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Sample records for internal seal ring

  1. Vacuum Packaging of MEMS With Multiple Internal Seal Rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayworth, Ken; Yee, Karl; Shcheglov, Kirill; Bae, Youngsam; Wiberg, Dean; Peay, Chris; Challoner, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    A proposed method of design and fabrication of vacuum-packaged microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and of individual microelectromechanical devices involves the use of multiple internal seal rings (MISRs) in conjunction with vias (through holes plated with metal for electrical contacts). The proposed method is compatible with mass production in a wafer-level fabrication process, in which the dozens of MEMS or individual microelectromechanical devices on a typical wafer are simultaneously vacuum packaged by bonding a capping wafer before the devices are singulated (cut apart by use of a dicing saw). In addition to being compatible with mass production, the proposed method would eliminate the need for some complex and expensive production steps and would yield more reliable vacuum seals. Conventionally, each MEMS or individual microelectromechanical device is fabricated as one of many identical units on a device wafer. Vacuum packaging is accomplished by bonding the device wafer to a capping wafer with metal seal rings (one ring surrounding each unit) that have been formed on the capping wafer. The electrical leads of each unit are laid out on what would otherwise be a flat surface of the device wafer, against which the seal ring is to be pressed for sealing. The resulting pattern of metal lines and their insulating oxide coverings presents a very rough and uneven surface, upon which it is difficult to pattern the sealing metal. Consequently, the seal is prone to leakage unless additional costly and complex planarization steps are performed before patterning the seal ring and bonding the wafers.

  2. Multiple internal seal ring micro-electro-mechanical system vacuum packaging method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayworth, Ken J. (Inventor); Yee, Karl Y. (Inventor); Shcheglov, Kirill V. (Inventor); Bae, Youngsam (Inventor); Wiberg, Dean V. (Inventor); Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor); Peay, Chris S. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A Multiple Internal Seal Ring (MISR) Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) vacuum packaging method that hermetically seals MEMS devices using MISR. The method bonds a capping plate having metal seal rings to a base plate having metal seal rings by wafer bonding the capping plate wafer to the base plate wafer. Bulk electrodes may be used to provide conductive paths between the seal rings on the base plate and the capping plate. All seals are made using only metal-to-metal seal rings deposited on the polished surfaces of the base plate and capping plate wafers. However, multiple electrical feed-through metal traces are provided by fabricating via holes through the capping plate for electrical connection from the outside of the package through the via-holes to the inside of the package. Each metal seal ring serves the dual purposes of hermetic sealing and providing the electrical feed-through metal trace.

  3. Seal ring installation tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haselmaier, L. Haynes (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A seal ring tool that allows an installer to position a primary seal ring between hub ends of pipe flanges that are being assembled together. The tool includes a pivoting handle member and extension arms attached to the pivoting handle member. The ends of the arms have side indentation type longitudinal grooves angled toward one another for holding the primary seal ring in place between the hubs of respective pipes that are to be attached together. The arms of the tool can also have flat sides that can be used to abut against an optional second larger seal that is supported within a groove in one of the hub ends so that the second hub end can then be moved against the other side of the primary seal ring. Once the seal ring is positioned between the pipe hubs, the pipe hubs can be moved about the seal ring due to the flat sides of the arms of the tool. The tool eliminates the chances of damaging and contaminating seal rings being installed within pipe hubs that are being attached to one another.

  4. Conical O-ring seal

    DOEpatents

    Chalfant, G.G. Jr.

    A shipping container for radioactive or other hazardous materials has a conical-shaped closure containing grooves in the conical surface thereof and an O-ring seal incorporated in each of such grooves. The closure and seal provide a much stronger, tighter and compact containment than with a conventional flanged joint.

  5. Conical O-ring seal

    DOEpatents

    Chalfant, Jr., Gordon G.

    1984-01-01

    A shipping container for radioactive or other hazardous materials which has a conical-shaped closure containing grooves in the conical surface thereof and an O-ring seal incorporated in each of such grooves. The closure and seal provide a much stronger, tighter and compact containment than with a conventional flanged joint.

  6. Reactor cavity seal ring

    SciTech Connect

    Hankinson, M.F.

    1986-04-22

    A hydrostatic seal is described for sealing an annular gap between two flat substantially horizontal coplanar surfaces comprising, in combination: a generally flat annular plate of a width sufficient to span a gap between two surfaces: compressible annular sealing means disposed on the bottom surface of the flat annular plate for sealingly engaging the two flat surfaces in response to a downward force exerted on the plate; and fastening means, distributed along the center line of the plate, for releasably fastening the plate in a position to span the gap to be sealed and exert a downward force on the plate, each fastening means including a pair of elongated members of a size to fit into the gap to be sealed, means for mounting the members on the bottom surface of the plate so that at least a portion of each member is radially moveable in a direction toward a respective one of the vertical side surfaces defining the gap to be sealed to engage same and so that the plate is moveable relative to the members in a downward direction in response to hydrostatic pressure applied to the upper surface of the plate when the members are engaging the vertical side surfaces of an annular gap, and an actuating means, mounted on the plate for movement therewith in response to hydrostatic pressure, for radially moving the members, the actuating means extending through a bore in the plate to the upper surface of the plate.

  7. Structural Design and Sealing Performance Analysis of Biomimetic Sealing Ring

    PubMed Central

    Han, Chuanjun

    2015-01-01

    In order to reduce the failure probability of rubber sealing rings in reciprocating dynamic seal, a new structure of sealing ring based on bionics was designed. The biomimetic ring has three concave ridges and convex bulges on each side which are very similar to earthworms. Bulges were circularly designed and sealing performances of the biomimetic ring in both static seal and dynamic seal were simulated by FEM. In addition, effects of precompression, medium pressure, speed, friction coefficient, and material parameters on sealing performances were discussed. The results show that von Mises stress of the biomimetic sealing ring distributed symmetrically in no-pressure static sealing. The maximum von Mises stress appears on the second bulge of the inner side. High contact stress concentrates on left bulges. Von Mises stress distribution becomes uneven under medium pressure. Both von Mises stress and contact stress increase when precompression, medium pressure, and rubber hardness increase in static sealing. Biomimetic ring can avoid rolling and distortion in reciprocating dynamic seal, and its working life is much longer than O-ring and rectangular ring. The maximum von Mises stress and contact stress increase with the precompression, medium pressure, rubber hardness, and friction coefficient in reciprocating dynamic seal. PMID:27019582

  8. Physical properties of Dowell Chemical Seal Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Benny, H.L.

    1985-07-01

    This document outlines the tests, procedures, and results of an evaluation program for Dowell's Chemical Seal Ring.'' The testing reported here deals with the physical properties of density, compression, tensile strength, elongation, and a push-out/bond strength test. Dowell's Chemical Seal Ring'' is proposed as a gasket-like seal between grout layers in the annulus around the Exploratory Shaft steel liner. 4 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  9. An Internal Coaxil Cable Seal System

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David; Dahlgren, Scott; Sneddon, Cameron; Briscoe, Michael; Fox, Joe

    2004-12-23

    The invention is a seal system for a coaxial cable more specifically an internal seal system placed within the coaxial cable and its constituent components. A series of seal stacks including flexible rigid rings and elastomeric rings are placed on load bearing members within the coaxial cable. The current invention is adapted to seal the annular space between the coaxial cable and an electrical contact passing there through. The coaxial cable is disposed within drilling components to transmit electrical signals between drilling components within a drill string. During oil and gas exploration, a drill string can see a range of pressures and temperatures thus resulting in multiple combinations of temperature and pressure and increasing the difficulty of creating a robust seal for all combinations. The seal system can be used in a plurality of downhole components, such as sections of pipe in a drill string, drill collars, heavy weight drill pipe, and jars.

  10. Low thermal expansion seal ring support

    DOEpatents

    Dewis, David W.; Glezer, Boris

    2000-01-01

    Today, the trend is to increase the temperature of operation of gas turbine engines. To cool the components with compressor discharge air, robs air which could otherwise be used for combustion and creates a less efficient gas turbine engine. The present low thermal expansion sealing ring support system reduces the quantity of cooling air required while maintaining life and longevity of the components. Additionally, the low thermal expansion sealing ring reduces the clearance "C","C'" demanded between the interface between the sealing surface and the tip of the plurality of turbine blades. The sealing ring is supported by a plurality of support members in a manner in which the sealing ring and the plurality of support members independently expand and contract relative to each other and to other gas turbine engine components.

  11. Internal coaxial cable seal system

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Sneddon, Cameron; Dahlgren, Scott Steven; Briscoe, Michael A.

    2006-07-25

    The invention is a seal system for a coaxial cable and is placed within the coaxial cable and its constituent components. A series of seal stacks including load ring components and elastomeric rings are placed on load bearing members within the coaxial cable sealing the annular space between the coaxial cable and an electrical contact passing there through. The coaxial cable is disposed within drilling components to transmit electrical signals between drilling components within a drill string. The seal system can be used in a variety of downhole components, such as sections of pipe in a drill string, drill collars, heavy weight drill pipe, and jars.

  12. Mechanical seal having a double-tier mating ring

    DOEpatents

    Khonsari, Michael M.; Somanchi, Anoop K.

    2005-09-13

    An apparatus and method to enhance the overall performance of mechanical seals in one of the following ways: by reducing seal face wear, by reducing the contact surface temperature, or by increasing the life span of mechanical seals. The apparatus is a mechanical seal (e.g., single mechanical seals, double mechanical seals, tandem mechanical seals, bellows, pusher mechanical seals, and all types of rotating and reciprocating machines) comprising a rotating ring and a double-tier mating ring. In a preferred embodiment, the double-tier mating ring comprises a first and a second stationary ring that together form an agitation-inducing, guided flow channel to allow for the removal of heat generated at the seal face of the mating ring by channeling a coolant entering the mating ring to a position adjacent to and in close proximity with the interior surface area of the seal face of the mating ring.

  13. Pressure-Energized Seal Rings to Better Withstand Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farner, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    Pressure-energized seal rings intended to withstand flows better than do conventional pressure-energized seal rings have been conceived. The concept applies, more specifically, to seal rings used on some valve stems, pistons, and the like. A conventional pressure-energized seal ring generally has a U-shaped cross section and consists of an elastomer or other suitable polymer with an embedded metal energizing spring (see Figure 1). The working fluid from the high-pressure side that one seeks to seal is allowed into the U-shaped cavity, so that the pressure pushes the sides of the seal ring tighter against the gland and body sealing surfaces, thereby increasing the degree of sealing. Unfortunately, when the seal ring is exposed to flow of the working fluid, under some conditions, the flow grabs the lip of the U-shaped cross section and ejects or deforms the seal ring so that, thereafter, a proper seal is not obtained. Figure 2 depicts one of several alternative seal rings according to the present concept. One element of the concept is to modify the U-shaped cross section from that of the corresponding conventional seal ring to eliminate the exposed lip and prevent entry of the working fluid into the U-shaped cavity. Unlike in the conventional seal, pressurized fluid would not push the seal ring directly against the both gland and body sealing surfaces. Instead, the pressure would directly push the seal ring against a gland sealing surface only. In so doing, the pressure would squash the seal ring into a smaller volume bounded by the gland and body sealing surfaces, and would thereby indirectly press the seal ring more tightly against the body sealing surface. To enhance the desired squashing deformation, a spring having an approximately parallelogram cross section would be embedded in the modified U-shaped cavity. As the pressure pushed two corners of the approximate parallelogram closer together along the axis of the seal ring, the other two corners of the

  14. Mechanical seal having a single-piece, perforated mating ring

    DOEpatents

    Khonsari, Michael M.; Somanchi, Anoop K.

    2007-08-07

    A mechanical seal (e.g., single mechanical seals, double mechanical seals, tandem mechanical seals, bellows, pusher mechanical seals, and all types of rotating and reciprocating machines) with reduced contact surface temperature, reduced contact surface wear, or increased life span. The mechanical seal comprises a rotating ring and a single-piece, perforated mating ring, which improves heat transfer by controllably channeling coolant flow through the single-piece mating ring such that the coolant is in substantially uniform thermal contact with a substantial portion of the interior surface area of the seal face, while maintaining the structural integrity of the mechanical seal and minimizing the potential for coolant flow interruptions to the seal face caused by debris or contaminants (e.g., small solids and trash) in the coolant.

  15. Multiple internal seal right micro-electro-mechanical system vacuum package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayworth, Ken J. (Inventor); Yee, Karl Y. (Inventor); Shcheglov, Kirill V. (Inventor); Bae, Youngsam (Inventor); Wiberg, Dean V. (Inventor); Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor); Peay, Chris S. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A Multiple Internal Seal Ring (MISR) Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) vacuum package that hermetically seals MEMS devices using MISR. The method bonds a capping plate having metal seal rings to a base plate having metal seal rings by wafer bonding the capping plate wafer to the base plate wafer. Bulk electrodes may be used to provide conductive paths between the seal rings on the base plate and the capping plate. All seals are made using only metal-to-metal seal rings deposited on the polished surfaces of the base plate and capping plate wafers. However, multiple electrical feed-through metal traces are provided by fabricating via holes through the capping plate for electrical connection from the outside of the package through the via-holes to the inside of the package. Each metal seal ring serves the dual purposes of hermetic sealing and providing the electrical feed-through metal trace.

  16. Giardiasis in ringed seals from the western arctic.

    PubMed

    Olson, M E; Roach, P D; Stabler, M; Chan, W

    1997-07-01

    Sixteen beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) and fifteen ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from the western arctic region of Canada were examined for giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis. Intestinal contents from the rectum and colon were collected from animals slaughtered by Inuit hunters. A fluorescent monoclonal antibody identified Giardia sp. cysts in three of 15 (20%) seals. Thus, ringed seals are implicated as a potential reservoir for this zoonosis in the arctic.

  17. Improved internal seals for pipeline centrifugal compressors

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, W.; Lee, C.

    1988-05-31

    Internal labyrinth seals are used extensively in pipeline compressors as impeller inlet seals, interstage seals, and balance piston seals (for beam-type machines). The purposes of this program were to determine the effects on compressor performance of internal seal leakage, consider variations in labyrinth configurations to improve performance, and determine the feasibility of other types of seals that might provide improved performance. In addition, rotordynamic studies of an overhung machine were conducted to establish whether unbalance response was sufficient to cause seal contact and consequent wear. The program involved consultation with both users and manufacturers of pipeline compressors to obtain information regarding the nature of problems, description of the machinery and seal configurations, operating conditions, contemporary design procedures, and advanced seal developments. The results indicated that internal leakage can significantly reduce compressor efficiency; in some machines as much as 3 to 6%, depending on seal clearance. Optimized step seal geometries will provide improved performance, especially for seals that have worn from rubbing contact. A principal problem is seal wear that results from compressor surge. During normal operation, impeller motions are constrained within seal clearances, but when surge occurs severe rubbing can take place. Abradable seals do not address the surge wear problem, except that wear may take longer since abradable seals start out with tighter clearances. A variety of advanced concepts were considered. The most promising are resilient labyrinths that can elastically respond to impeller movements created by compressor surge without excessive damage or wear. 10 refs., 74 figs., 24 tabs.

  18. Persistent organic pollutants in ringed seals from the Russian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Savinov, Vladimir; Muir, Derek C G; Svetochev, Vladislav; Svetocheva, Olga; Belikov, Stanislav; Boltunov, Andrey; Alekseeva, Ludmila; Reiersen, Lars-Otto; Savinova, Tatiana

    2011-06-15

    Organochlorine compounds total DDT (ΣDDT), total HCH isomers (ΣHCH), toxaphenes (sum of Parlar 26, 50, 62), mirex, endrin, methoxychlor, total chlorinated benzenes (ΣCBz), total chlordane compounds (ΣCHL), polychlorinated biphenyls (total of 56 congeners; ΣPCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (sum of 7 tri- to hepta congeners; ΣPBDEs) were analysed in the blubber of adult ringed seals from the four areas of the Russian Arctic (White Sea, Barents Sea, Kara Sea and Chukchi Sea) collected in 2001-2005. Ringed seals from the south-western part of the Kara Sea (Dikson Island - Yenisei estuary) were the most contaminated with ΣDDTs, ΣPCBs, ΣCHL, and mirex as compared with those found in the other three areas of Russian Arctic, while the highest mean concentrations of ΣHCHs and PCDD/Fs were found in the blubber of ringed seals from the Chukchi Sea and the White Sea, respectively. Among all organochlorine compounds measured in ringed seals from the European part of the Russian Arctic, concentrations of ΣDDT and ΣPCBs only were higher as compared with the other Arctic regions. Levels of all other organochlorine compounds were similar or lower than in seals from Svalbard, Alaska, the Canadian Arctic and Greenland. ΣPBDEs were found in all ringed seal samples analysed. There were no significant differences between ΣPBDE concentrations found in the blubber of ringed seals from the three studied areas of the European part of the Russian Arctic, while PBDE contamination level in ringed seals from the Chukchi Sea was 30-50 times lower. ΣPBDE levels in the blubber of seals from the European part of the Russian Arctic are slightly higher than in ringed seals from the Canadian Arctic, Alaska, and western Greenland but lower compared to ringed seals from Svalbard and eastern Greenland.

  19. Monitoring Snow on ice as Critical Habitat for Ringed Seals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, B. P.; Moran, J.; Douglas, D. C.; Nghiem, S. V.

    2007-12-01

    Ringed seals are the primary prey of polar bears, and they are found in all seasonally ice covered seas of the northern hemisphere as well as in several freshwater lakes. The presence of snow covered sea ice is essential for successful ringed seal reproduction. Ringed seals abrade holes in the ice allowing them to surface and breathe under the snow cover. Where snow accumulates to sufficient depths, ringed seals excavate subnivean lairs above breathing holes. They rest, give birth, and nurse their young in those lairs. Temperatures within the lairs remain within a few degrees of freezing, well within the zone of thermal neutrality for newborn ringed seals, even at ambient temperatures of -30° C. High rates of seal mortality have been recorded when early snow melt caused lairs to collapse exposing newborn seals to predators and to subsequent extreme cold events. As melt onset dates come earlier in the Arctic Ocean, ringed seal populations (and the polar bears that depend upon them) will be increasingly challenged. We determined dates of lair abandonment by ringed seals fitted with radio transmitters in the Beaufort Sea (n = 60). We compared abandonment dates to melt onset dates measured in the field, as well as estimated dates derived from active (Ku-band backscatter) and passive (SSM/I) microwave satellite imagery. Date of snow melt significantly improved models of environmental influences on the timing of lair abandonment. We used an algorithm based on multi-channel means and variances of passive microwave data to detect melt onset dates. Those melt onset dates predicted the date of lair abandonment ± 3 days (r 2 = 0.982, p = 0.001). The predictive power of passive microwave proxies combined with their historical record suggest they could serve to monitor critical changes to ringed seal habitat.

  20. Remarks on modeling the flexible seal ring housing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundera, C.; Martsynkovskyy, V.; Zahorulko, A.

    2017-08-01

    When formulating models of dynamic face seals, two issues are of essential importance. The first concerns the determination of the forces formed in the medium film in the gap formed by the faces of two rings, while the second refers to the model of the flexible housing of one of the seal rings. The first issue includes the analysis of the medium flow through a narrow slit, taking thermal phenomena and deformations of slit-forming surfaces into account. The second issue concerns the modeling of properties of seal structural components, especially the modeling of elastic-damping properties of the flexible seal ring housing. This paper presents the results of simple relaxation tests of elastomeric rings and the procedure for analyzing these results and evaluating the elastic-damping properties of the rings tested. Finally, experimental results will be compared with theory.

  1. SRB attach ring phenolic TPS fishtail seal evaluation tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karu, Z. S.

    1982-01-01

    The SRB attach ring is thermally protected with layered phenolic cloth fairings that are fastened to the ring. The gap between the fairings and the motor case is closed off with a rubber seal of a fishtail cross sectional shape bonded to the phenolic. On both the STS-1 and STS-2 flights this gap was discovered to vary anywhere from an intended gap of 0.375 in. to an actual measured gap of 0.60 in. due to tolerances. Tests were conducted with and without a 0.25 in. thick cork shim placed under the seal with a 0.60 in. gap under the phenolic TPS to determine and compare the performance of the seal in the two different configurations. To alleviate the difficult and costly procedure of installing the cork shim under the seal, especially after phenolic TPS mounting on the attach ring, large fishtail seals of idential Elder gray silicon material and two different hardnesses were tested. A similar matrix of tests was conducted with this new large fishtail seal, and seals with both type hardnesses performed well regardless of whether or not the seal was bonded in the phenolic at the front of the seal groove. Similar results had been obtained with the original small fishtail seal which performed adequately with the 0.25 in. cork shim under it.

  2. Renal lesions in Baltic grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) and ringed seals (Phoca hispida botnica).

    PubMed

    Bergman, A; Bergstrand, A; Bignert, A

    2001-11-01

    A severe reduction in the populations of grey and ringed seals in the Baltic occurred during the 1960s and 1970s. Adult animals showed (and still show) a series of lesions inter alia in the female reproductive organs, intestines, integument, kidneys, adrenals, and skulls (the Baltic seal disease complex). The morphology and prevalence of light microscopic changes in the kidneys of 76 grey seals and 29 ringed seals collected in the Baltic proper and the Gulf of Bothnia during 1977-1996 are presented in this report. Specific changes in the glomeruli were diffuse thickening of the capillary walls and the presence of large, rounded, hyaline bodies in the capillary or capsular walls. Specific changes in the distal convoluted tubules and the collecting ducts included focal replacement of the normal epithelium by multilayered cell proliferations. The prevalence and extent of the changes were age-related and thus correlated with the time of exposure to environmental toxicants. The lesions were more conspicuous in Baltic grey seals than in Baltic ringed seals. Similar findings were recorded in 5 grey seals from Swedish zoological gardens. These animals had been fed Baltic fish for most of their lives. Electron microscopy was performed on 5 of the Baltic grey seals and on one of the grey seals from zoological gardens. Electron microscopy results mainly based on findings in one of the Baltic grey seals, included mesangial inter-position in the glomerular capillary walls and the characteristics of intercalated cells in cell proliferations in the distal parts of the nephrons. Eleven grey seals from the Scottish coast and 23 ringed seals from Svalbard served as reference material. None of the reference seals showed the specific lesions described above. The authors propose that organochlorine pollution of the Baltic environment is a factor in the cause of these kidney changes.

  3. Effect of temperature and O-ring gland finish on sealing ability of Viton V747-75

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lach, Cynthia L.

    1993-01-01

    As a part of the redesign project of the Space Shuttle solid rocket motor (SRM) following the Challenger accident, the field joint was redesigned to minimize the relative joint motion caused by internal motor pressurization during ignition. The O-ring seals and glands for the field joint were designed both to accommodate structural deflections and to promote pressure-assisted sealing. Tests were conducted in various face seal fixtures to evaluate the ability of Viton V747-75 O-rings to seal for a range of temperatures and surface finishes of the redesigned O-ring gland. The effect of surface finish on the sealing performance and wear characteristics of the O-rings was evaluated during simulated launch conditions that included low-frequency vibrations, gap openings, and rapid pressurizations. The effect of contamination on the sealing performance was also investigated. The O-rings sealed throughout the 75 deg F leak check test and for the seal tests from 50 deg F to 120 deg F for the range of surface finishes investigated. Although abrasions were found in the O-rings from pressurization against the rougher finishes, these abrasions were not detrimental to sealing. Below 50 deg F, Viton V747-75 O-rings were insufficiently resilient to track the test gap opening.

  4. Design analysis of a self-acting spiral-groove ring seal for counter-rotating shafts. [o ring seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Di Russo, EL

    1983-01-01

    A self-acting spiral groove inter-shaft ring seal of nominal 16.33 cm (6.43 in.) diameter for sealing fan bleed air between counter rotating shafts in advanced turbofan engines was analyzed. The analysis focused on the lift force characteristics of the spiral grooves. A NASA Lewis developed computer program for predicting the performance of gas lubricated face seals was used to optimize the spiral groove geometry to produce maximum lift force. Load capacity curves (lift force as function of film thickness) were generated for four advanced turbofan engine operating conditions at relative seal speeds ranging from 17,850 to 29,800 rpm, sealed air pressures from 6 to 42 N/sq cm (9 to 60 Psi) absolute and temperatures from 95 to 327 C (203 to 620 F). The relative seal sliding speed range was 152 to 255 m/sec (500 to 836 ft/sec). The analysis showed that the spiral grooves are capable of producing sufficient lift force such that the ring seal will operate in a noncontacting mode over the operating range of typical advanced turbofan engines. Previously announced in STAR as N83-23306

  5. Design analysis of a self-acting spiral-groove ring seal for counter-rotating shafts. [o ring seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dirusso, E.

    1983-01-01

    A self-acting spiral groove inter-shaft ring seal of nominal 16.33 cm (6.43 in.) diameter for sealing fan bleed air between counter rotating shafts in advanced turbofan engines was analyzed. The analysis focused on the lift force characteristics of the spiral grooves. A NASA Lewis developed computer program for predicting the performance of gas lubricated face seals was used to optimize the spiral groove geometry to produce maximum lift force. Load capacity curves (lift force as function of film thickness) were generated for four advanced turbofan engine operating conditions at relative seal speeds ranging from 17,850 to 29,800 rpm, sealed air pressures from 6 to 42 N/sq cm (9 to 60 psi) absolute and temperatures from 95 to 327 C (203 to 620 F). The relative seal sliding speed range was 152 to 255 m/sec (500 to 836 ft/sec). The analysis showed that the spiral grooves are capable of producing sufficient lift force such that the ring seal will operate in a noncontacting mode over the operating range of typical advanced turbofan engines.

  6. Thermoelastohydrodynamic analysis of an oil pumping ring seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, P. J.; Keith, T. G., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The selection and evaluation of the numerical methods used in the thermoelastohydrodynamic analysis of an oil pumping ring seal are described, and the results from test problems used to demonstrate the validity of the implementing computer program are presented. A sampling of predicted pumping ring performance values is compared with existing experimental data. Agreement between prediction and test performance is obtained, yielding detailed information concerning fluid and solid parameters.

  7. Fluorocarbon seal replaces metal piston ring in low density gas environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morath, W. D.; Morgan, N. E.

    1967-01-01

    Reinforced fluorocarbon cupseal, which provides an integral lip-type seal, replaces the metal piston rings in piston-cylinder configurations used in the compression of low density gases. The fluorocarbon seal may be used as cryogenic compressor piston seals.

  8. Oil Leakage from the Seal Ring of a Scroll Compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Naoki; Fukui, Atsushi; Horiguchi, Hironori; Tsujimoto, Yoshinobu; Toyama, Toshiyuki

    In scroll compressors for air conditioners, there is a compressor with back-pressure chamber spaced by seal ring behind orbiting scroll. High pressure in the backpressure chamber presses the orbiting scroll to fixed scroll. In the case that lubrication oil and refrigerant gas with high pressure and temperature in the backpressure chamber leak to low pressure chamber through the seal ring, the efficiency of compressor decreases and the oil circulation rate can increase. In the present study the leakage characteristics of lubrication oil from the backpressure chamber to the low pressure chamber were investigated. In experiment, it was found that the oil leakage is larger for higher rotational speed of rotating disk, higher viscosity of oil and smaller pressure difference between the backpressure and low-pressure chambers. This could be explained by the calculation in which the seal ring was assumed to have a tilt angle. It was also found in the calculation that oil leakage is larger due to the thicker oil film between the seal ring and the rotating disk in the case of higher rotational speed of the disk, higher viscosity of oil and smaller pressure difference between the backpressure and low-pressure chambers.

  9. O-Ring sealing arrangements for ultra-high vacuum systems

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Chang-Kyo; Flaherty, Robert

    1981-01-01

    An all metal reusable O-ring sealing arrangement for sealing two concentric tubes in an ultra-high vacuum system. An O-ring of a heat recoverable alloy such as Nitinol is concentrically positioned between protruding sealing rings of the concentric tubes. The O-ring is installed between the tubes while in a stressed martensitic state and is made to undergo a thermally induced transformation to an austenitic state. During the transformation the O-ring expands outwardly and contracts inwardly toward a previously sized austenitic configuration, thereby sealing against the protruding sealing rings of the concentric tubes.

  10. 76 FR 14882 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Proposed Threatened Status for Subspecies of the Ringed Seal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... Species; Proposed Threatened Status for Subspecies of the Ringed Seal AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... hispida ladogensis) subspecies of the ringed seal as threatened under the Endangered Species Act of 1973... subspecies of the ringed seal as threatened under the ESA. Based on the status of these subspecies, we...

  11. Influence analysis of secondary O-ring seals in dynamic behavior of spiral groove gas face seals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Songtao; Huang, Weifeng; Liu, Xiangfeng; Wang, Yuming

    2016-05-01

    The current research on secondary O-ring seals used in mechanical seals has begun to focus on their dynamic properties. However, detailed analysis of the dynamic properties of O-ring seals in spiral groove gas face seals is lacking. In particular a transient study and a difference analysis of steady-state and transient performance are imperative. In this paper, a case study is performed to gauge the effect of secondary O-ring seals on the dynamic behavior (steady-state performance and transient performance) of face seals. A numerical finite element method (FEM) model is developed for the dynamic analysis of spiral groove gas face seals with a flexibly mounted stator in the axial and angular modes. The rotor tilt angle, static stator tilt angle and O-ring damping are selected to investigate the effect of O-ring seals on face seals during stable running operation. The results show that the angular factor can be ignored to save time in the simulation under small damping or undamped conditions. However, large O-ring damping has an enormous effect on the angular phase difference of mated rings, affecting the steady-state performance of face seals and largely increasing the possibility of face contact that reduces the service life of face seals. A pressure drop fluctuation is carried out to analyze the effect of O-ring seals on the transient performance of face seals. The results show that face seals could remain stable without support stiffness and O-ring damping during normal stable operation but may enter a large-leakage state when confronting instantaneous fluctuations. The oscillation-amplitude shortening effect of O-ring damping on the axial mode is much greater than that on the angular modes and O-ring damping prefers to cater for axial motion at the cost of angular motion. This research proposes a detailed dynamic-property study of O-ring seals in spiral groove gas face seals, to assist in the design of face seals.

  12. Wafer-level packaging with compression-controlled seal ring bonding

    DOEpatents

    Farino, Anthony J

    2013-11-05

    A device may be provided in a sealed package by aligning a seal ring provided on a first surface of a first semiconductor wafer in opposing relationship with a seal ring that is provided on a second surface of a second semiconductor wafer and surrounds a portion of the second wafer that contains the device. Forcible movement of the first and second wafer surfaces toward one another compresses the first and second seal rings against one another. A physical barrier against the movement, other than the first and second seal rings, is provided between the first and second wafer surfaces.

  13. Breakaway frictions of dynamic O-rings in mechanical seals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Tom; Kay, Peter

    1993-05-01

    Breakaway friction of a dynamic O-ring affects the mechanical seal's response to large axial shaft movement and face wear. However, little data exist to help designers. Therefore, a test rig was developed to measure breakaway friction. The research quantitatively shows the effects of lubrication with silicone grease and a change of surface finish. By using the Taguchi statistical experimental design method, the significance of test parameters was evaluated with a minimum number of tests. It was found that fluid pressure, dwell time, and O-ring percentage squeeze affect O-ring breakaway friction more than the O-ring cross sectional diameter and axial sliding speed within the range of values tested. The authors showed that breakaway friction increased linearly with pressure. However, O-rings made of different materials had significantly different increase rates, even if they had nominally the same durometer hardness. Breakaway friction also increased with logarithm of dwell time. Again, the increase rate depended strongly on the specific O-ring material tested. These observations led the authors to believe that the typical approach of generalizing data based on generic polymer type and durometer was inappropriate.

  14. Large diameter metal ring seal prevents gas leakage at 5000 psi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middelkoop, J. H.

    1966-01-01

    Large metal ring seal prevents gas leakage in hydrogen, helium, or nitrogen storage bottles at pressures up to 5,000 psi. The grooved ring seal which contains elastomer O-rings is installed between the mating faces of the access cover and the storage bottle.

  15. Resilient seal ring assembly with spring means applying force to wedge member. [cryogenic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, W. N.; Hein, L. A. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A ring seal adapted for installation in an annular recess between a housing and a rotating or reciprocating shaft is described. The seal consists of a resilient ring cup member having a ring wedge member inserted in the center recess of the cup member to wedge the opposing lips of the cup member outwardly into a sealing relationship. A spring maintains the force against the wedge member.

  16. Inflatable O-ring seal would ease closing of hatch cover plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neary, K. J.

    1966-01-01

    Inflatable O-ring seal provides positive sealing means that does not require the manual exertion of a large compressive force during opening or closing of a rotary-type hatch cover plate. The O-ring is deflated during opening and closing and inflated after closure by a gas pressure source.

  17. Design improvement of a pump wear ring labyrinth seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhode, David L.; Morrison, G. L.; Ko, S. H.; Waughtal, S. P.

    1987-01-01

    The investigation was successful in obtaining two improved designs for the impeller wear ring seal of the liquid hydrogen turbopump of interest. A finite difference computer code was extensively used in a parametric computational study in determining a cavity configuration with high flow resistance due to turbulence dissipation. These two designs, along with that currently used, were fabricated and tested. The improved designs were denoted Type O and Type S. The measurements showed that Type O and Type S given 67 and 30 percent reduction in leakage over the current design, respectively. It was found that the number of cavities, the step height and the presence of a small stator groove are quite important design features. Also, the tooth thickness is of some significance. Finally, the tooth height and an additional large cavity cut out from the stator (upstream of the step) are of negligible importance.

  18. Improving production in steamed wells with a ring seal packer

    SciTech Connect

    Speirs, A.B.; Webster, K.D.

    1995-12-31

    In thermally enhanced cyclic and steam flood wells, production declines as the fluid level in the reservoir drops and the remaining depleted zones connect with wellbore perforations. The depleted intervals act as steam thief zones for cyclic (huff and puff) wells or steam override (break through) zones for steam drive applications. Most cyclic steam and steam drive secondary recovery processes are found in unconsolidated sand reservoirs that generally require slotted liner type completion for sand retention. Slotted liner type completions make zonal isolation a significant challenge. Several methods have been used to completely isolate these zones from the wellbore (i.e., matrix cements, resins, sidetracking liners, etc.) but most require complex workovers and are relatively expensive. The ring seal packer was developed as a far less expensive alternative to these methods while achieving only slightly less than complete isolation. This paper presents the design of the RSP, deployment methods, and successful field production results.

  19. Levels and temporal trends of HCH isomers in ringed seals from West and East Greenland.

    PubMed

    Rigét, Frank; Vorkamp, Katrin; Dietz, Rune; Muir, Derek C G

    2008-08-01

    Levels and temporal trends of the hexachlorocyclohexane isomers alpha-, beta- and gamma-HCH were analysed in blubber of juvenile ringed seals from West Greenland (1994 to 2006) and juvenile and adult ringed seals from East Greenland (1986 to 2006). No significant differences in the concentration levels in the juvenile seals were found between East and West Greenland for any of the three isomers. alpha-HCH concentrations were not significantly different between juvenile and adult ringed seals from East Greenland, whereas beta- and gamma-HCH concentrations were significantly higher in adult ringed seals. alpha- and beta-HCH in Greenland ringed seals were approximately a factor two lower than in the Canadian Arctic, and alpha-HCH was a factor 2-3 higher than in ringed seals from an area east of Svalbard, Norway. Annual decreases in ringed seals from Greenland during the study periods were detected to be 9.1-11.7%, 1.4-3.9% and 6.0-6.4% for alpha-, beta- and gamma-HCH, respectively, being quite similar in both East and West Greenland. Similar levels and trends in East and West Greenland support the general understanding of the pathways of HCH isomers to and in the Arctic.

  20. High-Pressure Hot-Gas Self-Acting Floating Ring Shaft Seal for Liquid Rocket Turbopumps. [tapered bore seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, R. E.; Diamond, W. A.

    1980-01-01

    Design analysis, detail design, fabrication, and experimental evaluation was performed on two self acting floating ring shaft seals for a rocket engine turbopump high pressure 24132500 n/sq m (3500 psig) hot gas 533 K 9500 F) high speed 3142 rad/sec (30000 rmp) turbine. The initial design used Rayleigh step hydrodynamic lift pads to assist in centering the seal ring with minimum rubbing contact. The final design used a convergent tapered bore to provide hydrostatic centering force. The Rayleigh step design was tested for 107 starts and 4.52 hours total. The leakage was satisfactory; however, the design was not acceptable due to excessive wear caused by inadequate centering force and failure of the sealing dam caused by erosion damage. The tapered bore design was tested for 370 starts and 15.93 hours total. Satisfactory performance for the required life of 7.5 hours per seal was successfully demonstrated.

  1. Problems and criteria of quality improvement in end face mechanical seal rings through technological methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarelnik, V.; Belous, A.; Antoszewski, B.; Zukov, A.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper are presented the recommendations for material’s selections of the mechanical seals rings and basic productive and operating requirements. The system of a directional selection of technology that ensures the required quality of working surfaces of the mechanical seals rings covers their entire life cycle. The mathematical frictional model is proposed as an instrument for calculating a linear and weighing abrasion of the mechanical seals rings and helps to improve selection’s criteria and the most rational method of strengthening.

  2. Amphibious hearing in ringed seals (Pusa hispida): underwater audiograms, aerial audiograms and critical ratio measurements.

    PubMed

    Sills, Jillian M; Southall, Brandon L; Reichmuth, Colleen

    2015-07-01

    Ringed seals (Pusa hispida) are semi-aquatic marine mammals with a circumpolar Arctic distribution. In this study, we investigate the amphibious hearing capabilities of ringed seals to provide auditory profiles for this species across the full range of hearing. Using psychophysical methods with two trained ringed seals, detection thresholds for narrowband signals were measured under quiet, carefully controlled environmental conditions to generate aerial and underwater audiograms. Masked underwater thresholds were measured in the presence of octave-band noise to determine critical ratios. Results indicate that ringed seals possess hearing abilities comparable to those of spotted seals (Phoca largha) and harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), and considerably better than previously reported for ringed and harp seals. Best sensitivity was 49 dB re. 1 µPa (12.8 kHz) in water, and -12 dB re. 20 µPa (4.5 kHz) in air, rivaling the acute hearing abilities of some fully aquatic and terrestrial species in their respective media. Critical ratio measurements ranged from 14 dB at 0.1 kHz to 31 dB at 25.6 kHz, suggesting that ringed seals--like other true seals--can efficiently extract signals from background noise across a broad range of frequencies. The work described herein extends similar research on amphibious hearing in spotted seals recently published by the authors. These parallel studies enhance our knowledge of the auditory capabilities of ice-living seals, and inform effective management strategies for these and related species in a rapidly changing Arctic environment.

  3. 76 FR 77466 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Proposed Threatened Status for Subspecies of the Ringed Seal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... Species; Proposed Threatened Status for Subspecies of the Ringed Seal AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... expertise in seal biology and/or Arctic sea ice and climate change regarding the pertinent scientific data.... Rauch III, Deputy Assistant Administrator for Regulatory Programs, National Marine Fisheries...

  4. Split ring floating air riding seal for a turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Jacob A

    2015-11-03

    A floating air riding seal for a gas turbine engine with a rotor and a stator, an annular piston chamber with an axial moveable annular piston assembly within the annular piston chamber, an annular cavity formed on the annular piston assembly that faces a seal surface on the rotor, and a central passage connecting the annular cavity to the annular piston chamber to supply compressed air to the seal face, where the annular piston assembly is a split piston assembly to maintain a tight seal as coning of the rotor disk occurs.

  5. Cadmium toxicity to ringed seals (Phoca hispida): an epidemiological study of possible cadmium-induced nephropathy and osteodystrophy in ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from Qaanaaq in Northwest Greenland.

    PubMed

    Sonne-Hansen, C; Dietz, R; Leifsson, P S; Hyldstrup, L; Riget, F F

    2002-08-05

    The Greenland marine food chains contain high levels of cadmium, mercury and selenium. Concentrations of cadmium in the kidney of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from the municipalities of Qaanaaq and Upernavik (Northwest Greenland) are among the highest recorded in the Arctic. The purpose of the study was to determine whether cadmium-induced damage in the kidneys and the skeletal system could be detected among 100 ringed seals from Northwest Greenland. The cadmium concentrations in the kidney cortex ranged from 0 to 248 microg/g wet weight (mean=44.5, N=100) in the 99 kidneys examined. Experience from cadmium-poisoned humans and laboratory mammals indicates that concentrations above 50-200 microg/g wet wt. may induce histopathological changes. Overall, 31 of the ringed seals had cadmium concentrations in the kidney cortex above 50 microg/g wet wt., 11 had concentrations above 100 and one had a concentration above 200 microg/g wet wt. Obvious histopathological changes (categorised mainly as glomerulonephritis) were found in 10 of the seals; however, none of these changes could be attributed to cadmium-induced renal damage (mainly tubulopathy) as described for other species. Damage to the proximal kidney tubules is known to induce demineralisation of the skeletal system (Fanconi's syndrome). Therefore, the three lowest lumbar vertebrae were scanned in 91 seals to measure the content of calcium. The 10 cases of nephropathy could neither be linked to the degree of mineralisation of the skeleton nor to the cadmium concentrations. Furthermore, the degree of mineralisation of the skeleton was not correlated with the cadmium concentration, age or sex. It can therefore be concluded that despite high levels of cadmium, none of the ringed seals showed any signs of cadmium-induced nephropathy or osteodystrophy. This might be explained by the composition of the ringed seals diet, which contains high levels of vitamin D, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, selenium and protein. These

  6. Antioxidative defense and oxidative stress in ringed seals (Pusa hispida) from differently polluted areas.

    PubMed

    Kanerva, Mirella; Routti, Heli; Tamuz, Yael; Nyman, Madeleine; Nikinmaa, Mikko

    2012-06-15

    High contaminant levels detected in Baltic seals have been associated with various health effects. In this study several parameters related to antioxidative defense and oxidative stress (concentrations of reduced and oxidised glutathione, lipid hydroperoxide and vitamin E, activities of glutathione reductase, peroxidase and S-transferase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, catalase, and superoxidedismutase) were measured in the livers of ringed seals from the Baltic Sea and from a less contaminated reference area, Svalbard, Norway. Seals were caught during two different time periods 1996-1997 and 2002-2007, which represent different levels of contamination. No signs of oxidative damage were found in the Baltic seals. However, glutathione metabolism was enhanced in the ringed seals from the Baltic Sea compared to the seals from Svalbard. The adaptation to dive where repetitive ischemia/reperfusion occurs naturally may contribute to the resistance of oxidative stress and to the capacity to increase enzymatic antioxidant defense in phocid seals. This could explain the similarities in oxidative stress levels despite the differences in antioxidant responses between the ringed seals from the Baltic Sea and Svalbard.

  7. Small footprint wafer-level vacuum packaging using compressible gold sealing rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antelius, Mikael; Stemme, Göran; Niklaus, Frank

    2011-08-01

    A novel low-temperature wafer-level vacuum packaging process is presented. The process uses plastically deformed gold rings as sealing structures in combination with flux-free soldering to provide the bond force for a sealing wafer. This process enables the separation of the sealing and the bonding functions both spatially on the wafer and temporally in different process steps, which results in reduced areas for the sealing rings and prevents outgassing from the solder process in the cavity. This enables space savings and yields improvements. We show the experimental result of the hermetic sealing. The leak rate into the packages is determined, by measuring the package lid deformation over 10 months, to be lower than 3.5 × 10-13 mbar l s-1, which is suitable for most MEMS packages. The pressure inside the produced packages is measured to be lower than 10 mbar.

  8. Mercury and cadmium in ringed seals in the Canadian Arctic: Influence of location and diet.

    PubMed

    Brown, Tanya M; Fisk, Aaron T; Wang, Xiaowa; Ferguson, Steven H; Young, Brent G; Reimer, Ken J; Muir, Derek C G

    2016-03-01

    Concentrations of total mercury (THg) and total cadmium (TCd) were determined in muscle and liver of ringed seals (Pusa hispida) from up to 14 locations across the Canadian Arctic. Location, trophic position (TP) and relative carbon source best predicted the THg and TCd concentrations in ringed seals. THg concentrations in ringed seals were highest in the western Canadian Arctic (Beaufort Sea), whereas TCd was highest in the eastern Canadian Arctic (Hudson Bay and Labrador). A positive relationship between THg and TP and a negative relationship between THg and relative carbon source contributed to the geographical patterns observed and elevated THg levels at certain sites. In contrast, a negative relationship between TCd and TP was found, indicating that high TCd concentrations are related to seals feeding more on invertebrates than fish. Feeding ecology appears to play an important role in THg and TCd levels in ringed seals, with biomagnification driving elevated THg levels and a dependence on low-trophic position prey resulting in high TCd concentrations. The present study shows that both natural geological differences and diet variability among regions explain the spatial patterns for THg and TCd concentrations in ringed seals.

  9. Trends of perfluorochemicals in Greenland ringed seals and polar bears: indications of shifts to decreasing trends.

    PubMed

    Rigét, Frank; Bossi, Rossana; Sonne, Christian; Vorkamp, Katrin; Dietz, Rune

    2013-11-01

    Time-series of perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFASs) in East Greenland polar bears and East and West Greenland ringed seals were updated in order to deduce whether a response to the major reduction in perfluoroalkyl production in the early 2000s had occurred. Previous studies had documented an exponential increase of perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS) in liver tissue from both species. In the present study, PFOS was still the far most dominant compound constituting 92% (West Greenland ringed seals), 88% (East Greenland ringed seals) and 85% (East Greenland polar bears). The PFOS concentrations increased up to 2006 with doubling times of approximately 6 years for the ringed seal populations and 14 years in case of polar bears. Since then a rapid decrease has occurred with clearing half-lives of approximately 1, 2 and 4 years, respectively. In polar bears perfluorohexane sulphonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctane sulphonamide (PFOSA) also showed decreasing trends in recent years as do perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnA). For the West Greenland ringed seal population perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), PFDA and PFUnA peaked in the mid 2000s, whereas PFNA, PFDA and PFUnA in the East Greenland population have been stable or increasing in recent years. The peak of PFASs in Greenland ringed seals and polar bears occurred at a later time than in Canadian seals and polar bears and considerably later than observed in seal species from more southern latitudes. We suggest that this could be explained by the distance to emission hot-spots and differences in long-range transport to the Arctic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Automated Inspection of the RSRM Case O-Ring Seal Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ODell, Keith P.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    An automated inspection system has been developed to inspect the o-ring sealing surfaces on the Space Shuttle reusable solid rocket motor (RSRM) case segment joints. A laser digitizing system is used to create a three dimensional map of the o-ring sealing surfaces. This data is analyzed for any irregularities, which are noted for further inspection and disposition. This paper describes both the hardware and the software used to gather data as well as the methods developed to analyze the data. The RSRM is assembled from four casting segments. Each of the field joints between these segments is sealed with three o-rings. These o-rings are critical for the proper operation of the motor. After launch the booster segments are recovered and reused. As part of the refurbishment process the o-ring sealing surfaces are inspected for any irregularities. The system developed uses a combination of commercial and customized hardware and software. The system uses two computer systems in a real time environment to control a laser, an XYZ precision table, and case rotation and position information. The system is capable of inspecting both the tang end and the clevis end of the RSRM field joint. The o-ring grooves and flat sealing surfaces are inspected.

  11. Macroscopic Anatomy of the Saimaa Ringed Seal (Phoca hispida saimensis) Lower Respiratory Tract.

    PubMed

    Laakkonen, Juha; Jernvall, Jukka

    2016-04-01

    We studied the macroscopic anatomy of the lower respiratory tract of the endangered Saimaa ringed seal (Phoca hispida saimensis). Examination of one adult and one young individual found dead showed that trachea had 85 and 86 complete cartilage rings. The adjacent cartilages exhibited very few random anastomoses. There was variation in the confirmation of the trachea between the cranial and caudal part of the trachea. The right lung was divided by partly incomplete inter-lobar fissures into cranial, middle, caudal, and accessory lobes. The left lung consisted of cranial, middle, and caudal lobes. The lungs were characterized by a high amount of interlobular connective tissue. Silicone casts were prepared of the two specimens to visualize the tracheobronchial branching which was similar to that of marine ringed seals but in the Saimaa ringed seal the right middle lobar bronchus originated at the same level as the accessory lobar bronchus.

  12. Use of tear ring permits repair of sealed module circuitry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Improved packaging technique for modular electronic circuitry utilizes a tear ring which may be removed for repair and resealed. The tear ring is put over the container and header to which the electronic circuit assembly has been attached.

  13. Long term sealing ability of butyl o-rings

    SciTech Connect

    Ytterboe, S.N.; Catsiff, E.H.; Kelchner, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    This article reports on accelerated aging tests carried out to anticipate the long term performance of o-rings in the Galileo spacecraft during its mission to Jupiter. This topics discussed include the impetus for the investigation, the operating conditions for the o-rings, the conditions leading to degradation of performance of the o-rings, and a prediction of the ability of the o-rings to complete their intended mission.

  14. Structure reliability design and analysis of support ring for cylinder seal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minmin, Zhao

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, the general reliability design process of the cross-sectional dimension of the support ring is introduced, which is used for the cylinder sealing. Then, taking a certain section shape support ring as an example, the every size parameters of section are determined from the view point of reliability design. Last, the static strength and reliability of the support ring are analyzed to verify the correctness of the reliability design result.

  15. Antioxidant enzymes in ringed seal tissues: potential protection against dive-associated ischemia/reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Medina, José Pablo; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Elsner, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Diving seals experience heart rate reduction and preferential distribution of the oxygenated blood flow to the heart and brain, widespread peripheral vasoconstriction, and selective ischemia in the most hypoxia-tolerant tissues. The first breath after the dive restores the oxygenated blood flow to all tissues and raises the potential for the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We hypothesized that in order to counteract the damaging effects of ROS and to tolerate repetitive cycles of ischemia/reperfusion associated with diving, ringed seal (Phoca hispida) tissues have elevated activities of antioxidant enzymes. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were measured by spectrophotometric techniques in heart, kidney, liver, lung, and muscle extracts of ringed seals and domestic pigs (Sus scrofa). The results suggest that in ringed seal heart SOD, GPx and GST activities are an efficient protective mechanism for counteracting ROS production and its deleterious effects. Apparently CAT activity in seal liver and GPx activity in seal muscle participate in the removal of hydroperoxides, while seal lung appears to be protected from oxidative damage by SOD and GPx activities.

  16. 40 CFR Table 26 to Subpart G of... - Seal Related Factors for Internal Floating Roof Vessels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Seal Related Factors for Internal..., and Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 26 Table 26 to Subpart G of Part 63—Seal Related Factors for Internal Floating Roof Vessels Seal type KS n Liquid mounted resilient seal: Primary seal only 3.0 0...

  17. 40 CFR Table 26 to Subpart G of... - Seal Related Factors for Internal Floating Roof Vessels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Seal Related Factors for Internal..., and Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 26 Table 26 to Subpart G of Part 63—Seal Related Factors for Internal Floating Roof Vessels Seal type KS n Liquid mounted resilient seal: Primary seal only 3.0 0...

  18. 40 CFR Table 26 to Subpart G of... - Seal Related Factors for Internal Floating Roof Vessels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Seal Related Factors for Internal..., and Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 26 Table 26 to Subpart G of Part 63—Seal Related Factors for Internal Floating Roof Vessels Seal type KS n Liquid mounted resilient seal: Primary seal only 3.0 0...

  19. Persistent organic pollutants in Alaskan ringed seal (Phoca hispida) and walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) blubber

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kucklick, John R.; Krahn, Margaret M.; Becker, Paul R.; Porter, Barbara J.; Schantz, Michele M.; York, Geoffrey S.; O'Hara, Todd M.; Wise, Stephen A.

    2006-01-01

    Since 1987, the Alaska Marine Mammal Tissue Archival Project (AMMTAP) has collected tissues from 18 marine mammal species. Specimens are archived in the National Institute of Standards and Technology's National Biomonitoring Specimen Bank (NIST-NBSB). AMMTAP has collected blubber, liver and/or kidney specimens from a number of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from the areas near Nome and Barrow, Alaska and walruses (Odobenus rosmarus) from several locations in the Bering Sea. Thirty-three ringed seal and 15 walrus blubber samples from the NIST-NBSB were analyzed for persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The compounds determined included PCBs (28 congeners or congener groups), DDT and related compounds, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordanes, dieldrin, and mirex. POP concentrations in ringed seal blubber were significantly higher in Barrow than in Nome when statistically accounting for the interaction of age and gender; HCB, however, was not statistically different between the two locations. Unlike males, POP concentrations and age were not significantly correlated in females probably as a result of lactational loss. POP concentrations in walrus blubber were lower than in ringed seal blubber for ΣPCBs, chlordanes, and HCHs, but higher for dieldrin and mirex. POP concentrations in ringed seals and walrus from Alaska provide further evidence that the western Arctic tends to have lower or similar POP concentrations compared to the eastern Canadian Arctic.

  20. Persistent organic pollutants in Alaskan ringed seal (Phoca hispida) and walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) blubber.

    PubMed

    Kucklick, John R; Krahn, Margaret M; Becker, Paul R; Porter, Barbara J; Schantz, Michele M; York, Geoffrey S; O'Hara, Todd M; Wise, Stephen A

    2006-08-01

    Since 1987, the Alaska Marine Mammal Tissue Archival Project (AMMTAP) has collected tissues from 18 marine mammal species. Specimens are archived in the National Institute of Standards and Technology's National Biomonitoring Specimen Bank (NIST-NBSB). AMMTAP has collected blubber, liver and/or kidney specimens from a number of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from the areas near Nome and Barrow, Alaska and walruses (Odobenus rosmarus) from several locations in the Bering Sea. Thirty-three ringed seal and 15 walrus blubber samples from the NIST-NBSB were analyzed for persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The compounds determined included PCBs (28 congeners or congener groups), DDT and related compounds, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordanes, dieldrin, and mirex. POP concentrations in ringed seal blubber were significantly higher in Barrow than in Nome when statistically accounting for the interaction of age and gender; HCB, however, was not statistically different between the two locations. Unlike males, POP concentrations and age were not significantly correlated in females probably as a result of lactational loss. POP concentrations in walrus blubber were lower than in ringed seal blubber for SigmaPCBs, chlordanes, and HCHs, but higher for dieldrin and mirex. POP concentrations in ringed seals and walrus from Alaska provide further evidence that the western Arctic tends to have lower or similar POP concentrations compared to the eastern Canadian Arctic.

