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Sample records for internal target volume

  1. Cone-Beam CT Localization of Internal Target Volumes for Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy of Lung Lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Zhiheng Wu, Q. Jackie; Marks, Lawrence B.; Larrier, Nicole; Yin Fangfang

    2007-12-01

    Purpose: In this study, we investigate a technique of matching internal target volumes (ITVs) in four-dimensional (4D) simulation computed tomography (CT) to the composite target volume in free-breathing on-board cone-beam (CB) CT. The technique is illustrated by using both phantom and patient cases. Methods and Materials: A dynamic phantom with a target ball simulating respiratory motion with various amplitude and cycle times was used to verify localization accuracy. The dynamic phantom was scanned using simulation CT with a phase-based retrospective sorting technique. The ITV was then determined based on 10 sets of sorted images. The size and epicenter of the ITV identified from 4D simulation CT images and the composite target volume identified from on-board CBCT images were compared to assess localization accuracy. Similarly, for two clinical cases of patients with lung cancer, ITVs defined from 4D simulation CT images and CBCT images were compared. Results: For the phantom, localization accuracy between the ITV in 4D simulation CT and the composite target volume in CBCT was within 1 mm, and ITV was within 8.7%. For patient cases, ITVs on simulation CT and CBCT were within 8.0%. Conclusion: This study shows that CBCT is a useful tool to localize ITV for targets affected by respiratory motion. Verification of the ITV from 4D simulation CT using on-board free-breathing CBCT is feasible for the target localization of lung tumors.

  2. Delineation of Internal Mammary Nodal Target Volumes in Breast Cancer Radiation Therapy.

    PubMed

    Jethwa, Krishan R; Kahila, Mohamed M; Hunt, Katie N; Brown, Lindsay C; Corbin, Kimberly S; Park, Sean S; Yan, Elizabeth S; Boughey, Judy C; Mutter, Robert W

    2017-03-15

    The optimal clinical target volume for internal mammary (IM) node irradiation is uncertain in an era of increasingly conformal volume-based treatment planning for breast cancer. We mapped the location of gross internal mammary lymph node (IMN) metastases to identify areas at highest risk of harboring occult disease. Patients with axial imaging of IMN disease were identified from a breast cancer registry. The IMN location was transferred onto the corresponding anatomic position on representative axial computed tomography images of a patient in the treatment position and compared with consensus group guidelines of IMN target delineation. The IMN location in 67 patients with 130 IMN metastases was mapped. The location was in the first 3 intercostal spaces in 102 of 130 nodal metastases (78%), whereas 18 of 130 IMNs (14%) were located caudal to the third intercostal space and 10 of 130 IMNs (8%) were located cranial to the first intercostal space. Of the 102 nodal metastases within the first 3 intercostal spaces, 54 (53%) were located within the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group consensus volume. Relative to the IM vessels, 19 nodal metastases (19%) were located medially with a mean distance of 2.2 mm (SD, 2.9 mm) whereas 29 (28%) were located laterally with a mean distance of 3.6 mm (SD, 2.5 mm). Ninety percent of lymph nodes within the first 3 intercostal spaces would have been encompassed within a 4-mm medial and lateral expansion on the IM vessels. In women with indications for elective IMN irradiation, a 4-mm medial and lateral expansion on the IM vessels may be appropriate. In women with known IMN involvement, cranial extension to the confluence of the IM vein with the brachiocephalic vein with or without caudal extension to the fourth or fifth interspace may be considered provided that normal tissue constraints are met. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Dosimetric Advantages of Midventilation Compared With Internal Target Volume for Radiation Therapy of Pancreatic Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lens, Eelco; van der Horst, Astrid; Versteijne, Eva; van Tienhoven, Geertjan; Bel, Arjan

    2015-07-01

    The midventilation (midV) approach can be used to take respiratory-induced pancreatic tumor motion into account during radiation therapy. In this study, the dosimetric consequences for organs at risk and tumor coverage of using a midV approach compared with using an internal target volume (ITV) were investigated. For each of the 18 patients, 2 treatment plans (25 × 2.0 Gy) were created, 1 using an ITV and 1 using a midV approach. The midV dose distribution was blurred using the respiratory-induced motion from 4-dimensional computed tomography. The resulting planning target volume (PTV) coverage for this blurred dose distribution was analyzed; PTV coverage was required to be at least V95% >98%. In addition, the change in PTV size and the changes in V10Gy, V20Gy, V30Gy, V40Gy, Dmean and D2cc for the stomach and for the duodenum were analyzed; differences were tested for significance using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Using a midV approach resulted in sufficient target coverage. A highly significant PTV size reduction of 13.9% (P<.001) was observed. Also, all dose parameters for the stomach and duodenum, except the D2cc of the duodenum, improved significantly (P≤.002). By using the midV approach to account for respiratory-induced tumor motion, a significant PTV reduction and significant dose reductions to the stomach and to the duodenum can be achieved when irradiating pancreatic tumors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Dosimetric Advantages of Midventilation Compared With Internal Target Volume for Radiation Therapy of Pancreatic Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lens, Eelco Horst, Astrid van der; Versteijne, Eva; Tienhoven, Geertjan van; Bel, Arjan

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: The midventilation (midV) approach can be used to take respiratory-induced pancreatic tumor motion into account during radiation therapy. In this study, the dosimetric consequences for organs at risk and tumor coverage of using a midV approach compared with using an internal target volume (ITV) were investigated. Methods and Materials: For each of the 18 patients, 2 treatment plans (25 × 2.0 Gy) were created, 1 using an ITV and 1 using a midV approach. The midV dose distribution was blurred using the respiratory-induced motion from 4-dimensional computed tomography. The resulting planning target volume (PTV) coverage for this blurred dose distribution was analyzed; PTV coverage was required to be at least V{sub 95%} >98%. In addition, the change in PTV size and the changes in V{sub 10Gy}, V{sub 20Gy}, V{sub 30Gy}, V{sub 40Gy}, D{sub mean} and D{sub 2cc} for the stomach and for the duodenum were analyzed; differences were tested for significance using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results: Using a midV approach resulted in sufficient target coverage. A highly significant PTV size reduction of 13.9% (P<.001) was observed. Also, all dose parameters for the stomach and duodenum, except the D{sub 2cc} of the duodenum, improved significantly (P≤.002). Conclusions: By using the midV approach to account for respiratory-induced tumor motion, a significant PTV reduction and significant dose reductions to the stomach and to the duodenum can be achieved when irradiating pancreatic tumors.

  5. Motion mitigation in intensity modulated particle therapy by internal target volumes covering range changes.

    PubMed

    Graeff, Christian; Durante, Marco; Bert, Christoph

    2012-10-01

    Particle therapy offers benefits over conventional photon therapy but also introduces sensitivity to changes in the water-equivalent path length (WEPL) in case of target motion, e.g., breathing. Target motion can be addressed by the internal target volume (ITV) approach, defined as the CTV plus target movement. In photon therapy, the ITV can be constructed as the geometric union of CTVs in all motion states (GEO-ITV) of a 4D-CT, but this does not account for WEPL-changes. An ITV including WEPL-changes can be defined as the union of all CTVs transformed to a WEPL-equivalent axis along beam's eye view. The resulting WEPL-ITV is field-specific and thus unsuitable for intensity modulated particle therapy (IMPT). The purpose of this study was an IMPT-compatible ITV by splitting geometrical motion and field-specific WEPL changes, following ICRU 78 recommendations. For all fields, the GEO-ITV was used as a common target. This identical geometry for all fields was mapped to an enlarged WEPL extent with a field-specific transformation. As the dose distribution is determined by the WEPL, this is sufficient to achieve equivalent dose coverage as for a geometrically enlarged target volume. The WEPL enlargement is only visible to the specific field and therefore does not increase the target volume of other fields. This avoids unnecessary lateral field extensions, reducing the dose to normal tissue. Homogeneous dose coverage in IMPT is achieved only if the inhomogeneous doses from the individual fields match up during delivery. As the course of the WEPL within each motion phase differs, this cannot be guaranteed by optimizing the fields only in the reference phase. The WEPL-ITV for the reference phase can be amended by CTVs from a subset of motion phases (4D-WEPL-ITV). Here, end-exhale as the reference phase was combined with end-inhale to cover the whole motion range. The GEO-ITV, WEPL-ITV, and 4D-WEPL-ITV were applied in an IMPT simulation of a lung cancer patient case using a

  6. International Spine Radiosurgery Consortium Consensus Guidelines for Target Volume Definition in Spinal Stereotactic Radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, Brett W.; Spratt, Daniel E.; Lovelock, Michael; Bilsky, Mark H.; Lis, Eric; Ryu, Samuel; Sheehan, Jason; Gerszten, Peter C.; Chang, Eric; Gibbs, Iris; Soltys, Scott; Sahgal, Arjun; Deasy, Joe; Flickinger, John; Quader, Mubina; Mindea, Stefan; and others

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: Spinal stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is increasingly used to manage spinal metastases. However, target volume definition varies considerably and no consensus target volume guidelines exist. This study proposes consensus target volume definitions using common scenarios in metastatic spine radiosurgery. Methods and Materials: Seven radiation oncologists and 3 neurological surgeons with spinal radiosurgery expertise independently contoured target and critical normal structures for 10 cases representing common scenarios in metastatic spine radiosurgery. Each set of volumes was imported into the Computational Environment for Radiotherapy Research. Quantitative analysis was performed using an expectation maximization algorithm for Simultaneous Truth and Performance Level Estimation (STAPLE) with kappa statistics calculating agreement between physicians. Optimized confidence level consensus contours were identified using histogram agreement analysis and characterized to create target volume definition guidelines. Results: Mean STAPLE agreement sensitivity and specificity was 0.76 (range, 0.67-0.84) and 0.97 (range, 0.94-0.99), respectively, for gross tumor volume (GTV) and 0.79 (range, 0.66-0.91) and 0.96 (range, 0.92-0.98), respectively, for clinical target volume (CTV). Mean kappa agreement was 0.65 (range, 0.54-0.79) for GTV and 0.64 (range, 0.54-0.82) for CTV (P<.01 for GTV and CTV in all cases). STAPLE histogram agreement analysis identified optimal consensus contours (80% confidence limit). Consensus recommendations include that the CTV should include abnormal marrow signal suspicious for microscopic invasion and an adjacent normal bony expansion to account for subclinical tumor spread in the marrow space. No epidural CTV expansion is recommended without epidural disease, and circumferential CTVs encircling the cord should be used only when the vertebral body, bilateral pedicles/lamina, and spinous process are all involved or there is extensive metastatic

  7. Evaluation of potential internal target volume of liver tumors using cine-MRI.

    PubMed

    Akino, Yuichi; Oh, Ryoong-Jin; Masai, Norihisa; Shiomi, Hiroya; Inoue, Toshihiko

    2014-11-01

    Four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) is widely used for evaluating moving tumors, including lung and liver cancers. For patients with unstable respiration, however, the 4DCT may not visualize tumor motion properly. High-speed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences (cine-MRI) permit direct visualization of respiratory motion of liver tumors without considering radiation dose exposure to patients. Here, the authors demonstrated a technique for evaluating internal target volume (ITV) with consideration of respiratory variation using cine-MRI. The authors retrospectively evaluated six patients who received stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) to hepatocellular carcinoma. Before acquiring planning CT, sagittal and coronal cine-MRI images were acquired for 30 s with a frame rate of 2 frames/s. The patient immobilization was conducted under the same condition as SBRT. Planning CT images were then acquired within 15 min from cine-MRI image acquisitions, followed by a 4DCT scan. To calculate tumor motion, the motion vectors between two continuous frames of cine-MRI images were calculated for each frame using the pyramidal Lucas-Kanade method. The target contour was delineated on one frame, and each vertex of the contour was shifted and copied onto the following frame using neighboring motion vectors. 3D trajectory data were generated with the centroid of the contours on sagittal and coronal images. To evaluate the accuracy of the tracking method, the motion of clearly visible blood vessel was analyzed with the motion tracking and manual detection techniques. The target volume delineated on the 50% (end-exhale) phase of 4DCT was translated with the trajectory data, and the distribution of the occupancy probability of target volume was calculated as potential ITV (ITV Potential). The concordance between ITV Potential and ITV estimated with 4DCT (ITV 4DCT) was evaluated using the Dice's similarity coefficient (DSC). The distance between blood vessel positions

  8. Evaluation of potential internal target volume of liver tumors using cine-MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Akino, Yuichi; Oh, Ryoong-Jin; Masai, Norihisa; Shiomi, Hiroya; Inoue, Toshihiko

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) is widely used for evaluating moving tumors, including lung and liver cancers. For patients with unstable respiration, however, the 4DCT may not visualize tumor motion properly. High-speed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences (cine-MRI) permit direct visualization of respiratory motion of liver tumors without considering radiation dose exposure to patients. Here, the authors demonstrated a technique for evaluating internal target volume (ITV) with consideration of respiratory variation using cine-MRI. Methods: The authors retrospectively evaluated six patients who received stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) to hepatocellular carcinoma. Before acquiring planning CT, sagittal and coronal cine-MRI images were acquired for 30 s with a frame rate of 2 frames/s. The patient immobilization was conducted under the same condition as SBRT. Planning CT images were then acquired within 15 min from cine-MRI image acquisitions, followed by a 4DCT scan. To calculate tumor motion, the motion vectors between two continuous frames of cine-MRI images were calculated for each frame using the pyramidal Lucas–Kanade method. The target contour was delineated on one frame, and each vertex of the contour was shifted and copied onto the following frame using neighboring motion vectors. 3D trajectory data were generated with the centroid of the contours on sagittal and coronal images. To evaluate the accuracy of the tracking method, the motion of clearly visible blood vessel was analyzed with the motion tracking and manual detection techniques. The target volume delineated on the 50% (end-exhale) phase of 4DCT was translated with the trajectory data, and the distribution of the occupancy probability of target volume was calculated as potential ITV (ITV {sub Potential}). The concordance between ITV {sub Potential} and ITV estimated with 4DCT (ITV {sub 4DCT}) was evaluated using the Dice’s similarity coefficient (DSC). Results

  9. Generating lung tumor internal target volumes from 4D-PET maximum intensity projections

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, J. M.; Robinson, C.; Bradley, J.; Laforest, R.; Dehdashti, F.; White, B. M.; Wuenschel, S.; Low, D. A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Positron emission tomography (PET) of lung tumors suffers from breathing-motion induced blurring. Respiratory-correlated PET ameliorates motion blurring and enables visualization of lung tumor functional uptake throughout the breathing cycle but has achieved limited clinical use in radiotherapy planning. In this work, the authors propose a process for generating a gated PET maximum intensity projection (MIP), a breathing-phase projection of the 4D image set comprising gated PET images, as a technique to quantitatively and efficiently incorporate respiratory-correlated PET information into radiotherapy treatment planning.Methods: 4D-CT and respiratory-gated PET using [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) were acquired of three patients with a total of four small (4–18 cc), clearly defined lower-lobe lung tumors. Internal target volumes (ITVs) for the lung tumors were generated by threshold-based segmentation of PET-MIP images and ungated PET images (ITVPET-MIP and ITV3D-PET, respectively), and by manual contouring of CT-MIP and end-exhale and end-inhale phases of 4D-CT (ITVCT-MIP) by a radiation oncologist. Because of the sensitivity of tumor segmentation to threshold value, several different thresholds were tested for ITV generation, including 40%, 30%, and 20% of maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) for FDG as well as absolute SUV thresholds of 2.5 and 3.0. The normalized overlap and relative volumes of ITVPET-MIP and ITV3D-PET with respect to ITVCT-MIP were compared. The images were also visually compared. ITVCT-MIP was considered a gold standard for these tumors with CT-visible morphology.Results: The mean and standard deviation normalized overlap and relative volumes between ITVPET-MIP and ITVCT-MIP were 0.68 ± 0.07 and 1.07 ± 0.42, respectively, averaged over all four tumors and all five threshold values. The mean and standard deviation normalized overlap and relative volumes of ITV3D-PET and ITVCT-MIP were 0.47 ± 0.12 and 0.69 ± 0

  10. Intra and interfraction mediastinal nodal region motion: implications for internal target volume expansions.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jonathan G; Kashani, Rojano; Balter, James M; Tatro, Daniel; Kong, Feng-Ming; Pan, Charlie C

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the intra and interfraction motion of mediastinal lymph node regions. Ten patients with nonsmall-cell lung cancer underwent controlled inhale and exhale computed tomography (CT) scans during two sessions (40 total datasets) and mediastinal nodal stations 1-8 were outlined. Corresponding CT scans from different sessions were registered to remove setup error and, in this reference frame, the centroid of each nodal station was compared for right-left (RL), anterior-posterior (AP), and superior-inferior (SI) displacement. In addition, an anisotropic volume expansion encompassing the change of the nodal region margins in all directions was used. Intrafraction displacement was determined by comparing same session inhale-exhale scans. Interfraction reproducibility of nodal regions was determined by comparing the same respiratory phase scans between two sessions. Intrafraction displacement of centroid varied between nodal stations. All nodal regions moved posteriorly and superiorly with exhalation, and inferior nodal stations showed the most motion. Based on anisotropic expansion, nodal regions expanded mostly in the RL direction from inhale to exhale. The interpatient variations in intrafraction displacement were large compared with the displacements themselves. Moreover, there was substantial interfractional displacement ( approximately 5 mm). Mediastinal lymph node regions clearly move during breathing. In addition, deformation of nodal regions between inhale and exhale occurs. The degree of motion and deformation varies by station and by individual. This study indicates the potential advantage of characterizing individualized nodal region motion to safely maximize conformality of mediastinal nodal targets.

  11. SU-E-J-78: Internal Target Volume Delineation for Lung Tumors in Patients Treated with Robotic Radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Descovich, M; Pinnaduwage, D; Kirby, N; Gottschalk, A; Yom, S; Pouliot, J; Braunstein, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To compare different approaches for Internal Target Volume (ITV) delineation for patients treated with fiducial-free robotic radiosurgery for primary and metastatic lung tumors. Methods: Ten patients undergoing Lung-Optimized Treatment (LOT) for robotic radiosurgery were imaged with inhale and exhale breath-hold CT scans and 8-phase 4DCT scan. We evaluated the differences in internal target volume (ITV) delineated using three approaches: 1) maximum intensity projection (MIP) images reconstructed from 4DCT scan (ITV-MIP); 2) linear interpolation of Gross Tumor Volumes (GTV) segmented on inhale and exhale breath-hold scans (ITV-BH); 3) linear interpolation of GTV segmented on inhale and exhale phases of 4DCT scan (ITV-2Phase). All contours were independently generated by the same radiation oncologist using lung window settings. Patients had ITV-MIP volumes ranging from 1.5 to 146.9 cc (mean 36.8 cc) located in various parts of the lung. Volume overlap and matching index (MI) were calculated and compared. The MI between two volumes was defined as the ratio of their intersection to their union. MI of 1 indicates the volumes are identical; MI of 0 indicates that there is no overlap. Results: The three approaches generated very different results. The average (SD) MI for ITV-MIP and ITV-BH was 0.52 (0.24); for ITV-MIP and ITV-2Phase it was 0.69 (0.13); and for ITV-BH and ITV-2Phase was 0.57 (0.21), (ANOVA, p=0.16). Relative to the ITV-MIP, the percentage of volume overlap was 72% (26%) and 90% (7%) for ITV-BH and ITV-2Phase, respectively (t-test, p=0.05). Conclusion: Differences between ITV-BH and ITV-MIP are due to inconsistent lung filling at breath-hold and nonlinear tumor motion. Therefore, methods to check breath-hold scanning against regular patient breathing patterns should be developed. Whenever possible, ITV-BH generated by the LOT workflow should be verified by 4DCT data.

  12. Intra- and Inter-Fraction Mediastinal Nodal Region Motion: Implications for Internal Target Volume Expansions

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Jonathan G.; Kashani, Rojano; Balter, James M.; Tatro, Daniel; Kong, Feng-Ming; Pan, Charlie C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose/Objective The purpose of this study is to determine the intra- and inter-fraction motion of mediastinal lymph node regions. Materials/Methods Ten patients with non-small cell lung cancer underwent controlled inhale and exhale CT scans during two sessions (40 total data sets) and mediastinal nodal stations 1–8 [Chapet, et al, IJROBP 2005;63:170–8] were outlined. Corresponding CT scans from different sessions were registered to remove setup error and in this reference frame, the center-of-mass (COM) of each nodal station was compared for right-left (RL), anterior-posterior (AP), and superior-inferior (SI) displacement. In addition, an anisotropic volume expansion encompassing the change of the nodal region margins in all directions was used. Intra-fraction displacement was determined by comparing same session inhale-exhale scans. Inter-fraction reproducibility of nodal regions was determined by comparing the same respiratory phase scans between two sessions. Results Intra-fraction displacement of COM varied between nodal stations. All nodal regions moved posteriorly and superiorly with exhalation, and inferior nodal stations showed the most motion. Based on anisotropic expansion, nodal regions expanded mostly in the RL direction from inhale to exhale. The inter-patient variations in intra-fraction displacement were large compared to the displacements themselves. Moreover, there was substantial inter-fractional displacement (∼5 mm). Conclusions Mediastinal lymph node regions clearly move during breathing. Additionally, deformation of nodal regions between inhale and exhale occurs. The degree of motion and deformation varies by station and by individual. This study indicates the potential advantage of characterizing individualized nodal region motion to safely maximize conformality of mediastinal nodal targets. PMID:19410142

  13. Validation of a 4D-PET Maximum Intensity Projection for Delineation of an Internal Target Volume

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, Jason; Kron, Tomas; Schneider-Kolsky, Michal; Dunn, Leon; Thompson, Mick; Siva, Shankar; Aarons, Yolanda; Binns, David; Hicks, Rodney J.

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: The delineation of internal target volumes (ITVs) in radiation therapy of lung tumors is currently performed by use of either free-breathing (FB) {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography-computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) or 4-dimensional (4D)-CT maximum intensity projection (MIP). In this report we validate the use of 4D-PET-MIP for the delineation of target volumes in both a phantom and in patients. Methods and Materials: A phantom with 3 hollow spheres was prepared surrounded by air then water. The spheres and water background were filled with a mixture of {sup 18}F and radiographic contrast medium. A 4D-PET/CT scan was performed of the phantom while moving in 4 different breathing patterns using a programmable motion device. Nine patients with an FDG-avid lung tumor who underwent FB and 4D-PET/CT and >5 mm of tumor motion were included for analysis. The 3 spheres and patient lesions were contoured by 2 contouring methods (40% of maximum and PET edge) on the FB-PET, FB-CT, 4D-PET, 4D-PET-MIP, and 4D-CT-MIP. The concordance between the different contoured volumes was calculated using a Dice coefficient (DC). The difference in lung tumor volumes between FB-PET and 4D-PET volumes was also measured. Results: The average DC in the phantom using 40% and PET edge, respectively, was lowest for FB-PET/CT (DCAir = 0.72/0.67, DCBackground 0.63/0.62) and highest for 4D-PET/CT-MIP (DCAir = 0.84/0.83, DCBackground = 0.78/0.73). The average DC in the 9 patients using 40% and PET edge, respectively, was also lowest for FB-PET/CT (DC = 0.45/0.44) and highest for 4D-PET/CT-MIP (DC = 0.72/0.73). In the 9 lesions, the target volumes of the FB-PET using 40% and PET edge, respectively, were on average 40% and 45% smaller than the 4D-PET-MIP. Conclusion: A 4D-PET-MIP produces volumes with the highest concordance with 4D-CT-MIP across multiple breathing patterns and lesion sizes in both a phantom and among patients. Freebreathing PET/CT consistently

  14. Determination of Internal Target Volume From a Single Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Scan in Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Chang Guoping; Chang Tingting; Pan Tinsu; Clark, John W.; Mawlawi, Osama R.

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: The use of four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) to determine the tumor internal target volume (ITV) is usually characterized by high patient radiation exposure. The objective of this study was to propose and evaluate an approach that relies on a single static positron emission tomography (PET)/CT scan to determine the ITV, thereby eliminating the need for 4D-CT and thus reduce patient radiation dose. Methods and Materials: The proposed approach is based on the concept that the observed PET image is the result of a joint convolution of an ideal PET image (free from motion and partial volume effect) with a motion-blurring kernel (MBK) and partial volume effect. In this regard, the MBK and tumor ITV are then estimated from the deconvolution of this joint model. To test this technique, phantom and patient studies were performed using different sphere/tumor sizes and motion trajectories. In all studies, a 4D-CT and a PET/CT image of the sphere/tumor were acquired. The ITV from the proposed technique was then compared to the maximum intensity projection (MIP) volume of the 4D-CT images. A Dice coefficient of the two volumes was calculated to represent the similarity between the two ITVs. Results: The average ITVs of the proposed technique were 97.2% {+-} 0.3% and 81.0% {+-} 16.7% similar to the MIP volume in the phantom and patient studies, respectively. The average dice coefficients were 0.87 {+-} 0.05 and 0.73 {+-} 0.16, respectively, for the two studies. Conclusion: Using the proposed approach, a single static PET/CT scan has the potential to replace a 4D-CT to determine the tumor ITV. This approach has the added advantage of reducing patient radiation exposure and determining the tumor MBK compared to 4D-CT/MIP-CT.

  15. Internal target volume for post-hysterectomy vaginal recurrences of cervical cancers during image-guided radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Upasani, Maheshkumar N; Chopra, Supriya; Engineer, Reena; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Medhi, Seema; Mehta, Zubin; Shrivastava, Shyam K

    2015-10-01

    The outcome of post-surgical recurrences of cervical cancer may be improved through radiation dose escalation, which hinges on accurate identification and treatment of the target. The present study quantifies target motion during course of image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) for vault cancers. All patients underwent planning CT simulation after bladder-filling protocol. A daily pre-treatment megavoltage CT was performed. All translations and rotations were recorded. Post-registration displacement of gross tumour volume (GTV) and centre of mass (COM) of GTV was independently recorded by two observers for fractions one to seven. Day 1 image sets served as reference images against which the displacements of COM were measured. We calculated the displacements of common volume (CV) and encompassing volume (EV) of GTV for both the observers. A total of 90 image data sets of 15 patients were available for evaluation. Individual patient GTV and average GTV by both the observers were comparable. The average shifts for EV were 2.4 mm [standard deviation (SD) ±1.2] in the mediolateral, 4.2 mm (SD ±2.8) in the anteroposterior and 4.0 mm (SD ±2.1) in superoinferior directions. Similarly, the average shifts for CV were 1.9 mm (SD ±0.6) in the mediolateral, 3.7 mm (SD ±2.7) in the anteroposterior and 4.4 mm (SD ±2.7) in superoinferior directions. Using Stroom's/van Herk's formula, the minimum recommended margins would be 4.5/5.2, 8.2/9.4 and 7.3/8.3 mm, respectively, for lateral, anteroposterior and superoinferior directions. Differential directional internal margin is recommended in patients undergoing IGRT for post-surgical recurrence of cervical cancers. Internal organ motion of vault cancers can be accounted for by a directional margin to the gross tumour.

  16. Determination of Internal Target Volume for Radiation Treatment Planning of Esophageal Cancer by Using 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography (4DCT)

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xiaojian; Lu, Haijun; Tai, An; Johnstone, Candice; Gore, Elizabeth; Li, X. Allen

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: To determine an efficient strategy for the generation of the internal target volume (ITV) for radiation treatment planning for esophageal cancer using 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT). Methods and Materials: 4DCT sets acquired for 20 patients with esophageal carcinoma were analyzed. Each of the 4DCT sets was binned into 10 respiratory phases. For each patient, the gross tumor volume (GTV) was delineated on the 4DCT set at each phase. Various strategies to derive ITV were explored, including the volume from the maximum intensity projection (MIP; ITV{sub M}IP), unions of the GTVs from selected multiple phases ITV2 (0% and 50% phases), ITV3 (ITV2 plus 80%), and ITV4 (ITV3 plus 60%), as well as the volumes expanded from ITV2 and ITV3 with a uniform margin. These ITVs were compared to ITV10 (the union of the GTVs for all 10 phases) and the differences were measured with the overlap ratio (OR) and relative volume ratio (RVR) relative to ITV10 (ITVx/ITV10). Results: For all patients studied, the average GTV from a single phase was 84.9% of ITV10. The average ORs were 91.2%, 91.3%, 94.5%, and 96.4% for ITV{sub M}IP, ITV2, ITV3, and ITV4, respectively. Low ORs were associated with irregular breathing patterns. ITV3s plus 1 mm uniform margins (ITV3+1) led to an average OR of 98.1% and an average RVR of 106.4%. Conclusions: The ITV generated directly from MIP underestimates the range of the respiration motion for esophageal cancer. The ITV generated from 3 phases (ITV3) may be used for regular breathers, whereas the ITV generated from 4 phases (ITV4) or ITV3 plus a 1-mm uniform margin may be applied for irregular breathers.

  17. [Comparison of the volume and localization of internal gross target volume and planning target volume delineated by clips and seroma based on 4D-CT scan for external-beam partial breast irradiation after breast conserving surgery].

    PubMed

    Ding, Yun; Li, Jianbin; Wang, Wei; Wang, Suzhen; Wang, Jinzhi; Ma, Zhifang

    2014-10-01

    To explore the differences in volume and localization of the internal gross target volume and planning target volume delineated by clips and/or seroma based on four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) during free-breathing in breast cancer patients after breast conserving surgery. Fifteen breast cancer patients after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) were recruited for external-beam partial breast irradiation (EB-PBI). On the ten sets CT images, the gross tumor volumes (GTV) formed by the clips, the seroma, and both the clips and seroma were delineated and defined as GTVc, GTVs and GTVc+s, respectively. Ten GTVc, GTVs and GTVc+s on the ten sets CT images produced the IGTVc, IGTVs, IGTVc+s. The PTVc, PTVs, PTVc+s were created by adding 15 mm to the IGTVc, IGTVs, IGTVc+s, respectively. The IGTV and PTV volume and distance between the centers of IGTVc, IGTVs, IGTVc+s and PTVc, PTVs, PTVc+s were all recorded. Conformity index (CI) and degree of inclusion (DI) were calculated for IGTV/IGTV and PTV/PTV, respectively. The volume of IGTVc+s[(35.73 ± 19.77) cm³] was significantly larger than the IGTVc [(28.35 ± 17.54) cm³] and IGTVs [(24.19 ± 21.53) cm³] (P < 0.05), and the volume of PTVc+s [(191.59 ± 69.74) cm³] was significantly larger than that of the PTVc [(161.53 ± 61.07) cm³] and PTVs [(148.98 ± 62.22)cm³] (P < 0.05). There were significant differences between the DIs of IGTVc in IGTVc+s and IGTVc+s in IGTVc, the DIs of IGTVs in IGTVc+s and IGTVc+s in IGTVs, the DIs of PTVc in PTVc+s and PTVc+s in PTVc, and the DIs of PTVs vs. PTVc+s and PTVc+s in PTVs (P < 0.05 for all). The CI of IGTVc/IGTVc+s (0.63 ± 0.14) and the CI of IGTVs/IGTVc+s (0.54 ± 0.17) were significant larger than that of the CI of IGTVc/IGTVs (0.40 ± 0.14)(P < 0.05). There were non-significant differences among the CI of PTVc/PTVs, PTVc/PTVc+s and PTVs/PTVc+s (0.73 ± 0.12, 0.78 ± 0.13 vs. 0.75 ± 0.17). The DIs and CIs of IGTV/IGTV and PTV/PTV were negatively correlated with their

  18. Quantification and Minimization of Uncertainties of Internal Target Volume for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy of Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Ge Hong; Cai Jing; Kelsey, Chris R.; Yin Fangfang

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: To quantify uncertainties in delineating an internal target volume (ITV) and to understand how these uncertainties may be individually minimized for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) of early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Twenty patients with NSCLC who were undergoing SBRT were imaged with free-breathing 3-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT) and 10-phase 4-dimensional CT (4DCT) for delineating gross tumor volume (GTV){sub 3D} and ITV{sub 10Phase} (ITV3). The maximum intensity projection (MIP) CT was also calculated from 10-phase 4DCT for contouring ITV{sub MIP} (ITV1). Then, ITV{sub COMB} (ITV2), ITV{sub 10Phase+GTV3D} (ITV4), and ITV{sub 10Phase+ITVCOMB} (ITV5) were generated by combining ITV{sub MIP} and GTV{sub 3D}, ITV{sub 10phase} and GTV{sub 3D}, and ITV{sub 10phase} and ITV{sub COMB}, respectively. All 6 volumes (GTV{sub 3D} and ITV1 to ITV5) were delineated in the same lung window by the same radiation oncologist. The percentage of volume difference (PVD) between any 2 different volumes was determined and was correlated to effective tumor diameter (ETD), tumor motion ranges, R{sub 3D}, and the amplitude variability of the recorded breathing signal (v) to assess their volume variations. Results: The mean (range) tumor motion (R{sub SI}, R{sub AP}, R{sub ML}, and R{sub 3D}) and breathing variability (v) were 7.6 mm (2-18 mm), 4.0 mm (2-8 mm), 3.3 mm (0-7.5 mm), 9.9 mm (4.1-18.7 mm), and 0.17 (0.07-0.37), respectively. The trend of volume variation was GTV{sub 3D} volumes were 11.1 {+-} 9.3 cc, 13.2 {+-} 10.5 cc, 14.9 {+-} 11.0 cc, 14.7 {+-} 11.4 cc, 15.9 {+-} 11.7 cc, and 16.4 {+-} 11.8 cc, respectively. All comparisons between the target volumes showed statistical significance (P{<=}.001), except for ITV2 and ITV3 (P=.594). The PVDs for all volume pairs correlated negatively with ETD (r{<=}-0.658, P{<=}.006) and positively with

  19. Evaluation of internal target volume in patients undergoing image-guided intensity modulated adjuvant radiation for gastric cancers.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, A; Chopra, S; Paul, S N; Engineer, R; Srivastava, S K

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate three-dimensional (3D) displacements of gastric remnant during adjuvant radiation. From January 2011 to September 2012, patients undergoing adjuvant image-guided intensity-modulated radiation on tomotherapy were included. Megavoltage CT (MVCT) data sets from daily treatment were coregistered with Day 1 MVCT. Residual stomach remnant was delineated on the data set, while the remaining were blinded to previous day contours. Gastric volume and centre of mass (COM) were determined for all data sets. The 3D deviation of COM was calculated for each fraction. Mean 3D and standard deviation (SD) were calculated for each patient and study population, and a 95% confidence interval (CI) was determined. Also, systematic and random errors for patient population and internal target volume (ITV) margin were calculated using the van Herk formula. There were 119 images available for 15 patients. Mean volume of remnant was 319 cm(3) (146-454 cm(3)). Gastric remnant expanded in different directions with no specific directional expansion. Average deviations in mediolateral, superoinferior and anteroposterior directions were 9 mm (3-25 mm; SD, 5 mm), 6 mm (3-16 mm; SD, 4 mm) and 5 mm (1-10 mm; SD, 3 mm), respectively, with 95% CI of 18, 15 and 11 mm, and ITV margins of 19.2, 13.5 and 7.8 mm, respectively. There is large variation in gastric remnant volume during the course of radiation. Large displacements observed in the present study necessitate the need to investigate adaptive techniques for optimizing intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) delivery. An adaptive strategy needs to be developed to optimize IMRT delivery for adjuvant gastric irradiation.

  20. Internal target volume for post-hysterectomy vaginal recurrences of cervical cancers during image-guided radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Upasani, Maheshkumar N; Engineer, Reena; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Medhi, Seema; Mehta, Zubin; Shrivastava, Shyam K

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The outcome of post-surgical recurrences of cervical cancer may be improved through radiation dose escalation, which hinges on accurate identification and treatment of the target. The present study quantifies target motion during course of image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) for vault cancers. Methods: All patients underwent planning CT simulation after bladder-filling protocol. A daily pre-treatment megavoltage CT was performed. All translations and rotations were recorded. Post-registration displacement of gross tumour volume (GTV) and centre of mass (COM) of GTV was independently recorded by two observers for fractions one to seven. Day 1 image sets served as reference images against which the displacements of COM were measured. We calculated the displacements of common volume (CV) and encompassing volume (EV) of GTV for both the observers. Results: A total of 90 image data sets of 15 patients were available for evaluation. Individual patient GTV and average GTV by both the observers were comparable. The average shifts for EV were 2.4 mm [standard deviation (SD) ±1.2] in the mediolateral, 4.2 mm (SD ±2.8) in the anteroposterior and 4.0 mm (SD ±2.1) in superoinferior directions. Similarly, the average shifts for CV were 1.9 mm (SD ±0.6) in the mediolateral, 3.7 mm (SD ±2.7) in the anteroposterior and 4.4 mm (SD ±2.7) in superoinferior directions. Using Stroom's/van Herk's formula, the minimum recommended margins would be 4.5/5.2, 8.2/9.4 and 7.3/8.3 mm, respectively, for lateral, anteroposterior and superoinferior directions. Conclusion: Differential directional internal margin is recommended in patients undergoing IGRT for post-surgical recurrence of cervical cancers. Advances in knowledge: Internal organ motion of vault cancers can be accounted for by a directional margin to the gross tumour. PMID:26248870

  1. Using four-dimensional computed tomography images to optimize the internal target volume when using volume-modulated arc therapy to treat moving targets.

    PubMed

    Yakoumakis, Nikolaos; Winey, Brian; Killoran, Joseph; Mayo, Charles; Niedermayr, Thomas; Panayiotakis, George; Lingos, Tania; Court, Laurence

    2012-11-08

    In this work we used 4D dose calculations, which include the effects of shape deformations, to investigate an alternative approach to creating the ITV. We hypothesized that instead of needing images from all the breathing phases in the 4D CT dataset to create the outer envelope used for treatment planning, it is possible to exclude images from the phases closest to the inhale phase. We used 4D CT images from 10 patients with lung cancer. For each patient, we drew a gross tumor volume on the exhale-phase image and propagated this to the images from other phases in the 4D CT dataset using commercial image registration software. We created four different ITVs using the N phases closest to the exhale phase (where N = 10, 8, 7, 6). For each ITV contour, we created a volume-modulated arc therapy plan on the exhale-phase CT and normalized it so that the prescribed dose covered at least 95% of the ITV. Each plan was applied to CT images from each CT phase (phases 1-10), and the calculated doses were then mapped to the exhale phase using deformable registration. The effect of the motion was quantified using the dose to 95% of the target on the exhale phase (D95) and tumor control probability. For the three-dimensional and 4D dose calculations of the plan where N = 10, differences in the D95 value varied from 3% to 14%, with an average difference of 7%. For 9 of the 10 patients, the reduction in D95 was less than 5% if eight phases were used to create the ITV. For three of the 10 patients, the reduction in the D95 was less than 5% if seven phases were used to create the ITV. We were unsuccessful in creating a general rule that could be used to create the ITV. Some reduction (8/10 phases) was possible for most, but not all, of the patients, and the ITV reduction was small.

