high voltage injuries and lightning injuries, internal injuries are of special importance. Mortality ranges between 10 and 30% after a lightning strike. Emergency medical treatment is similar to common electrical injuries. Patients with lightning injuries should be transported to a regional or supraregional trauma center. In 15% of all cases multiple people may be injured. Therefore, it is of outstanding importance to create emergency plans and evacuation plans in good time for mass gatherings endangered by possible lightning.

  11. Injuries can be prevented in contact flag football!

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Yonatan; Myklebust, Grethe; Nyska, Meir; Palmanovich, Ezequiel; Victor, J; Witvrouw, E

    2016-06-01

    This original prospective cohort study was conducted in an attempt to significantly reduce the incidence and the severity of injuries in an intervention cohort as compared to a two-season historical cohort, and to provide recommendations to the International Federation of Football (IFAF) pertaining to prevention measures to make the game safer. A total of 1,260 amateur male (mean age: 20.4 ± 3.9 years) and 244 female (mean age: 18.5 ± 1.7 years) players participated in the study. Four prevention measures were implemented: the no-pocket rule, self-fitting mouth guards, ankle braces (for those players with recurrent ankle sprains) and an injury treatment information brochure. All time-loss injuries sustained in game sessions were recorded by the off-the-field medical personnel and followed up by a more detailed phone injury surveillance questionnaire. There was a 54 % reduction in the total number of injuries and a significant reduction in the incidence rate and incidence proportion between the intervention cohorts as compared to the historical cohort (p < 0.001). There was no statistically significant reduction in the number of injuries in any of the body parts, except for in hand/wrist injuries related to the use of pockets (p < 0.001), as well as the severity of mild-moderate injuries (p < 0.05). This study provided evidence that hand/wrist injuries can be significantly reduced in flag football. Recommendations to the IFAF include strict enforcement of the no-pocket rule, the use of soft headgear, comfortable-fitting ankle braces and mouth guards and additionally, to change game rules concerning blocking. II.

  12. Deliberate self-injury functions and their clinical correlates among adolescent psychiatric inpatients.

    PubMed

    Radziwiłłowicz, Wioletta; Lewandowska, Magdalena

    2017-04-30

    The aim of the study was to analyze the relationships between clinical variables (the severity of depression symptoms, feelings towards the body, dissociation, number and type of traumatic events) and deliberate self-injury functions. Moreover, we investigated whether the of group self-mutilating adolescents is internally diverse in terms of how important individual functions of self-mutilation are, and whether the subgroups singled out by these functions differ between each other in terms of clinical variables. The Inventory of Statements about Self-Injury was used. Characterizations of examined individuals and other research tools are included in our previous article (year, issue, pages). Associated with negative feelings towards the body are the functions of self-injuries (anti-dissociation, self-punishment) that can be described as interpersonal. High levels of depression symptoms (self-depreciation included) are mainly associated with the self-injury functions: self-punishment, anti-dissociation, establishing interpersonal boundaries. Affect regulation becomes more important as a function of self-inflicted injuries in cases of biological dysregulation and intense dissociative symptoms. The adolescents psychiatric inpatients are internally diverse in terms of dominant functions of self-injuries, which can be categorized into intra- and interpersonal. Intrapersonal functions dominate when an individual experiences severe depression, dissociative symptoms, and negative feelings towards the body. In cases of moderate intensity of depression, dissociative symptoms and negative feelings towards the body, both intrapersonal and interpersonal functions of self-mutilation are similarly important. Further research is required to explain the lowest severity of depression symptoms, dissociative symptoms and negative feelings towards the body co-occurs with no awareness of self-injuries functions.

  13. Epidemiology of Injuries in Stand-Up Paddle Boarding

    PubMed Central

    Furness, James; Olorunnife, Olayinka; Schram, Ben; Climstein, Mike; Hing, Wayne

    2017-01-01

    Background: Stand-up paddle boarding (SUP) is a recreational activity and sport that has grown exponentially, with participation increasing from 1.1 million in 2010 to 2.8 million in 2014 in the United States alone. Despite this growth in participation, SUP remains underresearched with regard to injury epidemiology. Purpose: To investigate injury epidemiology (severity, location, type, mechanism) in SUP. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: An open-source online survey was administered to active SUP participants internationally. The survey captured information relevant to demographics, participation, and injury history over the past 12 months. Results: Of 240 participants included in the data analysis, 67.1% were males, and 54.6% were involved in competition. Participants spent a mean 192.6 ± 179.5 hours participating in SUP per year, most commonly for fun and fitness (43.3%) at the beach or bay (63.0%). A total of 95 participants had sustained at least 1 injury. A total of 161 injuries were recorded, resulting in an injury rate of 3.63 (95% CI, 3.04-4.16) per 1000 hours of SUP. The shoulder/upper arm was the most frequently injured body location, accounting for 32.9% of all injuries, followed by the lower back (14.3%) and the elbow/forearm (11.8%). The most common injury types were to muscle/tendon (50.4%), joint/ligament (22.6%), and skin (14.2%). Endurance paddling was the most frequently reported mechanism of injury (34.5%), followed by contact with a paddler’s own board (20.1%) and sprint paddling (9.3%). Key risk factors for sustaining an injury were age >46 years, competitive status, and participating for >4.8 hours/week, as well as using SUP for racing. Conclusion: This is the first study to report injury epidemiology for SUP. It is evident that both sexes participate in SUP for fun, fitness, and competition. With regard to injuries, the shoulder, lower back, and elbow are the most injury prone; older age, competitive status, and longer

  14. Computed Tomography (CT) Imaging of Injuries from Blunt Abdominal Trauma: A Pictorial Essay.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Radhiana; Abd Aziz, Azian

    2010-04-01

    Blunt abdominal trauma can cause multiple internal injuries. However, these injuries are often difficult to accurately evaluate, particularly in the presence of more obvious external injuries. Computed tomography (CT) imaging is currently used to assess clinically stable patients with blunt abdominal trauma. CT can provide a rapid and accurate appraisal of the abdominal viscera, retroperitoneum and abdominal wall, as well as a limited assessment of the lower thoracic region and bony pelvis. This paper presents examples of various injuries in trauma patients depicted in abdominal CT images. We hope these images provide a resource for radiologists, surgeons and medical officers, as well as a learning tool for medical students.

  15. Priority issues for pressure injury research: An Australian consensus study.

    PubMed

    Haesler, Emily; Carville, Keryln; Haesler, Paul

    2018-06-08

    Pressure injuries are a significant health concern in all clinical settings. The current body of research on pressure injuries reported in the literature presents primarily low level evidence. The purpose of the current study was to identify and prioritize pressure injury research issues. The approach entailed evidence scoping and implementing a formal consensus process using a modified nominal group technique based on the Research and Development/University of California at Los Angeles appropriateness method. Sixteen Australian pressure injury experts participated in five consensus voting rounds in May to June 2015. From 60 initial research issues, the experts reached agreement that 26 issues are a priority for future pressure injury research. The highest priorities were strategies to assess skin and tissues, appropriate outcome measures for indicators of pressure injury healing and recurrence, heel pressure off-loading and shear reduction strategies, economic cost of pressure injuries and their management and effectiveness of skin moisturizers and barrier products. Developing a prioritized research agenda, informed by clinical and academic pressure injury experts, can assist in reducing the burden of pressure injuries by identifying topics of the highest need for further research. A web-based nominal group voting process was successful in engaging expert decision-making and has wide-reaching international appeal in facilitating cost-effective consensus methodologies. The priority list generated from this research is currently used in Australia to inform government investment in pressure injury research. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The nature and prevalence of injury during CrossFit training.

    PubMed

    Hak, Paul Taro; Hodzovic, Emil; Hickey, Ben

    2013-11-22

    CrossFit is a constantly varied, high intensity, functional movement strength and conditioning program which has seen a huge growth in popularity around the world since its inception twelve years ago. There has been much criticism as to the potential injuries associated with CrossFit training including rhabdomyolysis and musculoskeletal injuries. However to date no evidence exists in the literature to the injures and rates sustained. The purpose of this study was to determine the injury rates and profiles of CrossFit athletes sustained during routine CrossFit training. An online questionnaire was distributed amongst international CrossFit online forums. Data collected included general demographics, training programs, injury profiles and supplement use. A total of 132 responses were collected with 97 (73.5%) having sustained an injury during CrossFit training. A total of 186 injuries were reported with 9 (7.0%) requiring surgical intervention. An injury rate of 3.1 per 1000 hours trained was calculated. No incidences of rhabdomyolysis were reported. Injury rates with CrossFit training are similar to that reported in the literature for sports such as Olympic weight-lifting, power-lifting and gymnastics and lower than competitive contact sports such as rugby union and rugby league. Shoulder and spine injuries predominate with no incidences of rhabdomyolysis obtained. To our knowledge this is the first paper in the literature detailing the injury rates and profiles with CrossFit participation.

  17. The first prospective injury audit of League of Ireland footballers

    PubMed Central

    Fitzharris, Nigel; Jones, Ashley; Francis, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Football has the highest sports participation (10.6%) in Ireland ahead of its Gaelic counterpart (3.9%). Research into injury incidence and patterns in Irish football is non-existent. The aim of this study was to conduct a prospective injury audit of League of Ireland (semiprofessional) footballers during the 2014 season (8 months, 28 games). Methods A total of 140 semiprofessional League of Ireland footballers were prospectively followed between March and November 2014. Data were collected in accordance with the international consensus on football injury epidemiology. Results The injury rate was 9.2/1000 hour exposure to football (95% CI 6.2 to 12.9, p<0.05). Players were at a higher risk of injury during a match compared with training (23.1 (95% CI 15.2 to 31.3) vs 4.8 (95% CI 2.2 to 7.7)/1000 hours, p<0.05). Injuries were most common during non-contact activity (54.6%), mainly running (30.9%), and occurred almost three times more often in the second half (56% vs 21%, p<05). Strains (50.1%) and sprains (20.3%) were the most common injury types, and the thigh region was injured most often (28.3%). Conclusions The prevalence of injury in League of Ireland football is similar to that of European professional football, although the incidence of injury is higher. The incidence of injury is in line with that of Dutch amateur football. PMID:29071112

  18. The Mayo Clinic experience with Morel-Lavallée lesions: establishment of a practice management guideline.

    PubMed

    Nickerson, Terry P; Zielinski, Martin D; Jenkins, Donald H; Schiller, Henry J

    2014-02-01

    Although uncommon, Morel-Lavallée lesions (also called closed degloving injuries) are associated with considerable morbidity in trauma patients. There is lack of consensus regarding proper management of these lesions. Management options include nonoperative therapies, along with percutaneous and operative techniques. We sought to define the factors associated with failure of percutaneous aspiration to better identify patients requiring immediate operative management. We retrospectively searched our prospectively collected database for patient records containing the terms Morel-Lavallée, closed degloving injury, or posttraumatic seroma from February 2, 2004, through December 23, 2011. Treatment methods included compression wraps or observation (nonoperative management), percutaneous aspiration, or operative management with incision/drainage or formal debridement of skin and soft tissues that resulted in wound vacuum-assisted closure placement and/or split-thickness skin graft (operative management). The treatment groups were compared using univariate analysis and χ testing. We identified 79 patients with 87 Morel-Lavallée lesions in the setting of trauma. Most were caused by motor vehicle collisions (25%). No difference was observed between the treatment groups in sex, body mass index, anticoagulation treatment, diabetes mellitus, smoking history, or alcohol use. The percutaneous aspiration group had higher rates of recurrence (56% vs. 19% and 15% in nonoperative and operative groups, respectively). The percentage of patients who had aspiration of more than 50 mL of fluid was higher for lesions that recurred than for lesions that resolved (83% vs. 33%, p = 0.02). Aspiration of more than 50 mL of fluid from Morel-Lavallée lesions was much more common among lesions that recurred (83%) than among those that resolved (33%). We therefore recommend that aspiration of more than 50 mL of fluid from a Morel-Lavallée lesion prompts operative intervention. We have now

  19. Severe street and mountain bicycling injuries in adults: a comparison of the incidence, risk factors and injury patterns over 14 years

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Derek J.; Ouellet, Jean-Francois; Sutherland, Francis R.; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W.; Lall, Rohan N.; Ball, Chad G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Street and mountain bicycling are popular recreational activities and prevalent modes of transportation with the potential for severe injury. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the incidence, risk factors and injury patterns among adults with severe street versus mountain bicycling injuries. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the Southern Alberta Trauma Database of all adults who were severely injured (injury severity score [ISS] ≥ 12) while street or mountain bicycling between Apr. 1, 1995, and Mar. 31, 2009. Results Among 11 772 severely injured patients, 258 (2.2%) were injured (mean ISS 17, hospital stay 6 d, mortality 7%) while street (n = 209) or mountain bicycling (n = 49). Street cyclists were often injured after being struck by a motor vehicle, whereas mountain bikers were frequently injured after faulty jump attempts, bike tricks and falls (cliffs, roadsides, embankments). Mountain cyclists were admitted more often on weekends than weekdays (61.2% v. 45.0%, p = 0.040). Injury patterns were similar for both cohorts (all p > 0.05), with trauma to the head (67.4%), extremities (38.4%), chest (34.1%), face (26.0%) and abdomen (10.1%) being common. Spinal injuries, however, were more frequent among mountain cyclists (65.3% v. 41.1%, p = 0.003). Surgical intervention was required in 33.3% of patients (9.7% open reduction internal fixation, 7.8% spinal fixation, 7.0% craniotomy, 5.8% facial repair and 2.7% laparotomy). Conclusion With the exception of spine injuries, severely injured cyclists display similar patterns of injury and comparable outcomes, regardless of style (street v. mountain). Helmets and thoracic protection should be advocated for injury prevention. PMID:23706856

  20. Severe street and mountain bicycling injuries in adults: a comparison of the incidence, risk factors and injury patterns over 14 years.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Derek J; Ouellet, Jean-Francois; Sutherland, Francis R; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W; Lall, Rohan N; Ball, Chad G

    2013-06-01

    Street and mountain bicycling are popular recreational activities and prevalent modes of transportation with the potential for severe injury. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the incidence, risk factors and injury patterns among adults with severe street versus mountain bicycling injuries. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the Southern Alberta Trauma Database of all adults who were severely injured (injury severity score [ISS] ≥ 12) while street or mountain bicycling between Apr. 1, 1995, and Mar. 31, 2009. Among 11 772 severely injured patients, 258 (2.2%) were injured (mean ISS 17, hospital stay 6 d, mortality 7%) while street (n = 209) or mountain bicycling (n = 49). Street cyclists were often injured after being struck by a motor vehicle, whereas mountain bikers were frequently injured after faulty jump attempts, bike tricks and falls (cliffs, roadsides, embankments). Mountain cyclists were admitted more often on weekends than weekdays (61.2% v. 45.0%, p = 0.040). Injury patterns were similar for both cohorts (all p > 0.05), with trauma to the head (67.4%), extremities (38.4%), chest (34.1%), face (26.0%) and abdomen (10.1%) being common. Spinal injuries, however, were more frequent among mountain cyclists (65.3% v. 41.1%, p = 0.003). Surgical intervention was required in 33.3% of patients (9.7% open reduction internal fixation, 7.8% spinal fixation, 7.0% craniotomy, 5.8% facial repair and 2.7% laparotomy). With the exception of spine injuries, severely injured cyclists display similar patterns of injury and comparable outcomes, regardless of style (street v. mountain). Helmets and thoracic protection should be advocated for injury prevention.

  1. Joint action on monitoring injuries in Europe (JAMIE).

    PubMed

    Rogmans, W H J

    2012-08-28

    The hospital sector provides the best setting for collecting information as this information relates to the most severe cases (while less severe cases are treated by family doctors of school nurses for instance) and information can be obtained easily on a large number of cases at low cost (while surveys are expensive and suffering serious deficiencies as regards the specificity of data obtained). The WHO-International Classification of Diseases and its derivative classification on external causes of injuries provide the proper tools for standardised data collection on injuries treated within the health sector.In order to make injury data collection affordable for countries to collect and to have a greater number of countries joining the data exchange efforts, JAMIE envisages to have a relatively limited set data elements being collected in a representative sample of emergency departments in countries, while collecting in a few departments deeper information on the circumstances of the injury event. Injuries due to accidents or violence constitute a major public health problem globally and also within the 27 member states of the European Union (EU-MSs). In spite of the magnitude and the severity of the problem, injury surveillance systems are not yet sufficiently well developed to accurately quantify the burden of injuries on individuals, health services and society in the EU-region. Much of the injury information generated up until now is not comparable between countries, and not between registers, due to the lack of harmonised methodology and classification. JAMIE project aims at having by 2015 a common emergency departmental-based surveillance system for injury prevention in operation in all MS. Such a system should report on external causes of injuries due to accidents and violence as part of the Community Statistics on Public Health. The project will build on previous work on injury data exchange initiated by the European Commission (EC) and a number of EU

  2. INJURY INCIDENCE, DANCE EXPOSURE AND THE USE OF THE MOVEMENT COMPETENCY SCREEN (MCS) TO IDENTIFY VARIABLES ASSOCIATED WITH INJURY IN FULL-TIME PRE-PROFESSIONAL DANCERS

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Duncan; Cadwell, Jill; Palmer, Priya

    2017-01-01

    Background/Purposes Prospective studies utilizing standardized injury and exposure measures are needed to consolidate our knowledge of injury incidence and associated risk factors for musculoskeletal injury amongst pre-professional dancers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the injury incidence amongst pre-professional dancers attending a fulltime training school in New Zealand. The secondary purposes of this study were to investigate the relationship between dance exposure and injury risk, and the relationship between risk factors (specifically the MCS outcome scores) and injury risk. Methods A prospective cohort study of 66 full-time pre-professional dancers was undertaken over one full academic year (38 weeks), included 40 females (mean age 17.78 yrs, SD 1.18) and 26 males (mean age 18.57yrs, SD 1.72). Injury surveillance included both reported and self reported injury data. Dancers were screened using the MCS in the first week of term one. Results Eighty-six per cent of dancers sustained one or more injuries. Fifty-nine per cent of all injuries were time-loss. The injury incidence rate was 2.27 per 1000 hours of dance exposure (DEhr) and 3.35 per 1000 dance exposures (DE). There was a significant association between the total number of injuries and total DE per month (B=0.003, 95% CI 0.001 - 0.006, p=0.016). Dancers who had a MCS score < 23 were more likely to be injured than those who scored ≥23 (B = -0.702, 95% CI = -1.354 – -0.050, p=0.035). Conclusion Injury prevalence and incidence was comparable with other international cohorts. The number of dance exposures was more highly associated with injury risk than the hours of dance exposure. The MCS may be a useful tool to help identify dancers at risk of injury. Level of Evidence Level 3b, Prospective Longitudinal Cohort Study PMID:28593089

  3. Injuries during football tournaments in 45,000 children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kolstrup, Line Agger; Koopmann, Kristian Ugelvig; Nygaard, Uffe Harboe; Nygaard, Rie Harboe; Agger, Peter

    2016-11-01

    Four percent of the world's population, or 265 million people, play football, and many players are injured every year. The present study investigated more than 1800 injuries in over 45,000 youth players participating in three consecutive international football tournaments in Denmark in 2012-2014. The aim was to investigate the injury types and locations in children and adolescent football players and the differences between genders and age groups (11-15 and 16-19 years of age). An overall injury rate of 15.3 per 1000 player hours was found. The most common injury location was lower extremities (66.7%), and the most common injury type was contusion (24.4%). Girls had a relative risk of injury of 1.5 compared with boys, p < .001, and they had a higher proportion of injuries to knee and lower leg, 23.8%, than boys, 19.0%, p < .01. Boys had a higher proportion of fracture, 6.8%, as opposed to 3.3% among girls, p < .001. In conclusion, we found the youngest girls to have a higher incidence of almost all injury categories than any other group. In general, the incidence of injury decreased with age. The study provides a detailed insight into the injuries that may be expected at a large youth football tournament. These findings are of great value for organizations and healthcare professionals planning similar events and for planning injury prevention strategies, which would be of special interest in the youngest female players in general.

  4. Head and facial injuries due to cluster munitions.

    PubMed

    Fares, Youssef; Fares, Jawad; Gebeily, Souheil

    2014-06-01

    Cluster munitions are weapons that scatter smaller sub-munitions intended to kill or mutilate on impact. They have been used by the Israeli army in the south of Lebanon and are now scattered over wide rural areas affecting its inhabitants. Because of their easily "pickable" nature, sub-munitions can inflict injuries to the head and face regions. In this study, we aimed to explore the head and face injuries along with their clinical features in a group of Lebanese patients who suffered from such injuries due to a sub-munition's detonation. The study included all the cases reported between 14 August 2006 and 15 February 2013, with head and face injuries related to cluster bombs. Injuries were classified into brain, eye, otologic and auditory impairments, oral and maxillofacial, and skin and soft-tissue injuries. Psychological effects of these patients were also examined as for post-traumatic stress disorder, major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and acute stress syndrome. During the study period, there were 417 casualties as a result of cluster munitions' blasts. Out of the total number of victims, 29 (7 %) were injured in the head and the face region. The convention on cluster munitions of 2008 should be adhered to, as these inhumane weapons indiscriminately and disproportionately harm innocent civilians, thereby violating the well-established international principles governing conflict and war today.