  1. Persistent organic pollutants in Alaskan ringed seal (Phoca hispida) and walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) blubber

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kucklick, J.R.; Krahn, M.M.; Becker, P.R.; Porter, B.J.; Schantz, M.M.; York, G.S.; O'Hara, T. M.; Wise, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    Since 1987, the Alaska Marine Mammal Tissue Archival Project (AMMTAP) has collected tissues from 18 marine mammal species. Specimens are archived in the National Institute of Standards and Technology's National Biomonitoring Specimen Bank (NIST-NBSB). AMMTAP has collected blubber, liver and/or kidney specimens from a number of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from the areas near Nome and Barrow, Alaska and walruses (Odobenus rosmarus) from several locations in the Bering Sea. Thirty-three ringed seal and 15 walrus blubber samples from the NIST-NBSB were analyzed for persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The compounds determined included PCBs (28 congeners or congener groups), DDT and related compounds, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordanes, dieldrin, and mirex. POP concentrations in ringed seal blubber were significantly higher in Barrow than in Nome when statistically accounting for the interaction of age and gender; HCB, however, was not statistically different between the two locations. Unlike males, POP concentrations and age were not significantly correlated in females probably as a result of lactational loss. POP concentrations in walrus blubber were lower than in ringed seal blubber for ??PCBs, chlordanes, and HCHs, but higher for dieldrin and mirex. POP concentrations in ringed seals and walrus from Alaska provide further evidence that the western Arctic tends to have lower or similar POP concentrations compared to the eastern Canadian Arctic. ?? The Royal Society of Chemistry 2006.

  2. Storage rings, internal targets and PEP

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, J.E.

    1986-11-01

    Storage rings with internal targets are described, using PEP as an example. The difference between electrons and heavier particles such as protons, antiprotons, and heavy ions is also discussed because it raises possibilities of bypass insertions for more exotic experiments. PEP is compared to other rings in various contexts to verify the assertion that it is an ideal ring for many fundamental and practical applications that can be carried on simultaneously. (LEW)

  3. Contaminant exposure and effects in Baltic ringed and grey seals as assessed by biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Nyman, Madeleine; Bergknut, Magnus; Fant, Marie Louise; Raunio, Hannu; Jestoi, Marika; Bengs, Charlotta; Murk, Albertinka; Koistinen, Jaana; Bäckman, Christina; Pelkonen, Olavi; Tysklind, Mats; Hirvi, Timo; Helle, Eero

    2003-02-01

    The Baltic Sea ecosystem has suffered from a heavy pollutant load for more than three decades. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and heavy metals have been of most concern due to their persistence and toxic properties. Ringed seals (Phoca hispida baltica) and grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) living in the Baltic Sea have been suffering from pathological impairments, including reproductive disturbances, which have resulted in a depressed reproductive capacity. We investigated several biochemical parameters as potential biomarkers for exposure to and effects of the contaminant load in the Baltic seals. Seals from less polluted areas were used as reference material in terms of the pollution load. In both Baltic seal populations, the levels of some biochemical parameters diverged from those in the reference seals, and some of these showed a clear correlation with the individual contaminant load. Of the potential bioindicators, we propose cytochrome P4501A activity and vitamin E levels, in blubber or plasma, as exposure biomarkers for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in both species. The arylhydrocarbon receptor-mediated chemical-activated luciferase gene expression (CALUX) response reflects the whole PCB and DDT burden in ringed seals. Retinyl palmitate (vitamin A) levels showed a negative correlation with the individual POP load, and is proposed as potential effect biomarkers for the depletion of the vitamin A stores. As the nutritional levels of both vitamin A and E have an impact on the vitamin levels in the seals, more information on the dietary vitamin levels is needed before any conclusions can be drawn. As the relationship between biochemical parameters and contaminants varied between the two species, species-specific characteristics has to be considered when monitoring the health status and possible toxic effects of the contaminant load in ringed and grey seals.

  4. Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Package O-Ring Seal Material Validation Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Adkins, H.E.; Ferrell, P.C.; Knight, R.C.

    1994-09-30

    The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Package O-Ring Seal Material Validation Test was conducted to validate the use of the Butyl material as a primary seal throughout the required temperature range. Three tests were performed at (1) 233 K ({minus}40 {degrees}F), (2) a specified operating temperature, and (3) 244 K ({minus}20 {degrees}F) before returning to room temperature. Helium leak tests were performed at each test point to determine seal performance. The two major test objectives were to establish that butyl rubber material would maintain its integrity under various conditions and within specified parameters and to evaluate changes in material properties.

  5. Vibration and destabilizing effects of floating ring seals in compressors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emerick, M. F.

    1982-01-01

    Operating experience on a compressor commissioned 12 years ago has presented an interesting history of sporadic increases in shaft vibration. Initial operation was satisfactory with low levels of vibration. However, after some time the shaft vibration level increased to several mils. Initially this was believed to be due to rotor unbalance from deposits formed in the passages due to process upsets. After cleaning up the rotor, operation was again increased. It was then found that the rotor vibration was primarily subsynchronous. Further investigation revealed that the original seal design was subject to wear and was no longer properly pressure balanced. A modified seal design was installed and it has operated successfully for the past six years.

  6. Aging of Weapon Seals – An Update on Butyl O-ring Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Mark H.

    2011-07-13

    During testing under the Enhanced Surveillance Campaign in 2001, preliminary data detected a previously unknown and potentially serious concern with recently procured butyl o-rings on several programs. All butyl o-rings molded from a proprietary formulation throughout the period circa 1999 through 2001 had less than a full cure. Engineering judgment was that under curing is detrimental and could possibly lead to sub-optimum performance or, in the worst case, premature seal failure. An aging study was undertaken to ensure that suspect o-rings installed in the stockpile will retain sufficient sealing force for a minimum ten-year service life. A new prediction model developed for this study indicates suspect o-rings do not need to be replaced before the ten-year service life. Long-term testing results are reported on a yearly basis to validate the prediction model. This report documents the aging results for the period September 2002 to January 2011.

  7. Performance Evaluation of O-Ring Seals in Model 9975 Packaging Assemblies (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Skidmore, Eric

    1998-12-28

    The Materials Consultation Group of SRTC has completed a review of existing literature and data regarding the useable service life of Viton{reg_sign} GLT fluoroelastomer O-rings currently used in the Model 9975 packaging assemblies. Although the shipping and transportation period is normally limited to 2 years, it is anticipated that these packages will be used for longer-term storage of Pu-bearing materials in KAMS (K-Area Materials Storage) prior to processing or disposition in the APSF (Actinide Packaging and Storage Facility). Based on the service conditions and review of available literature, Materials Consultation concludes that there is sufficient existing data to establish the technical basis for storage of Pu-bearing materials using Parker Seals O-ring compound V835-75 (or equivalent) for up to 10 years following the 2-year shipping period. Although significant physical deterioration of the O-rings and release of product is not expected, definite changes in physical properties will occur. However, due to the complex relationship between elastomer formulation, seal properties, and competing degradation mechanisms, the actual degree of property variation and impact upon seal performance is difficult to predict. Therefore, accelerated aging and/or surveillance programs are recommended to validate the assumptions outlined in this report and to assess the long-term performance of O-ring seals under actual service conditions. Such programs could provide a unique opportunity to develop nonexistent long-term performance data, as well as address storage extension issues if necessary.

  8. Local contamination, and not feeding preferences, explains elevated PCB concentrations in Labrador ringed seals (Pusa hispida).

    PubMed

    Brown, Tanya M; Iverson, Sara J; Fisk, Aaron T; Macdonald, Robie W; Helbing, Caren C; Reimer, Ken J

    2015-05-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in high trophic level species typically reflect the contributions of myriad sources, such that source apportionment is rarely possible. The release of PCBs by a military radar station into Saglek Bay, Labrador contaminated the local marine food web. For instance, while heavier (higher chlorinated) PCB profiles in some ringed seals (Pusa hispida) were previously attributed to this local source, differences in feeding preferences among seals could not be ruled out as a contributing factor. Herein, similar fatty acid profiles between those seals with 'local' PCB profiles and those with 'long-range' or background profiles indicate little support for the possibility that differential feeding ecologies underlay the divergent PCB profiles. Ringed seals appeared to feed predominantly on zooplankton (Mysis oculata and Themisto libellula), followed by the dusky snailfish (Liparis gibbus), arctic cod (Boreogadus saida), and shorthorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius). Principal components analysis (PCA) and PCB homolog profiles illustrated the extent of contamination of the Saglek food web, which had very different (and much heavier) PCB profiles than those food web members contaminated by 'long-range' sources. Locally contaminated prey had PCB levels that were higher (2- to 544-fold) than prey contaminated by 'long-range' sources and exceeded wildlife consumption guidelines for PCBs. The application of multivariate analyses to two distinct datasets, including PCB congeners (n=50) and fatty acids (n=65), afforded the opportunity to clearly distinguish the contribution of locally-released PCBs to a ringed seal food web from those delivered via long-ranged transport. Results from the present study strongly suggest that habitat use rather than differences in prey selection is the primary mechanism explaining the divergent PCB patterns in Labrador ringed seals.

  9. Ringed-seal monitoring: Relationships of distribution and abundance to habitat attributes and industrial activities. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, K.J.; Lowry, L.F.; Gilbert, J.R.; Burns, J.J.

    1988-09-01

    The 3-year study intended to develop a program for monitoring the abundance of ringed seals in Alaska through aerial surveys. The report presents the results of aerial surveys of ringed seals on the shorefast ice of the eastern Chukchi Sea and Beaufort Sea in May-June 1987 and compares them with the results of similar surveys conducted in 1985 and 1986. Ringed seals (Phoca hispida) are a major ecological component of the arctic and subarctic marine fauna. In recognition of the ecological importance of ringed seals and the possibility that they may be impacted by human activites, the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program sponsored studies of the biology and ecology of ringed seals in Alaska. Ringed-seal aerial surveys based upon the 1985 research protocol were flown during May and June of 1985, 1986, and 1987. The surveys were satisfactorily completed and the data was analyzed to determine: factors affecting survey counts; regional and temporal trends in ringed-seal abundance; habitat factors affecting distribution and abundance; and the effects of industrial activities on seal density.

  10. Nozzle seal

    DOEpatents

    Groff, Russell Dennis; Vatovec, Richard John

    1978-06-11

    In an illustrative embodiment of the invention, a nuclear reactor pressure vessel, having an internal hoop from which the heated coolant emerges from the reactor core and passes through to the reactor outlet nozzles, is provided with annular sealing members operatively disposed between the outlet nozzle and the hoop and partly within a retaining annulus formed in the hoop. The sealing members are biased against the pressure vessel and the hoop and one of the sealing members is provided with a piston type pressure ring sealing member which effectively closes the path between the inlet and outlet coolants in the region about the outlet nozzle establishing a leak-proof condition. Furthermore, the flexible responsiveness of the seal assures that the seal will not structurally couple the hoop to the pressure vessel.

  11. 40 CFR Table 26 to Subpart G of... - Seal Related Factors for Internal Floating Roof Vessels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Seal Related Factors for Internal Floating Roof Vessels 26 Table 26 to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Internal Floating Roof Vessels Seal type KS n Liquid mounted resilient seal: Primary seal only 3.0 0...

  12. Biomarker responses and decreasing contaminant levels in ringed seals (Pusa hispida) from Svalbard, Norway.

    PubMed

    Wolkers, Hans; Krafft, Bjørn A; van Bavel, Bert; Helgason, Lisa B; Lydersen, Christian; Kovacs, Kit M

    2008-01-01

    Blubber was analyzed for a wide range of contaminants from five sub-adult and eight adult male ringed seals sampled in 2004, namely, for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), toxaphenes, chlordanes, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs). Contaminant levels were compared to previously sampled animals from the same area, as well as data from literature for other arctic wildlife species from a wide variety of locations. Ringed seals sampled in 2004 showed 50-90% lower levels of legacy contaminants such as PCBs and chlorinated pesticides compared to animals sampled in 1996 of similar age (14 sub-adults and 7 adult males), indicating that the decline of chlorinated contaminants observed during the 1990s in a variety of arctic wildlife species is continuing into the 21st century. The results also indicated that PBDE declined in ringed seals; levels in 2004 were about 70-80% lower than in animals sampled in 1998. This is one of the first observations of reduced exposure to these compounds and might be a first indication that restrictions of production and use of these contaminants have resulted in lower exposures in the Arctic. The PCB pattern shifted toward the less chlorinated (i.e., less persistent) PCBs, especially in adult ringed seals, possibly as a result of reduced overall contaminant exposures and a consequently lower cytochrome P-450 (CYP) induction, which results in a slower metabolism of less persistent PCBs. The overall effect would be relative increases in the lower chlorinated PCBs and a relative decreases in the higher chlorinated PCB. Possibly due to low exposure and consequent low induction levels, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation (EROD) activity proved to be a poor biomarker for contaminant exposure in ringed seals in the present study. The close negative correlation (r(2) = 70.9%)between EROD activity and percent blubber indicates that CYP might respond to increased bioavailability of the

  13. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and their hydroxylated analogues in ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from Svalbard and the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Routti, Heli; Letcher, Robert J; Chu, Shaogang; Van Bavel, Bert; Gabrielsen, Geir W

    2009-05-15

    The present study investigated the concentrations and patterns of PBDEs and hydroxylated (OH) PBDE analogues in two ringed seal populations: less contaminated Svalbard and more contaminated Baltic Sea. Mean concentration of hepatic sigma-PBDE, which was dominated by BDE47, was six times higher in the ringed seals from the Baltic Sea compared to the seals from Svalbard. BDE47/sigma-PBDE was higher in the seals from Svalbard compared to that for Baltic seals, while the trend was opposite for BDE153 and 154. The geographical difference in contaminant pattern of PBDEs in ringed seals could be explained by biotransformation via oxidative metabolism and/or by dietary differences. OH-PBDEs were detectable in the majority of plasma samples from both locations, and dominated by bioaccumulation of naturally occurring congeners. Low levels of 3-OH-BDE47 and 4'-OH-BDE49 in the Baltic ringed seals suggested minor oxidative biotransformation of BDE47. In the Baltic seals, BDE153/sigma-PBDEs and BDE154/sigma-PBDEs increased and BDE28/sigma-PBDE decreased with increasing sigma-POP concentration, which suggests BDE153 and 154 are more persistent than BDE28. Contrasting diets of the ringed seals in these two locations may influence the PBDE congener pattern due to selective long-range transport and direct effluent emissions to Svalbard and the Baltic, respectively.

  14. Temporal trends of mercury in Greenland ringed seal populations in a warming climate.

    PubMed

    Rigét, Frank; Dietz, Rune; Hobson, Keith A

    2012-12-01

    Temporal trends of mercury in livers of ringed seals collected from the early 1980s to 2010 from central West, Northwest and central East Greenland were studied. In this period the climate of Greenland warmed and the influences of climate indices such as ice coverage, water temperature and the Atlantic Oscillation Index on mercury concentration were evaluated using multiple regressions and Akaike's Information Criteria (AIC) to determine the most parsimonious models. Biological co-variables such as age, sex and trophic position (as determined by stable isotope analysis) of seals were also evaluated. Increasing levels of mercury in seals were found in Ittoqqortoormiit, central East Greenland, and Avanersuaq, Northwest Greenland, with an annual increase of +10.3 and +2%, respectively. Age was an important co-variable for all three regions and trophic position for two regions. The Atlantic Oscillation Index was also an important explanatory variable for all three regions and was positively associated with mercury concentrations in seals indicating the importance of global climatic processes on ringed seal populations in Greenland.

  15. SEALING MEANS FOR RELATIVELY ROTATABLE MEMBERS

    DOEpatents

    Skarstrom, C.S.

    1960-10-25

    A sealing means is offered for maintaining a seal between a pair of relatively rotatable members, panticularly between a rotating shaft and a stationary member surrounding the shaft. The sealing is accomplished by means of a flange extending outward radially on each of a plurality of sealing rings mounted on the rotating member which fit into annular grooves in the stationary member and are held in sealing relation therewith by means of spring rings. In addition, means are provided for passing a sealing gas through the seal sunfaces to prevent accumulation of lubricant and for scavenging any gas which may have leaked from the internal member into the seal area.

  16. Persistent organochlorine pollutants in ringed seals and polar bears collected from northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kucklick, J.R.; Struntz, W.D.J.; Becker, P.R.; York, G.W.; O'Hara, T. M.; Bohonowych, J.E.

    2002-01-01

    Blubber samples from ringed seal (Phoca hispida; n=8) and polar bear subcutaneous fat (Ursus maritimus; n=5) were collected near Barrow, Alaska in 1996 as part of the Alaska Marine Mammal Tissue Archival Project (AMMTAP) and retained in the National Biomonitoring Specimen Bank at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Gaithersburg, Maryland (USA). The samples were analyzed for a variety of persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), chlordane and metabolites, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and DDTs and metabolites. The geometric mean, on a wet mass basis, of ??PCBs (sum of 29 congeners and congener groups) were 732??282 ng/g (1 S.D.) in seals and 3395??1442 ng/g in polar bears. The geometric mean of ??DDTs, ??HCHs (??-, ??- and ??- HCH) and HCB concentrations (wet mass basis) in seals and bears were 562??261 ng/g vs. 74.8??39 ng/g, 380??213 ng/g vs. 515 ng/g, and 17.4??10.1 ng/g vs. 183??153 ng/g, respectively. The geometric mean sum of chlordane (??chlordane, sum of cis- and trans-chlordane, cis- and trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane and heptachlor epoxide) and dieldrin concentrations in ringed seals and polar bears were 753??617 ng/g vs. 720??315 ng/g and 38.6??22.8 ng/g vs. 130??65 ng/g, respectively. Apparent bioaccumulation factors (polar bear/ringed seal POP concentrations) were lower in the animals sampled near Barrow, Alaska than in those from locations in the Canadian Arctic. This suggests that polar bears are also preying on marine mammals from lower trophic levels than the ringed seals with correspondingly lower organochlorine levels, such as bowhead whale carcasses. PCB congener patterns in the samples demonstrated the metabolism of certain PCB congeners in the polar bear relative to the ringed seal in agreement with previous studies. Regional comparisons of animals collected in Alaska and Arctic Canada are presented. Copyright ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  17. The ringed seal's last refuge and the importance of snow cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, B. P.; Bitz, C. M.

    2010-12-01

    Ringed seals are strongly adapted to inhabiting seasonal ice cover throughout the Arctic Ocean, marginal seas, and some freshwater lakes. Their distribution has expanded and contracted with northern hemisphere ice cover and is expected to mirror declining ice cover in coming decades. Ringed seals require snow cover to provide shelter from extreme cold and from predators, and the southern extent of their range corresponds to the latitudes to which snow cover—sufficient to form and maintain subnivean lairs—extends. The lairs are especially critical to the survival of pups born and nursed under the snow in late March through May. Snow drifts 50 cm or deeper are necessary for lair occupation, and field measurements indicate that such drifting occurs only where average snow depths (on flat ice) exceed 20 cm. When snow depths are less, ringed seal pups freeze in their lairs and are vulnerable to predation by carnivores and birds. As the climate warms, winter precipitation is expected to increase in the Arctic Ocean, potentially favoring formation and occupation of lairs. At the same time, increasingly late ice formation is expected to decrease the overall accumulation of snow, an effect exacerbated by the high fraction of annual snow fall that occurs in autumn. Early snow melts also contribute to pup mortality and are likely to increase as the climate warms. We forecast April snow depths on Arctic sea ice through the year 2100 in seven runs of CCSM3. Despite predicted increases in winter precipitation in the Arctic, the model forecasted that the accumulation of snow on sea ice will decrease by almost 50% in this century. The timing of the onset of snow melt changes little in the projections, but the shallower snow pack will melt more quickly in the warmer climate. In almost all portions of the range, average snow depths are expected to be less than 20 cm and inadequate for successful rearing of ringed seal young by the end of the century and—in many locations

  18. Ringed Seal Search for Global Optimization via a Sensitive Search Model

    PubMed Central

    Saadi, Younes; Yanto, Iwan Tri Riyadi; Herawan, Tutut; Balakrishnan, Vimala; Chiroma, Haruna; Risnumawan, Anhar

    2016-01-01

    The efficiency of a metaheuristic algorithm for global optimization is based on its ability to search and find the global optimum. However, a good search often requires to be balanced between exploration and exploitation of the search space. In this paper, a new metaheuristic algorithm called Ringed Seal Search (RSS) is introduced. It is inspired by the natural behavior of the seal pup. This algorithm mimics the seal pup movement behavior and its ability to search and choose the best lair to escape predators. The scenario starts once the seal mother gives birth to a new pup in a birthing lair that is constructed for this purpose. The seal pup strategy consists of searching and selecting the best lair by performing a random walk to find a new lair. Affected by the sensitive nature of seals against external noise emitted by predators, the random walk of the seal pup takes two different search states, normal state and urgent state. In the normal state, the pup performs an intensive search between closely adjacent lairs; this movement is modeled via a Brownian walk. In an urgent state, the pup leaves the proximity area and performs an extensive search to find a new lair from sparse targets; this movement is modeled via a Levy walk. The switch between these two states is realized by the random noise emitted by predators. The algorithm keeps switching between normal and urgent states until the global optimum is reached. Tests and validations were performed using fifteen benchmark test functions to compare the performance of RSS with other baseline algorithms. The results show that RSS is more efficient than Genetic Algorithm, Particles Swarm Optimization and Cuckoo Search in terms of convergence rate to the global optimum. The RSS shows an improvement in terms of balance between exploration (extensive) and exploitation (intensive) of the search space. The RSS can efficiently mimic seal pups behavior to find best lair and provide a new algorithm to be used in global

  19. Ringed Seal Search for Global Optimization via a Sensitive Search Model.

    PubMed

    Saadi, Younes; Yanto, Iwan Tri Riyadi; Herawan, Tutut; Balakrishnan, Vimala; Chiroma, Haruna; Risnumawan, Anhar

    2016-01-01

    The efficiency of a metaheuristic algorithm for global optimization is based on its ability to search and find the global optimum. However, a good search often requires to be balanced between exploration and exploitation of the search space. In this paper, a new metaheuristic algorithm called Ringed Seal Search (RSS) is introduced. It is inspired by the natural behavior of the seal pup. This algorithm mimics the seal pup movement behavior and its ability to search and choose the best lair to escape predators. The scenario starts once the seal mother gives birth to a new pup in a birthing lair that is constructed for this purpose. The seal pup strategy consists of searching and selecting the best lair by performing a random walk to find a new lair. Affected by the sensitive nature of seals against external noise emitted by predators, the random walk of the seal pup takes two different search states, normal state and urgent state. In the normal state, the pup performs an intensive search between closely adjacent lairs; this movement is modeled via a Brownian walk. In an urgent state, the pup leaves the proximity area and performs an extensive search to find a new lair from sparse targets; this movement is modeled via a Levy walk. The switch between these two states is realized by the random noise emitted by predators. The algorithm keeps switching between normal and urgent states until the global optimum is reached. Tests and validations were performed using fifteen benchmark test functions to compare the performance of RSS with other baseline algorithms. The results show that RSS is more efficient than Genetic Algorithm, Particles Swarm Optimization and Cuckoo Search in terms of convergence rate to the global optimum. The RSS shows an improvement in terms of balance between exploration (extensive) and exploitation (intensive) of the search space. The RSS can efficiently mimic seal pups behavior to find best lair and provide a new algorithm to be used in global

  20. UHV seal studies for the advanced photon source storage ring vacuum system

    SciTech Connect

    Gonczy, J.D.; Ferry, R.J.; Niemann, R.C.; Roop, B.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) Storage Ring Vacuum Chambers (SRVC) are constructed of aluminum. The chamber design incorporates aluminum alloy 2219-T87 Conflat flanges welded to an aluminum alloy 6063-T5 extruded chamber body. Vacuum connections to the aluminum Conflat chamber flanges are by means of 304 stainless steel Conflat flanges. To evaluate the Conflat seal assemblies relative to vacuum bake cycles, a Conflat Bake Test Assembly (CBTA) was constructed, and thermal cycling tests were performed between room temperature and 150{degrees}C on both stainless steel to aluminum Conflat assemblies and aluminum to aluminum Conflat assemblies. A Helicoflex Bake Test Assembly (HBTA) was similarly constructed to evaluate Helicoflex seals. Both Conflat and Helicoflex seals were studied in a SRVC Sector String Test arrangement of five SRVC sections. The CBTA, HBTA and SRVC tests and their results are reported. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Abundance of ringed seals (Pusa hispida) in the fjords of Spitsbergen, Svalbard, during the peak molting period

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krafft, B.A.; Kovacs, K.M.; Andersen, M.; Aars, J.; Lydersen, C.; Ergon, T.; Haug, T.

    2006-01-01

    Ringed seal (Pusa hispida) abundance in Spitsbergen, Svalbard, was estimated during the peak molting period via aerial, digital photographic surveys. A total of 9,145 images, covering 41.7%?100% of the total fast-ice cover (1,496 km2) of 18 different fjords and bays, were inspected for the presence of ringed seals. A total of 1,708 seals were counted, and when accounting for ice areas that were not covered by images, a total of 3,254 (95% CI: 3,071?3,449) ringed seals were estimated to be hauled out during the surveys. Extensive behavioral data from radio-tagged ringed seals (collected in a companion study) from one of the highest density fjords during the molting period were used to create a model that predicts the proportion of seals hauled out on any given date, time of day, and under various meteorological conditions. Applying this model to the count data from each fjord, we estimated that a total of 7,585 (95% CI: 6,332-9,085) ringed seals were present in the surveyed area during the peak molting period. Data on interannual variability in ringed seal abundance suggested higher numbers of seals in Van Keulenfjorden in 2002 compared to 2003, while other fjords with very stable ice cover showed no statistical differences. Poor ice conditions in general in 2002 probably resulted in seals from a wide area coming to Van Keulenfjorden (a large fjord with stable ice in 2002). The total estimated number of ringed seals present in the study area at the time of the survey must be regarded as a population index, or at least a minimum estimate for the area, because it does not account for individuals leaving and arriving, which might account for a considerable number of animals. The same situation is likely the case for many other studies reporting aerial census data for ringed seals. To achieve accurate estimates of population sizes from aerial surveys, more extensive knowledge of ringed seal behavior will be required.

  2. Abundance of ringed seals (Pusa hispida) in the fjords of Spitsbergen, Svalbard, during the peak molting period

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krafft, B.A.; Kovacs, K.M.; Andersen, M.; Aars, Jon; Lydersen, C.; Ergon, T.; Haug, T.

    2006-01-01

    Ringed seal (Pusa hispida) abundance in Spitsbergen, Svalbard, was estimated during the peak molting period via aerial, digital photographic surveys. A total of 9,145 images, covering 41.7%–100% of the total fast-ice cover (1,496 km2) of 18 different fjords and bays, were inspected for the presence of ringed seals. A total of 1,708 seals were counted, and when accounting for ice areas that were not covered by images, a total of 3,254 (95% CI: 3,071–3,449) ringed seals were estimated to be hauled out during the surveys. Extensive behavioral data from radio-tagged ringed seals (collected in a companion study) from one of the highest density fjords during the molting period were used to create a model that predicts the proportion of seals hauled out on any given date, time of day, and under various meteorological conditions. Applying this model to the count data from each fjord, we estimated that a total of 7,585 (95% CI: 6,332–9,085) ringed seals were present in the surveyed area during the peak molting period. Data on interannual variability in ringed seal abundance suggested higher numbers of seals in Van Keulenfjorden in 2002 compared to 2003, while other fjords with very stable ice cover showed no statistical differences. Poor ice conditions in general in 2002 probably resulted in seals from a wide area coming to Van Keulenfjorden (a large fjord with stable ice in 2002). The total estimated number of ringed seals present in the study area at the time of the survey must be regarded as a population index, or at least a minimum estimate for the area, because it does not account for individuals leaving and arriving, which might account for a considerable number of animals. The same situation is likely the case for many other studies reporting aerial census data for ringed seals. To achieve accurate estimates of population sizes from aerial surveys, more extensive knowledge of ringed seal behavior will be required.

  3. Macroscopic anatomy of the ringed seal [Pusa (Phoca) hispida] lower respiratory system.

    PubMed

    Smodlaka, H; Henry, R W; Reed, R B

    2009-06-01

    This investigation serves to document the normal anatomical features of the lower respiratory tract of the ringed seal [Pusa (phoca) hispida]. Evaluation of embalmed specimens and tracheobronchial casts showed that the right lung of this seal consists of four lobes while the left has only three lobes. The ventral margins of the lungs do not reach the sternum causing them to form the boundary of the broad recessus costomediastinalis. Lung lobation corresponds with bronchial tree division. Pulmonary venous drainage includes right and left common veins draining ipsilateral cranial and middle lung lobes, and one common caudal vein draining both caudal lobes and the accessory lobe. The right and left pulmonary arteries divide into cranial and caudal branches at the level of the principal bronchus. The ringed seal has three tracheobronchial lymph nodes. The trachea has an average of 87 cartilages that exhibit a pattern of random anastomoses between adjacent rings. The trachea exhibits to a small degree the dorsoventrally flattened pattern that is described in other pinnipeds. The tracheal diameter is smaller than that of the canine.

  4. Temporal trends of hexabromocyclododecane, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls in ringed seals from East greenland.

    PubMed

    Vorkamp, Katrin; Rigét, Frank F; Bossi, Rossana; Dietz, Rune

    2011-02-15

    Concentrations of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) were determined in a combination of archived and fresh blubber samples of juvenile ringed seals from East Greenland collected between 1986 and 2008. α-HBCD was the only diastereoisomer consistently above levels of quantification and showed a significant log-linear (exponential) increase from 2.0 to 8.7 ng/g lipid weight (median concentrations) with an annual rate of +6.1%. The concentrations were up to several orders of magnitude lower than those reported for marine mammals from industrialized areas. Previously presented time trends on polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been extended with new data for 2006 and 2008. ΣPBDE in juvenile seals was the only parameter with a slight upward trend, however, dependent on the low 1986 concentration. Removing this data point resulted in a downward trend, which also was found for adult seals with a time trend starting in 1994. ΣPCB decreased significantly in juvenile seals, again due to the 1986 value, while no trend was found for the adult animals. This indicates stagnating PCB concentrations at a relatively high level, in some cases possibly exceeding tolerable daily intake rates for seal blubber as traditional Arctic food items.

  5. Spatial and temporal trends in perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in ringed seals (Pusa hispida) from Svalbard.

    PubMed

    Routti, Heli; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Herzke, Dorte; Kovacs, Kit M; Lydersen, Christian

    2016-07-01

    This study investigates concentrations of perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs), perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) and perfluoroalkane sulfonamides (FASA) in plasma from ringed seals sampled in the period 1990-2010 (n = 71) in Svalbard, Norway. Perfluorooctane sulfonate was dominant among the perfluoroalkyl substances. PFCAs were dominated by perfluoroundecanoate followed by perfluorononanoate. C4C8 PFCAs and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) were detected in ≤42% of the samples. PFSA and PFCA concentrations were higher in seals sampled from Kongsfjorden, a fjord influenced by strong inflows of Atlantic Water compared to seals from fjords dominated by Arctic Water (e.g. Billefjorden). Sex, age and body condition of the seals did not influence PFAS concentrations. Due to the confounding effect of year and sampling area, temporal trends were assessed only in seals sampled from Kongsfjorden (5 years, n = 51). PFHxS and PFOS concentrations did not show significant linear trends during the whole study period, but a decrease was observed since 2004. Concentrations of all of the detected PFCAs (C9C13 PFCAs) increased until 2004 after which they have declined or stabilized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. MRNA expression of genes regulating lipid metabolism in ringed seals (Pusa hispida) from differently polluted areas.

    PubMed

    Castelli, Martina Galatea; Rusten, Marte; Goksøyr, Anders; Routti, Heli

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing concern about the ability of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to influence lipid metabolism. Although POPs are found at high concentrations in some populations of marine mammals, for example in the ringed seal (Pusa hispida) from the Baltic Sea, little is known about the effects of POPs on their lipid metabolism. An optimal regulation of lipid metabolism is crucial for ringed seals during the fasting/molting season. This is a physiologically stressful period, during which they rely on the energy stored in their fat reserves. The mRNA expression levels for seven genes involved in lipid metabolism were analyzed in liver and/or blubber tissue from molting ringed seals from the polluted Baltic Sea and a less polluted reference location, Svalbard (Norway). mRNA expression of genes encoding peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) α and γ and their target genes acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1 (ACOX1) and cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) were analyzed in liver. mRNA expression level of genes encoding PPARβ, PPARγ and their target genes encoding fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) and adiponectin (ADIPOQ) were measured in inner and middle blubber layers. In addition, we evaluated the influence of molting status on hepatic mRNA expression of genes encoding PPARs and their target genes in ringed seals from Svalbard. Our results show higher mRNA expression of genes encoding hepatic PPARγ and adipose PPARβ, FABP4, and ADIPOQ in the Baltic seals compared to the Svalbard seals. A positive relationship between mRNA expressions of genes encoding hepatic PPARγ, adipose FABP4, adipose ADIPOQ and ΣPOP concentrations was observed. These findings suggest that lipid metabolism may be affected by contaminant exposure in the Baltic population. mRNA expression of genes encoding PPARβ, PPARγ, FABP4 and ADIPOQ were similar between the mid and inner adipose layer. Hepatic mRNA expression of genes encoding PPARα and PPARγ was higher in the pre

  7. Mercury, cadmium, lead and selenium in ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from the Baltic Sea and from Svalbard.

    PubMed

    Fant, M L; Nyman, M; Helle, E; Rudbäck, E

    2001-01-01

    The concentrations of mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and selenium (Se) were determined in liver, kidney and muscle samples from 20 Baltic ringed seals (Phoca hispida botnica) (3-32 years), and from 17 ringed seals (Phoca hispida) (0-20 years) from Svalbard, in the Arctic. The concentrations of Hg and Se were considerably higher in the Baltic ringed seals, but the Cd concentrations lower than in the Svalbard ringed seals. There was no big geographical difference with respect to Pb concentrations. Se and Hg concentrations showed a significant positive correlation in both regions. By comparison with earlier studies on Baltic seals, the metal concentrations have remained at the same level since the 1980s. Of the metals we studied, only the level of Hg in Baltic ringed seals can be considered high (mean 53 mg/kg, range 6.5-124 mg/kg wet wt. for liver), but probably not high enough to cause metal intoxication. No pathological changes associated with metal intoxication were observed in the seals.

  8. Assessment of the state of the geometrical surface texture of seal rings by various measuring methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczak, S.; Kundera, C.; Swiderski, J.

    2017-08-01

    The present paper concerns the metrological measurements of the geometric structure of the faces of seal rings made of silicon carbide and carbon-graphite. Three different instruments, i.e. the stylus profilometer, the optical profilometer, and the atomic force microscope, were used to measure the geometric structure of surfaces. In the comparative analysis, an identical area of the ring surface which was mapped by three measuring instruments with different sampling densities resulting from their metrological characteristics was assumed. The measurements made show that for the silicon carbide ring, the surface texture measurements on an atomic force microscope and optical instruments more accurately represent the actual topography than the measurement determined by the stylus profilometer.

  9. TESTING AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AN INNOVATIVE INTERNAL PIPE SEALING SYSTEM FOR WASTEWATER MAIN REHABILITATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many utilities are seeking emerging and innovative rehabilitation technologies to extend the service life of their infrastructure systems. This report describes the testing and performance evaluation of an internal pipe sealing system, which provides a permanent physical seal fo...

  10. TESTING AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AN INNOVATIVE INTERNAL PIPE SEALING SYSTEM FOR WASTEWATER MAIN REHABILITATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many utilities are seeking emerging and innovative rehabilitation technologies to extend the service life of their infrastructure systems. This report describes the testing and performance evaluation of an internal pipe sealing system, which provides a permanent physical seal fo...

  11. AGING BEHAVIOR OF VITON O-RING SEALS IN THE 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Skidmore, E.; Daugherty, W.; Hoffman, E.; Dunn, K.; Bellamy, S.

    2012-01-13

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is storing plutonium (Pu) materials in the K-Area Materials Storage (KAMS) facility. The Pu materials were packaged according to the DOE-STD-3013 standard and shipped to the SRS in Type B 9975 packages. The robust 9975 shipping package was not designed for long-term product storage, but it is a specified part of the storage configuration and the KAMS facility safety basis credits the 9975 design with containment. Within the 9975 package, nested stainless steel containment vessels are closed with dual O-ring seals based on Viton{reg_sign} GLT or GLT-S fluoroelastomer. The aging behavior of the O-ring compounds is being studied to provide the facility with advanced notice of nonconformance and to develop life prediction models. A combination of field surveillance, leak testing of surrogate fixtures aged at bounding service temperatures, and accelerated-aging methodologies based on compression stress-relaxation and oxygen consumption analysis is being used to evaluate seal performance. A summary of the surveillance program relative to seal aging behavior is presented.

  12. Demographic, ecological, and physiological responses of ringed seals to an abrupt decline in sea ice availability

    PubMed Central

    Young, Brent G.; Yurkowski, David J.; Anderson, Randi; Willing, Cornelia; Nielsen, Ole

    2017-01-01

    To assess whether demographic declines of Arctic species at the southern limit of their range will be gradual or punctuated, we compared large-scale environmental patterns including sea ice dynamics to ringed seal (Pusa hispida) reproduction, body condition, recruitment, and stress in Hudson Bay from 2003 to 2013. Aerial surveys suggested a gradual decline in seal density from 1995 to 2013, with the lowest density occurring in 2013. Body condition decreased and stress (cortisol) increased over time in relation to longer open water periods. The 2010 open water period in Hudson Bay coincided with extremes in large-scale atmospheric patterns (North Atlantic Oscillation, Arctic Oscillation, El Nino-Southern Oscillation) resulting in the earliest spring breakup and the latest ice formation on record. The warming event was coincident with high stress level, low ovulation rate, low pregnancy rate, few pups in the Inuit harvest, and observations of sick seals. Results provide evidence of changes in the condition of Arctic marine mammals in relation to climate mediated sea ice dynamics. We conclude that although negative demographic responses of Hudson Bay seals are occurring gradually with diminishing sea ice, a recent episodic environmental event played a significant role in a punctuated population decline. PMID:28168119

  13. Demographic, ecological, and physiological responses of ringed seals to an abrupt decline in sea ice availability.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Steven H; Young, Brent G; Yurkowski, David J; Anderson, Randi; Willing, Cornelia; Nielsen, Ole

    2017-01-01

    To assess whether demographic declines of Arctic species at the southern limit of their range will be gradual or punctuated, we compared large-scale environmental patterns including sea ice dynamics to ringed seal (Pusa hispida) reproduction, body condition, recruitment, and stress in Hudson Bay from 2003 to 2013. Aerial surveys suggested a gradual decline in seal density from 1995 to 2013, with the lowest density occurring in 2013. Body condition decreased and stress (cortisol) increased over time in relation to longer open water periods. The 2010 open water period in Hudson Bay coincided with extremes in large-scale atmospheric patterns (North Atlantic Oscillation, Arctic Oscillation, El Nino-Southern Oscillation) resulting in the earliest spring breakup and the latest ice formation on record. The warming event was coincident with high stress level, low ovulation rate, low pregnancy rate, few pups in the Inuit harvest, and observations of sick seals. Results provide evidence of changes in the condition of Arctic marine mammals in relation to climate mediated sea ice dynamics. We conclude that although negative demographic responses of Hudson Bay seals are occurring gradually with diminishing sea ice, a recent episodic environmental event played a significant role in a punctuated population decline.

  14. Analysis of organochlorine compounds and extractable organic halogen in three subspecies of ringed seal from northeast Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Kostamo, A.; Medvedev, N.; Pellinen, J.; Hyvaerinen, H.; Kukkonen, J.V.K.

    2000-04-01

    Organochlorine compounds in blubber samples of the ringed seal (Phoca hispida saimensis, P. H. ladogensis, and P. h. hispida) were analyzed in order to estimate the state of pollution in three different water areas in Northeast Europe, namely, Lake Saimaa in Finland, Lake Lodoga, and the White Sea in Russia. Geographic differences in concentrations and in relative concentrations of tri- and tetrachlorocymenes, hexachlorobenzene, {alpha}-HCH, {beta}-HCH, {gamma}-HCH (Lindane), seven polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, and p,p{prime}-DDT and its metabolites in ringed seals were compared. Concentrations of chlorinated hydrocarbons varied between the water areas. The highest concentrations were found in Saimaa ringed seals, followed by Lodaga ringed seals, and the lowest concentrations were detected in ringed seals from the White Sea. Extractable organic halogen (EOX) concentrations in blubber were also analyzed. The concentrations showed a geographic trend similar to those for the individual compounds identified. In Lakes Ladoga and Saimaa, the concentrations of EOX and chlorinated hydrocarbons in the blubber were dependent on the age and sex of the seals, but no such relationship was observed in samples from the White Sea.

  15. Prevalence of Brucella pinnipediae in healthy hooded seals (Cystophora cristata) from the North Atlantic Ocean and ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from Svalbard.

    PubMed

    Tryland, Morten; Sørensen, Karen Kristine; Godfroid, Jacques

    2005-01-31

    Investigations for Brucella-infections were conducted in 29 hooded seals (Cystophora cristata) caught between Svalbard and Greenland (North Atlantic Ocean; Greenland Sea) autumn 2002, and from 20 ringed seals (Phoca hispida) caught in Billefjord, Svalbard, spring 2003. All animals were apparently healthy and were caught in their natural habitat. Bacteriology on tissue samples from ringed seals was negative, whereas Brucella sp. were recovered in tissues from 11 of the 29 hooded seals (38%), with the highest tissue prevalence in spleen (9/29) and lung lymph nodes (9/24). Anti-Brucella antibodies were detected in sera from 9 hooded seals (31%) (EDTA-modified Slow Agglutination test of Wright, Rose Bengal test, Complement Fixation Test, and Protein-A ELISA). The bacterial isolates all belonged to the genus Brucella according to classical biotyping and PCR analysis based on Insertion Sequence IS711, and were shown to be typical marine mammal strains, based on the occurrence of an IS711 element downstream of the bp26 gene. Their dependency on CO2 for growth, and the presence of one copy each of the omp2a and omp2b gene finally classified them as Brucella pinnipediae. Furthermore, all the hooded seal isolates showed an A+ M+ agglutination profile, which is different from the profile of reference seal strain 2/94 (harbour seal, Phoca vitulina). Thus, these results indicate that B. pinnipediae may contain different biovars. The present results suggest that infection with B. pinnipediae is enzootic in this population. Since the hooded seal is commercially hunted and consumed in Norway, the pathological impact of such infections and their zoonotic potential should be further addressed.

  16. Microscopic anatomy of the ringed seal (Phoca hispida) lower respiratory tract.

    PubMed

    Smodlaka, H; Reed, R B; Henry, R W

    2006-02-01

    The microscopic anatomy of the ringed seal lung exhibits unique features and many features similar to those described in other seal species. Unique features include: Trachealis muscle predominately oriented longitudinally; Large veins within the tracheal wall supported by elastic fibers; Goblet cells and pseudostratified epithelium lining the duct system of bronchial glands of the segmental bronchi; Lamina propria of the segmental bronchus heavily invested with elastic fibers clustered into dense longitudinal bundles; and Capillaries and venules covered with squamous epithelium protruding into bronchiolar lumina. Common features include: Cartilage support of the bronchial tree extending distally into respiratory bronchioles; Smooth muscle enhancements in the distal airways producing sphincter like formations; and Lungs extensively supported with interstitial tissue, which divide lungs into lobules.

  17. Orbital transfer rocket engine technology program: Soft wear ring seal technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lariviere, Brian W.

    1992-01-01

    Liquid oxygen (LOX) compatibility tests, including autogenous ignition, promoted ignition, LOX impact tests, and friction and wear tests on different PV products were conducted for several polymer materials as verification for the implementation of soft wear ring seals in advanced rocket engine turbopumps. Thermoplastics, polyimide based materials, and polyimide-imide base materials were compared for oxygen compatibility, specific wear coefficient, wear debris production, and heat dissipation mechanisms. A thermal model was generated that simulated the frictional heating input and calculated the surface temperature and temperature distribution within the seal. The predictions were compared against measured values. Heat loads in the model were varied to better match the test data and determine the difference between the measured and the calculated coefficients of friction.

  18. Early results on the environmental integrity of W-88 o-ring seals

    SciTech Connect

    Gillen, K.T.

    1993-04-01

    The author reports experimental measurements for the argon and oxygen permeability coefficients for the new EPDM material (SR793B-80) used for the environmental o-ring seals of the W88. The results allow the author to refine the argon gas analysis modeling predictions for W88 surveillance units. By comparing early surveillance results (up to four years in the field) with the modeling, the author shows that (1) up to this point in time, leakage past the seals is insignificant and (2) the argon approach should be able to inexpensively and easily monitor both integrated lifetime water leakage and the onset of any aging problems. Finally, the author provides a number of pieces of evidence indicating that aging of the SR793B-80 material will not be significant during the expected lifetime of the W88.

  19. More economical but equally effective internally sealed concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, R. M.; Taylor, M. A.; Haxo, H. E., Jr.

    1981-12-01

    Wax beads of several lower melting, lower cost wax blends can seal concrete as effectively as the paraffin-montan wax beads currently used in internally sealed concrete bridge decks, without affecting other important properties of the concrete. Savings of 5% to 25% in raw material costs can be expected to lower the cost of wax beads by approximately 5% to 20%. Since the minimum temperature required for melting the wax beads is about 25 F (14 C) lower than for the current beads, the cost of heating a bridge deck to achieve effective sealing should be reduced by approximately 15%. Beads of two formulations: 10% montan wax, 15% firbark wax, 75% paraffin 140/142 (FMP), and 5% stearic acid, 20% hydrogenated tallow, 75% paraffin 150/152 (STP), were produced in pilot plant quantities and were evaluated on two field tests. Damage to the beads during extended mixing of the concrete was suspected to be one of the causes of low strength and poor resistance to scaling of the test slabs in the first test. Some blocking of the lower melting beads at temperatures between 100 and 110 F (38 and 43 C) occurred during production in hot weather or storage for long times in warm locations. Coating the beads with 10% cement restored them to a free-flowing condition.

  20. Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. in the intestinal contents of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) and bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus) in Nunavik, Quebec, Canada

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The prevalence in intestinal contents of ringed and bearded seals harvested for food in the Nunavik region of northern Quebec, Canada was determned for Giardia and Cryptosporidium genotypes and species. Specimens were analysed by dual color flow cytometry, immunofluorescence microscopy, and polymer...

  1. Evaluation of soft rubber goods. [for use as O-rings, and seals on space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merz, P. L.

    1974-01-01

    The performance of rubber goods suitable for use as O-rings, seals, gaskets, bladders and diaphragms under conditions simulating those of the space shuttle were studied. High reliability throughout the 100 flight missions planned for the space shuttle was considered of overriding importance. Accordingly, in addition to a rank ordering of the selected candidate materials based on prolonged fluid compatibility and sealability behavior, basic rheological parameters (such as cyclic hysteresis, stress relaxation, indicated modulus, etc.) were determined to develop methods capable of predicting the cumulative effect of these multiple reuse cycles.

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyl profiles in ringed seals (Pusa Hispida) reveal historical contamination by a military radar station in Labrador, Canada.

    PubMed

    Brown, Tanya M; Fisk, Aaron T; Helbing, Caren C; Reimer, Ken J

    2014-03-01

    Significant amounts of soil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were discovered at a military radar station in Saglek Bay, Labrador, Canada, in 1996. Subsequent work showed elevated PCB concentrations in local marine sediments, in the benthic-associated food web, and in some ringed seals (Pusa hispida). The benthic-associated food web clearly reflected local PCB contamination, but the high PCB concentrations found in some ringed seals remained unexplained. In the present study, the authors assess the extent to which this local PCB source at Saglek Bay is contributing to the contamination of ringed seals in northern Labrador. Among 63 ringed seals sampled along the northern Labrador coast, 5 (8%) had PCB levels that were higher than recorded anywhere else in the Canadian Arctic. In addition, compared with seals exhibiting a long-range signal, 45% and 60% of subadults and adult males, respectively, exhibited heavier PCB congener profiles as characterized by principal components analysis, >1.6-fold higher PCB/organochlorine pesticides ratios, and higher PCB concentration-weighted average log octanol-water partition coefficient values, consistent with a local source. Despite the spatially confined nature of contaminated sediments in Saglek Bay, the influence of this PCB source is not inconsequential; PCB concentrations in locally contaminated adult males are 2-fold higher than concentrations in those exposed only to long-range PCB sources and exceed an established threshold of 1.3 mg/kg for adverse health effects in seals.

  3. Gross anatomy of the ringed seal (Pusa hispida) gastro-intestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Smodlaka, H; Henry, R W

    2014-06-01

    The gross anatomical structure of the ringed seal (Pusa hispida) gastrointestinal tract is poorly described and often veterinary anatomical terminology is not used. Although the basic abdominal visceral pattern corresponded to domestic carnivores, significant differences were noted. The stomach was an elongated sharply bent tube (u-shaped) with the pylorus and fundus juxtaposed. The elongated jejunum measured up to 15.6 times body length and had 37 jejunal arteries from the cranial mesenteric artery. The pancreas was asymmetrical with a small right lobe and a large left lobe. The unusually short greater omentum negated formation of deep and superficial leaves. The most remarkable difference was the separation of the liver parenchyma into three physically separate masses, held together by hepatic ducts, veins and arteries. The topography and position of the liver was dependent on the amount of blood in the hepatic sinus (distended hepatic veins and hepatic portion of vena cava). Thus, as the hepatic sinus filled, the lateral liver masses separate from the central mass by moving caudolaterally. This was facilitated by modified coronary and triangular ligaments which did not attach directly to the liver, but instead to the hepatic sinus. These anatomical adaptations are apparently advantageous to ringed seal's survival in a deep marine environment. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Performance of Metal and Polymeric O-Ring Seals during Beyond-Design-Basis Thermal Conditions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiann C; Hnetkovsky, Edward; Rinehart, Doris; Fernandez, Marco; Gonzalez, Felix; Borowsky, Joseph

    2017-04-01

    This paper summarizes the small scale thermal exposure test results of the performance of metallic and polymeric O-ring seals typically used in radioactive material transportation packages. Five different O-ring materials were evaluated: Inconel/silver, ethylene-propylene diene monomer (EPDM), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), silicone, butyl, and Viton. The overall objective of this study is to provide test data and insights to the performance of these Oring seals when exposed to beyond-design-basis temperature conditions due to a severe fire. Tests were conducted using a small-scale stainless steel pressure vessel pressurized with helium to 2 bar or 5 bar at room temperature. The vessel was then heated in an electric furnace to temperatures up to 900 °C for a pre-determined period (typically 8 h to 9 h). The pressure drop technique was used to determine if leakage occurred during thermal exposure. Out of a total of 46 tests performed, leakage (loss of vessel pressure) was detected in 13 tests.

  5. Demographic histories and genetic diversities of Fennoscandian marine and landlocked ringed seal subspecies

    PubMed Central

    Nyman, Tommi; Valtonen, Mia; Aspi, Jouni; Ruokonen, Minna; Kunnasranta, Mervi; Palo, Jukka U

    2014-01-01

    Island populations are on average smaller, genetically less diverse, and at a higher risk to go extinct than mainland populations. Low genetic diversity may elevate extinction probability, but the genetic component of the risk can be affected by the mode of diversity loss, which, in turn, is connected to the demographic history of the population. Here, we examined the history of genetic erosion in three Fennoscandian ringed seal subspecies, of which one inhabits the Baltic Sea ‘mainland’ and two the ‘aquatic islands’ composed of Lake Saimaa in Finland and Lake Ladoga in Russia. Both lakes were colonized by marine seals after their formation c. 9500 years ago, but Lake Ladoga is larger and more contiguous than Lake Saimaa. All three populations suffered dramatic declines during the 20th century, but the bottleneck was particularly severe in Lake Saimaa. Data from 17 microsatellite loci and mitochondrial control-region sequences show that Saimaa ringed seals have lost most of the genetic diversity present in their Baltic ancestors, while the Ladoga population has experienced only minor reductions. Using Approximate Bayesian computing analyses, we show that the genetic uniformity of the Saimaa subspecies derives from an extended founder event and subsequent slow erosion, rather than from the recent bottleneck. This suggests that the population has persisted for nearly 10,000 years despite having low genetic variation. The relatively high diversity of the Ladoga population appears to result from a high number of initial colonizers and a high post-colonization population size, but possibly also by a shorter isolation period and/or occasional gene flow from the Baltic Sea. PMID:25535558

  6. Demographic histories and genetic diversities of Fennoscandian marine and landlocked ringed seal subspecies.

    PubMed

    Nyman, Tommi; Valtonen, Mia; Aspi, Jouni; Ruokonen, Minna; Kunnasranta, Mervi; Palo, Jukka U

    2014-09-01

    Island populations are on average smaller, genetically less diverse, and at a higher risk to go extinct than mainland populations. Low genetic diversity may elevate extinction probability, but the genetic component of the risk can be affected by the mode of diversity loss, which, in turn, is connected to the demographic history of the population. Here, we examined the history of genetic erosion in three Fennoscandian ringed seal subspecies, of which one inhabits the Baltic Sea 'mainland' and two the 'aquatic islands' composed of Lake Saimaa in Finland and Lake Ladoga in Russia. Both lakes were colonized by marine seals after their formation c. 9500 years ago, but Lake Ladoga is larger and more contiguous than Lake Saimaa. All three populations suffered dramatic declines during the 20th century, but the bottleneck was particularly severe in Lake Saimaa. Data from 17 microsatellite loci and mitochondrial control-region sequences show that Saimaa ringed seals have lost most of the genetic diversity present in their Baltic ancestors, while the Ladoga population has experienced only minor reductions. Using Approximate Bayesian computing analyses, we show that the genetic uniformity of the Saimaa subspecies derives from an extended founder event and subsequent slow erosion, rather than from the recent bottleneck. This suggests that the population has persisted for nearly 10,000 years despite having low genetic variation. The relatively high diversity of the Ladoga population appears to result from a high number of initial colonizers and a high post-colonization population size, but possibly also by a shorter isolation period and/or occasional gene flow from the Baltic Sea.

  7. Design analysis of a self-acting spiral-groove ring seal for counter-rotating shafts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dirusso, E.

    1983-01-01

    A self-acting spiral groove inter-shaft ring seal of nominal 16.33 cm (6.43 in.) diameter for sealing fan bleed air between counter-rotating hafts in advanced turbofan engines was analyzed. The analysis focused on the lift force characteristics of the spiral grooves. A NASA Lewis developed computer program for predicting the performance of gas lubricated face seals was used to optimize the spiral groove geometry to produce maximum lift force. Load capacity curves (lift force as function of film thickness) were generated for four advanced turbofan engine operating conditions at relative seal speeds ranging from 17,850 to 29,800 rpm, sealed air pressures from 6 to 42 N/sq cm (9 to 60 psi) absolute and temperatures from 95 deg to 327 C (203 deg to 620 F). The relative seal sliding speed range was 152 to 255 m/sec (500 to 836 ft/sec). The analysis showed that the spiral grooves are capable of producing sufficient lift force such that the ring seal will operate in a noncontacting mode over the operating range of typical advanced turbofan engines.

  8. Hinge Moments of Sealed-Internal-Balance Arrangements for Control Surfaces I : Theoretical Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, Harry E.; Erwin, Mary A.