  2. Polarized internal target apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Holt, R.J.

    1984-10-10

    A polarized internal target apparatus with a polarized gas target of improved polarization and density (achieved by mixing target gas atoms with a small amount of alkali metal gas atoms, and passing a high intensity polarized light source into the mixture to cause the alkali metal gas atoms to become polarized which interact in spin exchange collisions with target gas atoms yielding polarized target gas atoms) is described.

  3. Polarized internal target apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Holt, Roy J.

    1986-01-01

    A polarized internal target apparatus with a polarized gas target of improved polarization and density achieved by mixing target gas atoms with a small amount of alkali metal gas atoms, and passing a high intensity polarized light source into the mixture to cause the alkali metal gas atoms to become polarized which interact in spin exchange collisions with target gas atoms yielding polarized target gas atoms.

  4. SU-E-J-192: Verification of 4D-MRI Internal Target Volume Using Cine MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Lafata, K; Czito, B; Palta, M; Bashir, M; Yin, F; Cai, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the accuracy of 4D-MRI in determining the Internal Target Volume (ITV) used in radiation oncology treatment planning of liver cancers. Cine MRI is used as the standard baseline in establishing the feasibility and accuracy of 4D-MRI tumor motion within the liver. Methods: IRB approval was obtained for this retrospective study. Analysis was performed on MR images from four patients receiving external beam radiation therapy for liver cancer at our institution. Eligible patients received both Cine and 4D-MRI scans before treatment. Cine images were acquired sagittally in real time at a slice bisecting the tumor, while 4D images were acquired volumetrically. Cine MR DICOM headers were manipulated such that each respiratory frame was assigned a unique slice location. This approach permitted the treatment planning system (Eclipse, Varian Medical Systems) to recognize a complete respiratory cycle as a “volume”, where the gross tumor was contoured temporally. Software was developed to calculate the union of all frame contours in the structure set, resulting in the corresponding plane of the ITV projecting through the middle of the tumor, defined as the Internal Target Area (ITA). This was repeated for 4D-MRI, at the corresponding slice location, allowing a direct comparison of ITAs obtained from each modality. Results: Four patients have been analyzed. ITAs contoured from 4D-MRI correlate with contours from Cine MRI. The mean error of 4D values relative to Cine values is 7.67 +/− 2.55 %. No single ITA contoured from 4D-MRI demonstrated more than 10.5 % error compared to its Cine MRI counterpart. Conclusion: Motion management is a significant aspect of treatment planning within dynamic environments such as the liver, where diaphragmatic and cardiac activity influence plan accuracy. This small pilot study suggests that 4D-MRI based ITA measurements agree with Cine MRI based measurements, an important step towards clinical implementation. NIH 1R21

  5. Evaluation of interfractional variation of the centroid position and volume of internal target volume during stereotactic body radiotherapy of lung cancer using cone-beam computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yanan; Ge, Hong; Cheng, Siguo; Yang, Chengliang; Zhu, Qianqian; Li, Dingjie; Tian, Yuan

    2016-03-08

    The purpose of this study was to determine interfractional variation of the centroid position and volume of internal target volume (ITV) during stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) of lung cancer. From January 2014 to August 2014, a total of 32 patients with 37 primary or metastatic lung tumors were enrolled in our study. All patients received SBRT treatment in 4-5 fractions to a median dose of 48 Gy. Both 3D CT and 4D CT scans were used for radiotherapy treatment planning. 3D CBCT was acquired prior to treatment delivery to verify patient positioning. A total of 163 3D CBCT images were available for evaluation. 3D CBCT scans acquired for verification were registered with simulation CT scans. The ITVs were contoured on all verification 3D CBCT scans and compared to the initial gross target volume (GTV) or ITV in treatment planning system. GTV was based on 3D CT while ITV was based on both 3D CT and 4D CT. To assess the interfractional variation of ITV centroid position, we used vertebrae body adja-cent to the tumor as reference point when performing the registration procedure. To eliminate the effect of time on tumor volume between simulation CT scan and the first fraction, the interfractional variation of ITV was evaluated from the first fraction to the last fraction. The overall 3D vector shift was 4.4 ± 2.5 mm (range: 0.4-13.8 mm). The interfractional variation of ITV centroid position in superior-inferior, anterior-posterior, and left-right directions were -0.7 ± 2.7 mm, -1.4 ± 3.4 mm, and -0.5 ± 2.2 mm, respectively. No significant difference was observed between three directions (p = 0.147). Large interfractional variations (≥ 5 mm) were observed in 12 fractions (9.3%) in superior-inferior direction, 24 fractions (18.6%) in anterior-posterior direction, and 5 fractions (3.9%) in left-right direction. No time trend of tumor volume change measured in 3D CBCT was detected during four fractions (p = 0.074). A significant (p = 0.010) time trend was

  6. Internal polarized targets

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, E.R.; Coulter, K.; Gilman, R.; Holt, R.J.; Kowalczyk, R.S.; Napolitano, J.; Potterveld, D.H.; Young, L. ); Mishnev, S.I.; Nikolenko, D.M.; Popov, S.G.; Rachek, I.A.; Temnykh, A.B.; Toporkov, D.K.; Tsentalovich, E.P.; Wojtsekhowski, B.B. . Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki)

    1989-01-01

    Internal polarized targets offer a number of advantages over external targets. After a brief review of the basic motivation and principles behind internal polarized targets, the technical aspects of the atomic storage cell will be discussed in particular. Sources of depolarization and the means by which their effects can be ameliorated will be described, especially depolarization by the intense magnetic fields arising from the circulating particle beam. The experience of the Argonne Novosibirsk collaboration with the use of a storage cell in a 2 GeV electron storage ring will be the focus of this technical discussion. 17 refs., 11 figs.

  7. EM International. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    It is the intent of EM International to describe the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) various roles and responsibilities within the international community. Cooperative agreements and programs, descriptions of projects and technologies, and synopses of visits to international sites are all highlighted in this semiannual journal. Focus on EM programs in this issue is on international collaboration in vitrification projects. Technology highlights covers: in situ sealing for contaminated sites; and remote sensors for toxic pollutants. Section on profiles of countries includes: Arctic contamination by the former Soviet Union, and EM activities with Germany--cooperative arrangements.

  8. Comparison of internal target volumes defined on 3-dimensional, 4-dimensonal, and cone-beam CT images of non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fengxiang; Li, Jianbin; Ma, Zhifang; Zhang, Yingjie; Xing, Jun; Qi, Huanpeng; Shang, Dongping

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare the positional and volumetric differences of internal target volumes defined on three-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT), four-dimensional CT (4DCT), and cone-beam CT (CBCT) images of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Materials and methods Thirty-one patients with NSCLC sequentially underwent 3DCT and 4DCT simulation scans of the thorax during free breathing. The first CBCT was performed and registered to the planning CT using the bony anatomy registration during radiotherapy. The gross tumor volumes were contoured on the basis of 3DCT, maximum intensity projection (MIP) of 4DCT, and CBCT. CTV3D (clinical target volume), internal target volumes, ITVMIP and ITVCBCT, were defined with a 7 mm margin accounting for microscopic disease. ITV10 mm and ITV5 mm were defined on the basis of CTV3D: ITV10 mm with a 5 mm margin in left–right (LR), anterior–posterior (AP) directions and 10 mm in cranial–caudal (CC) direction; ITV5 mm with an isotropic internal margin (IM) of 5 mm. The differences in the position, size, Dice’s similarity coefficient (DSC) and inclusion relation of different volumes were evaluated. Results The median size ratios of ITV10 mm, ITV5 mm, and ITVMIP to ITVCBCT were 2.33, 1.88, and 1.03, respectively, for tumors in the upper lobe and 2.13, 1.76, and 1.1, respectively, for tumors in the middle-lower lobe. The median DSCs of ITV10 mm, ITV5 mm, ITVMIP, and ITVCBCT were 0.6, 0.66, and 0.83 for all patients. The median percentages of ITVCBCT not included in ITV10 mm, ITV5 mm, and ITVMIP were 0.1%, 1.63%, and 15.21%, respectively, while the median percentages of ITV10 mm, ITV5 mm, and ITVMIP not included in ITVCBCT were 57.08%, 48.89%, and 20.04%, respectively. Conclusion The use of the individual ITV derived from 4DCT merely based on bony registration in radiotherapy may result in a target miss. The ITVs derived from 3DCT with isotropic margins have a good coverage of the ITV from CBCT, but the

  9. A comparative study on the volume and localization of the internal gross target volume defined using the seroma and surgical clips based on 4DCT scan for external-beam partial breast irradiation after breast conserving surgery.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yun; Li, Jianbin; Wang, Wei; Wang, Suzhen; Wang, Jinzhi; Ma, Zhifang; Shao, Qian; Xu, Min

    2014-03-19

    To explore the volume and localization of the internal gross target volume defined using the seroma and/or surgical clips based on the four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) during free-breathing. Fifteen breast cancer patients after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) were recruited for EB-PBI. On the ten sets CT images, the gross target volume formed by the clips, the seroma, both the clips and seroma delineated by one radiation oncologist and defined as GTVc, GTVs and GTVc+s, respectively. The ten GTVc, GTVs and GTVc+s on the ten sets CT images produced the IGTVc, IGTVs, IGTVc+s, respectively. The IGTV volume and the distance between the center of IGTVc, IGTVs, IGTVc+s were all recorded. Conformity index (CI), degree of inclusion (DI) were calculated for IGTV/IGTV, respectively. The volume of IGTVc+s were significantly larger than the IGTVc and IGTVs (p<0.05). There was significant difference between the DIs of IGTVc vs IGTVc+s, the DIs of IGTVs vs IGTVc+s. There was significant difference among the CIs of IGTV/IGTV. The DIs and CIs of IGTV/IGTV were negatively correlated with their centroid distance (r<0, p<0.05). There were volume difference and spatial mismatch between the IGTVs delineated based on the surgical clips and seroma. The IGTV defined as the seroma and surgical clips provided the best overall representation of the 'true' moving GTV.

  10. The effect of irregular breathing patterns on internal target volumes in four-dimensional CT and cone-beam CT images in the context of stereotactic lung radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, N.; Kron, T.; Roxby, P.; Franich, R.; Dunn, L.; Aarons, Y.; Chesson, B.; Siva, S.; Duplan, D.; Ball, D.

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: Stereotactic lung radiotherapy is complicated by tumor motion from patient respiration. Four-dimensional CT (4DCT) imaging is a motion compensation method used in treatment planning to generate a maximum intensity projection (MIP) internal target volume (ITV). Image guided radiotherapy during treatment may involve acquiring a volumetric cone-beam CT (CBCT) image and visually aligning the tumor to the planning 4DCT MIP ITV contour. Moving targets imaged with CBCT can appear blurred and currently there are no studies reporting on the effect that irregular breathing patterns have on CBCT volumes and their alignment to 4DCT MIP ITV contours. The objective of this work was therefore to image a phantom moving with irregular breathing patterns to determine whether any configurations resulted in errors in volume contouring or alignment. Methods: A Perspex thorax phantom was used to simulate a patient. Three wooden 'lung' inserts with embedded Perspex 'lesions' were moved up to 4 cm with computer-generated motion patterns, and up to 1 cm with patient-specific breathing patterns. The phantom was imaged on 4DCT and CBCT with the same acquisition settings used for stereotactic lung patients in the clinic and the volumes on all phantom images were contoured. This project assessed the volumes for qualitative and quantitative changes including volume, length of the volume, and errors in alignment between CBCT volumes and 4DCT MIP ITV contours. Results: When motion was introduced 4DCT and CBCT volumes were reduced by up to 20% and 30% and shortened by up to 7 and 11 mm, respectively, indicating that volume was being under-represented at the extremes of motion. Banding artifacts were present in 4DCT MIP images, while CBCT volumes were largely reduced in contrast. When variable amplitudes from patient traces were used and CBCT ITVs were compared to 4DCT MIP ITVs there was a distinct trend in reduced ITV with increasing amplitude that was not seen when compared to true ITVs

  11. The effect of irregular breathing patterns on internal target volumes in four-dimensional CT and cone-beam CT images in the context of stereotactic lung radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Clements, N; Kron, T; Franich, R; Dunn, L; Roxby, P; Aarons, Y; Chesson, B; Siva, S; Duplan, D; Ball, D

    2013-02-01

    Stereotactic lung radiotherapy is complicated by tumor motion from patient respiration. Four-dimensional CT (4DCT) imaging is a motion compensation method used in treatment planning to generate a maximum intensity projection (MIP) internal target volume (ITV). Image guided radiotherapy during treatment may involve acquiring a volumetric cone-beam CT (CBCT) image and visually aligning the tumor to the planning 4DCT MIP ITV contour. Moving targets imaged with CBCT can appear blurred and currently there are no studies reporting on the effect that irregular breathing patterns have on CBCT volumes and their alignment to 4DCT MIP ITV contours. The objective of this work was therefore to image a phantom moving with irregular breathing patterns to determine whether any configurations resulted in errors in volume contouring or alignment. A Perspex thorax phantom was used to simulate a patient. Three wooden "lung" inserts with embedded Perspex "lesions" were moved up to 4 cm with computer-generated motion patterns, and up to 1 cm with patient-specific breathing patterns. The phantom was imaged on 4DCT and CBCT with the same acquisition settings used for stereotactic lung patients in the clinic and the volumes on all phantom images were contoured. This project assessed the volumes for qualitative and quantitative changes including volume, length of the volume, and errors in alignment between CBCT volumes and 4DCT MIP ITV contours. When motion was introduced 4DCT and CBCT volumes were reduced by up to 20% and 30% and shortened by up to 7 and 11 mm, respectively, indicating that volume was being under-represented at the extremes of motion. Banding artifacts were present in 4DCT MIP images, while CBCT volumes were largely reduced in contrast. When variable amplitudes from patient traces were used and CBCT ITVs were compared to 4DCT MIP ITVs there was a distinct trend in reduced ITV with increasing amplitude that was not seen when compared to true ITVs. Breathing patterns with a

  12. Variations in target volume definition for postoperative radiotherapy in stage III non-small-cell lung cancer: analysis of an international contouring study.

    PubMed

    Spoelstra, Femke O B; Senan, Suresh; Le Péchoux, Cecile; Ishikura, Satoshi; Casas, Francesc; Ball, David; Price, Allan; De Ruysscher, Dirk; van Sörnsen de Koste, John R

    2010-03-15

    Postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) in patients with completely resected non-small-cell lung cancer with mediastinal involvement is controversial because of the failure of earlier trials to demonstrate a survival benefit. Improved techniques may reduce toxicity, but the treatment fields used in routine practice have not been well studied. We studied routine target volumes used by international experts and evaluated the impact of a contouring protocol developed for a new prospective study, the Lung Adjuvant Radiotherapy Trial (Lung ART). Seventeen thoracic radiation oncologists were invited to contour their routine clinical target volumes (CTV) for 2 representative patients using a validated CD-ROM-based contouring program. Subsequently, the Lung ART study protocol was provided, and both cases were contoured again. Variations in target volumes and their dosimetric impact were analyzed. Routine CTVs were received for each case from 10 clinicians, whereas six provided both routine and protocol CTVs for each case. Routine CTVs varied up to threefold between clinicians, but use of the Lung ART protocol significantly decreased variations. Routine CTVs in a postlobectomy patient resulted in V(20) values ranging from 12.7% to 54.0%, and Lung ART protocol CTVs resulted in values of 20.6% to 29.2%. Similar results were seen for other toxicity parameters and in the postpneumectomy patient. With the exception of upper paratracheal nodes, protocol contouring improved coverage of the required nodal stations. Even among experts, significant interclinician variations are observed in PORT fields. Inasmuch as contouring variations can confound the interpretation of PORT results, mandatory quality assurance procedures have been incorporated into the current Lung ART study. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Variations in Target Volume Definition for Postoperative Radiotherapy in Stage III Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Analysis of an International Contouring Study

    SciTech Connect

    Spoelstra, Femke; Senan, Suresh; Le Pechoux, Cecile; Ishikura, Satoshi; Casas, Francesc; Ball, David; Price, Allan; De Ruysscher, Dirk; Soernsen de Koste, John R. van

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: Postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) in patients with completely resected non-small-cell lung cancer with mediastinal involvement is controversial because of the failure of earlier trials to demonstrate a survival benefit. Improved techniques may reduce toxicity, but the treatment fields used in routine practice have not been well studied. We studied routine target volumes used by international experts and evaluated the impact of a contouring protocol developed for a new prospective study, the Lung Adjuvant Radiotherapy Trial (Lung ART). Methods and Materials: Seventeen thoracic radiation oncologists were invited to contour their routine clinical target volumes (CTV) for 2 representative patients using a validated CD-ROM-based contouring program. Subsequently, the Lung ART study protocol was provided, and both cases were contoured again. Variations in target volumes and their dosimetric impact were analyzed. Results: Routine CTVs were received for each case from 10 clinicians, whereas six provided both routine and protocol CTVs for each case. Routine CTVs varied up to threefold between clinicians, but use of the Lung ART protocol significantly decreased variations. Routine CTVs in a postlobectomy patient resulted in V{sub 20} values ranging from 12.7% to 54.0%, and Lung ART protocol CTVs resulted in values of 20.6% to 29.2%. Similar results were seen for other toxicity parameters and in the postpneumectomy patient. With the exception of upper paratracheal nodes, protocol contouring improved coverage of the required nodal stations. Conclusion: Even among experts, significant interclinician variations are observed in PORT fields. Inasmuch as contouring variations can confound the interpretation of PORT results, mandatory quality assurance procedures have been incorporated into the current Lung ART study.

  14. Evaluation of the cone beam CT for internal target volume localization in lung stereotactic radiotherapy in comparison with 4D MIP images.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Chen, Xiaoming; Lin, Mu-Han; Xue, Jun; Lin, Teh; Fan, Jiajin; Jin, Lihui; Ma, Charlie M

    2013-11-01

    To investigate whether the three-dimensional cone-beam CT (CBCT) is clinically equivalent to the four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) maximum intensity projection (MIP) reconstructed images for internal target volume (ITV) localization in image-guided lung stereotactic radiotherapy. A ball-shaped polystyrene phantom with built-in cube, sphere, and cone of known volumes was attached to a motor-driven platform, which simulates a sinusoidal movement with changeable motion amplitude and frequency. Target motion was simulated in the patient in a superior-inferior (S-I) direction with three motion periods and 2 cm peak-to-peak amplitudes. The Varian onboard Exact-Arms kV CBCT system and the GE LightSpeed four-slice CT integrated with the respiratory-position-management 4DCT scanner were used to scan the moving phantom. MIP images were generated from the 4DCT images. The clinical equivalence of the two sets of images was evaluated by comparing the extreme locations of the moving objects along the motion direction, the centroid position of the ITV, and the ITV volumes that were contoured automatically by Velocity or calculated with an imaging gradient method. The authors compared the ITV volumes determined by the above methods with those theoretically predicted by taking into account the physical object dimensions and the motion amplitudes. The extreme locations were determined by the gradient method along the S-I axis through the center of the object. The centroid positions were determined by autocenter functions. The effect of motion period on the volume sizes was also studied. It was found that the extreme locations of the objects determined from the two image modalities agreed with each other satisfactorily. They were not affected by the motion period. The average difference between the two modalities in the extreme locations was 0.68% for the cube, 1.35% for the sphere, and 0.5% for the cone, respectively. The maximum difference in the centroid position of the

  15. Evaluation of the cone beam CT for internal target volume localization in lung stereotactic radiotherapy in comparison with 4D MIP images

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lu; Chen, Xiaoming; Lin, Mu-Han; Lin, Teh; Fan, Jiajin; Jin, Lihui; Ma, Charlie M.; Xue, Jun

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate whether the three-dimensional cone-beam CT (CBCT) is clinically equivalent to the four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) maximum intensity projection (MIP) reconstructed images for internal target volume (ITV) localization in image-guided lung stereotactic radiotherapy.Methods: A ball-shaped polystyrene phantom with built-in cube, sphere, and cone of known volumes was attached to a motor-driven platform, which simulates a sinusoidal movement with changeable motion amplitude and frequency. Target motion was simulated in the patient in a superior-inferior (S-I) direction with three motion periods and 2 cm peak-to-peak amplitudes. The Varian onboard Exact-Arms kV CBCT system and the GE LightSpeed four-slice CT integrated with the respiratory-position-management 4DCT scanner were used to scan the moving phantom. MIP images were generated from the 4DCT images. The clinical equivalence of the two sets of images was evaluated by comparing the extreme locations of the moving objects along the motion direction, the centroid position of the ITV, and the ITV volumes that were contoured automatically by Velocity or calculated with an imaging gradient method. The authors compared the ITV volumes determined by the above methods with those theoretically predicted by taking into account the physical object dimensions and the motion amplitudes. The extreme locations were determined by the gradient method along the S-I axis through the center of the object. The centroid positions were determined by autocenter functions. The effect of motion period on the volume sizes was also studied.Results: It was found that the extreme locations of the objects determined from the two image modalities agreed with each other satisfactorily. They were not affected by the motion period. The average difference between the two modalities in the extreme locations was 0.68% for the cube, 1.35% for the sphere, and 0.5% for the cone, respectively. The maximum difference in the

  16. Analysis of Lung Tumor Motion in a Large Sample: Patterns and Factors Influencing Precise Delineation of Internal Target Volume.

    PubMed

    Knybel, Lukas; Cvek, Jakub; Molenda, Lukas; Stieberova, Natalie; Feltl, David

    2016-11-15

    To evaluate lung tumor motion during respiration and to describe factors affecting the range and variability of motion in patients treated with stereotactic ablative radiation therapy. Log file analysis from online respiratory tumor tracking was performed in 145 patients. Geometric tumor location in the lungs, tumor volume and origin (primary or metastatic), sex, and tumor motion amplitudes in the superior-inferior (SI), latero-lateral (LL), and anterior-posterior (AP) directions were recorded. Tumor motion variability during treatment was described using intrafraction/interfraction amplitude variability and tumor motion baseline changes. Tumor movement dependent on the tumor volume, position and origin, and sex were evaluated using statistical regression and correlation analysis. After analysis of >500 hours of data, the highest rates of motion amplitudes, intrafraction/interfraction variation, and tumor baseline changes were in the SI direction (6.0 ± 2.2 mm, 2.2 ± 1.8 mm, 1.1 ± 0.9 mm, and -0.1 ± 2.6 mm). The mean motion amplitudes in the lower/upper geometric halves of the lungs were significantly different (P<.001). Motion amplitudes >15 mm were observed only in the lower geometric quarter of the lungs. Higher tumor motion amplitudes generated higher intrafraction variations (R=.86, P<.001). Interfraction variations and baseline changes >3 mm indicated tumors contacting mediastinal structures or parietal pleura. On univariate analysis, neither sex nor tumor origin (primary vs metastatic) was an independent predictive factor of different movement patterns. Metastatic lesions in women, but not men, showed significantly higher mean amplitudes (P=.03) and variability (primary, 2.7 mm; metastatic, 4.9 mm; P=.002) than primary tumors. Online tracking showed significant irregularities in lung tumor movement during respiration. Motion amplitude was significantly lower in upper lobe tumors; higher interfraction amplitude variability indicated

  17. Inverse-planned, dynamic, multi-beam, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT): a promising technique when target volume is the left breast and internal mammary lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Popescu, Carmen C; Olivotto, Ivo; Patenaude, Veronica; Wai, Elaine; Beckham, Wayne A

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the optimum beam number and orientation for inverse-planned, dynamic intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for treatment of left-sided breast cancer and internal mammary nodes (IMNs) to improve target coverage while reducing cardiac and ipsilateral lung irradiation. Computed tomography (CT) data was used from 5 patients with left-sided breast cancer in whom the heart was close to the chest wall. The planning target volume (PTV) was the full breast plus ipsilateral IMNs. Two geometric beam arrangements were investigated, 240 degrees and 190 degrees sector angles, and the number of beams was increased from 7 to 9 to 11. Dose comparison metrics included: PTV homogeneity and conformity indices (HI, CI), heart V30, left lung V20, and mean doses to surrounding structures. To assess clinical application, the IMRT plans with 11 beams equally spaced in a 190 degrees sector angle were compared to conventional plans. Treatment times were modeled. The 190 degrees IMRT plans improved PTV HI and CI and reduced mean dose to the heart, lungs, contralateral breast, and total healthy tissue (all p < 0.05) compared to a 240 degrees sector angle. The 11-beam plan significantly improved PTV HI and CI, heart V30, left lung V20, and healthy tissue V5 compared to a 7-beam plan (all p < 0.05). The 11-beam plan reduced heart V30 and left lung V20 (p < 0.05) without compromising PTV coverage, compared to a 9-beam plan. Compared to a conventional plan, the IMRT class solution significantly improved PTV HI and CI (both p < 0.01), heart V30 (p = 0.01), and marginally reduced left lung V20 (p = 0.07) but increased contralateral breast and lung mean dose (p < 0.001) and healthy tissue V5 (p < 0.001). An 11-beam 190 degrees sector angle IMRT technique as a class solution is clinically feasible.

  18. SU-E-T-513: Investigating Dose of Internal Target Volume After Correcting for Tissue Heterogeneity in SBRT Lung Plans with Homogeneity Calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, P; Zhuang, T; Magnelli, A; Djemil, T; Shang, Q; Balik, S; Andrews, M; Stephans, K; Videtic, G; Xia, P

    2015-06-15

    Purpose It was recommended to use the prescription of 54 Gy/3 with heterogeneity corrections for previously established dose scheme of 60 Gy/3 with homogeneity calculation. This study is to investigate dose coverage for the internal target volume (ITV) with and without heterogeneity correction. Methods Thirty patients who received stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) to a dose of 60 Gy in 3 fractions with homogeneous planning for early stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were selected. ITV was created either from 4DCT scans or a fusion of multi-phase respiratory scans. Planning target volume (PTV) was a 5 mm expansion of the ITV. For this study, we recalculated homogeneous clinical plans using heterogeneity corrections with monitor units set as clinically delivered. All plans were calculated with 3 mm dose grids and collapsed cone convolution algorithm. To account for uncertainties from tumor delineation and image-guided radiotherapy, a structure ITV2mm was created by expanding ITV with 2 mm margins. Dose coverage to the PTV, ITV and ITV2mm were compared with a student paired t-test. Results With heterogeneity corrections, the PTV V60Gy decreased by 10.1% ± 18.4% (p<0.01) while the maximum dose to the PTV increased by 3.7 ± 4.3% (p<0.01). With and without corrections, D99% was 65.8 ± 4.0 Gy and 66.7 ± 4.8 Gy (p=0.15) for the ITV, and 63.9 ± 3.4 Gy and 62.9 ± 4.6 Gy for the ITV2mm (p=0.22), respectively. The mean dose to the ITV and ITV2mm increased 3.6% ± 4.7% (p<0.01) and 2.3% ± 5.2% (p=0.01) with heterogeneity corrections. Conclusion After heterogeneity correction, the peripheral coverage of the PTV decreased to approximately 54 Gy, but D99% of the ITV and ITV2mm was unchanged and the mean dose to the ITV and ITV2mm was increased. Clinical implication of these results requires more investigation.

  19. Inverse-planned, dynamic, multi-beam, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT): A promising technique when target volume is the left breast and internal mammary lymph nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Popescu, Carmen C. . E-mail: cpopescu@bccancer.bc.ca; Olivotto, Ivo; Patenaude, Veronica; Wai, Elaine; Beckham, Wayne A.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the optimum beam number and orientation for inverse-planned, dynamic intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for treatment of left-sided breast cancer and internal mammary nodes (IMNs) to improve target coverage while reducing cardiac and ipsilateral lung irradiation. Computed tomography (CT) data was used from 5 patients with left-sided breast cancer in whom the heart was close to the chest wall. The planning target volume (PTV) was the full breast plus ipsilateral IMNs. Two geometric beam arrangements were investigated, 240{sup o} and 190{sup o} sector angles, and the number of beams was increased from 7 to 9 to 11. Dose comparison metrics included: PTV homogeneity and conformity indices (HI, CI), heart V30, left lung V20, and mean doses to surrounding structures. To assess clinical application, the IMRT plans with 11 beams equally spaced in a 190{sup o} sector angle were compared to conventional plans. Treatment times were modeled. The 190{sup o} IMRT plans improved PTV HI and CI and reduced mean dose to the heart, lungs, contralateral breast, and total healthy tissue (all p < 0.05) compared to a 240{sup o} sector angle. The 11-beam plan significantly improved PTV HI and CI, heart V30, left lung V20, and healthy tissue V5 compared to a 7-beam plan (all p < 0.05). The 11-beam plan reduced heart V30 and left lung V20 (p < 0.05) without compromising PTV coverage, compared to a 9-beam plan. Compared to a conventional plan, the IMRT class solution significantly improved PTV HI and CI (both p < 0.01), heart V30 (p = 0.01), and marginally reduced left lung V20 (p = 0.07) but increased contralateral breast and lung mean dose (p < 0.001) and healthy tissue V5 (p < 0.001). An 11-beam 190{sup o} sector angle IMRT technique as a class solution is clinically feasible.

  20. International Relations. International Perspectives on Higher Education Research. Volume 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tight, Malcolm, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This is the third volume of International Perspectives on Higher Education Research, a series which aims to feature something of the variety of research being undertaken into higher education systems and issues outside of North America. The theme of this volume is International Relations, or how students, academics, universities and higher…

  1. International Relations. International Perspectives on Higher Education Research. Volume 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tight, Malcolm, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This is the third volume of International Perspectives on Higher Education Research, a series which aims to feature something of the variety of research being undertaken into higher education systems and issues outside of North America. The theme of this volume is International Relations, or how students, academics, universities and higher…

  2. More Accurate Definition of Clinical Target Volume Based on the Measurement of Microscopic Extensions of the Primary Tumor Toward the Uterus Body in International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Ib-IIa Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Cervix

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Wen-Jia; Wu, Xiao; Xue, Ren-Liang; Lin, Xiang-Ying; Kidd, Elizabeth A.; Yan, Shu-Mei; Zhang, Yao-Hong; Zhai, Tian-Tian; Lu, Jia-Yang; Wu, Li-Li; Zhang, Hao; Huang, Hai-Hua; Chen, Zhi-Jian; Li, De-Rui; Xie, Liang-Xi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To more accurately define clinical target volume for cervical cancer radiation treatment planning by evaluating tumor microscopic extension toward the uterus body (METU) in International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage Ib-IIa squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix (SCCC). Patients and Methods: In this multicenter study, surgical resection specimens from 318 cases of stage Ib-IIa SCCC that underwent radical hysterectomy were included. Patients who had undergone preoperative chemotherapy, radiation, or both were excluded from this study. Microscopic extension of primary tumor toward the uterus body was measured. The association between other pathologic factors and METU was analyzed. Results: Microscopic extension toward the uterus body was not common, with only 12.3% of patients (39 of 318) demonstrating METU. The mean (±SD) distance of METU was 0.32 ± 1.079 mm (range, 0-10 mm). Lymphovascular space invasion was associated with METU distance and occurrence rate. A margin of 5 mm added to gross tumor would adequately cover 99.4% and 99% of the METU in the whole group and in patients with lymphovascular space invasion, respectively. Conclusion: According to our analysis of 318 SCCC specimens for METU, using a 5-mm gross tumor volume to clinical target volume margin in the direction of the uterus should be adequate for International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage Ib-IIa SCCC. Considering the discrepancy between imaging and pathologic methods in determining gross tumor volume extent, we recommend a safer 10-mm margin in the uterine direction as the standard for clinical practice when using MRI for contouring tumor volume.

  3. Educational Statistics Yearbook. Volume I: International Tables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This publication presents 41 statistical tables containing data on education in member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). This volume presents international comparative data and is intended for use in the comparative study of educational systems, rather than in the study of education in any one country.…

  4. Image-Guided Radiation Therapy for Muscle-Invasive Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder with Cone Beam CT Scan: Use of Individualized Internal Target Volumes for a Single Patient.

    PubMed

    Saini, Gagan; Aggarwal, Anchal; Srivastava, Roopam; Sharma, Pramod K; Garg, Madhur; Nangia, Sapna; Chomal, Manish

    2012-09-01

    While planning radiation therapy (RT) for a carcinoma of the urinary bladder (CaUB), the intra-fractional variation of the urinary bladder (UB) volume due to filling-up needs to be accounted for. This internal target volume (ITV) is obtained by adding internal margins (IM) to the contoured bladder. This study was planned to propose a method of acquiring individualized ITVs for each patient and to verify their reproducibility. One patient with CaUB underwent simulation with the proposed 'bladder protocol'. After immobilization, a planning CT scan on empty bladder was done. He was then given 300 ml of water to drink and the time (T) was noted. Planning CT scans were performed after 20 min (T+20), 30 min (T+30) and 40 min (T+40). The CT scan at T+20 was co-registered with the T+30 and T+40 scans. The bladder volumes at 20, 30 and 40 min were then contoured as CTV20, CTV30 and CTV40 to obtain an individualized ITV for our patient. For daily treatment, he was instructed to drink water as above, and the time was noted; treatment was started after 20 min. Daily pre- and post-treatment cone beam CT (CBCT) scans were done. The bladder visualized on the pre-treatment CBCT scan was compared with CTV20 and on the post-treatment CBCT scan with CTV30. In total, there were 65 CBCT scans (36 pre- and 29 post-treatment). Individualized ITVs were found to be reproducible in 93.85% of all instances and fell outside in 4 instances. The proposed bladder protocol can yield a reproducible estimation of the ITV during treatment; this can obviate the need for taking standard IMs.

  5. Diffusion tensor imaging for target volume definition in glioblastoma multiforme.

    PubMed

    Berberat, Jatta; McNamara, Jane; Remonda, Luca; Bodis, Stephan; Rogers, Susanne

    2014-10-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is an MR-based technique that may better detect the peritumoural region than MRI. Our aim was to explore the feasibility of using DTI for target volume delineation in glioblastoma patients. MR tensor tracts and maps of the isotropic (p) and anisotropic (q) components of water diffusion were coregistered with CT in 13 glioblastoma patients. An in-house image processing program was used to analyse water diffusion in each voxel of interest in the region of the tumour. Tumour infiltration was mapped according to validated criteria and contralateral normal brain was used as an internal control. A clinical target volume (CTV) was generated based on the T1-weighted image obtained using contrast agent (T1Gd), tractography and the infiltration map. This was compared to a conventional T2-weighted CTV (T2-w CTV). Definition of a diffusion-based CTV that included the adjacent white matter tracts proved highly feasible. A statistically significant difference was detected between the DTI-CTV and T2-w CTV volumes (p < 0.005, t = 3.480). As the DTI-CTVs were smaller than the T2-w CTVs (tumour plus peritumoural oedema), the pq maps were not simply detecting oedema. Compared to the clinical planning target volume (PTV), the DTI-PTV showed a trend towards volume reduction. These diffusion-based volumes were smaller than conventional volumes, yet still included sites of tumour recurrence. Extending the CTV along the abnormal tensor tracts in order to preserve coverage of the likely routes of dissemination, whilst sparing uninvolved brain, is a rational approach to individualising radiotherapy planning for glioblastoma patients.

  6. 1985 international symposium on geothermal energy: international volume

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, C.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents information on geothermal electric power and discusses direct uses of geothermal energy. Country update reports are provided and international cooperation reports include topics such as: selected titles for a basic geothermal library, the role of the United Nations in the field of geothermal resources exploration in developing countries, and geothermal training at the International Institute for Geothermal research. International invited papers in this volume include: Hot Dry Rock--A European Perspective; A Summary of Modeling Studies of the East Okkaria Geothermal Field, Kenya; and The Latest Development of the Los Asufres Geothermal Field in Mexico. General papers are presented from Europe, the Western Pacific, Africa, North America, India, China, and Southeast Asia.

  7. Converting international ¼ inch tree volume to Doyle

    Treesearch

    Aaron Holley; John R. Brooks; Stuart A. Moss

    2014-01-01

    An equation for converting Mesavage and Girard's International ¼ inch tree volumes to the Doyle log rule is presented as a function of tree diameter. Volume error for trees having less than four logs exhibited volume prediction errors within a range of ±10 board feet. In addition, volume prediction error as a percent of actual Doyle tree volume...

  8. Time-Adjusted Internal Target Volume: A Novel Approach Focusing on Heterogeneity of Tumor Motion Based on 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography Imaging for Radiation Therapy Planning of Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Nishibuchi, Ikuno; Kimura, Tomoki; Nakashima, Takeo; Ochi, Yusuke; Takahashi, Ippei; Doi, Yoshiko; Kenjo, Masahiro; Kaneyasu, Yuko; Ozawa, Syuichi; Murakami, Yuji; Wadasaki, Koichi; Nagata, Yasushi

    2014-08-01

    Purpose: To consider nonuniform tumor motion within the internal target volume (ITV) by defining time-adjusted ITV (TTV), a volume designed to include heterogeneity of tumor existence on the basis of 4-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT). Methods and Materials: We evaluated 30 lung cancer patients. Breath-hold CT (BH-CT) and free-breathing 4D-CT scans were acquired for each patient. The tumors were manually delineated using a lung CT window setting (window, 1600 HU; level, −300 HU). Tumor in BH-CT images was defined as gross tumor volume (GTV), and the sum of tumors in 4D-CT images was defined as ITV-4D. The TTV images were generated from the 4D-CT datasets, and the tumor existence probability within ITV-4D was calculated. We calculated the TTV{sub 80} value, which is the percentage of the volume with a tumor existence probability that exceeded 80% on ITV-4D. Several factors that affected the TTV{sub 80} value, such as the ITV-4D/GTV ratio or tumor centroid deviation, were evaluated. Results: Time-adjusted ITV images were acquired for all patients, and tumor respiratory motion heterogeneity was visualized. The median (range) ITV-4D/GTV ratio and median tumor centroid deviation were 1.6 (1.0-4.1) and 6.3 mm (0.1-30.3 mm), respectively. The median TTV{sub 80} value was 43.3% (2.9-98.7%). Strong correlations were observed between the TTV{sub 80} value and the ITV-4D/GTV ratio (R=−0.71) and tumor centroid deviation (R=−0.72). The TTV images revealed the tumor motion pattern features within ITV. Conclusions: The TTV images reflected nonuniform tumor motion, and they revealed the tumor motion pattern features, suggesting that the TTV concept may facilitate various aspects of radiation therapy planning of lung cancer while incorporating respiratory motion in the future.