  5. Locus of Control and Life Adjustment: Relationship Among People with Spinal Cord Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, J. Stuart; Stanwyck, Carol Anson; Maides, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    Identifies the relationship of life adjustment after spinal cord injury with three components of locus of control (LOC): internality, chance, and powerful others. Internality was positively correlated with subjective well-being and powerful others was negatively correlated with health indicators. States that rehabilitation counseling will be…

  6. Sports injuries and illnesses during the second Asian Beach Games.

    PubMed

    Al-Shaqsi, Sultan; Al-Kashmiri, Ammar; Al-Risi, Ahmed; Al-Mawali, Suleiman

    2012-09-01

    Prevention of sport injuries and illnesses is a focus for epidemiological surveillance. To record and analyse all sports injuries and illnesses registered during the second Asian Beach Games. A descriptive epidemiological study using the International Olympic Committee Surveillance system to register injuries and illnesses during the second Asian Beach Games. The second Asian Beach Games hosted 1132 athletes from 43 countries competing in 14 beach sports. All National Olympic Committees' physicians of the participating teams were invited to report all injuries and illnesses. In addition, medical officers at the different Olympic venues and the main Olympic village reported injuries and illnesses treated at the clinics on a daily basis. A total of 177 injuries were reported equating to an incidence rate of 156.4 per 1000 registered athletes. Tent pegging recorded the highest incidence of injuries with 357 per 1000 registered athletes. The most prevalent injuries were in the foot/toe with 14.1% of all reported injuries. The majority of injuries were incurred during competition (75.4%). In addition, the most common mechanism of injury was contact with another athlete (n=42, 23.7%) and combined sudden and gradual overuse contributed to 30% of the total injury burden. Furthermore, 118 illnesses were reported resulting in an incidence rate of 104.2 illnesses per 1000 registered athletes. The most affected system was the respiratory tract (39.1%) with infection being the most common cause (n=33, 38.0%). The incidence of injury and illness differed significantly among the 14 sports. The data indicate that the risk of injury from beach games is sport dependant. This means that any preventive measures have to be tailored for each discipline. Furthermore, the study showed that respiratory infections are the commonest illness in beach sports and therefore, event organisers should focus improving public health measures and hygiene awareness.

  7. Experiences of Australian professional female tennis players returning to competition from injury

    PubMed Central

    Young, Janet A; Pain, Michelle D; Pearce, Alan J

    2007-01-01

    Background This study examined the experiences of professional female tennis players returning to competition from injury. Methods In a study commissioned by Tennis Australia, 55 Australian professional female tennis players responded anonymously to a questionnaire developed for the purposes of this study. The questionnaire consisted of open and closed questions that assessed a player's attribution style, the occurrence and effect of minor and major injuries, frequency and type of treatment sought, attitudinal chances following injury and preventative injury factors. Results The quantitative and qualitative analyses of participants' responses revealed players generally displayed an internal attribution style with the majority of minor injuries involving lower limb injuries (attributed to playing on hard surfaces). Players reported these injuries were addressed in a variety of ways including self‐treatment. The majority of severe injuries were upper limb/shoulder and these were generally treated at tournament sites with some requiring surgery. Conclusions Players adopted a range of measures to assist recovery from severe injury including the services of health professionals. In further findings, a player's attribution style was not a predictive variable, except in terms of the number of tournaments missed for minor injuries. Implications of the study's results and future research directions for cross‐cultural studies are highlighted. PMID:17566049

  8. All That Swells Is Not A Bruise The Morel-Lavallée Lesion.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Carol L; Eisenman, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Frequently overlooked, Morel-Lavallée lesions are associated with a closed degloving or shearing mechanism causing a dehiscence of underlying soft tissue with formation of a potential space. This space fills with blood, lymph, and cellular debris, giving the lesion a fluctuant appearance on examination. The potential space associated with larger lesions can be a source for hemorrhage in the appropriate clinical context. However, these lesions are often diagnosed late in their clinical course or are misdiagnosed, leading to long-term complications. Management of this injury typically depends upon the size of the lesion. This article discusses a Morel-Lavallée lesion in an active-duty Servicemember requiring treatment by a plastic surgeon and includes the pathophysiology of Morel-Lavallée lesions, diagnostic strategies, and management pearls. 2016.

  9. Lumbar Morel-Lavallée lesion: Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Zairi, F; Wang, Z; Shedid, D; Boubez, G; Sunna, T

    2016-06-01

    The Morel-Lavallée lesion (MLL) is a rarely reported closed degloving injury, in which shearing forces have lead to break off subcutaneous tissues from the underlying fascia. Lumbar MLL have been rarely reported to date, explaining that patients are frequently misdiagnosed. While patients could be treated conservatively or with non-invasive procedures, delayed diagnosis may require open surgery for its cure. Indeed, untreated lesions can cause pain, infection or growing subcutaneous mass that can be confused with a soft tissue tumor. We report the clinical and radiological features of a 45-year old man with voluminous lumbar MLL initially misdiagnosed. We also reviewed the relevant English literature to summarize the diagnostic tools and the main therapeutic options. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Eye injuries from laser exposure: a review.

    PubMed

    Hudson, S J

    1998-05-01

    Lasers pose a significant threat to vision in modern military operations. Anti-personnel lasers have been designed that can cause intentional blindness in large numbers of personnel. Although the use of blinding laser weapons during combat has been prohibited by international legislation, research and development of these weapons have not been prohibited, and significant controversy remains. Unintentional blinding can also result from other types of lasers used on the battlefield, such as range-finders and anti-material lasers. Lasers that are capable of producing blindness operate within specific wavelength parameters and include visible and near infrared lasers. Patients who suffer from laser eye injuries usually complain of flash blindness, followed by transient or permanent visual loss. Laser retinal damage should be suspected in any patient with visual complaints in an operational setting. The treatment for laser retinal injuries is extremely limited, and prevention is essential. Improved protective eyeware and other countermeasures to laser eye injury are necessary as long as the threat remains.

  11. Upper limb injury in rugby union football: results of a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Usman, Juliana; McIntosh, Andrew Stuart

    2013-04-01

    There have been few in-depth studies of upper limb injury epidemiology in rugby union football, despite reports that they accounted for between 14% and 28% of all rugby injuries. To report on upper limb injury incidence, injury severity and to identify the risk factors associated with upper limb injuries, for example, level of play, season (years) and playing position. Prospective cohort study across five rugby seasons from 2004 to 2008. Formal rugby competitions-suburban, provincial and international. 1475 adult male rugby players in Colts, Grade and Elite competitions. An upper limb injury resulting in a missed game and its characteristics. A total of 61 598 athletic exposures (AE) and 606 upper limb injuries were recorded. About 66% of the injuries were to the shoulder. The overall upper limb injury incidence rate (IIR) was 9.84 injuries/1000 AE (95% CI 9.06 to 10.62). Statistically significant associations were found between upper limb injuries and level of play; and between shoulder injuries and playing position (p<0.05). No association was found between upper limb and shoulder injuries and study year. The overall upper limb IIR decreased as the level of play increased; 10.74 upper limb injuries/1000 AE (95% CI 9.93 to 11.56) in Colts to 6.07 upper limb injuries/1000 AE (95% CI 5.46 to 6.69) in Elite. The upper limb IIR decreased as the level of play increased indicating that age, level of skill and playing experience may be risk factors for upper limb injury.

  12. Sustaining employment after vocational rehabilitation in acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Macaden, Ashish Stephen; Chandler, Barbara J; Chandler, Colin; Berry, Alister

    2010-01-01

    To explore factors affecting sustaining employment in people with acquired brain injury (ABI). A multiple case study approach using semi-structured interviews in eight cases (29 individuals). Each case included an individual with ABI, a family member, a job coach and a co-worker (triangulation). The eight individuals with ABI had completed vocational rehabilitation and were purposely selected based on whether they had sustained employment (4) or not (4). Similarity between pre-injury work or leisure interest and post-injury work, unconditional motivation, insight and the ability to cope with cognitive and behavioural sequelae were beneficial in sustaining employment. Post-injury instances of poor cognitive or behavioural function did not necessarily affect sustained employment. The vocational rehabilitation programme was beneficial in building up confidence, providing continued follow up and providing co-worker 'twins' in the work place. Employers with a personal experience of disability helped individuals with ABI to sustain employment. Similarities between pre-injury work or leisure interests and post-injury work improved motivation. Factors associated with sustained employment were insightful, unconditional, internal motivation providing an ability to cope, confidence provided by ongoing vocational rehabilitation support through job coaches, supportive co-workers and employers with a personal experience of disability. People with ABI can be outstanding employees.

  13. Injury surveillance in construction: what is an "injury", anyway?

    PubMed

    Welch, Laura S; Hunting, Katherine

    2003-08-01

    Over the last decade, there has been a decline in injuries with days away from work in construction, associated with an increase in injuries with restricted work activity only. We abstracted demographics, diagnosis, cause-of-injury, and hospital discharge information for 481 workers from one large construction project treated in an urban Emergency Department (ED). The project safety team provided data on all injuries from this site, including first aid cases. This site had fewer injuries with days away from work than expected from national rates. Two hundred and fifty-six injuries were reported on the OSHA log, and of those 93 entailed days away from work; 1,515 injuries were considered first aid/medical only. We used a sample of the data to estimate that the site classified as "recordable" 128 of the 481 ED-treated injuries from this site (27%). The pattern of injury varies depending on the subset of injuries examined. Lost time injuries, as reported in BLS data, record fewer lacerations and eye injuries, and more strains and sprains. No one surveillance system presents the full spectrum of occupational injury. Tracking all injuries allow early recognition of injury risks, and therefore can lead to more effective prevention. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Epidemiology of injuries treated at a hand and microsurgery hospital.

    PubMed

    Davas Aksan, Aslı; Durusoy, Raika; Ada, Sait; Kayalar, Murat; Aksu, Feride; Bal, Emin

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiology of injuries treated at a hand and microsurgery hospital between 1992 and 2005. This is a descriptive retrospective study based on medical records of a hand and microsurgery hospital in İzmir for the years 1992-2005. A total of 8,946 injuries involving 8,817 patients were included. Data on diagnosis were recorded according to ICD-10. Intent, activity when injured, mechanism of injury, object/substance producing injury, and place of injury were recoded according to International Classification of External Causes of Injury (ICECI). The most common types of injury were amputations (32.3%), fractures (23.7%), and open wounds (19.9%) of the wrist and hand. Most injuries were sustained by males; 28.4% of injuries occurred during summer. According to activity, 76.3% were injured during paid work, 10.4% during transportation, 9.1% during unpaid work, and 3.8% during leisure time sports and exercise. Injuries most commonly occurred while operating a machine. The risk of hand injury was elevated in those younger than 35 years of age, males, persons outside İzmir province, and in Social Security Instution (SSI) insured workers (p<0.001). The riskiest activity for hand injuries was paid work. Compared to baseline, the risk of hand injuries was 29 times [95% confidence interval (CI) 16.36-50.40] as high in industrial or construction areas, and 50 times (95% CI 17.29-143.96) as high in commercial places Hand injuries are important because of their consequences, such as permanent disability and their high treatment costs. This study points out many important risk factors, and has contributed the development of hypotheses about injury types, under-notification of occupational injuries, and child labour. The inclusion of medical records from such specialized hospitals into national databases will aid in the prevention of these injuries, and induce developments in diagnosis and treatment.

  15. Elevated depressive symptoms and adolescent injury: examining associations by injury frequency, injury type, and gender

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Key risk factors for adolescent injury have been well documented, and include structural, behavioural, and psychosocial indicators. While psychiatric distress has been associated with suicidal behaviour and related self-harm, very little research has examined the role of depression in shaping adolescent injury. This study examines the association of elevated depressive symptoms with injury, including total number of injuries and injury type. Gender differences are also considered. Methods Data were drawn in 2010–11 from a representative sample of 2,989 high school students (14 to18 years of age) from Nova Scotia, Canada. Self-reported injury outcomes were examined using the 17-item Adolescent Injury Checklist, which captures past six-month injuries. Elevated depressive symptoms were assessed using the Centers for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. Associations of elevated depressive symptoms with total number of injuries were estimated with negative binomial regression, while associations with specific injury types were estimated with logistic regression. Analyses were conducted in 2012. Results Adolescents with elevated depressive symptoms experienced a 40% increase in the total number of injury events occurring in the past six months. The association of elevated depressive symptoms with injury was consistent across injury type; violence-related (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.61 to 3.03), transport-related (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.10 to 2.13), and unintentional injuries (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.20 to 2.27). Gender differences were also observed. Conclusion Elevated depressive symptoms play a role in shaping adolescent injury. Interventions aimed at reducing adolescent injury should look to minimize psychosocial antecedents, such as poor mental health, that put adolescents at an elevated risk. PMID:24555802

  16. Internal fixation of pilon fractures of the distal radius.

    PubMed Central

    Trumble, T. E.; Schmitt, S. R.; Vedder, N. B.

    1993-01-01

    When closed manipulation fails to restore articular congruity in comminuted, displaced fractures of the distal radius, open reduction and internal fixation is required. Results of surgical stabilization and articular reconstruction of these injuries are reviewed in this retrospective study of 49 patients with 52 displaced, intra-articular distal radius fractures. Forty-three patients (87%) with a mean age of 37 years (range of 17 to 79 years) were available for evaluation. The mean follow-up time was 38 months (range 22-69 months). When rated according to the Association for the Study of Internal Fixation (ASIF), 19 were type C2 and 21 were type C3. We devised an Injury Score System based on the initial injury radiographs to classify severely comminuted intra-articular fractures and to identify those associated with carpal injury (3 patients). Post-operative fracture alignment, articular congruity, and radial length were significantly improved following surgery (p < .01). Grip strength averaged 69% +/- 22% of the contralateral side, and the range of motion averaged 75% +/- 18% of the contralateral side post-operatively. A combined outcome rating system that included grip strength, range of motion, and pain relief averaged 76% +/- 19% of the contralateral side. There was a statistically significant decrease in the combined rating with more severe fracture patterns as defined by the ASIF system (p < .01), Malone classification (p < .03), and the Injury Score System (p < .001). The Injury Score System presented here, and in particular the number of fracture fragments, correlated most closely with outcome of all the classification systems studied. Operative treatment of these distal radius fractures with reconstruction of the articular congruity and correction of the articular surface alignment with internal fixation and/or external fixation, can significantly improve the radiographic alignment and functional outcome. Furthermore, the degree to which articular stepoff

  17. GBD-2010 overestimates deaths from road injuries in OECD countries: new methods perform poorly.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, Kavi; Harrison, James E

    2015-10-01

    We assessed the quality of Global Burden of Disease-2010 (GBD-2010) estimates of road injury deaths by comparing with government statistics for Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries that report to the International Road Traffic Accident Database (IRTAD). We obtained tabulated data for 25 OECD countries that report to IRTAD and also report vital registration (VR) data to WHO. We collated VR deaths corresponding to the GBD-2010 road injury definition and estimated 'traffic', 'non-traffic' and 'unspecified whether traffic or non-traffic' components. We estimated national road injury deaths by redistributing partially specified causes of death, as was done by GBD until this was replaced by more complex methods in GBD-2010. GBD-2010 estimates of road injury deaths exceeded IRTAD by 45% overall. IRTAD values fell below the GBD-2010 95% uncertainty interval in all but three countries. Mismatch of conceptual scope accounted for about 8% of this discrepancy, 5% was because GBD-2010 included cases other than road traffic and 3% because GBD-2010 (unlike IRTAD) includes deaths >30 days after injury. Pro rata distribution of partially specified causes in VR data gave estimates that were 18% higher than IRTAD but closer than GBD-2010 estimates for all but two countries. Cases in VR data specified as road injury gave estimates closer to IRTAD. GBD-2010 road injury mortality estimates are substantially higher than the road death toll in OECD countries. The discrepancy is not explained by wider scope of the GBD road injury construct nor by undercounting by IRTAD. GBD-2010 likely attributed substantially more deaths with partially specified causes to road injuries than is appropriate. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  18. Identifying Facilitators and Barriers for Home Injury Prevention Interventions for Pre-School Children: A Systematic Review of the Quantitative Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, Jenny C.; Deave, Toity; Towner, Elizabeth; Errington, Gail; Kay, Bryony; Kendrick, Denise

    2012-01-01

    Injuries are the leading cause of childhood death internationally; steep social gradients exist in mortality and morbidity. The majority of pre-school injuries occur in the home, but implementing research into practice for injury prevention has received little attention. This systematic review describes key facilitators and barriers when…

  19. Current guidelines for management of severe hand injuries.

    PubMed

    Stępień, Robert; Szczęsny, Grzegorz

    2014-06-18

    Severe, multitissue hand injuries constitute a serious problem of the modern world. Despite investing significant funds in their management these injuries often exclude young people from professional life. It is often due to improper management conducted by untrained personnel lacking appropriate instruments. The goal of this work is to review the literature on the problem and attempt to organize this information. A review of available literature on mutilating hand trauma, amputations in the hand region, replantation and scales used for assessment of the severity of injury and hand function, both in Poland and internationally. Hand injuries may be managed through three approaches: concomitant definitive, delayed and secondary. The best results are achieved through the first approach. However sometimes, due to the character of injury or lack of trained personnel, the team is forced to apply temporary dressing and, subsequently, initiate complex further management. HISS scale is a useful tool allowing for precise determination of the severity of injury and, used together with DASH questionnaire, prediction of long-term treatment outcome. Necessary changes need to be implemented in the healthcare system in order to achieve better results of treatment of severe hand injuries. Proper guidelines for everyday practice should be also introduced. Changes should encompass precise determination of competences of individual centers as well as the mode and indications for patient transport between them. Training of doctors should be modified in such way to ensure that at least one person in each center would be capable of performing proper immediate management of such injuries, making further treatment possible. At the same time, financing, as a strong motivator, should promote appropriate management.

  20. Biomechanical and anatomical assessment after knee hyperextension injury.

    PubMed

    Fornalski, Stefan; McGarry, Michelle H; Csintalan, Rick P; Fithian, Donald C; Lee, Thay Q

    2008-01-01

    Knee hyperextension can be a serious and disabling injury in both the athletic and general patient population. Understanding the pathoanatomy and pathomechanics is critical for accurate surgical soft tissue reconstructions. To quantify the effects of knee hyperextension injury on knee laxity in a human cadaveric model and to qualitatively assess the anatomical injury pattern through surgical dissection. Descriptive laboratory study. Six fresh-frozen cadaveric knees were rigidly mounted on a custom knee testing system that simulates clinical laxity tests. The knee laxity measurements consisted of anterior-posterior laxity, internal-external rotational laxity, and varus-valgus laxity using a custom testing setup and a Microscribe 3DLX system. The laxity data were collected at both 30 degrees and 90 degrees of knee flexion for the intact specimens and then after 15 degrees and 30 degrees hyperextension injury. After biomechanical assessment, a detailed dissection was performed to document the injured structures in the knee. Repeated-measures analysis of variance with a Tukey post hoc test (P < .05) was used for statistical comparison. The results from this study suggest progressive damage to translational and rotational knee soft-tissue restraints with increasing knee hyperextension. Knee hyperextension to 30 degrees caused the most significant increase in anterior-posterior and rotational laxity. Anatomical dissections showed a general injury pattern to the posterolateral corner, partial femoral anterior cruciate ligament avulsion in 4 of 6 specimens, and no gross posterior cruciate ligament injuries. Injuries to the posterolateral corner of the knee can result from isolated knee hyperextension. The clinician should be aware of the potential for posterolateral corner injuries with isolated knee hyperextension. This will allow early surgical planning and primary surgical repair.

  1. Relationship of Personality and Locus of Control With Employment Outcomes among Participants with Spinal Cord Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, James S.; Broderick, Lynne

    2006-01-01

    We investigated relationships among personality, locus of control, and current post-injury employment status for 1,391 participants with spinal cord injury. Participants with higher internality locus-of-control scores and activity scores (personality) reported more favorable employment outcomes. Higher scores on chance and powerful others (locus…

  2. Impact of professionalism on injuries in rugby union

    PubMed Central

    Garraway, W; Lee, A; Hutton, S; Russell, E; Macleod, D

    2000-01-01

    injuries occur. The International Rugby Board should place a moratorium on the use of protective equipment in competitive matches until its contribution to player morbidity has been fully assessed. Key Words: injury; professionalism; protective equipment; rugby PMID:11049144

  3. Descriptive Epidemiology of Collegiate Women's Gymnastics Injuries: National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System, 1988–1989 Through 2003–2004

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Stephen W; Covassin, Tracey; Dick, Randall; Nassar, Lawrence G; Agel, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To review 16 years of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) injury surveillance data for women's gymnastics and identify potential areas for injury prevention initiatives. Background: In the 1988–1989 academic year, 112 schools were sponsoring varsity women's gymnastics teams, with approximately 1550 participants. By 2003–2004, the number of varsity teams had decreased 23% to 86, involving 1380 participants. Significant participation reductions during this time were particularly apparent in Divisions II and III. Main Results: A significant annual average decrease was noted in competition (−4.0%, P < .01) but not in practice (−1.0%, P = .35) injury rates during the sample period. Over the 16 years, the rate of injury in competition was more than 2 times higher than in practice (15.19 versus 6.07 injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures; rate ratio = 2.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.3, 2.8). A total of 53% of all competition and 69% of all practice injuries were to the lower extremity. A participant was almost 6 times more likely to sustain a knee internal derangement injury in competition than in practice (rate ratio = 5.7, 95% CI = 4.5, 7.3) and almost 3 times more likely to sustain an ankle ligament sprain (rate ratio = 2.7, 95% CI = 2.1, 3.4). The majority of competition injuries (approximately 70%) resulted from either landings in floor exercises or dismounts. Recommendations: Gymnasts with a previous history of ankle sprain should either wear an ankle brace or use prophylactic tape on their ankles to decrease the risk of recurrent injury. Preventive efforts may incorporate more neuromuscular training and core stability programs in the off-season and preseason conditioning to enhance proper landing and skill mechanics. Equipment manufacturers are encouraged to reevaluate the design of the landing mats to allow for better absorption of forces. PMID:17710171

  4. Insomnia, comorbidity, and risk of injury among insured Americans: results from the America Insomnia Survey.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Ronald C; Berglund, Patricia A; Coulouvrat, Catherine; Fitzgerald, Timothy; Hajak, Goeran; Roth, Thomas; Shahly, Victoria; Shillington, Alicia C; Stephenson, Judith J; Walsh, James K