    1945-01-01

    The results of a theoretical analysis of the hinge-moment characteristics of various sealed-internal-balance arrangements for control surfaces are presented. The analysis considered overhands sealed to various types of wing structure by flexible seals spanning gaps of various widths or sealed to the wing structure by a flexible system of linked plates. Leakage was not considered; the seal was assumed to extend the full spanwise length of the control surface. The effect of the developed width of the flexible seal and of the geometry of the structure to which the seal was anchored was investigated, as well as the effect of the gap width that is sealed. The results of the investigation indicated that the most nearly linear control-surface hinge-moment characteristics can probably be obtained from a flexible seal over a narrow gap (about 0.1 of the overhang chord), which is so installed that the motion of the seal is restricted to a region behind the point of attachment of the seal to the wing structure. Control-surface hinge moments that tend to be high at large deflections and low or overbalanced at small deflections will result if a very narrow seal is used.

  9. Development of seal ring carbon-graphite materials (tasks 5, 6, and 7)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fechter, N. J.; Petrunich, P. S.

    1972-01-01

    Carbon-graphite seal ring bodies for operation at air temperatures to 1300 F(704 C) were manufactured from three select formulations. Mechanical and thermal properties, porosities, and oxidation rates were measured. The results have shown that: (1) Major property improvements anticipated from the screening studies were not realized because of processing problems associated with the scale-up in material size and probable deterioration of a phenolic resin binder; (2) the mechanical properties of a phenolic resin-bonded, carbon-graphite material can be improved by applying high pressure during carbonization; and (3) the textile form of graphite fiber used as the minor filler component in a carbon-graphite material can beneficially affect mechanical properties.

  10. Linking climate trends to population dynamics in the Baltic ringed seal: impacts of historical and future winter temperatures.

    PubMed

    Sundqvist, Lisa; Harkonen, Tero; Svensson, Carl Johan; Harding, Karin C

    2012-12-01

    A global trend of a warming climate may seriously affect species dependent on sea ice. We investigated the impact of climate on the Baltic ringed seals (Phoca hispida botnica), using historical and future climatological time series. Availability of suitable breeding ice is known to affect pup survival. We used detailed information on how winter temperatures affect the extent of breeding ice and a climatological model (RCA3) to project the expected effects on the Baltic ringed seal population. The population comprises of three sub-populations, and our simulations suggest that all of them will experience severely hampered growth rates during the coming 90 years. The projected 30, 730 seals at the end of the twenty-first century constitutes only 16 % of the historical population size, and thus reduced ice cover alone will severely limit their growth rate. This adds burden to a species already haunted by other anthropogenic impacts.

  11. Tolerance by ringed seals (Phoca hispida) to impact pipe-driving and construction sounds at an oil production island.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, Susanna B; Lawson, John W; Williams, Michael T

    2004-05-01

    During June and July 2000, impact pipe-driving sounds at Northstar Island (Prudhoe Bay, Alaska) were recorded underwater and in air at distances 63-3000 m from the source. Simultaneously, reactions of nearby ringed seals (in water or on ice) were documented. Pipe-driving pulses were analyzed to determine unweighted peak and rms sound-pressure levels (SPLs) and sound-exposure levels (SELs). Underwater, mean levels for these parameters reached 157 and 151 dB re: 1 microPa and 145 dB re: 1 microPa2 x s, respectively, at 63 m. The corresponding values in air were 112 and 96 dB re: 20 microPa and 90 dB re: (20 microPa)2 x s, respectively. Underwater SPLs were <180 dB re: 1 microPa at all distances. During 55 h of observation, 23 observed seals exhibited little or no reaction to any industrial noise except approaching Bell 212 helicopters. Ringed seals swam in open water near the island throughout construction activities and as close as 46 m from the pipe-driving operation. Based on current audiometric data for seals, these sounds are expected to be audible to less than 3 km underwater and at least 0.5 km in air. Most likely the seals around Northstar Island were habituated to industrial sounds.

  12. Hg Stable Isotope Time Trend in Ringed Seals Registers Decreasing Sea Ice Cover in the Alaskan Arctic.

    PubMed

    Masbou, Jérémy; Point, David; Sonke, Jeroen E; Frappart, Frédéric; Perrot, Vincent; Amouroux, David; Richard, Pierre; Becker, Paul R

    2015-08-04

    Decadal time trends of mercury (Hg) concentrations in Arctic biota suggest that anthropogenic Hg is not the single dominant factor modulating Hg exposure to Arctic wildlife. Here, we present Hg speciation (monomethyl-Hg) and stable isotopic composition (C, N, Hg) of 53 Alaskan ringed seal liver samples covering a period of 14 years (1988-2002). In vivo metabolic effects and foraging ecology explain most of the observed 1.6 ‰ variation in liver δ(202)Hg, but not Δ(199)Hg. Ringed seal habitat use and migration were the most likely factors explaining Δ(199)Hg variations. Average Δ(199)Hg in ringed seal liver samples from Barrow increased significantly from +0.38 ± 0.08‰ (±SE, n = 5) in 1988 to +0.59 ± 0.07‰ (±SE, n = 7) in 2002 (4.1 ± 1.2% per year, p < 0.001). Δ(199)Hg in marine biological tissues is thought to reflect marine Hg photochemistry before biouptake and bioaccumulation. A spatiotemporal analysis of sea ice cover that accounts for the habitat of ringed seals suggests that the observed increase in Δ(199)Hg may have been caused by the progressive summer sea ice disappearance between 1988 and 2002. While changes in seal liver Δ(199)Hg values suggests a mild sea ice control on marine MMHg breakdown, the effect is not large enough to induce measurable HgT changes in biota. This suggests that Hg trends in biota in the context of a warming Arctic are likely controlled by other processes.

  13. Flow Field in a Single-Stage Model Air Turbine With Seal Rings and Pre-Swirled Purge Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, Dennis M.

    Modern gas turbines operate at high mainstream gas temperatures and pressures, which requires high durability materials. A method of preventing these hot gases from leaking into the turbine cavities is essential for improved reliability and cost reduction. Utilizing bleed-off air from the compressor to cool internal components has been a common solution, but at the cost of decreasing turbine performance. The present work thoroughly describes the complex flow field between the mainstream gas and a single rotor-stator disk cavity, and mechanisms of mainstream gas ingestion. A combined approach of experimental measurement and numerical simulation are performed on the flow in a single-stage model gas turbine. Mainstream gas ingestion into the cavity is further reduced by utilizing two axially overlapping seal rings, one on the rotor disk and the other on the stator wall. Secondary purge air is injected into the rotor-stator cavity pre-swirled through the stator radially inboard of the two seal rings. Flow field predictions from the simulations are compared against experimental measurements of static pressure, velocity, and tracer gas concentration acquired in a nearly identical model configuration. Operational conditions were performed with a main airflow Reynolds number of 7.86e4 and a rotor disk speed of 3000rpm. Additionally the rotational Reynolds number was 8.74 e5 with a purge air nondimensional flow rate cw=4806. The simulation models a 1/14 rotationally periodic sector of the turbine rig, consisting of four rotor blades and four stator vanes. Gambit was used to generate the three-dimensional unstructured grids ranging from 10 to 20 million cells. Effects of turbulence were modeled using the single-equation Spalart-Allmaras as well as the realizable k-epsilon models. Computations were performed using FLUENT for both a simplified steady-state and subsequent time-dependent formulation. Simulation results show larger scale structures across the entire sector angle

  14. Aging Behavior of Viton{sup R} O-Ring Seals in the 9975 Shipping Package - 12594

    SciTech Connect

    Skidmore, T. Eric; Daugherty, William L.; Hoffman, Elizabeth N.; Dunn, Kerry A.; Stephen Bellamy, J.; Shuler, James M.

    2012-07-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is storing plutonium (Pu) materials in the K-Area Materials Storage (KAMS) facility. The Pu materials were packaged according to the DOE-STD-3013 standard and shipped to the SRS in Type B 9975 packages. The robust 9975 shipping package was not designed for long-term product storage, but it is a specified part of the storage configuration and the KAMS facility safety basis credits the 9975 design with containment. Within the 9975 package, nested stainless steel containment vessels are closed with dual O-ring seals based on Viton{sup R} GLT or GLT-S fluoro-elastomer. The aging behavior of the O-ring compounds is being studied to provide the facility with advanced notice of nonconformance and to develop life prediction models. A combination of field surveillance, leak testing of surrogate fixtures aged at bounding service temperatures, and accelerated-aging methodologies based on compression stress-relaxation and oxygen consumption analysis is being used to evaluate seal performance. A summary of the surveillance program relative to seal aging behavior is presented. The aging behavior of fluoro-elastomer seals based on Viton{sup R} GLT and GLT-S is being studied to develop life prediction models in support of long-term storage of plutonium materials in the 9975 shipping packages at the Savannah River Site. Field surveillance data in combination with accelerated-aging data suggest a significant lifetime for the seals. Typical storage conditions are not anticipated to challenge the leak-tightness of the seals for many years. Early life prediction models based on compression stress relaxation indicate a seal lifetime of ∼12 years at the maximum service temperature predicted (93 deg. C). Seal lifetimes at lower, more realistic conditions are likely significantly longer. Service life predictions based on CSR data are thus far conservative relative to predictions based on time to leakage failure. Surveillance data on packages examined after 6

  15. Western Canadian Arctic ringed seal organic contaminant trends in relation to sea ice break-up.

    PubMed

    Gaden, A; Ferguson, Steve H; Harwood, L; Melling, H; Alikamik, J; Stern, G A

    2012-04-17

    The association between changing sea ice conditions and contaminant exposure to Arctic animals interests Inuvialuit harvesters, communities, and researchers. We examined organochlorine contaminant (OC) concentrations in the blubber of 90 male adult ringed seals (Phoca hispida) sampled from the subsistence harvest in Ulukhaktok (formerly Holman), NT, Canada, just prior to break-up of the sea ice (1993-2008). OC blubber concentrations were assessed with respect to year and sea ice break-up date. HCB and age- and blubber-adjusted concentrations of p,p'-DDT and ΣCHB (chlorobornane) significantly decreased over the study period. With respect to the timing of the spring break-up, highly lipophlic OCs, such as p,p'-DDE and PCB 153, were higher during years of early ice clearing (at least 12 days earlier than the mean annual break-up date), whereas no trends were observed for α, β, and γ isomers of HCH, trans- and cis-chlordane, oxychlordane, or ΣCHB. The higher contaminant concentrations found in earlier break-up years is likely due to earlier and/or increased foraging opportunities. This situation also has potential for enhancing bioaccumulation and biomagnification of contaminants over the long-term if projected changes continue to result in lighter and earlier ice conditions.

  16. Dynamic Face Seal Arrangement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, Christopher (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A radial face seal arrangement is disclosed comprising a stationary seal ring that is spring loaded against a seal seat affixed to a rotating shaft. The radial face seal arrangement further comprises an arrangement that not only allows for preloading of the stationary seal ring relative to the seal seat, but also provides for dampening yielding a dynamic seating response for the radial face seal arrangement. The overall seal system, especially regarding the selection of the material for the stationary seal ring, is designed to operate over a wide temperature range from below ambient up to 900 C.

  17. Damper Spring For Omega Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maclaughlin, Scott T.; Montgomery, Stuart K.

    1993-01-01

    Damper spring reduces deflections of omega-cross-section seal, reducing probability of failure and extending life of seal. Spring is split ring with U-shaped cross section. Placed inside omega seal and inserted with seal into seal cavity. As omega seal compressed into cavity, spring and seal make contact near convolution of seal, and spring becomes compressed also. During operation, when seal dynamically loaded, spring limits deflection of seal, reducing stress on seal.

  18. Transplacental Transfer of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Polybrominated Diphenylethers, and Organochlorine Pesticides in Ringed Seals (Pusa hispida).

    PubMed

    Brown, T M; Ross, P S; Reimer, K J

    2016-01-01

    The transplacental transfer of persistent organic pollutants in marine mammals takes place at a formative developmental period, thereby exposing the fetus to endocrine-disrupting compounds. We evaluated the transplacental transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in five pregnant ringed seals in Northern Labrador, Canada. PCBs, PBDEs, and OCPs were transferred from the mother to the fetus with average concentrations in the fetuses ranging from 0.3 ng/g lipid weight (lw) of mirex to 94 ng/g lw of PCBs. The average percent transferred to the blubber in the fetus was very low with <0.02 % for each of the compounds studied. Based on relationships observed, transfer for full-term fetuses is estimated to range from 0.03 to 0.27 %. Log K(ow) explained the transfer of PCBs (r (2) = 0.67, p < 0.001) and OCPs (r (2) = 0.62, p < 0.001) with those PCB congeners and OCP compounds having a log K(ow) of <6.0 and 4.6, respectively, because they are preferentially transferred to the fetus. Adult females transferred a contaminant mixture to their fetuses, which correlated with estimated fetal age (p < 0.001; r (2) = 0.697), with younger fetuses showing a greater proportion of compounds with low K(ow) compared with later-term fetuses. The implications for the prenatal exposure to these developmental toxicants remains unknown because current toxicity thresholds in marine mammals have only been derived from juveniles or adults.

  19. Mechanical seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, Oleg M.

    2001-01-01

    An improved mechanical seal assembly is provided for sealing rotating shafts with respect to their shaft housings, wherein the rotating shafts are subject to substantial axial vibrations. The mechanical seal assembly generally includes a rotating sealing ring fixed to the shaft, a non-rotating sealing ring adjacent to and in close contact with the rotating sealing ring for forming an annular seal about the shaft, and a mechanical diode element that applies a biasing force to the non-rotating sealing ring by means of hemispherical joint. The alignment of the mechanical diode with respect to the sealing rings is maintained by a series of linear bearings positioned axially along a desired length of the mechanical diode. Alternative embodiments include mechanical or hydraulic amplification components for amplifying axial displacement of the non-rotating sealing ring and transferring it to the mechanical diode.

  20. Mechanical seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, Oleg M.

    2002-01-01

    An improved mechanical seal assembly is provided for sealing rotating shafts with respect to their shaft housings, wherein the rotating shafts are subject to substantial axial vibrations. The mechanical seal assembly generally includes a rotating sealing ring fixed to the shaft, a non-rotating sealing ring adjacent to and in close contact with the rotating sealing ring for forming an annular seal about the shaft, and a mechanical diode element that applies a biasing force to the non-rotating sealing ring by means of hemispherical joint. The alignment of the mechanical diode with respect to the sealing rings is maintained by a series of linear bearings positioned axially along a desired length of the mechanical diode. Alternative embodiments include mechanical or hydraulic amplification components for amplifying axial displacement of the non-rotating sealing ring and transfering it to the mechanical diode.

  1. Satellite telemetry informs PCB source apportionment in a mobile, high trophic level marine mammal: the ringed seal (Pusa hispida).

    PubMed

    Brown, Tanya M; Luque, Sebastian; Sjare, Becky; Fisk, Aaron T; Helbing, Caren C; Reimer, Ken J

    2014-11-18

    Marine mammals are typically poor indicators of point sources of environmental contaminants as a consequence of their often complex feeding ecologies and extensive movements, all of which mask the contributions of specific inputs. The release of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by a military radar station into Saglek Bay, Labrador (Canada) has contaminated marine sediments, bottom-feeding fish, seabirds, and some ringed seals, but attributing the PCBs in the latter highly mobile animals to this source is exceedingly difficult. In addition to the application of such tools as stable isotopes (δ(15)N and δ(13)C) and univariate and multivariate statistical exploration of contaminant patterns and ratios, we used satellite telemetry to track the movements of 13 seals in their transient use of different feeding areas. Reduced size of home range and core area (i.e., areas of concentrated use), as well as increased time in coastal inlets, were important determinants of increased PCB concentrations in seals reflecting the contribution of Saglek Bay. Seals were classified into the same feeding groups using both space use and their contaminant burdens 85% of the time, highlighting the link between feeding ecology and exposure to PCBs. While the PCB source at Saglek provided a strong local signal in a remote environment, this first use of satellite telemetry demonstrates the utility of evaluating space-use strategies to better understand contaminant exposure, and more specifically the contribution of contaminant hotspots to mobile predators.

  2. Hormone, vitamin and contaminant status during the moulting/fasting period in ringed seals (Pusa [Phoca] hispida) from Svalbard.

    PubMed

    Routti, Heli; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Lydersen, Christian; Bäckman, Christina; Arukwe, Augustine; Nyman, Madeleine; Kovacs, Kit M; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the potential effects of moulting, and the concomitant period of fasting undertaken by ringed seals, on hormone, vitamin and contaminant status in adult animals in a population from Svalbard, Norway, which has relatively low contaminant levels. Concentrations of circulating total and free thyroxine and triiodothyronine, circulating and hepatic vitamin A, hepatic persistent organic pollutants and their circulating hydroxyl metabolites were higher in moulting seals compared to pre-moulting seals. The opposite trend was observed for body condition, circulating calcitriol levels and hepatic mRNA expression of thyroid hormone receptor beta. No differences were observed for circulating or hepatic vitamin E levels or hepatic mRNA expressions for deioidinase 1 or 2, or retinoic acid receptor alpha between the two seal groups. The observed differences are likely the result of increased metabolic rates required during moulting to maintain thermal balance and replace the pelage, in combination with mobilization of lipid soluble compounds from blubber stores during the fasting period that is associated with moulting. The present study shows that contaminant levels and their relationships with physiological or endogenous variables can be highly confounded by moulting/fasting status. Thus, moulting status and body condition should be taken into consideration when using variables related to thyroid, calcium or vitamin A homeostasis as biomarkers for contaminant effects.

  3. Shaft seal assembly for high speed and high pressure applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadt, W. F.; Ludwig, L. P. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A seal assembly is provided for reducing the escape of fluids from between a housing and a shaft rotably mounted in the housing. The seal assembly comprises a pair of seal rings resiliently connected to each other and disposed in side-by-side relationship. In each seal ring, both the internal bore surface and the radial face which faces away from the other seal ring are provided with a plurality of equi-spaced recesses. The seal faces referred to are located adjacent a seating surface of the housing. Under normal operating conditions, the seal assembly is stationary with respect to the housing, and the recesses generate life, keep the assembly spaced from the rotating shaft and allow slip therebetween. The seal assembly can seize on the shaft, and slip will then occur between the radial faces and the housing.

  4. PCBs have declined more than DDT-group residues in Arctic ringed seals (Phoca hispida) between 1972 and 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Addison, R.F.; Zinck, M.E.; Smith, T.G.

    1986-03-01

    Mean DDT-group concentrations in the blubber of western Arctic ringed seals (Phoca hispida) sampled in 1981 were less than 1..mu..g.g/sup -1/ wet weight. Male seals had higher concentrations than did females. PCB concentrations were about half of those in a sample of the same population taken in 1972, when allowance was made for the variation of residue concentrations with age, sex, and condition. This decline probably results from the ban on PCB manufacture and use imposed in the early 1970s. Concentrations of DDT-group residues did not show any clear decline over the same interval, and the relative proportions of p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE suggested that there is a continuing supply of DDT to the western Arctic. The most probable source of this is by atmospheric or water transport from the Far East, where DDT was used until at least the late 1970s.

  5. Psychoacoustic Studies of Spotted (Phoca largha) and Ringed (Pusa hispida) Seals.

    PubMed

    Sills, Jillian M; Southall, Brandon L; Reichmuth, Colleen

    2016-01-01

    Human development of the marine environment raises questions regarding the potential adverse effects of anthropogenic noise on marine mammals. For species that live in remote Arctic regions, recent and expanding human intrusions may pose a particular threat. Northern seals are poorly studied relative to their temperate counterparts and little is known of their acoustic ecology or behavior. Given this scarcity of relevant data, studies of hearing in Arctic seals are essential to characterize their auditory capabilities and to inform management decisions. This paper describes ongoing psychoacoustic studies that are examining aspects of hearing in two ice seal species.

  6. PCB related effects thresholds as derived through gene transcript profiles in locally contaminated ringed seals (Pusa hispida).

    PubMed

    Brown, Tanya M; Ross, Peter S; Reimer, Ken J; Veldhoen, Nik; Dangerfield, Neil J; Fisk, Aaron T; Helbing, Caren C

    2014-11-04

    Causal evidence linking toxic injury to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure is typically confounded by the complexity of real-world contaminant mixtures to which aquatic wildlife are exposed. A local PCB "hotspot" on the Labrador coast provided a rare opportunity to evaluate the effects of PCBs on the health of a marine mammal as this chemical dominated their persistent organic pollutant (POP) burdens. The release of approximately 260 kg of PCBs by a military radar facility over a 30 year period (1970-2000) contaminated some local marine biota, including the ringed seal (Pusa hispida). The abundance profiles of eight health-related gene transcripts were evaluated in liver samples collected from 43 ringed seals in the affected area. The mRNA transcript levels of five gene targets, including aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr), interleukin-1 β (Il1b), estrogen receptor α (Esr1), insulin like growth factor receptor 1 (Igf1), and glucocorticoid receptor α (Nr3c1) correlated with increasing levels of blubber PCBs. PCB threshold values calculated using best-fit hockey-stick regression models for these five genes averaged 1,680±206 ng/g lw, with the lowest, most conservative, being 1,370 ng/g lw for Il1b. Approximately 14% of the seals in the region exceeded this threshold. The dominance of PCBs in the seals studied enabled an assessment of the effects of this chemical on gene transcripts involved in regulating the health of a highly mobile predator, something that is rarely possible in the world of complex mixtures.

  7. Pressurized balanced sealing system for use on the ring-liner interface of a coal fired diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, G.L.

    1989-03-14

    A system for minimizing a wear to a reciprocating internal combustion engine is described, consisting of a cylinder having a wall and a combustion chamber within the cylinder; a piston movable in a stroke within the cylinder between a top dead center position and a bottom dead center position, the piston having first and second ends, the first end being adjacent to the combustion chamber and the second end being remote from the combustion chamber; first, second, and third piston rings extending around the piston, the second piston ring being positioned between the first and the third piston rings; a ring pack area on the piston between the first piston ring and the second piston ring; a lubricant blowby area between the second piston ring and the third piston ring; and a pump communicating with an inlet in the wall such that the lubricant blowby area registers with the inlet during at least part of the stroke of the piston, the pump having an outlet in the wall such that the ring pack area registers with the outlet during at least part of the stroke of the piston, the pump operable to draw lubricant from the lubricant blowby area and provide lubricant to the ring pack area.

  8. 77 FR 20773 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Proposed Threatened Status for Subspecies of the Ringed Seal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... disagreement regarding the sufficiency or accuracy of the model projections and analysis of future sea ice....gov/protectedresources/seals/ice.htm . Documents cited in this notice, including the peer...

  9. Combined Genetic and Telemetry Data Reveal High Rates of Gene Flow, Migration, and Long-Distance Dispersal Potential in Arctic Ringed Seals (Pusa hispida)

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Bakker, Micaela E.; Sell, Stephanie K.; Swanson, Bradley J.; Kelly, Brendan P.; Tallmon, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Ringed seals (Pusa hispida) are broadly distributed in seasonally ice covered seas, and their survival and reproductive success is intricately linked to sea ice and snow. Climatic warming is diminishing Arctic snow and sea ice and threatens to endanger ringed seals in the foreseeable future. We investigated the population structure and connectedness within and among three subspecies: Arctic (P. hispida hispida), Baltic (P. hispida botnica), and Lake Saimaa (P. hispida saimensis) ringed seals to assess their capacity to respond to rapid environmental changes. We consider (a) the geographical scale of migration, (b) use of sea ice, and (c) the amount of gene flow between subspecies. Seasonal movements and use of sea ice were determined for 27 seals tracked via satellite telemetry. Additionally, population genetic analyses were conducted using 354 seals representative of each subspecies and 11 breeding sites. Genetic analyses included sequences from two mitochondrial regions and genotypes of 9 microsatellite loci. We found that ringed seals disperse on a pan-Arctic scale and both males and females may migrate long distances during the summer months when sea ice extent is minimal. Gene flow among Arctic breeding sites and between the Arctic and the Baltic Sea subspecies was high; these two subspecies are interconnected as are breeding sites within the Arctic subspecies. PMID:24130843

  10. Combined genetic and telemetry data reveal high rates of gene flow, migration, and long-distance dispersal potential in Arctic ringed seals (Pusa hispida).

    PubMed

    Martinez-Bakker, Micaela E; Sell, Stephanie K; Swanson, Bradley J; Kelly, Brendan P; Tallmon, David A

    2013-01-01

    Ringed seals (Pusa hispida) are broadly distributed in seasonally ice covered seas, and their survival and reproductive success is intricately linked to sea ice and snow. Climatic warming is diminishing Arctic snow and sea ice and threatens to endanger ringed seals in the foreseeable future. We investigated the population structure and connectedness within and among three subspecies: Arctic (P. hispida hispida), Baltic (P. hispida botnica), and Lake Saimaa (P. hispida saimensis) ringed seals to assess their capacity to respond to rapid environmental changes. We consider (a) the geographical scale of migration, (b) use of sea ice, and (c) the amount of gene flow between subspecies. Seasonal movements and use of sea ice were determined for 27 seals tracked via satellite telemetry. Additionally, population genetic analyses were conducted using 354 seals representative of each subspecies and 11 breeding sites. Genetic analyses included sequences from two mitochondrial regions and genotypes of 9 microsatellite loci. We found that ringed seals disperse on a pan-Arctic scale and both males and females may migrate long distances during the summer months when sea ice extent is minimal. Gene flow among Arctic breeding sites and between the Arctic and the Baltic Sea subspecies was high; these two subspecies are interconnected as are breeding sites within the Arctic subspecies.

  11. De novo assembly of the ringed seal (Pusa hispida) blubber transcriptome: A tool that enables identification of molecular health indicators associated with PCB exposure.

    PubMed

    Brown, Tanya M; Hammond, S Austin; Behsaz, Bahar; Veldhoen, Nik; Birol, Inanç; Helbing, Caren C

    2017-02-03

    The ringed seal, Pusa hispida, is a keystone species in the Arctic marine ecosystem, and is proving a useful marine mammal for linking polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure to toxic injury. We report here the first de novo assembled transcriptome for the ringed seal (342,863 transcripts, of which 53% were annotated), which we then applied to a population of ringed seals exposed to a local PCB source in Arctic Labrador, Canada. We found an indication of energy metabolism imbalance in local ringed seals (n=4), and identified five significant gene transcript targets: plasminogen receptor (Plg-R(KT)), solute carrier family 25 member 43 receptor (Slc25a43), ankyrin repeat domain-containing protein 26-like receptor (Ankrd26), HIS30 (not yet annotated) and HIS16 (not yet annotated) that may represent indicators of PCB exposure and effects in marine mammals. The abundance profiles of these five gene targets were validated in blubber samples collected from 43 ringed seals using a qPCR assay. The mRNA transcript levels for all five gene targets, (Plg-R(KT), r(2)=0.43), (Slc25a43, r(2)=0.51), (Ankrd26, r(2)=0.43), (HIS30, r(2)=0.39) and (HIS16, r(2)=0.31) correlated with increasing levels of blubber PCBs. Results from the present study contribute to our understanding of PCB associated effects in marine mammals, and provide new tools for future molecular and toxicology work in pinnipeds.

  12. Self-stabilizing radial face seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etsion, I. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A self-stabilizing radial face seal comprises an axial member and a primary seal ring juxtapositioned to a seal seat. At least one primary seal ring and seal seat unit is affixed to the axial member so as to rotate with it. The primary seal ring has a front face which opposes a face of the seal seat. The seal has both high-pressure and low-pressure regions of fluid, and seal seat is provided with a porous ring-like circumferential structure in the face of the seal seat opposite the front face of the primary seal ring.

  13. Low-frequency temporary threshold shift not observed in spotted or ringed seals exposed to single air gun impulses.

    PubMed

    Reichmuth, Colleen; Ghoul, Asila; Sills, Jillian M; Rouse, Andrew; Southall, Brandon L

    2016-10-01

    Underwater hearing thresholds were measured at 100 Hz in trained spotted (Phoca largha) and ringed seals (Pusa hispida) before and immediately following voluntary exposure to impulsive noise from a seismic air gun. Auditory responses were determined from psychoacoustic data and behavioral responses were scored from video recordings. Four successive exposure conditions of increasing level were tested, with received unweighted sound exposure levels from 165 to 181 dB re 1 μPa(2) s and peak-to-peak sound pressures from 190 to 207 dB re 1 μPa. There was no evidence that these single seismic exposures altered hearing-including in the highest exposure condition, which matched previous predictions of temporary threshold shift (TTS) onset. Following training at low exposure levels, relatively mild behavioral responses were observed for higher exposure levels. This demonstrates that individuals can learn to tolerate loud, impulsive sounds, but does not necessarily imply that similar sounds would not elicit stronger behavioral responses in wild seals. The absence of observed TTS confirms that regulatory guidelines (based on M-weighting) for single impulse noise exposures are conservative for seals. However, additional studies using multiple impulses and/or higher exposure levels are needed to quantify exposure conditions that do produce measurable changes in hearing sensitivity.

  14. A Nanocrystalline Ni2(Cr,Mo) Intermetallic with Potentially Useful Combination of Properties for Gas Turbine Seal Ring Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawancy, H. M.; Al-Hadhrami, Luai M.

    2012-07-01

    Seal rings are installed for each turbine stage in gas turbine engines to minimize the loss in gas pressure and maintain engine efficiency. During service, seal rings become susceptible to failure by thermal fatigue as demonstrated by a case study. Therefore, a lower coefficient of thermal expansion is among the most important requirements for these applications. We show that long-range ordering in a Ni-Cr-Mo alloy can be used to synthesize a nanocrystalline intermetallic compound combining high strength, high ductility, low coefficient of thermal expansion, and an adequate oxidation resistance up to at least 700 °C. Twinning rather than slip is found to be the predominant deformation mechanism of the intermetallic compound, which is correlated with the crystallography of the disorder-to-order transformation and microstructure evolution. This could explain the enhanced plasticity of the intermetallic compound. The combination of enhanced plasticity, low-thermal expansion, and nano-sized crystals is expected to improve the resistance to thermal fatigue failure.

  15. Immunomodulatory effects of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and perfluoroalkyl acids in East Greenland ringed seals (Pusa hispida).

    PubMed

    Levin, Milton; Gebhard, Erika; Jasperse, Lindsay; Desforges, Jean-Pierre; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian; Eulaers, Igor; Covaci, Adrian; Bossi, Rossana; De Guise, Sylvain

    2016-11-01

    To better elucidate the potential immune-related health effects of exposure to environmentally persistent organic pollutants (POP), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), in ringed seals (Pusa hispida), a sentinel Arctic species, we assessed 1) associations between mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation and in vivo tissue contaminant burdens, and 2) the concentration-response effects of in vitro exposure to PFASs and PCB congeners on mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation. Upon in vitro contaminant exposure, the non-coplanar PCB congeners CB 138, 153, and 180, but not the coplanar CB 169, significantly reduced lymphocyte proliferation between 10 and 20µgg(-1) ww. The respective in vitro EC50 values for these congeners were 13.3, 20.7, 20.8, and 54.6µgg(-1) ww. No modulation of lymphocyte proliferation was observed upon in vitro exposure to two individual PFASs, perfluorooctane sulphonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), at concentrations up to 1000ngg-1. In addition, no significant correlations were found between lymphocyte proliferation and any blood or blubber contaminant measured. Taken together, these data suggest this population of ringed seals is not currently at high risk of altered lymphocyte proliferation from exposure to the POPs or PFASs in this study. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Design optimization and testing of a pump wear ring labyrinth seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhode, D. L.; Morrison, G. L.; Ko, S. H.

    1988-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that design optimization of labyrinth seals using the present numerical model is quite beneficial. The results shown include important, but previously unknown effects on the leakage rate, especially that of step height. Further, complete details are given of a very effective seal designed using this technique for the SSME high pressure hydrogen turbopump. Measurements using turbine flow meters revealed that the optimized configuration gives 67 percent leakage reduction over the original design. These measurements also reveal important leakage effects of the axial straining of the stator, which begins during pump start-up.

  17. Design optimization and testing of a pump wear ring labyrinth seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhode, D. L.; Morrison, G. L.; Ko, S. H.

    1988-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that design optimization of labyrinth seals using the present numerical model is quite beneficial. The results shown include important, but previously unknown effects on the leakage rate, especially that of step height. Further, complete details are given of a very effective seal designed using this technique for the SSME high pressure hydrogen turbopump. Measurements using turbine flow meters revealed that the optimized configuration gives 67 percent leakage reduction over the original design. These measurements also reveal important leakage effects of the axial straining of the stator, which begins during pump start-up.

  18. Butyl rubber O-ring seals: Revision of test procedures for stockpile materials

    SciTech Connect

    Domeier, L.A.; Wagter, K.R.

    1996-12-01

    Extensive testing showed little correlation between test slab and O-ring performance. New procedures, comparable to those used with the traditional test slabs, were defined for hardness, compression set, and tensile property testing on sacrificial O-ring specimens. Changes in target performance values were made as needed and were, in one case, tightened to reflect the O-ring performance data. An additional study was carried out on O-ring and slab performance vs cure cycle and showed little sensitivity of material performance to large changes in curing time. Aging and spectra of certain materials indicated that two sets of test slabs from current vendor were accidently made from EPDM rather than butyl rubber. Random testing found no O-rings made from EPDM. As a result, and additional spectroscope test will be added to the product acceptance procedures to verify the type of rubber compound used.

  19. Wellhead annular seal

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.D.; Szymczak, E.J.

    1988-08-30

    An annular seal is described for sealing across the annular space between a wellhead housing and a hanger positioned within the housing comprising: an annular seal ring having a central ring with upper inner and outer rims and lower inner and outer rims, the upper inner and outer rims being spaced apart and the lower inner and outer rims being spaced apart, an upper wedge ring having a portion thereof projecting into the space between the upper rims and being wider than such space so that when moved fully into the space between the rims it wedges the rims outwardly for sealing engagement with inner and outer surfaces, a lower wedge ring having a portion thereof projecting into the space between the lower rims and being wider than such space so that when moved fully into the space between the rims it wedges the rims outwardly for sealing engagement with inner and outer surfaces, the free outer diameter of the sealing portions of the outer rims having a diameter less than the outer diameter of the lower wedge rings, means coacting with the seal ring and the wedge rings to retain the rings in assembled position, an actuating ring interengaged with the upper wedge ring and movable to provide a relative movement between the wedge rings and the seal ring and also to provide movement of the wedge rings and the seal ring into their ultimate sealing positions, and means for releasably securing the annular seal to the hanger until the rims are in their sealing position and then to release to allow movement of the annular seal on the hanger to position the rims against their respective sealing surfaces on the hanger and the wellhead housing.

  20. Helminth parasites in ringed seals (Pusa hispida) from Svalbard, Norway with special emphasis on nematodes: variation with age, sex, diet, and location of host.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Carina E; Lydersen, Christian; Aspholm, Paul E; Haug, Tore; Kovacs, Kit M

    2010-10-01

    Complete gastrointestinal tracts from 257 ringed seals (Pusa hispida) from Svalbard, Norway, were examined for helminth parasites. Three different helminth groups were recorded (acanthocephalans 61.1%; nematodes 38%; cestodes 0.9%). Acanthocephalans (Polymorphidae) and cestodes (Anophryocephalus and Diphyllobothrium sp(p)., as well as unidentified species, were confined to the intestines. The anisakid nematodes Phocascaris phocae, Pseudoterranova sp(p)., Anisakis sp(p)., and Phocascaris/Contracaecum sp(p). were recorded in both stomachs and the anterior part of the small intestines. The abundance of nematodes and acanthocephalans varied significantly with sampling location of the seal hosts. This is likely due to the relative prevalence of Arctic versus Atlantic water in the different fjord systems, which strongly influences the age class and species of fish available as prey for the seals. Adult male ringed seals had significantly higher abundances of nematodes than did adult females or juveniles. Adult males also had significantly higher abundances of acanthocephalans than did adult females, but were not significantly different from juveniles in this regard. Nematode abundance increased significantly with age of male hosts, but this trend was lacking in female seals. Infection parameters appeared to be related to differences in the age of polar cod (Boreogadus saida) exploited by male, female, and juvenile seals.

  1. Congener specific PCB and polychlorinated camphene (toxaphene) levels in Svalbard ringed seals (Phoca hispida) in relation to sex, age, condition and cytochrome P450 enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Wolkers, J; Burkow, I C; Lydersen, C; Dahle, S; Monshouwer, M; Witkamp, R F

    1998-05-14

    Congener specific PCB and toxaphene (polychlorinated camphene, PCC) analyses were performed in seal blubber, collected in Svalbard, Norway. The concentration, body burden and metabolic index (PCB congener concentration in seal relative to their prey) were calculated. Multiple regression analyses were carried out to evaluate the influence of age, sex, blubber (as a percentage of total body weight) and cytochrome P450 activities on PCB and PCC levels. Levels of total PCBs found were five times higher than in ringed seals from the Canadian Arctic, corresponding with the relatively high contaminant levels in the European Arctic. The dominant PCB congeners (> 70% of the total PCBs measured) were 153, 138, 99, 180 and 101. The observed PCB and PCC accumulation patterns were very similar to patterns in seals from other studies, suggesting a large resemblance in contaminant metabolism. A decrease in the relative abundance of the lower chlorinated PCBs, was associated with higher concentrations of PCB 153. Since there was no indication for selective PCB excretion by lactating females, this suggests metabolism of these PCBs in ringed seals due to xenobiotic metabolising enzymes. The metabolic index confirmed the model of persistency of the different PCBs except for congener 128 and 138. These congeners, considered persistent in seals, could to some extent be metabolised in ringed seals. However, co-elution of PCB 138 with PCB 163 and of PCB 128 with TOX 50 possibly has resulted in an underestimation of the metabolic index for these congeners. Multiple regression analyses revealed a significant positive effect of age and a negative effect of the blubber content on the PCB concentrations. Since large fluctuations of body lipids occur between seasons in pinnipeds, PCB measurements should account for the total blubber content to avoid biased results. PCBs with vicinal H-atoms in the o, m or the m, p positions showed in addition a relation with cytochrome P450 enzyme activities

  2. Efficacy of antibacterial sealing gel and O-ring to prevent microleakage at the implant abutment interface: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Aishwarya Gajanan; Fernandes, Aquaviva; Kulkarni, Raghavendra; Ajantha, Ganavalli Subramanyam; Lekha, Krishnapillai; Nadiger, Ramesh

    2014-02-01

    Gaps and hollow spaces at the implant abutment interface will act as a bacterial reservoir that may cause peri-implantitis. Hence, the sealing ability of O-ring (in addition to polysiloxane) and GapSeal (an antibacterial sealing gel) was evaluated. A total of 45 identical implant systems (ADIN Dental Implant Systems) were divided into 3 groups of 15 implants each: an unsealed group, a group sealed with O-rings, and a group sealed with GapSeal gel. The implant and abutment were gamma sterilized after assembly. Two implants from each group were randomly incubated in sterile brain heart infusion (BHI) broth tubes and checked for sterility. The remaining 13 implants were incubated in BHI broth inoculated with Enterococcus and incubated for 5 days. They were then removed from the tubes, dried aseptically, placed in 2% sodium hypochlorite solution for 30 minutes, and washed with sterile saline for 5 minutes. Next, the assembly was dried aseptically and put in sterile BHI broth tubes and incubated for 24 hours to check surface sterility. Keeping 2 implants as controls from each group, the remaining 11 implants were dismantled group-wise and placed in liquid BHI broth; the test tubes were then shaken thoroughly so that the broth would come in contact with all implant surfaces. The solution from this tube was poured on pre-prepared sterile agar plates and incubated for 24 hours. The colonies formed on the agar plate were then counted using a digital colony counter. The data thus obtained were subjected to statistical analysis by Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance and Mann-Whitney U test. It was concluded that though microbial growth is seen in all the 3 groups, the least growth was seen in the GapSeal group followed by the O-ring group.

  3. Flight Tests of Internally Balanced, Sealed Ailerons on the Curtiss XP-60 Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilruth, R. R.

    1942-01-01

    Results are presented of brief flight tests of the aileron characteristics of the XP-60 airplane with internally balanced, sealed ailerons, which were developed by the NACA for use, particularly, on low-drag-type wings. The results show that light and effective aileron control was obtained without evidence of overbalance or undesirable shaking of the control system at any part of the deflection range within the level-flight speed range.

  4. DIRC, the internally reflecting ring imaging Cherenkov detector for BABAR

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, I.; Aston, D.; Aleksan, R.

    1997-11-01

    The DIRC is a new type of Cherenkov imaging device that will be used for the first time in the BABAR detector at the asymmetric B-factory, PEP-II. It is based on total internal reflection and uses long, rectangular bars made from synthetic fused silica as Cherenkov radiator and light guide. The principles of the DIRC ring imaging Cherenkov technique are explained and results from the prototype program are presented. Its choice for the BABAR detector particle identification system is motivated, followed by a discussion of the quartz radiator properties and the detector design.

  5. Development of seal ring carbon-graphite materials (tasks 8, 9, and 10)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fechter, N. J.; Petrunich, P. S.

    1973-01-01

    A screening study was conducted to develop improved carbon-graphite materials for use in self-acting seals at air temperatures to 1300 F (704 C). Property measurements on materials prepared during this study have shown that: (1) The mechanical properties of a carbon-graphite material were significantly improved by using a fine milled artificial graphite filler material and including intensive mixing, warm molding, and pitch impregnation in the processing; and (2) the oxidation resistance of a carbon-graphite material was improved by including fine milled boron carbide as an oxidation-inhibiting additive. These techniques were employed to develop a material that has 10 times more oxidation resistance than that of a widely used commercial grade and mechanical properties that approach those of the commercial grade.

  6. Sealing arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Brandenstein, M.; Hans, R.; Kiener, H.

    1985-04-09

    An hydraulically operated clutch release has an annular piston hydraulically moveable in an annular chamber. A felt ring is mounted on a shoulder of the piston away from the chamber, to engage the bore surface of the chamber, and a holding ring is snapped onto the end of the shoulder to hold the felt ring on the shoulder. An extension of the holding ring forms a seal with the bore on the chamber, and defines, with the felt ring a dust catching recesS.

  7. Cost saving synergistic shaft seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, L. P.; Strom, T. N.

    1976-01-01

    Segmented carbon rings, used to replace elastomeric seal lip, provide resistance to high temperatures generated in lubricating film. Machining and close manufacturing tolerances of conventional segmented seal are avoided by mounting segmented rings in elastomeric flex section.

  8. Fluid pressure balanced seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, H. W. (Inventor)

    1966-01-01

    A seal which increases in effectiveness with increasing pressure is presented. The seal's functional capability throughout both static and dynamic operation makes it particularly useful for sealing ball valve ports. Other features of the seal include the ability to seal two opposed surfaces simultaneously, tolerance of small misalignments, tolerance of wide temperature ranges, ability to maintain positive sealing contact under conditions of internal or external pressurization, and ability to conform to slight irregularities in seal or surface contours.

  9. Temporal trends of selected POPs and the potential influence of climate variability in a Greenland ringed seal population.

    PubMed

    Rigét, Frank; Vorkamp, Katrin; Hobson, Keith A; Muir, Derek C G; Dietz, Rune

    2013-09-01

    Temporal trends of selected POPs (PCB-52 and 153, p,p'-DDE, HCB, α- and β-HCH) in blubber of ringed seals (Pusa hispida) collected from the early 1990s to 2010 from central West Greenland were studied. In this period, the climate of Greenland warmed and the influences of climate indices such as winter sea-ice coverage (November-May), the number of sea-ice days during winter in Disko Bay, water temperature and salinity at Fyllas Banke during the preceding summer and the Arctic Oscillation Index (AOI) during the preceding winter on concentrations of selected POPs were evaluated using multiple regressions and an information-theoretic approach. Biological co-variables such as age, sex and trophic position (as determined by δ(15)N analysis) of seals were also evaluated. Decreasing levels of the selected POPs were found in all cases and with the highest rate for α-HCH (-10.5% annually) and the lowest rate for β-HCH (-1.9% annually). Sex and age were found to have strong predictive power in the case of PCB-52 and trophic position in the case of p,p'-DDE. Among the climate indices the strongest predictive power was found for the number of sea-ice days in the case of PCB-52, the AOI winter index in the case of α-HCH and salinity at Fyllas Banke during the preceding summer in the case of β-HCH. The present study documents the need for including both biological variables and climate variability parameters in temporal trend studies of POPs in Arctic biota.

  10. Triple acting radial seal

    DOEpatents

    Ebert, Todd A [West Palm Beach, FL; Carella, John A [Jupiter, FL

    2012-03-13

    A triple acting radial seal used as an interstage seal assembly in a gas turbine engine, where the seal assembly includes an interstage seal support extending from a stationary inner shroud of a vane ring, the interstage seal support includes a larger annular radial inward facing groove in which an outer annular floating seal assembly is secured for radial displacement, and the outer annular floating seal assembly includes a smaller annular radial inward facing groove in which an inner annular floating seal assembly is secured also for radial displacement. A compliant seal is secured to the inner annular floating seal assembly. The outer annular floating seal assembly encapsulates the inner annular floating seal assembly which is made from a very low alpha material in order to reduce thermal stress.

  11. Experimental characterization of elastomeric O-rings as reusable seals for mass spectrometric measurements: Application to in situ K-Ar dating on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Yuichiro; Kameda, Shingo; Okuno, Mamoru; Horiuchi, Misa; Shibasaki, Kazuo; Wagatsuma, Ryo; Aida, Yusuke; Miura, Yayoi N.; Yoshioka, Kazuo; Okazaki, Ryuji; Sugita, Seiji

    2017-10-01

    Mass spectrometry has been widely used in lander missions to characterize the volatiles in rocks and soils on planetary surfaces. A good vacuum seal is very important for introducing such solid samples to a vacuum chamber and ejecting them. However, multiple measurements require many metal gaskets, leading to extra weight and complexity for the instruments. In this study, we investigate the capability of three kinds of elastomeric O-rings (Viton, Nexus-SLT, and Nexus-FV) as vacuum seals for mass spectrometric measurements, particularly for in situ K-Ar dating on Mars. First, thermal cycle tests revealed that low-temperature-resistant O-rings can maintain pressure <10-5 Pa at -60 °C under 1 bar ambient pressure, whereas Viton O-rings leaked at -25 °C. Then, the amount of 40Ar due to outgassing from the O-rings and permeation under the ambient pressure of 650 Pa or 3 Pa was measured and compared with the amounts of 40Ar that a flight-equivalent laser would liberate from potential target Martian rocks. The measured amounts were <1% of that a target rock with 5000 ppm K2O and an age of 4.2 Ga would yield. These results suggest that a Viton O-ring can maintain the Ar blank low under the Mars atmospheric pressure when temperatures are higher than -25 °C. A double O-ring seal using the low-temperature-resistant elastomers would be an alternative approach at lower temperatures. The elastomeric O-rings would be useful for constructing a small and light-weighted mass spectrometric instrument for in situ K-Ar dating on Mars.

  12. Metallographic Analysis of Brush Bristle and Integrity Testing of Brush Seal in Shroud Ring of T-700 Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Griffin, Thomas A.; Bobula, George A.; Bill, Robert C.; Hull, David R.; Csavina, Kristine R.

    1995-01-01

    Post-test investigation of a T-700 engine brush seal found regions void of bristles ('yanked out'), regions of bent-over bristles near the inlet, some 'snapped' bristles near the fence, and a more uniform 'smeared' bristle interface between the first and last axial rows of bristles. Several bristles were cut from the brush seal, wax mounted, polished, and analyzed. Metallographic analysis of the bristles near the rub tip showed tungsten-rich phases uniformly distributed throughout the bristle with no apparent change within 1 to 2 micron of the interface except for possibly a small amount of titanium, which would represent a transfer from the rotor. Analysis of the bristle wear face showed nonuniform tungsten, which is indicative of material resolidification. The cut end contained oxides and internal fractures; the worn end was covered with oxide scale. Material losses due to wear and elastoplastic deformation within the shear zone and third-body lubrication effects in the contact zone are discussed.

  13. Seal arrangement

    DOEpatents

    Lundholm, Gunnar

    1987-01-01

    A seal arrangement is provided for preventing gas leakage along a reciprocating piston rod or other reciprocating member passing through a wall which separates a high pressure gas chmber and a low pressure gas chamber. Liquid lubricant is applied to the lower pressure side of a sealing gland surrounding the piston rod to prevent the escape of gas between the rod and the gland. The sealing gland is radially forced against the piston rod by action of a plurality of axially stacked O-rings influenced by an axially acting spring as well as pressure from the gas.

  14. Bioaccumulation and biotransformation of brominated and chlorinated contaminants and their metabolites in ringed seals (Pusa hispida) and polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from East Greenland.

    PubMed

    Letcher, Robert J; Gebbink, Wouter A; Sonne, Christian; Born, Erik W; McKinney, Melissa A; Dietz, Rune

    2009-11-01

    We report on the comparative bioaccumulation, biotransformation and/or biomagnification from East Greenland ringed seal (Pusa hispida) blubber to polar bear (Ursus maritimus) tissues (adipose, liver and brain) of various classes and congeners of persistent chlorinated and brominated contaminants and metabolic by-products: polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlordanes (CHLs), hydroxyl (OH-) and methylsulfonyl (MeSO(2)-) PCBs, polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), OH-PBBs, polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) flame retardants and OH- and methoxyl (MeO-) PBDEs, 2,2-dichloro-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethene (p,p'-DDE), 3-MeSO(2)-p,p'-DDE, pentachlorophenol (PCP) and 4-OH-heptachlorostyrene (4-OH-HpCS). We detected all of the investigated contaminants in ringed seal blubber with high frequency, the main diet of East Greenland bears, with the exception of OH-PCBs and 4-OH-HpCS, which indicated that these phenolic contaminants were likely of metabolic origin and formed in the bears from accumulated PCBs and octachlorostyrene (OCS), respectively, rather than being bioaccumulated from a seal blubber diet. For all of the detectable sum of classes or individual organohalogens, in general, the ringed seal to polar bear mean BMFs for SigmaPCBs, p,p'-DDE, SigmaCHLs, SigmaMeSO(2)-PCBs, 3-MeSO(2)-p,p'-DDE, PCP, SigmaPBDEs, total-(alpha)-HBCD, SigmaOH-PBDEs, SigmaMeO-PBDEs and SigmaOH-PBBs indicated that these organohalogens bioaccumulate, and in some cases there was tissue-specific biomagnification, e.g., BMFs for bear adipose and liver ranged from 2 to 570. The blood-brain barrier appeared to be effective in minimizing brain accumulation as BMFs were seal blubber rather than being metabolic formed from PBDEs in the bears. In vitro PBDE depletion assays using polar bear hepatic microsomes

  15. PCDD/F and PCB concentrations in Arctic ringed seals (Phoca hispida) have not changed between 1981 and 2000.

    PubMed

    Addison, R F; Ikonomou, M G; Fernandez, M P; Smith, T G

    2005-12-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDF) and of non-ortho-, mono-ortho- and di-ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (NO-CB, MO-CB and DO-CB) were measured in blubber of ringed seals sampled at Holman, NWT, in 1981, 1991, 1996 and 2000. Total PCDD and PCDF concentrations were usually below approx. 10 and 5 pg/g wet wt., respectively, and did not change significantly between 1981 and 2000, although there were sporadic temporal differences in some congeners. Total NO-CB, MO-CB and DO-CB concentrations were below approx. 1 ng/g, 250 ng/g and 1 microg/g wet wt. respectively; none of the total PCB concentrations changed significantly over the sampling period. Neither PCDD nor PCDF concentrations differed between males and females, nor did they increase with age in male samples. MO-CB and DO-CB concentrations increased with age in males, but not in females, and concentrations of total MO-CB and DO-CB were usually lower in females than in males. Changes in the distribution of PCB congeners between the 1980s and the 1990s are consistent with atmospheric transport processes becoming increasingly important in the introduction of PCBs to the Arctic in recent years.

  16. Ultra high vacuum seal arrangement

    DOEpatents

    Flaherty, Robert

    1981-01-01

    Arrangement for demountably sealing two concentric metallic tubes in an ultra high vacuum system which facilitates remote actuation. A tubular seal includes integral spaced lips which circumferentially engage the metallic tubes. The lips plastically deform the metallic tubes by mechanical forces resulting from a martensite to austenite transformation of the tubular seal upon application of a predetermined temperature. The sealing force is released upon application of another temperature which causes a transformation from the stronger austenite to the weaker martensite. Use of a dual acting sealing ring and driving ring circumferentially contacting the sealing ring is particularly applicable to sealing larger diameter concentric metallic members.

  17. Comparative hepatic in vitro depletion and metabolite formation of major perfluorooctane sulfonate precursors in Arctic polar bear, beluga whale, and ringed seal.

    PubMed

    Letcher, Robert J; Chu, Shaogang; McKinney, Melissa A; Tomy, Gregg T; Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune

    2014-10-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) has been reported to be among the most concentrated persistent organic pollutants in Arctic marine wildlife. The present study examined the in vitro depletion of major PFOS precursors, N-ethyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamide (N-EtFOSA) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA), as well as metabolite formation using an assay based on enzymatically viable liver microsomes for three top Arctic marine mammalian predators, polar bear (Ursus maritimus), beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas), and ringed seal (Pusa hispida), and in laboratory rat (Rattus rattus) serving as a general mammalian model and positive control. Rat assays showed that N-EtFOSA (38 nM or 150 ng mL(-1)) to FOSA metabolism was >90% complete after 10 min, and at a rate of 23 pmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein. Examining all species in a full 90 min incubation assay, there was >95% N-EtFOSA depletion for the rat active control and polar bear microsomes, ∼65% for ringed seals, and negligible depletion of N-EtFOSA for beluga whale. Concomitantly, the corresponding in vitro formation of FOSA from N-EtFOSA was also quantitatively rat≈polar bear>ringed seal>beluga whale. A lack of enzymatic ability and/or a rate too slow to be detected likely explains the lack of N-EtFOSA to FOSA transformation for beluga whale. In the same assays, the depletion of the FOSA metabolite was insignificant (p>0.01) and with no concomitant formation of PFOS metabolite. This suggests that, in part, a source of FOSA is the biotransformation of accumulated N-EtFOSA in free-ranging Arctic ringed seal and polar bear. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of neurotoxic effects of mercury in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas), ringed seals (Pusa hispida), and polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from the Canadian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Krey, Anke; Ostertag, Sonja K; Chan, Hing Man

    2015-03-15

    Marine mammals are indicator species of the Arctic ecosystem and an integral component of the traditional Inuit diet. The potential neurotoxic effects of increased mercury (Hg) in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas), ringed seals (Pusa hispida), and polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are not clear. We assessed the risk of Hg-associated neurotoxicity to these species by comparing their brain Hg concentrations with threshold concentrations for toxic endpoints detected in laboratory animals and field observations: clinical symptoms (>6.75 mg/kg wet weight (ww)), neuropathological signs (>4 mg/kg ww), neurochemical changes (>0.4 mg/kg ww), and neurobehavioral changes (>0.1mg/kg ww). The total Hg (THg) concentrations in the cerebellum and frontal lobe of ringed seals and polar bears were <0.5mg/kg ww, whereas the average concentration in beluga whale brain was >3mg/kg ww. Our results suggest that brain THg levels in polar bears are below levels that induce neurobehavioral effects as reported in the literature, while THg concentrations in ringed seals are within the range that elicit neurobehavioral effects and individual ringed seals exceed the threshold for neurochemical changes. The relatively high THg concentration in beluga whales exceeds all of the neurotoxicity thresholds assessed. High brain selenium (Se):Hg molar ratios were observed in all three species, suggesting that Se could protect the animals from Hg-associated neurotoxicity. This assessment was limited by several factors that influence neurotoxic effects in animals, including: animal species; form of Hg in the brain; and interactions with modifiers of Hg-associated toxicity, such as Se. Comparing brain Hg concentrations in wildlife with concentrations of appropriate laboratory studies can be used as a tool for risk characterization of the neurotoxic effects of Hg in Arctic marine mammals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Nozzle seal

    DOEpatents

    Herman, Richard Frederick

    1977-10-25

    In an illustrative embodiment of the invention, a nuclear reactor pressure vessel, having an internal hoop from which the heated coolant emerges from the reactor core and passes through to the reactor outlet nozzles, is provided with sealing members operatively disposed between the outlet nozzle and the hoop. The sealing members are biased against the pressure vessel and the hoop and are connected by a leak restraining member establishing a leak-proof condition between the inlet and outlet coolants in the region about the outlet nozzle. Furthermore, the flexible responsiveness of the seal assures that the seal will not structurally couple the hoop to the pressure vessel.

