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Sample records for internal plate fixation

  1. A biomechanical study of conventional acetabular internal fracture fixation versus locking plate fixation

    PubMed Central

    Mehin, Ramin; Jones, Bryn; Zhu, Qingan; Broekhuyse, Henry

    2009-01-01

    Background Conventional internal fixation entails the use of an interfragmentary lag screw along with a plate. Not all acetabular fractures are amenable to the placement of an interfragmentary lag screw, and the fracture may be displaced during tightening of the interfragmentary lag screw. Locking plates are a possible solution. We sought to determine whether a locking plate construct can provide stability equivalent to that provided with a conventional construct for transverse acetabular fractures. Methods We used 5 paired fresh-frozen cadaveric acetabula. We fixed one side with the conventional technique and the other side with a locking plate. We subjected each fixation to a cyclic compressive force up to 500 cycles, followed by compressive force until failure. We monitored 3-dimensional motion of the fracture. Results The average fracture gap at 50 N compressive force after 500 loading cycles was 0.41 (standard deviation [SD] 0.49) mm for the conventional plate and lag screw construct compared with 0.76 (SD 0.62) mm for the locked plate construct (p = 0.46). The force to failure, as defined by 2 mm of fracture gap, was 848 (SD 805) N for the conventional plate and lag screw construct compared with 506 (SD 277) N for the locked plate fixation (p = 0.34). Conclusion The locking plate construct is as strong as the conventional plate plus interfragmentary lag screw construct for fixing transverse acetabular fractures. Locking plates may improve management of acetabular fractures by eliminating the need for placement of an interfragmentary lag screw. Furthermore, they may be helpful in revision hip arthroplasty in patients with pelvic discontinuity. PMID:19503667

  2. Auxetic polymeric bone plate as internal fixator for long bone fractures: Design, fabrication and structural analysis.

    PubMed

    Mehmood, Seemab; Ali, Murtaza Najabat; Ansari, Umar; Mir, Mariam; Khan, Munezza Ata

    2015-01-01

    Injuries cover about 11% of World's Disease Burden depicting fractures to be the leading severe consequence of trauma. Fractures occur due to force impact or osteoporosis. Fracture healing is a complicated process. Fracture fixation techniques focus on imparting reduction to fractured fragments and induce healing. When considering possible fixation methods, the aspect of micro-movement is an important one, as this induces callus formation which tends to be a crucial step for fracture healing. Internal fixation of long bone fractures using metallic plates has been carried out since decades and recently advancements have been in synthesizing biodegradable plates as well. The purpose of this research was to fabricate an Auxetic Polymeric Bone Plate that can be used as an internal fixator for long bone fracture; this bone plate renders micro-movement due to its counter intuitive behavior, has the potential to reduce the effect of stress shielding and allow the same range of motion as that of natural bone. Polyurethane was chosen as a material for the fabrication of the Auxetic device because of its biocompatibility and non-toxic effects. The plate was then tested for mechanical properties such as Tensile and Compression testing to determine the strength. The tensile testing of the Auxetic polyurethane specimens showed that the mean of the Poisson's ratio of the samples lies between -0.68 and -0.87 at different uni-axial tensile load values. The Auxetic structure of our device has the potential to allow for efficient fixation because its negative Poisson's ratio offers micro-movement, thereby causing fixation with relative stability rather than absolute stability. The Auxetic bone plate can be superior to contemporary plate fixation systems, as it demands meaningfully small contact points. The suitable mechanical properties might lessen stress shielding effects that are normally caused by rigid bone plates. The Auxetic nature of the bone will help align and sustain the

  3. Internal fixation of patellar apex fractures with the basket plate: 25 years of experience.

    PubMed

    Matejčić, Aljoša; Ivica, Mihovil; Jurišić, Darko; Ćuti, Tomislav; Bakota, Bore; Vidović, Dinko

    2015-11-01

    Comminution of the patellar apex is amenable to internal fixation by standard techniques and usually requires partial patellectomy. In our institution, multifragmentary fractures of the distal pole are treated with the basket plate, which is shaped to fit the geometry of the patellar apex. This implant has been used in our institution for over 25 years. The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term results of internal fixation of comminuted fractures of the patellar apex with the basket plate. A total of 142 patients with fracture of the distal pole of the patella were treated with the basket plate between 1988 and 2013. Functional evaluation was conducted using the modified Cincinnati knee rating system. A total of 98 patients were available for late functional evaluation. There were no infections or implant-related problems during the follow-up period. All fractures healed within 8 to 10 weeks. There were three cases of early revision because of improper use of the implant and incorrect indication. Functional outcome following internal fixation with the basket plate was excellent in 80 patients and good in 18; there were no poor results. Internal fixation with the basket plate is recommended for management of multifragmentary fractures of the patellar apex because this method enables early, unrestricted knee motion, and provides reliable healing and good functional outcome. This method is an alternative to partial patellectomy and is considered a patella-saving procedure; therefore, the use of the basket plate is strongly recommended for the treatment of distal pole fractures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Finite element analysis of the stability of combined plate internal fixation in posterior wall fractures of acetabulum

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xi-Ming; Pan, Chang-Wu; Wang, Guo-Dong; Cai, Xian-Hua; Chen, Lei; Meng, Cheng-Fei; Huang, Jin-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to explore the mechanical stability of combined plate internal fixation in posterior wall fractures of the acetabulum. Methods: The fracture and internal fixation models were established in this study and they were divided into four kinds of internal fixation models, finite element analysis was performed. The four groups were 2 mini-plates and 1 reconstruction plate fixation (A), Reconstruction plate internal fixation group (B), 2 screws internal fixation group (C) and mini-plates internal fixation group (D). The displacement of each node was measured and evaluated. Results: There was no distortion in the geometric shape of the finite element model. The results of stress showed that it was less in the anterior pelvic ring and distributed uniform in labrum acetabulare; the stress was bigger in the upper and middle of sacroiliac joint and sciatic notch in sitting position. Conclusions: Combined plate internal fixation for posterior wall fractures of acetabular were stable and reliable, it is better than the other three methods. PMID:26550272

  5. Open reduction internal fixation for midline mandibulotomy: lag screws vs plates.

    PubMed

    Danan, Deepa; Mukherjee, Sugoto; Jameson, Mark J; Shonka, David C

    2014-12-01

    Midline mandibulotomy is a common approach for resection of head and neck oral cavity and oropharyngeal tumors; however, there are limited data available on the outcomes of lag screw vs plate fixation. To compare outcomes for midline mandibulotomy open reduction and internal fixation using plates vs lag screw technique. Retrospective cohort study at a tertiary care academic medical center of patients undergoing midline mandibulotomy for head and neck tumor resection over a 6-year period. Mandibular fixation using lag screws or plates. The medical records and computed tomographic (CT) scans of patients undergoing midline mandibulotomy for head and neck tumor resection over a 6-year period were retrospectively reviewed. The postoperative CT scans were reviewed by a neuroradiologist who graded the fusion site on a scale of 0 to 2 using a 2-pass method. The rates and grades of union were compared, as well as several factors that affect healing, for fixations performed with plates vs lag screws. Thirty-seven patients were included. The overall rate of radiologic union was 90% (9 out of 10) for lag screw technique and 41% (11 out of 27) for plates (P = .01). The average grade of radiologic union was 1.3 for lag screws and 0.67 for plates (P = .04). Hardware exposure occurred in 4 (15%) of the plate group and fistulae formed in 3 (11%); neither complication occurred in the lag screw group. In univariate analysis, both presence of dentition (odds ratio [OR], 5.50 [95% CI, 1.33-22.73]; P = .02) and plate technique (OR, 13.09 [95% CI, 1.45-11.62]; P = .02) were significantly associated with nonunion. In multivariate analysis, plate technique had an OR of 8.32 (95% CI, 0.85-81.75) for nonunion (P = .07). Fixation of midline mandibulotomy with lag screws results in a significantly increased rate of radiologic union compared with plates. Lag screws were also significantly better at achieving radiologic union in patients who underwent postoperative radiation

  6. Callus Formation and Mineralization after Fracture with Different Fixation Techniques: Minimally Invasive Plate Osteosynthesis versus Open Reduction Internal Fixation

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Haoliang; Qin, Hui; An, Zhiquan

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis(MIPO) has been considered as an alternative for fracture treatment. Previous study has demonstrated that MIPO technique has the advantage of less soft tissue injury compared with open reduction internal fixation (ORIF). However, the comparison of callus formation and mineralization between two plate osteosynthesis methods remains unknown. In this experiment, ulna fracture model was established in 42 beagle dogs. The fractures underwent reduction and internal fixation with MIPO or ORIF. Sequential fluorescent labeling and radiographs were applied to determine new callus formation and mineralization in two groups after operation. At 4, 8 and 12 weeks postoperatively, the animals were selected to be sacrificed and the ulna specimens were analyzed by Micro-CT. The sections were also treated with Masson staining for histological evaluation. More callus formation was observed in MIPO group in early stage of fracture healing. The fracture union rate has no significant difference between two groups. The results indicate that excessive soft tissue stripping may impact early callus formation. As MIPO technique can effectively reduce soft tissue injury with little incision, it is considered to be a promising alternative for fracture fixation. PMID:26444295

  7. History of internal fixation with plates (part 2): new developments after World War II; compressing plates and locked plates.

    PubMed

    Hernigou, Philippe; Pariat, Jacques

    2017-07-01

    The first techniques of operative fracture with plates were developed in the 19th century. In fact, at the beginning these methods consisted of an open reduction of the fracture usually followed by a very unstable fixation. As a consequence, the fracture had to be opened with a real risk of (sometimes lethal) infection, and due to unstable fixation, protection with a cast was often necessary. During the period between World Wars I and II, plates for fracture fixation developed with great variety. It became increasingly recognised that, because a fracture of a long bone normally heals with minimal resorption at the bone ends, this may result in slight shortening and collapse, so a very rigid plate might prevent such collapse. However, as a consequence, delayed healing was observed unless the patient was lucky enough to have the plate break. One way of dealing with this was to use a slotted plate in which the screws could move axially, but the really important advance was recognition of the role of compression. After the first description of compression by Danis with a "coapteur", Bagby and Müller with the AO improved the technique of compression. The classic dynamic compression plates from the 1970s were the key to a very rigid fixation, leading to primary bone healing. Nevertheless, the use of strong plates resulted in delayed union and the osteoporosis, cancellous bone, comminution, and/or pathological bone resulted in some failures due to insufficient stability. Finally, new devices represented by locking plates increased the stability, contributing to the principles of a more biological osteosynthesis while giving enough stability to allow immediate full weight bearing in some patients.

  8. Open Reduction and Internal Fixation of Displaced Calcaneum, Intra-Articular Fractures by Locking Calcaneal Plate

    PubMed Central

    Santosha; Singh, Arambam Mahendra; Waikhom, Sanjib; Pakhrin, Vishal; Mukherjee, Sagnik; Debbarma, Rajkumar; Prashant, Prabhu Shrinivas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Calcaneal fractures constitute the most common fractures in hindfoot. Lots of controversies exist in the management of calcaneal fractures but now-a-days, it is preferable to perform open reduction and internal fixation and early mobilizatation. Aim To evaluate the functional outcome after open reduction and internal fixation of displaced intra-articular fractures of the calcaneum by locking calcaneal plate. Materials and Methods The study was conducted in the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery from September 2013 to April 2016. Thirty intra-articular fractures of the calcaneum were treated by locking calcaneal plate. Patients were followed up for a period of 24 months. Bohler’s angle was measured in preoperative, immediate Post-operative period and after 2 years, follow-up was compared. Results were evaluated according to American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) Score. Results After 24 months of follow-up, all 24 patients were available for evaluation. Radiological union was achieved in a mean time of 12.5 weeks. Mean duration of hospital stay was 21 days. Bohler’s angle was significantly higher after 2 years of follow-up when compared with preoperative x-ray. According to the AOFAS, Ankle–Hind foot Scale outcome score results were excellent in 43.3% of the patients, good in 33.3%, fair in 10%, and poor in 13.3% of patients. The mean AOFAS score was 79.9 (Range 49-96). Conclusion Open reduction and internal fixation of intra-articular fractures of the calcaneum with locking calcaneal plate gives good results. Maintenance of calcaneal height and Bohler’s angle helps to decrease the incidence of subtalar arthritis. PMID:28208957

  9. Internal fixation of the fibula in ankle fractures: a prospective, randomized and comparative study: plating versus nailing.

    PubMed

    Asloum, Y; Bedin, B; Roger, T; Charissoux, J-L; Arnaud, J-P; Mabit, C

    2014-06-01

    Open reduction and internal plate fixation of the fibula is the gold standard treatment for ankle fractures. The aim of this study was to perform a prospective randomized study to compare bone union, complications and functional results of two types of internal fixation of the fibula (plating and the Epifisa FH intramedullary nail). Inclusion criteria were: closed fractures, isolated displaced fractures of the lateral malleolus, inter- and supra-tubercular bimalleolar fractures, and trimalleolar fractures. This study included 71 patients (mean age 53 ± 19): plate fixation group (n=35) and intramedullary nail fixation group (n=36). In seven cases, intramedullary nailing was technically impossible and was converted to plate fixation (the analysis of this sub-group was performed independently). Two patients died and two patients were lost to follow-up. The final comparative series included 32 cases of plate fixation and 28 cases of intramedullary nail fixation. Union, postoperative complications and Kitaoka and Olerud-Molander functional scores were analyzed after one year of follow-up. There was no significant difference in the rate of union (P=0.5605) between the two types of fixation. There were significantly fewer complications (7% versus 56%) and better functional scores (96 versus 82 for the Kitaoka score; 97 versus 83 for the Olerud-Molander score) with intramedullary nailing than with plate fixation. Intramedullary nailing of the lateral malleolus in non-comminuted ankle fractures without syndesmotic injury is a reproducible technique with very few complications that provides better functional results than plate fixation. II (randomized prospective study). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Internal plate fixation versus plaster in displaced complete articular distal radius fractures, a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mulders, Marjolein A M; Walenkamp, Monique M J; Goslings, J Carel; Schep, Niels W L

    2016-02-09

    Of all distal radius fractures, 25 % are complete articular fractures (AO/OTA type C fractures). Two thirds of those fractures are displaced and require reduction. According to several International Guidelines, adequately reduced intra-articular distal radius fractures are best treated non-operatively with plaster immobilisation, while surgical fixation is suggested only when the articular step exceeds 2 mm after reduction. However, these recommendations are based on studies that did not differentiate between intra- and extra-articular distal radius fractures. Thus, no clear consensus about the best treatment for patients with displaced intra-articular distal radius fractures can be reached. Despite the lack of evidence, an increase in internal fixation of intra-articular distal radius fractures has been observed over the last decade. The aim of this study is to determine the difference in functional outcome following open reduction and plate fixation compared with non-operative treatment with closed reduction and plaster immobilisation in patients with a displaced intra articular distal radius fracture. This multicentre randomised controlled trial will randomise between open reduction and internal plate fixation (intervention group) and closed reduction and plaster immobilisation (control group). All consecutive adult patients from 18 to 65 years with a displaced intra-articular distal radius fracture (AO/OTA type C), which has been adequately reduced at the Emergency Department according to the Dutch National Guidelines, are eligible for inclusion in this study. The primary outcome is function and pain of the wrist assessed with the Patient-Rated Wrist Evaluation score (PRWE). Secondary outcomes are the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand score (DASH), pain, quality of life (SF-36), range of motion, grip strength, radiological parameters, complications, crossovers and cost-effectiveness of both treatments. A total of 90 patients will be included in this

  11. Analysis of a Lane-plate internal fixation device after 64 years in vivo.

    PubMed

    McAuley, J P; Gow, K V; Covert, A; McDermott, A G; Yabsley, R H

    1987-11-01

    A patient presented for an above-knee amputation 64 years after successful internal fixation of a femoral fracture with a Lane plate. Chemical analyses of the plate and corrosion products were done using atomic absorption spectrophotometry, x-ray energy spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. Mechanical properties of the fixation devices were measured using Rockwell-type instruments and metallographic analyses were also performed. In addition, pathologic and radiologic investigations of the underlying bone were carried out. Results disclosed that extensive corrosion had weakened the plate by 50%. The metallosis of the surrounding soft tissues and abnormal morphologic features of underlying bone were analysed. No appreciable cellular inflammatory or dysplastic reaction of adjacent tissues was identified. The underlying bone showed a persistent lack of mature compact bone and no evidence of remodelling. The products of corrosion were mainly ferrous carbonate and some ferrous chloride. The mechanism of the corrosion was the formation of a galvanic cell between the iron carbide and surrounding iron, with dissolution of the iron and formation of the corrosion products.

  12. Management of open fractures using a noncontact locking plate as an internal fixator.

    PubMed

    Yıldırım, Azad; Kapukaya, Ahmet; Mertsoy, Yılmaz; Yiğit, Şehmus; Çaçan, Mehmet Akif; Atiç, Ramazan

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of open fractures leads to major problems which may be due to various reasons. It mainly causes soft tissue problems due to the absorption of a large amount of energy by the soft tissues and bone tissues. Although some recent treatment protocols have eliminated many problems regarding delayed soft tissue closure, it still remains a big challange. This study uses a method called the internal fixator technique with noncontact locking plate (NC-LP) which involves the use of a combination of advantages of open and closed fixation techniques. 42 patients (32 men and 10 women) having a mean age of 34.11 years (range 17-56 years) with open fractures operated using internal fixator technique between 2007 and 2012 were included in this study. A retrospective chart review was conducted to record the following: age, gender, anatomic region of fractures, fracture etiology, classification of open fractures by Gustilo-Anderson and AO classification, surgeries, length of hospitalization, location and pattern of fracture, length of followup, and complications. The fractures were caused by traffic accidents, shotgun injuries, falls from heights, and industrial crush injuries. Based on the Gustilo-Anderson classification, 31 fractures were Type III and 11 were Type II, where 23 were localized in the tibia and 19 in the femur. Patients delay for a mean of 13.5 h (range 6-24 h) for operation and the mean followup interval was 27.8 months (range 16-44 months). The mean union time was 19.7 weeks (range 16-29 weeks). One patient had delayed union and implant failure, one patient had osteomyelitis, five suffered from surface skin necrosis, and one patient had an angulation of 17° in the sagittal plane, for which no additional intervention was performed. This case series demonstrates that an "internal fixator technique" is an acceptable alternative to the management of open fractures of the femur or tibia in adult patients. The NC-LP method provided opportunities to achieve

  13. Minimally invasive bioabsorbable bone plates for rigid internal fixation of mandible fractures.

    PubMed

    Gaball, Curtis; Lovald, Scott; Baack, Bret; Olson, Garth

    2011-01-01

    To optimize design variables of a bioabsorbable bone plate using a finite element model of the mandible and to discover a minimally invasive bioabsorbable bone plate design that can provide the same mechanical stability as a titanium plate. A finite element model of a mandible with a fracture in the body was subjected to bite loads. An analysis was run to determine the principal strain in the fracture callus and von Mises stress in a titanium plate. These values were then set as the limits within which the bioabsorbable bone plate must comply. The model then considered a bone plate made of the polymer poly(L-lactide-co-D,L-lactide) (P[L/DL]LA) 70/30. An optimization routine determined the smallest volume of bioabsorbable bone plate that can perform as well as a titanium bone plate when fixating mandibular fractures. A P(L/DL)LA plate volume of 315 mm(2) with a thickness of 1.5 mm provided as much mechanical stability as a commonly used titanium strut structure of 172 mm(2). The peak plate stress was well below the yield strength of the material. The P(L/DL)LA bioabsorbable bone plate design is as strong as a titanium plate when fixating fractures of the mandible body despite the polymer material having only 6% of the stiffness of the titanium. The P(L/DL)LA plate can be less than half the volume of its strut-style counterpart.

  14. Treatment of Humeral Shaft Fractures: Minimally Invasive Plate Osteosynthesis Versus Open Reduction and Internal Fixation

    PubMed Central

    Esmailiejah, Ali Akbar; Abbasian, Mohammad Reza; Safdari, Farshad; Ashoori, Keyqobad

    2015-01-01

    Background: The optimal technique for operative fixation of humeral shaft fractures remains controversial and warrants research. Objectives: The purpose of the current study was to compare the functional and clinical outcomes of conventional open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) with minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) in patients with fractures in two-third distal humeral shaft. Patients and Methods: In the current prospective case-control study, 65 patients with humeral shaft fractures were treated using ORIF (33 patients) or MIPO (32 patients). Time of surgery, time of union, incidence of varus deformity and complications were compared between the two groups. Also, the university of California-Los Angeles (UCLA) shoulder rating scale and Mayo Elbow performance score (MEPS) were used to compare the functional outcomes between the two groups. Results: The median of union time was shorter in the MIPO group (4 months versus 5 months). The time of surgery and functional outcomes based on the UCLA and MEPS scores were the same. The incidence of varus deformity was more than 5° and was higher and the incidence of nonunion, infection and iatrogenic radial nerve injury were lower in the MIPO group; however, the differences were not significant. Conclusions: Due to the shorter union time, to some extent less complication rate and comparable functional and clinical results, the authors recommend to use the MIPO technique in treating the mid-distal humeral shaft fracture. PMID:26543844

  15. Clinical results of using the proximal humeral internal locking system plate for internal fixation of displaced proximal humeral fractures.

    PubMed

    Norouzi, Masoud; Naderi, Mohammad Nasir; Komasi, Mehdi Hemmati; Sharifzadeh, Seyyed Reza; Shahrezaei, Mostafa; Eajazi, Alireza

    2012-05-01

    Proximal humerus fractures are accounting for 4-5% of all fractures with increasing incidence. Proximal Humeral Internal Locking System (PHILOS) plate is a new plate which permits early mobility and lowers the risk of complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional outcome and the complication rate after using this plate. Between 2006-2008, 37 patients with displaced 2-, 3-, and 4-part fractures of the proximal humerus underwent surgery using PHILOS plate. The mean range of follow-up was 12 months. Twenty patients were aged 60 years and younger, and 17 were aged older than 60 years. The average American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score at the final follow-up was 77.62. According to Michener and colleagues classification, 5.4% of patients had an excellent outcome, 72.9% were minimally functionally limited, 16.2% were moderately functionally limited, and 5.4% were maximally functionally limited. The average ASES score between patients 60 years and older and those 60 years and younger was not different significantly. One patient developed avascular necrosis of the humeral head, 2 patients developed an infection, and no patients developed a nonunion. Fixation with PHILOS plate can be considered a good method with high union rates for this kind of fracture, especially in the older population with osteoporotic bone.

  16. Influence of hooks and a lag screw on internal fixation plates for lateral malleolar fracture: a biomechanical and ergonomic study.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Rina; Uchino, Masataka; Yoneo, Terumasa; Ohtaki, Yasuaki; Minehara, Hiroaki; Matsuura, Terumasa; Gomi, Tsutomu; Ujihira, Masanobu

    2017-02-23

    For internal fixation of AO classification Type B lateral malleolar fracture, insertion of lag screws into the fracture plane and fixation with a one-third tubular plate as a neutralization plate are the standard treatment procedures. The one-third tubular plate is processed to a hook shape and hung on the distal end of the fibula. In this study, to compare the function of the hook and lag screws of a one-third tubular plate and LCP for osteosynthesis of lateral malleolar fracture, mechanical indices of internal fixation were compared among the one-third tubular plates with lag screws with and without the hook and a locking compression plate. As mechanical tests, a compression test was performed in which compression in the bone axis direction produced by supporting the body weight was simulated, and a torsion test was performed in which external rotation of the bone axis caused by plantar flexion of the ankle joint was simulated. Muscle strength during walking and the force and torque acting on the ankle and knee joints were determined using inverse dynamic analysis. Finite element analysis was performed to analyze the function of hooks and lag screws. The joint reaction force determined by inverse dynamic analysis was adopted as the loading condition of finite element analysis. A stiffness equivalent to that of healthy bone could be achieved by all three internal fixations. It was clarified that the presence of the hook does not make a difference in stiffness. Displacement of the one-third tubular plate was small regardless of the presence or absence of the hook compared with those of locking compression plates. The presence of the hook did not make any difference in stiffness, suggesting that active preparation of the hook is unnecessary. We also clarified that lag screws inhibit displacement.

  17. Are Biodegradable Plates Applicable in Endoscope-Assisted Open Reduction and Internal Fixation of Mandibular Subcondyle Fractures?

    PubMed

    Son, Jang-Ho; Ha, Jinhee; Cho, Yeong-Cheol; Sung, Iel-Yong

    2017-08-01

    To investigate whether biodegradable plates are applicable in endoscope-assisted open reduction and internal fixation (EAORIF) of mandibular subcondyle fractures. This retrospective case-series study included patients with mandibular subcondyle fractures treated with EAORIF using an unsintered hydroxyapatite particles/poly-l-lactide biodegradable plate system, with at least 6 months of clinical follow-up data available. The outcome variables were fracture healing with postoperative stability and postoperative complications. Other variables included age, gender, fracture site, cause of injury, accompanying mandibular fracture, total follow-up period, fracture classification, extent of displacement, preoperative status of occlusion, preoperative mandibular movements, fixation materials in accompanying mandibular fracture, location and number of fixation plates, periods of intermaxillary fixation/elastic bands, and postoperative mandibular movements. Fracture healing in these patients was assessed by comparing the immediate postoperative cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images with those obtained at least 3 months after surgery. A total of 11 patients, 9 male and 2 female, with a mean ± standard deviation age of 35.3 ± 15.9 years, were included. The mean follow-up period was 18.8 ± 7.8 months. Four patients had an accompanying mandibular fracture. Two 4-hole, 2.0-mm biodegradable plates were fixed with 6-mm screws along the posterior border of the mandibular ramus and near the sigmoid notch. Complete bone formation around the fracture lines or fading of the fracture lines, with no change in the position of the fractured segments, was observed on the postoperative CBCT images at 3 months. With the exception of 2 patients, no patient complained of plate palpability, deviation in occlusion, or discomfort during the postoperative follow-up period. EAORIF using biodegradable plates for mandible subcondylar fractures is a stable and reliable method, with

  18. Reoperation rate after internal fixation of intertrochanteric femur fractures with the percutaneous compression plate: what are the risk factors?

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Rohlfing, Bernhard; Heussen, Nicole; Knobe, Matthias; Pfeifer, Roman; Kaneshige, Jason R; Pape, Hans-Christoph

    2013-06-01

    The aim was this study was to analyze the risk factors for reoperation after internal fixation of intertrochanteric fractures of the femur using the percutaneous compression plate (PCCP). This was a retrospective cohort study. The study was conducted at the University Hospital. Patients with intertrochanteric femur fractures who underwent internal fixation with a PCCP were included in this study. We investigated potential risk factors such as age, gender, body mass index, comorbidities of the patients (American Society of Anesthetist classification), type of fracture (AO/OTA classification), experience of the surgeons (in terms of the number of surgical procedures with the PCCP device), tip-apex distance (TAD), and operation time. The procedures were performed by 10 surgeons. Logistic regression was used to assess potential predictors for the need of reoperation. Of the 96 patients with 96 intertrochanteric fractures, 8 underwent reoperation due to local complications (8.3%). The most frequent complication was complete or imminent cutting out of the upper cervical screw (N = 5; 5.2%). Five of the 8 risk factors that were associated with reoperation in the initial univariable analyses with a P value of <0.20 were retained in a multivariable logistic regression model, including, age, body mass index, TAD, experience of the surgeons, and operation time. Of these, only the factor TAD proved to be a significant predictor for reoperation (P = 0.027, odds ratio = 1.089, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.175). Our data show that the surgeon-related risk factors (number of operations, operation time, TAD) seem to be more relevant for the reoperation rate after internal fixation with the PCCP device when compared with the patient-related risk factors. This finding indicates a substantial learning curve for this technically demanding procedure. Prognostic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  19. Mechanical Comparison of Headless Screw Fixation and Locking Plate Fixation for Talar Neck Fractures.

    PubMed

    Karakasli, Ahmet; Hapa, Onur; Erduran, Mehmet; Dincer, Cemal; Cecen, Berivan; Havitcioglu, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    For talar neck fractures, open reduction and internal fixation have been thought to facilitate revascularization and prevent osteonecrosis. Newer screw systems allow for placement of cannulated headless screws, which provide compression by virtue of a variable pitch thread. The present study compared the biomechanical fixation strength of cannulated headless variable-pitch screw fixation and locking plate fixation. A reproducible talar neck fracture was created in 14 fresh cadaver talar necks. Talar head fixation was then performed using 2 cannulated headless variable-pitch 4-mm/5-mm diameter (4/5) screws (Acutrak; Acumed, Hillsboro, OR) and locking plate fixation. Headless variable-pitch screw fixation had lower failure displacement than did locking plate fixation. No statistically significant differences were found in failure stiffness, yield stiffness (p = .655), yield load (p = .142), or ultimate load between the 2 fixation techniques. Cannulated headless variable-pitch screw fixation resulted in better failure displacement than locking plate fixation in a cadaveric talus model and could be considered a viable option for talus fracture fixation. Headless, fully threaded, variable-pitch screw fixation has inherent advantages compared with locking plate fixation, because it might cause less damage to the articular surface and can compress the fracture for improved reduction. Additionally, plate fixation can increase the risk of avascular necrosis owing to the wider incision and dissection of soft tissues.

  20. Immuno-inflammatory tissue reaction to stainless-steel and titanium plates used for internal fixation of long bones.

    PubMed

    Voggenreiter, Gregor; Leiting, Stefan; Brauer, Holger; Leiting, Peter; Majetschak, Matthias; Bardenheuer, Mark; Obertacke, Udo

    2003-01-01

    The immuno-inflammatory responses to stainless-steel (21 implants in 20 patients) and titanium plates (22 implants in 20 patients) used in the treatment of long bone fractures were studied immunohistochemically. All fractures healed without complications. In the soft tissue adjacent to the surface of the implants a dark discolouration of the tissue was visible in 18/21 stainless-steel and 20/22 titanium plates. Tissue specimens of all patients contained positive staining for macrophages (CD68-positive cells). Serial sections showed that the majority of cells were found to express the HLA-DR molecule indicating their activation. Many of the macrophages were surrounded by clusters of T-lymphocytes (CD3-positive cells). 17 out of 21 steel specimens and 15 out of 22 titanium specimens showed the infiltration of moderate amounts of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CD8-positive cells). Moderate amounts of B-lymphocytes (CD79alpha positive cells) were evident in four patients with steel and six patients with titanium implants. The results of the present study clearly demonstrate the presence of a marked inflammation and tissue reaction in the soft tissue covering stainless-steel and titanium plates used for internal fixation of fractures of long bones independently from the material used.

  1. [BIOMECHANICAL RESEARCH OF DIFFERENT INTERNAL FIXATIONS USING LOCKING RECONSTRUCTION PLATE FOR ACETABULAR TRANSVERSE FRACTURE].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongyang; Li, Ligeng; Wu, Xiaobo; Xu, Hongjia; Zhang, Ruijie

    2015-09-01

    To compare the biomechanical stability of acetabular transverse fracture fixed with single column locking reconstruction plate, locking reconstruction plate combined with lag screw, and double columns lag screws. Acetabular transverse fractures were established in 20 adult fresh semi-pelvis specimens, and divided into 5 groups randomly (n=4). The anterior columns were fixed with locking reconstruction plates in group A; the posterior columns were fixed with locking reconstruction plates in group B; the anterior columns were fixed with locking reconstruction plates and the posterior columns with lag screws in group C; the anterior columns were fixed with lag screws and the posterior columns with locking reconstruction plates in group D; the double columns were fixed with lag screws in group E. When loading three times weight, the longitudinal displacement of fracture fragment was measured, and the shear rigidity was calculated to compare the stability among groups. The longitudinal displacement of groups A and B were significantly greater than that of groups C, D, and E (P<0.05), and the shear rigidity of groups A and B were significantly lower than that of groups C, D, and E (P< 0.05). The longitudinal displacement of group B was significantly greater than that of group A (P< 0.05), but no significant difference was found in the shear rigidity between groups A and B (P>0.05). There was no significant difference in the longitudinal displacement and shear rigiditramong groups C, D, and E (P>0.05). Locking reconstruction plate combined with lag screw and double columns lag screws have similar stability, they have stronger stability than the single column locking reconstruction plate. The stability of anterior column locking reconstruction plate is better than that of the posterior column locking reconstruction plate.

  2. Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis with a locking compression plate is superior to open reduction and internal fixation in the management of the proximal humerus fractures.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tao; Xiao, Baojun; Ma, Xiucai; Fu, Dehao; Yang, Shuhua

    2014-06-16

    The use of minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) via anterolateral deltoid splitting has good outcomes in the management of proximal humerus fractures. While using this approach has several advantages, including minimal soft tissue disruption, preservation of natural biology and minimal blood loss, there is an increased risk for axillary nerve damage. This study compared the advantages and clinical and radiological outcomes of MIPO or open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) in patients with proximal humerus fractures. A matched-pair analysis was performed, and patient groups were matched according to age (±3 years), sex and fracture type. Forty-three pairs of patients (average age: MIPO, 63 and ORIF, 61) with a minimum follow-up of 12 months were enrolled in the study group. The patients were investigated radiographically and clinically using the Constant score. The MIPO technique required less surgery time and caused less blood loss compared to ORIF (p < 0.01). In addition, MIPO required a smaller incision, resulted in less scarring, and was cosmetically more appealing and acceptable to female patients than ORIF. Following MIPO, patients had better functional results at 3 and 6 months, with better outcomes, less pain, higher satisfaction in activities of daily living, and a higher range of motion when compared to ORIF (p < 0.05). Fracture configuration, according to the AO/ASIF(Association for the Study of Internal Fixation) fracture classification, did not significantly influence the functional results. The complication rate was comparable between both groups. The use of MIPO with a locking compression plate in the management of proximal humerus fractures is a safe and superior option compared to ORIF.

  3. Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis with a locking compression plate is superior to open reduction and internal fixation in the management of the proximal humerus fractures

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) via anterolateral deltoid splitting has good outcomes in the management of proximal humerus fractures. While using this approach has several advantages, including minimal soft tissue disruption, preservation of natural biology and minimal blood loss, there is an increased risk for axillary nerve damage. This study compared the advantages and clinical and radiological outcomes of MIPO or open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) in patients with proximal humerus fractures. Methods A matched-pair analysis was performed, and patient groups were matched according to age (±3 years), sex and fracture type. Forty-three pairs of patients (average age: MIPO, 63 and ORIF, 61) with a minimum follow-up of 12 months were enrolled in the study group. The patients were investigated radiographically and clinically using the Constant score. Results The MIPO technique required less surgery time and caused less blood loss compared to ORIF (p < 0.01). In addition, MIPO required a smaller incision, resulted in less scarring, and was cosmetically more appealing and acceptable to female patients than ORIF. Following MIPO, patients had better functional results at 3 and 6 months, with better outcomes, less pain, higher satisfaction in activities of daily living, and a higher range of motion when compared to ORIF (p < 0.05). Fracture configuration, according to the AO/ASIF(Association for the Study of Internal Fixation) fracture classification, did not significantly influence the functional results. The complication rate was comparable between both groups. Conclusion The use of MIPO with a locking compression plate in the management of proximal humerus fractures is a safe and superior option compared to ORIF. PMID:24934152

  4. A Biomechanical Comparison of Three 1.5-mm Plate and Screw Configurations and a Single 2.0-mm Plate for Internal Fixation of a Mandibular Condylar Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Aquilina, Peter; Parr, William C.H.; Chamoli, Uphar; Wroe, Stephen; Clausen, Philip

    2014-01-01

    The most stable pattern of internal fixation for mandibular condyle fractures is an area of ongoing discussion. This study investigates the stability of three patterns of plate fixation using readily available, commercially pure titanium implants. Finite element models of a simulated mandibular condyle fracture were constructed. The completed models were heterogeneous in bone material properties, contained approximately 1.2 million elements and incorporated simulated jaw adducting musculature. Models were run assuming linear elasticity and isotropic material properties for bone. No human subjects were involved in this investigation. The stability of the simulated condylar fracture reduced with the different implant configurations, and the von Mises stresses of a 1.5-mm X-shaped plate, a 1.5-mm rectangular plate, and a 1.5-mm square plate (all Synthes (Synthes GmbH, Zuchwil, Switzerland) were compared. The 1.5-mm X plate was the most stable of the three 1.5-mm profile plate configurations examined and had comparable mechanical performance to a single 2.0-mm straight four-hole plate. This study does not support the use of rectangular or square plate patterns in the open reduction and internal fixation of mandibular condyle fractures. It does provide some support for the use of a 1.5-mm X plate to reduce condylar fractures in selected clinical cases. PMID:25136411

  5. Biodegradable internal fixation plates enabled with X-ray visibility by a radiopaque layer of β-tricalcium phosphate and poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid).

    PubMed

    Shasteen, Catherine; Park, Keun Yung; Kwong, Seok Min; Jung, Sun Young; Lee, Seung Ho; Park, Chun Gwon; Kim, Myung Hun; Kim, Sukwha; Son, Woo-Chan; Choi, Tae Hyun; Choy, Young Bin

    2013-02-01

    Biodegradable polymer plates can be clinically used as an alternative to metal plates (e.g., titanium) for internal fixation, which, however, are not visible with X-ray imaging, often used for post-operative diagnostics. In this study, therefore, we prepared a biodegradable plate enabled with X-ray visibility by attaching a radiopaque layer on a biodegradable fixation plate in clinical use (Inion, Finland). A radiopaque layer was made of a fine powder of a radiopaque agent, β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and a biodegradable binder material, poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), which were physically mixed without change in their chemical structure. The radiopacity increased as we increased the layer thicknesses from 0.5 mm to 1.3 mm. Regardless of layer thickness, however, the radiopacity decreased with time both in vitro and in vivo due to decreasing density of TCP in the layer by swelling and degradation of a binder material, PLGA. The in vivo study with rabbits revealed that a discernible image of the radiopaque plate could be obtained by X-ray for up to 21 days, also showing the overall biocompatibility 6 months after implantation. Therefore, we conclude that the radiopaque plate prepared in this work is a promising fixation device enabled with both X-ray visibility and biodegradability. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Internal fixation of complex fractures of the tarsal navicular with locking plates. A report of 10 cases.

    PubMed

    Cronier, P; Frin, J-M; Steiger, V; Bigorre, N; Talha, A

    2013-06-01

    Tarsal navicular fractures are rare and treatment of comminuted fractures is especially difficult. Since 2007, the authors have had access to 3D reconstruction from CT scan images and specific locking plates, and they decided to evaluate whether these elements improved management of these severe cases. Between 2007 and 2011, 10 comminuted tarsal navicular fractures were treated in a prospective study. All of the fractures were evaluated by 3D reconstruction from CT scan images, with suppression of the posterior tarsal bones. The surgical approach was chosen according to the type of lesion. Reduction was achieved with a mini-distractor when necessary, and stabilized by AO locking plate fixation (Synthes™). Patient follow-up included a clinical and radiological evaluation (Maryland Foot score, AOFAS score). Eight patients underwent postoperative CT scan. All patients were followed up after a mean 20.5 months. Union was obtained in all patients and arthrodesis was not necessary in any of them. The mean Maryland Foot score was 92.8/100, and the AOFAS score 90.6/100. One patient with an associated comminuted calcaneal fracture had minimal sequella from a compartment syndrome of the foot. The authors did not find any series in the literature that reported evaluating tarsal navicular fractures by 3D reconstruction from CT scan images. The images obtained after suppression of the posterior tarsal bones systematically showed a lateral plantar fragment attached to the plantar calcaneonavicular ligament, which is essential for stability, and which helped determine the reduction technique. Locking plate fixation of these fractures has never been reported. Comminuted fractures of the tarsal navicular were successfully treated with specific imaging techniques in particular 3D reconstructions of CT scan images to choose the surgical approach and the reduction technique. Locking plate fixation of the navicular seems to be a satisfactory solution for the treatment of these

  7. A finite element analysis of bone plates available for prophylactic internal fixation of the radial osteocutaneous donor site using the sheep tibia model.

    PubMed

    Avery, C M E; Bujtár, Péter; Simonovics, János; Dézsi, Tamás; Váradi, Károly; Sándor, George K B; Pan, Jingzhe

    2013-10-01

    The strengthening effect of prophylactic internal fixation (PIF) with a bone plate at the radial osteocutaneous flap donor site has previously been demonstrated using the sheep tibia model of the human radius. This study investigated whether a finite element (FE) model could accurately represent this biomechanical model and whether stress or strain based failure criteria are most appropriate. An FE model of an osteotomised sheep tibia bone was strengthened using 4 types of plates with unilocking or bicortical screw fixation. Torsion and 4-point bending simulations were performed. The maximum von Mises stresses and strain failure criteria were studied. The strengthening effects when applying stress failure criteria [factor 1.76-4.57 bending and 1.33-1.80 torsion] were comparable to the sheep biomechanical model [factor 1.73-2.43 bending and 1.54-2.63 torsion]. The strongest construct was the straight 3.5mm stainless steel unilocking plate. Applying strain criteria the strongest construct was the straight 3.5mm stainless DCP plate with bicortical screw fixation. The FE model was validated by comparison with the sheep tibia model. The complex biomechanics at the bone-screw interface require further investigation. This FE modelling technique may be applied to a model of the human radius and other sites. Copyright © 2013 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Biomechanical comparison of odontoid plate fixation versus odontoid screw fixation.

    PubMed

    Platzer, Patrick; Eipeldauer, Stefan; Leitgeb, Johannes; Aldrian, Silke; Vécsei, Vilmos

    2011-05-01

    Randomized controlled trial with statistically significant difference or statistically no significant difference (Level I). The purpose of this study was to measure the mechanical stability of odontoid plate fixation, using a specially designed plate construct and to compare the results with those after odontoid single-screw and double-screw fixation. Plate fixation of the odontoid process without C1-C2 is a possible option for the management of odontoid fractures that are not suitable for conventional screw fixation. Although earlier biomechanical works have evaluated the effectiveness of different odontoid screw fixation techniques, no study has quantified the mechanical stability of odontoid fixation by a plate device. The second cervical vertebra was removed from 15 fresh human spinal columns. The specimens were fixed to the experimental apparatus with the load cell at the articular surface of the odontoid process. In the first test series, stiffness and failure load of the intact odontoid were measured. Type II odontoid fractures were created by a 45 degree oblique extension loading at the articular surface of the odontoid process. Afterward, the specimens were randomly assigned to 1 of the following 3 groups: in group I (n=5), the fractures were stabilized, using a specially designed plate construct, in group II, the fractures were fixed, using two 3.5 mm cortical screws, and in group III, we used 1 regular 4.5 mm cortical screw. In the second test series, stiffness and failure load of the stabilized odontoid fractures were assessed for comparison and statistical analysis. Group I (plate device) showed a significantly higher mean failure load than group II and group III. The mean failure load of group I, after fixation of the odontoid fracture, was 84% of the mean failure load that was necessary to create a type II odontoid fracture initially. Comparing group II (double screw technique) and group III (single screw technique), there was no significant

  9. Biomechanical and histological evaluation of the application of biodegradable poly-L-lactic cushion to the plate internal fixation for bone fracture healing.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yubo; Xiu, Kaihua; Duan, Hong; Zhang, Ming

    2008-01-01

    Internal plate fixation of fracture can provide favorable mechanical environment for fracture fragments. However, osteoporosis under the plate is often found, and refracture may occur after the plate is removed. There are two different opinions about the bone loss beneath the plate: first is the stress shielding effect brought by the rigid fixation, and the second is the insufficient blood supply of the bone caused by the placement of the plate. In this paper, we tried to achieve a favorable condition for the fracture healing by inserting a kind of biodegradable cushion, through which the stress shielding effect and the interruption of the bone blood supply could be relieved at the same time. Animal models of internal fixation for tibia diaphyseal fracture with the placement of the poly-l-lactic (PLLA) cushion between the plate and the bone were established; a series of in vitro investigations and finite element (FE) analysis were performed to evaluate the effect of this new internal fixation system. During both the initial and 50% healing periods, the extent of stress shielding of the fracture zone decreased due to the use of the PLLA cushion. Especially for the 50% healing stage, the insertion of the PLLA cushion on alleviating the stress shielding of the bone tissue between the inner two screws directly under the plate is more apparent than that at the initial healing period. Meanwhile, radiological and histological coloration results demonstrated sooner callus growth and better trabecular rearrangement of the fracture zone in the PLLA group with the degradation of the PLLA cushion during the healing periods. This study showed that the use of the PLLA cushion at the initial period did not impair the stability of the whole system, which provides a favorable mechanical environment for the following fracture healing. On the other hand, its superiorities on alleviating stress shielding effect and interruption with the blood supply of the bone tissue beneath the

  10. A systematic review of open reduction and internal fixation of periprosthetic femur fractures with or without allograft strut, cerclage, and locked plates.

    PubMed

    Moore, Ryan E; Baldwin, Keith; Austin, Matthew S; Mehta, Samir

    2014-05-01

    Few comparative studies exist for open reduction and internal fixation of Vancouver B1 and C fractures. We therefore performed a systematic review of fractures treated with or without an allograft strut, and using various fixation techniques. Thirty-seven manuscripts including 682 fractures were identified between 1992 and 2012. Percent union was similar for Vancouver B1 fractures treated with or without an allograft strut (90.7% vs. 91.5%). Time to union (4.4 vs. 6.6 months) and deep infection (3.8% vs. 8.3%) were increased with use of allograft struts. Percent union and time to union were unaffected by plate type or use of cerclage. We conclude that due to increased infection and time to union, allograft struts should be used cautiously during operative treatment of Vancouver B1 factures.

  11. Internal fixation: a historical review.

    PubMed

    Greenhagen, Robert M; Johnson, Adam R; Joseph, Alison

    2011-08-01

    Internal fixation has become a pillar of surgical specialties, yet the evolution of these devices has been relatively short. The first known description of medical management of a fracture was found in the Edwin Smith Papyrus of Ancient Egypt (circa 2600 bc). The first description of internal fixation in the medical literature was in the 18th century. The advancement of techniques and technology over the last 150 years has helped to preserve both life and function. The pace of advancement continues to accelerate as surgeons continue to seek new technology for osseous fixation. The authors present a thorough review of the history of internal fixation and the transformation into a multibillion dollar industry.

  12. [Three-column plate internal fixation for the treatment of complex tibial plateau fracture through antero-midline and postero-medial approaches].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi; Li, Gang; Yang, Yong; Gao, Chun-Hong; Luo, Yong-Quan; Luo, Jun-Jun

    2014-11-01

    To study technique and clinical therapeutic effects of internal fixation with three-column plates for the treatment of complex tibial plateau fractures through antero-midline and postero-medial approaches. From January 2010 to December 2012, 28 patients with complex tibial plateau fractures were treated with internal fixation using three-column plates through antero-midline and postero-medial approaches. There were 17 males and 11 females, with an average age of 45.3 years old (ranged, 28 to 64 years old). Twelve patients had injuries in the left side and 16 patients had injuries in the right side. According to Schatzker classification, 12 patients were type V, 16 patients were type VI. According to three-column classification, all the patients had injuries of lateral, medial and posterior columns. The mean interval from injury to operation was 9.4 days (ranged, 6 to 15 days). The main clinical symptoms were knee joint swelling, deformity and limitation of motion before operation. The X-ray and CT showed all patients had complex tibial plateau fractures, which involved in the lateral, medial and posterior columns. The therapeutic effects were evaluated by fracture healing time, hospital for special surgery knee score (HSS) at one year after operation. The indexes such as tibial plateau-tibial shaft angle (TPA), posterior slope angle (PA) and femoral-tibial angle (FfA) were compared between immediate postoperation and one year after operation. All incisions primarily healed without postoperative complications such as infection and cutaneous necrosis. All the patients were followed up, and the duration ranged from 12 to 24 months, with a mean of 18.1 months. The bone union time ranged from 5 to 10 months (mean, 7.8 months) after operation. Knee joint swelling and pain disappeared after bony union, and joint function completely recovered. The results of hospital for special surgery knee score (HSS) was 27.81 ± 2.17 in pain, 19.52 ± 2.05 in function,15.82 ± 1.73 in

  13. Mechanical properties of 18 different AO bone plates and the clamp-rod internal fixation system tested on a gap model construct.

    PubMed

    Zahn, K; Frei, R; Wunderle, D; Linke, B; Schwieger, K; Guerguiev, B; Pohler, O; Matis, U

    2008-01-01

    To compare the stiffness and strength of AO bone plates (DCP, LC-DCP, VCP, RCP, and LP) and the Clamp-Rod Internal Fixation System (CRIF). In vitro. 12 individual implants of 18 plate dimensions and four sizes of CRIF, each corresponding to 2.0, 2.4/2.7, 3.5, or 4.5 mm screw sizes. Implant-constructs of each plate and CRIF were created using Canevasit rods as a bone substitute in an unstable gap fracture model. Six implant-constructs of each type were tested under single cycle four-point bending loading, and six were tested under single cycle torsional loading until permanent plastic deformation occurred. Torsional stiffness and yield load of the DCP were always significantly greater than the CRIF within the same group. Bending properties of the 2.0 DCP were not significantly different to the 2.0 CRIF. The 2.7 DCP had significantly higher bending values than the 2.7 CRIF. The bending stiffness of the 3.5 DCP and 4.5 DCP was significantly less than their CRIF counterparts. While the bending yield load of the 3.5 DCP was significantly greater than the 3.5 CRIF, the bending yield load of the 4.5 DCP was significantly less than the 4.5 CRIF. A weakness was found in the torsional resistance of the CRIF constructs compared to the DCP constructs. Bone holding power and applied screw torque should be considered when using the CRIF system in clinical application.

  14. Eighth international congress on nitrogen fixation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Eighth International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation held May 20--26, 1990 in Knoxville, Tennessee. The volume contains abstracts of individual presentations. Sessions were entitled Recent Advances in the Chemistry of Nitrogen Fixation, Plant-microbe Interactions, Limiting Factors of Nitrogen Fixation, Nitrogen Fixation and the Environment, Bacterial Systems, Nitrogen Fixation in Agriculture and Industry, Plant Function, and Nitrogen Fixation and Evolution.

  15. Comparison of Minimally Invasive Percutaneous Plate Osteosynthesis and Open Reduction Internal Fixation on Proximal Humeral Fracture in Elder Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Objective The study aims to compare minimally invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) and open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) in the treatment of proximal humeral fracture in elder patients. Method PubMed, Medline, EMbase, Ovid, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wangfang, and VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals were searched to identify all relevant studies from inception to October 2016. Data were analyzed with Cochrane Collaboration's Review Manage 5.2. Results A total of 630 patients from 8 publications were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. The pooled results showed that MIPO was superior to ORIF in the treatment of proximal humeral fracture in elder patients. It was reflected in reducing blood loss, operation time, postoperative pain, or fracture healing time of the surgery and in improving recovery of muscle strength. Concerning complications, no significant difference was seen between MIPO and ORIF. Conclusion The MIPO was more suitable than ORIF for treating proximal humeral fracture in elder patients. PMID:28698871

  16. Outcomes and financial implications of intra-articular distal radius fractures: a comparative study of open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) with volar locking plates versus nonoperative management.

    PubMed

    Toon, Dong Hao; Premchand, Rex Antony Xavier; Sim, Jane; Vaikunthan, Rajaratnam

    2017-02-02

    To evaluate the functional and radiographic outcomes, as well as the treatment costs, of closed displaced intra-articular distal radius fractures treated with either open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) with volar locking plates or nonoperative treatment with plaster cast immobilisation. A total of 60 patients (32 receiving ORIF, 28 receiving nonoperative treatment) with closed intra-articular distal radius fractures were included. The mean age was 52.1 and 57.4, respectively. Functional and radiographic assessments were carried out at 12 months post-injury. Patients' treatment costs, median salaries and lengths of medical leave were obtained. DASH and MAYO wrist score in the ORIF group did not differ significantly from those in the nonoperative group. Apart from superior ulnar deviation in the ORIF group (p = 0.0096), differences in the range of motion of the injured wrists were not significant. Similarly, there were no significant differences in grip strength and visual analog scale for pain. Volar tilt (p = 0.0399), radial height (p = 0.0087), radial inclination (p = 0.0051) and articular step-off (p = 0.0002) were all significantly superior in the ORIF group. There was a 37-fold difference in mean treatment costs between ORIF (SGD 7951.23) and nonoperative treatment (SGD 230.52). Our study shows no difference in overall functional outcomes at 12 months for closed displaced intra-articular distal radius fractures treated with either ORIF with volar locking plates or plaster cast immobilisation, and this is independent of radiographic outcome. A longer follow-up, nevertheless, is needed to determine whether the development of post-traumatic arthritis will have an effect on function. The vast difference in treatment costs should be taken into consideration when deciding on the treatment option. Level 3.

  17. [Long-term results of calcaneal fracture treatment by open reduction and internal fixation using a calcaneal locking compression plate from an extended lateral approach].

    PubMed

    Zeman, P; Zeman, J; Matejka, J; Koudela, K

    2008-12-01

    To report on the surgical treatment of intra-articular calcaneal fractures by open reduction and internal fixation with a calcaneal locking compression plate (LCP) from an extended lateral approach, and to retrospectively analyze the mid-term results in a group of patients treated by this technique. In the period from August 2005 till March 2007, a total of 49 patients with 61 calcaneal fractures were treated. Of these, 11 (18 %) were treated conservatively. Reduction combined with Kirschner-wire fixation was used in four fractures (6.6 %). Open reduction with internal calcaneal LCP fixation (ORIF- calcaneal LCP) from an extended lateral approach was carried out to treat 46 fractures (75.4 %) in 38 patients. The group evaluated here comprised 29 patients with 33 calcaneal fractures treated by ORIF-calcaneal LCP at a follow-up longer than 6 months. The fractures were classified on the basis of computer tomography (CT) findings as Sanders types I to IV. The group had two woman (6.9 %) and 27 men (93.1 %) with an average age of 34.2 years (range, 19-55 years). In 11 fractures (33.3 %), the primary treatment included filling a central cancellous bone defect area. Calcium phosphate bone substitute material (resorbable ChronOS) was used in nine cases (27.3 %), a self-solidifying hydroxyapatite implant was injected in two (6.1 %) cases (X3 Wright and Norian SRS, respectively), and a bone allograft was implanted in one case (3 %). Indicated for surgery were patients with an intra-articular calcaneal fracture, Sanders type II or type III, with articular surface displacement by more than 1 mm. Contraindications included age over sixty years, poor cooperation, smoking habits, peripheral vascular disease or skin infection. Surgery was performed only after oedema had resolved. The aim of our treatment was to achieve anatomical reconstruction of all articular surfaces, to restore the height, length, width and axis of the heel bone, to carry out primary stable osteosynthesis, and

  18. Outcome comparison of Lisfranc injuries treated through dorsal plate fixation versus screw fixation

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Sun-jun; Chang, Shi-min; Li, Xiao-hua; Yu, Guang-rong

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this prospective study was to test whether the treatment of Lisfranc injuries with open reduction and dorsal plate fixation would have the same or better functional outcomes as treatment with standard trans-articular screw fixation. METHODS: Sixty patients with primarily isolated Lisfranc joint injury were treated by open reduction and dorsal plate fixation or standard screw fixation. The patients were followed on average for 31 months. Evaluation was performed with patients' chief complaint, clinical examination, radiography, and AOFAS Midfoot Scale. RESULTS: Thirty two patients were treated with open reduction and dorsal plate fixation, and twenty eight patients were treated with open reduction and screw fixation. After two years follow-up, the mean AOFAS Midfoot score was 83.1 points in the dorsal plate fixation group and 78.5 points in the screw fixation group (p<0.01). Of the dorsal plate fixation group, radiographic analysis revealed anatomic reduction in twenty-nine patients (90.6%, 29/32) and nonanatomic reduction in three patients. Of the screw fixation group, radiographic analysis revealed anatomic reduction in twenty-three patients and nonanatomic reduction in five patients (82.1%, 23/28). CONCLUSIONS: Open reduction and dorsal plate fixation for a dislocated Lisfranc injury do have better short and median term outcome and a lower reoperation rate than standard screw ORIF. In our experience, we recommend using dorsal plate in ORIF on dislocated Lisfranc injuries. Level of Evidence II, Prospective Comparative Study. PMID:25538478

  19. Removal of symptomatic titanium fixation plates after craniotomy.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Raghav; Adeeb, Nimer; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Moore, Justin M; Patel, Apar S; Thomas, Ajith J; Ogilvy, Christopher S

    2016-10-01

    Titanium fixation plates are routinely used for rigid fixation of bone flaps after craniotomy. In craniofacial surgery or after craniotomy involving orbitozygomatic osteotomies, these plates are occasionally removed because of infection, pain, protrusion, soft tissue erosion, and plate malfunction. However, plate removal because of pain and protrusion after craniotomy without orbitozygomatic osteotomy has rarely been reported. A retrospective analysis of all patients who underwent removal of cranial fixation plates after craniotomy, performed by the senior authors at one institution between 2014 and 2016, was conducted. A total of 319 patients underwent bone flap fixation after craniotomy using cranial fixation plates between 2014 and 2016. Five of those patients (1.6 %) had their cranial plates removed because of pain and protrusion. An additional four patients had a cranial fixation plate removed during that time frame with the original craniotomy performed before 2014. All nine patients had immediate resolution of symptoms after plate removal. We report our experience with cranial fixation plate removal because of pain and protrusion in patients who underwent craniotomy without orbitozygomatic osteotomy, particularly frontotemporal craniotomy. In an attempt to reduce this complication, we recently stopped placing a full-size burr hole in the keyhole area of a frontotemporal craniotomy, eliminating the need for a titanium burr hole cover plate.

  20. Assessment of fracture healing after minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis or open reduction and internal fixation of coexisting radius and ulna fractures in dogs via ultrasonography and radiography.

    PubMed

    Pozzi, Antonio; Risselada, Marije; Winter, Matthew D

    2012-09-15

    To evaluate fracture healing after minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) or open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) of coexisting radius and ulna fractures in dogs via ultrasonography and radiography. Prospective cohort study. 16 dogs with radius-ulna fractures that underwent MIPO (n = 9; 2 dogs were subsequently not included in the analyses because of incomplete follow-up information) or ORIF (7). Dogs in the 2 treatment groups were matched by age, body weight, and configuration of the fractures. Fracture healing was evaluated with ultrasonography, power Doppler ultrasonography, and radiography every 3 to 4 weeks until healing was complete; a semiquantitative score based on the number of Doppler signals was used to characterize neovascularization, and subjective B-mode ultrasonographic and radiographic scores were assigned to classify healing. Fractures in dogs that underwent MIPO healed in significantly less time than did fractures in dogs that underwent ORIF (mean ± SD; 30 ± 10.5 days and 64 ± 10.1 days, respectively). Radiography revealed that fractures in dogs that underwent MIPO healed with significantly more callus formation than did fractures in dogs that underwent ORIF. Although Doppler ultrasonography revealed abundant vascularization in fractures that were healing following MIPO, no significant difference in neovascularization scores was found between groups. For dogs with radius-ulna fractures, data indicated that bridging osteosynthesis combined with a minimally invasive approach contributed to rapid healing after MIPO. The MIPO technique may offer some clinical advantage over ORIF, given that complete radius-ulna fracture healing was achieved in a shorter time with MIPO.

  1. Comparison of double dynamic compression plating versus two configurations of an internal veterinary fixation device: Results of in vitro mechanical testing using a bone substitute.

    PubMed

    Haerdi-Landerer, Christina; Steiner, Adrian; Linke, Berend; Wahl, Dieter; Schneider, Erich; Hehli, Markus; Frei, Reto; Auer, Jörg A

    2002-01-01

    To compare the mechanical properties of 2 configurations of a veterinary fixation system (VFS) for large animal long bones with dynamic compression plating (DCP). Eighteen pairs of Canevasit tubes (Canevasit; Amsler und Frei, Schinznach Dorf, Switzerland) (length, 170 mm; diameter, 47.5 mm; cortex thickness, 10 mm), aligned with a 10-mm gap, and stabilized with 2 DCP or 2 VFS implants. Three groups (n = 6) were compared. Group 1 Canevasit tubes were stabilized with two 10-hole, broad 4.5-mm stainless steel DCP applied with both plates centered over the gap, in orthogonal planes parallel to the long axis of the tubes and staggered to allow bicortical fixation with ten 4.5-mm, 52-mm-long cortex screws each. Group 2 tubes were stabilized similarly with 2 VFS implants, each composed of a stainless steel rod (length, 167 mm; diameter, 8 mm), and 10 clamps were applied in alternating fashion left and right on the rod and fixed bicortically with ten 4.5-mm, 52-mm-long, cortex screws. Group 3 tubes were stabilized similarly, but using only 6 clamps/rod. All groups were tested initially in torsion within elastic limits and subsequently in 4-point bending, with 1 implant on the tension side, until gap closure occurred. None of the constructs failed, but all had plastic deformation after 4-point bending. No statistically significant differences were found among the 3 groups in torsional stiffness. Double DCP fixation was significantly stiffer and stronger in 4-point bending, compared with both configurations of double VFS fixation. The plate design was favored in this study. The VFS system may have to be adapted before further tests are conducted. Test modalities have to be chosen closer to clinical conditions (real bone, cyclic loading, closed gap). The veterinary fixation system has not yet proven its advantages for large animal long bone fracture repair. From the pure mechanical point of view, double DCP is the favored method for the treatment mentioned. Copyright 2002 by

  2. Unicortical versus bicortical locked plate fixation in midshaft clavicle fractures.

    PubMed

    Bravman, Jonathan T; Taylor, Michal L; Baldini, Todd; Vidal, Armando F

    2015-05-01

    Higher rates of poor outcomes in displaced midshaft clavicle fractures treated nonoperatively have recently been reported. Along with expanding indications for operative fixation and increasing application of locked plate constructs, it is unknown whether complications related to bicortical penetration of the clavicle can be avoided using unicortical fixation. The purpose of this study is to compare the biomechanical properties of unicortical and bicortical fixation in precontoured vs manually contoured locking clavicle plates. Forty-eight Sawbone composite human clavicle specimens (item #3408; Pacific Research Laboratories, Vashon, Washington) with a midshaft clavicle osteotomy were reduced and plated in 8 specimens each using a bicortical and unicortical fixation for each of 3 locked plate constructs (3.5-mm LCP Reconstruction Plate; 3.5-mm LCP Superior Clavicle Plate; 3.5-mm LCP Superior Anterior Clavicle Plate; Synthes, Inc, West Chester, Pennsylvania). Specimens were tested for stiffness in axial torsion and cantilever bending and then loaded to failure in 3-point bending. Data were analyzed using 2-way analysis of variance and Tukey's test (P<.05). No significant differences were found between unicortical and bicortical fixation in failure load, cantilever bending, and cross body stiffness. Bicortical fixation was significantly stiffer than unicortical fixation in torsion only for the same plates. Significant differences also existed between plates in torsion. Unicortical locked plate fixation may be a reasonable option in the treatment of displaced midshaft clavicle fracture fixation to avoid complications associated with posteroinferior hardware penetration following clavicle fracture fixation based on the biomechanical performance of these constructs. However, it remains unclear whether these differences will be clinically significant.

  3. Treatment of Palatal Fractures by Osteosynthesis with 2.0-mm Locking Plates as External Fixator

    PubMed Central

    Cienfuegos, Ricardo; Sierra, Eduardo; Ortiz, Benjamin; Fernández, Gerardo

    2010-01-01

    Treatment options for palatal fractures range from orthodontic braces, acrylic bars, and arch bars for maxillomandibular fixation to internal fixation, with plates and screws placed under the palate mucosa and periosteum, together with pyriform aperture or alveolar plating plus buttress reconstruction. Forty-five patients, ages 4 to 56, were treated using medium- or high-profile locking plates placed over the palatal mucosa as an external fixator for palatal fractures, together with treatment for other associated facial fractures. In open fractures, plates were placed after approximating the edges of the mucosal wounds. Plates and screws for palate fixation were removed at 12 weeks, when computed tomography scans provided evidence of fracture healing. All palatal fractures healed by 12 weeks, with no cases of mucosal necrosis, bone exposure, fistulae, or infections. This approach achieves adequate stability, reduces the risk of bone and mucosal necrosis, and promotes healing of mucosal wounds in case of open fractures. PMID:22132261

  4. Intermittent Internal Fixation With a Locking Plate to Preserve Epiphyseal Growth Function During Limb-Salvage Surgery in a Child With Osteosarcoma of the Distal Femur

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Jiong; Ni, Ming; Jia, Guang-Yao; Chen, Yan-Xi; Zhu, Xiao-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Limb shortening is a problem associated with surgery for osteosarcoma of the lower extremity in adolescents, as the tumors frequently occur near the epiphysis. Herein we report the use of a less invasive stabilization system (LISS) and an intermittent fixation method to preserve the growth function of epiphysis in an 11-year-old patient with an osteosarcoma of the distal femur. The 11-year-old male presented with left knee enlargement and pain for 2 weeks, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and biopsy were consistent with osteosarcoma of the left distal femur. After preoperative chemotherapy, en bloc tumor resection was performed with margins based on MRI findings preserving the epiphyseal growth plate, the tumor cavity was filled with inactivated bone and bone cement, and a LISS was used to stabilize the femur. Aggressive postoperative chemotherapy was given. Approximately 105 weeks after surgery radiography showed that the distal end of the plate had moved superior to the epiphysis along with bone growth. Locking screws were placed in the distal part of the LISS plate to stabilize the re-implanted bone, and external fixation was not needed. The patient was able to walk with the crutches 1 week postoperatively, and bear weight on the extremity 6 weeks postoperatively. At 6 years after surgery, the patient's height had increased 52 cm, shortening of the affected limb was only 1 cm, and the circumference of the affected limb was 2 cm smaller than that of the contralateral limb. There was no significant discomfort in the affected limb, and there was no gait abnormality. The patient could jump and run, and could participate in sports including basketball and badminton to the same degree as his peers. In summary, the novel method of bone reconstruction and fixation provided good results in a child with an osteosarcoma of the distal femur. This fixation method preserves the osteogenic function of the epiphysis and restored bone integrity simultaneously

  5. Design of Fracture Fixation Plate for Necessary and Sufficient Bone Stress Shielding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramakrishna, Kotlanka; Sridhar, Idapalapati; Sivashanker, Sathiamoorthy; Khong, Kok Sun; Ghista, Dhanjoo N.

    The objective of treating the fractured bone is to achieve painless functioning of the bone and undisturbed healing at the fracture. Internal fixation by stiff bone-plate is one of the standard methods to achieve these objectives. Recently, there is considerable interest in the usage of compliant plates to enhance bone healing with reduced stress shielding. Herein, first an analytical solution is developed to determine screw forces in the bone-plate assembly that conforms the plate and the bone under bending load. Based on the analytical calculations, an optimal fixator plate selection criterion for necessary and sufficient stress shielding is proposed. Second, effectiveness of employing a non-homogeneous stiffness graded (SG) plate rather than a homogeneous stainless steel (SS) plate for stress shielding is investigated using a finite element method. It is found that stress shielding on bone by SG plate is less compared to SS plate.

  6. Operative Cost Comparison: Plating Versus Intramedullary Fixation for Clavicle Fractures.

    PubMed

    Hanselman, Andrew E; Murphy, Timothy R; Bal, George K; McDonough, E Barry

    2016-09-01

    Although clavicle fractures often heal well with nonoperative management, current literature has shown improved outcomes with operative intervention for specific fracture patterns in specific patient types. The 2 most common methods of midshaft clavicle fracture fixation are intramedullary and plate devices. Through retrospective analysis, this study performed a direct cost comparison of these 2 types of fixation at a single institution over a 5-year period. Outcome measures included operative costs for initial surgery and any hardware removal surgeries. This study reviewed 154 patients (157 fractures), and of these, 99 had intramedullary fixation and 58 had plate fixation. A total of 80% (79 of 99) of intramedullary devices and 3% (2 of 58) of plates were removed. Average cost for initial intramedullary placement was $2955 (US dollars) less than that for initial plate placement (P<.001); average cost for removal was $1874 less than that for plate removal surgery (P=.2). Average total cost for all intramedullary surgeries was $1392 less than the average cost for all plating surgeries (P<.001). Average cost for all intramedullary surgeries requiring plate placement and removal was $653 less than the average cost for all plating surgeries that involved only placement (P=.04). Intramedullary fixation of clavicle fractures resulted in a statistically significant cost reduction compared with plate fixation, despite the incidence of more frequent removal surgeries. [Orthopedics.2016; 39(5):e877-e882.].

  7. Fixation properties of a biodegradable "free-form" osteosynthesis plate.

    PubMed

    Väänänen, Petteri; Nurmi, Janne T; Nuutinen, Juha-Pekka; Jakonen, Sanna; Happonen, Harri; Jank, Siegfried

    2008-10-01

    The Inion FreedomPlate, a "free-form" osteosynthesis plate, is a biodegradable plate with just pilot holes for drilling. The construction of the plate allows the surgeon a placement of screws in optimal position. The screw heads can either be countersunk into the plate or cut off. Furthermore, the plate can be cut and contoured to match the bone. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanical properties of the Inion FreedomPlate compared to a conventional biodegradable plate. Acrylic pipes were fixed together with plates and screws. Tensile and cantilever bending tests were performed to measure the fixation properties. In the tensile test, the samples were loaded with a constant speed of 5 mm/min until failure of fixation. The yield load, maximum failure load, and initial stiffness were recorded, and the failure mode was visually determined. In the cantilever bending test, the samples were loaded with a constant speed of 50 mm/min (with a moment arm of 45 mm) until failure of fixation. The yield bending moment and initial stiffness were recorded, and the failure mode was determined. The results of the study show that the new free-form plate provides at least as strong fixation as the tested conventional biodegradable plate. No clinically relevant difference was found between free-form plates fixed with into-the-plate countersunk screws and those fixed with screws without heads.

  8. Biomechanics and biology of plate fixation of distal radius fractures.

    PubMed

    Freeland, Alan E; Luber, Kurre T

    2005-08-01

    The fracture management principles of anatomic or near anatomic reduction, fracture stabilization, minimal operative trauma, and early joint motion are paramount in man-aging unstable distal radial fractures. The operative approach and plate selection should correlate with the fracture configuration. Plates have the advantages of providing secure fixation throughout the entire healing process without protruding wires or pins and allowing early and intensive forearm, wrist, and digital exercises. Disadvantages include additional operative trauma, including fragment devascularization; some additional risk of wrist stiffness; occasional tendon rupture; and at times, the need for plate removal. New developments in plate and screw design and operative strategies, fragment specific fixation, and plate strength have improved results with plate fixation. Fixed angle blades and locking screws and pegs enhance overall plate stability, support the articular surface of the distal radius, and are effective in fractures occurring in osteopenic bone.

  9. Retrospective Comparison of Percutaneous Fixation and Volar Internal Fixation of Distal Radius Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Lozano-Calderón, Santiago A.; Doornberg, Job N.

    2007-01-01

    A change in the practice of a single surgeon provided an opportunity for retrospective comparison of comparable cohorts treated with percutaneous fixation (17 patients) or a volar plate and screws (23 patients) an average of 30 months after surgery. The final evaluation was performed according to the Gartland and Werley and Mayo rating systems and the DASH questionnaire. There were no significant differences on the average scores for the percutaneous and volar plating groups, respectively: Gartland and Werley, 4 vs 5; Mayo, 82 vs 83; and DASH score 13 for both cohorts. Motion, grip, and radiographical parameters were likewise comparable. Volar internal plate and screw fixation can achieve results comparable to percutaneous fixation techniques in the treatment of fractures of the distal radius. PMID:18780085

  10. Anterior subcutaneous internal fixation for treatment of unstable pelvic fractures

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fractures of the pelvic ring including disruption of the posterior elements in high-energy trauma have both high morbidity and mortality rates. For some injury pattern part of the initial resuscitation includes either external fixation or plate fixation to close the pelvic ring and decrease blood loss. In certain situations – especially when associated with abdominal trauma and the need to perform laparotomies – both techniques may put the patient at risk of either pintract or deep plate infections. We describe an operative approach to percutaneously close and stabilize the pelvic ring using spinal implants as an internal fixator and report the results in a small series of patients treated with this technique during the resuscitation phase. Findings Four patients were treated by subcutaneous placement of an internal fixator. Screw fixation was carried out by minimally invasive placement of two supra-acetabular iliac screws. Afterwards, a subcutaneous transfixation rod was inserted and attached to the screws after reduction of the pelvic ring. All patients were allowed to fully weight-bear. No losses of reduction or deep infections occurred. Fracture healing was uneventful in all cases. Conclusion Minimally invasive fixation is an alternative technique to stabilize the pelvic ring. The clinical results illustrate that this technique is able to achieve good results in terms of maintenance of reduction the pelvic ring. Also, abdominal surgeries no longer put the patient at risk of infected pins or plates. PMID:24606833

  11. Femoral locking plate failure salvaged with hexapod circular external fixation: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, N; Marais, L C

    2016-08-01

    Femoral non-unions are difficult to treat even for the experienced orthopaedic trauma surgeon. If the non-union follows failure of modern stable internal fixation, the complexity of the management is further increased. We report two cases of stiff hypertrophic femoral non-unions after failed locking plate fixation that were successfully treated with a new hexapod circular external fixator. In addition to providing the necessary stability for functional rehabilitation and union, the hexapod circular fixator software allows gradual correction of deformities in order to restore the normal mechanical alignment of the limb.