    2012-06-01

    To estimate associations of broadly defined insomnia (i.e., meeting inclusion criteria for International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10), Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), or Research Diagnostic Criteria/International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Second Edition (RDC/ICSD-2) diagnosis) with workplace/nonworkplace injuries controlling for comorbid conditions among workers in the America Insomnia Survey (AIS). Cross-sectional telephone survey. National sample of 4,991 employed health plan subscribers (age 18 yr and older). None. Broadly defined insomnia with duration of at least 12 mo was assessed with the Brief Insomnia Questionnaire (BIQ). Injuries in the 12 mo before interview were assessed with a standard self-report measure of injuries causing role impairment or requiring medical attention. Eighteen comorbid condition clusters were assessed with medical/pharmacy claims records and self-reports. Insomnia had significant gross associations (odds ratios, ORs) with both workplace and nonworkplace injuries (OR 2.0 and 1.5, respectively) in logistic regression analyses before controlling for comorbid conditions. The significant population attributable risk proportions (PARPs) of total injuries with insomnia was 4.6% after controlling for comorbid conditions. Only 2 other conditions had PARPs exceeding those of insomnia. The associations of insomnia with injuries did not vary significantly with worker age, sex, or education, but did vary significantly with comorbid conditions. Specifically, insomnia was significantly associated with workplace and nonworkplace injuries (OR 1.8 and 1.5, respectively) among workers having no comorbid conditions, with workplace but not nonworkplace injuries (OR 1.8 and 1.2, respectively) among workers having 1 comorbid condition, and with neither workplace nor nonworkplace injuries (OR 0.9 and 1.0, respectively) among workers having 2 or more comorbid conditions. The

  5. Sport Injuries in Elite Paralympic Swimmers With Visual Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Marilia Magno e; Bilzon, James; Duarte, Edison; Gorla, Jose; Vital, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Context: Visually impaired athletes sustain overuse injuries in the lower limbs, but the pattern of injuries may vary according to the sport. The characteristics of sports injuries in visually impaired swimmers are unknown. Objective: To determine the characteristics and epidemiologic measures (prevalence, clinical incidence, and incidence rate) of sports injuries in visually impaired elite national swimmers and to assess differences among visual classes and between sexes. Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting: International Paralympic competitions held between 2004 and 2008. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-eight elite, visually impaired swimmers (19 males, 9 females) from the Brazilian Paralympic Team participated in this study. Twelve were visual class S11 (blind swimmers), 12 were S12 (low-vision swimmers), and 4 were S13 (low-vision swimmers). Intervention(s): A standardized report form was used to collect data during 5 competitions. This was endorsed by 2 Brazilian sports governing bodies. Main Outcome Measures: The characteristics, prevalence, clinical incidence, and incidence rate of injuries were calculated. Results: Eighteen athletes reported 41 sports injuries, with a prevalence of 64%, clinical incidence of 1.5 injuries per athlete, and an incidence rate of 0.3 injuries per athlete per competition. Overuse injuries (80%) were more frequent than traumatic injuries (20%). The clinical incidence and prevalence varied according to sex and visual class, but no statistical differences were observed (P > .05). The highest proportion of injuries was in the trunk (46.34%), followed by the upper limbs (34.15%). The shoulders (29.27%) were most affected, followed by the thoracic (21.95%) and lumbar spine (17.07%). Spasm (36.59%) was the most frequent diagnosis, followed by tendinopathy (26.83%). Conclusions: Visually impaired swimmers had a relatively high proportion of overuse injuries, predominantly associated with muscle spasm in the spine and

  6. Shoulder Injuries in Individuals Who Participate in CrossFit Training.

    PubMed

    Summitt, Ryan J; Cotton, Ryan A; Kays, Adam C; Slaven, Emily J

    CrossFit, a sport and fitness program, has become increasingly popular both nationally and internationally. Researchers have recently identified significant improvements in health and wellness due to CrossFit. However, some individuals assert that CrossFit poses an inherent risk of injury, specifically to the shoulder, due to the intensity of training. Currently, there is limited evidence to support this assertion. Exercises performed during CrossFit do not place the shoulder at greater risk for injury. Injury rates are comparable to other sports of similar intensity. Descriptive survey study. Level 5. An electronic survey was developed and dispersed to approximately 980 individuals who trained in CrossFit gyms. The survey identified demographic data, training characteristics, and the prevalence of injury over a 6-month period in individuals who participated in CrossFit training. A total of 187 (19.1%) individuals completed the survey. Forty-four (23.5%) indicated that they had experienced a shoulder injury during CrossFit training over the previous 6 months. Of those who reported injury, 17 (38.6%) stated that this injury was an exacerbation of a previous injury sustained prior to starting CrossFit. There was no significant relationship between several demographic and training variables and shoulder injury. All shoulder injuries occurred at a rate of 1.94 per 1000 hours training, while "new" shoulder injuries occurred at a rate of 1.18 per 1000 hours training. The most commonly attributed causes of injury were improper form (33.3%) and exacerbation of a previous injury (33.3%). Twenty-five (64.1%) of those who experienced injury reported 1 month or less of training reduction due to the injury. Shoulder injury rates during CrossFit training are comparable to other methods of recreational exercise. Clinicians should be aware of training demands of exercises in CrossFit and modifications for these exercises to safely progress their patients back to participation.

  7. Shoulder Injuries in Individuals Who Participate in CrossFit Training

    PubMed Central

    Summitt, Ryan J.; Cotton, Ryan A.; Kays, Adam C.; Slaven, Emily J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: CrossFit, a sport and fitness program, has become increasingly popular both nationally and internationally. Researchers have recently identified significant improvements in health and wellness due to CrossFit. However, some individuals assert that CrossFit poses an inherent risk of injury, specifically to the shoulder, due to the intensity of training. Currently, there is limited evidence to support this assertion. Hypothesis: Exercises performed during CrossFit do not place the shoulder at greater risk for injury. Injury rates are comparable to other sports of similar intensity. Study Design: Descriptive survey study. Level of Evidence: Level 5. Methods: An electronic survey was developed and dispersed to approximately 980 individuals who trained in CrossFit gyms. The survey identified demographic data, training characteristics, and the prevalence of injury over a 6-month period in individuals who participated in CrossFit training. Results: A total of 187 (19.1%) individuals completed the survey. Forty-four (23.5%) indicated that they had experienced a shoulder injury during CrossFit training over the previous 6 months. Of those who reported injury, 17 (38.6%) stated that this injury was an exacerbation of a previous injury sustained prior to starting CrossFit. There was no significant relationship between several demographic and training variables and shoulder injury. All shoulder injuries occurred at a rate of 1.94 per 1000 hours training, while “new” shoulder injuries occurred at a rate of 1.18 per 1000 hours training. The most commonly attributed causes of injury were improper form (33.3%) and exacerbation of a previous injury (33.3%). Twenty-five (64.1%) of those who experienced injury reported 1 month or less of training reduction due to the injury. Conclusion: Shoulder injury rates during CrossFit training are comparable to other methods of recreational exercise. Clinical Relevance: Clinicians should be aware of training demands of exercises

  8. Specific injuries induced by the practice of trampoline, tumbling and acrobatic gymnastics.

    PubMed

    Grapton, Xavier; Lion, Alexis; Gauchard, Gérome C; Barrault, Denys; Perrin, Philippe P

    2013-02-01

    The recreational and competitive practice of acrobatic sports, that is, trampoline, tumbling and acrobatic gymnastics (ACRO), is growing rapidly around the world. Many studies described the injuries affecting young artistic gymnasts, but only few concerned acrobatic sports. During a 5-year period, 357 traumatic events were collected in young acrobats practicing trampoline, tumbling or ACRO. Accident characteristics, level of expertise and training, injury location (upper limb, spine and lower limb), type of tissue injured (bone, cartilage, muscle, ligament and tendon) and provoking factors (intrinsic/behavioural and extrinsic) were investigated. Acrobats of national and international levels were mostly injured. Injuries occurring in acrobatic sports concerned predominantly the lower limbs and concerned in this body part mainly damages to ligaments. Forearm and knee injuries were preferentially related to trampoline. Ankle injuries were preferentially related to tumbling. Wrist injuries were preferentially related to ACRO. Upper limb bone damage and upper limb tendon damage were preferentially related to trampoline and ACRO, respectively. Intrinsic/behavioural factors were the main injury determinant in the three acrobatic sports. The main injuries in acrobatic sports (i.e. lower limbs) are similar to those observed in artistic gymnastics. Specific injuries may result from falls and incomplete and/or erroneous figure's landing and may also depend to the type of the landing surface. II.

  9. Head Injury and Aging: The Importance of Bleeding Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Mallory, Ann

    The current study analyzed 1993–2007 data from NASS/CDS (National Automotive Sampling System / Crashworthiness Data System) to explore the types of serious head injuries sustained by adult motor vehicle crash occupants and how the types of head injuries sustained shifted with age. The purpose was to determine which head injuries are most important for older occupants by identifying specific injuries that become more likely for aging occupants and taking into consideration previous reports on the potential outcome of those injuries for an older population. Results confirmed previous reports that older head injury victims in motor vehicle collisions were more likely to sustain bleeding injuries than younger head injury victims. The current study showed that, in particular, the rate of extra-axial bleeding injury (which includes epidural, subdural, and subarachnoid bleeding) increased with age. The increase in extra-axial bleeding injury rate was especially prominent in relatively low Delta-V crashes. Among the extra-axial bleeding injuries that had increased odds of injury for older occupants, subdural hematoma and subarachnoid hemorrhage were notable, with increased odds of injury for occupants age 50 to 69 as well as for occupants age 70 and older. The importance of subdural hematoma for aging occupants is emphasized by previous studies showing its high mortality rate, while the impact of subarachnoid hemorrhage is linked in previous studies to its aggravating effect on other injuries. The results highlight a need to further explore the injury mechanisms of subdural hematoma and subarachnoid hemorrhage in older occupants in order to define age-adjusted injury tolerance and develop countermeasures. PMID:21050591

  10. Food foreign body injuries.

    PubMed

    Sebastian van As, Arjan B; Yusof, Abdullah M; Millar, Alastair J W

    2012-05-14

    The purpose of this study is to acquire a better understanding of Food Foreign Bodies (FFB) injuries in children characterizing the risk of complications and prolonged hospitalization due to food items according to patients' characteristics, circumstances of the accident, Foreign Body (FB) features and FB location, as emerging from the SUSY Safe Web-Registry. The present study uses data provided by the SUSY Safe Project, a DG SANCO co-funded project started in February 2005, which was aimed at establishing an international registry of cases of Foreign Bodies (FB) injuries in children aged 0-14 years. The analysis was carried out on injuries due to a food item. FB location was reported according to ICD9-CM code: ears (ICD931), nose (ICD932), pharynx and larynx (ICD933) trachea, bronchi and lungs (ICD934), mouth, esophagus and stomach (ICD935). Age and gender injury distributions were assessed. Data regarding adult supervision and activity before injury were also evaluated. FBs which most frequently cause complications were identified. The association between children age, adult presence, object characteristics and hospitalization/complications was computed using unweighted odds ratios and the related 95% confidence intervals. 16,878 FB injuries occurred in children aged 0-14 years have been recorded in the SUSY Safe databases. FB type was specified in 10,564 cases; among them 2744 (26%) were due to a food item. FB site was recorded in 1344 cases: FB was located in the ears in 99 patients, while 1140 occurred in the upper and lower respiratory tract; finally, 105 food items were removed from mouth, esophagus and stomach. Complications occurred in 176 cases and the most documented was pulmonary or bronchial infections (23%) followed emphysema or atelectasis and by and asthma (7%). Bones were the commonest retrieved FFB encountered in this study, while nuts seem to be the FFB most frequently associated to complications. On the basis of this study we make the strong

  11. [An experimental study of blast injury].

    PubMed

    Wang, Z G

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents some aspects of the authors' experimental research on blast injury in the past two years. The main results are as follows: (1) A new designed 39 meter-long shock tube for biological test has been built in the laboratory. Its maximal overpressure values are 215 kPa (in open condition) and 505 kPa (in closed condition). It may meet the need for inflicting blast injuries with various degree of severity. (2) A study of the effect of simulating gun muzzle blast wave on sheep indicated that in the single explosion, the threshold overpressure values inflicting the injury of internal organs were: Lung-37.27 kPa, G-I tract-41.0 kPa; the upper respiratory tract-negative until 73 kPa, while in the multiple (20 times) explosions, they were 23.7, 23.7 and 41.4 kPa, respectively. (3) Using TEM, SEM and some other special techniques, such as morphometry, freeze-fracture technique, labelled lanthanum nitrate technique, etc, it was demonstrated that in the lung with blast injury there were significant pathological changes in pulmonary capillary endothelium, alveolar epithelium and their intercellular junctions with apparent increase of permeability. (4) It has been shown that parallel superficial stripelike hemorrhage typical for lung blast injury is "Intercostal marking" instead of "Rib marking". (5) A new type of material (foamy nickel) for protection against blast wave is presented. It was proved that the material can effectively weaken or eliminate the effect of blast wave on human body.

  12. Deficits in glenohumeral passive range of motion increase risk of elbow injury in professional baseball pitchers: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Wilk, Kevin E; Macrina, Leonard C; Fleisig, Glenn S; Aune, Kyle T; Porterfield, Ron A; Harker, Paul; Evans, Timothy J; Andrews, James R

    2014-09-01

    Injuries to the elbow joint in baseball pitchers appear common. There appears to be a correlation between shoulder range of motion and elbow injuries. To prospectively determine whether decreased ROM of the throwing shoulder is correlated with the onset of elbow injuries in professional baseball pitchers. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. For 8 consecutive years (2005-2012), passive range of motion of both the throwing and nonthrowing shoulders of all major and minor league pitchers within a single professional baseball organization were measured by using a bubble goniometer during spring training. In total, 505 examinations were conducted on 296 pitchers. Glenohumeral external rotation and internal rotation were assessed in the supine position with the arm at 90° of abduction and in the plane of the scapula. The scapula was stabilized per methods previously established. Total rotation was defined as the sum of external rotation and internal rotation. Passive shoulder flexion was assessed with the subject supine and the scapula stabilized per methods previously established. Elbow injuries and days missed because of elbow injuries were assessed and recorded by the medical staff of the team. Throwing and nonthrowing shoulder measurements were compared by using Student t tests; 1-tailed Fisher exact tests were performed to identify significant associations between shoulder motion and elbow injury. Nominal logistic regression was performed to determine the odds of elbow injury. Significant differences were noted during side-to-side comparisons within subjects. There were 49 elbow injuries and 8 surgeries in 38 players, accounting for a total of 2551 days missed. Neither glenohumeral internal rotation deficit nor external rotation insufficiency was correlated with elbow injuries. Pitchers with deficits of >5° in total rotation in their throwing shoulders had a 2.6 times greater risk for injury. Pitchers with deficit of ≥5° in flexion of the throwing shoulder had

  13. Nano- and micro-materials in the treatment of internal bleeding and uncontrolled hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Gaston, Elizabeth; Fraser, John F; Xu, Zhi Ping; Ta, Hang T

    2018-02-01

    Internal bleeding is defined as the loss of blood that occurs inside of a body cavity. After a traumatic injury, hemorrhage accounts for over 35% of pre-hospital deaths and 40% of deaths within the first 24 hours. Coagulopathy, a disorder in which the blood is not able to properly form clots, typically develops after traumatic injury and results in a higher rate of mortality. The current methods to treat internal bleeding and coagulopathy are inadequate due to the requirement of extensive medical equipment that is typically not available at the site of injury. To discover a potential route for future research, several current and novel treatment methods have been reviewed and analyzed. The aim of investigating different potential treatment options is to expand available knowledge, while also call attention to the importance of research in the field of treatment for internal bleeding and hemorrhage due to trauma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Shoulder injuries in elite rugby union football matches: Epidemiology and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Usman, Juliana; McIntosh, Andrew S; Quarrie, Kenneth; Targett, Stephen

    2015-09-01

    Shoulder injuries in rugby union football have been the focus of few in-depth studies, despite their frequency and severity. The study's objective was to describe the incidence, patterns and mechanisms of shoulder injuries in rugby. Prospective cohort study of shoulder injury incidence and retrospective case-series study of shoulder injury mechanisms. Data were collected from Super Rugby matches from 2005 to 2010 involving elite level adult male rugby players. 7920 player participation hours and 100 shoulder injuries were recorded during 397 Super Rugby matches. The shoulder injury incidence rate was 13 per 1000 player hours (95% confidence interval 10-16). The mean number of days unavailable for selection due to these injuries was 37 (95% confidence interval 25-54). Tacklers sustained shoulder injuries at a higher rate than ball carriers (Rate Ratio=1.7 (95% confidence interval 0.5-5.3)). The most frequently reported injuries were those to the acromio-clavicular joint; dislocations resulted in the greatest amount of missed play. Using video analysis, 47 of the 100 shoulder injury events were successfully identified and analyzed. The main mechanisms of shoulder injury were contact with the ground with the shoulder/arm in horizontal adduction, flexion, and internal rotation; and impact to the lateral aspect of the shoulder with the elbow flexed and arm at the side. Direct impact to the shoulder, either through player-to-player contact or contact with the ground, is the main cause of shoulder injury. Methods to reduce injury risk, such as shoulder pads and tackle skills, require consideration. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of foot landing position on biomechanical risk factors associated with anterior cruciate ligament injury.

    PubMed

    Tran, Andrew A; Gatewood, Corey; Harris, Alex H S; Thompson, Julie A; Dragoo, Jason L

    2016-12-01

    Identification of biomechanical risk factors associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury can facilitate injury prevention. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of three foot landing positions, "toe-in", "toe-out" and "neutral", on biomechanical risk factors for ACL injury in males and females. The authors hypothesize that 1) relative to neutral, the toe-in position increases the biomechanical risk factors for ACL injury, 2) the toe-out position decreases these biomechanical risk factors, and 3) compared to males, females demonstrate greater changes in lower extremity biomechanics with changes in foot landing position. Motion capture data on ten male and ten female volunteers aged 20-30 years (26.4 ± 2.50) were collected during double-leg jump landing activities. Subjects were asked to land on force plates and target one of three pre-templated foot landing positions: 0° ("neutral"), 30° internal rotation ("toe-in"), and 30° external rotation ("toe-out") along the axis of the anatomical sagittal plane. A mixed-effects ANOVA and pairwise Tukey post-hoc comparison were used to detect differences in kinematic and kinetic variables associated with biomechanical risk factors of ACL injury between the three foot landing positions. Relative to neutral, landing in the toe-in position increased peak hip adduction, knee internal rotation angles and moments (p < 0.01), and peak knee abduction angle (p < 0.001). Landing in the toe-in position also decreased peak hip flexion angle (p < 0.001) and knee flexion angle (p = 0.023). Landing in the toe-out position decreased peak hip adduction, knee abduction, and knee internal rotation angles (all p < 0.001). Male sex was associated with a smaller increase in hip adduction moment (p = 0.043) and knee internal rotation moment (p = 0.032) with toe-in landing position compared with female sex. Toe-in landing position exacerbates biomechanical risk factors associated with

  16. Guideline on anterior cruciate ligament injury

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The Dutch Orthopaedic Association has a long tradition of development of practical clinical guidelines. Here we present the recommendations from the multidisciplinary clinical guideline working group for anterior cruciate ligament injury. The following 8 clinical questions were formulated by a steering group of the Dutch Orthopaedic Association. What is the role of physical examination and additional diagnostic tools? Which patient-related outcome measures should be used? What are the relevant parameters that influence the indication for an ACL reconstruction? Which findings or complaints are predictive of a bad result of an ACL injury treatment? What is the optimal timing for surgery for an ACL injury? What is the outcome of different conservative treatment modalities? Which kind of graft gives the best result in an ACL reconstruction? What is the optimal postoperative treatment concerning rehabilitation, resumption of sports, and physiotherapy? These 8 questions were answered and recommendations were made, using the “Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation” instrument. This instrument seeks to improve the quality and effectiveness of clinical practical guidelines by establishing a shared framework to develop, report, and assess. The steering group has also developed 7 internal indicators to aid in measuring and enhancing the quality of the treatment of patients with an ACL injury, for use in a hospital or practice. PMID:22900914

  17. Model for predicting the injury severity score.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, Shuichi; Oshima, Kiyohiro; Murata, Masato; Kaneko, Minoru; Aoki, Makoto; Kanbe, Masahiko; Nakamura, Takuro; Ohyama, Yoshio; Tamura, Jun'ichi

    2015-07-01

    To determine the formula that predicts the injury severity score from parameters that are obtained in the emergency department at arrival. We reviewed the medical records of trauma patients who were transferred to the emergency department of Gunma University Hospital between January 2010 and December 2010. The injury severity score, age, mean blood pressure, heart rate, Glasgow coma scale, hemoglobin, hematocrit, red blood cell count, platelet count, fibrinogen, international normalized ratio of prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and fibrin degradation products, were examined in those patients on arrival. To determine the formula that predicts the injury severity score, multiple linear regression analysis was carried out. The injury severity score was set as the dependent variable, and the other parameters were set as candidate objective variables. IBM spss Statistics 20 was used for the statistical analysis. Statistical significance was set at P  < 0.05. To select objective variables, the stepwise method was used. A total of 122 patients were included in this study. The formula for predicting the injury severity score (ISS) was as follows: ISS = 13.252-0.078(mean blood pressure) + 0.12(fibrin degradation products). The P -value of this formula from analysis of variance was <0.001, and the multiple correlation coefficient (R) was 0.739 (R 2  = 0.546). The multiple correlation coefficient adjusted for the degrees of freedom was 0.538. The Durbin-Watson ratio was 2.200. A formula for predicting the injury severity score in trauma patients was developed with ordinary parameters such as fibrin degradation products and mean blood pressure. This formula is useful because we can predict the injury severity score easily in the emergency department.