  20. Temperature data from Norwegian and Russian waters of the northern Barents Sea collected by free-living ringed seals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lydersen, Christian; Anders Nøst, Ole; Kovacs, Kit M.; Fedak, Mike A.

    2004-05-01

    Free-living ringed seals ( N=11) equipped with satellite-relayed data loggers (SRDLs) with incorporated oceanographic-quality temperature sensors were used to collect data from a large sector of the northern Barents Sea during the autumn and early winter. A total of 2346 temperature profiles were collected over a 4-month period from Norwegian and Russian arctic waters in areas that were at times 90-100% ice-covered. Temperature distributions at different depths from northeastern parts of Svalbard, Norway show warm North Atlantic water (NAW) flowing along the continental slope and gradually cooling at all depths as it flows eastwards. The data suggest that most of the cooling takes place west of 30°E. Vertical temperature profiles from the area between Svalbard and Franz Josef Land, Russia show how the surface water cools during freeze-up and demonstrate a warm water flow, which is probably NAW, coming in from the north through a deep trench west of Franz Josef Land. Global oceanographic and climate models require improved oceanographic databases from crucial areas where important hydrological phenomena occur. Such areas in arctic waters are often inaccessible during winter and logistically difficult to reach even in summer. The present study demonstrates how large amounts of oceanographic information can be collected and retrieved in a cost-efficient manner using ice-associated marine mammals as carrier of oceanographic sampling equipment. In addition to the oceanographic value of the data collected by marine mammals in this manner, a vast amount of information regarding the habitat of these animals is concomitantly sampled.

  1. Rotary shaft sealing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Dietle, Lannie L.; Schroeder, John E.; Kalsi, Manmohan S.; Alvarez, Patricio D.

    2010-09-21

    A rotary shaft sealing assembly in which a first fluid is partitioned from a second fluid in a housing assembly having a rotary shaft located at least partially within. In one embodiment a lip seal is lubricated and flushed with a pressure-generating seal ring preferably having an angled diverting feature. The pressure-generating seal ring and a hydrodynamic seal may be used to define a lubricant-filled region with each of the seals having hydrodynamic inlets facing the lubricant-filled region. Another aspect of the sealing assembly is having a seal to contain pressurized lubricant while withstanding high rotary speeds. Another rotary shaft sealing assembly embodiment includes a lubricant supply providing a lubricant at an elevated pressure to a region between a lip seal and a hydrodynamic seal with a flow control regulating the flow of lubricant past the lip seal. The hydrodynamic seal may include an energizer element having a modulus of elasticity greater than the modulus of elasticity of a sealing lip of the hydrodynamic seal.

  2. Rotary shaft sealing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Dietle, Lannie L; Schroeder, John E; Kalsi, Manmohan S; Alvarez, Patricio D

    2013-08-13

    A rotary shaft sealing assembly in which a first fluid is partitioned from a second fluid in a housing assembly having a rotary shaft located at least partially within. In one embodiment a lip seal is lubricated and flushed with a pressure-generating seal ring preferably having an angled diverting feature. The pressure-generating seal ring and a hydrodynamic seal may be used to define a lubricant-filled region with each of the seals having hydrodynamic inlets facing the lubricant-filled region. Another aspect of the sealing assembly is having a seal to contain pressurized lubricant while withstanding high rotary speeds. Another rotary shaft sealing assembly embodiment includes a lubricant supply providing a lubricant at an elevated pressure to a region between a lip seal and a hydrodynamic seal with a flow control regulating the flow of lubricant past the lip seal. The hydrodynamic seal may include an energizer element having a modulus of elasticity greater than the modulus of elasticity of a sealing lip of the hydrodynamic seal.

  3. Influence of ceramic package internal components on the performance of vacuum sealed uncooled bolometric detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paquet, Alex; Deshaies, Sébastien; Desroches, Yan; Whalin, Jeff; Topart, Patrice

    2013-03-01

    INO has developed a hermetic vacuum packaging technology for uncooled bolometric detectors based on ceramic leadless chip carriers (LCC). Cavity pressures less than 3 mTorr are obtained. Processes are performed in a state-of-the art semi-automated vacuum furnace that allows for independent activation of non-evaporable thin film getters. The getter activation temperature is limited by both the anti-reflection coated silicon or germanium window and the MEMS device built on CMOS circuits. Temperature profiles used to achieve getter activation and vacuum sealing were optimized to meet lifetime and reliability requirements of packaged devices. Internal package components were carefully selected with respect to their outgassing behavior so that a good vacuum performance was obtained. In this paper, INO's packaging process is described. The influence of various package internal components, in particular the CMOS circuits, on vacuum performance is presented. The package cavity pressure was monitored using INO's pressure microsensors and the gas composition was determined by internal vapor analysis. Lifetime was derived from accelerated testing after storage of packaged detectors at various temperatures from room temperature to 120°C. A hermeticity yield over 80% was obtained for batches of twelve devices packaged simultaneously. Packaged FPAs submitted to standard MIL-STD-810 reliability testing (vibration, shock and temperature cycling) exhibited no change in IR response. Results show that vacuum performance strongly depends on CMOS circuit chips. Detectors packaged using a thin film getter show no change in cavity pressure after storage for more than 30 days at 120°C. Moreover, INO's vacuum sealing process is such that even without a thin film getter, a base pressure of less than 10 mTorr is obtained and no pressure change is observed after 40 days at 85°C.

  4. Mechanically expandable annular seal

    DOEpatents

    Gilmore, R.F.

    1983-07-19

    A mechanically expandable annular reusable seal assembly to form an annular hermetic barrier between two stationary, parallel, and planar containment surfaces is described. A rotatable ring, attached to the first surface, has ring wedges resembling the saw-tooth array of a hole saw. Matching seal wedges are slidably attached to the ring wedges and have their motion restricted to be perpendicular to the second surface. Each seal wedge has a face parallel to the second surface. An annular elastomer seal has a central annular region attached to the seal wedges' parallel faces and has its inner and outer circumferences attached to the first surface. A rotation of the ring extends the elastomer seal's central region perpendicularly towards the second surface to create the fluid tight barrier. A counter rotation removes the barrier. 6 figs.

  5. Mechanically expandable annular seal

    DOEpatents

    Gilmore, Richard F.

    1983-01-01

    A mechanically expandable annular reusable seal assembly to form an annular hermetic barrier between two stationary, parallel, and planar containment surfaces. A rotatable ring, attached to the first surface, has ring wedges resembling the saw-tooth array of a hole saw. Matching seal wedges are slidably attached to the ring wedges and have their motion restricted to be perpendicular to the second surface. Each seal wedge has a face parallel to the second surface. An annular elastomer seal has a central annular region attached to the seal wedges' parallel faces and has its inner and outer circumferences attached to the first surface. A rotation of the ring extends the elastomer seal's central region perpendicularly towards the second surface to create the fluidtight barrier. A counterrotation removes the barrier.

  6. Sealing device for an oil pan adapter in an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, Y.

    1987-06-02

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine having a cylinder, an oil pan under the cylinder block, and a fly-wheel housing mounted to one end of the cylinder block. The improvement comprises: an oil pan adapter mounted between the cylinder block and the oil pan and having an end face held against the fly-wheel housing; there being a generally U shaped groove in the end face of the oil pan adapter, the U shaped groove including a pair of vertical limbs each having a horizontal limb joined to its top end. Each horizontal limb is open both toward the cylinder block and the fly-wheel housing; and a generally U shaped sealing strip including a pair of vertical limbs each having a horizontal limb joined to its top end. The sealing strip is engaged in the U shaped groove in the end face of the oil pan adapter and fluid is tightly held against the fly-wheel housing and the cylinder block.

  7. An Arctic predator-prey system in flux: climate change impacts on coastal space use by polar bears and ringed seals.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Charmain D; Kovacs, Kit M; Ims, Rolf A; Aars, Jon; Lydersen, Christian

    2017-09-01

    Climate change is impacting different species at different rates, leading to alterations in biological interactions with ramifications for wider ecosystem functioning. Understanding these alterations can help improve predictive capacity and inform management efforts designed to mitigate against negative impacts. We investigated how the movement and space use patterns of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in coastal areas in Svalbard, Norway, have been altered by a sudden decline in sea ice that occurred in 2006. We also investigated whether the spatial overlap between polar bears and their traditionally most important prey, ringed seals (Pusa hispida), has been affected by the sea-ice decline, as polar bears are dependent on a sea-ice platform for hunting seals. We attached biotelemetry devices to ringed seals (n = 60, both sexes) and polar bears (n = 67, all females) before (2002-2004) and after (2010-2013) a sudden decline in sea ice in Svalbard. We used linear mixed-effects models to evaluate the association of these species to environmental features and an approach based on Time Spent in Area to investigate changes in spatial overlap between the two species. Following the sea-ice reduction, polar bears spent the same amount of time close to tidal glacier fronts in the spring but less time in these areas during the summer and autumn. However, ringed seals did not alter their association with glacier fronts during summer, leading to a major decrease in spatial overlap values between these species in Svalbard's coastal areas. Polar bears now move greater distances daily and spend more time close to ground-nesting bird colonies, where bear predation can have substantial local effects. Our results indicate that sea-ice declines have impacted the degree of spatial overlap and hence the strength of the predator-prey relationship between polar bears and ringed seals, with consequences for the wider Arctic marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Shifts in ecological

  8. A comparison of ringed and bearded seal diet, condition and productivity between historical (1975-1984) and recent (2003-2012) periods in the Alaskan Bering and Chukchi seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Justin A.; Quakenbush, Lori T.; Citta, John J.

    2015-08-01

    Reductions in summer sea ice in the Chukchi and Beaufort seas are expected to affect what has been an ice-adapted marine food web in the Pacific Arctic. To determine whether recent decreases in sea ice have affected ice-associated marine predators (i.e., ringed, Pusa hispida, and bearded seals, Erignathus barbatus) in the Bering and Chukchi seas we compared diet, body condition, growth, productivity, and the proportion of pups harvested (an index of weaning success) for seals of each species harvested by 11 Alaskan villages during two periods; a historical (1975-1984) and a recent period (2003-2012). We also examined how changes in indices of seal health may be correlated with the reduction of sea ice characteristic of the recent period. For ringed seals ⩾1 year of age, the % frequency of occurrence (%FO) of Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida), walleye pollock (Gadus chalcogramma), rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), and Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) increased from the historic to the recent period, while the %FO of invertebrates decreased for both pups and seals ⩾1 year of age. For bearded seals ⩾1 year of age, the %FO of Arctic cod, pricklebacks, and flatfish increased during the recent period, while the %FO of saffron cod (Eleginus gracilis) decreased for pups. Although invertebrates did not change overall for either age class, decreases occurred in 10 of 24 specific prey categories, for bearded seals ⩾1 year of age; only echiurids increased. The %FO of gastropods and bivalves increased for pups while isopods and one species of shrimp and crab decreased in occurrence. During the recent period ringed seals grew faster, had thicker blubber, had no change in pregnancy rate, matured 2 years earlier, and a larger proportion of pups was harvested than during the historical period. Correlations with spring ice concentration showed that the growth and blubber thickness of seals ⩾1 year of age, blubber thickness of pups, and the proportion of pups in the harvest all

  9. Rim seal for turbine wheel

    DOEpatents

    Glezer, Boris; Boyd, Gary L.; Norton, Paul F.

    1996-01-01

    A turbine wheel assembly includes a disk having a plurality of blades therearound. A ceramic ring is mounted to the housing of the turbine wheel assembly. A labyrinth rim seal mounted on the disk cooperates with the ceramic ring to seal the hot gases acting on the blades from the disk. The ceramic ring permits a tighter clearance between the labyrinth rim seal and the ceramic ring.

  10. Seals and Sealing Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Developments by the aerospace industry in seals and sealing techniques are announced for possible use in other areas. The announcements presented are grouped as: sealing techniques for cryogenic fluids, high pressure applications, and modification for improved performance.

  11. Tamper indicating seal

    DOEpatents

    Romero, Juan A [Albuquerque, NM; Walker, Charles A [Albuquerque, NM; Blair, Dianna S [Albuquerque, NM; Bodmer, Connie C [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-05-29

    Seals have a flexible wire that can be looped through a hasp-like device. The seals include a body having a recess, a plug insertable into the recess and a snap ring for fastening the plug to the body. The plug and/or body can have access holes for inserting the wire into the recess. "Teeth" on the outer diameter and through-holes through the thickness of the snap ring allow for passing the ends of the flexible wire from the recess through the snap ring. The ends of the wire can be folded back over the snap ring and into engagement with the teeth. Assembly of the seal causes the ends of the wire to be securely fastened between the teeth of the snap ring and the sidewall of the recess. Seals can include a plug and/or body made of a frangible material such as glass, ceramic, glass-ceramic or brittle polymer.

  12. Long-term changes of mercury levels in ringed seal (Phoca hispida) from Amundsen Gulf, and beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) from the Beaufort Sea, western Canadian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Outridge, P M; Hobson, K A; Savelle, J

    2009-11-15

    Mercury (Hg) concentrations were determined in the canine teeth of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) harvested during the 13th-14th, late 19th and early 21st Centuries in Amundsen Gulf, Northwest Territories, Canada. Most historical and pre-industrial teeth contained undetectable Hg levels (i.e. <1.0 ng/g DW), whereas samples from 2001-03 contained up to 12 ng/g DW in an age-dependent pattern. Assuming a median [Hg] value in 13th-14th Century teeth of half the detection limit (i.e. 0.5 ng/g DW), geometric means of Hg in modern teeth were 9-17 times those of seals in the 14th Century, equivalent to an anthropogenic input of 89-94% of total Hg in modern seals. These results corroborate a previous study of beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) in the nearby Beaufort Sea. While the seals' trophic position (inferred from delta(15)N values) did not change over time, modern delta(13)C values were lower by about 2 per thousand than in the 14th and 19th Centuries. This could be due to increased dissolution of anthropogenically derived CO(2) in the ocean from the atmosphere, but could also indicate more offshore pelagic feeding by modern seals, which might be a factor in their Hg exposure. New tooth [Hg] data are also presented for the Beaufort Sea beluga, using recently-discovered museum samples collected in 1960/61, which showed that most of the anthropogenic contribution to beluga Hg had already taken effect by 1960 (reaching approximately 75% of total Hg). Taken together, the long-term seal and beluga data indicate that whereas Hg levels in the marine ecosystems of the western Canadian Arctic were probably unchanged from pre-industrial times up to the late 19th Century, there was a significant, many-fold increase in the early to mid-20th Century, but little or no change after about the early 1960s.

  13. Energy efficient face seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sehnal, J.; Sedy, J.; Etsion, I.; Zobens, A.

    1982-01-01

    Torque, face temperature, leakage, and wear of a flat face seal were compared with three coned face seals at pressures up to 2758 kPa and speeds up to 8000 rpm. Axial movement of the mating seal parts was recorded by a digital data acquisition system. The coning of the tungsten carbide primary ring ranged from .51 micro-m to 5.6 micro-m. The torque of the coned face seal balanced to 76.3% was an average 42% lower, the leakage eleven times higher, than that of the standard flat face seal. The reduction of the balance of the coned face seal to 51.3% resulted by decreasing the torque by an additional 44% and increasing leakage 12 to 230 times, depending on the seal shaft speed. No measurable wear was observed on the face of the coned seals.

  14. Seal assembly with anti-rotation pin for high pressure supercritical fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Steven A.; Fuller, Robert L.

    2014-08-05

    A seal assembly for sealing a machine with a first chamber and a second chamber is provided. A rotating shaft extends through the first and second chambers, and rotates therein. The seal assembly has a seal housing, a seal ring and a seal pin. The seal housing is positionable in the machine housing. The seal housing has a seal pocket extending into a fluid side thereof, and a housing receptacle extending into an inner diameter thereof at the seal pocket. The seal ring is positionable in the seal pocket of the seal housing for forming a seal therewith. The seal ring has a ring receptacle extending into an outer diameter thereof. The ring receptacle is positionable adjacent to the housing receptacle for defining a pin hole therebetween. The seal pin is loosely positionable in the pin hole whereby movement about the seal ring is accommodated while preventing rotation thereof.

  15. Damped flexible seal

    SciTech Connect

    DuBois, Neil J.; Amaral, Antonio M.

    1992-10-27

    A damped flexible seal assembly for a torpedo isolates the tailcone thereof rom vibrational energy present in the drive shaft assembly. A pair of outside flanges, each of which include an inwardly facing groove and an O-ring constrained therein, provide a watertight seal against the outer non-rotating surface of the drive shaft assembly. An inside flange includes an outwardly-facing groove and an O-ring constrained therein, and provides a watertight seal against the inner surface of the tail cone. Two cast-in-place elastomeric seals provide a watertight seal between the flanges and further provide a damping barrier between the outside flanges and the inside flanges for damping vibrational energy present in the drive shaft assembly before the energy can reach the tailcone through the seal assembly.

  16. 40 CFR Table 26 to Subpart G of... - Seal Related Factors for Internal Floating Roof Vessels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations...-mounted secondary seal a 2.5 0 a If vessel-specific information is not available about the secondary...

  17. Self-acting shaft seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, L. P.

    1978-01-01

    Self-acting seals are described in detail. The mathematical models for obtaining a seal force balance and the equilibrium operating film thickness are outlined. Particular attention is given to primary ring response (seal vibration) to rotating seat face runout. This response analysis reveals three different vibration models with secondary seal friction being an important parameter. Leakage flow inlet pressure drop and affects of axisymmetric sealing face deformations are discussed. Experimental data on self-acting face seals operating under simulated gas turbine conditions are given. Also a spiral groove seal design operated to 244 m/sec (800 ft/sec) is described.

  18. Measurement of spin observables using a storage ring with polarized beam and polarized internal gas target

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.; Miller, M.A.; Smith, A.; Hansen, J.; Bloch, C.; van den Brand, J.F.J.; Bulten, H.J.; Ent, R.; Goodman, C.D.; Jacobs, W.W.; Jones, C.E.; Korsch, W.; Leuschner, M.; Lorenzon, W.; Marchlenski, D.; Meyer, H.O.; Milner, R.G.; Neal, J.S.; Pancella, P.V.; Pate, S.F.; Pitts, W.K.; von Przewoski, B.; Rinckel, T.; Sowinski, J.; Sperisen, F.; Sugarbaker, E.; Tschalaer, C.; Unal, O.; Zhou, Z. Indiana University Cyclotron Facility, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center and Laboratory for Nuclear Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 University of Wisconsin enMadison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan 49007 )

    1993-02-08

    We report the first measurement of analyzing powers and spin correlation parameters using a storage ring with both beam and internal target polarized. Spin observables were measured for elastic scattering of 45 and 198 MeV protons from polarized [sup 3]He nuclei in a new laser-pumped internal gas target at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility Cooler Ring. Scattered protons and recoil [sup 3]He nuclei were detected in coincidence with large acceptance plastic scintillators and silicon detectors. The internal-target technique demonstrated in this experiment has broad applicability to the measurement of spin-dependent scattering in nuclear and particle physics.

  19. DIRC, the internally reflecting ring imaging Cerenkov detector for BABAR: Properties of the quartz radiators

    SciTech Connect

    Schwiening, Jochen

    1998-02-01

    A description of DIRC, a particle identification detector for the BABAR experiment at the Standard Linear Collider B Factory is given. It is the barrel region of the detector and its name is an acronym for detection of internally reflected Cherenkov radiation. It is a Cherenkov ring imaging device which utilizes totally internally reflected Cherenkov light in the visible and ultraviolet regions.

  20. Analysis and design of a uniform-clearance, pumping-ring rod seal for the Stirling engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etsion, I.

    1980-01-01

    A uniform clearance pumping ring, as opposed to the conventional taper clearance one, is described. The uniform clearance concept eliminates complex elastohydrodynamic problems and enables a simple analytical treatment to be made. An analytical expression is derived for the pumping rate showing the effect of various design parameters on the pumping ring's performance. An optimum clearance is found by which the pumping rate is maximized and a numerical example is presented to demonstrate the potential of the uniform clearance design.

  1. The modified Cobra Seal

    SciTech Connect

    Ystesund, K.J.; Drayer, D.D.

    1990-01-01

    The Cobra Seal was developed in response to the International Atomic Energy Agency's request for an in situ verifiable seal. The Type E metal cap seal, still widely used by the IAEA, must be removed and returned to Agency headquarters for verification. The Cobra Seal allows an inspector to verify seal identity and integrity on site, without removing the seal. The seal consists of a loop of multi-strand fiber optic cable, which can be routed around or through the object to be sealed, and a seal body that secures the ends of the fiber optic cable. A cutting blade in the seal body randomly cuts a portion of the optical fibers in the cable. After the seal assembly is completed, a reference image is recorded of the unique pattern of light spots produced when the seal face is illuminated. Subsequent photographs of the seal pattern are compared to the original to establish the seal identity and integrity. This paper reviews the improvements and the technology of the cobra seal system. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Temporal trends in "legacy" organochlorine contaminants in blubber of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from Ulukhaktok, NT, Canada between 1972 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Addison, R F; Muir, D C; Ikonomou, M G; Harwood, L; Smith, T G; Alikamik, J

    2014-01-01

    In blubber of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from Ulukhaktok, NT, residues of DDT, other organochlorine pesticides, and PCBs declined between 1972 and 2010. The rate of decline varied: concentrations of the DDT-group began to fall after 1981, whereas those of PCBs fell rapidly between 1972 and 1981, and then slowed. Concentrations of cis- and trans-chlordane and of HCB in both sexes, and of cis-nonachlor in males, declined slowly between 1978 and 2010; those of other organochlorine pesticides remained steady. Exponential half-lives of p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE in female seals are about 9 and 36 y (corresponding to initial declines of 7.8% and 1.9% per year, respectively) and those of PCB congeners from about 20 to 60 y (declines of 3.2% to <1.5% per year); the more refractory residues may be detectable for centuries to come. Exploratory PCA of PCB congener distribution identified temporal changes apparently not related to molecular structure.

  3. Low leakage fiber metal seals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarrabet, G. P.; Lu, L.

    1992-06-01

    A ceramic foam-compositing process has been developed for incorporating a closed-cell foam into a fiber netal structure; the composite sealing material thus obtained meets the low leakage requirement of advanced gas turbine engines. The seals' abradability, erosion resistance, and low weight are maintained, and the seals are produced by brazing preformed rub strips to backing rings, followed by final machining.

  4. High Pressure Hydraulic Seals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    looked XV2690-18D Ring good, front seal XP2714-4 Backups, (ML1841) cracked. American Variseal /Shamban 100,493 110cc leakage on P/N AS-1272 rear seal...BACKUPS SEVERELY SEAL CEC 49S1C-214-DS DETERIORATED. 38. AMERICAN VARISEAL / TESTED THROUGH 100.493 CYCLES. EXCESSIVE LEAKAGE 110 CC SHAMBAN ON REAR SEAL...California 90230 Koppers Company, Inc. Baltimore, Maryland 21203 American Variseal Corp. Broomfield, Colorado 80020 The test actuator parts were serialized

  5. Investigation into electron cloud effects in the International Linear Collider positron damping ring

    SciTech Connect

    Crittenden, J. A.; Conway, J.; Dugan, G. F.; Palmer, M. A.; Rubin, D. L.; Shanks, J.; Sonnad, K. G.; Boon, L.; Harkay, K.; Ishibashi, T.; Furman, M. A.; Guiducci, S.; Pivi, M. T. F.; Wang, L.

    2014-03-01

    We report modeling results for electron cloud buildup and instability in the International Linear Collider positron damping ring. Updated optics, wiggler magnets, and vacuum chamber designs have recently been developed for the 5 GeV, 3.2-km racetrack layout. An analysis of the synchrotron radiation profile around the ring has been performed, including the effects of diffuse and specular photon scattering on the interior surfaces of the vacuum chamber. The results provide input to the cloud buildup simulations for the various magnetic field regions of the ring. The modeled cloud densities thus obtained are used in the instability threshold calculations. We conclude that the mitigation techniques employed in this model will suffice to allow operation of the damping ring at the design operational specifications

  6. Method of sealing a high performance automotive engine and engine assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenquist, G.A.

    1994-01-04

    A method of sealing a high performance internal combustion engine with a head gasket having a fire ring comprising providing a groove in the head or block generally concentric with each said combustion opening, each groove having a land area and a generally vertical wall, and positioning the gasket on the block so that when the head is torqued down, each groove receives a fire ring and compresses the wire ring thereof to provide a primary seal therewith at the land area, the wall engages the armor of the fire ring to form a secondary seal, and the head and block clamping surfaces engage the armor to clamp the armor. The head gasket has a main body of a first thickness including a central core and facing layers laminated to the core, and defines a plurality of combustion openings. A fire ring is disposed and secured in each combustion opening, each fire ring comprising a generally U-shaped armor having a pair of legs overlying and underlying the main body adjacent a combustion opening and a central body connecting the legs and ensheathing a wire ring for providing a combustion seal. In use, the combustion seal provides a labyrinth seal against the spaced surfaces of the groove and against a corner defined by the groove. 6 figs.

  7. Duct System Flammability and Air Sealing Fire Separation Assemblies in the International Residential Code

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, A.; Prahl, D.

    2014-12-01

    IBACOS identified two barriers that limit the ability of builders to cost-effectively achieve higher energy efficiency levels in housing. These are (1) the use of duct system materials that inherently achieve airtightness and are appropriately sized for low-load houses and (2) the ability to air seal fire separation assemblies. The issues identified fall into a gray area of the codes.

  8. Duct System Flammability and Air Sealing Fire Separation Assemblies in the International Residential Code

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, A.; Prahl, D.

    2014-12-01

    IBACOS identified two barriers that limit the ability of builders to cost-effectively achieve higher energy efficiency levels in housing. These are the use of duct system materials that inherently achieve airtightness and are appropriately sized for low-load houses and the ability to air seal fire separation assemblies. The issues identified fall into a gray area of the codes.

  9. Seal designing of theodolite used in seaside environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Humin; Yan, Xiaoxu; Hao, Wei; Zhou, Sizhong

    2014-08-01

    Based on the environment requirements in seaside there exists static and dynamic seal designing for the photoelectric Theodolite. Static seal designing emphatically includes the designing of o-ring size and mechanical property analysis of o-ring seal, which is difficult to adopt conventional dynamic seal to meet the requirements. According to practical application, the combination of the radial labyrinth seal and high quality felt seal are designed. The combination seal which better solves the seal problem of narrow radial size is a good way of dynamic seal. At the same time, there is engineering practice needing to proof the radial labyrinth seal.

  10. Face seal assembly for rotating drum

    DOEpatents

    Morgan, J. Giles; Rennich, Mark J.; Whatley, Marvin E.

    1982-01-01

    A seal assembly comprises a tube rotatable about its longitudinal axis and having two longitudinally spaced flanges projecting radially outwardly from the outer surface thereof. Slidably positioned against one of the flanges is a seal ring, and disposed between this seal ring and the other flange are two rings that are forced apart by springs, one of the latter rings being attached to a flexible wall.

  11. Inflatable traversing probe seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trimarchi, Paul A.

    1991-01-01

    An inflatable seal acts as a pressure-tight zipper to provide traversing capability for instrumentation rakes and probes. A specially designed probe segment with a teardrop cross-section in the vicinity of the inflatable seal minimizes leakage at the interface. The probe is able to travel through a lengthwise slot in a pressure vessel or wind tunnel section, while still maintaining pressure integrity. The design uses two commercially available inflatable seals, opposing each other, to cover the probe slot in a wind tunnel wall. Proof-of-concept tests were conducted at vessel pressures up to 30 psig, with seals inflated to 50 psig, showing no measurable leakage along the seal's length or around the probe teardrop cross-section. This seal concept can replace the existing technology of sliding face plate/O-ring systems in applications where lengthwise space is limited.

  12. Incomplete cooling down of Saturn's A ring at solar equinox: Implication for seasonal thermal inertia and internal structure of ring particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morishima, Ryuji; Spilker, Linda; Brooks, Shawn; Deau, Estelle; Pilorz, Stu

    2016-11-01

    At the solar equinox in August 2009, the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) onboard Cassini showed the lowest Saturn's ring temperatures ever observed. Detailed radiative transfer models show that the observed equinox temperatures of Saturn's A ring are much higher than model predictions as long as only the flux from Saturn is taken into account. In addition, the post-equinox temperatures are lower than the pre-equinox temperatures at the same absolute solar elevation angle. These facts indicate that the A ring was not completely cooled down at the equinox and that it is possible to give constraints on the size and seasonal thermal inertia of ring particles using seasonal temperature variations around the equinox. We develop a simple seasonal model for ring temperatures and first assume that the internal density and the thermal inertia of a ring particle are uniform with depth. The particle size is estimated to be 1-2 m. The seasonal thermal inertia is found to be 30-50 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2 in the middle A ring whereas it is ∼10 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2 or as low as the diurnal thermal inertia in the inner and outermost regions of the A ring. An additional internal structure model, in which a particle has a high density core surrounded by a fluffy regolith mantle, shows that the core radius relative to the particle radius is about 0.9 for the middle A ring and is much less for the inner and outer regions of the A ring. This means that the radial variation of the internal density of ring particles exists across the A ring. Some mechanisms may be confining dense particles in the middle A ring against viscous diffusion. Alternatively, the (middle) A ring might have recently formed (<108 yr) by destruction of an icy satellite, so that dense particles have not yet diffused over the A ring and regolith mantles of particles have not grown thick. Our model results also indicate that the composition of the core is predominantly water ice, not rock.

  13. Some metallographic results for brush bristles and brush segments of a shroud ring brush seal tested in a T-700 engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Griffin, Thomas A.; Bobula, George A.; Bill, Robert C.; Hull, David R.; Csavina, Kristine R.

    1994-01-01

    Post-test investigation of a T-700 engine brush seal found regions void of bristles ('yanked out'), regions of bent-over bristles near the inlet, some 'snapped' bristles near the fence, and a more uniform smeared bristle interface between the first and last axial rows of bristles. Several bristles and four brush segments were cut from the brush seal, wax mounted, polished, and analyzed. Metallographic analysis of the bristle near the rub tip showed tungsten-rich phases uniformly distributed throughout the bristle, no apparent change within 1 mu m of the interface, and possibly a small amount of titanium, which would represent a transfer from the rotor. Analysis of the bristle wear face showed nonuniform tungsten, which is indicative of material resolidification. The cut end contained oxides and internal fractures; the worn end was covered with oxide scale. Material losses due to wear and elastoplastic deformation within the shear zone and third-body lubrication effects in the contact zone are discussed.

  14. Mechanical testing of a device for subcutaneous internal anterior pelvic ring fixation versus external pelvic ring fixation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although useful in the emergency treatment of pelvic ring injuries, external fixation is associated with pin tract infections, the patient’s limited mobility and a restricted surgical accessibility to the lower abdomen. In this study, the mechanical stability of a subcutaneous internal anterior fixation (SIAF) system is investigated. Methods A standard external fixation and a SIAF system were tested on pairs of Polyoxymethylene testing cylinders using a universal testing machine. Each specimen was subjected to a total of 2000 consecutive cyclic loadings at 1 Hz with sinusoidal lateral compression/distraction (+/−50 N) and torque (+/− 0.5 Nm) loading alternating every 200 cycles. Translational and rotational stiffness were determined at 100, 300, 500, 700 and 900 cycles. Results There was no significant difference in translational stiffness between the SIAF and the standard external fixation when compared at 500 (p = .089), 700 (p = .081), and 900 (p = .266) cycles. Rotational stiffness observed for the SIAF was about 50 percent higher than the standard external fixation at 300 (p = .005), 500 (p = .020), and 900 (p = .005) cycles. No loosening or failure of the rod-pin/rod-screw interfaces was seen. Conclusions In comparison with the standard external fixation system, the tested device for subcutaneous internal anterior fixation (SIAF) in vitro has similar translational and superior rotational stiffness. PMID:24684828

  15. Simulated distributions of Baltic Sea-ice in warming climate and consequences for the winter habitat of the Baltic ringed seal.

    PubMed

    Meier, H E Markus; Döscher, Ralf; Halkka, Antti

    2004-06-01

    Sea-ice in the Baltic Sea in present and future climates is investigated. The Rossby Centre Regional Atmosphere-Ocean model was used to perform a set of 30-year-long time slice experiments. For each of the two driving global models HadAM3H and ECHAM4/OPYC3, one control run (1961-1990) and two scenario runs (2071-2100) based upon the SRES A2 and B2 emission scenarios were conducted. The future sea-ice volume in the Baltic Sea is reduced by 83% on average. The Bothnian Sea, large areas of the Gulf of Finland and Gulf of Riga, and the outer parts of the southwestern archipelago of Finland will become ice-free in the mean. The presented scenarios are used to study the impact of climate change on the Baltic ringed seal (Phoca hispida botnica). Climate change seems to be a major threat to all southern populations. The only fairly good winter sea-ice habitat is found to be confined to the Bay of Bothnia.

  16. Compensating For Shrinkage In A Cryogenic Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Arnold E.

    1993-01-01

    Proposed design for seals in liquid-hydrogen plumbing eliminates leaks caused by contraction of seals at low operating temperature. Each seal consists of rubber, polytetrafluorethylene, or lead O-ring including hollow core filled with water. At temperature of liquid hydrogen, anomalous expansion of water keeps seal gland filled and leaktight despite shrinkage of surrounding O-ring material. Design also used in systems using cryogenic fluids other than liquid hydrogen.

  17. Mechanical seal with textured sidewall

    DOEpatents

    Khonsari, Michael M.; Xiao, Nian

    2017-02-14

    The present invention discloses a mating ring, a primary ring, and associated mechanical seal having superior heat transfer and wear characteristics. According to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention, one or more dimples are formed onto the cylindrical outer surface of a mating ring sidewall and/or a primary ring sidewall. A stationary mating ring for a mechanical seal assembly is disclosed. Such a mating ring comprises an annular body having a central axis and a sealing face, wherein a plurality of dimples are formed into the outer circumferential surface of the annular body such that the exposed circumferential surface area of the annular body is increased. The texture added to the sidewall of the mating ring yields superior heat transfer and wear characteristics.

  18. Compliant high temperature seals for dissimilar materials

    DOEpatents

    Rynders, Steven Walton; Minford, Eric; Tressler, Richard Ernest; Taylor, Dale M.

    2001-01-01

    A high temperature, gas-tight seal is formed by utilizing one or more compliant metallic toroidal ring sealing elements, where the applied pressure serves to activate the seal, thus improving the quality of the seal. The compliant nature of the sealing element compensates for differences in thermal expansion between the materials to be sealed, and is particularly useful in sealing a metallic member and a ceramic tube art elevated temperatures. The performance of the seal may be improved by coating the sealing element with a soft or flowable coating such as silver or gold and/or by backing the sealing element with a bed of fine powder. The material of the sealing element is chosen such that the element responds to stress elastically, even at elevated temperatures, permitting the seal to operate through multiple thermal cycles.

  19. Fluid sealing

    SciTech Connect

    Nau, B.S.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 41 papers. Some of the titles are: Evaluation of secondary containment seals for pumps on hydrocarbon duties; Valve steam sealing in nuclear plants; Design directives for liquid spattered labyrinth seals; Analysis of a novel rotary seal; Contacting mechanical seal design using a simplified hydrostatic model; and Transient thermoelastic effects in a mechanical face.

  20. Acoustic seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The invention relates to a sealing device having an acoustic resonator. The acoustic resonator is adapted to create acoustic waveforms to generate a sealing pressure barrier blocking fluid flow from a high pressure area to a lower pressure area. The sealing device permits noncontacting sealing operation. The sealing device may include a resonant-macrosonic-synthesis (RMS) resonator.

  1. Acoustic Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The invention relates to a sealing device having an acoustic resonator. The acoustic resonator is adapted to create acoustic waveforms to generate a sealing pressure barrier blocking fluid flow from a high pressure area to a lower pressure area. The sealing device permits noncontacting sealing operation. The sealing device may include a resonant-macrosonic-synthesis (RMS) resonator.

  2. Foil Face Seal Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munson, John

    2009-01-01

    In the seal literature you can find many attempts by various researchers to adapt film riding seals to the gas turbine engine. None have been successful, potential distortion of the sealing faces is the primary reason. There is a film riding device that does accommodate distortion and is in service in aircraft applications, namely the foil bearing. More specifically a foil thrust bearing. These are not intended to be seals, and they do not accommodate large axial movement between shaft & static structure. By combining the 2 a unique type of face seal has been created. It functions like a normal face seal. The foil thrust bearing replaces the normal primary sealing surface. The compliance of the foil bearing allows the foils to track distortion of the mating seal ring. The foil seal has several perceived advantages over existing hydrodynamic designs, enumerated in the chart. Materials and design methodology needed for this application already exist. Also the load capacity requirements for the foil bearing are low since it only needs to support itself and overcome friction forces at the antirotation keys.

  3. Effect of seals on rotor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, D. P.

    1982-01-01

    Seals can exert large forces on rotors. As an example, in turbopump ring seals film stiffness as high as 90 MN/m (500,000 lb/in) have been calculated. This stiffness is comparable to the stiffness of rotor support bearings; thus seals can play an important part in supporting and stabilizing rotor systems. The work done to determine forces generated in ring seals is reviewed. Working formulas are presented for seal stiffness and damping, and geometries to maximize stiffness are discussed. An example is described where a change in seal design stabilized a previously unstable rotor.

  4. Cryogenic seal concept for static and dynamic conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Gaetano, E. A.

    1968-01-01

    Seal rings reduce cryogenic pump seal leakage under static and dynamic conditions. The rings are fitted into annular diaphragms, which are affected by cryogenic pressure and temperature, to move against a mating ring, to increase seal-bearing loads under static conditions.

  5. Gland With Cantilever Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melton, Patrick B.

    1989-01-01

    Single-piece gland forms tight seal on probe or tube containing liquid or gas at high pressure. Gland and probe align as assembled by simple torquing procedure. Disconnected easily and reused at same site. Made from any of wide variety of materials so compatible with application. Cantilever ring at top of gland bites into wall of tube or probe, sealing it. Wall of tube or probe must be thick enough to accommodate deformation without rupturing. Maximum deformation designed in coordination with seating and deformation of boss or conical seal.

  6. Compliant seal development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.

    1993-01-01

    The compliant metallic seal combines the noncontact feature of the labyrinth seal, the low leakage of a mechanical seal, and the compliant nature of the brush seal. It consists of several thin metallic elements or leaves mounted within a ring which is press fit into the housing, and in form, sort of resembles a lip seal sections wiping the shaft. A second set of overlapping cover leaves are placed on top of the shaft riding leaves which reduces leakage and provides stiffness. The leaves can be straight or angle cut. The shaft riding fingers are designed with mismatched curvature to provide lift off similar to the Rayleigh lift pads in mechanical seals with leading edge clearances nearly twice those of the trailing edge as as shown by Fleming to be optimal for gas flows in convergent seal passages. Leading edge clearances range from 300 to 500 microinches. Balance pockets beneath the leaves provide fluid film feed to the 'Rayleigh lift' surface and the proper balance ratio (mechanical seal) when combined with the static pressure and film pressure. The leaves flex in the radial direction and accommodate thermomechanical behavior as well as axial motion and angular misalignment. In the static mode, there is a net closing force on the leaves. The seals were tested to 70 psi at speeds to 16,000 rpm or surface speeds to 330 fps and temperatures from ambient to 440 F. A slow cycle through the rig critical at 10,000 rpm induced a radial vibration response of 0.004 to 0.005 inch were accommodated by the seal. Preliminary performance data are encouraging demonstrating hydrodynamic liftoff and noncontacting operation at pressure and speeds typical of gas turbine engines. The leakage performance data are significantly better than commercial labyrinth and brush seals which should be expected as this design incorporates the features of the low leakage face or mechanical seal along with the flexibility of the brush configuration.

  7. Compliant seal development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.

    1993-10-01

    The compliant metallic seal combines the noncontact feature of the labyrinth seal, the low leakage of a mechanical seal, and the compliant nature of the brush seal. It consists of several thin metallic elements or leaves mounted within a ring which is press fit into the housing, and in form, sort of resembles a lip seal sections wiping the shaft. A second set of overlapping cover leaves are placed on top of the shaft riding leaves which reduces leakage and provides stiffness. The leaves can be straight or angle cut. The shaft riding fingers are designed with mismatched curvature to provide lift off similar to the Rayleigh lift pads in mechanical seals with leading edge clearances nearly twice those of the trailing edge as as shown by Fleming to be optimal for gas flows in convergent seal passages. Leading edge clearances range from 300 to 500 microinches. Balance pockets beneath the leaves provide fluid film feed to the 'Rayleigh lift' surface and the proper balance ratio (mechanical seal) when combined with the static pressure and film pressure. The leaves flex in the radial direction and accommodate thermomechanical behavior as well as axial motion and angular misalignment. In the static mode, there is a net closing force on the leaves. The seals were tested to 70 psi at speeds to 16,000 rpm or surface speeds to 330 fps and temperatures from ambient to 440 F. A slow cycle through the rig critical at 10,000 rpm induced a radial vibration response of 0.004 to 0.005 inch were accommodated by the seal. Preliminary performance data are encouraging demonstrating hydrodynamic liftoff and noncontacting operation at pressure and speeds typical of gas turbine engines. The leakage performance data are significantly better than commercial labyrinth and brush seals which should be expected as this design incorporates the features of the low leakage face or mechanical seal along with the flexibility of the brush configuration.

  8. Current-use pesticides in seawater and their bioaccumulation in polar bear-ringed seal food chains of the Canadian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Morris, Adam D; Muir, Derek C G; Solomon, Keith R; Letcher, Robert J; McKinney, Melissa A; Fisk, Aaron T; McMeans, Bailey C; Tomy, Gregg T; Teixeira, Camilla; Wang, Xiaowa; Duric, Mark

    2016-07-01

    The distribution of current-use pesticides (CUPs) in seawater and their trophodynamics were investigated in 3 Canadian Arctic marine food chains. The greatest ranges of dissolved-phase concentrations in seawater for each CUP were endosulfan sulfate (less than method detection limit (MDL) to 19 pg L(-1) ) > dacthal (0.76-15 pg L(-1) ) > chlorpyrifos (less than MDL to 8.1 pg L(-1) ) > pentachloronitrobenzene (less than MDL to 2.6 pg L(-1) ) > α-endosulfan (0.20-2.3 pg L(-1) ). Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs, water-respiring organisms) were greatest in plankton, including chlorothalonil (log BAF = 7.4 ± 7.1 L kg(-1) , mean ± standard error), chlorpyrifos (log BAF = 6.9 ± 6.7 L kg(-1) ), and α-endosulfan (log BAF = 6.5 ± 6.0 L kg(-1) ). The largest biomagnification factors (BMFs) were found for dacthal in the capelin:plankton trophic relationship (BMF = 13 ± 5.0) at Cumberland Sound (Nunvavut), and for β-endosulfan (BMF = 16 ± 4.9) and α-endosulfan (BMF = 9.3 ± 2.8) in the polar bear-ringed seal relationship at Barrow and Rae Strait (NU), respectively. Concentrations of endosulfan sulfate exhibited trophic magnification (increasing concentrations with increasing trophic level) in the poikilothermic portion of the food web (trophic magnification factor = 1.4), but all of the CUPs underwent trophic dilution in the marine mammal food web, despite some trophic level-specific biomagnification. Together, these observations are most likely indicative of metabolism of these CUPs in mammals. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1695-1707. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  9. Reciprocating seals: Lubrication and wear resistance. (Latest citations from Fluidex (Fluid Engineering Abstracts) database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning theoretical and practical analyses of reciprocating seal wear and lubrication. Topics include behavior, friction coefficient, cylinder wear, lubrication film thickness, friction forces, design innovations, lubricating oil viscosity, and wear modeling relative to reciprocating seal frictional wear and lifetime optimization. Applications in piston ring lubrication, internal combustion engines, and vehicle suspension systems are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. Liquid zone seal

    DOEpatents

    Klebanoff, Leonard E.

    2001-01-01

    A seal assembly that provides a means for establishing multiple pressure zones within a system. The seal assembly combines a plate extending from the inner wall of a housing or inner enclosure that intersects with and is immersed in the fluid contained in a well formed in a tray contained within the enclosure. The fluid is a low vapor pressure oil, chemically inert and oxidation resistant. The use of a fluid as the sealing component provides a seal that is self-healing and mechanically robust not subject to normal mechanical wear, breakage, and formation of cracks or pinholes and decouples external mechanical vibrations from internal structural members.

  11. Ion Effects in the Electron Damping Ring of the International Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L.; Raubenheimer, T.; Wolski, A.; /Liverpool U.

    2006-07-17

    Ion-induced beam instabilities and tune shifts are critical issues for the electron damping ring of the International Linear Collider (ILC). To avoid conventional ion trapping, a long gap is introduced in the electron beam by omitting a number of successive bunches out of a long train. However, the beam can still suffer from the fast ion instability, driven by ions that last only for a single passage of the electron bunches. Our study shows that the ion effects can be significantly mitigated by using multiple gaps, so that the stored beam consists of a number of relatively short bunch trains. The ion effects in the ILC damping rings are investigated using both analytical and numerical methods.

  12. High temperature autoclave vacuum seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, J. R.; Simpson, W. G.; Walker, H. M.

    1971-01-01

    Aluminum sheet forms effective sealing film at temperatures up to 728 K. Soft aluminum wire rings provide positive seal between foil and platen. For applications at temperatures above aluminum's service temperature, stainless steel is used as film material and copper wire as sealant.

  13. Flight set 360H005 (STS-28) seals, volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, Jeffrey T.

    1990-01-01

    The performance is assessed of the 360H005, Fifth flight, Redesigned Solid Rocket Motors (RSMR) in respect to joint sealing issues as seen from post flight inspection of the seals and sealing surfaces. The factory joint disassembly inspections have resumed for 360H005. The new factory joint grease application is in effect and now can be assessed during the disassembly process. The RSRM is illustrated consisting of capture feature field joints as is the J-joint insulation configuration. The nozzle-to-case joint design is also illustrated, which includes 100, 7/8 inch radial bolts in conjunction with a wiper O-ring and modified insulation design. The ignition system seals and a cross section of the igniter are illustrated. The configuration of all the internal nozzle joints are also shown. The postflight inspection of both motors showed the seal components to be in excellent condition except for the indentation found on the inner primary seal of the right hand inner igniter gasket, aft face. Detailed inspection results, and inspections performed by the O-ring Inspection Team are presented.

  14. Glass sealing

    SciTech Connect

    Brow, R.K.; Kovacic, L.; Chambers, R.S.

    1996-04-01

    Hernetic glass sealing technologies developed for weapons component applications can be utilized for the design and manufacture of fuel cells. Design and processing of of a seal are optimized through an integrated approach based on glass composition research, finite element analysis, and sealing process definition. Glass sealing procedures are selected to accommodate the limits imposed by glass composition and predicted calculations.

  15. Oil Saving Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Driven under difficult field conditions, the Army Jeep shown went more than 22,000 miles without an oil change in a test conducted by the U.S. Army Mobility Equipment Research and Development Command. Key to this exceptionally long oil life was a set of piston ring seals made of a new synthetic rubber formula called RC-34; the seal pictured, photographed after its arduous Army trial, shows no signs of deterioration. The seal and the RC-34 material, which may soon be available for use in the family auto, were developed by Ramsey Corporation, St. Louis, Missouri, a division of TRW Automotive Worldwide. The oil in an automobile engine must be I replaced every few thousand miles not because it wears out but because it becomes contaminated. The contamination sources are gasoline and combustion gases which blow by the piston rings to mix with the oil, reducing the oil's ability to lubricate properly. Seeking to prolong oil life by eliminating "blowby," Ramsey Corporation looked for a better way to seal piston rings and used NASA technology as a departure point. The parent company TRW, under contract to NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, had developed seals and bladders from a type of material called elastomers which where designed to withstand the environmental extremes of interplanetary flight. That effort formed a knowledge base for research which culminated in Ramsey's RC-34 elastomer.

  16. Internal parity symmetry and degeneracy of Bethe Ansatz strings in the isotropic heptagonal magnetic ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milewski, J.; Lulek, B.; Lulek, T.; Łabuz, M.; Stagraczyński, R.

    2014-02-01

    The exact Bethe eigenfunctions for the heptagonal ring within the isotropic XXX model exhibit a doubly degenerated energy level in the three-deviation sector at the centre of the Brillouin zone. We demonstrate an explicit construction of these eigenfunctions by use of algebraic Bethe Ansatz, and point out a relation of degeneracy to parity conservation, applied to the configuration of strings for these eigenfunctions. Namely, the internal structure of the eigenfunctions (the 2-string and the 1-string, with opposite quasimomenta) admits generation of two mutually orthogonal eigenfunctions due to the fact that the strings which differ by their length are distinguishable objects.

  17. Sealing device

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

    2013-12-10

    A sealing device for sealing a gap between a dovetail of a bucket assembly and a rotor wheel is disclosed. The sealing device includes a cover plate configured to cover the gap and a retention member protruding from the cover plate and configured to engage the dovetail. The sealing device provides a seal against the gap when the bucket assemply is subjected to a centrifugal force.

  18. Coining seal

    DOEpatents

    Mancebo, Lloyd

    1976-01-01

    A bakeable high pressure-vacuum seal is provided in which an inductile sealing element having a butterfly shaped crosssection with protruding sharp edges at each of the four corners, is sandwiched between two ductile sealing elements, the sandwiched assembly then being compressed between the surfaces of the flange elements of a high pressure or high vacuum vessel to coin the ductile sealing element into the surface of the inductile sealing element as well as the surfaces of the flange elements.

  19. Antivortex Inlet Ribs for Fluid-Seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, W. C.; Beatty, R. F.; Jackson, E. D.

    1984-01-01

    Instability in rotating machinery reduced. Ring of ribs fastened to existing stator in turbopump pressure-seal inlet. Ribs suppress swirl in flow entering seal. Rib concept offers relatively inexpensive solution to some lateral-instability problems in many other systems with rotating pressure seals.

  20. Rotatable seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Logan, Clinton M.; Garibaldi, Jack L.

    1982-01-01

    An assembly is provided for rotatably supporting a rotor on a stator so that vacuum chambers in the rotor and stator remain in communication while the chambers are sealed from ambient air, which enables the use of a ball bearing or the like to support most of the weight of the rotor. The apparatus includes a seal device mounted on the rotor to rotate therewith, but shiftable in position on the rotor while being sealed to the rotor as by an O-ring. The seal device has a flat face that is biased towards a flat face on the stator, and pressurized air is pumped between the faces to prevent contact between them while spacing them a small distance apart to avoid the inflow of large amounts of air between the faces and into the vacuum chambers.

  1. Dynamic analysis of noncontacting face seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etsion, I.

    1980-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of a noncontacting coned face seal is analyzed taking into account various design parameters and operating conditions. The primary seal ring motion is expressed by a set of nonlinear equations for three degrees of freedom. These equations, which are solved numerically, allow identification of two dimensionless groups of parameters that affect the seal dynamic behavior. Stability maps for various seals are presented. These maps contain a stable-to-unstable transition region in which the ring wobbles at half the shaft frequency. The effect of various parameters on seal stability is discussed and an empirical expression for critical stability is offered.

  2. Damping device for a stationary labyrinth seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Aini, Yehia M. (Inventor); Mitchell, William S. (Inventor); Roberts, Lawrence P. (Inventor); Montgomery, Stuart K. (Inventor); Davis, Gary A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A stationary labyrinth seal system includes a seal housing having an annular cavity, a plurality of damping devices, and a retaining ring. The damping devices are positioned within the annular cavity and are maintained within the annular cavity by the retaining ring.

  3. Experiment on wear behavior of high pressure gas seal faces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jing; Peng, Xudong; Bai, Shaoxian; Meng, Xiangkai; Li, Jiyun

    2014-11-01

    Current researches show that mechanical deformation of seal ring face makes fluid film clearance decrease at high pressure side, thus a divergent clearance is formed and face wear occurs more seriously at the high pressure side than that on the low pressure side. However, there is still lack of published experimental works enough to prove the theoretical results. In this paper, a spiral groove dry gas seal at high pressures is experimentally investigated so as to prove the face wear happened at the high pressure side of seal faces due to the face mechanical deformation, and the wear behavior affected by seal ring structure is also studied. The experimental results show that face wear would occur at the high pressure side of seal faces due to the deformation, thus the leakage and face temperature increase, which all satisfies the theoretical predictions. When sealed pressure is not less than 5 MPa, the pressure can provide enough opening force to separate the seal faces. The seal ring sizes have obvious influence on face wear. Face wear, leakage and face temperature of a dry gas seal with the smaller cross sectional area of seal ring are less than that of a dry gas seal with bigger one, and the difference of leakage rate between these two sizes of seal face width is in the range of 24%-25%. Compared with the effect of seal ring sizes, the effect of secondary O-ring seal position on face deformation and face wear is less. The differences between these two types of dry gas seals with different secondary O-ring seal positions are less than 5.9% when the rotational speed varies from 0 to 600 r/min. By linking face wear and sealing performance changes to the shift in mechanical deformation of seal ring, this research presents an important experimental method to study face deformation of a dry gas seal at high pressures.

  4. Development of a simplified dry gas seal

    SciTech Connect

    Evenson, R.; Mason, B.; St. Onge, A.

    1995-12-31

    This paper overviews the development and application of a simplified dry gas lubricating seal (Simplified Seal). Traditional seal designs attempt to minimize deflections or tilt of the mating ring scaling face through pressure balancing and rotational alignment features. The Simplified Seal concept significantly reduces the number of components per sealing stage and results in a rotating component of complex geometry called a mating rotor. Traditional mating ring seal face alignment features have also been eliminated. Geometry and material selection of seal components (rotating and stationary) can be engineered to account for the missing pressure balance and rotational alignment features on the mating rotor. Development of a potentially more durable dry gas seal of simpler design is discussed.