  9. Storage rings, internal targets and PEP

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, J.E.

    1986-11-01

    Storage rings with internal targets are described, using PEP as an example. The difference between electrons and heavier particles such as protons, antiprotons, and heavy ions is also discussed because it raises possibilities of bypass insertions for more exotic experiments. PEP is compared to other rings in various contexts to verify the assertion that it is an ideal ring for many fundamental and practical applications that can be carried on simultaneously. (LEW)

  10. Lunar International Science Coordination/Calibration Targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, J. W.; Issacson, P.; Petro, N.; Runyon, C.; Ohtake, M.; Foing, B.; Grande, M.

    2007-01-01

    A new era of international lunar exploration has begun and will expand over the next four years with data acquired from at least four sophisticated remote sensing missions: KAGUYA (SELENE) [Japan], Chang'E [China], Chandrayaan-l [India], and LRO [United States]. It is recognized that this combined activity at the Moon with modern sophisticated sensors wi II provide unprecedented new information about the Moon and will dramatically improve our understanding of Earth's nearest neighbor. It is anticipated that the blooming of scientific exploration of the Moon by nations involved in space activities will seed and foster peaceful international coordination and cooperation that will benefit all. Summarized here are eight Lunar International Science Coordination/Calibration Targets (L-ISCT) that are intended to a) allow cross-calibration of diverse multi-national instruments and b) provide a focus for training young scientists about a range of lunar science issues. The targets, discussed at several scientific forums, were selected for coordinated science and instrument calibration of orbital data. All instrument teams are encouraged to participate in a coordinated activity of early-release data that will improve calibration and validation of data across independent and diverse instruments.

  11. International photovoltaic program. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costello, D.; Koontz, R.; Posner, D.; Heiferling, P.; Carpenter, P.; Forman, S.; Perelman, L.

    1979-01-01

    The results of analyses conducted in preparation of an international photovoltaic marketing plan are summarized. Included are compilations of relevant statutes and existing Federal programs; strategies designed to expand the use of photovoltaics abroad; information on the domestic photovoltaic plan and its impact on the proposed international plan; perspectives on foreign competition; industry views on the international photovoltaic market and ideas about the how US government actions could affect this market;international financing issues; and information on issues affecting foreign policy and developing countries.

  12. Nineteenth International Cosmic Ray Conference. HE Sessions, Volume 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, F. C. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Papers submitted for presentation at the 19th International Cosmic ray Conference are compiled. This volume contains papers which address various aspects of extensive air showers (EAS) produced by energetic particles and gamma rays.

  13. Nineteenth International Cosmic Ray Conference. OG Sessions, Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, F. C. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Papers submitted for presentation at the 19th International Cosmic Ray Conference are compiled. This volume addresses cosmic ray sources and acceleration, interstellar propagation and nuclear interactions, and detection techniques and instrumentation.

  14. Combined Recipe for Clinical Target Volume and Planning Target Volume Margins

    SciTech Connect

    Stroom, Joep; Gilhuijs, Kenneth; Vieira, Sandra; Chen, Wei; Salguero, Javier; Moser, Elizabeth; Sonke, Jan-Jakob

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To develop a combined recipe for clinical target volume (CTV) and planning target volume (PTV) margins. Methods and Materials: A widely accepted PTV margin recipe is M{sub geo} = aΣ{sub geo} + bσ{sub geo}, with Σ{sub geo} and σ{sub geo} standard deviations (SDs) representing systematic and random geometric uncertainties, respectively. On the basis of histopathology data of breast and lung tumors, we suggest describing the distribution of microscopic islets around the gross tumor volume (GTV) by a half-Gaussian with SD Σ{sub micro}, yielding as possible CTV margin recipe: M{sub micro} = ƒ(N{sub i}) × Σ{sub micro}, with N{sub i} the average number of microscopic islets per patient. To determine ƒ(N{sub i}), a computer model was developed that simulated radiation therapy of a spherical GTV with isotropic distribution of microscopic disease in a large group of virtual patients. The minimal margin that yielded D{sub min} <95% in maximally 10% of patients was calculated for various Σ{sub micro} and N{sub i}. Because Σ{sub micro} is independent of Σ{sub geo}, we propose they should be added quadratically, yielding for a combined GTV-to-PTV margin recipe: M{sub GTV-PTV} = √([aΣ{sub geo}]{sup 2} + [ƒ(N{sub i})Σ{sub micro}]{sup 2}) + bσ{sub geo}. This was validated by the computer model through numerous simultaneous simulations of microscopic and geometric uncertainties. Results: The margin factor ƒ(N{sub i}) in a relevant range of Σ{sub micro} and N{sub i} can be given by: ƒ(N{sub i}) = 1.4 + 0.8log(N{sub i}). Filling in the other factors found in our simulations (a = 2.1 and b = 0.8) yields for the combined recipe: M{sub GTV-PTV} = √((2.1Σ{sub geo}){sup 2} + ([1.4 + 0.8log(N{sub i})] × Σ{sub micro}){sup 2}) + 0.8σ{sub geo}. The average margin difference between the simultaneous simulations and the above recipe was 0.2 ± 0.8 mm (1 SD). Calculating M{sub geo} and M{sub micro} separately and adding them linearly overestimated PTVs by on

  15. International and Intercultural Communication Annual, Volume VI, December 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, Nemi C., Ed.

    Designed to serve as a forum for the exchange of ideas concerning international and intercultural communication, this annual volume contains articles that cover a variety of topics. The first half of the volume contains seven articles discussing the following: (1) a pragmatic approach to mass media development in three models of developing…

  16. International Higher Education: An Encyclopedia. Volumes 1 and 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G., Ed.

    This two-volume set contains a total of 67 essays on the subject of international higher education. The essays present up-to-date, statistical, and other factual information about the topic, as well as interpretations of those facts and figures. Fifty-two essays focusing on countries or regions are included. Volume 1 contains 15 chapters that deal…

  17. International Higher Education: An Encyclopedia. Volumes 1 and 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G., Ed.

    This two-volume set contains a total of 67 essays on the subject of international higher education. The essays present up-to-date, statistical, and other factual information about the topic, as well as interpretations of those facts and figures. Fifty-two essays focusing on countries or regions are included. Volume 1 contains 15 chapters that deal…

  18. Pituitary Volume Prospectively Predicts Internalizing Symptoms in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zipursky, Amy R.; Whittle, Sarah; Yucel, Murat; Lorenzetti, Valentina; Wood, Stephen J.; Lubman, Dan I.; Simmons, Julian G.; Allen, Nicholas B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Early adolescence is a critical time for the development of both internalizing and externalizing disorders. We aimed to investigate whether pituitary volume, an index of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, represents a vulnerability factor for the emergence of internalizing and externalizing symptoms during adolescence…

  19. Pituitary Volume Prospectively Predicts Internalizing Symptoms in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zipursky, Amy R.; Whittle, Sarah; Yucel, Murat; Lorenzetti, Valentina; Wood, Stephen J.; Lubman, Dan I.; Simmons, Julian G.; Allen, Nicholas B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Early adolescence is a critical time for the development of both internalizing and externalizing disorders. We aimed to investigate whether pituitary volume, an index of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, represents a vulnerability factor for the emergence of internalizing and externalizing symptoms during adolescence…

  20. EM International, July 1994, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The Office of Environmental Management (EM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) is seeking out and leveraging foreign technology, data, and resources in keeping with EM`s mandate to protect public health and the environment through the safe and cost-effective remediation of the Department`s nuclear weapons sites. EM works closely with foreign governments, industry, and universities to obtain innovative environmental technologies, scientific and engineering expertise, and operations experience that will support EM`s objectives. Where appropriate, these international resources are used to manage the more urgent risks at our sites, secure a safe workplace, help build consensus on critical issues, and strengthen our technology development program. Through international agreements EM engages in cooperative exchange of information, technology, and individuals. Currently, we are managing agreements with a dozen countries in Europe, Latin America, and Asia. These agreements focus on environmental restoration, waste management, transportation of radioactive wastes, and decontamination and decommissioning. This publication contains the following articles: in situ remediation integrated program; in-situ characterization and inspection of tanks; multimedia environmental pollutant assessment system (MEPAS); LLNL wet oxidation -- AEA technology. Besides these articles, this publication covers: EU activities with Russia; technology transfer activities; and international organization activities.

  1. [Clinical to planning target volume margins in prostate cancer radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Ramiandrisoa, F; Duvergé, L; Castelli, J; Nguyen, T D; Servagi-Vernat, S; de Crevoisier, R

    2016-10-01

    The knowledge of inter- and intrafraction motion and deformations of the intrapelvic target volumes (prostate, seminal vesicles, prostatectomy bed and lymph nodes) as well as the main organs at risk (bladder and rectum) allow to define rational clinical to planning target volume margins, depending on the different radiotherapy techniques and their uncertainties. In case of image-guided radiotherapy, prostate margins and seminal vesicles margins can be between 5 and 10mm. The margins around the prostatectomy bed vary from 10 to 15mm and those around the lymph node clinical target volume between 7 and 10mm. Stereotactic body radiotherapy allows lower margins, which are 3 to 5mm around the prostate. Image-guided and stereotactic body radiotherapy with adequate margins allow finally moderate or extreme hypofractionation.

  2. [Radiotherapy for cervix carcinomas: clinical target volume delineation].

    PubMed

    Gnep, K; Mazeron, R

    2013-10-01

    Concurrent chemoradiation followed by brachytherapy is currently the standard treatment for locally advanced cervix carcinomas. Modern radiation techniques require planning based on 3D images, and therefore an accurate delineation of target volumes. The clinical target volume (CTV) used for the different phases of treatment are now well defined, but are not always easy to delineate on a CT scan which is currently the standard examination for simulation in radiotherapy. MRI and PET-CT are routinely performed at diagnosis, and can be used to improve the accuracy of the delineation. The objective of this review is to describe the definitions and recommendations of CTV in the treatment of cervical cancer.

  3. International Oil Supplies and Demands. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world`s dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group`s thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  4. International Oil Supplies and Demands. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world`s dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group`s thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  5. Interobserver Variation of Clinical Target Volume Delineation in Gastric Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Jansen, Edwin; Verheij, Marcel

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate interobserver variability in clinical target volume (CTV) delineation in gastric cancer performed with the help of a delineation guide. Patients and Methods: Ten radiotherapy centers that participate in the CRITICS Phase III trial were provided with a delineation atlas, preoperative CT scans, a postoperative planning CT scan, and clinical information for a gastric cancer case and were asked to construct a CTV and create a dosimetric plan according to departmental policy. Results: The volumes of the CTVs and planning target volumes (PTVs) differed greatly, with a mean (SD) CTV volume of 392 (176) cm{sup 3} (range, 240-821cm{sup 3}) and PTV volume of 915 (312) cm{sup 3} (range, 634-1677cm{sup 3}). The overlapping volume was 376cm{sup 3} for the CTV and 890cm{sup 3} for the PTV. The greatest differences in the CTV were seen at the cranial and caudal parts. After planning, dose coverage of the overlapping PTV volume showed less variability than the CTV. Conclusion: In this series of 10 plans, variability of the CTV in postoperative chemoradiotherapy for gastric cancer is large. Strict and clear delineation guidelines should be provided, especially in Phase III multicenter studies. Adaptations of these guidelines should be evaluated in clinical studies.

  6. SU-E-J-79: Internal Tumor Volume Motion and Volume Size Assessment Using 4D CT Lung Data

    SciTech Connect

    Jurkovic, I; Stathakis, S; Li, Y; Patel, A; Vincent, J; Papanikolaou, N; Mavroidis, P

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To assess internal tumor volume change through breathing cycle and associated tumor motion using the 4DCT data. Methods: Respiration induced volume change through breathing cycle and associated motion was analyzed for nine patients that were scanned during the different respiratory phases. The examined datasets were the maximum and average intensity projections (MIP and AIP) and the 10 phases of the respiratory cycle. The internal target volume (ITV) was delineated on each of the phases and the planning target volume (PTV) was then created by adding setup margins to the ITV. Tumor motion through the phases was assessed using the acquired 4DCT dataset, which was then used to determine if the margins used for the ITV creation successfully encompassed the tumor in three dimensions. Results: Results showed that GTV motion along the superior inferior axes was the largest in all the cases independent of the tumor location and/or size or the use of abdomen compression. The extent of the tumor motion was found to be connected with the size of the GTV. The smallest GTVs exhibited largest motion vector independent of the tumor location. The motion vector size varied through the phases depending on the tumor size and location and it was smallest for phases 20 and 30. The smaller the volume of the delineated GTV, the greater its volume difference through the different respiratory phases was. The average GTV volume change was largest for the phases 60 and 70. Conclusion: Even if GTV is delineated using both AIP and MIP datasets, its motion extent will exceed the used margins especially for the very small GTV volumes. When the GTV size is less than 10 cc it is recommended to use fusion of the GTVs through all the phases to create the planning ITV.

  7. International and Intercultural Communication Annual, Volume III, December 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casmir, Fred L., Ed.

    The purpose of this annual volume is to provide a forum for the exchange of ideas concerning international and intercultural human relations. The 16 chapters include discussion of language and information processing in relation to intercultural communication; guidelines for intercultural research; the effects of ethnocentrism on intercultural…

  8. Nineteenth International Cosmic Ray Conference. HE Sessions, Volume 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, F. C. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Papers submitted for presentation at the 19th International Cosmic Ray Conference are compiled. The present volume contains papers addressing high energy interactions and related phenomena. Specific topic areas include muons, neutrinos, magnetic monopoles, nucleon decay, searches for new particles, and acoustic and thermoluminescence detection techniques.

  9. Nineteenth International Cosmic Ray Conference. SH Sessions, Volume 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, F. C. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Papers submitted for presentation at the 19th International Cosmic Ray Conference are compiled. This volume contains papers addressing cosmic ray gradients in the heliosphere; siderial, diurnal, and long term modulations; geomagnetic and atmospheric effects; cosmogenic nuclides; solar neutrinos; and detection techniques.

  10. International Perspectives on Education. BCES Conference Books, Volume 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popov, Nikolay, Ed.; Wolhuter, Charl, Ed.; Leutwyler, Bruno, Ed.; Hilton, Gillian, Ed.; Ogunleye, James, Ed.; Almeida, Patrícia Albergaria, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This volume contains papers submitted to the 10th Annual Conference of the Bulgarian Comparative Education Society, held in Kyustendil, Bulgaria, 12-15 June 2012. The overall goal of the 10th BCES conference is to facilitate discussion of different perspectives on international education providing a forum for scientific debate and constructive…

  11. International and Intercultural Communication Annual, Volume V, December 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, Nemi C., Ed.

    Designed as a forum for the exchange of ideas concerning international and intercultural communication, this annual volume covers a variety of topics. Its eight articles discuss taxonomies for planning intercultural communication, a systematic framework for analyzing intercultural communication, culture and communication in the modern Japanese…

  12. Ninteenth International Cosmic Ray Conference. SH Sessions, Volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, F. C. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Papers submitted for presentation at the 19th International Cosmic Ray Conference are compiled. This volume covers solar and heliospheric phenomena, specifically, particle acceleration; cosmic ray compsotion, spectra, and anisotropy; propagation of solar and interplanetary energetic particles; solar-cycle modulation; and propagation of galactic particles in the heliosphere.

  13. Comparison of various radiation therapy techniques in breast cancer where target volume includes mammaria interna region.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Mehmet Hakan; Zincircioglu, Seyit Burhanedtin; Zorlu, Faruk

    2009-01-01

    In breast cancer radiotherapy, the internal mammary lymphatic chain is treated in the target volume in a group of patients with high-risk criteria. Because of the variability of the anatomic region and structures in the irradiation field, there are a number of different techniques in breast radiotherapy. While irradiating the target volume, we also consider minimizing the dose to critical structures such as heart, lung, and contralateral breast tissue. In this study, we evaluated the dose distribution of different radiotherapy techniques in patients with left-sided breast cancer who had breast-conserving surgery. A three-dimensional computerized planning system (3DCPS) was used for each patient to compare wide-field, oblique photon-electron, and perpendicular photon-electron techniques in terms of dose homogeneities in the target volume; the doses received by the contralateral breast, heart, and lung; and the coverage of the internal mammary chain. Data from 3DCPS were controlled by the Rando-phantom and thermoluminescence dosimetry. Critical structures were irradiated with acceptable dose percentages in addition to the internal mammary chain with both wide-field and photon-electron techniques. We detected more frequent hot spots in the oblique photon-electron technique than in the other techniques, and this situation necessitated changing the junctions. The wide-field technique was easy to perform and exposed less radiation dose to the heart than photon-electron techniques. In conclusion, we suggest the use of the wide-field technique in breast irradiation when the internal mammary area is in the target volume.

  14. Comparison of Various Radiation Therapy Techniques in Breast Cancer Where Target Volume Includes Mammaria Interna Region

    SciTech Connect

    Dogan, Mehmet Hakan; Zincircioglu, Seyit Burhanedtin Zorlu, Faruk

    2009-04-01

    In breast cancer radiotherapy, the internal mammary lymphatic chain is treated in the target volume in a group of patients with high-risk criteria. Because of the variability of the anatomic region and structures in the irradiation field, there are a number of different techniques in breast radiotherapy. While irradiating the target volume, we also consider minimizing the dose to critical structures such as heart, lung, and contralateral breast tissue. In this study, we evaluated the dose distribution of different radiotherapy techniques in patients with left-sided breast cancer who had breast-conserving surgery. A three-dimensional computerized planning system (3DCPS) was used for each patient to compare wide-field, oblique photon-electron, and perpendicular photon-electron techniques in terms of dose homogeneities in the target volume; the doses received by the contralateral breast, heart, and lung; and the coverage of the internal mammary chain. Data from 3DCPS were controlled by the Rando-phantom and thermoluminescence dosimetry. Critical structures were irradiated with acceptable dose percentages in addition to the internal mammary chain with both wide-field and photon-electron techniques. We detected more frequent hot spots in the oblique photon-electron technique than in the other techniques, and this situation necessitated changing the junctions. The wide-field technique was easy to perform and exposed less radiation dose to the heart than photon-electron techniques. In conclusion, we suggest the use of the wide-field technique in breast irradiation when the internal mammary area is in the target volume.

  15. Volume-targeted ventilation and arterial carbon dioxide in neonates.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Catherine; Davies, Mark William

    2005-01-01

    To review the arterial carbon dioxide tensions (PaCO(2)) in newborn infants ventilated using synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV) in volume guarantee mode (using the Dräger Babylog 8000+) with a unit policy targeting tidal volumes of approximately 4 mL/kg. Data on ventilator settings and arterial PaCO(2) levels were collected on all arterial blood gases (ABG; n = 288) from 50 neonates (<33 weeks gestational age) ventilated using the Dräger Babylog 8000+ ventilator (Dräger Medizintechnik GmbH, Lübeck, Germany) in SIMV plus volume guarantee mode. Data were analysed for all blood gases done on the entire cohort in the first 48 h of life and a subanalysis was done on the first gas for each infant (n = 38) ventilated using volume guarantee from admission to the nursery. The number of ABG showing severe hypocapnoea (PaCO(2) < 25 mmHg) and/or severe hypercapnoea (PaCO(2) > 65 mmHg) were determined. The mean (SD) PaCO(2) during the first 48 h was 46.6 (9.0) mmHg. The mean (SD) PaCO(2) on the first blood gas of those infants commenced on volume guarantee from admission was 45.1 (12.5) mmHg. Severe hypo- or hypercapnoea occurred in 8% of infants at the time of their first blood gas measurement, and in <4% of blood gas measurements in the first 48 h. Infants ventilated with volume guarantee ventilation targeting approximately 4 mL/kg (range: 2.9-5.1) have acceptable PaCO(2) levels at the first blood gas measurement and during the first 48 h of life; and avoid severe hypo- or hypercapnoea over 90% of the time.

  16. A method to individualize adaptive planning target volumes for deformable targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Pauliina; Redpath, Anthony Thomas; Høyer, Morten; Muren, Ludvig Paul

    2009-12-01

    We have investigated a method to individualize the planning target volume (PTV) for deformable targets in radiotherapy by combining a computer tomography (CT) scan with multiple cone beam (CB)CT scans. All combinations of the CT and up to five initial CBCTs were considered. To exclude translational motion, the clinical target volumes (CTVs) in the CBCTs were matched to the CTV in the CT. PTVs investigated were the unions, the intersections and all other structures defined by a volume with a constant CTV location frequency. The method was investigated for three bladder cancer patients with a CT and 20-27 CBCTs. Reliable alternatives to a standard PTV required use of at least four scans for planning. The CTV unions of four or five scans gave similar results when considering the fraction of individual repeat scan CTVs they volumetrically covered to at least 99%. For patient 1, 64% of the repeat scan CTVs were covered by these unions and for patient 2, 86% were covered. Further, the PTVs defined by the volume occupied by the CTV in all except one of the four or five planning scans seemed clinically feasible. On average, 52% of the repeat CBCT CTVs for patient 1 and 64% for patient 2 were covered to minimum 99% of their total volume. For patient 3, the method failed due to poor volume control of the bladder. The suggested PTVs could, with considerably improved conformity, complement the standard PTV.

  17. Asymmetric responses of international stock markets to trading volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlach, Richard; Chen, Cathy W. S.; Lin, Doris S. Y.; Huang, Ming-Hsiang

    2006-02-01

    The major goal of this paper is to examine the hypothesis that stock returns and return volatility are asymmetric, threshold nonlinear, functions of change in trading volume. A minor goal is to examine whether return spillover effects also display such asymmetry. Employing a double-threshold GARCH model with trading volume as a threshold variable, we find strong evidence supporting this hypothesis in five international market return series. Asymmetric causality tests lend further support to our trading volume threshold model and conclusions. Specifically, an increase in volume is positively associated, while decreasing volume is negatively associated, with the major price index in four of the five markets. The volatility of each series also displays an asymmetric reaction, four of the markets display higher volatility following increases in trading volume. Using posterior odds ratio, the proposed threshold model is strongly favored in three of the five markets, compared to a US news double threshold GARCH model and a symmetric GARCH model. We also find significant nonlinear asymmetric return spillover effects from the US market.

  18. Identifying radiotherapy target volumes in brain cancer by image analysis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kun; Montgomery, Dean; Feng, Yang; Steel, Robin; Liao, Hanqing; McLaren, Duncan B; Erridge, Sara C; McLaughlin, Stephen; Nailon, William H

    2015-10-01

    To establish the optimal radiotherapy fields for treating brain cancer patients, the tumour volume is often outlined on magnetic resonance (MR) images, where the tumour is clearly visible, and mapped onto computerised tomography images used for radiotherapy planning. This process requires considerable clinical experience and is time consuming, which will continue to increase as more complex image sequences are used in this process. Here, the potential of image analysis techniques for automatically identifying the radiation target volume on MR images, and thereby assisting clinicians with this difficult task, was investigated. A gradient-based level set approach was applied on the MR images of five patients with grades II, III and IV malignant cerebral glioma. The relationship between the target volumes produced by image analysis and those produced by a radiation oncologist was also investigated. The contours produced by image analysis were compared with the contours produced by an oncologist and used for treatment. In 93% of cases, the Dice similarity coefficient was found to be between 60 and 80%. This feasibility study demonstrates that image analysis has the potential for automatic outlining in the management of brain cancer patients, however, more testing and validation on a much larger patient cohort is required.

  19. Identifying radiotherapy target volumes in brain cancer by image analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Kun; Montgomery, Dean; Feng, Yang; Steel, Robin; Liao, Hanqing; McLaren, Duncan B.; Erridge, Sara C.; McLaughlin, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    To establish the optimal radiotherapy fields for treating brain cancer patients, the tumour volume is often outlined on magnetic resonance (MR) images, where the tumour is clearly visible, and mapped onto computerised tomography images used for radiotherapy planning. This process requires considerable clinical experience and is time consuming, which will continue to increase as more complex image sequences are used in this process. Here, the potential of image analysis techniques for automatically identifying the radiation target volume on MR images, and thereby assisting clinicians with this difficult task, was investigated. A gradient-based level set approach was applied on the MR images of five patients with grades II, III and IV malignant cerebral glioma. The relationship between the target volumes produced by image analysis and those produced by a radiation oncologist was also investigated. The contours produced by image analysis were compared with the contours produced by an oncologist and used for treatment. In 93% of cases, the Dice similarity coefficient was found to be between 60 and 80%. This feasibility study demonstrates that image analysis has the potential for automatic outlining in the management of brain cancer patients, however, more testing and validation on a much larger patient cohort is required. PMID:26609418

  20. Ion-extraction polarimetry for polarized internal targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Z.-L.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Buchholz, M.; Bulten, H. J.; Doets, M.; Lang, J.; Neal, J.

    1996-02-01

    We discuss ion extraction from an internal target in a storage ring, separation of atomic and molecular species, and subsequent measurement of the polarization of the atomic ions. This technique can be applied to internal targets of polarized hydrogen, deuterium, 3He and other gases. Here, we report on the development of such a device for a tensor polarized deuterium gas target internal to a medium-energy electron storage ring. Ions were extracted from a storage cell using a spherical deflector and transported to a mass analyzer. In a prototype setup, using electrons from a gun to simulate the electron beam from a storage ring, the tensor polarization of the atomic ions was measured using the 3H(d¯, n) α reaction. The data show that the extraction of ions from a storage-cell target, followed by their mass and polarization analysis, allows the determination of the nuclear polarization of the target independent of its spatial and temporal variations.

  1. Radial Internal Material Handling System (RIMS) for Circular Habitat Volumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, A. Scott; Haselschwardt, Sally

    2012-01-01

    A Radial Internal Material Handling System (RIMS) has been developed to service a circular floor area in variable gravity. On planetary surfaces, pressurized human habitable volumes will require a means to carry heavy equipment between various locations within the volume of the habitat, regardless of the partial gravity (Earth, moon, Mars, etc). On the NASA Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU), a vertical cylindrical volume, it was determined that a variety of heavy items would need to be carried back and forth from deployed locations to the General Maintenance Work Station (GMWS) when in need of repair, and other equipment may need to be carried inside for repairs, such as rover parts and other external equipment. The vertical cylindrical volume of the HDU lent itself to a circular overhead track and hoist system that allows lifting of heavy objects from anywhere in the habitat to any other point in the habitat interior. In addition, the system is able to hand off lifted items to other material handling systems through the side hatches, such as through an airlock. This paper describes the RIMS system which is scalable for application in a variety of circular habitat volumes.

  2. Radial Internal Material Handling System (RIMS) for Circular Habitat Volumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, A. Scott; Haselschwardt, Sally

    2012-01-01

    A Radial Internal Material Handling System (RIMS) has been developed to service a circular floor area in variable gravity. On planetary surfaces, pressurized human habitable volumes will require a means to carry heavy equipment between various locations within the volume of the habitat, regardless of the partial gravity (Earth, moon, Mars, etc). On the NASA Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU), a vertical cylindrical volume, it was determined that a variety of heavy items would need to be carried back and forth from deployed locations to the General Maintenance Work Station (GMWS) when in need of repair, and other equipment may need to be carried inside for repairs, such as rover parts and other external equipment. The vertical cylindrical volume of the HDU lent itself to a circular overhead track and hoist system that allows lifting of heavy objects from anywhere in the habitat to any other point in the habitat interior. In addition, the system is able to hand off lifted items to other material handling systems through the side hatches, such as through an airlock. This paper describes the RIMS system which is scalable for application in a variety of circular habitat volumes.

  3. The polarised internal target for the PAX experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciullo, G.; Barion, L.; Barschel, C.; Grigoriev, K.; Lenisa, P.; Nass, A.; Sarkadi, J.; Statera, M.; Steffens, E.; Tagliente, G.

    2011-05-01

    The PAX (Polarized Antiproton eXperiment) collaboration aims to polarise antiproton beams stored in ring by means of spin-filtering. The experimental setup is based on a polarised internal gas target, surrounded by a detection system for the measurement of spin observables. In this report, we present results from the commission of the PAX target (atomic beam source, openable cell, and polarimeter).

  4. [Organs at risk and target volumes: definition for conformal radiation therapy in breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Atean, I; Pointreau, Y; Barillot, I; Kirova, Y-M

    2012-09-01

    Adjuvant radiotherapy is a standard component of breast cancer treatment. The addition of radiotherapy after breast conserving surgery has been shown to reduce local recurrence rate and improve long-term survival. Accurate delineation of target volumes and organs at risk is crucial to the quality of treatment planning and delivered accomplished with innovate technologies in radiation therapy. This allows the radiation beam to be shaped specifically to each individual patient's anatomy. Target volumes include the mammary gland and surgical bed in case of breast conserving surgery, the chest wall in case of mastectomy, and if indicated, regional lymph nodes (axillary, supra- and infraclavicular and internal mammary). Organs at risk include lungs, thyroid, brachial plexus, heart, spinal cord and oesophagus. The aim of this article is to encourage the use of conformal treatment and delineation of target volumes and organs at risk and to describe specifically the definition of these volumes. Copyright © 2012 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. A comparison of internal target volume definition by limited four-dimensional computed tomography, the addition of patient-specific margins, or the addition of generic margins when planning radical radiotherapy for lymph node-positive non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Hughes, S; McClelland, J; Chandler, A; Adams, M; Boutland, J; Withers, D; Ahmad, S; Blackall, J; Tarte, S; Hawkes, D; Landau, D

    2008-05-01

    Radical radiotherapy for stage II/III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) includes the primary tumour and positive mediastinal lymph nodes in the clinical target volume (CTV). These move independently of each other in magnitude and direction during respiration. To prevent a geographical miss, a generic margin is usually added to the CTV to create an internal target volume (ITV). Previous studies have investigated the use of additional breath-hold computed tomography to generate patient-specific ITVs for primary tumours alone. We used a similar technique to investigate the generation of patient-specific and generic ITVs for CTVs that include mediastinal lymph nodes. Thirteen patients with node-positive NSCLC had two limited end-tidal breath-hold computed tomography scans in addition to their planning computed tomography. The CTV was segmented in each scan and a rigid registration was carried out on the vertebral columns to align them. Different methods for generating an ITV were then analysed. Generic margins provided >95% mean coverage of the reference ITV. However, with the exception of 1cm expansion margins, there were cases of inadequate coverage (<95%) for each ITV. With increasing ITV margins there was a small increase in reference ITV coverage, but at the expense of a large increase in the volume of normal tissue within the ITV. For stage II/III NSCLC, ITV generation by the addition of a generic margin is not optimal. It can result in both geographical miss and excessive irradiation of normal tissue in the same treatment plan. A simple method for producing a patient-specific ITV is to co-register end-tidal breath-hold computed tomography scans to the planning scan. Further work is required to determine whether end-tidal breath-hold scans are representative of the anatomy at the limits of tidal respiration. Planning strategies are also needed to account for breathing cycle variation during a course of radiotherapy.

  6. Eighth international conference on MHD electrical power generation. Volume 4

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    The VIIIth International Conference on MHD Electrical Power Generation was convened at the initiative of the International Liaison Group on MHD Electrical Power Generation by the USSR Academy of Sciences (Institute of High Temperature) and under the sponsorship of: UNESCO; Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON); Energoinvest (Yugoslavia), Control Data Corporation (USA); and Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (India). The proceedings of the VIIIth International Conference on MHD Electrical Power Generation contain the results of most recent R and D work aimed at practical realization of this advanced method of electrical power generation. The papers presented to the Conference deal with heat-generating schemes and cycles, conceptual and detail designs of MHD power plants, including that of the first commercial 500-MW power generating unit presently under construction in the USSR. Research results obtained in pilot and experimental facilities in the USSR, USA, Poland, Japan, Netherlands and other countries are described. Volume 4 was concerned with Materials, Combined-Cycle, Liquid-Metal MHD, and Closed-Cycle Disk-Type MHD Generator. This DOE report contains full translations in English of all the papers in Volume 4. These have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  7. International Linear Collider Technical Design Report (Volumes 1 through 4)

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison M.

    2013-03-27

    The design report consists of four volumes: Volume 1, Executive Summary; Volume 2, Physics; Volume 3, Accelerator (Part I, R and D in the Technical Design Phase, and Part II, Baseline Design); and Volume 4, Detectors.

  8. Workshop on electronuclear physics with internal targets: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, R.G.; Minehart, R.C.

    1987-05-01

    The Workshop on Electronuclear Physics with Internal Targets was held at SLAC on January 5-8, 1987. The idea for this workshop grew out of interest among physicists at SLAC and MIT/Bates who have been exploring the possibilities for internal targets in the PEP ring at SLAC and in a proposed stretcher ring at MIT/Bates. The aim of the workshop was to bring together physicists from these groups and from other laboratories and universities to discuss the new physics that could be made accessible with internal targets, and to share information on recent developments in internal target technology, on the impact of internal targets on ring operation, and on the detector requirements. The workshop was sponsored by NPAS, the program of Nuclear Physics at SLAC, and it was attended by more than 100 physicists from the US, Canada, Europe, and Japan. The workshop sessions began with two days of invited talks followed by two days of shorter presentations organized by the chairmen of four Working Groups. Written versions of all the plenary talks and all but four of the Working Group talks are presented here.

  9. Minerals Yearbook, volume III, Area Reports—International

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  10. Optimized planning target volume for intact cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Khan, Alvin; Jensen, Lindsay G; Sun, Shuai; Song, William Y; Yashar, Catheryn M; Mundt, Arno J; Zhang, Fu-Quan; Jiang, Steve B; Mell, Loren K

    2012-08-01

    To model interfraction clinical target volume (CTV) variation in patients with intact cervical cancer and design a planning target volume (PTV) that minimizes normal tissue dose while maximizing CTV coverage. We analyzed 50 patients undergoing external-beam radiotherapy for intact cervical cancer using daily online cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). The CBCTs (n = 972) for each patient were rigidly registered to the planning CT. The CTV was delineated on the planning CT (CTV(0)) and the set of CBCTs ({CTV(1)-CTV(25)}). Manual (n = 98) and automated (n = 668) landmarks were placed over the surface of CTV(0) with reference to defined anatomic structures. Normal vectors were extended from each landmark, and the minimum length required for a given probability of encompassing CTV(1)-CTV(25) was computed. The resulting expansions were used to generate an optimized PTV. The mean (SD; range) normal vector length to ensure 95% coverage was 4.3 mm (2.7 mm; 1-16 mm). The uniform expansion required to ensure 95% probability of CTV coverage was 13 mm. An anisotropic margin of 20 mm anteriorly and posteriorly and 10 mm superiorly, inferiorly, and laterally also would have ensured a 95% probability of CTV coverage. The volume of the 95% optimized PTV (1470 cm(3)) was significantly lower than both the anisotropic PTV (2220 cm(3)) and the uniformly expanded PTV (2110 cm(3)) (p < 0.001). For a 95% probability of CTV coverage, normal lengths of 1-3 mm were found along the superior and lateral regions of CTV(0), 5-10 mm along the interfaces of CTV(0) with the bladder and rectum, and 10-14 mm along the anterior surface of CTV(0) at the level of the uterus. Optimizing PTV definition according to surface landmarking resulted in a high probability of CTV coverage with reduced PTV volumes. Our results provide data justifying planning margins to use in practice and clinical trials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Optimized Planning Target Volume for Intact Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Alvin; Jensen, Lindsay G.; Sun Shuai; Song, William Y.; Yashar, Catheryn M.; Mundt, Arno J.; Zhang Fuquan; Jiang, Steve B.; Mell, Loren K.

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To model interfraction clinical target volume (CTV) variation in patients with intact cervical cancer and design a planning target volume (PTV) that minimizes normal tissue dose while maximizing CTV coverage. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 50 patients undergoing external-beam radiotherapy for intact cervical cancer using daily online cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). The CBCTs (n = 972) for each patient were rigidly registered to the planning CT. The CTV was delineated on the planning CT (CTV{sub 0}) and the set of CBCTs ({l_brace}CTV{sub 1}-CTV{sub 25}{r_brace}). Manual (n = 98) and automated (n = 668) landmarks were placed over the surface of CTV{sub 0} with reference to defined anatomic structures. Normal vectors were extended from each landmark, and the minimum length required for a given probability of encompassing CTV{sub 1}-CTV{sub 25} was computed. The resulting expansions were used to generate an optimized PTV. Results: The mean (SD; range) normal vector length to ensure 95% coverage was 4.3 mm (2.7 mm; 1-16 mm). The uniform expansion required to ensure 95% probability of CTV coverage was 13 mm. An anisotropic margin of 20 mm anteriorly and posteriorly and 10 mm superiorly, inferiorly, and laterally also would have ensured a 95% probability of CTV coverage. The volume of the 95% optimized PTV (1470 cm{sup 3}) was significantly lower than both the anisotropic PTV (2220 cm{sup 3}) and the uniformly expanded PTV (2110 cm{sup 3}) (p < 0.001). For a 95% probability of CTV coverage, normal lengths of 1-3 mm were found along the superior and lateral regions of CTV{sub 0}, 5-10 mm along the interfaces of CTV{sub 0} with the bladder and rectum, and 10-14 mm along the anterior surface of CTV{sub 0} at the level of the uterus. Conclusion: Optimizing PTV definition according to surface landmarking resulted in a high probability of CTV coverage with reduced PTV volumes. Our results provide data justifying planning margins to use in practice and

  12. [Clinical to target volume margins determination in radiotherapy for anal cancers].