  12. The Role of Minimally Invasive Plate Osteosynthesis in Rib Fixation: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Bemelman, Michael; van Baal, Mark; Yuan, Jian Zhang; Leenen, Luke

    2016-01-01

    More than a century ago, the first scientific report was published about fracture fixation with plates. During the 1950’s, open reduction and plate fixation for fractures were standardized by the founders of Arbeitsgemeinschaft für osteosynthesefragen/Association for the Study of Internal Fixation. Since the introduction of plate fixation for fractures, several plates and screws have been developed, all with their own characteristics. To accomplice more fracture stability, it was thought the bigger the plate, the better. The counter side was a compromised blood supply of the bone, often resulting in bone necrosis and ultimately delayed or non-union. With the search and development of new materials and techniques for fracture fixation, less invasive procedures have become increasingly popular. This resulted in the minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) technique for fracture fixation. With the MIPO technique, procedures could be performed with smaller incisions and thus with less soft tissue damage and a better preserved blood supply. The last 5 years rib fixation has become increasingly popular, rising evidence has become available suggesting that surgical rib fixation improves outcome of patients with a flail chest or isolated rib fractures. Many surgical approaches for rib fixation have been described in the old literature, however, most of these techniques are obscure nowadays. Currently mostly large incisions with considerable surgical insult are used to stabilize rib fractures. We think that MIPO deserves a place in the surgical treatment of rib fractures. We present the aspects of diagnosis, preoperative planning and operative techniques in regard to MIPO rib fixation. PMID:26889439

  13. Failure analysis of stainless steel femur fixation plate.

    PubMed

    Hussain, P B; Mohammad, M

    2004-05-01

    Failure analysis was performed to investigate the failure of the femur fixation plate which was previously fixed on the femur of a girl. Radiography, metallography, fractography and mechanical testing were conducted in this study. The results show that the failure was due to the formation of notches on the femur plate. These notches act as stress raisers from where the cracks start to propagate. Finally fracture occurred on the femur plate and subsequently, the plate failed.

  14. Internal fixation of mandibular angle fractures: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Regev, Eran; Shiff, Jacob S; Kiss, Alex; Fialkov, Jeffrey A

    2010-06-01

    The degree of rigidity of internal fixation required for the treatment of mandibular angle fractures has long been at the center of debate in the literature. A statistical comparison between rigid fixation and monocortical fixation has been difficult because of multiple terms, definitions, and technical variations. The purpose of this study was to use the meta-analysis tool to combine information from multiple studies and to compare complication rates for different fixation methods. An English language literature search was conducted for articles on mandibular angle fractures. Information was collected on four variables of interest: compression/noncompression technique, monocortical/bicortical screws, number of plates, and location of plates. Five outcome rates were analyzed: infection, reoperation, hardware removal, malunion, and nonunion. Meta-analyses were run using Comprehensive Meta Analysis, version 2.2.03. Twenty-four studies with relevant data on the variables and outcomes of interest met the inclusion criteria. Significantly higher rates of infection, reoperation, and hardware removal were found for compression compared with noncompression, two plates compared with one plate, and for plates located on both the inferior and superior borders as compared with superior or inferior only. There were also significantly higher infection rates for bicortical screws compared with monocortical screws and higher malunion rates for compression compared with noncompression plating techniques. The results of this meta-analysis found lower complication rates with the use of noncompression, monocortical, and single-plate fixation, supporting the trend toward a single, superiorly placed, monocortical miniplate for fixation of mandibular angle fractures.

  15. Open reduction and internal fixation of OTA type C2-C4 fractures of the calcaneus with a triple-plate technique.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Alexander; Müller, Jochen; Regazzoni, Pietro; Babst, Reto

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to present a surgical technique of open reduction and internal fixation of displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures with 3 AO mini-fragment plates and to evaluate the clinical and radiological outcome of a consecutive group of patients after a mean follow-up of 41.7 months. A series of 54 patients (16 women and 38 men) with 62 calcaneal fractures were treated over a period of 6.5 years. Forty-five patients with 50 calcaneal fractures were completely clinically and radiologically followed up. Clinical follow-up included assessment of range of motion, pain according to a visual analogue scale, the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society hindfoot score, and the short-form 36 health survey. Radiological follow-up included plain axial and lateral radiographs and measurement of the Böhler's angle and Gissane's angle. Independent Student's t test and paired Student's t test were used alongside the chi-square test to compare clinical and radiological data and score values between different groups of patients. Eleven patients showed breakage of the osteosynthesis material during the healing process and 2 patients sustained deep wound infection requiring revision surgery. At the final follow-up all fractures had healed. The average range of motion was supination 26.4° (range 0° to 50°; SD 11.6°), pronation 15.4° (range 0° to 30°; SD 6.4°), dorsal extension 14.3° (range -10° to 30°; SD 8.0°), and plantarflexion 39.6° (range 20° to 65°; SD 11.7°). Patients with OTA type C4 fractures achieved significantly lower supination (p < .01) and plantarflexion (p < .01) compared with other fracture types. The mean visual analog scale pain score was 3.6 (range 0 to 8; SD 2.3) points, average American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society hindfoot score was 70.8 (range 33 to 100; SD 17.1) points, and the mean short-form 36 score was 60.98 (range 22.9 to 93.0; SD 18.4) points. The mean postoperative Böhler's angle was 28.9° (range 8

  16. Open Reduction, Internal Fixation Distal Intraarticular Distal Humerus Fracture.

    PubMed

    Fuller, David A

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this video is to demonstrate the surgical repair of an intraarticular distal humerus fracture. A polytrauma patient with an intraarticular distal humerus fracture is shown. The patient is positioned laterally, with a posterior skin incision and olecranon osteotomy for exposure. An anatomic reduction is achieved, and internal fixation with perpendicular plating of the distal humerus is performed. The video is 18 minutes, 34 seconds duration in time and 2,048,752,000 bytes in size. Open reduction with internal fixation of a distal humerus fracture is demonstrated in this video.

  17. Failed internal fixation of femoral neck fractures.

    PubMed

    Hoelsbrekken, Sigurd Erik; Opsahl, Jan-Henrik; Stiris, Morten; Paulsrud, Øyvind; Strømsøe, Knut

    2012-06-12

    There are two types of surgical treatment for fractures of the femoral neck; internal fixation and arthroplasty. Internal fixation is associated with a higher risk of complications such as secondary displacement, non-union and avascular necrosis. To improve treatment results of internal fixation, we have tried to identify procedure related risk-factors associated with fixation failure. A retrospective study was conducted based on the medical records and X-ray images of 337 patients sustaining intracapsular fractures of the hip during the period 1999-2000. The patients were treated with closed reduction and internal fixation at Oslo University Hospital, Aker. The reduction of the fracture and the placement of the fixation implants were evaluated and scored (six points representing best achievable result). Fixation failed in 23 (18,3 %) out of 126 patients with displaced fractures awarded six points for the reduction. In contrast, fixation failed in five (50 %) out of ten patients given a score of three points or less (p = 0.017). The risk of non-union increased when patients were treated more than 48 hours after the initial injury. In this group, 5 (25 %) out of 20 patients developed non-union compared to 16 (8 %) out of 200 patients treated within 48 hours (p = 0.014). Our findings emphasize the importance of achieving anatomical reduction of displaced femoral neck fractures, and to perform surgery within 48 hours unless an acute medical condition needs to be stabilized.

  18. [Case-control study on Zero-profile implant for anterior cervical discectomy and fusion and conventional cage plate internal fixation for the treatment of single segmental cervical intervertebral disc herniation].

    PubMed

    Shao, Hai-yu; Zhang, Jun; Yang, Di; Chen, Jin-ping; Huang, Ya-zeng

    2016-06-01

    To compare clinical efficacy of Zero-profile implant for anterior cervical discectomy and fusion and conventional titanium plate with cage internal fixation for the treatment of single segmental cervical intervertebral disc herniation. From August 2011 to March 2014, clinical data of 139 patients with single cervical disc herniation treated with anterior cervical discectomy and interbody fusion with internal fixation were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into two groups according to its operation method. There were 63 patients in group A which performed anterior discectomy and interbody fusion with Zero-profile;76 patients in group B which performed anterior cervical discectomy and cage plate internal fixation. JOA score and Odom functional rating between two groups were compared before and after operation. Videofluorographic swallowing study (VFSS) were used to evaluate thickness of prevertebral soft tissue. Bazaz dysphagia score were used to assess incidence of dysphagia. Postoperative AP X-ray and CT of cervical vertebra at 12 months were applied for evaluating bone graft fusion. Postoperative MRI was applied for evaluating the incidence of adjacent segment degeneration. Blood loss,operative time, preoperative and postoperative JOA score, Odom functional rating and VFSS score, Bazaz score, fusion rate between vertebral bodies and incidence of adjacent segment degeneration were compared between two groups. There were no statistical meaning between two groups in JOA score, Odom functional rating before and after operation (P > 0.05); and no significant meaning in VFSS score between two groups before operation (P > 0.05); There were no significant difference in operative time and blood loss. There was statistical meaning in VFSS, Bazaz dysphagia score at 2 days, and 6 months after operation (P < 0.05). All patients obtained bone union at 1 year after operation, and no obvious meaning in fusion rate (P > 0.05). Eight patients (12.7%) in group A

  19. Definitive plates overlapping provisional external fixator pin sites: is the infection risk increased?

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Chirag M.; Babb, Patricia; McAndrew, Christopher M.; Brimmo, Olubusola; Badarudeen, Sameer; Tornetta, Paul; Ricci, William M.; Gardner, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare the infection risk when internal fixation plates either overlap or did not overlap previous external fixator pin sites in patients with bicondylar tibial plateau fractures and pilon fractures treated with a two-staged protocol of acute spanning external fixation and later definitive internal fixation. Design Retrospective comparison study. Setting Two level I trauma centers. Patients/Participants A total of 85 OTA type 41C bicondylar tibial plateau fractures and 97 OTA type 43C pilon fractures treated between 2005 to 2010. Radiographs were evaluated to determine the positions of definitive plates in relation to external fixator pin sites and patients were grouped into an “overlapping” group and a “non-overlapping” group. Intervention Fifty patients had overlapping pin sites and 132 did not. Main Outcome Measure Presence of a deep wound infection Results Overall, 25 patients developed a deep wound infection. Of the 50 patients in the “overlapping” group, 12 (24%) developed a deep infection, compared to 13 (10%) of the 132 patients in the “non-overlapping” group (p = 0.033). Conclusions Placement of definitive plate fixation overlapping previous external fixator pin sites significantly increases the risk of deep infection in the two-staged treatment of bicondylar tibial plateau and pilon fractures. Surgeons must make a conscious effort to place external fixator pins outside of future definitive fixation sites to reduce the overall incidence of deep wound infections. Additionally, consideration must be given to the relative benefit of a spanning external fixator in light of the potential for infection associated with their use. PMID:24531389

  20. Distal Humerus Fractures: Open Reduction Internal Fixation.

    PubMed

    Mighell, Mark A; Stephens, Brent; Stone, Geoffrey P; Cottrell, Benjamin J

    2015-11-01

    Distal humerus fractures are challenging injuries for the upper extremity surgeon. However, recent techniques in open reduction internal fixation have been powerful tools in getting positive outcomes. To get such results, the surgeon must be aware of how to properly use these techniques in their respective practices. The method of fixation depends on the fracture, taking the degree of comminution and the restoration of the columns and articular surface into account. This article helps surgeons understand the concepts behind open reduction internal fixation of the distal humerus and makes them aware of pitfalls that may lead to negative results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Current concepts in locking plate fixation of proximal humerus fractures.

    PubMed

    Laux, Christoph J; Grubhofer, Florian; Werner, Clément M L; Simmen, Hans-Peter; Osterhoff, Georg

    2017-09-25

    Despite numerous available treatment strategies, the management of complex proximal humeral fractures remains demanding. Impaired bone quality and considerable comorbidities pose special challenges in the growing aging population. Complications after operative treatment are frequent, in particular loss of reduction with varus malalignment and subsequent screw cutout. Locking plate fixation has become a standard in stabilizing these fractures, but surgical revision rates of up to 25% stagnate at high levels. Therefore, it seems of utmost importance to select the right treatment for the right patient. This article provides an overview of available classification systems, indications for operative treatment, important pathoanatomic principles, and latest surgical strategies in locking plate fixation. The importance of correct reduction of the medial cortices, the use of calcar screws, augmentation with bone cement, double-plate fixation, and auxiliary intramedullary bone graft stabilization are discussed in detail.

  2. Assessment of carbon fibre composite fracture fixation plate using finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Saidpour, Seyed H

    2006-07-01

    In the internal fixation of fractured bone by means of bone-plates fastened to the bone on its tensile surface, an on-going concern has been the excessive stress shielding of the bone by the excessively-stiff stainless-steel plate. The compressive stress shielding at the fracture-interface immediately after fracture-fixation delays callus formation and bone healing. Likewise, the tensile stress shielding in the layer of bone underneath the plate can cause osteoporosis and decrease in tensile strength of this layer. In this study a novel forearm internal fracture fixation plate made from short carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP) was used in an attempt to address the problem. Accordingly, it has been possible to analyse the stress distribution in the composite plates using finite-element modelling. A three-dimensional, quarter-symmetric finite element model was generated for the plate system. The stress state in the underlying bone was examined for several loading conditions. Based on the analytical results the composite plate system is likely to reduce stress-shielding effects at the fracture site when subjected to bending and torsional loads. The design of the plate was further optimised by reducing the width around the innermost holes.

  3. Limits of internal fixation in long-bone fracture.

    PubMed

    Nieto, H; Baroan, C

    2017-02-01

    Alternatives to internal fixation of long-bone fracture comprise, depending on location, external fixation or joint replacement. Limitations comprise risk of infection and functional outcome quality, which vary according to technique. The present study examines these limitations, based on comparative or large-scale studies from which certain significant results emerge. Four main questions are dealt with: (1) the present role of locking plates; (2) conditions for intramedullary nailing in Gustilo grade IIIb open fracture; (3) the limitations of conversion from external fixation to intramedullary nailing in open lower leg fracture; (4) and the limitations of definitive anterograde femoral nailing in multiple trauma. Locking plate fixation has yet to prove clinical superiority in any of the anatomic sites for which good-quality comparative analyses are available. Infection risk in Gustilo grade IIIb open lower leg fracture is equivalent when treated by intramedullary nailing or external fixation, if wound care and debridement are effective, antibiotherapy is initiated rapidly and skin cover is restored within 7days. Conversion from primary external fixation to intramedullary nailing is possible if the external fixator was fitted less than 28days previously and skin cover was restored within 7days. The pulmonary and systemic impact of peripheral lesions or definitive anterograde intramedullary nailing of femoral fracture in multiple trauma calls for caution and what is known as "damage-control orthopedics" (DCO), a term covering the general consequences of both the initial trauma and its treatment. Femoral intramedullary nailing is thus contraindicated in case of hemorrhagic shock (blood pressure<90mmHg), hypothermia (<33°C), coagulation disorder (platelet count<90,000) or peripheral lesions such as multiple long-bone fractures, crushed limb or primary pulmonary contusion. In such cases, external fixation or retrograde nailing with a small-diameter nail and without

  4. Outcomes of Internal Fixation in a Combat Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    A variety of internal fixation procedures were performed to include 44 plate and/or screw (88%), four intramedullary nail (8%), and two tension band...that underwent intramedullary nailing at an Air Force Theater Hospital in Balad, Iraq. Two-thirds of the patients had high-energy ballistic injuries...JOURNAL OF SURGICAL ORTHOPAEDIC ADVANCES 5. Keeney, J. A., Ingari, J. V., Mentzer, K. D., et al. Closed intramedullary nailing of femoral shaft fractures

  5. Fixation elements on plate intraocular lens: large positioning holes to improve security of capsular fixation.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, S B; Apple, D J; Peng, Q; Isaacs, R T; Guindi, A; Draughn, R A

    1998-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate in rabbit eyes the effects of large positioning holes in one-piece silicone plate-haptic intraocular lenses (IOLs) with respect to security of capsular bag fixation. Mechanical strength of capsular fixation is correlated with the histologic findings of regenerating lens material and fibrous tissue ingrowth through the positioning holes on silicone plate IOLs, comparing capsules implanted with large-hole style plate IOLs to fellow capsules implanted with small-hole style plate IOLs. The study design was a prospective, randomized, experimental study. A total of 40 fellow capsular bags from 20 New Zealand white rabbits were examined. Capsules implanted with conventional small-hole silicone plate IOLs were used as the control in all pairs of fellow capsules. Phacoemulsification and implantation of a silicone plate IOL with small positioning holes in one eye and implantation of a silicone plate IOL with large positioning holes in the fellow eye were measured. All rabbits were killed at 2 months. The force required to extract the IOLs from the capsular bag was measured. All capsular bags underwent histopathologic analysis. Extraction force measurements and histopathologic examination, comparing capsules implanted with small-hole plate IOLs with fellow capsules implanted with large-hole plate IOLs, were measured. The large-hole style IOL required significantly more force to extract from the capsular bag compared to the conventional small-hole style (P = 0.003). Histologically, proliferating lens epithelial material and fibrous tissue were observed growing through all of the large positioning holes (synechia formation) but not through any of the small positioning holes. Silicone plate IOLs with large positioning holes become affixed more firmly within the capsular bag compared to conventional small-hole plate IOLs. These findings suggest that large holes in silicone plate IOLs allow for superior capsular bag fixation. This should reduce the

  6. Locking versus Non-locking Neutralization Plates with Limited Excision and Internal Fixation for Treatment of Extra-articular Type a Distal Tibial Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Kai-hua; Chen, Nong

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to compare the clinical, radiologic, and cost-effectiveness results between locking and non-locking plates for the treatment of extra-articular type A distal tibial fractures. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of AO/OTA 42-A1, A2 distal tibial fractures treated by plates from January 2011 to June 2013. Patients were divided to the locking plate group or the non-locking plate group. Clinical outcomes, radiographic outcomes, and hospitalization fee were compared between the two plates groups. Results: 28 patients were treated with a locking plate and 23 patients were treated with a non-locking plate. The mean follow-up was 18.8 months (12-23 months). There were no significant differences between the groups in surgical time, bleeding, bone union time, or AOFAS scores. The cost of the locking plate was ¥24,648.41 ± 6,812.95 and the cost of the non-locking plate was ¥11,642 ± 3,162.57, p < 0.001. Each group had one patient that experienced superficial infection these wounds were readily healed by oral antibiotics and dressing changes. To date, five patients in the locking group and ten patients in the non-locking group had sensations of metal stimulation or other discomfort (X2 = 3.99, p < 0.05) Until the last follow-up, 14 patients in the locking plate group and 18 patients in the non-locking plate group had their plates removed or wanted to remove their plates (X2 = 4.31, p < 0.05). Conclusion: The use of locking or non-locking plates provides a similar outcome in the treatment of distal fractures. However the locking plate is much more expensive than the non-locking plate. PMID:28400874

  7. Treatment of the femoral shaft nonunion with double plate fixation and bone grafting: A case series of 14 patients.

    PubMed

    Maimaitiyiming, Asihaerjiang; Amat, Abdusami; Rehei, Aili; Tusongjiang, Mamatkeremula; Li, Cao

    2015-01-01

    The management of femoral shaft nonunion still remains a challenge in orthopaedic surgery. It represents a serious postoperative problem for the patient, associated with plate breakage and loosening, bone defect, shortening deformity and infection. A double plate fixation combined with bone grafting may become a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of patients with femoral shaft nonunion. In this study, our goal was to evaluate the clinical outcome of a novel approach for 14 consecutive patients with femoral shaft nonunion using double plate fixation with bone grafting. Retrospective data from June 2010 to August 2012 were obtained from records for 14 consecutive femoral shaft aseptic nonunion patients treated with double plate fixation combined with bone grafting. Nine patients were men and five patients were woman and average age of the patients was 26 years (range from 22 to 32 years). The mean time since injury was 26.2 months. The nonunion had resulted from repeated internal fixation failure (including plate or intramedullary nail fixation) in nine cases and primary internal fixation in five cases. All the 14 patients were followed up for an average of 14.8 (10-25) months. All cases achieved bony union without wound infection or fixation failure and the mean time to union was 5.2 months (range 4-7 months). Double plate fixation and bone grafting are a promising method for femoral shaft nonunion. In addition, this strategy is useful for such a nonunion caused by a repeated plate or intramedullary nail fixation failure with bone defect due to its strong stability with three-dimensional fixation and fully bone graft availability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Volar, Dorsal, and Lateral Locking Plate Fixation for Pilon Fractures.

    PubMed

    Henry, Mark

    2017-03-01

    The more common dorsal fracture subluxations at the base of the middle phalanx have an intact dorsal buttress of articular surface in continuity with the shaft. Capitalizing on this foundation, various fixation methods have met with relatively equivalent success including Kirschner wires, screws only, nonlocking plate and screws, and external fixation. Pilon fractures are complete articular fractures, where the comminuted articular fragments lack any structural connection to the more distal shaft of the middle phalanx, and have largely relied upon external fixation traction systems. The theoretical concept is that axial distraction prevents articular collapse and that the surrounding soft tissue envelope acts to gather the articular fragments; the term "ligamentotaxis" is often applied. Most constructs are founded on a transverse wire through the axis of rotation in the head of the proximal phalanx with the idea that patients will pursue active motion, termed "dynamic fixation." In practice, patients find it difficult to move well while the construct is in place and have rarely achieved much range by the time of removal. These cases are prone to loss of articular reduction leading to posttraumatic arthritis, substantial proximal interphalangeal joint stiffness, and pin-tract infection. Such problems are solved with locking plates that support the articular reduction throughout healing and permit immediate range of motion while avoiding other complications such as pin-tract infection. Outcomes are reported for 40 patients treated with locking plates applied from volar, dorsal, and lateral to treat pilon fractures.

  9. Plate fixation of prostheses after segmental resection for bone tumours.

    PubMed

    Coathup, M J; Cobb, J P; Walker, P S; Blunn, G W

    2000-11-01

    This study investigated the concept of using plates to attach endoprostheses to bone after segmental resection for bone tumours in an animal model. Titanium alloy plates integrated with the prosthesis and coated with hydroxyapatite were attached to bone by screws. This type of uncemented fixation relied on the induction of periosteal bone formation into and around the plates to secure the implant to bone. Two, three, and six-slotted plate designs were investigated. On retrieval, each plate was securely fixed by new bone. Bone apposition on the external surface of the plates occurred through a combination of periosteal bone production, invasion of bone through slots in the plate, and bone growth over the ends of the plates. Most plates became incorporated into a remodelled cortex. Higher bone turnover rates (microm day(-1)) were seen in bone in the slots of the plate compared with normal cortical bone turnover (p < 0.05). Significantly higher rates of turnover were measured beneath slotted parts of the plates compared with regions below the unslotted parts (p < 0.05). The cross-sectional area of bone surrounding the six-plate implant design was significantly higher than that of the three-plate (p < 0.05) and two-plate (p < 0.05) designs. In addition, significantly more bone formed adjacent to the six-plated implant design compared with that in the contralateral limb (p = 0.002). However, no significant difference was found when the total cortical area around the three-plated design was compared with that of the contralateral limb (p = 0.63). In contrast, significantly less bone was measured adjacent to the two-plate design than in the untreated limb (p = 0.001). Image analysis also demonstrated increased cortical porosity adjacent to the six-plate design compared with the three-plate (p = 0.004) and two-plate (p < 0.05) designs. Finite element analysis demonstrated that the six and three-plate designs increased the second moment of area compared with that in the

  10. Fixation of zygomatic and mandibular fractures with biodegradable plates

    PubMed Central

    Degala, Saikrishna; Shetty, Sujeeth; Ramya, S

    2013-01-01

    Context: In this prospective study, 13 randomly selected patients underwent treatment for zygomatic–complex fractures (2 site fractures) and mandibular fractures using 1.5 / 2 / 2.5-mm INION CPS biodegradable plates and screws. Aims: To assess the fixation of zygomatic-complex and mandibular fractures with biodegradable copolymer osteosynthesis system. Materials and Methods: In randomly selected 13 patients, zygomatic-complex and mandibular fractures were plated using resorbable plates and screws using Champy's principle. All the cases were evaluated clinically and radiologically for the type of fracture, need for the intermaxillary fixation (IMF) and its duration, duration of surgery, fixation at operation, state of reduction at operation, state of bone union after operation, anatomic reduction, paresthesia, occlusal discrepancies, soft tissue infection, immediate and late inflammatory reactions related to biodegradation process, and any need for the removal of the plates. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptives, Frequencies, and Chi-square test were used. Results: In our study, the age group range was 5 to 55 years. Road traffic accidents accounted for the majority of patients six, (46.2%). Postoperative occlusal discrepancies were found in seven patients as mild to moderate, which resolved with IMF for 1-8 weeks. There were minimal complications seen and only as soft tissue infection. Conclusions: Use of biodegradable osteosynthesis system is a reliable alternative method for the fixation of zygomatic-complex and mandibular fractures. The biodegradable system still needs to be refined in material quality and handling to match the stability achieved with metal system. Biodegradable plates and screws is an ideal system for pediatric fractures with favorable outcome. PMID:23662255

  11. Early breakage of a titanium volar locking plate for fixation of a distal radius fracture: case report.

    PubMed

    Yukata, Kiminori; Doi, Kazuteru; Hattori, Yasunori; Sakamoto, Soutetsu

    2009-01-01

    This report presents a case demonstrating the early breakage of a titanium volar locking plate implanted for internal fixation of a dorsally displaced distal radius fracture in which the dorsal cortex was severely comminuted. Careful selection of the proper plate and appropriate surgical technique and postoperative management are necessary to avoid this complication.

  12. Eighth international congress on nitrogen fixation. Final program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Eighth International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation held May 20--26, 1990 in Knoxville, Tennessee. The volume contains abstracts of individual presentations. Sessions were entitled Recent Advances in the Chemistry of Nitrogen Fixation, Plant-microbe Interactions, Limiting Factors of Nitrogen Fixation, Nitrogen Fixation and the Environment, Bacterial Systems, Nitrogen Fixation in Agriculture and Industry, Plant Function, and Nitrogen Fixation and Evolution.

  13. Prognostic Factors for Reoperation After Plate Fixation of the Midshaft Clavicle.

    PubMed

    Schemitsch, Laura A; Schemitsch, Emil H; Kuzyk, Paul; McKee, Michael D

    2015-12-01

    To determine which prognostic factors were associated with an increased risk for all-cause reoperation in a heterogeneous population of patients treated with primary plate fixation of a midshaft clavicular fracture. Retrospective observational study. Single university-affiliated tertiary care Level 1 trauma center. Of 235 consecutive patients with primary plate fixation for a midshaft clavicular fracture. A reviewer extracted data through a retrospective chart review regarding 20 possible prognostic variables and documented reoperations (defined as any surgical procedure after the initial surgery, including implant removal, bone grafts, implant exchanges, or debridement for infection). Open reduction and internal fixation of the clavicle using straight and precontoured clavicle plates. Complete 2-year follow-up information was available for 153 of 235 patients (65%). Of these 153 patients included in the analysis, 58 (38%) had reoperations. The preoperative risk factors for 3 specific "reoperation outcomes" were examined: (1) reoperation for implant removal alone; (2) reoperation for nonunion, infection, or fixation failure; and (3) multiple reoperations. There was a significant reoperation rate in this patient series (58 of 153 patients, 38%). Although most were for isolated plate removal (42 of 153 patients, 27%), there were a minority of patients who required more complex (16 of 153 patients, 10%) or multiple (8 of 153 patients, 5%) procedures. For these 3 possible outcomes (reoperation for implant removal alone, reoperation for nonunion, infection, or fixation failure, and the need for multiple reoperations), significant risk factors were identified that can assist surgeons in patient selection and predicting reoperation after plate fixation of midshaft clavicle fractures. The significant risk factors for implant removal alone (42 of 153, 27%) were the use of a plate that was not precontoured and patient height <175 cm. The significant risk factors for

  14. Analysis of Sternal Fixation Results According to Plate Type in Sternal Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Chun Sung; Park, Il Hwan; Hwang, Wan Jin; Lee, Yeiwon; Cho, Hyun Min

    2016-01-01

    Background Sternal fractures are relatively rare, and caused mainly by blunt anterior chest wall trauma. In most cases, sternal fractures are treated conservatively. However, if the patient exhibits problematic symptoms such as intractable chest wall pain or bony crepitus due to sternal instability, surgical correction is indicated. But no consensus exists regarding the most appropriate surgical method. We analyzed the results of surgical fixation in cases of sternal fracture in order to identify which surgical method led to the best outcomes. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with sternal fractures from December 2008 to December 2011, and found 19 patients who underwent open reduction and internal fixation of the sternum with a longitudinal plate (L-group) or a T-shaped plate (T-group). We investigated patients’ characteristics, clinical details regarding each case of chest trauma, the presence of other associated injuries, the type of open reduction and fixation, whether a combined operation was performed, and postoperative complications. Results Of the 19 patients, 10 patients (52.6%) were male, and their average age was 56.8 years (range, 32 to 82 years). Seven patients (36.8%) had isolated sternal fractures, while 12 (63.2%) had other associated injuries. Seven patients (36.8%) were in the L-group and 12 patients (63.2%) were in the T-group. Three patients in the L-group (42.9%) showed a loosening of the fixation. In all patients in the T-group, the fracture exhibited stable alignment. Conclusion Open reduction and internal fixation with a T-shaped plate in sternal fractures is a safer and more efficient treatment method than treatment with a longitudinal plate, especially in patients with a severely displaced sternum or anterior flail chest, than a longitudinal plate. PMID:27733996

  15. A nickel-titanium shape memory alloy plate for contactless inverse dynamization after internal fixation in a sheep tibia fracture model: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Decker, Sebastian; Krämer, Manuel; Marten, Anna-Katharina; Pfeifer, Ronny; Wesling, Volker; Neunaber, Claudia; Hurschler, Christof; Krettek, Christian; Müller, Christian W

    2015-01-01

    Inverse dynamization has recently been proposed for the treatment of tibia non-unions. Nickel-titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloys (SMAs) may provide an opportunity for contactless non-invasive alteration of the stiffness of an implant after surgery. The aim of this pilot study was to analyze the feasibility of the one way shape memory effect in a large animal as well as the feasibility of our ovine large animal fracture model. A tibia osteotomy was performed in three sheep, followed by NiTi plate osteosynthesis in two cases and standard locking compression plate (LCP) osteosynthesis in one sheep. Contactless induction heating was performed after 3 weeks in order to alter the stiffness of the NiTi plates. Euthanasia was followed by biomechanical analysis after 8 weeks. Successful change of configuration through contactless induction heating was shown in both SMA plates by image intensifier control. Although large differences in bending and torsional stiffness were observed between the operated and contralateral tibia, the sheep ambulated almost normally at six weeks post-operative. We were able to trigger the one way shape memory effect which non-invasively altered the stiffness of the plate osteosynthesis.

  16. Late extensor pollicis longus rupture following plate fixation in Galeazzi fracture dislocation.

    PubMed

    Sabat, Dhananjaya; Dabas, Vineet; Dhal, Anil

    2014-07-01

    Late rupture of extensor pollicis longus (EPL) tendon after Galeazzi fracture dislocation fixation is an unknown entity though it is a well-established complication following distal radius fractures. We report the case of a 55-year old male who presented with late EPL tendon rupture 4 months following internal fixation of Galeazzi fracture dislocation with a Locking Compression Plate (LCP). He was managed with extensor indicis proprius (EIP) transfer to restore thumb extension. At 4 years followup, functional result of the transfer was good. We identify possible pitfalls with this particular patient and discuss how to avoid them in future.

  17. Stability of extraoral vertical ramus osteotomy: plate fixation versus maxillomandibular/skeletal suspension wire fixation.

    PubMed

    Mobarak, K A; Krogstad, O; Espeland, L; Lyberg, T

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this cephalometric study was to evaluate skeletal stability and time course of postoperative changes in 2 groups of mandibular prognathism patients following extraoral oblique vertical ramus osteotomy (VRO). One group (n = 22) received maxillomandibular fixation and skeletal suspension wires (MMF group) for a period of 8 weeks. In the other group (n = 22), the segments were rigidly fixed with plates and the patients were allowed to function immediately after surgery. Lateral cephalograms were taken on 5 occasions: immediately presurgical, immediately postsurgical, 8 weeks postsurgical, 6 months postsurgical, and 1 year postsurgical. During the first 8 weeks after surgery, the MMF group demonstrated posterior movement of the mandible, with an increase in mandibular plane angle, shortening of the rami, and dental compensations. Upon release of MMF and skeletal suspension wiring, a small anterior relapse tendency was observed, but the net setback 1 year after surgery was still greater than the actual surgical setback. In the plate fixation group, postoperative changes were mainly in the form of a small anterior relapse tendency in the range of 10% of the surgical setback. The results indicate that the use of plate fixation with VRO, while eliminating the inconvenience for the patient of several weeks of MMF and preventing the early side effects observed in the MMF group, also resulted in a more predictable surgical procedure, with excellent stability 1 year after surgery.

  18. [Applied researches on polylactide internal fixation devices].

    PubMed

    Duan, H; Song, Y

    2001-03-01

    Nowadays, more and more basic and clinical researches on polylactide internal fixators were carried out in China. In this paper are reviewed the researches of polylactide acid(PLA), including its physical and chemical characters, biodegradation, absorption and mechanical properties, effects on fracture healing, and clinical application. Some problems that have not been solved are high-lighted and discussed. Also dealt with are some researches of PLA in future.

  19. Locking versus nonlocking palmar plate fixation of distal radius fractures.

    PubMed

    Osti, Michael; Mittler, Christoph; Zinnecker, Richard; Westreicher, Christoph; Allhoff, Clemens; Benedetto, Karl Peter

    2012-11-01

    This study compared functional and radiological outcomes after treatment of extension-type distal radius fractures with conventional titanium nonlocking T-plates or titanium 1.5-mm locking plates. A total of 60 patients were included and followed for 4 to 7 years after receiving nonlocking T-plates (group A; n=30) or locking plates (group B; n=30) with and without dorsal bone grafting. Bone grafting was significantly more often performed in the nonlocking group to increase dorsal fracture fixation and stability (P<.003). Pre- and postoperative and follow-up values for palmar tilt, radial inclination, radial shortening, and ulnar variance were recorded. Age, sex, and fracture type were similarly distributed between the 2 groups. Postoperative and follow-up evaluation revealed equal allocation of intra-articular step formation and osteoarthritic changes to both groups. The overall complication rate was 25%. Compared with the nonlocking system, patients undergoing locking plate fixation presented with statistically significantly better values for postoperative palmar tilt (5.53° vs 8.15°; P<.02) and radial inclination (22.13° vs 25.03°; P<.02). However, forearm pronation was significantly better in group A (P<.005). At follow-up, radial inclination tended to approach a statistically significant difference in favor of group B. All clinical assessment, including Mayo wrist score, Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand score, Green and O'Brien score, Gartland and Werley score, visual analog scale score, and grip strength, yielded no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups. Locking plates seem to provide benefits regarding surgical technique and comfort, improvement in implant anchorage (especially in osteoporotic bone), and reduce the necessity of additional bone grafting. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Finite Element-Derived Surrogate Models of Locked Plate Fracture Fixation Biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Wee, Hwabok; Reid, J Spence; Chinchilli, Vernon M; Lewis, Gregory S

    2017-03-01

    Internal fixation of bone fractures using plates and screws involves many choices-implant type, material, sizes, and geometric configuration-made by the surgeon. These decisions can be important for providing adequate stability to promote healing and prevent implant mechanical failure. The purpose of this study was to develop mathematical models of the relationships between fracture fixation construct parameters and resulting 3D biomechanics, based on parametric computer simulations. Finite element models of hundreds of different locked plate fixation constructs for midshaft diaphyseal fractures were systematically assembled using custom algorithms, and axial, torsional, and bending loadings were simulated. Multivariate regression was used to fit response surface polynomial equations relating fixation design parameters to outputs including maximum implant stresses, axial and shear strain at the fracture site, and construct stiffness. Surrogate models with as little as three regressors showed good fitting (R (2) = 0.62-0.97). Inner working length was the strongest predictor of maximum plate and screw stresses, and a variety of quadratic and interaction terms influenced resulting biomechanics. The framework presented in this study can be applied to additional types of bone fractures to provide clinicians and implant designers with clinical insight, surgical optimization, and a comprehensive mathematical description of biomechanics.

  1. Are there too many screw holes in plates for fracture fixation?

    PubMed

    Lv, Hongzhi; Chang, Wenli; Yuwen, Peizhi; Yang, Na; Yan, Xiaoli; Zhang, Yingze

    2017-04-21

    Implant breakage after the fixation of traumatic fractures is rare; however, when it occurs, it is debilitating for the patients and a challenge for surgeons. The purpose of this study was to analyze and identify the independent risk factors for implant breakage of traumatic fractures treated with plate osteosynthesis. We reviewed the medical records of patients with a fracture to any part of their four extremities, clavicle, hand or foot, who underwent surgical plate osteosynthesis from January 2005 to January 2015, and who sustained a subsequent implant breakage. Kaplan-Meier univariate and multivariate Cox regressions were performed to identify independent associations of potential risk factors for implant breakage in this cohort. We identified 168 patients who underwent plate osteosynthesis surgery and had subsequent internal fixator breakage. The mean patient age was 40.63 ± 16.71 years (range, 3 to 78 years), with 72.0% (121) males and 28.0% (47) females. The average time between surgery and implant breakage was 12.85 ± 12.42 months (range, 1 to 60 months). In the final regression model, we show that inserting screws close to the fracture line is an independent predictive risk factor for implant breakage (HR, 2.165, 95%CI, 1.227 to 3.822; P = 0.008). We found that inserting screws close to the fracture line is related to an increased risk of internal fixator breakage in patients treated with plate osteosynthesis after fracture. Plates with additional holes likely lead to an increased risk of implant breakage, presumably because surgeons cannot resist inserting extra screws into the holes adjacent to the fracture line, which reduces the stiffness of the plate. We have addressed this problem by designing a plate without holes adjacent to the fracture line.

  2. Open reduction internal fixation for proximal humerus fractures indications, techniques, and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Shulman, Brandon S; Egol, Kenneth A

    2013-01-01

    Proximal humerus fractures account for approximately 5% of all fractures. It is estimated that due to our aging population, orthopaedic surgeons will see a three-fold increase in proximal humerus fractures over the next 30 years. Internal fixation with locked plating is the current mainstay of treatment for functionally active patients who desire minimal loss of function. A thorough understanding of the indications, techniques, and drawbacks of treatment with internal fixation is essential to achieve the highest quality of patient care.

  3. Mini-plate fixation versus suture suspensory fixation in cervical laminoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feng-Yu; Ma, Lei; Huo, Li-Shuang; Cao, Yan-Xiang; Yang, Da-Long; Wang, Hui; Yang, Si-Dong; Ding, Wen-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Both the mini-plate fixation and suture suspensory fixation techniques are extensively applied in cervical laminoplasty, but which technique is superior has not been ascertained. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to compare the results between mini-plate fixation and suture suspensory fixation in cervical laminoplasty for the patients with multilevel cervical compressive myelopathy. Methods: PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane library, CNKI, and WANFANG were searched for studies that compared mini-plate fixation and suture suspensory fixation in cervical laminoplasty up to November 1, 2016. We calculated odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for dichotomous outcomes and mean difference (MD) with 95% CI for continuous outcomes. Review Manager 5.3 was used for the statistical analyses. Results: A total of 25 studies, involving 1603 participants, were included in this review. The results of this meta-analysis indicated that there were statistically significant differences in postoperative Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scores (MD = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.34–0.99, P < 0.001), JOA scores improvement rate (MD = 4.00, 95% CI: 2.51–5.50, P < 0.001), postoperative Visual Analogue Score (VAS) (MD = −0.81, 95% CI: −1.36 to −0.26, P = 0.004), postoperative range of motion (ROM) (MD = 4.15, 95% CI: 2.06–6.23, P < 0.001), postoperative cervical lordosis (MD = 3.1, 95% CI: 2.02–4.18, P < 0.001), postoperative anteroposterior diameter of the spinal canal (MD = 1.53, 95% CI: 0.11–2.95, P = 0.03), postoperative open angle (MD = 1.93, 95% CI: 0.14–3.71, P = 0.03), postoperative cross-sectional area of the spinal canal (MD = 37.10, 95% CI: 26.92–47.29, P < 0.001), axial symptoms (OR = 0.28, 95% CI: 0.20–0.37, P < 0.001), operation time (MD = 4.46, 95% CI: 0.74–8.19, P = 0.02), and blood loss (MD = 9.24, 95% CI: 6.86–11.62, P < 0.001). However

  4. The use of short carbon fibre reinforced thermoplastic plates for fracture fixation.

    PubMed

    Gillett, N; Brown, S A; Dumbleton, J H; Pool, R P

    1985-03-01

    Thermoplastic plates of Nylon 6-10 and Polybutylene terephthalate reinforced with 30% short randomly oriented carbon fibres were tested for internal fixation of canine femoral transverse midshaft fractures. The elastic modulus of the plates was one-half that of bone: however, ultimate strength and strain in bending were comparable to bone. The fractures healed with moderate callus formation which was completely remodelled by 8 to 12 wk post surgery. Although a moderate inflammatory reaction to occasional particulate debris was noted, the materials appeared to possess the proper elastic moduli to allow sufficient support for the healing fracture without protecting the remodelling process.

  5. Fixation of supracondylar femoral fractures following total knee arthroplasty: is there any difference comparing angular stable plate fixation versus rigid interlocking nail fixation?

    PubMed

    Aldrian, Silke; Schuster, Rupert; Haas, Nicole; Erhart, Jochen; Strickner, Markus; Blutsch, Beate; Wernhart, Simon; Leitgeb, Johannes; Platzer, Patrick

    2013-07-01

    Literature does not provide any reliable comparison between angular stable plate fixation and rigid nail fixation for stabilization of supracondylar periprosthetic femoral fractures. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare these two implants in clinical practice relating to fracture healing, functional results and treatment-related complications. In this retrospective study (level IV), clinical and radiographic records of 86 patients (62 female and 24 male, average age: 75.6) with supracondylar periprosthetic femoral fractures between 1996 and 2010 were analyzed. 48 patients underwent lateral plate fixation by an angular stable plate system (LISS), whereas 38 patients were stabilized by a rigid interlocking nail device. Sixty-four (76 %) patients returned to their pre-injury activity level and were satisfied with their clinical outcome. We had an overall Oxford outcome score of 2.21, with patients following angular stable plate fixation of 2.22, and patients after rigid nail fixation of 2.20. Successful fracture healing within 6 months was achieved in 74 (88 %) patients. Comparing between plate fixation and nail fixation, statistical analysis did not reveal any significant differences. Overall, we had a relatively high rate of fracture healing and a satisfactory functional outcome with both implants. Both methods of fixation showed similar results relating to the functional outcome and individual satisfaction of the patients. However, with regards to fracture healing and treatment-related complications, intramedullary nail fixation showed slight advantages.

  6. Biomechanics of bone-fracture fixation by stiffness-graded plates in comparison with stainless-steel plates

    PubMed Central

    Ganesh, VK; Ramakrishna, K; Ghista, Dhanjoo N

    2005-01-01

    Background In the internal fixation of fractured bone by means of bone-plates fastened to the bone on its tensile surface, an on-going concern has been the excessive stress-shielding of the bone by the excessively-stiff stainless-steel plate. The compressive stress-shielding at the fracture-interface immediately after fracture-fixation delays callus formation and bone healing. Likewise, the tensile stress-shielding of the layer of the bone underneath the plate can cause osteoporosis and decrease in tensile strength of this layer. Method In order to address this problem, we propose to use stiffness-graded plates. Accordingly, we have computed (by finite-element analysis) the stress distribution in the fractured bone fixed by composite plates, whose stiffness is graded both longitudinally and transversely. Results It can be seen that the stiffness-graded composite-plates cause less stress-shielding (as an example: at 50% of the healing stage, stress at the fracture interface is compressive in nature i.e. 0.002 GPa for stainless steel plate whereas stiffness graded plates provides tensile stress of 0.002 GPa. This means that stiffness graded plate is allowing the 50% healed bone to participate in loadings). Stiffness-graded plates are more flexible, and hence permit more bending of the fractured bone. This results in higher compressive stresses induced at the fractured faces accelerate bone-healing. On the other hand, away from the fracture interface the reduced stiffness and elastic modulus of the plate causes the neutral axis of the composite structure to be lowered into the bone resulting in the higher tensile stress in the bone-layer underneath the plate, wherein is conducive to the bone preserving its tensile strength. Conclusion Stiffness graded plates (with in-built variable stiffness) are deemed to offer less stress-shielding to the bone, providing higher compressive stress at the fractured interface (to induce accelerated healing) as well as higher tensile

  7. Intramedullary Nailing of Open Tibial Fractures: Provisional Plate Fixation.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Meryl; Hymes, Robert A; Schulman, Jeff; Pitta, Michael; Ramsey, Lolita

    2016-09-01

    Tibia fracture is the most common type of long bone fracture, and intramedullary nailing is the preferred treatment. In open fractures, a provisional plate is often used to maintain reduction. It is unknown whether this practice increases the risk of infection or other complications. This study retrospectively compared patients who were treated at a level 1 trauma center with intramedullary nailing of an open tibia fracture. Patients who were included: (1) were 18 years or older; (2) were treated between January 1, 2005, and June 30, 2013; (3) had an open fracture of the tibia; and (4) were treated operatively with intramedullary nailing, with or without provisional plate fixation. Patient sex, history of diabetes, history of smoking, mechanism of injury, and side of injury were analyzed. Postoperative complications included infection, delayed union or non-union, compartment syndrome, and death. After the authors controlled for age, Gustilo-Anderson type, and AO/Orthopaedic Trauma Association classification, they found that provisional plate use did not significantly increase the risk of infection (adjusted odds ratio, 1.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.51-5.32; P=.41) or any other complications (adjusted odds ratio, 1.24; 95% confidence interval, 0.46-3.35; P=.67). In the subgroup of patients who had a provisional plate (n=35), removal of the plate did not significantly decrease the risk of infection (adjusted odds ratio, 0.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.07-2.69; P=.36) or other complications (adjusted odds ratio, 0.55; 95% confidence interval, 0.12-2.46; P=.44). In open tibia fractures treated with intramedullary nailing, provisional plate stabilization, a valuable reduction aid, did not increase the risk of infection or other complications. Because of the small subgroup size, however, definitive conclusions cannot be drawn about removal of these provisional plates. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(5):e931-e936.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. A new adhesive technique for internal fixation in midfacial surgery

    PubMed Central

    Endres, Kira; Marx, Rudolf; Tinschert, Joachim; Wirtz, Dieter Christian; Stoll, Christian; Riediger, Dieter; Smeets, Ralf

    2008-01-01

    Background The current surgical therapy of midfacial fractures involves internal fixation in which bone fragments are fixed in their anatomical positions with osteosynthesis plates and corresponding screws until bone healing is complete. This often causes new fractures to fragile bones while drilling pilot holes or trying to insert screws. The adhesive fixation of osteosynthesis plates using PMMA bone cement could offer a viable alternative for fixing the plates without screws. In order to achieve the adhesive bonding of bone cement to cortical bone in the viscerocranium, an amphiphilic bone bonding agent was created, analogous to the dentin bonding agents currently on the market. Methods The adhesive bonding strengths were measured using tension tests. For this, metal plates with 2.0 mm diameter screw holes were cemented with PMMA bone cement to cortical bovine bone samples from the femur diaphysis. The bone was conditioned with an amphiphilic bone bonding agent prior to cementing. The samples were stored for 1 to 42 days at 37 degrees C, either moist or completely submerged in an isotonic NaCl-solution, and then subjected to the tension tests. Results Without the bone bonding agent, the bonding strength was close to zero (0.2 MPa). Primary stability with bone bonding agent is considered to be at ca. 8 MPa. Moist storage over 42 days resulted in decreased adhesion forces of ca. 6 MPa. Wet storage resulted in relatively constant bonding strengths of ca. 8 MPa. Conclusion A new amphiphilic bone bonding agent was developed, which builds an optimizied interlayer between the hydrophilic bone surface and the hydrophobic PMMA bone cement and thus leads to adhesive bonding between them. Our in vitro investigations demonstrated the adhesive bonding of PMMA bone cement to cortical bone, which was also stable against hydrolysis. The newly developed adhesive fixing technique could be applied clinically when the fixation of osteosynthesis plates with screws is impossible. With

  9. Effect of cortical thickness and cancellous bone density on the holding strength of internal fixator screws.

    PubMed

    Seebeck, J; Goldhahn, J; Städele, H; Messmer, P; Morlock, M M; Schneider, E

    2004-11-01

    Internal fixators are a new class of implants designed to preserve the periosteal blood supply of the bone. In contrast to conventional plate fixation in which the screws have spherical heads and are loaded mainly by axial pullout forces, screws in internal fixators are "locked" within the plate and therefore subjected to axial as well as bending loads. In this study the ultimate loads of screws of a commercially available internal fixator system were tested in a pullout (n = 72) and cantilever bending mode (n = 72) in metaphyseal and diaphyseal regions of four pairs of human tibiae with different bone qualities. Cortical thickness and cancellous bone density were determined at the screw insertion sites. Stepwise multiple linear regression revealed that cortical thickness and cancellous density can explain 93% and 98% of the variance of the ultimate load of the screws in an axial pullout and cantilever bending mode. Screws in internal fixators are better suited to transmit shear forces and thereby make better use of the strength potential of bone than screws used in conventional plate fixation: this is especially advantageous when bone strength is reduced, e.g. due to osteoporosis.

  10. Plate fixation of midshaft clavicular fractures: patient-reported outcomes and hardware-related complications.

    PubMed

    Naimark, Micah; Dufka, Faustine L; Han, Richard; Sing, David C; Toogood, Paul; Ma, C Benjamin; Zhang, Alan L; Feeley, Brian T

    2016-05-01

    Recent studies report high hardware removal rates after plate fixation of midshaft clavicular fractures. Precontoured clavicle plates may decrease hardware-related complications while improving healing rates and patient-reported outcomes (PROs). Using a private-payer national database, we identified 7826 patients who underwent clavicle open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) in 2007 to 2011. Database patients were tracked for 2 years to assess hardware removal and revision fixation. In addition, we retrospectively identified 73 patients who underwent plate fixation of midshaft clavicular fractures at our institution. These patients completed the Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) assessment, the EQ-5D (EuroQol, Rotterdam, The Netherlands) quality of life assessment, and a hardware-related outcomes survey. Among 7826 database patients, 994 (12.7%) underwent hardware removal and 78 (1%) required revision ORIF. The annual incidence of clavicle ORIF increased 61.5% between 2007 and 2011. In our institutional cohort, 56 patients (77%) were fixed with precontoured plates and 17 (23%) with standard plates. At a mean follow-up of 4.2 years, 11 patients (15%) underwent hardware removal and 1 patient (1.4%) experienced nonunion. Patients reported excellent outcomes, with average DASH of 4.0 ± 8.9 and EQ-5D of 0.89 ± 0.19. There were no differences in PROs, hardware removal, or union rate between plate types, although our study was underpowered for these outcomes. Patients who underwent hardware removal reported lower DASH, EQ-5D, satisfaction, and shoulder function compared with patients with hardware retained. Women were more likely to undergo hardware removal in the institutional (P = .009) and the database (P < .001) cohorts. Displaced midshaft clavicle fractures have high union rates with precontoured plate fixation. Women are 4 times more likely than men to have hardware removed. Patients undergoing clavicle hardware removal report worse long

  11. Biomechanical comparison of straight DCP and helical plates for fixation of transverse and oblique bone fractures.

    PubMed

    Aksakal, Bunyamin; Gurger, Murat; Say, Yakup; Yilmaz, Erhan

    2014-01-01

    Biomechanical comparison of straight DCP and helical plates for fixation of transversal and oblique tibial bone fractures were analyzed and compared to each other by axial compression, bending and torsion tests. An in vitro osteosynthesis of transverse (TF) and oblique bone fracture (OF) fixations have been analysed on fresh sheep tibias by using the DCP and helical compression plates (HP). Statistically significant differences were found for both DCP and helical plate fixations under axial compression, bending and torsional loads. The strength of fixation systems was in favor of DC plating with exception of the TF-HP fixation group under compression loads and torsional moments. The transvers fracture (TF) stability was found to be higher than that found in oblique fracture (OF) fixed by helical plates (HP). However, under torsional testing, compared to conventional plating, the helical plate fixations provided a higher torsional resistance and strength. The maximum stiffness at axial compression loading and maximum torsional strength was achieved in torsional testing for the TF-HP fixations. From in vitro biomechanical analysis, fracture type and plate fixation system groups showed different responses under different loadings. Consequently, current biomechanical analyses may encourage the usage of helical HP fixations in near future during clinical practice for transverse bone fractures.

  12. Treatment of Early Post-Op Wound Infection after Internal Fixation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Severe fractures are common in modern warfare with fractures ...being fixed via internal fixation of plates and screws to hold the fracture stable while the bone heals. Approximately 10%-40% of severe fractures ...effect of treatment of post-op wound infection in long bones after fracture fixation or joint fusion and either: (Group 1) operative debridement and

  13. Stainless steel versus titanium volar multi-axial locking plates for fixation of distal radius fractures: a randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Couzens, Gregory B; Peters, Susan E; Cutbush, Kenneth; Hope, Benjamin; Taylor, Fraser; James, Christopher D; Rankin, Carly R; Ross, Mark

    2014-03-11

    Distal radius fractures are among the most common fractures seen in the hospital emergency department. Of these, over 40% are considered unstable and require some form of fixation. In recent years with the advent of low profile plating, open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) using volar plates has become the surgical treatment of choice in many hospitals. However, it is currently unknown which plating system has the lowest complication rate and/or superior clinical and radiological outcomes following surgery. Few studies have compared different types of plates, which may have various features, different plate and screw designs or may be manufactured from different materials (for example, stainless steel or titanium). This study will specifically investigate and compare the clinical and radiological outcomes and complication rates of two commonly used volar plating systems for fixation of distal radius fractures: one made from stainless steel (Trimed™ Volar Plate, Trimed™, California, USA) and the other made from titanium (Medartis® Aptus Volar Plate, Medartis®, Basel, Switzerland). The primary aim of this study is to determine if there is a difference on the Patient Reported Wrist Evaluation six months following ORIF using a volar plate for adult patients with a distal radius fracture. This study will implement a randomized prospective clinical trial study design evaluating the outcomes of two different types of volar plates: one plate manufactured from stainless steel (Trimed™ Volar Plate) and one plate manufactured from titanium (Medartis® Aptus Volar Plate). The surgery will be performed at a major trauma hospital in Brisbane, Australia. Outcome measures including function, adverse events, range of movement, strength, disability, radiological findings and health-related quality of life will be collected at 6 weeks, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months following surgery. A parallel economic analysis will also be performed. This randomized clinical trial is due to

  14. Optimal side plate fixation for unstable intertrochanteric hip fractures.

    PubMed

    Yian, E H; Banerji, I; Matthews, L S

    1997-05-01

    To quantitatively determine the minimal screw number needed for stable side plate fixation to the femoral shaft in treating unstable intertrochanteric hip fractures. Laboratory/biomedics study. Orthopaedic biomechanics laboratory. The convenience sample was made up of one saw bone, one steel pipe, and ten human cadaveric femur specimens. Human specimens were selected by ruling out pathology and excess osteopenia. Ten specimens were tested to completion. Telescoping hip screw and hip screw side plate secured with various numbered combinations of side plate screws. Decreases in tension experienced by all previously inserted screws when an additional screw was applied were recorded and labeled as "protection." Protection offered by a third screw on all previous screws was 787.3 newtons in the steel pipemodel, 71.2 newtons in the sawbone model, and 158.3 newtons in the human model (p < 0.005). A fourth bone screw did not decrease tension in previous screws by more than 11 newtons. The protective effect of the fourth screw on screw #3 increased with decreasing screw application torque by a maximum of 21.8 newtons (p < 0.005). This study suggests that three bone screws provide an optimal distribution of tensile forces. The insertional torque used to place screws, once screw-plate contact has been established, does not play a significant role in screw protection. Additional studies are needed to assess the role of cortical bone density, and cyclical loading and bending forces experienced by the side plate screws, before definite clinical recommendations can be made.

  15. A comparative in vitro study of fixation of mandibular fractures with paraskeletal clamps or screw plates.

    PubMed

    Crofts, C E; Trowbridge, A; Maung Aung, T; Brook, I M

    1990-05-01

    The use of porcine rib pairs as an in vitro analog for the edentulous mandible is described. Using this model, the relative degree of fixation achieved with a screw plate (Champy) and a paraskeletal clamp plate (Mennen) has been evaluated. The fractured plated ribs failed at significantly lower bending forces than the non-sectioned controls. However, no statistically significant difference in force at failure between the two different methods of plate fixation could be demonstrated.

  16. Assessment of Intra-articular Screw Penetration During Radial Head and Olecranon Locking Plate Fixation

    PubMed Central

    Dizdarevic, Ismar; Eden, Claire M.; Bengard, Matthew; Barron, O. Alton; Catalano, Louis W.; Glickel, Steven Z.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the role of radiographic and clinical exams in predicting screw penetration into the proximal radioulnar joint and ulnohumeral joint during open reduction and internal fixation of the radial head and proximal ulna. Methods: Olecranon and radial head plates were applied to 15 cadaveric elbows. Screws were assessed for intra-articular joint penetration using both clinical exam and radiographic evaluation. Clinical exam consisted of evaluation for crepitus. Radiographs demonstrating screws positioned near the joint surface were evaluated for penetration by 3 fellowship trained hand surgeons. Elbows were disarticulated and screw prominence was determined and recorded using standardized calipers. The ability of clinical and radiographic exams to correctly predict a breach in the articular surface was determined by calculating sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values. Consideration was given to screw position. Results: The sensitivity of crepitus was 81.1% for screws in the radial head plate and 72.6% for screws in the olecranon plate. The sensitivity of radiographs was 72.4% for the screws in the radial head plate and 55.0% for screws in the olecranon plate. Correct radiographic assessment of penetration varied but position o-2 on the olecranon plate consistently resulted in the lowest sensitivity of 30.3%. Conclusions: The study evaluates sensitivity and specificity of clinical and radiographic means when assessing for articular penetration of screws during olecranon and radial head locking plate fixation. Certain screw locations are more difficult to evaluate than others and may go undetected by standard means of assessment used in a surgical setting. PMID:27418892

  17. Tibial Lengthening Using a Fixator-Assisted Lengthening Plate: A New Technique

    PubMed Central

    Tosun, Haci Bayram; Agir, Ismail; Gumustas, Seyitali; Serbest, Sancar; Uludag, Abuzer; Celik, Suat

    2016-01-01

    Background There are many techniques that are used for limb lengthening. Lengthening a limb over a plate is an alternative choice used in children or when using an intramedullary nail is difficult. Objectives In this study, we presented a new technique for tibial lengthening using a monolateral external fixator over a lengthening plate. Materials and Methods For tibial lengthening, a monolateral external fixator was attached to the composite bone model medially. After a corticotomy was performed, the lengthening plate was placed laterally. Three locking screws were inserted proximally, and two cortical screws were inserted into a lengthening hole that was 1 cm below the osteotomy site. We avoided contact between the screws of the lengthening plate and the pins of the external fixator. During bone lengthening with the monolateral external fixator, the screws at the lengthening hole were able to slide distally with the distal segment of the tibia to allow for tibial elongation. Two locking screws were fixed at the distal locking holes of the plate when the bone elongation was complete. The external fixator was then removed. Results The fixator-assisted lengthening plate allowed bone lengthening without malalignment. There were no mechanical problems associated with the external fixator during the lengthening process. Plate osteosynthesis was stable after the fixator was removed. There was no contact between the screws of plate and the Schanz pins of the external fixator under C-arm fluoroscopy. Conclusions The fixator-assisted lengthening plate technique helps to maintain the stability and alignment at both sides of an osteotomy during tibial elongation. It allows the early removal of the external fixator immediately after lengthening is completed. This technique can be applied in children with open physes and in patients with a narrow medullary canal who are unsuitable for limb lengthening over an intramedullary nail. PMID:28184364

  18. Midshaft Fractures of the Clavicle: A Meta-analysis Comparing Surgical Fixation Using Anteroinferior Plating Versus Superior Plating.

    PubMed

    Nourian, Alex; Dhaliwal, Satvinder; Vangala, Sitaram; Vezeridis, Peter S

    2017-09-01

    To compare the outcomes of clavicle fracture fixation using anteroinferior versus superior plate placement. We performed a meta-analysis of studies that have reported on outcomes after superior or anteroinferior plate fixation for acute midshaft clavicle fractures (Orthopaedic Trauma Association 15-B). A computerized literature search in the Pubmed, Scopus, and Cochrane Library databases was used to identify relevant articles. Only full text articles without language restrictions were evaluated. The inclusion criteria consisted of: (1) fracture of the midshaft clavicle; (2) surgery for acute fractures (within 1 month of the fracture); (3) adult patients (16 years of age and older); and (4) open reduction and internal fixation with plate application in either the anteroinferior or superior position. Studies were excluded if they did not specify plate location, evaluated multitrauma patients, investigated minimally invasive procedures, or studied operations for revision, nonunion, malunion, or infection. The primary measured outcomes were symptomatic hardware (implant prominence or irritation) and surgery for implant removal. The secondary outcomes were time to union, fracture union, nonunion, malunion, Disabilies of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand score, Constant score, and implant failure. Frequencies and proportions of cases were recorded for binary outcomes, whereas mean and standard deviations were recorded for continuous outcomes. Other summary statistics provided were used to impute mean and standard deviations under the assumption of normality when these were not reported. Continuous outcomes were compared between groups using linear mixed effects models, whereas binary outcomes were compared using mixed effects logistic regression models, including fixed group effects and random study effects. P-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. All analyses were performed using SAS v. 9.4 (SAS Institute Inc, Cary, NC). A total of 1428 articles were

  19. Intermittent internal fixation with a locking plate to preserve epiphyseal growth function during limb-salvage surgery in a child with osteosarcoma of the distal femur: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mei, Jiong; Ni, Ming; Jia, Guang-Yao; Chen, Yan-Xi; Zhu, Xiao-Zhong

    2015-05-01

    Limb shortening is a problem associated with surgery for osteosarcoma of the lower extremity in adolescents, as the tumors frequently occur near the epiphysis. Herein we report the use of a less invasive stabilization system (LISS) and an intermittent fixation method to preserve the growth function of epiphysis in an 11-year-old patient with an osteosarcoma of the distal femur.The 11-year-old male presented with left knee enlargement and pain for 2 weeks, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and biopsy were consistent with osteosarcoma of the left distal femur. After preoperative chemotherapy, en bloc tumor resection was performed with margins based on MRI findings preserving the epiphyseal growth plate, the tumor cavity was filled with inactivated bone and bone cement, and a LISS was used to stabilize the femur. Aggressive postoperative chemotherapy was given. Approximately 105 weeks after surgery radiography showed that the distal end of the plate had moved superior to the epiphysis along with bone growth. Locking screws were placed in the distal part of the LISS plate to stabilize the re-implanted bone, and external fixation was not needed.The patient was able to walk with the crutches 1 week postoperatively, and bear weight on the extremity 6 weeks postoperatively. At 6 years after surgery, the patient's height had increased 52 cm, shortening of the affected limb was only 1 cm, and the circumference of the affected limb was 2 cm smaller than that of the contralateral limb. There was no significant discomfort in the affected limb, and there was no gait abnormality. The patient could jump and run, and could participate in sports including basketball and badminton to the same degree as his peers.In summary, the novel method of bone reconstruction and fixation provided good results in a child with an osteosarcoma of the distal femur. This fixation method preserves the osteogenic function of the epiphysis and restored bone integrity simultaneously, and

  20. Plate selection for fixation of extra-articular distal humerus fractures: a biomechanical comparison of three different implants.

    PubMed

    Scolaro, John A; Hsu, Jason E; Svach, David J; Mehta, Samir

    2014-12-01

    Operative fixation of extra-articular distal humerus using a single posterolateral column plate has been described but the biomechanical properties or limits of this technique is undefined. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mechanical properties of distal humerus fracture fixation using three standard fixation constructs. Two equal groups were created from forty sawbones humeri. Osteotomies were created at 80mm or 50mm from the tip of the trochlea. In the proximal osteotomy group, sawbones were fixed with an 8-hole 3.5mm LCP or with a 6-hole posterolateral plate. In the distal group, sawbones were fixed with 9-hole medial and lateral 3.5mm distal humerus plates and ten sawbones were fixed with a 6-hole posterolateral plate. Biomechanical testing was performed using a servohydraulic testing machine. Testing in extension as well as internal and external rotation was performed. Destructive testing was also performed with failure being defined as hardware pullout, sawbone failure or cortical contact at the osteotomy. In the proximal osteotomy group, the average bending stiffness and torsional stiffness was significantly greater with the posterolateral plate than with the 3.5mm LCP. In the distal osteotomy group, the average bending stiffness and torsional stiffness was significantly greater with the posterolateral plate than the 3.5mm LCP. In extension testing, the yield strength was significantly greater with the posterolateral plate in the proximal osteotomy specimens, and the dual plating construct in the distal osteotomy specimens. The yield strength of specimens in axial torsion was significantly greater with the posterolateral plate in the proximal osteotomy specimens, and the dual plating construct in the distal osteotomy specimens. Limited biomechanical data to support the use of a pre-contoured posterolateral distal humerus LCP for fixation of extra-articular distal humerus exists. We have found that this implant provided significantly greater

  1. Cerclage wire-plate composite for fixation of quadrilateral plate fractures of the acetabulum: a checkrein and pulley technique.

    PubMed

    Farid, Yasser R

    2010-05-01

    Acetabular fractures with complete or incomplete quadrilateral plate separation frequently present with central displacement of the femoral head. Failure of stable fixation of medial wall fractures leaves residual subluxation despite reduction of other fracture components. Several fixation techniques may be either technically demanding or insufficient for stable fixation in conditions of comminution, osteoporosis, or neglected injuries. The proposed wire-plate composite uses a reconstruction spring plate over the pelvic brim for medial wall buttressing. One hole on its true pelvic limb provides a pulley to deviate a cerclage wire or cable passed through the greater sciatic notch into the true pelvis. This enhances buttressing against medial protrusion. Application through anterior approaches is simple and fixation is reliable in difficult fractures without the risk of joint penetration because all quadrilateral plate buttressing implants remain extraosseous.

  2. Fixation of Intertrochanteric Valgus Osteotomy with T Plate in Treatment of Developmental Coxa Vara

    PubMed Central

    Khairy, Hosam Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Background Although the valgus subtrochanteric osteotomy is considered as a standard surgical treatment for coxa vara, there is no consensus on the optimal method of fixation and osteotomy technique. Fixation of the osteotomy has been achieved by various methods including external fixation and internal fixation with pins and cerclage and a variety of plates. The aim of this study is the evaluation of the results of developmental coxa treated by Y intertrochanteric valgus osteotomy fixed with a T-buttress plate compared with other methods of fixation in the literature. Methods Eighteen corrective valgus intertrochanteric femoral osteotomies were performed in 18 patients (18 hips) for treatment of unilateral developmental coxa vara deformity and fixed with a T plate. There were 12 males and 6 females. The right hip was affected in 10 patients and the left hip in 8 patients. Clinically, patients were evaluated by Larson hip score. Radiographically, anteroposterior view of the pelvis and frog leg lateral views of the affected hip were taken preoperatively and compared with the findings at the final follow-up. Results The average follow-up was 29 months (range, 24 to 36 months). Clinical results showed improvement of the mean Larson hip score from 57.8 to 97.0 (p < 0.001). Radiological results showed that all osteotomies were completely united in 2.4 months (range, 2 to 3 months) with the achievement of the planned correction angle. The average correction of Hilgenreiner's epiphyseal angle improved from 78.2° to 27.8° (p < 0.001) at the final follow-up. The femoral neck shaft angle was improved from 93.7° to 129.9° (p < 0.001) at the final follow-up. Shortening of the affected limb was corrected from 2.8 cm to 1.3 cm (p < 0.001) at the last follow-up. No major serious complications were recorded in the present study. Conclusions Intertrochanteric valgus osteotomy of the proximal femur fixed with a T plate may be efficient for treatment of developmental coxa vara

  3. PERPENDICULAR DOUBLE-PLATE FIXATION WITH LOCKING SYSTEM FOR ACROMION PEDICLE FRACTURE

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Junkun; Pan, Zhijun; Zheng, Rongzong; Lan, Shuhua

    2016-01-01

    Objective : To describe the surgical technique and preliminary clinical outcomes in a series of open reduction internal fixation of basal acromion process fractures applying a double-plating technique. Methods : Nine consecutive patients, mean age 33.4 years old (range, 23-61 years old) with unilateral acromion fracture (Type 3 AO/OTA) with more than 1cm displacement who underwent fixation utilizing a locked double-plating technique, were evaluated on average at 7.8 months (range, 3-15 months) for outcomes related to pain, shoulder function, and surgical complications. Results : Eight patients recovered with complete radiographic union and favorable shoulder function. One case failed to be fully evaluated for more than 3 months follow-up. The overall scores of Constant, Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) and DASH for the eight patients reviewed were 91.9± 6.31, 3.11± 3.79 and 5.2± 6.35, respectively. No post-operative infection or surgical hardware irritation was identified at final follow-up of these eight patients. Conclusion : While more evidence is needed to justify its advantages over traditional implants, perpendicular double-plate with a locking system may be indicated for acromion pedicle fracture treatment, since it performed well for fracture healing and joint function rehabilitation. Level of Evidence IV, Therapeutic Study. PMID:26981047

  4. Internal Fixation of Cervical Fractures in Three Horses.

    PubMed

    Rossignol, Fabrice; Brandenberger, Olivier; Mespoulhes-Rivière, Céline

    2016-01-01

    To describe the surgical treatment outcome of cervical fractures in 3 horses. Case report. Three client-owned horses with cervical vertebral fractures. Three horses were refered for neck stiffness, pain, and ataxia after a cervical trauma because of a fall. Radiographic examination showed an oblique displaced fracture of the caudal aspect of the body of the second cervical vertebra (C2) in horse 1, an oblique displaced fracture of the caudal aspect of C4 involving the disc between C4 and C5 in horse 2, and a displaced transverse fracture of the body of the axis (C2) extending to the lateral arches and involving the vertebral canal in horse 3. In horse 1, the fracture was reduced and stabilized using a 14-hole narrow DCP plate, applied ventrally, and fixed with cancellous screws. A cervical fusion was performed. In horses 2 and 3, fracture fixation was performed using a 5-hole narrow LCP and 5 mm locking screws. All horses showed improvement and returned to full activity. The fracture healed in all horses. Internal fixation of cervical fracture in these horses was associated with minimal complications, and was associated with healing and a highly functional outcome in all horses. The LCP was preferred and would be recommended for ventral stabilization of selected cases of vertebral fractures. © Copyright 2015 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  5. Trochanteric Fixation With a Third-Generation Cable-Plate System: An Independent Experience.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Andrew D; Abdelbary, Hesham; Beaulé, Paul E

    2017-09-01

    Greater trochanteric fracture/nonunion can be a devastating complication with significant functional impact after total hip arthroplasty, and their fixation remains a challenge because of the significant forces being transmitted as well as the poor bone quality often associated with these fractures. The objective of this study is to investigate the rates of reoperation and trochanteric nonunion using a third-generation cable-plate system at one center. Thirty-five patients, mean age 72.9 years (range 46-98 years) with 24 women and 11 men, underwent fixation of their fractured greater trochanter using a third-generation cable-plate system. The indications were: periprosthetic fracture (n = 17), complex primary arthroplasty (n = 5), and complex revision arthroplasty (n = 13). Primary outcomes included rates of reoperation and radiographic union. At a mean follow-up of 2.5 years, trochanteric union rate was 62.9% with nonunion rate of 31.4%, and fibrous union in 5.7%. In regard to quality of initial apposition, only 40% achieved a perfect bone on bone reduction. Ten patients (28.6%) had evidence of wire breakage. Five patients (14.3%) required reoperation and removal of the internal fixation because of lateral hip pain. Fixation of the trochanteric fractures remains a challenge with a relatively high reoperation rate. Poor bone quality and capacity to maintain a stable reduction continue to make this complication after total hip arthroplasty a difficult problem to solve. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Anterior Z-plate and titanic mesh fixation for acute burst thoracolumbar fracture.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian-Guang; Zeng, Bing-Fang; Zhou, Wei; Kong, Wei-Qing; Fu, Yi-Shan; Zhao, Bi-Zeng; Zhang, Tao; Lian, Xiao-Feng

    2011-04-01

    A retrospective study. To evaluate the clinical outcome, effectiveness, and security of the surgical management of acute thoracolumbar burst fracture with corpectomy, titanic mesh autograft, and Z-plate fixation by anterior approach. Many surgical methods were adopted to treat acute burst thoracolumbar fracture. But the optimal surgical management remains controversial. A retrospective review of a consecutive series of 48 patients with thoracolumbar burst fracture treated with anterior corpectomy, titanic mesh autograft, and Z-plate internal fixation was carried out. Preoperative clinical and radiographic data of all cases were originally collected. Surgical indications were motor neurologic deficit and thoracolumbar column instability. Twenty-two patients (45.8%) with acute thoracolumbar burst fractures presented with a neurologic deficit. The postoperative recovery of neural function, restoration of anterior cortex collapse, kyphotic angle, and spinal canal compromise were observed. The preoperative kyphotic angle was improved to a mean of 5.6°, radiographic height restored to 95.8% of the adjacent normal levels, and canal compromise was 0%. None of the patients had neurologic deterioration. Mean follow-up time was 32.4 months (range, 24-47 months). All 22 patients with neurologic deficit demonstrated at least one Frankel grade improvement on final observation, with 16 (73%) patients had accomplished complete neurologic recovery. Forty-six (96%) patients reported minimal or no pain at final follow-up observation, and 40 (83%) patients who had been working before injury returned to original work. The authors considered spinal cord decompression with anterior corpectomy and stability reconstruction with titanic mesh autograft and Z-plate fixation at same time in one incision as an effective technique for unstable thoracolumbar burst fracture with and without neurologic deficit.