  5. Double-O-Ring Plug For Leak Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, James H.

    1989-01-01

    Pressure plug features redundant O-ring bore seals and axial port opening laterally into space between O-rings to enable testing of seals. Axial passage in plug connected through radial passage to space between O-rings. Opening used to test O-rings, then sealed with smaller O-ring compressed by machine screw. Useful to seal test or cleanout holes normally kept closed in hydraulic actuators, pumps, and other pressurized systems.

  6. Differences in MinC/MinD sensitivity between polar and internal Z rings in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Shen, Bang; Lutkenhaus, Joe

    2011-01-01

    In Escherichia coli the Z ring has the potential to assemble anywhere along the cell length but is restricted to midcell by the action of negative regulatory systems, including Min. In the current model for the Min system, the MinC/MinD division inhibitory complex is evenly distributed on the membrane and can disrupt Z rings anywhere in the cell; however, MinE spatially regulates MinC/MinD by restricting it to the cell poles, thus allowing Z ring formation at midcell. This model assumes that Z rings formed at different cellular locations have equal sensitivity to MinC/MinD in the absence of MinE. However, here we report evidence that differences in MinC/MinD sensitivity between polar and nonpolar Z rings exists even when there is no MinE. MinC/MinD at proper levels is able to block minicell production in Δmin strains without increasing the cell length, indicating that polar Z rings are preferentially blocked. In the FtsZ-I374V strain (which is resistant to MinC(C)/MinD), wild-type morphology can be easily achieved with MinC/MinD in the absence of MinE. We also show that MinC/MinD at proper levels can rescue the lethal phenotype of a min slmA double deletion mutant, which we think is due to the elimination of polar Z rings (or FtsZ structures), which frees up FtsZ molecules for assembly of Z rings at internal sites to rescue division and growth. Taken together, these data indicate that polar Z rings are more susceptible to MinC/MinD than internal Z rings, even when MinE is absent.

  7. Differences in MinC/MinD Sensitivity between Polar and Internal Z Rings in Escherichia coli▿

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Bang; Lutkenhaus, Joe

    2011-01-01

    In Escherichia coli the Z ring has the potential to assemble anywhere along the cell length but is restricted to midcell by the action of negative regulatory systems, including Min. In the current model for the Min system, the MinC/MinD division inhibitory complex is evenly distributed on the membrane and can disrupt Z rings anywhere in the cell; however, MinE spatially regulates MinC/MinD by restricting it to the cell poles, thus allowing Z ring formation at midcell. This model assumes that Z rings formed at different cellular locations have equal sensitivity to MinC/MinD in the absence of MinE. However, here we report evidence that differences in MinC/MinD sensitivity between polar and nonpolar Z rings exists even when there is no MinE. MinC/MinD at proper levels is able to block minicell production in Δmin strains without increasing the cell length, indicating that polar Z rings are preferentially blocked. In the FtsZ-I374V strain (which is resistant to MinCC/MinD), wild-type morphology can be easily achieved with MinC/MinD in the absence of MinE. We also show that MinC/MinD at proper levels can rescue the lethal phenotype of a min slmA double deletion mutant, which we think is due to the elimination of polar Z rings (or FtsZ structures), which frees up FtsZ molecules for assembly of Z rings at internal sites to rescue division and growth. Taken together, these data indicate that polar Z rings are more susceptible to MinC/MinD than internal Z rings, even when MinE is absent. PMID:21097625

  8. Security seal

    DOEpatents

    Gobeli, Garth W.

    1985-01-01

    Security for a package or verifying seal in plastic material is provided by a print seal with unique thermally produced imprints in the plastic. If tampering is attempted, the material is irreparably damaged and thus detectable. The pattern of the imprints, similar to "fingerprints" are recorded as a positive identification for the seal, and corresponding recordings made to allow comparison. The integrity of the seal is proved by the comparison of imprint identification records made by laser beam projection.

  9. Internal hydraulic loss in a seal-less centrifugal Gyro pump.

    PubMed

    Makinouchi, K; Ohara, Y; Sakuma, I; Damm, G; Mizuguchi, K; Jikuya, T; Takatani, S; Noon, G P; Nosé, Y

    1994-01-01

    A new index "loss factor Z" defined by Eq. 1 was introduced as the absolute expression of the mock loop resistance for testing a nonpulsatile pump. [formula: see text] where gamma is specific gravity of the fluid, g is the acceleration of gravity, delta P is total pressure head, and Q is flow. Z is expected to be constant, regardless of the pumping parameters. Z values obtained in the same mock loop but with different rotary blood pumps were almost identical and were defined as Z0. New methods of analysis of the flow-restrictive conditions of various rotary blood pumps are proposed in this paper: namely, differential loss factor delta Z, and loss factor sensitivity delta Z/delta A. The proposed Z-Q curves demonstrated better performance mapping than the conventional delta P-Q curves. Delta Z is the difference between the Z-Q curves of two different pumps. A is a design parameter of the pump; therefore delta Z/delta A is a quantitative expression of the effect of the design change on the hydraulic performance. These various indices were used to analyze the internal hydraulic loss of a centrifugal pump (Gyro pump). The relationship between its gap size (rotor casing) and hydraulic performance was assessed quantitatively by these indices. In this paper, the derivation processes and above-mentioned indices are described.

  10. Preparation of ring-shaped composite bonded magnets with continuously controlled anisotropy distribution for internal space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, F.; Yamada, O.; Ohya, S.; Kobayashi, O.; Nakano, M.; Fukunaga, H.

    2010-01-01

    We have already reported an advanced method for producing a radially-anisotropic rare earth composite bonded magnet with continuously controlled direction of anisotropy. The magnet has been applied to an inner rotor as a practical usage. In this study, the outstanding preparation method was adopted into the preparation of a magnet applied for an outer rotor. An optimized condition of extrusion and compaction at an elevated temperature could be obtained. In addition, a low pressure configuration to the ring-shaped magnet from plural preformed magnets was carried out, which had specific distribution of magnetic anisotropy for internal space for a small motor, by using self recoverability based on the viscous deformation without an alignment field. No deterioration of magnetic properties was detected through the process even if those magnets were miniaturized. Resultantly, the (BH)max of a ring-shaped magnet with the continuously controlled direction of magnetic anisotropy attained the value of 186 kJ/m3, and we obtained sine-wave magnetic anisotropy distribution, even if those magnets were miniaturized.

  11. Minimum weight design of ring and stringer stiffeners for axially compressed cylindrical shells with and without internal pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Block, D. L.

    1972-01-01

    Results of analytical study to determine desirable ring and stringer stiffener parameters and proportions for axially compressed stiffened isotropic cylinders with and without internal pressure are presented. This investigation examines the panel and general instability buckling modes of a stiffened cylindrical shell and from this determines desirable stiffener parameters and proportions. Classical buckling equations are used which retain the important effects of the stiffeners. The results determined by using the simpler classical buckling equations are then spot checked and verified using buckling equations which considered discrete ring stiffeners and nonlinear prebuckling deformations. For both rings and stringers, T-shaped stiffeners are preferable and the effects to stiffener shape are much more pronounced at low or zero values of the internal pressure parameter. Simple analytical expressions are developed and presented which express the stiffener area parameter, the ratio of stiffener area and elastics to shell wall area and elastic modulus, in terms of the cylinder geometry and internal pressure parameter.

  12. The Ring of Fire - an internal illimination system for detector sensitivity and filter bandpass characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Scarpine, Victor E.; Kent, Stephen M.; Deustua, Susana E.; Sholl, Michael J.; Mufson, Stuart L.; Ott, Melanie N.; Wiesner, Matthew P.; Baptitst, Brian J.; /Indiana U.

    2010-07-01

    We describe a prototype of an illumination system, the Ring of Fire (ROF), which is used as part of an internal calibration system for large focal plane detector arrays in TMA (Three Mirror Anastigmat) telescope designs. Such designs have been proposed for the SNAP (SuperNova Acceleration Probe) version of a Joint Dark Energy Mission (JDEM). The ROF system illuminates the focal plane with a light beam the closely matches that of the telescope and is used for creating high spatial frequency flat fields and monitoring filter bandpasses for experiments that demand a highly accurate characterization of the detectors. We present measurements of a mockup of this prototype ROF design including studies in variations in illumination across a large focal plane.

  13. Photodissociation of an Internally Cold Beam of CH+ Ions in a Cryogenic Storage Ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, A. P.; Becker, A.; Blaum, K.; Breitenfeldt, C.; George, S.; Göck, J.; Grieser, M.; Grussie, F.; Guerin, E. A.; von Hahn, R.; Hechtfischer, U.; Herwig, P.; Karthein, J.; Krantz, C.; Kreckel, H.; Lohmann, S.; Meyer, C.; Mishra, P. M.; Novotný, O.; Repnow, R.; Saurabh, S.; Schwalm, D.; Spruck, K.; Sunil Kumar, S.; Vogel, S.; Wolf, A.

    2016-03-01

    We have studied the photodissociation of CH+ in the Cryogenic Storage Ring at ambient temperatures below 10 K. Owing to the extremely high vacuum of the cryogenic environment, we were able to store CH+ beams with a kinetic energy of ˜60 keV for several minutes. Using a pulsed laser, we observed Feshbach-type near-threshold photodissociation resonances for the rotational levels J =0 - 2 of CH+, exclusively. In comparison to updated, state-of-the-art calculations, we find excellent agreement in the relative intensities of the resonances for a given J , and we can extract time-dependent level populations. Thus, we can monitor the spontaneous relaxation of CH+ to its lowest rotational states and demonstrate the preparation of an internally cold beam of molecular ions.

  14. Photodissociation of an Internally Cold Beam of CH^{+} Ions in a Cryogenic Storage Ring.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, A P; Becker, A; Blaum, K; Breitenfeldt, C; George, S; Göck, J; Grieser, M; Grussie, F; Guerin, E A; von Hahn, R; Hechtfischer, U; Herwig, P; Karthein, J; Krantz, C; Kreckel, H; Lohmann, S; Meyer, C; Mishra, P M; Novotný, O; Repnow, R; Saurabh, S; Schwalm, D; Spruck, K; Sunil Kumar, S; Vogel, S; Wolf, A

    2016-03-18

    We have studied the photodissociation of CH^{+} in the Cryogenic Storage Ring at ambient temperatures below 10 K. Owing to the extremely high vacuum of the cryogenic environment, we were able to store CH^{+} beams with a kinetic energy of ∼60  keV for several minutes. Using a pulsed laser, we observed Feshbach-type near-threshold photodissociation resonances for the rotational levels J=0-2 of CH^{+}, exclusively. In comparison to updated, state-of-the-art calculations, we find excellent agreement in the relative intensities of the resonances for a given J, and we can extract time-dependent level populations. Thus, we can monitor the spontaneous relaxation of CH^{+} to its lowest rotational states and demonstrate the preparation of an internally cold beam of molecular ions.

  15. Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair in children using the percutaneous internal ring suturing technique – own experience

    PubMed Central

    Patkowski, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Percutaneous internal ring suturing (PIRS) is a method of laparoscopic herniorrhaphy, i.e. percutaneous closure of the internal inguinal ring under the control of a telescope placed in the umbilicus. Aim To evaluate the usefulness of the PIRS technique. Material and methods Fifty-five children (39 girls and 16 boys) underwent surgery using this method in our institution between 2008 and 2010. Results In 10 cases the presence of an open inguinal canal on the opposite side was also noted during surgery, and umbilical hernia was recognized in 2 patients. In 5 cases it was necessary to convert to the open surgery because of the inability to continue the laparoscopic procedure. In 1 case, male pseudohermaphroditism was diagnosed during surgery. Recurrent inguinal hernia required a conventional method of surgery in 1 child. Other children did not exhibit the characteristics of hernia recurrence. The inguinal canals were followed up with postoperative ultrasound examination in 29 children. In 23 children, the ultrasound examination showed no dilatation of the inguinal canal. In the other 6 children dilatation of the inguinal canal or the presence of fluid within the inguinal canal was observed during ultrasound. In 6 children symptoms such as swelling and soreness around the inguinal canal developed within 3 to 6 months after surgery. Conclusions Inguinal hernia surgery using the PIRS procedure is an alternative, effective, minimally invasive method of surgery. Visualization of the peritoneal cavity allows for detection of other abnormalities, as well as for performing other procedures during the same session (such as closing the contralateral inguinal canal or umbilical hernia surgery). PMID:24729810

  16. Applauding the performing seal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    Whether the culprit is a pump, valve, compressor, or flanged pipe connection, the end result is the same: process-fluid leakage damages the environment and is costly to operators, in terms of lost product, lost production due to downtime, and the replacement of damaged process equipment. Hard-to-handle fluids, such as abrasive slurries of coal and flyash, can damage the seals that contain them, allowing potentially harmful fluids to escape. Even more insidious is the often-invisible escape of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from equipment that handles liquid petroleum, petroleum by-products and chemicals. This paper reports that seal manufacturers are using their ingenuity to minimize the escape of liquid and gaseous emissions. One approach uses the power of magnetic attraction to create a seal along a rotating pump shaft by positioning magnetic fluids there. Ferrofluidics Corp. starts by creating a magnetic fluid - essentially a colloidal suspension of ultrafine magnetic salts dispersed in a carrier fluid - which is then used as a liquid O-ring seal in conjunction with a mechanical seal. The seal apparatus consists of a doughnut-shaped sandwich (centered around the pump shaft), with a permanent magnet as the middle layer, and a washer of magnetically permeable material on either side.

  17. SEALING SIMULATED LEAKS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael A. Romano

    2004-09-01

    This report details the testing equipment, procedures and results performed under Task 7.2 Sealing Simulated Leaks. In terms of our ability to seal leaks identified in the technical topical report, Analysis of Current Field Data, we were 100% successful. In regards to maintaining seal integrity after pigging operations we achieved varying degrees of success. Internal Corrosion defects proved to be the most resistant to the effects of pigging while External Corrosion proved to be the least resistant. Overall, with limitations, pressure activated sealant technology would be a viable option under the right circumstances.

  18. An Experimental Investigation of Leak Rate Performance of a Subscale Candidate Elastomer Docking Space Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garafolo, Nicholas G.; Daniels, Christopher C.

    2011-01-01

    A novel docking seal was developed for the main interface seal of NASA s Low Impact Docking System (LIDS). This interface seal was designed to maintain acceptable leak rates while being exposed to the harsh environmental conditions of outer space. In this experimental evaluation, a candidate docking seal assembly called Engineering Development Unit (EDU58) was characterized and evaluated against the Constellation Project leak rate requirement. The EDU58 candidate seal assembly was manufactured from silicone elastomer S0383-70 vacuum molded in a metal retainer ring. Four seal designs were considered with unique characteristic heights. The leak rate performance was characterized through a mass point leak rate method by monitoring gas properties within an internal control volume. The leakage performance of the seals were described herein at representative docking temperatures of -50, +23, and +50 C for all four seal designs. Leak performance was also characterized at 100, 74, and 48 percent of full closure. For all conditions considered, the candidate seal assemblies met the Constellation Project leak rate requirement.

  19. Seal assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Roger Neal; Longfritz, William David

    2001-01-01

    A seal assembly that seals a gap formed by a groove comprises a seal body, a biasing element, and a connection that connects the seal body to the biasing element to form the seal assembly. The seal assembly further comprises a concave-shaped center section and convex-shaped contact portions at each end of the seal body. The biasing element is formed from an elastic material and comprises a convex-shaped center section and concave-shaped biasing zones that are opposed to the convex-shaped contact portions. The biasing element is adapted to be compressed to change a width of the seal assembly from a first width to a second width that is smaller than the first width. In the compressed state, the seal assembly can be disposed in the groove. After release of the compressing force, the seal assembly expands. The contact portions will move toward a surface of the groove and the biasing zones will move into contact with another surface of the groove. The biasing zones will bias the contact portions of the seal body against the surface of the groove.

  20. Stress and Sealing Performance Analysis of Containment Vessel

    SciTech Connect

    WU, TSU-TE

    2005-05-24

    This paper presents a numerical technique for analyzing the containment vessel subjected to the combined loading of closure-bolt torque and internal pressure. The detailed stress distributions in the O-rings generated by both the torque load and the internal pressure can be evaluated by using this method. Consequently, the sealing performance of the O-rings can be determined. The material of the O-rings can be represented by any available constitutive equation for hyperelastic material. In the numerical calculation of this paper, the form of the Mooney-Rivlin strain energy potential is used. The technique treats both the preloading process of bolt tightening and the application of internal pressure as slow dynamic loads. Consequently, the problem can be evaluated using explicit numerical integration scheme.

  1. Development of helicopter transmission seals, task 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayden, T. S.; Keller, C. H., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    High speed helicopter transmission seal concepts were designed, fabricated and tested. The concepts were a dual element split ring seal and a circumferential seal. The tests were performed in a rig using an actual input quill assembly. The test conditions were selected to simulate transmission operation and were 230 F oil temperature, and a sliding speed of 9400 ft/min. The split ring seal exhibited gross leakage and was considered unsatisfactory, while the circumferential seal leakage was less than 1 c.c./hour; this leakage is within acceptable limits. The circumferential seal wear was only to .0005 inches during a 100 hour run (40 starts and stops). During a 40 hour contamination test (mesh silica flour) the seal total wear was a maximum of .004 inches. This wear is considered acceptable.

  2. Influence of internal geometry on magnetization reversal in asymmetric permalloy rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopman, D. B.; Kabanov, Y. P.; Cui, J.; Lynch, C. S.; Shull, R. D.

    2016-08-01

    We report the magnetization reversal behavior of microstructured Ni80Fe20 rings using magneto-optic indicator film imaging and magnetometry. While the reversal behavior of rings with a symmetric (circular) interior hole agrees with micromagnetic simulations of an onion → vortex → onion transition, we experimentally demonstrate that rings possessing an elliptical hole with an aspect ratio of 2 exhibit complex reversal behavior comprising incoherent domain propagation in the rings. Magneto optic images reveal metastable magnetic configurations that illustrate this incoherent behavior. These results have important implications for understanding the reversal behavior of asymmetric ferromagnetic rings.

  3. Advanced bristle seals for gas turbine engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabe, Jerry L.

    1993-01-01

    A seven month proof-of-concept program was conducted for an advanced bristle seal, called a bush seal, for use in gas turbine engines. This program was performed as a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase 1 project. Bush seal specimen and a full ring bush seal were designed, evaluated, and manufactured for testing. An analytical study of the potential of the bush seal relative to a labyrinth seal was conducted. Static and dynamic testing of the bush seal was performed to determine the behavior of the bristles under pressurization and during contact with a rotating labyrinth tooth. Stable behavior of the bristle elements was observed during static pressurization of a full ring bush seal. The dynamic testing of various configurations of bush seal against a rotating labyrinth tooth showed minimal wear of the bristles relative to a conventional labyrinth seal. The development and application of the bush seal concept to gas turbine engines has the potential of improving the engine's performance while decreasing the degradation of the seal performance over time.

  4. Improved poppet valve provides positive damageproof seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, E. D.

    1965-01-01

    Soft-seat poppet valve provides positive closure against fluid without damage to the seating surface on repeated cycling. It incorporates two compressible soft rings and a retaining ring of hard metal. Sealing is effected when the poppet seat is forced into intimate contact with a mating surface on one of the soft rings.

  5. Actively controlled shaft seals for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salant, Richard F.

    1991-01-01

    The main objective is to determine the feasibility of utilizing controllable mechanical seals for aerospace applications. A potential application was selected as a demonstration case: the buffer gas seal in a LOX (liquid oxygen) turbopump. Currently, floating ring seals are used in this application. Their replacement with controllable mechanical seals would result in substantially reduced leakage rates. This would reduce the required amount of stored buffer gas, and therefore increase the vehicle payload. For such an application, a suitable controllable mechanical seal was designed and analyzed.

  6. Overview of LIDS Docking and Berthing System Seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniels, Christopher C.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.; deGroh, Henry C., III; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Oswald, Jay J.; Smith, Ian

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the Low Impact Docking System (LIDS) docking and berthing system seals. The contents include: 1) Description of the Application: Low Impact Docking System (LIDS); 2) LIDS Seal Locations: Vehicle Undocked (Hatch Closed); 3) LIDS Seal Locations: Mechanical Pass Thru; 4) LIDS Seal Locations: Electrical and Pyro Connectors; 5) LIDS Seal Locations: Vehicle Docked (Hatches Open); 6) LIDS Seal Locations: Main Interface Seal; 7) Main Interface Seal Challenges and Specifications; 8) Approach; 9) Seal Concepts Under Development/Evaluation; 10) Elastomer Material Evaluations; 11) Evaluation of Relevant Seal Properties; 12) Medium-Scale (12") Gask-O-Seal Compression Tests; 13) Medium-Scale Compression Results; 14) Adhesion Forces of Elliptical Top Gask-o-seals; 15) Medium-Scale Seals; 16) Medium-Scale Leakage Results: Effect of Configuration; 17) Full Scale LIDS Seal Test Rig Development; 18) Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE 6A and 6B); and 19) Schedule.

  7. Effects of pressure anisotropy on magnetospheric magnetohydrodynamics equilibrium of an internal ring current system

    SciTech Connect

    Furukawa, M.

    2014-01-15

    Effects of pressure anisotropy on magnetospheric magnetohydrodynamics equilibrium are studied analytically and numerically, where the plasma is confined by only poloidal magnetic field generated by an internal ring current. The plasma current due to finite pressure can be divided into two components; one remains at isotropic pressure and the other arises from pressure anisotropy. When p{sub ⊥}, the pressure perpendicular to the magnetic field, is larger than p{sub ∥}, the pressure parallel to the magnetic field, those two components of plasma current tend to cancel each other to reduce the total amount of plasma current. Equilibrium beta limit is also examined, where the beta is a ratio of the plasma pressure to the magnetic pressure. The equilibrium beta limit decreases as the pressure anisotropy becomes strong. The beta value is strictly limited by ellipticity of the equilibrium equation when p{sub ∥}>p{sub ⊥}. On the other hand, when p{sub ⊥}>p{sub ∥}, although the tendency of the beta limit agrees with the ellipticity condition of the equilibrium equation, equilibria with a hyperbolic region can be obtained by iterative procedure with practically reasonable convergence criteria.

  8. DIRC, the internally reflecting ring imaging Cerenkov detector for BABAR: Properties of the quartz radiators

    SciTech Connect

    Schwiening, J.; BABAR DIRC Collaboration

    1997-07-01

    A new type of detector for particle identification will be used in the BABAR experiment at the SLAC B Factory (PEP-II). This barrel region detector is called DIRC, an acronym for Detection of Internally Reflected Cerenkov (light). The DIRC is a Cerenkov ring imaging device which utilizes totally internally reflecting Cerenkov photons in the visible and near UV range. An extensive prototype program, demonstrated that the principles of operation are well understood, and that an excellent performance over the entire momentum range of the B factory is to be expected. The DIRC utilizes long, thin, flat quartz radiator bars (effective mean refractive index n{sub 1} = 1.474) with a rectangular cross section. In the present design the bars have transverse dimensions of 1.7 cm thick by 3.5 cm wide, and are about 4.90 m long. The length is achieved by gluing end-to-end four 1.225 m bars, that size being the longest high quality quartz bar currently available from industry. Several natural and synthetic fused silica candidate materials were tested for their optical properties and radiation hardness. In a Co{sup 60} source, samples were exposed to doses of up to 500 krad. While natural quartz materials showed significant absorption in the wavelength range of the Cerenkov photons after being exposed to only a few krad, the synthetic material proved to be sufficiently radiation hard. This led to the choice of Suprasil Standard and Spectrosil 2000 as bar material for the DIRC.

  9. Ceramic Seal.

    SciTech Connect

    Smartt, Heidi A.; Romero, Juan A.; Custer, Joyce Olsen; Hymel, Ross W.; Krementz, Dan; Gobin, Derek; Harpring, Larry; Martinez-Rodriguez, Michael; Varble, Don; DiMaio, Jeff; Hudson, Stephen

    2016-11-01

    Containment/Surveillance (C/S) measures are critical to any verification regime in order to maintain Continuity of Knowledge (CoK). The Ceramic Seal project is research into the next generation technologies to advance C/S, in particular improving security and efficiency. The Ceramic Seal is a small form factor loop seal with improved tamper-indication including a frangible seal body, tamper planes, external coatings, and electronic monitoring of the seal body integrity. It improves efficiency through a self-securing wire and in-situ verification with a handheld reader. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), under sponsorship from the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development (DNN R&D), have previously designed and have now fabricated and tested Ceramic Seals. Tests have occurred at both SNL and SRNL, with different types of tests occurring at each facility. This interim report will describe the Ceramic Seal prototype, the design and development of a handheld standalone reader and an interface to a data acquisition system, fabrication of the seals, and results of initial testing.

  10. Ferrules seals

    DOEpatents

    Smith, J.L.

    1984-07-10

    A device is provided for sealing an inner tube and an outer tube without excessively deforming the tubes. The device includes two ferrules which cooperate to form a vacuum-tight seal between the inner tube and outer tube and having mating surfaces such that overtightening is not possible. 3 figs.

  11. Ferrules seals

    DOEpatents

    Smith, James L.

    1984-01-01

    A device is provided for sealing an inner tube and an outer tube without excessively deforming the tubes. The device includes two ferrules which cooperate to form a vacuum-tight seal between the inner tube and outer tube and having mating surfaces such that overtightening is not possible.

  12. Successful deployment of polytetrafluoroethylene-covered stent to seal left internal mammary artery graft perforation due to guide catheter extension system.

    PubMed

    Ichimoto, Eiji; De Gregorio, Joseph

    2016-12-01

    Coronary artery bypass graft perforation during percutaneous coronary intervention is a rare complication. Perforation of a left internal mammary artery (LIMA) graft due to a guide catheter extension system has not been described. We report the successful deployment of a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)-covered stent to seal the LIMA graft perforation due to the guide catheter extension system. Percutaneous coronary intervention was performed for a culprit lesion of the distal left circumflex via the LIMA graft. A balloon catheter failed to be delivered because the LIMA graft was very long and tortuous. The guide catheter extension system was introduced, and the balloon was delivered and inflated. However, the LIMA graft perforation with continuous extravasation was caused by the edge of deeper intubated guide extension catheter when a coronary stent was attempted to be delivered to the culprit lesion. A long balloon inflation was performed, but the perforation was not completely sealed. The PTFE-covered stent was successfully deployed and sealed the LIMA graft perforation. This case describes that the rapid deployment of PTFE-covered stent is effective to treat severe coronary artery bypass graft perforation due to the guide catheter extension system.

  13. High-pressure cryogenic seals for pressure vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buggle, A. E.

    1977-01-01

    Problems associated with maintaining high pressures at cryogenic temperatures in pressure vessels are investigated. The goals were to identify the appropriate materials and design for a seal intended for cryogenic applications at pressures up to 4,080 bars (60,000 psi), and to examine the factors affecting the seal performance. The method employed and the apparatus used in a series of experimental seal system tests, and the test results are described in detail. It is concluded that the common seal designs and extrusion seal-ring materials such as Teflon, tin, and lead are not suitable. However, new seal systems developed using indium seal rings, brass or 304 stainless steel anvil rings, and two 0-rings of silicone rubber or Kel-F did prove suitable.

  14. High-pressure cryogenic seals for pressure vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buggele, A. E.

    1977-01-01

    This investigation of the problems associated with reliably containing gaseous helium pressurized to 1530 bars (22 500 psi) between 4.2 K and 150 K led to the following conclusions: (1) common seal designs used in existing elevated-temperature pressure vessels are unsuitable for high-pressure cryogenic operation, (2) extrusion seal-ring materials such as Teflon, tin, and lead are not good seal materials for cryogenic high-pressure operation; and (3) several high-pressure cryogenic seal systems suitable for large-pressure vessel applications were developed; two seals required prepressurization, and one seal functioned repeatedly without any prepressurization. These designs used indium seal rings, brass or 304 stainless-steel anvil rings, and two O-rings of silicone rubber or Kel-F.

  15. Age and sex composition of seals killed by polar bears in the eastern Beaufort Sea.

    PubMed

    Pilfold, Nicholas W; Derocher, Andrew E; Stirling, Ian; Richardson, Evan; Andriashek, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) of the Beaufort Sea enter hyperphagia in spring and gain fat reserves to survive periods of low prey availability. We collected information on seals killed by polar bears (n=650) and hunting attempts on ringed seal (Pusa hispida) lairs (n=1396) observed from a helicopter during polar bear mark-recapture studies in the eastern Beaufort Sea in spring in 1985-2011. We investigated how temporal shifts in ringed seal reproduction affect kill composition and the intraspecific vulnerabilities of ringed seals to polar bear predation. Polar bears primarily preyed on ringed seals (90.2%) while bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus) only comprised 9.8% of the kills, but 33% of the biomass. Adults comprised 43.6% (150/344) of the ringed seals killed, while their pups comprised 38.4% (132/344). Juvenile ringed seals were killed at the lowest proportion, comprising 18.0% (62/344) of the ringed seal kills. The proportion of ringed seal pups was highest between 2007-2011, in association with high ringed seal productivity. Half of the adult ringed seal kills were ≥ 21 years (60/121), and kill rates of adults increased following the peak of parturition. Determination of sex from DNA revealed that polar bears killed adult male and adult female ringed seals equally (0.50, n=78). The number of hunting attempts at ringed seal subnivean lair sites was positively correlated with the number of pup kills (r(2) =0.30, P=0.04), but was not correlated with the number of adult kills (P=0.37). Results are consistent with decadal trends in ringed seal productivity, with low numbers of pups killed by polar bears in spring in years of low pup productivity, and conversely when pup productivity was high. Vulnerability of adult ringed seals to predation increased in relation to reproductive activities and age, but not gender.

  16. Small High-Speed Self-Acting Shaft Seals for Liquid Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, R. E.; Boynton, J. L.

    1977-01-01

    Design analysis, fabrication, and experimental evaluation were performed on three self-acting facetype LOX seal designs and one circumferential-type helium deal design. The LOX seals featured Rayleigh step lift pad and spiral groove geometry for lift augmentation. Machined metal bellows and piston ring secondary seal designs were tested. The helium purge seal featured floating rings with Rayleigh step lift pads. The Rayleigh step pad piston ring and the spiral groove LOX seals were successfully tested for approximately 10 hours in liquid oxygen. The helium seal was successfully tested for 24 hours. The shrouded Rayleigh step hydrodynamic lift pad LOX seal is feasible for advanced, small, high-speed oxygen turbopumps.

  17. Stabilizing geometry for hydrodynamic rotary seals

    DOEpatents

    Dietle, Lannie L.; Schroeder, John E.

    2010-08-10

    A hydrodynamic sealing assembly including a first component having first and second walls and a peripheral wall defining a seal groove, a second component having a rotatable surface relative to said first component, and a hydrodynamic seal comprising a seal body of generally ring-shaped configuration having a circumference. The seal body includes hydrodynamic and static sealing lips each having a cross-sectional area that substantially vary in time with each other about the circumference. In an uninstalled condition, the seal body has a length defined between first and second seal body ends which varies in time with the hydrodynamic sealing lip cross-sectional area. The first and second ends generally face the first and second walls, respectively. In the uninstalled condition, the first end is angulated relative to the first wall and the second end is angulated relative to the second wall. The seal body has a twist-limiting surface adjacent the static sealing lip. In the uninstalled condition, the twist-limiting surface is angulated relative to the peripheral wall and varies along the circumference. A seal body discontinuity and a first component discontinuity mate to prevent rotation of the seal body relative to the first component.

  18. Seals cap rotary kiln emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Gunkle, D.W. )

    1993-09-01

    The possibility of producing fugitive emissions is one of the most critical aspects of an incineration system. Whether such a system processes hazardous, medical, mixed or municipal waste, fugitive emissions are of special concern to system operators and the public alike. Effectively designed rotary-kiln seals can reduce fugitive emissions to acceptable, minimal levels. Modern air monitoring systems track incineration site emissions. Possible emissions sources include excavation and transfer sites, storage areas, material-feed systems, rotary kiln seals, and exhaust stacks. Several options are available for rotary-kiln seals. Six are discussed here: labyrinth; overlapping spring plate; graphite block; pneumatic; shrouded; and overpressure. Kiln seals are used to prevent process gases from escaping or ambient air from entering a rotary kiln uncontrolled. They are not designed to function as material seals, or prevent spills of solids or liquids. Seal design involves considering differential pressure produced by a kiln's internal-to-external temperature, pressure excursions (explosions) and material spills.

  19. Seal for fluid forming tools

    SciTech Connect

    Golovashchenko, Sergey Fedorovich; Bonnen, John Joseph Francis

    2012-03-20

    An electro-hydraulic forming tool for forming a sheet metal blank in a one-sided die has first and second rigid rings that engage opposite sides of a sheet metal blank. The rigid rings are contained within slots on a die portion and a hydraulic force applicator portion of the forming tool. The seals are either resiliently biased by an elastomeric member or inherently resiliently biased into contact with the blank.

  20. Gas Path Sealing in Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, L. P.

    1978-01-01

    A survey of gas path seals is presented with particular attention given to sealing clearance effects on engine component efficiency. The effects on compressor pressure ratio and stall margin are pointed out. Various case-rotor relative displacements, which affect gas path seal clearances, are identified. Forces produced by nonuniform sealing clearances and their effect on rotor stability are discussed qualitatively, and recent work on turbine-blade-tip sealing for high temperature is described. The need for active clearance control and for engine structural analysis is discussed. The functions of the internal-flow system and its seals are reviewed.

  1. Advanced helium purge seals for Liquid Oxygen (LOX) turbopumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, Wilbur; Lee, Chester C.

    1989-01-01

    Program objectives were to determine three advanced configurations of helium buffer seals capable of providing improved performance in a space shuttle main engine (SSME), high-pressure liquid oxygen (LOX) turbopump environment, and to provide NASA with the analytical tools to determine performance of a variety of seal configurations. The three seal designs included solid-ring fluid-film seals often referred to as floating ring seals, back-to-back fluid-film face seals, and a circumferential sectored seal that incorporated inherent clearance adjustment capabilities. Of the three seals designed, the sectored seal is favored because the self-adjusting clearance features accommodate the variations in clearance that will occur because of thermal and centrifugal distortions without compromising performance. Moreover, leakage can be contained well below the maximum target values; minimizing leakage is important on the SSME since helium is provided by an external tank. A reduction in tank size translates to an increase in payload that can be carried on board the shuttle. The computer codes supplied under this program included a code for analyzing a variety of gas-lubricated, floating ring, and sector seals; a code for analyzing gas-lubricated face seals; a code for optimizing and analyzing gas-lubricated spiral-groove face seals; and a code for determining fluid-film face seal response to runner excitations in as many as five degrees of freedom. These codes proved invaluable for optimizing designs and estimating final performance of the seals described.

  2. [Christmas seals].

    PubMed

    Loytved, G

    2006-11-01

    Christmas seals, i. e., special stamps used to decorate or seal Christmas and New Year's mail, were created by the Danish post office clerk E. Holboell. The proceeds from the sale of the stickers were meant to alleviate the suffering of children sick with tuberculosis. The first Christmas seal, showing a portrait of Queen Louise of Denmark, was issued on December 10, 1904. The demand at the post office was enormous. The funds raised exceeded all expectations and made it possible to finance the construction of a sanatorium for tuberculosis children. The idea of Christmas seals spread quickly around the world and ended up being copied in 130 countries. At the beginning of the 20 (th) century, the small stamp with the red double-barred cross became a banner for the crusade against tuberculosis. For many patients, it also represented a symbol of hope for recovery even though this hope, given the cure rates of a sanatorium treatment, only became a reality for a few. Worldwide, Christmas seals were and are colourful and imaginatively designed, mostly with Christmas symbols or motives relating to the fight against tuberculosis. The funds raised through the sale of the seals initially helped to build hospitals and were later also used to screen persons at risk for tuberculosis, to improve housing conditions of patients and for other measures of support. With the decrease of tuberculosis, some organisations discontinued fundraising through Christmas seals while others widened their intended purpose and supported, for example, the prevention of and research on lung diseases. In Germany, Christmas seals are closely connected with the German Central Committee against Tuberculosis. Today the "Kuratorium Tuberkulose in der Welt" is the only organisation in this country that still raises funds by this means. The funds are mostly used to assist developing countries with a high burden of tuberculosis.

  3. 19 CFR 201.0 - Seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Seal. 201.0 Section 201.0 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF GENERAL APPLICATION § 201.0 Seal. (a) Pursuant to... Trade Commission has adopted an official seal, the depiction of which follows: EC05OC91.026 (b)...

  4. 19 CFR 201.0 - Seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Seal. 201.0 Section 201.0 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF GENERAL APPLICATION § 201.0 Seal. (a) Pursuant to... Trade Commission has adopted an official seal, the depiction of which follows: EC05OC91.026 (b)...

  5. 19 CFR 201.0 - Seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Seal. 201.0 Section 201.0 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF GENERAL APPLICATION § 201.0 Seal. (a) Pursuant to... Trade Commission has adopted an official seal, the depiction of which follows: EC05OC91.026 (b)...

  6. 19 CFR 201.0 - Seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Seal. 201.0 Section 201.0 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF GENERAL APPLICATION § 201.0 Seal. (a) Pursuant to... Trade Commission has adopted an official seal, the depiction of which follows: EC05OC91.026 (b)...

  7. A Sample Return Container with Hermetic Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, Kin Yuen; Rafeek, Shaheed; Sadick, Shazad; Porter, Christopher C.

    2000-01-01

    A sample return container is being developed by Honeybee Robotics to receive samples from a derivative of the Champollion/ST4 Sample Acquisition and Transfer Mechanism or other samplers and then hermetically seal samples for a sample return mission. The container is enclosed in a phase change material (PCM) chamber to prevent phase change during return and re-entry to earth. This container is designed to operate passively with no motors and actuators. Using the sampler's featured drill tip for interfacing, transfer-ring and sealing samples, the container consumes no electrical power and therefore minimizes sample temperature change. The circular container houses a few isolated canisters, which will be sealed individually for samples acquired from different sites or depths. The drill based sampler indexes each canister to the sample transfer position, below the index interface for sample transfer. After sample transfer is completed, the sampler indexes a seal carrier, which lines up seals with the openings of the canisters. The sampler moves to the sealing interface and seals the sample canisters one by one. The sealing interface can be designed to work with C-seals, knife edge seals and cup seals. Again, the sampler provides all sealing actuation. This sample return container and co-engineered sample acquisition system are being developed by Honeybee Robotics in collaboration with the JPL Exploration Technology program.

  8. A Sample Return Container with Hermetic Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, Kin Yuen; Rafeek, Shaheed; Sadick, Shazad; Porter, Christopher C.

    2000-01-01

    A sample return container is being developed by Honeybee Robotics to receive samples from a derivative of the Champollion/ST4 Sample Acquisition and Transfer Mechanism or other samplers and then hermetically seal samples for a sample return mission. The container is enclosed in a phase change material (PCM) chamber to prevent phase change during return and re-entry to earth. This container is designed to operate passively with no motors and actuators. Using the sampler's featured drill tip for interfacing, transfer-ring and sealing samples, the container consumes no electrical power and therefore minimizes sample temperature change. The circular container houses a few isolated canisters, which will be sealed individually for samples acquired from different sites or depths. The drill based sampler indexes each canister to the sample transfer position, below the index interface for sample transfer. After sample transfer is completed, the sampler indexes a seal carrier, which lines up seals with the openings of the canisters. The sampler moves to the sealing interface and seals the sample canisters one by one. The sealing interface can be designed to work with C-seals, knife edge seals and cup seals. Again, the sampler provides all sealing actuation. This sample return container and co-engineered sample acquisition system are being developed by Honeybee Robotics in collaboration with the JPL Exploration Technology program.

  9. Evaluation of selected elastomer O-ring pump seals for service at the Wilsonville, Alabama, Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility. [Ethylenepropylenediene monomer compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Skena, C.C.; Keiser, J.R.

    1986-08-01

    Previous laboratory tests of elastomer O-rings in coal liquefaction solvents conducted at L'Garde, Inc., indicated that certain ethylenepropylenediene monomer (EPDM) compounds provided the best performance when a backup ring was used to limit swelling. Before service testing in a pump at the Wilsonville, Alabama, Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility, tests of six selected elastomers in the appropriate Wilsonville-produced solvent were conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The ORNL tests measured the elastomers' changes in cross section, weight, density, and relative flexibility. Although two perfluoroelastomers showed less degradation of most properties during these tests, it was decided to proceed with service testing of two EPDM elastomers because of their much lower cost. 5 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. Seal Technology for Liquid Oxygen (LOX) Turbopumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, Wilbur; Hamm, Robert

    1985-01-01

    Two types of advanced seals for liquid oxygen (LOX) turbopumps were investigated. One was a spiral-groove face seal whose function is to seal high-pressure LOX at the impeller end of the turbopump. The other was a floating-ring, Rayleigh-step, helium buffered seal used to prevent LOX ingress to the turbine side of the unit. For each seal type, two sizes were investigated (50 and 20 mm). A turbine-driven test rig was designed and manufactured, and a test program was completed on the 50 mm floating-ring, Rayleigh-step, helium buffered seal. Significant results were: vaporization in the flow path could cause failure by overheating; therefore, the spiral-groove pumping portion of the seal that provides the fluid film must circulate fluid without disruption if vaporization occurs in the sealing dam. This is successfully accomplished by a pressure-balanced spiral-groove concept that is described. The spiral-groove configuration is affected by turbulence in the fluid film and pressure drops due to fluid inertia at sudden contractions. The net results of these effects are deep grooves, large operating films, and high power loss when compared against seals operating with laminar films. Turbulence and inertia are induced by the high-density and low-viscosity characteristics of LOX. The program clearly pointed out the need to consider system environmental factors such as thermal and centrifugal distortions and rotor vibrations in the seal design.

  11. Emerging Sealing Technologies Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Under this Cooperative Agreement, the objective was to investigate several emerging sealing technologies of interest to the Mechanical Components Branch of National Aeronautics and Space Administration Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field (NASA GRC). The majority of the work conducted was to support the development of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells for application to aeronautic auxiliary power units, though technical investigations of interest to other groups and projects were also conducted. In general, accomplishments and results were periodically reported to the NASA Technical Monitor, the NASA GRC Seal Team staff, and NASA GRC project management. Several technical reports, journal articles, and presentations were given internally to NASA GRC and to the external public.

  12. Labyrinth Seal Analysis. Volume 3. Analytical and Experimental Development of a Design Model for Labyrinth Seals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    73 6.2.1 Design Model Data Base Extension ................ ... 75 6.2.2 Effect of Interknife Cavity Aspect Ratio in Straight Seals...75 6.2.3 Effect of Open-Cell Honeycomb Lands i n Straight and Stepped Seals ....... ............. 77 6.3 Internal Flow Structure...102 6.3.2.1 Analysis Model Reference Seals . . ... . 102 6.3.2.2 Straight Seal Parameter Effects ......... ... 115 6.3.3 Internal Pressures and

  13. Reverse Pressure Capable Finger Seal (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Currently, the typical solution for locations requiring reverse capable sealing are labyrinth seals which can exhibit significantly higher leakage...AFRL-RX-WP-TP-2012-0215 REVERSE PRESSURE CAPABLE FINGER SEAL (PREPRINT) Nathan Gibson and Joe Yanof Honeywell International, Inc...AND SUBTITLE REVERSE PRESSURE CAPABLE FINGER SEAL (PREPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-09-D-2925-0003 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  14. Expanding hollow metal rings

    DOEpatents

    Peacock, Harold B [Evans, GA; Imrich, Kenneth J [Grovetown, GA

    2009-03-17

    A sealing device that may expand more planar dimensions due to internal thermal expansion of a filler material. The sealing material is of a composition such that when desired environment temperatures and internal actuating pressures are reached, the sealing materials undergoes a permanent deformation. For metallic compounds, this permanent deformation occurs when the material enters the plastic deformation phase. Polymers, and other materials, may be using a sealing mechanism depending on the temperatures and corrosivity of the use. Internal pressures are generated by either rapid thermal expansion or material phase change and may include either liquid or solid to gas phase change, or in the gaseous state with significant pressure generation in accordance with the gas laws. Sealing material thickness and material composition may be used to selectively control geometric expansion of the seal such that expansion is limited to a specific facing and or geometric plane.

  15. Seal Bypass Systems (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartwright, J. A.

    2009-12-01

    Joe Cartwright 3DLab, School of Earth, Ocean and Planetary Sciences, Cardiff University, Main Building, Park Place, Cardiff CF10 3YE, Wales, UK (cartwrightja@cf.ac.uk) A conceptual model for the analysis of the sealing potential of caprock sequences is summarised here based on the recognition that many high quality seals are breached episodically or semi-permanently by a range of geological structures that act as seal by-pass systems (SBS). We formally define SBS as seismically resolvable geological features embedded within sealing sequences that promote cross-stratal fluid migration and allow fluids to bypass the pore network. We advance the concept that if such bypass systems exist within a given sealing sequence sequence, then predictions of sealing capacity based exclusively on rock physical properties such as capillary entry pressure/hydraulic conductivity will be largely negated by the capacity of the bypass system to breach the grain and pore network. This model is based largely on observations of sealing sequences using 3D seismic data, in which there is direct evidence of highly focused vertical or sub-vertical fluid flow from subsurface reservoirs up through the sealing sequence with leakage internally at higher levels or to the surface as seeps or pockmarks. We classify SBS into three main classes based on seismic interpretational criteria: (1) fault related, (2) intrusion-related, and (3) pipe-related. Examples are presented of each class of SBS in a relevant context of a particular sealing sequence, and where seismic evidence of hydrocarbon leakage allows the role of the bypass features to be evaluated. These include mud volcano conduits, sandstone intrusions, normal and thrust faults, blowout pipes and igneous intrusions. We show how each class exhibits different modes of behaviour with potential for different scaling relationships between flux and dimensions, and different short and long-term impacts on seal behaviour. We conclude with an analysis of

  16. Nucleotide-dependent control of internal strains in ring-shaped AAA+ motors.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Wonmuk; Lang, Matthew J

    2013-03-01

    The AAA+ (ATPase Associated with various cellular Activities) machinery represents an extremely successful and widely used design plan for biological motors. Recently found crystal structures are beginning to reveal nucleotide-dependent conformational changes in the canonical hexameric rings of the AAA+ motors. However, the physical mechanism by which ATP binding on one subunit allosterically propagates across the entire ring remains to be found. Here we analyze and compare structural organization of three ring-shaped AAA+ motors, ClpX, HslU, and dynein. By constructing multimers using subunits of identical conformations, we find that individual subunits locally possess helical geometries with varying pitch, radius, chirality, and symmetry number. These results suggest that binding of an ATP to a subunit imposes conformational constraint that must be accommodated by more flexible nucleotide-free subunits to relieve mechanical strain on the ring. Local deformation of the ring contour and subsequent propagation of strains may be a general strategy that AAA+ motors adopt to generate force while achieving functional diversity.

  17. Internal Dynamics of the 3-Pyrroline-N-Oxide Ring in Spin-Labeled Proteins.

    PubMed

    Consentius, Philipp; Loll, Bernhard; Gohlke, Ulrich; Alings, Claudia; Müller, Carsten; Müller, Robert; Teutloff, Christian; Heinemann, Udo; Kaupp, Martin; Wahl, Markus C; Risse, Thomas

    2017-03-16

    Site-directed spin labeling is a versatile tool to study structure as well as dynamics of proteins using EPR spectroscopy. Methanethiosulfonate (MTS) spin labels tethered through a disulfide linkage to an engineered cysteine residue were used in a large number of studies to extract structural as well as dynamic information on the protein from the rotational dynamics of the nitroxide moiety. The ring itself was always considered to be a rigid body. In this contribution, we present a combination of high-resolution X-ray crystallography and EPR spectroscopy of spin-labeled protein single crystals demonstrating that the nitroxide ring inverts fast at ambient temperature while exhibiting nonplanar conformations at low temperature. We have used quantum chemical calculations to explore the potential energy that determines the ring dynamics as well as the impact of the geometry on the magnetic parameters probed by EPR spectroscopy.

  18. The antiproton interaction with an internal 12C target inside the HESR ring at FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Introzzi, R.; Balestra, F.; Lavagno, A.; Scozzi, F.; Younis, H.

    2016-04-01

    In order to fulfill the goal of producing higher rates of doubly strange hyperons, the P¯ANDA collaboration will use the antiproton ring HESR at the future facility FAIR. The low energy hyperon production by an antiproton beam requires to insert a solid target inside the ring. Unwanted side effects of such an insertion are the overwhelming amount of annihilations, which would make the detectors blind, and the fast depletion of the bunch, which circulates inside the ring. The choice of the target material impacts the hyperon production yield: Carbon turned out to provide enough initial hyperon deceleration and keep secondary interactions below a tolerable level. The use of a very thin Diamond target, together with beam steering techniques, seems to be a satisfactory solution to the above problems and will be described hereafter.

  19. Theoretical volume profiles for conformational changes: Application to internal rotation of benzene ring in 1,12-dimethoxy-[12]-paracyclophane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiebe, Heather; Louwerse, Miranda; Weinberg, Noham

    2017-03-01

    Identification of the transition state is an important step in the study of reaction kinetics and mechanisms. However, for non-rigid chemical systems where multiple viable reaction pathways may exist, enumeration of all possible transition states quickly becomes computationally expensive, if at all feasible. As an alternative approach, we recently proposed a methodology where the volumetric properties of a flexible reaction system are used to locate its transition state ensemble through a comparison of its theoretically determined volume profile and experimental activation volumes derived from high pressure kinetic data. In this work, we apply this method to internal rotation of the benzene ring in 1,12-dimethoxy-[12]-paracyclophane. For this system, the transition state ensemble was found to be the state with the lowest volume, where the benzene ring and the flexible methylene tether are coplanar. This result was verified by comparison with a Gibbs free energy profile obtained via umbrella sampling.

  20. Theoretical volume profiles for conformational changes: Application to internal rotation of benzene ring in 1,12-dimethoxy-[12]-paracyclophane.

    PubMed

    Wiebe, Heather; Louwerse, Miranda; Weinberg, Noham

    2017-03-14

    Identification of the transition state is an important step in the study of reaction kinetics and mechanisms. However, for non-rigid chemical systems where multiple viable reaction pathways may exist, enumeration of all possible transition states quickly becomes computationally expensive, if at all feasible. As an alternative approach, we recently proposed a methodology where the volumetric properties of a flexible reaction system are used to locate its transition state ensemble through a comparison of its theoretically determined volume profile and experimental activation volumes derived from high pressure kinetic data. In this work, we apply this method to internal rotation of the benzene ring in 1,12-dimethoxy-[12]-paracyclophane. For this system, the transition state ensemble was found to be the state with the lowest volume, where the benzene ring and the flexible methylene tether are coplanar. This result was verified by comparison with a Gibbs free energy profile obtained via umbrella sampling.

  1. Hermetic Glass-To-Metal Seal For Instrumentation Window

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Arthur J.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed mounting scheme for optical element of instrumentation window in pressure vessel ensures truly hermetic seal while minimizing transmission of stress to optical element. Brazed metal seal superior to conventional gaskets of elastomer, carbon, asbestos, or other material compressed between optical element and wall of vessel. Concentric brazed joints in proposed seal bond metal ring to wall of vessel and to optical element. U-shaped cross section allows ring to flex under pressure.

  2. Hermetic Glass-To-Metal Seal For Instrumentation Window

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Arthur J.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed mounting scheme for optical element of instrumentation window in pressure vessel ensures truly hermetic seal while minimizing transmission of stress to optical element. Brazed metal seal superior to conventional gaskets of elastomer, carbon, asbestos, or other material compressed between optical element and wall of vessel. Concentric brazed joints in proposed seal bond metal ring to wall of vessel and to optical element. U-shaped cross section allows ring to flex under pressure.

  3. EHD analysis of and experiments on pumping Leningrader seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eusepi, M. W.; Walowit, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    Analysis and design charts have been generated to provide design data for Pumping Leningrader Reciprocating Rod Seals. The analytical treatment divides the seal into three regions: an inlet zone, induced with the use of an expansion ring, a contact zone, and an exit zone. Complete solutions have been obtained by matching elasticity equations with hydrodynamic theory. Experiments, although of a limited nature, did demonstrate the ability of the seal design analysis to provide viable seals.

  4. The First of March Gets the Seal of Approval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinney, Richard; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Presents background information on seals, legislation designed to protect them, activities related to seals and the fourth International Day of the Seal, and suggestions for field trips. Includes list of materials available from the Seal Rescue Fund with current costs. (JM)

  5. The First of March Gets the Seal of Approval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinney, Richard; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Presents background information on seals, legislation designed to protect them, activities related to seals and the fourth International Day of the Seal, and suggestions for field trips. Includes list of materials available from the Seal Rescue Fund with current costs. (JM)

  6. Study on a new type of sealing - regeneration-labyrinth sealing for displacer in cryocoolers: Part I - Theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L. Q.; Zhang, L.

    2000-02-01

    A new concept of sealing structure - regeneration-labyrinth sealing has been put forward to substitute for sealing rings that influence seriously the performance of cryocoolers. A program, which can simulate the thermophysical process occurring in the sealing structure, is developed consequently. Using numerical simulation, the reasonable structure of the regeneration-labyrinth sealing has been determined. The influences of some parameters, such as the heat transfer coefficient of forced convection, the cylinder-displacer gap, the diameter and length of cylinder on the losses of cooling capacity have been studied numerically. As a result, the designing principle of the new type of sealing is obtained.

  7. Nazarov Cyclization/Internal Redox Cyclization Sequence for the Synthesis of N-Heterocyclic Bridged Ring Systems.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Wen; Frontier, Alison J

    2016-10-07

    A 1,6 conjugate addition/Nazarov electrocyclization/internal redox cyclization sequence was developed. Various 5-hydroxycyclopentenones were made through the 1,6-conjugate addition initiated Nazarov reaction with excellent diastereoselectivities. Under thermal conditions, these underwent a through-space 1,5-hydride-transfer/ring-closure reaction to form bridged bicyclic N-heterocyclic compounds with up to four stereogenic centers. It was also possible to convert simple acyclic dienyl diketones into the bicyclo[3.2.1] products in a one-pot process (with a solvent switch).

  8. High intensity polarized atomic beam source for polarized internal storage ring targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiemenz, P.

    1989-05-01

    In collaboration with the Max-Planck-Institut (MPI) für Kernphysik in Heidelberg and the University of Marburg we presently design and construct a high intensity polarized atomic beam source. It is intended to deliver 1*1017 atoms/sec in one hyperfine state into a storage cell for FILTEX. FILTEX is an abbreviation for FILTer EXperiment aiming to polarize storage ring beams. The structure and the vacuum chambers of this source are completed and installed at the Heidelberg Test Storage Ring (TSR). Vacuum pumps, gauges etc. are mounted and partly connected to a logical operation system. When atomic beam nozzle and skimmer geometries and distances as well as the nozzle temperature are optimized, the final geometrical arrangement or our new hybrid sixpole magnets will be decided and the whole source should be completed by the end of 1989.