    PubMed

    Libois, V; Mahé, M-A; Rio, E; Maingon, P

    2016-10-01

    There are very few data on the expansion from the clinical target volume (CTV) to the planning target volume (PTV) in the anal cancer treatment. This article aims to collect the different elements needed for the construction of a PTV from scientific data based on a literature analysis. We reviewed the articles published in the medical literature from the last 20years. They concerned setup errors and internal organ mobility of the different volumes of patients treated by conformational radiotherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (anal canal, meso-rectum, common, intern and extern, inguinal and pre-sacral lymph nodes). CTV to PTV margins admitted in the guidelines and atlas of consensus groups (SFRO, RTOG, AGITG) are from 0.7 to 1cm in all directions, based on expert's opinions but not on scientific data. There are no specific studies on the canal anal mobility. Most of the data are from other pelvis cancers (gynecologic, rectum and prostate). Setup errors can be reduced by daily imaging. Patient repositioning and immobilization modalities are mostly local habits rather than scientific consensus. A three-dimensional 1cm margin is generally admitted. Margins reduction must be careful and has to be assessed.

  13. Internalized compartments encapsulated nanogels for targeted drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jicheng; Zhang, Yuqi; Sun, Wujin; Wang, Chao; Ranson, Davis; Ye, Yanqi; Weng, Yuyan; Gu, Zhen

    2016-04-01

    Drug delivery systems inspired by natural particulates hold great promise for targeted cancer therapy. An endosome formed by internalization of plasma membrane has a massive amount of membrane proteins and receptors on the surface, which is able to specifically target the homotypic cells. Herein, we describe a simple method to fabricate an internalized compartments encapsulated nanogel with endosome membrane components (EM-NG) from source cancer cells. Following intracellular uptake of methacrylated hyaluronic acid (m-HA) adsorbed SiO2/Fe3O4 nanoparticles encapsulating a crosslinker and a photoinitiator, EM-NG was readily prepared through in situ crosslinking initiated under UV irradiation after internalization. The resulting nanogels loaded with doxorubicin (DOX) displayed enhanced internalization efficiency to the source cells through a specific homotypic affinity in vitro. However, when treated with the non-source cells, the EM-NGs exhibited insignificant difference in therapeutic efficiency compared to a bare HA nanogel with DOX. This study illustrates the potential of utilizing an internalized compartments encapsulated formulation for targeted cancer therapy, and offers guidelines for developing a natural particulate-inspired drug delivery system.Drug delivery systems inspired by natural particulates hold great promise for targeted cancer therapy. An endosome formed by internalization of plasma membrane has a massive amount of membrane proteins and receptors on the surface, which is able to specifically target the homotypic cells. Herein, we describe a simple method to fabricate an internalized compartments encapsulated nanogel with endosome membrane components (EM-NG) from source cancer cells. Following intracellular uptake of methacrylated hyaluronic acid (m-HA) adsorbed SiO2/Fe3O4 nanoparticles encapsulating a crosslinker and a photoinitiator, EM-NG was readily prepared through in situ crosslinking initiated under UV irradiation after internalization. The

  14. International Space Station (ISS) Anomalies Trending Study. Volume II; Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beil, Robert J.; Brady, Timothy K.; Foster, Delmar C.; Graber, Robert R.; Malin, Jane T.; Thornesbery, Carroll G.; Throop, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) set out to utilize data mining and trending techniques to review the anomaly history of the International Space Station (ISS) and provide tools for discipline experts not involved with the ISS Program to search anomaly data to aid in identification of areas that may warrant further investigation. Additionally, the assessment team aimed to develop an approach and skillset for integrating data sets, with the intent of providing an enriched data set for discipline experts to investigate that is easier to navigate, particularly in light of ISS aging and the plan to extend its life into the late 2020s. This document contains the Appendices to the Volume I report.

  15. Treatment of internal sources in the finite-volume ELLAM

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, R.W.; ,; ,; ,; ,; ,

    2000-01-01

    The finite-volume Eulerian-Lagrangian localized adjoint method (FVELLAM) is a mass-conservative approach for solving the advection-dispersion equation. The method has been shown to be accurate and efficient for solving advection-dominated problems of solute transport in ground water in 1, 2, and 3 dimensions. Previous implementations of FVELLAM have had difficulty in representing internal sources because the standard assumption of lowest order Raviart-Thomas velocity field does not hold for source cells. Therefore, tracking of particles within source cells is problematic. A new approach has been developed to account for internal sources in FVELLAM. It is assumed that the source is uniformly distributed across a grid cell and that instantaneous mixing takes place within the cell, such that concentration is uniform across the cell at any time. Sub-time steps are used in the time-integration scheme to track mass outflow from the edges of the source cell. This avoids the need for tracking within the source cell. We describe the new method and compare results for a test problem with a wide range of cell Peclet numbers.

  16. Variations of target volume definition and daily target volume localization in stereotactic body radiotherapy for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer patients under abdominal compression.

    PubMed

    Han, Chunhui; Sampath, Sagus; Schultheisss, Timothy E; Wong, Jeffrey Y C

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to compare gross tumor volumes (GTV) in 3-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT) simulation and daily cone beam CT (CBCT) with the internal target volume (ITV) in 4-dimensional CT (4DCT) simulation in stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) treatment of patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) under abdominal compression. We retrospectively selected 10 patients with NSCLC who received image-guided SBRT treatments under abdominal compression with daily CBCT imaging. GTVs were contoured as visible gross tumor on the planning 3DCT and daily CBCT, and ITVs were contoured using maximum intensity projection (MIP) images of the planning 4DCT. Daily CBCTs were registered with 3DCT and MIP images by matching of bony landmarks in the thoracic region to evaluate interfractional GTV position variations. Relative to MIP-based ITVs, the average 3DCT-based GTV volume was 66.3 ± 17.1% (range: 37.5% to 92.0%) (p < 0.01 in paired t-test), and the average CBCT-based GTV volume was 90.0 ± 6.7% (daily range: 75.7% to 107.1%) (p = 0.02). Based on bony anatomy matching, the center-of-mass coordinates for CBCT-based GTVs had maximum absolute shift of 2.4 mm (left-right), 7.0 mm (anterior-posterior [AP]), and 5.2 mm (superior-inferior [SI]) relative to the MIP-based ITV. CBCT-based GTVs had average overlapping ratio of 81.3 ± 11.2% (range: 45.1% to 98.9%) with the MIP-based ITV, and 57.7 ± 13.7% (range: 35.1% to 83.2%) with the 3DCT-based GTV. Even with abdominal compression, both 3DCT simulations and daily CBCT scans significantly underestimated the full range of tumor motion. In daily image-guided patient setup corrections, automatic bony anatomy-based image registration could lead to target misalignment. Soft tissue-based image registration should be performed for accurate treatment delivery. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Targeting Insulin Receptor with a Novel Internalizing Aptamer

    PubMed Central

    Iaboni, Margherita; Fontanella, Raffaela; Rienzo, Anna; Capuozzo, Maria; Nuzzo, Silvia; Santamaria, Gianluca; Catuogno, Silvia; Condorelli, Gerolama; de Franciscis, Vittorio; Esposito, Carla Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Nucleic acid-based aptamers are emerging as therapeutic antagonists of disease-associated proteins such as receptor tyrosine kinases. They are selected by an in vitro combinatorial chemistry approach, named Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential enrichment (SELEX), and thanks to their small size and unique chemical characteristics, they possess several advantages over antibodies as diagnostics and therapeutics. In addition, aptamers that rapidly internalize into target cells hold as well great potential for their in vivo use as delivery tools of secondary therapeutic agents. Here, we describe a nuclease resistant RNA aptamer, named GL56, which specifically recognizes the insulin receptor (IR). Isolated by a cell-based SELEX method that allows enrichment for internalizing aptamers, GL56 rapidly internalizes into target cells and is able to discriminate IR from the highly homologous insulin-like growth factor receptor 1. Notably, when applied to IR expressing cancer cells, the aptamer inhibits IR dependent signaling. Given the growing interest in the insulin receptor as target for cancer treatment, GL56 reveals a novel molecule with great translational potential as inhibitor and delivery tool for IR-dependent cancers. PMID:27648925

  18. The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report - Volume 4: Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Behnke, Ties

    2013-06-26

    The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report (TDR) describes in four volumes the physics case and the design of a 500 GeV centre-of-mass energy linear electron-positron collider based on superconducting radio-frequency technology using Niobium cavities as the accelerating structures. The accelerator can be extended to 1 TeV and also run as a Higgs factory at around 250 GeV and on the Z0 pole. A comprehensive value estimate of the accelerator is give, together with associated uncertainties. It is shown that no significant technical issues remain to be solved. Once a site is selected and the necessary site-dependent engineering is carried out, construction can begin immediately. The TDR also gives baseline documentation for two high-performance detectors that can share the ILC luminosity by being moved into and out of the beam line in a "push-pull" configuration. These detectors, ILD and SiD, are described in detail. They form the basis for a world-class experimental programme that promises to increase significantly our understanding of the fundamental processes that govern the evolution of the Universe.

  19. The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report - Volume 2: Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, Howard; Barklow, Tim; Fujii, Keisuke; Gao, Yuanning; Hoang, Andre; Kanemura, Shinya; List, Jenny; Logan, Heather E.; Nomerotski, Andrei; Perelstein, Maxim; Peskin, Michael E.; Pöschl, Roman; Reuter, Jürgen; Riemann, Sabine; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Tait, Tim P.; Yu, Jaehoon

    2013-06-26

    The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report (TDR) describes in four volumes the physics case and the design of a 500 GeV centre-of-mass energy linear electron-positron collider based on superconducting radio-frequency technology using Niobium cavities as the accelerating structures. The accelerator can be extended to 1 TeV and also run as a Higgs factory at around 250 GeV and on the Z0 pole. A comprehensive value estimate of the accelerator is give, together with associated uncertainties. It is shown that no significant technical issues remain to be solved. Once a site is selected and the necessary site-dependent engineering is carried out, construction can begin immediately. The TDR also gives baseline documentation for two high-performance detectors that can share the ILC luminosity by being moved into and out of the beam line in a "push-pull" configuration. These detectors, ILD and SiD, are described in detail. They form the basis for a world-class experimental programme that promises to increase significantly our understanding of the fundamental processes that govern the evolution of the Universe.

  20. Eleventh annual international Pittsburgh coal conference proceedings: Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, S.H.

    1994-12-31

    The conference presented over 300 papers in 39 separate sessions. These presentations are grouped into five topical areas: the technologies in pre- and post-utilization of coal; research and development in coal conversion; advanced coal combustion; environmental control technologies, and environmental policy issues related to coal use. The program has expanded its coverage in non-fuel use of coal. This is reflected in the three sessions on use of coal in the steel industry, and a sessions on carbon products and non-fuel coal applications. Volume 2 includes the following topics: Environmental systems and technologies/Environmental policy; Coal drying, dewatering and reconstitution; Coal cleaning technology; Slurry bed technology; Coal syngas, methanol, DME, olefins and oxygenates; Environmental issues in energy conversion technology; Applied coal geology; Use of coal in the steel industry; Recent developments in coal preparation; International coal gasification projects; Progress on Clean Coal projects; Retrofit air quality control technologies;Fluidized bed combustion; Commercialization of coal preparation technologies; Integrated gasification combined cycle program; the US Department of Energy`s Combustion 2000 program; and Environmental issues in coal utilization. All papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  1. Laser-driven nuclear-polarized hydrogen internal gas target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seely, J.; Crawford, C.; Clasie, B.; Xu, W.; Dutta, D.; Gao, H.

    2006-06-01

    We report the performance of a laser-driven polarized internal hydrogen gas target (LDT) in a configuration similar to that used in scattering experiments. This target used the technique of spin-exchange optical pumping to produce nuclear spin polarized hydrogen gas that was fed into a cylindrical storage (target) cell. We present in this paper the performance of the target, methods that were tried to improve the figure-of-merit (FOM) of the target, and a Monte Carlo simulation of spin-exchange optical pumping. The dimensions of the apparatus were optimized using the simulation and the experimental results were in good agreement with the results from the simulation. The best experimental result achieved was at a hydrogen flow rate of 1.1×1018atoms/s , where the sample beam exiting the storage cell had 58.2% degree of dissociation and 50.5% polarization. Based on this measurement, the atomic fraction in the storage cell was 49.6% and the density averaged nuclear polarization was 25.0%. This represents the highest FOM for hydrogen from an LDT and is higher than the best FOM reported by atomic beam sources that used storage cells.

  2. Laser-driven nuclear-polarized hydrogen internal gas target

    SciTech Connect

    Seely, J.; Crawford, C.; Clasie, B.; Xu, W.; Dutta, D.; Gao, H.

    2006-06-15

    We report the performance of a laser-driven polarized internal hydrogen gas target (LDT) in a configuration similar to that used in scattering experiments. This target used the technique of spin-exchange optical pumping to produce nuclear spin polarized hydrogen gas that was fed into a cylindrical storage (target) cell. We present in this paper the performance of the target, methods that were tried to improve the figure-of-merit (FOM) of the target, and a Monte Carlo simulation of spin-exchange optical pumping. The dimensions of the apparatus were optimized using the simulation and the experimental results were in good agreement with the results from the simulation. The best experimental result achieved was at a hydrogen flow rate of 1.1x10{sup 18} atoms/s, where the sample beam exiting the storage cell had 58.2% degree of dissociation and 50.5% polarization. Based on this measurement, the atomic fraction in the storage cell was 49.6% and the density averaged nuclear polarization was 25.0%. This represents the highest FOM for hydrogen from an LDT and is higher than the best FOM reported by atomic beam sources that used storage cells.

  3. Accuracy of TomoTherapy treatments for superficial target volumes.

    PubMed

    Cheek, Dennis; Gibbons, John P; Rosen, Isaac I; Hogstrom, Kenneth R

    2008-08-01

    Helical tomotherapy is a technique for delivering intensity modulated radiation therapy treatments using a continuously rotating linac. In this approach, fan beams exiting the linac are dynamically modulated in synchrony with the motion of the gantry and couch. Helical IMRT deliveries have been applied to treating surface lesions, and the purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of dose calculated by the TomoTherapy HiArt treatment planning system for superficial planning target volumes (PTVs). TomoTherapy treatment plans were developed for three superficial PTVs (2-, 4-, and 6-cm deep radially by 90 degrees azimuthally by 4-cm longitudinally) contoured on a 27-cm diameter cylindrical white opaque, high-impact polystyrene phantom. The phantom included removable transverse and sagittal film cassettes that contained bare Kodak EDR2 films cut such that their edges matched the phantom surface (+/-0.05 cm). The phantom was aligned to the machine's isocenter (+/-0.05 cm) and was irradiated according to the treatment plans. Films were scanned with a Vidar film digitizer, and optical densities were converted to dose using a calibration determined from a 6 MV perpendicular film exposure. This perpendicular calibration required that axial film doses (parallel irradiation) be scaled by 1.02 so that mid-arc depth doses matched those measured in the sagittal plane (perpendicular irradiation). All film readings were scaled by 0.935 to correct for over-response due to phantom Cerenkov light. Measured dose distributions were registered to calculated ones and compared. Calculated doses overpredicted measured doses by as much as 9.5% of the prescribed dose at depths less than 1 cm. At depths greater than 1 cm, calculated dose distributions showed agreement to measurement within 5% in the high-dose region and within 0.2 cm distance-to-agreement in the dose falloff regions. In the low-dose region posterior to the PTVs (<10% of the prescribed dose), the dose algorithm

  4. Multiplexing thermography for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor divertor targets

    SciTech Connect

    Itami, K.; Sugie, T.; Vayakis, G.; Walker, C.

    2004-10-01

    The concept of multiplexing thermography is applied to the design of the divertor thermography system for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The combination of the front mirror with multiellipticity and a Czerney-Turner spectrometer with a 0.2 mm pitched multichannel detector enables a spatial resolution of 3 mm and a time resolution of 20 {mu}s above a target temperature of 300 deg. C to be achieved. This should be sufficient to measure ELM heat fluxes to the targets in ITER. To satisfy the measurement requirement, it is very important to keep an accurate alignment around the optical axis against movement of the vessel during the plasma discharges. Several key engineering problems, such as the survivability of components against mirror coating by redeposited divertor material, remain to be solved. Potential solutions have been identified.

  5. Internal gas target system for the DarkLight experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friscic, Ivica

    2017-01-01

    The DarkLight experiment at Jefferson National Laboratory (JLab) will perform a search for a dark photon in the mass range from 10 to 100 MeV/c2. The experimental design requires very high luminosity, but at the same time must keep the background rate as low as possible. Therefore, the experiment will use the 100 MeV electron beam from JLab's Low Energy Recirculator Facility (LERF) and a windowless gas target. In the summer of 2016 we deployed Phase 1A of this experiment, including a thin-walled, windowless target, using narrow apertures to restrict the flow of gas and aggressive pumping systems to reduce the pressure outside of the target region. Here we present the current design of the DarkLight internal gas target system, its performance during the 2016 summer beam tests, and future prospects. This work is supported by DOE grant DE-FG02-94ER40818 and NSF grant PHY-1437402.

  6. Technology transfer from NASA to targeted industries, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccain, Wayne; Schroer, Bernard J.; Souder, William E.; Spann, Mary S.; Watters, Harry; Ziemke, M. Carl

    1993-01-01

    This volume contains the following materials to support Volume 1: (1) Survey of Metal Fabrication Industry in Alabama; (2) Survey of Electronics Manufacturing/Assembly Industry in Alabama; (3) Apparel Modular Manufacturing Simulators; (4) Synopsis of a Stereolithography Project; (5) Transferring Modular Manufacturing Technology to an Apparel Firm; (6) Letters of Support; (7) Fact Sheets; (8) Publications; and (9) One Stop Access to NASA Technology Brochure.

  7. Delineation of Supraclavicular Target Volumes in Breast Cancer Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Lindsay C.; Diehn, Felix E.; Boughey, Judy C.; Childs, Stephanie K.; Park, Sean S.; Yan, Elizabeth S.; Petersen, Ivy A.; Mutter, Robert W.

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: To map the location of gross supraclavicular metastases in patients with breast cancer, in order to determine areas at highest risk of harboring subclinical disease. Methods and Materials: Patients with axial imaging of gross supraclavicular disease were identified from an institutional breast cancer registry. Locations of the metastatic lymph nodes were transferred onto representative axial computed tomography images of the supraclavicular region and compared with the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) breast cancer atlas for radiation therapy planning. Results: Sixty-two patients with 161 supraclavicular nodal metastases were eligible for study inclusion. At the time of diagnosis, 117 nodal metastases were present in 44 patients. Forty-four nodal metastases in 18 patients were detected at disease recurrence, 4 of whom had received prior radiation to the supraclavicular fossa. Of the 161 nodal metastases, 95 (59%) were within the RTOG consensus volume, 4 nodal metastases (2%) in 3 patients were marginally within the volume, and 62 nodal metastases (39%) in 30 patients were outside the volume. Supraclavicular disease outside the RTOG consensus volume was located in 3 regions: at the level of the cricoid and thyroid cartilage (superior to the RTOG volume), in the posterolateral supraclavicular fossa (posterolateral to the RTOG volume), and in the lateral low supraclavicular fossa (lateral to the RTOG volume). Only women with multiple supraclavicular metastases had nodal disease that extended superiorly to the level of the thyroid cartilage. Conclusions: For women with risk of harboring subclinical supraclavicular disease warranting the addition of supraclavicular radiation, coverage of the posterior triangle and the lateral low supraclavicular region should be considered. For women with known supraclavicular disease, extension of neck coverage superior to the cricoid cartilage may be warranted.

  8. Delineation of Supraclavicular Target Volumes in Breast Cancer Radiation Therapy.

    PubMed

    Brown, Lindsay C; Diehn, Felix E; Boughey, Judy C; Childs, Stephanie K; Park, Sean S; Yan, Elizabeth S; Petersen, Ivy A; Mutter, Robert W

    2015-07-01

    To map the location of gross supraclavicular metastases in patients with breast cancer, in order to determine areas at highest risk of harboring subclinical disease. Patients with axial imaging of gross supraclavicular disease were identified from an institutional breast cancer registry. Locations of the metastatic lymph nodes were transferred onto representative axial computed tomography images of the supraclavicular region and compared with the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) breast cancer atlas for radiation therapy planning. Sixty-two patients with 161 supraclavicular nodal metastases were eligible for study inclusion. At the time of diagnosis, 117 nodal metastases were present in 44 patients. Forty-four nodal metastases in 18 patients were detected at disease recurrence, 4 of whom had received prior radiation to the supraclavicular fossa. Of the 161 nodal metastases, 95 (59%) were within the RTOG consensus volume, 4 nodal metastases (2%) in 3 patients were marginally within the volume, and 62 nodal metastases (39%) in 30 patients were outside the volume. Supraclavicular disease outside the RTOG consensus volume was located in 3 regions: at the level of the cricoid and thyroid cartilage (superior to the RTOG volume), in the posterolateral supraclavicular fossa (posterolateral to the RTOG volume), and in the lateral low supraclavicular fossa (lateral to the RTOG volume). Only women with multiple supraclavicular metastases had nodal disease that extended superiorly to the level of the thyroid cartilage. For women with risk of harboring subclinical supraclavicular disease warranting the addition of supraclavicular radiation, coverage of the posterior triangle and the lateral low supraclavicular region should be considered. For women with known supraclavicular disease, extension of neck coverage superior to the cricoid cartilage may be warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. High volume fabrication of laser targets using MEMS techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spindloe, C.; Arthur, G.; Hall, F.; Tomlinson, S.; Potter, R.; Kar, S.; Green, J.; Higginbotham, A.; Booth, N.; Tolley, M. K.

    2016-04-01

    The latest techniques for the fabrication of high power laser targets, using processes developed for the manufacture of Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) devices are discussed. These laser targets are designed to meet the needs of the increased shot numbers that are available in the latest design of laser facilities. Traditionally laser targets have been fabricated using conventional machining or coarse etching processes and have been produced in quantities of 10s to low 100s. Such targets can be used for high complexity experiments such as Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) studies and can have many complex components that need assembling and characterisation with high precision. Using the techniques that are common to MEMS devices and integrating these with an existing target fabrication capability we are able to manufacture and deliver targets to these systems. It also enables us to manufacture novel targets that have not been possible using other techniques. In addition, developments in the positioning systems that are required to deliver these targets to the laser focus are also required and a system to deliver the target to a focus of an F2 beam at 0.1Hz is discussed.

  10. Analysis of Laser-Target Interaction. Volume 1. Theory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-03-01

    Previously, a model was constructed to describe energy transfer to an aluminum alloy target A12024 by a plasma ignited over the target surface. 1,2 The...intensity absorbed by the three non- aluminum alloys is shown as a function of time. A similar plot for oxidized steel is given in Fig. 3. 5. Typical...such as aluminum or copper cover poorly con- ducting targets such as SS304 and Ti6Al4V. 347 For an aluminum target over an aluminum alloy , the substrate

  11. The Polarized Internal Target at ANKE: First Results

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoryev, K.; Mikirtytchiants, M.; Engels, R.; Lorentz, B.; Prasuhn, D.; Rathmann, F.; Sarkadi, J.; Seyfarth, H.; Stroeher, H.; Klehr, F.; Mikirtytchiants, S.; Vasilyev, A.

    2007-06-13

    For future few-nucleon interactions studies with polarized beams and targets at COSY-Juelich, a polarized internal storage cell gas target was implemented at the magnetic spectrometer ANKE in summer 2005. First commissioning of the polarized Atomic Beam Source (ABS) at ANKE was carried out and some improvements of the system have been done. At the same time, storage-cell tests to determine the COSY beam dimensions have been performed. In February 2005, a first storage cell prototype was implemented. It was made from an aluminum foil covered by a special PTFE suspension. In November 2005, tests were carried out with a storage cell using a polarized hydrogen beam from the ABS, electron cooling and stacking injection of the COSY beam at different deflection angles of the ANKE spectrometer magnet. An average target polarization of P=0.44{+-}0.03 (November 2005 beamtime) was measured, while we expected about P=0.51-0.55 due to the availability of rf-transition units in the ABS. The jet target thickness was measured as (1.5{+-}0.1){center_dot}1011 atoms/cm2. In March 2006, measurements with unpolarized protons at T=831 MeV and an unpolarized H2 beam injected from a gas feeding system into the aluminum storage cell were carried out. The analysis of the pp {yields} pp{pi}0 and pp {yields} pn{pi}+ reactions showed that events from the extended target can be clearly identified in the ANKE forward detector system.

  12. Laser-driven polarized hydrogen and deuterium internal targets

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, C.E.; Fedchak, J.A.; Kowalczyk, R.S.

    1995-08-01

    After completing comprehensive tests of the performance of the source with both hydrogen and deuterium gas, we began tests of a realistic polarized deuterium internal target. These tests involve characterizing the atomic polarization and dissociation fraction of atoms in a storage cell as a function of flow and magnetic field, and making direct measurements of the average nuclear tensor polarization of deuterium atoms in the storage cell. Transfer of polarization from the atomic electron to the nucleus as a result of D-D spin-exchange collisions was observed in deuterium, verifying calculations suggesting that high vector polarization in both hydrogen and deuterium can be obtained in a gas in spin temperature equilibrium without inducing RF transitions between the magnetic substates. In order to improve the durability of the system, the source glassware was redesigned to simplify construction and installation and eliminate stress points that led to frequent breakage. Improvements made to the nuclear polarimeter, which used the low energy {sup 3}H(d,n){sup 4}He reaction to analyze the tensor polarization of the deuterium, included installing acceleration lenses constructed of wire mesh to improve pumping conductance, construction of a new holding field coil, and elimination of the Wien filter from the setup. These changes substantially simplified operation of the polarimeter and should have reduced depolarization in collisions with the wall. However, when a number of tests failed to show an improvement of the nuclear polarization, it was discovered that extended operation of the system with a section of teflon as a getter for potassium caused the dissociation fraction to decline with time under realistic operating conditions, suggesting that teflon may not be a suitable material to eliminate potassium from the target. We are replacing the teflon surfaces with drifilm-coated ones and plan to continue tests of the polarized internal target in this configuration.

  13. Ninteenth International Cosmic Ray Conference. OG Sessions, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, F. C. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Contributed papers addressing cosmic ray origin and galactic phenomena are compiled. The topic areas covered in this volume include gamma ray bursts, gamma rays from point sources, and diffuse gamma ray emission.

  14. International Law and the Changing Character of War. Volume 87

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Ambassador Mary Ann Peters (Ret.) DEAN, CENTER FOR NAVAL WARFARE STUDIES Professor Robert Rubel CHAIRMAN, INTERNATIONAL LAW DEPARTMENT Professor Dennis L...www.usnwc.edu/ild. DENNIS MANDSAGER Professor of Law & Chairman International Law Department xxi Preface From June 22 to 24, 2010 the Naval War College...rejecting US justi- fication for use of force as self-defense on failure to meet burden of proof); Geoffrey Corn & Dennis Gyllensporre, International

  15. Radial Internal Material Handling System (RIMS) for Circular Habitat Volumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Alan S.; Haselschwardt, Sally; Bogatko, Alex; Humphrey, Brian; Patel, Amit

    2013-01-01

    On planetary surfaces, pressurized human habitable volumes will require a means to carry equipment around within the volume of the habitat, regardless of the partial gravity (Earth, Moon, Mars, etc.). On the NASA Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU), a vertical cylindrical volume, it was determined that a variety of heavy items would need to be carried back and forth from deployed locations to the General Maintenance Work Station (GMWS) when in need of repair, and other equipment may need to be carried inside for repairs, such as rover parts and other external equipment. The vertical cylindrical volume of the HDU lent itself to a circular overhead track and hoist system that allows lifting of heavy objects from anywhere in the habitat to any other point in the habitat interior. In addition, the system is able to hand-off lifted items to other material handling systems through the side hatches, such as through an airlock. The overhead system consists of two concentric circle tracks that have a movable beam between them. The beam has a hoist carriage that can move back and forth on the beam. Therefore, the entire system acts like a bridge crane curved around to meet itself in a circle. The novelty of the system is in its configuration, and how it interfaces with the volume of the HDU habitat. Similar to how a bridge crane allows coverage for an entire rectangular volume, the RIMS system covers a circular volume. The RIMS system is the first generation of what may be applied to future planetary surface vertical cylinder habitats on the Moon or on Mars.

  16. Atlas-based semiautomatic target volume definition (CTV) for head-and-neck tumors.

    PubMed

    Strassmann, Gerd; Abdellaoui, Soulimane; Richter, Detlef; Bekkaoui, Fayzal; Haderlein, Marlene; Fokas, Emmanouil; Timmesfeld, Nina; Vogel, Birgitt; Henzel, Martin; Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita

    2010-11-15

    To develop a new semiautomatic method to improve target delineation in head-and-neck cancer. We implemented an atlas-based software program using fourteen anatomic landmarks as well as the most superior and inferior computerd tomography slices for automatic target delineation, using an advanced laryngeal carcinoma as an example. Registration was made by an affine transformation. Evaluation was performed with manually drawn contours for comparison. Three physicians sampled and further applied a target volume atlas to ten other computer tomography data sets. In addition, a rapid three-dimensional (3D) correction program was developed. The mean time to the first semiautomatic target delineation proposal was 2.7 minutes. Manual contouring required 20.2 minutes per target, whereas semiautomatic target volume definition with the rapid 3D correction was completed in only 9.7 minutes. The net calculation time for image registration of the target volume atlas was negligible (approximately 0.6 seconds). Our method depicted a sufficient adaptation of the target volume atlas on the new data sets, with a mean similarity index of 77.2%. The similarity index increased up to 85% after 3D correction performed by the physicians. We have developed a new, feasible method for semiautomatic contouring that saves a significant amount (51.8%) of target delineation time for head-and-neck cancer patients. This approach uses a target volume atlas and a landmark model. The software was evaluated by means of laryngeal cancer but has important implications for various tumor types whereby target volumes remain constant in form and do not move with respiration. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Atlas-Based Semiautomatic Target Volume Definition (CTV) for Head-and-Neck Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Strassmann, Gerd; Abdellaoui, Soulimane; Richter, Detlef; Bekkaoui, Fayzal; Haderlein, Marlene; Fokas, Emmanouil; Timmesfeld, Nina; Vogel, Birgitt M.D.; Henzel, Martin; Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: To develop a new semiautomatic method to improve target delineation in head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: We implemented an atlas-based software program using fourteen anatomic landmarks as well as the most superior and inferior computerd tomography slices for automatic target delineation, using an advanced laryngeal carcinoma as an example. Registration was made by an affine transformation. Evaluation was performed with manually drawn contours for comparison. Three physicians sampled and further applied a target volume atlas to ten other computer tomography data sets. In addition, a rapid three-dimensional (3D) correction program was developed. Results: The mean time to the first semiautomatic target delineation proposal was 2.7 minutes. Manual contouring required 20.2 minutes per target, whereas semiautomatic target volume definition with the rapid 3D correction was completed in only 9.7 minutes. The net calculation time for image registration of the target volume atlas was negligible (approximately 0.6 seconds). Our method depicted a sufficient adaptation of the target volume atlas on the new data sets, with a mean similarity index of 77.2%. The similarity index increased up to 85% after 3D correction performed by the physicians. Conclusions: We have developed a new, feasible method for semiautomatic contouring that saves a significant amount (51.8%) of target delineation time for head-and-neck cancer patients. This approach uses a target volume atlas and a landmark model. The software was evaluated by means of laryngeal cancer but has important implications for various tumor types whereby target volumes remain constant in form and do not move with respiration.

  18. Technology transfer from NASA to targeted industries, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccain, Wayne; Schroer, Bernard J.; Souder, William E.; Spann, Mary S.; Watters, Harry; Ziemke, M. Carl

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) technology transfer to three target industries with focus on the apparel manufacturing industry in Alabama. Also included in this report are an analysis of the 1992 problem statements submitted by Alabama firms, the results of the survey of 1987-88 NASA Tech Brief requests, the results of the followup to Alabama submitted problem statements, and the development of the model describing the MSFC technology transfer process.

  19. Monte Carlo Simulations for Dosimetry in Prostate Radiotherapy with Different Intravesical Volumes and Planning Target Volume Margins

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Wei; Yu, Dong; He, Hengda; Liu, Qian

    2016-01-01

    In prostate radiotherapy, the influence of bladder volume variation on the dose absorbed by the target volume and organs at risk is significant and difficult to predict. In addition, the resolution of a typical medical image is insufficient for visualizing the bladder wall, which makes it more difficult to precisely evaluate the dose to the bladder wall. This simulation study aimed to quantitatively investigate the relationship between the dose received by organs at risk and the intravesical volume in prostate radiotherapy. The high-resolution Visible Chinese Human phantom and the finite element method were used to construct 10 pelvic models with specific intravesical volumes ranging from 100 ml to 700 ml to represent bladders of patients with different bladder filling capacities during radiotherapy. This series of models was utilized in six-field coplanar 3D conformal radiotherapy simulations with different planning target volume (PTV) margins. Each organ’s absorbed dose was calculated using the Monte Carlo method. The obtained bladder wall displacements during bladder filling were consistent with reported clinical measurements. The radiotherapy simulation revealed a linear relationship between the dose to non-targeted organs and the intravesical volume and indicated that a 10-mm PTV margin for a large bladder and a 5-mm PTV margin for a small bladder reduce the effective dose to the bladder wall to similar degrees. However, larger bladders were associated with evident protection of the intestines. Detailed dosimetry results can be used by radiation oncologists to create more accurate, individual water preload protocols according to the patient’s anatomy and bladder capacity. PMID:27441944

  20. The international prostate symptom score overestimates nocturia assessed by frequency-volume charts.

    PubMed

    van Haarst, Ernst P; Bosch, J L H Ruud; Heldeweg, Eddi A

    2012-07-01

    We analyzed differences in nocturia, as estimated by the International Prostate Symptom Score and 7-day frequency-volume charts. A total of 398 forms were collected from 500 consecutive urological outpatients willing to record a 7-day frequency-volume chart. All patients completed a general questionnaire, an International Prostate Symptom Score, and a bladder symptom and bother score. Missed recordings were indicated by a coded letter. Patients who lacked essential data, bedtimes or an International Prostate Symptom Score, or who recorded the frequency-volume chart for less than 5 days were excluded from study. A total of 186 men and 115 women with a mean age of 56 years were evaluable. In 10.6% of patients no nocturia occurred. Of those with nocturia 70% and 34% experienced nocturia a mean of 1 or more and 2 or more times, respectively. In 43% of patients the International Prostate Symptom Score equaled calculated categorized nocturia while 50% had a higher International Prostate Symptom Score nocturia score than calculated nocturia. On univariate analysis the correlation of International Prostate Symptom Score question 7 with mean nocturia increased with frequency-volume chart duration (day 1 r = 0.52 to day 3 r = 0.63). On longer duration frequency-volume charts the correlation showed no further increase. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that the nocturia score was determined by mean nocturia in the frequency-volume chart, the nocturia bother score and patient age. The International Prostate Symptom Score nocturia score overestimated nocturia in most patients, as derived from a 7-day frequency-volume chart. When scoring International Prostate Symptom Score nocturia question 7, patients included a degree of bother. The correlation of question 7 with mean nocturia increased with frequency-volume chart duration until day 3. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A prediction model of radiation-induced necrosis for intracranial radiosurgery based on target volume.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bo; Wen, Ning; Chetty, Indrin J; Huang, Yimei; Brown, Stephen L; Snyder, Karen C; Siddiqui, Farzan; Movsas, Benjamin; Siddiqui, M Salim

    2017-08-01

    This study aims to extend the observation that the 12 Gy-radiosurgical-volume (V12Gy) correlates with the incidence of radiation necrosis in patients with intracranial tumors treated with radiosurgery by using target volume to predict V12Gy. V12Gy based on the target volume was used to predict the radiation necrosis probability (P) directly. Also investigated was the reduction in radiation necrosis rates (ΔP) as a result of optimizing the prescription isodose lines for linac-based SRS. Twenty concentric spherical targets and 22 patients with brain tumors were retrospectively studied. For each case, a standard clinical plan and an optimized plan with prescription isodose lines based on gradient index were created. V12Gy were extracted from both plans to analyze the correlation between V12Gy and target volume. The necrosis probability P as a function of V12Gy was evaluated. To account for variation in prescription, the relation between V12Gy and prescription was also investigated. A prediction model for radiation-induced necrosis was presented based on the retrospective study. The model directly relates the typical prescribed dose and the target volume to the radionecrosis probability; V12Gy increased linearly with the target volume (R(2)  > 0.99). The linear correlation was then integrated into a logistic model to predict P directly from the target volume. The change in V12Gy as a function of prescription was modeled using a single parameter, s (=-1.15). Relatively large ΔP was observed for target volumes between 7 and 28 cm(3) with the maximum reduction (8-9%) occurring at approximately 18 cm(3) . Based on the model results, optimizing the prescription isodose line for target volumes between 7 and 28 cm(3) results in a significant reduction in necrosis probability. V12Gy based on the target volume could provide clinicians a predictor of radiation necrosis at the contouring stage thus facilitating treatment decisions. © 2017 American Association of

  2. Emergent and Developing Reading: Messages for Teachers. Children Learning To Read: International Concerns, Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Pamela, Ed.; Pumfrey, Peter, Ed.

    Providing an international perspective on how children learn to read, this first of 2 volumes presents research studies and classroom experiences from the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Australia, Jamaica, and Israel, drawing on evidence from 18 countries. Essays in the volumes highlight implications for design, implementation, and…

  3. Curriculum and Assessment Issues: Messages for Teachers. Children Learning To Read: International Concerns, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Pamela, Ed.; Pumfrey, Peter, Ed.

    Providing an international perspective on how children learn to read, this second of 2 volumes presents research studies and classroom experiences from the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Australia, Jamaica, and Israel, drawing on evidence from 18 countries. Essays in the volumes highlight implications for design, implementation, and…

  4. Beyond the Classroom: International Education and the Community College. Volume II: Internationalizing the Campus Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franco, Robert W., Ed.; Shimabukuro, James N., Ed.