  7. Complications of open reduction and internal fixation of ankle fractures.

    PubMed

    Leyes, Manuel; Torres, Raúl; Guillén, Pedro

    2003-03-01

    This article discusses the complications after open reduction and internal fixation of ankle fractures. Complications are classified as perioperative (malreduction, inadequate fixation, and intra-articular penetration of hardware), early postoperative (wound edge dehiscence, necrosis, infection and compartment syndrome), and late (stiffness, distal tibiofibular synostosis, degenerative osteoarthritis, and hardware related complications). Emphasis is placed on preventive measures to avoid such complications.

  8. Biomechanical testing of two devices for internal fixation of fractured ribs.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Nicole; Richardson, Martin; Antippa, Phillip

    2010-05-01

    An intramedullary screw (Portland Orthopaedics, St. Clair, MI) and Inion (Tampere, Finland) Orthopaedic Trauma Plating System (OTPS) mesh for use for internal fixation of fractured ribs have not previously undergone biomechanical testing. The aim of this study is to compare the biomechanics of intact ribs undergoing four-point bending to the biomechanics of fractured ribs fixed with each of the two devices to determine which device provides superior fixation. Thirty fresh-frozen porcine ribs (ribs 6-8) were submitted to four-point bending to failure, at a rate of 2.5 mm/min, to determine stiffness and force at failure. The ribs were then randomized to receive fixation with either Inion OTPS mesh or an intramedullary screw. The fixated ribs were again submitted to four-point bending to failure. Ribs fixated with OTPS mesh were significantly stiffer and failed at a significantly higher load than ribs fixated with intramedullary screws (p = 0.0001). Ribs fixated with OTPS mesh were less stiff than intact ribs but failed at a similar force to intact ribs. The Inion OTPS mesh system provides superior fixation of fractured ribs compared with an intramedullary screw when tested with four-point bending. The OTPS mesh system also has the added advantage of being absorbable. The intramedullary screw needs to undergo modification and further testing before use in humans. Future studies should focus on more physiologic methods of loading.

  9. Current Evidence: Plate Versus Intramedullary Nail for Fixation of Distal Tibia Fractures in 2016.

    PubMed

    Vallier, Heather A

    2016-11-01

    Displaced distal tibia shaft fractures are effectively treated with standard plates and intramedullary nails. Plate fixation performed with meticulous soft tissue handling results in minimal risks of infection and poor wound healing. Standard plates have high rates of primary union, whereas locking plates may delay union because of increased stiffness. Tibial healing may also be delayed after plating of the fibula, although fibula reduction and fixation may aid accuracy of reduction of the tibia. Malalignment occurs more often with infrapatellar intramedullary nailing versus plates, and early results of suprapatellar nailing appear promising in minimizing intraoperative malalignment. Long-term function after fixation of the distal tibia is good for most, with poor outcomes often associated with baseline social and mental health issues.

  10. A biomechanical comparison of one-third tubular plates versus periarticular plates for fixation of osteoporotic distal fibula fractures.

    PubMed

    Davis, Adrian T; Israel, Heidi; Cannada, Lisa K; Bledsoe, J Gary

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the biomechanical properties of locking and nonlocking plates using one-third tubular and periarticular plate designs in an osteoporotic distal fibula fracture model. Twenty-four cadaveric specimens, whose bone mineral densities were obtained using dual x-ray absorptiometry scans, were tested. The fracture model simulated an OTA 44-B2.1 fracture. The constructs included (1) nonlocking one-third tubular plate, (2) locking one-third tubular plate, (3) nonlocking periarticular plate, and (4) locking periarticular plate. The specimens underwent axial loading followed by torsional loading to failure. Statistical analysis was performed using Kruskal-Wallis testing and further analysis with Mann-Whitney testing. The periarticular plates had greater rotational stiffness compared with the one-third tubular plates (P = 0.04). The nonlocking plates had greater torque to failure than the locking plates (P = 0.01). The nonlocking one-third tubular plate had greater torque to failure than the locking one-third tubular plate (P = 0.03). No significant differences were found in any of the comparisons regarding axial stiffness. In biomechanical testing using an osteoporotic model of OTA 44-B2.1 fractures, periarticular plates were superior to one-third tubular plates in rotational stiffness only. Locking plates did not outperform their nonlocking counterparts. Periarticular plates should be considered when treating osteoporotic distal fibula fractures, but one-third tubular plates and nonlocking plates provide adequate fixation for these injuries.

  11. Are quadrilateral surface buttress plates comparable to traditional forms of transverse acetabular fracture fixation?

    PubMed

    Kistler, Brian J; Smithson, Ian R; Cooper, Seth A; Cox, Jacob L; Nayak, Aniruddh N; Santoni, Brandon G; Sagi, H Claude

    2014-11-01

    Several construct options exist for transverse acetabular fracture fixation. Accepted techniques use a combination of column plates and lag screws. Quadrilateral surface buttress plates have been introduced as potential fixation options, but as a result of their novelty, biomechanical data regarding their stabilizing effects are nonexistent. Therefore, we aimed to determine if this fixation method confers similar stability to traditional forms of fixation. We biomechanically compared two acetabular fixation plates with quadrilateral surface buttressing with traditional forms of fixation using lag screws and column plates. Thirty-five synthetic hemipelves with a transverse transtectal acetabular fracture were allocated to one of five groups: anterior column plate+posterior column lag screw, posterior column plate+anterior column lag screw, anterior and posterior column lag screws only, infrapectineal plate+anterior column plate, and suprapectineal plate alone. Specimens were loaded for 1500 cycles up to 2.5x body weight and stiffness was calculated. Thereafter, constructs were destructively loaded and failure loads were recorded. After 1500 cycles, final stiffness was not different with the numbers available between the infrapectineal (568±43 N/mm) and suprapectineal groups (602±87 N/mm, p=0.988). Both quadrilateral plates were significantly stiffer than the posterior column buttress plate with supplemental lag screw fixation group (311±99 N/mm, p<0.006). No difference in stiffness was identified with the numbers available between the quadrilateral surface plating groups and the lag screw group (423±219 N/mm, p>0.223). The infrapectineal group failed at the highest loads (5.4±0.6 kN) and this was significant relative to the suprapectineal (4.4±0.3 kN; p=0.023), lag screw (2.9±0.8 kN; p<0.001), and anterior buttress plate with posterior column lag screw (4.0±0.6 kN; p=0.001) groups. Quadrilateral surface buttress plates spanning the posterior and anterior

  12. Comparison of results between hook plate fixation and ligament reconstruction for acute unstable acromioclavicular joint dislocation.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jong Pil; Lee, Byoung-Joo; Nam, Sang Jin; Chung, Seok Won; Jeong, Won-Ju; Min, Woo-Kie; Oh, Joo Han

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, we aimed to compare clinical and radiographic outcomes between hook plate fixation and coracoclavicular (CC) ligament reconstruction for the treatment of acute unstable acromioclavicular (AC) joint dislocation. Forty-two patients who underwent surgery for an unstable acute dislocation of the AC joint were included. We divided them into two groups according to the treatment modality: internal fixation with a hook plate (group I, 24 cases) or CC ligament reconstruction (group II, 18 cases). We evaluated the clinical outcomes using a visual analog scale (VAS) for pain and Constant-Murley score, and assessed the radiographic outcomes based on the reduction and loss of CC distance on preoperative, postoperative, and final follow-up plain radiographs. The mean VAS scores at the final follow-up were 1.6 ± 1.5 and 1.3 ± 1.3 in groups I and II, respectively, which were not significantly different. The mean Constant-Murley scores were 90.2 ± 9.9 and 89.2 ± 3.5 in groups I and II, respectively, which were also not significantly different. The AC joints were well reduced in both groups, whereas CC distance improved from a mean of 215.7% ± 50.9% preoperatively to 106.1% ± 10.2% at the final follow-up in group I, and from 239.9% ± 59.2% preoperatively to 133.6% ± 36.7% at the final follow-up in group II. The improvement in group I was significantly superior to that in group II (p < 0.001). Furthermore, subluxation was not observed in any case in group I, but was noted in six cases (33%) in group II. Erosions of the acromion undersurface were observed in 9 cases in group I. In cases of acute unstable AC joint dislocation, hook plate fixation and CC ligament reconstruction yield comparable satisfactory clinical outcomes. However, radiographic outcomes based on the maintenance of reduction indicate that hook plate fixation is a better treatment option.

  13. Distal radius fractures: Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis with dorsal bicolumnar locking plates fixation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Alvin Chao-Yu; Chou, Ying-Chao; Cheng, Chun-Ying

    2017-01-01

    Background: Controversy still exists regarding the current treatment modalities for unstable distal radius fractures. There are yet few articles investigating the efficacy of bicolumnar dorsal plating technique, which is designed to minimize tissue dissection while providing sufficiently secure fixation. A clinical study was performed to evaluate the feasibility of the minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) technique using a modified dorsal approach for the treatment of distal radius fractures. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with unilateral distal radius fracture who underwent bicolumnar plate fixation with a minimally invasive dorsal approach between September 2008 and December 2010 were included in this retrospective study. Twenty four patients (8 men and 16 women) with a mean age of 53 years (range 18-85 years) were available for followup of at least 1 year or more were included in final study. Herein, we report the functional radiological outcomes of the study. There were three cases of AO Type A fracture, five cases of AO Type B fracture, and 16 cases of AO Type C fracture. Results: The union was achieved in all the patients. The functional results at one-year followup, assessed using the modified Gartland and Werley scoring system, were excellent in 14 patients, good in seven patients, and fair in three patients. The average correction of deformity was 4.1 mm for radial height, 7.6° for radial inclination, and 20.7° for volar tilt. Conclusions: MIPO with a dorsal approach is a feasible option for the management of displaced distal radius fractures and can result in favorable surgical outcomes. PMID:28216757

  14. Radiological evaluation of ankle arthrodesis with Ilizarov fixation compared to internal fixation.

    PubMed

    Morasiewicz, Piotr; Dejnek, Maciej; Urbański, Wiktor; Dragan, Szymon Łukasz; Kulej, Mirosław; Dragan, Szymon Feliks

    2017-07-01

    We asked whether the type of ankle joint arthrodesis stabilization will affect: (1) rate of union, (2) rate of adjacted-joint arthritis, (3) malalignment of the ankle joint. We retrospectively radiological studied 62 patients who underwent ankle arthrodesis with Ilizarov external fixator stabilization (group 1,n=29) or internal stabilization (group 2,n=33) from 2006 to 2015. Radiologic outcomes were mesure by: (1) rate of union, (2) rate of adjacent-joint arthritis, (3) malalignment of the ankle joint. The Levene's test,Mann-Whitney U test and Students t-test were used to the statistical analyses. Ankle fusion was achieved in 100% of patients treated with external fixation and in 88% with internal stabilization. Desired frontal plane alignment was achieved in 100% of patients with external fixation and 76% with internal stabilization. Desired sagittal plane alignment was achieved in 100% of external fixation and 85% of internal stabilization. A total of 14 (48.3%) patients from group 1 showed a radiographic evidence of pre-existing adjacent-joint OA. The radiographic evidence of pre-existing adjacent-joint OA was also found in 27(81.8%) subjects from group 2. Alterations of adjacent joints were also found on postoperative radiograms of 19 (65.5%) patients subjected to Ilizarov fixation and in all 33 patients from group 2. Ilizarov fixation of ankle arthrodesis is associated with lower prevalence of adjacent-joint OA and ankle joint misalignment,and with higher fusion rates than after internal fixation.Although achieving a complex ankle fusion is generally challenging,radiological outcomes after fixation with the Ilizarov apparatus are better than after internal stabilization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Clinical Results of Internal Fixation of Subcapital Femoral Neck Fractures.

    PubMed

    Kang, Joon Soon; Moon, Kyoung Ho; Shin, Joong Sup; Shin, Eun Ho; Ahn, Chi Hoon; Choi, Geon Hong

    2016-06-01

    Subcapital femoral neck is known to cause many complications, such as avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head or nonunion, compared with other femoral neck fractures. The purpose of this study was to analyze the incidence of AVN and fixation failures in patients treated with internal fixation using cannulated screws for the subcapital femoral neck fractures. This study targeted a total of 84 cases of subcapital femoral neck fractures that underwent internal fixation using cannulated screws. The average follow-up time after surgery was 36.8 months (range, 24 to 148 months). Nine hips (10.7%) showing AVN of the femoral head and 6 hips (7.1%) showing fixation failures were observed. The factors affecting the incidence of AVN of the femoral head after sustaining fractures correlated well with fracture types in the Garden classification (p = 0.030). The factors affecting fixation failure were the degree of reduction (p = 0.001) measured by the Garden alignment index and firm fixation (p = 0.009) assessed using the technique of 3-point fixation through the inferomedial cortical bone of the femoral neck. The complication rates for subcapital femoral neck fractures were lower than those previously reported; hence, internal fixation could be a primary treatment option for these fractures.

  16. Single column locking plate fixation is inadequate in two column acetabular fractures. A biomechanical analysis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to determine whether one can achieve stable fixation of a two column (transverse) acetabular fracture by only fixing a single column with a locking plate and unicortical locking screws. We hypothesized that a locking plate applied to the anterior column of a transverse acetabular fracture would create a construct that is more rigid than a non-locking plate, and that this construct would be biomechanically comparable to two column fixation. Methods Using urethane foam models of the pelvis, we simulated transverse acetabular fractures and stabilized them with 1) an anterior column plate with bicortical screws, 2) an anterior locking plate with unicortical screws, 3) an anterior plate and posterior column lag screw, and 4) a posterior plate with an anterior column lag screw. These constructs were mechanically loaded on a servohydraulic material testing machine. Construct stiffness and fracture displacement were measured. Result and Discussion We found that two column fixation is 54% stiffer than a single column fixation with a conventional plate with bicortical screws. There was no significant difference between fixation with an anterior column locking plate with unicortical screws and an anterior plate with posterior column lag screw. We detected a non-significant trend towards more stiffness for the anterior locking plate compared to the anterior non-locking plate. Conclusion In conclusion, a locking plate construct of the anterior column provides less stability than a traditional both column construct with posterior plate and anterior column lag screw. However, the locking construct offers greater strength than a non-locking, bicortical construct, which in addition often requires extensive contouring and its application is oftentimes accompanied by the risk of neurovascular damage. PMID:20459688

  17. Single column locking plate fixation is inadequate in two column acetabular fractures. A biomechanical analysis.

    PubMed

    Khajavi, Kiarash; Lee, Arthur T; Lindsey, Derek P; Leucht, Philipp; Bellino, Michael J; Giori, Nicholas J

    2010-05-09

    The objective of this study was to determine whether one can achieve stable fixation of a two column (transverse) acetabular fracture by only fixing a single column with a locking plate and unicortical locking screws. We hypothesized that a locking plate applied to the anterior column of a transverse acetabular fracture would create a construct that is more rigid than a non-locking plate, and that this construct would be biomechanically comparable to two column fixation. Using urethane foam models of the pelvis, we simulated transverse acetabular fractures and stabilized them with 1) an anterior column plate with bicortical screws, 2) an anterior locking plate with unicortical screws, 3) an anterior plate and posterior column lag screw, and 4) a posterior plate with an anterior column lag screw. These constructs were mechanically loaded on a servohydraulic material testing machine. Construct stiffness and fracture displacement were measured. We found that two column fixation is 54% stiffer than a single column fixation with a conventional plate with bicortical screws. There was no significant difference between fixation with an anterior column locking plate with unicortical screws and an anterior plate with posterior column lag screw. We detected a non-significant trend towards more stiffness for the anterior locking plate compared to the anterior non-locking plate. In conclusion, a locking plate construct of the anterior column provides less stability than a traditional both column construct with posterior plate and anterior column lag screw. However, the locking construct offers greater strength than a non-locking, bicortical construct, which in addition often requires extensive contouring and its application is oftentimes accompanied by the risk of neurovascular damage.

  18. Design and experimental evaluation of adjustable bone plates for mandibular fracture fixation.

    PubMed

    Cervantes, Thomas M; Slocum, Alexander H; Seldin, Edward B

    2012-01-03

    Conventional bone plates are commonly used for surgical mandibular fracture fixation. Improper alignment between bone segments, however, can result in malocclusion. Current methods of fixation require a surgeon to visually align segments of bone and affix a metal plate using bone screws, after which little can be done to adjust alignment. A method of adjusting fracture alignment after plate placement, without screw removal, presents an improvement over costly and risky revision surgery. A modified bone plate has been designed with a deformable section to give surgeons the ability to reduce misalignments at the fracture site. The mechanics of deformation for various adjustment mechanisms was explored analytically, numerically, and experimentally to ensure that the adjustable plate is comparable to conventional bone plates. A static force of 358.8 N is required to deform the adjustable bone plate, compared with predicted values of 351 N using numerical simulation and 362 N using a simple beam theory. Dynamic testing was performed to simulate in vivo loading conditions and evaluate load-capacity in both deformed and un-deformed bone plates. Results indicate that bending stiffness of a rectangular bone plate is 709 N/mm, compared with 174 N/mm for an octagonal plate and 176 N/mm for standard plates. Once deformed, the rectangular and octagonal plates had a stiffness of 323 N/mm and 228 N/mm, respectively. Un-deformed and deformed adjustable bone plates have efficacy in bone segment fixation and healing.

  19. Evaluation of bioresorbable plates in condylar fracture fixation: a case series.

    PubMed

    Singh, V; Kshirsagar, R; Halli, R; Sane, V; Chhabaria, G; Ramanojam, S; Joshi, S; Patankar, A

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and stability of bioresorbable plates in condylar fractures in adults. Twelve adult patients who had sustained a condylar fracture, either alone or in combination with other mandibular fractures, were clinically and radiologically assessed for the efficacy and stability of bioresorbable plate and screw fixation. Intraoperatively, a total of seven screw breakages were noted. Six cases showed instability of the fractured fragments after fixation with bioresorbable plates and screws; the other six cases showed adequate stability. A single bioresorbable plate does not provide satisfactory stability for condylar fractures. Also, the screw breakages add additional surgical time and cost to the patient.

  20. Biomechanical testing of distal femur osteotomy plate fixation techniques: the role of simulated physiological loading.

    PubMed

    Brinkman, Justus-Martijn; Hurschler, Christof; Agneskirchner, Jens; Lobenhoffer, Philip; Castelein, René M; van Heerwaarden, Ronald J

    2014-12-01

    Implants for fracture and/or osteotomy fixation are often tested according to basic mechanical test models such as open gap tests or 4-point-bending tests. These may be suitable to test and compare different implants for safety and clinical approval, but are not always representative of the post-operative situation, which is decisive when it comes to bone healing. In the current study the Knee Expert Group of the Association for the Study of Internal Fixation has compared the available open gap test results of the latest version of the TomoFix Medial Distal Femoral Plate and the antecedent plate design, with the test results of a more physiological and life-like test model. In the open gap test model the antecedent plate design was found to have superior stiffness and fatigue strength. In the current study simulated postoperative conditions for medial closing wedge supracondylar osteotomies were used. The constructs were subjected to cyclical axial and torsional loading and were subsequently tested to failure. The more life-like tests in this study showed that the latest version was either more or equally stable and stiff than the antecedent version of the plate, in all of the tests. It is argued that the difference in results between the two loading models is due to differences in test design. These test results stress the importance of not only using standard open gap and 4-point-bending tests, but also to use as life-like as possible test conditions for any form of biomechanical testing of new implants.

  1. Fixation strength at the interface between Kerboull-type plate and bone cement.

    PubMed

    Kaku, Nobuhiro; Hara, Katsutoshi; Tabata, Tomonori; Tsumura, Hiroshi

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the fixation strength at the interface between the Kerboull-type plate and bone cement in 6 experimental conditions. Experimental materials comprised a simulated acetabular block, a simulated Kerboulltype plate, a pressuriser cover, a pressuriser arm, and bone cement. The simulated Kerboull-type plate was placed on the simulated acetabular block, with the pressuriser cover. Bone cement was added and the pressuriser arm was inserted. After 6 days of curing, pulling tests were performed to measure the fixation strength at the interface between the plate and the bone cement. Six experimental conditions were evaluated. In condition 1, a 1-mm plate was used with no gap between the plate and the acetabular block. In condition 2, a 2.5-mm plate was used with no gap. In condition 3, a 2.5-mm plate was used with a 2-mm gap. In condition 4, the plate was not used. In condition 5, condition 2 was tested with the model rotated 45º. In condition 6, condition 3 was tested with the model rotated 45º. The maximum fixation strengths in conditions 1, 2, 3, 5, and 6 were 44.4 N, 59.1 N, 122.5 N, 86.9 N, and 185.2 N, respectively. The most important factor affecting the maximum fixation strength was bone cement at the interface between the plate and the acetabular block, followed by 45º rotation during testing, and then thickness of the plate. To enhance fixation of the Kerboull-type plate with cemented acetabular cup, penetration of cement into the outer side of the Kerboull-type plate should be minimised.

  2. MRI analysis of the ISOBAR TTL internal fixation system for the dynamic fixation of intervertebral discs: a comparison with rigid internal fixation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we analyzed the efficacy of the posterior approach lumbar ISOBAR TTL internal fixation system for the dynamic fixation of intervertebral discs, with particular emphasis on its effects on degenerative intervertebral disc disease. Methods We retrospectively compared the MRIs of 54 patients who had previously undergone either rigid internal fixation of the lumbar spine or ISOBAR TTL dynamic fixation for the treatment of lumbar spondylolisthesis. All patients had received preoperative and 6-, 12-, and 24-month postoperative MRI scans of the lumbar spine with acquisition of both routine and diffusion-weighted images (DWI). The upper-segment discs of the fusion were subjected to Pfirrmann grading, and the lumbar intervertebral discs in the DWI sagittal plane were manually drawn; the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value was measured. Results ADC values in the ISOBAR TTL dynamic fixation group measured at the 6-, 12-, and 24-month postoperative MRI studies were increased compared to the preoperative ADC values. The ADC values in the ISOBAR TTL dynamic fixation group at 24 months postoperatively were significantly different from the preoperative values (P < 0.05). At 24 months, the postoperative ADC values were significantly different between the rigid fixation group and the ISOBAR TTL dynamic fixation group (P < 0.05). Conclusion MRI imaging findings indicated that the posterior approach lumbar ISOBAR TTL internal fixation system can prevent or delay the degeneration of intervertebral discs. PMID:24898377

  3. Biomechanical evaluation of the fixation methods for transcondylar fracture of the humerus:ONI plate versus conventional plates and screws.

    PubMed

    Shimamura, Yasunori; Nishida, Keiichiro; Imatani, Junya; Noda, Tomoyuki; Hashizume, Hiroyuki; Ohtsuka, Aiji; Ozaki, Toshifumi

    2010-04-01

    We biomechanically evaluated the bone fixation rigidity of an ONI plate (Group I) during fixation of experimentally created transcondylar humerus fractures in cadaveric elbows, which are the most frequently observed humeral fractures in the elderly, and compared it with the rigidity achieved by 3 conventional fixation methods:an LCP reconstruction plate 3.5 using a locking mechanism (Group II), a conventional reconstruction plate 3.5 (CRP) with a cannulated cancellous screw (Group III), and a CRP with 2 cannulated cancellous screws (CS) in a crisscross orientation (Group IV). In the axial loading test, the mean failure loads were:Group I, 98.9+/-32.6;Group II, 108.5+/-27.2;Group III, 50.0+/-7.5;and Group IV, 34.5+/-12.2 (N). Group I fixations failed at a significantly higher load than those of Groups III and IV (p<0.05). In the extension loading test, the mean failure loads were:Group I, 34.0+/-12.4;Group II, 51.0+/-14.8;Group III, 19.3+/-6.0;and Group IV, 14.7+/-3.1 (N). Group IV fixations showed a significantly lower failure load than those of Group I (p<0.05). The fixation rigidities against mechanical loading by the ONI plate and LCP plate were comparable. These results suggested that an ONI system might be superior to the CRP and CS method, and comparable to the LCP method in terms of fixation rigidity for distal humerus fractures.

  4. Is the Mandibular Growth Affected by Internal Rigid Fixation?: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Olarte, Humberto; Gómez-Delgado, Andrés; López-Dávila, Dayan; Rangel-Perdomo, Rodolfo; Lafaurie, Gloria Inés; Chambrone, Leandro

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate, in animal model-based studies, whether there are mandibular growth alterations, after open reduction and internal rigid fixation with titanium plates and screws. A literature search was conducted using the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and LILACS databases, up to and including August 2015. Surgical reduction and internal rigid fixation (IRF) of induced fractures were compared to non-invasive procedures, in order to investigate if there were alterations in the mandibular growth patterns. Of a total of 624 potentially relevant papers identified through the searching process, five were eligible for inclusion. Three studies using 3-month old New Zealand white rabbits induced fractures of mandibular body or symphysis and internal fixation with titanium microplates and screws, whereas two were based on 6-month old goats with condylar fracture. None of the studies showed statistically significant difference between experimental and control groups. As literature regarding this subject is scarce, and the included studies show low level of evidence, it is not possible to conclude that open reduction and internal rigid fixation with titanium plates and screws cause significant growing alteration of the mandible.

  5. Bone transport with an external fixator and a locking plate for segmental tibial defects.

    PubMed

    Oh, C-W; Apivatthakakul, T; Oh, J-K; Kim, J-W; Lee, H-J; Kyung, H-S; Baek, S-G; Jung, G-H

    2013-12-01

    Although gradual bone transport may permit the restoration of large-diameter bones, complications are common owing to the long duration of external fixation. In order to reduce such complications, a new technique of bone transport involving the use of an external fixator and a locking plate was devised for segmental tibial bone defects. A total of ten patients (nine men, one woman) with a mean age at operation of 40.4 years (16 to 64) underwent distraction osteogenesis with a locking plate to treat previously infected post-traumatic segmental tibial defects. The locking plate was fixed percutaneously to bridge proximal and distal segments, and was followed by external fixation. After docking, percutaneous screws were fixed at the transported segment through plate holes. At the same time, bone grafting was performed at the docking site with the external fixator removed. The mean defect size was 5.9 cm (3.8 to 9.3) and mean external fixation index was 13.4 days/cm (11.8 to 19.5). In all cases, primary union of the docking site and distraction callus was achieved, with an excellent bony result. There was no recurrence of deep infection or osteomyelitis, and with the exception of one patient with a pre-existing peroneal nerve injury, all achieved an excellent or good functional result. With short external fixation times and low complication rates, bone transport with a locking plate could be recommended for patients with segmental tibial defects.

  6. Comparisons of front plate, percutaneous sacroiliac screws, and sacroiliac anterior papilionaceous plate in fixation of unstable pelvic fractures.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ronghe; Huang, Weiguo; Yang, Lijing; Liu, Huijiang; Xie, Kegong; Huang, Zonggui

    2017-09-01

    This observational study was aimed at comparing the clinical efficacy of sacroiliac anterior plate fixation (SAPF), sacroiliac anterior papilionaceous plate (SAPP), and percutaneous sacroiliac screw internal fixation (PSCIF) introduced for patients with unstable pelvic fracture. Seventy-eight patients with unstable pelvic fracture (Tile type B or C) were recruited. Twenty-six patients underwent SAPF, 26 underwent SAPP, and 26 underwent PSCIF. Matta scores were calculated to evaluate the reduction of pelvic fractures, and Majeed scores were applied for the assessment of functional recoveries after surgery. Other perioperative clinical indicators were also recorded, including operation time, bleeding status, length of incision, ambulation time, fracture healing time, and incision infection. Total operation time of PSCIF was remarkably shorter than that of SAPF and SAPP (P < .05), and the bleeding volume of SAPF and SAPP group was almost 26∼29 times as high as that of PSCIF group (P < .05). Besides, SAPP resulted in significant blood loss compared with SAPF (P < .05), while SAPF resulted in significantly larger operative incision length than SAPP and PSCIF (P < .05). Moreover, patients' stay time was prolonged in both SAPF and SAPP groups than in the PSCIF group (P < .05). Patients who received PSCIF exhibited significantly higher Matta and Majeed scores than those who received SAPF (all P < .05). Finally, SAPP was associated with fewer complications than SAPF, and complications were barely observed in the PSCIF group. PSCIF may be more appropriate for patients with unstable pelvic fractures in comparison with SAPP and SAPF. Besides, SAPP is likely to be more efficacious than SAPF especially for Tile C patients.

  7. Conversion of external fixation to open reduction and internal fixation for complex distal radius fractures.

    PubMed

    Natoli, R M; Baer, M R; Bednar, M S

    2016-05-01

    Distal radius fractures are common injuries treated in a multitude of ways. One treatment paradigm not extensively studied is initial treatment by external fixation (EF) followed by conversion to open reduction internal fixation (ORIF). Such a paradigm may be beneficial in damage control situations, when there is extensive soft tissue injury, or when appropriate personnel/hospital resources are not available for immediate internal fixation. There is no increased risk of infection when converting EF to ORIF in the treatment of complex distal radius fractures when conversion occurs early or if EF pin sites are overlapped by the definitive fixation. Using an IRB approved protocol, medical records over nine years were queried to identify patients with distal radius fractures that had undergone initial EF and were later converted to ORIF. Charts were reviewed for demographic data, injury characteristics, operative details, time to conversion from EF to ORIF, assessment of whether the EF pin sites overlapped the definitive fixation, presence of infection after ORIF, complications, and occupational therapy measurements of range of motion and strength. In total, 16 patients were identified, only one of which developed an infection following conversion to ORIF. Fisher's exact testing showed that infection did not depend on open fracture, time to conversion of one week or less, presence of EF pin sites overlapping definitive fixation, fracture classification, high energy mechanism of injury, or concomitant injury to the DRUJ. Planned staged conversion from EF to ORIF for complex distal radius fractures does not appear to result in an increased rate of infection if conversion occurs early or if the EF pin sites are overlapped by definitive fixation. This treatment paradigm may be reasonable for treating complex distal radius fractures in damage control situations, when there is extensive soft tissue injury, or when appropriate personnel/hospital resources are not available

  8. Biomechanical Study of the Fixation Strength of Anteromedial Plating for Humeral Shaft Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yin-Feng; Zhou, Jun-Lin; Wang, Xiao-Hong; Shan, Lei; Liu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Open reduction and internal fixation with plate and screws are the gold standard for the surgical treatment of humeral shaft fractures, this study was to compare the mechanical properties of anteromedial, anterolateral, and posterior plating for humeral shaft fractures. Methods: A distal third humeral shaft fracture model was constructed using fourth-generation sawbones (#3404, composite bone). A total of 24 sawbones with a distal third humeral shaft fracture was randomly divided into three Groups: A, B, and C (n = 8 in each group) for anteromedial, anterolateral, and posterior plating, respectively. All sawbones were subjected to horizontal torsional fatigue tests, horizontal torsional and axial compressive fatigue tests, four-point bending fatigue tests in anteroposterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) directions and horizontal torsional destructive tests. Results: In the horizontal torsional fatigue tests, the mean torsional angle amplitude in Groups A, B, and C were 6.12°, 6.53°, and 6.81°. In horizontal torsional and axial compressive fatigue tests, the mean torsional angle amplitude in Groups A, B, and C were 5.66°, 5.67°, and 6.36°. The mean plate displacement amplitude was 0.05 mm, 0.08 mm, and 0.10 mm. Group A was smaller than Group C (P < 0.05). In AP four-point bending fatigue tests, the mean plate displacement amplitude was 0.16 mm, 0.13 mm, and 0.20 mm. Group B was smaller than Group C (P < 0.05). In ML four-point bending fatigue tests, the mean plate displacement amplitude were 0.16 mm, 0.19 mm, and 0.17 mm. In horizontal torsional destructive tests, the mean torsional rigidity in Groups A, B, and C was 0.82, 0.75, and 0.76 N·m/deg. The yielding torsional angle was 24.50°, 25.70°, and 23.86°. The mean yielding torque was 18.46, 18.05, and 16.83 N·m, respectively. Conclusions: Anteromedial plating was superior to anterolateral or posterior plating in all mechanical tests except in AP four-point bending fatigue tests compared to the

  9. Biomechanical Study of the Fixation Strength of Anteromedial Plating for Humeral Shaft Fractures.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yin-Feng; Zhou, Jun-Lin; Wang, Xiao-Hong; Shan, Lei; Liu, Yang

    2016-08-05

    Open reduction and internal fixation with plate and screws are the gold standard for the surgical treatment of humeral shaft fractures, this study was to compare the mechanical properties of anteromedial, anterolateral, and posterior plating for humeral shaft fractures. A distal third humeral shaft fracture model was constructed using fourth-generation sawbones (#3404, composite bone). A total of 24 sawbones with a distal third humeral shaft fracture was randomly divided into three Groups: A, B, and C (n = 8 in each group) for anteromedial, anterolateral, and posterior plating, respectively. All sawbones were subjected to horizontal torsional fatigue tests, horizontal torsional and axial compressive fatigue tests, four-point bending fatigue tests in anteroposterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) directions and horizontal torsional destructive tests. In the horizontal torsional fatigue tests, the mean torsional angle amplitude in Groups A, B, and C were 6.12°, 6.53°, and 6.81°. In horizontal torsional and axial compressive fatigue tests, the mean torsional angle amplitude in Groups A, B, and C were 5.66°, 5.67°, and 6.36°. The mean plate displacement amplitude was 0.05 mm, 0.08 mm, and 0.10 mm. Group A was smaller than Group C (P < 0.05). In AP four-point bending fatigue tests, the mean plate displacement amplitude was 0.16 mm, 0.13 mm, and 0.20 mm. Group B was smaller than Group C (P < 0.05). In ML four-point bending fatigue tests, the mean plate displacement amplitude were 0.16 mm, 0.19 mm, and 0.17 mm. In horizontal torsional destructive tests, the mean torsional rigidity in Groups A, B, and C was 0.82, 0.75, and 0.76 N·m/deg. The yielding torsional angle was 24.50°, 25.70°, and 23.86°. The mean yielding torque was 18.46, 18.05, and 16.83 N·m, respectively. Anteromedial plating was superior to anterolateral or posterior plating in all mechanical tests except in AP four-point bending fatigue tests compared to the anterolateral plating group. We can suggest

  10. Implant Material, Type of Fixation at the Shaft, and Position of Plate Modify Biomechanics of Distal Femur Plate Osteosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Kandemir, Utku; Augat, Peter; Konowalczyk, Stefanie; Wipf, Felix; von Oldenburg, Geert; Schmidt, Ulf

    2017-08-01

    To investigate whether (1) the type of fixation at the shaft (hybrid vs. locking), (2) the position of the plate (offset vs. contact) and (3) the implant material has a significant effect on (a) construct stiffness and (b) fatigue life in a distal femur extraarticular comminuted fracture model using the same design of distal femur periarticular locking plate. An extraarticular severely comminuted distal femoral fracture pattern (OTA/AO 33-A3) was simulated using artificial bone substitutes. Ten-hole distal lateral femur locking plates were used for fixation per the recommended surgical technique. At the distal metaphyseal fragment, all possible locking screws were placed. For the proximal diaphyseal fragment, different types of screws were used to create 4 different fixation constructs: (1) stainless steel hybrid (SSH), (2) stainless steel locked (SSL), (3) titanium locked (TiL), and (4) stainless steel locked with 5-mm offset at the diaphysis (SSLO). Six specimens of each construct configuration were tested. First, each specimen was nondestructively loaded axially to determine the stiffness. Then, each specimen was cyclically loaded with increasing load levels until failure. Construct Stiffness: The fixation construct with a stainless steel plate and hybrid fixation (SSH) had the highest stiffness followed by the construct with a stainless steel plate and locking screws (SSL) and were not statistically different from each other. Offset placement (SSLO) and using a titanium implant (TiL) significantly reduced construct stiffness. Fatigue Failure: The stainless steel with hybrid fixation group (SSH) withstood the most number of cycles to failure and higher loads, followed by the stainless steel plate and locking screw group (SSL), stainless steel plate with locking screws and offset group (SSLO), and the titanium plate and locking screws group (TiL) consecutively. Offset placement (SSLO) as well as using a titanium implant (TiL) reduced cycles to failure. Using the

  11. A survey of current practices and preferences for internal fixation of displaced olecranon fractures.

    PubMed

    Wood, Thomas; Thomas, Katie; Farrokhyar, Forough; Ristevski, Bill; Bhandari, Mohit; Petrisor, Bradley

    2015-08-01

    Olecranon fractures represent 10% of upper extremity fractures. There is a growing body of literature to support the use of plate fixation for displaced olecranon fractures. The purpose of this survey was to gauge Canadian surgeons' practices and preferences for internal fixation methods for displaced olecranon fractures. Using an online survey tool, we administered a cross-sectional survey to examine current practice for fixation of displaced olecranon fractures. We received 256 completed surveys for a response rate of 31% (95% confidence interval [CI] 30.5-37.5%). The preferred treatment was tension band wiring (78.5%, 95% CI 73-83%) for simple displaced olecranon fractures (Mayo IIA) and plating (81%, 95% CI 75.5-85%) for displaced comminuted olecranon fractures (Mayo IIB). Fracture morphology with a mean impact of 3.31 (95% CI 3.17-3.45) and comminution with a mean impact of 3.34 (95% CI 3.21-3.46) were the 2 factors influencing surgeons' choice of fixation method the most. The major deterrent to using tension band wiring for displaced comminuted fractures (Mayo IIB) was increased stability obtained with other methods described by 75% (95% CI 69-80%) of respondents. The major deterrent for using plating constructs for simple displaced fractures (Mayo IIA) was better outcomes with other methods. Hardware prominence was the most commonly perceived complication using either method of fixation: 77% (95% CI 71.4-81.7%) and 76.2% (95% CI 70.6-81.0%) for tension band wiring and plating, respectively. Divergence exists with current literature and surgeon preference for fixation of displaced olecranon fractures.

  12. A survey of current practices and preferences for internal fixation of displaced olecranon fractures

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Thomas; Thomas, Katie; Farrokhyar, Forough; Ristevski, Bill; Bhandari, Mohit; Petrisor, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    Background Olecranon fractures represent 10% of upper extremity fractures. There is a growing body of literature to support the use of plate fixation for displaced olecranon fractures. The purpose of this survey was to gauge Canadian surgeons’ practices and preferences for internal fixation methods for displaced olecranon fractures. Methods Using an online survey tool, we administered a cross-sectional survey to examine current practice for fixation of displaced olecranon fractures. Results We received 256 completed surveys for a response rate of 31% (95% confidence interval [CI] 30.5–37.5%). The preferred treatment was tension band wiring (78.5%, 95% CI 73–83%) for simple displaced olecranon fractures (Mayo IIA) and plating (81%, 95% CI 75.5–85%) for displaced comminuted olecranon fractures (Mayo IIB). Fracture morphology with a mean impact of 3.31 (95% CI 3.17–3.45) and comminution with a mean impact of 3.34 (95% CI 3.21–3.46) were the 2 factors influencing surgeons’ choice of fixation method the most. The major deterrent to using tension band wiring for displaced comminuted fractures (Mayo IIB) was increased stability obtained with other methods described by 75% (95% CI 69–80%) of respondents. The major deterrent for using plating constructs for simple displaced fractures (Mayo IIA) was better outcomes with other methods. Hardware prominence was the most commonly perceived complication using either method of fixation: 77% (95% CI 71.4–81.7%) and 76.2% (95% CI 70.6–81.0%) for tension band wiring and plating, respectively. Conclusion Divergence exists with current literature and surgeon preference for fixation of displaced olecranon fractures. PMID:26204363

  13. CAD-CAM plates versus conventional fixation plates for primary mandibular reconstruction: A biomechanical in vitro analysis.

    PubMed

    Rendenbach, Carsten; Sellenschloh, Kay; Gerbig, Lucca; Morlock, Michael M; Beck-Broichsitter, Benedicta; Smeets, Ralf; Heiland, Max; Huber, Gerd; Hanken, Henning

    2017-09-01

    CAD/CAM reconstruction plates have become a viable option for mandible reconstruction. The aim of this study was to determine whether CAD/CAM plates provide higher fatigue strength compared with conventional fixation systems. 1.0 mm miniplates, 2.0 mm conventional locking plates (DePuy Synthes, Umkirch, Germany), and 2.0 mm CAD/CAM plates (Materialise, Leuven, Belgium/DePuy Synthes) were used to reconstruct a polyurethane mandible model (Synbone, Malans, CH) with cortical and cancellous bone equivalents. Mastication was simulated via cyclic dynamic testing using a universal testing machine (MTS, Bionix, Eden Prairie, MN, USA) until material failure reached a rate of 1 Hz with increasing loads on the left side. No significant difference was found between the groups until a load of 300 N. At higher loads, vertical displacement differed increasingly, with a poorer performance of miniplates (p = 0.04). Plate breakage occurred in miniplates and conventional locking plates. Screw breakage was recorded as the primary failure mechanism in CAD/CAM plates. Stiffness was significantly higher with the CAD/CAM plates (p = 0.04). CAD/CAM plates and reconstruction plates provide higher fatigue strength than miniplates, and stiffness is highest in CAD/CAM systems. All tested fixation methods seem sufficiently stable for mandible reconstruction. Copyright © 2017 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Static and Dynamic Differences in Fixation Stability between a Spacer Plate and a Small Stature Plate Fixator Used for High Tibial Osteotomies: A Biomechanical Bone Composite Study

    PubMed Central

    Maas, Stefan; Dueck, Klaus; Pape, Dietrich

    2013-01-01

    Background. The objective of the present study was to compare mechanical strength and stability of the newly designed spacer plate with the gold standard plate for the treatment of medial knee joint osteoarthritis. Materials and Methods. Ten fourth-generation tibial bone composites underwent a medial open-wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) according to standard techniques, using five TomoFix plates and five Contour Lock plates. Static compression load to failure and load-controlled cyclical fatigue failure tests were performed. Forces and horizontal displacements were measured; plastic deformations and dynamic stiffness were determined. Results and Discussion. In all samples, rotation of the tibial head and fracture of the opposite cortex were observed. Behaviors of the specimens under static loading were comparable between groups. Cyclic testing revealed lateral significant higher stiffness until failure for the Contour Lock compared to the TomoFix plate. No visible implant failure was observed in any group. Conclusion. Considering the static analysis, both plates offered sufficient stability under physiologic loads of up to 3000 N. The Contour Lock plate-fixated specimens showed a higher stability during the cyclic testing, supposedly due to the wider distance between the fixation screws. PMID:24959357

  15. Complications and range of motion following plate fixation of metacarpal and phalangeal fractures.

    PubMed

    Page, S M; Stern, P J

    1998-09-01

    Eighty-two patients with 105 metacarpal and/or phalangeal fractures stabilized with plates were retrospectively reviewed to assess complications and outcomes. Despite stable fixation and early mobilization, major complications were encountered in 36% of fractures, especially with phalangeal and open fractures. Complications included stiffness, nonunion, plate prominence, infection, and tendon rupture. Forty-eight of 63 (76%) metacarpal fractures and 44 of 66 (67%) closed fractures had a final range of motion greater than 220 degrees; however, only 4 of 37 (11%) phalangeal fractures and 8 of 34 (24%) open fractures achieved this outcome. Despite technical advances in plate design and instrumentation, including lower-profile titanium plates, complications occur commonly with metacarpal and phalangeal fractures, leading to a high incidence of unsatisfactory results. We do not condemn plate fixation, and attribute many of our unsatisfactory results to the frequent use of plates in open and phalangeal fractures.

  16. Design and Optimization of Resorbable Silk Internal Fixation Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Dylan S.

    Limitations of current material options for internal fracture fixation devices have resulted in a large gap between user needs and hardware function. Metal systems offer robust mechanical strength and ease of implantation but require secondary surgery for removal and/or result in long-term complications (infection, palpability, sensitivity, etc.). Current resorbable devices eliminate the need for second surgery and long-term complications but are still associated with negative host response as well as limited functionality and more difficult implantation. There is a definitive need for orthopedic hardware that is mechanically capable of immediate fracture stabilization and fracture fixation during healing, can safely biodegrade while allowing complete bone remodeling, can be resterilized for reuse, and is easily implantable (self-tapping). Previous work investigated the use of silk protein to produce resorbable orthopedic hardware for non- load bearing fracture fixation. In this study, silk orthopedic hardware was further investigated and optimized in order to better understand the ability of silk as a fracture fixation system and more closely meet the unfulfilled market needs. Solvent-based and aqueous-based silk processing formulations were cross-linked with methanol to induce beta sheet structure, dried, autoclaved and then machined to the desired device/geometry. Silk hardware was evaluated for dry, hydrated and fatigued (cyclic) mechanical properties, in vitro degradation, resterilization, functionalization with osteoinductive molecules and implantation technique for fracture fixation. Mechanical strength showed minor improvements from previous results, but remains comparable to current resorbable fixation systems with the advantages of self-tapping ability for ease of implantation, full degradation in 10 months, ability to be resterilized and reused, and ability to release molecules for osteoinudction. In vivo assessment confirmed biocompatibility, showed

  17. A Novel Computer-Aided Approach for Parametric Investigation of Custom Design of Fracture Fixation Plates

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The present study proposes an integrated computer-aided approach combining femur surface modeling, fracture evidence recover plate creation, and plate modification in order to conduct a parametric investigation of the design of custom plate for a specific patient. The study allows for improving the design efficiency of specific plates on the patients' femur parameters and the fracture information. Furthermore, the present approach will lead to exploration of plate modification and optimization. The three-dimensional (3D) surface model of a detailed femur and the corresponding fixation plate were represented with high-level feature parameters, and the shape of the specific plate was recursively modified in order to obtain the optimal plate for a specific patient. The proposed approach was tested and verified on a case study, and it could be helpful for orthopedic surgeons to design and modify the plate in order to fit the specific femur anatomy and the fracture information. PMID:28203270

  18. A Novel Computer-Aided Approach for Parametric Investigation of Custom Design of Fracture Fixation Plates.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaozhong; He, Kunjin; Chen, Zhengming

    2017-01-01

    The present study proposes an integrated computer-aided approach combining femur surface modeling, fracture evidence recover plate creation, and plate modification in order to conduct a parametric investigation of the design of custom plate for a specific patient. The study allows for improving the design efficiency of specific plates on the patients' femur parameters and the fracture information. Furthermore, the present approach will lead to exploration of plate modification and optimization. The three-dimensional (3D) surface model of a detailed femur and the corresponding fixation plate were represented with high-level feature parameters, and the shape of the specific plate was recursively modified in order to obtain the optimal plate for a specific patient. The proposed approach was tested and verified on a case study, and it could be helpful for orthopedic surgeons to design and modify the plate in order to fit the specific femur anatomy and the fracture information.

  19. Biomechanical optimization of bone plates used in rigid fixation of mandibular symphysis fractures.

    PubMed

    Lovald, Scott; Baack, Bret; Gaball, Curtis; Olson, Garth; Hoard, Anna

    2010-08-01

    To design and optimize a bone plate for fractures of the mandibular symphysis that will provide maximum fracture stability with minimal implanted volume and patient intrusion. The design will be driven by the unique biomechanics specific to this fracture location. A finite element model of a fractured human mandible was created using computed tomography scans. The boundary conditions included simulating molar, canine, and incisal loading. The bone plate design process included a shape optimization routine and design parameter analysis using the model. The optimized bone plate design was finally compared with standard bone plate configurations according to stress and strain measures. Compared with the miniplate combination, the InterFlex III plate, with the same thickness and just 14% more implanted volume, had only 55% of the plate stress and 25% less fracture strain under the strongest loads considered by the model. Compared with the band/fracture plate combination, the InterFlex plate had 88% of the fracture strain and 74% of the plate stress, despite having only 60% of the plate volume. The results have demonstrated that the new optimized plate is a hybrid of fixation hardware with the small profile of the smallest miniplate configuration and the superior fixation strength and safety that exceeds that of the larger fracture plate configuration. Copyright 2010 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. All rights reserved.

  20. Vertical shear fractures of the medial malleolus: a biomechanical study of five internal fixation techniques.

    PubMed

    Toolan, B C; Koval, K J; Kummer, F J; Sanders, R; Zuckerman, J D

    1994-09-01

    Fifty embalmed human tibias were osteotomized to create a simulated vertical shear (supination-adduction) fracture of the medial malleolus and were stabilized using one of five internal fixation techniques. In offset axial testing, which simulated supination-adduction loading, the fixation strength of tibias stabilized with either cortical or cancellous lag screws placed perpendicular to the osteotomy was over five times greater than the strength of those treated with an antiglide plate and nearly two and a half times greater than those treated with cancellous lag screws placed oblique to the osteotomy. The tibias stabilized with cancellous lag screws placed perpendicular to the osteotomy exhibited twice the fixation strength of the tibias stabilized with an antiglide plate and distal lag screw. The tibias stabilized with an antiglide plate and distal lag screw and perpendicularly placed cortical or cancellous lag screws demonstrated three times greater resistance to displacement to the applied supination-adduction load than those stabilized with an antiglide plate alone. In offset transverse testing, to simulate loading in external rotation, the mean failure load of the tibias stabilized with cancellous lag screws placed perpendicular to the osteotomy was over two and a half times greater than those stabilized with an antiglide plate and distal lag screw. No significant differences were observed in the resistance to displacement for these tests. These results support the use of lag screws placed perpendicular to the fracture surface for stabilization of vertical shear fractures of the medial malleolus and indicate that the use of an antiglide plate, with or without a distal lag screw, does not offer any advantage over lag screw fixation.

  1. Incidence of Hardware Removal Following Volar Plate Fixation of Distal Radius Fracture.

    PubMed

    Lutsky, Kevin F; Beredjiklian, Pedro K; Hioe, Stephen; Bilello, Justin; Kim, Nayoung; Matzon, Jonas L

    2015-12-01

    To assess the risk of tendon rupture or plate removal after volar plate fixation of distal radius fractures and to determine the incidence of hardware removal. We searched the surgical database of 5 attending hand surgeons at a single institution from 2009 to 2014. All patients who had undergone volar plate fixation were included. Patients were excluded if they underwent an alternate form of fixation, had less than 1 year of follow-up, or could not be reached for follow-up. Postoperative radiographs were examined for Soong grade, plate distance to the critical line, and plate distance to the volar rim. If patients had hardware removed, the reason for plate removal was identified. For all patients who did not have documented hardware removal at our institution, we placed a follow-up call to determine whether they had hardware removed elsewhere. A total of 517 patients underwent volar plate fixation, 143 of whom did not have their hardware removed at our institution but could not be reached for follow-up. Of the remaining 374 patients, 37 (10%) had hardware removed. For group 1 (hardware retained), Soong grades were 13% grade 0, 85% grade 1, and 2% grade 2. For group 2 (hardware removed) the proportions were 11%, 76%, and 5%, respectively, and 8% undetermined. Mean plate distance to the critical line was significantly greater for group 2 (1.9 mm) compared with group 1 (1.2 mm). Mean plate distance to the volar rim did not differ (5.1 mm vs 5.3 mm). The incidence of hardware removal in our series was 10%. The vast majority of patients had Soong grade 1 prominence. Patients who had hardware removed had a greater plate prominence volar to the critical line. Plate distance to the volar rim was not associated with removal. Prognostic II. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Treatment of tibial plateau fractures by limited internal fixation.

    PubMed

    Duwelius, P J; Rangitsch, M R; Colville, M R; Woll, T S

    1997-06-01

    Seventy-five adults who sustained 76 tibial plateau fractures were treated according to a prospective protocol using instability in extension as the principal indication for operative fixation. Patients showing instability underwent closed manipulative reduction under fluoroscopic guidance. If significant joint depression persisted after reduction, elevation of the fracture was performed either from below using bone punches through a cortical window or via limited arthrotomy. Iliac crest bone graft was used to buttress depressed fractures. Fixation was then secured using 7-mm cannulated screws with washers or buttress plates and screws. Postoperatively, 58 of 76 knees were managed in a hinged knee brace, allowing the patient early range of motion and protected weightbearing for 8 weeks. Patients who were found to have a stable knee were treated with Bledsoe braces according to the postoperative protocol. In the 75 patients, 18 of the 76 knees were unsuitable for percutaneous screw fixation because of fracture complexity requiring plates, severe open injuries, or inadequate reductions with limited fixation had been done. A minimum followup of 12 months was obtained in 55 patients (range, 12-59 months). All fractures had healed at the time of followup. Eighty-seven percent of the patients at followup had a successful outcome using Rasmussen's criteria. Fourteen of these patients had arthroscopic assisted reduction or evaluation. All seven patients who had poor outcomes had AO Type C3 fracture patterns. Severely depressed or comminuted fractures or fractures with significant metaphyseal diaphyseal extension may not be suitable for this technique and require the addition of an external fixation device or buttress plate to maintain the reduction and allow for early range of motion.

  3. Odontoid plate fixation without C1-C2 arthrodesis: biomechanical testing of a novel surgical technique and comparison to the conventional screw fixation procedure.

    PubMed

    Platzer, Patrick; Eipeldauer, Stefan; Vécsei, Vilmos

    2010-08-01

    Odontoid plate fixation without C1-C2 arthrodesis appears to be a practicable option for the management of odontoid fractures that are not amenable for conventional screw fixation. The purpose of this study was to measure the mechanical stability of odontoid plate fixation using a specially designed plate construct, and to compare the results to those after conventional screw fixation. The second cervical vertebra was removed from twenty fresh human spinal columns. Stiffness and failure load of the intact odontoid were measured, and type II odontoid fractures were created. Afterward, the specimens were randomly assigned to one of the following four groups: Group I: plate-fixation; Group II: 2-AO-screw-fixation; Group III: 1-AO-screw-fixation; Group IV: Herbert-screw-fixation. In a second series, stiffness and failure load of the stabilized odontoid fractures were assessed for comparison and statistical analysis. Group I showed a significantly higher mean failure load than the other groups. The mean failure load of Group I after fixation of the odontoid fracture was 86% of the mean failure load of the intact odontoid. Comparing Groups II, III and IV, there was no significant difference regarding the failure load. In these three groups the mean failure load after odontoid fixation was approximately 50% of the mean failure load of the intact odontoid. Odontoid plate fixation as an alternative procedure in certain fracture patterns provided a significantly higher biomechanical stability than the technique of odontoid screw fixation. Using a specially designed plate construct, 86% of the original stability of the intact odontoid was restored. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of complication rates of intramedullary pin fixation versus plating of midshaft clavicle fractures in an active duty military population.

    PubMed

    Wenninger, Jerome J; Dannenbaum, Joseph H; Branstetter, Joanna G; Arrington, Edward D

    2013-01-01

    Military service members have increased requirements of shoulder weight bearing to perform duties. Operative intervention has increased for treatment of displaced middle one-third clavicle fractures. Complications of operatively treated clavicle fixation have not been extensively studied. A retrospective, longitudinal cohort chart evaluation was conducted of all active duty members undergoing fixation of middle one-third clavicle fractures, for complications between intramedullary pin fixation and plate constructs. This review found 62 patients meeting inclusion criteria. Thirty-three patients underwent intramedullary pin fixation with Hagie pins and 31 patients underwent precontoured superior clavicle plate fixation of their middle one-third clavicle fractures. Complications included wound infection, skin and/or soft tissue irritation, and need for unplanned hardware removal. The overall complication rate was 31% in the plate fixation group versus 9% in the intramedullary pin group (p = .024). All patients achieved fracture union with return to duty; however, increased overall complications were seen in the plate fixation group.

  5. Percutaneous K-wire fixation versus palmar plating with locking screws for Colles' fractures.

    PubMed

    Hollevoet, Nadine; Vanhoutie, Tom; Vanhove, Wim; Verdonk, René

    2011-04-01

    Different methods exist to treat distal radius fractures. A prospective randomized study was conducted to establish whether palmar plate fixation with locking screws gave better results than percutaneous K-wire fixation in patients over 50 years of age. Only fractures with dorsal displacement after a simple fall were included in the study. Twenty wrists were treated with K-wires and 20 with a plate. Radiological parameters were measured on preoperative radiographs and at five weeks postoperatively. Clinical results and DASH scores were determined at three months postoperatively and at more than one year. No significant difference in radial inclination, palmar tilt, clinical outcome and DASH score was found between plating and K-wires, but the mean difference in ulnar variance between pre- and postoperative radiographs was significantly better with plates. It can be concluded that plates were superior to K-wires in restoring ulnar variance, but functional outcome was similar with both techniques.

  6. Pathophysiology of infections after internal fixation of fractures.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, A H; Swiontkowski, M F

    2000-01-01

    Infection complicating internal fixation of fractures is a serious complication that is difficult to treat. Whenever metallic devices are implanted in vivo, successful biointegration requires that host cells colonize the highly reactive implant surface. Bacteria such as staphylococci can also become adherent to metallic or polymeric implants and will compete with host cells for colonization of the implant surface. Once adherent, these bacteria form a biofilm and undergo phenotypic changes that make them resistant to the normal host immune response as well as to antibiotics. Furthermore, metallic implants themselves cause specific deficits in the function of the local immune system that may render the host response to infection inadequate. Any associated soft-tissue injury causes even greater impairment of local immune function. Despite the potentially detrimental impact of internal fixation, fracture stability is of paramount importance in achieving fracture union and in preventing infection. It has been demonstrated in animal models that contaminated fractures without internal fixation develop clinical infection more commonly than similar fractures treated with internal fixation at the time of colonization. Because of the potential for infection whenever internal fixation is utilized, appropriate prophylactic antibiotic coverage for staphylococci and Gram-negative organisms should be provided. Open wounds and severely damaged soft tissues require aggressive management so that a viable soft-tissue envelope is maintained around the implant. Host factors such as smoking and malnourishment should be corrected. Early diagnosis and aggressive treatment of implant-related infection with antibiotics, debridement, and maintenance of stable internal fixation are essential to successful treatment.

  7. [Complications of open reduction and internal fixation versus external fixation for unstable distal radius fractures: a meta-analysis].

    PubMed

    Yang, Z; Yuan, Z Z; Ma, J X; Ma, X L

    2016-12-20

    Objective: To make a systematic assessment of the complications of open reduction and internal fixation versus external fixation for unstable distal radius fractures. Method: A computer-based online search of PubMed, ScienceDirect, EMBASE, BIOSIS, Springer and Cochrane Library were performed.The randomized and controlled trials of open reduction and internal fixation versus external fixation for unstable distal radius fractures were collected.The included trials were screened out strictly based on the criterion of inclusion and exclusion.The quality of included trials was evaluated.RevMan 5.0 was used for data analysis. Result: A total of 17 studies involving 1 402 patients were included.There were 687 patients with open reduction and internal fixation and 715 with external fixation.The results of Meta-analysis indicated that there were statistically significant differences with regard to the postoperatively total complications, infection, malunion, tendon rupture (I(2)=8%, RR=0.77(95%CI 0.65-0.91, Z=3.10, P<0.05). There were no statistically significant differences observed between two approaches with respect to nounion, re-operation, complex regional pain syndrome, carpal tunnel syndrome, neurapraxia, tendonitis, painful hardware, scar(P>0.05). Conclusion: Postoperative complications are present in both open reduction and internal fixation and external fixation.Compared with external fixation, open reduction and internal fixation is lower in total complications postoperatively, infection and malunion, but external fixation has lower tendon rupture incidence.

  8. Multiplanar Fixation for Patella Fractures Using a Low-Profile Mesh Plate.

    PubMed

    Lorich, Dean G; Warner, Stephen J; Schottel, Patrick C; Shaffer, Andre D; Lazaro, Lionel E; Helfet, David L

    2015-12-01

    Patella fractures are challenging orthopaedic injuries. Many commonly used fixation techniques can be ineffective and lead to poor clinical outcomes even with satisfactory reductions and fracture healing. In this investigation, we present the technique of cage plate fixation of patella fractures and the clinical outcomes of 9 initial patients surgically treated at our institution. This technique allows direct visualization of the articular reduction, provides multiplanar fixation, effectively stabilizes inferior pole comminution, and reduces the risk of patella vascular disruption. Using this technique, we have achieved excellent functional and radiographic outcomes.

  9. Zygomatic complex fracture: A comparative evaluation of stability using titanium and bio-resorbable plates as one point fixation

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Nalini; Goyal, Manoj; Mishra, Brijesh; Dhasmana, Satish

    2013-01-01

    Background: The malar bone represents a strong bone on fragile support and its processes - frontal, orbital, maxillary and zygomatic are frequently the site of fracture. Current study was done to compare the stability of zygomatic complex fracture using Biodegradable plates and titanium miniplates with one point fixation. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients of zygomatic complex fracture were randomly selected and divided in two groups which were further divided into two subgroups (A, B). Group I patients were treated with titanium miniplate at zygomatic buttress and Group II was treated by bio-resorbable plates. One point fixation was done either at zygomatic buttress or at frontozygomatic suture and it was observed that both the site have been the most favored site of rigid internal fixation in terms of stability, aesthetics and prevention of rotation of the fracture segment in either vertical or horizontal axis. Conclusion: There is no significant difference in post operative outcomes between two groups, but still bioresorbable system has some advantage over titanium system as these plates resorbs over a period of time and does not cause any interference with growth and post operative radiotherapy. However application of biodegradable system demands highly précised technique. PMID:24665173

  10. Intra-articular scapular fractures: Outcomes after internal fixation

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Sarah; Argintar, Evan; Jahn, Ryan; Zusmanovich, Mike; Itamura, John; Rick Hatch, George F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although operative treatment may offer an appropriate management option for displaced glenoid fractures, there is sparse research assessing post-operative functional outcomes. This study assessed functional outcomes of patients after undergoing open reduction and internal fixation of displaced glenoid fractures. Methods Fifteen patients were treated with open reduction and internal fixation for displaced intra-articular fractures between 2005 and 2010. The indication for operative fixation was intra-articular displacement >4 mm. Post-operative functional outcomes were assessed via retrospective chart review. Evaluation included review of pre-operative imaging for fracture type, review of post-operative plain radiographs for fracture healing, Disabilities of the Arm Shoulder and Hand (DASH) and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeon Assessment (ASES) scores at last follow-up. Results At a mean follow-up of 49 months (24–87 months) all patients had radiographic healing. The mean DASH score was 10 (range 0.83–29.17). Mean ASES score was 90 (range 41.7–100). No patients had evidence of hardware failure or infection. Conclusions Open reduction and internal fixation of displaced intra-articular glenoid fractures results in stable fixation and is associated with good functional outcome. Level of evidence Level IV. Case series. PMID:24396240

  11. Radiographic Comparison of Four Anterior Fusion Methods in Two Level Cervical Disc Diseases : Autograft Plate Fixation versus Cage Plate Fixation versus Stand-Alone Cage Fusion versus Corpectomy and Plate Fixation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Ki; Jeon, Kwang-Mo; Kim, Tae-Sung

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate radiographic results of anterior fusion methods in two-level cervical disc disease : tricortical autograft and plate fixation (ACDF-AP), cage and plate fixation (ACDF-CP), stand-alone cage (ACDF-CA), and corpectomy and plate fixation (ACCF). Methods The numbers of patients were 70 with a minimum 6 month follow-up (ACDF-AP : 12, ACDF-CP : 27, ACDF-CA : 15, and ACCF : 16). Dynamic simple X-ray and computed tomography were evaluated preoperatively, postoperatively, 6 month, and at the final follow-up. The fusion and subsidence rates at the final were determined, and global cervical lordosis (GCL), cervical range of motion, fused segment angle (FSA), and fused segment height (FSH) were analyzed. Results Nonunion was observed in 4 (25%) patients with ACDF-CA, 1 (8%) patient with ACDF-AP, 1 (4%) patient with ACDF-CP. The number of loss of FSH (%) more than 3 mm were 2 patients (16%) in ACDF-AP, 3 patients (11%) in ACDF-CP, 5 patients (33%) in ACDF-CA, and 3 patients (20%) in ACCF. The GCL was decreased with ACDF-CA and increased with others. The FSA was increased with ACDF-AP, ACDF-CP, and ACCF, but ACDF-CA was decreased. At the final follow-up, the FSH was slightly decreased in ACDF-CP, ACDF-AP, and ACCF, but ACDF-CA was more decreased. Graft related complication were minimal. Screw loosening, plate fracture, cage subsidence and migration were not identified. Conclusion ACDF-CP demonstrated a higher fusion rate and less minimal FSH loss than the other fusions in two-level cervical disc disease. The ACDF-AP and ACCF methods had a better outcome than the ACDF-CA with respect to GCL, FSA, and FSH. PMID:22639708

  12. Volar plate position and flexor tendon rupture following distal radius fracture fixation.

    PubMed

    Kitay, Alison; Swanstrom, Morgan; Schreiber, Joseph J; Carlson, Michelle G; Nguyen, Joseph T; Weiland, Andrew J; Daluiski, Aaron

    2013-06-01

    To determine whether there were differences between plate position in patients who had postoperative flexor tendon ruptures following volar plate fixation of distal radius fractures and those who did not. Three blinded reviewers measured the volar plate prominence and position on the lateral radiographs of 8 patients treated for flexor tendon ruptures and 17 matched control patients without ruptures following distal radius fracture fixation. We graded plate prominence using the Soong grading system, and we measured the distances between the plate and both the volar critical line and the volar rim of the distal radius. A higher Soong grade was associated with flexor tendon rupture. Patients with ruptures had plates that were more prominent volarly and more distal than matched controls without ruptures. Plate prominence projecting greater than 2.0 mm volar to the critical line had a sensitivity of 0.88, a specificity of 0.82, and positive and negative predictive values of 0.70 and 0.93, respectively, for tendon ruptures. Plate position distal to 3.0 mm from the volar rim had a sensitivity of 0.88, a specificity of 0.94, and positive and negative predictive values of 0.88 and 0.94, respectively, for tendon ruptures. We identified plate positions associated with attritional flexor tendon rupture following distal radius fracture fixation with volar plates. To decrease rupture risk, we recommend considering elective hardware removal after union in symptomatic patients with plate prominence greater than 2.0 mm volar to the critical line or plate position within 3.0 mm of the volar rim. Therapeutic III. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Stress-riser fractures of the hip after sliding screw plate fixation.

    PubMed

    DiMaio, F R; Haher, T R; Splain, S H; Mani, V J

    1992-10-01

    Fractures occurring after fixation of intertrochanteric femur fractures have been described previously in the literature. Terms such as "stress-riser fracture" and "Young's modulus fracture" have been applied. The prevalence of these fracture types has increased, and so has use of the sliding screw plate device for fixation of intertrochanteric hip fractures. The object of this paper is to describe, by case examples, types of stress-related fractures of the proximal femur in association with the sliding screw plate and to define each biomechanical type in review.

  14. Fixator-assisted tibial lengthening over a plate in a patient with sequelae of poliomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Tosun, Haci Bayram; Serbest, Sancar; Uludag, Abuzer; Gumustas, Seyitali; Celik, Suat

    2016-11-01

    There are many techniques for limb lengthening. Lengthening over a plate is an alternative choice of fixation in children or when nailing is difficult. We present a new technique for tibial lengthening with using a monolateral external fixator over a lengthening plate.Lengthening over an intramedullary nail is a commonly used method in patients with short stature or limb-length discrepancy. However, in patients with a narrow and excessively sclerotic intramedullary cavity in the pediatric age group where the skeletal system has not yet fully developed, difficulties have been observed in lengthening methods with nailing.Therefore, in these cases, the use of lengthening techniques over a plate is an alternative treatment option. Nevertheless, in lengthening techniques over a plate, if one side of the osteotomy area cannot be fixed, associated mechanical axis problems have been reported.We applied tibia lengthening with external fixator assistance over a custom-made lengthening plate in a patient with sequelae of poliomyelitis. This new lengthening technique applied over a plate could be the solution to the problems observed in other lengthening techniques over a plate.

  15. A biomechanical comparison of short segment long bone fracture fixation techniques: single large fragment plate versus 2 small fragment plates.

    PubMed

    Watts, Adriel; Weinhold, Paul; Kesler, William; Dahners, Laurence

    2012-09-01

    To determine whether using 2 small fragment plates (3.5 mm screw size) side by side is biomechanically superior to the use of 1 large fragment plate (4.5 mm screw size), in the fixation of "short segments" in long bone fractures. Fiber-filled epoxy bone surrogates were plated across 1-cm gaps with 3 different constructs. Six surrogates were fixed using 2 side-by-side 3.5-mm waisted compression plates and six 3.5-mm screws, 6 surrogates were fixed using one 4.5-mm waisted compression plate and two 4.5-mm screws, and 6 surrogates were fixed using one 3.5-mm waisted compression plate and three 3.5-mm screws. These constructs then underwent cyclic axial compression in 100-N increments until 500 N was reached. Then, they underwent cyclic cantilever bending at 2 Hz and at a 23.6 N·m moment until fatigue failure occurred. Also, a single load to failure test was performed in cantilever bending to evaluate plate strength. The cumulative gap length change after 500 cycles of loading up to 500 N was 3.4% ± 0.4% for the 3.5 mm double plate construct, 9.5% ± 1.4% for the 4.5 mm single plate construct, and 14.4% ± 0.9% for the 3.5 mm single plate construct. In cantilever bending, the 3.5 mm double plate construct failed after 15,345 ± 2493 cycles, the 4.5 mm single plate construct failed after 2713 ± 1811 cycles, and the 3.5 mm single plate construct failed in its first cycle. In single load to failure testing, the load at offset yield was higher in the 3.5 mm double plate construct than the 4.5 mm single plate construct. This study suggests that in situations where anatomy or other limitations limit the length of bone segments available for fixation, it may be preferable to use 2 small plates with more screws rather than 1 large plate with few screws.