  9. Electron Cloud in the Wigglers of the Positron Damping Ring of the International Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L.; /SLAC

    2007-07-06

    The ILC positron damping ring comprises hundreds of meters of wiggler sections, where many more photons than in the arcs are emitted, and with the smallest beampipe aperture of the ring. A significant electron-cloud density can therefore be accumulated via photo-emission and via beam-induced multipacting. In field-free regions the electron-cloud build up may be suppressed by adding weak solenoid fields, but the electron cloud remaining in the wigglers as well as in the arc dipole magnets can still drive single-bunch and multi-bunch beam instabilities. This paper studies the electron-cloud formation in an ILC wiggler section for various scenarios, as well as its character, and possible mitigation schemes.

  10. Analysis of an internally radially cracked ring segment subject to three-point radial loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, B.; Srawley, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    The boundary collocation method was used to generate Mode 1 stress intensity and crack mouth opening displacement coefficients for externally radially cracked ring segments subjected to three point radial loading. Numerical results were obtained for ring segment outer-to-inner radius ratios (R sub o/R sub i) ranging from 1.10 to 2.50 and crack length to segment width ratios (a/W) ranging from 0.1 to 0.8. Stress intensity and crack mouth displacement coefficients were found to depend on the ratios R sub o/R sub i and a/W as well as the included angle between the directions of the reaction forces. Previously announced in STAR as N83-35413

  11. Containment penetration elastomer seal leak rate tests

    SciTech Connect

    Bridges, T.L.

    1987-07-01

    Tests were performed on three elastomer seal designs commonly used for nuclear plant containment mechanical penetrations. The objective of this research project is to obtain an understanding of the integrity and leakage behavior of these seal designs under severe accident temperature and pressure conditions. The three designs tested and the seal materials used in the tests were: (1) double tongue-and-groove design with silicone rubber seals, (2) double-O-ring design with neoprene and ethylene-propylene (EPDM) seals, and (3) double gumdrop design with neoprene and EPDM seals. The effects of thermal aging and angular rotations of flange mating surfaces were determined. The test results provide information required to characterize the leakage behavior of penetrations under severe accident conditions. 3 refs., 10 figs., 12 tabs.

  12. Proceedings of the international symposium on ecological aspects of tree-ring analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jacoby, G.C. Jr.; Hornbeck, J.W.

    1987-04-01

    The papers presented at the conference are divided into the following categories: forest ecology; effects of natural disturbances; tree-ring analysis in the earth sciences; paleoecology and prehistory; anthropogenic impacts on forest ecology and radial growth of trees; assessing effects of increasing CO/sub 2/ on forest growth; statistical method; and analytical procedures. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual papers. (ACR)

  13. On the wall jet from the ring crevice of an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Cloutman, L.D.; Green, R.M.

    1996-05-01

    Numerical simulations and experiments of the jetting of gases from the ring crevices of a laboratory engine shortly after exhaust valve opening showed an unanticipated radial flow of the crevice gases into the main combustion chamber. We report well-resolved numerical simulations of a wall jet that show that this radial motion is driven by vorticity generation in the wall boundary layer and at the corner of the piston crown.

  14. Effects of Hypervelocity Impacts on Silicone Elastomer Seals and Mating Aluminum Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Henry C., III; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2009-01-01

    While in space silicone based elastomer seals planned for use on NASA's Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) are exposed to threats from micrometeoroids and orbital debris (MMOD). An understanding of these threats is required to assess risks to the crew, the CEV orbiter, and missions. An Earth based campaign of hypervelocity impacts on small scale seal rings has been done to help estimate MMOD threats to the primary docking seal being developed for the Low Impact Docking System (LIDS). LIDS is being developed to enable the CEV to dock to the ISS (International Space Station) or to Altair (NASA's next lunar lander). The silicone seal on LIDS seals against aluminum alloy flanges on ISS or Altair. Since the integrity of a seal depends on both sealing surfaces, aluminum targets were also impacted. The variables considered in this study included projectile mass, density, speed, incidence angle, seal materials, and target surface treatments and coatings. Most of the impacts used a velocity near 8 km/s and spherical aluminum projectiles (density = 2.7 g/cubic centimeter), however, a few tests were done near 5.6 km/s. Tests were also performed using projectile densities of 7.7, 2.79, 2.5 or 1.14 g/cubic centimeter. Projectile incidence angles examined included 0 degrees, 45 degrees , and 60 degrees from normal to the plane of the target. Elastomer compounds impacted include Parker's S0383-70 and Esterline's ELA-SA-401 in the as received condition, or after an atomic oxygen treatment. Bare, anodized and nickel coated aluminum targets were tested simulating the candidate mating seal surface materials. After impact, seals and aluminum plates were leak tested: damaged seals were tested against an undamaged aluminum plate; and undamaged seals were placed at various locations over craters in aluminum plates. It has been shown that silicone elastomer seals can withstand an impressive level of damage before leaking beyond allowable limits. In general on the tests performed to date, the

  15. Effects of Hypervelocity Impacts on Silicone Elastomer Seals and Mating Aluminum Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Henry C., III; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2009-01-01

    While in space silicone based elastomer seals planned for use on NASA's Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) are exposed to threats from micrometeoroids and orbital debris (MMOD). An understanding of these threats is required to assess risks to the crew, the CEV orbiter, and missions. An Earth based campaign of hypervelocity impacts on small scale seal rings has been done to help estimate MMOD threats to the primary docking seal being developed for the Low Impact Docking System (LIDS). LIDS is being developed to enable the CEV to dock to the ISS (International Space Station) or to Altair (NASA's next lunar lander). The silicone seal on LIDS seals against aluminum alloy flanges on ISS or Altair. Since the integrity of a seal depends on both sealing surfaces, aluminum targets were also impacted. The variables considered in this study included projectile mass, density, speed, incidence angle, seal materials, and target surface treatments and coatings. Most of the impacts used a velocity near 8 km/s and spherical aluminum projectiles (density = 2.7 g/cubic cm), however, a few tests were done near 5.6 km/s. Tests were also performed using projectile densities of 7.7, 2.79, 2.5 or 1.14 g/cubic cm. Projectile incidence angles examined included 0 deg, 45 deg, and 60 deg from normal to the plane of the target. Elastomer compounds impacted include Parker's S0383-70 and Esterline's ELA-SA-401 in the as received condition, or after an atomic oxygen treatment. Bare, anodized and nickel coated aluminum targets were tested simulating the candidate mating seal surface materials. After impact, seals and aluminum plates were leak tested: damaged seals were tested against an undamaged aluminum plate; and undamaged seals were placed at various locations over craters in aluminum plates. It has been shown that silicone elastomer seals can withstand an impressive level of damage before leaking beyond allowable limits. In general on the tests performed to date, the diameter of the crater in

  16. Reinforcement core facilitates O-ring installation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Reinforcement core holds O-ring in place within a structure while adjacent parts are being assembled. The core in the O-ring adds circumferential rigidity to the O-ring material. This inner core does not appreciably affect the sectional elasticity or gland-sealing characteristics of the O-ring.

  17. Forming a seal between planar sealing surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Ezekoye, L.I.; Rusnica, E.J.; Sepp, H.A. Jr.

    1987-12-29

    A method of forming a seal between the confronting planar sealing surfaces on two annular structural members which are drawn together by axially extending bolts is described comprising the steps of: forming a seal assembly by locking a toroidal, crushable seal member within a substantially flat annular spacer member against an annular shoulder formed on the inner diameter thereof with an annular resilient member seated in a radially extending groove in the inner surface of the substantially flat annular member, the flat annular member being axially thinner than the toroidal, crushable seal member; placing the sealing assembly between the planar sealing surfaces and positively aligning the assembly relative to the axially extending bolts; and tightening the bolts to draw the planar sealing surfaces toward each other and into contact with the flat annular member while crushing the toroidal, crushable seal member to form a seal between the planar sealing surfaces.

  18. Python fiber optic seal

    SciTech Connect

    Ystesund, K.; Bartberger, J.; Brusseau, C.; Fleming, P.; Insch, K.; Tolk, K.

    1993-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a high security fiber optic seal that incorporates tamper resistance features that are not available in commercial fiber optic seals. The Python Seal is a passive fiber optic loop seal designed to give indication of unauthorized entry. The seal includes a fingerprint feature that provides seal identity information in addition to the unique fiber optic pattern created when the seal is installed. The fiber optic cable used for the seal loop is produced with tamper resistant features that increase the difficulty of attacking that component of a seal. A Seal Reader has been developed that will record the seal signature and the fingerprint feature of the seal. A Correlator software program then compares seal images to establish a match or mismatch. SNL is also developing a Polaroid reader to permit hard copies of the seal patterns to be obtained directly from the seal.

  19. Shape memory alloy seals for geothermal applications

    SciTech Connect

    Friske, Warren H.; Schwartzbart, Harry

    1982-10-08

    Rockwell International's Energy Systems Group, under contract to Brookhaven National Laboratory, has completed a 2-year program to develop a novel temperature-actuated seal concept for geothermal applications. This seal concept uses the unique properties of a shape memory alloy (Nitinol) to perform the sealing function. The several advantages of the concept are discussed in the paper. Demonstration tests of both face and shaft seals have shown that leaktight seals are feasible. Supporting materials studies have included corrosion tests in geothermal fluids, elevated temperature tensile tests, experimental electroplating and metallographic evaluations of microstructures.

  20. Development of Advanced Seals for Industrial Turbine Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chupp, Raymond E.; Aksit, Mahmut F.; Ghasripoor, Farshad; Turnquist, Norman A.; Dinc, Saim; Mortzheim, Jason; Demiroglu, Mehmet

    2002-10-01

    A critical area being addressed to improve industrial turbine performance is reducing the parasitic leakage flows through the various static and dynamic seals. Implementation of advanced seals into General Electric (GE) industrial turbines has progressed well over the last few years with significant operating performance gains achieved. Advanced static seals have been placed in gas turbine hot gas-path junctions and steam turbine packing ring segment end gaps. Brush seals have significantly decreased labyrinth seal leakages in gas turbine compressors and turbine interstages, steam turbine interstage and end packings, industrial compressor shaft seals, and generator seals. Abradable seals are being developed for blade-tip locations in various turbine locations. This presentation summarizes the status of advanced seal development for industrial turbines at GE.

  1. Collar nut and thrust ring

    DOEpatents

    Lowery, Guy B.

    1991-01-01

    A collar nut comprises a hollow cylinder having fine interior threads at one end for threadably engaging a pump mechanical seal assembly and an inwardly depending flange at the other end. The flange has an enlarged portion with a groove for receiving an O-ring for sealing against the intrusion of pumpage from the exterior. The enlarged portion engages a thrust ring about the pump shaft for crushing a hard O-ring, such as a graphite O-ring. The hard O-ring seals the interior of the mechanical seal assembly and pump housing against the loss of lubricants or leakage of pumpage. The fine threads of the hollow cylinder provide the mechanical advantage for crushing the hard O-ring evenly and easily with a hand tool from the side of the collar nut rather than by tightening a plurality of bolts from the end and streamlines the exterior surface of the mechanical seal. The collar nut avoids the spatial requirements of bolt heads at the end of a seal and associated bolt head turbulence.

  2. 19 CFR 201.0 - Seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seal. 201.0 Section 201.0 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF GENERAL APPLICATION § 201.0 Seal. (a) Pursuant to section 331(g) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1331(g)), the United States International...

  3. GAS SEAL

    DOEpatents

    Monson, H.; Hutter, E.

    1961-07-11

    A seal is described for a cover closing an opening in the top of a pressure vessel that may house a nuclear reactor. The seal comprises a U-shaped trough formed on the pressure vessel around the opening therein, a mass of metal in the trough, and an edge flange on the cover extending loosely into the trough and dipping into the metal mass. The lower portion of the metal mass is kept melted, and the upper portion, solid. The solid pontion of the metal mass prevents pressure surges in the vessel from expelling the liquid portion of the metal mass from the trough; the liquld portion, thus held in place by the solid portion, does not allow gas to go through, and so gas cannot escape through shrinkage holes in the solid portion.

  4. Method of forming shrink-fit compression seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podgorski, T. J. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A method for making a glass-to-metal seal is described. A domed metal enclosure having a machined seal ring is fitted to a glass post machined to a slight taper and to a desired surface finish. The metal part is then heated by induction in a vacuum. As the metal part heats and expands relative to the glass post, the metal seal ring, possessing a higher coefficient of expansion than the glass post, slides down the tapered post. Upon cooling, the seal ring crushes against the glass post forming the seal. The method results in a glass-to-metal seal possessing extremely good leak resistance, while the parts are kept clean and free of the contaminants.

  5. MWTF jumper connector integral seal block development and leak testing

    SciTech Connect

    Ruff, E.S.; Jordan, S.R.

    1995-01-01

    In fiscal year 1993, tests of an o-ring/tetraseal retainer designed to replace a gasket-type seal used in PUREX-type process jumper connectors encouraged the design of an improved seal block. This new seal block combines several parts into one unitized component called an integral seal block. This report summarizes development and leak testing of the new integral seal block. The integral seal block uses a standard o-ring nested in a groove to accomplish leak tightness. This seal block eliminates the need to machine acme threads into the lower skirt casting and seal retainers, eliminates tolerance stack-up, reduces parts inventory, and eliminates an unnecessary leak path in the jumper connector assembly. This report also includes test data on various types of o-ring materials subjected to heat and pressure. Materials tested included Viton, Kalrez, and fluorosilicone, with some incidental data on teflon coated silicone o-rings. Test experience clearly demonstrates the need to test each seal material for temperature and pressure in its intended application. Some materials advertised as being {open_quotes}better{close_quotes} at higher temperatures did not perform up to expectations. Inspection of the fluorosilicone and Kalrez seals after thermal testing indicates that they are much more susceptible to heat softening than Viton.

  6. Population structure of ice-breeding seals.

    PubMed

    Davis, Corey S; Stirling, Ian; Strobeck, Curtis; Coltman, David W

    2008-07-01

    The development of population genetic structure in ice-breeding seal species is likely to be shaped by a combination of breeding habitat and life-history characteristics. Species that return to breed on predictable fast-ice locations are more likely to exhibit natal fidelity than pack-ice-breeding species, which in turn facilitates the development of genetic differentiation between subpopulations. Other aspects of life history such as geographically distinct vocalizations, female gregariousness, and the potential for polygynous breeding may also facilitate population structure. Based on these factors, we predicted that fast-ice-breeding seal species (the Weddell and ringed seal) would show elevated genetic differentiation compared to pack-ice-breeding species (the leopard, Ross, crabeater and bearded seals). We tested this prediction using microsatellite analysis to examine population structure of these six ice-breeding species. Our results did not support this prediction. While none of the Antarctic pack-ice species showed statistically significant population structure, the bearded seal of the Arctic pack ice showed strong differentiation between subpopulations. Again in contrast, the fast-ice-breeding Weddell seal of the Antarctic showed clear evidence for genetic differentiation while the ringed seal, breeding in similar habitat in the Arctic, did not. These results suggest that the development of population structure in ice-breeding phocid seals is a more complex outcome of the interplay of phylogenetic and ecological factors than can be predicted on the basis of breeding substrate and life-history characteristics.

  7. Hermetically sealed electrical feedthrough for high temperature secondary cells

    DOEpatents

    Knoedler, Reinhard; Nelson, Paul A.; Shimotake, Hiroshi; Battles, James E.

    1985-01-01

    A passthrough seal is disclosed for electrically isolating the terminal in a lithium/metal sulfide cell from the structural cell housing. The seal has spaced upper and lower insulator rings fitted snuggly between the terminal and an annularly disposed upstanding wall, and outwardly of a powdered insulator also confined between the upstanding wall and terminal. The adjacent surfaces of the upper insulator ring and the respective upstanding wall and terminal are conically tapered, diverging in the axial direction away from the cell interior, and a sealing ring is located between each pair of the adjacent surfaces. The components are sized so that upon appropriate movement of the upper insulator ring toward the lower insulator ring the powdered insulator and sealing rings are each compressed to a high degree. This compacts the powdered insulator thereby rendering the same highly impervious and moreover fuses the sealing rings to and between the adjacent surfaces. The upper and lower insulator rings might be formed of beryllium oxide and/or alumina, the powdered insulator might be formed of boron nitride, and the sealing rings might be formed of aluminum.

  8. Hermetically sealed electrical feedthrough for high temperature secondary cells

    DOEpatents

    Knoedler, R.; Nelson, P.A.; Shimotake, H.; Battles, J.E.

    1983-07-26

    A passthrough seal is disclosed for electrically isolating the terminal in a lithium/metal sulfide cell from the structural cell housing. The seal has spaced upper and lower insulator rings fitted snuggly between the terminal and an annularly disposed upstanding wall, and outwardly of a powdered insulator also confined between the upstanding wall and terminal. The adjacent surfaces of the upper insulator ring and the respective upstanding wall and terminal are conically tapered, diverging in the axial direction away from the cell interior, and a sealing ring is located between each pair of the adjacent surfaces. The components are sized so that upon appropriate movement of the upper insulator ring toward the lower insulator ring the powdered insulator and sealing rings are each compressed to a high degree. This compacts the powdered insulator thereby rendering the same highly impervious and moreover fuses the sealing rings to and between the adjacent surfaces. The upper and lower insulator rings might be formed of beryllium oxide and/or alumina, the powdered insulator might be formed of boron nitride, and the sealing rings might be formed of aluminum.

  9. [Internal Fixation of Sacro-iliac Joint in Unstable Fractures of the Pelvic Ring.].

    PubMed

    Soukup, B

    1999-01-01

    Unstable fractures of the pelvic ring are always serious injuries posing problems from many aspects. Among the most serious are definitely unstable fractures of the pelvic ring with both vertical and rotational instability, i. e. type C fractures according to AO classification scheme. The recent therapeutic concept recommends in case of these fractures an active reconstruction on the dorsal SI complex which evidently improves the final perspective of patients with such a severe injury. The author presents his own clinical experience and literary data relating to the treatment of 11 patients who underwent reconstruction in the region of dorsal sacro-iliac complex due to type C unstable fracture. Clinical results achieved on the basis of the evaluation of a group of 11 patients are favourable and promising despite a significant complexity of the problems of unstable pelvic fractures. In 9 patients the anatomical result on radiograph was excellent, 9 patients regained full mobility after the proper physiotherapy, 10 patients resumed their work and 6 patients resumed even professional sports activity. In the conclusion the author states that in suitable, mainly young and fully stabilized patients the reconstruction surgery on the dorsal pelvic SI segment is fully justified which is documented both by the literary data and his own experience. Key words: unstable pelvic fractures.

  10. Face-seal lubrication: 1: Proposed and published models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, L. P.

    1976-01-01

    The numerous published theories on the mechanism of hydrodynamic lubrication of face seals were reviewed. These theories employ either an inclined-slider-bearing macrogeometry or an inclined-slider-bearing microgeometry to produce hydrodynamic pressure that separates the surfaces of the primary seal. Secondary seal friction and primary ring inertia effects are not considered. Hypothetical seal operating models were devised to include secondary seal friction and primary ring inertia effects. It was hypothesized that these effects induce relative angular misalinement of the primary seal faces and that this misalinement is, in effect, an inclined slider macrogeometry. Stable running was postulated for some of these hypothetical operating models. In others, periodic loss of hydrodynamic lubrication was postulated to be possible with certain combinations of waviness and angular misalinement. Application of restrictions that apply to seal operation led to a hydrodynamic governing equation for the new model that is a two-dimensional, time-dependent Reynolds equation with the short-bearing approximation.

  11. A bulk flow model of a brush seal system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Schlumberger, S.; Braun, M. J.; Choy, F.; Mullen, R. L.

    1991-01-01

    Fibers can be readily fabricated into a variety of seal configurations that are compliant and responsive to high speed or lightly loaded systems. A linear, circular, or contoured brush seal system is a contact seal consisting of the bristle pattern and hardened interface. When compared to a labyrinth seal, the brush seal system is superior and features low leakage, dynamic stability, and permits compliant structures. But in turn, the system usually requires a hardened smooth interface and permits only limited pressure drops. Wear life and wear debris for operations with static or dynamic excitation are largely undetermined. A seal system involves control of fluid within specific boundaries. The brush and rub ring (or rub surface) form a seal system. Design similitudes, a bulk flow model, and rub ring (interface) coatings are discussed. The bulk flow model calculations are based on flows in porous media and filters. The coatings work is based on experience and expanded to include current practice.

  12. High-temperature, flexible, thermal barrier seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sirocky, Paul J. (Inventor); Steinetz, Bruce M. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    This device seals the sliding interfaces between structural panels that are roughly perpendicular to each other or whose edges are butted against one another. The nonuniformity of the gap between the panels requires significant flexibility along the seal length. The seal is mounted in a rectangular groove in a movable structural panel. A plurality of particles or balls is densely packed in an outer sheathing. The balls are laterally preloaded to maintain sealing contact with the adjacent wall using a pressurized linear bellows. Distortions in the adjacent panel are accommodated by rearrangement of the particles within the outer sheathing. Leakage through the seal is minimized by densely compacting the internal particles and by maintaining positive preload along the back side of the seal. The braid architecture of the outer sheathing is selected to minimize leakage through the seal and to resist mechanical abrasion.

  13. A diode for accelerating hydrogen nuclides with electron conductivity suppressed by an internal ring magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shikanov, A. E.; Vovchenko, E. D.; Kozlovskii, K. I.; Shatokhin, V. L.

    2015-05-01

    We present new experimental data on the acceleration of deuterons in a small-size magnetically insulated diode. Plasma containing deuterons was created at the anode during irradiation of a TiD target by a focused laser beam with a wavelength of 1.06 μm. The accelerating voltage pulse was formed by an Arkadiev-Marx generator. A circular cathode was arranged symmetrically relative to the anode and represented a permanent ring magnet with an inner radius not exceeding 0.02 m and a magnetic induction of up to 0.4 T at the center, which ensured magnetic insulation of the accelerating gap. The experiments showed that the current of accelerated deuterons with energies of up to 300 eV can reach a level of 0.5 kA at pulse durations of ≤0.5 μs.

  14. Soft Wire Seals For High Temperatures And Pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsou, Peter

    1996-01-01

    Soft metal wires used to make O-ring and similar seals for vessels, flanges, and fittings subject to pressures equal to or greater than 1,000 psi and temperatures equal to or greater than 100 degrees C. Seals containing soft metal wires made inexpensively because fabricated to looser tolerances like those of lower-temperature, lower-pressure elastomeric-O-ring seals, which they resemble. Seals also made with noncircular grooves and with soft metals other than aluminum. For example, gold performs well, though expensive. For other applications, silver good choice.

  15. Turbine with radial acting seal

    DOEpatents

    Eng, Darryl S; Ebert, Todd A

    2016-11-22

    A floating brush seal in a rim cavity of a turbine in a gas turbine engine, where the floating brush seal includes a seal holder in which the floating brush seal floats, and a expandable seal that fits within two radial extending seal slots that maintains a seal with radial displacement of the floating brush seal and the seal holder.

  16. Regenerator seal design

    DOEpatents

    Eckart, Francis H.

    1982-01-01

    A rotary regenerator disc matrix has a face seal with a cross arm and arcuate rim segments joined by prestress clamps to prestrain the arcuate rim seals so as to compensate seal rim twisting or coning and resultant disc face seal leakage as produced by operating thermal gradients across the seal.

  17. Experimental stiffness of tapered bore seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, D. P.

    1985-01-01

    The stiffness of tapered-bore ring seals was measured with air as the sealed fluid. Static stiffness agreed fairly well with results of a previous analysis. Cross-coupled stiffness due to shaft rotation was much less than predicted. It is suggested that part of the disparity may be due to simplifying assumptions in the analysis; however, these do not appear to account for the entire difference observed.

  18. Optimal Hydrophobicity in Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization-Based Protein Mimics Required for siRNA Internalization.

    PubMed

    deRonde, Brittany M; Posey, Nicholas D; Otter, Ronja; Caffrey, Leah M; Minter, Lisa M; Tew, Gregory N

    2016-06-13

    Exploring the role of polymer structure for the internalization of biologically relevant cargo, specifically siRNA, is of critical importance to the development of improved delivery reagents. Herein, we report guanidinium-rich protein transduction domain mimics (PTDMs) based on a ring-opening metathesis polymerization scaffold containing tunable hydrophobic moieties that promote siRNA internalization. Structure-activity relationships using Jurkat T cells and HeLa cells were explored to determine how the length of the hydrophobic block and the hydrophobic side chain compositions of these PTDMs impacted siRNA internalization. To explore the hydrophobic block length, two different series of diblock copolymers were synthesized: one series with symmetric block lengths and one with asymmetric block lengths. At similar cationic block lengths, asymmetric and symmetric PTDMs promoted siRNA internalization in the same percentages of the cell population regardless of the hydrophobic block length; however, with 20 repeat units of cationic charge, the asymmetric block length had greater siRNA internalization, highlighting the nontrivial relationships between hydrophobicity and overall cationic charge. To further probe how the hydrophobic side chains impacted siRNA internalization, an additional series of asymmetric PTDMs was synthesized that featured a fixed hydrophobic block length of five repeat units that contained either dimethyl (dMe), methyl phenyl (MePh), or diphenyl (dPh) side chains and varied cationic block lengths. This series was further expanded to incorporate hydrophobic blocks consisting of diethyl (dEt), diisobutyl (diBu), and dicyclohexyl (dCy) based repeat units to better define the hydrophobic window for which our PTDMs had optimal activity. High-performance liquid chromatography retention times quantified the relative hydrophobicities of the noncationic building blocks. PTDMs containing the MePh, diBu, and dPh hydrophobic blocks were shown to have superior

  19. Radioactive material package seal tests

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, M.M.; Humphreys, D.L.; Edwards, K.R.

    1990-01-01

    General design or test performance requirements for radioactive materials (RAM) packages are specified in Title 10 of the US Code of Federal Regulations Part 71 (US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 1983). The requirements for Type B packages provide a broad range of environments under which the system must contain the RAM without posing a threat to health or property. Seals that provide the containment system interface between the packaging body and the closure must function in both high- and low-temperature environments under dynamic and static conditions. A seal technology program, jointly funded by the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) and the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), was initiated at Sandia National Laboratories. Experiments were performed in this program to characterize the behavior of several static seal materials at low temperatures. Helium leak tests on face seals were used to compare the materials. Materials tested include butyl, neoprene, ethylene propylene, fluorosilicone, silicone, Eypel, Kalrez, Teflon, fluorocarbon, and Teflon/silicone composites. Because most elastomer O-ring applications are for hydraulic systems, manufacturer low-temperature ratings are based on methods that simulate this use. The seal materials tested in this program with a fixture similar to a RAM cask closure, with the exception of silicone S613-60, are not leak tight (1.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} std cm{sup 3}/s) at manufacturer low-temperature ratings. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Regenerator seal

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Leonard C.; Pacala, Theodore; Sippel, George R.

    1981-01-01

    A method for manufacturing a hot side regenerator cross arm seal assembly having a thermally stablilized wear coating with a substantially flat wear surface thereon to seal between low pressure and high pressure passages to and from the hot inboard side of a rotary regenerator matrix includes the steps of forming a flat cross arm substrate member of high nickel alloy steel; fixedly securing the side edges of the substrate member to a holding fixture with a concave surface thereacross to maintain the substrate member to a slightly bent configuration on the fixture surface between the opposite ends of the substrate member to produce prestress therein; applying coating layers on the substrate member including a wear coating of plasma sprayed nickel oxide/calcium flouride material to define a wear surface of slightly concave form across the restrained substrate member between the free ends thereon; and thereafter subjecting the substrate member and the coating thereon to a heat treatment of 1600.degree. F. for sixteen hours to produce heat stabilizing growth in the coating layers on the substrate member and to produce a thermally induced growth stress in the wear surface that substantially equalizes the prestress in the substrate whereby when the cross arm is removed from the fixture surface following the heat treatment step a wear face is formed on the cross arm assembly that will be substantially flat between the ends.

  1. Regenerator seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Leonard C. (Inventor); Pacala, Theodore (Inventor); Sippel, George R. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A method for manufacturing a hot side regenerator cross arm seal assembly having a thermally stablilized wear coating with a substantially flat wear surface thereon to seal between low pressure and high pressure passages to and from the hot inboard side of a rotary regenerator matrix includes the steps of forming a flat cross arm substrate member of high nickel alloy steel; fixedly securing the side edges of the substrate member to a holding fixture with a concave surface thereacross to maintain the substrate member to a slightly bent configuration on the fixture surface between the opposite ends of the substrate member to produce prestress therein; applying coating layers on the substrate member including a wear coating of plasma sprayed nickel oxide/calcium flouride material to define a wear surface of slightly concave form across the restrained substrate member between the free ends thereon; and thereafter subjecting the substrate member and the coating thereon to a heat treatment of 1600.degree. F. for sixteen hours to produce heat stabilizing growth in the coating layers on the substrate member and to produce a thermally induced growth stress in the wear surface that substantially equalizes the prestress in the substrate whereby when the cross arm is removed from the fixture surface following the heat treatment step a wear face is formed on the cross arm assembly that will be substantially flat between the ends.

  2. Oil seal effects and subsynchronous vibrations in high-speed compressors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allaire, P. E.; Kocur, J. A., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Oil seals are commonly used in high speed multistage compressors. If the oil seal ring becomes locked up against the fixed portion of the seal, high oil film crosscoupled stiffnesses can result. A method of analysis for determining if the oil seals are locked up or not is discussed. The method is then applied to an oil seal in a compressor with subsynchronous vibration problems.

  3. Areas of Seal R/D at GE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, A. Nelson

    1991-01-01

    About four years ago, work was completed on a 36 inch diameter gas to gas carbon ring seal used to buffer low pressure turbine air at the rim of the forward outer flowpath on the GE36 unducted fan (UDF) engine. At about the same time, we were developing a long life counter-rotating intershaft air-oil seal of approximately 7.6 inch diameter for operation at 800 fps, 800 F, and 50 psid. Although we were successful in meeting most program goals with a split ring seal of the axial bushing type, the seal with the greatest payoff in life and air leakage rates, bearing many features in common with the GE36 seal, could not be successfully tested because of the structural weakness of the primary seal ring carbon material. This was a split ring seal using a hybrid combination of orifice compensated hydrostatic and shrouded hydrodynamic gas bearings. We are presently working to develop this design in conjunction with high strength materials being developed by Pure Carbon Co. In the area of engine secondary gas flow path-sealing for performance improvement, we are currently working with carbon and all metal face seals. A 15 inch diameter all metal 'aspirating' face seal, using self-acting hydrostatic bearings, was successfully tested to 700 fps, 100 psid, and 1000 F, demonstrating long life at flow reduction of 86 percent compared to a 'best' labyrinth. This seal will be developed through 1400 F, 900 fps, and 350 psid. The seal 'aspirates' closed at about idle speed pressure during engine start and reopens at engine shutdown. A hydraulic thrust balance seal, currently using orifice compensated hydrostatics, is under development. Other aspects of these projects are briefly covered.

  4. Effects of Low Earth Orbit on Docking Seal Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imka, Emily C.; Asmar, Olivia C.; deGroh, Henry C., III; Banks, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft docking seals are typically made of silicone elastomers. When such seals are exposed to low Earth orbit (LEO) conditions, they can suffer damage from ultraviolet (UV) radiation and atomic oxygen (AO, or monoatomic oxygen, the predominant oxygen species in LEO). An experiment flew on the International Space Station (ISS) to measure the effects of LEO on seal materials S0383-70 and ELA-SA-401 and various mating counterface materials which included anodized aluminum. Samples flown in different orientations received different amounts of UV and AO. The hypotheses were that most of the damage would be from UV, and 10 days or more of exposure in LEO would badly damage the seals. Eighteen seals were exposed for 543 days in ram (windward), zenith (away from Earth), or wake (leeward) orientations, and 15 control samples (not flown) provided undamaged baseline leakage. To determine post-flight leak rates, each of the 33 seals were placed in an O-ring groove of a leak test fixture and pressure tested over time. Resistance temperature detectors (RTDs), pressure transducers, and LabVIEW (National Instruments) programs were used to measure and analyze the temperature and pressure and calculate leakage. Average leakage of control samples was 2.6 x 10(exp -7) lbs/day. LEO exposure did not considerably damage ELA-SA-401. The S0383-70 flight samples leaked at least 10 times more than ELA-SA-401 in all cases except one, demonstrating that ELA-SA-401 may be a more suitable sealing material in LEO. AO caused greater damage than UV; samples in ram orientation (receiving an AO fluence of 4.3 x 10(exp 21) atoms/(sq cm) and in wake (2.9x 10(exp 20) atoms/(sq cm)) leaked more than those in zenith orientation (1.58 x 10(exp 20) atoms/(sq cm)), whereas variations in UV exposure did not seem to affect the samples. Exposure to LEO did less damage to the seals than hypothesized, and the data did not support the conjecture that UV causes more damage than AO.

  5. Ceramic tamper-revealing seals

    SciTech Connect

    Kupperman, D.S.; Raptis, A.C.; Sheen, Shuh-Haw

    1991-12-31

    A tamper resistant seal is made of a brittle material with internal defects internally arranged in a random pattern to form a unique fingerprint characteristic of the seal which may be identified by ultrasonic scanning to determine whether tampering has occurred. It comprises a flexible metal or ceramic cable with composite ceramic ends or a U-shaped ceramic connecting element attached to a binding element plate or block cast from alumina or Zr, and connected to the connecting element by shrink fitting. Part of the binding element is cast with NiO{sub 2} particles, which allows ultrasonic scanning and the resulting fingerprint. 7 figs.

  6. Results of an international phosphorus digestibility ring test with broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Rodehutscord, M; Adeola, O; Angel, R; Bikker, P; Delezie, E; Dozier, W A; Umar Faruk, M; Francesch, M; Kwakernaak, C; Narcy, A; Nyachoti, C M; Olukosi, O A; Preynat, A; Renouf, B; Saiz Del Barrio, A; Schedle, K; Siegert, W; Steenfeldt, S; van Krimpen, M M; Waititu, S M; Witzig, M

    2016-12-05

    The objective of this ring test was to investigate the prececal phosphorus (P) digestibility of soybean meal (SBM) in broiler chickens using the trial protocol proposed by the World's Poultry Science Association. It was hypothesized that prececal P digestibility of SBM determined in the collaborating stations is similar. Three diets with different inclusion levels of SBM were mixed in a feed mill specialized in experimental diets and transported to 17 collaborating stations. Broiler chicks were raised on commercial starter diets according to station-specific management routine. Then they were fed the experimental diets for a minimum of 5 d before content of the posterior half of the ileum was collected. A minimum of 6 experimental replicates per diet was used in each station. All diets and digesta samples were analyzed in the same laboratory. Diet, station, and their interaction significantly affected (P < 0.05) the prececal digestibility values of P and calcium of the diets. The prececal P digestibility of SBM was determined by linear regression and varied among stations from 19 to 51%, with significant differences among stations. In a subset of 4 stations, the prececal disappearance of myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakis (dihydrogen phosphate)-P; InsP6-P) also was studied. The prececal InsP6-P disappearance correlated well with the prececal P digestibility. We hypothesized that factors influencing InsP6 hydrolysis were main contributors to the variation in prececal P digestibility among stations. These factors were probably related to the feeding and housing conditions (floor pens or cages) of the birds in the pre-experimental phase. Therefore, we suggest that the World's Poultry Science Association protocol for the determination of digestible P be should extended to the standardization of the pre-experimental period. We also suggest that comparisons of P digestibility measurements among studies are made only with great caution until the protocol is more refined.

  7. Softened-Stainless-Steel O-Rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marquis, G. A.; Waters, William I.

    1993-01-01

    In fabrication of O-ring of new type, tube of 304 stainless steel bent around mandril into circle and welded closed into ring. Ring annealed in furnace to make it soft and highly ductile. In this condition, used as crushable, deformable O-ring seal. O-ring replacements used in variety of atmospheres and temperatures, relatively inexpensive, fabricated with minimum amount of work, amenable to one-of-a-kind production, reusable, and environmentally benign.

  8. Fundamentals of fluid sealing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuk, J.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamentals of fluid sealing, including seal operating regimes, are discussed and the general fluid-flow equations for fluid sealing are developed. Seal performance parameters such as leakage and power loss are presented. Included in the discussion are the effects of geometry, surface deformations, rotation, and both laminar and turbulent flows. The concept of pressure balancing is presented, as are differences between liquid and gas sealing. Mechanisms of seal surface separation, fundamental friction and wear concepts applicable to seals, seal materials, and pressure-velocity (PV) criteria are discussed.

  9. Internal, corneal, and refractive astigmatism as prognostic factors for intrastromal corneal ring segment implantation in mild to moderate keratoconus.

    PubMed

    Peña-García, Pablo; Alió, Jorge L; Vega-Estrada, Alfredo; Barraquer, Rafael I

    2014-10-01

    To improve the predictability of the visual and refractive outcomes of intrastromal corneal ring segment (ICRS) implantation in keratoconus patients and highlight the importance of internal astigmatism and its relationship to corneal and refractive astigmatism as prognostic factors. Vissum Corporación, Alicante, and Centro de Oftalmología Barrquer, Barcelona, Spain. Retrospective case series. Visual, refractive, topographic, and aberrometric variables were evaluated in eyes having ICRS implantation. The eyes were divided into 2 groups according to the relative position of the keratometric axis and refractive axis; that is, coincident axis (0 degree ± 15 [SD]) or uncoincident axis. Internal astigmatism was calculated by vectorial analysis. The relationship between topographic astigmatism and refractive astigmatism was evaluated. The follow-up was 6 months. Of the 127 eyes evaluated, 79 had grade II keratoconus and 48 had grade I keratoconus. Statistically significant differences were found in the relative position of the refractive axis and keratometric axis (P=.017). Internal astigmatism had a significant correlation with the gain in visual acuity in patients with grade II keratoconus (r = -0.455, P=.0001). This relationship was less significant in patients with grade I keratoconus (r = -0.391, P=.021). The predictability of visual and refractive outcomes can be significantly increased in grade II keratoconus patients when the relative position of the keratometric and refractive axes; the internal, corneal, and refractive astigmatism; and their combinations are used as prognostic factors. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2014 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. PEGASYS/Mark II: A program of internal target physics using the Mark II detector at the PEP storage ring

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    This document is a proposal to SLAC on behalf of the PEGASYS Collaboration for a program of internal target physics at PEP utilizing the Mark A detector. Having completed its tour of duty at SLC in November 1990, we propose that the Mark A detector be returned to the PEP storage ring, where it will be used in conjunction with a long gas target for studies of QCD with nucleon and nuclear targets, as well as tests of QED in lepton pair production, and a search for new neutral bosons. We expect that the detector in its new configuration could be commissioned by late 1991 and begin taking data by 1992. This document presents the physics to be accomplished with the Mark A, and describes the minimal changes to the detector that we will need to make it function for internal target experiments. We also show a possible timeline for the project, and indicate the makeup of the collaboration that will carry out the work.

  11. Antifungal Sealing Rings - A New Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-10-01

    water- wettable powder called "Brestan" and is used to control blight (Phytophthora infestans) in potatoes (10). Certain organotin cconpounds such as...seawater); commercial stainless steel (for discs and hardware); nylon 11, natural; poly(methyl methacrylate) ( PMMA ), transparent; acrylonitrile...were no signs of stress cracking or crazing on any of the plastic materials. This is significant for polycarbonate and PMMA and indicates that all of

  12. A Prospective Randomized Trial to Assess Fixation Strategies for Severe Open Tibia Fractures: Modern Ring External Fixators Versus Internal Fixation (FIXIT Study).

    PubMed

    OʼToole, Robert V; Gary, Joshua L; Reider, Lisa; Bosse, Michael J; Gordon, Wade T; Hutson, James; Quinnan, Stephen M; Castillo, Renan C; Scharfstein, Daniel O; MacKenzie, Ellen J

    2017-04-01

    The treatment of high-energy open tibia fractures is challenging in both the military and civilian environments. Treatment with modern ring external fixation may reduce complications common in these patients. However, no study has rigorously compared outcomes of modern ring external fixation with commonly used internal fixation approaches. The FIXIT study is a prospective, multicenter randomized trial comparing 1-year outcomes after treatment of severe open tibial shaft fractures with modern external ring fixation versus internal fixation among men and women of ages 18-64. The primary outcome is rehospitalization for major limb complications. Secondary outcomes include infection, fracture healing, limb function, and patient-reported outcomes including physical function and pain. One-year treatment costs and patient satisfaction will be compared between the 2 groups, and the percentage of Gustilo IIIB fractures that can be salvaged without soft tissue flap among patients receiving external fixation will be estimated.

  13. O-ring gasket test fixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, James Eric (Inventor); Mccluney, Donald Scott (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus is presented for testing O-ring gaskets under a variety of temperature, pressure, and dynamic loading conditions. Specifically, this apparatus has the ability to simulate a dynamic loading condition where the sealing surface in contact with the O-ring moves both away from and axially along the face of the O-ring.

  14. Feasibility Assessment of Thermal Barrier Seals for Extreme Transient Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The assembly joints of modem solid rocket motor cases are generally sealed using conventional O-ring type seals. The 5500+ F combustion gases produced by rocket motors are kept a safe distance away from the seals by thick layers of phenolic insulation. Special compounds are used to fill insulation gaps leading up to the seals to prevent a direct flowpath to them. Design criteria require that the seals should not experience torching or charring during operation, or their sealing ability would be compromised. On limited occasions, NASA has observed charring of the primary O-rings of the Space Shuttle solid rocket nozzle assembly joints due to parasitic leakage paths opening up in the gap-fill compounds during rocket operation. NASA is investigating different approaches for preventing torching or charring of the primary O-rings. One approach is to implement a braided rope seal upstream of the primary O-ring to serve as a thermal barrier that prevents the hot gases from impinging on the O-ring seals. This paper presents flow, resiliency, and thermal resistance for several types of NASA rope seals braided out of carbon fibers. Burn tests were performed to determine the time to burn through each of the seals when exposed to the flame of an oxyacetylene torch (5500 F), representative of the 5500 F solid rocket motor combustion temperatures. Rope seals braided out of carbon fibers endured the flame for over six minutes, three times longer than solid rocket motor burn time. Room and high temperature flow tests are presented for the carbon seals for different amounts of linear compression. Room temperature compression tests were performed to assess seal resiliency and unit preloads as a function of compression. The thermal barrier seal was tested in a subscale "char" motor test in which the seal sealed an intentional defect in the gap insulation. Temperature measurements indicated that the seal blocked 2500 F combustion gases on the upstream side with very little temperature

  15. Sealed nickel cadmium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raudszus, W.; Kiehne, H. A.; Cloke, F. R.

    1982-10-01

    The design, manufacture, and application of maintenance-free sealed NiCd batteries are surveyed. The principles of electrochemical power supplies and the history of the development of NiCd cells are reviewed. The batteries produced by Varta Batterie AG are presented; topics discussed include design parameters, electrical and physical characteristics, performance under adverse conditions, type range, production, and quality control. Application techniques, including cell-type choice, charging units and charging circuits, and the construction of standby power supplies, are considered, with reference to national and international standards of performance and classification. No individual items are abstracted in this volume

  16. The Conceptual Design of a Magnetic Tape Seal System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-22

    applied seal and is subsequently used to verify the validity of the deal during verifiacation inspections . Also presented is the conceptual design of a...ring inspection erial has not been ramoved, sequemce for - n and tring frmes determined by required time to ove objects being safeguarded (may...irreversible and the seal must be readily identifiable in the field when periodically inspected for integrity. 2.3 Current Developments in Seal Technology

  17. Cure-in-place process for seals

    DOEpatents

    Hirasuna, Alan R.

    1981-01-01

    A cure-in-place process which allows a rubber seal element to be deformed to its service configuration before it is cross-linked and, hence, is a plastic and does not build up internal stress as a result of the deformation. This provides maximum residual strength to resist the differential pressure. Furthermore, the process allows use of high modulus formulations of the rubber seal element which would otherwise crack if cured and then deformed to its service configuration, resulting in a seal which has better gap bridging capability. Basically, the process involves positioning an uncured seal element in place, deforming it to its service configuration, heating the seal element, curing it in place, and then fully seating the seal.

  18. Planetary Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Larry

    2014-03-01

    Preface: a personal view of planetary rings; 1. Introduction: the allure of the ringed planets; 2. Studies of planetary rings 1610-2013; 3. Diversity of planetary rings; 4. Individual ring particles and their collisions; 5. Large-scale ring evolution; 6. Moons confine and sculpt rings; 7. Explaining ring phenomena; 8. N-body simulations; 9. Stochastic models; 10. Age and evolution of rings; 11. Saturn's mysterious F ring; 12. Uranus' rings and moons; 13. Neptune's partial rings; 14. Jupiter's ring-moon system after Galileo and New Horizons; 15. Ring photometry; 16. Dusty rings; 17. Concluding remarks; Afterword; Glossary; References; Index.

  19. PAH chemistry at eV internal energies. 2. Ring alteration and dissociation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinquier, Georges; Simon, Aude; Rapacioli, Mathias; Gadéa, Florent Xavier

    2017-06-01

    Recognized as important interstellar constituents, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been intensively studied in astrochemistry and their spectroscopy, thermodynamics, dynamics, and fragmentations are now amply documented. There exists typical alternatives to the ground-state regular planar structures of PAHs, as long as they bear internal energies in the range 1-10 eV. Resulting from intramolecular rearrangements, such high-lying minima on the potential-energy surfaces should be taken into consideration in the studies of PAH processing in astrophysical conditions. Resting upon DFT calculations mainly performed on two emblematic PAH representatives, coronene and pyrene, in their neutral and mono- and multi-cationic states, this second survey addresses the following alternatives: (1) opened forms containing ethynyl or 2-butynyl groups, (2) vinylidene isomers, in which phenanthrene patterns are reorganized into dibenzofulvene ones, (3) ;twisted; forms, where external CHdbnd CH bonds can be partly twisted, and (4) bicyclobutane forms, in which the latter are integrated in saturated bicyclic forms. A few scenarios for elimination of fragments H, H2, C2H2 and C2H4 are explored. As far as possible, familiar concepts of organic chemistry, such as aromaticity or Clar's rules, are invoked for interpretations.

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF A CERAMIC TAMPER INDICATING SEAL: SRNL CONTRIBUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Krementz, D.; Brinkman, K.; Martinez-Rodriguez, M.; Mendez-Torres, A.; Weeks, G.

    2013-06-03

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) are collaborating on development of a Ceramic Seal, also sometimes designated the Intrinsically Tamper Indicating Ceramic Seal (ITICS), which is a tamper indicating seal for international safeguards applications. The Ceramic Seal is designed to be a replacement for metal loop seals that are currently used by the IAEA and other safeguards organizations. The Ceramic Seal has numerous features that enhance the security of the seal, including a frangible ceramic body, protective and tamper indicating coatings, an intrinsic unique identifier using Laser Surface Authentication, electronics incorporated into the seal that provide cryptographic seal authentication, and user-friendly seal wire capture. A second generation prototype of the seal is currently under development whose seal body is of Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC) construction. SRNL has developed the mechanical design of the seal in an iterative process incorporating comments from the SNL vulnerability review team. SRNL is developing fluorescent tamper indicating coatings, with recent development focusing on optimizing the durability of the coatings and working with a vendor to develop a method to apply coatings on a 3-D surface. SRNL performed a study on the effects of radiation on the electronics of the seal and possible radiation shielding techniques to minimize the effects. SRNL is also investigating implementation of Laser Surface Authentication (LSA) as a means of unique identification of each seal and the effects of the surface coatings on the LSA signature.

  1. Large seals fabricated from small segments reduce procurement lead time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniels, C. M.; Hanes, V. D.

    1966-01-01

    Large diameter seals are fabricated from narrow strip stock welded in segments to form a complete ring. This technique could be used to reduce the cost of critical, large diameter seals in the heating and ventilating industry, petrochemical industry, and marine fabrication industry.

  2. Tool For Installation Of Seal In Tube Fitting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trevathan, Joseph R.

    1993-01-01

    Plierslike tool helps secure repair seal in fitting. Tool crimps repair seal into tube fitting, ensuring tight fit every time. Modified pair of snapring pliers to which knife-edge jaws have been added. Spring added between handles. Also includes separate, accompanying support ring.

  3. A Comparison of Candidate Seal Designs for Future Docking Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunlap, Patrick, H., Jr.; Steinetz, Bruce, M.

    2012-01-01

    NASA is developing a new docking system to support future space exploration missions to low Earth orbit, the Moon, and other destinations. A key component of this system is the seal at the main docking interface which inhibits the loss of cabin air once docking is complete. Depending on the mission, the seal must be able to dock in either a seal-on-flange or seal-on-seal configuration. Seal-on-flange mating would occur when a docking system equipped with a seal docks to a system with a flat metal flange. This would occur when a vehicle docks to a node on the International Space Station. Seal-on-seal mating would occur when two docking systems equipped with seals dock to each other. Two types of seal designs were identified for this application: Gask-O-seals and multi-piece seals. Both types of seals had a pair of seal bulbs to satisfy the redundancy requirement. A series of performance assessments and comparisons were made between the candidate seal designs indicating that they meet the requirements for leak rate and compression and adhesion loads under a range of operating conditions. Other design factors such as part count, integration into the docking system tunnel, seal-on-seal mating, and cost were also considered leading to the selection of the multi-piece seal design for the new docking system. The results of this study can be used by designers of future docking systems and other habitable volumes to select the seal design best-suited for their particular application.

  4. Age and Sex Composition of Seals Killed by Polar Bears in the Eastern Beaufort Sea

    PubMed Central

    Pilfold, Nicholas W.; Derocher, Andrew E.; Stirling, Ian; Richardson, Evan; Andriashek, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Background Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) of the Beaufort Sea enter hyperphagia in spring and gain fat reserves to survive periods of low prey availability. We collected information on seals killed by polar bears (n = 650) and hunting attempts on ringed seal (Pusa hispida) lairs (n = 1396) observed from a helicopter during polar bear mark-recapture studies in the eastern Beaufort Sea in spring in 1985–2011. We investigated how temporal shifts in ringed seal reproduction affect kill composition and the intraspecific vulnerabilities of ringed seals to polar bear predation. Principal Findings Polar bears primarily preyed on ringed seals (90.2%) while bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus) only comprised 9.8% of the kills, but 33% of the biomass. Adults comprised 43.6% (150/344) of the ringed seals killed, while their pups comprised 38.4% (132/344). Juvenile ringed seals were killed at the lowest proportion, comprising 18.0% (62/344) of the ringed seal kills. The proportion of ringed seal pups was highest between 2007–2011, in association with high ringed seal productivity. Half of the adult ringed seal kills were ≥21 years (60/121), and kill rates of adults increased following the peak of parturition. Determination of sex from DNA revealed that polar bears killed adult male and adult female ringed seals equally (0.50, n = 78). The number of hunting attempts at ringed seal subnivean lair sites was positively correlated with the number of pup kills (r2 = 0.30, P = 0.04), but was not correlated with the number of adult kills (P = 0.37). Conclusions/Significance Results are consistent with decadal trends in ringed seal productivity, with low numbers of pups killed by polar bears in spring in years of low pup productivity, and conversely when pup productivity was high. Vulnerability of adult ringed seals to predation increased in relation to reproductive activities and age, but not gender. PMID:22829949

  5. A novel tool to mitigate by-catch mortality of baltic seals in coastal fyke net fishery.

    PubMed

    Oksanen, Sari M; Ahola, Markus P; Oikarinen, Jyrki; Kunnasranta, Mervi

    2015-01-01

    Developing methods to reduce the incidental catch of non-target species is important, as by-catch mortality poses threats especially to large aquatic predators. We examined the effectiveness of a novel device, a "seal sock", in mitigating the by-catch mortality of seals in coastal fyke net fisheries in the Baltic Sea. The seal sock developed and tested in this study was a cylindrical net attached to the fyke net, allowing the seals access to the surface to breathe while trapped inside fishing gear. The number of dead and live seals caught in fyke nets without a seal sock (years 2008-2010) and with a sock (years 2011-2013) was recorded. The seals caught in fyke nets were mainly juveniles. Of ringed seals (Phoca hispida botnica) both sexes were equally represented, while of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) the ratio was biased (71%) towards males. All the by-caught seals were dead in the fyke nets without a seal sock, whereas 70% of ringed seals and 11% of grey seals survived when the seal sock was used. The seal sock proved to be effective in reducing the by-catch mortality of ringed seals, but did not perform as well with grey seals.

  6. A Novel Tool to Mitigate By-Catch Mortality of Baltic Seals in Coastal Fyke Net Fishery

    PubMed Central

    Oksanen, Sari M.; Ahola, Markus P.; Oikarinen, Jyrki; Kunnasranta, Mervi

    2015-01-01

    Developing methods to reduce the incidental catch of non-target species is important, as by-catch mortality poses threats especially to large aquatic predators. We examined the effectiveness of a novel device, a “seal sock”, in mitigating the by-catch mortality of seals in coastal fyke net fisheries in the Baltic Sea. The seal sock developed and tested in this study was a cylindrical net attached to the fyke net, allowing the seals access to the surface to breathe while trapped inside fishing gear. The number of dead and live seals caught in fyke nets without a seal sock (years 2008–2010) and with a sock (years 2011–2013) was recorded. The seals caught in fyke nets were mainly juveniles. Of ringed seals (Phoca hispida botnica) both sexes were equally represented, while of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) the ratio was biased (71%) towards males. All the by-caught seals were dead in the fyke nets without a seal sock, whereas 70% of ringed seals and 11% of grey seals survived when the seal sock was used. The seal sock proved to be effective in reducing the by-catch mortality of ringed seals, but did not perform as well with grey seals. PMID:25993534

  7. Turbine disc sealing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Diakunchak, Ihor S.

    2013-03-05

    A disc seal assembly for use in a turbine engine. The disc seal assembly includes a plurality of outwardly extending sealing flange members that define a plurality of fluid pockets. The sealing flange members define a labyrinth flow path therebetween to limit leakage between a hot gas path and a disc cavity in the turbine engine.