    Part of a four-volume set in which community college educators discuss their efforts to internationalize the educational experience of the students and communities they serve, volume II in this series considers the challenges, pitfalls, and rewards of creating campus environments with rich international and intercultural programs and activities.…

  5. Handbook of International Alloy Compositions and Designations. Volume 1. Titanium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-11-01

    Alloys for the Aerospace Industry (Revised), DMIC Memor- andum 232, Metals and Ceramics Information Center, Battelle’s Columbus Laboratories, Columbus...The Titanium Industry in the Mid-1970’s, Metals and Ceramics Information Center, Battelle’s Columbus Laboratories, Columbus, Ohio, MCIC-75-26 (June...Volume I - TlHinium Harold Hucek and Marshal J. Wahll 9. HcRfORMING 0=?CANI Z ATION N^Mh AND ADDRESS Metals nrid Ceramics Information

  6. [Multimodalities imaging for target volume definition in radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Daisne, Jean-François; Grégoire, Vincent

    2006-12-01

    Modern radiotherapy delivery nowadays relies on tridimensional, conformal techniques. The aim is to better target the tumor while decreasing the dose administered to surrounding normal tissues. Gold standard imaging modality remains computed-tomography (CT) scanner. However, the intrinsic lack of contrast between soft tissues leads to high variabilities in target definition. The risks are : a geographical miss with tumor underirradiation on the one hand, and a tumor overestimation with undue normal tissues irradiation on the other hand. Alternative imaging modalities like magnetic resonance imaging and functional positron emission tomography could theoretically overcome the lack of soft tissues contrast of CT. However, the fusion of the different imaging modalities images requires the use of sophisticated computer algorithms. We will briefly review them. We will then review the different clinical results reported with multi-modalities imaging for tumors of the head, neck, lung, esophagus, cervix and lymphomas. Finally, we will briefly give practical recommendations for multi-modality imaging in radiotherapy treatment planning process.

  7. Nineteenth International Cosmic Ray Conference. HE Sessions, Volume 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, F. C. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Papers contributed to the 19th International Cosmic Ray Conference which address high energy interactions and related phenomena are compiled. Particular topic areas include cross sections; particle production; nuclei and nuclear matter; nucleus-nucleus collisions; gamma ray and hadron spectra; C-jets, a-jets, and super families; and emulsion chamber simulations.

  8. The Career Intern Program: Preliminary Results of an Experiment in Career Education. Technical Appendix. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opportunities Industrialization Centers of America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA.

    The technical appendix to "The Career Intern Program: Preliminary Results of an Experiment in Career Education," Volume 1, reports on the research designs used for evaluating the Career Intern Program's (CIP) effectiveness in increasing the student's cognitive skills, academic achievement, vocational adjustment, future orientation, and…

  9. Handbook of International alloy Compositions and Designations. Volume II. Superalloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-12-01

    contaminants as sulfur , sodium, and vanadium. Good oxidation resistance is derived by the formation of a tight, continuous surface scale that acts as a...the combined effects of oxidation plus reactions with sulfur and other contaminants which may be present. Hot corrosion in gas turbines proceeds by a...movement of sulfur into the base metal where it reacts with chromium to precipitate internal sulfides. Hot corrosion resistance is related at least

  10. Promoting International Energy Security: Volume 4, The Gulf of Guinea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    TRANSPORTATION INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS LAW AND BUSINESS NATIONAL SECURITY POPULATION AND AGING PUBLIC SAFETY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY TERRORISM AND...the United States, as well as other oil-importing nations, to encour- age greater production and investment that would raise petroleum output in Nigeria...relationship with Turkey. Another potential role for USAF is in assisting the U.S. Navy in sea-lane protection, which is the subject of the third

  11. Evaluation of Peritumoral Edema in the Delineation of Radiotherapy Clinical Target Volumes for Glioblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Eric L. . E-mail: echang@mdanderson.org; Akyurek, Serap; Avalos, Tedde C; Rebueno, Neal C; Spicer, Chris C; Garcia, John C; Famiglietti, Robin; Allen, Pamela K.; Chao, K.S. Clifford; Mahajan, Anita; Woo, Shiao Y.; Maor, Moshe H.

    2007-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the spatial relationship between peritumoral edema and recurrence pattern in patients with glioblastoma (GBM). Methods and Materials: Forty-eight primary GBM patients received three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy that did not intentionally include peritumoral edema within the clinical target volume between July 2000 and June 2001. All 48 patients have subsequently recurred, and their original treatment planning parameters were used for this study. New theoretical radiation treatment plans were created for the same 48 patients, based on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) target delineation guidelines that specify inclusion of peritumoral edema. Target volume and recurrent tumor coverage, as well as percent volume of normal brain irradiated, were assessed for both methods of target delineation using dose-volume histograms. Results: A comparison between the location of recurrent tumor and peritumoral edema volumes from all 48 cases failed to show correlation by linear regression modeling (r {sup 2} 0.0007; p = 0.3). For patients with edema >75 cm{sup 3}, the percent volume of brain irradiated to 46 Gy was significantly greater in treatment plans that intentionally included peritumoral edema compared with those that did not (38% vs. 31%; p = 0.003). The pattern of failure was identical between the two sets of plans (40 central, 3 in-field, 3 marginal, and 2 distant recurrence). Conclusion: Clinical target volume delineation based on a 2-cm margin rather than on peritumoral edema did not seem to alter the central pattern of failure for patients with GBM. For patients with peritumoral edema >75 cm{sup 3}, using a constant 2-cm margin resulted in a smaller median percent volume of brain being irradiated to 30 Gy, 46 Gy, and 50 Gy compared with corresponding theoretical RTOG plans that deliberately included peritumoral edema.

  12. Probing the contribution of internal cavities to the volume change of protein unfolding under pressure.

    PubMed Central

    Frye, K. J.; Royer, C. A.

    1998-01-01

    The structural origin of the decrease in system volume upon protein denaturation by pressure has remained a puzzle for decades. This negative volume change upon unfolding is assumed to arise globally from more intimate interactions between the polypeptide chain and water, including electrostriction of buried charges that become exposed upon unfolding, hydration of the polypeptide backbone and amino acid side chains and elimination of packing defects and internal void volumes upon unfolding of the chain. However, the relative signs and magnitudes of each of these contributing factors have not been experimentally determined. Our laboratory has probed the fundamental basis for the volume change upon unfolding of staphylococcal nuclease (Snase) using variable solution conditions and point mutants of Snase (Royer CA et al., 1993, Biochemistry 32:5222-5232; Frye KJ et al., 1996, Biochemistry 35:10234-10239). Our prior results indicate that for Snase, neither electrostriction nor polar or nonpolar hydration contributes significantly to the value of the volume change of unfolding. In the present work, we investigate the pressure induced unfolding of three point mutants of Snase in which internal cavity size is altered. The experimentally determined volume changes of unfolding for the mutants suggest that loss of internal void volume upon unfolding represents the major contributing factor to the value of the volume change of Snase unfolding. PMID:9792110

  13. A target-specific electrode and lead design for internal globus pallidus deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Vasques, Xavier; Cif, Laura; Mennessier, Gérard; Coubes, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    In nearly all deep brain stimulation (DBS) applications, the same quadripolar electrode design is used for different anatomical targets even if shape and volume differences exist between nuclei. Taking into account the electrode location within the internal globus pallidus (GPi) and the size of the GPi, 2 electrodes were designed in order to improve the therapeutic benefit, to minimize side effects from DBS and to obtain a more homogeneous electric field distribution. The electrodes were evaluated numerically by using a stereotactic model measuring the correlation between the electric field and the GPi. The model was applied to 26 dystonodyskinetic patients who underwent surgery for a bilateral lead implantation into the posteroventral part of the GPi. The designed electrodes produced a more homogeneous distribution of the electric field than the quadripolar electrode.

  14. Proceedings: Eighth international ash utilization symposium: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-10-01

    The two-volume publication contains 65 papers, including six abstracts, presented at ten sessions during the October 1987 event. Some topics covered basic research themes, such as: new studies of fly ash, fly ash concrete, and important properties and construction uses; updated ash sampling and testing procedures; advances in fluidized bed combustion (FBC), flue gas desulfurization (FGD), and other sulfur dioxide control products; and latest pozzolan programs of the Cement and Concrete Reference Laboratory (CCRL) of the National Bureau of Standards. Other topics focused on applied coal ash technology, including: airport, highway and dam construction; structural fills; flowable fill; roller compacted concrete;lightweight building products; recovery of metals from coal ash; fillers for paints and plastics; and new coal ash uses in agriculture and reclamation.

  15. Proceedings: Eighth international ash utilization symposium: Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-10-01

    The two-volume publication contains 65 papers, including six abstracts, presented at ten sessions during the October 1987 event. Some topics covered basic research themes, such as new studies of fly ash, fly ash concrete, and important properties and construction uses; updated ash sampling and testing procedures; advances in fluidized bed combustion (FBC), flue gas desulfurization (FGD), and other sulfur dioxide control products; and latest pozzolan programs of the Cement and Concrete Reference Laboratory (CCRL) of the National Bureau of Standards. Other topics focused on applied coal ash technology including: airport, highway and dam construction; structural fills; flowable fill; roller compacted concrete; lightweight building products; recovery of metals from coal ash; fillers for paints and plastics; and new coal ash uses in agriculture and reclamation.

  16. Internal offsets and technological innovation: Six case studies, volume 9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogee, M. E.

    1982-04-01

    The experiences of six industrial firms with the new Federal policy of internal offsets are described. Offsets, regulatory reforms initiated by the Environmental Protection Agency and called by the generic title of emission trading, were introduced to allow continued economic growth in nonattainment areas and to stimulate innovation in pollution control and process technology by making it profitable for firms to create more reductions than the law now requires. The problems of defining and measuring innovation as well as presenting industrial firm perceptions of innovation associated with offset cases are discussed.

  17. Eighth international conference on MHD electrical power generation. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    The VIIIth International Conference on MHD Electrical Power Generation was convened at the initiative of the International Liaison Group on MHD Electrical Power Generation by the USSR Academy of Sciences (Institute of High Temperatures) and under the sponsorship of: UNESCO; Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON); Energoinvest (Yugoslavia); Control Data Corporation (USA); and the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (India). Considerable emphasis is placed in the Conference proceedings on the problems of testing, designing and mathematical modeling of MHD channels, as well as on the studies into MHD flows, heat transfer, properties and physical processes in plasma, electrode phenomena and diagnostics. The various MHD components are described from the standpoint of their development, namely, compressors, air preheaters, systems for seed injection and recovery, combustors, cooling systems, steam generators, superconducting magnets, loading systems etc. Problems related to high-temperature materials, operation of the equipment under conditions of slagging, and suppression of nitrogen and sulfur oxides are discussed. All but one of the papers have been entered into EDB; one had been entered previously from other sources.

  18. On the internal target model in a tracking task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caglayan, A. K.; Baron, S.

    1981-01-01

    An optimal control model for predicting operator's dynamic responses and errors in target tracking ability is summarized. The model, which predicts asymmetry in the tracking data, is dependent on target maneuvers and trajectories. Gunners perception, decision making, control, and estimate of target positions and velocity related to crossover intervals are discussed. The model provides estimates for means, standard deviations, and variances for variables investigated and for operator estimates of future target positions and velocities.

  19. Inter- and Intrafractional Movement-Induced Dose Reduction of Prostate Target Volume in Proton Beam Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Myonggeun; Kim, Dongwook; Shin, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Yong Lee, Se Byeong; Kim, Dae Yong; Kim, Joo Young; Pyo, Hong Ryull; Cho, Kwan Ho

    2008-07-15

    Purpose: To quantify proton radiotherapy dose reduction in the prostate target volume because of the three-dimensional movement of the prostate based on an analysis of dose-volume histograms (DVHs). Methods and Materials: Twelve prostate cancer patients underwent scanning in supine position, and a target contour was delineated for each using a proton treatment planning system. To simulate target movement, the contour was displaced from 3 to 15 mm in 3-mm intervals in the superior-to-inferior (SI), inferior-to-superior (IS), anterior-to-posterior (AP), posterior-to-anterior (PA), and left-to-right (LR) directions. Results: For both intra- and interfractional movements, the average coverage index and conformity index of the target were reduced in all directions. For interfractional movements, the magnitude of dose reduction was greater in the LR direction than in the AP, PA, SI. and IS directions. Although the reduction of target dose was proportional to the magnitude of intrafractional movement in all directions, a proportionality between dose reduction and the magnitude of interfractional target movement was clear only in the LR direction. Like the coverage index and conformity index, the equivalent uniform dose and homogeneity index showed similar reductions for both types of target movements. Conclusions: Small target movements can significantly reduce target proton radiotherapy dose during treatment of prostate cancer patients. Attention should be given to interfractional target movement along the longitudinal direction, as image-guided radiotherapy may be ineffective if margins are not sufficient.

  20. International energy outlook. Volume 1. Mideast, Far East, and Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Jablonski, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    The developing nations of the Mideast, Far East, and Africa face a bleaker - and more-complicated - energy picture than that of the West. Rapid industrial and agricultural expansion in the region severely drains already-inadequate energy systems. Energy-importing countries find they must diversify and develop indigenous resources, but often lack the technical known-how to do so. Volume 1 is a compilation of official US government intelligence reports examining the way 22 countries in the Mideast, Far East, and Africa are responding to the energy problems. The countries covered are: Algeria, Australia, Burma, China, Egypt, Gabon, India, Indonesia, Ivory Coast, Japan, Korea, Kuwait, Lebanon, Morocco, Mozambique, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Sudan, Taiwan, Tunisia and Turkey. The range and detail of country reports vary, due to availability of reports. Although the book details current energy situations, its main emphasis is on the future, including estimates of future production and consumption, and descriptions of energy development plans. Some of the countries in this region are fortunate to have petrochemical resources, while electric energy expansion is crucial to national development in all. Coal will be filling the gap left by diminishing oil supplies. 61 tables.

  1. Effect of the curing method and composite volume on marginal and internal adaptation of composite restoratives.

    PubMed

    Souza-Junior, Eduardo José; de Souza-Régis, Marcos Ribeiro; Alonso, Roberta Caroline Bruschi; de Freitas, Anderson Pinheiro; Sinhoreti, Mario Alexandre Coelho; Cunha, Leonardo Gonçalves

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of curing methods and composite volumes on the marginal and internal adaptation of composite restoratives. Two cavities with different volumes (Lower volume: 12.6 mm(3); Higher volume: 24.5 mm(3)) were prepared on the buccal surface of 60 bovine teeth and restored using Filtek Z250 in bulk filling. For each cavity, specimens were randomly assigned into three groups according to the curing method (n=10): 1) continuous light (CL: 27 seconds at 600 mW/cm(2)); 2) soft-start (SS: 10 seconds at 150 mW/cm(2)+24 seconds at 600 mW/cm(2)); and 3) pulse delay (PD: five seconds at 150 mW/cm(2)+three minutes with no light+25 seconds at 600 mW/cm(2)). The radiant exposure for all groups was 16 J/cm(2). Marginal adaptation was measured with the dye staining gap procedure, using Caries Detector. Outer margins were stained for five seconds and the gap percentage was determined using digital images on a computer measurement program (Image Tool). Then, specimens were sectioned in slices and stained for five seconds, and the internal gaps were measured using the same method. Data were submitted to two-way analysis of variance and Tukey test (p<0.05). Composite volume had a significant influence on superficial and internal gap formation, depending on the curing method. For CL groups, restorations with higher volume showed higher marginal gap incidence than did the lower volume restorations. Additionally, the effect of the curing method depended on the volume. Regarding marginal adaptation, SS resulted in a significant reduction of gap formation, when compared to CL, for higher volume restorations. For lower volume restorations, there was no difference among the curing methods. For internal adaptation, the modulated curing methods SS and PD promoted a significant reduction of gap formation, when compared to CL, only for the lower volume restoration. Therefore, in similar conditions of the cavity configuration, the higher the

  2. [Definition of accurate planning target volume margins for esophageal cancer radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Lesueur, P; Servagi-Vernat, S

    2016-10-01

    More than 4000 cases of esophagus neoplasms are diagnosed every year in France. Radiotherapy, which can be delivered in preoperative or exclusive with a concomitant chemotherapy, plays a central role in treatment of esophagus cancer. Even if efficacy of radiotherapy no longer has to be proved, the prognosis of esophagus cancer remains unfortunately poor with a high recurrence rate. Toxicity of esophageal radiotherapy is correlated with the irradiation volume, and limits dose escalation and local control. Esophagus is a deep thoracic organ, which undergoes cardiac and respiratory motion, making the radiotherapy delivery more difficult and increasing the planning target volume margins. Definition of accurate planning target volume margins, taking into account the esophagus' intrafraction motion and set up margins is very important to be sure to cover the clinical target volume and restrains acute and late radiotoxicity. In this article, based on a review of the literature, we propose planning target volume margins adapted to esophageal radiotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging- Versus Computed Tomography-Based Target Volume Delineation of the Glandular Breast Tissue (Clinical Target Volume Breast) in Breast-Conserving Therapy: An Exploratory Study

    SciTech Connect

    Giezen, Marina; Kouwenhoven, Erik; Scholten, Astrid N.; Coerkamp, Emile G.; Heijenbrok, Mark; Jansen, Wim P.A.; Mast, Mirjam E.; Petoukhova, Anna L.; Struikmans, Henk

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: To examine MRI and CT for glandular breast tissue (GBT) volume delineation and to assess interobserver variability. Methods and Materials: Fifteen breast cancer patients underwent a planning CT and MRI, consecutively, in the treatment position. Four observers (two radiation oncologists and two radiologists) delineated the GBT according to the CT and separately to the MR images. Volumes, centers of mass, maximum extensions with standard deviations (SD), and interobserver variability were quantified. Observers viewed delineation differences between MRI and CT and delineation differences among observers. Results: In cranio-lateral and cranio-medial directions, GBT volumes were delineated larger using MRI when compared with those delineated with CT. Center of mass on MRI shifted a mean (SD) 17% (4%) into the cranial direction and a mean 3% (4%) into the dorsal direction when compared with that on the planning CT. Only small variations between observers were noted. The GBT volumes were approximately 4% larger on MRI (mean [SD] ratio MRI to CT GBT volumes, 1.04 [0.06]). Findings were concordant with viewed MRI and CT images and contours. Conformity indices were only slightly different; mean conformity index was 77% (3%) for MRI and 79% (4%) for CT. Delineation differences arising from personal preferences remained recognizable irrespective of the imaging modality used. Conclusions: Contoured GBT extends substantially further into the cranio-lateral and cranio-medial directions on MRI when compared with CT. Interobserver variability is comparable for both imaging modalities. Observers should be aware of existing personal delineation preferences. Institutions are recommended to review and discuss target volume delineations and to design supplementary guidelines if necessary.

  4. Proceedings: 13. international symposium on use and management of coal combustion products (CCPs). Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the 1999 International Symposium on the Management and Use of Coal Combustion Products (CCPs), the thirteenth in a series since 1967, is to publicize innovations in coal ash use technology. These symposia support the mission of the American Coal Ash Association (established originally as the National Ash Association after the first symposium) to promote coal ash technology transfer and commercial utilization. The three-volume publication contains 91 papers, presented in 15 sessions during the January 1999 event. Volume 1 contains papers related to waste aggregates, agricultural uses, beneficiation/quality, and building products. Volume 2 covers the growing market in concrete, environmental performance, FGD material, filler applications, flowable fill, and international perspectives. Volume 3 contains papers on mining applications, regional and State perspectives, stabilized road bases, structural fills, and vitrification/solidification.

  5. [Metastatic characteristics of lymph node in supraclavicular zone and radiotherapy target volume for limited-stage small cell lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhen-xing; Zhao, Lu-jun; Guan, Yong; Sun, Yao; Ji, Kai; Wang, Ping

    2013-05-21

    To explore the reasonable radiotherapy range by analyzing the characteristics of supraclavicular lymph node metastasis in limited-stage small cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC). From January 2005 to December 2011, patients of LS-SCLC were reviewed. Supraclavicular zone was further divided into five subgroups including para-recurrent laryngeal nerve (region I and region II ), para-internal jugular vein (region III ), supraclavicular region (region IV), as well as the other regions except for the mentioned above (region V). The characteristics of the lymph nodes in each region were analyzed. The supraclavicular lymph node metastasis was found in 60 patients, with a positive rate of 34.5%. In multivariate Logistic regression analysis,intra-thoracic lymph node metastasis in the lymph node stations of level 2 and 3 were found to be the risk factors of supraclavicular lymph node metastasis (P = 0.006,P = 0.000). Our data suggests that the frequencies of metastasis in region I and III were much higher than those in the other areas.Among the sixty patients with supraclavicular lymph node metastasis, 95.0% were found at region I or III while the incidence of skip metastasis was only 5.0%. It is advisable to contain the bilateral supraclavicular nodes in patients with mediastinal lymph nodes metastasis to the level 2 or 3 for elective radiation target volume.The clinical target volume (CTV) exterior margin containing the outer margin of internal jugular vein may be suitable.

  6. 1996 international conference on power electronics, drives and energy systems for industrial growth: Proceedings. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Murthy, S.S.; Roy, S.; Divan, D.; Doradla, S.R.; Murthy, B.V.

    1995-12-31

    This is volume 2 of the proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Power Electronics, Drives and Energy Systems for Industrial Growth held during January 1996, in New Delhi, India. The topics of this volume include AC/DC and AC/AC converters, induction generators, traction and electric vehicle drives, application of neural networks and fuzzy logic systems, power electronics converters and drives, machine analysis and other topics.

  7. New conformity indices based on the calculation of distances between the target volume and the volume of reference isodose

    PubMed Central

    Park, J M; Park, S-Y; Ye, S-J; Kim, J H; Carlson, J

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To present conformity indices (CIs) based on the distance differences between the target volume (TV) and the volume of reference isodose (VRI). Methods: The points on the three-dimensional surfaces of the TV and the VRI were generated. Then, the averaged distances between the points on the TV and the VRI were calculated (CIdistance). The performance of the presented CIs were evaluated by analysing six situations, which were a perfect match, an expansion and a reduction of the distance from the centroid to the VRI compared with the distance from the centroid to the TV by 10%, a lateral shift of the VRI by 3 cm, a rotation of the VRI by 45° and a spherical-shaped VRI having the same volume as the TV. The presented CIs were applied to the clinical prostate and head and neck (H&N) plans. Results: For the perfect match, CIdistance was 0 with 0 as the standard deviation (SD). When expanding and reducing, CIdistance was 10 and −10 with SDs <1.3, respectively. With shifting and rotating of the VRI, the CIdistance was almost 0 with SDs >11. The average value of the CIdistance in the prostate and H&N plans was 0.13 ± 7.44 and 6.04 ± 23.27, respectively. Conclusion: The performance of the CIdistance was equal or better than those of the conventional CIs. Advances in knowledge: The evaluation of target conformity by the distances between the surface of the TV and the VRI could be more accurate than evaluation with volume information. PMID:25225915

  8. International Nuclear Target Development Society workshop 1983: proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, G.

    1983-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for 11 of the 19 papers presented. Eight papers were previously included in the data base. Discussion group session papers on carbon stripper foils, problems in producing heavy-ion targets, and problems in producing general type targets are included. (WHK)

  9. Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF): Principles, Status, and International Collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, R.C.

    1998-11-16

    Magnetized target fusion (MTF) is an approach to thermonuclear fusion that is intermediate between the two extremes of inertial and magnetic confinement. Target plasma preparation is followed by compression to fusion conditions. The use of a magnetic field to reduce electron thermal conduction and potentially enhance DT alpha energy deposition allows the compression rate to be drastically reduced relative to that for inertial confinement fusion. This leads to compact systems with target driver power and intensity requirements that are orders of magnitude lower than for ICF. A liner on plasma experiment has been proposed to provide a firm proof of principle for MTF.

  10. Hierarchical Targeting Strategy for Enhanced Tumor Tissue Accumulation/Retention and Cellular Internalization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng; Huang, Peng; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2016-09-01

    Targeted delivery of therapeutic agents is an important way to improve the therapeutic index and reduce side effects. To design nanoparticles for targeted delivery, both enhanced tumor tissue accumulation/retention and enhanced cellular internalization should be considered simultaneously. So far, there have been very few nanoparticles with immutable structures that can achieve this goal efficiently. Hierarchical targeting, a novel targeting strategy based on stimuli responsiveness, shows good potential to enhance both tumor tissue accumulation/retention and cellular internalization. Here, the recent design and development of hierarchical targeting nanoplatforms, based on changeable particle sizes, switchable surface charges and activatable surface ligands, will be introduced. In general, the targeting moieties in these nanoplatforms are not activated during blood circulation for efficient tumor tissue accumulation, but re-activated by certain internal or external stimuli in the tumor microenvironment for enhanced cellular internalization.

  11. Lymphatic atlas-based target volume definition for intensity-modulated radiation therapy planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qatarneh, S. M.; Kiricuta, I. C.; Brahme, A.; Noz, M. E.; Ferreira, B.; Kim, W. C.; Lind, B. K.

    2007-10-01

    Despite the improvements in current imaging modalities such as CT and MRI, the detection of normal or malignant lymph nodes remains a challenge due to the large variability in lymph node characteristics and the variation in imaging quality and the limited imaging resolution. A computerized lymph node atlas could be the ideal tool for target volume definition based on the distribution of normal lymph nodes surrounding the verified malignant nodes to improve the accuracy of intensity-modulated radiation therapy planning. The standard lymph node topography in the newly constructed 3D lymph node atlas offers a detailed topographical distribution of discrete nodal locations in relation to surrounding organs at risk. In the present paper, the recently developed lymph node atlas is used for selection and delineation of target volumes in the head and neck, thorax and pelvic region. Image registration techniques were implemented to integrate the topography of the lymph node atlas into the patient's data set. By combining the knowledge-based lymph node distribution with the patient's data set, more detailed definitions of the target volumes were obtained to facilitate biologically based treatment plan optimization. The response values of the biologically optimized treatment plans were used to derive the probability of tumor control and the probability of complications in organs at risk. The treatment outcome of the lung reference plan showed a lower probability of recurrence in comparison to planning without the lymph node atlas. The lymph node atlas can improve and standardize the target volume definition by including more accurate anatomical knowledge for target volume definition and biologically optimized radiation therapy planning.

  12. Three dimensional planning target volumes: a model and a software tool.

    PubMed

    Austin-Seymour, M; Kalet, I; McDonald, J; Kromhout-Schiro, S; Jacky, J; Hummel, S; Unger, J

    1995-12-01

    Three dimensional (3D) target volumes are an essential component of conformal therapy because the goal is to shape the treatment volume to the target volume. The planning target volume (PTV) is defined by ICRU 50 as the clinical target volume (CTV) plus a margin to ensure that the CTV receives the prescribed dose. The margin must include all interfractional and intrafractional treatment variations. This paper describes a software tool that automatically generates 3D PTVs from CTVs for lung cancers and immobile head and neck cancers. Values for the interfractional and intrafractional treatment variations were determined by a literature review and by targeted interviews with physicians. The software tool is written in Common LISP and conforms to the specifications for shareable software of the Radiotherapy Treatment Planning Tools Collaborative Working Group. The tool is a rule-based expert system in which the inputs are the CTV contours, critical structure contours, and qualitative information about the specific patient. The output is PTV contours, which are a cylindrical expansion of the CTV. A model for creating PTVs from CTVs is embedded in the tool. The interfractional variation of setup uncertainty and the intrafractional variations of movement of the CTV (e.g., respiration) and patient motion are included in the model. Measured data for the component variations is consistent with modeling the components as independent samples from 3D Gaussian distributions. The components are combined using multivariate normal statistics to yield the cylindrical expansion factors. Rules are used to represent the values of the components for certain patient conditions (e.g., setup uncertainty for a head and neck patient immobilized in a mask). The tool uses a rule interpreter to combine qualitative information about a specific patient with rules representing the value of the components and to enter the appropriate component values for that patient into the cylindrical expansion

  13. Comparison of three image segmentation techniques for target volume delineation in positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Drever, Laura A; Roa, Wilson; McEwan, Alexander; Robinson, Don

    2007-03-09

    Incorporation of positron emission tomography (PET) data into radiotherapy planning is currently under investigation for numerous sites including lung, brain, head and neck, breast, and prostate. Accurate tumor-volume quantification is essential to the proper utilization of the unique information provided by PET. Unfortunately,target delineation within PET currently remains a largely unaddressed problem. We therefore examined the ability of three segmentation methods-thresholding, Sobel edge detection, and the watershed approach-to yield accurate delineation of PET target cross-sections. A phantom study employing well-defined cylindrical and spherical volumes and activity distributions provided an opportunity to assess the relative efficacy with which the three approaches could yield accurate target delineation in PET. Results revealed that threshold segmentation can accurately delineate target cross-sections, but that the Sobel and watershed techniques both consistently fail to correctly identify the size of experimental volumes. The usefulness of threshold-based segmentation is limited, however, by the dependence of the correct threshold (that which returns the correct area at each image slice) on target size.

  14. Definition and delineation of the clinical target volume for rectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Roels, Sarah; Duthoy, Wim; Haustermans, Karin . E-mail: Karin.Haustermans@uzleuven.be; Penninckx, Freddy; Vandecaveye, Vincent; Boterberg, Tom; Neve, Wilfried de

    2006-07-15

    Purpose: Optimization of radiation techniques to maximize local tumor control and to minimize small bowel toxicity in locally advanced rectal cancer requires proper definition and delineation guidelines for the clinical target volume (CTV). The purpose of this investigation was to analyze reported data on the predominant locations and frequency of local recurrences and lymph node involvement in rectal cancer, to propose a definition of the CTV for rectal cancer and guidelines for its delineation. Methods and Materials: Seven reports were analyzed to assess the incidence and predominant location of local recurrences in rectal cancer. The distribution of lymphatic spread was analyzed in another 10 reports to record the relative frequency and location of metastatic lymph nodes in rectal cancer, according to the stage and level of the primary tumor. Results: The mesorectal, posterior, and inferior pelvic subsites are most at risk for local recurrences, whereas lymphatic tumor spread occurs mainly in three directions: upward into the inferior mesenteric nodes; lateral into the internal iliac lymph nodes; and, in a few cases, downward into the external iliac and inguinal lymph nodes. The risk for recurrence or lymph node involvement is related to the stage and the level of the primary lesion. Conclusion: Based on a review of articles reporting on the incidence and predominant location of local recurrences and the distribution of lymphatic spread in rectal cancer, we defined guidelines for CTV delineation including the pelvic subsites and lymph node groups at risk for microscopic involvement. We propose to include the primary tumor, the mesorectal subsite, and the posterior pelvic subsite in the CTV in all patients. Moreover, the lateral lymph nodes are at high risk for microscopic involvement and should also be added in the CTV.

  15. Comparison of four radiofrequency ablation systems at two target volumes in an ex vivo bovine liver model

    PubMed Central

    Rathke, Hendrik; Hamm, Bernd; Güttler, Felix; Rathke, Joern; Rump, Jens; Teichgräber, Ulf; de Bucourt, Maximilian

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to validate actually achieved macroscopic ablation volumes in relation to calculated target volumes using four different radiofrequency ablation (RFA) systems operated with default settings and protocols for 3 cm and 5 cm target volumes in ex vivo bovine liver. MATERIALS AND METHODS Sixty-four cuboid liver specimens were ablated with four commercially available RFA systems (Radionics Cool-tip, AngioDynamic 1500X, Boston Scientific RF 3000, Celon CelonPower LAB): 16 specimens for each system; eight for 3 cm, and eight for 5 cm. Ablation diameters were measured, volumes were calculated, and RFA times were recorded. RESULTS For the 3 cm target ablation volume, all tested RFA systems exceeded the mathematically calculated volume of 14.14 cm3. For the 3 cm target ablation volume, mean ablation volume and mean ablation time for each RFA system were as follows: 28.5±6.5 cm3, 12.0±0.0 min for Radionics Cool-tip; 17.1±4.9 cm3, 9.36±0.63 min for AngioDynamic 1500X; 29.7±11.7 cm3, 4.60±0.50 min for Boston Scientific RF 3000; and 28.8±7.0 cm3, 20.85±0.86 min for Celon Celon-Power LAB. For the 5 cm target ablation volume, Radionics Cool-tip (48.3±9.9 cm3, 12.0±0.0 min) and AngioDynamic 1500X (39.4±16.2 cm3, 19.59±1.13 min) did not reach the mathematically calculated target ablation volume (65.45 cm3), whereas Boston Scientific RF 3000 (71.8±14.5 cm3, 9.15±2.93 min) and Celon CelonPower LAB (93.9±28.1 cm3, 40.21±1.78 min) exceeded it. CONCLUSION While all systems reached the 3 cm target ablation volume, results were variable for the 5 cm target ablation volume. Only Boston Scientific RF 3000 and Celon CelonPower LAB created volumes above the target, whereas Radionics Cool-tip and AngioDynamic 1500X remained below the target volume. For the 3 cm target ablation volume, AngioDynamic 1500X with 21% deviation was closest to the target volume. For the 5 cm target volume Boston Scientific RF 3000 with 10% deviation was closest. PMID:24509185

  16. Comparison of four radiofrequency ablation systems at two target volumes in an ex vivo bovine liver model.

    PubMed

    Rathke, Hendrik; Hamm, Bernd; Güttler, Felix; Rathke, Joern; Rump, Jens; Teichgräber, Ulf; de Bucourt, Maximilian

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to validate actually achieved macroscopic ablation volumes in relation to calculated target volumes using four different radiofrequency ablation (RFA) systems operated with default settings and protocols for 3 cm and 5 cm target volumes in ex vivo bovine liver. Sixty-four cuboid liver specimens were ablated with four commercially available RFA systems (Radionics Cool-tip, AngioDynamic 1500X, Boston Scientific RF 3000, Celon CelonPower LAB): 16 specimens for each system; eight for 3 cm, and eight for 5 cm. Ablation diameters were measured, volumes were calculated, and RFA times were recorded. For the 3 cm target ablation volume, all tested RFA systems exceeded the mathematically calculated volume of 14.14 cm3. For the 3 cm target ablation volume, mean ablation volume and mean ablation time for each RFA system were as follows: 28.5 ± 6.5 cm3, 12.0 ± 0.0 min for Radionics Cool-tip; 17.1 ± 4.9 cm3, 9.36 ± 0.63 min for AngioDynamic 1500X; 29.7 ± 11.7 cm3, 4.60 ± 0.50 min for Boston Scientific RF 3000; and 28.8 ± 7.0 cm3, 20.85 ± 0.86 min for Celon CelonPower LAB. For the 5 cm target ablation volume, Radionics Cool-tip (48.3 ± 9.9 cm3, 12.0 ± 0.0 min) and AngioDynamic 1500X (39.4 ± 16.2 cm3, 19.59 ± 1.13 min) did not reach the mathematically calculated target ablation volume (65.45 cm3), whereas Boston Scientific RF 3000 (71.8 ± 14.5 cm3, 9.15 ± 2.93 min) and Celon CelonPower LAB (93.9 ± 28.1 cm3, 40.21 ± 1.78 min) exceeded it. While all systems reached the 3 cm target ablation volume, results were variable for the 5 cm target ablation volume. Only Boston Scientific RF 3000 and Celon CelonPower LAB created volumes above the target, whereas Radionics Cool-tip and AngioDynamic 1500X remained below the target volume. For the 3 cm target ablation volume, AngioDynamic 1500X with 21% deviation was closest to the target volume. For the 5 cm target volume Boston Scientific RF 3000 with 10% deviation was closest.

  17. Civil Society, Citizenship and Learning. Bochum Studies in International Adult Education, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bron, Agnieszka, Ed.; Schemmann, Michael, Ed.

    This second volume of the Bochum Studies in International Adult Education presents a variety of different perspectives on the topics of citizenship and civil society. Its goal is to give an overview of the European discourse on citizenship and civil society and on the discourse in some selected countries. Part I is comprised of the first of 14…

  18. Global Trends in Educational Policy. International Perspectives on Education and Society. Volume 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, David, Ed.; Wiseman, Alex, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This volume of International Perspectives on Education and Society highlights the valuable role that educational policy plays in the development of education and society around the world. The role of policy in the development of education is crucial. Much rests on the decisions, support, and most of all resources that policymakers can either give…

  19. International board-foot volume tables for trees in the Susitna River Basin, Alaska.

    Treesearch

    Frederic R. Larson

    1990-01-01

    International 1/4-inch board-foot volume equations and tables were derived from fall, buck, and scale data for 374 trees at 78 locations in the Susitna River Basin, Alaska. Tree species included white and black spruce, paper birch, black cottonwood, and quaking aspen.

  20. Civil Society, Citizenship and Learning. Bochum Studies in International Adult Education, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bron, Agnieszka, Ed.; Schemmann, Michael, Ed.

    This second volume of the Bochum Studies in International Adult Education presents a variety of different perspectives on the topics of citizenship and civil society. Its goal is to give an overview of the European discourse on citizenship and civil society and on the discourse in some selected countries. Part I is comprised of the first of 14…

  1. PATRAM '83: 7th international symposium on packaging and transportation of radioactive materials. Proceedings. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1983-12-01

    Volume 1 contains the papers from the following sessions: Plenary session; international regulations; fracture toughness of ferritic steels; monolithic cast iron casks; risk analysis techniques; storage in packagings; packaging design considerations; risk analysis; facility/transportation system interface; research and development programs; UF/sub 6/ packagings; national regulations; transportation operations and traffic; containment, seals, and leakage; and radiation risk experiences.