  16. Does lengthening and then plating (LAP) shorten duration of external fixation?

    PubMed

    Harbacheuski, Ryhor; Fragomen, Austin T; Rozbruch, S Robert

    2012-06-01

    Classic bone lengthening requires patients wear external fixation for the distraction and consolidation phases and there is fracture risk after frame removal. Our technique of lengthening with the Taylor Spatial Frame(TM) and then insertion of a locked plate allows earlier removal of the external fixator during consolidation. Plate insertion is accomplished through a clean pin-free zone avoiding contamination and before frame removal maintaining bone position. We asked (1) whether lengthening and then plating (LAP) decrease the time for external fixation (2) how alignment and complications compare with those of the classic method. We performed a retrospective case-matched comparison between LAP and the classic technique with 27 extremities in each group. We compared time wearing the frame, bone healing index, external fixation index, joint ROM, alignment, and complications. The time wearing the frame and external fixation index were lower in the LAP group (4.5 versus 6.2 months and 1.5 versus 2 months/cm). Deviation from normal alignment was observed in seven and six patients in the LAP and classic group, respectively. Varus malalignment in two patients in the LAP group was associated with plate breakage. The incidence of pin-tract infection was greater in the classic group (12 versus two). No deep infections occurred in the LAP group. The LAP technique shortened the time patients wore the external fixator but was associated with a high incidence of varus deformity. Stronger plates may help prevent deformity and allow earlier removal of the frame. Level III, therapeutic study (retrospective study). See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  17. Analysis of gene expression profiles in healing rat fractures treated with nail and plate fixation.

    PubMed

    Wang, S D; Li, X L; Liu, H P

    2014-10-20

    To compare fracture healing therapies, the gene expression profiles of rat fracture samples treated with nail and plate fixation were analyzed at 1 day, 3 days, 1 week, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, and 6 weeks after surgery. The gene expression profiles GSE1685, which include 19 samples, were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. After preprocessing, the gene expression profiles were subjected to time series analysis using the Short Time-series Expression Miner software, and the significantly differentially expressed gene (DEG) sets were selected. Further, the distributions of those DEG sets on the corresponding chromosomes were identified using the functional classification tool. Finally, the DEGs were subjected to function and pathway enrichment analysis. DEG analysis indicated that the number of DEGs (854 genes) from nail fixation was significantly lower than that of DEGs (1029 genes) from plate fixation. The DEGs were mainly enriched in cell proliferation, cellular localization, and response to wounding functions. Several critical DEGs expressed during the fracture healing process were screened, and 2 common pathways were enriched for the DEGs in the nail fixation and plate fixation. These DEGs and pathways may be potential targets or predictive markers during fracture healing.

  18. Treatment of malar and midfacial fractures with osteoconductive forged unsintered hydroxyapatite and poly-L-lactide composite internal fixation devices.

    PubMed

    Landes, Constantin; Ballon, Alexander; Ghanaati, Sharam; Tran, Andreas; Sader, Robert

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the internal fixation of malar and midfacial fractures, long-term results, and biocompatibility of osteoconductive internal fixation devices composed of a forged composite of unsintered hydroxyapatite and poly-L-lactide (F-u-HA/PLLA). From January 2006 to June 2010, 29 patients (24 males and 5 females; age 33 ± 15 years) were included in the present prospective study. The fracture type was malar in 24 patients, midfacial in 5, isolated orbital floor blowout in 2, and frontal sinus, cranial base in 2 patients. The fractures were fixed with internal fixation devices; these were plates and screws composed of F-u-HA/PLLA. The 24 patients with malar fractures were treated with a single 4-hole L-plate or a straight plate at the infrazygomatic crest. All fractures with internal fixation using devices composed of F-u-HA/PLLA healed well. All malar and midfacial fractures had satisfactory long-term stability. The follow-up examinations at 12 to 67 months after surgery showed that most patients had no complaints, although 2 patients (15%) had a foreign body reaction that was treated by implant removal, with complete symptom resolution. At 5 years after fracture fixation, 2 patients had ultrasound and 2 had radiographic evidence of residual material. An exemplar biopsy showed direct bone growth into the material. In patients with malar and midfacial fractures, hardware composed of the F-u-HA/PLLA composite provided reliable and satisfactory internal fixation, intraoperative handling, long-term stability, and biocompatibility. Direct bone growth into the material could be histopathologically exemplified, in contrast to previous polymer fixations that were resorbed and surrounded by a connective tissue layer. This finding indicates that long-term F-u-HA/PLLA residual material will be included into the remodeled bone, which was confirmed on long-term follow-up radiographs. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by

  19. Risk factors for failure of locked plate fixation of distal femur fractures: an analysis of 335 cases.

    PubMed

    Ricci, William M; Streubel, Philipp N; Morshed, Saam; Collinge, Cory A; Nork, Sean E; Gardner, Michael J

    2014-02-01

    Locked plating has become a standard method to treat supracondylar femur fractures. Emerging evidence indicates that this method of treatment is associated with modest failure rates. The goals of this study were to determine risk factors for complications and to provide technical recommendations for locked plating of supracondylar femur fractures. Retrospective review. Three level I or II trauma centers. Three hundred twenty-six patients with 335 distal femur fractures (OTA 33A or C, 33% open) treated with lateral locked plates were studied. The average patient age was 57 years (range 17-97 years), 55% were women, 34% were obese, 19% were diabetic, and 24% were smokers. All patients were managed with open reduction internal fixation using a lateral distal femoral locked plate construct that included locked screws in the distal fragment and nonlocked, locked, or a combination of locked and nonlocked screws in the proximal fragment. Risk factors for reoperation to promote union, deep infection, and implant failure. After the index procedure, 64 fractures (19%) required reoperation to promote union, including 30 that had a planned staged bone grafting because of the metaphyseal defect after debridement of an open fracture. Independent risk factors for reoperation to promote union and deep infection included diabetes and open fracture. Risk factors for proximal implant failure included open fracture, smoking, increased body mass index, and shorter plate length. The identified risk factors for reoperation to promote union and complications included open fracture, diabetes, smoking, increased body mass index, and shorter plate length. Most factors are out of surgeon control but are useful when considering prognosis. Use of relatively long plates is a technical factor that can reduce risk for fixation failure. Prognostic level II. See instructions for authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  20. Outcomes After Distal Radius Fracture Treatment With Percutaneous Wire Versus Plate Fixation: Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Mark S; Ghamsary, Mark; Guillen, Phillip T; Wongworawat, Montri D

    Multiple methods for surgical fixation of distal radius fractures exist, including percutaneous pinning with Kirschner wires and open reduction volar plating. Despite increased costs, the hypothesis of this study was that open reduction and volar plating does not provide improved outcomes over wire fixation. Following Transparent Reporting of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials was conducted comparing these two methods with regard to clinical outcomes, radiographic parameters, and complications. Seven trials with a total of 858 patients were included. Plating was not favored over pinning with regard to clinical outcomes and radiographic parameters. Pinning was associated with a higher superficial infection risk compared with plating, though the risk of repeat surgery was not different. It was concluded that Kirschner wire fixation, which may be associated with lower costs, is associated with similar clinical and radiographic outcomes when compared with volar plate fixation, although wire fixation is associated with higher superficial infection risk.

  1. Experimental fracture model versus osteotomy model in metacarpal bone plate fixation.

    PubMed

    Ochman, S; Vordemvenne, T; Paletta, J; Raschke, M J; Meffert, R H; Doht, S

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Osteotomy or fracture models can be used to evaluate mechanical properties of fixation techniques of the hand skeleton in vitro. Although many studies make use of osteotomy models, fracture models simulate the clinical situation more realistically. This study investigates monocortical and bicortical plate fixation on metacarpal bones considering both aforementioned models to decide which method is best suited to test fixation techniques. Methods. Porcine metacarpal bones (n = 40) were randomized into 4 groups. In groups I and II bones were fractured with a modified 3-point bending test. The intact bones represented a further control group to which the other groups after fixation were compared. In groups III and IV a standard osteotomy was carried out. Bones were fixated with plates monocortically (group I, III) and bicortically (group II, IV) and tested for failure. Results. Bones fractured at a mean maximum load of 482.8 N ± 104.8 N with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 21.7%, mean stiffness was 122.3 ± 35 N/mm. In the fracture model, there was a significant difference (P = 0.01) for maximum load of monocortically and bicortically fixed bones in contrast to the osteotomy model (P = 0.9). Discussion. In the fracture model, because one can use the same bone for both measurements in the intact state and the bone-plate construct states, the impact of inter-individual differences is reduced. In contrast to the osteotomy model there are differences between monocortical and bicortical fixations in the fracture model. Thus simulation of the in vivo situation is better and seems to be suitable for the evaluation of mechanical properties of fixation techniques on metacarpals.

  2. Cuttable plate fixation for small breed dogs with radius and ulna fractures: Retrospective study of 31 dogs.

    PubMed

    Watrous, Gwyneth K; Moens, Noel M M

    2017-04-01

    This retrospective study evaluated complication rates for radius and ulna fractures in small breed dogs in which 1.5 mm to 2.7 mm cuttable bone plates were used for internal fixation. The medical records of all cases from 2004 to 2011 that were presented to our clinic were reviewed. Inclusion criteria were: dogs with body weight < 9 kg, fracture of the radius and ulna with open reduction, and internal fixation utilizing a cuttable bone plate. Thirty-four fractures in 31 dogs met the inclusion criteria. Of 25 dogs that were available for follow-up, all achieved union, minor complications occurred in 9, and major complications occurred in 8. External coaptation was responsible for complications in 8 cases and the need for coaptation needs to be investigated. Excluding minor complications, 32% of patients required at least 1 additional surgery or additional hospitalization. All but 2 of the dogs returned to full function. The 1.5 mm straight plate was successfully used in all dogs with a body weight of 0.9 to 2.6 kg.

  3. Osteotomy, compression and other modifications of surgical techniques for internal fixation of extracapsular hip fractures.

    PubMed

    Parker, Martyn J; Handoll, Helen H G

    2009-04-15

    Many different surgical techniques have been described for the internal fixation of extracapsular hip fractures. To compare different aspects of surgical technique used in operations for internal fixation of extracapsular hip fractures in adults. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register (January 2008), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2008, Issue 1), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Current Controlled Trials, orthopaedic journals, conference proceedings and reference lists of articles. Date of last search was January 2008. No language restriction was applied. All randomised and quasi-randomised trials investigating operative techniques used in operations for the treatment of extracapsular hip fractures in adults. Two review authors independently selected trials, assessed trial quality and extracted data. Wherever appropriate, data were pooled. Predominantly older people with trochanteric fractures were treated in the 11 included trials.One trial (65 participants undergoing fixation with a fixed nail-plate) found no statistically significant differences between osteotomy versus anatomical reduction. Four trials, involving 465 participants undergoing fixation with a sliding hip screw (SHS), compared osteotomy versus anatomical reduction. Osteotomy was associated with an increased operative blood loss and length of surgery. There were no statistically significant differences for mortality, morbidity or measures of anatomical deformity.Two trials (138 participants) compared SHS fixation of a trochanteric hip fracture augmented with cement against a standard fixation. There were no reoperations even for the four cases of fixation failure in the cement group. The cement group had significantly better quality of life scores at six months. One trial (200 participants) comparing compression versus no compression of a trochanteric fracture in conjunction with SHS fixation found no significant

  4. Fixation of Radiological Contamination; International Collaborative Development

    SciTech Connect

    Rick Demmer

    2013-03-01

    A cooperative international project was conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the United Kingdom’s National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) to integrate a capture coating with a high performance atomizing process. The initial results were promising, and lead to further trials. The somewhat longer testing and optimization process has resulted in a product that could be demonstrated in the field to reduce airborne radiological dust and contamination.

  5. Surgical site infection complicating internal fixation of fractures: incidence and risk factors.

    PubMed Central

    Thanni, Lateef O. A.; Aigoro, Nofiu O.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a dearth of data on surgical site infections (SSIs) complicating internal fixation of fractures from Nigeria. AIMS: To determine the incidence and risk factors for SSIs following internal fixation of fracture. METHODS: A cohort of 90 patients with long bone fractures that were stabilized internally with metallic devices was studied prospectively and retrospectively. RESULTS: The incidence of SSI was 12%. The isolated organisms were Staphylococcus aureus in four patients, Pseudomonas spp. in three, and Escherichia coli in one patient. Diabetes mellitus and perioperative transfusion with allogeneic blood were not predictive of SSI. Duration of operation longer than 120 minutes was a strong predictor (OR 2.25, 95% CL 0.48-10.16). Other risk factors were male sex (OR 2.01, 95% CL 0.44-10.45), injury-operation interval less than six months (OR 2.00, 95% CL 0.22-46.08), fracture fixation with plates and screws (OR 1.51, 95% CL 0.36-6.40), white blood cell count (WBC) less than 5,000 per cumm (OR 1.50, 95% CL 0.15-16.37), preoperative urinary catheterization (OR 1.48, 95% CL 0.00-16.19), and postoperative urinary catheterization (OR 1.24, 95% CL 0.29-5.00). CONCLUSION: The incidence of SSI after internal fixation of long bone fractures in our centers is 12%, and this is within the previously reported range. Use of plates and screws, WBC less than 5,000 per cumm, and perioperative urinary catheterization are important risk factors. PMID:15303412

  6. An electronically instrumented internal fixator for the assessment of bone healing

    PubMed Central

    Kowald, B.; Seide, K.; Aljudaibi, M.; Faschingbauer, M.; Juergens, C.; Gille, J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The monitoring of fracture healing is a complex process. Typically, successive radiographs are performed and an emerging calcification of the fracture area is evaluated. The aim of this study was to investigate whether different bone healing patterns can be distinguished using a telemetric instrumented femoral internal plate fixator. Materials and Methods An electronic telemetric system was developed to assess bone healing mechanically. The system consists of a telemetry module which is applied to an internal locking plate fixator, an external reader device, a sensor for measuring externally applied load and a laptop computer with processing software. By correlation between externally applied load and load measured in the implant, the elasticity of the osteosynthesis is calculated. The elasticity decreases with ongoing consolidation of a fracture or nonunion and is an appropriate parameter for the course of bone healing. At our centre, clinical application has been performed in 56 patients suffering nonunion or fracture of the femur. Results A total of 39 cases of clinical application were reviewed for this study. In total, four different types of healing curves were observed: fast healing; slow healing; plateau followed by healing; and non-healing. Conclusion The electronically instrumented internal fixator proved to be valuable for the assessment of bone healing in difficult healing situations. Cost-effective manufacturing is possible because the used electronic components are derived from large-scale production. The incorporation of microelectronics into orthopaedic implants will be an important innovation in future clinical care. Cite this article: B. Kienast, B. Kowald, K. Seide, M. Aljudaibi, M. Faschingbauer, C. Juergens, J. Gille. An electronically instrumented internal fixator for the assessment of bone healing. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:191–197. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.55.2000611. PMID:27226357

  7. Closed treatment of condylar fractures by intermaxillary fixation with thermoforming plates.

    PubMed

    Terai, Haruhiko; Shimahara, Masashi

    2004-02-01

    We report a new intermaxillary fixation (IMF) method for condylar fractures using a thermoforming plate. Fifteen cases of condylar fracture were selected and thermoforming plates were applied. The patient's recover was uneventful in all 15 cases, and the period of IMF ranged from 7 to 17 days, (mean 12) for the following 7 days IMF was used only at night together with functional jaw training during the day. The outcome was good. IMF using a thermoforming plate may be a useful technique for selected condylar fractures.

  8. One size does not fit all: distal radioulnar joint dysfunction after volar locking plate fixation.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher W; Lawson, Richard D

    2014-02-01

    Background Fractures of the distal radius are among the most common injuries treated by orthopedic surgeons worldwide. Failure to restore distal radius alignment can lead to fracture malunion and poor clinical outcomes, including distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) instability and limitation of motion. Case Description We present a unique case of DRUJ dysfunction following volar plate fixation of bilateral distal radius fractures and analyze the biomechanical causes of this complication. As a result of a relatively excessive tilt of the precontoured locking plate (in comparison to the patient's particular anatomy), the fracture on one side was "over-reduced," disrupting the biomechanics of the DRUJ, causing a supination block. Clinical Relevance Volar locking plates are not a panacea to all distal radius fractures. Plate selection and fixation technique must include consideration of patient anatomy. Robust plates offer the advantage of providing rigid fixation but can be difficult to contour when reconstructing normal anatomy. Restoration of patient-specific anatomy is crucial to the management of distal radius fractures.

  9. Conventional bone plate fixation of distal radius and ulna fractures in toy breed dogs.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, J M; Macías, C

    2016-03-01

    To describe the outcome of bone plate fixation of distal radius and ulna fractures in toy breed dogs treated with conventional bone plates. Records of 15 toy breed dogs with distal radius and ulna fractures were retrospectively reviewed for signalment, method of fixation, complications and clinical and radiographic assessments. A telephone-based owner questionnaire was conducted to determine long-term function and client satisfaction. Age ranged from 4 months to 6 years. Body weight ranged from 1 to 4 kg. Dynamic compression plates were used in 13 dogs and veterinary cuttable plates were used in 2 dogs as the means of fixation. Full radiographic and clinical follow-up data were available for 10 dogs and follow-up was performed between 6 and 8 weeks postoperatively. At that time, all fractures had healed and return to function was considered excellent in all 10 dogs. Five dogs did not return for hospital evaluation because they were judged by their owners to be free of lameness. In two cases, owners could not be contacted by telephone, but the referring veterinarians reported the dogs to be asymptomatic. No major complications occurred. Conventional bone plates are suitable choices for stabilisation of distal radius and ulna fractures in toy breed dogs and are not necessarily correlated with high rates of complication. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  10. Proximal humeral fracture fixation: locking plate construct ± intramedullary fibular allograft.

    PubMed

    Chow, Roxanne M; Begum, Farhana; Beaupre, Lauren A; Carey, Jason P; Adeeb, Samer; Bouliane, Martin J

    2012-07-01

    Locking plate constructs for proximal humeral fractures can fail due to varus collapse, especially in osteoporotic bone with medial cortex comminution. Augmentation, using a fibular allograft as an intramedullary bone peg, may strengthen fixation preventing varus collapse. This study investigated the ability of the augmented locking plate construct to withstand repetitive varus stresses relative to the nonaugmented construct. Proximal humeral fractures with medial comminution were simulated by performing wedge-shaped osteotomies at the surgical neck in cadaveric specimens. For each cadaver (n = 8), 1 humeral fracture was fixated with the locking plate construct alone and the other with the locking plate construct plus ipsilateral fibular autograft augmentation. The humeral head was immobilized and a repetitive, medially directed load was applied to the humeral shaft until construct collapse or until 25000 cycles were completed. No augmented construct collapsed. In comparison, 6 of 8 nonaugmented constructs collapsed (P < .05). Collapse in the 6 nonaugmented constructs occurred after an average ±SD of 6604 ± 1984 cycles. Screw penetration of the articular surface was found in only 1 of the nonaugmented constructs. Fibular allograft augmentation increased the ability of the locking plate to withstand repetitive varus loading. Clinically, this may assist proximal humeral fracture fixation in osteoporotic bone with medial cortex comminution. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Pin guidance of reconstruction plate contour: an expanded role of external fixation.

    PubMed

    Jaquet, Yves; Higgins, Kevin M; Enepekides, Danny J

    2011-09-01

    This article presents a modification of intraoperative external fixation for mandibular reconstruction with free tissue flaps. This technique is indicated when preregistration of the reconstruction plate is not possible due to transmandibular tumor extension. Once standard external fixation has been carried out and prior to segmental mandibulectomy, additional pins are fixed to the connecting rod that delineate the mandibular contour in three-dimensional (3D) space. Following mandibulectomy, these pins allow accurate contouring of the reconstruction plate and improved restoration of mandibular contour, projection, and dental occlusion. A step-by-step description of the technique using models and intraoperative photos is presented. This method of mandibular reconstruction is a simple and time-effective alternative to intraoperative computer navigation and 3D modeling in select cases of oral carcinoma where tumor infiltration of the outer mandibular cortex precludes prebending of the reconstruction plates.

  12. Transfracture medial transposition of the radial nerve associated with plate fixation of the humerus.

    PubMed

    Chamseddine, Ali Hassan; Abdallah, Amer; Zein, Hadi; Taha, Assad

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to illustrate safety, feasibility and advantages of transfracture medial transposition of the radial nerve during the lateral approach and lateral plating of humeral fractures located in the mid and distal shaft. This was a retrospective review and analysis of medical records and radiographs of 19 patients who underwent a transfracture medial transposition of the radial nerve. Fifteen patients were treated for fresh fracture and four for nonunion. All patients were followed up clinically and radiographically for a minimum of 12 months. Pre-operative radial nerve paralysis was present in four patients in the fresh fractures group; post-operative paralysis occurred in two. All patients completely recovered a few months after the index procedure. Except for two, all patients achieved bone healing. One patient from the fresh-fracture group developed nonunion, and one from the nonunion group experienced persistent nonunion; both underwent successful revision surgeries. In addition, four patients with a fresh fracture underwent revision surgery for hardware removal. All but two patients showed no restricted elbow or shoulder joint motion compared with the opposite side. Transfracture transposition of the radial nerve during open reduction and internal fixation of humeral shaft fractures is a safe, harmless and feasible procedure when applied for fractures of the middle and distal humeral shaft; it removes the nerve from the surgical field during fracture manipulation and fixation, with a gain in length of the nerve by transforming its course from spiral to straight. Following radial nerve transposition across the fracture, a repeat surgical approach to the humerus for hardware removal or treatment of nonunion transforms the procedure into a simple one; the skin incision is carried straight down to the bone without the need to identify or dissect the nerve that was previously transposed to the medial compartment of the arm.

  13. Meta-analysis for dorsally displaced distal radius fracture fixation: volar locking plate versus percutaneous Kirschner wires.

    PubMed

    Zong, Shuang-Le; Kan, Shi-Lian; Su, Li-Xin; Wang, Bin

    2015-07-15

    Dorsally displaced distal radius fractures (DDDRF) are frequent injuries in clinical practice. Traditional percutaneous Kirschner wires (K-wire) and open reduction with volar locking plate (VLP) are the two most common surgical fixation techniques used to manage DDDRF. However, there is no current consensual evidence to guide the selection of one technique over the other. Therefore, we undertook a systematic search and meta-analysis to compare clinical outcomes and complications of these two treatment approaches for DDDRF. The following electronic databases were searched by two independent reviewers, up to April 2015: PubMed, ScienceDirect and Wiley Online Library. High-quality randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing VLP and percutaneous K-wire fixation for DDDRF were identified. Pooled mean differences were calculated for the following continuous outcome variables: disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) score, grip strength and wrist range of motion. Pooled odds ratios were calculated for rates of total postoperative complications, including superficial infection, deep infection, complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), neurological injury, tendon rupture, tenosynovitis, loss of reduction and additional surgery to remove hardware. The meta-analysis was completed using RevMan 5.3 software. Seven RCTs, with a total of 875 patients, were included in our meta-analysis. Open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) with VLP fixation provided statistically lower DASH scores, reduced the incidence of total postoperative complications and specifically lowered the rate of superficial infection, when compared, over a 1-year follow-up, to percutaneous K-wire fixation. VLP fixation also provided significantly better grip strength and range of wrist flexion and supination in the early 6-month postoperative period, compared with percutaneous K-wire fixation. ORIF with VLP fixation provided lower DASH scores and reduced total postoperative

  14. Locking plate fixation of periprosthetic femur fractures with and without cerclage wires.

    PubMed

    Ebraheim, Nabil A; Sochacki, Kyle R; Liu, Xiaochen; Hirschfeld, Adam G; Liu, Jiayong

    2013-08-01

    The number of patients requiring knee and hip arthroplasty has been steadily increasing, and periprosthetic fractures are on the rise. Locking plates are the most common treatment for periprosthetic fractures, but the use of cerclage wires with locking plate fixation has been controversial. Forty-seven patients with periprosthetic femur fractures were reviewed retrospectively. Twenty-four patients received locking plate alone and twenty-three patients were treated with locking plate and cerclage wires. Patients were evaluated for clinical and radiographic signs of union at two, six, twelve, twenty-four, and forty-eight weeks postoperatively. The average follow-up time in the plate group was 9.4 ± 6.7 months, while it was 6.0 ± 4.2 months in the cerclage wire group. The time to union in the cerclage wire group (3.6 ± 1.0 months) was significantly less than the plate group (4.8 ± 2.6 months). The group with the cerclage wires had a significantly lower revision rate of 0% compared to 20.8%. There was no statistical significance of union rate and complication rate between the two groups. Cerclage wires used with locking plate fixation successfully treats periprosthetic fractures of the femur with faster time to union, less complication, and fewer revisions. © 2013 Chinese Orthopaedic Association and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. Locking versus standard plates for allograft fixation after tumor resection in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Buecker, Peter J; Berenstein, Mariela; Gebhardt, Mark C; Hornicek, Francis J; Mankin, Henry J

    2006-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to assess the performance of locking plates in comparison to standard compression plates for allograft fixation after resection of malignant primary skeletal tumors. Using a computerized database, patients younger than 18 years who had undergone resection of malignant skeletal tumors with allograft reconstruction from January 1998 through June 2004 were identified. Demographic, oncological, surgical, and follow-up data were collected, and comparison of outcomes with regard to allograft-host junction healing between locking and standard compression plates was undertaken. Thirty-nine patients meeting the inclusion criteria were identified. Homogeneity of the study group with regards to age, sex, diagnosis, adjuvant therapy, and presence of metastases allowed for evaluation of allograft-host union as a relatively independent variable. Nine patients in the locking plate group (75%) united after the index procedure at an average of 13.1 months. Fifteen patients (55.6%) with compression plates healed after the initial reconstruction at an average of 14.6 months. Complications and secondary procedures were noted. Results of this investigation suggest that use of locking plates for allograft-host junction fixation is associated with improved union rates and less need for additional operations when compared with standard compression plates.

  16. Ilizarov hybrid external fixation for fractures of the distal radius: Part II. Internal fixation versus Ilizarov hybrid external fixation: Stability as assessed by cadaveric simulated motion testing.

    PubMed

    Dunning, C E; Lindsay, C S; Bicknell, R T; Johnson, J A; King, G J; Patterson, S D

    2001-03-01

    The in vitro stability of an Ilizarov hybrid external fixator was compared with that of a dorsal 3.5-mm AO T-plate in 8 unpaired, fresh-frozen upper extremities. A specially designed testing device that used computer-controlled pneumatic actuators was used to simulate active finger, wrist, and forearm motions by applying loads to relevant tendons. A comminuted extra-articular distal radius fracture was modelled using a dorsally based wedge osteotomy. Fracture stability was assessed using an electromagnetic tracking device to measure motion across the fracture site after randomized application of the plate and the hybrid fixator. During simulated finger and wrist motions with the forearm pronated or supinated, motion of the distal fragment with the hybrid fixator applied was comparable to or statistically less than with the AO plate applied. During simulated forearm rotation, the stability provided by the 2 fixation types was similar, although the plate allowed statistically less radial-ulnar deviation of the fragment. In this model of a 2-part extra-articular distal radius fracture, the clinically meaningful stability of the Ilizarov hybrid external fixator was comparable to that of the dorsal AO plate.

  17. Fracture of the distal radius: risk factors for complications after locked volar plate fixation.

    PubMed

    Soong, Maximillian; van Leerdam, Roderick; Guitton, Thierry G; Got, Christopher; Katarincic, Julia; Ring, David

    2011-01-01

    To identify risk factors for complications after volar locking plate fixation of distal radius fractures. We assessed early postoperative complications in 594 patients with fracture of the distal radius repaired with a volar locking plate and a minimum 1-month evaluation in the medical record. Later complications were assessed among 321 patients as a subset of the original cohort with a minimum 6 months' evaluation. We compared patient demographics, fracture characteristics, and aspects of management between patients with and without complications in bivariate analysis. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was applied to identify the factors independently associated with complications. A total of 47 complications were documented in the medical record. Early complications occurred in 24 of 594, including 8 intra-articular screws and 7 patients with loss of fixation. Late complications occurred in 23 of 321, including 14 patients diagnosed with tendon irritation (one rupture of the flexor pollicis longus tendon) and 5 patients who had subsequent surgery to address dysfunction of the distal radioulnar joint (malunion, synostosis, and arthrofibrosis). Of the 47 complications, 26 were attributed to the plate, of which 9 were considered major (intra-articular screws and tendon rupture; 1.3% (8 out of 594) and less than 1% (1 out of 321) of the early and late groups, respectively). In the logistic regression models, fall from a height and an ipsilateral elbow injury were positive independent predictors of early complications, whereas high-volume surgeons and plates other than the most commonly used plate were positive independent predictors of later complications. Volar locking plate fixation of distal radius fractures was associated with relatively few plate-related complications in our institutions. Factors indicating higher energy or complexity predicted early complications. The most common late complication was tendon irritation, which is less discrete and

  18. A Prospective Randomized Trial to Assess Fixation Strategies for Severe Open Tibia Fractures: Modern Ring External Fixators Versus Internal Fixation (FIXIT Study).

    PubMed

    OʼToole, Robert V; Gary, Joshua L; Reider, Lisa; Bosse, Michael J; Gordon, Wade T; Hutson, James; Quinnan, Stephen M; Castillo, Renan C; Scharfstein, Daniel O; MacKenzie, Ellen J

    2017-04-01

    The treatment of high-energy open tibia fractures is challenging in both the military and civilian environments. Treatment with modern ring external fixation may reduce complications common in these patients. However, no study has rigorously compared outcomes of modern ring external fixation with commonly used internal fixation approaches. The FIXIT study is a prospective, multicenter randomized trial comparing 1-year outcomes after treatment of severe open tibial shaft fractures with modern external ring fixation versus internal fixation among men and women of ages 18-64. The primary outcome is rehospitalization for major limb complications. Secondary outcomes include infection, fracture healing, limb function, and patient-reported outcomes including physical function and pain. One-year treatment costs and patient satisfaction will be compared between the 2 groups, and the percentage of Gustilo IIIB fractures that can be salvaged without soft tissue flap among patients receiving external fixation will be estimated.

  19. Dynamic Fixation of Humeral Shaft Fractures Using Active Locking Plates: A Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Madey, Steven M.; Tsai, Stanley; Fitzpatrick, Daniel C.; Earley, Kathleen; Lutsch, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Rigid locked plating constructs can suppress fracture healing by inhibiting interfragmentary motion required to stimulate natural bone healing by callus formation. Dynamic fixation with active locking plates reduces construct stiffness, enables controlled interfragmentary motion, and has been shown to induce faster and stronger bone healing in vivo compared to rigid locking plates. This prospective observational study represents the first clinical use of active locking plates. It documents our early clinical experience with active plates for stabilization of humeral shaft fractures to assess their durability and understand potential complications. Methods Eleven consecutive patients with humeral shaft fractures (AO/OTA types 12 A-C) were prospectively enrolled at a level I and a level II trauma center. Fractures were stabilized by using active locking plates without supplemental bone graft or bone morphogenic proteins. The screw holes of active locking plates are elastically suspended in elastomer envelopes inside the plate, enabling up to 1.5 mm of controlled interfragmentary motion. Progression of fracture healing and integrity of implant fixation was assessed radiographically at 3, 6, 12, and 24 weeks post surgery. Patient-reported functional outcome measures were obtained at 6, 12, and 24 weeks post surgery. The primary endpoint of this study was plate durability in absence of plate bending or breakage, or failure of the elastically suspended locking hole mechanism. Secondary endpoints included fracture healing, complications requiring revision surgery, and functional outcome scores. Results The eleven patients had six simple AO/ OTA type 12A fractures, three wedge type 12B fractures, and two comminuted type 12C fracture, including one open fracture. All active locking plates endured the 6-month loading period without any signs of fatigue or failure. Ten of eleven fractures healed at 10.9 ± 5.2 weeks, as evident by bridging callus and pain

  20. Proximal humeral fracture fixation: multicenter study with carbon fiber peek plate.

    PubMed

    Rotini, R; Cavaciocchi, M; Fabbri, D; Bettelli, G; Catani, F; Campochiaro, G; Fontana, M; Colozza, A; De Biase, C F; Ziveri, G; Zapparoli, C; Stacca, F; Lupo, R; Rapisarda, S; Guerra, E

    2015-09-01

    Locking plate fixation is a reliable treatment for many displaced proximal humeral fractures. Carbon fiber-reinforced-poly-ether-ether-ketone (CFR-PEEK) plates have recently been introduced as an alternative to traditional metallic plates. In a multicenter study involving the Orthopedic Services of 6 Italian hospitals, 182 patients with a proximal humeral fracture were treated with a Diphos H (Lima Corporate, San Daniele del Friuli, Italy) CFR-PEEK plate, 160 of whom were followed clinically and radiographically for 2 years or more. Fractures were classified by Neer's system. The functional results were assessed by Constant and DASH scores. The average time to radiographic healing was 5.6 months in 158 of 160 cases. Mean Constant score was 76, and mean DASH score was 28 at 2 years. There were two nonunions (one septic and one aseptic) and 13 cases of partial (9) or massive (4) humeral head necrosis. In three of the 78 patients treated with the first-generation plates, hardware breakage happened during the operation and the plate was replaced. There was no failure among the cases treated with the thicker second-generation plate. In eight cases, there was a perforation of the humeral head by the cephalic screws. CFR-PEEK plates proved as reliable as metallic plates in the treatment of proximal humeral fractures. The advantages of these new devices include a better visualization of fracture reduction during intraoperative fluoroscopic assessment and easy hardware removal due to the absence of screw-plate cold fusion.

  1. Effects of rigidity of an internal fixation device. A comprehensive biomechanical investigation.

    PubMed

    Goel, V K; Lim, T H; Gwon, J; Chen, J Y; Winterbottom, J M; Park, J B; Weinstein, J N; Ahn, J Y

    1991-03-01

    Internal fixation with instrumentation often accompanies surgical fusion to augment spinal stability, provide temporary fixation while the surgical fusion mass unites, and enhance postoperative mobilization of a patient. Some surgeons, however, feel that the existing plate-screw designs are too rigid and are the primary cause of "iatrogenic" adverse effects clinically observed. A three-part study, involving in vitro experimental protocol, analytical finite-element-based models, and an in vivo canine investigation, was undertaken to study the role of decreasing rigidity of a device on the biomechanical response of the stabilized segments. Two alternatives--the use of one variable screw placement (Steffee plate [unilateral, 1VSP model]) as opposed to two VSP plates (bilateral, 2VSP model) and two VSP plates with polymer washers placed in between the integral nut and plate (2MVSP model)--were considered for achieving a reduction in the rigidity of the conventional VSP system. The load-displacement data obtained from the in vitro experiments and the stress distributions within the stabilized and intact models predicted by the finite-element models revealed that the unilateral VSP system is less rigid and is likely to reduce stress shielding of the vertebral bodies compared with the 2VSP model. The undesirable effects associated with the use of the 1VSP plate system are the presence of coupled motions due to the inherent asymmetry and the likely inability to provide enough rigidity for decompression procedures requiring a complete excision of the disc. The use of two MVSP plates overcomes these deficiencies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Early rehabilitation following less invasive surgical stabilisation plate fixation for distal femoral fractures.

    PubMed

    Smith, T O; Hedges, C; MacNair, R; Schankat, K

    2009-06-01

    The less invasive surgical stabilisation (LISS) plate fixation method is an orthopaedic procedure for the fixation of distal femoral fractures. Early physiotherapy treatments of motion and mobilisation have been advocated following this procedure. This article critically appraises the evidence base assessing the early rehabilitation of patients following LISS fixation for distal femoral fractures. A review of EMBASE, Medline, CINAHL and AMED, and a hand search were undertaken. Two independent reviewers identified all eligible articles. Two reviewers extracted the data, which were verified by a third reviewer. All included articles were critically appraised by two independent reviewers using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool. Seventeen case series assessing 508 patients with 535 fractures were reviewed. No clinical trials comparing physiotherapy programmes were identified. The review identified that following LISS fixation for distal femoral fractures, patients begin range-of-motion exercises immediately and are initially required to restrict weight-bearing following surgery. It remains unclear whether casts, braces or immobilisation aids are applied during the initial postoperative period. The efficacy of different physiotherapy protocols following LISS fixation for distal femoral fractures remains unclear. Further well-designed randomised controlled trials are required to compare different postoperative physiotherapy rehabilitation programmes for patients following LISS fixation of distal femoral fractures in order to determine the optimal postoperative management for this complex patient group.

  3. [A biomechanical study on internal fixation of proximal ulna combined with olecranon fracture].

    PubMed

    Teng, Lin; Zhong, Gang; Liu, Gang; Xiao, Cong; Liu, Guoming; Huang, Fuguo

    2012-01-01

    To compare the biomechanical stability of Kirschner wire and tension band wiring, reconstruction plate combined with tension band wiring, and olecranon anatomical plate in fixing proximal ulna combined with olecranon fracture, so as to provide the theoretical evidence for clinical selection of internal fixation. Eight specimens of elbow joints and ligaments were taken from eight fresh male adult cadaveric elbows (aged 26-43 years, mean 34.8 years) donated voluntarily. The model of proximal ulna combined with olecranon fracture was made by an osteotomy in each specimen. Fracture end was fixed successively by Kirschner wire and tension band wiring (group A), reconstruction plate combined with tension band wiring (group B), and olecranon anatomical plate (group C), respectively. The biomechanical test was performed for monopodium compression experiments, and load-displacement curves were obtained. The stability of the fixation was evaluated according to the load value when the compression displacement of fracture segment was 2 mm. No Kirschner wire withdrawal, broken plate and screw, loosening and specimens destruction were observed. The load-displacement curves of 3 groups showed that the displacement increased gradually with increasing load, while the curve slope of groups B and C was significantly higher than that of group A. When the compression displacement was 2 mm, the load values of groups A, B, and C were (218.6 +/- 66.9), (560.3 +/- 116.1), and (577.2 +/- 137.6) N, respectively; the load values of groups B and C were significantly higher than that of group A (P < 0.05), but no significant difference was observed between groups B and C (t = 0.305, P = 0.763). The proximal ulna combined with olecranon fracture is unstable. Reconstruction plate combined with tension band wiring and olecranon anatomical plate can meet the requirement of fracture fixation, so they are favorable options for proximal ulna combined with olecranon fracture. Kirschner wire and tension

  4. Fixation of multifragmentary patella fractures using a bilateral fixed-angle plate.

    PubMed

    Thelen, Simon; Betsch, Marcel; Schneppendahl, Johannes; Grassmann, Jan; Hakimi, Mohssen; Eichler, Christian; Windolf, Joachim; Wild, Michael

    2013-11-01

    This biomechanical study is the first to compare 3 fixation methods-bilateral fixed-angle plate, modified anterior tension wiring, and cannulated lag screws with anterior tension wiring-in multifragmentary distal patella fractures. A T-shaped 3-part fracture simulating a multifragmentary articular distal patella fracture (AO/OTA 34-C2.2) was created in 18 human cadaver knee specimens. Three groups were created using homogenous ages and bone mineral densities based on the fixation method received. Repetitive testing over 100 cycles was performed by moving the knee against gravity from 90° flexion to full extension. Failure was defined as fracture displacement greater than 2 mm. In all patellae using fixed-angle plates, an anatomical fracture reduction could be maintained throughout cyclic testing, whereas anterior tension wiring and lag screws with tension wiring showed significant fracture displacement after 100 cycles, with mean fracture gaps of 2.0±1.3 and 1.9±1.6 mm, respectively. The differences in fracture gaps between the fixed-angle plate group and the other 2 groups were statistically significant. In both groups using tension wiring, half of the constructs (3 of 6 in each group) failed due to a fracture displacement greater than 2 mm. The bilateral fixed-angle plate was the only fixation method that sustainably stabilized a multifragmentary articular distal patella fracture during cyclic loading when compared with modified anterior tension wiring and cannulated lag screws with anterior tension wiring.

  5. Locking attachment plate fixation around a well-fixed stem in periprosthetic femoral shaft fractures.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Bom; Cho, Jae-Woo; Lee, Young Ho; Shon, Won-Yong; Park, Jung Wee; Kim, Jinil; Oh, Jong-Keon

    2017-07-08

    Periprosthetic fractures are difficult to manage. Plating technique has been considered a reliable form of management of periprosthetic fractures with a well-fixed stem, but a dependable and stable method of plate fixation to the bone is lacking. This study reports the clinical results using a locking attachment plate (LAP) instead of cable fixation to fix locking plates to a periprosthetic femoral shaft fracture. Nineteen patients with periprosthetic femoral shaft fractures around well-fixed stemmed implants were studied between August 2012 and December 2014. Patients were followed up for at least 1 year postoperatively. Median age was 74 years (range 56-96 years). Fractures were classified according to the Unified Classification System, Vancouver classification, and Su classification. Open reduction was performed under minimal incision and the locking plate was fixed to the lateral cortex of the femoral shaft. The part of the shaft without a stem was fixed to the plate using 5.0-mm locking screws, and the part with an underlying stem was fixed using 3.5-mm locking screws through the LAP instead of cables. Postoperatively, patients were managed using general principles for femoral shaft fractures. Average follow-up was 16 months (range 12-36 months). All cases achieved fracture healing without loss of reduction. There were no cases of implant breakage or stem loosening at final follow-up. The average number of LAPs per fixation construct was 2.1 (range 1-4), and the average number of 3.5-mm locking screws through each LAP was 3.3 (range 2-4). The average value of plate screw density was 0.55 (range 0.37-0.8), and the average working length was four holes (range 2-8). Using the LAP to manage periprosthetic fractures with a well-fixed stem could obviate the need for cable around the stem area and yield acceptable outcomes.

  6. Internal fixators: a safe option for managing distal femur fractures?

    PubMed Central

    Batista, Bruno Bellaguarda; Salim, Rodrigo; Paccola, Cleber Antonio Jansen; Kfuri, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Evaluate safety and reliability of internal fixator for the treatment of intra-articular and periarticular distal femur fractures. METHODS: Retrospective data evaluation of 28 patients with 29 fractures fixed with internal fixator was performed. There was a predominance of male patients (53.5%), with 52% of open wound fractures, 76% of AO33C type fractures, and a mean follow up of 21.3 months. Time of fracture healing, mechanical axis deviation, rate of infection and postoperative complications were registered. RESULTS: Healing rate was 93% in this sample, with an average time of 5.5 months. Twenty-seven percent of patients ended up with mechanical axis deviation, mostly resulting from poor primary intra-operative reduction. There were two cases of implant loosening; two implant breakage, and three patients presented stiff knee. No case of infection was observed. Healing rate in this study was comparable with current literature; there was a high degree of angular deviation, especially in the coronal plane. CONCLUSION: Internal fixators are a breakthrough in the treatment of knee fractures, but its use does not preclude application of principles of anatomical articular reduction and mechanical axis restoration. Level of Evidence II, Retrospective Study. PMID:25061424

  7. Comparison of CT imaging artifacts from craniomaxillofacial internal fixation devices.

    PubMed

    Fiala, T G; Novelline, R A; Yaremchuk, M J

    1993-12-01

    This study compares the artifacts caused by craniomaxillofacial internal fixation devices in CT images. Mandibular reconstruction and "mini" titanium, Vitallium, and stainless steel systems, "micro" titanium and Vitallium systems, and stainless steel wires were evaluated. The hardware was placed on a nylon grid and submerged in water. CT images were obtained with both bone and soft-tissue window settings. All artifacts were compared and graded after a minimum of five observations each. The severity of "starburst" artifact was found to be related to the physical size of the fixation hardware and its composition. Titanium hardware caused the least amount of artifact. Vitallium and stainless steel fixation devices, with the exception of interfragmentary wiring, produced significantly more artifact. These results agree with theoretical predictions. The data indicate that when postoperative imaging is an important clinical consideration, (1) the least amount of implant material necessary to achieve stable fixation should be used, (2) the proximity of implant material to the area of interest should be considered, and (3) titanium implants produce less artifact than Vitallium or stainless steel implants.

  8. Comparison of crossed screw versus plate fixation for radial neck fractures.

    PubMed

    Gutowski, Christina J; Darvish, Kurosh; Ilyas, Asif M; Jones, Christopher M

    2015-11-01

    Fixation of radial neck fractures can be achieved with a plate and screw construct or, in absence of comminution, with two obliquely-oriented screws. This study investigated the mechanical properties, specifically the stiffness and load to failure, of these two fixation strategies in a cadaver model. Ten matched-pair radii were removed from fresh cadaver arms. A transverse osteotomy was created at the neck of each radius. Right-sided radii were fixed with two oblique headless compression screws; left-sided radii were fixed with a radial neck plate. The distal aspect of each radius was potted in urethane casting resin. The radial head was loaded in shear in 4 different planes (medial to lateral, lateral to medial, posterior to anterior, and anterior to posterior) using an Instron machine. Stiffness and load to failure were recorded. The stiffness of both constructs was similar in all planes except for loading from medial to lateral where the screw construct was 1.8 times stiffer. Average ultimate failure occurred at 229N for the screws and 206N for the plate. Failure strength was not statistically different. However, mode of failure differed for both fixation constructs, the plate failed in bending while the screws failed by pullout and fracture. The two strategies provide similar strength and stiffness for the fixation of transverse, non-comminuted radial neck fractures. While plate and screw constructs are more appropriate for axially unstable or comminuted fractures, two oblique screws might be preferred for simple transverse neck fractures since this strategy requires less exposure and the implant is buried. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of intramedullary nail and plate fixation in distal tibia diaphyseal fractures close to the mortise.

    PubMed

    Yavuz, Umut; Sökücü, Sami; Demir, Bilal; Yıldırım, Timur; Ozcan, Cağrı; Kabukçuoğlu, Yavuz Selim

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we aimed to compare the functional and radiological results of intramedullary nailing and plate fixation techniques in the surgical treatment of distal tibia diaphyseal fractures close to the ankle joint. Between 2005 and 2011, 55 patients (32 males, 23 females; mean age 42 years; range 15 to 72 years) who were treated with intramedullary nailing (21 patients) or plate fixation (34 patients) due to distal tibia diaphyseal fracture were included in the study. The average follow-up period was 27.6 months (range, 12-82 months). The patients were evaluated with regard to nonunion, malunion, infection, and implant irritation. The AOFAS (American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society) scale was used for the clinical evaluation. No statistically significant difference was found between the two surgical methods with respect to unification time, AOFAS score, accompanying fibula fracture, material irritation, and malunion. Nine patients had open fractures, and these patients were treated with plate fixation (p=0.100). Nonunion developed in three patients who were treated with plates. Infection occurred in one patient. Anterior knee pain was significantly higher in patients who were treated with intramedullary nails. There was no malunion in any patient. As the distal fragment is not long enough, plate fixation technique is usually preferred in the treatment of distal tibia diaphyseal fractures. In this study, we observed that if the surgical guidelines are followed carefully, intramedullary nailing is an appropriate technique in this kind of fracture. The malunion rates are not significantly increased, and it also has the advantages of being a minimally invasive surgery with fewer wound problems.

  10. Volar plate fixation of intra-articular distal radius fractures: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Fok, Margaret W M; Klausmeyer, Melissa A; Fernandez, Diego L; Orbay, Jorge L; Bergada, Alex Lluch

    2013-08-01

    Background Intra-articular fractures of the distal radius represent a therapeutic challenge as compared with the unstable extra-articular fractures. With the recent development of specifically designed internal fixation materials for the distal radius, treatment of these fractures by fragment-specific implants using two or more incisions has been advocated. Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a fixed-angle locking plate applied through a single volar approach in maintaining the radiographic alignment of unstable intra-articular fractures as well as to report the clinical outcomes. We only excluded those with massive comminution, as is discussed in greater detail in the text. Patients and Methods This is a multicentered, retrospective study involving three hospitals situated in Spain, Switzerland, and the United States. In the period between January 2000 and March 2006, 97 patients with 101 intra-articular distal radius fractures, including 13 volarly displaced and 88 dorsally angulated fractures were analyzed. Over 80% were C2/C3 fractures, based on the AO classification. 16 open fractures were noted. Results With an average follow-up of 28 months (range 24-70 months), the range of movement of the wrist was very satisfactory, and the mean grip strength was 81% of the opposite wrist. The Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) score was 8. The complications rate was < 5%, including loss of reduction in two patients. All fractures healed by 3 months postinjury. Conclusions Irrespective of the direction and amount of initial displacement, a great majority of intra-articular fractures of the distal radius can be managed with a fixed-angle volar plate through a single volar approach. Level IV retrospective case series.

  11. Open reduction and temporary internal fixation of a subacute elbow dislocation.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, Valentin; Alqueza, Arnold; Mudgal, Chaitanya S

    2012-05-01

    We present the case of a 61-year-old woman with a subacute elbow dislocation, who was referred to our institution 4 weeks after a fall. She was treated with open reduction and temporary bridging internal fixation through a posterior approach with a limited contact dynamic compression plate. After 4 weeks, the hardware was removed. One year postoperatively, the patient had nearly pain-free motion of 20° short of full extension and full flexion. Her radiographs showed residual incongruity and degenerative arthritis of the elbow.

  12. Ability of modern distal tibia plates to stabilize comminuted pilon fracture fragments: Is dual plate fixation necessary?

    PubMed

    Penny, Phillip; Swords, Michael; Heisler, Jason; Cien, Adam; Sands, Andrew; Cole, Peter

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the screw trajectory of ten commercially available distal tibia plates and compare them to common fracture patterns seen in OTA C type pilon fractures to determine their ability to stabilize the three most common fracture fragments while buttressing anterolateral zones of comminution. We hypothesized that a single plate for the distal tibia would fail to adequately stabilize all three main fracture fragments and zones of comminution in complex pilon fractures. Ten synthetic distal tibia sawbones models were used in conjunction with ten different locking distal tibia plate designs from three manufacturers (Depuy Synthes, J&J Co, Paoli, PA; Smith & Nephew, Memphis, TN; and Stryker, Mawa, NJ). Both medial and anterolateral plates from each company were utilized and separately applied to an individual sawbone model. Three implants allowing variable angle screw placement were used. The location of the locking screws and buttress effect 1cm above the articular surface was noted for each implant using axial computed tomography (CT). The images were then compared to a recently published "pilon fracture map" using an overlay technique to establish the relationship between screw location and known common fracture lines and areas of comminution. Each of the three main fragments was considered "captured" by a screw if it was purchased by at least two screws thereby controlling rotational forces on each fragment. Three of four anterolateral plates lacked stable fixation in the medial fragment. Of the 4 anterolateral plates used, only the variable angle anterolateral plate by Depuy Synthes captured the medial fragment with two screws. All four anterolateral plates buttressed the area of highest comminution and had an average of 1.25 screws in the medial fragment and an average of 3 screws in the posterolateral fragment. All five direct medial plates had variable fixation within anterolateral and posterolateral fragments with an average of

  13. Metaphyseal locking plate as a definitive external fixator for treating open tibial fractures--clinical outcome and a finite element study.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ching-Hou; Wu, Chin-Hsien; Tu, Yuan-Kun; Lin, Ting-Sheng

    2013-08-01

    We evaluated both the outcome of using a locking plate as a definitive external fixator for treating open tibial fractures and, using finite element analysis, the biomechanical performance of external and internal metaphyseal locked plates in treating proximal tibial fractures. Eight open tibial patients were treated using a metaphyseal locked plate as a low-profile definitive external fixator. Then, finite element models of internal (IPF) as well as two different external plate fixations (EPFs) for proximal tibial fractures were reconstructed. The offset distances from the bone surface to the EPFs were 6 cm and 10 cm. Both axial stiffness and angular stiffness were calculated to evaluate the biomechanical performance of these three models. The mean follow-up period was 31 months (range, 18-43 months). All the fractures united and the mean bone healing time was 37.5 weeks (range, 20-52 weeks). All patients had excellent or good functional results and were walking freely at the final follow-up. The finite element finding revealed that axial stiffness and angular stiffness decreased as the offset distance from the bone surface increased. Compared to the IPF models, in the two EPF models, axial stiffness decreased by 84-94%, whereas the angular stiffness decreased by 12-21%. The locking plate used as a definitive external fixator provided a high rate of union. While the locking plate is not totally rigid, it is clinically stable and may be advisable for stiffness reduction of plating constructs, thus promoting fracture healing by callus formation. Our patients experienced a comfortable clinical course, excellent knee and ankle joint motion, satisfactory functional results and an acceptable complication rate.

  14. Biomechanical Assessment of the Dorsal Spanning Bridge Plate in Distal Radius Fracture Fixation: Implications for Immediate Weight-Bearing.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jerry I; Peterson, Bret; Bellevue, Kate; Lee, Nicolas; Smith, Sean; Herfat, Safa

    2017-04-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the biomechanical stability of a 2.4-mm dorsal spanning bridge plate with a volar locking plate (VLP) in a distal radius fracture model, during simulated crutch weight-bearing. Five paired cadaveric forearms were tested. A 1-cm dorsal wedge osteotomy was created to simulate an unstable distal radius fracture with dorsal comminution. Fractures were fixed with a VLP or a dorsal bridge plate (DBP). Specimens were mounted to a crutch handle, and optical motion-tracking sensors were attached to the proximal and distal segments. Specimens were loaded in compression at 1 mm/s on a servohydraulic test frame until failure, defined as 2 mm of gap site displacement. The VLP construct was significantly more stable to axial load in a crutch weight-bearing model compared with the DBP plate (VLP: 493 N vs DBP: 332 N). Stiffness was higher in the VLP constructs, but this was not statistically significant (VLP: 51.4 N/mm vs DBP: 32.4 N/mm). With the crutch weight-bearing model, DBP failed consistently with wrist flexion and plate bending, whereas VLP failed with axial compression at the fracture site and dorsal collapse. Dorsal spanning bridge plating is effective as an internal spanning fixator in treating highly comminuted intra-articular distal radius fracture and prevents axial collapse at the radiocarpal joint. However, bridge plating may not offer advantages in early weight-bearing or transfer in polytrauma patients, with less axial stability in our crutch weight-bearing model compared with volar plating. A stiffer 3.5-mm DBP or use of a DBP construct without the central holes may be considered for distal radius fractures if the goal is early crutch weight-bearing through the injured extremity.

  15. [Biomechanical evaluation and clinical correlation of 3 methods of internal fixation of metacarpophalangeal arthrodesis of the thumb].

    PubMed

    Leroux, M; Harris, P; Fowles, J V; Boudreault, F; Yahia, L

    1998-01-01

    Three methods of internal fixation for MCP arthrodesis of fifteen cadaveric thumbs were used to analyze the biomechanical stability by applying a palmar force, lateral force, and torsion moment. The techniques used included two K-wires 0.045 in parallel (BK), 2 cerclage metallic wires #25 perpendicular to each other (CP), and a 6-holes plate and screws construct from Synthes (PV). The initial rigidity was measured using a Bionix MTS-858. The results after statistical analysis showed: 1) CP was just as rigid as PV for the palmar and lateral tests; 2) CP was, overall, superior to BK in palmar and lateral tests; 3) no difference existed in torsion between the three types of fixation. A comparison was done between the rigidity of the fixation techniques used and the rates of bony nonunion found in the literature. The mean rates of nonunion were reported to be 0-4.0% for the following techniques: CP, tension band wiring (TB), plate and screws, external fixation, compression screw. The rates of nonunion were higher, 7.5-12.5%, for BK, cerclages not perpendicular (CM), bone pegs. According to the results of this biomechanical study and the review of the literature, fixation with BK is the least rigid, and fixation with CP is just as rigid as with PV. The success clinically of CP is yet to be demonstrated. Other studies on the properties of CP for fatigue would be necessary to give a better analysis.

  16. [Bone cement dry prosthetic with internal fixation treat senile osteoporotic femoral fractures].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Y; Rong, X X; Chen, P; Xu, Y J; Zhu, G X

    2017-03-01

    Objective: To explore the treatment of senile osteoporotic femoral fractures after using internal fixation of bone cement dry prosthetic. Methods: Twelve patients aged from 74 to 94 years with mean age of (84.0±2.5) years with internal fixation of bone cement dry prosthetic surgery who were treated at Department of Orthopaedics in Nanjing Medical University Affiliated Wuxi Second Hospital between May 2013 and May 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. There were 8 male and 4 female, 10 cases of tumble and 2 cases of traffic injury. The fracture types with AO type included 1 case of A1 type, 5 cases of A2 type, 3 cases of A3 type, 1 case of B1 type, 2 cases of B2 type. The steel plate internal fixation with bone cement dry prosthetic method was chosen to treat senile severe femoral fracture. Postoperative observation of postoperative pain assessment, hip joint activity and walking ability were evaluated. Paired simple t test and Wilcoxon rank sum test were used to compare the differences of pain score and the ability to walk. Results: Twelve cases received an average of (16.0±3.6) months follow-up. The average hospitalization days are (9.0±1.4) days and average of intraoperative time was (68.0±10.6) minutes. Intraoperative blood loss compared to normal was (106.0±24.2) ml. Patients began walking load and activities in two weeks. The gait and joint activities gradually restored and there were no obvious deformity and no loose internal fixation. All of the patients didn't have fracture shift with breaking plates or screws deformation and have no bone cement reaction. The walking ability was (4.1±0.9) points, the hip joint activities were 98.5°±7.7° and pain scores were 1.22±0.58 by Holden grading standards. The differences of walking ability (Z=-3.126, P<0.05) and pain scores (t=23.047, P<0.001) between pre- and post-operative were statistically significant. One patient had contralateral hip pain, 2 patients had lateral thigh pain, 10 patients returned to

  17. Locking-plate osteosynthesis versus intramedullary nailing for fixation of olecranon fractures: a biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Tobias E; Burkhart, Klaus J; Andres, Torsten; Dietz, Sven O; Klitscher, Daniela; Mueller, Lars P; Rommens, Pol M

    2013-05-01

    Intramedullary nailing and locked plating for fixation of olecranon fractures has recently gained popularity. However, these two new technologies have not been compared for their biomechanical efficacy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical stability of two newly designed fracture fixation devices for treating olecranon fractures during dynamic continuous loading: the ION intramedullary locking nail and the LCP precontoured locking compression plate. Simulated oblique olecranon fractures were created in eight pairs of fresh-frozen cadaver ulnae and stabilised using either the LCP or ION. Specimens were then subjected to continuous dynamic loading (from 25 to 200 N), with a continuous angle alteration between 0° and 90° of flexion, to perform a matched-pairs comparison. Significant differences in the distance between markers surrounding the fracture gap was determined using the Wilcoxon test after four and 300 loading cycles. The ION resulted in significantly less displacement in the fracture gap at 0° extension (P = 0.036), 45° flexion (P = 0.035) and 90° flexion (P = 0.017) after 300 cycles of continuous loading. The measured displacements were small and were probably not of clinical significance. No mechanical failure or hardware migration was seen with either fixation technique. This study shows significantly less micromotion for the ION than for the LCP in treating oblique olecranon fractures after 300 cycles of dynamic loading. Both implant types could be appropriate surgical techniques for fixation of selected olecranon fractures and osteotomies.

  18. Salter-Harris II forearm fracture reduction and fixation using a buttress plate.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Jonathan; Webb, Mark; v Fearon, Paul

    2014-01-31

    Distal radius fractures are common injuries in children. Those that affect the growth plate (physis) need to be managed carefully as inadequate management may lead to long-term deformity and a reduction in function. However, different management strategies all have drawbacks and controversy exists over how best to manage these cases. This is the case of a 13-year-old girl who presented with a Salter Harris II fracture, which was managed using a novel approach of utilising a T plate in a buttress mode to stabilise the fracture after anatomical reduction. This provided effective fracture fixation and should allow good bone healing without causing any iatrogenic growth plate damage and without fixing a plate across the physis, which may need removal in the future.

  19. Salter-Harris II forearm fracture reduction and fixation using a buttress plate

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Jonathan; Webb, Mark; Fearon, Paul v

    2014-01-01

    Distal radius fractures are common injuries in children. Those that affect the growth plate (physis) need to be managed carefully as inadequate management may lead to long-term deformity and a reduction in function. However, different management strategies all have drawbacks and controversy exists over how best to manage these cases. This is the case of a 13-year-old girl who presented with a Salter Harris II fracture, which was managed using a novel approach of utilising a T plate in a buttress mode to stabilise the fracture after anatomical reduction. This provided effective fracture fixation and should allow good bone healing without causing any iatrogenic growth plate damage and without fixing a plate across the physis, which may need removal in the future. PMID:24488665

  20. Biomechanical Assessment of Locked Plating for the Fixation of Patella Fractures.

    PubMed

    Wurm, Simone; Augat, Peter; Bühren, Volker

    2015-09-01

    To analyze the mechanical stability of locked plating in comparison with tension-band wiring for the fixation of fractures of the patella. Biomechanical tests were performed on artificial foam patella specimens comparing an angular stable plate and monocortical screws with tension-band wiring. Tests were performed under combined tension and bending until failure simulating physiological loading of the tibia during walking. Tension-band wiring failed at 66% of the failure load of plating (1052 N, P = 0.002) and had 5 times larger fracture gap displacements (P = 0.002). Based on the biomechanical advantages, locked plating of the patella may constitute a reasonable alternative in the treatment of patella fractures.

  1. Biomechanical Study of the Fixation Plates For Opening Wedge High Tibial Osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kug Jin; Song, Eun Kyoo; Seon, Jong Keun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare the mechanical stability of three types of plate systems for opening wedge high tibial osteotomy. Materials and Methods Forty-eight fresh frozen porcine tibia specimens were assigned to three different fixation device groups: Aescular group (16 specimens) was fixed with Aescular plates; Puddu group (16 specimens) with a Puddu plate, and TomoFix group (16 specimens) with a TomoFix plate. We compared axial displacements under compression loads from 200 to 2,000 N and maximal loads at failure among 8 specimens per group. We also compared displacements under cyclic load after 100 cycles at a compressive load of 2,000 N among 8 specimens per group. Results In all three groups, displacement under compression load increased with the increase in the axial compressive load; however, no significant intergroup differences were observed in the mean values under tested loading conditions. The mean maximal loads at failure were not significantly different (6,055, 6,798, and 6,973 N in the Aescular, Puddu, and TomoFix groups, respectively; p=0.41). While the TomoFix group showed less extension and strain during the cyclic load test, the mean values showed no significant differences among groups. Conclusions All three plate systems were found to provide fixation stability suitable for bearing axial compression and cyclic loads while walking. PMID:26389072

  2. Biomechanical comparison of supraacetabular external fixation and anterior pelvic bridge plating.

    PubMed

    Çavuşoğlu, Ali Turgay; Erbay, Fatma Kübra; Özsoy, Mehmet Hakan; Demir, Teyfik

    2017-10-01

    Unstable pelvic ring injuries are complex and risky injuries due to high morbidity and mortality. Although anterior pelvic external fixator is a suitable method for rapid stabilization of an injured pelvic ring, due to some disadvantages such as high complication rate, nerve damage, and difficulties of patient's mobility and comfort, there has recently been increased searching for alternative methods for stabilization of the pelvic ring. Pubic symphysis zone freely moves in pelvic models. This study aims to evaluate the biomechanical stability of anterior pelvic bridge plating and compare it with supraacetabular external fixators in an untreated unstable pelvic fracture model. Samples were loaded statically with 2-mm/min loading rate in single leg standing position. Maximum load was 2.3 kN. When loading the samples, photographs were taken continuously. Stiffness values were calculated from the load displacement curves. Some reference parameters were described and were measured from unloaded and 2.3-kN-loaded photographs of the test. The mean stiffness values were 491.14 ± 52.22, 478.55 ± 41.44, and 470.25 ± 44.51 N/mm for anterior pelvic bridge plating group, supraacetabular external fixator group, and Control group, respectively. According to the measured parameters from photographs, the mean displacement at the pubic symphysis was 4.7 ± 0.32, 15.8 ± 2.01, and 18.2 ± 0.47 mm for anterior pelvic bridge plating, supraacetabular external fixator, and Control group, respectively. The highest displacement in the pubic symphysis was found in Control group, and minimum displacement was observed in anterior pelvic bridge plating group. When the perpendicular distance between the right and left lower end of ischium was examined, it was observed that displacement was minimum in anterior pelvic bridge plating group compared to other two groups, regarding to the high stability of pubic symphysis. In conclusion, this study revealed

  3. Plating versus intramedullary fixation for mid-shaft clavicle fractures: a systemic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yan; Chen, Wei; Liu, Yue-Jv; Li, Xu; Wang, Hai-Li; Chen, Zhao-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Background. Plate fixation and intramedullary fixation are the most commonly used surgical treatment options for mid-shaft clavicle fractures; the latter method has demonstrated better performance in some studies. Objectives. Our aim was to critically review and summarize the literature comparing the outcomes of mid-shaft clavicle fracture treatment with plate fixation or intramedullary fixation to identify the better approach. Search Methods. Potential academic articles were identified from the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (1966-2015.5), PubMed (1966-2015.5), EMBASE (1980-2015.5) and ScienceDirect (1966-2015.5). Gray studies were identified from the references of the included literature. Selection Criteria. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs comparing plate fixation and intramedullary fixation for mid-shaft clavicle fracture were included. Data Collection and Analysis. Two reviewers performed independent data abstraction. The I (2) statistic was used to assess heterogeneity. A fixed- or random-effects model was used for the meta-analysis. Results. Six RCTs and nine non-RCTs were retrieved, including 513 patients in the intramedullary fixation group and 521 patients in the plating group. No significant differences in terms of the union rate and shoulder function were found between the groups. Patients in the intramedullary fixation group had a shorter operative time, less blood loss, smaller wound size, and shorter union time than those in the plating group. With respect to complications, significant differences were identified for all complications and major complications (wound infection, nonunion, implant failures, transient brachial plexopathy, and pain after 6 months). Similar secondary complications (symptomatic hardware, hardware irritation, prominence, numbness, hypertrophic callus) were observed in both groups. Conclusions. Intramedullary fixation may be superior to plate fixation in the treatment of mid-shaft clavicle fractures, with similar

  4. Finite element analysis of three patterns of internal fixation of fractures of the mandibular condyle.

    PubMed

    Aquilina, Peter; Chamoli, Uphar; Parr, William C H; Clausen, Philip D; Wroe, Stephen

    2013-06-01

    The most stable pattern of internal fixation for fractures of the mandibular condyle is a matter for ongoing discussion. In this study we investigated the stability of three commonly used patterns of plate fixation, and constructed finite element models of a simulated mandibular condylar fracture. The completed models were heterogeneous in the distribution of bony material properties, contained about 1.2 million elements, and incorporated simulated jaw-adducting musculature. Models were run assuming linear elasticity and isotropic material properties for bone. This model was considerably larger and more complex than previous finite element models that have been used to analyse the biomechanical behaviour of differing plating techniques. The use of two parallel 2.0 titanium miniplates gave a more stable configuration with lower mean element stresses and displacements over the use of a single miniplate. In addition, a parallel orientation of two miniplates resulted in lower stresses and displacements than did the use of two miniplates in an offset pattern. The use of two parallel titanium plates resulted in a superior biomechanical result as defined by mean element stresses and relative movement between the fractured fragments in these finite element models. Copyright © 2012 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Stoppa Approach for Anterior Plate Fixation in Unstable Pelvic Ring Injury

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Suk Kyu; Kim, Jung-Jae; Lee, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Background The Stoppa (intrapelvic) approach has been introduced for the treatment of pelvic-acetabular fractures; it allows easy exposure of the pelvic brim, where the bone quality is optimal for screw fixation. The purpose of our study was to investigate the surgical outcomes of unstable pelvic ring injuries treated using the Stoppa approach for stable anterior ring fixation. Methods We analyzed 22 cases of unstable pelvic ring injury treated with plate fixation of the anterior ring with the Stoppa approach. We excluded cases of nondisplaced rami fracture, simple symphyseal diastasis, and parasymphyseal fractures, which can be easily treated with other techniques. The average age of the study patients was 41 years (range, 23 to 61 years). There were 10 males and 12 females. According to the Young and Burgess classification, there were 12 lateral compression, 4 anteroposterior compression, and 6 vertical shear fracture patterns. The fracture location on the anterior ring was near the iliopectineal eminence in all cases and exposure of the pelvic brim was required for plate fixation. All patients were placed in the supine position. For anterior plate fixation, all screws were applied to the anterior ramus distally and directed above the hip joint proximally. Radiologic outcomes were assessed by union time and quality of reduction by Matta method. The Merle d'Aubigne-Postel score was used to evaluate the functional results. Results The average radiologic follow-up period was 16 months (range, 10 to 51 months). All fractures united at an average of 3.5 months (range, 3 to 5 months). According to the Matta method, the quality of reduction was classified as follows: 16 anatomical (73%) and 6 nearly anatomical (27%) reductions. There were no cases of screw or implant loosening before bone healing. The functional results were classified as 7 excellent (32%), 12 good (55%), and 3 fair (13%) by the Merle d'Aubigne-Postel score. There were no wound complications

  6. Treatment of Edentulous Mandibular Fractures with Rigid Internal Fixation: Case Series and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Franciosi, Edgardo; Mazzaro, Eduardo; Larranaga, Juan; Rios, Alfredo; Picco, Pedro; Figari, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to analyze the effectiveness of rigid internal fixation (RIF) for treating edentulous mandibular fractures. Because of the low incidence of fractures in edentulous mandible, there is no consensus of the optimal treatment for it. This study included all edentulous patients with mandibular fracture diagnosis, who were treated with internal fixation at the Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires from November 1991 to July 2011. Data such as age, gender, etiology and location of fracture, surgical approach, type of osteosynthesis used, and postoperative complications were analyzed. A total of 18 patients, 76.2 years mean age, 12 females (66.6%), presented a total of 35 mandibular fractures. The mandibular body was the most common localization of the fractures. Twenty-five fractures received surgical treatment with RIF, mainly approached extraorally. Reconstruction plates were the most common type of fixation used. Fracture reduction was considered satisfactory in 96.5%, with 22.2% of complications and 11.1% of reoperations needed. Open reduction and RIF demonstrated to be a reliable method for treating edentulous mandibular fractures. Nevertheless, there is lack of high-level recommendation publication to support this. PMID:24624255

  7. The calcar screw in angular stable plate fixation of proximal humeral fractures - a case study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background With new minimally-invasive approaches for angular stable plate fixation of proximal humeral fractures, the need for the placement of oblique inferomedial screws ('calcar screw') has increasingly been discussed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of calcar screws on secondary loss of reduction and on the occurrence of complications. Methods Patients with a proximal humeral fracture who underwent angular stable plate fixation between 01/2007 and 07/2009 were included. On AP views of the shoulder, the difference in height between humeral head and the proximal end of the plate were determined postoperatively and at follow-up. Additionally, the occurrence of complications was documented. Patients with calcar screws were assigned to group C+, patients without to group C-. Results Follow-up was possible in 60 patients (C+ 6.7 ± 5.6 M/C- 5.0 ± 2.8 M). Humeral head necrosis occurred in 6 (C+, 15.4%) and 3 (C-, 14.3%) cases. Cut-out of the proximal screws was observed in 3 (C+, 7.7%) and 1 (C-, 4.8%) cases. In each group, 1 patient showed delayed union. Implant failure or lesions of the axillary nerve were not observed. In 44 patients, true AP and Neer views were available to measure the head-plate distance. There was a significant loss of reduction in group C- (2.56 ± 2.65 mm) compared to C+ (0.77 ± 1.44 mm; p = 0.01). Conclusions The placement of calcar screws in the angular stable plate fixation of proximal humeral fractures is associated with less secondary loss of reduction by providing inferomedial support. An increased risk for complications could not be shown. PMID:21943090

  8. Use of self-tapping metal screws for temporary fixation of a resorbable plate system in maxillofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Iwai, Toshinori; Omura, Susumu; Aoki, Noriaki; Tohnai, Iwai

    2015-05-01

    Resorbable plate systems have been used in maxillofacial surgery to obviate the need for plate removal. However, resorbable plates and screws are very costly, and refixation with additional screws may be necessary when reduction or repositioning of the bone segment is inaccurate. Here we report the use of self-tapping metal screws for temporary fixation of a resorbable plating system in maxillofacial surgery to avoid the use of additional screws following inaccurate fixation or the reuse of resorbable screws, which may result in loosening.