  8. Dampers for Stationary Labyrinth Seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Aini, Yehia; Mitchell, William; Roberts, Lawrence; Montgomery, Stuart; Davis, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Vibration dampers have been invented that are incorporated as components within the stationary labyrinth seal assembly. These dampers are intended to supplement other vibration-suppressing features of labyrinth seals in order to reduce the incidence of high-cycle-fatigue failures, which have been known to occur in the severe vibratory environments of jet engines and turbopumps in which labyrinth seals are typically used. A vibration damper of this type includes several leaf springs and/or a number of metallic particles (shot) all held in an annular seal cavity by a retaining ring. The leaf springs are made of a spring steel alloy chosen, in conjunction with design parameters, to maintain sufficient preload to ensure effectiveness of damping at desired operating temperatures. The cavity is vented via a small radial gap between the retaining ring and seal housing. The damping mechanism is complex. In the case of leaf springs, the mechanism is mainly friction in the slippage between the seal housing and individual dampers. In the case of a damper that contains shot, the damping mechanism includes contributions from friction between individual particles, friction between particles and cavity walls, and dissipation of kinetic energy of impact. The basic concept of particle/shot vibration dampers has been published previously; what is new here is the use of such dampers to suppress traveling-wave vibrations in labyrinth seals. Damping effectiveness depends on many parameters, including, but not limited to, coefficient of friction, mode shape, and frequency and amplitude of vibrational modes. In tests, preloads of the order of 6 to 15 lb (2.72 to 6.8 kilograms) per spring damper were demonstrated to provide adequate damping levels. Effectiveness of shot damping of vibrations having amplitudes from 20 to 200 times normal terrestrial gravitational acceleration (196 to 1,960 meters per square second) and frequencies up to 12 kHz was demonstrated for shot sizes from 0.032 to

  9. Seal design alternatives study

    SciTech Connect

    Van Sambeek, L.L.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results from a study of various sealing alternatives for the WIPP sealing system. Overall, the sealing system has the purpose of reducing to the extent possible the potential for fluids (either gas or liquid) from entering or leaving the repository. The sealing system is divided into three subsystems: drift and panel seals within the repository horizon, shaft seals in each of the four shafts, and borehole seals. Alternatives to the baseline configuration for the WIPP seal system design included evaluating different geometries and schedules for seal component installations and the use of different materials for seal components. Order-of-magnitude costs for the various alternatives were prepared as part of the study. Firm recommendations are not presented, but the advantages and disadvantages of the alternatives are discussed. Technical information deficiencies are identified and studies are outlined which can provide required information.

  10. Turbine blade platform seal

    SciTech Connect

    Zagar, Thomas W.; Schiavo, Anthony L.

    2001-01-01

    A rotating blade group 90 for a turbo-machine having an improved device for sealing the gap 110 between the edges 112,114 of adjacent blade platforms 96,104. The gap 110 between adjacent blades 92,100 is sealed by a seal pin 20 its central portion 110 and by a seal plate 58,60 at each of the front 54 and rear 56 portions. The seal plates 58,60 are inserted into corresponding grooves 62,64 formed in the adjacent edges 112,114 of adjoining blades 92,100 and held in place by end plates 40,42. The end of the seal plates 58,60 may be chamfered 78,80 to improve the seal against the end plate 40,42. The seal pin 20 provides the required damping between the blades 92,100 and the seal plates 58,60 provide improved sealing effectiveness.

  11. Ampoule sealing apparatus and process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debnam, Jr., William J. (Inventor); Clark, Ivan O. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus 10 for effecting sealing of a fused quartz ampoule 24 while maintaining a vacuum on the ampoule via system 12 is disclosed. A plug 28 of fused quartz is lowered into the vertically disposed ampoule 24 (while maintaining the vacuum thereon) and heat sealed therein to prevent any vapor escape from, or contamination of, the contained semiconductor growth charge 29 during subsequent semiconductor crystal growth processes. A rotary vacuum feed-through mechanism 16 selectively rotates axle 34 and spool 32 to unwind wire 30 for lowering of plug 28 into the reduced diameter portion 24b of ampoule 24. Ampoule 24 is hermatically connected to vacuum housing 18 by quick release flange 20 wherein O-ring 22 retains ampoule 24.

  12. Advanced bristle seals for gas turbine engines. Final report, May-November 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Cabe, J.L.

    1993-01-28

    A seven month proof-of-concept program was conducted for an advanced bristle seal, called a bush seal, for use in gas turbine engines. This program was performed as a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase I project. Bush seal specimen and a full ring bush seal were designed, evaluated, and manufactured for testing. An analytical study of the potential of the bush seal relative to a labyrinth seal was conducted. Static and dynamic testing of the bush seal was performed to determine the behavior of the bristles under pressurization and during contact with a rotating labyrinth tooth. Stable behavior of the bristle elements was observed during static pressurization of a full ring bush seal. The dynamic testing of various configurations of bush seal against a rotating labyrinth tooth showed minimal wear of the bristles relative to a conventional labyrinth seal. the development and application of the bush seal concept to gas turbine engines has the potential of improving the engine's performance while decreasing the degradation of the seal performance over time.... Seal, Bush seal, Labyrinth seal, Gas turbine.

  13. Bioaccumulation of radiocaesium in Arctic seals.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Jolynn; Wolkers, Hans; Andersen, Magnus; Rissanen, Kristina

    2002-12-01

    Seals are high trophic level feeders that bioaccumulate many contaminants to a greater degree than most lower trophic level organisms. Their trophic status in the marine food web and wide-spread distribution make seals useful sentinels of arctic environmental change. The purpose of this investigation is to document the levels and bioaccumulation potential of radiocaesium in high latitude seal species for which data have not previously been available. The study was carried out on harp, ringed, and bearded seals caught north of the island archipelago of Svalbard (82 degrees N) in 1999. The results are then compared with previous studies in order to elucidate factors responsible for bioaccumulation in Arctic seals. Concentrations of 137Cs were determined in muscle, liver and kidney samples from a total of 10 juvenile and one adult seal. The mean concentration in muscle samples for all animals was 0.23 +/- 0.045 Bq/kg f.w. 137Cs concentrations in both liver and kidney samples were near detection limits (approximately 0.2 Bq/kg f.w.). The results are consistent with previous studies indicating low levels of radiocaesium in Arctic seals in response to a long term trend of decreasing levels of 137Cs in the Barents Sea region. Bioconcentration factors (BCFs) estimated for seals from NE Svalbard are low, ranging from 34 to 130. Comparing these values with reported BCFs for Greenland seals from other sectors of the European Arctic, we suggest that the combination of physiological and ecological factors on radiocaesium bioaccumulation is comparable among different Arctic seal populations. The application of this work to Arctic monitoring and assessment programs is discussed.

  14. Rotatable seal assembly. [Patent application; rotating targets

    DOEpatents

    Logan, C.M.; Garibaldi, J.L.

    1980-11-12

    An assembly is provided for rotatably supporting a rotor on a stator so that vacuum chambers in the rotor and stator remain in communication while the chambers are sealed from ambient air, which enables the use of a ball bearing or the like to support most of the weight of the rotor. The apparatus includes a seal device mounted on the rotor to rotate therewith, but shiftable in position on the rotor while being sealed to the rotor as by an O-ring. The seal device has a flat face that is biased towards a flat face on the stator, and pressurized air is pumped between the faces to prevent contact between them while spacing them a small distance apart to avoid the inflow of large amounts of air between the faces and into the vacuum chambers.

  15. Planetary Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Larry W.

    2011-07-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction: the allure of ringed planets; 2. Studies of planetary rings 1610-2004; 3. Diversity of planetary rings; 4. Individual ring particles and their collisions; 5. Large-scale ring evolution; 6. Moons confine and sculpt rings; 7. Explaining ring phenomena; 8. N-Body simulations; 9. Stochastic models; 10. Age and evolution of rings; 11. Saturn's mysterious F ring; 12. Neptune's partial rings; 13. Jupiter's ring-moon system after Galileo; 14. Ring photometry; 15. Dusty rings; 16. Cassini observations; 17. Summary: the big questions; Glossary; References; Index.

  16. Computer program documentation for the dynamic analysis of a noncontacting mechanical face seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auer, B. M.; Etsion, I.

    1980-01-01

    A computer program is presented which achieves a numerical solution for the equations of motion of a noncontacting mechanical face seal. The flexibly-mounted primary seal ring motion is expressed by a set of second order differential equations for three degrees of freedom. These equations are reduced to a set of first order equations and the GEAR software package is used to solve the set of first order equations. Program input includes seal design parameters and seal operating conditions. Output from the program includes velocities and displacements of the seal ring about the axis of an inertial reference system. One example problem is described.

  17. Nuclear reactor sealing system

    DOEpatents

    McEdwards, James A.

    1983-01-01

    A liquid metal-cooled nuclear reactor sealing system. The nuclear reactor includes a vessel sealed at its upper end by a closure head. The closure head comprises at least two components, one of which is rotatable; and the two components define an annulus therebetween. The sealing system includes at least a first and second inflatable seal disposed in series in an upper portion of the annulus. The system further includes a dip seal extending into a body of insulation located adjacent a bottom portion of the closure head. The dip seal comprises a trough formed by a lower portion of one of the components, and a seal blade pendently supported from the other component and extending downwardly into the trough. A body of liquid metal is contained in the trough which submerges a portion of the seal blade. The seal blade is provided with at least one aperture located above the body of liquid metal for providing fluid communication between the annulus intermediate the dip seal and the inflatable seals, and a body of cover gas located inside the vessel. There also is provided means for introducing a purge gas into the annulus intermediate the inflatable seals and the seal blade. The purge gas is introduced in an amount sufficient to substantially reduce diffusion of radioactive cover gas or sodium vapor up to the inflatable seals. The purge gas mixes with the cover gas in the reactor vessel where it can be withdrawn from the vessel for treatment and recycle to the vessel.

  18. Face-seal lubrication. 2: Theory of response to angular misalignement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, L. P.; Allen, G. P.

    1976-01-01

    A theoretical analysis was made of a hypothetical seal operating mode. The hypothetical seal model provides for three degrees of primary ring motion and includes the force and moments induced by primary ring response to seat angular misalignment. This ring response causes a relative angular misalignment between the faces of the primary seal. Hydrodynamic pressure generation is produced by this misalignment. The analysis is based on the Reynolds equation in short bearing form and on a balance of forces and moments that arise from hydrodynamic and secondary seal friction effects. A closed form solution was obtained that can be solved for film thickness and relative angular misalignment.

  19. Inboard seal mounting

    DOEpatents

    Hayes, John R.

    1983-01-01

    A regenerator assembly for a gas turbine engine has a hot side seal assembly formed in part by a cast metal engine block having a seal recess formed therein that is configured to supportingly receive ceramic support blocks including an inboard face thereon having a regenerator seal face bonded thereto. A pressurized leaf seal is interposed between the ceramic support block and the cast metal engine block to bias the seal wear face into sealing engagement with a hot side surface of a rotary regenerator matrix.

  20. Compliant Foil Seal Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Margaret; Delgado, Irebert

    2004-01-01

    Room temperature testing of an 8.5 inch diameter foil seal was conducted in the High Speed, High Temperature Turbine Seal Test Rig at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The seal was operated at speeds up to 30,000 rpm and pressure differentials up to 75 psid. Seal leakage and power loss data will be presented and compared to brush seal performance. The failure of the seal and rotor coating at 30,000 rpm and 15 psid will be presented and future development needs discussed.

  1. Thermal Barrier/Seal for Extreme Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.; Phelps, Jack; Bauer, Paul; Bond, Bruce; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Large solid rocket motors, as found on the Space Shuttle, are fabricated in segments for manufacturing considerations, bolted together, and sealed using conventional Viton O-ring seals. Similarly the nine large solid rocket motor nozzles are assembled from several different segments, bolted together, and sealed at six joint locations using conventional O-ring seals. The 5500 F combustion gases are generally kept a safe distance away from the seals by thick layers of phenolic or rubber insulation. Joint-fill compounds, including RTV (room temperature vulcanized compound) and polysulfide filler, are used to fill the joints in the insulation to prevent a direct flow-path to the O-rings. Normally these two stages of protection are enough to prevent a direct flow-path of the 900-psi hot gases from reaching the temperature-sensitive O-ring seals. However, in the current design 1 out of 15 Space Shuttle solid rocket motors experience hot gas effects on the Joint 6 wiper (sacrificial) O-rings. Also worrisome is the fact that joints have experienced heat effects on materials between the RTV and the O-rings, and in two cases O-rings have experienced heat effects. These conditions lead to extensive reviews of the post-flight conditions as part of the effort to monitor flight safety. We have developed a braided carbon fiber thermal barrier to replace the joint fill compounds in the Space Shuttle solid rocket motor nozzles to reduce the incoming 5500 F combustion gas temperature and permit only cool (approximately 100 F) gas to reach the temperature-sensitive O-ring seals. Implementation of this thermal barrier provides more robust, consistent operation with shorter turn around times between Shuttle launches.

  2. Design and analysis of seals for extended service life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bower, Mark V.

    1992-01-01

    Space Station Freedom is being developed for a service life of up to thirty years. As a consequence, the design requirements for the seals to be used are unprecedented. Full scale testing to assure the selected seals can satisfy the design requirements are not feasible. As an alternative, a sub-scale test program has been developed by MSFC to calibrate the analysis tools to be used to certify the proposed design. This research has been conducted in support of the MSFC Integrated Seal Test Program. The ultimate objective of this research is to correlate analysis and test results to qualify the analytical tools, which in turn, are to be used to qualify the flight hardware. This research is totally focused on O-rings that are compressed by perpendicular clamping forces. In this type of seal the O-ring is clamped between the sealing surfaces by loads perpendicular to the circular cross section.

  3. Imaging the internal structure of a warm core ring in the Gulf of Mexico using industry high resolution seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seymour, J. C.; Holbrook, W. S.

    2004-12-01

    We investigate the water column sound speed during an industrial seismic survey from the Gulf of Mexico, imaging a warm core ring that passes through the survey during acquisition. We use single seismic reflection line donated by Schlumberger Ltd., from a 3D survey, to image water column reflections and estimate a sound speed field within the water column during the survey. WesternGeco Ltd. acquired a 65 km line in the Green Canyon area in August of 2001 using a group interval of 12.5m, 412 channels per streamer aboard the MV. Legend. The transect runs southwest from shallow to deeper water across a canyon area and intersects a warm core ring feature traveling eastwards through the survey area. We present a migration of the water column data to image the water masses within a warm core ring with a resolution of 6.25 m along the sail line and a 15 m vertical resolution. Images processed show strong seismic reflectors due to temperature variations within the water column. The stack section of the line shows a distinct dipping event in the reflectors as the line is acquired moving towards the center of the ring. A distinct fine structure is present in the reflectors at a depth of approx 750m at the edge of the ring rising to approx. 600m depth towards the center of the ring. The affect of the warm core ring seems to significantly perturb the sound speed profiles within the water column along the entire 64km line with the effects of the ring being concentrated in the 225m to 1000m depth range. Velocity analysis indicates a complex velocity profile highly spatial variant through the ring structure. This survey provides a detailed image of water sound speed changes due a highly localized feature within the water column from data acquired during an industry seismic survey.

  4. Magnetically Actuated Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinera, Alex

    2013-01-01

    This invention is a magnetically actuated seal in which either a single electromagnet, or multiple electromagnets, are used to control the seal's position. This system can either be an open/ close type of system or an actively controlled system.

  5. Sealed container sampling device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hennigan, T. J.

    1969-01-01

    Sampling device, by means of a tapered needle, pierces a sealed container while maintaining the seal and either evacuates or pressurizes the container. This device has many applications in the chemical, preservative and battery-manufacturing industries.

  6. 20 CFR 369.3 - Procedures for obtaining permission to use the seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the seal. 369.3 Section 369.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES USE OF THE SEAL OF THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD § 369.3 Procedures for obtaining permission to use the seal. Requests for written permission to use the seal of the Railroad Retirement...

  7. 20 CFR 369.3 - Procedures for obtaining permission to use the seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... seal. 369.3 Section 369.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES USE OF THE SEAL OF THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD § 369.3 Procedures for obtaining permission to use the seal. Requests for written permission to use the seal of the Railroad Retirement...

  8. 20 CFR 369.3 - Procedures for obtaining permission to use the seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the seal. 369.3 Section 369.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES USE OF THE SEAL OF THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD § 369.3 Procedures for obtaining permission to use the seal. Requests for written permission to use the seal of the Railroad Retirement...

  9. 20 CFR 369.3 - Procedures for obtaining permission to use the seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the seal. 369.3 Section 369.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES USE OF THE SEAL OF THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD § 369.3 Procedures for obtaining permission to use the seal. Requests for written permission to use the seal of the Railroad Retirement...

  10. 20 CFR 369.3 - Procedures for obtaining permission to use the seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... seal. 369.3 Section 369.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES USE OF THE SEAL OF THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD § 369.3 Procedures for obtaining permission to use the seal. Requests for written permission to use the seal of the Railroad Retirement...

  11. Titanium sealing glasses and seals formed therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Brow, Richard K.; McCollister, Howard L.; Phifer, Carol C.; Day, Delbert E.

    1997-01-01

    Alkaline-earth lanthanoborate sealing-glass compositions containing CaO, La.sub.2 O.sub.3, B.sub.2 O.sub.3, TiO.sub.2 and Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 in various combinations of mole-% are provided. These sealing-glass compositions are useful for forming hermetic glass-to-metal seals with titanium and titanium alloys that have a high aqueous durability for component or device applications requiring exposure to moisture, water or body fluids. Particular applications of the titanium sealing-glass compositions include forming glass-to-metal seals for lithium batteries and implanted biomedical devices (e.g. batteries, pacemakers, defibrillators, pumps).

  12. Titanium sealing glasses and seals formed therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Brow, R.K.; McCollister, H.L.; Phifer, C.C.; Day, D.E.

    1997-12-02

    Alkaline-earth lanthanoborate sealing-glass compositions containing CaO, La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, TiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in various combinations of mole-% are provided. These sealing-glass compositions are useful for forming hermetic glass-to-metal seals with titanium and titanium alloys that have a high aqueous durability for component or device applications requiring exposure to moisture, water or body fluids. Particular applications of the titanium sealing-glass compositions include forming glass-to-metal seals for lithium batteries and implanted biomedical devices (e.g. batteries, pacemakers, defibrillators, pumps). 2 figs.

  13. Resilient Braided Rope Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M. (Inventor); Kren, Lawrence A. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A resilient braided rope seal for use in high temperature applications. The resilient braided rope seal includes a center core of fibers, a resilient 5 member overbraided by at least one layer of braided sheath fibers tightly packed together. The resilient member adds significant stiffness to the seal while maintaining resiliency. Furthermore, the seal permanent set and hysteresis are greatly reduced. Finally, improved load capabilities are provided.

  14. Turbomachine Interface Sealing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Chupp, Raymond E.; Lattime, Scott B.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2005-01-01

    Sealing interfaces and coatings, like lubricants, are sacrificial, giving up their integrity for the benefit of the component. Clearance control is a major issue in power systems turbomachine design and operational life. Sealing becomes the most cost-effective way to enhance system performance. Coatings, films, and combined use of both metals and ceramics play a major role in maintaining interface clearances in turbomachine sealing and component life. This paper focuses on conventional and innovative materials and design practices for sealing interfaces.

  15. Tamper-indicating seal

    DOEpatents

    Fiarman, Sidney; Degen, Michael F.; Peters, Henry F.

    1985-01-01

    There is disclosed a tamper-indicating seal that permits in the field inspection and detection of tampering. Said seal comprises a shrinkable tube having a visible pattern of markings which is shrunk over the item to be sealed, and a second transparent tube, having a second visible marking pattern, which is shrunk over the item and the first tube. The relationship between the first and second set of markings produces a pattern so that the seal may not be removed without detection.

  16. Security seal. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Gobeli, G.W.

    1981-11-17

    Security for a package or verifying seal in plastic material is provided by a print seal with unique thermally produced imprints in the plastic. If tampering is attempted, the material is irreparably damaged and thus detectable. The pattern of the imprints, similar to fingerprints are recorded as a positive identification for the seal, and corresponding recordings made to allow comparison. The integrity of the seal is proved by the comparison of imprint identification records made by laser beam projection.

  17. Advanced Control Surface Seal Development for Future Space Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeMange, Jeffrey J.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2004-01-01

    High temperature control surface seals have been identified as a critical technology in the development of future space vehicles. These seals must withstand temperatures of up to 2600 F and protect underlying temperature-sensitive structures (such as actuators and sealing capability by remaining resilient during flight conditions. The current baseline seal, used on the Shuttle orbiters and the X-38 vehicle, consists of a Nextel 312 sheath, an internal Inconel X-750 knitted spring tube, and hand-stuffed Saffil batting. Unfortunately at high temperatures (> 1500 F), the seal resiliency significantly degrades due to yielding and creep of the spring tube element. The permanent set in the seals can result in flow passing over the seals and subsequent damage to temperature sensitive components downstream of the seals. Another shortcoming of the baseline seal is that instances have been reported on Shuttle flights where some of the hand-stuffed Saffil batting insulation has been extracted, thus potentially compromising the seal. In vehicles where the thermal protection systems are delicate (such as with Shuttle tiles), the control surface seals must also limit the amount of force applied to the opposing surfaces. Additionally, in many applications the seals are subjected to scrubbing as control surfaces are actuated. The seals must be able to withstand any damage resulting from this high temperature scrubbing and retain their heat/flow blocking abilities.

  18. Dynamics of two-phase face seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beeler, R. M.; Hughes, W. F.

    1984-01-01

    An analytic study is presented of the effects of phase change on load support for parallel and tapered face seals. Consideration is given to an adiabatic model for low Reynolds number flow. Numerical integration is carried out of the descriptive fluid equations, giving the opening force due to fluid film pressure. The loci of steady-state solutions are then plotted for water to provide curves of load support as a function of film thickness. For axial excursions of the seal rings, a quasi-steady transient analysis is made. It is found that the load support generated by fluid pressure can be multivalued for a given film thickness. Another finding is that axial disturbances of the seal rings may lead to sudden drops in load support generated by fluid pressure with three possible results. The first is that sufficient damping may permit the seal to return to the previous equilibrium operating position. The second is that the seal may collapse to an equilibrium position of smaller film thickness where face contact is more likely and a significantly higher operating temperature is assured. The third is that a limit cycle of self-sustained oscillation in the axial direction may occur if damping is sufficiently low.

  19. Skew resisting hydrodynamic seal

    DOEpatents

    Conroy, William T.; Dietle, Lannie L.; Gobeli, Jeffrey D.; Kalsi, Manmohan S.

    2001-01-01

    A novel hydrodynamically lubricated compression type rotary seal that is suitable for lubricant retention and environmental exclusion. Particularly, the seal geometry ensures constraint of a hydrodynamic seal in a manner preventing skew-induced wear and provides adequate room within the seal gland to accommodate thermal expansion. The seal accommodates large as-manufactured variations in the coefficient of thermal expansion of the sealing material, provides a relatively stiff integral spring effect to minimize pressure-induced shuttling of the seal within the gland, and also maintains interfacial contact pressure within the dynamic sealing interface in an optimum range for efficient hydrodynamic lubrication and environment exclusion. The seal geometry also provides for complete support about the circumference of the seal to receive environmental pressure, as compared the interrupted character of seal support set forth in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,873,576 and 6,036,192 and provides a hydrodynamic seal which is suitable for use with non-Newtonian lubricants.

  20. Collapsable seal member

    DOEpatents

    Sherrell, Dennis L.

    1990-01-01

    A hollow, collapsable seal member normally disposed in a natural expanded state offering fail-safe pressure sealing against a seating surface and adapted to be evacuated by a vacuum force for collapsing the seal member to disengage the same from said seating surface.

  1. Seals development and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Waddoups, I.G.; Horton, P.R.V.

    1994-08-01

    This paper discusses Sandia`s support of DOE`s domestic seals program. Testing was conducted on several pressure sensitive seals and a few wire loop seals currently in use as well as on a few new seals. The testing on new seals concentrated on loop seals and included two fiber optic seals and a recently available wire loop seal being considered for use. Environmental, handling and vulnerability testing were conducted. The standardized testing approach used and the results of the testing are summarized. The status of evaluations for using higher security active and passive seals for domestic applications is also presented. The conclusion of the testing -of seals currently in use is that, even though there is some variability in their ability to meet all the test criterion, they are all generally acceptable by the test standards used. The motivation for evaluating higher security seals is to ascertain if seals could be used in broader domestic environment and result in improved cost-effectiveness.

  2. Hydraulic System Seal Development.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    supplying the seal. Shamban, Fluorocarbon, Parker, Powty, Hercules, Disogrin, Bal Seal Engineering, American Variseal , Tetrafluor, Conover, and Greene...characteristics, as did the Variseal , but both caused minor rod scoring. The Greene Tweed llytrel seal was not considered for further testing becduse

  3. Steam turbine high pressure vent and seal system

    SciTech Connect

    Groenendaal, J.C. Jr.; Brown, B.

    1987-04-28

    A steam turbine is described comprising: an outer cylinder; an inner cylinder disposed within the outer cylinder; a blade ring disposed partially within the inner cylinder and partially within the outer cylinder; a nozzle chamber assembly disposed within the inner cylinder for introducing motive steam to the turbine and having nozzle chamber and nozzle block portions; a rotor having circular array of rotatable blades and a thrust balance piston disposed thereon; a dummy ring disposed within one end of the inner cylinder adjacent the balance piston; labyrinth sealing means disposed between the dummy ring and the balance piston forming a rotating seal.

  4. Methods for organizing the interaction of circulating particle beams with internal targets in nuclear physics experiments at synchrotrons and storage rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artiomov, A. S.

    2017-05-01

    The first methods for using internal targets and their further development for organization of nuclear physics experiments at synchrotrons and storage rings are reviewed. With these methods, new results are obtained and discoveries are made in physics of interactions of elementary particles and nuclei. Current uses of various internal targets and circulating particle beams in ongoing and projected research in particle physics, relativistic nuclear and spin physics, and physics of interactions of exotic and radioactive nuclei and for producing fluxes of secondary particles (mesons, neutrons, exotic and radioactive nuclei, etc.) for physics experiments are described.

  5. Fluid seals technology at BHR Group Ltd.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leefe, Simon

    1991-01-01

    A mathematical model was developed for ESA, which couples the rigid body dynamics in four degrees of freedom of a flexibly mounted stator (with Coulomb damping) of a turbopump face seal with the fluid film behavior. The interfacial film is assumed gaseous, and the model incorporates laminar/turbulent flow, inertia and sonic choking. Seal faces may be wavy and coned, while the rotating ring can be eccentrically mounted, misaligned with the shaft and oscillate axially at arbitrary frequency. The model is currently being coded into software. An experimental program using a high speed cryogenic/hot gas test rig is being conducted to verify the output of the computer program.

  6. Fluid seals technology at BHR Group Ltd.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leefe, Simon

    1991-01-01

    A mathematical model was developed for ESA, which couples the rigid body dynamics in four degrees of freedom of a flexibly mounted stator (with Coulomb damping) of a turbopump face seal with the fluid film behavior. The interfacial film is assumed gaseous, and the model incorporates laminar/turbulent flow, inertia and sonic choking. Seal faces may be wavy and coned, while the rotating ring can be eccentrically mounted, misaligned with the shaft and oscillate axially at arbitrary frequency. The model is currently being coded into software. An experimental program using a high speed cryogenic/hot gas test rig is being conducted to verify the output of the computer program.

  7. Fuel cell manifold sealing system

    DOEpatents

    Grevstad, Paul E.; Johnson, Carl K.; Mientek, Anthony P.

    1980-01-01

    A manifold-to-stack seal and sealing method for fuel cell stacks. This seal system solves the problem of maintaining a low leak rate manifold seal as the fuel cell stack undergoes compressive creep. The seal system eliminates the problem of the manifold-to-stack seal sliding against the rough stack surface as the stack becomes shorter because of cell creep, which relative motion destroys the seal. The seal system described herein utilizes a polymer seal frame firmly clamped between the manifold and the stack such that the seal frame moves with the stack. Thus, as the stack creeps, the seal frame creeps with it, and there is no sliding at the rough, tough to seal, stack-to-seal frame interface. Here the sliding is on a smooth easy to seal location between the seal frame and the manifold.

  8. Tamper-indicating seal

    DOEpatents

    Fiarman, S.; Degen, M.F.; Peters, H.F.

    1982-08-13

    There is disclosed a tamper-indicating seal that permits in the field inspection and detection of tampering. Said seal comprises a shrinkable tube having a visible pattern of markings which is shrunk over th item to be sealed, and a second transparent tube, having a second visible marking pattern, which is shrunk over the item and the first tube. The relationship between the first and second set of markings produces a pattern so that the seal may not be removed without detection. The seal is particularly applicable to UF/sub 6/ cylinder valves.

  9. Low Cost, Durable Seal

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, George; Parsons, Jason; Friedman, Jake

    2010-12-17

    Seal durability is critical to achieving the 2010 DOE operational life goals for both stationary and transportation PEM fuel cell stacks. The seal material must be chemically and mechanically stable in an environment consisting of aggressive operating temperatures, humidified gases, and acidic membranes. The seal must also be producible at low cost. Currentlyused seal materials do not meet all these requirements. This project developed and demonstrated a high consistency hydrocarbon rubber seal material that was able to meet the DOE technical and cost targets. Significant emphasis was placed on characterization of the material and full scale molding demonstrations.

  10. SEAL FOR ROTATING SHAFT

    DOEpatents

    Coffman, R.T.

    1957-12-10

    A seal is described for a rotatable shaft that must highly effective when the shaft is not rotating but may be less effective while the shaft is rotating. Weights distributed about a sealing disk secured to the shaft press the sealing disk against a tubular section into which the shiilt extends, and whem the shaft rotates, the centrifugal forces on the weights relieve the pressurc of the sealing disk against the tubular section. This action has the very desirible result of minimizing the wear of the rotating disk due to contact with the tubular section, while affording maximum sealing action when it is needed.

  11. Sealing Assembly for Sealing a Port and the Like

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, Jon W. (Inventor); Haupt, Charles W. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The sealing assembly for a port of a valve or the like is disclosed. In detail, the sealing assembly includes the port having a circular shaped end with a circular shaped knife-edge thereon. The sealing assembly further includes a hollow cap having a closed first end with an aperture therethrough and an open second end. The cap further includes internal threads adapted to mate with the external threads of the port. A gasket is mounted within the cap having flat first and second principle sides and made of a deformable metal, the first principle side of the gasket for mounting against the circular shaped knife edge of the port. A plunger having a circular shaped disc portion is adapted to fit within the hollow cap and is engagable with the first principle surface of the gasket and includes a shaft portion extending out of the aperture. The cap and shaft of the plunger include external wrenching flats. Thus when the cap is screwed onto the port and the plunger is prevented from rotating by a wrench mounted on the wrenching flats of the shaft portion of the plunger, the gasket is forced into engagement with the knife edge in pure compression and no rotation of the gasket occurs causing the knife edge to locally deform the gasket sealing of the port.

  12. Is Neuromuscular Blocker Necessary in Pediatric Patients Undergoing Laparoscopic Inguinal Hernia Repair with Percutaneous Internal Ring Suturing?

    PubMed

    Ahiskalioglu, Ali; İnce, İlker; Ahiskalioglu, Elif Oral; Oral, Akgun; Aksoy, Mehmet; Yiğiter, Murat; Celikkaya, Mehmet Emin; Salman, Ahmet Bedii

    2017-06-01

    Purpose The aim of this study is to evaluate operating conditions during general anesthesia with or without neuromuscular blocker (NMB) in patients undergoing percutaneous internal ring suturing (PIRS). Materials and Methods In this study, 40 patients, with American Society of Anesthesiologists I and II between the ages of 1 and 12 years, were randomly assigned to two groups to receive muscle relaxant with endotracheal tube (ETT) (ETT group) or without muscle relaxant with supreme laryngeal mask airway (sLMA) (LMA group). Anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane in oxygen (Fio 2 0.3-0.5), thiopental sodium, fentanyl, and rocuronium in ETT group. In LMA group, same protocol was used without rocuronium. Heart rate, blood pressure, peak airway pressure, end-tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO2), and Spo 2 were recorded before and during pneumoperitoneum maintained at a pressure of 8 to 10 mm Hg. Duration of surgery, recovery time, anesthetic time, and grade of quality view were also recorded. Airway problems (cough, hoarseness, laryngospasm, and aspiration) were recorded. Results In LMA group, there was a statistically significant reduction in recovery time versus ETT group (11.6 ± 4.08 vs. 17.15 ± 5.32 minutes; p = 0,001). There were no statistically significant differences grade of quality view between the two groups (p = 0.548). There were no statistically significant differences in oxygen saturation (Spo 2), peak airway pressure, and EtCO2 between the two groups before or during insufflation (p > 0.05). Postoperative airway complications were significantly more prevalent in the ETT group. There was no case of inadequate ventilation, regurgitation, or aspiration recorded. Conclusion sLMA is safe and suitable alternative to ETT and NMB is not necessary in general anesthesia with sLMA, pediatric patients undergoing laparoscopic hernia repair with PIRS. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Hot piston ring tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, David J.; Tomazic, William A.

    1987-01-01

    As part of the DOE/NASA Automotive Stirling Engine Project, tests were made at NASA Lewis Research Center to determine whether appendix gap losses could be reduced and Stirling engine performance increased by installing an additional piston ring near the top of each piston dome. An MTI-designed upgraded Mod I Automotive Stirling Engine was used. Unlike the conventional rings at the bottom of the piston, these hot rings operated in a high temperature environment (700 C). They were made of a high temperature alloy (Stellite 6B) and a high temperature solid lubricant coating (NASA Lewis-developed PS-200) was applied to the cylinder walls. Engine tests were run at 5, 10, and 15 MPa operating pressure over a range of operating speeds. Tests were run both with hot rings and without to provide a baseline for comparison. Minimum data to assess the potential of both the hot rings and high temperature low friction coating was obtained. Results indicated a slight increase in power and efficiency, an increase over and above the friction loss introduced by the hot rings. Seal leakage measurements showed a significant reduction. Wear on both rings and coating was low.

  14. Rotary kiln seal

    DOEpatents

    Drexler, Robert L.

    1992-01-01

    A rotary seal used to prevent the escape of contaminates from a rotating kiln incinerator. The rotating seal combines a rotating disc plate which is attached to the rotating kiln shell and four sets of non-rotating carbon seal bars housed in a primary and secondary housing and which rub on the sides of the disc. A seal air system is used to create a positive pressure in a chamber between the primary and secondary seals to create a positive air flow into the contaminated gas chamber. The seal air system also employs an air inlet located between the secondary and tertiary seals to further insure that no contaminates pass the seal and enter the external environment and to provide makeup air for the air which flows into the contaminated gas chamber. The pressure exerted by the seal bars on the rotating disc is controlled by means of a preload spring. The seal is capable of operating in a thermally changing environment where the both radial expansion and axial movement of the rotating kiln do not result in the failure of the seal.

  15. Effect of temperature and gap opening rate on the resiliency of candidate solid rocket booster O-ring materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lach, Cynthia L.

    1992-01-01

    In the redesign of the Space Shuttle solid rocket motor following the Challenger accident, the field and nozzle-to-case joints were designed to minimize gap opening caused by internal motor pressurization during ignition. The O-ring seals and glands for these joints were designed both to accommodate structural deflections and to promote pressure assisted sealing. The resiliency behavior of several candidate O-ring materials was evaluated for the effects of temperature and gap opening rates. The performance of three of the elastomeric materials was tested under the specific redesign gap opening requirement. Dynamic flexure conditions unique to launch produce low frequency vibrations in the gap opening. The effect of these vibrations on the ability of the O-ring to maintain contact with the sealing surface was addressed. The resiliency of the O-ring materials was found to be extremely sensitive to variations in temperature and gap opening rate. The top three elastomeric materials tracked the simulated solid rocket booster (SRB) field joint deflection at 75 and 120 F. The external tank/SRB attach strut load vibrations had a negligible effect on the ability of the O-ring to track the simulated SRB field joint deflection.

  16. Performance of Subscale Docking Seals Under Simulated Temperature Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Ian M.; Daniels, Christopher C.

    2008-01-01

    A universal docking system is being developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to support future space exploration missions to low Earth orbit (LEO), to the moon, and to Mars. The candidate docking seals for the system are a composite design consisting of elastomer seal bulbs molded into the front and rear sides of a metal ring. The test specimens were subscale seals with two different elastomer cross-sections and a 12-in. outside diameter. The seal assemblies were mated in elastomer seal-on-metal plate and elastomer seal-on-elastomer seal configurations. The seals were manufactured from S0383-70 silicone elastomer compound. Nominal and off-nominal joint configurations were examined. Both the compression load required to mate the seals and the leak rate observed were recorded while the assemblies were subjected to representative docking system operating temperatures of -58, 73, and 122 F (-50, 23, and 50 C). Both the loads required to fully compress the seals and their leak rates were directly proportional to the test temperature.

  17. Preliminary investigation and application of alternate dry gas seal face materials{copyright}

    SciTech Connect

    Evenson, R.; Peterson, R.; Hanson, R.

    1994-01-01

    Traditional seal mating ring materials such as tungsten carbide (WC) are commonly used in high pressure centrifugal gas compressor dry gas (gas lubricating film) seal applications. Although these materials possess desirable properties for minimizing thermal distortion and deformation when subjected to pressure and centrifugal force, they have low toughness, i.e., they are brittle and have poor resistance to thermal shock. It has been found that these materials are easily heat checked during seal face touchdown. Heat checking as well as other crack indications inherent in these materials can quickly propagate, resulting in a catastrophic seal ring failure. In this paper, an investigation of alternate seal face materials is described. Two ductile, nitrided, low ferrous materials proved to be readily manufacturable into dry gas seal rings and performed comparably to tungsten carbide in natural gas service. 10 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Coaxial twin-shaft magnetic fluid seals applied in vacuum wafer-handling robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Ming; Wen, Haiying; Du, Yu; Dai, Penglei

    2012-07-01

    Compared with traditional mechanical seals, magnetic fluid seals have unique characters of high airtightness, minimal friction torque requirements, pollution-free and long life-span, widely used in vacuum robots. With the rapid development of Integrate Circuit (IC), there is a stringent requirement for sealing wafer-handling robots when working in a vacuum environment. The parameters of magnetic fluid seals structure is very important in the vacuum robot design. This paper gives a magnetic fluid seal device for the robot. Firstly, the seal differential pressure formulas of magnetic fluid seal are deduced according to the theory of ferrohydrodynamics, which indicate that the magnetic field gradient in the sealing gap determines the seal capacity of magnetic fluid seal. Secondly, the magnetic analysis model of twin-shaft magnetic fluid seals structure is established. By analyzing the magnetic field distribution of dual magnetic fluid seal, the optimal value ranges of important parameters, including parameters of the permanent magnetic ring, the magnetic pole tooth, the outer shaft, the outer shaft sleeve and the axial relative position of two permanent magnetic rings, which affect the seal differential pressure, are obtained. A wafer-handling robot equipped with coaxial twin-shaft magnetic fluid rotary seals and bellows seal is devised and an optimized twin-shaft magnetic fluid seals experimental platform is built. Test result shows that when the speed of the two rotational shafts ranges from 0-500 r/min, the maximum burst pressure is about 0.24 MPa. Magnetic fluid rotary seals can provide satisfactory performance in the application of wafer-handling robot. The proposed coaxial twin-shaft magnetic fluid rotary seal provides the instruction to design high-speed vacuum robot.

  19. Seasonal energetics of northern phocid seals.

    PubMed

    Ochoa-Acuña, Hugo G; McNab, Brian K; Miller, Edward H

    2009-03-01

    The metabolic rate of harp (Pagophilus groenlandicus), harbor (Phoca vitulina), and ringed seals (Pusa hispida) was measured at various temperatures in air and water to estimate basal metabolic rates (BMRs) in these species. The basal rate and body composition of three harp seals were also measured throughout the year to examine the extent to which they vary seasonally. Marine mammalian carnivores generally have BMRs that are over three times the rates expected from body mass in mammals generally, both as a response to a cold-water distribution and to carnivorous food habits with the basal rates of terrestrial carnivores averaging about 1.8 times the mean of mammals. Phocid seals, however, have basal rates of metabolism that are 30% lower than other marine carnivores. Captive seals undergo profound changes in body mass and food consumption throughout the year, and after accounting for changes in body mass, the lowest rate of food intake occurs in summer. Contrary to earlier observations, harp seals also have lower basal rates during summer than during winter, but the variation in BMR, relative to mass expectations, was not associated with changes in the size of fat deposits. The summer reduction in energy expenditure and food consumption correlated with a reduction in BMR. That is, changes in BMR account for a significant portion of the seasonal variation in energy expenditure in the harp seal. Changes in body mass of harp seals throughout the year were due not only to changes in the size of body fat deposits, but also to changes in lean body mass. These results suggest that bioenergetics models used to predict prey consumption by seals should include time-variant energy requirements.

  20. COMPRESSION SEAL AND SEALING MATERIAL THEREFOR

    DOEpatents

    Branin, T.G.

    1962-05-29

    This patent relates to compression seal and more particularly to a seaiing material therefor. The sealing surface is a coating consisting of alternate layers of gold and of a non-gold metal having similar plastic flow properties under pressure as gold. The coating is substantially free from oxidation effects when exposed to ambient atmosphere and does not become brittle when worked, as in a valve. (AEC)

  1. Shaft seal system

    DOEpatents

    Kapich, Davorin D.

    1985-01-01

    A shaft seal system is disclosed for isolating two regions of different fluid mediums through which a rotatable shaft extends. The seal system includes a seal housing through which the shaft extends and which defines an annular land and an annular labyrinth both of which face on the shaft so that each establishes a corresponding fluid sealing annulus. A collection cavity is formed in communication with the annular sealing spaces, and fluids compatible with the fluids in each of the two regions to be isolated are introduced, respectively, into the annular sealing spaces and collected in the collection cavity from which the fluid mixture is removed and passed to a separator which separates the fluids and returns them to their respective annular sealing spaces in a recycling manner. In the illustrated embodiment, the isolated fluid mediums comprise a liquid region and a gas region. Gas is removed from the gas region and passed through a purifier and a gas pump operative to introduce the purified gas through the labyrinth sealing annulus to the collection cavity. After passing to the separator, the separated gas is passed through a dryer from which the dried gas is caused to pass through the labyrinth sealing annulus into the collection cavity independently of the purified gas so as to insure isolation of the gas region in the event of sealing gas pump malfunction.

  2. Century-old river crossing rehabilitated with joint sealing

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, L.

    1995-06-01

    Boston Gas Co., (BGC), Boston, which serves approximately 500,000 customers in Massachusetts, recently decided to use modern trenchless technology to rehabilitate a vital portion of its gas distribution infrastructure. Boston Gas Co. decided that internal join sealing would be the most suitable method since it was highly probable that the cast iron pipe was in good condition other than where lead and jute originally was used to seal failed joints. Internal sealing also was feasible since the line could be shut down during the non-heating season. Miller Pipeline Corp., Indianapolis, IN, was chosen as contractor to make the necessary repairs since they had been using AMEX-10/WEKO-SEAL internal seals for Boston Gas projects over a number of years. The seal is a flexible, rubber leak clamp that provides a bottle-tight seal around the full inside circumference of the pipe-joint area. Its design features a series of lip seals that ensure leakproof sealing on both sides of a joint. The seals are manufactured from nitrile (butadiene acrylonitrile) rubber which provides excellent resistance to gas, oil, petroleum products, alcohol, impact, abrasion, tear and cut growth, and electrical currents.

  3. Development of a new seal for use on large openings of pressurized spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, B.

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this project was to design, build, and test an example of the seal invented by the author for use on Space Station Freedom and patented in 1991. The seal features a metallic spring core and replaceable elastomeric sealing elements. The metallic spring is designed to retain the sealing force of the elastomeric element against both sides of face seal gland for any specified amount of waviness or separation of the glands. A seal able to tolerate at least 1.3 mm (0.05 in) of flange distortion or separation and a test fixture of this seal which allowed direct comparison testing of O-rings were built. These designs were tested to compare leakage at different amounts of flange deflection. Results of the testing show the development seal exceeded its requirement to seal 1.3 mm of flange separation by 1 mm. This compared with the O-ring leakage, increasing dramatically at 0.5 mm of separation. The development seal also leaked at a lower rate than the O-ring seals in all tests.

  4. Contracting/expanding self-sealing cryogenic tube seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jia, Lin X. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Contracting/expanding self-sealing cryogenic tube seals are disclosed which use the different properties of thermal contraction and expansion of selected dissimilar materials in accord with certain design criteria to yield self-tightening seals via sloped-surface sealing. The seals of the subject invention are reusable, simple to assemble, and adaptable to a wide variety of cryogenic applications.

  5. Contracting/expanding self-sealing cryogenic tube seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jia, Lin X. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Contracting/expanding self-sealing cryogenic tube seals are disclosed which use the different properties of thermal contraction and expansion of selected dissimilar materials in accord with certain design criteria to yield self-tightening seals via sloped-surface sealing. The seals of the subject invention are reusable, simple to assemble, adaptable to a wide variety of cryogenic applications.

  6. Apollo Seals: A Basis for the Crew Exploration Vehicle Seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finkbeiner, Joshua R.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Daniels, Christopher C.

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is currently designing the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) as a replacement for the Space Shuttle for manned missions to the International Space Station, as a command module for returning astronauts to the moon, and as an earth reentry vehicle for the final leg of manned missions to the moon and Mars. The CEV resembles a scaled-up version of the heritage Apollo vehicle; however, the CEV seal requirements are different than those from Apollo because of its different mission requirements. A review is presented of some of the seals used on the Apollo spacecraft for the gap between the heat shield and backshell and for penetrations through the heat shield, docking hatches, windows, and the capsule pressure hull.

  7. Apollo Seals: A Basis for the Crew Exploration Vehicle Seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finkbeiner, Joshua R.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Daniels, Christopher C.

    2006-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is currently designing the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) as a replacement for the Space Shuttle for manned missions to the International Space Station, as a command module for returning astronauts to the moon, and as an earth reentry vehicle for the final leg of manned missions to the moon and Mars. The CEV resembles a scaled-up version of the heritage Apollo vehicle; however, the CEV seal requirements are different than those from Apollo because of its different mission requirements. A review is presented of some of the seals used on the Apollo spacecraft for the gap between the heat shield and backshell and for penetrations through the heat shield, docking hatches, windows, and the capsule pressure hull.

  8. Layered seal for turbomachinery

    DOEpatents

    Sarawate, Neelesh Nandkumar; Morgan, Victor John; Weber, David Wayne

    2015-11-20

    The present application provides seal assemblies for reducing leakages between adjacent components of turbomachinery. The seal assemblies may include outer shims, and at least a portion of the outer shims may be substantially impervious. At least one of the outer shims may be configured for sealing engagement with seal slots of the adjacent components. The seal assemblies may also include at least one of an inner shim and a filler layer positioned between the outer shims. The at least one inner shim may be substantially solid and the at least one filler layer may be relatively porous. The seal assemblies may be sufficiently flexible to account for misalignment between the adjacent components, sufficiently stiff to meet assembly requirements, and sufficiently robust to operating meet requirements associated with turbomachinery.

  9. Seals Code Development Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C. (Compiler); Liang, Anita D. (Compiler)

    1996-01-01

    Seals Workshop of 1995 industrial code (INDSEAL) release include ICYL, GCYLT, IFACE, GFACE, SPIRALG, SPIRALI, DYSEAL, and KTK. The scientific code (SCISEAL) release includes conjugate heat transfer and multidomain with rotordynamic capability. Several seals and bearings codes (e.g., HYDROFLEX, HYDROTRAN, HYDROB3D, FLOWCON1, FLOWCON2) are presented and results compared. Current computational and experimental emphasis includes multiple connected cavity flows with goals of reducing parasitic losses and gas ingestion. Labyrinth seals continue to play a significant role in sealing with face, honeycomb, and new sealing concepts under investigation for advanced engine concepts in view of strict environmental constraints. The clean sheet approach to engine design is advocated with program directions and anticipated percentage SFC reductions cited. Future activities center on engine applications with coupled seal/power/secondary flow streams.

  10. Compliant Turbomachine Sealing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Braun, M. J.; Deng, D.; Hendricks, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    Sealing interface materials and coatings are sacrificial, giving up their integrity for the benefit of the component. Seals that are compliant while still controlling leakage, dynamics, and coolant flows are sought to enhance turbomachine performance. Herein we investigate the leaf-seal configuration. While the leaf seal is classified as contacting, a ready modification using the leaf-housing arrangement in conjunction with an interface film rider (a bore seal, for example) provides for a film-riding noncontact seal. The leaf housing and leaf elements can be made from a variety of materials from plastic to ceramic. Four simplistic models are used to identify the physics essential to controlling leakage. Corroborated by CFD, these results provide design parameters for applications to within reasonable engineering certainty. Some potential improvements are proposed.

  11. Dynamic sealing principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuk, J.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamental principles governing dynamic sealing operation are discussed. Different seals are described in terms of these principles. Despite the large variety of detailed construction, there appear to be some basic principles, or combinations of basic principles, by which all seals function, these are presented and discussed. Theoretical and practical considerations in the application of these principles are discussed. Advantages, disadvantages, limitations, and application examples of various conventional and special seals are presented. Fundamental equations governing liquid and gas flows in thin film seals, which enable leakage calculations to be made, are also presented. Concept of flow functions, application of Reynolds lubrication equation, and nonlubrication equation flow, friction and wear; and seal lubrication regimes are explained.

  12. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOEpatents

    Mikkor, Mati

    1981-01-01

    This disclosure is directed to an improvement in a sodium sulfur battery construction in which a seal between various battery compartments is made by a structure in which a soft metal seal member is held in a sealing position by holding structure. A pressure applying structure is used to apply pressure on the soft metal seal member when it is being held in sealing relationship to a surface of a container member of the sodium sulfur battery by the holding structure. The improvement comprises including a thin, well-adhered, soft metal layer on the surface of the container member of the sodium sulfur battery to which the soft metal seal member is to be bonded.

  13. Analysis and Design of a Double-Divert Spiral Groove Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Xiaoqing; Berard, Gerald

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the design and analysis of a double spiral groove seal. The contents include: 1) Double Spiral Design Features; 2) Double Spiral Operational Features; 3) Mating Ring/Rotor Assembly; 4) Seal Ring Assembly; 5) Insert Segment Joints; 6) Rotor Assembly Completed Prototype Parts; 7) Seal Assembly Completed Prototype Parts; 8) Finite Element Analysis; 9) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Analysis; 10) Restrictive Orifice Design; 11) Orifice CFD Model; 12) Orifice Results; 13) Restrictive Orifice; 14) Seal Face Coning; 15) Permanent Magnet Analysis; 16) Magnetic Repulsive Force; 17) Magnetic Repulsive Test Results; 18) Spin Testing; and 19) Testing and Validation.

  14. HERPESVIRUSES INCLUDING NOVEL GAMMAHERPESVIRUSES ARE WIDESPREAD AMONG PHOCID SEAL SPECIES IN CANADA.

    PubMed

    Bellehumeur, Christian; Nielsen, Ole; Measures, Lena; Harwood, Lois; Goldstein, Tracey; Boyle, Brian; Gagnon, Carl A

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about herpesviruses in Canadian pinnipeds. We measured prevalence of antibodies to herpesviruses in the sera from Canadian phocid seals by an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Wild harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) and captive harbor seals were positive for antibodies to Phocid herpesvirus 1 (PhoHV-1) at prevalences of 91% and 100%, respectively. Sera from wild hooded seals (Cystophora cristata), harp seals (Pagophilus groenlandica), and grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) were positive for antibodies to PhoHV-1 antigenically related herpesvirus antigens at 73%, 79%, and 96%, respectively. We isolated new herpesviruses in cell culture from two hunter-harvested ringed seals (Pusa hispida) in poor body condition from Ulukhaktok, Northwest Territories, Canada; one lethargic hooded seal from the St. Lawrence Estuary, Québec, Canada; and one captive, asymptomatic harp seal from the Magdalen Islands, Québec. Partial sequencing of the herpesvirus DNA polymerase gene revealed that all four virus isolates were closely related to PhoHV-2, a member of the Gammaherpesvirinae subfamily, with nucleotide similarity ranging between 92.8% and 95.3%. The new seal herpesviruses were genetically related to other known pinniped herpesviruses, such as PhoHV-1, Otariid herpesvirus 3, Hawaiian monk (Monachus schauinslandi) seal herpesvirus, and Phocid herpesvirus 5 with 47-48%, 55%, 77%, and 70-77% nucleotide similarities, respectively. The harp seal herpesvirus and both ringed seal herpesviruses were almost identical to each other, whereas the hooded seal herpesvirus was genetically different from the three others (92.8% nucleotide similarity), indicating detection of at least two novel seal herpesviruses. These findings are the first isolation, partial genome sequencing, and identification of seal gammaherpesviruses in three species of Canadian phocid seals; two species of which were suspected of exposure to one or more antigenically related herpesviruses based on

  15. Seals Flow Code Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    In recognition of a deficiency in the current modeling capability for seals, an effort was established by NASA to develop verified computational fluid dynamic concepts, codes, and analyses for seals. The objectives were to develop advanced concepts for the design and analysis of seals, to effectively disseminate the information to potential users by way of annual workshops, and to provide experimental verification for the models and codes under a wide range of operating conditions.

  16. Liquid Annular Seal Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palazzolo, Alan B.; Venkataraman, Balaji; Padavala, Sathya S.; Ryan, Steve; Vallely, Pat; Funston, Kerry

    1996-01-01

    This paper highlights the accomplishments on a joint effort between NASA - Marshall Space Flight Center and Texas A and M University to develop accurate seal analysis software for use in rocket turbopump design, design audits and trouble shooting. Results for arbitrary clearance profile, transient simulation, thermal effects solution and flexible seal wall model are presented. A new solution for eccentric seals based on cubic spline interpolation and ordinary differential equation integration is also presented.

  17. Liquid Annular Seal Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palazzolo, Alan B.; Venkataraman, Balaji; Padavala, Sathya S.; Ryan, Steve; Vallely, Pat; Funston, Kerry

    1996-01-01

    This paper highlights the accomplishments on a joint effort between NASA - Marshall Space Flight Center and Texas A and M University to develop accurate seal analysis software for use in rocket turbopump design, design audits and trouble shooting. Results for arbitrary clearance profile, transient simulation, thermal effects solution and flexible seal wall model are presented. A new solution for eccentric seals based on cubic spline interpolation and ordinary differential equation integration is also presented.

  18. Retractable environmental seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dettling, J. R. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A retractable environmental seal for use in sealing the opening of the exit cone for a rocket nozzle is described. A diaphragm-like cover having a central region adapted to be seated in sealing relation with the periphery of the opening is discussed. Radially extended failure zones for facilitating a pressure-induced rupture of the cover, and a plurality of angularly spaced tension springs connected with the peripheral portion of the cover are characterized.

  19. Grayloc seal static tests

    SciTech Connect

    Leisher, W.B.; Biffle, J.H.

    1983-02-01

    A series of evaluation tests was performed on Grayloc seals. Helium service and standard seals, size 292, were used. Measurements were made of axial force and motion, diameter, hoop and axial strain, and helium leak rate. Leak rates were in the 10/sup -6/ atm cc/s range for the helium service seals. Pretest analytical calculations agreed reasonably well with measured makeup forces and deflections.

  20. Bidirectional Brush Seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Wilson, Jack; Wu, Tom; Flower, Ralph

    1997-01-01

    Presented is a study of the use of a set of I.D./O.D. bidirectional press seals to reduce the leakage losses in a wave rotor. Relative to the baseline configuration, data indicate the use of brush seals enhanced wave rotor efficiency from 36 to 45 percent at low leakages (small rotor endwall gap spacings) and from 15 to 33 percent at high leakages (larger endwall gap spacings). These brush seals are capable of sealing positive or negative pressure drops with respect to the axial direction. Surface tribology for these tests suggested little evidence of grooving although the bristles appeared polished.