  18. Injuries of the obturator muscles in professional soccer players.

    PubMed

    Wong-On, Manuel; Turmo-Garuz, Antonio; Arriaza, Rafael; Gonzalez de Suso, Jose Manuel; Til-Perez, Luis; Yanguas-Leite, Xavier; Diaz-Cueli, David; Gasol-Santa, Xavier

    2017-02-10

    Obturator externus and internus muscular tears are uncommon injuries. Only a few case reports exist, mainly in high-level athletes. Our aim is to describe a series of obturator externus and internus muscular tears in professional soccer players. Injury data from four teams from the First Division of the Spanish Soccer League were collected over a total of four seasons. Any soccer player who sustained an injury to either the obturator externus or internus identified on magnetic resonance (MRI) was included. All injured players were treated non-operatively with a goal of returning to play as fast as possible. Sixteen players sustained injuries to the obturator externus and internus during matches or training sessions. The main complaint was anterior hip pain with a physical examination showing pain during internal rotation or external rotation of the flexed hip. The MRI documented 12 muscular tears of the obturator externus, and 4 muscular tears of the obturator internus. All injuries were treated conservatively based on physical therapy, analgesic medications, and underwent a symptoms-based rehabilitation protocol. Mean return to play was 11.5  ±  8.8 days. Although uncommon, tears of the obturator externus and internus occur in professional soccer players. The MRI scan was essential to the location, classification, and evaluation of the injury size. The clinical relevance of our investigation is based on the relatively benign prognosis of these injuries. IV.

  19. [The Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS). Options and problems in application].

    PubMed

    Haasper, C; Junge, M; Ernstberger, A; Brehme, H; Hannawald, L; Langer, C; Nehmzow, J; Otte, D; Sander, U; Krettek, C; Zwipp, H

    2010-05-01

    The new AIS (Abbreviated Injury Scale) was released with an update by the AAAM (Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine) in 2008. It is a universal scoring system in the field of trauma applicable in clinic and research. In engineering it is used as a classification system for vehicle safety. The AIS can therefore be considered as an international, interdisciplinary and universal code of injury severity. This review focuses on a historical overview, potential applications and new coding options in the current version and also outlines the associated problems.

  20. Isolated transcalcaneal talonavicular dislocation: a severe injury related to a low-energy mechanism.

    PubMed

    Ventham, Nicholas T; Phadnis, Joideep; Sujenthiran, Arunan; Trompeter, Alex J; Ramesh, Palanisamy

    2013-01-01

    Transcalcaneal talonavicular dislocation is a rare injury, with very few reported cases. Of these, most have been the result of high-energy mechanisms such as road traffic collisions or falls from a height. The management of this injury is challenging, and treatment is fraught with a high rate of disability, infection, and amputation. We describe the successful management of the first reported case of a low-energy transcalcaneal talonavicular dislocation in a 71-year-old female. Combined external and internal fixation was used to reduce and maintain the injury, with a resultant good functional and complication-free outcome at 1 year after the injury. Our experience highlights the prevalence of these devastating injuries caused by relatively benign mechanisms in an increasingly older population with osteoporotic bone. It also indicates that operative stabilization of a low-energy injury can be more successful than that with the traditional high-velocity trauma. Copyright © 2013 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The epidemiology of horse-related injuries for different horse exposures, activities, and age groups in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Lang, Jacelle; Sathivelu, Maria; Tetsworth, Kevin; Pollard, Cliff; Harvey, Kathy; Bellamy, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    The dangers associated with horse riding, a popular activity throughout Australia, are well documented; yet, few studies have comprehensively described injuries caused by horses to nonriders. This study aimed to facilitate targeted injury prevention strategies and appropriate trauma management by describing all horse-related injuries, for both riders and nonriders, in Queensland, and identifying those at greatest risk. Horse-related injury data from 2005 to 2009 were extracted from the Queensland Trauma Registry. Descriptive comparisons were undertaken for demographic, injury, and acute care characteristics between riders and nonriders, between pediatric and adult cases, and between sports/leisure and work injuries. The relative risk of surgery by sex and between riders and nonriders was assessed. More than 25% of injuries occurred in people not riding a horse. Nonriders sustained a significantly higher proportion of internal organ injuries, open wounds, as well as facial and pelvic/abdominal injuries. Females accounted for more than 80% of children who were injured while riding a horse. For adults, 25% were injured while working, and more than 66% of injured workers were male. Injuries most commonly occurred in regional areas. Surgery was most common among children, nonriders, and those with Injury Severity Score (ISS) of 1 to 8. The likelihood of surgery was 25% higher for nonriders (95% confidence interval, 1.14-1.38%). Horse-related injuries are most prevalent in identifiable populations, particularly young female riders and adult males injured while working. Injuries inflicted by horses to nonriders contribute more than 27% of all horse-related injuries; however, most previous research has been limited to injured riders. Compared with riders, nonriders more frequently sustain internal, facial, and pelvic injuries; are male; and undergo surgery. The results of this study may be used to tailor prevention strategies and inform trauma management specific to the

  2. No-fault compensation for treatment injuries in Danish public hospitals 2006-12.

    PubMed

    Tilma, Jens; Nørgaard, Mette; Mikkelsen, Kim Lyngby; Johnsen, Søren Paaske

    2016-02-01

    We aimed to determine the incidence rate and time trend of approved treatment injuries in Danish public hospitals from 2006 to 2012 and also to identify independent predictors of severe treatment injuries among patient and system factors and characterize the injuries. We performed a nationwide, historical observational study on data from the Danish Patient Compensation Association, which receives all compensation claims from Danish health care. All approved closed claims of treatment injuries occurring in public hospitals 2006-12 were included. Health care activity information was obtained through Statistics Denmark. Incidence rates were determined as treatment injuries per year by population and by public hospital contacts. By using a multivariable logistic regression model, we calculated mutually adjusted odds ratios to assess the association between potential predictors and severe injuries among approved claims. We identified 10,959 approved treatment injury claims in 2006-12. The total payout was USD 339 million. The mean incidence rate medians were 27.9 injuries/100,000 inhabitants/year and 0.21 injuries/1000 public hospital contacts/year. These did not increase overtime. Severe injuries and preventable cases comprised 11.0 and 41.0%, respectively. Predictors of severe injury included age 0 and above 40 years, male gender and higher level of comorbidity. The incidence rate of approved closed claims at Danish public hospitals appears stable. A high proportion of injuries are preventable and both patient- and system-related factors may predict severe injuries. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  3. SIU/ICUD Consultation on Urethral Strictures: Pelvic fracture urethral injuries.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Reynaldo G; Mundy, Tony; Dubey, Deepak; El-Kassaby, Abdel Wahab; Firdaoessaleh; Kodama, Ron; Santucci, Richard

    2014-03-01

    The posterior urethra pierces the perineal diaphragm in close relationship to the pubic arc elements of the bony pelvis to which it is tethered by attachments to the puboprostatic ligaments and the perineal membrane. Because of these relationships, it is not surprising that fracture disruptions of the pelvic ring can be associated with injuries to the urethra at this level. Although the relationship between pelvic fracture and posterior urethral injury has been recognized for >1 century, considerable controversy exists on almost any aspect of these injuries, from the anatomy and classification of the injuries to the strategies for acute management, reconstruction, and treatment of complications, to mention just a few. What it is not controversial and well known is that these injuries can result in significant morbidity in the long run--mainly strictures, erectile dysfunction, and urinary incontinence--which can cause lifelong disability. It also well known that, just as in many other areas of trauma, the severity and duration of the complications can be reduced considerably if the injury is diagnosed and treated promptly and efficiently. This chapter summarizes the most relevant published evidence about the management of pelvic fracture urethral injuries. This comprehensive review, performed by an international panel of experts, will provide valuable information and recommendations to help urologists worldwide improve the treatment and outcomes of their injured patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Traumatic injuries to the duodenum: a report of 98 patients.

    PubMed Central

    Corley, R D; Norcross, W J; Shoemaker, W C

    1975-01-01

    Data of 98 patients who had sustained traumatic injuries to the duodenum during a recent 7-year period is reviewed. The overall mortality was 23.5%; that of the blunt injury group was 35%, that of the penetrating injury group was 20%. However, after the establishment of a trauma unit, the mortality for duodenal injuries fell from 32% to 12%. Death from duodenal wounds may be reduced by earlier hospitalization, earlier diagnosis and consequently earlier surgical repair. Vigorous treatment of shock is essential. A specialized trauma unit with personnel experienced in the management of shock and trauma problems provides a better environment to carry out the preoperative and postoperative care of the acutely injured patient. Adequate surgical treatment of the blunt injury and missile injury of the duodenum should consist of the following procedures: 1) repair of the duodenal wall utilizing conventional techniques; 2) internal decompression of the repair by afferent jejunostomy; 3) efferent jejunostomy for postoperative feeding; 4) temporary gastrostomy; and 5) external drainage of the repair. In certain selected instances, the simple stab wound of the duodenum may be treated by conventional repair without decompression, but a loop of jujunum should be sutured over the repair to prevent delayed disruption. The majority of patients with injuries to the duodenum have associated organs injured which also require considered surgical judgment and action. PMID:1119875

  5. Pancreatic injury.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Nasim; Vernick, Jerome J

    2009-12-01

    Injury to the pancreas, because of its retroperitoneal location, is a rare occurrence, most commonly seen with penetrating injuries (gun shot or stab wounds). Blunt trauma to the pancreas accounts for only 25% of the cases. Pancreatic injuries are associated with high morbidity and mortality due to accompanying vascular and duodenal injuries. Pancreatic injuries are not always easy to diagnose resulting in life threatening complications. Physical examination as well as serum amylase is not diagnostic following blunt trauma. Computed tomography (CT) scan can delineate the injury or transaction of the pancreas. Endoscopic retrograde pancreaticography (ERCP) is the main diagnostic modality for evaluation of the main pancreatic duct. Unrecognized ductal injury leads to pancreatic pseudocyst, fistula, abscess, and other complications. Management depends upon the severity of the pancreatic injury as well as associated injuries. Damage control surgery in hemodynamic unstable patients reduces morbidity and mortality.

  6. Gymnastics injuries.

    PubMed

    Caine, Dennis J; Nassar, Larry

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to review the distribution and determinants of injury rates as reported in the pediatric gymnastics injury literature, and to suggest measures for the prevention of injury and directions for further research. An extensive search of Pubmed was conducted using the Text and MeSH words "gymnastics" and "injury" and limited to the pediatric population (0-18 years). The review focused on studies using denominator-based designs and on those published in the English language. Additional references were obtained from hand searches of the reference lists. Unpublished injury data from the USA Gymnastics National Women's Artistic Gymnastics Championships during 2002-04 were also analyzed. Comparison of study results was compromised due to the diversity of study populations, variability of injury definition across studies, and changes in rules and equipment across years. Notwithstanding, this review of the literature reveals a reasonably consistent picture of pediatric gymnastics injuries. The incidence and severity of injuries is relatively high, particularly among advanced level female gymnasts. Body parts particularly affected by injury vary by gender and include the ankle, knee, wrist, elbow, lower back, and shoulder. Ankle sprains are a particular concern. Overuse and nonspecific pain conditions, particularly the wrist and low back, occur frequently among advanced-level female gymnasts. Factors associated with an increased injury risk among female gymnasts include greater body size and body fat, periods of rapid growth, and increased life stress. Above all, this overview of the gymnastics injury literature underscores the need to establish large-scale injury surveillance systems designed to provide current and reliable data on injury trends in both boys and girls gymnastics, and to be used as a basis for analyzing injury risk factors and identifying dependable injury preventive measures.

  7. Moral Injury, Spiritual Care and the Role of Chaplains: An Exploratory Scoping Review of Literature and Resources.

    PubMed

    Carey, Lindsay B; Hodgson, Timothy J; Krikheli, Lillian; Soh, Rachel Y; Armour, Annie-Rose; Singh, Taranjeet K; Impiombato, Cassandra G

    2016-08-01

    This scoping review considered the role of chaplains with regard to 'moral injury'. Moral injury is gaining increasing notoriety. This is due to greater recognition that trauma (in its various forms) can cause much deeper inflictions and afflictions than just physiological or psychological harm, for there may also be wounds affecting the 'soul' that are far more difficult to heal-if at all. As part of a larger research program exploring moral injury, a scoping review of literature and other resources was implemented utilising Arksey and O'Malley's scoping method (Int J Soc Res Methodol 8(1):19-32, 2005) to focus upon moral injury, spirituality (including religion) and chaplaincy. Of the total number of articles and/or resources noting the term 'moral injury' in relation to spiritual/religious issues (n = 482), the results revealed 60 resources that specifically noted moral injury and chaplains (or other similar bestowed title). The majority of these resources were clearly positive about the role (or the potential role) of chaplains with regard to mental health issues and/or moral injury. The World Health Organization International Classification of Diseases: Australian Modification of Health Interventions to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and related Health problems (10th revision, vol 3-WHO ICD-10-AM, Geneva, 2002), was utilised as a coding framework to classify and identify distinct chaplaincy roles and interventions with regard to assisting people with moral injury. Several recommendations are made concerning moral injury and chaplaincy, most particularly the need for greater research to be conducted.

  8. Gunshot injuries due to celebratory gun shootings.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Mevci; Unlü, Ağahan

    2009-01-01

    Traditional shooting with guns often occurs and leads to unwanted gunshot injuries in areas where celebrations are held. Such injuries have been classified as celebratory gun shooting injury in the international disease classification system. An 8-year-old female patient presented with respiratory arrest. The heartbeats normalized upon cardiopulmonary resuscitation. On physical examination, the only pathological finding was a skin defect measuring 1 x 1 cm on the midline and located 2 cm in front of the coronal suture. Cranial CT revealed a bone defect of 0.5 cm in the area 2 cm in front of the coronal suture on the midline, tetraventricular and extensive subarachnoid hemorrhage and parenchymal hematoma in the frontal area. It was initially thought to be a gunshot injury; however, on cranial CT, no bullet fragments or bullet exit hole was observed. A cervicothoracal direct graph was obtained and an image that might have been compatible with a bullet core was detected at Th 2-3 vertebra level. Although gunshot injuries are generally well- known, this may not be a very familiar topic for neurosurgeons. The primary aim of this report is to emphasize that a bullet round randomly fired into the air ascends in reverse direction to gravity and after reaching a zero point, it returns to the ground at a high velocity that facilitates its penetration into the skull according to a principal physics law.

  9. Ballet injuries: injury incidence and severity over 1 year.

    PubMed

    Allen, Nick; Nevill, Alan; Brooks, John; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Wyon, Matthew

    2012-09-01

    Prospective, descriptive single-cohort study. To assess the incidence and severity of injuries to a professional ballet company over 1 year. Data for an elite-level ballet company of 52 professional dancers were collected by an in-house medical team using a time-loss injury definition. A total of 355 injuries were recorded, with an overall injury incidence of 4.4 injuries per 1000 hours (female, 4.1; male, 4.8; P>.05) and a mean of 6.8 injuries per dancer (female, 6.3; male, 7.3; P>.05). Mean injury severity was 7 days (female, 4; male, 9; P<.05). Most injuries were classified as overuse (64%; female, 68%; male, 60%; P>.05); mean severity of injury was 3 days for females and 9 days for males (P<.05). The percentage of traumatic injuries was 32% for females and 40% for males (P<.05); the corresponding severity was 6 and 10 days, respectively (P<.05). The relatively high number of injuries reported and the resulting loss of dance time support the need to introduce interventions to reduce the risk of injury in professional dancers.J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2012;42(9):781-790. Epub 19 July 2012. doi:10.2519/jospt.2012.3893.

  10. Workload and non-contact injury incidence in elite football players competing in European leagues.

    PubMed

    Delecroix, Barthelemy; McCall, Alan; Dawson, Brian; Berthoin, Serge; Dupont, Gregory

    2018-06-02

    The aim of this study was to analyse the relationship between absolute and acute:chronic workload ratios and non-contact injury incidence in professional football players and to assess their predictive ability. Elite football players (n = 130) from five teams competing in European domestic and confederation level competitions were followed during one full competitive season. Non-contact injuries were recorded and using session rate of perceived exertion (s-RPE) internal absolute workload and acute:chronic (A:C) workload ratios (4-weeks, 3-weeks, 2-weeks and week-to-week) were calculated using a rolling days method. The relative risk (RR) of non-contact injury was increased (RR = 1.59, CI95%: 1.18-2.15) when a cumulative 4-week absolute workload was greater than 10629 arbitrary units (AU) in comparison with a workload between 3745 and 10628 AU. When the 3-week absolute workload was more than 8319 AU versus between 2822 and 8318 AU injury risk was also increased (RR= 1.46, CI95% 1.08-1.98). Injury incidence was higher when the 4-week A:C ratio was <0.85 versus >0.85 (RR = 1.31, CI95%: 1.02-1.70) and with a 3-week A:C ratio >1.30 versus <1.30 (RR = 1.37, CI95%: 1.05-1.77). Importantly, none of the A:C workload combinations showed high sensitivity or specificity. In elite European footballers, using internal workload (sRPE) revealed that cumulative workloads over 3 and 4 weeks were associated with injury incidence. Additionally, A:C workloads, using combinations of 2, 3 and 4 weeks as the C workloads were also associated with increased injury risk. No A:C workload combination was appropriate to predict injury.

  11. Injuries after Hurricane Katrina among Gulf Coast Evacuees sheltered in Houston, Texas.

    PubMed

    Faul, Mark; Weller, Nancy F; Jones, Julie A

    2011-09-01

    After Hurricane Katrina and a decline in the living conditions at a major temporary shelter in New Orleans, Louisiana, residents were offered transport to a Mega-Shelter in Houston, Texas. Approximately 200,000 Gulf Coast residents were transported to Houston's Astrodome/Reliant Center Complex for appropriate triage and transfer to other shelter facilities. The Katrina Clinic was quickly organized to treat evacuees with acute injuries and illnesses as well as chronic medical conditions. Clinic physicians documented 1130 hurricane-related injuries during Katrina Clinic's operational interval, September 1-22, 2005. This article documents the nature, extent, and location of injuries treated at that clinic. We compare the frequency of injury among Katrina evacuees who visited the clinic to that of injuries among clinic outpatient records recorded in a nationally representative database. Using the Barell Matrix system and codes from the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, we classify Katrina injuries by body region and nature of injury; we also document the large number of hurricane-related immunizations distributed at the temporary outpatient clinic. The results show a 42% higher injury proportion among Katrina evacuees and that approximately half of all of the evacuees required immunizations. Lower leg extremity injuries were among the most frequent injuries. Future planning for hurricanes should take into account nonfatal injuries requiring medical treatment and other supportive care. Copyright © 2011 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Terror explosive injuries: a comparison of children, adolescents, and adults.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, Dena H; Peleg, Kobi

    2010-01-01

    We sought to characterize injuries and outcomes from terror explosions with specific attention to children (0-10 years) and adolescents (11-15 years) compared to adults (16-45 years). Terror explosions target vulnerable populations and result in multidimensional injuries that may vary according to age group. The relative dearth of information regarding terror-related injuries among children inhibits proper preparedness and optimum management during such an event. A retrospective study was performed using data from the national Israel Trauma Registry (October 2000 to December 2005). Included were civilians and nonactive military personnel hospitalized as a result of a terror explosion. During the 5.3-year study period, 49 children (0-10 years), 65 adolescents (11-15 years), and 723 adults (16-45 years) were hospitalized from terror explosions. Children were more likely than adults to sustain severe injuries (27% vs. 12%) and traumatic brain injury (35% vs. 20%) and less likely to sustain injuries to their extremities (35% vs. 57%) or open wounds (39% vs. 59%) (P injury profile was similar to that of adults, however, adolescents presented with less internal injuries, more contusions, and superficial wounds to extremities and were more likely to require surgery for mild to moderate wounds. Differences in hospital utilization and outcomes by age groups were observed when data were stratified by injury severity. Compared to adults, children, and adolescents exposed to terror explosions present with different injuries and hospital utilization and outcomes. These results further confirm that preparedness of a pediatric healthcare system is essential for effective management in the event of a future mass casualty incident.

  13. Snowboarding injuries in Australia: investigating risk factors in wrist fractures to enhance injury prevention strategies.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Tracey J; Terwiel, F Anne

    2011-09-01

    To investigate risk factors associated with wrist fractures in snowboarders to inform future snowsport safety strategies. A prospective case-control study using a nonprobability convenience sample was conducted with data collected via a respondent-completed questionnaire. Subjects consisted of snowboarders with a snowboard-related injury who presented to one of 10 medical centers and physiotherapy clinics in resort medical centers and gateway communities across the Australian snowsport season in 2007. Those presenting with injuries other than wrist fractures acted as the control. The 611 respondents reported 802 injuries (61.3% were males and 51.5% were aged 16-25 years). Protective equipment was worn by 57.0% of respondents. The main reason for not wearing a wrist guard was that they did not see the need; of these, 12.9% experienced a wrist fracture. Most injuries occurred on-piste, in a terrain park, or in a lesson. The main mechanism of injury was falling. The major risk factors for wrist fractures were being less than 16 years of age (OR 3.97, CI 2.54-6.22), being in the alpine area for a holiday (OR 2.77, CI 1.47-5.21), and being a first-day snowboard participant (OR 2.02, CI 1.15-3.64). A direct logistic regression indicated that 3 variables had a statistically significant contribution to the model (being less than 16 years old, being on holidays in the region, and not wearing a wrist guard). The key risk factors in this Australian study reflect other international studies, providing a clear market segment for targeted snowsport safety messages: those less than 16 years old, visitors to the alpine regions, and those not wearing wrist guards. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Injuries at a Canadian National Taekwondo Championships: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Mohsen; Pieter, Willy

    2004-01-01

    Background The purpose of this prospective study was to assess the injury rates in male and female adult Canadian Taekwondo athletes relative to total number of injuries, type and body part injured. Methods Subjects (219 males, 99 females) participated in the 1997 Canadian National Taekwondo Championships in Toronto, Canada. Injuries were recorded on an injury form to documents any injury seen and treatment provided by the health care team. These data were later used for this study. The injury form describes the athlete and nature, site, severity and mechanism of the injury. Results The overall rate of injuries was 62.9/1,000 athlete-exposures (A-E). The males (79.9/1,000 A-E) sustained significantly more injuries than the females (25.3/1,000 A-E). The lower extremities were the most commonly injured body region in the men (32.0 /1,000 A-E), followed by the head and neck (18.3/1,000 A-E). Injuries to the spine (neck, upper back, low back and coccyx) were the third most often injured body region in males (13.8/1,000 A-E). All injuries to the women were sustained to the lower extremities. The most common type of injury in women was the contusion (15.2/1,000 A-E). However, men's most common type of injury was the sprain (22.8/1,000 A-E) followed by joint dysfunction (13.7/1,000A-E). Concussions were only reported in males (6.9/1,000 A-E). Compared to international counterparts, the Canadian men and women recorded lower total injury rates. However, the males incurred more cerebral concussions than their American colleagues (4.7/1,000 A-E). Conclusions Similar to what was found in previous studies, the current investigation seems to suggest that areas of particular concern for preventive measures involve the head and neck as well as the lower extremities. This is the first paper to identify spinal joint dysfunction. PMID:15279679

  15. The Role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Athletic Pubalgia and Core Muscle Injury.

    PubMed

    Coker, Dana J; Zoga, Adam C

    2015-08-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become the standard of care imaging modality for a difficult, often misunderstood spectrum of musculoskeletal injury termed athletic pubalgia or core muscle injury. Armed with a dedicated noncontrast athletic pubalgia protocol and a late model phased array receiver coil, the musculoskeletal imager can play a great role in effective diagnosis and treatment planning for lesions, including osteitis pubis, midline pubic plate lesions, and rectus abdominis/adductor aponeurosis injury. Beyond these established patterns of MRI findings, there are many confounders and contributing pathologies about the pelvis in patients with activity related groin pain, including internal and periarticular derangements of the hip. The MRI is ideally suited to delineate the extent of expected injury and to identify the unexpected visceral and musculoskeletal lesions.