  9. Morphological analysis of acromion and hook plate for the fixation of acromioclavicular joint dislocation.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jong Pil; Lee, Yeon Soo; Song, Geun Soo; Oh, Joo Han

    2017-03-01

    Acromioclavicular (AC) joint dislocation is a common sports injury. Hook plate fixation is currently widely used to treat this injury, as it can promote the natural healing of the ligament with good clinical outcomes. However, subacromial erosion and impingement are frequently observed post-operatively. It was hypothesized that the morphology and the contact characteristics between the hook portion and the acromion are the main causes of complications after hook plate fixation with the currently available commercial designs. Three-dimensional reconstructed models of the AC joint obtained from the computed tomographic scans of 23 male and 23 female patients (mean age, 61.1 ± 6.3 years) were evaluated, and multiple anatomical parameters were measured. For the subacromial positioning of the hook plate, an actual hook plate (Synthes Inc., West Chester, PA, USA) was scanned, and the contact between the hook plate and the acromion was estimated. The thicknesses of the acromion and distal clavicle were 9.7 ± 1.5 mm (10.7 mm in men; 8.6 mm in women) and 11.3 ± 1.6 mm (11.6 mm in men; 10.0 mm in women), respectively. The width of the acromion was 28.5 ± 3.6 mm. The mean inclination angle between the hook plate and the acromion was 29.3° ± 9.7° (27.9° in men; 30.6° in women). The hook plate made a point contact with the acromion at 9.2 ± 3.3 mm (31.5 %) from the lateral end of the acromion. The results revealed that the hook made a pinpoint contact with the undersurface of the acromion, and this might explain why complications commonly occur after hook plate fixation. The force concentration phenomenon associated with the hook plate of existing designs results from cases of morphological mismatch, such as excessive inclination and improper occupation of the subacromial space.

  10. Distal Forearm Fracture Open Reduction-Internal Fixation: Sonographic Detection of Hardware Malalignment and Associated Tendon Injuries Missed by Radiography.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Tara A; Piper, Samantha L; Lattanza, Lisa L; Goldstein, Ruth B; Link, Thomas; Motamedi, Daria

    2017-05-15

    Tendon injury is a known complication of distal radius fracture plate and screw fixation. Targeted musculoskeletal sonography is uniquely capable of assessing both tendon integrity and hardware abnormalities not recognized on radiographs. Each of the 3 patients described presented with pain after an open reduction-internal fixation following a distal forearm fracture. In each patient, radiographic findings, specifically the hardware position, were interpreted as normal. Important radiographically occult observations were subsequently made with sonography, including 3 proud screws and tendon injuries, all of which required surgical treatment. This case series demonstrates the clinical utility of musculoskeletal sonography in symptomatic patients after distal radius open reduction-internal fixation with negative radiographic findings. In our practice, sonography has been the most useful modality for precluding missing or delaying the diagnosis and treatment of these hardware complications. We advocate its use as an adjunct in any department performing musculoskeletal imaging. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  11. Contact problems for a circular plate with sliding fixation at the end face

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazarenko, N. A.

    2014-05-01

    Two mixed elasticity problems of punch indentation into a circular plate placed without clearance in a rigid cylindrical holder with smooth walls are considered. In the first problem, the plate lies without friction on a rigid base, and in the second problem, the plate is rigidly fixed to the base. The problems are solved by a method that was developed for bodies of finite dimensions and is based on the properties of closed systems of orthogonal functions. Each of the problems is reduced to two integral equations, namely, a Volterra integral equation of the first kind for the contact pressure function and a Fredholm integral equation of the first kind for the derivatives of the displacement of the plate upper surface outside the punch. The displacement function is sought as the sum of a trigonometric series and a power function with a root singularity. After truncation, the obtained illposed system of linear algebraic equation has a stable solution. A method for solving Volterra integral equations is given. The contact pressure distribution function and the dimensionless indentation force are determined. Examples of calculation of the plate interaction with the plane punch are given. Contact problems were earlier studied for a rectangle and a circular plate with a stress-free end both without taking account of their fixation [1, 2] and with regard for their fixation [3, 4]. The solution method described here was used to study the interaction of elastic hollow cylinder of finite length with a rigid bandage and a rigid insert [5, 6]. Other papers dealing with contact problems for bodies of finite dimensions, in particular, for a circular plate, should also be mentioned. In these papers, the problems under study were solved by the method of homogeneous solutions [7, 8] and by the method of coupled series-equations [9].

  12. [Results after internal fixation of humerus distal fractures in patients over than 65 years old].

    PubMed

    Serrano-Mateo, L; Lopiz, Y; León-Serrano, C; García-Fernández, C; López-Durán-Stern, L; Marco, F

    2014-01-01

    Distal humerus fractures in the elderly frequently associated with poor bone quality and comminution, making it harder to achieve proper osteosynthesis. Our aim is to evaluate the radiological and functional results of open reduction and internal fixation of these fractures. Retrospective study of 26 patients treated by open reduction and internal fixation between the years 2005-2010. Mean follow-up was 42 months. At final follow-up, a radiography evaluation (Knirk and Jupiter score) and clinical examination using Mayo Elbow Performance Score and Quick-Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Score was performed. Mean age of the group was 76.8 years (65-89), with 83% of the patients being female. Sixteen patients suffered type C fractures and 8 type A by AO classification. All underwent posterior surgical approach. Mean elbow flexion reached 118.86°, with a mean extension deficit of 25°. More than 3-quarters (79.1%) of the patients showed 0-1 grade degenerative changes on the X-ray films at final follow-up. Functional results reached an average 19.87 points on Quick-Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Score, and 85 points on Mayo Elbow Performance Score scores. Non-union occurred in 2 cases: distal humerus in one patient and olecranon osteotomy in another. Ulnar nerve neuropraxia was recorded in 2 cases, and radial nerve in one. All 3 recovered uneventfully. Revision surgery was required, with 2 patients needing hardware removal and one a new fixation. Treatment by open reduction and internal fixation with plating in elderly people for type A and C distal humerus fractures gives good functional results regarding this population, and thus scarcely disturbs their quality of life. Copyright © 2012 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Biomechanical evaluation of two plating configurations for fixation of a simple transverse caudal mandibular fracture model in cats.

    PubMed

    Greiner, Christopher L; Verstraete, Frank J M; Stover, Susan M; Garcia, Tanya C; Leale, Dustin; Arzi, Boaz

    2017-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate biomechanical properties of intact feline mandibles, compared with those for mandibles with an experimentally created osteotomy that was stabilized with 1 of 2 internal fixation configurations. SAMPLE 20 mandibles from 10 adult feline cadavers. PROCEDURES An incomplete block study design was used to assign the mandibles of each cadaver to 2 of 3 groups (locking plate with locking screws [locking construct], locking plate with nonlocking screws [nonlocking construct], or intact). Within each cadaver, mandibles were randomly assigned to the assigned treatments. For mandibles assigned to the locking and nonlocking constructs, a simple transverse osteotomy was created caudal to the mandibular first molar tooth after plate application. All mandibles were loaded in cantilever bending in a single-load-to-failure test while simultaneously recording load and actuator displacement. Mode of failure (bone or plate failure) was recorded, and radiographic evidence of tooth root and mandibular canal damage was evaluated. Mechanical properties were compared among the 3 groups. RESULTS Stiffness, bending moments, and most post-yield energies for mandibles with the locking and nonlocking constructs were significantly lower than those for intact mandibles. Peak bending moment and stiffness for mandibles with the locking construct were significantly greater than those for mandibles with the nonlocking construct. Mode of failure and frequency of screw damage to tooth roots and the mandibular canal did not differ between the locking and nonlocking constructs. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that both fixation constructs were mechanically inferior to intact mandibles. The locking construct was mechanically stronger than the nonlocking construct.

  14. Bone bonding ability of a new biodegradable composite for internal fixation of bone fractures.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, T; Matsusue, Y; Yasunaga, T; Nakagawa, Y; Shikinami, Y; Okuno, M; Nakamura, T

    2000-10-01

    Hydroxyapatite particles and poly(L-lactide) composites for internal fixation of bone fractures have been developed based on the hypothesis that incorporation of hydroxyapatite particles in a poly(L-lactide) matrix might enhance bone bonding. This study evaluated the bone bonding ability of these biodegradable composites. Two types of hydroxyapatite and poly(L-lactide) composite were used in this study: calcined hydroxyapatite/poly(L-lactide) and uncalcined hydroxyapatite/poly(L-lactide). Rectangular plates (2 x 10 x 15 mm) of each composite or poly(L-lactide) were implanted into the metaphysis of the tibiae of 33 male rabbits, and the failure load was measured by conducting a detaching test 8, 16, and 25 weeks after implantation. The failure loads of calcined hydroxyapatite/poly(L-lactide), uncalcined hydroxyapatite/poly(L-lactide), and poly(L-lactide), respectively, were 13.60, 13.95, and 0.46 N at 8 weeks; 29.84, 24.09, and 2.86 N at 16 weeks; and 25.50, 29.67, and 2.43 N at 25 weeks. Histologic observation revealed that the composites formed direct contact with the bone. The results in this study indicate that the composites improved the strength of the interface between bone and plate. This improved interfacial strength lead to a substantial decrease in the frequency of implant loosening in the treatment of fractured bones by internal fixation.

  15. [Treatment of type C3 distal femoral fractures with double-plating fixation via anteriormiddle approach].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Min; Liu, Jian; Huang, Chun-Xia; Zhao, Zhan-Fu; Wang, Gang; Qin, Cong-Cong

    2012-12-01

    To investigate clinical efficacy and feasibility of double-plating fixation via anteriormiddle approach in treating type C3 distal femoral fractures. From August 2008 to August 2011, 12 cases with type C3 distal femoral fractures were treated, including 5 open fractures and 7 closed fractures. Among them, there were 8 males, 4 females with an average of 40 years (ranged, 25 to 55 years). There were 7 in left side, 5 in right side. Nine cases were caused by car accident, 3 cases by falling down. The duration from injury to hospital was form 20 minutes to 5 days (mean 135 min). After tibia bone traction for 5 to 8 days, the operation were performed by double-plating fixation via anteriormiddle approach, and autograft of iliac bone or allograft bone grafting were given to bone defect. Knee joint function was evaluated according to Merchanetal criteria. The operation time was from 110 to 160 min, with an average of 135 min, the blood loss was from 300 ml to 500 ml,with an average of 400 ml. Post-operative wound were stage I healing. All patients were followed up from 16 to 36 months (mean 24 months). No infection, reduction loss, nonunion, deep vein thrombosis occurred. Bone healing time was for 18 to 24 weeks with an average of 21 weeks. According to the Merchanetal criteria, 4 cases got excellent results, 6 good, 1 fair and 1 poor. Double-plating fixation via anteriormiddle approach for type C3 distal femoral fractures is an effective way, which has advantages of obvious exposure, simple manipulation, anatomical reduction, stable fixation. However,operation indications and operating instructions should be strictly followed.

  16. Comparison of outcome of tibial plafond fractures managed by hybrid external fixation versus two-stage management with final plate fixation

    PubMed Central

    Cisneros, Luis Natera; Gómez, Mireia; Alvarez, Carlos; Millán, Angélica; De Caso, Julio; Soria, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tibial platfond fractures are usually associated with massive swelling of the foot and ankle, as well as with open wounds. This swelling may cause significant decrease of the blood flow, so the state of the soft tissue is determinant for the surgical indication and the type of implant. This retrospective study compares the union times in cases of tibial plafond fractures managed with a hybrid external fixation as a definitive procedure versus those managed with a two stage strategy with final plate fixation. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study in a polytrauma referral hospital was performed between 2005 and 2011. Patients with a tibial plafond fracture, managed with a hybrid external fixation as a definitive procedure or managed with a two stage strategy with the final plate fixation were included in the study. Postoperative radiographs were evaluated by two senior surgeons. Fracture healing was defined as callus bridging of one cortex, seen on both lateral and anteroposterior X-ray. The clinical outcome was evaluated by means of 11 points Numerical Rating Scale for pain and The American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle score, assessed at the last followup visit. Thirteen patients had been managed with a hybrid external fixation and 18 with a two-stage strategy with the final plate fixation. There were 14 males and 17 females with a mean age of 48 years (range 19–82 years). The mean followup was 24 months (range 24–70 months). Results: The mean time from surgery to weight bearing was 7 ± 6.36 days for the hybrid fixation group and 57.43 ± 15.46 days for the plate fixation group (P < 0.0001); and the mean time from fracture to radiological union was 133.82 ± 37.83) and 152.8 ± 72.33 days respectively (P = 0.560). Conclusion: Besides the differences between groups regarding the baseline characteristics of patients, the results of this study suggest that in cases of tibial plafond fractures, the management with a hybrid external

  17. Locking plate fixation of distal femoral fractures is a challenging technique: a retrospective review

    PubMed Central

    Toro, Giuseppe; Calabrò, Giampiero; Toro, Antonio; de Sire, Alessandro; Iolascon, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Summary Distal femoral fractures have typically a bimodal occurrence: in young people due to a high-energy trauma and in older people related to a low-energy trauma. These fractures are associated to a very high morbidity and mortality in elderly. Distal femoral fractures might be treated with plates, intramedullary nails, external fixations, and prosthesis. However, difficulties in fracture healing and the rate of complications are important clinical issues. The purpose of this retrospective review was to present our experience in treatment of distal femoral fracture in a sample of older people in order to evaluate the technical pitfalls and strategies used to face up the fractures unsuccessfully treated with locking plates. We included people aged more than 65 years, with a diagnosis of distal femoral fracture, treated with locking plates. We considered ‘unsuccessfully treated’ the cases with healing problems or hardware failures. Of the 12 patients (9 females and 3 males; mean aged 68.75 ± 3.31 years) included, we observed 3 ‘unsuccessfully cases’, 2 due to nonunions and 1 due to an early hardware failure, all treated using a condylar blade plate with a bone graft. One patient obtained a complete fracture healing after 1 year and in the other cases there was a nonunion. We observed as most common technical pitfalls: inadequate plate lengthening, fracture bridging, and number of locking screws. The use of locking plates is an emerging technique to treat these fractures but it seems more challenging than expected. In literature there is a lack of evidences about the surgical management of distal femoral fractures that is still an important challenge for the orthopaedic surgeon that has to be able to use all the fixation devices available. PMID:27134634

  18. [Unstable thorax fixation with bioabsorbable plates and screws. Presentation of some cases].

    PubMed

    Nolasco-de la Rosa, Ana Lilia; Mosiñoz-Montes, Roberto; Matehuala-García, Jesús; Román-Guzmán, Edgardo; Quero-Sandoval, Fidel; Reyes-Miranda, Alma Lorena

    2015-01-01

    Flail chest is managed with mechanical ventilation or inhalation therapy, and analgesia. Mechanical ventilations carry risks by themselves and disengage with the external fixators so they must be operated to improve lung ventilatory mechanics and cleaning. Little has been published on the use of bioabsorbable material and its evolution in the setting of flail chest. A material that did had to be retired, that presented the malleability of titanium and its inflammatory reaction was minimal and could be handled in both adults and children was investigated. Here is shown a descriptive study of patients with flail chest under rib fixation with plates and bioabsorbable screws. 18 cases are presented, aged 33-74 years, three with bilateral flail chest; fixation was performed between days 1-21 of the accident. In cases that showed no fractures pelvic limbs, gait next day restarted fi ng in all cases improved mechanical ventilation, pain decreased, none has so far presented reaction material. Flail chest has a high (16.3%) mortality when no management provides the pathophysiology of the condition (pain, poor mechanical ventilation, alveolar edema-pulmonary contusion). The use of bioabsorbable material has no side effects attributable to material which is another option for rib fixation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A.

  19. External Fixation combined with Limited Internal Fixation versus Open Reduction Internal Fixation for Treating Ruedi-Allgower Type III Pilon Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yongzhi; Tong, Liangyong; Li, Shaoguang; Liu, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Background The optimal treatment of type III pilon fractures remains controversial. Hence, we performed this study to investigate whether open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) is superior to external fixations combined with limited internal fixations (EFLIF). Material/Methods From January 2012 to October 2013, a total of 78 patients were included. Twenty-six patients underwent EFLIF and 52 patients underwent ORIF. All subjects were followed up at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. All outcomes and complications were recorded. Results No statistical differences were observed in Mazur score or ROM between the 2 groups. There were significant differences between the 2 groups in hospital stay (P<0.001), reduction results (P=0.019), screw loosening (P=0.025), and traumatic arthritis (P=0.037). Conclusions Similar functional outcomes were achieved in EFLIF and ORIF groups. Due to several limitations of this study, a well-designed randomized controlled trial involving more patients and long-term follow-up is needed to find an optimal treatment protocol. PMID:26050786

  20. Reducing the risk of flexor pollicis longus tendon rupture after volar plate fixation for distal radius fractures: validation of the tendon irritation test.

    PubMed

    Suganuma, Seigo; Tada, Kaoru; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2014-12-01

    We have proposed that a positive tendon irritation test is suggestive of flexor pollicis longus (FPL) tendon damage that can lead to tendon rupture after volar plate fixation for distal radius fractures. We investigated cases of postsurgical hardware removal and validated the tendon irritation test as a way to elicit a sign of FPL tendon irritation. We performed hardware removal from 30 wrists in 28 consecutive patients after volar plate fixation. Subjects included 9 men and 19 women with an average age of 58.8 years. The duration of internal fixation averaged 14.5 months. We investigated the efficacy of the tendon irritation test to elicit a sign of tendon irritation before hardware removal, and we intraoperatively evaluated the presence of FPL tendon injuries. Twenty-four of 30 wrists exhibited a sign of tendon irritation. There was no statistical correlation between a sign of tendon irritation and patient age or the duration of internal fixation. We diagnosed 10 wrists with tenosynovitis and 8 frayed tendons. The sensitivity of the tendon irritation test to identify a sign of tendon irritation that was associated with FPL tendon injuries was 80.0%, and its specificity to correctly identify non-injured FPL tendons was 40.0%. The duration of internal fixation associated with tendon fraying was significantly longer than it was in cases of non-injured tendons and tenosynovitis. Our results suggest that subsequent examinations should be performed when the tendon irritation test is positive for signs of tendon irritation that may require plate removal.

  1. Enhancing fixation strength in periprosthetic femur fractures by orthogonal plating-A biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Lenz, Mark; Stoffel, Karl; Gueorguiev, Boyko; Klos, Kajetan; Kielstein, Heike; Hofmann, Gunther O

    2016-04-01

    Orthogonal plate osteosynthesis enhances fixation stability in periprosthetic femur fractures. Another option are locking attachment plates (LAP) allowing bicortical locking screw placement lateral to the prosthesis stem. Stability of lateral plate osteosynthesis with two LAP (2LAP) was compared to anterolateral orthogonal plate osteosynthesis (OP) with one LAP in a periprosthetic femur fracture model. In six pairs of fresh frozen human femora with cemented Charnley hip prosthesis, a transverse osteotomy was set distal to the tip of the prosthesis simulating a Vancouver type B1 fracture. Each pair was instrumented using a plate tensioner with either one lateral plate and two LAP, or two orthogonal anterolateral plates and one LAP. Stiffness was determined in a four-point-bending test prior to cyclic testing (2Hz) with physiologic profile and progressively increasing load up to catastrophic construct failure. Paired t-test and Wilcoxon-signed-rank test were used for statistical evaluation at a level of significance p = 0.05. The OP construct exhibited a significantly higher number of cycles and load to failure (39,627 cycles ± 4,056; 4,463 N ± 906) compared to the 2LAP construct (32,927 cycles ± 3,487; 3,793 N ± 849), p < 0.01. Mediolateral bending and torsional stiffness of the OP (1610 N/mm ± 249; 16.9 Nm/mm ± 6.3) were significantly higher compared to 2 LAP (1077 N/mm ± 189; 12.1 Nm/mm ± 3.9), p = 0.03 for both comparisons. Orthogonal plate osteosynthesis is a valuable option in periprosthetic fracture surgery, offering increased stability compared to a single lateral plate fixed with two LAP.

  2. In vivo analysis of acromioclavicular joint motion after hook plate fixation using three-dimensional computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoon Sang; Yoo, Yon-Sik; Jang, Seong Wook; Nair, Ayyappan Vijayachandran; Jin, Hyonki; Song, Hyun-Seok

    2015-07-01

    The clavicle hook plate can be used to treat acromioclavicular and coracoclavicular ligament injury or distal clavicular fracture with comminution. However, the hook plate can induce subacromial impingement, resulting in discomfort from the hardware. Our inclusion criteria were (1) men and women aged older than 20 years and (2) the presence of comminuted distal clavicular fractures (Neer type IIB) fixed with a hook plate (Synthes, Oberdorf, Switzerland). Three-dimensional computed tomography was obtained before removal of the hook plate. Seven patients were enrolled prospectively. The mean age was 42 years (range, 24-60 years). Zero degree images and abduction images were obtained. The sagittal cut surface was obtained 5 mm medial from the distal clavicle. The equator of the cut surface of the clavicle was compared with the full abduction model to analyze rotation. The center of the cut surface of the clavicle was compared with the full abduction model to analyze translation. The average difference in rotation of the distal clavicle between both shoulders was 16° (range, 3°-22°; P = .001). The mean difference in anterior translation of the distal clavicle was 2.2 mm (range, -0.7 to 5.6 mm; P = .030). Hook plate fixation at the acromioclavicular joint causes decreased internal rotation and increased anterior translation of the distal clavicle with respect to the medial acromion, indicating that the scapula relative to the thorax has decreased posterior tilting and increased external rotation in shoulders fixed using a hook plate. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mechanical testing of a device for subcutaneous internal anterior pelvic ring fixation versus external pelvic ring fixation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although useful in the emergency treatment of pelvic ring injuries, external fixation is associated with pin tract infections, the patient’s limited mobility and a restricted surgical accessibility to the lower abdomen. In this study, the mechanical stability of a subcutaneous internal anterior fixation (SIAF) system is investigated. Methods A standard external fixation and a SIAF system were tested on pairs of Polyoxymethylene testing cylinders using a universal testing machine. Each specimen was subjected to a total of 2000 consecutive cyclic loadings at 1 Hz with sinusoidal lateral compression/distraction (+/−50 N) and torque (+/− 0.5 Nm) loading alternating every 200 cycles. Translational and rotational stiffness were determined at 100, 300, 500, 700 and 900 cycles. Results There was no significant difference in translational stiffness between the SIAF and the standard external fixation when compared at 500 (p = .089), 700 (p = .081), and 900 (p = .266) cycles. Rotational stiffness observed for the SIAF was about 50 percent higher than the standard external fixation at 300 (p = .005), 500 (p = .020), and 900 (p = .005) cycles. No loosening or failure of the rod-pin/rod-screw interfaces was seen. Conclusions In comparison with the standard external fixation system, the tested device for subcutaneous internal anterior fixation (SIAF) in vitro has similar translational and superior rotational stiffness. PMID:24684828

  4. New concept of 3D printed bone clip (polylactic acid/hydroxyapatite/silk composite) for internal fixation of bone fractures.

    PubMed

    Yeon, Yeung Kyu; Park, Hae Sang; Lee, Jung Min; Lee, Ji Seung; Lee, Young Jin; Sultan, Md Tipu; Seo, Ye Bin; Lee, Ok Joo; Kim, Soon Hee; Park, Chan Hum

    2017-09-22

    Open reduction with internal fixation is commonly used for the treatment of bone fractures. However, postoperative infection associated with internal fixation devices (intramedullary nails, plates, and screws) remains a significant complication, and it is technically difficult to fix multiple fragmented bony fractures using internal fixation devices. In addition, drilling in the bone to install devices can lead to secondary fracture, bone necrosis associated with postoperative infection. In this study, we developed bone clip type internal fixation device using three- dimensional (3D) printing technology. Standard 3D model of the bone clip was generated based on computed tomography (CT) scan of the femur in the rat. Polylacticacid (PLA), hydroxyapatite (HA), and silk were used for bone clip material. The purpose of this study was to characterize 3D printed PLA, PLA/HA, and PLA/HA/Silk composite bone clip and evaluate the feasibility of these bone clips as an internal fixation device. Based on the results, PLA/HA/Silk composite bone clip showed similar mechanical property, and superior biocompatibility compared to other types of the bone clip. PLA/HA/Silk composite bone clip demonstrated excellent alignment of the bony segments across the femur fracture site with well-positioned bone clip in an animal study. Our 3D printed bone clips have several advantages: (1) relatively noninvasive (drilling in the bone is not necessary), (2) patient-specific design (3) mechanically stable device, and (4) it provides high biocompatibility. Therefore, we suggest that our 3D printed PLA/HA/Silk composite bone clip is a possible internal fixation device.

  5. Bladder incarceration following anterior external fixation of a traumatic pubic symphysis diastasis treated with immediate open reduction and internal fixation

    PubMed Central

    Finnan, Ryan P; Herbenick, Michael A; Prayson, Michael J; McCarthy, Mary C

    2008-01-01

    Anterior pelvic ring disruptions are often associated with injuries to the genitourinary structures with the potential for considerable resultant morbidity. Herniation of the bladder into the symphyseal region after injury with subsequent entrapment upon reduction of the symphyseal diastasis has seldom been reported in the literature. We report such a case involving bladder herniation and subsequent entrapment after attempted closed reduction with anterior pelvic external fixation immediately treated with open reduction and internal fixation along with a review of the literature. PMID:18928569

  6. Biomechanical evaluation of suture-augmented locking plate fixation for proximal third fractures of the olecranon.

    PubMed

    Wild, Jason R; Askam, Brad M; Margolis, David S; Geffre, Christopher P; Krupinski, Elizabeth A; Truchan, Lisa M

    2012-09-01

    To describe a method of suture augmentation of locking plate fixation (PF) of proximal olecranon fractures and to evaluate the biomechanical effectiveness of the suture augmentation using a human cadaveric model. Six matched pairs of cadaveric elbows were used. Proximal one-third fractures of the olecranon were simulated via a transverse osteotomy. Identical locking PF was performed on each elbow using olecranon locking plates. One elbow of each pair was assigned to suture augmentation of the construct. The choice of left/right specimen for augmentation was performed in an alternating fashion. Augmentation was performed using a no. 2 ultra-high-molecular weight polyethylene-braided suture attaching the triceps to the plate via a modified Krackow stitch. The elbows were mounted into a custom jig and linearly loaded to failure using a hydraulic testing machine. Load to and modes of failure were recorded for each sample. The data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test for nonparametric distributions. Suture augmentation improved the single load-to-failure strength in all pairs. One pair was excluded due to failure of the triceps attachment to the test machine. A median 398 N (P = 0.04 range, 197-633 N) or a median 48% (range, 30%-130%) improvement in strength was seen. The most common mode of failure was loss of fixation of the proximal olecranon fragment. Suture augmentation can significantly increase the single load-to-failure strength of locking PF for proximal olecranon fractures.

  7. Patient-tailored plate for bone fixation and accurate 3D positioning in corrective osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Dobbe, J G G; Vroemen, J C; Strackee, S D; Streekstra, G J

    2013-02-01

    A bone fracture may lead to malunion of bone segments, which gives discomfort to the patient and may lead to chronic pain, reduced function and finally to early osteoarthritis. Corrective osteotomy is a treatment option to realign the bone segments. In this procedure, the surgeon tries to improve alignment by cutting the bone at, or near, the fracture location and fixates the bone segments in an improved position, using a plate and screws. Three-dimensional positioning is very complex and difficult to plan, perform and evaluate using standard 2D fluoroscopy imaging. This study introduces a new technique that uses preoperative 3D imaging to plan positioning and design a patient-tailored fixation plate that only fits in one way and realigns the bone segments as planned. The method is evaluated using artificial bones and renders realignment highly accurate and very reproducible (d(err) < 1.2 ± 0.8 mm and φ(err) < 1.8° ± 2.1°). Application of a patient-tailored plate is expected to be of great value for future corrective osteotomy surgeries.

  8. Surgical Outcomes of Biologic Fixation for Subtrochanteric Fracture Using Locking Compression Plates

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jae Hoon; Ahn, Jae Min; Lee, Hee Jin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to evaluate the surgical outcomes of biologic plating using locking compression plate-distal femur (LCP-DF) in patients with subtrochanteric fracture of the femur. Materials and Methods Between January 2010 and December 2013, 28 consecutive patients with subtrochanteric fractures of the femur, treated with biologic fixation using LCP-DF, were enrolled. Preoperative values, including patient age, sex, body mass index, fracture type, type of lung injury, and surgical timing from injury to surgery, were retrospectively evaluated. Radiologic assessments included time to union, coronal alignment, rotational alignment, and complications such as implant breakage and screw breakage. Adverse events, including postoperative fat embolism and adult respiratory distress syndrome, infection during the follow-up period, and walking ability at the last follow-up visit, were assessed. Results Union was achieved in 27 patients (96.4%) after a mean duration of 5.4 months (range, 3-14 months). No patients developed fat embolism or adult respiratory distress syndrome during the hospitalization period of this study. Conclusion Biologic fixation using locking compression plates may represent a safe surgical option which can be utilized in patients with subtrochanteric fracture regardless of injury severity, surgical timing, fracture type, and presence of lung injury. PMID:28316965

  9. Bioburden after Staphylococcus aureus inoculation in type 1 diabetic rats undergoing internal fixation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Nga L; Rose, Michael B; Blueschke, Gert; Cho, Eugenia H; Schoenfisch, Mark H; Erdmann, Detlev; Klitzman, Bruce

    2014-09-01

    Fracture stabilization in the diabetic patient is associated with higher complication rates, particularly infection and impaired wound healing, which can lead to major tissue damage, osteomyelitis, and higher amputation rates. With an increasing prevalence of diabetes and an aging population, the risks of infection of internal fixation devices are expected to grow. Although numerous retrospective clinical studies have identified a relationship between diabetes and infection, currently there are few animal models that have been used to investigate postoperative surgical-site infections associated with internal fixator implantation and diabetes. The authors therefore refined the protocol for inducing hyperglycemia and compared the bacterial burden in controls to pharmacologically induced type 1 diabetic rats after undergoing internal fracture plate fixation and Staphylococcus aureus surgical-site inoculation. Using an initial series of streptozotocin doses, followed by optional additional doses to reach a target blood glucose range of 300 to 600 mg/dl, the authors reliably induced diabetes in 100 percent of the rats (n = 16), in which a narrow hyperglycemic range was maintained 14 days after onset of diabetes (mean ± SEM, 466 ± 16 mg/dl; coefficient of variation, 0.15). With respect to their primary endpoint, the authors quantified a significantly higher infectious burden in inoculated diabetic animals (median, 3.2 × 10 colony-forming units/mg dry tissue) compared with inoculated nondiabetic animals (7.2 × 10 colony-forming units/mg dry tissue). These data support the authors' hypothesis that uncontrolled diabetes adversely affects the immune system's ability to clear Staphylococcus aureus associated with internal hardware.

  10. Biomechanical comparison of straight and helical compression plates for fixation of transverse and oblique bone fractures: Modeling and experiments.

    PubMed

    Sezek, Sinan; Aksakal, Bunyamin; Gürger, Murat; Malkoc, Melih; Say, Y

    2016-08-12

    Total deformation and stability of straight and helical compression plates were studied by means of the finite element method (FEM) and in vitro biomechanical experiments. Fixations of transverse (TF) and oblique (45°) bone (OF) fractures have been analyzed on sheep tibias by designing the straight compression (SP) and Helical Compression Plate (HP) models. The effects of axial compression, bending and torsion loads on both plating systems were analyzed in terms of total displacements. Numerical models and experimental models suggested that under compression loadings, bone fracture gap closures for both fracture types were found to be in the favor of helical plate designs. The helical plate (HP) fixations provided maximum torsional resistance compared to the (SP) fixations. The fracture gap closure and stability of helical plate fixation for transverse fractures was determined to be higher than that found for the oblique fractures. The comparison of average compression stress, bending and torsion moments showed that the FEM and experimental results are in good agreement and such designs are likely to have a positive impact in future bone fracture fixation designs.

  11. Assessment of function-graded materials as fracture fixation bone-plates under combined loading conditions using finite element modelling.

    PubMed

    Fouad, H

    2011-05-01

    In previous work by Fouad (Medical Engineering and Physics 2010 [23]), 3D finite element (FE) models for fractured bones with function-graded (FG) bone-plates and traditional bone-plates made of stainless steel (SS) and titanium (Ti) alloy were examined under compressive loading conditions using the ABAQUS Code. In this study, the effects of the presence of the torsional load in addition to the compressive load on the predicted stresses of the fracture fixation bone-plate system are examined at different healing stages. The effects on the stress on the fracture site when using contacted and non-contacted bone-plate systems are also studied. The FE modelling results indicate that the torsional load has significant effects on the resultant stress on the fracture fixation bone-plate system, which should be taken into consideration during the design and the analysis. The results also show that the stress shielding at the fracture site decreases significantly when using FG bone-plates compared to Ti alloy or SS bone-plates. The presence of a gap between the bone and the plate results in a remarkable reduction in bone stress shielding at the fracture site. Therefore, the significant effects of using an FG bone-plate with a gap and the presence of torsional load on the resultant stress on the fracture fixation bone-plate system should be taken into consideration.

  12. Managing Vancouver B1 fractures by cerclage system compared to locking plate fixation - a biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Katharina; Winkler, Martin; Hofstädter, Thomas; Dorn, Ulrich; Augat, Peter

    2016-06-01

    With increasing life expectancy and number of total hip arthroplasties (THA), the need for revision surgery is increasing too. The aim of this study was to evaluate the optimal fracture treatment for a clinically characteristic Vancouver B1 fracture. We hypothesized that locking plate fixation has biomechanical advantages over fixation with a simple cerclage system. Additionally, we hypothesized that removal of the primary short stem and revision with a long stem would show biomechanical benefit. The biomechanical testing was performed with a static and a dynamic loading protocol on twenty 4th Generation sawbones. These were divided into four different groups (n = 5 each). In group 1, the primary uncemented short stem remained and the fracture was stabilized with a locking plate. In group 2, the primary stem remained and the fracture was stabilized with a cerclage stabilization system containing two stabilizers and four cerclages. In group 3, the primary stem was replaced by an uncemented long revision stem and the fracture was fixed with a locking plate. In group 4, the short stem was replaced by a long revision stem and the fracture was fixed with the cerclage system. Static testing revealed that the revision of the short stem with the long stem caused a 2-fold (p < 0.001, ANOVA) increase of axial stiffness. In dynamic testing, the number of cycles to failure was 4 times (p < 0.001, ANOVA) higher with the long revision stem. Compared to locked plating cerclage wiring demonstrated a 26% more cycles to failure (p = 0.031, ANOVA). The load to failure was 91% larger (p < 0.001, ANOVA) with the long revision stem and 11% smaller with locked plating (p < 0.001, ANOVA). In conclusion, the present biomechanical study indicates that periprosthetic Vancouver B1 fractures can be sufficiently fixed by simple cerclage systems. Revision with a long replacement stem provides a superior mechanical stability regardless of type of osteosynthesis fixation and is therefore a viable

  13. [Biphasic ceramic wedge and plate fixation with locked adjustable screws for open wedge tibial osteotomy].

    PubMed

    Lavallé, F; Pascal-Mousselard, H; Rouvillain, J L; Ribeyre, D; Delattre, O; Catonné, Y

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this radiological study was to evaluate the use of a biphasic ceramic wedge combined with plate fixation with locked adjustable screws for open wedge tibial osteotomy. Twenty-six consecutive patients (27 knees) underwent surgery between December 1999 and March 2002 to establish a normal lower-limb axis. The series included 6 women and 20 men, mean age 50 years (16 right knees and 11 left knees). Partial weight-bearing with crutches was allowed on day 1. A standard radiological assessment was performed on day 1, 90, and 360 (plain AP and lateral stance films of the knee). A pangonogram was performed before surgery and at day 360. Presence of a lateral metaphyseal space, development of peripheral cortical bridges, and osteointegration of the bone substitute-bone interface were evaluated used to assess bone healing. The medial tibial angle between the line tangent to the tibial plateau and the anatomic axis of the tibia (beta) was evaluated to assess preservation of postoperative correction. The HKA angle was determined. Three patients were lost to follow-up and 23 patients (24 knees) were retained for analysis. At last follow-up, presence of peripheral cortical bridges and complete filling of the lateral metaphyseal space demonstrated bone healing in all patients. Good quality osteointegration was achieved since 21 knees did not present an interface between the bone substitute and native bone (homogeneous transition zone). The beta angle was unchanged for 23 knees. A normal axis was observed in patients (16 knees) postoperatively. Use of a biphasic ceramic wedge in combination with plate fixation with locked adjustable screws is a reliable option for open wedge tibial osteotomy. The bone substitute fills the gap well. Tolerance and integration are optimal. Bone healing is achieved. Plate fixation with protected weight bearing appears to be a solid assembly, maintaining these corrections.

  14. A new volar plate DiPhos-RM for fixation of distal radius fracture: preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Tarallo, Luigi; Mugnai, Raffaele; Adani, Roberto; Catani, Fabio

    2013-03-01

    We analyzed the efficiency of a new plate DiPhos-RM in CFR-PEEK [carbon-fiber-reinforced poly (etheretherketone)] for the volar fixation of distal radius fractures. The new plate's composition has the advantage of x-ray absolute transparency, therefore allowing to monitor the healing of the fracture. The desired combination of high strength and low rigidity is obtained through the use of the polymer composites CFR-PEEK. In this preliminary study (from March 2012 to June 2012), 10 cases of intra-articular distal radius fractures were treated with DiPhos-RM produced by Lima Corporate (Italy). The fractures were classified according to the AO classification, 4 fractures were type C1, 3 type C2, and 3 were A2. A preoperative computed tomography scan was carried out in all patients. One patient also underwent a postoperative computed tomography scan. Grip strength, range of motion, and DASH score were evaluated at follow-up. There were no cases of hardware failure. Specifically, no loss of position or alignment of fixed-angle locking screws or breakage of the plate were observed. Radiographic union was present at an average of 6 weeks (range, 5 to 8 wk). The overall preliminary experience with this new plate is favorable. The new plate is easy to apply and provides the surgeon dual options of fixed-angle or variable-angle screws. It was rigid enough to maintain the reduction also in AO type C articular fractures.

  15. A biomechanical comparison of conventional versus an anatomic plate and compression bolts for fixation of intra-articular calcaneal fractures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haili; Yang, Zhaoxu; Wu, Zhanpo; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Qi; Li, Ming; Li, Zhiyong; Zhang, Yingze

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the biomechanical stability obtained by using our technique featured an anatomical plate and compression bolts versus that of the conventional anatomic plate and cancellous screws in the fixation of intraarticular calcaneal fractures. Eighteen fresh frozen lower limbs of cadavers were used to create a reproductive Sanders type-III calcaneal fracture model by using osteotomy. The calcaneus fractures were randomly selected to be fixed either using our anatomical plate and compression bolts or conventional anatomic plate and cancellous screws. Reduction of fracture was evaluated through X radiographs. Each calcaneus was successively loaded at a frequency of 1 Hz for 1000 cycles through the talus using an increasing axial force 20 N to 200 N and 20 N to 700 N, representing the partial weight bearing and full weight bearing, respectively, and then the specimens were loaded to failure. Data extracted from the mechanical testing machine were recorded and used to test for difference in the results with the Wilcoxon signed rank test. No significant difference was found between our fixation technique and conventional technique in displacement during 20-200 N cyclic loading (P=0.06), while the anatomical plate and compression bolts showed a great lower irreversible deformation during 20-700 N cyclic loading (P=0.008). The load achieved at loss of fixation of the constructs for the two groups had significant difference: anatomic plate and compression bolts at 3839.6±152.4 N and anatomic plate and cancellous screws at 3087.3±58.9 N (P=0.008). There was no significant difference between the ultimate displacements. Our technique featured anatomical plate and compression bolts for calcaneus fracture fixation was demonstrated to provide biomechanical stability as good as or better than the conventional anatomic plate and cancellous screws under the axial loading. The study supports the mechanical viability of using our plate and

  16. Influence of internal fixation systems on radiation therapy for spinal tumor.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingfeng; Yan, Lei; Wang, Jianping; Cai, Lin; Hu, Dongcai

    2015-07-08

    In this study, the influence of internal fixation systems on radiation therapy for spinal tumor was investigated in order to derive a theoretical basis for adjustment of radiation dose for patients with spinal tumor and internal fixation. Based on a common method of internal fixation after resection of spinal tumor, different models of spinal internal fixation were constructed using the lumbar vertebra of fresh domestic pigs and titanium alloy as the internal fixation system. Variations in radiation dose in the vertebral body and partial spinal cord in different types of internal fixation were studied under the same radiation condition (6 MV and 600 mGy) in different fixation models and compared with those irradiated based on the treatment planning system (TPS). Our results showed that spinal internal fixation materials have great impact on the radiation dose absorbed by spinal tumors. Under the same radiation condition, the influence of anterior internal fixation material or combined anterior and posterior approach on radiation dose at the anterior border of the vertebral body was the greatest. Regardless of the kinds of internal fixation method employed, radiation dose at the anterior border of the vertebral body was significantly different from that at other positions. Notably, the influence of posterior internal fixation material on the anterior wall of the vertebral canal was the greatest. X-ray attenuation and scattering should be taken into consideration for most patients with bone metastasis that receive fixation of metal implants. Further evaluation should then be conducted with modified TPS in order to minimize the potentially harmful effects of inappropriate radiation dose.

  17. Mechanical analysis of a rodent segmental bone defect model: the effects of internal fixation and implant stiffness on load transfer.

    PubMed

    Yavari, S Amin; van der Stok, J; Ahmadi, S M; Wauthle, R; Schrooten, J; Weinans, H; Zadpoor, A A

    2014-08-22

    Segmental bone defect animal models are often used for evaluating the bone regeneration performance of bone substituting biomaterials. Since bone regeneration is dependent on mechanical loading, it is important to determine mechanical load transfer after stabilization of the defect and to study the effects of biomaterial stiffness on the transmitted load. In this study, we assess the mechanical load transmitted over a 6mm femur defect that is stabilized with an internal PEEK fixation plate. Subsequently, three types of selective laser melted porous titanium implants with different stiffness values were used to graft the defect (five specimens per group). In one additional group, the defect was left empty. Micro strain gauges were used to measure strain values at four different locations of the fixation plate during external loading on the femoral head. The load sharing between the fixation plate and titanium implant was highly variable with standard deviations of measured strain values between 31 and 93% of the mean values. As a consequence, no significant differences were measured between the forces transmitted through the titanium implants with different elastic moduli. Only some non-significant trends were observed in the mean strain values that, consistent with the results of a previous finite element study, implied the force transmitted through the implant increases with the implant stiffness. The applied internal fixation method does not standardize mechanical loading over the defect to enable detecting small differences in bone regeneration performances of bone substituting biomaterials. In conclusion, the fixation method requires further optimization to reduce the effects of the operative procedure and make the mechanical loading more consistent and improve the overall sensitivity of this rat femur defect model.

  18. Effectiveness of Hindfoot Arthrodesis by Stable Internal Fixation in Various Eichenholtz Stages of Neuropathic Ankle Arthropathy.

    PubMed

    Sundararajan, Silvampatty R; Srikanth, Kanchana P; Nagaraja, Handenahally S; Rajasekaran, Shanmuganathan

    The optimal time to treat neuropathic (Charcot) arthropathy of the ankle and peritalar joint is controversial because of the various treatment options available and the variable results reported in published studies. We sought to determine the outcome of hind foot arthrodesis with stable internal fixation in patients with different Eichenholtz stages of arthropathy. We prospectively studied patients with substantial disabilities caused by neuropathic arthropathy in deformed, unstable ankle and peritalar joints, with or without ulcerations, who had undergone treatment from July 2007 to December 2012. All patients underwent ankle arthrodesis, autologous iliac crest bone grafting, and subtalar joint arthrodesis, with or without talonavicular joint arthrodesis, fixed internally with an intramedullary hindfoot nail, with or without an additional plate or cancellous screws. Of the 33 enrolled patients, 9 (27.3%) had stage I, 13 (39.4%) had stage II, and 11 (33.3%) had stage III Charcot arthropathy. The cause of arthropathy was diabetes mellitus in 25 (75.8%) patients. The duration of symptoms ranged from 1 to 120 (median 7) months. The mean follow-up period was 40 (range 12 to 76) months and did not differ markedly among the groups. The hindfoot scores, rate of salvage or amputation, or complication rates did not differ significantly across Eichenholtz stage. For the patients with stage I, II, and III, the preoperative hindfoot score was 50, 49, and 48, respectively (p = .9). The corresponding postoperative scores were 68, 68, and 70 (p = .5). We found no evidence that the effectiveness of hindfoot arthrodesis by stable fixation varied across the Eichenholtz stage of Charcot arthropathy involving ankle and peritalar joint. Furthermore, we found that stable internal fixation and bone grafting using a hindfoot nail results in an 84.84% union rate and salvages the unstable and disabled foot in 90.9% of patients with ankle and peritalar Charcot arthropathy.

  19. A biomechanical comparison of multidirectional nail and locking plate fixation in unstable olecranon fractures.

    PubMed

    Argintar, Evan; Martin, Benjamin D; Singer, Andrea; Hsieh, Adam H; Edwards, Scott

    2012-10-01

    The main theoretic advantage of proximal olecranon fracture intramedullary fixation is decreased soft-tissue irritation and, potentially, less subsequent hardware removal. Despite this possible benefit, questions remain as to whether intramedullary devices are capable of controlling olecranon fractures to the same extent as locking plates. This study evaluates the ability of a novel multidirectional locking nail to stabilize comminuted fractures and directly compares its biomechanical performance with that of locking olecranon plates. We implanted 8 stainless steel locking plates and stainless steel intramedullary nails to stabilize a simulated comminuted fracture in 16 fresh-frozen cadaveric elbows. Flexion-extension, varus-valgus, gap distance, and rotational 3-dimensional angular displacement analysis was conducted over a 60° motion arc (30° to 90°) to assess fragment motion through physiologic cyclic arcs of motion and failure loading. Displacements in all planes were compared. Both implants showed less than 1° of motion in all measured planes and allowed less than 1 mm of gapping through all loads tested until ultimate failure. All failures occurred by sudden, catastrophic means. The mean failure weight for the nail was 14.4 kg compared with 8.7 kg for the plate (P = .02). The nail survived 1102 cycles, whereas the plate survived 831 cycles (P = .06). In simulated comminuted olecranon fractures, the multidirectional locking intramedullary nails sustained significantly higher maximum loads than the locking plates. The two implants showed no significant differences in fragment control or number of cycles survived. Surgeons can expect the multidirectional locking nails to stabilize comminuted fractures at least as well as locking plates. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Scaphoid Plate Fixation and Volar Carpal Artery Vascularized Bone Graft for Recalcitrant Scaphoid Nonunions.

    PubMed

    Dodds, Seth D; Halim, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    We sought to evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcomes after treatment of symptomatic, recalcitrant scaphoid nonunions using a novel combination of volar scaphoid buttress plating with a pedicled vascularized bone graft. We retrospectively followed 9 patients with recalcitrant scaphoid waist nonunions, characterized by failed prior surgery, long duration of nonunion, avascular necrosis of the proximal pole, or considerable bone loss at the nonunion site. We treated these persistent nonunions through a single volar incision with a pedicled vascularized bone graft, based on the volar carpal artery, and a 1.5-mm precontoured, scaphoid-specific, volar buttress plate. Postoperatively, we assessed objective and subjective outcomes as well as radiographs and computed tomography scans. The median duration of nonunion was 15 months, ranging from 6 to 96 months. Postoperative follow-up ranged from 11 to 19 months. Computed tomography scans demonstrated union in 8 of 9 cases. Complications included 1 minor hematoma that spontaneously resolved. One scaphoid failed to unite, requiring revision surgery. Three patients experienced problems with the plate. One plate was removed from a patient who noted persistent clicking, and 2 plates have caused symptomatic clicking, likely requiring future removal. Eight of nine patients reported satisfaction with the procedure, with QuickDash scores averaging 8.2. We present a series of recalcitrant scaphoid nonunions treated with a novel technique of volar buttress plating and vascularized bone graft. In this series, we found a high rate of union, with consistent radiographic improvement and symptomatic relief. This procedure can be performed using a single incision and with minimal donor site morbidity. Volar plating of a scaphoid nonunion comes with the risk of articular prominence, but offers a new alternative to headless screw fixation. Our early results from this series are promising and support this protocol as a viable

  1. Sternal closure by rigid plate fixation in off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Katsuhiko; Kuinose, Masahiko; Koizumi, Nobusato; Iwasaki, Tomoaki; Toguchi, Kayo; Ogino, Hitoshi

    2016-06-01

    Sternal instability or dehiscence results in serious sternal wound infection. We sought to assess the early outcomes with such a plating system for sternal closure in comparison to the conventional wiring technique in off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Patients who underwent off-pump CABG were enrolled. Thirty-one patients received plate sternal fixation. A total of 64 patients who underwent off-pump CABG by a single surgeon at our hospital from July 2013 to December 2014 were enrolled. Thirty-one patients received plate sternal fixation (Plate group), while 33 received conventional wire closure (Wire group). The early outcomes, including the pain score and analgesic usage count were compared. Dietary intake was also recorded to assess the duration of appetite loss. At discharge, the largest sternal displacement was measured on computed tomography. In the Plate group, the pain scores were significantly lower on post-operative day 5-8 and POD 9-12 from those in the Wire group. The analgesic usage count on POD 9-12 was significantly lower in the Plate group. The duration of appetite loss and hospital stay was significantly shorter in the Plate group. The displacement in both the anterior-posterior and lateral directions was significantly smaller in the Plate group. Sternal closure by rigid plate fixation contributes to a more rapid post-operative recovery through reduced pain.

  2. Percutaneous fixation with Kirschner wires versus volar locking plate fixation in adults with dorsally displaced fracture of distal radius: randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Costa, Matthew L; Achten, Juul; Parsons, Nick R; Rangan, Amar; Griffin, Damian; Tubeuf, Sandy; Lamb, Sarah E

    2014-08-05

    To compare the clinical effectiveness of Kirschner wire fixation with locking plate fixation for patients with a dorsally displaced fracture of the distal radius. A multicentre two arm parallel group assessor blind randomised controlled trial with 1:1 treatment allocation. 18 trauma centres in the United Kingdom. 461 adults with a dorsally displaced fracture of the distal radius within 3 cm of the radiocarpal joint that required surgical fixation. Patients were excluded if the surgeon thought that the surface of the wrist joint was so badly displaced it required open reduction. Kirschner wire fixation: wires are passed through the skin over the dorsal aspect of the distal radius and into the bone to hold the fracture in the correct anatomical position. Locking plate fixation: a locking plate is applied through an incision over the volar (palm) aspect of the wrist and secured to the bone with fixed angle locking screws. validated patient rated wrist evaluation (PRWE). This rates wrist function in two (equally weighted) sections concerning the patient's experience of pain and disability to give a score out of 100. disabilities of arm, shoulder, and hand (DASH) score, the EuroQol (EQ-5D), and complications related to the surgery. The baseline characteristics of the two groups were well balanced, and over 90% of patients completed follow-up. The wrist function of both groups of patients improved by 12 months. There was no clinically relevant difference in the patient rated wrist score at three, six, or 12 months (difference in favour of the plate group was -1.3, 95% confidence interval -4.5 to 1.8; P=0.40). Nor was there a clinically relevant difference in health related quality of life or the number of complications in each group. Contrary to the existing literature, and against the rapidly increasing use of locking plate fixation, this trial found no difference in functional outcome in patients with dorsally displaced fractures of the distal radius treated with

  3. Percutaneous fixation with Kirschner wires versus volar locking plate fixation in adults with dorsally displaced fracture of distal radius: randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Achten, Juul; Parsons, Nick R; Rangan, Amar; Griffin, Damian; Tubeuf, Sandy; Lamb, Sarah E

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To compare the clinical effectiveness of Kirschner wire fixation with locking plate fixation for patients with a dorsally displaced fracture of the distal radius. Design A multicentre two arm parallel group assessor blind randomised controlled trial with 1:1 treatment allocation. Setting 18 trauma centres in the United Kingdom. Participants 461 adults with a dorsally displaced fracture of the distal radius within 3 cm of the radiocarpal joint that required surgical fixation. Patients were excluded if the surgeon thought that the surface of the wrist joint was so badly displaced it required open reduction. Interventions Kirschner wire fixation: wires are passed through the skin over the dorsal aspect of the distal radius and into the bone to hold the fracture in the correct anatomical position. Locking plate fixation: a locking plate is applied through an incision over the volar (palm) aspect of the wrist and secured to the bone with fixed angle locking screws. Main outcome measures Primary outcome measure: validated patient rated wrist evaluation (PRWE). This rates wrist function in two (equally weighted) sections concerning the patient’s experience of pain and disability to give a score out of 100. Secondary outcomes: disabilities of arm, shoulder, and hand (DASH) score, the EuroQol (EQ-5D), and complications related to the surgery. Results The baseline characteristics of the two groups were well balanced, and over 90% of patients completed follow-up. The wrist function of both groups of patients improved by 12 months. There was no clinically relevant difference in the patient rated wrist score at three, six, or 12 months (difference in favour of the plate group was −1.3, 95% confidence interval −4.5 to 1.8; P=0.40). Nor was there a clinically relevant difference in health related quality of life or the number of complications in each group. Conclusions Contrary to the existing literature, and against the rapidly increasing use of locking plate

  4. Fracture union following internal fixation in the HIV population.

    PubMed

    Gardner, R O E; Bates, J H; Ng'oma, E; Harrison, W J

    2013-06-01

    HIV is thought to be associated with increased rates of fracture non-union. We report on a prospective cohort of 96 HIV positive patients with 107 fractures that required internal fixation. The CD4 count was measured and patients were reviewed until eventual clinical or radiological union or non-union was established. Four percent of fractures (4 out of 100) failed to unite. Three patients required one further procedure to induce union, and two developed avascular necrosis. The CD4 count was not related to fracture union. Contrary to previous assumptions, this study suggests that HIV infection does not increase rates of non-union in surgically managed fractures. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mini hook plate fixation for palmar fracture-dislocation of the proximal interphalangeal joint.

    PubMed

    Komura, Shingo; Yokoi, Tatsuo; Nonomura, Hidehiko

    2011-04-01

    Fracture-dislocations of the proximal interphalangeal joint are challenging to treat, since it is difficult to achieve both rigid fixation and early joint motion simultaneously. Palmar fracture-dislocations of the proximal interphalangeal joint are less frequent injuries and a small number of treatment methods have been reported. We describe here a patient with a chronic palmar fracture-dislocation of the proximal interphalangeal joint, who was treated with a new surgical technique. In the surgery, a mini hook plate that was made by adapting a 1.5 mm AO hand modular system straight plate was used. Despite the thinness of the fragment, rigid fixation was achieved, resulting in early active motion. At final follow up, the active ranges of motion were 0°-100° at the proximal and 0°-80° at the distal interphalangeal joint, and there were no complications. This technique may become a useful surgical method to treat palmar fracture-dislocations of the proximal interphalangeal joint.

  6. Residual intersegmental spinal mobility following limited pedicle fixation of thoracolumbar spine fractures with the fixateur interne.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, R W; Dick, W; Nunchuck, S; Zach, G

    1993-03-15

    The Fixateur Interne has been proposed for limited pedicle fixation of thoracolumbar spine fractures with the assumption that motion in the nontraumatized spinal segments could be maintained. To date, no data exist that both localize and quantitate spinal mobility about the fractured vertebra. Voluntary maximum lateral flexion and extension radiographs were obtained on patients with unstable thoracolumbar spine fractures at a minimum of 2 years after Fixateur Interne instrumentation (implant was removed after 1 year). Residual intersegmental motion was measured at levels adjacent to both the vertebra fracture and the fixation. Fifty-nine patients were reviewed, and the posterior vertebral body angle demonstrated a mean total sagittal motion of 2.98 degrees. Cephalad and caudal to the fractured vertebra, a mean of 1.34 degrees and 3.08 degrees, respectively, of residual motion was noted; cephalad and caudal to the previously instrumented segment a mean of 3.22 degrees and 6.88 degrees, respectively, was measured. The authors conclude that residual mobility is most evident at the caudal end of the instrumented segment, removed from the fractured vertebra. The level with end plate disruption becomes essentially ankylosed, with or without a fusion.

  7. [Arthroscopically assisted internal fixation of avulsion fractures of the anterior cruciate ligament during childhood and adolescence].

    PubMed

    Sommerfeldt, Dirk W

    2008-01-01

    Minimally invasive reduction and internal fixation of anterior tibial spine and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) without harming knee joint cartilage and physis of the proximal tibia. Anterior tibial spine fractures type II-IV according to Meyers/McKeever. ACL tears. Fractures of the tibial plateau. Fractures involving the growth plate (Aitken I-III). 1. Diagnostic arthroscopy and drainage of the knee joint. Search for additional injuries (menisci, knee joint cartilage, collateral ligaments, posterior cruciate ligament). 2. Arthroscopy-assisted reduction of anterior tibial spine fragment. 3. Epiphyseal internal fixation with Kirschner wires or cannulated screws according to fragment size. Full weight bearing as tolerated after wound healing (day 7 after surgery) in 20 degrees of knee flexion (orthesis or ankle-sparing cast tutor). X-rays postoperatively and after 3 and 6 weeks. Passive and active physiotherapy (extension and flexion without weight bearing) 3-4 weeks postoperatively according to patient's age, weight and compliance. Weight bearing in knee flexion (stairs) 6-8 weeks postoperatively. 19 patients were treated from 2001 to 2005 at an age of 7-14 years. All patients achieved free range of motion without pain or growth disturbances. Three patients developed slight joint laxity (anterior drawer test) which did not affect mobility, sports performance, joint surface or menisci on clinical evaluations conducted at least 1 year postoperatively. One patient had bony healing of the tibial spine in slight dislocation without impingement or decrease of range of motion within the knee joint.

  8. Open Reduction and Volar Plate Fixation of Dorsally Displaced Distal Radius Fractures: A Prospective Study of Functional and Radiological Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Sadasivan, Anand Kumar; Hegde, Anoop; Shetty, Ashwin

    2016-01-01

    final review. But, no evident of cosmetic deformity or any diminution in functional outcome of wrist was noted. Conclusion Open reduction and internal fixation with volar plating of dorsally displaced intra-articular distal radius fractures is an excellent technique with acceptable radiological fracture union and satisfactory functional outcome of the wrist. PMID:28208953

  9. Biomechanical evaluation of fracture fixation constructs using a variable-angle locked periprosthetic femur plate system.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Martin F; Burgers, Travis A; Mason, James J; Williams, Bart O; Sietsema, Debra L; Jones, Clifford B

    2014-07-01

    In the United States there are more than 230,000 total hip replacements annually, and periprosthetic femoral fractures occur in 0.1-4.5% of those patients. The majority of these fractures occur at the tip of the stem (Vancouver type B1). The purpose of this study was to compare the biomechanically stability and strength of three fixation constructs and identify the most desirable construct. Fifteen medium adult synthetic femurs were implanted with a hip prosthesis and were osteotomized in an oblique plane at the level of the implant tip to simulate a Vancouver type B1 periprosthetic fracture. Fractures were fixed with a non-contact bridging periprosthetic proximal femur plate (Zimmer Inc., Warsaw, IN). Three proximal fixation methods were used: Group 1, bicortical screws; Group 2, unicortical screws and one cerclage cable; and Group 3, three cerclage cables. Distally, all groups had bicortical screws. Biomechanical testing was performed using an axial-torsional testing machine in three different loading modalities (axial compression, lateral bending, and torsional/sagittal bending), next in axial cyclic loading to 10,000 cycles, again in the three loading modalities, and finally to failure in torsional/sagittal bending. Group 1 had significantly greater load to failure and was significantly stiffer in torsional/sagittal bending than Groups 2 and 3. After cyclic loading, Group 2 had significantly greater axial stiffness than Groups 1 and 3. There was no difference between the three groups in lateral bending stiffness. The average energy absorbed during cyclic loading was significantly lower in Group 2 than in Groups 1 and 3. Bicortical screw placement achieved the highest load to failure and the highest torsional/sagittal bending stiffness. Additional unicortical screws improved axial stiffness when using cable fixation. Lateral bending was not influenced by differences in proximal fixation. To treat periprosthetic fractures, bicortical screw placement should be

  10. Effect of calcium phosphate bone cement augmentation on volar plate fixation of unstable distal radial fractures in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Kwang; Koh, Young Do; Kook, Seung Hwan

    2011-04-06

    Calcium phosphate bone cement increases the stability of implant-bone constructs in patients with an osteoporotic fracture. The purpose of this randomized study was to determine whether augmentation of volar locking plate fixation with calcium phosphate bone cement has any benefit over volar locking plate fixation alone in patients older than sixty-five years of age who have an unstable distal radial fracture. Forty-eight patients (fifty unstable distal radial fractures) were recruited for this study. The mean patient age was seventy-three years. Surgical procedures were randomized between volar locking plate fixation alone (Group 1) and volar locking plate fixation with injection of calcium phosphate bone cement (Group 2). The patients were assessed clinically at three and twelve months postoperatively. Clinical assessments included determinations of grip strength, wrist motion, wrist pain, modified Mayo wrist scores, and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) scores. Radiographic evaluations were performed immediately postoperatively and at one year following surgery. The adequacy of the reduction was assessed by measuring radial inclination, volar angulation, and ulnar variance. The two groups were comparable with regard to age, sex, fracture type, injury mechanism, and bone mineral density. No significant differences were observed between the groups with regard to the clinical outcomes at the three or twelve-month follow-up examination. No significant intergroup differences in radiographic outcomes were observed immediately after surgery or at the one-year follow-up visit. Furthermore, no complication-related differences were observed, and there were no nonunions. Augmentation of metaphyseal defects with calcium phosphate bone cement after volar locking plate fixation offered no benefit over volar locking plate fixation alone in elderly patients with an unstable distal radial fracture. © 2011 by the Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated

  11. Application of anterior debridement and reconstruction with anatomical screw-plate fixation for lumbosacral tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen-Jun; Chen, Wen-Kang; Yan, Yi-Guo; Yao, Nu-Zhao; Wang, Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to determine the efficacy and safety of anterior debridement and reconstruction with anatomical screw-plate fixation in patients with lumbosacral junction tuberculosis (TB). A total of 48 patients (30 males and 18 females) diagnosed with lumbosacral junction TB were included in this study. All patients underwent surgery in our institution from January 2008 to July 2014, using anterior debridement and reconstruction with anatomical screw-plate. Outcome data were evaluated before and after surgery and included lumbosacral angle, Frankel classification, bone fusion, and visual analog scale (VAS) scores. All patients were then followed up for an average of 49.4 months (range, 24–96 months). The mean lumbosacral angle improved from 8.36° ± 5.92° pre-operation to 22.38° ± 4.52° post-operation and 21.13° ± 3.73° during the final follow-up (both P < .05). Solid vertebral fusion was achieved in all patients after 7.6 months on average (range, 6–12 months). No severe complications appeared during operation and post-operation. Neurological performance and VAS scores were significantly improved compared with pre-operation (P < .05). Following standard anti-TB chemotherapy, anterior debridement and reconstruction with anatomical screw-plate fixation may be a feasible and effective therapeutical option for lumbosacral junction TB. This procedure can result in satisfactory bone fusion and deformity correction, and effectively restore lumbosacral junction stability. PMID:28658103

  12. Plate fixation of periprosthetic femur fractures: What happens to the cement mantle?

    PubMed

    Konstantinidis, Lukas; Schmidt, Benjamin; Bernstein, Anke; Hirschmüller, Anja; Schröter, Steffen; Südkamp, Norbert Paul; Helwig, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Osteosynthesis of periprosthetic femur fractures by screw fixation around the implanted prosthetic stem is currently regarded as the biomechanically superior option compared with cerclage. The aim of this biomechanical study was damage analysis of the cement mantle after revision screw insertion. A prosthetic stem (Bicontact) was implanted in 20 cadaveric femora in cemented technique. A locking compression plate (Synthes) was then applied to the lateral femur at the level of the prosthetic stem. The method of plate fixation to the femur was assigned randomly to three groups: bicortical non-locking screws, monocortical locking screws, and bicortical locking screws. This was followed by applying a fluctuating axial load (2100 N, 0.5 Hz) for 20,000 cycles. After testing, macroscopic and microscopic evaluations of the cement mantle were conducted. Cracks formed in the cement mantle in 14% of the 80 screw holes. The type of screw (bicortical or monocortical; locking or non-locking) had no significant effect on the number of cracks (p = 0.52). The relationship between manifestation of crack damage and cement mantle thickness was not significant (p = 0.36), whereas the relationship between crack formation and screw position was significant (p = 0.019). Those screws whose circumference was only partially within the cement mantle yielded a significantly lower number of cracks compared with screws positioned completely within the cement mantle or even touching the prosthetic stem. In order to reduce the incidence of crack formation in the cement mantle during plate osteosynthesis of periprosthetic femur fractures, the screws should not be either placed within the cement mantle or make direct contact with the stem.

  13. [Mechanobiology of fracture healing part 2 : Relevance for internal fixation of fractures].

    PubMed

    Claes, L

    2017-01-01

    Clinical studies do not allow a quantitative correlation between stability of fracture fixation and outcome of bone healing. This limits the biomechanical improvement of fracture fixation techniques. The most practical quantitative parameter to describe the stability of a fracture fixation is the stiffness. This can be determined for several types of fixation through biomechanical methods and in some clinical studies in vivo. By using numerical fracture healing models, it is now possible to use the tissue differentiation rules found in basic research to calculate optimal stiffness parameters for various fixation techniques. For a tibial fracture as an example the possibilities of a numerical fracture healing simulation have been demonstrated. The effects of the diameter of an intramedullary nail, type of fracture, fracture gap size and nail material on healing could be demonstrated. To circumvent complex and time consuming calculations for several fixations a map was calculated which shows the expected bone healing quality as a function of the axial stiffness and the shear stiffness of the fixation device. By comparing the stiffness of various fixation techniques with the stiffness map it becomes evident that the methods most often used (e.g. unreamed nail, plate and external fixator) have a low shear and/or rotational stiffness that is too low to achieve the optimal healing outcome. The high axial stiffness of plates next to the plate surface can lead to very low tissue strain directly adjacent to the plate and can delay the bone healing process at this location.

  14. Timing of surgery for open reduction and internal fixation of displaced proximal humeral fractures.

    PubMed

    Siebenbürger, Georg; Van Delden, Dustin; Helfen, Tobias; Haasters, Florian; Böcker, Wolfgang; Ockert, Ben

    2015-10-01

    Open reduction and internal fixation is one established method for treatment of displaced fractures of the proximal humerus. However, the timing of surgery and its effect on complications have not yet been investigated in the literature. Hence, aim of this study was to analyze the occurrence of complication following locked plating of proximal humeral fractures when surgery was delayed in comparison to early intervention. Between February 2002 and November 2010, 497 patients with displaced proximal humeral fractures were treated by open reduction and locked plating. 329 patients were available for follow-up with a minimum of 12 months after surgery. Outcome analysis included radiographic evidence of loss of fixation (> 10° of secondary displacement), screw-cutout and avascular head necrosis. Outcomes were analyzed with regards to age, gender and fracture pattern and were compared between time intervals in which the primary surgery had been conducted; early intervention (< 48 h), timely scheduled for surgery (3-5 days) and delayed intervention (>5 days). Of 329 patients (68.4% women; median age at time of surgery: 69.9 years, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 68.2, 71.2) the median time between fracture incident and surgical intervention was 3.2 days (95%CI: 3.1, 3.3). Surgery was performed in a 2-part fracture at a median of 3.3 days (95%CI: 3.2, 3.4) after trauma, in a 3-part fracture after 3.3 days (95%CI: 3.1, 3.4), in a 4-part fracture 2.9 days (95%CI: 2.8, 3.0), in head split type fracture 2.2 days (95%CI: 2.0, 2.4) and in dislocation type fracture 0.8 days after trauma (95%CI: 0.7, 0.9, p = 0.40). Loss of fixation was observed in 12.8% (n = 42 patients), of which in 4.9% (n = 16) screw cutout was evident and in 6.8% of cases (n = 20) avascular head necrosis was diagnosed. Patients in which complication was observed were treated at median 2.5 days after trauma (95% CI, 1.8, 3.2), in comparison, patients without evidence of complications were treated at a median of

  15. Comparison of olecranon plate fixation in osteoporotic bone: do current technologies and designs make a difference?

    PubMed

    Edwards, Scott G; Martin, Benjamin D; Fu, Rose H; Gill, Joseph M; Nezhad, Mani K; Orr, Jeffrey A; Ferrucci, Allen M; Love, James M; Booth, Richard; Singer, Andrea; Hsieh, Adam H

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine if recent innovations in olecranon plates have any advantages in stabilizing osteoporotic olecranon fractures. Five olecranon plates (Acumed, Synthes-SS, Synthes-Ti, US Implants/ITS, and Zimmer) were implanted to stabilize a simulated comminuted fracture pattern in 30 osteoporotic cadaveric elbows. Specimens were randomized by bone mineral density per dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan. Three-dimensional displacement analysis was conducted to assess fragment motion through physiological cyclic arcs of motion and failure loading, which was statistically compared using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey honestly significant difference post hoc comparisons with a critical significance level of α = 0.05. Bone mineral density ranged from 0.546 g/cm to 0.878 g/cm with an average of 0.666 g/cm. All implants limited displacement of the fragments to less than 3 mm until sudden, catastrophic failure as the bone of the proximal fragment pulled away from the implant. The maximum load sustained by all osteoporotic specimens ranged from 1.6 kg to 6.6 kg with an average of 4.4 kg. There was no statistical difference between the groups in terms of cycles survived and maximum loads sustained. Cyclic physiological loading of osteoporotic olecranon fracture fixation resulted in sudden, catastrophic failure of the bone-implant interface rather than in gradual implant loosening. Recent plate innovations such as locking plates and different screw designs and positions appear to offer no advantages in stabilizing osteoporotic olecranon fractures. Surgeons may be reassured that the current olecranon plates will probably adequately stabilize osteoporotic fractures for early motion in the early postoperative period, but not for heavy activities such as those that involve over 4 kg of resistance.