  2. Global Trends in Educational Policy. International Perspectives on Education and Society. Volume 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, David, Ed.; Wiseman, Alex, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This volume of International Perspectives on Education and Society highlights the valuable role that educational policy plays in the development of education and society around the world. The role of policy in the development of education is crucial. Much rests on the decisions, support, and most of all resources that policymakers can either give…

  3. A Beam-Specific Planning Target Volume (PTV) Design for Proton Therapy to Account for Setup and Range Uncertainties

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Peter C.; Zhu, X. Ronald; Lee, Andrew K.; Sahoo, Narayan; Melancon, Adam D.; Zhang Lifei; Dong Lei

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To report a method for explicitly designing a planning target volume (PTV) for treatment planning and evaluation in heterogeneous media for passively scattered proton therapy and scanning beam proton therapy using single-field optimization (SFO). Methods and Materials: A beam-specific PTV (bsPTV) for proton beams was derived by ray-tracing and shifting ray lines to account for tissue misalignment in the presence of setup error or organ motion. Range uncertainties resulting from inaccuracies in computed tomography-based range estimation were calculated for proximal and distal surfaces of the target in the beam direction. The bsPTV was then constructed based on local heterogeneity. The bsPTV thus can be used directly as a planning target as if it were in photon therapy. To test the robustness of the bsPTV, we generated a single-field proton plan in a virtual phantom. Intentional setup and range errors were introduced. Dose coverage to the clinical target volume (CTV) under various simulation conditions was compared between plans designed based on the bsPTV and a conventional PTV. Results: The simulated treatment using the bsPTV design performed significantly better than the plan using the conventional PTV in maintaining dose coverage to the CTV. With conventional PTV plans, the minimum coverage to the CTV dropped from 99% to 67% in the presence of setup error, internal motion, and range uncertainty. However, plans using the bsPTV showed minimal drop of target coverage from 99% to 94%. Conclusions: The conventional geometry-based PTV concept used in photon therapy does not work well for proton therapy. We investigated and validated a beam-specific PTV method for designing and evaluating proton plans.

  4. The effect of image-guided radiation therapy on the margin between the clinical target volume and planning target volume in lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Jun; Li, Minghui; Zhang, Tao; Han, Wei; Chen, Dongfu; Hui, Zhouguang; Lv, Jima; Zhang, Zhong; Zhang, Yin; Zhang, Liansheng; Zheng, Rong; Dai, Jianrong; Wang, Luhua

    2014-02-15

    Introduction: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) on the margin between the clinical target volume (CTV) and planning target volume (PTV) in lung cancer. Methods: The CTV and PTV margin were determined in three dimensions by four radiation oncologists using a standard method in 10 lung cancer patients, and compared to consensus values. Transfer error was measured using a rigid phantom containing gold markers. Systematic error and random error set up errors were calculated in three dimensions from pre-treatment and post-treatment cone beam CT scans. Finally, the margin between the CTV and PTV was corrected for set up error and calculated. Results: The margins between the CTV and PTV with IGRT (and without IGRT) were 0.88 cm (0.96 cm), 0.99 cm (1.08 cm) and 1.28 cm (1.82 cm) in the anterior and posterior (AP), left and right (LR) and superior and inferior (SI) directions, respectively. Images from two other patients verified the validity of the corrected margin. The target delineation errors of the radiation oncologists are considered to be the largest compared with the set up errors. The application of IGRT reduced the set up errors and the margins between CTV and PTV. Conclusions: The delineation errors of radiation oncologists are the most important factor to consider for the margin between CTV and PTV for lung cancer. IGRT can reduce the margins by reducing the set up errors, especially in the SI direction. Further research is required to assess whether the reduction in the margin is solely based on set up errors.

  5. Measurement of spin observables using a storage ring with polarized beam and polarized internal gas target

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.; Miller, M.A.; Smith, A.; Hansen, J.; Bloch, C.; van den Brand, J.F.J.; Bulten, H.J.; Ent, R.; Goodman, C.D.; Jacobs, W.W.; Jones, C.E.; Korsch, W.; Leuschner, M.; Lorenzon, W.; Marchlenski, D.; Meyer, H.O.; Milner, R.G.; Neal, J.S.; Pancella, P.V.; Pate, S.F.; Pitts, W.K.; von Przewoski, B.; Rinckel, T.; Sowinski, J.; Sperisen, F.; Sugarbaker, E.; Tschalaer, C.; Unal, O.; Zhou, Z. Indiana University Cyclotron Facility, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center and Laboratory for Nuclear Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 University of Wisconsin enMadison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan 49007 )

    1993-02-08

    We report the first measurement of analyzing powers and spin correlation parameters using a storage ring with both beam and internal target polarized. Spin observables were measured for elastic scattering of 45 and 198 MeV protons from polarized [sup 3]He nuclei in a new laser-pumped internal gas target at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility Cooler Ring. Scattered protons and recoil [sup 3]He nuclei were detected in coincidence with large acceptance plastic scintillators and silicon detectors. The internal-target technique demonstrated in this experiment has broad applicability to the measurement of spin-dependent scattering in nuclear and particle physics.

  6. The thermal-mechanical analysis of targets for the high volume production of molybdenum-99 using a low-enriched uranium metal foil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Kyler Kriens

    Molybdenum-99 diagnostic imaging is the most commonly practiced procedure in nuclear medicine today with the majority molybdenum-99 produced with proliferation sensitive HEU. International and domestic efforts to develop non-HEU production techniques have taking the first steps toward establishing a new non-HEU molybdenum-99 based supply chain. The focus of the research presented in this work is on the analysis of a new high U-235 density LEU based molybdenum-99 production target. Converting directly to LEU using current manufacturing techniques greatly reduces the molybdenum-99 yield per target making high volume production uneconomical. The LEU based foil target analyzed in this research increases the yield per target making economic high volume production with LEU possible. The research analyzed the thermal-mechanical response of an LEU foil target during irradiation. Thermal-mechanical studies focused on deflections and stresses to assess the probability of target failure. Simpler analytical models were used to determine the proper shape of the target and to benchmark the numerical modeling software. Numerical studies using Abaqus focused on analyzing various heating and cooling conditions and assessing the effects of curvature on the target. Finally, experiments were performed to simulate low power heating and further benchmark the models. The results from all of these analyses indicate a LEU foil target could survive irradiation depending on the conditions seen during irradiation.

  7. Relationship between internal phase volume and emulsion stability: the cetyl alcohol/stearyl alcohol system.

    PubMed

    Sepulveda, E; Kildsig, D O; Ghaly, E S

    2003-08-01

    The main objective of this study was to optimize the stability of cetyl alcohol/stearyl alcohol emulsions in terms of percentage of internal phase volume, emulsifier type and concentration, and amount of external phase (water). Creams (o/w emulsions) were prepared by phase inversion and physical properties as particle size of the internal phase, apparent viscosity, and sedimentation volume evaluated. Stability was performed at room temperature, 40 degrees C, 50 degrees C, and under stress conditions. High hydrophilic lipophilic balance (HLB) nonionic surfactants as tween 80, tween 20, Myrj 52, Brij 35, and low HLB span 60 were used as emulsifying agents. The percentage of internal phase components (cetyl alcohol and stearyl alcohol), percentage of emulsifying agents, and percentage of aqueous external phase were varied, and stability was investigated. As the level of emulsifier agent (tween 80 and span 60) increased from 3% to 15%, and the percent of the internal phase remained constant at 30%, the particle size of the internal phase decreased and the cream became more stable. Formulations of the same composition, but prepared using Myrj 53 and tween 20 as emulsifiers, showed a larger particle size than formulations prepared using tween 80 and Brij 35. As the level of the internal phase volume increased and consequently the amount of water decreased, emulsion viscosity increased. The best formulation containing 30% internal phase (50% cetyl alcohol, 35% stearyl alcohol), 15% emulsifying agents (tween 80/span 60 ratio of 3:1), and 70% water was selected, and effects of process temperature and cooling rate on emulsion stability investigated. This formulation was further investigated in terms of stability of a 1% hydrocortisone addition by varying the percentage (30%, 35%, 40%, and 45%) of internal phase and percentage of water (70%, 65%, 60%, and 55%). The best formulation contained 45% internal phase (22.5 g cetyl alcohol, 15.75 g stearyl alcohol, 15% emulsifying

  8. Elective Clinical Target Volumes for Conformal Therapy in Anorectal Cancer: A Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Consensus Panel Contouring Atlas

    SciTech Connect

    Myerson, Robert J. Garofalo, Michael C.; El Naqa, Issam; Abrams, Ross A.; Apte, Aditya; Bosch, Walter R.; Das, Prajnan; Gunderson, Leonard L.; Hong, Theodore S.; Kim, J.J. John; Willett, Christopher G.; Kachnic, Lisa A.

    2009-07-01

    Purpose: To develop a Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) atlas of the elective clinical target volume (CTV) definitions to be used for planning pelvic intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for anal and rectal cancers. Methods and Materials: The Gastrointestinal Committee of the RTOG established a task group (the nine physician co-authors) to develop this atlas. They responded to a questionnaire concerning three elective CTVs (CTVA: internal iliac, presacral, and perirectal nodal regions for both anal and rectal case planning; CTVB: external iliac nodal region for anal case planning and for selected rectal cases; CTVC: inguinal nodal region for anal case planning and for select rectal cases), and to outline these areas on individual computed tomographic images. The imaging files were shared via the Advanced Technology Consortium. A program developed by one of the co-authors (I.E.N.) used binomial maximum-likelihood estimates to generate a 95% group consensus contour. The computer-estimated consensus contours were then reviewed by the group and modified to provide a final contouring consensus atlas. Results: The panel achieved consensus CTV definitions to be used as guidelines for the adjuvant therapy of rectal cancer and definitive therapy for anal cancer. The most important difference from similar atlases for gynecologic or genitourinary cancer is mesorectal coverage. Detailed target volume contouring guidelines and images are discussed. Conclusion: This report serves as a template for the definition of the elective CTVs to be used in IMRT planning for anal and rectal cancers, as part of prospective RTOG trials.

  9. A two isocenter IMRT technique with a controlled junction dose for long volume targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, G. G.; Heaton, R. K.; Catton, C. N.; Chung, P. W.; O'Sullivan, B.; Lau, M.; Parent, A.; Jaffray, D. A.

    2007-07-01

    Most IMRT techniques have been designed to treat targets smaller than the field size of conventional linac accelerators. In order to overcome the field size restrictions in applying IMRT, we developed a two isocenter IMRT technique to treat long volume targets. The technique exploits an extended dose gradient throughout a junction region of 4-6 cm to minimize the impact of field match errors on a junction dose and manipulates the inverse planning and IMRT segments to fill in the dose gradient and achieve dose uniformity. Techniques for abutting both conventional fields with IMRT ('Static + IMRT') and IMRT fields ('IMRT + IMRT') using two separate isocenters have been developed. Five long volume sarcoma cases have been planned in Pinnacle (Philips, Madison, USA) using Elekta Synergy and Varian 2100EX linacs; two of the cases were clinically treated with this technique. Advantages were demonstrated with well-controlled junction target uniformity and tolerance to setup uncertainties. The junction target dose heterogeneity was controlled at a level of ±5% for 3 mm setup errors at the field edges, the junction target dose changed less than 5% and the dose sparing to organs at risk (OARs) was maintained. Film measurements confirmed the treatment planning results.

  10. A two isocenter IMRT technique with a controlled junction dose for long volume targets.

    PubMed

    Zeng, G G; Heaton, R K; Catton, C N; Chung, P W; O'Sullivan, B; Lau, M; Parent, A; Jaffray, D A

    2007-08-07

    Most IMRT techniques have been designed to treat targets smaller than the field size of conventional linac accelerators. In order to overcome the field size restrictions in applying IMRT, we developed a two isocenter IMRT technique to treat long volume targets. The technique exploits an extended dose gradient throughout a junction region of 4-6 cm to minimize the impact of field match errors on a junction dose and manipulates the inverse planning and IMRT segments to fill in the dose gradient and achieve dose uniformity. Techniques for abutting both conventional fields with IMRT ('Static + IMRT') and IMRT fields ('IMRT + IMRT') using two separate isocenters have been developed. Five long volume sarcoma cases have been planned in Pinnacle (Philips, Madison, USA) using Elekta Synergy and Varian 2100EX linacs; two of the cases were clinically treated with this technique. Advantages were demonstrated with well-controlled junction target uniformity and tolerance to setup uncertainties. The junction target dose heterogeneity was controlled at a level of +/-5%; for 3 mm setup errors at the field edges, the junction target dose changed less than 5% and the dose sparing to organs at risk (OARs) was maintained. Film measurements confirmed the treatment planning results.

  11. Guidelines for delineation of lymphatic clinical target volumes for high conformal radiotherapy: head and neck region

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The success of radiotherapy depends on the accurate delineation of the clinical target volume. The delineation of the lymph node regions has most impact, especially for tumors in the head and neck region. The purpose of this article was the development an atlas for the delineation of the clinical target volume for patients, who should receive radiotherapy for a tumor of the head and neck region. Literature was reviewed for localisations of the adjacent lymph node regions and their lymph drain in dependence of the tumor entity. On this basis the lymph node regions were contoured on transversal CT slices. The probability for involvement was reviewed and a recommendation for the delineation of the CTV was generated. PMID:21854585

  12. SU-E-T-578: On Definition of Minimum and Maximum Dose for Target Volume

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Y; Yu, J; Xiao, Y

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: This study aims to investigate the impact of different minimum and maximum dose definitions in radiotherapy treatment plan quality evaluation criteria by using tumor control probability (TCP) models. Methods: Dosimetric criteria used in RTOG 1308 protocol are used in the investigation. RTOG 1308 is a phase III randomized trial comparing overall survival after photon versus proton chemoradiotherapy for inoperable stage II-IIIB NSCLC. The prescription dose for planning target volume (PTV) is 70Gy. Maximum dose (Dmax) should not exceed 84Gy and minimum dose (Dmin) should not go below 59.5Gy in order for the plan to be “per protocol” (satisfactory).A mathematical model that simulates the characteristics of PTV dose volume histogram (DVH) curve with normalized volume is built. The Dmax and Dmin are noted as percentage volumes Dη% and D(100-δ)%, with η and d ranging from 0 to 3.5. The model includes three straight line sections and goes through four points: D95%= 70Gy, Dη%= 84Gy, D(100-δ)%= 59.5 Gy, and D100%= 0Gy. For each set of η and δ, the TCP value is calculated using the inhomogeneously irradiated tumor logistic model with D50= 74.5Gy and γ50=3.52. Results: TCP varies within 0.9% with η; and δ values between 0 and 1. With η and η varies between 0 and 2, TCP change was up to 2.4%. With η and δ variations from 0 to 3.5, maximum of 8.3% TCP difference is seen. Conclusion: When defined maximum and minimum volume varied more than 2%, significant TCP variations were seen. It is recommended less than 2% volume used in definition of Dmax or Dmin for target dosimetric evaluation criteria. This project was supported by NIH grants U10CA180868, U10CA180822, U24CA180803, U24CA12014 and PA CURE Grant.

  13. Postoperative radiation in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and target volume delineation

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yingming; Li, Minghuan; Kong, Li; Yu, Jinming

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is the sixth leading cause of cancer death worldwide, and patients who are treated with surgery alone, without neoadjuvant therapies, experience frequent relapses. Whether postoperative therapies could reduce the recurrence or improve overall survival is still controversial for these patients. The purpose of our review is to figure out the value of postoperative adjuvant therapy and address the disputes about target volume delineation according to published data. Based on the evidence of increased morbidity and disadvantages on patient survival caused by postoperative chemotherapy or radiotherapy (RT) alone provided by studies in the early 1990s, the use of postoperative adjuvant therapies in cases of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma has diminished substantially and has been replaced gradually by neoadjuvant chemoradiation. With advances in surgery and RT, accumulating evidence has recently rekindled interest in the delivery of postoperative RT or chemoradiotherapy in patients with stage T3/T4 or N1 (lymph node positive) carcinomas after radical surgery. However, due to complications with the standard radiation field, a nonconforming modified field has been adopted in most studies. Therefore, we analyze different field applications and provide suggestions on the optimization of the radiation field based on the major sites of relapse and the surgical non-clearance area. For upper and middle thoracic esophageal carcinomas, the bilateral supraclavicular and superior mediastinal areas remain common sites of recurrence and should be encompassed within the clinical target volume. In contrast, a consensus has yet to be reached regarding lower thoracic esophageal carcinomas; the “standard” clinical target volume is still recommended. Further studies of larger sample sizes should focus on different recurrence patterns, categorized by tumor locations, refined classifications, and differing molecular biology, to provide more information on the

  14. Tumor target volume for focal therapy of prostate cancer-does multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging allow for a reliable estimation?

    PubMed

    Cornud, F; Khoury, Gaby; Bouazza, Naim; Beuvon, Frederic; Peyromaure, Michael; Flam, Thierry; Zerbib, Marc; Legmann, Paul; Delongchamps, Nicolas B

    2014-05-01

    We determined whether endorectal multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5 Tesla could predict tumor target volume in the perspective of focal therapy of prostate cancer. A total of 84 consecutive patients underwent multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging before radical prostatectomy. The volume of each suspicious area detected on magnetic resonance imaging and of all surgical histological foci was determined by planimetry. We first used each magnetic resonance imaging sequence (T2-weighted, diffusion weighted and dynamic contrast enhanced) and then the sequence showing the largest tumor area (multiparametric volume). Finally, the largest area of any sequence was used to calculate a target volume according to the volume of a cylinder. Agreement between magnetic resonance imaging and pathological findings was assessed by linear regression and residual analysis. Histology revealed 99 significant tumors with a volume of greater than 0.2 cc and/or a Gleason score of greater than 6. Of the tumors 16 (16.2%) were undetected by multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging. Linear regression analysis showed that tumor volume estimated by T2-weighted or diffusion weighted imaging correlated significantly with pathological volume (r(2) = 0.82 and 0.83, respectively). Residuals from diffusion weighted imaging volume estimations did not significantly differ from 0. Nevertheless, diffusion weighted imaging underestimated pathological volume in 43 of 87 cases (49%) by a mean of 0.56 cc (range 0.005 to 2.84). Multiparametric and target volumes significantly overestimated pathological volume by a mean of 16% and 44% with underestimation in 28 (32%) and 15 cases (17%), respectively. Volume underestimation was significantly higher for tumor foci less than 0.5 cc. The percent of Gleason grade 4 did not influence tumor volume estimation. Magnetic resonance imaging can detect most significant tumors. However, delineating a target volume may require further adjustment before

  15. Multicenter evaluation of different target volume delineation concepts in pediatric Hodgkin's lymphoma. A case study.

    PubMed

    Lütgendorf-Caucig, C; Fotina, I; Gallop-Evans, E; Claude, L; Lindh, J; Pelz, T; Knäusl, B; Georg, D; Pötter, R; Dieckmann, K

    2012-11-01

    In pediatric Hodgkin's lymphoma (PHL) improvements in imaging and multiagent chemotherapy have allowed for a reduction in target volume. The involved-node (IN) concept is being tested in several treatment regimens for adult Hodgkin's lymphoma. So far there is no consensus on the definition of the IN. To improve the reproducibility of the IN, we tested a new involved-node-level (INL) concept, using defined anatomical boundaries as basis for target delineation. The aim was to evaluate the feasibility of IN and INL concepts for PHL in terms of interobserver variability. The INL concept was defined for the neck and mediastinum by the PHL Radiotherapy Group based on accepted concepts for solid tumors. Seven radiation oncologists from six European centers contoured neck and mediastinal clinical target volumes (CTVs) of 2 patients according to the IN and the new INL concepts. The median CTVs, coefficient of variation (COV), and general conformity index (CI) were assessed. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for reliability of delineations was calculated. All observers agreed that INL is a feasible and practicable delineation concept resulting in stronger interobserver concordance than the IN (mediastinum CI(INL) = 0.39 vs. CI(IN) = 0.28, neck left CI(INL) = 0.33; CI(IN) = 0.18; neck right CI(INL) = 0.24, CI(IN) = 0.14). The COV showed less dispersion and the ICC indicated higher reliability of contouring for INL (ICC(INL) = 0.62, p < 0.05) as for IN (ICC(IN) = 0.40, p < 0.05). INL is a practical and feasible alternative to IN resulting in more homogeneous target delineation, and it should be therefore considered as a future target volume concept in PHL.

  16. Flavored alcoholic beverages: an international marketing campaign that targets youth.

    PubMed

    Mosher, James F; Johnsson, Diane

    2005-09-01

    Flavored alcoholic beverages (FABs) were first introduced into the alcohol market in the early I980s in the form of wine coolers. FABs are sweet, relatively low alcohol content beverages that are designed for "entry-level" drinkers. The alcohol industry has introduced new products and production methods to expand the category's popularity. Research suggests that they are popular with underage drinkers, particularly teenage girls, and that the industry uses marketing practices that appear to target youth. FABs are now marketed globally, and their production and marketing vary by country based on national regulatory restraints. In the United States, industry representations that the products are malt beverages for regulatory purposes appears to violate many state laws because the alcohol in the FABs is derived from distilled spirits. Recommendations for regulatory reform, including new legal definitions of FABs, increased taxes, and restrictions on availability, are applicable at both national and state levels.

  17. COMPARISON OF VOLUMES OCCUPIED BY DIFFERENT INTERNAL FIXATION DEVICES FOR FEMORAL NECK FRACTURES

    PubMed Central

    Lauxen, Daniel; Schwartsmann, Carlos Roberto; Silva, Marcelo Faria; Spinelli, Leandro de Freitas; Strohaecker, Telmo Roberto; Souza, Ralf Wellis de; Zimmer, Cinthia Gabriely; Boschin, Leonardo Carbonera; Gonçalves, Ramiro Zilles; Yépez, Anthony Kerbes

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this paper is to measure the volume occupied by the most widely used internal fixation devices for treating femoral neck fractures, using the first 30, 40 and 50 mm of insertion of each screw as an approximation. The study aimed to observe which of these implants caused least bone aggression. Methods: Five types of cannulated screws and four types of dynamic hip screws (DHS) available on the Brazilian market were evaluated in terms of volume differences through water displacement. Results: Fixation with two cannulated screws presented significantly less volume than shown by DHS, for insertions of 30, 40 and 50 mm (p=0.01, 0.012 and 0.013, respectively), fixation with three screws did not show any statistically significant difference (p= 0.123, 0.08 and 0.381, respectively) and fixation with four cannulated screws presented larger volumes than shown by DHS (p=0.072, 0.161 and 0.033). Conclusions: Fixation of the femoral neck with two cannulated screws occupied less volume than DHS, with a statistically significant difference. The majority of screw combinations did not reach statistical significance, although fixation with four cannulated screws presented larger volumes on average than those occupied by DHS. PMID:27047886

  18. SU-E-J-123: Assessing Segmentation Accuracy of Internal Volumes and Sub-Volumes in 4D PET/CT of Lung Tumors Using a Novel 3D Printed Phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Soultan, D; Murphy, J; James, C; Hoh, C; Moiseenko, V; Cervino, L; Gill, B

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To assess the accuracy of internal target volume (ITV) segmentation of lung tumors for treatment planning of simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) radiotherapy as seen in 4D PET/CT images, using a novel 3D-printed phantom. Methods: The insert mimics high PET tracer uptake in the core and 50% uptake in the periphery, by using a porous design at the periphery. A lung phantom with the insert was placed on a programmable moving platform. Seven breathing waveforms of ideal and patient-specific respiratory motion patterns were fed to the platform, and 4D PET/CT scans were acquired of each of them. CT images were binned into 10 phases, and PET images were binned into 5 phases following the clinical protocol. Two scenarios were investigated for segmentation: a gate 30–70 window, and no gating. The radiation oncologist contoured the outer ITV of the porous insert with on CT images, while the internal void volume with 100% uptake was contoured on PET images for being indistinguishable from the outer volume in CT images. Segmented ITVs were compared to the expected volumes based on known target size and motion. Results: 3 ideal breathing patterns, 2 regular-breathing patient waveforms, and 2 irregular-breathing patient waveforms were used for this study. 18F-FDG was used as the PET tracer. The segmented ITVs from CT closely matched the expected motion for both no gating and gate 30–70 window, with disagreement of contoured ITV with respect to the expected volume not exceeding 13%. PET contours were seen to overestimate volumes in all the cases, up to more than 40%. Conclusion: 4DPET images of a novel 3D printed phantom designed to mimic different uptake values were obtained. 4DPET contours overestimated ITV volumes in all cases, while 4DCT contours matched expected ITV volume values. Investigation of the cause and effects of the discrepancies is undergoing.

  19. International Source Book: Nuclear Fuel Cycle Research and Development Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, K. M.; Lakey, L. T.

    1982-11-01

    This document starts with an overview that summarizes nuclear power policies and waste management activities for nations with significant commercial nuclear fuel cycle activities either under way or planned. A more detailed program summary is then included for each country or international agency conducting nuclear fuel cycle and waste management research and development. This second volume includes the program summaries of those countries listed alphabetically from Japan to Yugoslavia. Information on international agencies and associations, particularly the IAEA, NEA, and CEC, is provided also.

  20. FDG-PET-based differential uptake volume histograms: a possible approach towards definition of biological target volumes.

    PubMed

    Devic, Slobodan; Mohammed, Huriyyah; Tomic, Nada; Aldelaijan, Saad; De Blois, François; Seuntjens, Jan; Lehnert, Shirley; Faria, Sergio

    2016-06-01

    Integration of fluorine-18 fludeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) functional data into conventional anatomically based gross tumour volume delineation may lead to optimization of dose to biological target volumes (BTV) in radiotherapy. We describe a method for defining tumour subvolumes using (18)F-FDG-PET data, based on the decomposition of differential uptake volume histograms (dUVHs). For 27 patients with histopathologically proven non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), background uptake values were sampled within the healthy lung contralateral to a tumour in those image slices containing tumour and then scaled by the ratio of mass densities between the healthy lung and tumour. Signal-to-background (S/B) uptake values within volumes of interest encompassing the tumour were used to reconstruct the dUVHs. These were subsequently decomposed into the minimum number of analytical functions (in the form of differential uptake values as a function of S/B) that yielded acceptable net fits, as assessed by χ(2) values. Six subvolumes consistently emerged from the fitted dUVHs over the sampled volume of interest on PET images. Based on the assumption that each function used to decompose the dUVH may correspond to a single subvolume, the intersection between the two adjacent functions could be interpreted as a threshold value that differentiates them. Assuming that the first two subvolumes spread over the tumour boundary, we concentrated on four subvolumes with the highest uptake values, and their S/B thresholds [mean ± standard deviation (SD)] were 2.88 ± 0.98, 4.05 ± 1.55, 5.48 ± 2.06 and 7.34 ± 2.89 for adenocarcinoma, 3.01 ± 0.71, 4.40 ± 0.91, 5.99 ± 1.31 and 8.17 ± 2.42 for large-cell carcinoma and 4.54 ± 2.11, 6.46 ± 2.43, 8.87 ± 5.37 and 12.11 ± 7.28 for squamous cell carcinoma, respectively. (18)F-FDG-based PET data may potentially be used to identify BTV within the tumour in

  1. Want to increase cosmetic dentistry? Targeted internal marketing is your secret weapon.

    PubMed

    Levin, Roger P

    2007-12-01

    Designing internal marketing strategies with strong emotional appeal is the key to attracting more cosmetic patients to the practice. Dentists who use cost-effective and highly targeted internal marketing strategies will appeal to a broader range of patients. These methods also help practices increase their credibility and forge a stronger image in the community as an office with cosmetic expertise.

  2. Variability in clinical target volume delineation for intensity modulated radiation therapy in 3 challenging cervix cancer scenarios.

    PubMed

    Lim, Karen; Erickson, Beth; Jürgenliemk-Schulz, Ina M; Gaffney, David; Creutzberg, Carien L; Viswanathan, Akila; Portelance, Lorraine; Beriwal, Sushil; Wolfson, Aaron; Bosch, Walter; De Los Santos, Jennifer; Yashar, Catheryn; Jhingran, Anuja; Varia, Mahesh; El Naqa, Issam; King, Bronwyn; Fyles, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess variability in contouring the gross tumor volume (GTV) and clinical target volume (CTV) of 3 clinical cervix cancer cases by a cohort of international experts in the field in preparation for the development of an online teaching atlas. Twelve international experts participated. Three clinical scenarios: node positivity (PLN), retroverted uterus (RV), and parametrial invasion (PI) were used. Sagittal and axial magnetic resonance images of the clinical cases were downloaded to participants' treatment planning systems for contouring. The GTV/cervix/uterus/parametria/vagina and nodal CTV were contoured. Contour consensus was assessed for sensitivity/specificity using an expectation maximization algorithm called Simultaneous Truth and Performance Level Estimation and experts' overall agreement was summarized by kappa statistics. Agreement for GTV in the 3 clinical cases was high (Simultaneous Truth and Performance Level Estimation sensitivity, 0.54-0.92; specificity, 0.97-0.98; and kappa measure for PLN, RV, and PI was 0.86, 0.76, and 0.42; P < .0001). Moderate to substantial agreement was seen for nodal CTV (kappa statistics for PLN, RV, and PI was 0.65, 0.58, and 0.62; P < .0001), uterus (kappa for PLN, RV, and PI was 0.45, 0.74, and 0.77; P < .0001), and parametria (kappa for PLN, RV, and PI was 0.49, 0.62, and 0.50; P < .0001). Contouring heterogeneity was greatest for the cervix (kappa measure for PLN, RV, and PI was 0.15, 0.4, and 0.24; P < .0001) and vagina (kappa for PLN, RV, and PI was 0.47, 0.36 and 0.46; P < .0001), reflecting difficulties in determining the interface between GTV and these tissues. Kappa statistics of the different CTV components generally demonstrated moderate to substantial agreement among international experts in the field of gynecological radiation therapy. Further planning target volume margins accounting for organ motion and setup errors are a necessary addition to the CTV. Copyright © 2015

  3. International and United States documents on oceans law and policy. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.N.

    1986-01-01

    Volume 2 of the five-volume series continues the major international documents of Volume 1 relating to ocean issues. It groups the documents under three major headings: Cooperative agreements for port regulation and development, Living resources, and Environmental protection. The Living resources section is further divided into Coastal fisheries, Anadromous species, Highly migratory species, and Marine Mammals. Subdivisions under the Environmental protection section are General principles, Regional protection, Vessel-source pollution, Ocean dumping, Land-based pollution, Civil liability and compensation, and Endangered species. The title page for each document includes full citations, although some documents have been edited. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the seven sections under Environmental protection.

  4. Internalization of targeted quantum dots by brain capillary endothelial cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Paris-Robidas, Sarah; Brouard, Danny; Emond, Vincent; Parent, Martin; Calon, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    Receptors located on brain capillary endothelial cells forming the blood-brain barrier are the target of most brain drug delivery approaches. Yet, direct subcellular evidence of vectorized transport of nanoformulations into the brain is lacking. To resolve this question, quantum dots were conjugated to monoclonal antibodies (Ri7) targeting the murine transferrin receptor. Specific transferrin receptor-mediated endocytosis of Ri7-quantum dots was first confirmed in N2A and bEnd5 cells. After intravenous injection in mice, Ri7-quantum dots exhibited a fourfold higher volume of distribution in brain tissues, compared to controls. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that Ri7-quantum dots were sequestered throughout the cerebral vasculature 30 min, 1 h, and 4 h post injection, with a decline of signal intensity after 24 h. Transmission electron microscopic studies confirmed that Ri7-quantum dots were massively internalized by brain capillary endothelial cells, averaging 37 ± 4 Ri7-quantum dots/cell 1 h after injection. Most quantum dots within brain capillary endothelial cells were observed in small vesicles (58%), with a smaller proportion detected in tubular structures or in multivesicular bodies. Parenchymal penetration of Ri7-quantum dots was extremely low and comparable to control IgG. Our results show that systemically administered Ri7-quantum dots complexes undergo extensive endocytosis by brain capillary endothelial cells and open the door for novel therapeutic approaches based on brain endothelial cell drug delivery. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. International Source Book: Nuclear Fuel Cycle Research and Development Vol 1 Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, K. M.; Lakey, L. T.

    1983-07-01

    This document starts with an overview that summarizes nuclear power policies and waste management activities for nations with significant commercial nuclear fuel cycle activities either under way or planned. A more detailed program summary is then included for each country or international agency conducting nuclear fuel cycle and waste management research and development. This first volume includes the overview and the program summaries of those countries listed alphabetically from Argentina to Italy.

  6. Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion. Volume 1. Plenary sessions

    SciTech Connect

    1980-08-01

    The Sixth International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion was held at the Atlanta Hilton, Atlanta, Georgia, April 9-11, 1980. The papers in this volume involved presentation of the research and development programs of the US (US DOE, TVA, EPRI and US EPA), United Kingdom, Federal Republic of Germany and the People's Republic of China. Eight papers from Vol. 1 (Plenary Sessions) of the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  7. The Archive of the Amateur Observation Network of the International Halley Watch. Volume 2; Comet Halley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edberg, Stephen J. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    The International Halley Watch (IHW) was organized for the purpose of gathering and archiving the most complete record of the apparition of a comet, Halley's Comet (1982i = 1986 III = 1P/Halley), ever compiled. The redirection of the International Sun-Earth Explorer 3 (ISEE-3) spacecraft, subsequently renamed the International Cometary Explorer (ICE), toward Comet Giacobini- Zinner (1984e = 1985 XIII = 21P/Giacobini-Zinner) prompted the initiation of a formal watch on that comet. All the data collected on P/Giacobini-Zinner and P/Halley have been published on CD-ROM in the Comet Halley Archive. This document contains a printed version of the archive data, collected by amateur astronomers, on these two comets. Volume 1 contains the Comet Giacobini-Zinner data archive and Volume 2 contains the Comet Halley archive. Both volumes include information on how to read the data in both archives, as well as a history of both comet watches (including the organizing of the network of astronomers and lessons learned from that experience).

  8. Locating the optimal internal jugular target site for central venous line placement.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Chris R; Murtagh, Kevin R; Mills, Jaime; Deitte, Lori A; Rice, Mark J; Tighe, Patrick J

    2016-09-01

    Historically, the placement of internal jugular central venous lines has been accomplished by using external landmarks to help identify target-rich locations in order to steer clear of dangerous structures. This paradigm is largely being displaced, as ultrasound has become routine practice, raising new considerations regarding target locations and risk mitigation. Most human anatomy texts depict the internal jugular vein as a straight columnar structure that exits the cranial vault the same size that it enters the thoracic cavity. We dispute the notion that the internal jugulars are cylindrical columns that symmetrically descend into the thoracic cavity, and purport that they are asymmetric conical structures. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate 100 consecutive adult chest and neck computed tomography exams that were imaged at an inpatient hospital. We measured the internal jugular on the left and right sides at three different levels to look for differences in size as the internal jugular descends into the thoracic cavity. We revealed that as the internal jugular descends into the thorax, the area of the vessel increases and geometrically resembles a conical structure. We also reconfirmed that the left internal jugular is smaller than the right internal jugular. Understanding that the largest target area for central venous line placement is the lower portion of the right internal jugular vein will help to better target vascular access for central line placement. This is the first study the authors are aware of that depicts the internal jugular as a conical structure as opposed to the commonly depicted symmetrical columnar structure frequently illustrated in anatomy textbooks. This target area does come with additional risk, as the closer you get to the thoracic cavity, the greater the chances for lung injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Using Histopathology Breast Cancer Data to Reduce Clinical Target Volume Margins at Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Stroom, Joep Schlief, Angelique; Alderliesten, Tanja; Peterse, Hans; Bartelink, Harry; Gilhuijs, Kenneth

    2009-07-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to quantify the incidence and extension of microscopic disease around primary breast tumors in patients undergoing breast-conserving therapy (BCT), focusing on a potential application to reduce radiotherapy boost volumes. Methods and Materials: An extensive pathology tumor-distribution study was performed using 38 wide local excision specimens of BCT patients. Specimen orientation was recorded and microscopic findings reconstructed to assess the incidence of microscopic disease around the macroscopic tumor. A model of disease spread was built, showing probability of disease extension outside a treated volume (P{sub out,vol}). The model was applied in 10 new BCT patients. Taking asymmetry of tumor excision into account, new asymmetric margins for the clinical target volume of the boost (CTV{sub boost}) were evaluated that minimize the volume without increasing P{sub out,TTV} (TTV being total treated volume: V{sub surgery} + CTV{sub boost}). Potential reductions in CTV{sub boost} and TTV were evaluated. Results: Microscopic disease beyond the tumor boundary occurred isotropically at distances > 1 cm (intended surgical margin) and > 1.5 cm (intended TTV margin) in 53% and 36% of the excision specimens, respectively. In the 10 prospective patients, the average P{sub out,TTV} was, however, only 16% due to larger surgical margins than intended in some directions. Asymmetric CTV{sub boost} margins reduced the CTV{sub boost} and TTV by 27% (20 cc) and 12% (21 cc) on average, without compromising tumor coverage. Conclusions: Microscopic disease extension may occur beyond the current CTV{sub boost} in approximately one sixth of patients. An asymmetric CTV{sub boost} that corrects for asymmetry of the surgical excision has the potential to reduce boost volumes while maintaining tumor coverage.

  10. Target Volume Delineation for Partial Breast Radiotherapy Planning: Clinical Characteristics Associated with Low Interobserver Concordance

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, Ross P.; Truong, Pauline T. Kader, Hosam A.; Berthelet, Eric; Lee, Junella C.; Hilts, Michelle L.; Kader, Adam S.; Beckham, Wayne A.; Olivotto, Ivo A.

    2007-09-01

    Purpose: To examine variability in target volume delineation for partial breast radiotherapy planning and evaluate characteristics associated with low interobserver concordance. Methods and Materials: Thirty patients who underwent planning CT for adjuvant breast radiotherapy formed the study cohort. Using a standardized scale to score seroma clarity and consensus contouring guidelines, three radiation oncologists independently graded seroma clarity and delineated seroma volumes for each case. Seroma geometric center coordinates, maximum diameters in three axes, and volumes were recorded. Conformity index (CI), the ratio of overlapping volume and encompassing delineated volume, was calculated for each case. Cases with CI {<=}0.50 were analyzed to identify features associated with low concordance. Results: The median time from surgery to CT was 42.5 days. For geometric center coordinates, variations from the mean were 0.5-1.1 mm and standard deviations (SDs) were 0.5-1.8 mm. For maximum seroma dimensions, variations from the mean and SDs were predominantly <5 mm, with the largest SDs observed in the medial-lateral axis. The mean CI was 0.61 (range, 0.27-0.84). Five cases had CI {<=}0.50. Conformity index was significantly associated with seroma clarity (p < 0.001) and seroma volume (p < 0.002). Features associated with reduced concordance included tissue stranding from the surgical cavity, proximity to muscle, dense breast parenchyma, and benign calcifications that may be mistaken for surgical clips. Conclusion: Variability in seroma contouring occurred in three dimensions, with the largest variations in the medial-lateral axis. Awareness of clinical features associated with reduced concordance may be applied toward training staff and refining contouring guidelines for partial breast radiotherapy trials.