  16. Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... before. Often, the injury is minor because your skull is hard and it protects your brain. But ... injuries can be more severe, such as a skull fracture, concussion, or traumatic brain injury. Head injuries ...

  17. Examining Measures of Weight as Risk Factors for Sport-Related Injury in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Doyle-Baker, Patricia K.; Macpherson, Alison; Emery, Carolyn A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To examine body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) as risk factors for sport injury in adolescents. Design. A secondary analysis of prospectively collected data from a pilot cluster randomized controlled trial. Methods. Adolescents (n = 1,040) at the ages of 11–15 years from two Calgary junior high schools were included. BMI (kg/m2) and WC (cm) were measured from direct measures at baseline assessment. Categories (overweight/obese) were created using validated international (BMI) and national (WC) cut-off points. A Poisson regression analysis controlling for relevant covariates (sex, previous injury, sport participation, intervention group, and aerobic fitness level) estimated the risk of sport injury [incidence rate ratios (IRR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI)]. Results. There was an increased risk of time loss injury (IRR = 2.82, 95% CI: 1.01–8.04) and knee injury (IRR = 2.07, 95% CI: 1.00–6.94) in adolescents that were overweight/obese; however, increases in injury risk for all injury and lower extremity injury were not statistically significant. Estimates suggested a greater risk of time loss injury [IRR = 1.63 (95% CI: 0.93–2.47)] in adolescents with high measures of WC. Conclusions. There is an increased risk of time loss injury and knee injury in overweight/obese adolescents. Sport injury prevention training programs should include strategies that target all known risk factors for injury. PMID:27525304

  18. Paragliding injuries.

    PubMed

    Krüger-Franke, M; Siebert, C H; Pförringer, W

    1991-06-01

    Regulations controlling the sport of paragliding were issued in April 1987 by the German Department of Transportation. The growing popularity of this sport has led to a steady increase in the number of associated injuries. This study presents the incidence, localization and degree of injuries associated with paragliding documented in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. The 283 injuries suffered by 218 paragliders were documented in the period 1987-1989: 181 occurred during landing, 28 during starting procedures and nine during flight. The mean patient age was 29.6 years. There were 34.9% spinal injuries, 13.4% upper extremity injuries and 41.3% lower limb injuries. Over half of these injuries were treated surgically and in 54 instances permanent disability remained. In paragliding the lower extremities are at greatest risk of injury during landing. Proper equipment, especially sturdy footwear, exact training in landing techniques as well as improved instruction in procedures during aborted or crash landings is required to reduce the frequency of these injuries.

  19. Injury epidemiology after the 2001 Gujarat earthquake in India: a retrospective analysis of injuries treated at a rural hospital in the Kutch district immediately after the disaster

    PubMed Central

    Phalkey, Revati; Reinhardt, Jan D.; Marx, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background The number of injured far exceeds those dead and the average injury to mortality ratio in earthquakes stands at 3:1. Immediate effective medical response significantly influences injury outcomes and thus the overall health impact of earthquakes. Inadequate or mismanagement of injuries may lead to disabilities. The lack of precise data from immediate aftermath is seen as a remarkable weak point in disaster epidemiology and warrants evidence generation. Objective To analyze the epidemiology of injuries and the treatment imparted at a secondary rural hospital in the Kutch district, Gujarat, India following the January 26, 2001 earthquake. Design/Methods Discharge reports of patients admitted to the hospital over 10 weeks were analyzed retrospectively for earthquake-related injuries. Results Orthopedic injuries, (particularly fractures of the lower limbs) were predominant and serious injuries like head, chest, abdominal, and crush syndrome were minimal. Wound infections were reported in almost 20% of the admitted cases. Surgical procedures were more common than conservative treatment. The most frequently performed surgical procedures were open reduction with internal fixation and cleaning and debridement of contaminated wounds. Four secondary deaths and 102 transfers to tertiary care due to complications were reported. Conclusion The injury epidemiology reported in this study is in general agreement with most other studies reporting injury epidemiology except higher incidence of distal orthopedic injuries particularly to the lower extremities. We also found that young males were more prone to sustaining injuries. These results warrant further research. Inconsistent data reporting procedures against the backdrop of inherent disaster data incompleteness calls for urgent standardization of reporting earthquake injuries for evidence-based response policy planning. PMID:21799668

  20. Developing Surveillance Methodology for Agricultural and Logging Injury in New Hampshire Using Electronic Administrative Data Sets.

    PubMed

    Scott, Erika E; Hirabayashi, Liane; Krupa, Nicole L; Sorensen, Julie A; Jenkins, Paul L

    2015-08-01

    Agriculture and logging rank among industries with the highest rates of occupational fatality and injury. Establishing a nonfatal injury surveillance system is a top priority in the National Occupational Research Agenda. Sources of data such as patient care reports (PCRs) and hospitalization data have recently transitioned to electronic databases. Using narrative and location codes from PCRs, along with International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, external cause of injury codes (E-codes) in hospital data, researchers are designing a surveillance system to track farm and logging injury. A total of 357 true agricultural or logging cases were identified. These data indicate that it is possible to identify agricultural and logging injury events in PCR and hospital data. Multiple data sources increase catchment; nevertheless, limitations in methods of identification of agricultural and logging injury contribute to the likely undercount of injury events.

  1. Delayed amputation following trauma increases residual lower limb infection.

    PubMed

    Jain, Abhilash; Glass, Graeme E; Ahmadi, Hootan; Mackey, Simon; Simmons, Jon; Hettiaratchy, Shehan; Pearse, Michael; Nanchahal, Jagdeep

    2013-04-01

    Residual limb infection following amputation is a devastating complication, resulting in delayed rehabilitation, repeat surgery, prolonged hospitalisation and poor functional outcome. The aim of this study was to identify variables predicting residual limb infection following non-salvageable lower limb trauma. All cases of non-salvageable lower limb trauma presenting to a specialist centre over 5 years were evaluated from a prospective database and clinical and management variables correlated with the development of deep infection. Forty patients requiring 42 amputations were identified with a mean age of 49 years (±19.9, 1SD). Amputations were performed for 21 Gustilo IIIB injuries, 12 multi-planar degloving injuries, seven IIIC injuries and one open Schatzker 6 fracture. One limb was traumatically amputated at the scene and surgically revised. Amputation level was transtibial in 32, through-knee in one and transfemoral in nine. Median time from injury to amputation was 4 days (range 0-30 days). Amputation following only one debridement and within 5 days resulted in significantly fewer stump infections (p = 0.026 and p = 0.03, respectively, Fisher's exact test). The cumulative probability of infection-free residual limb closure declined steadily from day 5. Multivariate analyses revealed that neither the nature of the injury nor pre-injury patient morbidity independently influenced residual limb infection. Avoiding residual limb infection is critically dependent on prompt amputation of non-salvageable limbs. Copyright © 2012 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Acute bilateral iliac artery occlusion secondary to blunt trauma: successful endovascular treatment.

    PubMed

    Sternbergh, W Charles; Conners, Michael S; Ojeda, Melissa A; Money, Samuel R

    2003-09-01

    Endovascular treatment of blunt vascular trauma has been infrequently reported. A 27-year-old man was crushed between a fork-lift truck and a concrete platform. The physical examination was remarkable for hemodynamic stability, significant lower abdominal ecchymosis and tenderness, obvious pelvic fracture, and gross hematuria. Vascular examination revealed no femoral pulses, no pedal signals bilaterally, and minimal left leg and no right leg motor function. Arteriograms revealed right common iliac artery and external iliac artery occlusion and a 2-cm near occlusion of the left external iliac artery. In the operating room, bilateral common femoral artery access was obtained, and retrograde arteriogram on the right side demonstrated free extravasation of contrast material at the level of the proximal external iliac artery. An angled glide wire was successfully traversed over the vascular injury, and two covered stents (Wallgraft, 10 x 50 mm and 8 x 30 mm) were deployed. The left iliac injury was similarly treated with an 8 x 30-mm covered stent. After calf fasciotomy, exploratory laparotomy revealed a severe sigmoid colon degloving injury, requiring resection and colostomy. A suprapubic catheter was placed because of bladder rupture, and an open-book pelvic fracture was treated with external fixation. Postoperatively the patient regained palpable bilateral pedal pulses and normal left leg function, but right leg paralysis persisted secondary to severe lumbar plexus nerve injury. Endovascular repair of blunt intra-abdominal arterial injuries is possible and should be particularly considered when fecal contamination, pelvic hematoma, or multiple associated injuries make conventional repair problematic.

  3. A systematic video analysis of 69 injury cases in World Cup alpine skiing.

    PubMed

    Bere, T; Flørenes, T W; Krosshaug, T; Haugen, P; Svandal, I; Nordsletten, L; Bahr, R

    2014-08-01

    We have limited insight into how injuries occur in professional ski racing. The aim of this study was to describe the injury situations in World Cup alpine skiing. Injuries reported through the International Ski Federation Injury Surveillance System for three consecutive World Cup seasons (2006-2009) were obtained on video. In total, 69 injuries and 124 runs of matched controls were analysed by five experts to evaluate the skiing situation, skier behavior, as well as piste-related factors. A chi-square test (95% CI, P ≤ 0.05) was used to examine whether there was a difference between course sections regarding where the injury situation occurred. The skier was most frequently turning (n = 55) or landing from a jump (n = 13) at the time of injury. Most of the injuries to the head and upper body (96%) resulted from crashes, while the majority of knee injuries (83%) occurred while the skier was still skiing. Gate contact contributed to 30% of the injuries, while 9% occurred at contact with safety nets/material. Almost half of the injuries (46%) occurred in the final fourth of the course. A particular concern was the high contribution of inappropriate gate contact and the high-energy impacts to the body when crashing. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Characterization of craniomaxillofacial battle injuries sustained by United States service members in the current conflicts of Iraq and Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Lew, Timothy A; Walker, John A; Wenke, Joseph C; Blackbourne, Lorne H; Hale, Robert G

    2010-01-01

    To characterize and describe the craniomaxillofacial (CMF) battlefield injuries sustained by US Service Members in Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom. The Joint Theater Trauma Registry was queried from October 19, 2001, to December 11, 2007, for CMF battlefield injuries. The CMF injuries were identified using the "International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification" codes and the data compiled for battlefield injury service members. Nonbattlefield injuries, killed in action, and return to duty cases were excluded. CMF battlefield injuries were found in 2,014 of the 7,770 battlefield-injured US service members. In the 2,014 injured service members were 4,783 CMF injuries (2.4 injuries per soldier). The incidence of CMF battlefield injuries by branch of service was Army, 72%; Marines, 24%; Navy, 2%; and Air Force, 1%. The incidence of penetrating soft-tissue injuries and fractures was 58% and 27%, respectively. Of the fractures, 76% were open. The location of the facial fractures was the mandible in 36%, maxilla/zygoma in 19%, nasal in 14%, and orbit in 11%. The remaining 20% were not otherwise specified. The primary mechanism of injury involved explosive devices (84%). Of the injured US service members, 26% had injuries to the CMF region in the Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom conflicts during a 6-year period. Multiple penetrating soft-tissue injuries and fractures caused by explosive devices were frequently seen. Increased survivability because of body armor, advanced battlefield medicine, and the increased use of explosive devices is probably related to the elevated incidence of CMF battlefield injuries. The current use of "International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification" codes with the Joint Theater Trauma Registry failed to characterize the severity of facial wounds.

  5. Time to add a new priority target for child injury prevention? The case for an excess burden associated with sport and exercise injury: population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Finch, Caroline F; Wong Shee, Anna; Clapperton, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the population-level burden of sports injuries compared with that for road traffic injury for children aged <15 years in Victoria, Australia. Design Retrospective observational study. Setting Analysis of routinely collected data relating to non-fatal hospital-treated sports injury and road traffic injury cases for children aged <15 years in Victoria, Australia, over 2004–2010, inclusive. Participants 75 413 non-fatal hospital-treated sports injury and road traffic injury cases in children aged <15 years. Data included: all Victorian public and private hospital hospitalisations, using the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Health Related Problems, 10th Revision, Australian Modification (ICD-10-AM) activity codes to identify sports-related cases and ICD-10-AM cause and location codes to identify road traffic injuries; and injury presentations to 38 Victorian public hospital emergency departments, using a combination of activity, cause and location codes. Main outcome measures Trends in injury frequency and rate were analysed by log-linear Poisson regression and the population-level injury burden was assessed in terms of years lived with disability (YLD), hospital bed-days and direct hospital costs. Results Over the 7-year period, the annual frequency of non-fatal hospital-treated sports injury increased significantly by 29% (from N=7405 to N=9923; p<0.001) but the frequency of non-fatal hospital-treated road traffic injury decreased by 26% (from N=1841 to N=1334; p<0.001). Sports injury accounted for a larger population health burden than did road traffic injury on all measures: 3-fold the number of YLDs (7324.8 vs 2453.9); 1.9-fold the number of bed-days (26 233 vs 13 886) and 2.6-fold the direct hospital costs ($A5.9 millions vs $A2.2 millions). Conclusions The significant 7-year increase in the frequency of hospital-treated sports injury and the substantially higher injury population-health burden (direct

  6. Occurrence of injuries and illnesses during the 2009 IAAF World Athletics Championships.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Juan-Manuel; Tscholl, Philippe M; Engebretsen, Lars; Mountjoy, Margo; Dvorak, Jiri; Junge, Astrid

    2010-12-01

    To analyse the frequency and characteristics of sports injuries and illnesses incurred during the World Athletics Championships. Prospective recording of newly occurred injuries and illnesses. Twelfth International Association of Athletics Federations World Championships in Athletics 2009 in Berlin, Germany. National team physicians and physiotherapists and 1979 accredited athletes; Local Organising Committee physicians working in the Medical Centres. Incidence and characteristics of newly incurred injuries and illnesses. 236 injury incidents with 262 injured body parts and 269 different injury types were reported, representing an incidence of 135.4 injuries per 1000 registered athletes. Eighty percent affected the lower extremity. Thigh strain (13.8%) was the main diagnosis. Overuse (44.1%) was the predominant cause. Most injuries were incurred during competition (85.9%). About 43.8% of all injury events were expected to result in time-loss. 135 illnesses were reported, signifying an incidence of 68.2 per 1000 registered athletes. Upper respiratory tract infection was the most common condition (30.4%) and infection was the most frequent cause (32.6%). The incidence of injury and illnesses varied substantially among the events. The risk of injury varied with each discipline. Preventive measures should be specific and focused on minimising the potential for overuse. Attention should be paid to ensure adequate rehabilitation of previous injuries. The addition of the illness part to the injury surveillance system proved to be feasible. As most illnesses were caused by infection of the respiratory tract or were environmentally related, preventive interventions should focus on decreasing the risk of transmission, appropriate event scheduling and heat acclimatisation.

  7. A social change perspective on injury prevention in China.

    PubMed

    Ozanne-Smith, Joan; Li, Qingfeng

    2018-05-05

    China has undergone massive social change over the past four decades. Since national estimates became available in 1987, the overall fatal injury rate has decreased. This paper investigates targeted interventions and sociodemographic factors that may have contributed to fatal injury rate changes particularly for road traffic fatality (RTF), suicide and drowning. (1) To review the recent epidemiology of injury in China.(2)To investigate factors influencing trends in overall and specific cause injury mortality rates. Published injury mortality statistics and related literature were reviewed. Factors potentially influencing trends were investigated in the context of rapid development based on literature reviews of targeted interventions, macrolevel and microlevel contextual factors and changes specific to RTF, suicide and drowning. Overall estimated national injury mortality rates in China decreased between 1987 and 2015, despite a rapid rise in RTF. Suicide and drowning rates decreased significantly and falls displaced drowning among the leading causes. The higher female to male suicide ratio reversed. Differences were observed in frequencies and proportions of deaths by major cause by age group and over time. Economic and structural development and related social change in this period include: urbanisation, changes in demographics, life choices (eg, internal migration), education, poverty alleviation, health insurance and relevant regulations/legislation. These factors potentially explain much of the change in fatal injury rates in China. Data limitations persist. Increased investment in data and research would provide realistic opportunities for accelerated progress in implementing effective targeted interventions to further reduce China's injury burden. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Pediatric air gun shot injury.

    PubMed

    Khan, Ubaid U; Kamal, Naglaa M; Mirza, Shazia J; Sherief, Laila M

    2014-12-01

    Air guns (AGs) use air or another compressed gas to propel a projectile. Different injuries may occur in children due to their body structure, which is less-resistant with thin soft tissue coverage that can be easily penetrated by an AG shot. We present 3 cases of pediatric AG shot injury. The first-case had right lumber deep tissue penetration of AG pallet without internal damage, the second-case had a complex course of pellet into the perineum, and the third-case was shot in the left shoulder. All cases were accidentally shot. The shooters were all children, and relatives of the victims. All patients were generally stable on arrival. Two cases were operated, and one received conservative management. On follow up, no complications were noted.  At first sight, AGs and air rifles may appear relatively harmless, but they are potentially lethal and children should not be allowed to play with them. 

  9. Demographics of acute admissions to a National Spinal Injuries Unit.

    PubMed

    Lenehan, B; Boran, S; Street, J; Higgins, T; McCormack, D; Poynton, A R

    2009-07-01

    This prospective demographic study was undertaken to review the epidemiology and demographics of all acute admissions to the National Spinal Injuries Unit in Ireland for the 5 years to 2003. The study was conducted at the National Spinal Injuries Unit, Mater Miscericordiae University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. Records of all patients admitted to our unit from 1999 to 2003 were compiled from a prospective computerized spinal database. In this 5-year period, 942 patients were acutely hospitalized at the National Spinal Injuries Unit. There were 686 (73%) males and 256 (27%) females, with an average age of 32 years (range 16-84 years). The leading cause of admission with a spinal injury was road traffic accidents (42%), followed by falls (35%), sport (11%), neoplasia (7.5%) and miscellaneous (4.5%). The cervical spine was most commonly affected (51%), followed by lumbar (28%) and thoracic (21%). On admission 38% of patients were ASIA D or worse, of which one-third were AISA A. Understanding of the demographics of spinal column injuries in unique populations can help us to develop preventative and treatment strategies at both national and international levels.

  10. Paragliding injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Krüger-Franke, M; Siebert, C H; Pförringer, W

    1991-01-01

    Regulations controlling the sport of paragliding were issued in April 1987 by the German Department of Transportation. The growing popularity of this sport has led to a steady increase in the number of associated injuries. This study presents the incidence, localization and degree of injuries associated with paragliding documented in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. The 283 injuries suffered by 218 paragliders were documented in the period 1987-1989: 181 occurred during landing, 28 during starting procedures and nine during flight. The mean patient age was 29.6 years. There were 34.9% spinal injuries, 13.4% upper extremity injuries and 41.3% lower limb injuries. Over half of these injuries were treated surgically and in 54 instances permanent disability remained. In paragliding the lower extremities are at greatest risk of injury during landing. Proper equipment, especially sturdy footwear, exact training in landing techniques as well as improved instruction in procedures during aborted or crash landings is required to reduce the frequency of these injuries. Images p99-a p100-a p100-b p100-c PMID:1751899

  11. Comparison of subjective and objective assessments of outcome after traumatic brain injury using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF).

    PubMed

    Koskinen, Sanna; Hokkinen, Eeva-Maija; Wilson, Lindsay; Sarajuuri, Jaana; Von Steinbüchel, Nicole; Truelle, Jean-Luc

    2011-01-01

    The aim is to examine two aspects of outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Functional outcome was assessed by the Glasgow Outcome Scale - Extended (GOSE) and by clinician ratings, while health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was assessed by the Quality of Life after Brain Injury (QOLIBRI). The GOSE and the QOLIBRI were linked to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) to analyse their content. Functional outcome on ICF categories was assessed by rehabilitation clinicians in 55 participants with TBI and was compared to the participants' own judgements of their HRQoL. The QOLIBRI was linked to 42 and the GOSE to 57 two-level ICF categories covering 78% of the categories on the ICF brief core set for TBI. The closest agreement in the views of the professionals and the participants was found on the Physical Problems and Cognition scales of the QOLIBRI. The problems encountered after TBI are well covered by the QOLIBRI and the GOSE. They capture important domains that are not traditionally sufficiently documented, especially in the domains of interpersonal relationships, social and leisure activities, self and the environment. The findings indicate that they are useful and complementary outcome measures for TBI. In rehabilitation, they can serve as tools in assessment, setting meaningful goals and creating therapeutic alliance.