  16. Comminuted olecranon fracture fixation with pre-contoured plate: Comparison of composite and cadaver bones

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton Jr, David A; Reilly, Danielle; Wipf, Felix; Kamineni, Srinath

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether use of a precontoured olecranon plate provides adequate fixation to withstand supraphysiologic force in a comminuted olecranon fracture model. METHODS: Five samples of fourth generation composite bones and five samples of fresh frozen human cadaveric left ulnae were utilized for this study. The cadaveric specimens underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scanning to quantify the bone quality. The composite and cadaveric bones were prepared by creating a comminuted olecranon fracture and fixed with a pre-contoured olecranon plate with locking screws. Construct stiffness and failure load were measured by subjecting specimens to cantilever bending moments until failure. Fracture site motion was measured with differential variable resistance transducer spanning the fracture. Statistical analysis was performed with two-tailed Mann-Whitney-U test with Monte Carlo Exact test. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in fixation stiffness and strength between the composite bones and human cadaver bones. Failure modes differed in cadaveric and composite specimens. The load to failure for the composite bones (n = 5) and human cadaver bones (n = 5) specimens were 10.67 nm (range 9.40-11.91 nm) and 13.05 nm (range 12.59-15.38 nm) respectively. This difference was statistically significant (P ˂ 0.007, 97% power). Median stiffness for composite bones and human cadaver bones specimens were 5.69 nm/mm (range 4.69-6.80 nm/mm) and 7.55 nm/mm (range 6.31-7.72 nm/mm). There was a significant difference for stiffness (P ˂ 0.033, 79% power) between composite bones and cadaveric bones. No correlation was found between the DEXA results and stiffness. All cadaveric specimens withstood the physiologic load anticipated postoperatively. Catastrophic failure occurred in all composite specimens. All failures resulted from composite bone failure at the distal screw site and not hardware failure. There were no catastrophic fracture failures in the cadaveric

  17. Risk Factors for Deep Infection Following Plate Fixation of Proximal Tibial Fractures.

    PubMed

    Parkkinen, Markus; Madanat, Rami; Lindahl, Jan; Mäkinen, Tatu J

    2016-08-03

    The risk factors are unclear for deep surgical site infection after plate fixation of proximal tibial fractures. The objective of this study was to identify the patient and surgical procedure-related risk factors for infection using established criteria for deep surgical site infection. A total of 655 proximal tibial fractures were treated with open reduction and plate fixation at our center between 2004 and 2013. We identified 34 patients with deep surgical site infection. A control group of 136 patients was randomly selected from the non-infected cohort. Potential risk factors for deep surgical site infection were identified by reviewing surgical, medical, and radiographic records. Independent risk factors for infection were identified from multivariable logistic regression analysis using a stepwise procedure. The prevalence of deep surgical site infection was 5.2%, the mean age of affected patients was 55 years (range, 16 to 84 years), and 35% of patients were female. Twenty-eight of 34 deep infections were diagnosed within 2 months (acute onset), and only 6 infections were diagnosed >6 months after the index surgical procedure. Nine of the 28 acute-onset infections were treated with antibiotic therapy and debridement. Seventeen patients (50%) required muscle flap coverage, and 5 patients (15%) eventually required above-the-knee amputation. In the multivariable logistic regression analysis with odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs), independent predictors of infection were patient age of ≥50 years (OR, 3.6 [95% CI, 1.3 to 10.1]); obesity, defined as a body mass index of ≥30 kg/m(2) (OR, 6.5 [95% CI, 2.2 to 18.9]); alcohol abuse (OR, 6.7 [95% CI, 2.4 to 19.2]); OTA/AO-type-C fracture (OR, 2.8 [95% CI, 1.1 to 7.5]); use of a temporary spanning external fixator (OR, 3.9 [95% CI, 1.4 to 11.1]); and a 4-compartment fasciotomy (OR, 4.5 [95% CI, 1.3 to 15.7]). There is high morbidity associated with deep surgical site infection in plated proximal

  18. Reconstruction plate fixation with bone graft for mid-shaft clavicular non-union in semi-professional athletes.

    PubMed

    Wentz, S; Eberhardt, C; Leonhard, T

    1999-01-01

    From 1993 to 1997, 22 semi-professional athletes (14 men and 8 women), aged 18-33 years (mountain bike racers, soccer players, handball players, swimmers, and short distance runners) with a non-union of the middle third of the clavicle were treated operatively by reconstruction plating and bone grafting. Fourteen clavicular non-unions were caused by falls. Eight non-unions were the result of a car, motorcycle, or bicycle accident. There were 19 atrophic and 3 hypertrophic non-unions. In all patients, initially a figure-of-eight strap or a sling was used for immobilization and no radiographic union was documented within 5 months. None of the athletes had gone back to their sports and all had pain and limitation of shoulder function. For open reduction and internal fixation, an AO 3.5-mm seven-hole reconstruction plate was used. The sclerotic bone ends were freshened and a cortical bone transplant or cancellous bone from the iliac crest (depending on the shortening of the clavicle) was packed around the fracture or between the reduced fracture ends. In all athletes, radiographic consolidation was achieved after an average of 14 weeks (range, 11-16 weeks) and the average increase in the Constant and Murley Score was from 79 points preoperatively to 97 points after surgery. No operative or postoperative complications occurred and all athletes returned to their sports.

  19. Fixation of diaphyseal fractures with a segmental defect: a biomechanical comparison of locked and conventional plating techniques.

    PubMed

    Fulkerson, Eric; Egol, Kenneth A; Kubiak, Erik N; Liporace, Frank; Kummer, Frederick J; Koval, Kenneth J

    2006-04-01

    Locking plates are an alternative to conventional compression plate fixation for diaphyseal fractures. The objective of this study was to compare the stability of various plating with locked screw constructs to conventional nonlocked screws for fixation of a comminuted diaphyseal fracture model using a uniform, synthetic ulna. Locked screw construct variables were the use of unicortical or bicortical screws, and increasing bone to plate distance. This biomechanical study compared various construct groups after cyclic axial loading and three-point bending. Results were analyzed via one-way analysis of variance. Displacements after cyclical axial loading and number of cycles to failure in cyclic bending were used to assess construct stability. The constructs fixed by plates with bicortical locked screws withstood significantly more cycles to failure than the other constructs (p < 0.001). Significantly less displacement occurred after axial loading with bicortical locked screws than with bicortical nonlocked screws. Increased distance of the plate from the bone surface, and use of unicortical locked screws led to early failure with cyclic loading for constructs with locked screws. These results support the use of plating with bicortical locked screws as an alternative to conventional plating for comminuted diaphyseal fractures in osteoporotic bone. Bicortical locked screws with minimal displacement from the bone surface provide the most stable construct in the tested synthetic comminuted diaphyseal fracture model. The results of this study suggest use of plates with unicortical screws for the described fracture is not recommended.

  20. A murine femoral segmental defect model for bone tissue engineering using a novel rigid internal fixation system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai; Li, Dianqi; Huang, Xiangyu; Lv, Kun; Ongodia, David; Zhu, Lingling; Zhou, Langming; Li, Zubing

    2013-08-01

    As a model animal, the mouse has already been widely used in bone-related research. However, there is a lack of ideal long bone segmental defect mouse model. Since external fixation has disadvantages of heavy weight, penetrating the skin, and hampering mobility, an internal fixation device is probably more preferable to maintain the segmental bone defect. The aim of this study was to establish a simple, reproducible, and standardized murine critical-size defect model through designing an internal fixation system, verifying its adaptability, and investigating the critical size of femoral segmental defect. By utilizing computer-aided measuring and processing system, anatomical data of adult C57BL/6 mouse femur was obtained, and a plate-bolts system was designed for rigid fixation. The plate and screws were fixed in 67 mice and 1.5 or 2.0 mm defect gaps were created in the femoral midshaft. Compression and three-point bending of bone-implant construct were tested in mice at 0, 2, 5, and 12 wk postoperative to test the biomechanical stability. X-ray, micro-computed tomography, and histology were used to investigate the defect healing process. The plate- and screws-fitted mouse femur and unilateral or bilateral operation had seemingly no adverse impact on the mouse in general. Mechanical tests indicated that there were no significant differences between the bone-implant construct and intact femur in compression and three-point bending loading. Micro-computed tomography scanning showed the bone mineral density had not been affected by the implantation of fixation device. There was no union of the 2.0 mm segmental defect in 12-wk period. Using the specifically designed rigid internal fixation device, a segmental defect size of 2.0 mm in C57BL/6 mouse femur will show nonunion and can serve as a critical defect size for bone tissue engineering and bone regeneration research. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The role of internal fixation for long bone metastasis prior to impending fracture: an experimental model.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohammad; Terai, Hidetomi; Yamada, Kentaro; Suzuki, Akinobu; Toyoda, Hiromitsu; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2013-07-01

    Patients with long bone metastasis have many therapeutic options, including surgery. However, the appropriate time for surgical intervention and the use of internal fixation prior to impending fracture remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to establish a long bone metastatic model with internal fixation, and to determine whether prophylactic internal fixation for long bone metastasis prior to impending fracture would affect bone destruction, tumor progression, and mortality. We implanted VX2 tumor cells into the tibiae of 45 rabbits divided equally into three groups: internal fixation, control, and sham groups. Rabbits were monitored by X-ray and computed tomography, and blood serum levels were examined every 2 weeks. Computed tomography data revealed significantly higher bone destruction in rabbit tibiae in the sham and control groups compared with those in the fixation group; there were volumetric bone losses of 0.2, 0.4, and 2.3% in the fixation, sham, and control groups, respectively, at 3 weeks, which increased to 1.2, 2.5, and 6.1% at 5 weeks. Rabbits in the fixation group showed significantly prolonged survival (64.5 ± 13.5 days) in comparison with rabbits in the sham group (50.3 ± 11.6 days) and control group (38.2 ± 4.9 days). Our results suggest that prophylactic internal fixation may hinder bone destruction and tumor progression, thus extending the survival period for patients with long bone metastasis.

  2. Cage subsidence after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion using a cage alone or combined with anterior plate fixation.

    PubMed

    Pinder, E M; Sharp, D J

    2016-04-01

    To compare the extent of cage subsidence after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) using a cage alone or combined with anterior plate fixation, and to assess the effect of end plate removal on cage subsidence. Records of 23 men and 13 women aged 32 to 82 (mean, 54) years who underwent ACDF for 61 levels using the Solis cage alone (n=46) or combined with anterior plate fixation (n=15) were reviewed. The extent of cage subsidence was determined by comparing immediately postoperative (within one week) with final follow-up radiographs. Cage subsidence was defined as the sum subsidence of the superior and inferior part of the cage into the vertebral body. Mild and major cage subsidence was defined as ≤2 mm and >2 mm, respectively. Patients who underwent ACDF using a cage alone or combined with anterior plate fixation were comparable in terms of age, gender, follow-up duration, and number of levels decompressed. Cage subsidence occurred in 33 (54%) of the 61 levels decompressed. In the cage alone group, the extent of cage subsidence was greater (1.68 vs. 0.57 mm, p=0.039) and the rate of major cage subsidence was higher (28% vs. 7%, p=0.08). The inferior part of the cage was more vulnerable to subsidence compared with the superior part (median subsidence: 3.0 vs. 1.4 mm, p<0.0001). Cage subsidence occurred more often when the end plate was removed rather than preserved (58% vs. 18%, p<0.002). The extent of cage subsidence was greater after ACDF with cage alone. Cage subsidence occurred more often when the end plate was removed. Additional anterior plate fixation is recommended when the end plate is removed.

  3. An in vivo evaluation of PLLA/PLLA-gHA nano-composite for internal fixation of mandibular bone fractures.

    PubMed

    Peng, Weihai; Zheng, Wei; Shi, Kai; Wang, Wangshu; Shao, Ying; Zhang, Duo

    2015-11-09

    Internal fixation of bone fractures using biodegradable poly(L-lactic-acid) (PLLA)-based materials has attracted the attention of many researchers. In the present study, 36 male beagle dogs were randomly assigned to two groups: PLLA/PLLA-gHA (PLLA-grafted hydroxyapatite) group and PLLA group. PLLA/PLLA-gHA and PLLA plates were embedded in the muscular bags of the erector spinae and also implanted to fix mandibular bone fractures in respective groups. At 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months postoperatively, the PLLA/PLLA-gHA and PLLA plates were evaluated by adsorption and degradation tests, and the mandibles were examined through radiographic analysis, biomechanical testing, and histological analysis. The PLLA/PLLA-gHA plates were non-transparent and showed a creamy white color, and the PLLA plates were transparent and faint yellow in color. At all time points following surgery, adsorption and degradation of the PLLA/PLLA-gHA plates were significantly less than those of the PLLA plates, and the lateral and longitudinal bending strengths of the surgically treated mandibles of the beagle dogs in the PLLA/PLLA-gHA group were significantly greater than those of the PLLA group and reached almost the value of intact mandibles at 12 months postoperatively. Additionally, relatively rapid bone healing was observed in the PLLA/PLLA-gHA group with the formation of new lamellar bone tissues at 12 months after the surgery. The PLLA/PLLA-gHA nano-composite can be employed as a biodegradable material for internal fixation of mandibular bone fractures.

  4. Treatment of unstable distal radius fractures: non-invasive dynamic external fixator versus volar locking plate – functional and radiological outcome in a prospective case-controlled series

    PubMed Central

    Bajwa, Ali S.; Rammappa, Manju; Lee, Ling; Nanda, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Distal radius fracture (DRF) is a common injury and various treatment modalities including open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) with volar locking plate are available. More recently, a non-invasive external fixator has been used. Aims: To prospectively compare the use of a non-invasive external fixator with early dynamisation for DRF against ORIF with volar locking plate control group. Methods: Consecutive patients with closed DRF were included in a prospective case-controlled study. Patients were assigned to non-invasive external fixator or ORIF. Minimum follow-up was two years. Follow-up was at weeks 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 26 and at one and two-year post-operatively. The outcome measures included demographic details, injury mechanism, AO fracture type, risk factors, body mass index (BMI), ulnar styloid fracture and dorsal comminution, radiographs, grip strength and DASH score. Results: Consecutive 50 patients were treated either with non-invasive external fixator (25/50) or with ORIF (25/50) and the mean age of the two groups was 53 years (SD 17.1) and 49 years (SD 19.5), respectively. Demographics were matched in two groups. In the non-invasive external fixator group, there were 10 AO Type-A, 5 Type-B and 10 Type-C fractures. The ORIF group included 8 Type-A, 6 Type-B and 11 Type-C fractures. The mean DASH score at three-months and one-year post-injury in non-invasive fixator group was 12.2 (SD 3.1) and 3.5 (SD 0.7), respectively, significantly greater than those of ORIF group 14.5 (SD 5.6) and 11.2 (SD 4.4), respectively (p < 0.05). Conclusion: DRF treated with non-invasive external fixator can give functional results superior to ORIF at three-months and the trend is maintained at one and two-year post-operatively. PMID:27163089

  5. Is cannulated-screw fixation an alternative to plate osteosynthesis in open book fractures? A biomechanical analysis.

    PubMed

    Lázaro Gonzálvez, Ángel; Martínez Reina, Javier; Cano Luis, Pedro; Jiménez Baquero, Juan; Sueiro Fernández, José; Giráldez Sánchez, Miguel Ángel

    2016-09-01

    The current biomechanical work compares the symphyseal and sacroiliac stability obtained with two systems of bone osteosynthesis. The two methods of fixation compared were the 6-hole suprapubic non-locked plate and pubic fixation with two cannulated screws, a novel technique that can be applied percutaneously in the clinical practice. The aim of this study was to examine the validity of the use of two-cannulated-screws osteosynthesis in order to minimize the secondary effects of open fixation, especially in patients in whom an open reduction is contraindicated. A biomechanical study was designed in 9 fresh, human pelvis specimens, simulating an AO B1.1 type injury, using both fixation systems sequentially in each specimen. In both parts of the test, the specimens were subjected to an axial load of 300N. Displacements and rotations between the different pelvic elements were studied by means of a discrete set of points. The absence of differences between the two systems has been set as the null hypothesis. There were significant differences in favor of the cross-cannulated screws in most of the displacements measured at the pubic symphysis and sacroiliac joint. Fixation of the AO B1.1 type fractures with cross cannulated screws restores the biomechanical behavior of the pubic symphysis, obtaining better stability than fixation with the 6-hole non-locked plate. To date, no comparative, biomechanical studies have been conducted with these two systems of osteosynthesis. This study demonstrates that cross-cannulated screws fixation of the pubic symphysis in AO B1.1 pelvic fractures should be considered as an alternative to the conventional plating system. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Diagnosis and rehabilitation of deep wound infection and internal fixation rejection in elbow

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Huiping; Song, Lin; Lin, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study aims at diagnosis and rehabilitation of a rare case of deep wound infection and internal fixation rejection in elbow. The patient sustained a distal fracture in the humerus 1 year ago, which was internal fixed. The wound always effused and the elbow had pain and swelling; joint motion was limited. Blood sedimentation rate and C reactive protein level increased, bacterial culture suggested deep wound infection, and ultrasound indicated inflammation. The main diagnoses were deep wound infection and internal fixation rejection. Therapeutics interventions were antibiotic agents, physical therapy, operative debridement, incision, drainage, and exercise and physical therapy. One year later, the internal fixation was taken out. His elbow was fully mobilized and the fracture healed. He got back to his former job. When encountered deep wound infection again and again after internal fixation, rejection should be considered. Except for anti-infection treatment, rehabilitation cannot be neglected, or the healing process may be delayed. PMID:27281079

  7. Bio-Environment-Induced Degradation and Failure of Internal Fixation Implants

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yan; Perkins, Luke A.; Wang, Guodong; Zhou, Dongsheng; Liang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Internal fixations provide fast healing but their failure remains problematic to patients. Here, we report an experimental study in failure of three typical cases of metals: a bent intramedullary stainless steel nail, a broken exterior pure Ti plate, and a broken intramedullary stainless steel nail. Characterization of the bent nail indicates that those metals are vulnerable to corrosion with the evidence of increased surface roughness and embrittlement. Depredated surface of the Ti plate resulted debris particles in the surrounding tissue of 15.2 ± 6.5 μm in size. Nanoparticles were observed in transmission electron microscope. The electron diffraction pattern of the debris indicates a combination of nanocrystalline and amorphous phases. The failure mode of the broken nail made of stainless steel was found to be fatigue initiated from the surface. This study clearly shows the biological-attack induced surface degradation resulting in debris and fatigue. Future design and selection of implant materials should consider such factors for improvement. PMID:26501330

  8. Optimal Positioning for Volar Plate Fixation of a Distal Radius Fracture: Determining the Distal Dorsal Cortical Distance.

    PubMed

    Vosbikian, Michael M; Ketonis, Constantinos; Huang, Ronald; Ilyas, Asif M

    2016-01-01

    Distal radius fractures are currently among the most common fractures of the musculoskeletal system. With a population that is living longer, being more active, and the increasing incidence of osteoporosis, these injuries will continue to become increasingly prevalent. When operative fixation is indicated, the volar locking plate has recently become the treatment of choice. However, despite its success, suboptimal position of the volar locking plate can still result in radiographic loss of reduction. The distal dorsal cortical distance is being introduced as an intraoperative radiographic tool to help optimize plate position and minimize late loss of fracture reduction.

  9. Risk factors for postoperative wound complications of calcaneal fractures following plate fixation.

    PubMed

    Ding, Liang; He, Zhimin; Xiao, Haijun; Chai, Leizi; Xue, Feng

    2013-09-01

    A fairly high prevalence of wound complications after open reduction and internal plate fixation (ORIF) of closed calcaneal fractures via the extensile lateral approach has been reported. The goal of this study was to analyze and identify independent risk factors for wound complications among closed calcaneal fractures undergoing ORIF. The medical records of all closed calcaneal fracture patients who underwent ORIF from July 2005 to July 2012 were reviewed to identify those who developed a wound complication. Then we constructed a univariate and multivariate logistic regression to evaluate the independent associations of potential risk factors for surgical wound complication. Records showed 479 patients who underwent ORIF of a closed calcaneal fracture from July 2005 to July 2012. The patients were followed for 3 to 28 months, with an average follow-up period of 14.2 months. Eleven patients had bilateral fractures, for a total of 490 fractured calcanei. The overall rate of postoperative wound complications following ORIF of closed calcaneus fractures was 17.8% (87 wound complications in 490 operations). With the regression model, smoking history (odds ratio, 5.79; 95% CI: 1.55 to 21.70; P = .009), diabetes mellitus (odds ratio, 6.23; 95% CI: 1.37 to 28.31; P = .018), Sanders type (odds ratio, 5.44; 95% CI: 2.02 to 14.64; P = .001), number of residents and/or fellows present during the case (odds ratio, 1.63; 95% CI: 1.06 to 2.52; P = .028), duration of surgery (odds ratio, 4.54; 95% CI: 1.46 to 14.12; P < .001), estimated blood loss (odds ratio, 1.02; 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.04%; P < .001), and 10 or more people present in the operating room during the entire case (odds ratio, 2.30; 95% CI: 1.79 to 2.94; P < .001) were risk factors for wound complication. Tourniquet use (odds ratio, 0.02; 95% CI: 0.00 to 0.08; P < .001), which was associated with a decreased risk for the development of a wound complication, was observed as a protective factor. Diabetes mellitus, Sanders

  10. A novel internal fixator device for peripheral nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Ting-Hsien; Wilson, Robin E; Love, James M; Fisher, John P; Shah, Sameer B

    2013-06-01

    Recovery from peripheral nerve damage, especially for a transected nerve, is rarely complete, resulting in impaired motor function, sensory loss, and chronic pain with inappropriate autonomic responses that seriously impair quality of life. In consequence, strategies for enhancing peripheral nerve repair are of high clinical importance. Tension is a key determinant of neuronal growth and function. In vitro and in vivo experiments have shown that moderate levels of imposed tension (strain) can encourage axonal outgrowth; however, few strategies of peripheral nerve repair emphasize the mechanical environment of the injured nerve. Toward the development of more effective nerve regeneration strategies, we demonstrate the design, fabrication, and implementation of a novel, modular nerve-lengthening device, which allows the imposition of moderate tensile loads in parallel with existing scaffold-based tissue engineering strategies for nerve repair. This concept would enable nerve regeneration in two superposed regimes of nerve extension--traditional extension through axonal outgrowth into a scaffold and extension in intact regions of the proximal nerve, such as that occurring during growth or limb-lengthening. Self-sizing silicone nerve cuffs were fabricated to grip nerve stumps without slippage, and nerves were deformed by actuating a telescoping internal fixator. Poly(lactic co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) constructs mounted on the telescoping rods were apposed to the nerve stumps to guide axonal outgrowth. Neuronal cells were exposed to PLGA using direct contact and extract methods, and they exhibited no signs of cytotoxic effects in terms of cell morphology and viability. We confirmed the feasibility of implanting and actuating our device within a sciatic nerve gap and observed axonal outgrowth following device implantation. The successful fabrication and implementation of our device provides a novel method for examining mechanical influences on nerve regeneration.

  11. A Biomechanical Comparison of Locking Versus Conventional Plate Fixation for Distal Fibula Fractures in Trimalleolar Ankle Injuries.

    PubMed

    Nguyentat, Annie; Camisa, William; Patel, Sandeep; Lagaay, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    Previous biomechanical studies have advocated the use of locking plates for isolated distal fibula fractures in osteoporotic bone. Complex rotational ankle injuries involve an increased number of fractures, which can result in instability, potentially requiring the same fixed angle properties afforded by locking plates. However, the mechanical indication for locking plate technology has not been tested in this fracture model. The purpose of the present study was to compare the biomechanical properties of locking and conventional plate fixation for distal fibula fractures in trimalleolar ankle injuries. Fourteen (7 matched pairs) fresh-frozen cadaver leg specimens were used. The bone mineral density of each was obtained using dual x-ray absorptiometry scans. The fracture model simulated an OTA 44-B3.3 fracture. The syndesmosis was not disrupted. Each fracture was fixated in the same fashion, except for the distal fibula plate construct: locking (n = 7) and one-third tubular (n = 7). The specimens underwent axial and torsional cyclic loading, followed by torsional loading to failure. No statistically significant differences were found between the locking and conventional plate constructs during both fatigue and torque to failure testing (p > .05). Our specimen bone mineral density averages did not represent poor bone quality. The clinical implication of the present study is that distal fibular locking plates do not provide a mechanical advantage for trimalleolar ankle injuries in individuals with normal bone density and in the absence of fracture comminution.

  12. Clinical effects of internal fixation for ulnar styloid fractures associated with distal radius fractures: A matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Hideyoshi; Shinohara, Takaaki; Natsume, Tadahiro; Hirata, Hitoshi

    2016-11-01

    Ulnar styloid fractures are often associated with distal radius fractures. However, controversy exists regarding whether to treat ulnar styloid fractures. This study aimed to evaluate clinical effects of internal fixation for ulnar styloid fractures after distal radius fractures were treated with the volar locking plate system. We used prospectively collected data of distal radius fractures. 111 patients were enrolled in this study. A matched case-control study design was used. We selected patients who underwent fixation for ulnar styloid fractures (case group). Three control patients for each patient of the case group were matched on the basis of age, sex, and fracture type of distal radius fractures from among patients who did not undergo fixation for ulnar styloid fractures (control group). The case group included 16 patients (7 men, 9 women; mean age: 52.6 years; classification of ulnar styloid fractures: center, 3; base, 11; and proximal, 2). The control group included 48 patients (15 men, 33 women; mean age: 61.1 years; classification of ulnar styloid fractures: center, 10; base, 31; and proximal, 7). For radiographic examination, the volar tilt angle, radial inclination angle, and ulnar variance length were measured, and the union of ulnar styloid fractures was judged. For clinical examination, the range of motions, grip strength, Hand20 score, and Numeric Rating Scale score were evaluated. There was little correction loss for each radiological parameter of fracture reduction, and these parameters were not significantly different between the groups. The bone-healing rate of ulnar styloid fractures was significantly higher in the case group than in the control group, but the clinical results were not significantly different. We revealed that there was no need to fix ulnar styloid fractures when distal radius fractures were treated via open reduction and internal fixation with a volar locking plate system. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association

  13. Ensuring precision in lower limb deformity correction through a combination of temporary external fixation followed by internal fixation: Results of a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Ganjwala, Dhiren; Shah, Shrenik; Shah, Snehal

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is important to plan preoperatively when contemplating internal fixation following deformity correction. Surgeons often find it difficult to retain the achieved correction till the end of internal fixation. To maintain precise correction we used hybrid technique which uses both external and internal fixation. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of this hybrid technique in achieving and retaining desired correction. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, we evaluated the magnitude of deformity with radiological parameters. We compared correction which was planned and correction which was achieved. The technique was used during surgery for corrective osteotomies. Before carrying out the osteotomy, rail fixator with two swivel clamps was applied. After osteotomy swivel clamps were loosened. Desired correction was achieved. While fixator held the fragments in corrected position, definitive internal fixation was carried out. External fixator was removed after completion of internal fixation. Position of mechanical axis ratio, mechanical lateral distal femoral angle and mechanical medial proximal tibial angle were measured before and 12 weeks after surgery. Student t-test was used to analyze the difference between correction which was planned and correction which was achieved. Results: There was no statistical difference between the desired correction and the correction achieved. Conclusions: Temporary use of external fixator while correcting angular deformities of lower limb allows to achieve accurate correction. PMID:25298557

  14. Minimally invasive plating versus either open reduction and plate fixation or intramedullary nailing of humeral shaft fractures: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Hohmann, Erik; Glatt, Vaida; Tetsworth, Kevin

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform a meta-analysis comparing the clinical outcomes and complications between anterior humeral minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) and the 2 standard techniques, either open reduction and plating or humeral nailing. We performed a systematic review of Medline, Embase, Scopus, and Google Scholar to identify relevant randomized controlled trials in the English- and German-language literature. Eligibility criteria included randomized controlled trials comparing at least 1 surgical intervention with MIPO and reporting the primary clinical outcome using a validated functional scoring system and description of complications. Publication bias was assessed by funnel plot, and the risk of bias was established using the Cochrane Collaboration's Risk of Bias Tool. Heterogeneity was assessed using χ(2) and I(2) statistics. Eight prospective randomized studies (N = 376) met the eligibility criteria and were included in the analysis. The pooled estimate for clinical outcome showed that MIPO resulted in a significantly better outcome (standardized mean difference, 0.366; 95% confidence interval, 0.16 to 0.571; P = .0001; I(2) = 61%). The pooled estimate for all complications showed that the open reduction-internal fixation/nail group had a significantly higher complication rate (odds ratio, 0.507; 95% confidence interval, 0.285 to 0.905; P = .021; I(2) = 97%). Current evidence indicates the MIPO approach has better clinical outcomes with a lower rate of complications compared with alternative surgical techniques. However, the results of this meta-analysis are limited by problems inherent in the primary studies, including poor reporting of randomization protocols, as well as possible attrition bias and reporting bias, of the primary studies. Future publications may therefore change the trend of the pooled estimate in either direction. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees

  15. Distraction osteogenesis using combined locking plate and Ilizarov fixator in the treatment of bone defect: A report of 2 cases

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhaya, John; Raj, Manish

    2017-01-01

    Distraction osteogenesis and bone transport has been used to reconstruct bone loss defect by allowing new bone to form in the gap. Plate-guided bone transport has been successfully described in literature to treat bone loss defect in the femur, tibia, and mandible. This study reports two cases of fracture of femur with segmental bone loss treated with locking plate fixation and bone transport with Ilizarov ring fixator. At the time of docking, when the transport segment is compressed with bone fragment, the bone fragment is fixed with additional locking or nonlocking screws through the plate. The bone defect size was 7 cm in case 1 and 8 cm in case 2 and the external fixation indexes were 12.7 days/cm and 14 days/cm. No shortening was present in either of our cases. The average radiographic consolidation index was 37 days/cm. Both cases achieved infection-free bone segment regeneration and satisfactorily functional outcome. This technique reduces the duration of external fixation during the consolidation phase, allows correction of length and alignment and provides earlier rehabilitation.

  16. Treatment of Early Post-op Wound Infection after Internal Fixation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Approximately 10%-40% of severe fractures fixed with internal fixation develop a deep wound infection during the healing process. Thus, the overall...stable while the bone heals . Approximately 10%-40% of severe fractures fixed with internal fixation develop a deep wound infection during the... healing process. Thus, the overall goals of this study are to (1) evaluate the effect of treatment of post-op wound infection in long bones after

  17. Clinical and radiological outcome after mini-open Latarjet technique with fixation of coracoid with Arthrex wedge mini-plate.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Deepak; Goyal, Ankit; Joshi, Deepak; Jain, Vineet; Mohindra, Mukul; Mehta, Nitin

    2016-01-01

    Technical faults leading to coracoid fractures during screw insertion and coracoid graft osteolysis are concerns with standard screw fixation techniques in Latarjet procedure. The purpose of this study is to share our experience using Arthrex wedge profile plate with mini-open technique for graft fixation, that ensures better load distribution between coracoid graft and glenoid. We did retrospective analysis of 24 patients with recurrent anterior shoulder instability after failed arthroscopic Bankart's repair. Arthroscopic examination of affected shoulder was done in lateral position before making patient supine for open Latarjet. A low profile wedge plate (Arthrex) with two screws was used for the procedure. CT analysis was performed post-operatively at 6 months to see graft union and results were evaluated using the Rowe and Walch Duplay score. Mean follow-up time was 26 months. Postoperatively, mean forward elevation was 170.6 + 4.6° (loss of average 5.9°) and mean external rotation was 42.5 + 5.3° (loss of average 3.1°). All patients returned to their previous occupation. None reported to be having any recurrent subluxation. Functional assessment done using Rowe score and Walch Duplay score showed statistically significant improvement (p value 0.034). There were no implant-related complications and no case of coracoid graft osteolysis. Mini-open Latarjet with graft fixation with Arthrex mini-plate provides satisfactory outcome in patients who require reoperation due to dramatic bone loss and failed soft tissue reconstruction. The modified incision improves exposure enabling plate fixation and the secure fixation accelerates rehabilitation.

  18. Clinical and radiological outcome after mini-open Latarjet technique with fixation of coracoid with Arthrex wedge mini-plate

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Deepak; Goyal, Ankit; Joshi, Deepak; Jain, Vineet; Mohindra, Mukul; Mehta, Nitin

    2016-01-01

    Background Technical faults leading to coracoid fractures during screw insertion and coracoid graft osteolysis are concerns with standard screw fixation techniques in Latarjet procedure. The purpose of this study is to share our experience using Arthrex wedge profile plate with mini-open technique for graft fixation, that ensures better load distribution between coracoid graft and glenoid. Methods We did retrospective analysis of 24 patients with recurrent anterior shoulder instability after failed arthroscopic Bankart's repair. Arthroscopic examination of affected shoulder was done in lateral position before making patient supine for open Latarjet. A low profile wedge plate (Arthrex) with two screws was used for the procedure. CT analysis was performed post-operatively at 6 months to see graft union and results were evaluated using the Rowe and Walch Duplay score. Results Mean follow-up time was 26 months. Postoperatively, mean forward elevation was 170.6 + 4.6° (loss of average 5.9°) and mean external rotation was 42.5 + 5.3° (loss of average 3.1°). All patients returned to their previous occupation. None reported to be having any recurrent subluxation. Functional assessment done using Rowe score and Walch Duplay score showed statistically significant improvement (p value 0.034). There were no implant-related complications and no case of coracoid graft osteolysis. Conclusions Mini-open Latarjet with graft fixation with Arthrex mini-plate provides satisfactory outcome in patients who require reoperation due to dramatic bone loss and failed soft tissue reconstruction. The modified incision improves exposure enabling plate fixation and the secure fixation accelerates rehabilitation. PMID:26908972

  19. Internal fixation for coronal shear fracture of the capitellum with polylactide resorbable fixation

    PubMed Central

    Kraan, Gerald A; Krijnen, Matthijs R; Eerenberg, Jan Peter

    2013-01-01

    A 24-year-old woman with pain in the right elbow after a fall demonstrated a coronal shear fracture on radiographic studies. Perioperative a coronal shear fracture was seen and treated successfully with a polylactide Rigid fix resorbable pin. The operative correction resulted in normal function at 6 months follow-up. We state that a capitellum shear fracture can be fixated with a single resorbable pin, leading to successful fusion. PMID:23378544

  20. Use of a locking compression plate as an external fixator for repair of a tarsometatarsal fracture in a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus).

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Ronald D; Crandall, Elizabeth; Bellah, Jamie R

    2011-06-01

    We describe the successful treatment of a tarsometatarsal fracture in a mature bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) using a locking compression plate as an external fixator. The anatomy of the area (inelastic dermis and minimal subcutaneous space) and the high forces placed on a fracture at that site necessitated a unique approach to fixation. The unconventional use of a locking compression plate as an external fixator was minimally invasive, well tolerated by the eagle, and provided adequate stability in opposing fracture forces. This technique may serve as a method of fixation for tarsometatarsal fractures in other large avian species.

  1. Retrospective Study on Multidrug-Resistant Bacterium Infections After Rigid Internal Fixation of Mandibular Fracture.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhangao; Zhou, Zhongwei; Li, Peng; Zeng, Wei; Qing, Hai; Tang, Wei

    2016-04-01

    , stable fixation should be achieved with the smallest amount of internal fixation material, the blood supply should be protected, and a reconstruction plate should be used to fix sites with greater stress or large comminuted fracture. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Volar Plate Fixation in Patients Older Than 70 Years with AO Type C Distal Radial Fractures: Clinical and Radiologic Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Piuzzi, Nicolas S; Zaidenberg, Ezequiel E; Duarte, Matias Pereira; Boretto, Jorge G; Donndorff, Agustin; Gallucci, Gerardo; De Carli, Pablo

    2017-08-01

    Introduction  Treatment of unstable distal radial fractures (DRFs) in elderly patients is controversial, and considering the increasing life expectancy, their appropriate treatment is of growing importance. Our aim was to analyze the clinical and radiologic outcomes in the elderly patients with AO type C DRF treated with volar locking plate (VLP). Materials and Methods  Between 2007 and 2011, 572 DRFs were operated on in our hospital with open reduction and internal fixation with VLP. Of these, only 64 patients (66 DRFs) met the selection criteria (AO type C DRF, age > 70 years, minimum 12-month follow-up). Mean follow-up was 28 months. Outcome assessment included range of motion, grip strength, VAS pain, Mayo Clinic Score, and DASH score. Analysis of pre- and postoperative radiographs was performed. Complications were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed comparing the results with the contralateral side. Results  Mean postoperative range of motion of the injured wrist compared with the control contralateral side was 86% for flexion ( p  < 0.001), 92% for extension ( p  < 0.001). The average DASH was 12. Mayo Clinic Wrist Score showed 43 excellent results, 15 good, 4 satisfactory, and 4 poor. Articular step-offs were reduced in 34 of 38 wrists. Five (7%) patients required plate removal. Conclusion  The treatment of articular DRF (AO type C) with VLP in the elderly patients achieved greater than 90% of the wrist range of motion and grip strength with no residual pain in greater than 90% of the patients. Level of Evidence  Therapeutic IV, case series.

  3. Fixation of Intertrochanteric Fractures: Dynamic Hip Screw versus Locking Compression Plate

    PubMed Central

    Mardani-Kivi, Mohsen; Mirbolook, Ahmadreza; Khajeh Jahromi, Sina; Rouhi Rad, Melina

    2013-01-01

    Background According to the existing literature, the Dynamic Hip Screw (DHS) is the preferred standard for the treatment of intertrochanteric fractures. However, some surgeons use other devices such as the Locking Compression Plate (LCP). Objectives In this study, we compared the outcome of using DHS or LCP in intertrochanteric fractures. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out on 104 patients who were referred to Pursina Hospital in Rasht, Iran with intertrochanteric fractures of the femur treated with either the DHS or LCP devices. Demographic features, existence or nonexistence of stability and operating time were obtained from questionnaires. During a 6-month follow-up after surgery, patients were interviewed to record variables such as Harris Hip Scores and complications. The patients were also interviewed on their final visit (between 9 and 31 postoperative months). The collected data was analyzed using SPSS. Results We discovered that the number of incidences of limb shortening and device failure was higher for patients treated with the LCP device (P = 0.048 and P = 0.014). Patients treated with the DHS device had higher Harris Hip scores for both the 6-month postoperative and the final evaluation visits (P = 0.01 and P = 0.018). Conclusions Despite the complications of fixation with the DHS device, it remains the most successful for treatment of intertrochanteric fractures. PMID:24350155

  4. Video-assisted ALIF with cage and anterior plate fixation for L5-S1 spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Aunoble, Stephane; Hoste, David; Donkersloot, Peter; Liquois, Frederic; Basso, Yann; Le Huec, Jean-Charles

    2006-10-01

    Spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis grade 0, 1, and 2 are mainly asymptomatic but with aging process and different factors some back pain can occur and lead to chronic low back pain. The conservative treatment with physiotherapy and steroid injection is the gold standard but in some cases is not efficient enough and a surgical treatment is proposed. The goal of this study is to propose a new technique to treat grade 0, 1, and 2 spondylolisthesis with an anterior video-assisted fusion and stabilization. Twenty patients with chronic low back pain since more than 2 years and resistant to conservative therapy were included in this protocol. Clinical signs and radicular pain were noted. They were evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively until the last follow up using Oswestry score and visual analog score (VAS) for leg and back pain. X-rays showed grade 0 (8 cases), 1 (10 cases), and 2 (2 cases) spondylolisthesis according to Meyerding classification with disc collapse (bulging disc). MRI showed in all cases a disc degeneration with at least black disc and/or endplates changes with Modic I or II. All patients were operated using an anterior video-assisted retroperitoneal approach, with discectomy and fusion using an anterior impacted cage filled with autologous cancellous bone from the iliac crest and an anterior fixation with a triangular plate (Pyramid, Medtronic, Memphis). The follow up at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months was done with clinical and radiologic evaluation. In case of problem a computed tomography scan was performed. There were 11 women and 9 men, with and average age of 39 years old and a BMI of 25.6. All spondylolistheses occurred at level L5. The average slippage was 19%. All L5S1 discs were black, 8 had a Modic I changes in the endplates and 2 had Modic II. The shape of L5 vertebra was abnormal (trapezoidal) in 7 cases. All anterior approaches were performed without vascular, urologic, or digestive complication. Blood loss was inferior to 100 mL. All

  5. The outcome of super-cutaneous locked plate fixation with percutaneous reduction of displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures.

    PubMed

    El-Desouky, Ihab I; Abu Senna, Wissam

    2017-02-01

    Supercutaneous (external) fixation with locking plate is utilized for fixation of long bone fractures. One retrospective study for open reduction and supercutaneous fixation of the calcaneus is reported. We prospectively evaluated the use of this method of fixation combined with percutaneous reduction. Between January 2014 and June 2015, 32 displaced calcaneus fractures in 30 patients were stabilized with percutaneous reduction and super-cutaneous fixation. They were 24 males and six females. The mean age was 37.9±5.7 years (21-55). All cases were closed. The time to surgery, complications, radiographic alignment, and time to radiographic union were recorded. Clinical results at the final follow-up were assessed by evaluating Bohler's angles for the radiographic alignment, and the system of the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) for the functional outcome. According to the Sanders' classification, two cases were type II, 17 cases were type III and 13 cases were type IV. The preoperative average Bohler's angle was 10.57°±4.8. The postoperative X-ray films demonstrated that the average Bohler's angle improved to 29.07°±5.9 (p<0.001). At the time of radiologic healing (about 3 months), the plates and screws were removed under general anesthesia. The average follow-up was 13.2 months (11-18). Four cases (type IV) showed mal-union and heel pain. According to (AOFAS) rating, the fine score was 87.1±17.1 points. Super-cutaneous fixation with percutaneous reduction of calcaneal fracture is an effective method in type II and III and can be effective with type IV but with less favorable results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The biomechanical effect of bone quality and fracture topography on locking plate fixation in periprosthetic femoral fractures.

    PubMed

    Leonidou, Andreas; Moazen, Mehran; Lepetsos, Panagiotis; Graham, Simon M; Macheras, George A; Tsiridis, Eleftherios

    2015-02-01

    Optimal management of periprosthetic femoral fractures (PFF) around a well fixed prosthesis (Vancouver B1) remains controversial as adequate fixation needs to be achieved without compromising the stability of the prosthesis. The aim of this study was to highlight the effect of bone quality i.e. canal thickness ratio (CTR), and fracture topography i.e. fracture angle and its position in relation to the stem, on the biomechanics of a locking plate for a Vancouver B1 fracture. A previously corroborated simplified finite element model of a femur with a cemented total hip replacement stem was used in this study. Canal thickness ratio (CTR) and fracture topography were altered in several models and the effect of these variations on the von Mises stress on the locking plate as well as the fracture displacement was studied. Increasing the CTR led to reduction of the von Mises stress on the locking plate as well as the fracture movement. In respect to the fracture angle with the medial cortex, it was shown that acute angles resulted in lower von Mises stress on the plate as opposed to obtuse angles. Furthermore, acute fracture angles resulted in lower fracture displacement compared to the other fractures considered here. Fractures around the tip of the stem had the same biomechanical effect on the locking plate. However, fractures more distal to the stem led to subsequent increase of stress, strain, and fracture displacement. Results highlight that in good bone quality and acute fracture angles, single locking plate fixation is perhaps an appropriate management method. On the contrary, for poor bone quality and obtuse fracture angles alternative management methods might be required as the fixation might be under higher risk of failure. Clinical studies for the management of PFF are required to further support our findings.

  7. Clamping stiffness and its influence on load distribution between paired internal spinal fixation devices.

    PubMed

    Rohlmann, A; Calisse, J; Bergmann, G; Radvan, J; Mayer, H M

    1996-06-01

    The load distribution between two internal spinal fixation devices depends, besides other factors, on their stiffness. The stiffness ranges were determined experimentally for the clamps of the AO internal fixator with lateral nut and with posterior nut as well as for the clamps of the SOCON fixator. The stiffness of eight devices each differed by a factor of 3.1 for the clamp with lateral nut, by a factor of 1.5 for the clamp with posterior nut, and by a factor of 1.4 for the clamp of the SOCON fixator. For the AO clamp with lateral nut, the influence of the nut-tightening torque on the stiffness was determined. Using instrumented internal spinal fixation devices mounted to plastic vertebrae and simulating a corpectomy, the load distribution between the implants was measured for different tightening torques. It could be shown that, for the AO internal fixator whose clamps have a lateral nut, a nut-tightening torque > 5 Nm has only a negligible influence on load-sharing between the implants. Tooth damage occurs when the teeth of the clamp body and clamping jaw of the clamp with lateral nut do not gear together exactly, which leads to changes in the clamping stiffness and load-sharing between the two implants.

  8. Operative Fixation of Chronic Acromioclavicular Joint Dislocation With Hook Plate and Modified Ligament Transfer.

    PubMed

    McKee, Michael D

    2016-08-01

    The optimal treatment for acute dislocation of the acromioclavicular (AC) joint remains unclear, and prior randomized trials did not reveal any significant improvements in the operative groups. However, it is clear that some patients treated nonoperatively are dissatisfied with their outcome and request surgical correction. This video demonstrates one method of repair of a chronic dislocation of the AC joint in a patient with significant symptomatology following nonoperative treatment of a high-grade AC dislocation. This video demonstrates the open reduction of a chronically dislocated AC joint. After mobilization of the distal clavicle and debridement of the joint, a step cut is made in the anterior surface of the distal clavicle. The coracoacromial (CA) ligament is then identified and mobilized, taking care to preserve its acromial origin. An anterior acromioplasty is then performed with a microsaggital saw. The AC joint is reduced, and the acromial fragment is sculpted to fit the step cut in the distal clavicle, where it is then fixed with a small-fragment cancellous screw in lag fashion. The blade of the hook plate is then contoured to fit under the acromion (posteriorly) to hold the joint in a reduced position. The deltoid is repaired with number 1 absorbable sutures, followed by a standard closure. Results are improved and complications minimized when care is taken to not avoid overreduction of the clavicle: an intraoperative radiograph, and/or comparison to the opposite side, may be useful. We do not shorten or resect the entire distal clavicle: this has been shown to lead to worse outcomes. We have found that CA transfer with a fragment of attached acromial bone results in more reliable healing than a CA transfer alone (the Weaver-Dunn transfer). In the setting of a chronic AC dislocation, hook plate fixation provides excellent reduction of the joint and a stable mechanical environment: this allows for the optimal healing of the ligament transfer. Typically

  9. Treatment of Unstable Posterior Pelvic Ring Fracture with Pedicle Screw-Rod Fixator Versus Locking Compression Plate: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Chun; Wang, Qiugen; Nagelli, Christopher; Wu, Jianhong; Wang, Qian; Wang, Jiandong

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the clinical results of treatment for unstable posterior pelvic fractures using a pedicle screw-rod fixator compared to use of a locking compression plate. Material/Methods A retrospective study was performed between June 2010 and May 2014 and the data were collected from 46 patients with unstable posterior pelvic ring fractures. All patients were treated using either a pedicle screw-rod fixator (study group, 24 patients) or locking compression plate (control group, 22 patients). In these patients, causes of injury included traffic accidents (n=27), fall from height (n=12), and crushing accidents (n=7). The quality of reduction and radiological grading were assessed. Clinical assessments included the operation time, times of X-ray exposures, bleeding volume during operation, incision length, and Majeed postoperative functional evaluation. Results No iatrogenic neurovascular injuries occurred during the operations in these 2 groups. The average follow-up time was 24.5 months. All fractures were healed. The significant differences (P<0.05) between the 2 groups were operation duration, size of incision, and intraoperative bleeding volume. Statistically significant differences in the Majeed postoperative functional evaluation and times of X-ray exposures were not found between the 2 groups. Conclusions Similar clinical effects were achieved in treating the posterior pelvic ring fractures using the pedicle screw-rod fixator and the locking compression plate. However, the pedicle screw-rod fixator has the advantages of smaller incision, shorter duration of the operation, and less bleeding volume compared to using the locking compression plate. PMID:27748355

  10. Use of a Locked Fibular Plate for Fixation of a Vertical Shear Medial Malleolus Fracture: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Blake, Sean; Yakubek, George; Shaer, James

    2015-01-01

    Vertical shear fractures of the medial malleolus are less common than transverse fractures. These fractures are often treated with lag screws, posteromedial buttress plating, antiglide plates, and neutralization plates with screws. We report on a 37-year-old male who had fractured his ankle after tripping and falling into a ditch. Initially, the patient was treated with closed reduction and a splint for a trimalleolar fracture with a laterally subluxed talus. However, on review of his preoperative radiographs and computed tomography studies, we confirmed a medial malleolus fracture with a vertical shear pattern and communition. Recently, a contoured fibular locking plate has been developed. We considered this plate to be effective for containing the bone in part because of its broader plate design. We present a case in which a fibular locking plate was used successfully as a neutralization plate as an alternative fixation method for a vertical shear medial malleolar fracture. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Radiographic outcomes of cable-plate versus cable-grip fixation in periprosthetic fractures of the proximal femur.

    PubMed

    Ricciardi, Benjamin F; Nodzo, Scott R; Oi, Kathryn; Lee, Yuo-Yu; Westrich, Geoffrey H

    2017-05-23

    Newer generation cable-plate designs are commonly used for periprosthetic proximal femur fractures; however, comparisons relative to cable-grips remain limited. The aim of this study was to compare radiographic healing rates of cable-plate versus cable-grip fixation for periprosthetic proximal femur fractures. Consecutive patients with an acute or chronic Vancouver A, B1, or B2 periprosthetic proximal femur fracture undergoing trochanteric fixation with a cable-plate (n = 46 cases) or cable-grip (n = 24 cases) system were identified retrospectively from a single-centre hospital database (mean follow-up 28 months [range 6-89 months]). Demographics, radiographic fracture healing, and complications were compared between the 2 groups. Radiographic union rates were not different between the cable-grip versus cable-plate group (67% vs. 76% respectively; p = 0.4). Healing rates of greater trochanteric fractures alone were not different between the cable-plate versus cable-grip groups (75% vs. 71% respectively; p = 0.38). The cable-plates were used for a more diverse range of fracture patterns relative to the cable-grips. An increased number of cables was associated with radiographic healing (odds ratio 14 [95% confidence interval 2-64]; p = 0.01), and body mass index had a negative correlation with radiographic healing (odds ratio -0.4 [95% confidence interval 0.5-0.9]. Similar rates of periprosthetic fracture healing were seen using a cable-grip versus cable-plate system; however, the cable-plate system could be used for a more diverse range of fracture patterns.

  12. Coracoid bone graft osteolysis after Latarjet procedure: A comparison study between two screws standard technique vs mini-plate fixation.

    PubMed

    Giacomo, Giovanni Di; Costantini, Alberto; de Gasperis, Nicola; De Vita, Andrea; Lin, Bernard K H; Francone, Marco; Beccaglia, Mario A Rojas; Mastantuono, Marco

    2013-01-01

    One of the reason for Latarjet procedure failure may be coracoid graft osteolysis. In this study, we aimed to understand if a better compression between the coracoid process and the glenoid, using a mini-plate fixation during the Latarjet procedure, could reduce the amount of coracoid graft osteolysis. A computed tomography scan analysis of 26 prospectively followed-up patients was conducted after modified Latarjet procedure using mini-plate fixation technique to determine both the location and the amount of coracoid graft osteolysis in them. We then compared our current results with results from that of our previous study without using mini-plate fixation to determine if there is any statistical significant difference in terms of corcacoid bone graft osteolysis between the two surgical techniques. The most relevant osteolysis was represented by the superficial part of the proximal coracoid, whereas the deep part of the proximal coracoid graft is least involved in osteolysis and has best bone healing. The current study showed a significant difference only for the deep part of the distal coracoid with our previous study (P < 0.01). To our knowledge, there are no studies in literature that show the causes of coracoid bone graft osteolysis after Latarjet procedure. Our study suggests that there is a significant difference only for the deep part of the distal coracoid in terms of osteolysis. At clinical examination, this difference did not correspond with any clinical findings. Level 4. Prospective case series, Treatment study.

  13. Comparison of tension band wiring and precontoured locking compression plate fixation in Mayo type IIA olecranon fractures.

    PubMed

    Schliemann, Benedikt; Raschke, Michael J; Groene, Philipp; Weimann, André; Wähnert, Dirk; Lenschow, Simon; Kösters, Clemens

    2014-03-01

    Aim of the present study was to compare the clinical and radiographic outcome of tension band wiring and precontoured locking compression plate fixation in patients treated surgically for an isolated olecranon fractures type IIA according to the Mayo classification. Of 26 patients presenting with an isolated Mayo type IIA olecranon fracture, 13 underwent fixation with a precontoured locking compression plate (group A), 13 patients were treated with tension band wiring (group B). At a mean follow-up of 43 months, patients were clinically and radiographically re-examined using the DASH score, the Mayo Elbow Performance score (MEPS) and anteroposterior and lateral radiographs. The mean DASH score was 14 points in group A and 12.5 points in group B. Regarding the MEPS, 92% of the patients in group A achieved a good to excellent results in comparison to 77% in group B. No significant differences between the two groups could be detected regarding the clinical and radiographic outcome. Implant-related irritations requiring hardware removal occurred more frequently in group B (12 vs. 7). Procedure and implant related costs were significantly higher in group A. Tension band wiring is still a preferable surgical method to treat simple isolated olecranon fractures. The patient must be informed that in all likelihood implant removal will be required once the fracture has healed. Fixation with precontoured locking compression plates does not provide better functional and radiographic outcome but is more expensive than tension band wiring.

  14. Plate fixation of odontoid fractures without C1-C2 arthrodesis: practice of a novel surgical technique for stabilization of odontoid fractures, including the opportunity to extend the fixation to C3.

    PubMed

    Platzer, Patrick; Thalhammer, Gerhild; Krumboeck, Anna; Schuster, Rupert; Kutscha-Lissberg, Florian; Zehetgruber, Isabella; Braunsteiner, Thomas; Vécsei, Vilmos

    2009-04-01

    Surgical treatment of odontoid fractures that do not allow interfragmentary fracture compression involves either posterior atlantoaxial arthrodesis or additional anterior stabilization using a plate construct. The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical and radiographic outcome after anterior plate fixation of odontoid fractures that were not suitable for anterior screw fixation. We reviewed the clinical and radiographic records of 9 patients with an average age of 54 years at the time of surgery who had undergone anterior plate fixation of an odontoid fracture. Indications for using a plate construct were odontoid fractures with anterior oblique fracture lines, fractures with comminution or major displacement, and pathological fractures. Eight patients returned to their preinjury activity level and were satisfied with their treatment. One patient reported chronic pain symptoms and a notable decrease in cervical spine motion. Using the Smiley-Webster Scale to quantify their clinical outcome, we achieved an overall outcome score of 1.6. Bony fusion was achieved in all patients. Reduction or fixation failed in 2 patients. Reoperation for technical failures was not necessary in any of the patients. We had promising results using anterior plate fixation for surgical treatment of odontoid fractures that did not allow interfragmentary fracture compression. Because this method avoids the rigid fixation of the atlantoaxial joint in contrast to techniques of posterior cervical arthrodesis, it seems to be a practical option for the management of fracture types that require additional stabilization of the odontoid.

  15. Biomechanical analysis of expansion screws and cortical screws used for ventral plate fixation on the cervical spine

    PubMed Central

    Ullrich, Bernhard; Huber, Gerd; Morlock, Michael M.

    2009-01-01

    Compared to bicortical screws, the surgical risk of injuring intraspinal structures can be minimized with the use of monocortical screws. However, this reduction should not be achieved at the expense of the stability of the fixation. With monocortical stabilization, the expansion screws have the potential of absorbing high loads. Therefore, they are expected to be a suitable alternative to bicortical screws for revision surgeries and in osteoporotic bone. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the stiffness of the two screw-plate systems used for ventral stabilization of the cervical spine, by focusing on the suitability of expansion screws as tools for revision treatments. The study was conducted in ten functional units of human cervical spines. The device sample stiffness was determined for four conditions using a turning moment of 2.25 N m each around one of the three principle axes. The conditions were native, destabilized, primarily stabilized with one of the screw-plate systems, followed by secondary stabilization using the expansion screw implant. The stabilized samples achieved a comparable, in most cases higher stiffness than the native samples. The samples undergoing secondary stabilization using expansion screws tend to display greater stiffness for all three axes compared to the primarily stabilized samples. The achieved tightening moment of the screws was higher than the one achieved with primary fixation. Both plates revealed similar primary stability. Revision surgeries with secondary instrumentation achieve a high stiffness of the screwed up segments. Monocortical expansion screws combined with a trapezoidal plate allow ventral stabilization of the cervical spine that is comparable to the plate fixation using bicortical screws. PMID:19588171

  16. A new device for internal fixation of thoracolumbar and lumbar spine fractures: the 'fixateur interne'.

    PubMed

    Dick, W; Kluger, P; Magerl, F; Woersdörfer, O; Zäch, G

    1985-08-01

    A new system of operative fixation of thoracolumbar and lumbar spine fractures is presented: the 'fixateur interne' (F.I.). From a posterior approach long Schanz screws are inserted through the pedicles into the body of the two vertebrae just adjacent to the lesion and connected by th threaded F.I. rods. By tightening the nuts the Schanz screws are fixed in all directions. The advantages of the F.I. system are: excellent reposition by the long lever-arm of the Schanz screws, immobilization of only two segments and therefore good mobility of the residual spine, stability against flexion forces better than is obtained with Harrington distraction rods, additional rotational stability, and fixation in lordosis or kyphosis as is desired. The F.I. does not act as a four point bending system like all other dorsal spine instrumentation systems, but provides stability in flexion by itself. Therefore it can be Used independently of the condition of all ligaments (including the anterior longitudinal ligament) and of the posterior wall of the fractured vertebrae, and there is no need to fix more than the two immediately adjacent vertebrae, thus avoiding the often painful and cumbersome iatrogenic loss of lumbar lordosis and of mobility and permitting early mobilization of the patient. Experience with the first 45 patients is very promising.

  17. Design and evaluation of a new synthetic wrist procedural simulator (Wristsim(®)) for training of distal radius fracture fixation by volar plating.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, P; Pire, E; Sapa, C; Ruffenach, L; Saur, M; Liverneaux, P; Hidalgo Diaz, J J

    2017-09-01

    Legislation concerning workload of surgical trainees and pressure to reduce learning curves have forced us reconsider surgical training. Our goal was to evaluate a synthetic procedural simulator for teaching open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) of distal radius fractures (DRF). Twenty surgeons used a synthetic procedural simulator (Wristsim(®)) made by 3D printing for ORIF of DRF with a volar plate (Newclip Technics(®)). The evaluation consisted of grading the simulator's realism compared to the surgeons' own experience with surgery on cadavers. The Wristsim(®) was graded 5.10/10, compared to 8.18/10 for the cadaver specimen for introduction of the plate under pronator quadratus. For fracture reproduction, Wristsim(®) scored 6.40/10, with the cadaver specimen scoring 7.15/10. For fracture reduction, Wristsim(®) scored 5.62/10, with the cadaver specimen scoring 7.38/10. Plate application was scored 7.05/10 for Wristsim(®) and 8.23/10 for the cadaver. Drilling was scored 6.60/10 for the Wristsim(®) and 8.23/10 for the cadaver. Screw fixation was scored 7.40/10 for the Wristsim(®) and 8.12/10 for the cadaver. Our results demonstrated that Wristsim(®) is still inferior to a cadaver specimen for teaching ORIF by volar plating of DRF. A new model of Wristsim(®) is being developed that will address shortcomings in pronator quadratus thickness, passive ROM in flexion/extension and bone size. Copyright © 2017 SFCM. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Efficacy and safety of tension band wiring versus plate fixation in olecranon fractures: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yi-Ming; Qiao, Hu-Yun; Wei, Zhi-Jian; Lin, Wei; Fan, Bao-You; Liu, Jun; Li, Ang; Kang, Yi; Liu, Shen; Hao, Yan; Zhou, Xian-Hu; Feng, Shi-Qing

    2016-11-14

    Olecranon fracture (OF) is a common upper limb fracture, and the most commonly used techniques are still tension band wiring (TBW) and plate fixation (PF). The aim of the current study is to discuss whether TBW or PF technique of internal fixation is better in the treatment of OFs, using the method of meta-analysis. The eligible studies were acquired from PubMed, CNKI, Embase, Cochrane Library, and other sources. The data were extracted by two of the coauthors independently and were analyzed by RevMan5.3. Standardized mean differences (SMDs), odds ratios (ORs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Cochrane Collaboration's Risk of Bias Tool and Newcastle-Ottawa Scale were used to assess risk of bias. Thirteen studies including 1 RCT and 12 observational studies were assessed. Our meta-analysis results showed that both in RCT and observational studies, there were no significant differences between the two groups in disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) (SMD = 0.07, 95% CI = -0.32 to 0.46, p = 0.73), improvement rate (OR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.48-1.22, p = 0.26), range of motion (ROM), operation time (SMD = -0.51, 95% CI = -1.17 to 0.14, p = 0.12) and blood loss (SMD = -0.97, 95% CI = -2.06 to 0.11, p = 0.08). The overall estimate of complications indicated that the pooled OR was 2.61 (95% CI = 1.65-4.14, p < 0.0001), suggesting that the difference was statistically significant. We also compared the outcomes of patients with mayo type IIA OFs treated by TBW and PF in DASH and ROM and found no differences. Both TBW and PF interventions had treatment benefit in OFs. The current study reveals that there are no significant differences in DASH, improvement rate, ROM, operation time, and blood loss between TBW and PF for OFs. Due to the less complications, we recommend the PF approach as the optical choice for OFs. More high-quality studies are required to further confirm our results.

  19. Investigation of the mechanical properties and failure modes of hybrid natural fiber composites for potential bone fracture fixation plates.

    PubMed

    Manteghi, Saeed; Mahboob, Zia; Fawaz, Zouheir; Bougherara, Habiba

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the mechanical feasibility of a hybrid Glass/Flax/Epoxy composite material for bone fracture fixation such as fracture plates. These hybrid composite plates have a sandwich structure in which the outer layers are made of Glass/Epoxy and the core from Flax/Epoxy. This configuration resulted in a unique structure compared to prior composites proposed for similar clinical applications. In order to evaluate the mechanical properties of this hybrid composite, uniaxial tension, compression, three-point bending and Rockwell Hardness tests were conducted. In addition, water absorption tests were performed to investigate the rate of water absorption for the specimens. This study confirms that the proposed hybrid composite plates are significantly more flexible axially compared to conventional metallic plates. Furthermore, they have considerably higher ultimate strength in tension, compression and flexion. Such high strength will ensure good stability of bone-implant construct at the fracture site, immobilize adjacent bone fragments and carry clinical-type forces experienced during daily normal activities. Moreover, this sandwich structure with stronger and stiffer face sheets and more flexible core can result in a higher stiffness and strength in bending compared to tension and compression. These qualities make the proposed hybrid composite an ideal candidate for the design of an optimized fracture fixation system with much closer mechanical properties to human cortical bone.

  20. Hook plate fixation for acute acromioclavicular dislocations without coracoclavicular ligament reconstruction: a functional outcome study in military personnel.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Narinder; Sharma, Vyom

    2015-08-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the shoulder function after clavicular hook plate fixation of acute acromioclavicular dislocations (Rockwood type III) in a population group consisting exclusively of high-demand military personnel. This prospective study was carried out at a tertiary care military orthopaedic centre during 2012-2013 using clavicular hook plate for management of acromioclavicular injuries without coracoclavicular ligament reconstruction in 33 patients. All patients underwent routine implant removal after 16 weeks. The functional outcome was assessed at 3, 6 and 12 months after hook plate removal and 2 years from the initial surgery using the Constant Murley and UCLA Scores. All the patients were male serving soldiers and had sustained acromioclavicular joint dislocation (Rockwood type III). Mean age of the patient group was 34.24 years (21-55 years). The mean follow-up period in this study was 23.5 months (20-26 months) after hook plate fixation and an average of 19.9 months (17-22 months) after hook plate removal. The average Constant Score at 3 months after hook plate removal was 60.3 as compared to 83.7 and 90.3 at 6 months and 1 year, respectively, and an average of 91.8 at the last follow-up that was approximately 2 years after initial surgery which was statistically significant (p value <0.05). The UCLA Score was an average of 15.27, 25.9 and 30.1 at 3, 6 months and 1 year, respectively, after removal of hook plate which improved further an average of 32.3 at the last follow-up, which was also statistically significant (p value <0.05). Clavicular hook plate fixation without coracoclavicular ligament reconstruction is a good option for acute acromioclavicular dislocations producing excellent medium-term functional results in high-demand soldiers.

  1. The use of pedicle-screw internal fixation for the operative treatment of spinal disorders.

    PubMed

    Gaines, R W

    2000-10-01

    Pedicle screws have dramatically improved the outcomes of spinal reconstruction requiring spinal fusion. Short-segment surgical treatments based on the use of pedicle screws for the treatment of neoplastic, developmental, congenital, traumatic, and degenerative conditions have been proved to be practical, safe, and effective. The Funnel Technique provides a straightforward, direct, and inexpensive way to very safely apply pedicle screws in the cervical, thoracic, or lumbar spine. Carefully applied pedicle-screw fixation does not produce severe or frequent complications. Pedicle-screw fixation can be effectively and safely used wherever a vertebral pedicle can accommodate a pedicle screw--that is, in the cervical, thoracic, or lumbar spine. Training in pedicle-screw application should be standard in orthopaedic training programs since pedicle-screw fixation represents the so-called gold standard of spinal internal fixation.

  2. The effect of posterior spinal fixation with acrylic cement on the vertebral growth plate and intervertebral disc in dogs.

    PubMed

    Moon, M S; Ok, I Y; Ha, K Y

    1986-01-01

    We have attempted to clarify the serial histological changes in the growing spine of dogs following posterior fixation with acrylic cement. Twenty-four male mongrel dogs aged 8 weeks were used for the study. The lumbar spine from L.3 to L.5 was fixed posteriorly with acrylic cement. Three dogs were then sacrificed every four weeks up to 32 weeks, and the histological changes of the vertebral disc, growth plate and vertebral bodies were observed by light microscopy. Thinning of the growth plate and distortion of the cartilage columns has been demonstrated, but premature fusion of the growth plate did not result and vertebral body growth continued. Anterior wedging of the intervertebral disc was seen with some thinning of the bony trabeculae of the vertebral body. Degeneration of the nucleus pulposus resulted, with replacement by fibrous tissue. The normal horizontal arrangement of the fibres of the annulus fibrosus altered to a vertical configuration by 32 weeks.

  3. Functional outcome after successful internal fixation versus salvage arthroplasty of patients with a femoral neck fracture

    PubMed Central

    Zielinski, Stephanie M.; Keijsers, Noël L.; Praet, Stephan F.E.; Heetveld, Martin J.; Bhandari, Mohit; Wilssens, Jean Pierre; Patka, Peter; Van Lieshout, Esther M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine patient independency, health-related and disease-specific quality of life (QOL), gait pattern, and muscle strength in patients after salvage arthroplasty for failed internal fixation of a femoral neck fracture. Design Secondary cohort study to a randomized controlled trial. Setting Multicenter trial in the Netherlands, including 14 academic and non-academic hospitals Patients Patients after salvage arthroplasty for failed internal fixation of a femoral neck fracture were studied. A comparison was made with patients who healed uneventfully after internal fixation. Intervention None (observatory study) Main outcome measurements Patient characteristics, SF-12, and WOMAC scores were collected. Gait parameters were measured using plantar pressure measurement. Maximum isometric forces of the hip muscles were measured using a handheld dynamometer. Differences between the fractured and contralateral leg were calculated. Groups were compared using univariate analysis. Results Of 248 internal fixation patients (median age 72 years), salvage arthroplasty was performed in 68 patients (27%). Salvage arthroplasty patients had a significantly lower WOMAC score (median 73 versus 90, P=0.016) than patients who healed uneventfully after internal fixation. Health-related QOL (SF-12) and patient independency did not differ significantly between the groups. Gait analysis showed a significantly impaired progression of the center of pressure in the salvage surgery patients (median ratio −8.9 versus 0.4, P=0.013) and a significant greater loss of abduction strength (median −25.4 versus −20.4 N, P=0.025). Conclusion Despite a similar level of dependency and QOL, salvage arthroplasty patients have inferior functional outcome than patients who heal after internal fixation of a femoral neck fracture. PMID:24835623

  4. Functional outcome after successful internal fixation versus salvage arthroplasty of patients with a femoral neck fracture.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Stephanie M; Keijsers, Noël L; Praet, Stephan F E; Heetveld, Martin J; Bhandari, Mohit; Wilssens, Jean Pierre; Patka, Peter; Van Lieshout, Esther M M

    2014-12-01

    To determine patient independency, health-related and disease-specific quality of life (QOL), gait pattern, and muscle strength in patients after salvage arthroplasty for failed internal fixation of a femoral neck fracture. Secondary cohort study to a randomized controlled trial. Multicenter trial in the Netherlands, including 14 academic and nonacademic hospitals. Patients after salvage arthroplasty for failed internal fixation of a femoral neck fracture were studied. A comparison was made with patients who healed uneventfully after internal fixation. None (observatory study). Patient characteristics, SF-12, and Western Ontario McMaster osteoarthritis index scores were collected. Gait parameters were measured using plantar pressure measurement. Maximum isometric forces of the hip muscles were measured using a handheld dynamometer. Differences between the fractured and contralateral leg were calculated. Groups were compared using univariate analysis. Of 248 internal fixation patients (median age, 72 years), salvage arthroplasty was performed in 68 patients (27%). Salvage arthroplasty patients had a significantly lower Western Ontario McMaster osteoarthritis index score (median, 73 vs. 90; P = 0.016) than patients who healed uneventfully after internal fixation. Health-related QOL (SF-12) and patient independency did not differ significantly between the groups. Gait analysis showed a significantly impaired progression of the center of pressure in the salvage surgery patients (median ratio, -8.9 vs. 0.4, P = 0.013) and a significant greater loss of abduction strength (median, -25.4 vs. -20.4 N, P = 0.025). Despite a similar level of dependency and QOL, salvage arthroplasty patients have inferior functional outcome than patients who heal after internal fixation of a femoral neck fracture. Therapeutic level III.

  5. Treatment of Early Post-Op Wound Infection after Internal Fixation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    having difficulty maintaining equipoise when prescribing antibiotics . Informational slides have been developed for the sites to use to present the study...to their Infectious Disease teams to assist with this problem. 15. SUBJECT TERMS PO, IV, Antibiotics , plate, fixation, infection 16. SECURITY...and either: (Group 1) operative debridement and PO antibiotic treatment for 6 weeks; or (Group 2) operative debridement and IV antibiotics for 6

  6. Clavicle fractures in 2010: sling/swathe or open reduction and internal fixation?

    PubMed

    McKee, Michael D

    2010-04-01

    Clavicle fractures are common, and they comprise close to 3% of all fractures seen in fracture clinics. Midshaft fractures account for approximately 80% of all clavicle fractures and are the focus of this article. In carefully selected cases primary plate fixation of displaced midshaft clavicle fractures improves outcome, results in earlier return to function, and reduces the nonunion and symptomatic malunion rate significantly compared with nonoperative treatment.

  7. Subluxation of the hip joint after internal fixation of a trochanteric fracture.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Kazuo; Murotani, Rentaroh; Mogami, Atsuhiko; Okahara, Hitoshi; Ohbayashi, Osamu; Iwase, Hideaki; Fujita, Hidemine; Kurosawa, Hisashi

    2004-02-01

    The authors report an unusual case of hip subluxation after internal fixation without associated sepsis. We report one recently treated case in which a 75-year-old female experienced subluxation of her hip joint after open reduction and internal fixation for a trochanteric fracture. In this paper, we describe a case of progressive, spontaneous subluxation of the hip joint over several weeks. Most previously reported cases are associated with cerebral palsy. This entity has not been reported previously. Our patient was treated by hemi-arthroplasty and repair of the disrupted capsule, and achieved a good long-term functional result. The cause of this particular condition is discussed.

  8. An Overview of Internal Fixation Implant Metallurgy and Galvanic Corrosion Effects.

    PubMed

    Koh, Justin; Berger, Aaron; Benhaim, Prosper

    2015-08-01

    Orthopedic and hand surgery implants for internal fixation of fractures have evolved substantially over the past 50 years. Newer metal compositions have been used, and new standards have been applied to older alloys, resulting in modern implants with unique physical properties and better clinical performances. Conventional wisdom has long dictated that implanting different metals should be avoided, but few guidelines exist regarding the safety of using in proximity implant systems of dissimilar metals. To better characterize the landscape of internal fixation implant metallurgy, we have compiled the recommendations and conclusions of the currently available and pertinent literature.