  11. Effects of international football matches on ambulance call profiles and volumes during the 2006 World Cup

    PubMed Central

    Deakin, Charles D; Thompson, Fizz; Gibson, Caroline; Green, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Background Prompt ambulance attendance is aimed at improving patient care. With finite resources struggling to meet performance targets, unforeseen demand precludes the ability to tailor resources to cope with increased call volumes, and can have a marked detrimental effect on performance and hence patient care. The effects of the 2006 World Cup football matches on call volumes and profiles were analysed to understand how public events can influence demands on the ambulance service. Methods All emergency calls to the Hampshire Ambulance Service NHS Trust (currently the Hampshire Division of South Central Ambulance Service, Winchester, UK) during the first weekend of the 2006 World Cup football matches were analysed by call volume and classification of call (call type). Results On the day of the first football match, call volume was over 50% higher than that on a typical Saturday, with distinct peaks before and after the inaugural match. Call profile analysis showed increases in alcohol‐related emergencies, including collapse, unconsciousness, assault and road traffic accidents. The increase in assaults was particularly marked at the end of each match and increased again into the late evening. Conclusion A detailed mapping of call volumes and profiles during the World Cup football shows a significant increase in overall emergency calls, mostly alcohol related. Mapping of limited resources to these patterns will allow improved responses to emergency calls. PMID:17513536

  12. Binding and Internalization of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Targeted to Nuclear Oncoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Linda C.; Romano, Jan E.; Krynska, Barbara; Faro, Scott; Mohamed, Feroze B.; Gordon, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    A targeted nanoconjugate is being developed for non-invasive detection of gene expression in cells expressing the JC virus oncoprotein, T-antigen, which has been associated with medulloblastoma and other cancers. JC virus T-antigen localizes predominantly to the nucleus via a classical monopartite nuclear localization signal (NLS). An antibody fragment which recognizes JC virus T-antigen was attached to cross-linked dextran coated iron oxide nanoparticles. Radiolabeled conjugates were added to mouse medulloblastoma cells expressing the target T-antigen to test their ability to bind to tumor cells and be internalized by the cells. All conjugates containing targeting antibody bound to cells and were internalized, with increasing levels over time. There was no difference in cell binding or internalization among conjugates containing 2, 4, 6 or 8 antibody fragments per nanoparticle. Conjugates with only nonspecific antibody on nanoparticles, or unconjugated nonspecific antibody, had significantly lower total binding and internalization than conjugates with targeting antibody. Unconjugated targeting antibody had equivalent or lower cell uptake compared with targeted nanoparticle conjugates. Specificity of uptake was demonstrated by >80% reduction of nanoconjugate uptake in the presence of 100 fold excess of unconjugated antibody. The presence of a membrane translocation peptide (Tat) on the nanoparticles in addition to targeting antibody did not improve nanoconjugate internalization over the internalization caused by the antibody alone. This antibody nanoconjugate demonstrates feasibility of targeting a nuclear protein and suggests that a minimum number of antibody fragments per nanoparticle are sufficient for achieving binding specificity and efficient uptake into living cells. PMID:23487404

  13. Retroperitoneal Sarcoma Target Volume and Organ at Risk Contour Delineation Agreement Among NRG Sarcoma Radiation Oncologists

    SciTech Connect

    Baldini, Elizabeth H.; Abrams, Ross A.; Bosch, Walter; Roberge, David; Haas, Rick L.M.; Catton, Charles N.; Indelicato, Daniel J.; Olsen, Jeffrey R.; Deville, Curtiland; Chen, Yen-Lin; Finkelstein, Steven E.; DeLaney, Thomas F.; Wang, Dian

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the variability in target volume and organ at risk (OAR) contour delineation for retroperitoneal sarcoma (RPS) among 12 sarcoma radiation oncologists. Methods and Materials: Radiation planning computed tomography (CT) scans for 2 cases of RPS were distributed among 12 sarcoma radiation oncologists with instructions for contouring gross tumor volume (GTV), clinical target volume (CTV), high-risk CTV (HR CTV: area judged to be at high risk of resulting in positive margins after resection), and OARs: bowel bag, small bowel, colon, stomach, and duodenum. Analysis of contour agreement was performed using the simultaneous truth and performance level estimation (STAPLE) algorithm and kappa statistics. Results: Ten radiation oncologists contoured both RPS cases, 1 contoured only RPS1, and 1 contoured only RPS2 such that each case was contoured by 11 radiation oncologists. The first case (RPS 1) was a patient with a de-differentiated (DD) liposarcoma (LPS) with a predominant well-differentiated (WD) component, and the second case (RPS 2) was a patient with DD LPS made up almost entirely of a DD component. Contouring agreement for GTV and CTV contours was high. However, the agreement for HR CTVs was only moderate. For OARs, agreement for stomach, bowel bag, small bowel, and colon was high, but agreement for duodenum (distorted by tumor in one of these cases) was fair to moderate. Conclusions: For preoperative treatment of RPS, sarcoma radiation oncologists contoured GTV, CTV, and most OARs with a high level of agreement. HR CTV contours were more variable. Further clarification of this volume with the help of sarcoma surgical oncologists is necessary to reach consensus. More attention to delineation of the duodenum is also needed.

  14. Variation of clinical target volume definition in three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Valicenti, R K; Sweet, J W; Hauck, W W; Hudes, R S; Lee, T; Dicker, A P; Waterman, F M; Anne, P R; Corn, B W; Galvin, J M

    1999-07-01

    Currently, three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) planning relies on the interpretation of computed tomography (CT) axial images for defining the clinical target volume (CTV). This study investigates the variation among multiple observers to define the CTV used in 3D-CRT for prostate cancer. Seven observers independently delineated the CTVs (prostate +/- seminal vesicles [SV]) from the CT simulation data of 10 prostate cancer patients undergoing 3D-CRT. Six patients underwent CT simulation without the use of contrast material and serve as a control group. The other 4 had urethral and bladder opacification with contrast medium. To determine interobserver variation, we evaluated the derived volume, the maximum dimensions, and the isocenter for each examination of CTV. We assessed the reliability in the CTVs among the observers by correlating the variation for each class of measurements. This was estimated by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), with 1.00 defining absolute correlation. For the prostate volumes, the ICC was 0.80 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.56-0.96). This changed to 0.92 (95% CI: 0.75-0.99) with the use of contrast material. Similarly, the maximal prostatic dimensions were reliable and improved. There was poor agreement in defining the SV. For this structure, the ICC never exceeded 0.28. The reliability of the isocenter was excellent, with the ICC exceeding 0.83 and 0.90 for the prostate +/- SV, respectively. In 3D-CRT for prostate cancer, there was excellent agreement among multiple observers to define the prostate target volume but poor agreement to define the SV. The use of urethral and bladder contrast improved the reliability of localizing the prostate. For all CTVs, the isocenter was very reliable and should be used to compare the variation in 3D dosimetry among multiple observers.

  15. Potential implications of the bystander effect on TCP and EUD when considering target volume dose heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Balderson, Michael J; Kirkby, Charles

    2015-01-01

    In light of in vitro evidence suggesting that radiation-induced bystander effects may enhance non-local cell killing, there is potential for impact on radiotherapy treatment planning paradigms such as the goal of delivering a uniform dose throughout the clinical target volume (CTV). This work applies a bystander effect model to calculate equivalent uniform dose (EUD) and tumor control probability (TCP) for external beam prostate treatment and compares the results with a more common model where local response is dictated exclusively by local absorbed dose. The broad assumptions applied in the bystander effect model are intended to place an upper limit on the extent of the results in a clinical context. EUD and TCP of a prostate cancer target volume under conditions of increasing dose heterogeneity were calculated using two models: One incorporating bystander effects derived from previously published in vitro bystander data ( McMahon et al. 2012 , 2013a); and one using a common linear-quadratic (LQ) response that relies exclusively on local absorbed dose. Dose through the CTV was modelled as a normal distribution, where the degree of heterogeneity was then dictated by changing the standard deviation (SD). Also, a representative clinical dose distribution was examined as cold (low dose) sub-volumes were systematically introduced. The bystander model suggests a moderate degree of dose heterogeneity throughout a target volume will yield as good or better outcome compared to a uniform dose in terms of EUD and TCP. For a typical intermediate risk prostate prescription of 78 Gy over 39 fractions maxima in EUD and TCP as a function of increasing SD occurred at SD ∼ 5 Gy. The plots only dropped below the uniform dose values for SD ∼ 10 Gy, almost 13% of the prescribed dose. Small, but potentially significant differences in the outcome metrics between the models were identified in the clinically-derived dose distribution as cold sub-volumes were introduced. In terms of

  16. Prospective Randomized Double-Blind Pilot Study of Site-Specific Consensus Atlas Implementation for Rectal Cancer Target Volume Delineation in the Cooperative Group Setting

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, Clifton D.; Nijkamp, Jasper; Duppen, Joop C.; Rasch, Coen R.N.; Thomas, Charles R.; Wang, Samuel J.; Okunieff, Paul; Jones, William E.; Baseman, Daniel; Patel, Shilpen; Demandante, Carlo G.N.; Harris, Anna M.; Smith, Benjamin D.; Katz, Alan W.; McGann, Camille

    2011-02-01

    Purpose: Variations in target volume delineation represent a significant hurdle in clinical trials involving conformal radiotherapy. We sought to determine the effect of a consensus guideline-based visual atlas on contouring the target volumes. Methods and Materials: A representative case was contoured (Scan 1) by 14 physician observers and a reference expert with and without target volume delineation instructions derived from a proposed rectal cancer clinical trial involving conformal radiotherapy. The gross tumor volume (GTV), and two clinical target volumes (CTVA, including the internal iliac, presacral, and perirectal nodes, and CTVB, which included the external iliac nodes) were contoured. The observers were randomly assigned to receipt (Group A) or nonreceipt (Group B) of a consensus guideline and atlas for anorectal cancers and then instructed to recontour the same case/images (Scan 2). Observer variation was analyzed volumetrically using the conformation number (CN, where CN = 1 equals total agreement). Results: Of 14 evaluable contour sets (1 expert and 7 Group A and 6 Group B observers), greater agreement was found for the GTV (mean CN, 0.75) than for the CTVs (mean CN, 0.46-0.65). Atlas exposure for Group A led to significantly increased interobserver agreement for CTVA (mean initial CN, 0.68, after atlas use, 0.76; p = .03) and increased agreement with the expert reference (initial mean CN, 0.58; after atlas use, 0.69; p = .02). For the GTV and CTVB, neither the interobserver nor the expert agreement was altered after atlas exposure. Conclusion: Consensus guideline atlas implementation resulted in a detectable difference in interobserver agreement and a greater approximation of expert volumes for the CTVA but not for the GTV or CTVB in the specified case. Visual atlas inclusion should be considered as a feature in future clinical trials incorporating conformal RT.

  17. Prostate bed target interfractional motion using RTOG consensus definitions and daily CT on rails : Does target motion differ between superior and inferior portions of the clinical target volume?

    PubMed

    Verma, Vivek; Chen, Shifeng; Zhou, Sumin; Enke, Charles A; Wahl, Andrew O

    2017-01-01

    Using high-quality CT-on-rails imaging, the daily motion of the prostate bed clinical target volume (PB-CTV) based on consensus Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) definitions (instead of surgical clips/fiducials) was studied. It was assessed whether PB motion in the superior portion of PB-CTV (SUP-CTV) differed from the inferior PB-CTV (INF-CTV). Eight pT2-3bN0-1M0 patients underwent postprostatectomy intensity-modulated radiotherapy, totaling 300 fractions. INF-CTV and SUP-CTV were defined as PB-CTV located inferior and superior to the superior border of the pubic symphysis, respectively. Daily pretreatment CT-on-rails images were compared to the planning CT in the left-right (LR), superoinferior (SI), and anteroposterior (AP) directions. Two parameters were defined: "total PB-CTV motion" represented total shifts from skin tattoos to RTOG-defined anatomic areas; "PB-CTV target motion" (performed for both SUP-CTV and INF-CTV) represented shifts from bone to RTOG-defined anatomic areas (i. e., subtracting shifts from skin tattoos to bone). Mean (± standard deviation, SD) total PB-CTV motion was -1.5 (± 6.0), 1.3 (± 4.5), and 3.7 (± 5.7) mm in LR, SI, and AP directions, respectively. Mean (± SD) PB-CTV target motion was 0.2 (±1.4), 0.3 (±2.4), and 0 (±3.1) mm in the LR, SI, and AP directions, respectively. Mean (± SD) INF-CTV target motion was 0.1 (± 2.8), 0.5 (± 2.2), and 0.2 (± 2.5) mm, and SUP-CTV target motion was 0.3 (± 1.8), 0.5 (± 2.3), and 0 (± 5.0) mm in LR, SI, and AP directions, respectively. No statistically significant differences between INF-CTV and SUP-CTV motion were present in any direction. There are no statistically apparent motion differences between SUP-CTV and INF-CTV. Current uniform planning target volume (PTV) margins are adequate to cover both portions of the CTV.

  18. Engineering of Targeted Nanoparticles for Cancer Therapy Using Internalizing Aptamers Isolated by Cell-Uptake Selection

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Zeyu; Levy-Nissenbaum, Etgar; Alexis, Frank; Lupták, Andrej; Teply, Benjamin A.; Chan, Juliana M.; Shi, Jinjun; Digga, Elise; Cheng, Judy; Langer, Robert; Farokhzad, Omid C.

    2012-01-01

    One of the major challenges in the development of targeted nanoparticles (NPs) for cancer therapy is to discover targeting ligands that allow for differential binding and uptake by the target cancer cells. Using prostate cancer (PCa) as a model disease, we developed a cell-uptake selection strategy to isolate PCa-specific internalizing 2'-Omethyl RNA aptamers (Apts) for NP incorporation. Twelve cycles of selection and counter-selection were done to obtain a panel of internalizing Apts, which can distinguish PCa cells from non-prostate and normal prostate cells. After Apt characterization, size minimization, and conjugation of the Apts with fluorescently-labeled polymeric NPs, the NP-Apt bioconjugates exhibit PCa specificity and enhancement in cellular uptake when compared to non-targeted NPs lacking the internalizing Apts. Furthermore, when docetaxel, a chemotherapeutic agent used for the treatment of PCa, was encapsulated within the NP-Apt, a significant improvement in cytotoxicity was achieved in targeted PCa cells. Rather than isolating high-affinity Apts as reported in previous selection processes, our selection strategy was designed to enrich cancer-cell specific internalizing Apts. A similar cell-uptake selection strategy may be used to develop specific internalizing ligands for a myriad of other diseases and can potentially facilitate delivering various molecules, including drugs and siRNAs, into cells. PMID:22214176

  19. 3D coronary MR angiography at 1.5 T: Volume-targeted versus whole-heart acquisition.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hang; Zeng, Meng-Su; Ge, Mei-Ying; Yun, Hong; Yang, Shan

    2013-09-01

    To compare volume-targeted acquisition with whole-heart acquisition in 1.5-T free-breathing 3D coronary magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) with parallel imaging. The major coronary arteries were imaged in 36 subjects using the whole-heart and volume-targeted acquisitions with comparable imaging parameters. The quantitative and semiquantitative data derived from these two acquisition methods were analyzed statistically, with P < 0.05 considered significant. Both the right coronary artery (RCA) / left circumflex artery (LCX)- and the left main (LM) / left anterior descending (LAD)-targeted acquisitions had similar results in navigator efficiencies and apparent signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in comparison with whole-heart acquisition. Apparent contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the volume-targeted imaging was significantly higher than that of the whole-heart imaging. The imaging time required for a whole-heart scan was significantly longer than each of the RCA/LCX- and LM/LAD-targeted acquisitions. However, the sum of scanning times derived from volume-targeted imaging was significantly longer than that of whole-heart acquisition. Both RCA/LCX- and LM/LAD-targeted acquisition yield higher vessel sharpness and overall image quality in comparison with whole-heart acquisition. The lengths of the major coronary arteries were not significantly different for the whole-heart and volume-targeted approaches. The whole-heart method was obviously superior to the volume-targeted method in terms of visualization of the posterior descending artery. For current 1.5-T navigator coronary MRA, volume-targeted and whole-heart acquisitions have their own advantages and the choice of methods may vary in accordance with the different aims of clinical practice. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  20. Does targeted pre-load optimisation by stroke volume variation attenuate a reduction in cardiac output in the prone position.

    PubMed

    Wu, C-Y; Lee, T-S; Chan, K-C; Jeng, C-S; Cheng, Y-J

    2012-07-01

    The prone position can reduce cardiac output by up to 25% due to reduced preload. We hypothesised that preload optimisation targeted to stroke volume variation before turning prone might alleviate this. A supine threshold stroke volume variation of 14% in a preliminary study identified patients whose cardiac outputs would decline when turned prone. In 45 patients, cardiac output declined only in the group whose supine stroke volume variation was high (mean (SD) 5.1 (2.0) to 3.9 (1.9) l.min(-1) ; p < 0.001), but not in patients in whom it was low, or in those in whom stroke volume variation was high, but who received volume preload (p = 0.525 and 0.941, respectively). We conclude that targeted preload optimisation using a supine stroke volume variation value < 14% is effective in preventing falls in cardiac output induced by the prone position.

  1. Investigations of internal noise levels for different target sizes, contrasts, and noise structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Minah; Choi, Shinkook; Baek, Jongduk

    2014-03-01

    To describe internal noise levels for different target sizes, contrasts, and noise structures, Gaussian targets with four different sizes (i.e., standard deviation of 2,4,6 and 8) and three different noise structures(i.e., white, low-pass, and highpass) were generated. The generated noise images were scaled to have standard deviation of 0.15. For each noise type, target contrasts were adjusted to have the same detectability based on NPW, and the detectability of CHO was calculated accordingly. For human observer study, 3 trained observers performed 2AFC detection tasks, and correction rate, Pc, was calculated for each task. By adding proper internal noise level to numerical observer (i.e., NPW and CHO), detectability of human observer was matched with that of numerical observers. Even though target contrasts were adjusted to have the same detectability of NPW observer, detectability of human observer decreases as the target size increases. The internal noise level varies for different target sizes, contrasts, and noise structures, demonstrating different internal noise levels should be considered in numerical observer to predict the detection performance of human observer.

  2. Light-induced proton gradients and internal volumes in chromatophores of Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides

    SciTech Connect

    Melandri, B.A.; Mehlhorn, R.J.; Packer, L.

    1984-11-15

    To test the predictions of the chemiosmotic hypothesis, it is essential to have sensitive and accurate measures of the aqueous volume and pH within membrane compartments. One unique feature of the present investigation is the application of electron spin resonance probes to determine internal aqueous volume and pH changes in bacterial chromatophores under virtually identical conditions. Volumes of the chromatophores ranged from 6 to 16 ..mu..l/mg bacteriochlorophyll among different preparations, and were sensitive to the osmolarity of the suspending buffer. pH gradients reached two units in illuminated chromatophores as determined with ESR methods, and increased when KCl and valinomycin were added to the assay. Measurements with the fluorescent dye 9-amino-acridine yielded similar pH gradients, provided that an operational vesicle volume, which corrected for the binding of the dye to the membrane, was used in the calculation. The sensitivity of the ESR method allowed the measurement of pH gradients resulting from only a few light flashes. A plot of pH gradients versus number of flashes was linear up to about 30 flashes, and intercepted the origin. This result is consistent with proton release into the bulk aqueous phase after only a single light flash. This ability to measure small pH gradients offers new opportunities for the study of energy-transducing mechanisms. 21 references, 5 figures.

  3. Sci—Fri AM: Mountain — 06: Optimizing planning target volume in lung radiotherapy using deformable registration

    SciTech Connect

    Hoang, P; Wierzbicki, M

    2014-08-15

    A four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) image is acquired for all radically treated, lung cancer patients to define the internal target volume (ITV), which encompasses tumour motion due to breathing and subclinical disease. Patient set-up error and anatomical motion that is not due to breathing is addressed through an additional 1 cm margin around the ITV to obtain the planning target volume (PTV). The objective of this retrospective study is to find the minimum PTV margin that provides an acceptable probability of delivering the prescribed dose to the ITV. Acquisition of a kV cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) image at each fraction was used to shift the treatment couch to accurately align the spinal cord and carina. Our method utilized deformable image registration to automatically position the planning ITV on each CBCT. We evaluated the percentage of the ITV surface that fell within various PTVs for 79 fractions across 18 patients. Treatment success was defined as a situation where at least 99% of the ITV is covered by the PTV. Overall, this is to be achieved in at least 90% of the treatment fractions. The current approach with a 1cm PTV margin was successful ∼96% of the time. This analysis revealed that the current margin can be reduced to 0.8cm isotropic or 0.6×0.6×1 cm{sup 3} non-isotropic, which were successful 92 and 91 percent of the time respectively. Moreover, we have shown that these margins maintain accuracy, despite intrafractional variation, and maximize CBCT image guidance capabilities.

  4. Total internal reflection fluorescence based multiplane localization microscopy enables super-resolved volume imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, Partha Pratim; Hess, Samuel T.

    2017-05-01

    Total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) based geometry is attractive for super-resolution localization microscopy. Although the traditional TIRF configuration enables near-surface 2D imaging, it is not capable of imaging multiple axial planes. We propose a simultaneous multiplane imaging based localization encoded (SMILE) technique in the TIRF configuration that utilizes point spread function (PSF) information (PSF size, corresponding to single molecules located at the focal plane and off-focal planes, and the detected photons per PSF) to reconstruct a near-surface volume stack. The natural spread of the detection PSFs (far from the specimen-coverslip interface) is used to fix the axial locations of single molecules, and the corresponding photon count determines their localization precision. The proposed SMILE microscopy technique enables super-resolved volume reconstruction based on 2D recorded data.

  5. Data fusion for planning target volume and isodose prediction in prostate brachytherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouranian, Saman; Ramezani, Mahdi; Mahdavi, S. Sara; Spadinger, Ingrid; Morris, William J.; Salcudean, Septimiu E.; Abolmaesumi, Purang

    2015-03-01

    In low-dose prostate brachytherapy treatment, a large number of radioactive seeds is implanted in and adjacent to the prostate gland. Planning of this treatment involves the determination of a Planning Target Volume (PTV), followed by defining the optimal number of seeds, needles and their coordinates for implantation. The two major planning tasks, i.e. PTV determination and seed definition, are associated with inter- and intra-expert variability. Moreover, since these two steps are performed in sequence, the variability is accumulated in the overall treatment plan. In this paper, we introduce a model based on a data fusion technique that enables joint determination of PTV and the minimum Prescribed Isodose (mPD) map. The model captures the correlation between different information modalities consisting of transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) volumes, PTV and isodose contours. We take advantage of joint Independent Component Analysis (jICA) as a linear decomposition technique to obtain a set of joint components that optimally describe such correlation. We perform a component stability analysis to generate a model with stable parameters that predicts the PTV and isodose contours solely based on a new patient TRUS volume. We propose a framework for both modeling and prediction processes and evaluate it on a dataset of 60 brachytherapy treatment records. We show PTV prediction error of 10:02+/-4:5% and the V100 isodose overlap of 97+/-3:55% with respect to the clinical gold standard.

  6. Comparative Study With New Accuracy Metrics for Target Volume Contouring in PET Image Guided Radiation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, T; Teras, M; Beichel, RR; Boellaard, R; Bruynooghe, M; Dicken, V; Gooding, MJ; Julyan, PJ; Lee, JA; Lefèvre, S; Mix, M; Naranjo, V; Wu, X; Zaidi, H; Zeng, Z; Minn, H

    2017-01-01

    The impact of positron emission tomography (PET) on radiation therapy is held back by poor methods of defining functional volumes of interest. Many new software tools are being proposed for contouring target volumes but the different approaches are not adequately compared and their accuracy is poorly evaluated due to the ill-definition of ground truth. This paper compares the largest cohort to date of established, emerging and proposed PET contouring methods, in terms of accuracy and variability. We emphasize spatial accuracy and present a new metric that addresses the lack of unique ground truth. Thirty methods are used at 13 different institutions to contour functional volumes of interest in clinical PET/CT and a custom-built PET phantom representing typical problems in image guided radiotherapy. Contouring methods are grouped according to algorithmic type, level of interactivity and how they exploit structural information in hybrid images. Experiments reveal benefits of high levels of user interaction, as well as simultaneous visualization of CT images and PET gradients to guide interactive procedures. Method-wise evaluation identifies the danger of over-automation and the value of prior knowledge built into an algorithm. PMID:22692898

  7. Accuracy estimation for projection-to-volume targeting during rotational therapy: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Long, Yong; Fessler, Jeffrey A; Balter, James M

    2010-06-01

    Estimating motion and deformation parameters from a series of projection radiographs acquired during arc therapy using a reference CT volume has become a promising technique for targeting treatment. The purpose of this work is to investigate the influence of rotational arc length on maximum achievable accuracy of motion estimation. The projection-to-volume alignment procedure used a nonrigid model to describe motion in thorax area, a cost function consisting of a least-squared error metric and a simple regularizer that encourages local invertibility, and a four-level multiresolution scheme with a conjugate gradient method to optimize the cost function. The authors tested both small and large scale deformations typically found in the thorax of a radiotherapy patient at different breathing states and limited-angle scans of six angular widths (12 degrees, 18 degrees, 24 degrees, 36 degrees, 60 degrees, and 90 degrees) centered at three angles (0 degrees, 45 degrees, and 90 degrees). The experiments illustrate the potential accuracy of limited-angle projection-to-volume alignment. Registration accuracy can be sensitive to angular center, tends to be lower along direction of the projection set, and tends to decrease away from the rotation center. The studies of small as well as large but realistically scaled deformations show similar dependencies. These trends appear to have fairly low sensitivity to quantum noise effects. There is potentially sufficient information present in a small spread of projections to monitor the configuration of reasonably high contrast tumors without implanted markers.

  8. Influence of FDG-PET on primary nodal target volume definition for head and neck carcinomas.

    PubMed

    van Egmond, Sylvia L; Piscaer, Vera; Janssen, Luuk M; Stegeman, Inge; Hobbelink, Monique G; Grolman, Wilko; Terhaard, Chris H

    The role of 2-[(18)F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in routine diagnostic staging remains controversial. In case of discordance between FDG-PET and CT, a compromise has to be made between the risk of false positive FDG-PET and the risk of delaying appropriate salvage intervention. Second, with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), smaller radiation fields allow tissue sparing, but could also lead to more marginal failures. We retrospectively studied 283 patients with head and neck carcinoma scheduled for radiotherapy between 2002 and 2010. We analyzed the influence of FDG-PET/CT versus CT alone on defining nodal target volume definition and evaluated its long-term clinical results. Second, the location of nodal recurrences was related to the radiation regional dose distribution. In 92 patients, CT and FDG-PET, performed in mold, showed discordant results. In 33%, nodal staging was altered by FDG-PET. In 24%, FDG-PET also led to an alteration in nodal treatment, including a nodal upstage of 18% and downstage of 6%. In eight of these 92 patients, a regional recurrence occurred. Only two patients had a recurrence in the discordant node on FDG-PET and CT and both received a boost (high dose radiation). These results support the complementary value of FDG-PET/CT compared to CT alone in defining nodal target volume definition for radiotherapy of head and neck cancer.

  9. Internal photoemission from plasmonic nanoparticles: comparison between surface and volume photoelectric effects.

    PubMed

    Uskov, Alexander V; Protsenko, Igor E; Ikhsanov, Renat S; Babicheva, Viktoriia E; Zhukovsky, Sergei V; Lavrinenko, Andrei V; O'Reilly, Eoin P; Xu, Hongxing

    2014-05-07

    We study the emission of photoelectrons from plasmonic nanoparticles into a surrounding matrix. We consider two mechanisms of electron emission from the nanoparticles--surface and volume ones--and use models for these two mechanisms which allow us to obtain analytical results for the photoelectron emission rate from a nanoparticle. Calculations have been carried out for a step potential at the surface of a spherical nanoparticle, and a simple model for the hot electron cooling has been used. We highlight the effect of the discontinuity of the dielectric permittivity at the nanoparticle boundary in the surface mechanism, which leads to a substantial (by ∼5 times) increase of the internal photoelectron emission rate from a nanoparticle compared to the case when such a discontinuity is absent. For a plasmonic nanoparticle, a comparison of the two photoeffect mechanisms was undertaken for the first time which showed that the surface photoeffect can in the general case be larger than the volume one, which agrees with the results obtained for a flat metal surface first formulated by Tamm and Schubin in their pioneering development of a quantum-mechanical theory of photoeffect in 1931. In accordance with our calculations, this possible predominance of the surface effect is based on two factors: (i) effective cooling of hot carriers during their propagation from the volume of the nanoparticle to its surface in the scenario of the volume mechanism and (ii) strengthening of the surface mechanism through the effect of the discontinuity of the dielectric permittivity at the nanoparticle boundary. The latter is stronger at relatively lower photon energies and correspondingly is more substantial for internal photoemission than for an external one. We show that in the general case, it is essential to take both mechanisms into account in the development of devices based on the photoelectric effect and when considering hot electron emission from a plasmonic nanoantenna.

  10. Internal Kinematics of the Volume-reduced Tongue: A Longitudinal Microsonometric Study

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, JIE; SHCHERBATYY, VOLODYMYR; LIU, ZI-JUN

    2015-01-01

    This study examined tongue internal kinematics during feeding over time after its volume reduction. Six ultrasonic crystals were implanted into the tongue to record distance changes in anterior width (AW), bilateral lengths (LENG), posterior thicknesses (THICK), posterior dorsal (PDW) and ventral (PVW) widths in 5 sibling pairs of Yucatan minipigs (n=10). In each pair, one received tongue volume reduction surgery (reduction) and the other had the identical incisions without tissue removal (sham). Functional deformation of the tongue from pre-implanted ultrasonic crystals was recorded during natural feeding 1 day before, 7–8, 13–15 and 28–30 days after the surgery. The results revealed that feeding behavior and tongue functional deformation were unchanged over time in the sham pigs. However, at day 7–8, more frequent and longer ingestion episodes were seen in the reduction as compared to the sham. Moreover, deformational changes in AW and LENG decreased while those in THICK, PDW and PVW increased significantly (P < 0.001). At day 13–15, the reduced deformational changes in LENG (P < 0.01) slightly restored and the increased deformation in THICK (P > 0.05), PDW (P < 0.01), and PVW (P < 0.05) diminished. At day 28–30, the restoration of AW and LENG continued (P < 0.01–0.05), but previously enhanced deformations in THICK, PDW and PVW were no longer significantly different from the baseline (P > 0.05). These results suggest that the tongue volume reduction has significant and persistent impacts on feeding behaviors and tongue internal kinematics, and the restoring capacity of internal kinematics in the anterior tongue is limited and incomplete over time. PMID:26456078

  11. Internal Kinematics of the Volume-Reduced Tongue: A Longitudinal Microsonometric Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Shcherbatyy, Volodymyr; Liu, Zi-Jun

    2016-01-01

    This study examined tongue internal kinematics during feeding over time after its volume reduction. Six ultrasonic crystals were implanted into the tongue to record distance changes in anterior width (AW), bilateral lengths (LENG), posterior thicknesses (THICK), and posterior dorsal (PDW) and ventral (PVW) widths in five sibling pairs of Yucatan minipigs (N = 10). In each pair, one received tongue volume reduction surgery (reduction), and the other had the identical incisions without tissue removal (sham). Functional deformation of the tongue from preimplanted ultrasonic crystals was recorded during natural feeding 1 day before, 7-8, 13-15, and 28-30 days after the surgery. The results revealed that feeding behavior and tongue functional deformation were unchanged over time in the sham pigs. However, at Days 7-8, more frequent and longer ingestion episodes were seen in the reduction as compared with the sham. Moreover, deformational changes in AW and LENG decreased, whereas those in THICK, PDW, and PVW increased significantly (P < 0.001). At Days 13-15, the reduced deformational changes in LENG (P < 0.01) slightly restored, and the increased deformation in THICK (P > 0.05), PDW (P < 0.01), and PVW (P < 0.05) diminished. At Days 28-30, the restoration of AW and LENG continued (P < 0.01-0.05), but previously enhanced deformations in THICK, PDW, and PVW were no longer significantly different from the baseline (P > 0.05). These results suggest that the tongue volume reduction has significant and persistent impacts on feeding behaviors and tongue internal kinematics, and the restoring capacity of internal kinematics in the anterior tongue is limited and incomplete over time.

  12. Quantitative evaluation of cone-beam computed tomography in target volume definition for offline image-guided radiation therapy of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weihu; Wu, Qiuwen; Yan, Di

    2010-01-01

    To quantitatively evaluate cone-beam CT (CBCT) in target volume definition in an offline image guidance environment. Fifteen patients each with five helical CTs (HCT) and eight CBCTs were included. A single physician manually delineated prostate and seminal vesicles (SVs) on each CT. The clinical target volume (CTV) was prostate for low risk group (G1), plus SVs for intermediate risk group (G2). The internal target volumes (ITVs) on CBCT (ITV(CBCT)) were constructed and compared with ITV(HCT). The following comparisons were performed: CTV and ITV in HCT and CBCT; similarity of ITVs using overlap index (OI); surface differences between ITVs; quality assurance of ITV(CBCT) using CTV from weekly CBCT; and dosimetric evaluations of ITV(HCT) coverage on plans from ITV(CBCT). There was no statistical significant difference of CTV or ITV. The ITV OIs were 91%/88% for G1/G2 patients. They improved significantly with 1-2mm margins. Therefore, the ITVs were mostly within 2mm. The CTVs from weekly CBCT had >95% overlap with ITV(CBCT). The ITV dose differences (D(95), and D(mean)) were <0.3%. It is feasible to use CBCT for target definition in offline image guidance, thereby eliminating the separate helical CT scan process. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. High internal free volume compositions for low-k dielectric and other applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swager, Timothy M. (Inventor); Bouffard, Jean (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides materials, devices, and methods involving new heterocyclic, shape-persistent monomeric units with internal free volume. In some cases, materials the present invention may comprise monomers, oligomers, or polymers that incorporate a heterocyclic, shape-persistent iptycene. The present invention may provide materials having low dielectric constants and improved stability at high operating temperatures due to the electron-poor character of materials. In addition, compositions of the invention may be easily synthesized and readily modified to suit a particular application.

  14. The DISAM Journal of International Security Assistance Management. Volume 30, Number 2, June 2008

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The DISAM Journal of International Security Assistance Management . Volume 30, Number 2, June 2008 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S...AND ADDRESS(ES) Defense Institute of Security Assistance Management (DISAM),DISAM/DR,2475 K Street,Wright-Patterson AFB,OH,45433-7641 8. PERFORMING

  15. Routine gastric residual volume measurement and energy target achievement in the PICU: a comparison study.

    PubMed

    Tume, Lyvonne N; Bickerdike, Anna; Latten, Lynne; Davies, Simon; Lefèvre, Madeleine H; Nicolas, Gaëlle W; Valla, Frédéric V

    2017-09-18

    Critically ill children frequently fail to achieve adequate energy intake, and some care practices, such as the measurement of gastric residual volume (GRV), may contribute to this problem. We compared outcomes in two similar European Paediatric Intensive Care Units (PICUs): one which routinely measures GRV (PICU-GRV) to one unit that does not (PICU-noGRV). An observational pilot comparison study was undertaken. Eighty-seven children were included in the study, 42 (PICU-GRV) and 45 (PICU-noGRV). There were no significant differences in the percentage of energy targets achieved in the first 4 days of PICU admission although PICU-noGRV showed more consistent delivery of median (and IQR) energy targets and less under and over feeding for PICU-GRV and PICU-noGRV: day 1 37 (14-72) vs 44 (0-100), day 2 97 (53-126) vs 100 (100-100), day 3 84 (45-112) vs 100 (100-100) and day 4 101 (63-124) vs 100 (100-100). The incidence of vomiting was higher in PICU-GRV. No necrotising enterocolitis was confirmed in either unit, and ventilator-acquired pneumonia rates were not significantly different (7.01 vs 12 5.31 per 1000 ventilator days; p = 0.70) between PICU-GRV and PICU-noGRV units. The practice of routine gastric residual measurement did not significantly impair energy targets in the first 4 days of PICU admission. However, not measuring GRV did not increase vomiting, ventilator-acquired pneumonia or necrotising enterocolitis, which is the main reason clinicians cite for measuring GRV. What is known: • The practice of routinely measuring gastric residual volume is widespread in critical care units • This practice is increasingly being questioned in critically ill patients, both as a practice that increases • The likelihood of delivering inadequate enteral nutrition amounts and as a tool to assess feeding tolerance What is new: • Not routinely measuring gastric residual volume did not increase adverse events of ventilator acquired pneumonia, necrotising enterocolitis

  16. Internal combustion engine run on biogas is a potential solution to meet Indonesia emission target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambarita, Himsar

    2017-09-01

    Indonesia has released two different Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions reduction targets. The first target, released in 2009, is reduction GHG emissions 26% from Business-as-Usual (BAU) level using own budget and up 41% if supported international aids by 2020. The second target is reduction 29% and 41% from BAU by 2030 using own budget and with international support, respectively. In this paper, the BAU emissions and emissions reduction target of these two targets are elaborated. In addition, the characteristics of emissions from transportation sector are discussed. One of the potential mitigation actions is switching fuel in transportation sector. The results the most promising mitigation action in the transportation is switching oil fuel with biofuel. The Government of Indonesia (GoI) focuses on using biodiesel and bioethanol to run internal combustion engine in transportation sector and biogas is aimed to fuel power plant unit. However, there is very limited of success stories on using biogas in the power plant. The barriers and challenges will be discussed here. It is suggested to run internal combustion engine with biogas.

  17. Relapse patterns after radiochemotherapy of glioblastoma with FET PET-guided boost irradiation and simulation to optimize radiation target volume.