  12. Prognostic value of major extracranial injury in traumatic brain injury: an individual patient data meta-analysis in 39,274 patients.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Nikki; Lingsma, Hester F; Perel, Pablo; Lecky, Fiona; Roozenbeek, Bob; Lu, Juan; Shakur, Haleema; Weir, James; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Maas, Andrew I R

    2012-04-01

    Major extracranial injury (MEI) is common in traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients, but the effect on outcome is controversial. To assess the prognostic value of MEI on mortality after TBI in an individual patient data meta-analysis of 3 observational TBI studies (International Mission on Prognosis and Clinical Trial Design in TBI [IMPACT]), a randomized controlled trial (Corticosteroid Randomization After Significant Head Injury [CRASH]), and a trauma registry (Trauma Audit and Research Network [TARN]). MEI (extracranial injury with an Abbreviated Injury Scale ≥ 3 or requiring hospital admission) was related to mortality with logistic regression analysis, adjusted for age, Glasgow Coma Scale motor score, and pupil reactivity and stratified by TBI severity. We pooled odds ratios (ORs) with random-effects meta-analysis. We included 39,274 patients. Mortality was 25%, and 32% had MEI. MEI was a strong predictor for mortality in TARN, with adjusted odds ratios of 2.81 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.44-3.23) in mild, 2.18 (95% CI, 1.80-2.65) in moderate, and 2.14 (95% CI, 1.95-2.35) in severe TBI patients. The prognostic effect was smaller in IMPACT and CRASH, with pooled adjusted odds ratios of 2.14 (95% CI, 0.93-4.91) in mild, 1.46 (95% CI, 1.14-1.85) in moderate, and 1.18 (95% CI, 1.03-1.55) in severe TBI. When patients who died within 6 hours after injury were excluded from TARN, the effect of MEI was comparable with IMPACT and CRASH. MEI is an important prognostic factor for mortality in TBI patients. However, the effect varies by population, which explains the controversy in the literature. The strength of the effect is smaller in patients with more severe brain injury and depends on time of inclusion in a study.

  13. Head injury and loss of consciousness raise the likelihood of developing and maintaining PTSD symptoms.

    PubMed

    Roitman, Pablo; Gilad, Moran; Ankri, Yahel L E; Shalev, Arieh Y

    2013-12-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury has been associated with higher prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The extent to which head injury or loss of consciousness predicts PTSD is unknown. To evaluate the contribution of head injury and loss of consciousness to the occurrence of PTSD, we made a longitudinal evaluation of 1,260 road accident survivors admitted to the emergency department with head injury (n = 287), head injury and loss of consciousness (n = 115), or neither (n = 858). A telephone-administered posttraumatic symptoms scale inferred PTSD and quantified PTSD symptoms at 10 days and 8 months after admission. The study groups had similar heart rate, blood pressure, and pain levels in the emergency department. Survivors with loss of consciousness and head injury had higher prevalence of PTSD and higher levels of PTSD symptoms, suggesting that patients with head injury and loss of consciousness reported in the emergency department are at higher risk for PTSD. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  14. CT characteristics of Morel-Lavallée lesions: an under-recognized but significant finding in acute trauma imaging.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Gavin A; Niederhauser, Blake D; Collins, Mark S; Howe, Benjamin M

    2016-08-01

    To highlight the significance and imaging characteristics of Morel-Lavallée (ML) lesions, which have been well characterized on MRI, but are potentially under-recognized on CT. Twenty-eight Morel-Lavallée lesions were identified in 18 patients and were all clinically or surgically confirmed. Lesions were grouped into acute (<3 days), subacute (3-30 days), and chronic (>30 days) at the time of CT imaging. Charts were reviewed to gather patient characteristics, injury patterns, radiologist interpretation, treatment, and outcomes. Sixteen male and 2 female patients with a mean age of 50 years (range 19-80) at the date of their initial evaluation were identified. All patients had significant trauma that accounted for 28 ML lesions, all of which were in a characteristic subcutaneous location overlying the muscular fascial plane. Lesions on CT went through an evolution from hyperdense, poorly or moderately marginated without a pseudocapsule to being hypodense, with internal fat globules or septations and well marginated with a complete enhancing pseudocapsule. Only 1 (4 %) of the ML lesions was suggested and 7 (25 %) lesions were not commented on at all by the interpreting radiologist. Morel-Lavallée lesions are post-traumatic closed, internal, soft-tissue, degloving lesions that are potentially underrecognized on CT. Most acute ML lesions are nonspecific, resembling simple hematomas or contusions. ML lesions evolve as they age with subacute and chronic lesions demonstrating the known features described on MR imaging that should allow for an accurate imaging diagnosis.

  15. Strategies for prevention of road traffic injuries (RTIs) in Pakistan: situational analysis.

    PubMed

    Khan, Adeel Ahmed; Fatmi, Zafar

    2014-05-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are one of the leading causes of death among productive age group. Using systems approach framework (SAF), current preventive strategies for RTI control were reviewed in Pakistan. A review of the literature was done using four international search engines. Only ten studies on preventive strategies for RTI stemming from Pakistan were found. The first Road Traffic Injuries Research Network (RTIRN) surveillance system for road traffic injuries was established in urban city (Karachi) in Pakistan has shown promise for injury control and should be scaled up to other cities. Enforcement of traffic laws on seat-belt and helmet wearing is poor. National Highway and Motorway Police Ordinance (2000) was one of the few legislative measure so far taken in Pakistan. Using SAF, efforts are required to implement interventions targeting human, vehicle design and also making environment safer for road users.

  16. Preventing Injuries in the U.S. Military: The Process, Priorities, and Epidemiologic Evidence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    H. Donson, et al. 2007. Consensus statement on injury definitions and data collection procedures for studies of injuries in Rugby Union . Clin J...Collegiate Athletic Association and international governing bodies for many sports including soccer and rugby .(28-32) (6) Though acute trauma may be a...and New Zealand and appears to be a blend of rugby and touch football as played in the United States. In this sport where no tackling is allowed and

  17. Measuring Fatigue in Persons with Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Anton, Hubert A.; Miller, William C.; Townson, Andrea F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). Design A two week methodological study was conducted to assess the internal consistency, reliability and the construct validity of the FSS. Setting A tertiary spinal cord rehabilitation facility. Participants 48 community living individuals at least one year post SCI with ASIA A or B SCI and no medical conditions causing fatigue. Main Outcome Measures The ASIA Impairment Scale; the FSS; a Visual Analogue Scale for Fatigue (VAS-F), the SF-36 vitality scale, and the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression – Scale (CES-D) Results Our sample was predominantly male (n=31, 65%) with tetraplegia (n=26, 54%) and ASIA A injuries (n=30, 63%). The mean FSS score at baseline was 4.4 (SD=1.4) with 54% (N=26) scoring greater than 4. The internal consistency of the FSS was Cronbach’s alpha = 0.89. Two-week test-retest reliability was ICC=0.84 (95% CI 0.74 – 0.90). The magnitude of the relationship was as hypothesized for the VAS-F(r=.67) and CES-D (r=.58) and lower than hypothesized for the vitality subscore (r=−.48) of the SF-36. Conclusions The FSS has acceptable reliability with regard to internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and validity in persons with motor complete SCI. PMID:18295634

  18. New therapeutic advances in CNS injury and repair.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Hari S; Sharma, Aruna

    2012-08-01

    The 9th Global College of Neuroprotection and Neuroregeneration annual meeting was held in cooperation with the 5th International Association of Neurorestoratology and the 4th International Spinal Cord Injury Treatment and Trial Symposium in the beautiful city of Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, China, between 4 and 7 May 2012. This trilateral conference was held in the pleasing ambience of the Sofitel Hotel Complex in Renmin Square, Xi'an. Top Chinese government dignitaries including the National Deputy Health Minister, Vice Governor of Shaanxi Province, Vice President of Xi'an Jiaotong University and Party Secretary of the Medical Association inaugurated the congress. More than 1000 delegates from across the world, including approximately 600 medical researchers from China, participated in this meeting. The theme of this meeting was 'neurorestoration and neurorepair' using stem cell treatment, antibodies and pharmacotherapy, as well as nanomedicine and neurorehabilitation. Preclinical and clinical research was presented and discussed. Use of nanomedicine to enhance neurorepair or diagnosis of neurological diseases in clinical situations was the new attraction in this trilateral meeting. More than 50 leading experts in neuroprotection and neurorestoratology presented their cutting edge research in the area. New features included the Youth Forum in which 12 young scientists presented their innovative results, and more than 30 platform presentations were included. Thus, the trilateral conference of the Global College of Neuroprotection and Neuroregeneration, the International Association of Neurorestoratology and the International Spinal Cord Injury Treatment and Trial Symposium was extremely successful from both the scientific and social perspectives.

  19. Gender-related differences in lower limb alignment, range of joint motion, and the incidence of sports injuries in Japanese university athletes.

    PubMed

    Mitani, Yasuhiro

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the gender-related differences in lower limb alignment, range of joint motion, and history of lower limb sports injuries in Japanese university athletes. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 224 Japanese university athletes (154 males and 70 females). The quadriceps angle (Q-angle), arch height index, and ranges of internal and external rotation of the hip joints were measured. History of lower limb sports injury was surveyed using a questionnaire. [Results] Females had a significantly higher Q-angle and hip joint internal rotation angle and a significantly lower arch height index than males. The survey revealed that a significantly higher proportion of females had a history of lower limb sports injuries, and that the proportion of those with a history of foot/ankle injuries was particularly high. [Conclusion] These results suggested that females experience more lower limb sports injuries than males, and that a large proportion of these injuries involve the foot/ankle. Reduced lower limb alignment and increased range of joint motion in females may be risk factors for injury because they lead to increased physical stress being exerted on the lower legs during sporting activities.

  20. Injuries among Spanish male amateur soccer players: a retrospective population study.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Helena; Salinero, Juan José; Del Coso, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Soccer is the most popular sport worldwide, with about 265 million players, both professionals and amateurs. Most research investigating soccer injuries has focused on professional players because they have greater exposure time, but most soccer players are at the recreational level. To undertake a retrospective epidemiological study of the injuries sustained in Spanish amateur soccer during the 2010-2011 season. Descriptive epidemiological study. Any injuries incurred by the 134,570 recreational soccer players (aged 18-55 years) registered with the Spanish Football Federation were reported to the federation's medical staff. A standardized medical questionnaire, based on the Fédération International de Football Association (FIFA) Medical and Research Centre (F-MARC) consensus for collection procedures in studies of soccer injuries, was used to classify the injury according to type, severity, location, and treatment. A total of 15,243 injuries were reported, with an average of 0.11 injuries per player and per year. From the total number of injuries, 67.2% were classified as injuries that resulted in time loss, while the remaining 32.7% were injuries that required medical attention. Most injuries led to a minimum of 1 competitive match being missed (87%), and only 2.5% were recurrent injuries. The rate of injuries per 1000 hours of play was double during games (1.15/1000 hours) compared with during training (0.49/1000 hours). From the total number of injuries reported, 7.7% corresponded to goalkeepers, 24.2% to forwards, 33.8% to defenders, and 34.3% to midfielders. The knee (29.9%) and ankle joints (12.4%) were the most common body locations injured, while ligament sprains and ruptures accounted for 32.1% of the total injuries attended. Older amateur players (age ≥30 years) had a greater number of injuries per year and per 1000 hours of play than their younger counterparts. The risk of injury in amateur soccer is lower than that previously reported in

  1. Injury Mortality in Individuals With Autism

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. To examine epidemiological patterns of injury fatalities in individuals with a diagnosis of autism. Methods. We identified individuals with a diagnosis of autism who died between 1999 and 2014 by screening causes of death in the multiple cause-of-death data files in the National Vital Statistics System based on the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, code F84.0. We used the general US population as the reference to calculate proportionate mortality ratios (PMRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results. During the study period, 1367 deaths (1043 males and 324 females) in individuals with autism were recorded in the United States. The mean age at death for individuals with autism was 36.2 years (SD = 20.9 years), compared with 72.0 years (SD = 19.2 years) for the general population. Of the deaths in individuals with autism, 381 (27.9%) were attributed to injury (PMR = 2.93; 95% CI = 2.64, 3.24), with suffocation (n = 90; PMR = 31.93; 95% CI = 25.69, 39.24) being the leading cause of injury mortality, followed by asphyxiation (n = 78; PMR = 13.50; 95% CI = 10.68, 16.85) and drowning (n = 74; PMR = 39.89; 95% CI = 31.34, 50.06). Conclusions. Individuals with autism appear to be at substantially heightened risk for death from injury. PMID:28323463

  2. Subsequent Injuries Are More Common Than Injury Recurrences: An Analysis of 1 Season of Prospectively Collected Injuries in Professional Australian Football.

    PubMed

    Finch, Caroline F; Cook, Jill; Kunstler, Breanne E; Akram, Muhammad; Orchard, John

    2017-07-01

    It is known that some people can, and do, sustain >1 injury over a playing season. However, there is currently little high-quality epidemiological evidence about the risk of, and relationships between, multiple and subsequent injuries. To describe the subsequent injuries sustained by Australian Football League (AFL) players over 1 season, including their most common injury diagnoses. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Within-player linked injury data on all date-ordered match-loss injuries sustained by AFL players during 1 full season were obtained. The total number of injuries per player was determined, and in those with >1 injury, the Subsequent Injury Classification (SIC) model was used to code all subsequent injuries based on their Orchard Sports Injury Classification System (OSICS) codes and the dates of injury. There were 860 newly recorded injuries in 543 players; 247 players (45.5%) sustained ≥1 subsequent injuries after an earlier injury, with 317 subsequent injuries (36.9% of all injuries) recorded overall. A subsequent injury generally occurred to a different body region and was therefore superficially unrelated to an index injury. However, 32.2% of all subsequent injuries were related to a previous injury in the same season. Hamstring injuries were the most common subsequent injury. The mean time between injuries decreased with an increasing number of subsequent injuries. When relationships between injuries are taken into account, there is a high level of subsequent (and multiple) injuries leading to missed games in an elite athlete group.

  3. A substantial proportion of life-threatening injuries are sport-related.

    PubMed

    Meehan, William P; Mannix, Rebekah

    2013-05-01

    This study aimed to assess the proportion of all life-threatening injuries that are sport-related. We conducted a cross-sectional study of patients included in the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey during the years 1999 to 2008. Life-threatening injuries were defined according to the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes: skull fracture (800.x-802.xx, 803.x-804.xx), cervical spine fractures (805.xx-806.10), intracranial hemorrhage (852.xx-853.xx), traumatic pneumothorax/hemothorax (860.00-860.05), liver lacerations (864.xx), spleen lacerations (865.xx), aortic rupture (901.0; 902.0), gastric/duodenal rupture (537.89), heat stroke (992.0), and commotio cordis/heart contusion (861.01). Sport-related was defined by the external cause of injury codes, confirmed by text search. There were 300,394 observed emergency department visits during the study period. An estimated 0.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.5%-0.6%) of all emergency department visits nationally were for life-threatening injuries. Of the life-threatening injuries, 14% (95% CI, 12%-17) were sport-related, representing 926,805 sport-related, life-threatening injuries nationally. A higher percentage (32%; 95% CI, 27%-38%) of life-threatening injuries sustained by children was sport-related when compared with adults (9%; 95% CI, 7%-11%). For adults aged 19 to 44 years, 12% (95% CI, 9%-15%) of life-threatening injuries were sport-related. For children aged 6 to 18 years, 39% (95% CI, 33%-46%) of life-threatening injuries were sport-related. Nearly a quarter (23%; 95% CI, 7%-55%) of pediatric cervical spine fractures was sport-related. The percentage of cervical spine fractures that were sport-related was lower for adults (7%; 95% CI, 4%-11%). Efforts should be made to prevent the number of sport-related, life-threatening injuries.

  4. A Substantial Proportion of Life-Threatening Injuries are Sport-Related

    PubMed Central

    Meehan, William P.; Mannix, Rebekah

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the proportion of all life-threatening injuries that are sport-related. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of patients included in the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS) during the years 1999–2008. Life-threatening injuries were defined as International Classification of Diseases 9 codes: skull fracture [800.x–802.xx, 803.x–804.xx], cervical spine fractures [805.xx–806.10], intracranial hemorrhage [852.xx–853.xx], traumatic pneumothorax/hemothorax [860.00–860.05], liver lacerations [864.xx], spleen lacerations [865.xx], aortic rupture [901.0; 902.0], gastric/duodenal rupture [537.89], heat stroke [992.0], and commotio cordis/heart contusion [861.01]. Sport-related was defined by external cause of injury codes, confirmed by text search. Results There were 300,394 observed emergency department visits during the study period. An estimated 0.5% (95% CI, 0.5 – 0.6) of all ED visits nationally were for life-threatening injuries. Of life-threatening injuries, 14% (95% CI, 12 – 17) were sport-related, representing 926,805 sport-related, life-threatening injuries nationally. A higher percentage (32%; 95% CI, 27 – 38) of life-threatening injuries sustained by children was sport-related when compared with adults (9%; 95% CI, 7 – 11). For adults aged 19–44 years, 12% (95% CI, 9 – 15) of life-threatening injuries were sport-related. For children aged 6–18 years, 39% (95% CI, 33 – 46) of life-threatening injuries were sport-related. Nearly a quarter (23%; 95% CI, 7 – 55) of pediatric cervical spine fractures was sport-related. The percentage of cervical spine fractures that were sport-related was lower for adults (7%; 95% CI, 4 – 11). Conclusion Efforts should be made to prevent the number of sport-related, life-threatening injuries. PMID:23603654

  5. Outcomes of Internal Fixation in a Combat Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    analyzed. Forty-seven patients had internal fixation performed on 50 fractures in a combat theater hospital. Hip, forearm, and ankle fractures made up the...limited number of fracture patterns associated with a significant risk of failure if definitive treatment is delayed (4). Because of the limited...Injuries Hip, forearm, and ankle fractures made up the majority of internal fixation cases with 14 (28%), 14 (28%), and 10 TABLE 1 Mechanism of

  6. Relationship Among Anal Sphincter Injury, Patulous Anal Canal, and Anal Pressures in Patients with Anorectal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Prichard, David; Harvey, Doris M.; Fletcher, Joel G.; Zinsmeister, Alan R.; Bharucha, Adil E.

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims The anal sphincters and puborectalis are routinely imaged with an endoanal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) coil, which does not assess co-aptation of the anal canal at rest. Using a MRI torso coil, we identified a patulous anal canal in some patients with anorectal disorders. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between anal sphincter and puborectalis injury, a patulous anal canal, and anal pressures. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of data from 119 patients who underwent MRI and manometry analysis of anal anatomy and pressures, respectively, from February 2011 through March 2013 at the Mayo Clinic. Anal pressures were determined by high-resolution manometry, anal sphincter and puborectalis injury was determined by endoanal MRI, and anal canal integrity was determined by torso MRI. Associations between manometric and anatomical parameters were evaluated with univariate and multivariate analyses. Results Fecal incontinence (55 patients, 46%) and constipation (36 patients. 30%) were the main indications for testing; 49 patients (41%) had a patulous anal canal, which was associated with injury to more than 1 muscle (all P≤.001) and internal sphincter (P<.01), but not puborectalis (P=.09) or external sphincter (P=.06) injury. Internal (P<.01) and external sphincter injury (P=.02) and a patulous canal (P<.001), but not puborectalis injury, predicted anal resting pressure. A patulous anal canal was the only significant predictor (P<.01) of the anal squeeze pressure increment. Conclusions Patients with anorectal disorders commonly have a patulous anal canal, associated with more severe anal injury, anal resting pressure, and squeeze pressure increment. It is therefore important to identify patulous anal canal because it appears to be a marker of not only anal sphincter injury but disturbances beyond sphincter injury, such as damage to the anal cushions or anal denervation. PMID:25869638

  7. Acute penile trauma and associated morbidity: 9-year experience at a tertiary care center.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Elizabeth A; Esposito, Anthony J; Munarriz, Ricardo

    2015-05-01

    Penile fracture is an uncommon urologic emergency, defined as traumatic rupture of the tunica albuginea of the corpus cavernosum. It occurs mainly in young adults during sexual activity. In the United States, urethral injury is associated with 10-38% of all penile fractures. Diagnosis can be made clinically with the classic triad of an audible crack, detumescence, and appearance of hematoma. We sought to identify characteristics associated with true penile fracture vs. other diagnoses, and determine associated morbidity and risk factors for complications. Retrospective operative chart review identified 39 patients (mean age 39.4 years) with clinical features of penile fracture presenting to Boston Medical Center from June 2004 to May 2013. Average time from injury to presentation was 76 h (range 0.5 h-9 days) and the mechanism of injury was coital in 32 (82%) patients. Thirty-two patients (82%) had confirmed penile fracture, 7 (18%) had isolated vascular injury. Of confirmed fractures, 4 (13%) had bilateral corporal injury and associated urethral injury. Imaging was utilized in a total of 21 cases, penoscrotal ultrasound (US) in 17 cases, retrograde urethrogram (RUG) in 3 cases, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 1 case. Penile exploration was carried out via degloving (n = 5, 13%) or penoscrotal (n = 34, 87%) incisions. At follow-up, six patients (15%) had complications: 2 wound infections, 2 new-onset erectile dysfunction (ED), 1 urethral stricture, 1 fistula and 1 wound dehiscence. Urethral injury increased the risk of post-operative complications (p = 0.015). Penile fracture is primarily a clinical diagnosis, however imaging may be helpful if diagnosis is uncertain. Urethral injury should be suspected in cases of bilateral corporal injury and may be associated with increased morbidity. Surgical approach does not affect morbidity, but may facilitate surgical repair. © 2015 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  8. Brachial plexus injury mimicking a spinal-cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Macyszyn, Luke J.; Gonzalez-Giraldo, Ernesto; Aversano, Michael; Heuer, Gregory G.; Zager, Eric L.; Schuster, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: High-energy impact to the head, neck, and shoulder can result in cervical spine as well as brachial plexus injuries. Because cervical spine injuries are more common, this tends to be the initial focus for management. We present a case in which the initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was somewhat misleading and a detailed neurological exam lead to the correct diagnosis. Clinical presentation: A 19-year-old man presented to the hospital following a shoulder injury during football practice. The patient immediately complained of significant pain in his neck, shoulder, and right arm and the inability to move his right arm. He was stabilized in the field for a presumed cervical-spine injury and transported to the emergency department. Intervention: Initial radiographic assessment (C-spine CT, right shoulder x-ray) showed no bony abnormality. MRI of the cervical-spine showed T2 signal change and cord swelling thought to be consistent with a cord contusion. With adequate pain control, a detailed neurological examination was possible and was consistent with an upper brachial plexus avulsion injury that was confirmed by CT myelogram. The patient failed to make significant neurological recovery and he underwent spinal accessory nerve grafting to the suprascapular nerve to restore shoulder abduction and external rotation, while the phrenic nerve was grafted to the musculocutaneous nerve to restore elbow flexion. Conclusion: Cervical spinal-cord injuries and brachial plexus injuries can occur by the same high energy mechanisms and can occur simultaneously. As in this case, MRI findings can be misleading and a detailed physical examination is the key to diagnosis. However, this can be difficult in polytrauma patients with upper extremity injuries, head injuries or concomitant spinal-cord injury. Finally, prompt diagnosis and early surgical renerveration have been associated with better long-term recovery with certain types of injury. PMID:22956928