  9. The search for the ideal fixation of palatal fractures: innovative experience with a mini-locking plate.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Richard A

    2008-11-01

    Fractures of the palate have defied conventional management, such that malrotation and disinclination of the palatal shelves occur in a significant number of patients after repair. The fractured palatal shelves of eight patients were first prealigned. To do so, one or more 205-mm ratchet clamps and two intermaxillary fixation (IMF) posts were used. Rigid fixation was then achieved by applying a 2.0-mm mini-locking titanium plate (across the palatal vault) and by applying an adaptation miniplate across the fracture line as it exited the anterior surface of the maxilla. Screws were passed directly through the mucoperiosteum, to engage the palatal shelves and to lock the locking plate into position. Lacerations in the mucoperiosteum were neither used to aid fixation nor used as portals for dissection; incisions and mucoperiosteal flaps in the palatal vault were avoided. Adjuncts, such as intraoral splints, have not been used in cases to date, and early mobilization was allowed. Reconstitution of the craniomaxillofacial buttresses was added in patients with more extensive maxillary injury. The palatal appliance and screws remained rigidly in position in the roof of the mouth, much like an external fixator, until their removal 8 to 12 weeks after the repair. No patient suffered erosion of the mucoperiosteum or other major morbidity, other than a transient fistula of the soft palate. The palatoalveolar segments remained in proper realignment and inclination, and pretraumatic occlusal patterns and the width and depth of the lower face appear to have been restored with one exception. The latter suffered a subtle posterolateral open bite that was corrected orthodontically. Prealignment of fractured palatal shelves with one or more large ratchet clamps and two IMF posts provides several points of forced reduction of the palatal shelves, along the dental arch. In addition, stabilization with mini-locking plate(s) in the palatal vault and an adaptation plate across the

  10. Open reduction and internal fixation of extracapsular mandibular condyle fractures: a long-term clinical and radiological follow-up of 25 patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background During the last 2 decades, many studies on the treatment of mandibular condyle fracture have been published. The incidence of mandibular condyle fractures is variable, ranging from 17.5% to 52% of all mandibular fractures. This retrospective study evaluated the long-term clinical and radiological outcomes after surgical treatment of 25 patients with a total of 26 extracapsular condyle fractures. Methods We used 2 types of surgical approaches, the retromandibular retroparotid or preauricular approach. Three kinds of rigid internal fixation plates were used—single plate, double plate, and trapezoidal plate. The following post-operative clinical parameters were evaluated: dental occlusion, facial nerve functionality, skin scarring, and temporomandibular joint functionality. All patients underwent post-operative orthopanoramic radiography and computed tomography. The patients were also monitored for complications such as Frey’s syndrome, infection, salivary fistula, plate fracture, and permanent paralysis of the facial nerve; the patient’s satisfaction was also recorded. Results Of the 25 patients, 80% showed occlusion recovery, 88% had no facial nerve injury, and 88% presented good surgical skin scarring. The patients showed early complete recovery of temporomandibular joint functionality and 72% of them were found to be asymptomatic. The postoperative radiographs of all patients indicated good recovery of the anatomical condylar region, and 80% of them had no postoperative complications. The average degree of patient satisfaction was 8.32 out of 10. Our results confirm that the technique of open reduction and internal fixation in association with postoperative functional rehabilitation therapy should be considered for treating patients with extracapsular condylar fractures. Conclusion The topic of condylar injury has generated more discussion and controversy than any other topic in the field of maxillofacial trauma. We confirm that open reduction and

  11. Principles of internal fixation and selection of implants for periprosthetic femoral fractures.

    PubMed

    Giannoudis, Peter V; Kanakaris, Nikolaos K; Tsiridis, Eleftherios

    2007-06-01

    Periprosthetic femoral fractures (PFF) are increasing as a result of changes in population demographics and the increase in the number of total hip replacements performed. The overall incidence has been reported to range from 0.1% to 6% of all total hip arthroplasties. Management of these fractures is often particularly demanding, complex and expensive. In many cases, the surgeon has to solve the simultaneous problems of implant loosening, bone loss and fracture. A thorough understanding of the unique characteristics of the different fracture types, the principles of PFF treatment and a familiarity with the various fixation devices, grafts and prosthetic implants are all of paramount importance. Internal fixation is used either alone or as an adjunct to stem revision. The stability of the original implant and the configuration of the fracture itself are the basic factors that influence the decision-making process. The current study reviews the existing literature on internal fixation of femoral periprosthetic fractures.

  12. COMPARISON OF VOLUMES OCCUPIED BY DIFFERENT INTERNAL FIXATION DEVICES FOR FEMORAL NECK FRACTURES

    PubMed Central

    Lauxen, Daniel; Schwartsmann, Carlos Roberto; Silva, Marcelo Faria; Spinelli, Leandro de Freitas; Strohaecker, Telmo Roberto; Souza, Ralf Wellis de; Zimmer, Cinthia Gabriely; Boschin, Leonardo Carbonera; Gonçalves, Ramiro Zilles; Yépez, Anthony Kerbes

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this paper is to measure the volume occupied by the most widely used internal fixation devices for treating femoral neck fractures, using the first 30, 40 and 50 mm of insertion of each screw as an approximation. The study aimed to observe which of these implants caused least bone aggression. Methods: Five types of cannulated screws and four types of dynamic hip screws (DHS) available on the Brazilian market were evaluated in terms of volume differences through water displacement. Results: Fixation with two cannulated screws presented significantly less volume than shown by DHS, for insertions of 30, 40 and 50 mm (p=0.01, 0.012 and 0.013, respectively), fixation with three screws did not show any statistically significant difference (p= 0.123, 0.08 and 0.381, respectively) and fixation with four cannulated screws presented larger volumes than shown by DHS (p=0.072, 0.161 and 0.033). Conclusions: Fixation of the femoral neck with two cannulated screws occupied less volume than DHS, with a statistically significant difference. The majority of screw combinations did not reach statistical significance, although fixation with four cannulated screws presented larger volumes on average than those occupied by DHS. PMID:27047886

  13. Radiographic and clinical results of tension suture fixation using two washers with PHILOS plate for proximal humeral fractures.

    PubMed

    Cho, Chul-Hyun; Kim, Du Han; Kim, Beom-Soo

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiographic and clinical results of tension suture fixation using two washers with PHILOS plate (Synthes, West Chester, PA, USA) for proximal humeral fractures. Consecutive 39 patients were included and divided into two groups of adequate and inadequate medial support (MS (+) group vs MS (-) group). The mean follow-up period was 45months (range: 26-69 months). The mean age at the time of surgery was 59 years (range: 17-86 years) and there were 12 men and 27 women. The clinical results were evaluated using the visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, and subjective shoulder value (SSV). The radiographic results were evaluated by serial radiographs and Paavolainen method, which measures the neck-shaft angle (NSA). We used the Paired T and Kruskal-Wallis test to compare radiographic and clinical results between the two groups. Bony union was achieved in 37 cases (94.9%). The mean NSA was changed from 133.5° postoperatively to 131.0° at the final follow-up period, but this change was not statistically significant. Thirty-five cases (89.8%) had good radiographic results as determined by the Paavolainen method. The mean final VAS pain score, ASES score, and SSV were 1.3, 87.3, and 86.0%, respectively. There were no significant differences between the two groups with respect to radiographic and clinical outcomes. Eight cases (20.5%) had complications including 5 with shoulder stiffness, 1 experiencing nonunion by fixation failure, 1 malunion, and 1 migration of greater tuberosity. Tension suture fixation using two washers with PHILOS plate for proximal humeral fractures yielded satisfactory radiographic and clinical results. It can be a treatment option that can reduce varus deformity and fixation loss. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of a new approach for modelling the screw-bone interface in a locking plate fixation: a corroboration study.

    PubMed

    Moazen, Mehran; Mak, Jonathan H; Jones, Alison C; Jin, Zhongmin; Wilcox, Ruth K; Tsiridis, Eleftherios

    2013-07-01

    Computational modelling of the screw-bone interface in fracture fixation constructs is challenging. While incorporating screw threads would be a more realistic representation of the physics, this approach can be computationally expensive. Several studies have instead suppressed the threads and modelled the screw shaft with fixed conditions assumed at the screw-bone interface. This study assessed the sensitivity of the computational results to modelling approaches at the screw-bone interface. A new approach for modelling this interface was proposed, and it was tested on two locking screw designs in a diaphyseal bridge plating configuration. Computational models of locked plating and far cortical locking constructs were generated and compared to in vitro models described in prior literature to corroborate the outcomes. The new approach led to closer agreement between the computational and the experimental stiffness data, while the fixed approach led to overestimation of the stiffness predictions. Using the new approach, the pattern of load distribution and the magnitude of the axial forces, experienced by each screw, were compared between the locked plating and far cortical locking constructs. The computational models suggested that under more severe loading conditions, far cortical locking screws might be under higher risk of screw pull-out than the locking screws. The proposed approach for modelling the screw-bone interface can be applied to any fixation involved application of screws.

  15. A biomechanical comparison of proximal femoral nails and locking proximal anatomic femoral plates in femoral fracture fixation

    PubMed Central

    Ozkan, Korhan; Türkmen, İsmail; Sahin, Adem; Yildiz, Yavuz; Erturk, Selim; Soylemez, Mehmet Salih

    2015-01-01

    Background: The incidence of fractures in the trochanteric area has risen with the increasing numbers of elderly people with osteoporosis. Although dynamic hip screw fixation is the gold standard for the treatment of stable intertrochanteric femur fractures, treatment of unstable intertrochanteric femur fractures still remains controversial. Intramedullary devices such as Gamma nail or proximal femoral nail and proximal anatomic femur plates are in use for the treatment of intertrochanteric femur fractures. There are still many investigations to find the optimal implant to treat these fractures with minimum complications. For this reason, we aimed to perform a biomechanical comparison of the proximal femoral nail and the locking proximal anatomic femoral plate in the treatment of unstable intertrochanteric fractures. Materials and Methods: Twenty synthetic, third generation human femur models, obtained for this purpose, were divided into two groups of 10 bones each. Femurs were provided as a standard representation of AO/Orthopedic Trauma Associationtype 31-A2 unstable fractures. Two types of implantations were inserted: the proximal femoral intramedullary nail in the first group and the locking anatomic femoral plate in the second group. Axial load was applied to the fracture models through the femoral head using a material testing machine, and the biomechanical properties of the implant types were compared. Result: Nail and plate models were locked distally at the same level. Axial steady load with a 5 mm/m velocity was applied through the mechanical axis of femur bone models. Axial loading in the proximal femoral intramedullary nail group was 1.78-fold greater compared to the plate group. All bones that had the plate applied were fractured in the portion containing the distal locking screw. Conclusion: The proximal femoral intramedullary nail provides more stability and allows for earlier weight bearing than the locking plate when used for the treatment of

  16. UK DRAFFT - A randomised controlled trial of percutaneous fixation with kirschner wires versus volar locking-plate fixation in the treatment of adult patients with a dorsally displaced fracture of the distal radius

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Fractures of the distal radius are extremely common injuries in adults. However, the optimal management remains controversial. In general, fractures of the distal radius are treated non-operatively if the bone fragments can be held in anatomical alignment by a plaster cast or orthotic. However, if this is not possible, then operative fixation is required. There are several operative options but the two most common in the UK, are Kirschner-wire fixation (K-wires) and volar plate fixation using fixed-angle screws (locking-plates). The primary aim of this trial is to determine if there is a difference in the Patient-Reported Wrist Evaluation one year following K-wire fixation versus locking-plate fixation for adult patients with a dorsally-displaced fracture of the distal radius. Methods/design All adult patients with an acute, dorsally-displaced fracture of the distal radius, requiring operative fixation are potentially eligible to take part in this study. A total of 390 consenting patients will be randomly allocated to either K-wire fixation or locking-plate fixation. The surgery will be performed in trauma units across the UK using the preferred technique of the treating surgeon. Data regarding wrist function, quality of life, complications and costs will be collected at six weeks and three, six and twelve months following the injury. The primary outcome measure will be wrist function with a parallel economic analysis. Discussion This pragmatic, multi-centre trial is due to deliver results in December 2013. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN31379280 UKCRN portfolio ID 8956 PMID:21914196

  17. UK DRAFFT - a randomised controlled trial of percutaneous fixation with kirschner wires versus volar locking-plate fixation in the treatment of adult patients with a dorsally displaced fracture of the distal radius.

    PubMed

    Costa, Matthew L; Achten, Juul; Parsons, Nick R; Rangan, Amar; Edlin, Richard P; Brown, Jaclyn; Lamb, Sarah E

    2011-09-13

    Fractures of the distal radius are extremely common injuries in adults. However, the optimal management remains controversial. In general, fractures of the distal radius are treated non-operatively if the bone fragments can be held in anatomical alignment by a plaster cast or orthotic. However, if this is not possible, then operative fixation is required. There are several operative options but the two most common in the UK, are Kirschner-wire fixation (K-wires) and volar plate fixation using fixed-angle screws (locking-plates). The primary aim of this trial is to determine if there is a difference in the Patient-Reported Wrist Evaluation one year following K-wire fixation versus locking-plate fixation for adult patients with a dorsally-displaced fracture of the distal radius. All adult patients with an acute, dorsally-displaced fracture of the distal radius, requiring operative fixation are potentially eligible to take part in this study. A total of 390 consenting patients will be randomly allocated to either K-wire fixation or locking-plate fixation. The surgery will be performed in trauma units across the UK using the preferred technique of the treating surgeon. Data regarding wrist function, quality of life, complications and costs will be collected at six weeks and three, six and twelve months following the injury. The primary outcome measure will be wrist function with a parallel economic analysis. This pragmatic, multi-centre trial is due to deliver results in December 2013. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN31379280 UKCRN portfolio ID 8956.

  18. Comparison of postoperative changes in the distal and proximal segments between conventional and sliding mini-plate fixation following mandibular setback

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong-Sik; Kwak, Kyoung-Ho; Ko, Ching-Chang; Park, Soo-Byung; Son, Woo-Sung

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the postoperative three-dimensional (3D) changes in the proximal segments after mandibular setback sagittal split ramus osteotomy and to compare the changes between the conventional mini-plate fixation and semi-rigid sliding plate fixation. Methods Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were used to evaluate the postoperative 3D changes in the proximal segments during the healing process. CBCT images were superimposed using the symphysis and the lower anterior mandible as references. Results There were no statistically significant differences between the conventional mini-plate and semi-rigid sliding plate groups (p > 0.05). With respect to the distribution of changes greater than 2 mm in the landmarks, the right condylion, right coronoid process, and left condylion showed ratios of 55.6%, 50.0%, and 44.4%, respectively, in the semi-rigid sliding plate group; however, none of the landmarks showed ratios greater than 30% in the conventional mini-plate group. Conclusions There were no statistically significant differences in postoperative changes in the segments between the conventional mini-plate and semi-rigid sliding plate groups. Nevertheless, while selecting the type of fixation technique, clinicians should consider that landmarks with greater than 2 mm changes were higher in the semi-rigid sliding plate group than in the conventional mini-plate group. PMID:27896211

  19. Coracoid bone graft osteolysis after Latarjet procedure: A comparison study between two screws standard technique vs mini-plate fixation

    PubMed Central

    Giacomo, Giovanni Di; Costantini, Alberto; de Gasperis, Nicola; De Vita, Andrea; Lin, Bernard K. H.; Francone, Marco; Beccaglia, Mario A. Rojas; Mastantuono, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Aims: One of the reason for Latarjet procedure failure may be coracoid graft osteolysis. In this study, we aimed to understand if a better compression between the coracoid process and the glenoid, using a mini-plate fixation during the Latarjet procedure, could reduce the amount of coracoid graft osteolysis. Materials and Methods: A computed tomography scan analysis of 26 prospectively followed-up patients was conducted after modified Latarjet procedure using mini-plate fixation technique to determine both the location and the amount of coracoid graft osteolysis in them. We then compared our current results with results from that of our previous study without using mini-plate fixation to determine if there is any statistical significant difference in terms of corcacoid bone graft osteolysis between the two surgical techniques. Results: The most relevant osteolysis was represented by the superficial part of the proximal coracoid, whereas the deep part of the proximal coracoid graft is least involved in osteolysis and has best bone healing. The current study showed a significant difference only for the deep part of the distal coracoid with our previous study (P < 0.01). Discussion: To our knowledge, there are no studies in literature that show the causes of coracoid bone graft osteolysis after Latarjet procedure. Conclusion: Our study suggests that there is a significant difference only for the deep part of the distal coracoid in terms of osteolysis. At clinical examination, this difference did not correspond with any clinical findings. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Clinical Relevance: Prospective case series, Treatment study. PMID:23858288

  20. Which parameters affect medium- to long-term results after angular stable plate fixation for proximal humeral fractures?

    PubMed

    Bahrs, Christian; Kühle, Luise; Blumenstock, Gunnar; Stöckle, Ulrich; Rolauffs, Bernd; Freude, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    Very little information on medium- to long-term results is available for surgically treated proximal humeral fractures. The aim of this prospective treatment study was to present long-term results after angular stable plate fixation of displaced proximal humeral fractures and to detect which specific patient- and fracture-related parameters affect the clinical outcome. We performed a prospective clinical and radiologic evaluation of 77 patients with a displaced proximal humeral fracture (28 Neer 2-part, 38 3-part, and 11 4-part fractures; 28 AO A fractures, 30 AO B fractures, and 19 AO C fractures) treated with angular stable plate fixation after a mean follow-up period of 96 months (range, 74-133 months). We assessed outcomes with the Constant, University of California-Los Angeles (UCLA), and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) scores and evaluated specific patient- and fracture-related parameters including complications. The mean Constant, University of California-Los Angeles (UCLA), and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) scores were 79, 31, and 12 points. Reasons for revisions were implant-related impingement (n = 13), screw perforation (n = 10), infection (n = 4), and secondary fracture displacement (n = 1). There was a significant association between worse score results and occurrence of secondary fracture displacement, screw perforation, residual bone deformities, and a rotator cuff defect at follow-up. Good medium- to long-term results after angular stable plate fixation of displaced proximal humeral fracture can be expected. A reconstruction within a range of 15° in both anteroposterior and axillary views and <5-mm tuberosity displacement should be the aim of head-preserving surgery to prevent complications, such as secondary fracture displacement and screw perforation, and a less favorable long-term result. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  1. Fracture fixation in the operative management of hip fractures (FAITH): an international, multicentre, randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    2017-04-15

    Reoperation rates are high after surgery for hip fractures. We investigated the effect of a sliding hip screw versus cancellous screws on the risk of reoperation and other key outcomes. For this international, multicentre, allocation concealed randomised controlled trial, we enrolled patients aged 50 years or older with a low-energy hip fracture requiring fracture fixation from 81 clinical centres in eight countries. Patients were assigned by minimisation with a centralised computer system to receive a single large-diameter screw with a side-plate (sliding hip screw) or the present standard of care, multiple small-diameter cancellous screws. Surgeons and patients were not blinded but the data analyst, while doing the analyses, remained blinded to treatment groups. The primary outcome was hip reoperation within 24 months after initial surgery to promote fracture healing, relieve pain, treat infection, or improve function. Analyses followed the intention-to-treat principle. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00761813. Between March 3, 2008, and March 31, 2014, we randomly assigned 1108 patients to receive a sliding hip screw (n=557) or cancellous screws (n=551). Reoperations within 24 months did not differ by type of surgical fixation in those included in the primary analysis: 107 (20%) of 542 patients in the sliding hip screw group versus 117 (22%) of 537 patients in the cancellous screws group (hazard ratio [HR] 0·83, 95% CI 0·63-1·09; p=0·18). Avascular necrosis was more common in the sliding hip screw group than in the cancellous screws group (50 patients [9%] vs 28 patients [5%]; HR 1·91, 1·06-3·44; p=0·0319). However, no significant difference was found between the number of medically related adverse events between groups (p=0·82; appendix); these events included pulmonary embolism (two patients [<1%] vs four [1%] patients; p=0·41) and sepsis (seven [1%] vs six [1%]; p=0·79). In terms of reoperation rates the sliding hip

  2. The use of mini plates for intermaxillary fixation in a severely comminuted mandibular fracture with bilateral condylar fractures

    PubMed Central

    Clohessy, James William; Chang, Frank; Subramaniam, Shiva S.

    2016-01-01

    Intermaxillary fixation (IMF) is an integral technique utilized by maxillofacial surgeons to appropriately reduce and relate maxillary and mandibular fractures to both one another and the facial skeleton. This case report reviews the management of a comminuted mandibular fracture including inoperable bilateral condylar fractures that precluded the use of convention IMF techniques necessitating an alternative technique. This was achieved in the form of modified bony plates extending intraorally. Postoperative review showed favorable results with occlusion and range of motion comparable to the premorbid function and no unforeseen complications.

  3. Mechanisms of failure of locked-plate fixation of the proximal humerus: acoustic emissions as a novel assessment modality.

    PubMed

    Hymes, Robert A; Levine, Matthew J; Schulman, Jeff E; Westbrook, Ryan D; Li, Jihui

    2013-07-01

    Locking plates are the predominant implants used for proximal humerus fractures. Despite a preponderance of good clinical outcomes, failures continue to occur. The purpose of this study was to investigate the failure mechanism of locked proximal humeral plate fixation and its relationship with bone density and screw length. Human cadaveric humeri were subjected to cyclic bending loads after an unstable 2-part fracture (Orthopedic Trauma Association classification 11 A-3) was created and stabilized with a locking proximal humeral plate. Acoustic emission (AE) sensors were mounted on the specimens to detect fracture displacement and generation of microcracks. The data were analyzed to evaluate construct failure. Eight of 10 locking plate constructs in cadaver specimens failed in varus collapse. The primary influences on failure were cancellous bone density and cancellous bone screw length. AE monitoring demonstrated patterns of microcrack progression, predominantly along the inferior screws. The progression trends according to AE were similar to their respective actuator displacement versus time curves. Cancellous bone density and total cancellous screw depth penetration seem to be critical variables. Although the patients' bone density cannot be controlled, surgeons may decrease the risk of failure by maximizing the length of the screws within the cancellous bone. Analysis of microcrack formation revealed that failures begin at the midportion and tips of the inferior screws and at the bone-plate interface of the inferior screws.

  4. Maintenance of hardware after early postoperative infection following fracture internal fixation.

    PubMed

    Berkes, Marschall; Obremskey, William T; Scannell, Brian; Ellington, J Kent; Hymes, Robert A; Bosse, Michael

    2010-04-01

    The development of a deep wound infection in the presence of hardware after open reduction and internal fixation presents a clinical dilemma, and there is scant literature to aid in decision-making. The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence of osseous union with maintenance of hardware after the development of postoperative infection within six weeks after internal fixation of a fracture. The present study included 121 patients from three level-I trauma centers, retrospectively identified from billing and trauma registries, in whom 123 postoperative wound infections with positive intraoperative cultures had developed within six weeks after internal fixation of acute fractures. The incidence of fracture union without hardware removal was calculated, and the parameters that predicted success or failure were evaluated. Eighty-six patients (eighty-seven fractures; 71%) had fracture union with operative débridement, retention of hardware, and culture-specific antibiotic treatment and suppression. Predictors of treatment failure were open fracture (p = 0.03) and the presence of an intramedullary nail (p = 0.01). Several variables were not significant but trended toward an association with failure, including smoking, infection with Pseudomonas species, and involvement of the femur, tibia, ankle, or foot. Deep infection after internal fixation of a fracture can be treated successfully with operative débridement, antibiotic suppression, and retention of hardware until fracture union occurs. These results may be improved by patient selection based on certain risk factors and the specific bacteria and implants involved.

  5. Biomechanical optimization of bone plates used in rigid fixation of mandibular fractures.

    PubMed

    Lovald, Scott T; Wagner, Jon D; Baack, Bret

    2009-05-01

    To design and optimize a bone plate for fractures of the mandibular body that will provide maximum fracture stability with minimal implanted volume and patient intrusion. The design will be driven by the unique biomechanics specific to this fracture location. A finite element model of a fractured human mandible was created using tomography scans. Material properties were assigned to the cortical bone, cancellous bone, and dental region. Boundary conditions included simulating a unilateral molar clench and incisal loading. The bone plate design process included a shape optimization routine and design parameter analysis using the model. The optimized bone plate design was finally compared with standard bone plate configurations based on stress and strain measures. For incisal loading, the newly designed InterFlex II plate has 69% of the fracture strain and only 34% of the plate stress of an 8-hole strut plate. For unilateral molar loading, those numbers improve even further to 59% and 27%, respectively. InterFlex II plate stresses are less than or equal to the paired plate configuration, and fracture strain is within 10% of the corresponding paired plate strain under both loading scenarios. In terms of mechanical performance, InterFlex II is in the same class as the commonly used paired plate configuration, despite having only 55% of the implanted volume. A design process focused on shape and design variable optimization can produce bone plates that provide maximum fracture stability with minimum implanted volume.

  6. Conversion of failed proximal femoral internal fixation to total hip arthroplasty in osteopetrotic bone.

    PubMed

    Ramiah, Reagon D; Baker, Richard P; Bannister, Gordon C

    2006-12-01

    Osteopetrosis is a rare disease. When fractures are encountered, fixation is extremely difficult. A 38-year-old man with osteopetrosis who sustained a displaced Pauwels type IV fracture with 3 failed internal fixations required total hip arthroplasty. Two main problems were perceived during preoperative planning: the removal of failed and broken metalwork and reaming of the tight intramedullary canal to allow seating of the femoral stem. We present technical solutions to aid the surgeon in the management of this difficult type of case using custom-made tungsten carbide instrumentation.

  7. Intramedullary Nailing Versus Plate Fixation for the Treatment Displaced Midshaft Clavicular Fractures: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Nasir; Sermer, Corey; Prusick, Parker J.; Banfield, Laura; Atrey, Amit; Bhandari, Mohit

    2016-01-01

    The two commonly performed surgical techniques used to repair displaced midshaft clavicle fractures are plate fixation or intramedullary nailing; however, despite recent evidence, the optimal method to treat such fractures remains a continued topic of debate. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to evaluate long term function, complications, and operative duration in adult patients receiving intramedullary nailing in comparison to plating. Seven RCTs and three quasi-randomized trials were included. No significant difference was found in long-term function between the two groups (MD: −0.66, 95% CI: −2.03 to 0.71, I2 = 62%, p = 0.34). Patients who received plating had a 2.19 times increased risk of treatment failure, but this failed to reach significance (95% CI: 0.93 to 5.15, I2 = 0%, p = 0.07). The risk of non-operative complications was 2.11 times higher in patients who received plating and this reached statistical significance (95% CI: 1.38 to 3.23, I2 = 53%, p = 0.0006). Finally, plating significantly prolonged operative duration by 20.16 minutes (95% CI: 16.87 to 23.44, I2 = 56%, p < 0.00001). Our results suggest that intramedullary nailing and plating provide equivalent long-term functional outcomes; however, plating may lead to a higher risk of treatment failure and non-operative complications. PMID:27762393

  8. Evaluation of three-dimensional printing for internal fixation of unstable pelvic fracture from minimal invasive para-rectus abdominis approach: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Canjun; Xiao, Jidong; Wu, Zhanglin; Huang, Wenhua

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of three-dimensional printing (3D printing) assisted internal fixation of unstable pelvic fracture from minimal invasive para-rectus abdominis approach. A total of 38 patients with unstable pelvic fractures were analyzed retrospectively from August 2012 to February 2014. All cases were treated operatively with internal fixation assisted by three-dimensional printing from minimal invasive para-rectus abdominis approach. Both preoperative CT and three-dimensional reconstruction were performed. Pelvic model was created by 3D printing. Data including the best entry points, plate position and direction and length of screw were obtained from simulated operation based on 3D printing pelvic model. The diaplasis and internal fixation were performed by minimal invasive para-rectus abdominis approach according to the optimized dada in real surgical procedure. Matta and Majeed score were used to evaluate currative effects after operation. According to the Matta standard, the outcome of the diaplasis achieved 97.37% with excellent and good. Majeed assessment showed 94.4% with excellent and good. The imageological examination showed consistency of internal fixation and simulated operation. The mean operation time was 110 minutes, mean intraoperative blood loss 320 ml, and mean incision length 6.5 cm. All patients have achieved clinical healing, with mean healing time of 8 weeks. Three-dimensional printing assisted internal fixation of unstable pelvic fracture from minimal invasive para-rectus abdominis approach is feasible and effective. This method has the advantages of trauma minimally, bleeding less, healing rapidly and satisfactory reduction, and worthwhile for spreading in clinical practice.

  9. Evaluation of three-dimensional printing for internal fixation of unstable pelvic fracture from minimal invasive para-rectus abdominis approach: a preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Canjun; Xiao, Jidong; Wu, Zhanglin; Huang, Wenhua

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of three-dimensional printing (3D printing) assisted internal fixation of unstable pelvic fracture from minimal invasive para-rectus abdominis approach. Methods: A total of 38 patients with unstable pelvic fractures were analyzed retrospectively from August 2012 to February 2014. All cases were treated operatively with internal fixation assisted by three-dimensional printing from minimal invasive para-rectus abdominis approach. Both preoperative CT and three-dimensional reconstruction were performed. Pelvic model was created by 3D printing. Data including the best entry points, plate position and direction and length of screw were obtained from simulated operation based on 3D printing pelvic model. The diaplasis and internal fixation were performed by minimal invasive para-rectus abdominis approach according to the optimized dada in real surgical procedure. Matta and Majeed score were used to evaluate currative effects after operation. Results: According to the Matta standard, the outcome of the diaplasis achieved 97.37% with excellent and good. Majeed assessment showed 94.4% with excellent and good. The imageological examination showed consistency of internal fixation and simulated operation. The mean operation time was 110 minutes, mean intraoperative blood loss 320 ml, and mean incision length 6.5 cm. All patients have achieved clinical healing, with mean healing time of 8 weeks. Conclusion: Three-dimensional printing assisted internal fixation of unstable pelvic fracture from minimal invasive para-rectus abdominis approach is feasible and effective. This method has the advantages of trauma minimally, bleeding less, healing rapidly and satisfactory reduction, and worthwhile for spreading in clinical practice. PMID:26550226

  10. [Wrist arthrodesis with a fixed-angle, "low-profile" fusion plate without carpometacarpal joint fixation].

    PubMed

    Köhler, S; Koch, K; Arsalan-Werner, A; Mehling, I M; Seegmüller, J; Krimmer, H; Sauerbier, Michael

    2017-09-12

    Total wrist arthrodesis to improve functional use of the hand by reducing pain and increasing grip strength. Painful destruction of the radio- and midcarpal joints. Analgesia and satisfactory hand function after motion-preserving surgical or conservative treatment. Chronic joint infection. Posterior approach to the wrist. Removal of articular surfaces destroyed all the way down to cancellous bone. Filling of defects with cancellous bone graft taken from distal radius or iliac crest. Osteosynthesis with fixed-angle wrist fusion plate without carpometacarpal (CMC) III joint fixation. Below-elbow cast for 2 weeks. Immediate active motion fingers exercises. X‑ray control 6 weeks postoperatively. Gradual increase of normal hand use in daily life after bony consolidation. Total wrist arthrodesis was performed using a fixed-angle fusion plate without CMC III joint fixation in 28 patients (21 men, 7 women). A follow-up of 14/28 patients was performed at a mean of 21 (3-39) months postoperatively. Grip strength improved from 14 (0-38) kg preoperatively to 22 (12-40) kg postoperatively. The average postoperative DASH score was 40 (6-72) points. Pain measured with the VAS scale (0-10) improved from an average of 7 (3-10) points preoperatively to 2 (0-6) points postoperatively. Overall, 13/14 patients were satisfied with the treatment; 26/28 patients achieved primary bony consolidation. Postoperative complications found in 9 of 28 patients: 2 nonunion, pain in the CMC II (n = 3) or III (n = 1) joints, 2 screw breakage, 1 postoperative bleeding and 1 infection. Both cases of nonunion healed after plate removal, re-osteosynthesis with a straight wrist arthrodesis plate, bridging the CMC III joint, and a bone graft from the iliac crest. All patients with CMC II joint pain were pain-free after removal of the protruding screw. One patient had chronic pain in the CMC III joint despite plate removal. In the 2 cases with screw breakage, no issues caused. In

  11. Manual reduction of mandibular fractures before internal fixation leads to shorter operative duration and equivalent outcomes when compared with reduction with intermaxillary fixation.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Edward; Crombie, Anthony; To, Phong; Marquart, Louise; Batstone, Martin D

    2012-07-01

    Open reduction of mandibular fractures before internal fixation is most commonly performed by 1 of 2 methods: intermaxillary fixation (IMF) or manual reduction. There are risks to both patient and clinician associated with using IMF. Furthermore, previous retrospective studies have failed to show any advantage in its use. The purpose of this study was to directly compare the use of manual reduction (experimental group) and IMF (control group) in open reduction-internal fixation of mandibular fractures. Patients who presented with isolated mandibular fractures at 2 hospitals in Queensland, Australia, from May 2009 to June 2010 were enrolled in a prospective controlled trial comparing IMF and manual reduction. The outcome measures were operative duration (primary outcome), as well as radiographic outcome, occlusal outcome, and complications (secondary outcomes). The patient and assessor were blinded to the type of reduction used before fixation. The study hypothesis is that manual reduction allows internal fixation in a shorter time than IMF with an equivalent outcome. We recruited 50 patients, 26 allocated to IMF and 24 allocated to manual reduction before internal fixation of mandibular fractures. IMF was associated with an increased duration of procedure (P < .001) and increased complication rate (P = .063), without any observable benefit with regard to either radiographic outcome or occlusal outcome. IMF is not required in open reduction-internal fixation of mandibular fractures that met our inclusion criteria. IMF is associated with increased costs to the health service and risks to both the patient and clinician. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. All rights reserved.

  12. 1-stage primary arthroplasty of mechanically failed internally fixated of hip fractures with deep wound infection

    PubMed Central

    Klatte, Till O; O’Loughlin, Padraigh F; Citak, Mustafa; Rueger, Johannes M; Gehrke, Thorsten; Kendoff, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose Mechanically failed internal fixation following hip fracture is often treated by salvage arthroplasty. If deep wound infection is present, a 2-stage procedure is often used. We have used a 1-stage procedure in infected cases, and we now report the outcome. Patients and methods We reviewed 16 cases of deep wound infection after mechanically failed hip fracture fixation, treated between 1994 and 2010. In all patients, a joint prosthesis was implanted in a 1-stage procedure. Results After an average follow-up period of 12 (2–18) years, no reinfection was detected. In 4 cases, a hip dislocation occurred and 3 of these needed further surgery. Interpretation A 1-stage procedure for arthroplasty of an infected, mechanically failed hip fracture fixation is feasible and carries a low risk of infection. PMID:23799345

  13. Fixator-assisted Technique Enables Less Invasive Plate Osteosynthesis in Medial Opening-wedge High Tibial Osteotomy: A Novel Technique.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Ryu, Keun Jung; Kim, Jae Hwa; Kim, Hae Hwa; Soung, Sahyun; Shin, Soowan

    2015-10-01

    Opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy is a well-established procedure in the management of medial osteoarthritis of the knee and correction of proximal tibia vara. Recently, surgical approaches using less invasive plate osteosynthesis have been used with the goal of minimizing complications from more extensive soft tissue exposures. However, to our knowledge, less invasive fixator-assisted plate osteosynthesis has not been tested in the setting of opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy. The purposes of this study were (1) to assess the complications associated with use of a fixator-assisted less invasive plate osteosynthesis technique to stabilize an opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy in the treatment of proximal tibial vara; and (2) to evaluate the ability of this technique to achieve correction of the proximal tibial deformity and achieve osseous union. From June 2011 to June 2013, a total of 157 limbs in 83 patients who underwent fixator-assisted high tibial osteotomy for (1) idiopathic genu vara; or (2) osteoarthritis of the knee with proximal tibia vara were initially enrolled. Of these, eight limbs (5%) were excluded on the way; thus, 149 limbs in 77 patients were evaluated. During the period in question, no other techniques were used for proximal tibial osteotomy. The surgical procedures included less preparation of soft tissue, proximal tibial osteotomy, application of a temporary external fixator, correction of alignment, and final fixation with the help of an external fixator. Complications were assessed by chart review and the alignment in both coronal and sagittal planes was compared pre- and postoperatively. Radiographic review to confirm osseous union and alignment was performed by two of the authors not involved in clinical care of the patient. Delayed union was described as union occurring later than 4 months. Thirty limbs out of 149 tibiae (20%) showed complications, all of which were resolved without leaving any sequela. Twenty-seven limbs out of 149

  14. International waste minimization approaches and policies to metal plating

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This technical report on metal plating provides an industry overview, detailed descriptions of wastes generated by metal plating operations, known waste minimization methods employed or being development by the industry, and tools for evaluating pollution prevention opportunities. This document is also a review and evaluation of the relevant policies used by the United States and other organization for economic cooperation and development (OECD) member countries to promote or mandate waste minimization. Appendices include international policy approaches, implication and evaluation of policies, U.S. federal and state pollution prevention policy/plans, and a list of pollution prevention contacts.

  15. Is intramedullary fixation of displaced midshaft clavicle fracture superior to plate fixation? Evidence from a systematic review of discordant meta-analyses.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bin; Lin, Yongsheng; Wang, Zhihong; Cao, Junming; Yang, Yipeng; Xia, Hehuan; Zhang, Yingze

    2017-07-01

    An increasing number of meta-analyses comparing intramedullary fixation (IF) with plate fixation (PF) for displaced midshaft clavicle fracture have been reported, but the inconsistent results obtained might confuse decision-making. We systematically reviewed discordant meta-analyses for assisting the decision-maker in interpreting and selecting amongst discordant meta-analyses and providing surgical recommendations for displaced midshaft clavicle fracture according to currently best available evidence. Meta-analyses on IF and PF for displaced midshaft clavicle fracture were identified by searching PubMed, Emabase and the Cochrane Library. A review of meta-analysis quality and data extraction was individually conducted by two reviewers. The meta-analysis providing the best available evidence was identified using the Jadad decision algorithm. Nine studies were included, five of which were of Level-II evidence and four of which were of Level-III evidence. These meta-analyses scored from 6 to 10 according to the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews instrument. With respect to the Jadad decision algorithm, the best meta-analysis was chosen depending upon publication characteristics and methodology of primary studies, language restrictions, and whether data on individual patients were analysed. A meta-analysis incorporating more randomised controlled trials was eventually selected. The best available evidence indicated that the differences between IF and PF were not significant in terms of shoulder function or the rate of treatment failure. However, IF significantly decreased the operative time and the rate of non-operative complications, especially the rate of infection. Based on the best available evidence, IF may be superior to PF for treating displaced midshaft clavicle fracture. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. A Novel Shape Memory Plate Osteosynthesis for Noninvasive Modulation of Fixation Stiffness in a Rabbit Tibia Osteotomy Model

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Christian W.; Pfeifer, Ronny; Meier, Karen; Decker, Sebastian; Reifenrath, Janin; Gösling, Thomas; Wesling, Volker; Krettek, Christian; Krämer, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Nickel-titanium shape memory alloy (NiTi-SMA) implants might allow modulating fracture healing, changing their stiffness through alteration of both elastic modulus and cross-sectional shape by employing the shape memory effect (SME). Hypotheses: a novel NiTi-SMA plate stabilizes tibia osteotomies in rabbits. After noninvasive electromagnetic induction heating the alloy exhibits the SME and the plate changes towards higher stiffness (inverse dynamization) resulting in increased fixation stiffness and equal or better bony healing. In 14 rabbits, 1.0 mm tibia osteotomies were fixed with our experimental plate. Animals were randomised for control or induction heating at three weeks postoperatively. Repetitive X-ray imaging and in vivo measurements of bending stiffness were performed. After sacrifice at 8 weeks, macroscopic evaluation, µCT, and post mortem bending tests of the tibiae were carried out. One death and one early implant dislocation occurred. Following electromagnetic induction heating, radiographic and macroscopic changes of the implant proved successful SME activation. All osteotomies healed. In the treatment group, bending stiffness increased over time. Differences between groups were not significant. In conclusion, we demonstrated successful healing of rabbit tibia osteotomies using our novel NiTi-SMA plate. We demonstrated shape-changing SME in-vivo through transcutaneous electromagnetic induction heating. Thus, future orthopaedic implants could be modified without additional surgery. PMID:26167493

  17. A biomechanical comparison of external skeletal fixation and plating for the stabilization of ilial osteotomies in dogs.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, N; Lewis, D; Cross, A

    2008-01-01

    This in vitro study compares the biomechanical properties of two methods of ilial fracture repair in dogs. Ten pelves were harvested from skeletally mature mixed breed dogs weighing 20-27 kg and bilateral oblique ilial body osteotomies were created. One hemipelvis from each dog was stabilized with a 2.7 mm plate and screws and the contralateral hemipelvis was stabilized with a five pin linear external fixator construct. Each hemipelvis was mounted at an angle of 30 degrees to an actuator platform, such that the acetabulum was centrally loaded by a steel sphere attached to the load cell of a servohydraulic materials testing machine. The construct was loaded at a constant rate of 20 mm/min. A load/displacement curve was generated for each hemipelvis by plotting the sustained load against the actuator movement. The stiffness, yield load and failure load for each hemipelvis were determined from the load/displacement curve. Bending stiffness was defined as the slope of the load/displacement curve from 100 N to yield load. The mode of failure was determined by observations made during testing and gross inspection of each specimen. The mean construct stiffness, yield load and failure load were compared between stabilization groups using a Student's paired t-test with statistical significance set at p<0.05. Nine out of 10 of the hemipelves that were stabilized by plates and screws failed catastrophically by fracture through the caudal screw holes and nine out of 10 of the hemipelves that were stabilized using an external fixator failed by fracture of the ischium in the region supported by the mounting roller, propagating through the most caudal ischial pin. There was not any significant difference (P=0.22) in bending stiffness between stabilization techniques, but yield (1467 N vs 2620 N; P=0.04) and failure (1918 N vs 2687 N; P=0.002) loads were significantly greater for hemipelves stabilized with external fixators.

  18. Comparison of single coracoclavicular suture fixation and hook plate for the treatment of acute unstable distal clavicle fractures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Yu; Yang, Shan-Wei; Lin, Kuan-Yu; Lin, Kai-Cheng; Tarng, Yih-Wen; Renn, Jenn-Huei; Lai, Chia-Hsin

    2014-05-29

    Surgical managements are recommended for unstable distal clavicle fractures because of a high incidence of nonunion. A variety of methods have been previously reported, but there is no current consensus regarding which method is the most suitable. Between December 2004 and August 2010, we treated 68 patients with Neer type IIB distal clavicle fractures using single coracoclavicular suture fixation with Mersilene tape (M group) or clavicular hook plate (H group). Sixty-eight patients were followed at least 24 months (mean, 37.9 months). We retrospectively compared the functional outcome, parameters, and perioperative course of the two treatments. Statistical analysis was performed with independent sample t test and chi-square test. The M group presented significantly less operation time (P = 0.005) and intra-operative blood loss (P = 0.010) than the H group. The mean University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) shoulder rating scale, Oxford shoulder score, VAS scale, and satisfaction score revealed no significant difference between the M group and the H group. The M group had better range of motion in the operated shoulder during forward flexion and abduction at 3 and 6 months postoperatively. However, the range of motion at 1 and 2 years after operation revealed almost the same results. Two acromial osteolysis and one acromial fracture were noted in the H group and one superficial wound infection and one frozen shoulder in the M group during follow-up. Finally, there was no significant difference in the complication rate between the two groups, and all fractures achieved union clinically at final follow-up. Both single coracoclavicular suture fixation and clavicular hook plate offered effective treatment in acute unstable distal clavicle fractures. However, single coracoclavicular suture fixation with Mersilene tape provided early recovery of shoulder motion and avoided further morbidity of the acromion.

  19. Comparison of single coracoclavicular suture fixation and hook plate for the treatment of acute unstable distal clavicle fractures

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Surgical managements are recommended for unstable distal clavicle fractures because of a high incidence of nonunion. A variety of methods have been previously reported, but there is no current consensus regarding which method is the most suitable. Methods Between December 2004 and August 2010, we treated 68 patients with Neer type IIB distal clavicle fractures using single coracoclavicular suture fixation with Mersilene tape (M group) or clavicular hook plate (H group). Sixty-eight patients were followed at least 24 months (mean, 37.9 months). We retrospectively compared the functional outcome, parameters, and perioperative course of the two treatments. Statistical analysis was performed with independent sample t test and chi-square test. Results The M group presented significantly less operation time (P = 0.005) and intra-operative blood loss (P = 0.010) than the H group. The mean University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) shoulder rating scale, Oxford shoulder score, VAS scale, and satisfaction score revealed no significant difference between the M group and the H group. The M group had better range of motion in the operated shoulder during forward flexion and abduction at 3 and 6 months postoperatively. However, the range of motion at 1 and 2 years after operation revealed almost the same results. Two acromial osteolysis and one acromial fracture were noted in the H group and one superficial wound infection and one frozen shoulder in the M group during follow-up. Finally, there was no significant difference in the complication rate between the two groups, and all fractures achieved union clinically at final follow-up. Conclusions Both single coracoclavicular suture fixation and clavicular hook plate offered effective treatment in acute unstable distal clavicle fractures. However, single coracoclavicular suture fixation with Mersilene tape provided early recovery of shoulder motion and avoided further morbidity of the acromion. PMID

  20. Complications following dorsal versus volar plate fixation of distal radius fracture: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jie; Yang, Tu-Bao; Luo, Wei; Qin, Jia-Bi; Kong, Fan-Jing

    2013-04-01

    A meta-analysis to compare complication rates following volar or dorsal surgical fixation of distal radius fracture. A detailed search of PubMed®/MEDLINE® was undertaken to identify randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials published before 25 August 2012 that compared volar with dorsal fixation, in patients with distal radius fracture. A quantitative meta-analysis of 12 trials (952 patients) was performed. There was no between-group difference in the overall rate of complications. Volar fixation was associated with significant increases in neuropathy (relative risk [RR] 2.19; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.27, 3.76) and carpal tunnel syndrome (RR 4.56; 95% CI 1.02, 20.44), and a reduction in tendon irritation, compared with the dorsal approach (RR 0.38; 95% CI 0.17, 0.86). Dorsal fixation offers a lower risk of neuropathy and carpal tunnel syndrome than the volar approach, but a higher risk of tendon irritation. Patients with a distal radius fracture can expect similar outcomes after volar or dorsal surgery.

  1. Influence of internal fixator flexibility on murine fracture healing as characterized by mechanical testing and microCT imaging.

    PubMed

    Steck, Roland; Ueno, Masaki; Gregory, Laura; Rijken, Noortje; Wullschleger, Martin E; Itoman, Moritoshi; Schuetz, Michael A

    2011-08-01

    Mechanically well-defined stabilization systems have only recently become available, providing standardized conditions for studying the role of the mechanical environment on mouse bone fracture healing. The aim of this study was to characterize the time course of strength recovery and callus development of mouse femoral osteotomies stabilized with either low or high flexibility (in bending and torsion) internal fixation plates. Animals were euthanized and femora excised at 14, 21, and 28 days post-osteotomy for microCT analysis and torsional strength testing. While a larger mineralized callus was observed in osteotomies under more flexible conditions at all time points, the earlier bridging of the mineralized callus under less flexible conditions by 1 week resulted in an earlier recovery of torsional strength in mice stabilized with low flexibility fixation. Ultimate torque values for these bones were significantly higher at 14 and 21 days post-osteotomy compared to bones with the more flexible stabilization. Our study confirms the high reproducibility of the results that are achieved with this new implant system, therefore making it ideal for studying the influence of the mechanical environment on murine fracture healing under highly standardized conditions.

  2. Complex AO type C3 distal femur fractures: Results after fixation with a lateral locked plate using modified swashbuckler approach

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Anuj; Kiyawat, Vivek

    2017-01-01

    Background: Complex AO type C3 fractures of the distal femur are challenging injuries, fraught with complications such as malunion and stiffness. We prospectively evaluated a consecutive series of patients with complex AO type C3 distal femur fractures to determine the clinicoradiological outcome after fixation with a single locked plate using modified swashbuckler approach. Materials and Methods: 12 patients with C3 type distal femur fractures treated with a lateral locked plate, using a modified swashbuckler approach, were included in the study. The extraarticular component was managed either by compression plating or bridge plating (transarticular approach and retrograde plate osteosynthesis) depending on the fracture pattern. Primary bone grafting was not done in any case. The clinical outcome at 1 year was determined using the Knee Society Score (KSS). The presence of any secondary osteoarthritis in the knee joint was noted at final followup. Results: All fractures united at a mean of 14.3 ± 4.7 weeks (range 6–26 weeks). There were no significant complications such as nonunion, deep infection, and implant failure. One of the patients underwent secondary bone grafting at 3 months. The mean range of motion of the knee was 120° ± 14.8° (range 105°–150°). Seven patients had excellent, three patients had good and two patients had a fair outcome according to the KSS at 1 year. At a mean followup of 17.6 months, three patients showed radiological evidence of secondary osteoarthritis of the knee joint. However, only one of these patients was symptomatic. Conclusion: The results of complex C3 type distal femur fractures, fixed with a single lateral locked plate using a modified swashbuckler approach, are encouraging, with a majority of patients achieving good to excellent outcome at 1 year. PMID:28216747

  3. Optimal internal fixation of anatomically shaped synthetic bone grafts for massive segmental defects of long bones.

    PubMed

    Vorys, George C; Bai, Hanying; Chandhanayingyong, Chandhanarat; Lee, Chang H; Compton, Jocelyn T; Caldwell, Jon-Michael; Gardner, Thomas R; Mao, Jeremy J; Lee, Francis Y

    2015-12-01

    Large segmental bone defects following tumor resection, high-energy civilian trauma, and military blast injuries present significant clinical challenges. Tissue engineering strategies using scaffolds are being considered as a treatment, but there is little research into optimal fixation of such scaffolds. Twelve fresh-frozen paired cadaveric legs were utilized to simulate a critical sized intercalary defect in the tibia. Poly-ε-caprolactone and hydroxyapatite composite scaffolds 5 cm in length with a geometry representative of the mid-diaphysis of an adult human tibia were fabricated, inserted into a tibial mid-diaphyseal intercalary defect, and fixed with a 14-hole large fragment plate. Optimal screw fixation comparing non-locking and locking screws was tested in axial compression, bending, and torsion in a non-destructive manner. A cyclic torsional test to failure under torque control was then performed. Biomechanical testing showed no significant difference for bending or axial stiffness with non-locking vs. locking fixation. Torsional stiffness was significantly higher (P=0.002) with the scaffold present for both non-locking and locking compared to the scaffold absent. In testing to failure, angular rotation was greater for the non-locking compared to locking constructs at each torque level up to 40 N-m (P<0.05). The locking constructs survived a significantly higher number of loading cycles before reaching clinical failure at 30 degrees of angular rotation (P<0.02). The presence of the scaffold increased the torsional stiffness of the construct. Locking fixation resulted in a stronger construct with increased cycles to failure compared to non-locking fixation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Lateral transpsoas interbody fusion (LTIF) with plate fixation and unilateral pedicle screws: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Kepler, Christopher K; Sharma, Amit K; Huang, Russel C

    2011-08-01

    Retrospective cohort study. We present the radiographic and clinical outcomes of 13 patients who underwent lateral transpsoas interbody fusion (LTIF) stabilized by unilateral pedicle screw instrumentation and anterior instrumentation. LTIF is a surgical technique that permits anterior column lumbar interbody fusion via a direct lateral transpsoas approach. Because of the inherent stability of the implants used and the minimal disruption of stabilizing ligaments associated with LTIF, this technique may allow use of less invasive adjunctive fixation methods including unilateral pedicle screw fixation. Information from medical records included patient demographics, medical comorbidities, clinical assessment, surgical time, blood loss, implant information, and complications. Oswestry Disability Index, Short Form-12, and visual analog pain scale scores were obtained. Postoperative imaging allowed assessment of fusion, subsidence, and alignment. Estimated blood loss averaged 225 mL and operative time averaged 261 minutes. No patients received a transfusion. Average length of hospital stay was 4.6 days. Oswestry Disability Index, Short Form-12, and visual analog pain scores demonstrated significant improvement. All patients with available 1 year postoperative imaging demonstrated solid fusion with average cranial and caudal subsidence of 1.8 and 0.8 mm, respectively. Two patients developed postoperative nondisplaced vertebral fractures through the anterior fixation screw tracts. Three patients developed transient postoperative hip flexion weakness and one also developed transient hypoesthesia in the anterior thigh, likely approach related. We report a series of patients treated with unilateral pedicle screw fixation with LTIF. Although the patient cohort is small, validated outcomes instruments were used and fusion was assessed by computed tomography scan in most cases. The data suggest that unilateral pedicle screw fixation may be adequate to achieve high fusion rates

  5. [Case-control study on measurement of coracoclavicular and acromioclavicular ligament injuries during internal fixation operation for the treatment of fresh acromioclavicular joint dislocation of Tossy type III].

    PubMed

    Guan, Ting-Jin; Sun, Peng; Zheng, Liang-Guo; Qi, Xiang-Yang

    2014-01-01

    To study measurement methods of acromioclavicular and coracoclavicular ligament injuries,its therapeutic effects and complications during internal fixation operation for the treatment of fresh acromioclavicular joint dislocations of Tossy type III. From July 2003 to May 2012,127 patients with acromioclavicular joint dislocations of Tossy type III were treated with wire fixation from coracoid process to clavicle or hook-plate fixation. The patients were divided into group A (63 cases) and group B (64 cases) according to whether acromioclavicular ligament and coracoclavicular ligament were repaired or not. In group A (ligaments repaired), there were 39 males and 24 females with an average age of (33.25 +/- 8.46) years old (ranged from 17 to 59 years). And in group B (no ligaments repaired), there were 41 males and 23 females with an average age of (34.10 +/- 7.19) years (ranged from 19 to 57 years). The operation times, intraoperative blood loss, postoperative infections, internal fixation failure, recurrence and other complications, together with therapeutic effects were compared between two groups. The outcome was analyzed according to Karlsson standard. In group A, 54 patients got an excellent result and 9 good according to Karlsson standard;the average operative time was (55.90 +/- 26.56) min; the average intraoperative bleeding amount was (99.80 +/- 50.30) ml; 1 patient had wire broken without re-dislocation at 16 weeks after operation, 3 patients got wound fat liquefaction and recovered after treatment, 1 patient had pain after shoulder joint motion and pain disappeared after implants were taken out. In group B, 52 patients got an excellent result and 12 good according to Karlsson standard; the average operative time was (49.50 +/- 23.14) min; the average intraoperative bleeding amount was (87.30 +/- 46.41) ml; 2 patients got wound fat liquefaction, and 2 patients had pain after shoulder joint motion. All the patients were followed up, and the duration ranged

  6. PEEK versus titanium locking plates for proximal humerus fracture fixation: a comparative biomechanical study in two- and three-part fractures.

    PubMed

    Schliemann, Benedikt; Seifert, Robert; Theisen, Christina; Gehweiler, Dominic; Wähnert, Dirk; Schulze, Martin; Raschke, Michael J; Weimann, Andre

    2017-01-01

    The high rigidity of metal implants may be a cause of failure after fixation of proximal humerus fractures. Carbon fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone (PEEK) plates with a modulus similar to human cortical bone may help to overcome this problem. The present study assesses the biomechanical behavior of a PEEK plate compared with a titanium locking plate. Unstable two- and three-part fractures were simulated in 12 pairs of cadaveric humeri and were fixed with either a PEEK or a titanium locking plate using a pairwise comparison. With an optical motion capture system, the stiffness, failure load, plate bending, and the relative motion at the bone-implant interface and at the fracture site were evaluated. The mean load to failure for two- and three-part fracture fixations was, respectively, 191 N (range 102-356 N) and 142 N (range 102-169 N) in the PEEK plate group compared with 286 N (range 191-395 N) and 258 N (range 155-366 N) in the titanium locking plate group. The PEEK plate showed significantly more bending in both the two- and three-part fractures (p < 0.05), an increased relative motion at the bone-implant interface and lower stiffness values (p < 0.05). In this biomechanical study on unstable proximal humerus fractures, fixation with a PEEK plate showed lower fixation strength and increased motion at the bone-implant interface compared with a titanium locking plate.

  7. The effects of internal fixation on calcium carbonate. Ceramic anterior spinal fusion in dogs.

    PubMed

    Fuller, D A; Stevenson, S; Emery, S E

    1996-09-15

    An anterior interbody fusion was performed in the canine thoracic spine. Either calcium carbonate or autologous iliac crest bone graft was used to fill a surgically created spinal defect between T7 and T8. Some of the spines were stabilized intraoperatively with anterior instrumentation. Four experimental arthrodesis groups were studied: iliac crest bone graft with or without instrumentation and ceramic with or without instrumentation. To evaluate the effects of internal fixation on an anterior interbody fusion using calcium carbonate ceramic, and to compare this with autologous iliac crest bone grafting. Bone grafting can be associated with significant morbidity, and an acceptable substitute material is sought. In vivo analysis of ceramic as a substitute has revealed fracture and failure of the implant. Creating a stable environment with internal fixation may improve the performance of ceramic as a bone graft substitute. Fusions were evaluated in 20 adult beagles 8 weeks after surgery. Structural properties of the fusion segment were evaluated with biomechanical testing. Histologic analysis was performed to determine junction healing, new bone formation, and revascularization. Fusion segments with iliac crest bone graft and instrumentation were significantly stiffer than the other three groups in all tested modes of angular deformation. Greater junction healing was seen when instrumentation was used with iliac crest bone graft. Greater junction healing, new bone formation, and revascularization were observed when instrumentation was used with calcium carbonate ceramic. Most of the ceramic implants without fixation demonstrated near complete isolation with no revascularization. Internal fixation resulted in histologically and biomechanically superior healing of autologous iliac crest bone graft in this canine model of anterior interbody fusion. Although fixation did not statistically improve the biomechanical properties of ceramic fusion segments, it had a profound

  8. [Risk factors of hidden blood loss in internal fixation of intertrochanteric fracture].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiling; Shen, Jing; Mao, Zhi; Long, Anhua; Zhang, Lihai; Tang, Peifu

    2014-05-01

    To analyze the associated risk factors of hidden blood loss in the internal fixation of intertrochanteric fracture. A retrospective analysis was made on the clinical data of 317 cases of intertrochanteric fractures which were treated by internal fixation between January 1993 and December 2008. There were 154 males and 163 females with an average disease duration of 4.58 days (range, 7 hours to 33 days); the age was (69.86 +/- 15.42) years; the average height was 1.64 m (range, 1.50-1.84 m); and the average weight was 62.26 kg (range, 39-85 kg). Of them, intramedullary fixation was used in 203 patients and extramedullary fixation in 114 patients. The operation time was (61.99 +/- 18.25) minutes. The red blood cell transfusion was given to 84 patients, and the transfusion amount was 200-1 000 mL. The drainage volume was 0-750 mL (mean, 61.85 mL). Hidden blood loss was calculated through change of hematocrit level before and after operation. The multiple linear regression was performed to analyse the risk factors of hidden blood loss. The total blood loss was (918.60 +/- 204.44) mL, the hidden blood loss was (797.77 +/- 192.58) mL, and intraoperative visible blood loss was (257.32 +/- 271.24) mL. Single factor analysis showed hidden blood loss was significantly higher in variables as follows: gender, age, injury cause, fracture type, American anesthesiologists grading, anesthesia mode, hypertension, diabetes, disease duration, operation time, intraoperative transfusion of red blood cells, and fixation type. Multiple linear regression showed age, fracture type, anesthesia mode, and fixation type were significant risk factors. The risk factors of hidden blood loss are advanced age (> 60 years), unstable fracture, general anesthesia, and imtramedullary fixation. Especially in elder patients with unstable fracture treated by intramedullary fixation under general anesthesia, hidden blood loss is more significant.

  9. Treatment of reducible unstable fractures of the distal radius: randomized clinical study comparing the locked volar plate and external fixator methods: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Various treatments are available for reducible unstable fractures of the distal radius, such as closed reduction combined with fixation by external fixator (EF), and rigid internal fixation using a locked volar plate (VP). Although there are studies comparing these methods, there is no conclusive evidence indicating which treatment is best. The hypothesis of this study is that surgical treatment with a VP is more effective than EF from the standpoint of functional outcome (patient-reported). Methods/Design The study is randomized clinical trial with parallel groups and a blinded evaluator and involves the surgical interventions EF and VP. Patients will be randomly assigned (assignment ratio 1:1) using sealed opaque envelopes. This trial will include consecutive adult patients with an acute (up to 15 days) displaced, unstable fracture of the distal end of the radius of type A2, A3, C1, C2 or C3 by the Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen–Association for the Study of Internal Fixation classification and type II or type III by the IDEAL32 classification, without previous surgical treatments of the wrist. The surgical intervention assigned will be performed by three surgical specialists familiar with the techniques described. Evaluations will be performed at 2, and 8 weeks, 3, 6 and 12 months, with the primary outcomes being measured by the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire and measurement of pain (Visual Analog Pain Scale and digital algometer). Secondary outcomes will include radiographic parameters, objective functional evaluation (goniometry and dynamometry), and the rate of complications and method failure according to the intention-to-treat principle. Final postoperative evaluations (6 and 12 months) will be performed by independent blinded evaluators. For the Student’s t-test, a difference of 10 points in the DASH score, with a 95% confidence interval, a statistical power of 80%, and 20% sampling error

  10. UK Fixation of Distal Tibia Fractures (UK FixDT): protocol for a randomised controlled trial of ‘locking’ plate fixation versus intramedullary nail fixation in the treatment of adult patients with a displaced fracture of the distal tibia

    PubMed Central

    Achten, Juul; Parsons, Nicholas R; McGuinness, Katie R; Petrou, Stavros; Lamb, Sarah E; Costa, Matthew L

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The treatment of displaced, extra-articular fractures of the distal tibia remains controversial. These injuries are difficult to manage due to limited soft tissue cover, poor vascularity of the area and proximity to the ankle joint. Surgical treatment options are expanding and include locked intramedullary nails, plate and screw fixation and external fixator systems. The nail and plate options are most commonly used in the UK, but controversy exists over which treatment is most clinically and cost-effective. In this multicentre randomised controlled trial we aim to assess ratings of disability 6 months postinjury in patients who have sustained a distal tibia fracture treated with either an intramedullary nail or plate and locking screw fixation. Methods and analysis Adult patients presenting at trial centres with an acute fracture of the distal tibia will be considered for inclusion. A total of 320 patients will provide 90% power to detect a difference of 8 points in Disability Rating Index (DRI) score at 6 months at the 5% level. The randomisation sequence is stratified by trial centre and age, and administered via web-based service with 1:1 treatment allocation. Baseline demographic and pre-injury functional data and radiographs will be collected using the DRI, Olerud and Molander, and EuroQol EQ-5D questionnaire. Clinical assessment, early complications and radiographs will be recorded at 6–8 weeks. Functional outcome, health-related quality of life and resource use will be collected at 3, 6 and 12 months postoperatively. The main analysis will investigate differences in DRI 6 months postsurgery, between the two treatment groups, on an intention-to-treat basis. Tests will be two-sided and considered to provide evidence for a significant difference if p values are <0.05. Ethics and dissemination NRES Committee West-Midlands, 6/11/2012 (ref:12/WM/0340). The results of the trial will be disseminated via peer-reviewed publications and

  11. Outcomes of anterolateral thigh-free flaps and conversion from external to internal fixation with bone grafting in gustilo type IIIB open tibial fractures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Hoon; Chung, Duke Whan; Han, Chung Soo

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the utility and the clinical outcomes of anterolateral thigh (ALT)-free flaps and conversion from external to internal fixation with plating and bone grafting in Gustilo type IIIB open tibial fractures. A total of 21 patients were analyzed retrospectively. The mean follow-up period was 18 months and the mean age was 46.7 years. There were 18 men and three women. The mean time from injury to flap coverage was 11.6 days. The mean size of flaps used was 15.3 × 8.2 cm. The mean size of bone defects was 2.26 cm. Segmental bone defects were observed in 5 five cases, for which bone transport or vascularized fibular graft were performed. When flaps were successful and the fracture sites did not have any evidence of infection, internal fixation with plates and bone grafting were performed. Flaps survived in 20 cases. In the 20 cases with successful flaps, two cases developed osteomyelitis, but the 20 cases achieved solid bone union at a mean of 8.6 months after the injury, salvaging the lower extremity in 100% of the cases. At the last follow-up, 9 nine cases were measured excellent or good; 6, fair; and 6, poor in the functional assessment based on the method developed by Puno et al. ALT- free flaps to cover soft tissue defects in Gustilo type IIIB open tibial fractures are considered as useful option for the treatment of composite defects. In addition, conversion to internal fixation and bone grafting can be an alternative method in order to reduce the risk of complications and inconvenience of external fixators.

  12. Fixation of Metacarpal Shaft Fractures: Biomechanical Comparison of Intramedullary Nail Crossed K-Wires and Plate-Screw Constructs.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Benjamin D; Fajolu, Olukemi; Ruff, Michael E; Litsky, Alan S

    2015-08-01

    Metacarpal (MC) fractures are very common, accounting for 18% of all fractures distal to the elbow. Many MC fractures can be treated non-operatively; however, some are treated most effectively with surgical stabilization, for which there are multiple methods. It was postulated that plates would have a significantly higher (P < 0.05) load to failure than crossed K(XK)-wires and that intramedullary metacarpal nails (IMNs) and XK-wires would have equivalent load to failure. Mid-diaphyseal transverse fractures were created in 36 synthetic metacarpals and stabilized using nails, XK-wires or non-locking plates. Three-point bending was performed with continuous recording of load and displacement. Statistical analysis was performed using single factor ANOVA and Scheffe's test. Statistical significance was defined as P < 0.05. Biomechanical testing revealed significant differences between groups in load-to-failure. Average load to failure was significantly greater in the plate (1669 ± 322 N) than the XK-wire (146 ± 56 N) or IMN (110 ± 43 N) groups. The loads to failure of the K-wires and nails were equivalent. Plates were 11 and 15 times stronger in three-point bending than the K-wires and nails, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between strengths of the K-wires and nails. Although plates are the most stable means of fixation of midshaft metacarpal fractures, if minimally-invasive techniques are indicated, intramedullary nails may provide equivalent stability as commonly-used XK-wires. Although some studies have shown favorable clinical outcomes with IMNs, additional clinical correlation of these biomechanical results to fracture healing and outcomes is needed. © 2015 Chinese Orthopaedic Association and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. [One stage anterior debridement, bone fusion and internal fixation for the treatment of lumbosacral tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin-hui; Ouyang, Zhen; Zhao, Jin-long; Zhang, Bo

    2013-07-01

    To explore the clinical effect of the anterior debridement,bone fusion, single screw-rod fixation for the treatment of lumbosacral tuberculosis. From March 2005 to February 2011,18 patients with lumbosacral (L3-S1) tuberculosis (including 13 males and 5 females with an average age of 38.5 years old ranging from 24 to 61 years) were treated with removing focus completely, large piece of iliac bone strut grafting, single screw-rod vertebral lateral anterior internal fixation through anterior extraperitoneal approach. The process segment was L3,4 in 2 cases, L4,5 in 5, L4 in 2, L5S1 in 6, L4-S1 in 3. All patients were routinely treated with antituberculous druy for 12-18 months after operation, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and liver function, X-ray films, CT examination, were statedly rechecked, and condition of antituberculosis treatment and bone grafting fusion were detected. Intraoperative focus were exposed clearly, debrided thoroughly. There were no large blood vessels, nerves, ureteral injury and other serious complications during operation. All patients were followed up form 6 to 42 months with an average of 13 months. Internal fixations were not loosening,breaking; bone of grafting was not displacement and obtained good healing; erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein were normal; tuberculosis lesions were not recurrence. Through anterior extraperitoneal approach to remove focus, bone fusion, single screw-rod fixation in treating lumbosacral tuberculosis can complete cut lesion and rebuild the stability of lumbosacral vertebrae,in this area with a single screw and rod fixation is a feasible method.

  14. Intramedullary plate fixation of a distal humerus fracture: a case report.

    PubMed

    Russell, George V; Pearsall, Albert W

    2002-05-01

    A case of a complex distal humeral fracture is presented. The patient lacked sufficient bony architecture to allow for conventional reconstruction. A technique is described using an intramedullary plate to obtain bony stabilization and permit early range of motion exercises.

  15. Successful open reduction and internal fixation for displaced femoral fracture in a patient with osteopetrosis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jiangfa; Pan, Jianke; Xu, Mingtao; Xu, Shuchai

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Osteopetrosis is a rare disease that predominantly occurs in descendants of inbreeding families. In the case of fractures happen in patients with osteopetrosis, the choice between operative or conservative treatment is still controversial. Open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) is a conventional treatment for fractures, and it possesses more applicability than conservative treatment. During this surgical treatment, ensure that bone union in the right way is pivotal to success and simultaneously prevents refracture and displacement after the operation. Herein, we present a case of femoral fracture of a patient with osteopetrosis via open reduction and internal fixation. To illustrate successful factors during the treatment process, we discuss experience combined with literature review following case report. Patient concerns: A 67-year-old man who has diagnosed with osteopetrosis over 20 years ago suffered from pain in the left hip last for more than 1 month and he was incapable of walking recently. Before this incident, he had sustained 4 femoral fractures that treated insufficiently by open reduction surgery. Diagnosis: Physical, radiological, and biological examinations indicated a femoral subtrochanteric fracture that was overlapping displacement between fracture ends. Interventions and outcomes: Treated with surgery by open reduction with internal fixation and osteotomy, the fracture united in 12 months, and he returned to walk with full weight bearing, during which no complication occurred. Lessons: Open reduction and internal fixation is also suitable for the patient with osteopetrosis, and they have similar union ability to the normal. To guarantee successful treatment, specific strategies of operation and rehabilitation program are necessary. PMID:28816960

  16. Enhancement of Apoptosis by Titanium Alloy Internal Fixations during Microwave Treatments for Fractures: An Animal Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lina; Ye, Dongmei; Feng, Xianxuan; Fu, Tengfei; Bai, Yuehong

    2015-01-01

    Objective Microwaves are used in one method of physical therapy and can increase muscle tissue temperature which is useful for improving muscle, tendon and bone injuries. In the study, we sought to determine whether titanium alloy internal fixations influence apoptosis in tissues subjected to microwave treatments at 2,450 MHz and 40 W during the healing of fractures because this issue is not yet fully understood. Methods In this study, titanium alloy internal fixations were used to treat 3.0-mm transverse osteotomies in the middle of New Zealand rabbits’ femurs. After the operation, 30-day microwave treatments were applied to the 3.0 mm transverse osteotomies 3 days after the operation. The changes in the temperatures of the muscle tissues in front of the implants or the 3.0 mm transverse osteotomies were measured during the microwave treatments. To characterize the effects of titanium alloy internal fixations on apoptosis in the muscles after microwave treatment, we performed TUNEL assays, fluorescent real-time (quantitative) PCR, western blotting analyses, reactive oxygen species (ROS) detection and transmission electron microscopy examinations. Results The temperatures were markedly increased in the animals with the titanium alloy implants. Apoptosis in the muscle cells of the implanted group was significantly more extensive than that in the non-implanted control group at different time points. Transmission electron microscopy examinations of the skeletal muscles of the implanted groups revealed muscular mitochondrial swelling, vacuolization. ROS, Bax and Hsp70 were up-regulated, and Bcl-2 was down-regulated in the implanted group. Conclusion Our results suggest that titanium alloy internal fixations caused greater muscular tissue cell apoptosis following 2,450 MHz, 40 W microwave treatments in this rabbit femur fracture models. PMID:26132082

  17. A Comprehensive Study of Internal Distraction Plating, an Alternative Method for Distal Radius Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Mavani, Kinjal J

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The management of highly comminuted distal radius fractures still remains a major treatment challenge. Articular comminution and compromised bone quality are the culprits. One novel approach is the technique of Internal Distraction Plating which involves “bridging” the fracture with the use of a standard 3.5mm plate applied dorsally in distraction from the radius, proximal to the fracture, to the long finger metacarpal distally, bypassing the comminuted segment. The plate is removed once fracture union has been achieved. Aim The present study was conducted with the aim to evaluate the role of internal dorsal distraction plating as an alternative method in the treatment of fracture distal radius in terms of special indications, technique and outcome. Materials and Methods This study was a prospective longitudinal study on 20 patients (mean age 62 years) treated with internal distraction plating for comminuted distal radius fractures with specific indications. Regular follow-ups with standard radiographs and analysis were done upto 24 months. Functional outcome were assessed by DASH Score and the Gartland and Werley demerit score. Results At final follow-up, all fractures had united and X-rays showed mean palmar tilt of 7°, positive ulnar variance of 0.5mm, radial inclination of 18° and average loss of 2mm of radial height. Mean range of motion values for wrist flexion 46°, extension 50°, pronation 79° and supination 77° At final follow-up, the mean DASH score was 32. 85% patient had excellent to good result as per Gartland and Werley demerit score. This construct has yield satisfactory clinical and radiographic results with these very challenging injuries. Conclusion The purpose of this study was to report the radiographic and the functional outcomes of treatment with this technique. External fixator and volar plating in communited distal end radius fractures are not always satisfactory in old age with osteoporotic bone because of

  18. Evaluation of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) plate and screw system for bone fixation.

    PubMed

    Park, Subin; Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Il Hwan; Lee, Minsu; Heo, Suhak; Kim, Hong; Kim, Eun Hee; Choy, Young Bin; Heo, Chan Yeong

    2013-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the efficacy and safety of the recently developed modifiable bioabsorbable plates and screws, which are made of PLGA [poly(lactic-co-glycolic acids)]. An in vitro extract test and a mammalian erythrocyte micronucleus test revealed that neither cytotoxicity nor genotoxicity was observed with the plates and screws tested in this study. An in vivo mandible fracture model in rabbit was introduced to evaluate the in vivo efficacy and of the PLGA-based plates and screws. At 4, 6, 8, and 10 weeks after implantation, tissue specimens were taken from the implanted sites of the rabbits and a histologic analysis was performed for each of the specimens. After 4 weeks, the plate was covered by connective tissues and severe chronic active inflammation in soft tissue was observed. After 6 weeks, the inflammation decreased and some of the specimens exhibited new bone formation around the periosteum. After 8 and 10 weeks, new bone formation was observed with all samples, where almost no severe inflammation was involved, implying the healing of the fracture. Given these, it can be suggested that the biodegradable plate and screw system that we evaluated in this study is effective for treatment of mandible fracture, one of the regions under a high load-bearing condition. The adjustment process and the long-term follow-up study are in progress for clinical application of the plate and screw system introduced in this study.