  1. Repository seals requirements study

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-03

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project, managed by the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) Management and Operating Contractor (M and O) is conducting investigations to support the Viability Assessment and the License Application for a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The sealing subsystem is part of the Yucca Mountain Waste Isolation System. The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project is currently evaluating the role of the sealing subsystem (shaft, ramp and exploratory borehole seals) in achieving the overall performance objectives for the Waste Isolation System. This report documents the results of those evaluations. This report presents the results of a repository sealing requirements study. Sealing is defined as the permanent closure of the shafts, ramps, and exploratory boreholes. Sealing includes those components that would reduce potential inflows above the repository, or that would divert flow near the repository horizon to allow vertical infiltration to below the repository. Sealing of such features as emplacement drifts was not done in this study because the current capability to calculate fracture flow into the drifts is not sufficiently mature. The objective of the study is to provide water or air flow performance based requirements for shafts, ramps, and exploratory boreholes located near the repository. Recommendations, as appropriate, are provided for developing plans, seals component testing, and other studies relating to sealing.

  2. A reusable, low-profile, cryogenic wire seal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, M. D., Jr.; Koutroulakis, G.; Kalechofsky, N.; Mitrović, V. F.

    2010-01-01

    We describe the design of a reusable indium wire seal which has a small profile and is leak tight to better than 1×10-10 std. cc/s from room temperature down to ≈ 50mK. The pressure necessary to deform the indium wire o-ring is provided by a screw-cap mating to threads on the outside of the cylindrical volume to be sealed.

  3. A Reusable, Low-profile, Cryogenic Wire Seal

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, M. D.; Koutroulakis, G.; Kalechofsky, N.; Mitrović, V. F.

    2009-01-01

    We describe the design of a reusable Indium wire seal which has a small profile and is leak tight to better than 1×10−10 std. cc/sec. from room temperature down to ≈mK. The pressure necessary to deform the Indium wire o-ring is provided by a screw-cap mating to threads on the outside of the cylindrical volume to be sealed. PMID:20161550

  4. An Overview of Advanced Elastomeric Seal Development and Testing Capabilities at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is developing advanced space-rated elastomeric seals to support future space exploration missions to low Earth orbit, the Moon, near Earth asteroids, and other destinations. This includes seals for a new docking system and vehicle hatches. These seals must exhibit extremely low leak rates to ensure that astronauts have sufficient breathable air for extended missions. Seal compression loads must be below prescribed limits so as not to overload the mechanisms that compress them, and seal adhesion forces must be low to allow the sealed interface to be separated when required (e.g., during undocking or hatch opening). NASA Glenn Research Center has developed a number of unique test fixtures to measure the leak rates and compression and adhesion loads of candidate seal designs under simulated thermal, vacuum, and engagement conditions. Tests can be performed on full-scale seals with diameters on the order of 50 in., subscale seals that are about 12 in. in diameter, and smaller specimens such as O-rings. Test conditions include temperatures ranging from -238 to +662F (-150 to +350C), operational pressure gradients, and seal-on-seal or seal-on-flange mating configurations. Nominal and off-nominal conditions (e.g., incomplete seal compression) can also be simulated. This paper describes the main design features and capabilities of each test apparatus and provides an overview of advanced seal development activities at NASA Glenn.

  5. An Overview of Advanced Elastomeric Seal Development and Testing Capabilities at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is developing advanced space-rated elastomeric seals to support future space exploration missions to low Earth orbit, the Moon, near Earth asteroids, and other destinations. This includes seals for a new docking system and vehicle hatches. These seals must exhibit extremely low leak rates to ensure that astronauts have sufficient breathable air for extended missions. Seal compression loads must be below prescribed limits so as not to overload the mechanisms that compress them, and seal adhesion forces must be low to allow the sealed interface to be separated when required (e.g., during undocking or hatch opening). NASA Glenn Research Center has developed a number of unique test fixtures to measure the leak rates and compression and adhesion loads of candidate seal designs under simulated thermal, vacuum, and engagement conditions. Tests can be performed on fullscale seals with diameters on the order of 50 in., subscale seals that are about 12 in. in diameter, and smaller specimens such as O-rings. Test conditions include temperatures ranging from -238 to 662degF (-150 to 350degC), operational pressure gradients, and seal-on-seal or seal-on-flange mating configurations. Nominal and off-nominal conditions (e.g., incomplete seal compression) can also be simulated. This paper describes the main design features and capabilities of each type of test apparatus and provides an overview of advanced seal development activities at NASA Glenn.

  6. An Overview of Advanced Elastomeric Seal Development and Testing Capabilities at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunlap, Patrick H.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is developing advanced space-rated elastomeric seals to support future space exploration missions to low Earth orbit, the Moon, near Earth asteroids, and other destinations. This includes seals for a new docking system and vehicle hatches. These seals must exhibit extremely low leak rates to ensure that astronauts have sufficient breathable air for extended missions. Seal compression loads must be below prescribed limits so as not to overload the mechanisms that compress them, and seal adhesion forces must be low to allow the sealed interface to be separated when required (e.g., during undocking or hatch opening). NASA Glenn Research Center has developed a number of unique test fixtures to measure the leak rates and compression and adhesion loads of candidate seal designs under simulated thermal, vacuum, and engagement conditions. Tests can be performed on full-scale seals with diameters on the order of 50 in., subscale seals that are about 12 in. in diameter, and smaller specimens such as O-rings. Test conditions include temperatures ranging from -238 to 662 F (-150 to 350 C), operational pressure gradients, and seal-on-seal or seal-on-flange mating configurations. Nominal and off-nominal conditions (e.g., incomplete seal compression) can also be simulated. This paper describes the main design features and capabilities of each type of test apparatus and provides an overview of advanced seal development activities at NASA Glenn.

  7. Crashworthy sealed pressure vessel for plutonium transport

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    A rugged transportation package for the air shipment of radioisotopic materials was recently developed. This package includes a tough, sealed, stainless steel inner containment vessel of 1460 cc capacity. This vessel, intended for a mass load of up to 2 Kg PuO/sub 2/ in various isotopic forms (not to exceed 25 watts thermal activity), has a positive closure design consisting of a recessed, shouldered lid fastened to the vessel body by twelve stainless-steel bolts; sealing is accomplished by a ductile copper gasket in conjunction with knife-edge sealing beads on both the body and lid. Follow-on applications of this seal in newer, smaller packages for international air shipments of plutonium safeguards samples, and in newer, more optimized packages for greater payload and improved efficiency and utility, are briefly presented.

  8. Overview of LIDS Docking Seals Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunlap, Pat; Steinetz, Bruce; Daniels, Chris

    2008-01-01

    NASA is developing a new docking system to support future space exploration missions to low-Earth orbit, the Moon, and Mars. This mechanism, called the Low Impact Docking System (LIDS), is designed to connect pressurized space vehicles and structures including the Crew Exploration Vehicle, International Space Station, and lunar lander. NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is playing a key role in developing the main interface seal for this new docking system. These seals will be approximately 147 cm (58 in.) in diameter. GRC is evaluating the performance of candidate seal designs under simulated operating conditions at both sub-scale and full-scale levels. GRC is ultimately responsible for delivering flight hardware seals to NASA Johnson Space Center around 2013 for integration into LIDS flight units.

  9. Caps Seal Boltholes On Vacuum-System Flanges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Robert F.

    1993-01-01

    Sealing caps devised for boltholes on vacuum-system flanges. Used in place of leak-prone gaskets, and provide solid metal-to-metal interfaces. Each sealing cap contains square-cut circular groove in which O-ring placed. Mounted on studs protruding into access ports, providing positive seal around each bolthole. Each cap mates directly with surface of flange, in solid metal-to-metal fit, with O-ring completely captured in groove. Assembly immune to misalignment, leakage caused by vibration, and creeping distortion caused by weight of port. O-ring material chosen for resistance to high temperature; with appropriate choice of material, temperature raised to as much as 315 degrees C.

  10. A Balanced-pressure Sliding Seal for Transfer of Pressurized Air Between Stationary and Rotating Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curren, Arthur N; Cochran, Reeves P

    1957-01-01

    A combination sliding-ring and pressure-balancing seal capable of transferring pressurize air from stationary to rotating parts was developed and experimentally investigated at sliding velocities and cooling-air pressures up to 10,000 feet per minute and 38.3 pounds per square inch absolute, respectively. Leakage of cooling air was completely eliminated with an expenditure of balance air less than one-fourth the leakage loss of air from labyrinth seals under the same conditions. Additional cooling of the carbon-base seal rings was required, and the maximum wear rate on the rings was about 0.0005 inch per hour.

  11. Development of seals for a geothermal downhole intensifier. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Captain, K.M.; Harvey, A.C.; Caskey, B.C.

    1985-08-01

    A system using high-velocity fluid jets in conjunction with a rotary diamond bit is currently considered as the best candidate for reducing the cost of drilling geothermal wells. Technical, safety and cost considerations indicate that the required jet supply pressure can best be established by a downhole pressure intensifier. Key intensifier components are the check valve and plunger seals, which must prevent leakage of the high-pressure, high-temperature abrasive fluid (drilling mud). To achieve the required performance, novel ceramic seals are currently being developed. The check valve seal includes a tapered polymeric plug and ceramic stop acting against a ceramic seat. The ceramic plunger seal is a variant of the ''stepped-joint'' piston ring and is designed to minimize contact pressure and abrasive wear. Initial testing of these seals in the laboratory shows encouraging results; design refinement and further testing is in progress. 2 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. A New Tribological Test for Candidate Brush Seal Materials Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fellenstein, James A.; Dellacorte, Christopher

    1994-01-01

    A new tribological test for candidate brush seal materials evaluation has been developed. The sliding contact between the brush seal wires and their mating counterface journal is simulated by testing a small tuft of wire against the outside diameter of a high speed rotating shaft. The test configuration is similar to a standard block on ring geometry. The new tester provides the capability to measure both the friction and wear of candidate wire and counterface materials under controlled loading conditions in the gram to kilogram range. A wide test condition latitude of speeds (1 to 27 m/s), temperatures (25 to 700 C), and loads (0.5 to 10 N) enables the simulation of many of the important tribological parameters found in turbine engine brush seals. This paper describes the new test rig and specimen configuration and presents initial data for candidate seal materials comparing tuft test results and wear surface morphology to field tested seal components.

  13. A new tribological test for candidate brush seal materials evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Fellenstein, J.A.; DellaCorte, C.

    1994-10-01

    A new tribological test for candidate brush seal materials evaluation has been developed. The sliding contact between the brush seal wires and their mating counterface journal is simulated by testing a small tuft of wire against the outside diameter of a high speed rotating shaft. The test configuration is similar to a standard block on ring geometry. The new tester provides the capability to measure both the friction and wear of candidate wire and counterface materials under controlled loading conditions in the gram to kilogram range. A wide test condition latitude of speeds (1 to 27 m/s), temperatures (25 to 700C), and loads (0.5 to 10 N) enables the simulation of many of the important tribological parameters found in turbine engine brush seals. This paper describes the new test rig and specimen configuration and presents initial data for candidate seal materials comparing tuft test results and wear surface morphology to field tested seal components.

  14. Experimental Study on Leakage Flow in Labyrinth Seals with Asymmetric Geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishii, Kazufumi; Furukawa, Akinori; Watanabe, Satoshi; Miyake, Kunihiro

    2010-06-01

    The labyrinth seal is one of non-contact seals, which is used as a seal device of rotary machines from reasons of the lubrication free and small losses. So far, many researchers have investigated the characteristics and suitable geometries of labyrinth seals, though only one directional flow of the seal has been focused up to now. As flow direction in the seal becomes changeable depending on the gas-purge system and the inner pressure variation of machines for recent applications, a guideline of designing labyrinth seal with changeable flow directions is required. In the present report, effects of seal characteristics and internal flow behaviors on various shapes of asymmetric convexity in labyrinth seals are experimentally investigated and relations between pressure loss and convexity geometries are discussed for designing a suitable seal.

  15. Measured effect of step axial location on labyrinth seal leakage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, G. L.; Rhode, D. L.

    1992-01-01

    An advanced, finite volume code has been extensively used in a parametric design study of simple stepped seals, in order to ascertain a leakage-minimizing optimal design and test it, in conjunction with the baseline case of the wear-ring seal of a high pressure pump. It is found that a significant leakage effect arises from this shifting of the rotor and stator sealing surfaces; at extremely low rpm, a significant shaft speed effect occurs for the optimized design in some shaft locations.

  16. Measured effect of step axial location on labyrinth seal leakage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, G. L.; Rhode, D. L.

    1992-12-01

    An advanced, finite volume code has been extensively used in a parametric design study of simple stepped seals, in order to ascertain a leakage-minimizing optimal design and test it, in conjunction with the baseline case of the wear-ring seal of a high pressure pump. It is found that a significant leakage effect arises from this shifting of the rotor and stator sealing surfaces; at extremely low rpm, a significant shaft speed effect occurs for the optimized design in some shaft locations.

  17. Measured effect of step axial location on labyrinth seal leakage

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, G.L.; Rhode, D.L. )

    1992-12-01

    An advanced, finite volume code has been extensively used in a parametric design study of simple stepped seals, in order to ascertain a leakage-minimizing optimal design and test it, in conjunction with the baseline case of the wear-ring seal of a high pressure pump. It is found that a significant leakage effect arises from this shifting of the rotor and stator sealing surfaces; at extremely low rpm, a significant shaft speed effect occurs for the optimized design in some shaft locations. 3 refs.

  18. Seal arrangement for intersecting conduits

    DOEpatents

    Goedicke, Friedrich E.

    1980-01-01

    A seal arrangement in which two intersecting conduits are sealed from each other. A sleeve insert is locked in a sealed relationship within one conduit enclosing the openings of the intersecting conduit.

  19. Evaluation of a Conductive Elastomer Seal for Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniels, C. C.; Mather, J. L.; Oravec, H. A.; Dunlap, P. H., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    An electrically conductive elastomer was evaluated as a material candidate for a spacecraft seal. The elastomer used electrically conductive constituents as a means to reduce the resistance between mating interfaces of a sealed joint to meet spacecraft electrical bonding requirements. The compound's outgassing levels were compared against published NASA requirements. The compound was formed into a hollow O-ring seal and its compression set was measured. The O-ring seal was placed into an interface and the electrical resistance and leak rate were quantified. The amount of force required to fully compress the test article in the sealing interface and the force needed to separate the joint were also measured. The outgassing and resistance measurements were below the maximum allowable levels. The room temperature compression set and leak rates were fairly high when compared against other typical spacecraft seal materials, but were not excessive. The compression and adhesion forces were desirably low. Overall, the performance of the elastomer compound was sufficient to be considered for future spacecraft seal applications.

  20. Resilient Braided Rope Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M. (Inventor); Kren, Lawrence A. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A resilient braided rope seal for use in high temperature applications includes a center core of fibers. a resilient canted spring member supporting the core and at least one layer of braided sheath fibers tightly packed together overlying the spring member. The seal provides both improved load bearing and resiliency. Permanent set and hysteresis are greatly reduced.

  1. Seals and Scrolls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macaulay, Sara Grove

    2000-01-01

    Describes an art unit in which students sculpt a signature seal out of clay and use Chinese brush painting techniques to paint a scroll. Discusses the seal and its historical use in China. Lists materials needed and explains the procedure. (CMK)

  2. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOEpatents

    Topouzian, Armenag

    1980-01-01

    This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which a flexible diaphragm sealing elements respectively engage opposite sides of a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

  3. Pneumatic stowing seals mines

    SciTech Connect

    Brezovec, D.

    1983-11-01

    A pneumatic stowing technique has been used in the US to seal entries to abandoned mines. Limestone mixed with dry cement or bentonite is blown into the opening. Sealing can be accomplished in much less time than with traditional concrete block/clay plug methods.

  4. Seals and Scrolls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macaulay, Sara Grove

    2000-01-01

    Describes an art unit in which students sculpt a signature seal out of clay and use Chinese brush painting techniques to paint a scroll. Discusses the seal and its historical use in China. Lists materials needed and explains the procedure. (CMK)

  5. MOLDED SEALING ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Bradford, B.W.; Skinner, W.J.

    1959-03-24

    Molded sealing elements suitable for use under conditions involving exposure to uranium hexafluoride vapor are described. Such sealing elements are made by subjecting graphitic carbons to a preliminary treatment with uranium hexafluoride vapor, and then incorporating polytetrafluorethylene in them. The resulting composition has good wear resistant and frictional properties and is resistant to disintegration by uranium hexafluoride over long periods of exposure.

  6. Sealing in Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chupp, Raymond E.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Lattime, Scott B.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2006-01-01

    Clearance control is of paramount importance to turbomachinery designers and is required to meet today's aggressive power output, efficiency, and operational life goals. Excessive clearances lead to losses in cycle efficiency, flow instabilities, and hot gas ingestion into disk cavities. Insufficient clearances limit coolant flows and cause interface rubbing, overheating downstream components and damaging interfaces, thus limiting component life. Designers have put renewed attention on clearance control, as it is often the most cost effective method to enhance system performance. Advanced concepts and proper material selection continue to play important roles in maintaining interface clearances to enable the system to meet design goals. This work presents an overview of turbomachinery sealing to control clearances. Areas covered include: characteristics of gas and steam turbine sealing applications and environments, benefits of sealing, types of standard static and dynamics seals, advanced seal designs, as well as life and limitations issues.

  7. Rotary shaft seal

    DOEpatents

    Langebrake, C.O.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a novel rotary shaft seal assembly which provides positive-contact sealing when the shaft is not rotated and which operates with its sealing surfaces separated by a film of compressed ambient gas whose width is independent of the speed of shaft rotation. In a preferred embodiment, the assembly includes a disc affixed to the shaft for rotation therewith. Axially movable, non-rotatable plates respectively supported by sealing bellows are positioned on either side of the disc to be in sealing engagement therewith. Each plate carries piezoelectric transucer elements which are electrically energized at startup to produce films of compressed ambient gas between the confronting surfaces of the plates and the disc. Following shutdown of the shaft, the transducer elements are de-energized. A control circuit responds to incipient rubbing between the plate and either disc by altering the electrical input to the transducer elements to eliminate rubbing.

  8. Rotary shaft seal

    DOEpatents

    Langebrake, Clair O.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a novel rotary shaft seal assembly which provides positive-contact sealing when the shaft is not rotated and which operates with its sealing surfaces separated by a film of compressed ambient gas whose width is independent of the speed of shaft rotation. In a preferred embodiment, the assembly includes a disc affixed to the shaft for rotation therewith. Axially movable, non-rotatable plates respectively supported by sealing bellows are positioned on either side of the disc to be in sealing engagement therewith. Each plate carries piezoelectric transducer elements which are electrically energized at startup to produce films of compressed ambient gas between the confronting surfaces of the plates and the disc. Following shutdown of the shaft, the transducer elements are de-energized. A control circuit responds to incipient rubbing between the plate and either disc by altering the electrical input to the transducer elements to eliminate rubbing.

  9. SSME interstage seal research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childs, D. W.

    1984-01-01

    Test results comprising direct and transverse force coefficients and leakage coefficients are reported for six seal configurations. All seals tested use the same smooth rotor and have the same constant minimum clearance. The following stator configurations were tested: (1) Smooth, (2) knurled pattern, (3) axially-grooved pattern with end seals, (4) diamond-grid roughened, (5) diamond-grid roughened with end seals, and (6) round-hole pattern. Comparison of the seals shows the Knurled-pattern stator to be the stiffest and the round-hole pattern stator to yield the largest net damping and the least leakage. The theory of reference is shown to substantially underestimate the stiffness and effective-added-mass coefficients, but do a reasonable job in predicting the net-damping-force coefficient.

  10. Transmission seal development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brien, M.

    1977-01-01

    An experimental evaluation was performed on a high-speed (72.9 m/s, 14,349 ft/min) transmission seal of the synergistic type. During testing of the seal, oil leakage occurred at positive bearing cavity pressures. Modifications were made in an attempt to eliminate the leakage but none were completely successful. Leakage appears to be the result of questionable positioning of the sealing elements resulting in inadequate shaft contact by the oil side sealing element. This condition may be related to the nonsymmetrical shape of the elastomeric retainer and to dimensional changes caused by swelling of the elastomeric retainer from exposure to the sealed fluid. Indications of a speed dependent leakage characteristic were also observed.

  11. Repository seals requirement study

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-03

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project, managed by the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) Management and Operating Contractor (M and O) is conducting investigations to support the Viability Assessment and the License Application for a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The sealing subsystem is part of the Yucca Mountain Waste Isolation System. The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project is currently evaluating the role of the sealing subsystem (shaft, ramp and exploratory borehole seals) in achieving the overall performance objectives for the Waste Isolation System. This report documents the results of those evaluations. The objective of the study is to provide water or air flow performance based requirements for shafts, ramps, and exploratory boreholes located near the repository. Recommendations, as appropriate, are provided for developing plans, seals component testing, and other studies relating to sealing.

  12. HSCT Anticipated Seal Needs Turbomachinery Seals Combustor Seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, John

    2006-01-01

    The High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) engine concept is a large mixed flow turbofan similar in construction to current military fighter engines. The mission, however, is quite different. The engine will operate for long periods of time at very high Mach numbers and high altitudes. The engine is required to have very low emissions and noise levels to be acceptable in commercial service. Current thrust levels are in the 55000 lb range. At the current supercruise speed requirement of Mach 2.4, the engine inlet temperature will be at least 380 F. This is the lowest cycle temperature expected anywhere in the propulsion system.Seals will be exposed to operate at this temperature and higher for thousands of hours without failure. Durability, cost, and weight will all be very important in determining the type of seals selected for a successful HSCT engine.

  13. Investigation of the possibility of creating magnetic-fluid pressure seals for reciprocal motion

    SciTech Connect

    Evsin, S.I.; Orlov, D.V.; Stradomskii, Yu.I.; Khar'kovskii, B.V.

    1988-04-01

    Design problems of magnetic-fluid seals were experimentally studied and solutions were proposed for their operation under conditions of reciprocal motion. Possibilities for increasing the stability of the seals by changing the geometry of the tooth and by using a damping volume and gas-dynamic drag to ensure the functionability of the multitooth system were examined. Magnetic fluid seals with two teeth on each pole with symmetric and beveled teeth were studied on a stand. Manometry determined the tightness of the seal. An elastic ring combination was placed on the shaft with a slight tension to increase the tightness of the seal. Maximum service life was found to occur when the rings were installed with slight tension and functioned in this case as piston rings.

  14. Seals Flow Code Development 1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Anita D. (Compiler); Hendricks, Robert C. (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    Seals Workshop of 1993 code releases include SPIRALI for spiral grooved cylindrical and face seal configurations; IFACE for face seals with pockets, steps, tapers, turbulence, and cavitation; GFACE for gas face seals with 'lift pad' configurations; and SCISEAL, a CFD code for research and design of seals of cylindrical configuration. GUI (graphical user interface) and code usage was discussed with hands on usage of the codes, discussions, comparisons, and industry feedback. Other highlights for the Seals Workshop-93 include environmental and customer driven seal requirements; 'what's coming'; and brush seal developments including flow visualization, numerical analysis, bench testing, T-700 engine testing, tribological pairing and ceramic configurations, and cryogenic and hot gas facility brush seal results. Also discussed are seals for hypersonic engines and dynamic results for spiral groove and smooth annular seals.

  15. 2008 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M. (Editor); Hendricks, Robert C. (Editor); Delgado, Irebert R. (Editor)

    2009-01-01

    The 2008 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System Workshop covered the following topics: (i) Overview of NASA s new Orion project aimed at developing a new spacecraft that will fare astronauts to the International Space Station, the Moon, Mars, and beyond; (ii) Overview of NASA s fundamental aeronautics technology project; (iii) Overview of NASA Glenn s seal project aimed at developing advanced seals for NASA s turbomachinery, space, and reentry vehicle needs; (iv) Reviews of NASA prime contractor, vendor, and university advanced sealing concepts, test results, experimental facilities, and numerical predictions; and (v) Reviews of material development programs relevant to advanced seals development. Turbine engine studies have shown that reducing seal leakage as well as high-pressure turbine (HPT) blade tip clearances will reduce fuel burn, lower emissions, retain exhaust gas temperature margin, and increase range. Turbine seal development topics covered include a method for fast-acting HPT blade tip clearance control, noncontacting low-leakage seals, intershaft seals, and a review of engine seal performance requirements for current and future Army engine platforms.

  16. 2007 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System Workshop. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Delgado, Irebert

    2008-01-01

    The 2007 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System workshop covered the following topics: (i) Overview of NASA's new Orion project aimed at developing a new spacecraft that will fare astronauts to the International Space Station, the Moon, Mars, and beyond; (ii) Overview of NASA's fundamental aeronautics technology project; (iii) Overview of NASA Glenn s seal project aimed at developing advanced seals for NASA's turbomachinery, space, and reentry vehicle needs; (iv) Reviews of NASA prime contractor, vendor, and university advanced sealing concepts, test results, experimental facilities, and numerical predictions; and (v) Reviews of material development programs relevant to advanced seals development. Turbine engine studies have shown that reducing seal leakage as well as high-pressure turbine (HPT) blade tip clearances will reduce fuel burn, lower emissions, retain exhaust gas temperature margin, and increase range. Turbine seal development topics covered include a method for fast-acting HPT blade tip clearance control, noncontacting low-leakage seals, intershaft seals, and a review of engine seal performance requirements for current and future Army engine platforms.

  17. Fusion Engineering Device frame seal welder and cutter

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, K.D.; Williams, S.A.; Longhurst, G.R.; McPherson, R.S.; Masson, L.S.

    1981-10-01

    The Fusion Engineering Device (FED) is being designed in a torus shape using ten removable segments to form the torus geometry. The torus consists of a frame and ten shield assemblies which fit into the frame. It is necessary to seal the shield segment to the frame for the assembly to sustain an internal vacuum. Designs for the seal, the welder to weld the seal in place, the cutter to remove the seal, and the handling fixture for seal installation and removal are presented. The concept for the seal installation is novel in that precise alignment of the seal to the torus frame and shield assemblies is not required. Vacuum handling technology is used for handling the three story tall, twelve foot wide, fragile, relatively light weight seal. The welder and cutter assemblies track off the seal handling fixture, eliminating the need for complex rails on each of the shield segments. The entire seal installation and removal system has been designed for remote operation.

  18. Turbocharger with variable nozzle having vane sealing surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, Philippe; Petitjean, Dominique; Ruquart, Anthony; Dupont, Guillaume; Jeckel, Denis

    2011-11-15

    A variable nozzle for a turbocharger includes a plurality of vanes rotatably mounted on a nozzle ring and disposed in a nozzle flow path defined between the nozzle ring and an opposite nozzle wall. Either or both of the faces of the nozzle ring and nozzle wall include(s) at least one step that defines sealing surfaces positioned to be substantially abutted by airfoil surfaces of the vanes in the closed position of the vanes and to be spaced from the airfoil surfaces in positions other than the closed position. This substantial abutment between the airfoil surfaces and the sealing surfaces serves to substantially prevent exhaust gas from leaking past the ends of the airfoil portions. At the same time, clearances between the nozzle ring face and the end faces of the airfoil portions can be sufficiently large to prevent binding of the vanes under all operating conditions.

  19. Bellow seal and anchor

    DOEpatents

    Mansure, Arthur J.

    2001-01-01

    An annular seal is made of a collapsible bellows. The bellows can function as an anchor or a seal and is easily set into position using relative component movement. The bellows folds can be slanted and their outer sealing edges can have different profiles to meet expected conditions. The bellows is expanded for insertion to reduce its outer dimension and sets by compaction as a result of relative movement. The bellows can be straight or tapered and is settable with a minimal axial force.

  20. Multilayer compressive seal for sealing in high temperature devices

    DOEpatents

    Chou, Yeong-Shyung; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2007-08-21

    A mica based compressive seal has been developed exhibiting superior thermal cycle stability when compared to other compressive seals known in the art. The seal is composed of compliant glass or metal interlayers and a sealing (gasket) member layer composed of mica that is infiltrated with a glass forming material, which effectively reduces leaks within the seal. The compressive seal shows approximately a 100-fold reduction in leak rates compared with previously developed hybrid seals after from 10 to about 40 thermal cycles under a compressive stress of from 50 psi to 100 psi at temperatures in the range from 600.degree. C. to about 850.degree. C.

  1. Sealing device for providing a seal in a turbomachine

    DOEpatents

    Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Kottilingam, Srikanth Chandrudu; Porter, Christopher Donald; Schick, David Edward; Weber, David Wayne

    2016-08-16

    Sealing device for providing seals between adjacent components, and turbomachines utilizing such sealing devices, are provided. A sealing device includes a seal plate insertable between the adjacent components, the seal plate comprising a first face and an opposing second face. The sealing device further includes a plurality of pins extending from one of the first face or the second face, the plurality of pins configured to space the one of the first face or the second face from contact surfaces of the adjacent components.

  2. Seal plate with concentrate annular segments for a gas turbine engine

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, D.P.; Light, S.H.

    1991-12-24

    This patent describes a gas turbine engine. It comprises a radial outflow, rotary compressor; a radial inflow turbine wheel; means coupling the compressor and the turbine wheel in slightly spaced back to back relating so that the turbine wheel may drive the compressor; a housing surrounding the compressor and the turbine wheel; and a stationary seal mounted on the housing and extending into the space between the compressor and the turbine wheel, the seal including a main sealing and support section adjacent the compressor and a multiple piece diaphragm mounted to the main section, but generally spaced therefrom, the pieces of the diaphragm being movable with respect to each other and with respect to the main section, and including a radially inner ring and a radially outer ring, one of the rings including a lip which overlaps an edge of the other of the rings, the lip and the edge being in sliding, sealing engagement.

  3. Saturn's Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuzzi, J. N.

    2014-12-01

    The rings are changing before our eyes; structure varies on all timescales and unexpected things have been discovered. Many questions have been answered, but some answers remain elusive (see Cuzzi et al 2010 for a review). Here we highlight the major ring science progress over the mission to date, and describe new observations planned for Cassini's final three years. Ring Composition and particle sizes: The rings are nearly all water ice with no other ices - so why are they reddish? The C Ring and Cassini Division are "dirtier" than the more massive B and A Rings, as shown by near-IR and, recently, microwave observations. Particle sizes, from stellar and radio occultations, vary from place to place. Ring structure, micro and macro: numerous spiral density waves and ubiquitous "self-gravity wakes" reveal processes which fostered planet formation in the solar system and elsewhere. However, big puzzles remain regarding the main ring divisions, the C Ring plateau structures, and the B Ring irregular structure. Moonlets, inside and out, seen and unseen: Two gaps contain sizeable moonlets, but more gaps seem to contain none; even smaller embedded "propeller" objects wander, systematically or randomly, through the A ring. Rubble pile ringmoons just outside the rings may escaped from the rings, and the recently discovered "Peggy" may be trying this as we watch. Impact bombardment of the rings: Comet fragments set the rings to rippling on century-timescales, and boulders crash through hourly; meanwhile, the constant hail of infalling Kuiper belt material has a lower mass flux than previously thought. Origin and Age of the Rings: The ring mass and bombardment play key roles. The ring mass is well known everywhere but in the B Ring (where most of it is). New models suggest how tidal breakup of evolving moons may have formed massive ancient rings, of which the current ring is just a shadow. During its last three years, the Cassini tour profile will allow entirely new

  4. Long Life Elastomeric Aircraft Hydraulic Seals. Part I2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-10-01

    Continue on reverse side If necessary and Identify by block number) Hydraulic O-Ring Seals Long Life Fluorocarbon Elastomer Dynamic Testing Backup...Rings 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse side If necessary and Identify by block number) The continued development work of long life elastomeric...amines, azoles and quinoline types are extracted by the service media which limits their effectivity in protecting the polymer against oxidative attack

  5. Engine sealing and lubrication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuk, J.

    1975-01-01

    Engine sealing programs are discussed which are directed toward the two major classes of engine seals: engine shaft seals and primary gas path seals. In addition, some concepts and results from fundamental lubrication research, as it pertains to the lubrication of bearings, are presented.

  6. Adhesiveless and grooveless sealing technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, J. W.; Elmendorf, H. M.

    1978-01-01

    Sealing technique eliminates groove or adhesive bonding and its attendant heating and curing need to finely finish at least one surface to be sealed. Seal could be mounted either inside or outside seal line, and could be installed in final assembly without exposing part to heat and pressure of curing.

  7. Diving seals: are they a model for coping with oxidative stress?

    PubMed

    Zenteno-Savín, T; Clayton-Hernández, E; Elsner, R

    2002-12-01

    The diving lifestyle of seals depends upon cardiovascular adjustments that result in frequent vasoconstriction of numerous organs. With the first post-dive breath, reperfusion allows for eliminating accumulated carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and reloading oxygen (O(2)) stores. Reintroduction of oxygenated blood raises the potential for production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the possibility that they may overwhelm the antioxidant defenses. This study addresses the question of possible adaptive responses that allow ringed seal (Phoca hispida) tissues to tolerate repeated cycles of ischemia and reperfusion, and thus protect them from oxidative insult. We obtained samples of ringed seal heart, muscle and kidney through the cooperation of native subsistence hunters at Barrow, Alaska. Samples were subjected to oxidative stress by addition of xanthine oxidase. Production of superoxide radical (O(2)(.-)), lipid peroxidation (as determined by the presence of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS) and antioxidant capacity (AOX) were quantified by spectrophotometric analysis. Similarly treated pig tissues were anticipated to be more susceptible to oxidative stress. Contrary to expectations, pig tissues revealed less O(2)(.-) and TBARS compared with ringed seal tissues. These results show that ringed seal muscle, heart and kidney can be induced in vitro to generate ROS, and suggest that the living seal's protective defenses may depend upon O(2)(.-) production, similar to the protective effect of experimental preconditioning, or on enhanced intermediate scavenging, as evidenced by the larger AOX found in ringed seal tissues.

  8. Seal Wire Integrity Verification Instrument: Evaluation of Laboratory Prototypes

    SciTech Connect

    Good, Morris S.; Skorpik, James R.; Kravtchenko, Victor; Wishard, Bernard; Prince, James M.; Pardini, Allan F.; Heasler, Patrick G.; Santiago-Rojas, Emiliano; Mathews, Royce; Khayyat, Sakher; Tanner, Jennifer E.; Undem, Halvor A.

    2009-10-07

    Tamper indicating devices (TIDs) provide evidence that sensitive items, to which they have been applied, have been tampered with or not. Passive wire-loop seals, a class of TIDs, are generally comprised of a multi-strand seal wire that is threaded through or around key features and a unique seal body that captures and restrains the seal wire. Seal integrity resides with unique identification of the seal and the integrity of the seal body and the seal wire. Upon inspection, the seal wire may be cut and the full length inspected. A new seal may be applied in the field as a replacement, if desired. Seal wire inspection typically requires visual and tactile examinations, which are both subjective. A need therefore exists to develop seal wire inspection technology that is easy to use in the field, is objective, provides an auditable data trail, and has low error rates. Expected benefits, if successfully implemented, are improved on-site inspection reliability and security. The work scope for this effort was restricted to integrity of seal wire used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and resulted in development of a wire integrity verification instrument (WIVI) laboratory prototype. Work included a performance evaluation of a laboratory-bench-top system, and design and delivery of two WIVI laboratory prototypes. The paper describes the basic physics of the eddy current measurement, a description of the WIVI laboratory prototype, and an initial evaluation performed by IAEA personnel. --- Funding was provided by the U.S. Program for Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards (POTAS).

  9. Zink rotary kiln seal: Cam followers. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.L.

    1994-12-09

    The CIF will treat hazardous and mixed low-level radioactive waste in a rotary kiln and secondary combustion chamber. A high efficiency air pollution control system follows the secondary chamber. The rotary kiln is designed with a gas seal at each end of its rotating barrel which provides a barrier between the interior of the kiln and outside air. The internal pressure of the rotary kiln will be maintained below atmospheric pressure, so exterior air passing the seals is forced into the kiln`s interior. Positive pressure may be applied in the seal labyrinth, adding a barrier to flow. Both CIF seals will be covered entirely with exhaust hoods, drawing air over the outside of the seal and into a HEPA filtered exhaust system. Cam follower misalignment on a John Zink rotary kiln seal caused damage to the seal`s rotor. The misalignment was quantified, corrected, and checked to verify straightness. The primary purpose of the correction was to allow seal testing 1 to continue, but the information is applicable to the Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) since two large seals of similar design will be installed there. Cam follower straightness was off as much as 3.5{degrees}, causing followers to run untrue on the rotor. High contact forces resulted, removing flakes of metal from the rotor surface. The misalignment caused weight bearing followers on one side of the seal to back out of their threaded mounts. The root cause was poor machining of the follower mounting holes. Correction was accomplished by relieving the holes and installing machined spacers and retaining nuts. Cam followers on the CIF`s Zink seals should be inspected for straightness before the seals are installed.

  10. Conduit sealing system

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberg, R.A.

    1984-02-28

    The invention relates to an annular seal system designed for high pressure applications in subterranean wells. The annular seal system comprises a vertical stack of subassemblies. Each subassembly incorporates an annular sealing element formed from an elastomeric material, such as a perfluoroelastomer, which is provided with a truncated pear-shaped cross-sectional configuration having reversely curved axial side surfaces. The sealing element is abutted on each axial side by a uniform thickness annular bearing element formed from a thermoplastic such as a polyphenylene sulfide resin having good bearing properties. Each of the thermoplastic bearing elements is in turn abutted by an annular metallic restraining element having correspondingly shaped reversely curved axial side surfaces and defining an inverted truncated pear-shaped cross-sectional configuration.

  11. Turbine seal assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Little, David A.

    2013-04-16

    A seal assembly that limits gas leakage from a hot gas path to one or more disc cavities in a turbine engine. The seal assembly includes a seal apparatus that limits gas leakage from the hot gas path to a respective one of the disc cavities. The seal apparatus comprises a plurality of blade members rotatable with a blade structure. The blade members are associated with the blade structure and extend toward adjacent stationary components. Each blade member includes a leading edge and a trailing edge, the leading edge of each blade member being located circumferentially in front of the blade member's corresponding trailing edge in a direction of rotation of the turbine rotor. The blade members are arranged such that a space having a component in a circumferential direction is defined between adjacent circumferentially spaced blade members.

  12. Flexible cloth seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumar; Taura, Joseph Charles; Aksit, Mahmut Faruk; Demiroglu, Mehmet; Predmore, Daniel Ross

    1999-01-01

    A seal assembly having a flexible cloth seal which includes a shim assemblage surrounded by a cloth assemblage. A first tubular end portion, such as a gas turbine combustor, includes a longitudinal axis and has smooth and spaced-apart first and second surface portions defining a notch therebetween which is wider at its top than at its bottom and which extends outward from the axis. The second surface portion is outside curved, and a first edge of the cloth seal is positioned in the bottom of the notch. A second tubular end portion, such as a first stage nozzle, is located near, spaced apart from, and coaxially aligned with, the first tubular end portion. The second tubular end portion has a smooth third surface portion which surrounds at least a portion of the first tubular end portion and which is contacted by the cloth seal.

  13. Ingestion resistant seal assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Little, David A

    2011-12-13

    A seal assembly limits gas leakage from a hot gas path to one or more disc cavities in a gas turbine engine. The seal assembly includes a seal apparatus associated with a blade structure including a row of airfoils. The seal apparatus includes an annular inner shroud associated with adjacent stationary components, a wing member, and a first wing flange. The wing member extends axially from the blade structure toward the annular inner shroud. The first wing flange extends radially outwardly from the wing member toward the annular inner shroud. A plurality of regions including one or more recirculation zones are defined between the blade structure and the annular inner shroud that recirculate working gas therein back toward the hot gas path.

  14. Gas turbine sealing apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, John Joseph; Wessell, Brian J.; Liang, George

    2013-03-05

    A sealing apparatus in a gas turbine. The sealing apparatus includes a seal housing apparatus coupled to a disc/rotor assembly so as to be rotatable therewith during operation of the gas turbine. The seal housing apparatus comprises a base member, a first leg portion, a second leg portion, and spanning structure. The base member extends generally axially between forward and aft rows of rotatable blades and is positioned adjacent to a row of stationary vanes. The first leg portion extends radially inwardly from the base member and is coupled to the disc/rotor assembly. The second leg portion is axially spaced from the first leg portion, extends radially inwardly from the base member, and is coupled to the disc/rotor assembly. The spanning structure extends between and is rigidly coupled to each of the base member, the first leg portion, and the second leg portion.

  15. Flexible cloth seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bagepalli, B.S.; Taura, J.C.; Aksit, M.F.; Demiroglu, M.; Predmore, D.R.

    1999-06-29

    A seal assembly is described having a flexible cloth seal which includes a shim assemblage surrounded by a cloth assemblage. A first tubular end portion, such as a gas turbine combustor, includes a longitudinal axis and has smooth and spaced-apart first and second surface portions defining a notch there between which is wider at its top than at its bottom and which extends outward from the axis. The second surface portion is outside curved, and a first edge of the cloth seal is positioned in the bottom of the notch. A second tubular end portion, such as a first stage nozzle, is located near, spaced apart from, and coaxially aligned with, the first tubular end portion. The second tubular end portion has a smooth third surface portion which surrounds at least a portion of the first tubular end portion and which is contacted by the cloth seal. 7 figs.

  16. CENTRIFUGAL PUMP AND SHAFT SEALING MEANS

    DOEpatents

    Rushing, F.C.

    1960-09-01

    A description is given of sealing means between a hollow rotatable shaft and a stationary member surrounding the shaft which defines therewith a sealing space of annular cross-section, comprising a plurality of axially spaced rings held against seats by ring springs which serve to subdivide the sealing space- into a plurality of zones. Process gas introduced into the hollow shaft through a port communicating with a centrally located zone which iu turn communicates with a bore in the sleeve, is removed from the shaft through a second port communicating with an adjacent central zone and discharged through a second bore. A sealant gas is supplied to an end zone under a pressure sufficient to cause it to flow axially into adjacent zones and then maintained at a lower pressure than either the sealant gas source or the process gas inlet zone, preventing the sealant gas from entering the shaft and allowing gases leaking into the sealant gas to be withdrawn and led to a separator.

  17. Core disruptive accident margin seal

    DOEpatents

    Golden, Martin P.

    1979-01-01

    Apparatus for sealing the annulus defined within a substantially cylindrical rotatable riser assembly and plug combination of a nuclear reactor closure head. The apparatus comprises an inflatable sealing mechanism disposed in one portion of the riser assembly near the annulus such that upon inflation the sealing mechanism is radially actuated against the other portion of the riser assembly thereby sealing the annulus. The apparatus further comprises a connecting mechanism which places one end of the sealing mechanism in fluid communication with the reactor cover gas so that overpressurization of the reactor cover gas will increase the radial actuation of the sealing mechanism thus enhancing sealing of the annulus.

  18. Seal system with integral detector

    DOEpatents

    Fiarman, S.

    1982-08-12

    A seal system is disclosed for materials where security is of the essence, such as nuclear materials. The seal is tamper-indicating, indicates changes in environmental conditions that evidence attempts to bypass the seal, is unique and cost effective. The seal system is comprised of a seal where an optical signal is transmitted through a loop, with a detector to read said signal, and one or more additional detectors designed to detect environmental changes, these detectors being operatively associated with the seal so that detection of a break in the optical signal or detection of environmental changes will cause an observable change in the seal.

  19. Current developments in brush seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, Bob

    1994-01-01

    The objective of the brush seal development program is to develop a comprehensive design methodology for brush seals using application requirements from engine manufacturers and experimental characterization of seal design and tribological pairs. The goals are to substantially lower leakage compared to labyrinth seals, seal life consistent with man-rated mission requirements, to investigate single and multiple staged brush seals, temperature up to 1200 F and surface speed up to 900 fps, and pressure drop across the seal of 50 psid. Test results are presented in viewgraph format.

  20. Current developments in brush seals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loewenthal, Bob

    1994-07-01

    The objective of the brush seal development program is to develop a comprehensive design methodology for brush seals using application requirements from engine manufacturers and experimental characterization of seal design and tribological pairs. The goals are to substantially lower leakage compared to labyrinth seals, seal life consistent with man-rated mission requirements, to investigate single and multiple staged brush seals, temperature up to 1200 F and surface speed up to 900 fps, and pressure drop across the seal of 50 psid. Test results are presented in viewgraph format.

  1. Titanium hermetic seals

    DOEpatents

    Brow, Richard K.; Watkins, Randall D.

    1995-07-04

    Titanium is prenitrided by being heated in a nitrogen environment under conditions which give rise to the formation of a titanium-nitride surface layer on the titanium. Titanium thus prenitrided may be used in electrical components which are hermetically sealed using silicate glasses and standard glass sealing techniques. According to the method of the invention, alkali volatilization and formation of deleterious interfacial silicide are inhibited.

  2. Titanium hermetic seals

    DOEpatents

    Brow, Richard K.; Watkins, Randall D.

    1995-01-01

    Titanium is prenitrided by being heated in a nitrogen environment under conditions which give rise to the formation of a titanium-nitride surface layer on the titanium. Titanium thus prenitrided may be used in electrical components which are hermetically sealed using silicate glasses and standard glass sealing techniques. According to the method of the invention, alkali volatilization and formation of deleterious interfacial silicide are inhibited.

  3. Mechanical Face Seal Dynamics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    ments, the kinematics of which was analyzed in the previous section. The general form of the dynamic moment vector of a rigid body expressed in a moving... rigid body defined as {L) = ii (XI (13) and X is the absolute angular velocity vector of the body. The vector W c is the rotational velocity of the...Sealing Technology", John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1979. 6. Crane Packing Company, "Engineered Fluid Sealing", 1976. 7. Arnold, N.R., and Maunder, L

  4. Radial pressure flange seal

    DOEpatents

    Batzer, Thomas H.; Call, Wayne R.

    1989-01-01

    This invention provides an all metal seal for vacuum or pressure vessels or systems. This invention does not use gaskets. The invention uses a flange which fits into a matching groove. Fluid pressure is applied in a chamber in the flange causing at least one of the flange walls to radially press against a side of the groove creating the seal between the flange wall and the groove side.

  5. Radial pressure flange seal

    DOEpatents

    Batzer, T.H.; Call, W.R.

    1989-01-24

    This invention provides an all metal seal for vacuum or pressure vessels or systems. This invention does not use gaskets. The invention uses a flange which fits into a matching groove. Fluid pressure is applied in a chamber in the flange causing at least one of the flange walls to radially press against a side of the groove creating the seal between the flange wall and the groove side. 5 figs.

  6. Preliminary study of temperature measurement techniques for Stirling engine reciprocating seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcock, D. F.; Hoogenboom, L.; Meinders, M.; Winer, W. O.

    1981-01-01

    Methods of determining the contact surface temperature in reciprocating seals are investigated. Direct infrared measurement of surface temperatures of a rod exiting a loaded cap seal or simulated seal are compared with surface thermocouple measurements. Significant cooling of the surface requires several milliseconds so that exit temperatures may be considered representative of internal contact temperatures.

  7. 20 CFR 369.2 - Authority to grant written permission for use of the seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of the seal. 369.2 Section 369.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES USE OF THE SEAL OF THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD § 369.2 Authority to grant written permission for use of the seal. The Board hereby delegates authority to grant written...

  8. 20 CFR 369.2 - Authority to grant written permission for use of the seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of the seal. 369.2 Section 369.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES USE OF THE SEAL OF THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD § 369.2 Authority to grant written permission for use of the seal. The Board hereby delegates authority to grant written...

  9. 20 CFR 369.2 - Authority to grant written permission for use of the seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of the seal. 369.2 Section 369.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES USE OF THE SEAL OF THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD § 369.2 Authority to grant written permission for use of the seal. The Board hereby delegates authority to grant written...

  10. 20 CFR 369.2 - Authority to grant written permission for use of the seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of the seal. 369.2 Section 369.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES USE OF THE SEAL OF THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD § 369.2 Authority to grant written permission for use of the seal. The Board hereby delegates authority to grant written...

  11. 20 CFR 369.2 - Authority to grant written permission for use of the seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of the seal. 369.2 Section 369.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES USE OF THE SEAL OF THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD § 369.2 Authority to grant written permission for use of the seal. The Board hereby delegates authority to grant written...

  12. Seal accommodating thermal expansion between adjacent casings in gas turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marra, John J. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A casing around a turbine and a casing around discharge nozzles have a concentrically arranged shell portion. The seal contains internal pressure while accommodating eccentric, expansion and axial travel. Arcuate seal segments have one leg sealing against a radial surface extending from the inner shell and the other leg against the outer shell. A linkage guides travel of the segments.

  13. Neptune's rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This 591-second exposure of the rings of Neptune were taken with the clear filter by the Voyager 2 wide-angle camera. The two main rings are clearly visible and appear complete over the region imaged. Also visible in this image is the inner faint ring and the faint band which extends smoothly from the ring roughly halfway between the two bright rings. Both of these newly discovered rings are broad and much fainter than the two narrow rings. The bright glare is due to over-exposure of the crescent on Neptune. Numerous bright stars are evident in the background. Both bright rings have material throughout their entire orbit, and are therefore continuous. The Voyager Mission is conducted by JPL for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications.

  14. Ring World

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-01

    Our robotic emissary, flying high above Saturn, captured this view of an alien copper-colored ring world. The overexposed planet has deliberately been removed to show the unlit rings alone, seen from an elevation of 60 degrees

  15. Neptune Rings

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-10-29

    This 591-second exposure of the rings of Neptune were taken with the clear filter by NASA Voyager 2 wide-angle camera. The two main rings are clearly visible and appear complete over the region imaged.

  16. Ring Backdrop

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-01-03

    Saturn moon Enceladus brightly reflects sunlight before a backdrop of the planet rings and the rings shadows cast onto the planet. NASA Cassini spacecraft captured this snapshot during its flyby of the moon on Nov. 30, 2010.

  17. Double face sealing device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A double face sealing device is disclosed for mounting between two surfaces to provide an air-tight and fluid-tight seal between a closure member bearing one of the surfaces and a structure or housing bearing the other surface which extends around the opening or hatchway to be closed. The double face sealing device includes a plurality of sections or segments mounted to one of the surfaces, each having a main body portion, a pair of outwardly extending and diverging, cantilever, spring arms, and a pair of inwardly extending and diverging, cantilever, spring arms, an elastomeric cover on the distal, free ends of the outwardly extending and diverging spring arms, and an elastomeric cover on the distal, free, ends of the outwardly extending and diverging spring arms, and an elastomeric cover on the distal, free ends of the inwardly extending and diverging spring arms. The double face sealing device has application or use in all environments requiring a seal, but is particularly useful to seal openings or hatchways between compartments of spacecraft or aircraft.

  18. The commercial harvest of ice-associated seals in the Sea of Okhotsk, 1972-1994

    PubMed Central

    Somov, Aleksandr G.; Burkanov, Vladimir N.; Laidre, Kristin L.; Boveng, Peter L.

    2017-01-01

    Sealing log books from 75 out of 79 commercial harvest cruises carried out between 1972 and 1994 in the Sea of Okhotsk, Russia, were analyzed to describe spatial and temporal allocation of ice-associated seal harvest effort, species composition of catches, total harvest rates, and related parameters for species including ringed (Pusa hispida), ribbon (Histriophoca fasciata), bearded (Erignathus barbatus) and spotted (Phoca largha) seal. Variations in catch per unit effort were explored in relation to year, sea ice conditions, day of the year, and geographic location. In most years, the harvest was predominantly represented by ringed seals (mean = 0.43, range 0.25–0.67), followed by ribbon (mean = 0.31, range 0.15–0.43), spotted (mean = 0.19, range 0.11–0.35) and bearded seals (mean = 0.07, range 0.03–0.14). The struck-and-lost percentages were as high as 30–35% for ringed, bearded and spotted seals and 15–20% for ribbon seals. Catch per unit effort (number of seals/skiff*day) for ringed, ribbon, and spotted seals had a similar seasonal pattern with a distinct spike in catches for spotted seals in the first week of May, for ribbon seals in the last week of May, and for ringed seals in the second week of June. Catches of bearded seals showed a less pronounced temporal structure with a gradual increase toward the end of the harvest season in the majority of years. Spatial distribution of harvest effort followed closely with seal distribution obtained from aerial surveys. These data could be used as a source of information on seal herd location throughout the breeding and molting seasons and for more complex demographic or life-table models. We did not find any evidence of the decline of catch per unit effort over the study period. Timely introduction of state regulations and efficient harvest management apparently prevented severe depletion of ice-associated seal populations in the Sea of Okhotsk during the periods of their intense exploitation. PMID

  19. The commercial harvest of ice-associated seals in the Sea of Okhotsk, 1972-1994.

    PubMed

    Trukhanova, Irina S; Grachev, Aleksey I; Somov, Aleksandr G; Burkanov, Vladimir N; Laidre, Kristin L; Boveng, Peter L

    2017-01-01

    Sealing log books from 75 out of 79 commercial harvest cruises carried out between 1972 and 1994 in the Sea of Okhotsk, Russia, were analyzed to describe spatial and temporal allocation of ice-associated seal harvest effort, species composition of catches, total harvest rates, and related parameters for species including ringed (Pusa hispida), ribbon (Histriophoca fasciata), bearded (Erignathus barbatus) and spotted (Phoca largha) seal. Variations in catch per unit effort were explored in relation to year, sea ice conditions, day of the year, and geographic location. In most years, the harvest was predominantly represented by ringed seals (mean = 0.43, range 0.25-0.67), followed by ribbon (mean = 0.31, range 0.15-0.43), spotted (mean = 0.19, range 0.11-0.35) and bearded seals (mean = 0.07, range 0.03-0.14). The struck-and-lost percentages were as high as 30-35% for ringed, bearded and spotted seals and 15-20% for ribbon seals. Catch per unit effort (number of seals/skiff*day) for ringed, ribbon, and spotted seals had a similar seasonal pattern with a distinct spike in catches for spotted seals in the first week of May, for ribbon seals in the last week of May, and for ringed seals in the second week of June. Catches of bearded seals showed a less pronounced temporal structure with a gradual increase toward the end of the harvest season in the majority of years. Spatial distribution of harvest effort followed closely with seal distribution obtained from aerial surveys. These data could be used as a source of information on seal herd location throughout the breeding and molting seasons and for more complex demographic or life-table models. We did not find any evidence of the decline of catch per unit effort over the study period. Timely introduction of state regulations and efficient harvest management apparently prevented severe depletion of ice-associated seal populations in the Sea of Okhotsk during the periods of their intense exploitation.

  20. Nuclear instrumentation cable end seal

    DOEpatents

    Cannon, Collins P.; Brown, Donald P.

    1979-01-01

    An improved coaxial end seal for hermetically sealed nuclear instrumentation cable exhibiting an improved breakdown pulse noise characteristic under high voltage, high temperature conditions. A tubular insulator body has metallized interior and exterior surface portions which are braze sealed to a center conductor and an outer conductive sheath. The end surface of the insulator body which is directed toward the coaxial cable to which it is sealed has a recessed surface portion within which the braze seal material terminates.