  9. The Epidemiology of Injuries in Australian Professional Rugby Union 2014 Super Rugby Competition

    PubMed Central

    Whitehouse, Timothy; Orr, Robin; Fitzgerald, Edward; Harries, Simon; McLellan, Christopher P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rugby union is a collision-based ball sport played at the professional level internationally. Rugby union has one of the highest reported incidences of injury of all team sports. Purpose: To identify the characteristics, incidence, and severity of injuries occurring in Australian professional Super Rugby Union. Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: The present study was a prospective epidemiology study on a cohort of 180 professional players from 5 Australian Super Rugby teams during the 2014 Super Rugby Union Tournament. Team medical staff collected and submitted daily training and match-play injury data through a secure, web-based electronic platform. The injury data included the main anatomic location of the injury, specific anatomic structure of the injury, injury diagnosis, training or match injury occurrence, main player position, mechanism of injury, and the severity of the injury quantified based on the number of days lost from training and/or competition due to injury. Results: The total combined incidence rate for injury during training and match-play across all Australian Super Rugby Union teams was 6.96 per 1000 hours, with a mean injury severity of 37.45 days lost from training and competition. The match-play injury incidence rate was 66.07 per 1000 hours, with a mean severity of 39.80 days lost from training and competition. No significant differences were observed between forward- and back-playing positions for match or training injury incidence rate or severity. Conclusion: The incidence of injury for the present study was lower during match-play than has previously been reported in professional rugby union; however, the overall time loss was higher compared with previous studies in professional rugby union. The high overall time loss was due fundamentally to a high incidence of injuries with greater than 28 days’ severity. PMID:27069947

  10. Nonreconstruction Options for Treating Medial Ulnar Collateral Ligament Injuries of the Elbow in Overhead Athletes.

    PubMed

    Clark, Nicholas J; Desai, Vishal S; Dines, Joshua D; Morrey, Mark E; Camp, Christopher L

    2018-03-01

    This review aims to describe the nonreconstructive options for treating ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injuries ranging from nonoperative measures, including physical therapy and biologic injections, to ligament repair with and without augmentation. Nonoperative options for UCL injuries include guided physical therapy and biologic augmentation with platelet-rich plasma (PRP). In some patients, repair of the UCL has shown promising return to sport rates by using modern suture and suture anchor techniques. Proximal avulsion injuries have shown the best results after repair. Currently, there is growing interest in augmentation of UCL repair with an internal brace. The treatment of UCL injuries involves complex decision making. UCL reconstruction remains the gold standard for attritional injuries and complete tears, which occur commonly in professional athletes. However, nonreconstructive options have shown promising results for simple avulsion or partial thickness UCL injuries. Future research comparing reconstructive versus nonreconstructive options is necessary.

  11. Nonoperative management of splenic injury in combat: 2002-2012.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Thomas A; Wallum, Timothy E; Becker, Tyson E; Aden, James K; Bailey, Jeffrey A; Blackbourne, Lorne H; White, Christopher E

    2015-03-01

    Selective nonoperative management of combat-related blunt splenic injury (BSI) is controversial. We evaluated the impact of the November 2008 blunt abdominal trauma clinical practice guideline that permitted selective nonoperative management of some patients with radiological suggestion of hemoperitoneum on implementation of nonoperative management (NOM) of splenic injury in austere environments. Retrospective evaluation of patients with splenic injuries from November 2002 through January 2012 in Iraq and Afghanistan was performed. International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification procedure codes identified patients as laparotomy with splenectomy, or NOM. Delayed operative management had no operative intervention at earlier North American Treaty Organization (NATO) medical treatment facilities (MTFs), and had a definitive intervention at a latter NATO MTFs. Intra-abdominal complications and overall mortality were juxtaposed. A total of 433 patients had splenic injuries from 2002 to 2012. Initial NOM of BSI from 2002 to 2008 compared to 2009-2012 was 44.1% and 47.2%, respectively (p=0.75). Delayed operative management and NOM completion had intra-abdominal complication and mortality rates of 38.1% and 9.1% (p<0.01), and 6.3% and 8.1% (p=0.77). Despite high-energy explosive injuries, NATO Role II MTFs radiological constraints and limited medical resources, hemodynamically normal patients with BSI and low abdominal abbreviated injury scores underwent NOM in austere environments. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  12. Injuries in children with extra physical education in primary schools.

    PubMed

    Rexen, Christina Trifonov; Andersen, Lars Bo; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Jespersen, Eva; Franz, Claudia; Wedderkopp, Niels

    2014-04-01

    (1) Examine the influence of extra physical education (EPE) on the number of musculoskeletal injuries in public schools accounting for organized sports participation (OSP) outside school. (2) Examine the major injury subgroup: growth-related overuse (GRO) through the overuse-related injury group. A longitudinal controlled school-based study among Danish public schools. At baseline, 1216 children participated age 6.2-12.4 yr. Six schools (701 children) with EPE and four control schools (515 children) were followed up with weekly automated mobile phone text messages for information on musculoskeletal problems and OSP. Health care personnel diagnosed the children according to the World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision. Data were analyzed using a two-part zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) regression model. School type had no influence on the odds of sustaining an injury but increased the probability of sustaining a higher injury count for children with injuries, with total injuries by a factor of 1.29 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.07-1.56), overuse by a factor of 1.29 (95% CI = 1.06-1.55), and GRO by a factor of 1.38 (95% CI = 1.02-1.80). Weekly mean OSP decreased the odds of belonging to the group of children with no injuries, by a factor of 0.29 (95% CI = 0.14-0.58), 0.26 (95% CI = 0.14-0.48), and 0.17 (95% CI = 0.06-0.52) for total, overuse, and GRO, respectively. OSP also increased the probability of sustaining a higher injury count for children with injuries by a factor of 1.11 (95% CI = 1.02-1.22), 1.10 (95% CI = 1.00-1.22), and 1.14 (95% CI = 1.00-1.30), respectively. Children enrolled in EPE schools with high OSP have the highest odds of injury and a high probability of sustaining a higher injury count compared to their peers at schools with normal PE. Special attention should be assigned to these children during compulsory PE.

  13. Psychometric properties of the college survey for students with brain injury: individuals with and without traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Mary R T; Krause, Miriam O; O'Brien, Katy H

    2014-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the college challenges sub-set from The College Survey for Students with Brain Injury (CSS-BI) were investigated with adults with and without traumatic brain injury (TBI). Adults with and without TBI completed the CSS-BI. A sub-set of participants with TBI were interviewed, intentional and convergent validity were investigated, and the internal structure of the college challenges was analysed with exploratory factor analysis/principle component analysis. Respondents with TBI understood the items describing college challenges with evidence of intentional validity. More individuals with TBI than controls endorsed eight of the 13 college challenges. Those who reported more health issues endorsed more college challenges, demonstrating preliminary convergent validity. Cronbach's alphas of >0.85 demonstrated acceptable internal reliability. Factor analysis revealed a four-factor model for those with TBI: studying and learning (Factor 1), time management and organization (Factor 2), social (Factor 3) and nervousness/anxiety (Factor 4). This model explained 72% and 69% of the variance for those with and without TBI, respectively. The college challenges sub-set from the CSS-BI identifies challenges that individuals with TBI face when going to college. Some challenges were related to two factors in the model, demonstrating the inter-connections of these experiences.

  14. [Prevention of Occupational Injuries Related to Hands: Calculation of Subsequent Injury Costs for the Austrian Social Occupational Insurance Institution (AUVA)].

    PubMed

    Rauner, M S; Mayer, B; Schaffhauser-Linzatti, M M

    2015-08-01

    Occupational injuries cause short-term, direct costs as well as long-term follow-up costs over the lifetime of the casualties. Due to shrinking budgets accident insurance companies focus on cost reduction programmes and prevention measures. For this reason, a decision support system for consequential cost calculation of occupational injuries was developed for the main Austrian social occupational insurance institution (AUVA) during three projects. This so-called cost calculation tool combines the traditional instruments of accounting with quantitative methods such as micro-simulation. The cost data are derived from AUVA-internal as well as external economic data sources. Based on direct and indirect costs, the subsequent occupational accident costs from the time of an accident and, if applicable, beyond the death of the individual casualty are predicted for the AUVA, the companies in which the casualties are working, and the other economic sectors. By using this cost calculation tool, the AUVA classifies risk groups and derives related prevention campaigns. In the past, the AUVA concentrated on falling, accidents at construction sites and in agriculture/forestry, as well as commuting accidents. Currently, among others, a focus on hand injuries is given and first prevention programmes have been initiated. Hand injuries represent about 38% of all casualties with average costs of about 7,851 Euro/case. Main causes of these accidents are cutting injuries in production, agriculture, and forestry. Beside a low, but costly, number of amputations with average costs of more than 100,000 Euro/case, bone fractures and strains burden the AUVA-budget with about 17,500 and 10,500 € per case, respectively. Decision support systems such as this cost calculation tool represent necessary instruments to identify risk groups and their injured body parts, causes of accidents, and economic activities, which highly burden the budget of an injury company, and help derive

  15. Internists' attitudes toward prevention of firearm injury.

    PubMed

    Butkus, Renee; Weissman, Arlene

    2014-06-17

    Professional organizations have called for the medical community's attention to the prevention of firearm injury. However, little is known about physicians' attitudes and practices in preventing firearm injury. To determine internists' attitudes and practices about firearms and to assess whether opinions differ according to whether there are gun owners in a physician's home. Cross-sectional survey. Internal medicine practices. 573 internists representative of American College of Physicians' members. Respondents' experiences and reported practice behaviors related to firearms and their opinions about contributors and public policies related to firearm violence, as well as physician education and training in firearm safety. The survey response rate was 56.5%. Eighty-five percent of respondents believed that firearm injury is a public health issue, and 71% believed that it is a bigger problem today than a decade ago. Seventy-six percent of respondents believed that stricter gun control legislation would help reduce the risks for gun-related injuries or deaths. Although 66% of respondents believed that physicians should have the right to counsel patients on preventing deaths and injuries from firearms, 58% reported never asking whether patients have guns in their homes. The generalizability of these findings to non-American College of Physicians' member internists and other physicians is unknown. Responses may not reflect actual behavior. Most respondents believed that firearm-related violence is a public health issue and favored policy initiatives aimed at reducing it. Although most internists supported a physician's right to counsel patients about gun safety, few reported currently doing it. None.

  16. Injuries to Cyclists due to a Dog-Bicycle Interaction.

    PubMed

    Loder, Randall T; Yaacoub, Alan P

    2018-05-01

     Both dogs and bicycles are common in our society and thus a dog-bicycle interaction resulting in an injury to a cyclist is possible. It was the purpose of this study to investigate such injuries.  The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) data for the 10-year period from 2006 through 2015 associated with bicycles were accessed. Injuries involving dogs were identified and the mechanism of injury determined. Due to the stratified and weighted nature of the NEISS data, statistical analyses were performed with SUDAAN 10 software (RTI International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, United States). A p  < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.  There were 5,184,057 emergency department visits for bicycle-associated injuries; dogs were involved in 35,254 (0.67%) cases. The average age for those involved with a dog was 33.2 years and it was 25.5 years for those in which dogs were not involved. There were more females in the dog group (34.1 vs. 27.6%). Dog involvement increased from ages 0 to 14 years, then decreased until the age of 20 years and then progressively increased. Dog-associated injuries most frequently occurred away from home, involved the knee and distal lower extremity, 49.1% sustaining dog bites. Dog bites were more common in younger individuals. Four injury mechanisms (chased by a dog, hit/collided with a dog, swerved/tried to avoid a dog or riding with a dog) accounted for 97.5% of the injuries. Those chased by a dog were younger, more commonly released from the emergency department, had an injury involving the lower extremity and frequently sustained a bite. The most severe injuries were in those who swerved/tried to avoid a dog or hit a dog.  Approximately 1% of injuries to bicyclists are associated with dogs; one-half sustained a bite. Potential/proposed prevention strategies could be educational materials regarding bicycles and dogs to owners, dog restraint, student/parent education and educational materials

  17. A systematic review on the influence of pre-existing disability on sustaining injury.

    PubMed

    Yung, A; Haagsma, J A; Polinder, S

    2014-01-01

    To systematically review studies measuring the influence of pre-existing disability on the risk of sustaining an injury. Systematic review. Electronic databases searched included Medline (Pubmed), ProQuest, Ovid and EMBASE. Studies (1990-2010) in international peer-reviewed journals were identified with main inclusion criteria being that the study assessed involvement of injury sustained by persons with and without pre-existing disability. Studies were collated by design and methods, and evaluation of results. Twenty-two studies met the inclusion criteria of our review. All studies found that persons with disabilities were at a significantly higher risk of sustaining injuries than those without. Persons with disability had a 30-450% increased odds (odds ratio 1.3-5.5) of sustaining injury compared to persons without disability. Among persons with pre-existing disability, the high risk groups of sustaining an injury are children and elderly. People with disabilities experience a higher risk to sustain an injury in comparison to the healthy population. There is a high need for large epidemiological studies of injury among persons with disability, to better address these unique risk profiles in order to prevent additional disability or secondary conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Epidemiology of Time-Loss Injuries in Senior and under-18 Portuguese Male Rugby Players

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Ferreira, Antonio Miguel; Cruz-Ferreira, Eduardo Miguel; Ribeiro, Pedro Barbosa; Santiago, Luiz Miguel; Taborda-Barata, Luis

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Rugby union has one of the highest injury incidence rates in team sports, however, most of the available data focus on the epidemiology of injuries in countries where rugby is popular. We aimed to report the incidence rate and relevant epidemiological aspects of injuries occurred in a group of Portuguese male rugby players. A prospective cohort study was conducted with a group of 45 senior and 32 under-18 male players (total of 77 players). Outcome measures included injury incidence, position, type, location and severity of injuries. The match injury incidence for all players was 55.84 per 1000 player match-hours (66.66 for seniors, 42.85 for under-18), while mean time-loss for injury was 20.79 days. No statistical differences were found between groups. Lower limb injuries accounted for 60.5% of all injuries, while joint/ligament injuries were the most prevalent type. Contact events were responsible for 65.1% of injuries. Despite the limitations, the obtained data are consistent with the literature. Time-loss injuries seem highly prevalent in rugby union and the incidence rates found in this Portuguese-based study were lower than the reported for international and senior men’s professional rugby union, but higher than those occurring in community rugby in tier-1 countries. The authors believe these data reinforce the need to develop and implement effective injury surveillance and prevention programs. PMID:29922379

  19. Sports injuries and illnesses during the European Youth Olympic Festival 2013.

    PubMed

    van Beijsterveldt, A M C; Thijs, K M; Backx, F J G; Steffen, K; Brozičević, V; Stubbe, J H

    2015-04-01

    The European Youth Olympic Festival (EYOF) is a biennial sporting event of nine Olympic Summer Sports for talented athletes, aged 13-18 years, from all over Europe. To analyse the injuries and illnesses that occurred during the multisport event (14-19 July 2013), with the long-term aim of enabling international sports federations, the National Olympic Committees, and the European Olympic Committee to improve protection of athletes' health in youth. Daily occurrence or non-occurrence of injuries and illnesses was recorded by using the IOC injury and illness surveillance system for multisport events. All National Olympic Committee physicians and healthcare providers and physicians of the Local Organizing Committee were invited to participate. In total, 2272 athletes from 49 countries took part in the EYOF 2013. During the five competition days of EYOF, 207 injuries and 46 illnesses were reported, resulting in an incidence of 91.1 injuries and 20.2 illnesses per 1000 athletes. Almost 10% of the athletes sustained at least one injury or illness. This study is the first multisport surveillance study on injuries and illnesses during the EYOF or any other summer Games organised for youth elite athletes. The data form the basis for further research on risk factors and injury mechanisms for this cohort. This research is needed to gain more knowledge and finally to implement effective injury and illness prevention measures. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. A Scoping Review of the Associations of Golf with Eye Injuries in Adults and Children.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Evan; Hawkes, Roger; Murray, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Sport presents a risk of ocular trauma and accounts for a significant number of eye injuries that require hospital admission. The sport of golf presents a risk to eyesight from fast moving objects such as golf clubs and balls. This study aims to investigate the associations of golf with eye injuries and the reasons that these injuries occur. Material/Methods. A literature search was conducted using the databases MEDLINE, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, and PsycINFO. Grey literature was searched using the WHO international clinical trials registry platform, Google Scholar, and ProQuest. Data was extracted using a standardised form and summarised into a report. Results and Discussion. Twenty-three studies were found relating to eye injuries in golf. Injuries appear to be rare, but more frequent in men and children. Injuries resulted in high rates of enucleation and visual impairment. Children sustained more injury from golf clubs whereas adults sustained more injuries from golf balls. Conclusion. Efforts are needed to encourage golf participants to understand the risks of ocular and indeed other head injuries. Initiatives to provide appropriate supervision and education on this topic are merited. Further research is needed to investigate the circumstances of eye injury in golf and assess the effects of interventions aimed at reducing risk of injury.

  1. A Scoping Review of the Associations of Golf with Eye Injuries in Adults and Children

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Sport presents a risk of ocular trauma and accounts for a significant number of eye injuries that require hospital admission. The sport of golf presents a risk to eyesight from fast moving objects such as golf clubs and balls. This study aims to investigate the associations of golf with eye injuries and the reasons that these injuries occur. Material/Methods. A literature search was conducted using the databases MEDLINE, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, and PsycINFO. Grey literature was searched using the WHO international clinical trials registry platform, Google Scholar, and ProQuest. Data was extracted using a standardised form and summarised into a report. Results and Discussion. Twenty-three studies were found relating to eye injuries in golf. Injuries appear to be rare, but more frequent in men and children. Injuries resulted in high rates of enucleation and visual impairment. Children sustained more injury from golf clubs whereas adults sustained more injuries from golf balls. Conclusion. Efforts are needed to encourage golf participants to understand the risks of ocular and indeed other head injuries. Initiatives to provide appropriate supervision and education on this topic are merited. Further research is needed to investigate the circumstances of eye injury in golf and assess the effects of interventions aimed at reducing risk of injury. PMID:27504485

  2. Ballistics and the management of ureteral injuries from high velocity missiles.

    PubMed

    Stutzman, R E

    1977-12-01

    The management of 21 patients with 22 ureteral injuries from high velocity missiles is described and 6 cases are reported in detail. Ballistics should be considered in all wounds of violence. Débridement, internal stents, proximal diversion and thorough drainage are advocated.

  3. [Ladder step strategy for surgical repair of congenital concealed penis in children].

    PubMed

    Wang, Fu-Ran; Zhong, Hong-Ji; Chen, Yi; Zhao, Jun-Feng; Li, Yan

    2016-11-01

    To assess the feasibility of the ladder step strategy in surgical repair of congenital concealed penis in children. This study included 52 children with congenital concealed penis treated in the past two years by surgical repair using the ladder step strategy, which consists of five main steps: cutting the narrow ring of the foreskin, degloving the penile skin, fixing the penile skin at the base, covering the penile shaft, and reshaping the prepuce. The perioperative data of the patients were prospectively collected and statistically described. Of the 52 patients, 20 needed remodeling of the frenulum and 27 received longitudinal incision in the penoscrotal junction to expose and deglove the penile shaft. The advanced scrotal flap technique was applied in 8 children to cover the penile shaft without tension, the pedicled foreskin flap technique employed in 11 to repair the penile skin defect, and excision of the webbed skin of the ventral penis performed in another 44 to remodel the penoscrotal angle. The operation time, blood loss, and postoperative hospital stay were 40-100 minutes, 5-30 ml, and 3-6 days, respectively. Wound bleeding and infection occurred in 1 and 5 cases, respectively. Follow-up examinations at 3 and 6 months after surgery showed that all the children had a satisfactory penile appearance except for some minor complications (2 cases of penile retraction, 2 cases of redundant ventral skin, and 1 case of iatrogenic penile curvature). The ladder step strategy for surgical repair of congenital concealed penis in children is a simple procedure with minor injury and satisfactory appearance of the penis.

  4. The Cost of Treating Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Mild Traumatic Brain Injuries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    and may increase the risk for Alzheimer‟ s disease and Parkinson ‟ s disease as the person ages (Traumatic Brain Injury: Hope Through Research, 2002...not injured and can be sent back into battle , when there could be an undetected internal injury. Due to the overlap in symptoms, many soldiers are...the constant support and advice from Major Shay Capehart was fundamental in moving this research along. Lt Col Eric Unger‟ s guidance and wisdom was

  5. Repetitive Stress Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Repetitive Stress Injuries KidsHealth / For Teens / Repetitive Stress Injuries What's ... t had any problems since. What Are Repetitive Stress Injuries? Repetitive stress injuries (RSIs) are injuries that ...

  6. An international comparison of adolescent non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide attempts: Germany and the USA.