  19. Wire internal fixation: an obsolete, yet valuable method for surgical management of facial fractures

    PubMed Central

    Bouletreau, Pierre; Konsem, Tarcissus; Traoré, Ibraïma; Coulibaly, Antoine Toua; Ouédraogo, Dieudonné

    2014-01-01

    In some developing countries wire is still widely used in facial fractures internal fixation. This study presents the effectiveness and complications of wire osteosynthesis in a university teaching hospital in Burkina Faso and discusses some of its other benefits and disadvantages. Notes of 227 patients with facial fractures treated by wire internal fixation at department of stomatology and maxillofacial surgery of CHU Souro Sanou, Burkina Faso between 2006 and 2010 are reviewed retrospectively. A satisfactory treatment outcome was recorded in 91.2% of the 227 patients. Complications occurred in 8.8% of the patients who had operative site infection (3.1%), malocclusion (1.8%), sensory disturbance (1.8), facial asymmetry (1.3%), delayed bone union (0.9%) or enophtalmos (0.4%). The overall complications rate was 7.4% after mandibular osteosynthesis, 6.9% after Le Fort osteosynthesis and 6.5% after zygoma osteosynthesis. Post operative infections occurred irrespective to the surgical site. The other complications were more specific to the surgical site. Wire internal fixation may be a reasonable alternative for the surgical treatment of non-comminuted facial fractures and those without bone substance loss, in the setting of limited resources. PMID:25237416

  20. Clinical Evaluation of an Unsintered Hydroxyapatite/Poly-L-Lactide Osteoconductive Composite Device for the Internal Fixation of Maxillofacial Fractures.

    PubMed

    Sukegawa, Shintaro; Kanno, Takahiro; Katase, Naoki; Shibata, Akane; Takahashi, Yuka; Furuki, Yoshihiko

    2016-09-01

    OSTEOTRANS MX (Takiron Co, Ltd, Osaka, Japan) is a resorbable osteosynthetic material composed of an unsintered hydroxyapatite/poly-L-lactide composite, and its osteoconductive capacity has been documented. The authors here report their clinical experience using OSTEOTRANS MX. The authors treated 35 patients (19 men, 16 women; age, 14-88 years; mean ± standard deviation, 38.4 ± 19.9 years) with maxillofacial fractures. The authors used standard surgery to stabilize fractures in all patients, fitting resorbable plates (thickness, 1.0 or 1.4 mm) and screws (diameter, 2 mm) according to Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen/Association (AO) for the Study of Internal Fixation guidelines. All patients eventually achieved satisfactory healing with favorable restoration of form and function without foreign body reaction. Complications occurred in 3 patients-plate exposure in 2 and discomfort in 1. However, fracture sites healed in all patients. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the devices bonded directly to the bone without interposition of nonmineralized tissue. OSTEOTRANS MX is a useful material with few complications. Its osteoconductive bioactivity is advantageous for the early functional improvement of maxillofacial fractures.

  1. Clinical Evaluation of an Unsintered Hydroxyapatite/Poly-L-Lactide Osteoconductive Composite Device for the Internal Fixation of Maxillofacial Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Sukegawa, Shintaro; Kanno, Takahiro; Katase, Naoki; Shibata, Akane; Takahashi, Yuka; Furuki, Yoshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: OSTEOTRANS MX (Takiron Co, Ltd, Osaka, Japan) is a resorbable osteosynthetic material composed of an unsintered hydroxyapatite/poly-l-lactide composite, and its osteoconductive capacity has been documented. The authors here report their clinical experience using OSTEOTRANS MX. Methods: The authors treated 35 patients (19 men, 16 women; age, 14–88 years; mean ± standard deviation, 38.4 ± 19.9 years) with maxillofacial fractures. The authors used standard surgery to stabilize fractures in all patients, fitting resorbable plates (thickness, 1.0 or 1.4 mm) and screws (diameter, 2 mm) according to Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen/Association (AO) for the Study of Internal Fixation guidelines. Results: All patients eventually achieved satisfactory healing with favorable restoration of form and function without foreign body reaction. Complications occurred in 3 patients—plate exposure in 2 and discomfort in 1. However, fracture sites healed in all patients. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the devices bonded directly to the bone without interposition of nonmineralized tissue. Conclusion: OSTEOTRANS MX is a useful material with few complications. Its osteoconductive bioactivity is advantageous for the early functional improvement of maxillofacial fractures. PMID:27428913

  2. Dorsal fracture-dislocation of the proximal interphalangeal joint: a comparative study of percutaneous Kirschner wire fixation versus open reduction and internal fixation.

    PubMed

    Aladin, A; Davis, T R C

    2005-05-01

    Nineteen patients with a dorsal fracture-dislocation of the proximal interphalangeal joint of a finger were treated with either closed reduction and transarticular Kirschner wire fixation (eight cases) or open reduction and internal fixation, using either one or two lag screws (six cases) or a cerclage wire (five cases). At a mean follow-up of 7 (range 6-9) years, most patients reported satisfactory finger function, even though some of the injuries healed with proximal interphalangeal joint incongruency (seven cases) or subluxation (four cases). Those treated by open reduction complained of more "loss of feeling" in the affected finger and those specifically treated by cerclage wire fixation reported more cold intolerance and had a significantly larger fixed flexion deformity (median, 30 degrees : range 18-38 degrees ) and a smaller arc of motion (median, 48 degrees : range 45-60 degrees ) at the proximal interphalangeal joint, despite having the best radiological outcomes. Closed reduction and transarticular Kirschner wire fixation produced satisfactory results, with none of the eight patients experiencing significant persistent symptoms despite a reduced arc of proximal interphalangeal joint flexion (median=75 degrees ; range 60-108 degrees ). The results of this relatively simple treatment appear at least as satisfactory as those obtained by the two techniques of open reduction and internal fixation, both of which were technically demanding.

  3. Internal fixation of S1-S3 iliosacral screws and pubic screw as the best configuration for unstable pelvic fracture with unilateral vertical sacral fracture (AO type C1.3).

    PubMed

    Dilogo, Ismail Hadisoebroto; Satria, Oryza; Fiolin, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Although internal fixation is the definitive treatment in unstable pelvic fractures with disruption of the anterior arch and a vertical fracture of the sacrum (AO type C1.3), there have been no agreement of the best technique of internal fixation yet. We aimed to derive comparable objective data on stiffness and load to failure in this type of fracture fixations. Synbone was modified into AO type C1.3 fracture model, while treatments were divided into six internal fixation treatment groups using tension band plate (TBP), symphysis pubis plate (SP) with iliosacral screw at S1 and S2 (IS S1-S2), pubic screw (PS) with iliosacral TBP, PS and IS S1-S2, SP and IS S1-S3, PS and S1-S3 and finally PS and IS S1-S3. Sensor was applied to detect the shifting and rotation of fracture fragments. Mechanical strength test conducted with the application of axial force on the sacrum vertebra (S1). The highest translational stiffness was observed in the group IS S1-S3 + PS (830.36 N/mm, p = 0.031) and there was no difference on the rigidity of the rotation between the groups posterior fixation using IS S1-S2 and IS S1-S3 ( p = 0.51). Meanwhile the highest load to failure was found in group IS S1-S3 + PS (1522.20 N). PS provided advantages compared to the use of plate. Group of PS and S1-S3 IS is the configuration of internal fixation with best translational and rotational stiffness and the largest load to failure compared to other techniques in AO type C1.3 fracture.

  4. Biomechanical in vitro evaluation of three stable internal fixation techniques used in sagittal osteotomy of the mandibular ramus: a study in sheep mandibles

    PubMed Central

    de OLIVERA, Leandro Benetti; SANT'ANA, Eduardo; MANZATO, Antonio José; GUERRA, Fábio Luis Bunemer; ARNETT, G. William

    2012-01-01

    Among the osteotomies performed in orthognathic surgery, the sagittal osteotomy of the mandibular ramus (SOMR) is the most common, allowing a great range of movements and stable internal fixation (SIF), therefore eliminating the need of maxillomandibular block in the postoperative period. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical resistance of three national systems used for SIF in SOMR in sheep mandibles. Material and methods: The study was performed in 30 sheep hemi-mandibles randomly divided into 3 experimental groups, each containing 10 hemi-mandibles. The samples were measured to avoid discrepancies and then subjected to SOMR with 5-mm advancement. In group I, 2.0x12 mm screws were used for fixation, inserted in an inverted "L" pattern (inverted "L" group). In group II, fixation was performed with two 2.0x12 mm screws, positioned in a linear pattern and a 4-hole straight miniplate and four 2.0x6.0 mm monocortical screws (hybrid group). In group III, fixation was performed with two 4-hole straight miniplates and eight 2.0x6.0 mm monocortical screws (mini plate group). All materials used for SIF were supplied by Osteosin - SIN. The hemimandibles were subjected to vertical linear load test by Kratos K2000MP mechanical testing unit for loading registration and displacement. Results: All groups showed similar resistance during mechanical test for loading and displacement, with no statistically significant differences between groups according to analysis of variance. Conclusion: These results indicate that the three techniques of fixation are equally effective for clinical fixation of SOMR. PMID:23032203

  5. Cranial fixation plates in cerebral magnetic resonance imaging: a 3 and 7 Tesla in vivo image quality study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bixia; Schoemberg, Tobias; Kraff, Oliver; Dammann, Philipp; Bitz, Andreas K; Schlamann, Marc; Quick, Harald H; Ladd, Mark E; Sure, Ulrich; Wrede, Karsten H

    2016-06-01

    This study assesses and quantifies impairment of postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 7 Tesla (T) after implantation of titanium cranial fixation plates (CFPs) for neurosurgical bone flap fixation. The study group comprised five patients who were intra-individually examined with 3 and 7 T MRI preoperatively and postoperatively (within 72 h/3 months) after implantation of CFPs. Acquired sequences included T1-weighted magnetization-prepared rapid-acquisition gradient-echo (MPRAGE), T2-weighted turbo-spin-echo (TSE) imaging, and susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI). Two experienced neurosurgeons and a neuroradiologist rated image quality and the presence of artifacts in consensus reading. Minor artifacts occurred around the CFPs in MPRAGE and T2 TSE at both field strengths, with no significant differences between 3 and 7 T. In SWI, artifacts were accentuated in the early postoperative scans at both field strengths due to intracranial air and hemorrhagic remnants. After resorption, the brain tissue directly adjacent to skull bone could still be assessed. Image quality after 3 months was equal to the preoperative examinations at 3 and 7 T. Image quality after CFP implantation was not significantly impaired in 7 T MRI, and artifacts were comparable to those in 3 T MRI.

  6. The results of volar locking plate fixation for the fragility fracture population with distal radius fracture in Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shuichi; Tatebe, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Michiro; Iwatsuki, Katsuyuki; Nishizuka, Takanobu; Hirata, Hitoshi

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether volar locking plate fixation for distal radius fracture benefits the fragility fracture population as much as it benefits the non-fragility fracture population. This matched case-control study was conducted based on a multi-center clinical prospective cohort. A comparison of treatment outcomes after volar locking plate fixation was made between females 55 years of age and older (fragility fracture population) and males less than 75 years of age (non-fragility fracture population) by evaluating clinical, radiological, and subjective outcomes using Hand20, a validated patient-rated disability instrument. A total of 170 patients were enrolled in this study. The two cohorts were matched in terms of AO fracture type. The fragility fracture population group and the non-fragility fracture population group each consisted of 50 patients. All objective measurements including wrist range of motion and radiological evaluations, but excluding grip strength, were not significantly different between the two groups. However, the Hand20 at 18 months after surgery was worse in the fragility fracture population group than in the non-fragility fracture population group. Carpal tunnel syndrome was the most frequently encountered complication in the fragility fracture population group, with one case (2%) in the non-fragility fracture population group and six cases (12%) in the fragility fracture population group, but the difference was not significant. In conclusion, there was a significant deficit in the improvement in disability despite favorable radiological and functional outcomes in fragility fracture population patients. Therefore, the fragility fracture population, especially middle-aged or older women, needs to be informed about prolonged disability and the higher risk of upper extremity disorders prior to surgery.

  7. Functional outcome of extra-articular distal humerus fracture fixation using a single locking plate: A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Trikha, Vivek; Agrawal, Prabhat; Das, Saubhik; Gaba, Sahil; Kumar, Arvind

    2017-01-01

    The optimal method for fixation of extra-articular distal humerus factures poses a management dilemma. Although various plate configurations have been proposed, anatomic shaped extra-articular distal humerus locking plates have emerged as a viable solution for these complex injuries. We assessed clinico-radiologic outcome in our retrospective case series of extra-articular distal humerus fractures managed with these plates. Forty-five patients of extra-articular distal humerus fractures, who were operated at our level 1 trauma centre between January, 2012 and December, 2016, were identified. After exclusion, 36 patients were available for the final assessment. All patients were operated with the triceps-reflecting modified posterior approach. Regular clinico-radiologic follow-up was done evaluating elbow functionality, fracture union, secondary displacement, non-union, implant failure and any complications; Mayo Elbow Performance score (MEPS) was used for the final functional assessment. Twenty-four (66.7%) male and 12 (33.3%) female patients constituted the study group, who had an average follow-up of 15 months. Preoperatively three patients and post-operatively one patient had radial nerve palsy; all had neurapraxia and recovered completely. Overall, 34 (94.4%) patients were adjudged to have complete radiological union within 3 months; 2 (5.5%) patients developed non-union. Mean flexion achieved was 122.9° ± 23°, and mean extension was -4.03° ± 6.5°; 1 patient with head injury developed flexion deformity of 45°. Average MEPS at the final follow-up was 90.8° ± 9.9°. Stable reconstruction and early initiation of physiotherapy are utilitarian to envision optimal outcome; the use of precontoured extra-articular distal humerus locking plates has yielded satisfactory results with minimal complications in our hands.

  8. Underwater propulsion of an internally actuated elastic plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Peter; Cen, Lejun; Erturk, Alper; Alexeev, Alexander

    2013-03-01

    Combining experiments and numerical simulations we examine underwater locomotion of an active (internally powered) flexible bimorph composite. We use Macro-Fiber Composite (MFC) piezoelectric laminates that are actuated by a sinusoidally varying voltage generating thrust similar to that of a flapping fin in carangiform motion. In our fully-coupled three dimensional simulations, we model this MFC bimorph fin as a thin, elastic plate that is actuated by a time-varying internal moment producing periodic fin bending and oscillations. The steady state swim velocity and thrust are experimentally measured and compared to the theoretical predictions. Our simulations provide detailed information about the flow structures around the swimming fin and show how they affect the forward motion. The results are useful for designing self-propelling fish-like robots driven by internally powered fins.

  9. Anterior cervical fusion with interbody cage containing beta-tricalcium phosphate augmented with plate fixation: a prospective randomized study with 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Dai, Li-Yang; Jiang, Lei-Sheng

    2008-05-01

    A variety of bone graft substitutes, interbody cages, and anterior plates have been used in cervical interbody fusion, but no controlled study was conducted on the clinical performance of beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) and the effect of supplemented anterior plate fixation. The objective of this prospective, randomized clinical study was to evaluate the effectiveness of implanting interbody fusion cage containing beta-TCP for the treatment of cervical radiculopathy and/or myelopathy, and the fusion rates and outcomes in patients with or without randomly assigned plate fixation. Sixty-two patients with cervical radiculopathy and/or myelopathy due to soft disc herniation or spondylosis were treated with one- or two-level discectomy and fusion with interbody cages containing beta-TCP. They were randomly assigned to receive supplemented anterior plate (n = 33) or not (n = 29). The patients were followed up for 2 years postoperatively. The radiological and clinical outcomes were assessed during a 2-year follow-up. The results showed that the fusion rate (75.0%) 3 months after surgery in patients treated without anterior cervical plating was significantly lower than that (97.9%) with plate fixation (P < 0.05), but successful bone fusion was achieved in all patients of both groups at 6-month follow-up assessment. Patients treated without anterior plate fixation had 11 of 52 (19.2%) cage subsidence at last follow-up. No difference (P > 0.05) was found regarding improvement in spinal curvature as well as neck and arm pain, and recovery rate of JOA score at all time intervals between the two groups. Based on the findings of this study, interbody fusion cage containing beta-TCP following one- or two-level discectomy proved to be an effective treatment for cervical spondylotic radiculopathy and/or myelopathy. Supplemented anterior plate fixation can promote interbody fusion and prevent cage subsidence but do not improve the 2-year outcome when compared with those treated

  10. Treatment of Unicameral Bone Cysts of the Proximal Femur With Internal Fixation Lessens the Risk of Additional Surgery.

    PubMed

    Wilke, Benjamin; Houdek, Matthew; Rao, Rameshwar R; Caird, Michelle S; Larson, A Noelle; Milbrandt, Todd

    2017-08-17

    Little data exist to guide the treatment of unicameral bone cysts in the proximal femur. Methods of treatment include corticosteroid injections, curettage and bone grafting, and internal fixation. The authors completed a multi-institutional, retrospective review to evaluate their experience with proximal femoral unicameral bone cysts. They posed the following questions: (1) Does internal fixation reduce the risk of further procedures for the treatment of a unicameral bone cyst? (2) Is radiographic healing faster with internal fixation? Following institutional review board approval, the authors conducted a retrospective review of 36 patients treated for a unicameral bone cyst of the proximal femur at their institutions between 1974 and 2014. Medical records and radiographs were reviewed to identify patient demographics and treatment outcomes. Tumor locations included femoral neck (n=13), intertrochanteric (n=16), and subtrochanteric (n=7). Initial treatment included steroid injection (n=2), curettage and bone grafting (n=9), and internal fixation with curettage and bone grafting (n=25). Mean time was 9 months to radiographic healing and 15 months to return to full activity. The number of patients requiring additional surgeries was increased among those who did not undergo internal fixation. There was no difference in time to radiographic healing. However, time to return to normal activities was reduced if patients had received internal fixation. A significant reduction in additional procedures was observed when patients had been treated with internal fixation. Although this did not influence time to radiographic healing, patients did return to normal activities sooner. Internal fixation should be considered in the treatment of proximal femoral unicameral bone cysts. [Orthopedics. 201x; xx(x):xx-xx.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. UK DRAFFT: a randomised controlled trial of percutaneous fixation with Kirschner wires versus volar locking-plate fixation in the treatment of adult patients with a dorsally displaced fracture of the distal radius.

    PubMed

    Costa, Matthew L; Achten, Juul; Plant, Caroline; Parsons, Nick R; Rangan, Amar; Tubeuf, Sandy; Yu, Ge; Lamb, Sarah E

    2015-02-01

    In high-income countries, 6% of all women will have sustained a fracture of the wrist (distal radius) by the age of 80 years and 9% by the age of 90 years. Advances in orthopaedic surgery have improved the outcome for patients: many such fractures can be treated in a plaster cast alone, but others require surgical fixation to hold the bone in place while they heal. The existing evidence suggests that modern locking-plate fixation provides improved functional outcomes, but costs more than traditional wire fixation. In this multicentre trial, we randomly assigned 461 adult patients having surgery for an acute dorsally displaced fracture of the distal radius to either percutaneous Kirschner-wire fixation or locking-plate fixation. The primary outcome measure was the Patient-Rated Wrist Evaluation© (PRWE) questionnaire at 12 months after the fracture. In this surgical trial, neither the patients nor the surgeons could be blind to the intervention. We also collected information on complications and combined costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) to assess cost-effectiveness. The baseline characteristics of the two groups were well balanced and over 90% of patients completed follow-up. Both groups of patients recovered wrist function by 12 months. There was no clinically relevant difference in the PRWE questionnaire score at 3 months, 6 months or 12 months [difference at 12 months: -1.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) -4.5 to 1.8; p=0.398]. There was no difference in the number of complications in each group and small differences in QALY gains (0.008; 95% CI -0.001 to 0.018); Kirschner-wire fixation represents a cost-saving intervention (-£727; 95% CI -£588 to -£865), particularly in younger patients. Contrary to the existing literature, and against the increasing use of locking-plate fixation, this trial shows that there is no difference between Kirschner wires and volar locking plates for patients with dorsally displaced fractures of the distal radius. A

  12. Radiological Outcomes of Distal Radius Fractures Managed with 2.7mm Volar Locking Plate Fixation-A Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kotian, Prem; Mudiganty, Srikanth; Annappa, Rajendra

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Distal radius fractures accounts for around 15% of all fractures diagnosed and treated in the emergency rooms. These fractures usually result secondary to high velocity injury such as a motor vehicle accident or fall on an out stretched hand. In the elderly, it is a common fragility fracture. Volar Locking Compression Plates (LCP) is effective devices for fixation of the distal radius fractures. There is a lacuna with regard to literature on the 2.7 mm volar LCP and the current study retrospectively assesses the postoperative radiological outcomes. Aim To measure the radiological outcomes in patients with displaced distal radius fractures managed with 2.7 mm volar LCP fixation using Sarmiento’s Modification of Lindstorm Criteria. Materials and Methods A retrospective study was conducted in the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at Kasturba Medical College Allied Hospitals, Mangalore from May 2014 to July 2016. All displaced distal radius fractures of skeletally mature patients who underwent volar locking plate fixation between May 2014 to July 2016 and follow up with X-rays at six weeks and three months were included as part of the study. The study comprised of 20 patients and fractures were classified using the AO and Melone’s classification systems. The radiological outcome was scored based on Sarmiento’s Modification of Lindstorm Criteria. Results Post operative check X-rays were analysed at immediate post operative, six weeks and three months. The mean immediate post operative radial shortening, decrease in radial deviation and loss of palmar tilt were 4.08±2.23, 5.91±4.01and 4.11±3.29 respectively. The corresponding values at last follow up were 4.71±2.31, 7.9±5.13 and 4.91±3.32 respectively. No statistically significant difference (p=0.930;874;716) in radial shortening, decrease in palmar angulation and loss of radial deviation was seen till the final follow up. Sarmiento’s Modification of Lindstorm Criteria showed a good

  13. Does a minimal invasive approach reduce anterior chest wall numbness and postoperative pain in plate fixation of clavicle fractures?

    PubMed

    Beirer, Marc; Postl, Lukas; Crönlein, Moritz; Siebenlist, Sebastian; Huber-Wagner, Stefan; Braun, Karl F; Biberthaler, Peter; Kirchhoff, Chlodwig

    2015-05-28

    Fractures of the clavicle present very common injuries with a peak of incidence in young active patients. Recently published randomized clinical trials demonstrated an improved functional outcome and a lower rate of nonunions in comparison to non-operative treatment. Anterior chest wall numbness due to injury of the supraclavicular nerve and postoperative pain constitute common surgery related complications in plate fixation of displaced clavicle fractures. We recently developed a technique for mini open plating (MOP) of the clavicle to reduce postoperative numbness and pain. The purpose of this study was to analyze the size of anterior chest wall numbness and the intensity of postoperative pain in MOP in comparison to conventional open plating (COP) of clavicle fractures. 24 patients (mean age 38.2 ± 14.2 yrs.) with a displaced fracture of the clavicle (Orthopaedic Trauma Association B1.2-C1.2) surgically treated using a locking compression plate (LCP) were enrolled. 12 patients underwent MOP and another 12 patients COP. Anterior chest wall numbness was measured with a transparency grid on the second postoperative day and at the six months follow-up. Postoperative pain was evaluated using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Mean ratio of skin incision length to plate length was 0.61 ± 0.04 in the MOP group and 0.85 ± 0.06 in the COP group (p < 0.05). Mean ratio of the area of anterior chest wall numbness to plate length was postoperative 7.6 ± 5.9 (six months follow-up 4.7 ± 3.9) in the MOP group and 22.1 ± 19.1 (16.9 ± 14.1) in the COP group (p < 0.05). Mean VAS was 2.6 ± 1.4 points in the MOP group and 3.4 ± 1.6 points in the COP group (p = 0.20). In our study, MOP significantly reduced anterior chest wall numbness in comparison to a conventional open approach postoperative as well as at the six months follow-up. Postoperative pain tended to be lower in the MOP group, however this difference was not statistically significant. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02247778

  14. Biomechanical investigation of an alternative concept to angular stable plating using conventional fixation hardware

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Angle-stable locking plates have improved the surgical management of fractures. However, locking implants are costly and removal can be difficult. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the biomechanical performance of a newly proposed crossed-screw concept ("Fence") utilizing conventional (non-locked) implants in comparison to conventional LC-DCP (limited contact dynamic compression plate) and LCP (locking compression plate) stabilization, in a human cadaveric diaphyseal gap model. Methods In eight pairs of human cadaveric femora, one femur per pair was randomly assigned to receive a Fence construct with either elevated or non-elevated plate, while the contralateral femur received either an LCP or LC-DCP instrumentation. Fracture gap motion and fatigue performance under cyclic loading was evaluated successively in axial compression and in torsion. Results were statistically compared in a pairwise setting. Results The elevated Fence constructs allowed significantly higher gap motion compared to the LCP instrumentations (axial compression: p ≤ 0.011, torsion p ≤ 0.015) but revealed similar performance under cyclic loading (p = 0.43). The Fence instrumentation with established bone-plate contact revealed larger fracture gap motion under axial compression compared to the conventional LC-DCP osteosynthesis (p ≤ 0.017). However, all contact Fence specimens survived the cyclic test, whereas all LC-DCP constructs failed early during torsion testing (p < 0.001). All failures occurred due to breakage of the screw heads. Conclusions Even though accentuated fracture gap motion became obvious, the "Fence" technique is considered an alternative to cost-intensive locking-head devices. The concept can be of interest in cases were angle-stable implants are unavailable and can lead to new strategies in implant design. PMID:20492707

  15. Effects of Low-Dose Microwave on Healing of Fractures with Titanium Alloy Internal Fixation: An Experimental Study in a Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Han; Fu, Tengfei; Jiang, Lan; Bai, Yuehong

    2013-01-01

    Background Microwave is a method for improving fracture repair. However, one of the contraindications for microwave treatment listed in the literature is surgically implanted metal plates in the treatment field. The reason is that the reflection of electromagnetic waves and the eddy current stimulated by microwave would increase the temperature of magnetic implants and cause heat damage in tissues. Comparing with traditional medical stainless steel, titanium alloy is a kind of medical implants with low magnetic permeability and electric conductivity. But the effects of microwave treatment on fracture with titanium alloy internal fixation in vivo were not reported. The aim of this article was to evaluate the security and effects of microwave on healing of a fracture with titanium alloy internal fixation. Methods Titanium alloy internal fixation systems were implanted in New Zealand rabbits with a 3.0 mm bone defect in the middle of femur. We applied a 30-day microwave treatment (2,450MHz, 25W, 10 min per day) to the fracture 3 days after operation. Temperature changes of muscle tissues around implants were measured during the irradiation. Normalized radiographic density of the fracture gap was measured on the 10th day and 30th day of the microwave treatment. All of the animals were killed after 10 and 30 days microwave treatment with histologic and histomorphometric examinations performed on the harvested tissues. Findings The temperatures did not increase significantly in animals with titanium alloy implants. The security of microwave treatment was also supported by histology of muscles, nerve and bone around the implants. Radiographic assessment, histologic and histomorphometric examinations revealed significant improvement in the healing bone. Conclusion Our results suggest that, in the healing of fracture with titanium alloy internal fixation, a low dose of microwave treatment may be a promising method. PMID:24086626

  16. Biomechanical comparison of bicortical locking versus unicortical far-cortex-abutting locking screw-plate fixation for comminuted radial shaft fractures.

    PubMed

    Overturf, Steven J; Morris, Randal P; Gugala, Zbigniew; Lindsey, Ronald W

    2014-10-01

    To provide comparative biomechanical evaluation of bicortical locking versus unicortical-abutting locking screw-plate fixation in a comminuted radius fracture model. A validated synthetic substitute of the adult human radius with a 1.5-cm-long segmental mid-diaphyseal defect was used in the study to simulate a comminuted fracture. Stabilization was achieved with an 8-hole locking plate and either bicortical screws or unicortical-abutting screws. The specimens were tested using nondestructive cyclical loading in 4-point bending, axial compression, and torsion to determine stiffness and displacement and subsequently in 4-point bending to assess load to failure. There were no statistically significant differences between bicortical versus unicortical-abutting locking screw fixation in nondestructive 4-point bending, axial compression, and torsion. Both locking screw constructs also demonstrated comparable 4-point bending loads to failure. The biomechanical equivalence between bicortical locking versus unicortical-abutting locking screw-plate fixation suggests that adequate locking plate fixation can be achieved without perforation of the far cortex. The abutment of the screw tip within the far cortex enhances the unicortical screw positional stability and thereby effectively opposes the displacement of the screw when subjected to bending or axial or rotational loads. Unicortical-abutting screws potentially offer several clinical advantages. They eliminate the need for drilling through the far cortex and thereby a risk of adjacent neurovascular injury or soft tissue structure compromise. They eliminate the issues associated with symptomatic screw prominence. They can decrease risk of refracture after screw-plate removal. In case of revision plating, they permit conversion to bicortical locking screws through the same near-cortex screw holes, which eliminates the need for a longer or repositioned plate. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand

  17. Outcome Analysis of Intra-Articular Scapula Fracture Fixation with Distal Radius Plate: A Multicenter Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Panigrahi, Ranajit; Madharia, Divya; Das, Dibya Singha; Samant, Saswat; Biswal, Manas Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    Background Scapula fractures occur in approximately 1% of all fractures and constitute about 3% - 5% of all injuries of the shoulder joint. Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the clinical outcomes of 20 surgically treated patients with displaced glenoid fractures after stabilization with distal radius plate. Methods Between 2012 and 2015, at 2 centers (HMCH & SHCE) of Bhubaneswar Odisha, we stabilized 20 scapular intra-articular fractures surgically with distal radius locking plate and studied the outcome of the surgeries. The outcome of the 20 fractures was determined using the Constant and Murley score. Both shoulders were assessed and the score on the injured side was given as a percentage of that on the uninjured side. Results The median score was 88% (mean 65%, range 30 to 100). The median score for strength was 21/25 (mean 19, range 0 to 25) and that for pain 11/15 (mean 11, range 5 to 15). The median functional score was 16/20 (mean 15, range 0 to 20). The mean range of active abduction of the shoulder was 135° (20 to 180), the mean range of flexion 138° (20 to 180) and the mean range of external rotation 38° (0 to 100). Five patients showed excellent result; 11 patients showed good result; three patients showed fair result and one patient had poor outcome according to the Constant-Murley score. A superficial infection settled with antibiotics after operation in one patient whose score at final follow-up was 96%. In one patient, delayed healing was reported because of infection. One patient with stiffness of the shoulder at six weeks underwent manipulation under anesthesia with a follow-up score of 81%. Conclusions Various fixation modalities have been described in the literature, however fixation of intra-articular fracture of glenoid with distal radius locking plate for articular reconstruction in the presented series provides good functional outcome with early restoration of the range of motion of the shoulder. PMID:28144606

  18. Fixation of unstable type II clavicle fractures with distal clavicle plate and suture button.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Peter S; Sears, Benjamin W; Lazarus, Mark R; Frieman, Barbara G

    2014-11-01

    This article reports on a technique to treat unstable type II distal clavicle fractures using fracture-specific plates and coracoclavicular augmentation with a suture button. Six patients with clinically unstable type II distal clavicle fractures underwent treatment using the above technique. All fractures demonstrated radiographic union at 9.6 (8.4-11.6) weeks with a mean follow-up of 15.6 (12.4-22.3) months. American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons, Penn Shoulder Score, and Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation scores were 97.97 (98.33-100), 96.4 (91-99), and 95 (90-100), respectively. One patient required implant removal. Fracture-specific plating with suture-button augmentation for type II distal clavicle fractures provides reliable rates of union without absolute requirement for implant removal.

  19. Distal Radius Volar Rim Fracture Fixation Using DePuy-Synthes Volar Rim Plate

    PubMed Central

    Kachooei, Amir Reza; Tarabochia, Matthew; Jupiter, Jesse B.

    2016-01-01

    Background To assess the results of distal radius fractures with the involvement of the volar rim fixed with the DePuy-Synthes Volar Rim Plate. Case Description We searched for the patients with volar rim fracture and/or volar rim fractures as part of a complex fracture fixed with a volar rim plate. Ten patients met the inclusion criteria: three patients with type 23B3, six patients with type 23C, and one patient with very distal type 23A. The mean follow-up was 14 months (range: 2–26). Fractures healed in all patients. Of the three patients with isolated volar rim fractures (type 23B3), two patients had no detectable deficits in motion. These patients had an average Gartland and Werley score of 9 (range: 2–14). Of the other seven patients (six with type 23C and one with type 23A fracture), three patients healed with full range of motion and four had some deficits in range of motion. Two patients had excellent results, three had good results, and two had fair results using the Gartland and Werley categorical rating. One patient healed with a shortened radius and ulnar impingement requiring a second surgery for ulnar head resection arthroplasty. Literature Review Results after nonoperative treatment of volar rim fractures are not satisfactory and often require subsequent corrective osteotomy. Satisfactory outcomes are achieved when the fragments are well reduced and secured regardless of the device type. Clinical Relevance Volar rim plates give an adequate buttress of the volar radius distal to volar projection of the lunate facet and do not interfere with wrist mobility. Furthermore, the dorsal fragments can be fixed securely through the volar approach eliminating the need for a secondary posterior incision. However, patients should be informed of the potential problems and the need to remove the plate if symptoms develop. PMID:26855829

  20. Fixation of sternal fracture using absorbable plating system, three years follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Katballe, Niels; Pilegaard, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Sternal fractures occur due to severe chest wall trauma in a small number of patients. They are often conservatively treated. The surgical intervention, although controversial, is indicated in case of deformity, severe pain, and ventilatory complications. We report the first case where absorbable plate has been used to fix a traumatic fracture in a 42-year-old female. After 3 years, the patient is still free of symptoms and CT scanning reveals intact sternal bone structure. PMID:26101659

  1. Effects of ethylene oxide sterilization on 82: 18 PLLA/PGA copolymer craniofacial fixation plates.

    PubMed

    Pietrzak, William S

    2010-01-01

    Bioabsorbable devices are generally susceptible to some form of degradation or alteration of material properties in response to exposure to the terminal sterilization cycle. In addition to affecting the material strength, sterilization can also increase the rate of hydrolysis, both of which can impact clinical performance. The impact of sterilization on the material/device is unpredictable and must be empirically determined. This study examined the effects of ethylene oxide treatment on the material properties of LactoSorb 82:18 poly(L-lactic acid)-poly(glycolic acid) craniofacial plates. Compared with untreated control plates, there was no effect on the initial inherent viscosity (1.3 dL/g), the glass transition temperature (58 degrees C), or on the flexural mechanical properties. Furthermore, there was no effect on the in vitro rate of hydrolysis and mechanical strength loss profile. This provides evidence that the ethylene oxide sterilization cycle is compatible with these copolymer plates and that such treatment should not affect the clinical performance.

  2. [Establishment and primary analysis of the three-dimensional finite element model of mandibular bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy with rigid internal fixation].

    PubMed

    Xu, Chong-Tao; Sun, Geng-Lin; Zhou, Jian; Wang, Peng-Lin

    2007-05-01

    Establish the three-dimensional finite element models of mandibular bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy (BSSRO) with rigid internal fixation (RIF), for further study of BSSRO. CT scanned technology and the finite element software (ANSYS) were used to establish the original three-dimensional model of mandible, modify the model to animate the BSSRO, then establish the model of RIF, last mesh the model to establish the finite element model of BSSRO with RIF. Apply 100 N occlusion force at the central incisor; calculate the stress distribution of the mandible and the RIF. Three-dimensional finite element models of BSSRO with RIF were established, such as miniplate model, bicortical fixation screw model. When biting with the incisor and fixed with upper plate, the stress of the medial screw position of the distal and medial segment of mandible is high. When fixed with bicortical fixation screw, the highest stress position located at the internal surface of the medial screw' s position of the distal segment of mandible. The mentioned methods proved feasible in establishing the finite element models of BSSRO with RIF . The models can be applied to the study of BSSRO with RIF.

  3. [Case-control study on T-shaped locking internal fixation and external fixation for the treatment of dorsal Barton's fracture].

    PubMed

    Chen, Huan-qing; Wen, Xi-le; Li, Yang-ming; Wen, Cong-you

    2015-06-01

    To compare clinical effect of T-shaped locking internal fixation and external fixation in treating dorsal Barton's fracture,and investigate selective strategy of internal fixation. From January 2008 to January 2013, 100 patients with dorsal Barton's fracture were randomly divided into two groups. In treatment group, there were 30 males and 20 females with an average age of (33.8±3.6) years old;30 cases were type B, 20 cases were type C;and treated with T-shaped locking internal fixation. In control group, there were 32 male and 18 females with an average age of (32.9±3.4) years old; 29 cases were type B, 21 cases were type C; and treated with external fixation. Volar tilt, ulnar deviation and radial height at 3 months after operation were detected and compared between two groups. Mechara functional evaluation were used to evaluate postoperative clinical effects. Clinical cure time, postoperative complications,joint mobility and function score were recorded and compared between two groups. In treatment group,volar tilt was (11.9±2.7)°, ulnar deviation was (20.8+ 2.9)°,and radial height was (10.9±1.8) mm; while volar tilt was (9.1±1.6)°, ulnar deviation was (17.1±2.9)°, and radial height was (8.1±1.5) mm in control group. Treatment group was better than control group in volar tilt, ulnar deviation and radial height. Clinical cure time in treatment group was(12.0±2.3) weeks, shorter than control group (18.0±4.1) weeks. The incidence of complications in treatment group was lower than control group. According to Mehara functional evaluation,20 cases got excellent results, 25 good, 3 moderate and 2 poor in treatment group; 16 cases got excellent results, 14 good, 10 moderate and 10 poor in control group. Treatment group was better than control group in clinical effects. T-shaped locking internal fixation with postoperative functional exercise for the treatment of dorsal Barton's fracture fits for biomechanics demands,and has advantages of stable fixation

  4. Number and locations of screw fixation for volar fixed-angle plating of distal radius fractures: biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Mehling, Isabella; Müller, Lars P; Delinsky, Katharina; Mehler, Dorothea; Burkhart, Klaus J; Rommens, Pol M

    2010-06-01

    To compare the biomechanical properties of different numbers and locations of screws in a multidirectional volar fixed-angle plate in a distal radius osteotomy cadaver model. We created an extra-articular fracture in 16 pairs of fresh-frozen human cadaver radiuses. The 32 specimens were randomized into 4 groups. All fractures were fixated with a multidirectional volar fixed-angle plate. We tested 4 different screw-placement options in the distal fragment. The distal fragment was fixed with 4 locking screws in the distal row of the plate in group a, and with 4 locking screws alternately in the distal and proximal rows in group b. In group c, 3 locking screws were used in the proximal row; in group d, 7 locking screws were used, filling all screw holes in the distal and proximal rows of the plate. The proximal fragment was fixed with 3 screws. The specimens were loaded with 80 N under dorsal and volar bending and with 250 N axial loading. Finally, load to failure tests were performed. Group d had the highest mean stiffness, 429 N/mm under axial compression, and was statistically significantly stiffer than the other groups. Group b had a mean stiffness of 208 N/mm, followed by group a, with 177 N/mm. Group c showed only a mean stiffness of 83 N/mm under axial compression. There were no statistically significant differences under dorsal and volar bending. In this model of distal radial fractures, there was a difference regarding the stiffness and the placement of screws in the distal rows of a volar fixed-angle plate. Inserting screws in all available holes in the distal fragment offered the highest stability. Using only the proximal row with 3 screws created an unstable situation. Based on these findings, we recommend placing at least 4 screws in the distal fragment and assigning at least 2 screws to the distal row of the multidirectional screw-holes. Copyright 2010 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Currents of plate osteosynthesis in osteoporotic bone.

    PubMed

    Lampropoulou-Adamidou, Kalliopi; Karampinas, Panagiotis K; Chronopoulos, Efstathios; Vlamis, John; Korres, Demetrios S

    2014-05-01

    Osteoporotic fractures are becoming more prevalent with ageing of populations worldwide. Inadequate fixation or prolonged immobilization after non-surgical care leads to serious life-threatening events, poor functional results and lifelong disability. Thus, a stable internal fixation and rapid initiation of rehabilitation are required for faster return of function. Conventional internal fixation attempts to achieve the exact anatomy, often with extended soft-tissue stripping and compression of the periosteum, causing disturbance of the metaphyseal and comminuted fracture's bone blood supply. This technique relies on frictional forces between bone and plate. Osteoporotic bone might not be able to generate enough torque with the screw to securely fix the plate to bone. Thus, this surgical management have resulted in increased incidence of poor results in elderly, osteoporotic patients. The newly developed locked internal fixators, locking compression plates and less invasive stabilization system, consist of plate and screw systems where the screws are locked in the plate, minimizing the compressive forces exerted between plate and bone. Thus, the plate does not need to compress the bone nor requires precise anatomical contouring of a plate disturbing the periosteal blood supply. These fixators allowed the development of the minimal invasive percutaneous osteosynthesis. Nowadays, locking plates are the fixation method of choice for osteoporotic, diaphyseal or metaphyseal, severely comminuted fractures.

  6. Improved Intermittent-clamped Drainage in Lower Lumbar Internal Fixation: A Randomized Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Qing-Ying; Liu, Chu-Yin; Fu, Chan-Juan; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Tan, Ming-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Continuous negative pressure drainage (CNPD) is widely used after lower lumbar internal fixation; however, it may cause tremendous blood loss and lead to postoperative hemorrhagic anemia. The present study explored the efficacy and safety of improved intermittent-clamped drainage (ICD) for lower lumbar internal fixation. Methods: This was a prospective study that included 156 patients with decompression of the spinal canal and internal fixation for the first time from January 2012 to December 2014. The patients were randomly divided into ICD group and CNPD group, and each group had 78 cases. A drainage tube was placed under the deep fascia in all patients within 10 min after the commencement of wound closure. The postoperative drainage amount at different time points, the hemoglobin level, and postoperative complications were recorded and compared between the two groups. Shapiro-Wilk test, independent samples t-test, and Mann-Whitney U-test were used in this study. Results: The drainage amount was significantly reduced in the ICD group, as compared with the CNPD group (Z = 10.74, P < 0.01). The mean total drainage amount (in ml) of the single-segment and two-segment procedures was significantly greater in the CNPD group than the ICD group (Z = 10.63 and 10.75, respectively; P < 0.01). For the adverse events, there was no significant difference in postoperative temperature, wound problem, and complications between the two groups. Conclusions: The present study showed a statistically significant reduction in postoperative drainage amount between ICD and CNPD groups, and ICD is an effective, convenient, and safe method for routine use in lower lumbar surgery. It is essential to focus on the effect of clamping drainage with long-segment surgical procedure and complex lumbar disease in the further investigation, as well as the effect of clamping on long-term functional outcomes. PMID:27900992

  7. End-stage hindfoot arthrosis: outcomes of tibiocalcaneal fusion using internal and Ilizarov fixation.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Brooke; Watson, J Tracy; Jackman, James; Fissel, Brian; Karges, David E

    2014-01-01

    End-stage post-traumatic pantalar arthrosis from ankle, pilon, and talus fractures has often been complicated by infection, bone loss, and a soft tissue deficit. Patients can present with neuropathy, diabetes, tobacco use, and previously failed arthrodesis. Fusion in this population has been challenging, with nonunion rates up to 30%, often leading to amputation. We reviewed the results of a standardized protocol that combined simultaneous internal fixation with the Ilizarov technique to achieve fusion in high-risk patients. With institutional review board approval, a retrospective review of the patients treated with simultaneous internal fixation and an Ilizarov frame was undertaken. The records and radiographs allowed identification of the comorbidities and the presence or absence of successful fusion. Complications were acknowledged and treated. Fifteen patients had undergone the procedure. The mean follow-up period was 27.9 (range 9 to 67) months. Thirteen patients (86.67%) had had previous fusion failure. Twelve patients (80%) had developed post-traumatic arthrosis, 5 (33.33%) of whom had open injuries. All patients had 1 comorbidity, and 10 (66.67%) had multiple, including rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes (types 1 and 2), and smoking. Four patients (26.67%) presented with deep infection and bone loss. Union was achieved in 11 (73.33%), with 12 (80%) patients experiencing profound pain relief. Seven patients (46.67%) required symptomatic hardware removal. Three patients (20%) eventually underwent below-the-knee amputation for recalcitrant nonunion. Statistically significant correlations were found between smoking and wound infection and revision and between nonunion and amputation. Our results have indicated that combined internal fixation with Ilizarov application can provide a strong surgical option for the management of end-stage, pantalar arthritis. More studies are needed to compare the cohort outcomes and gait analysis in these patients with those who have

  8. Rigid internal fixation and the effects on the temporomandibular joint and masticatory system: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Smith, V; Williams, B; Stapleford, R

    1992-12-01

    A prospective study of 22 patients who underwent a bilateral sagittal osteotomy to advance the mandible and subsequent rigid internal fixation, were examined for signs and symptoms of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain and masticatory dysfunction. A modified Helkimo index was used to analyze the anamnestic, clinical, and occlusal data. In addition, 12 of the cases chosen at random were mounted on a semiadjustable (SAM2) articulator and analyzed with the mandibular position indicator (MPI) to determine the amount and the direction of condylar displacement postoperatively. Anamnestic dysfunction decreased because of a reported decrease in muscular pain, joint noise, headache frequency, and parafunctional habits postoperatively. Clinical dysfunction remained unchanged, with a decrease in muscular soreness but with an increased incidence of joint clicking of 7%. The increased incidence of temporomandibular joint pain postoperatively was 4%. Increase in clinical dysfunction was most often seen in women and older patients. Occlusal dysfunction decreased, with the majority of interferences remaining after surgery as a result of insufficient lingual crown torque of the maxillary buccal segments. Occlusion is thought to have played only a minor role in temporomandibular joint and masticatory dysfunction. Reduction in range of motion was 10%, indicating the added benefit of early mobilization with rigid internal fixation procedures. The MPI study found the condyles inferiorly or inferoposteriorly displaced less than 1 mm from their preoperative position. These findings suggest that rigid internal fixation had no adverse effects on the temporomandibular and masticatory system. The variable responses and results can be attributed, at least in part, to the heterogenous population of patients studied and the variations in surgical techniques employed.

  9. Treatment of Spinal Tuberculosis by Debridement, Interbody Fusion and Internal Fixation via Posterior Approach Only.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ming-xing; Zhang, Hong-qi; Wang, Yu-xiang; Guo, Chao-feng; Liu, Jin-yang

    2016-02-01

    Surgical treatment for spinal tuberculosis includes focal tuberculosis debridement, segmental stability reconstruction, neural decompression and kyphotic deformity correction. For the lesions mainly involved anterior and middle column of the spine, anterior operation of debridement and fusion with internal fixation has been becoming the most frequently used surgical technique for the spinal tuberculosis. However, high risk of structural damage might relate with anterior surgery, such as damage in lungs, heart, kidney, ureter and bowel, and the deformity correction is also limited. Due to the organs are in the front of spine, there are less complications in posterior approach. Spinal pedicle screw passes through the spinal three-column structure, which provides more powerful orthopedic forces compared with the vertebral body screw, and the kyphotic deformity correction effect is better in posterior approach. In this paper, we report a 68-year-old male patient with thoracic tuberculosis who underwent surgical treatment by debridement, interbody fusion and internal fixation via posterior approach only. The patient was placed in prone position under general anesthesia. Posterior midline incision was performed, and the posterior spinal construction was exposed. Then place pedicle screw, and fix one side rod temporarily. Make the side of more bone destruction and larger abscess as lesion debridement side. Resect the unilateral facet joint, and retain contralateral structure integrity. Protect the spinal cord, nerve root. Clear sequestrum, necrotic tissue, abscess of paravertebral and intervertebral space. Specially designed titanium mesh cages or bone blocks were implanted into interbody. Fix both side rods and compress both sides to make the mesh cages and bone blocks tight. Reconstruct posterior column structure with allogeneic bone and autologous bone. Using this technique, the procedures of debridement, spinal cord decompression, deformity correction, bone grafting

  10. The use of blood cell salvage in acetabular fracture internal fixation surgery.

    PubMed

    Bigsby, Ewan; Acharya, Mehool R; Ward, Anthony J; Chesser, Timothy Js

    2013-10-01

    To determine if the routine use of intraoperative blood cell salvage in acetabular fracture internal fixation reduces the need for allogenic blood transfusion, is cost effective, and whether it is influenced by the acetabular fracture pattern. A retrospective study. Tertiary pelvic and acetabular reconstructive center. Patients undergoing internal fixation for acetabular fractures. Eighty consecutive patients were reviewed, comprising 26 elementary fracture (EF) and 54 associated fracture (AF) types. The mean volume of autologous blood transfused was 484 mL. The mean volume of 561 mL of autologous blood transfused in patients with AF types was significantly greater than the mean volume of 325 mL transfused in the EF group (P = 0.007). Additional allogenic blood transfusion was required in 5 (19%) patients with EFs and 15 (28%) patients with AFs (P = 0.418). The mean cost of the blood cell salvage and additional blood products in our study was $223 (£135) for all fracture types ($174/£105 for EF and $246/£149 for AF).When treating AF types, the mean cost of using blood cell salvage was $246 (£149) as compared with the mean predicted cost of not using blood cell salvage and transfusing the equivalent of 1.7 units of allogenic blood instead, which was $463 (£281). These distributions are significantly different (P = 0.01). The use of blood cell salvage for internal fixation surgery for acetabular fracture is cost effective, particularly when treating AF types, and its routine use is advocated to limit the need for allogenic blood transfusion.

  11. Application of internal fixation of steel-wire limited loop in early Achilles tendon rupture.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhe; Wei, Jia-Sen; Hou, Zhao-Yang; Hu, Jiong; Cao, Yan-Guang; Chen, Qi-Xin

    2013-11-01

    To explore the clinical effect and safety of internal fixation of steel-wire limited loop in early Achilles tendon rupture. Seventy-six patients respectively with early transected and avulsed types of Achilles tendon rupture were selected and treated with internal fixation of steel-wire limited loop. The patients began to take exercise for their lower limbs through continous passive motion as early as possible after surgical repair, and the loops were removed after 3-5 months. Six months later, the condition of complications including Achilles tendon re-rupture, wound fistula, wound infection and skin necrosis, cutaneous sensation in sural nerve dominance region, time back to preinjury work or learning as well as time to physical activities were observed. One year later, the therapeutic effect was evaluated, and the maximum circumferences of bilateral legs and ruptured plane circumferences of Achilles tendon were measured. The wound of all patients healed well, no complications like Achilles tendon re-rupture, wound fistula, wound infection and skin necrosis occured, and the cutaneous sensation in sural nerve dominance region was normal. The mean time back to preinjury work or learning as well as to pysical activities of all patients were respectively 10 and 22 weeks. Seventy out of 76 patients (92.1%) achieved an excellent effect, and 6 (7.9%) good effect. The excellent and good rate came up to 100%. The maximum circumference in the affected leg decreased to 2 mm averagely compared with the offside, while the ruptured plane circumferences of Achilles tendon in the affected side increased to 2.2 mm compared with the offside. For early Achilles tendon rupture, internal fixation of steel-wire limited loop can recover the ankle function better, return to the preinjury state in the shortest time, and has few complications. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Implant Removal After Internal Fixation of a Femoral Neck Fracture: Effects on Physical Functioning.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Stephanie M; Heetveld, Martin J; Bhandari, Mohit; Patka, Peter; Van Lieshout, Esther M M

    2015-09-01

    The effect of implant removal after internal fixation of a femoral neck fracture on physical functioning was analyzed. Characteristics of patients who had their implant removed were studied, as it is currently unknown from which type of patients implants are removed and what effect removal has on function. Secondary cohort study alongside a randomized controlled trial. Multicenter study in 14 hospitals. Patients who had their implant removed after internal fixation of a femoral neck fracture are compared with patients who did not. Patient characteristics and quality of life (Short Form 12, Western Ontario McMaster Osteoarthritis Index) were compared. Matched pairs were selected based on patient/fracture characteristics and prefracture physical functioning. Of 162 patients, 37 (23%) had their implant removed. These patients were younger (median age: 67 vs. 72 years, P = 0.024) and more often independently ambulatory prefracture (100% vs. 84%, P = 0.008) than patients who did not. They more often had evident implant back-out on x-rays (54% vs. 34%, P = 0.035), possibly related to a higher rate of Pauwels 3 fractures (41% vs. 22%, P = 0.032). In time, quality of life improved more in implant removal patients [+2 vs. -4 points, Short Form 12 (physical component), P = 0.024; +9 vs. 0 points, Western Ontario McMaster Osteoarthritis Index, P = 0.019]. Implant removal after internal fixation of a femoral neck fracture positively influenced quality of life. Implant removal patients were younger and more often independently ambulatory prefracture, more often had a Pauwels 3 fracture, and an evident implant back-out. Implant removal should be considered liberally for these patients if pain persists or functional recovery is unsatisfactory. Therapeutic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  13. RAB-plate versus sliding hip screw for unstable trochanteric hip fractures: stability of the fixation and modes of failure--radiographic analysis of 218 fractures.

    PubMed

    Buciuto, R; Hammer, R

    2001-03-01

    The sliding hip screw has gained considerable acceptance in the treatment of unstable trochanteric fractures. However, the new type of 120 degrees fixed angle blade-plate with a buttress rod (RAB-plate) showed encouraging clinical results. The purpose of this study was to assess stability of fixation and analyze modes of failure in unstable trochanteric hip fractures treated with these devices. A retrospective radiographic review of 218 unstable fractures was performed. Linear and angular displacements of the major fragments and implant migration into the femoral head during healing were assessed. Additionally, adequacy of the reduction and the location of the implant within the femoral head as predictors of fixation failure were evaluated. The postreduction neck-shaft angle was maintained in the majority of the fractures in both groups. However, there was a significantly higher incidence of varus angulation by 10 degrees or more by the completion of healing among fractures treated with the sliding hip screw (p = 0.04). There was no statistically significant difference in vertical migration of the device into the femoral head between the implants used (p = 0.3). There was a significant relationship between failure of the fixation and varus reduction (p = 0.04) as well as screw/neck angle deviation more than 20 degrees in the lateral projection (p = 0.005) or if the implant was in a superior or posterior position (p = 0.02). The RAB-plate provided a more stable fixation, especially with regard to maintained postoperative alignment. However, positive predictors for fixation failure were identical for both devices. Here, the screw/neck angle deviation has had the strongest significance for prediction of fixation failure.

  14. [Humerus varus: correction by proximal valgus osteotomy with precontourned plate fixation in children].

    PubMed

    Tallón-López, J; Domínguez-Amador, J J; Andrés-García, J A

    2014-01-01

    Varus deformity of the proximal humerus in children is a little known pathology due to its low incidence of presentation. Progress has been made in recent years in understanding the possible etiology and pathophysiological causes. Radiological criteria for diagnosis and functional impairment that occurs have also been defined. However, there are few reports in the literature about the surgical treatment of this deformity in children. In this paper we present a case of surgical treatment of this deformity by corrective osteotomy fixed with precontoured external maleolar plate osteosynthesis.

  15. Morphologic evaluation of cervical spine anatomy with computed tomography: anterior cervical plate fixation considerations.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Brian K; Song, Frederick; Morrison, William B; Grauer, Jonathan N; Beiner, John M; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Hilibrand, Alan S; Albert, Todd J

    2004-04-01

    The computed tomography (CT) studies of the cervical spine from 50 males and 50 females were reviewed to provide morphometric data on a variety of anatomic parameters relevant to anterior cervical reconstruction and fixation. Measurements were made of the vertebral body width and midsagittal anteroposterior (AP) diameter and the distance between the medial borders of the longus coli muscles. Distances between adjacent endplates were also measured, both at their midpoint and at the anterior margin. Widths of the vertebral bodies measure 24.6 +/- 2.4 and 23.0 +/- 2.4 mm in males and females, respectively, with the narrowest measuring 17 and 14, respectively. The average midsagittal AP diameter of each vertebral body in males was approximately 17-18 mm, with the smallest AP diameter measured to be 13 mm. The average midsagittal AP diameter of each vertebral body in females was approximately 15-16 mm, with the smallest being 10 mm. CT scanning provides excellent osseous detail for the measurement of such parameters, and with its widespread use in the evaluation of cervical disorders, large numbers of patients can be reviewed.

  16. Internal fixation in compound type III fractures presenting after golden period

    PubMed Central

    Azam, Quamar; Sherwani, MKA; Abbas, Mazhar; Gupta, Rahul; Asif, Naiyer; Sabir, AB

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Patients often reach the hospital late after passage of golden hours (initial 6 hours) after sustaining high-velocity injuries. The decision of internal fixation in Gustilo's Type IIIA and IIIB fractures becomes a formidable challenge in patients reaching late. The purpose of the present study was to find out if internal fixation could be safely undertaken in these patients. Materials and Methods: Sixty-three patients, having 70 compound fractures (46 Type IIIA and 24 IIIB), which were internally fixed after 6h but within 24h after injury, were included in the present analysis. Follow-up ranged from 18 to 48 months with mean of 28 months. Result: Overall infection rate noted was (n = 11) 15.71% (8.7% in IIIA, and 29.16% in IIIB). The difference in deep infection rate between Type IIIA and Type IIIB was found to be statistically significant (P value < 0.01). Nonunion was seen in five fractures. Functional evaluation using Katenjian's criteria, showed 62.85% (44 fractures of 70) good to excellent results. Conclusion: Satisfactory results may be obtained in Gustilo's Type IIIA and IIIB fractures even if fixed after the golden period, provided strict protocol such as aggressive debridement, prophylactic antibiotic coverage, early soft tissue reconstruction and timely bone grafting is followed. The primary coverage of the wound is discouraged. PMID:21139745

  17. Management of complications of open reduction and internal fixation of ankle fractures.

    PubMed

    Ng, Alan; Barnes, Esther S

    2009-01-01

    The management of complications resulting from the open reduction and internal fixation of ankle fractures is discussed in detail. The initial radiographic findings of the most common postsurgical complications of ankle fracture reduction are briefly discussed, namely lateral, medial, and posterior malleolar malunion or nonunion, syndesmotic widening, degenerative changes, and septic arthritis with or without concomitant osteomyelitis. Emphasis is placed on the management of these complications, with a review of the treatment options proposed in the literature, a detailed discussion of the authors' recommendations, and an inclusion of different case presentations.

  18. Delayed internal fixation of femoral shaft fracture reduces mortality among patients with multisystem trauma.

    PubMed

    Morshed, Saam; Miclau, Theodore; Bembom, Oliver; Cohen, Mitchell; Knudson, M Margaret; Colford, John M

    2009-01-01

    Fractures of the femoral shaft are common and have potentially serious consequences in patients with multiple injuries. The appropriate timing of fracture repair is controversial. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of timing of internal fixation on mortality in patients with multisystem trauma. We performed a retrospective cohort study with use of data from public and private trauma centers throughout the United States that were reported to the National Trauma Data Bank (version 5.0 for 2000 through 2004). The study included 3069 patients with multisystem trauma (Injury Severity Score, > or =15) who underwent internal fixation of a femoral shaft fracture. The time to treatment was defined in categories as the time from admission to internal fixation: t(0) (twelve hours or less), t(1) (more than twelve hours to twenty-four hours), t(2) (more than twenty-four hours to forty-eight hours), t(3) (more than forty-eight hours to 120 hours), and t(4) (more than 120 hours). The relative risk of in-hospital mortality when the four later periods were compared with the earliest one was estimated with inverse probability of treatment-weighted analysis. Subgroups with serious head or neck, chest, abdominal, and additional extremity injury were investigated. When compared with that during the first twelve hours after admission, the estimated mortality risk was significantly lower in three time categories: t(1) (relative risk, 0.45; 95% confidence interval, 0.15 to 0.98; p = 0.03), t(3) (relative risk, 0.58; 95% confidence interval, 0.28 to 0.93; p = 0.03), and t(4) (relative risk, 0.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.10 to 0.94; p = 0.03). Patients with serious abdominal trauma (Abbreviated Injury Score, > or =3) experienced the greatest benefit from a delay of internal fixation beyond twelve hours (relative risk, 0.82 [95% confidence interval, 0.54 to 1.35] for patients with an Abbreviated Injury Score of <3, compared with 0.36 [95% confidence interval, 0

  19. The history of internal fixation of proximal femur fractures Ernst Pohl-the genius behind.

    PubMed

    Bartoníček, Jan; Rammelt, Stefan

    2014-11-01

    The most frequently used implants for internal fixation of proximal femoral fractures are currently the dynamic hip screw and the intramedullary hip nail. However, little has been written about one of the pioneers in this field, a German genius, the designer Ernst Pohl (1876-1962). Without his involvement the concepts of intramedullary nailing coined by Gerhard Küntscher, Richard Maatz and other surgeons could hardly have been implemented. Through his achievements Pohl has rightly merited his pre-eminent position in the history of bone surgery. This article outlines the extraordinary contribution of Ernst Pohl to the development of skeletal surgery and radiology, as well as other medical disciplines.

  20. Displaced avulsion of the ischial apophysis: a hamstring injury requiring internal fixation

    PubMed Central

    Servant, C. T.; Jones, C. B.

    1998-01-01

    A case is reported of an adolescent sprinter who was chronically disabled by pain after non-operative management for an acute hamstring injury. He had sustained an avulsion fracture of the ischial apophysis with displacement of 2.5 cm. Avulsion fractures of the ischial apophysis with displacement of 2 cm or more are unusual, but they frequently result in a symptomatic non-union, and early diagnosis, open reduction, and internal fixation is to be encouraged. 


 PMID:9773178

  1. Hybrid Decompression and Fixation Technique Versus Plated 3-Vertebra Corpectomy for 4-Segment Cervical Myelopathy: Analysis of 81 Cases With a Minimum 2-Year Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Odate, Seiichi; Shikata, Jitsuhiko; Kimura, Hiroaki; Soeda, Tsunemitsu

    2016-07-01

    A retrospective comparative study. The purpose of this study was to compare the stability and outcomes of a hybrid technique with those of a 3-vertebra corpectomy in the management of 4-segment cervical myelopathy. Patients with primarily ventral disease and loss of cervical lordosis are considered good candidates for anterior surgery. Cervical corpectomy is commonly performed in patients with multilevel cervical myelopathy. Corpectomies including >3 vertebraes entail an extremely high risk of reconstruction failure. To avoid the need to perform a 3-vertebra corpectomy, we use a hybrid decompression and fixation technique. This hybrid technique is a technique to obtain optimum decompression and fixation in patients with multilevel cervical myelopathy. A total of 81 patients with multilevel cervical myelopathy who underwent 4-segment cervical fixation with a minimum 2-year follow-up were included. The hybrid technique involved combining a plated 2-vertebra corpectomy and single-level discectomy with stand-alone cage fixation. This technique was performed in 39 patients, and the plated 3-vertebra corpectomy was performed in 42 patients. Nine patients (21%) who underwent the plated 3-vertebra corpectomy were treated with halo immobilization, but no patient in the hybrid group required this treatment (P=0.002). There were fewer instances of reconstruction failure in the hybrid group than in the 3-vertebra corpectomy group (0% vs. 10%, respectively; P=0.048) and fewer instances of C5 palsy (3% vs. 17%, respectively; P <0.0001). The incidence of postoperative C5 palsy was 25% for C3-C5 corpectomy, 19% for C4-C6 corpectomy, and 11% for C4-C5 corpectomy+C6-C7 discectomy. The hybrid technique has the following advantages over 3-vertebra corpectomy for 4-segment cervical fixation: a shorter graft bone and plate are required; the fixed segment has greater initial stability; postoperative external immobilization is simplified; and the risk of reconstruction failure and

  2. Recurrent sternal infection following treatment with negative pressure wound therapy and titanium transverse plate fixation.

    PubMed

    Gaudreau, Geneviève; Costache, Victor; Houde, Chanel; Cloutier, Daniel; Montalin, Livia; Voisine, Pierre; Baillot, Richard

    2010-04-01

    To provide a definition for recurrent sternal infection (RSI), analyse the risk factors and describe the management of this complication following treatment of deep sternal wound infection (DSWI) with horizontal titanium sternal osteosynthesis and coverage with pectoralis major myocutaneous flaps. Between 2002 and 2007, 10665 patients were submitted to open-heart surgery (OHS) in our institution, of whom 149 (1.4%) developed a DSWI. Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) followed by sternal osteosynthesis with musculocutaneous coverage was used in 92 (61.7%) patients. A retrospective review was done using a prospectively maintained database to identify risk factors for recurrent infection in this group of patients. Of the 92 patients who underwent sternal osteosynthesis, nine (9.8%) developed recurrent sternal infection requiring hardware removal. Univariate analysis showed that preoperative methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) status (33.3% vs 6.1%; p=0.03) and prolonged intubation time in ICU (44.4% vs 14.6%; p<0.05) were significant risk factors. Two-thirds of these patients were also found to be infected with the same germ as the one responsible for their initial DSWI. No death was reported and sternal integrity was preserved in all patients despite plate removal. To lower the rate of RSI in patients treated with transverse sternal ostheosynthesis along with myocutaneous coverage for DSWI, surgeons must consider the MRSA preoperative status as a significant predictor of RSI and/or persistent infection. Chest-wall integrity in patients with RSI can be maintained after hardware removal, even after only a few weeks following initial plating. Copyright (c) 2009 European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  3. Combined Internal and External Fixation for Diabetic Charcot Reconstruction: A Retrospective Case Series.

    PubMed

    Hegewald, Kenneth W; Wilder, Megan L; Chappell, Todd M; Hutchinson, Byron L

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic Charcot neuroarthropathy is a complex, limb-threatening disease process with major lifestyle-altering repercussions for patients. When Charcot neuroarthropathy leads to unstable deformity, ulceration, and potential infection despite conservative therapies, foot and ankle surgeons often consider reconstructive limb salvage procedures to restore function. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcomes of diabetic Charcot reconstruction using combined internal and external fixation. A total of 22 patients were reviewed; 16 (72.73%) midfoot and 6 (27.27%) tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis procedures were consecutively performed from March 2009 to May 2013. All surgical procedures were performed in nonacute phases of the Charcot process in patients with diagnosed diabetes mellitus and documented peripheral neuropathy. Patients were excluded from the study if they were not diabetic despite having undergone Charcot reconstruction, regardless of the fixation method, or if they did not complete radiographic imaging. During a mean follow-up period of 58.60 ± 42.37 (range 16 to 164) weeks, limb salvage was achieved in 20 patients (90.91%), and 2 (9.09%) required below-the-knee amputation at a mean of 42 ± 14.14 weeks. Wound dehiscence occurred in 8 (36.36%), pin tract infection in 10 (45.45%), and superficial wound infection in 9 (40.91%) and peaked in bimodal fashion at 4 and 8 weeks postoperatively. Radiographic analysis of the pre- versus postoperative alignment showed statistically significant changes in the lateral talo-first metatarsal angle (p = .02) and lateral talar declination angle (p = .01). The limb salvage rates with diabetic Charcot reconstruction are improving in part because of the continued development of increasingly superior modalities for both internal and external fixation. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of risk factors for femoral head necrosis after internal fixation in femoral neck fractures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Sun, Jun-Ying; Zha, Guo-Chun; Jiang, Tao; You, Zhen-Jun; Yuan, De-Jing

    2014-12-01

    Femoral head necrosis is a rare but devastating complication following femoral neck fracture. The reported incidence of avascular necrosis after femoral neck fracture fixation varies widely, and there is no consensus regarding its risk factors. The aim of this study was to analyze the risk factors for femoral head necrosis after internal fixation in femoral neck fracture. This retrospective study included 166 patients with femoral neck fractures treated with surgical reduction and internal fixation at the authors' institution from January 2004 to December 2008. Eight patients died for reasons unrelated to the surgery, and 12 patients were lost to follow-up. The remaining 146 patients (146 fractures) were followed until union or until conversion to total hip arthroplasty. The patients included 61 males and 85 females with an average age of 47.5 years (range, 18-68 years). The authors analyzed the following factors: age, sex, Garden classification, reduction quality, surgical methods, injury-to-surgery interval, preoperative traction, weight-bearing time, and implant removal. All patients were followed for a mean of 52 months (range, 6-90 months). The incidence of femoral head necrosis was 14.4% (21/146). Garden classification (P=.012), reduction quality (P=.008), implant removal (P=.020), and preoperative traction (P=.003) were significantly associated with femoral head necrosis. Patient age (P=.990), sex (P=.287), injury-to-surgery interval (P=.360), weight-bearing time (P=.868), and surgical methods (P=.987) were not significantly associated with femoral head necrosis. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, implant removal was not a significant risk factor for femoral head necrosis development (P=.498). Garden classification, reduction quality, and preoperative traction had a significant effect on femoral head necrosis development. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Biomechanical Comparison of Two Kinds of Internal Fixation in a Type C Zone II Pelvic Fracture Model

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tao; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Qi; Zheng, Zhan-Le; Lyu, Hong-Zhi; Cui, Yun-Wei; Cheng, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Ying-Ze; Yang, Yan-Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Unstable pelvic fractures are complex and serious injuries. Selection of a fixation method for these fractures remains a challenging problem for orthopedic surgeons. This study aimed to compare the stability of Tile C pelvic fractures fixed with two iliosacral (IS) screws and minimally invasive adjustable plate (MIAP) combined with one IS screw. Methods: This study was a biomechanical experiment. Six embalmed specimens of the adult pelvis were used. The soft tissue was removed from the specimens, and the spines from the fourth lumbar vertebra to the proximal one-third of both femurs were retained. The pubic symphysis, bilateral sacroiliac joints and ligaments, bilateral hip joints, bilateral sacrotuberous ligaments, and bilateral sacrospinous ligaments were intact. Tile C pelvic fractures were made on the specimens. The symphysis pubis was fixed with a plate, and the fracture on the posterior pelvic ring was fixed with two kinds of internal fixation in turn. The specimens were placed in a biomechanical machine at a standing neutral posture. A cyclic vertical load of up to 500 N was applied, and displacement was recorded. Shifts in the fracture gap were measured by a grating displacement sensor. Statistical analysis used: Paired-samples t-test. Results: Under the vertical load of 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 N, the average displacement of the specimens fixed with MIAP combined with one