    PubMed

    Plener, P L; Libal, G; Keller, F; Fegert, J M; Muehlenkamp, J J

    2009-09-01

    This study examined the prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), suicide attempts, suicide threats and suicidal ideation in a German school sample and compared the rates with a similar sample of adolescents from the midwestern USA by using cross-nationally validated assessment tools. Data were provided from 665 adolescents (mean age 14.8 years, S.D.=0.66, range 14-17 years) in a school setting. Students completed the Self-Harm Behavior Questionnaire (SHBQ), the Ottawa Self-Injury Inventory (OSI) and a German version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). A quarter of the participants (25.6%) endorsed at least one act of NSSI in their life, and 9.5% of those students answered that they had hurt themselves repetitively (more than four times). Forty-three (6.5%) of the students reported a history of a suicide attempt. No statistically significant differences were observed between the German and US samples in terms of self-injury or suicidal behaviors. By using the same validated assessment tools, no differences were found in the prevalence and characteristics of self-injury and suicidal behaviors between adolescents from Germany and the USA. Thus, it seems that NSSI has to be understood as worldwide phenomenon, at least in Western cultures.

  7. Weight-training injuries. Common injuries and preventative methods.

    PubMed

    Mazur, L J; Yetman, R J; Risser, W L

    1993-07-01

    The use of weights is an increasingly popular conditioning technique, competitive sport and recreational activity among children, adolescents and young adults. Weight-training can cause significant musculoskeletal injuries such as fractures, dislocations, spondylolysis, spondylolisthesis, intervertebral disk herniation, and meniscal injuries of the knee. Although injuries can occur during the use of weight machines, most apparently happen during the aggressive use of free weights. Prepubescent and older athletes who are well trained and supervised appear to have low injury rates in strength training programmes. Good coaching and proper weightlifting techniques and other injury prevention methods are likely to minimise the number of musculoskeletal problems caused by weight-training.

  8. Trampoline injuries

    PubMed Central

    Nysted, M; Drogset, J O

    2006-01-01

    Objective To describe the mechanism, location and types of injury for all patients treated for trampoline‐associated injuries at St Olav's University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway, from March 2001to October 2004. Materials and methods Patients were identified from a National Injury Surveillance System. All patients were asked to complete a standard questionnaire at their first visit at the hospital. Most data were recorded prospectively, but data on the mechanism of injury, the number of participants on the trampoline at the time of injury, adult supervision and whether the activity occurred at school or in another organised setting were collected retrospectively. Results A total of 556 patients, 56% male and 44% female, were included. The mean age of patients was 11 (range 1–62) years. 77% of the injuries occurred on the body of the trampoline, including falls on to the mat, collisions with another jumper, falls on to the frame or the springs, and performing a somersault, whereas 22% of the people fell off the trampoline. In 74% of the cases, more than two people were on the trampoline, with as many as nine trampolinists noted at the time of injury. For children <11 years, 22% had adult supervision when the injury occurred. The most common types of injuries were fractures (36%) and injury to ligaments (36%). Injuries to the extremities predominated (79%), and the lower extremities were the most commonly injured part of the body (44%). A ligament injury in the ankle was the most often reported diagnosis (20%), followed by an overstretching of ligaments in the neck (8%) and a fracture of the elbow (7%). Regarding cervical injuries, two patients had cervical fractures and one patient had an atlantoaxial subluxation. Three patients with fractures in the elbow region reported an ulnar nerve neuropathy. 13% of the patients were hospitalised for a mean of 2.2 days. Conclusion Trampolining can cause serious injuries, especially in the neck and elbow areas of young

  9. Trampoline injuries.

    PubMed

    Nysted, M; Drogset, J O

    2006-12-01

    To describe the mechanism, location and types of injury for all patients treated for trampoline-associated injuries at St Olav's University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway, from March 2001to October 2004. Patients were identified from a National Injury Surveillance System. All patients were asked to complete a standard questionnaire at their first visit at the hospital. Most data were recorded prospectively, but data on the mechanism of injury, the number of participants on the trampoline at the time of injury, adult supervision and whether the activity occurred at school or in another organised setting were collected retrospectively. A total of 556 patients, 56% male and 44% female, were included. The mean age of patients was 11 (range 1-62) years. 77% of the injuries occurred on the body of the trampoline, including falls on to the mat, collisions with another jumper, falls on to the frame or the springs, and performing a somersault, whereas 22% of the people fell off the trampoline. In 74% of the cases, more than two people were on the trampoline, with as many as nine trampolinists noted at the time of injury. For children <11 years, 22% had adult supervision when the injury occurred. The most common types of injuries were fractures (36%) and injury to ligaments (36%). Injuries to the extremities predominated (79%), and the lower extremities were the most commonly injured part of the body (44%). A ligament injury in the ankle was the most often reported diagnosis (20%), followed by an overstretching of ligaments in the neck (8%) and a fracture of the elbow (7%). Regarding cervical injuries, two patients had cervical fractures and one patient had an atlantoaxial subluxation. Three patients with fractures in the elbow region reported an ulnar nerve neuropathy. 13% of the patients were hospitalised for a mean of 2.2 days. Trampolining can cause serious injuries, especially in the neck and elbow areas of young children. The use of a trampoline is a high-risk activity

  10. Blunt gastric injuries.

    PubMed

    Oncel, Didem; Malinoski, Darren; Brown, Carlos; Demetriades, Demetrios; Salim, Ali

    2007-09-01

    Gastric rupture after blunt abdominal trauma is a rare injury with few reports in the literature. The purpose of this study was to review our experience with blunt gastric injuries and compare outcomes with small bowel or colon injuries. All patients with hollow viscus perforations after blunt abdominal trauma from 1992 to 2005 at our level I trauma center were reviewed. Of 35,033 blunt trauma admissions, there were 268 (0.7%) patients with a total of 319 perforating hollow viscus injuries, 25 (0.07%) of which were blunt gastric injuries. When compared with the small bowel or colon injuries, the blunt gastric injury group had a higher Injury Severity Score (22 versus 17, P = 0.04), more patients with a chest Abbreviated Injury Score greater than 2 (36% versus 12%, P < 0.01), and a shorter interval from injury to laparotomy (221 versus 366 minutes, P = 0.017). Multivariate analysis identified five independent risk factors for mortality: age older than 55 years, head Abbreviated Injury Score greater than 2, chest Abbreviated Injury Score greater than 2, the presence of hypotension on admission, and Glasgow Coma Scale 8 or less. The results of this study suggest that mortality in patients with blunt hollow viscus injuries can be attributed to concurrent head and chest injuries, but not the specific hollow viscus organ that is injured.

  11. Injury risk curves for the WorldSID 50th male dummy.

    PubMed

    Petitjean, Audrey; Trosseille, Xavier; Petit, Philippe; Irwin, Annette; Hassan, Joe; Praxl, Norbert

    2009-11-01

    The development of the WorldSID 50th percentile male dummy was initiated in 1997 by the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO/SC12/TC22/WG5) with the objective of developing a more biofidelic side impact dummy and supporting the adoption of a harmonised dummy into regulations. More than 45 organizations from all around the world have contributed to this effort including governmental agencies, research institutes, car manufacturers and dummy manufacturers. The first production version of the WorldSID 50th male dummy was released in March 2004 and demonstrated an improved biofidelity over existing side impact dummies. Full scale vehicle tests covering a wide range of side impact test procedures were performed worldwide with the WorldSID dummy. However, the vehicle safety performance could not be assessed due to lack of injury risk curves for this dummy. The development of these curves was initiated in 2004 within the framework of ISO/SC12/TC22/WG6 (Injury criteria). In 2008, the ACEA- Dummy Task Force (TFD) decided to contribute to this work and offered resources for a project manager to coordinate of the effort of a group of volunteer biomechanical experts from international institutions (ISO, EEVC, VRTC/NHTSA, JARI, Transport Canada), car manufacturers (ACEA, Ford, General Motors, Honda, Toyota, Chrysler) and universities (Wayne State University, Ohio State University, John Hopkins University, Medical College of Wisconsin) to develop harmonized injury risk curves. An in-depth literature review was conducted. All the available PMHS datasets were identified, the test configurations and the quality of the results were checked. Criteria were developed for inclusion or exclusion of PMHS tests in the development of the injury risk curves. Data were processed to account for differences in mass and age of the subjects. Finally, injury risk curves were developed using the following statistical techniques, the certainty method, the Mertz/Weber method, the

  12. LAPAROSCOPIC MANAGEMENT OF RETROPERITONEAL INJURIES IN PENETRATING ABDOMINAL INJURIES.

    PubMed

    Mosai, F

    2017-09-01

    Laparoscopy in penetrating abdominal injuries is now accepted and practiced in many modern trauma centres. However its role in evaluating and managing retroperitoneal injuries is not yet well established. The aim of this study was to document our experience in using laparoscopy in a setting of penetrating abdominal injuries with suspected retroperitoneal injury in haemodynamically stable patients. A retrospective descriptive study of prospectively collected data from a trauma unit at Dr George Mukhari Academic Hospital (DGMAH) was done. All haemodynamically stable patients with penetrating abdominal injury who were offered laparoscopy from January 2012 to December 2015 were reviewed and those who met the inclusion criteria were analysed. A total of 284 patients with penetrating abdominal injuries were reviewed and 56 met the inclusion criteria and were analysed. The median age was 30.8 years (15-60 years) and males constituted 87.5% of the study population. The most common mechanism of injury was penetrating stab wounds (62.5%). Forty-five patients (80.3%) were managed laparoscopically, of these n=16 (28.5%) had retroperitoneal injuries that required surgical intervention. The most commonly injured organ was the colon (19.6%). The conversion rate was 19.6% with most common indication for conversion been active bleeding (14%). The complication rate was 7.14% (N=4) and were all Clavien-Dindo grade 3. There were no recorded missed injuries and no mortality. The positive outcomes documented in this study with no missed injuries and absence of mortality suggests that laparoscopy is a feasible option in managing stable patients with suspected retroperitoneal injuries.

  13. Deficits in Glenohumeral Passive Range of Motion Increase Risk of Shoulder Injury in Professional Baseball Pitchers: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Wilk, Kevin E; Macrina, Leonard C; Fleisig, Glenn S; Aune, Kyle T; Porterfield, Ron A; Harker, Paul; Evans, Timothy J; Andrews, James R

    2015-10-01

    Shoulder injuries from repetitive baseball pitching continue to be a serious, common problem. To determine whether passive range of motion of the glenohumeral joint was predictive of shoulder injury or shoulder surgery in professional baseball pitchers. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Passive range of motion of the glenohumeral joint was assessed with a bubble goniometer during spring training for all major and minor league pitchers of a single professional baseball organization over a period of 8 successive seasons (2005-2012). Investigators performed a total of 505 examinations on 296 professional pitchers. Glenohumeral external and internal rotation was assessed with the pitcher supine and the arm abducted to 90° in the scapular plane with the scapula stabilized anteriorly at the coracoid process. Total rotation was defined as the sum of internal and external glenohumeral rotation. Passive shoulder flexion was measured with the pitcher supine and the lateral border of the scapula manually stabilized. After examination, shoulder injuries and injury durations were recorded by each pitcher's respective baseball organization and reported to the league as an injury transaction as each player was placed on the disabled list. Highly significant side-to-side differences were noted within subjects for each range of motion measurement. There were 75 shoulder injuries and 20 surgeries recorded among 51 pitchers, resulting in 5570 total days on the disabled list. Glenohumeral internal rotation deficit, total rotation deficit, and flexion deficit were not significantly related to shoulder injury or surgery. Pitchers with insufficient external rotation (<5° greater external rotation in the throwing shoulder) were 2.2 times more likely to be placed on the disabled list for a shoulder injury (P = .014; 95% CI, 1.2-4.1) and were 4.0 times more likely to require shoulder surgery (P = .009; 95% CI, 1.5-12.6). Insufficient shoulder external rotation on the throwing side

  14. Disability weights based on patient-reported data from a multinational injury cohort

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Ronan A; Simpson, Pamela M; Rivara, Frederick P; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Polinder, Suzanne; Derrett, Sarah; Harrison, James E

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To create patient-based disability weights for individual injury diagnosis codes and nature-of-injury classifications, for use, as an alternative to panel-based weights, in studies on the burden of disease. Methods Self-reported data based on the EQ-5D standardized measure of health status were collected from 29 770 participants in the Injury-VIBES injury cohort study, which covered Australia, the Netherlands, New Zealand, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America. The data were combined to calculate new disability weights for each common injury classification and for each type of diagnosis covered by the 10th revision of the International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems. Weights were calculated separately for hospital admissions and presentations confined to emergency departments. Findings There were 29 770 injury cases with at least one EQ-5D score. The mean age of the participants providing data was 51 years. Most participants were male and almost a third had road traffic injuries. The new disability weights were higher for admitted cases than for cases confined to emergency departments and higher than the corresponding weights used by the Global Burden of Disease 2013 study. Long-term disability was common in most categories of injuries. Conclusion Injury is often a chronic disorder and burden of disease estimates should reflect this. Application of the new weights to burden studies would substantially increase estimates of disability-adjusted life-years and provide a more accurate reflection of the impact of injuries on peoples’ lives. PMID:27821883

  15. Understanding acute ankle ligamentous sprain injury in sports

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Daniel TP; Chan, Yue-Yan; Mok, Kam-Ming; Yung, Patrick SH; Chan, Kai-Ming

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes the current understanding on acute ankle sprain injury, which is the most common acute sport trauma, accounting for about 14% of all sport-related injuries. Among, 80% are ligamentous sprains caused by explosive inversion or supination. The injury motion often happens at the subtalar joint and tears the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) which possesses the lowest ultimate load among the lateral ligaments at the ankle. For extrinsic risk factors to ankle sprain injury, prescribing orthosis decreases the risk while increased exercise intensity in soccer raises the risk. For intrinsic factors, a foot size with increased width, an increased ankle eversion to inversion strength, plantarflexion strength and ratio between dorsiflexion and plantarflexion strength, and limb dominance could increase the ankle sprain injury risk. Players with a previous sprain history, players wearing shoes with air cells, players who do not stretch before exercising, players with inferior single leg balance, and overweight players are 4.9, 4.3, 2.6, 2.4 and 3.9 times more likely to sustain an ankle sprain injury. The aetiology of most ankle sprain injuries is incorrect foot positioning at landing – a medially-deviated vertical ground reaction force causes an explosive supination or inversion moment at the subtalar joint in a short time (about 50 ms). Another aetiology is the delayed reaction time of the peroneal muscles at the lateral aspect of the ankle (60–90 ms). The failure supination or inversion torque is about 41–45 Nm to cause ligamentous rupture in simulated spraining tests on cadaver. A previous case report revealed that the ankle joint reached 48 degrees inversion and 10 degrees internal rotation during an accidental grade I ankle ligamentous sprain injury during a dynamic cutting trial in laboratory. Diagnosis techniques and grading systems vary, but the management of ankle ligamentous sprain injury is mainly conservative. Immobilization should not

  16. Back to the future: estimating pre-injury brain volume in patients with traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Ross, David E; Ochs, Alfred L; D Zannoni, Megan; Seabaugh, Jan M

    2014-11-15

    A recent meta-analysis by Hedman et al. allows for accurate estimation of brain volume changes throughout the life span. Additionally, Tate et al. showed that intracranial volume at a later point in life can be used to estimate reliably brain volume at an earlier point in life. These advancements were combined to create a model which allowed the estimation of brain volume just prior to injury in a group of patients with mild or moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI). This volume estimation model was used in combination with actual measurements of brain volume to test hypotheses about progressive brain volume changes in the patients. Twenty six patients with mild or moderate TBI were compared to 20 normal control subjects. NeuroQuant® was used to measure brain MRI volume. Brain volume after the injury (from MRI scans performed at t1 and t2) was compared to brain volume just before the injury (volume estimation at t0) using longitudinal designs. Groups were compared with respect to volume changes in whole brain parenchyma (WBP) and its 3 major subdivisions: cortical gray matter (GM), cerebral white matter (CWM) and subcortical nuclei+infratentorial regions (SCN+IFT). Using the normal control data, the volume estimation model was tested by comparing measured brain volume to estimated brain volume; reliability ranged from good to excellent. During the initial phase after injury (t0-t1), the TBI patients had abnormally rapid atrophy of WBP and CWM, and abnormally rapid enlargement of SCN+IFT. Rates of volume change during t0-t1 correlated with cross-sectional measures of volume change at t1, supporting the internal reliability of the volume estimation model. A logistic regression analysis using the volume change data produced a function which perfectly predicted group membership (TBI patients vs. normal control subjects). During the first few months after injury, patients with mild or moderate TBI have rapid atrophy of WBP and CWM, and rapid enlargement of SCN+IFT. The

  17. Insomnia, Comorbidity, and Risk of Injury Among Insured Americans: Results from the America Insomnia Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Berglund, Patricia A.; Coulouvrat, Catherine; Fitzgerald, Timothy; Hajak, Goeran; Roth, Thomas; Shahly, Victoria; Shillington, Alicia C.; Stephenson, Judith J.; Walsh, James K.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: To estimate associations of broadly defined insomnia (i.e., meeting inclusion criteria for International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10), Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), or Research Diagnostic Criteria/International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Second Edition (RDC/ICSD-2) diagnosis) with workplace/nonworkplace injuries controlling for comorbid conditions among workers in the America Insomnia Survey (AIS). Design/Setting: Cross-sectional telephone survey. Participants: National sample of 4,991 employed health plan subscribers (age 18 yr and older). Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Broadly defined insomnia with duration of at least 12 mo was assessed with the Brief Insomnia Questionnaire (BIQ). Injuries in the 12 mo before interview were assessed with a standard self-report measure of injuries causing role impairment or requiring medical attention. Eighteen comorbid condition clusters were assessed with medical/pharmacy claims records and self-reports. Insomnia had significant gross associations (odds ratios, ORs) with both workplace and nonworkplace injuries (OR 2.0 and 1.5, respectively) in logistic regression analyses before controlling for comorbid conditions. The significant population attributable risk proportions (PARPs) of total injuries with insomnia was 4.6% after controlling for comorbid conditions. Only 2 other conditions had PARPs exceeding those of insomnia. The associations of insomnia with injuries did not vary significantly with worker age, sex, or education, but did vary significantly with comorbid conditions. Specifically, insomnia was significantly associated with workplace and nonworkplace injuries (OR 1.8 and 1.5, respectively) among workers having no comorbid conditions, with workplace but not nonworkplace injuries (OR 1.8 and 1.2, respectively) among workers having 1 comorbid condition, and with neither workplace nor nonworkplace injuries

  18. Closing the Aboriginal child injury gap: targets for injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Möller, Holger; Falster, Kathleen; Ivers, Rebecca; Falster, Michael O; Clapham, Kathleen; Jorm, Louisa

    2017-02-01

    To describe the leading mechanisms of hospitalised unintentional injury in Australian Aboriginal children and identify the injury mechanisms with the largest inequalities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children. We used linked hospital and mortality data to construct a whole of population birth cohort including 1,124,717 children (1,088,645 non-Aboriginal and 35,749 Aboriginal) born in the state of New South Wales (NSW), Australia, between 1 July 2000 and 31 December 2012. Injury hospitalisation rates were calculated per person years at risk for injury mechanisms coded according to the ICD10-AM classification. The leading injury mechanisms in both groups of children were falls from playground equipment. For 66 of the 69 injury mechanisms studied, Aboriginal children had a higher rate of hospitalisation compared with non-Aboriginal children. The largest relative inequalities were observed for injuries due to exposure to fire and flame, and the largest absolute inequalities for injuries due to falls from playground equipment. Aboriginal children in NSW experience a significant higher burden of unintentional injury compared with their non-Aboriginal counterparts. Implications for Public Health: We suggest the implementation of targeted injury prevention measures aimed at injury mechanism and age groups identified in this study. © 2016 The Authors.

  19. Significantly Increased Odds of Reporting Previous Shoulder Injuries in Female Marines Based on Larger Magnitude Shoulder Rotator Bilateral Strength Differences

    PubMed Central

    Eagle, Shawn R.; Connaboy, Chris; Nindl, Bradley C.; Allison, Katelyn F.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Musculoskeletal injuries to the extremities are a primary concern for the United States (US) military. One possible injury risk factor in this population is side-to-side strength imbalance. Purpose: To examine the odds of reporting a previous shoulder injury in US Marine Corps Ground Combat Element Integrated Task Force volunteers based on side-to-side strength differences in isokinetic shoulder strength. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Male (n = 219) and female (n = 91) Marines were included in this analysis. Peak torque values from 5 shoulder internal/external rotation repetitions were averaged and normalized to body weight. The difference in side-to-side strength measurements was calculated as the absolute value of the limb difference divided by the mean peak torque of the dominant limb. Participants were placed into groups based on the magnitude of these differences: <10%, 10% to 20%, and >20%. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs were calculated. Results: When separated by sex, 13.2% of men reported an injury, while 5.5% of women reported an injury. Female Marines with >20% internal rotation side-to-side strength differences demonstrated increased odds of reporting a previous shoulder injury compared with female Marines with <10% strength differences (OR, 15.4; 95% CI, 1.4-167.2; P = .03 ) and female Marines with 10% to 20% strength differences (OR, 13.9; 95% CI, 1.3-151.2; P = .04). No significant ORs were demonstrated in male Marines. Conclusion: Marines with larger magnitude internal rotation strength differences demonstrated increased odds of reporting a previous shoulder injury compared with those with lesser magnitude differences. Additionally, female sex appears to drastically affect the increased odds of reporting shoulder injuries (OR, 13.9-15.4) with larger magnitude differences (ie, >20%) compared with those with lesser magnitude differences (ie, <10% and 10%-20%). The retrospective cohort design of this study cannot

  20. Significantly Increased Odds of Reporting Previous Shoulder Injuries in Female Marines Based on Larger Magnitude Shoulder Rotator Bilateral Strength Differences.

    PubMed

    Eagle, Shawn R; Connaboy, Chris; Nindl, Bradley C; Allison, Katelyn F

    2018-02-01

    Musculoskeletal injuries to the extremities are a primary concern for the United States (US) military. One possible injury risk factor in this population is side-to-side strength imbalance. To examine the odds of reporting a previous shoulder injury in US Marine Corps Ground Combat Element Integrated Task Force volunteers based on side-to-side strength differences in isokinetic shoulder strength. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Male (n = 219) and female (n = 91) Marines were included in this analysis. Peak torque values from 5 shoulder internal/external rotation repetitions were averaged and normalized to body weight. The difference in side-to-side strength measurements was calculated as the absolute value of the li