    PubMed

    Piroth, Marc D; Galldiks, Norbert; Pinkawa, Michael; Holy, Richard; Stoffels, Gabriele; Ermert, Johannes; Mottaghy, Felix M; Shah, N Jon; Langen, Karl-Josef; Eble, Michael J

    2016-06-24

    O-(2-18 F-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine-(FET)-PET may be helpful to improve the definition of radiation target volumes in glioblastomas compared with MRI. We analyzed the relapse patterns in FET-PET after a FET- and MRI-based integrated-boost intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) of glioblastomas to perform an optimized target volume definition. A relapse pattern analysis was performed in 13 glioblastoma patients treated with radiochemotherapy within a prospective phase-II-study between 2008 and 2009. Radiotherapy was performed as an integrated-boost intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IB-IMRT). The prescribed dose was 72 Gy for the boost target volume, based on baseline FET-PET (FET-1) and 60 Gy for the MRI-based (MRI-1) standard target volume. The single doses were 2.4 and 2.0 Gy, respectively. Location and volume of recurrent tumors in FET-2 and MRI-2 were analyzed related to initial tumor, detected in baseline FET-1. Variable target volumes were created theoretically based on FET-1 to optimally cover recurrent tumor. The tumor volume overlap in FET and MRI was poor both at baseline (median 12 %; range 0-32) and at time of recurrence (13 %; 0-100). Recurrent tumor volume in FET-2 was localized to 39 % (12-91) in the initial tumor volume (FET-1). Over the time a shrinking (mean 12 (5-26) ml) and shifting (mean 6 (1-10 mm) of the resection cavity was seen. A simulated target volume based on active tumor in FET-1 with an additional safety margin of 7 mm around the FET-1 volume covered recurrent FET tumor volume (FET-2) significantly better than a corresponding target volume based on contrast enhancement in MRI-1 with a same safety margin of 7 mm (100 % (54-100) versus 85 % (0-100); p < 0.01). A simulated planning target volume (PTV), based on FET-1 and additional 7 mm margin plus 5 mm margin for setup-uncertainties was significantly smaller than the conventional, MR-based PTV applied in this study (median 160 (112-297) ml versus 231 (117-386) ml, p < 0.001). In this

  18. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of driven amorphous materials. I. Internal degrees of freedom and volume deformation.

    PubMed

    Bouchbinder, Eran; Langer, J S

    2009-09-01

    This is the first of three papers devoted to the nonequilibrium thermodynamics of amorphous materials. Our focus here is on the role of internal degrees of freedom in determining the dynamics of such systems. For illustrative purposes, we study a solid whose internal degrees of freedom are vacancies that govern irreversible volume changes. Using this model, we compare a thermodynamic theory based on the Clausius-Duhem inequality to a statistical analysis based directly on the law of increase of entropy. The statistical theory is used first to derive the Clausius-Duhem inequality. We then use the theory to go beyond those results and obtain detailed equations of motion, including a rate factor that is enhanced by deformation-induced noisy fluctuations. The statistical analysis points to the need for understanding how both energy and entropy are shared by the vacancies and their environments.

  19. The role of delineation education programs for improving interobserver variability in target volume delineation in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Onal, Cem; Cengiz, Mustafa; Guler, Ozan C; Dolek, Yemliha; Ozkok, Serdar

    2017-05-01

    To assess whether delineation courses for radiation oncologists improve interobserver variability in target volume delineation for post-operative gastric cancer radiotherapy planning. 29 radiation oncologists delineated target volumes in a gastric cancer patient. An experienced radiation oncologist lectured about delineation based on contouring atlas and delineation recommendations. After the course, the radiation oncologists, blinded to the previous delineation, provided delineation for the same patient. The difference between delineated volumes and reference volumes for pre- and post-course clinical target volume (CTV) were 19.8% (-42.4 to 70.6%) and 12.3% (-12.0 to 27.3%) (p = 0.26), respectively. The planning target volume (PTV) differences pre- and post-course according to the reference volume were 20.5% (-40.7 to 93.7%) and 13.1% (-10.6 to 29.5%) (p = 0.30), respectively. The concordance volumes between the pre- and post-course CTVs and PTVs were 467.1 ± 89.2 vs 597.7 ± 54.6 cm(3) (p < 0.001) and 738.6 ± 135.1 vs 893.2 ± 144.6 cm(3) (p < 0.001), respectively. Minimum and maximum observer variations were seen at the cranial part and splenic hilus and at the caudal part of the CTV. The kappa indices compared with the reference contouring at pre- and post-course delineations were 0.68 and 0.82, respectively. The delineation course improved interobserver variability for gastric cancer. However, impact of target volume changes on toxicity and local control should be evaluated for further studies. Advances in knowledge: This study demonstrated that a delineation course based on current recommendations helped physicians delineate smaller and more homogeneous target volumes. Better target volume delineation allows proper target volume irradiation and preventing unnecessary normal tissue irradiation.

  20. Foundations of the Unity of Science, Toward an International Encyclopedia of Unified Science, Volume 2, Numbers 1-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neurath, Otto; And Others

    The monographs published from 1938 through 1970 under the general title of the International Encyclopedia of Unified Science are now published in two volumes (see also SE 012 543). The monographs included in this volume, and the philosophers who wrote them, are listed below. Foundations of the Social Sciences (Neurath); The Structure of Scientific…

  1. A comparative study of target volumes based on 18F-FDG PET-CT and ten phases of 4DCT for primary thoracic squamous esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yanluan; Li, Jianbin; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Yingjie

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the correlations in target volumes based on 18F-FDG PET/CT and four-dimensional CT (4DCT) to detect the feasibility of implementing PET in determining gross target volumes (GTV) for tumor motion for primary thoracic esophageal cancer (EC). Methods Thirty-three patients with EC sequentially underwent contrast-enhanced 3DCT, 4DCT, and 18F-FDG PET-CT thoracic simulation. The internal gross target volume (IGTV)10 was obtained by combining the GTV from ten phases of 4DCT. The GTVs based on PET/CT images were defined by setting of different standardized uptake value thresholds and visual contouring. The difference in volume ratio, conformity index (CI), and degree of inclusion (DI) between IGTV10 and GTVPET was compared. Results The images from 20 patients were suitable for further analysis. The optimal volume ratio of 0.95±0.32, 1.06±0.50, 1.07±0.49 was at standardized uptake value (SUV)2.5, SUV20%, or manual contouring. The mean CIs were from 0.33 to 0.54. The best CIs were at SUV2.0 (0.51±0.11), SUV2.5 (0.53±0.13), SUV20% (0.53±0.12), and manual contouring (0.54±0.14). The mean DIs of GTVPET in IGTV10 were from 0.60 to 0.90, and the mean DIs of IGTV10 in GTVPET ranged from 0.35 to 0.78. A negative correlation was found between the mean CI and different SUV (P=0.000). Conclusion None of the PET-based contours had both close spatial and volumetric approximation to the 4DCT IGTV10. Further evaluation and optimization of PET as a tool for target identification are required. PMID:28123302

  2. Optimal convection volume for improving patient outcomes in an international incident dialysis cohort treated with online hemodiafiltration

    PubMed Central

    Canaud, Bernard; Barbieri, Carlo; Marcelli, Daniele; Bellocchio, Francesco; Bowry, Sudhir; Mari, Flavio; Amato, Claudia; Gatti, Emanuele

    2015-01-01

    Online hemodiafiltration (OL-HDF), the most efficient renal replacement therapy, enables enhanced removal of small and large uremic toxins by combining diffusive and convective solute transport. Randomized controlled trials on prevalent chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients showed improved patient survival with high-volume OL-HDF, underlining the effect of convection volume (CV). This retrospective international study was conducted in a large cohort of incident CKD patients to determine the CV threshold and range associated with survival advantage. Data were extracted from a cohort of adult CKD patients treated by post-dilution OL-HDF over a 101-month period. In total, 2293 patients with a minimum of 2 years of follow-up were analyzed using advanced statistical tools, including cubic spline analyses for determination of the CV range over which a survival increase was observed. The relative survival rate of OL-HDF patients, adjusted for age, gender, comorbidities, vascular access, albumin, C-reactive protein, and dialysis dose, was found to increase at about 55 l/week of CV and to stay increased up to about 75 l/week. Similar analysis of pre-dialysis β2-microglobin (marker of middle-molecule uremic toxins) concentrations found a nearly linear decrease in marker concentration as CV increased from 40 to 75 l/week. Analysis of log C-reactive protein levels showed a decrease over the same CV range. Thus, a convection dose target based on convection volume should be considered and needs to be confirmed by prospective trials as a new determinant of dialysis adequacy. PMID:25945407

  3. Threshold segmentation for PET target volume delineation in radiation treatment planning: the role of target-to-background ratio and target size.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, M; Matheoud, R; Secco, C; Loi, G; Krengli, M; Inglese, E

    2008-04-01

    A multivariable approach was adopted to study the dependence of the percentage threshold [TH(%)] used to define the boundaries of 18F-FDG positive tissue on emission scan duration (ESD) and activity at the start of acquisition (Aacq) for different target sizes and target-to-background (T/B) ratios. An anthropomorphic model, at least for counting rate characteristics, was used to study this dependence in conditions resembling the ones that can be encountered in the clinical studies. An annular ring of water bags of 3 cm thickness was fitted over an International Electro-technical Commission (IEC) phantom in order to obtain counting rates similar to those found in average patients. The scatter fraction of the modified IEC phantom was similar to the mean scatter fraction measured on patients, with a similar scanner. A supplemental set of microhollow spheres was positioned inside the phantom. The NEMA NU 2-2001 scatter phantom was positioned at the end of the IEC phantom to approximate the clinical situation of having activity that extends beyond the scanner field of view. The phantoms were filled with a solution of water and 18F (12 kBq/mL) and the spheres with various T/B ratios of 22.5, 10.3, and 3.6. Sequential imaging was performed to acquire PET images with varying background activity concentrations of about 12, 9, 6.4, 5.3, and 3.1 kBq/mL. The ESD was set to 60, 120, 180, and 240 s/bed. Data were fitted using two distinct multiple linear regression models for sphere ID < or = 10 mm and sphere ID > 10 mm. The fittings of both models were good with an R2 of 0.86 in both cases. Neither ESD nor Aacq resulted as significant predictors of the TH(%). For sphere ID < or =10 mm the target size was the most significant predictor of the TH(%), followed by the T/B ratio, while for sphere ID > 10 mm the explanatory power of the target size and T/B ratio were reversed, the T/B ratio being now the most important predictor of the TH(%). Both the target size and T/B ratio play a

  4. Diffusion in Cytoplasm: Effects of Excluded Volume Due to Internal Membranes and Cytoskeletal Structures

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Igor L.; Kraikivski, Pavel; Slepchenko, Boris M.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The intricate geometry of cytoskeletal networks and internal membranes causes the space available for diffusion in cytoplasm to be convoluted, thereby affecting macromolecule diffusivity. We present a first systematic computational study of this effect by approximating intracellular structures as mixtures of random overlapping obstacles of various shapes. Effective diffusion coefficients are computed using a fast homogenization technique. It is found that a simple two-parameter power law provides a remarkably accurate description of effective diffusion over the entire range of volume fractions and for any given composition of structures. This universality allows for fast computation of diffusion coefficients, once the obstacle shapes and volume fractions are specified. We demonstrate that the excluded volume effect alone can account for a four-to-sixfold reduction in diffusive transport in cells, relative to diffusion in vitro. The study lays the foundation for an accurate coarse-grain formulation that would account for cytoplasm heterogeneity on a micron scale and binding of tracers to intracellular structures. PMID:19651034

  5. International Space Station Evolution Data Book. Volume 2; Evolution Concepts; Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, Catherine A. (Editor); Antol, Jeffrey (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This report provides a focused and in-depth look at the opportunities and drivers for the enhancement and evolution of the International Space Station (ISS) during assembly and beyond the assembly complete stage. These enhancements would expand and improve the current baseline capabilities of the ISS and help to facilitate the commercialization of the ISS by the private sector. Volume 1 provides the consolidated overview of the ISS baseline systems; information on the current facilities available for pressurized and unpressurized payloads; and information on current plans for crew availability and utilization, resource timelines and margin summaries including power, thermal, and storage volumes; and an overview of the vehicle traffic model. Volume 2 includes discussions of advanced technologies being investigated for use on the ISS and potential commercial utilization activities being examined including proposed design reference missions (DRM's) and the technologies being assessed by the Pre-planned Program Improvement (P(sup 3) I) Working Group. This information is very high level and does not provide the relevant information necessary for detailed design efforts. This document is meant to educate readers on the ISS and to stimulate the generation of ideas for enhancement and utilization of the ISS, either by or for the government, academia, and commercial industry.

  6. Calculation of Lung Cancer Volume of Target Based on Thorax Computed Tomography Images using Active Contour Segmentation Method for Treatment Planning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra Yosandha, Fiet; Adi, Kusworo; Edi Widodo, Catur

    2017-06-01

    In this research, calculation process of the lung cancer volume of target based on computed tomography (CT) thorax images was done. Volume of the target calculation was done in purpose to treatment planning system in radiotherapy. The calculation of the target volume consists of gross tumor volume (GTV), clinical target volume (CTV), planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk (OAR). The calculation of the target volume was done by adding the target area on each slices and then multiply the result with the slice thickness. Calculations of area using of digital image processing techniques with active contour segmentation method. This segmentation for contouring to obtain the target volume. The calculation of volume produced on each of the targets is 577.2 cm3 for GTV, 769.9 cm3 for CTV, 877.8 cm3 for PTV, 618.7 cm3 for OAR 1, 1,162 cm3 for OAR 2 right, and 1,597 cm3 for OAR 2 left. These values indicate that the image processing techniques developed can be implemented to calculate the lung cancer target volume based on CT thorax images. This research expected to help doctors and medical physicists in determining and contouring the target volume quickly and precisely.

  7. International Space Station Evolution Data Book. Volume 1; Baseline Design; Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, Catherine A. (Editor); Antol, Jeffrey (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will provide an Earth-orbiting facility that will accommodate engineering experiments as well as research in a microgravity environment for life and natural sciences. The ISS will distribute resource utilities and support permanent human habitation for conducting this research and experimentation in a safe and habitable environment. The objectives of the ISS program are to develop a world-class, international orbiting laboratory for conducting high-value scientific research for the benefit of humans on Earth; to provide access to the microgravity environment; to develop the ability to live and work in space for extended periods; and to provide a research test bed for developing advanced technology for human and robotic exploration of space. The current design and development of the ISS has been achieved through the outstanding efforts of many talented engineers, designers, technicians, and support personnel who have dedicated their time and hard work to producing a state-of-the-art Space Station. Despite these efforts, the current design of the ISS has limitations that have resulted from cost and technology issues. Regardless, the ISS must evolve during its operational lifetime to respond to changing user needs and long-term national and international goals. As technologies develop and user needs change, the ISS will be modified to meet these demands. The design and development of these modifications should begin now to prevent a significant lapse in time between the baseline design and the realization of future opportunities. For this effort to begin, an understanding of the baseline systems and current available opportunities for utilization needs to be achieved. Volume I of this document provides the consolidated overview of the ISS baseline systems. It also provides information on the current facilities available for pressurized and unpressurized payloads. Information on current plans for crew availability and utilization

  8. Modalities of Mechanical Ventilation: Volume-Targeted Versus Pressure-Limited.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Shanny M; Newnam, Katherine M

    2016-04-01

    Respiratory distress syndrome remains the most common admission diagnosis in the neonatal intensive care unit. Healthcare providers have a clear appreciation for the potential harm to pulmonary structures that have been associated with mechanical ventilation (MV) in the preterm infant. Although life sustaining, the goal is to optimally ventilate while limiting trauma to the neonatal lung in order to preserve long-term cardiopulmonary and neurodevelopmental outcomes. To describe, compare, and contrast 2 primary methods of neonatal MV, pressure-limited ventilation (PLV) and volume-targeted ventilation (VTV), highlighting key considerations during therapy. A comprehensive search of the literature was completed using the following databases: CINAHL, Cochrane, Google Scholar, and PubMed. Research articles that were published in English over the last 10 years were reviewed for key information to describe and support the topic. Expert content review was conducted prior to publication by respiratory care providers, neonatal nurse practitioners, staff nurses, and neonatologist. Technology is rapidly evolving, with the newest mechanical ventilators providing the clinician with real-time data not previously available. Advanced microprocessors and feedback mechanisms can better support various ventilatory strategies including PLV and VTV. Renewed interest in volume ventilation has led many clinicians to ask about current evidence to support ventilatory modalities with regard to timing, settings, and short- and long-term effects. The clinician understands that neonatal pulmonary status is frequently changing based on gestational age, current age, and physiologic influences. Evidence supporting recommendations for the described MV modalities of PLV and VTV is provided for both preterm and term neonates. Comparison between MV strategies, specifically PLV and VTV, including short- and long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes, is needed. Recommendations regarding physiologic tidal

  9. Localization Accuracy of the Clinical Target Volume During Image-Guided Radiotherapy of Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Hugo, Geoffrey D.; Weiss, Elisabeth; Badawi, Ahmed; Orton, Matthew

    2011-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the position and shape of the originally defined clinical target volume (CTV) over the treatment course, and to assess the impact of gross tumor volume (GTV)-based online computed tomography (CT) guidance on CTV localization accuracy. Methods and Materials: Weekly breath-hold CT scans were acquired in 17 patients undergoing radiotherapy. Deformable registration was used to propagate the GTV and CTV from the first weekly CT image to all other weekly CT images. The on-treatment CT scans were registered rigidly to the planning CT scan based on the GTV location to simulate online guidance, and residual error in the CTV centroids and borders was calculated. Results: The mean GTV after 5 weeks relative to volume at the beginning of treatment was 77% {+-} 20%, whereas for the prescribed CTV, it was 92% {+-} 10%. The mean absolute residual error magnitude in the CTV centroid position after a GTV-based localization was 2.9 {+-} 3.0 mm, and it varied from 0.3 to 20.0 mm over all patients. Residual error of the CTV centroid was associated with GTV regression and anisotropy of regression during treatment (p = 0.02 and p = 0.03, respectively; Spearman rank correlation). A residual error in CTV border position greater than 2 mm was present in 77% of patients and 50% of fractions. Among these fractions, residual error of the CTV borders was 3.5 {+-} 1.6 mm (left-right), 3.1 {+-} 0.9 mm (anterior-posterior), and 6.4 {+-} 7.5 mm (superior-inferior). Conclusions: Online guidance based on the visible GTV produces substantial error in CTV localization, particularly for highly regressing tumors. The results of this study will be useful in designing margins for CTV localization or for developing new online CTV localization strategies.

  10. Accuracy estimation for projection-to-volume targeting during rotational therapy: A feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Long, Yong; Fessler, Jeffrey A; Balter, James M

    2010-06-01

    Estimating motion and deformation parameters from a series of projection radiographs acquired during arc therapy using a reference CT volume has become a promising technique for targeting treatment. The purpose of this work is to investigate the influence of rotational arc length on maximum achievable accuracy of motion estimation. The projection-to-volume alignment procedure used a nonrigid model to describe motion in thorax area, a cost function consisting of a least-squared error metric and a simple regularizer that encourages local invertibility, and a four-level multiresolution scheme with a conjugate gradient method to optimize the cost function. The authors tested both small and large scale deformations typically found in the thorax of a radiotherapy patient at different breathing states and limited-angle scans of six angular widths (12°, 18°, 24°, 36°, 60°, and 90°) centered at three angles (0°, 45°, and 90°). The experiments illustrate the potential accuracy of limited-angle projection-to-volume alignment. Registration accuracy can be sensitive to angular center, tends to be lower along direction of the projection set, and tends to decrease away from the rotation center. The studies of small as well as large but realistically scaled deformations show similar dependencies. These trends appear to have fairly low sensitivity to quantum noise effects. There is potentially sufficient information present in a small spread of projections to monitor the configuration of reasonably high contrast tumors without implanted markers. © 2010 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  11. Determination of planning target volume for whole stomach irradiation using daily megavoltage computed tomographic images.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Matthew E; Pereira, Gisele C; El Naqa, Issam M; Goddu, S Murty; Al-Lozi, Rawan; Apte, Aditya; Mansur, David B

    2012-01-01

    Whole stomach radiation therapy is often used in the management of gastric lymphoma. However, very limited data exist with regard to planning target volume requirements for the whole stomach. This study retrospectively analyzed daily megavoltage computed tomographic (CT) scans of gastric lymphoma patients in order to help determine the interfraction variation of the stomach position. Forty-one daily megavoltage CT images from 3 gastric lymphoma patients were used for stomach contouring. Each patient's megavoltage CT images were rigidly registered to their CT simulation data sets, and the margin in each direction that covered at least 95% of the daily stomach volumes was computed using a simple grid search. Patient setup variation was also calculated from the daily patient shifts. The organ motion margin was then added to the setup margin to render the total margin. A uniform margin of 2.2 cm is required to cover 95% of the stomach over the treatment course. However, direction-specific margins were observed from 1.72, 1.88, 0.92, 2.23, 1.90, and 0.86 cm for the right, left, posterior, anterior, superior, and inferior directions, respectively. The results of this study provide helpful 3-dimensional volumetric information to the limited existing data on margin requirements for whole stomach radiation therapy. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Postoperative Radiotherapy for Glioma: Improved Delineation of the Clinical Target Volume Using the Geodesic Distance Calculation

    PubMed Central

    Yan, DanFang; Yan, SenXiang; Lu, ZhongJie; Xie, Cong; Chen, Wei; Xu, Xing; Li, Xinke; Yu, Haogang; Zhu, Xinli; Zheng, LingYan

    2014-01-01

    Objects To introduce a new method for generating the clinical target volume (CTV) from gross tumor volume (GTV) using the geodesic distance calculation for glioma. Methods One glioblastoma patient was enrolled. The GTV and natural barriers were contoured on each slice of the computer tomography (CT) simulation images. Then, a graphic processing unit based on a parallel Euclidean distance transform was used to generate the CTV considering natural barriers. Three-dimensional (3D) visualization technique was applied to show the delineation results. Speed of operation and precision were compared between this new delineation method and the traditional method. Results In considering spatial barriers, the shortest distance from the point sheltered from these barriers equals the sum of the distance along the shortest path between the two points; this consists of several segments and evades the spatial barriers, rather than being the direct Euclidean distance between two points. The CTV was generated irregularly rather than as a spherical shape. The time required to generate the CTV was greatly reduced. Moreover, this new method improved inter- and intra-observer variability in defining the CTV. Conclusions Compared with the traditional CTV delineation, this new method using geodesic distance calculation not only greatly shortens the time to modify the CTV, but also has better reproducibility. PMID:24896082

  13. Critical Infrastructure Protection II, The International Federation for Information Processing, Volume 290.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papa, Mauricio; Shenoi, Sujeet

    The information infrastructure -- comprising computers, embedded devices, networks and software systems -- is vital to day-to-day operations in every sector: information and telecommunications, banking and finance, energy, chemicals and hazardous materials, agriculture, food, water, public health, emergency services, transportation, postal and shipping, government and defense. Global business and industry, governments, indeed society itself, cannot function effectively if major components of the critical information infrastructure are degraded, disabled or destroyed. Critical Infrastructure Protection II describes original research results and innovative applications in the interdisciplinary field of critical infrastructure protection. Also, it highlights the importance of weaving science, technology and policy in crafting sophisticated, yet practical, solutions that will help secure information, computer and network assets in the various critical infrastructure sectors. Areas of coverage include: - Themes and Issues - Infrastructure Security - Control Systems Security - Security Strategies - Infrastructure Interdependencies - Infrastructure Modeling and Simulation This book is the second volume in the annual series produced by the International Federation for Information Processing (IFIP) Working Group 11.10 on Critical Infrastructure Protection, an international community of scientists, engineers, practitioners and policy makers dedicated to advancing research, development and implementation efforts focused on infrastructure protection. The book contains a selection of twenty edited papers from the Second Annual IFIP WG 11.10 International Conference on Critical Infrastructure Protection held at George Mason University, Arlington, Virginia, USA in the spring of 2008.

  14. The ADVANCE project: Formal evaluation of the targeted deployment. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    ADVANCE [Advanced Driver and Vehicle Advisory Navigation ConcEpt] was a public/private partnership conceived and developed by four founding parties. The founding parties include the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT), the University of Illinois at Chicago and Northwestern University operating together under the auspices of the Illinois Universities Transportation Research Consortium (IUTRC), and Motorola, Inc. The major responsibilities of each party are fully described in the Project agreement. Subsequently, these four were joined on the Steering Committee by the American Automobile Association (AAA). This unique blending of public sector, private sector and university interests, augmented by more than two dozen other private sector participants, provided a strong set of resources for ADVANCE. The ADVANCE test area covered over 300 square miles including portions of the City of Chicago and 40 northwest suburban communities. The Project encompasses the high growth areas adjacent to O`Hare International Airport, the Schaumbura/Hoffman Estates office and retail complexes, and the Lake-Cook Road development corridor. It also includes major sports and entertainment complexes such as the Arlington International Racecourse and the Rosemont Horizon. The population in the area is more than 750,000. This volume provides a summary of the insights and achievements made as a result of this field test, and selected appendices containing more detailed information.

  15. Randomized controlled trial of internal and external targeted temperature management methods in post- cardiac arrest patients.

    PubMed

    Look, Xinqi; Li, Huihua; Ng, Mingwei; Lim, Eric Tien Siang; Pothiawala, Sohil; Tan, Kenneth Boon Kiat; Sewa, Duu Wen; Shahidah, Nur; Pek, Pin Pin; Ong, Marcus Eng Hock

    2017-07-05

    Targeted temperature management post-cardiac arrest is currently implemented using various methods, broadly categorized as internal and external. This study aimed to evaluate survival-to-hospital discharge and neurological outcomes (Glasgow-Pittsburgh Score) of post-cardiac arrest patients undergoing internal cooling verses external cooling. A randomized controlled trial of post-resuscitation cardiac arrest patients was conducted from October 2008-September 2014. Patients were randomized to either internal or external cooling methods. Historical controls were selected matched by age and gender. Analysis using SPSS version 21.0 presented descriptive statistics and frequencies while univariate logistic regression was done using R 3.1.3. 23 patients were randomized to internal cooling and 22 patients to external cooling and 42 matched controls were selected. No significant difference was seen between internal and external cooling in terms of survival, neurological outcomes and complications. However in the internal cooling arm, there was lower risk of developing overcooling (p=0.01) and rebound hyperthermia (p=0.02). Compared to normothermia, internal cooling had higher survival (OR=3.36, 95% CI=(1.130, 10.412), and lower risk of developing cardiac arrhythmias (OR=0.18, 95% CI=(0.04, 0.63)). Subgroup analysis showed those with cardiac cause of arrest (OR=4.29, 95% CI=(1.26, 15.80)) and sustained ROSC (OR=5.50, 95% CI=(1.64, 20.39)) had better survival with internal cooling compared to normothermia. Cooling curves showed tighter temperature control for internal compared to external cooling. Internal cooling showed tighter temperature control compared to external cooling. Internal cooling can potentially provide better survival-to-hospital discharge outcomes and reduce cardiac arrhythmia complications in carefully selected patients as compared to normothermia. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Clinicopathologic Analysis of Microscopic Extension in Lung Adenocarcinoma: Defining Clinical Target Volume for Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Grills, Inga S.; Fitch, Dwight L.; Goldstein, Neal S.; Yan Di; Chmielewski, Gary W.; Welsh, Robert J.; Kestin, Larry L.

    2007-10-01

    Purpose: To determine the gross tumor volume (GTV) to clinical target volume margin for non-small-cell lung cancer treatment planning. Methods: A total of 35 patients with Stage T1N0 adenocarcinoma underwent wedge resection plus immediate lobectomy. The gross tumor size and microscopic extension distance beyond the gross tumor were measured. The nuclear grade and percentage of bronchoalveolar features were analyzed for association with microscopic extension. The gross tumor dimensions were measured on a computed tomography (CT) scan (lung and mediastinal windows) and compared with the pathologic dimensions. The potential coverage of microscopic extension for two different lung stereotactic radiotherapy regimens was evaluated. Results: The mean microscopic extension distance beyond the gross tumor was 7.2 mm and varied according to grade (10.1, 7.0, and 3.5 mm for Grade 1 to 3, respectively, p < 0.01). The 90th percentile for microscopic extension was 12.0 mm (13.0, 9.7, and 4.4 mm for Grade 1 to 3, respectively). The CT lung windows correlated better with the pathologic size than did the mediastinal windows (gross pathologic size overestimated by a mean of 5.8 mm; composite size [gross plus microscopic extension] underestimated by a mean of 1.2 mm). For a GTV contoured on the CT lung windows, the margin required to cover microscopic extension for 90% of the cases would be 9 mm (9, 7, and 4 mm for Grade 1 to 3, respectively). The potential microscopic extension dosimetric coverage (55 Gy) varied substantially between the stereotactic radiotherapy schedules. Conclusion: For lung adenocarcinomas, the GTV should be contoured using CT lung windows. Although a GTV based on the CT lung windows would underestimate the gross tumor size plus microscopic extension by only 1.2 mm for the average case, the clinical target volume expansion required to cover the microscopic extension in 90% of cases could be as large as 9 mm, although considerably smaller for high-grade tumors

  17. Comparative evaluation of respiratory-gated and ungated FDG-PET for target volume definition in radiotherapy treatment planning for pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Takahiro; Matsuo, Yukinori; Nakamura, Akira; Nakamoto, Yuji; Itasaka, Satoshi; Mizowaki, Takashi; Togashi, Kaori; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of respiratory-gated positron emission tomography (4D-PET) in pancreatic cancer radiotherapy treatment planning (RTTP). Fourteen patients with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-avid pancreatic tumours were evaluated between December 2013 and March 2015. Two sets of volumes were contoured for the pancreatic tumour of each patient. The biological target volume in three-dimensional RTTP (BTV3D) was contoured using conventional respiratory un-gated PET. The BTV3D was then expanded using population-based margins to generate a series of internal target volume 3D (ITV3D) values. The ITV 4D (ITV4D) was contoured using 4D-PET. Each of the five phases of 4D-PET was used for 4D contouring, and the ITV4D was constructed by summing the volumes defined on the five individual 4D-PET images. The relative volumes and normalized volumetric overlap were computed between ITV3D and ITV4D. On average, the FDG-avid tumour volumes were 1.6 (range: 0.8-2.3) fold greater in the ITV4D than in the BTV3D. On average, the ITV3D values were 2.0 (range: 1.1-3.4) fold larger than the corresponding ITV4D values. The ITV generated from 4D-PET can be used to improve the accuracy or reduce normal tissue irradiation compared with conventional un-gated PET-based ITV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Radiotherapy planning for glioblastoma based on a tumor growth model: improving target volume delineation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unkelbach, Jan; Menze, Bjoern H.; Konukoglu, Ender; Dittmann, Florian; Le, Matthieu; Ayache, Nicholas; Shih, Helen A.

    2014-02-01

    Glioblastoma differ from many other tumors in the sense that they grow infiltratively into the brain tissue instead of forming a solid tumor mass with a defined boundary. Only the part of the tumor with high tumor cell density can be localized through imaging directly. In contrast, brain tissue infiltrated by tumor cells at low density appears normal on current imaging modalities. In current clinical practice, a uniform margin, typically two centimeters, is applied to account for microscopic spread of disease that is not directly assessable through imaging. The current treatment planning procedure can potentially be improved by accounting for the anisotropy of tumor growth, which arises from different factors: anatomical barriers such as the falx cerebri represent boundaries for migrating tumor cells. In addition, tumor cells primarily spread in white matter and infiltrate gray matter at lower rate. We investigate the use of a phenomenological tumor growth model for treatment planning. The model is based on the Fisher-Kolmogorov equation, which formalizes these growth characteristics and estimates the spatial distribution of tumor cells in normal appearing regions of the brain. The target volume for radiotherapy planning can be defined as an isoline of the simulated tumor cell density. This paper analyzes the model with respect to implications for target volume definition and identifies its most critical components. A retrospective study involving ten glioblastoma patients treated at our institution has been performed. To illustrate the main findings of the study, a detailed case study is presented for a glioblastoma located close to the falx. In this situation, the falx represents a boundary for migrating tumor cells, whereas the corpus callosum provides a route for the tumor to spread to the contralateral hemisphere. We further discuss the sensitivity of the model with respect to the input parameters. Correct segmentation of the brain appears to be the most

  19. Identification of internalizing human single-chain antibodies targeting brain tumor sphere cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaodong; Bidlingmaier, Scott; Hashizume, Rintaro; James, C David; Berger, Mitchel S; Liu, Bin

    2010-07-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive form of primary brain tumor for which there is no curative treatment to date. Resistance to conventional therapies and tumor recurrence pose major challenges to treatment and management of this disease, and therefore new therapeutic strategies need to be developed. Previous studies by other investigators have shown that a subpopulation of GBM cells can grow as neurosphere-like cells when cultured in restrictive medium and exhibits enhanced tumor-initiating ability and resistance to therapy. We report here the identification of internalizing human single-chain antibodies (scFv) targeting GBM tumor sphere cells. We selected a large naive phage antibody display library on the glycosylation-dependent CD133 epitope-positive subpopulation of GBM cells grown as tumor spheres and identified internalizing scFvs that target tumor sphere cells broadly, as well as scFvs that target the CD133-positive subpopulation. These scFvs were found to be efficiently internalized by GBM tumor sphere cells. One scFv GC4 inhibited self-renewal of GBM tumor sphere cells in vitro. We have further developed a full-length human IgG1 based on this scFv, and found that it potently inhibits proliferation of GBM tumor sphere cells and GBM cells grown in regular nonselective medium. Taken together, these results show that internalizing human scFvs targeting brain tumor sphere cells can be readily identified from a phage antibody display library, which could be useful for further development of novel therapies that target subpopulations of GBM cells to combat recurrence and resistance to treatment. (c)2010 AACR.

  20. Identification of internalizing human single chain antibodies targeting brain tumor sphere cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaodong; Bidlingmaier, Scott; Hashizume, Rintaro; James, C. David; Berger, Mitchel S.; Liu, Bin

    2010-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive form of primary brain tumor and there is no curative treatment to date. Resistance to conventional therapies and tumor recurrence pose major challenges to treatment and management of this disease, and therefore new therapeutic strategies need to be developed. Previous studies by other investigators have shown that a subpopulation of GBM cells can grow as neurosphere-like cells when cultured in restrictive media, and exhibit enhanced tumor initiating ability and resistance to therapy. We report here the identification of internalizing human single chain antibodies (scFvs) targeting GBM tumor sphere cells. We selected a large naive phage antibody display library on the glycosylation-dependent CD133 epitope-positive subpopulation of GBM cells grown as tumor spheres and identified internalizing scFvs that target tumor sphere cells broadly, as well as scFvs that target the CD133 positive subpopulation. These scFvs were found to be efficiently internalized by GBM tumor sphere cells. One scFv GC4 inhibited self-renewal of GBM tumor sphere cells in vitro. We have further developed a full-length human IgG1 based on this scFv and found that it potently inhibits proliferation of GBM tumor sphere cells and GBM cells grown in regular non-selective media. Taken together, these results show that internalizing human scFvs targeting brain tumor sphere cells can be readily identified from a phage antibody display library, which could be useful for further development of novel therapies that target subpopulations of GBM cells to combat recurrence and resistance to treatment. PMID:20587664

  1. The influence of target and patient characteristics on the volume obtained from cone beam CT in lung stereotactic body radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Wei; Khan, Rao; D'Ambrosi, Rafael; Krobutschek, Krista; Nugent, Zoann; Lau, Harold

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the influence of tumor and patient characteristics on the target volume obtained from cone beam CT (CBCT) in lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). For a given cohort of 71 patients, the internal target volume (ITV) in CBCT obtained from four different datasets was compared with a reference ITV drawn on a four-dimensional CT (4DCT). The significance of the tumor size, location, relative target motion (RM) and patient's body mass index (BMI) and gender on the adequacy of ITV obtained from CBCT was determined. The median ITV-CBCT was found to be smaller than the ITV-4DCT by 11.8% (range: -49.8 to +24.3%, P<0.001). Small tumors located in the lower lung were found to have a larger RM than large tumors in the upper lung. Tumors located near the central lung had high CT background which reduced the target contrast near the edges. Tumor location close to center vs. periphery was the only significant factor (P=0.046) causing underestimation of ITV in CBCT, rather than RM (P=0.323) and other factors. The current clinical study has identified that the location of tumor is a major source of discrepancy between ITV-CBCT and ITV-4DCT for lung SBRT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. International conference on the role of the polar regions in global change: Proceedings. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, G.; Wilson, C.L.; Severin, B.A.B.

    1991-12-01

    The International Conference on the Role of the Polar Regions in Global Change took place on the campus of the University of Alaska Fairbanks on June 11--15, 1990. The goal of the conference was to define and summarize the state of knowledge on the role of the polar regions in global change, and to identify gaps in knowledge. To this purpose experts in a wide variety of relevant disciplines were invited to present papers and hold panel discussions. While there are numerous conferences on global change, this conference dealt specifically with the polar regions which occupy key positions in the global system. These two volumes of conference proceedings include papers on (1) detection and monitoring of change; (2) climate variability and climate forcing; (3) ocean, sea ice, and atmosphere interactions and processes; and (4) effects on biota and biological feedbacks; (5) ice sheet, glacier and permafrost responses and feedbacks, (6) paleoenvironmental studies; and, (7) aerosol and trace gases.

  3. Proceedings of the sixth international conference on fluidized bed combustion. Volume II. Technical sessions

    SciTech Connect

    1980-08-01

    The Sixth International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion was held April 9-11, 1980, at the Atlanta Hilton, Atlanta, Georgia. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Electric Power Research Institute, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Tennessee Valley Authority. The papers covered recent developments in atmospheric and pressurized fluidized-bed combustion, especially the design, operation and control of pilot and demonstration plants. The cleanup of combustion products and the erosion, corrosion and fouling of gas turbines was emphasized also. Fifty-five papers from Volume 2 of the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; five papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  4. Fast reactor safety: proceedings of the international topical meeting. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-07-01

    The emphasis of this meeting was on the safety-related aspects of fast reactor design, analysis, licensing, construction, and operation. Relative to past meetings, there was less emphasis on the scientific and technological basis for accident assessment. Because of its broad scope, the meeting attracted 217 attendees from a wide cross section of the design, safety analysis, and safety technology communities. Eight countries and two international organizations were represented. A total of 126 papers were presented, with contributions from the United States, France, Japan, the United Kingdom, Germany, and Italy. Sessions covered in Volume 1 include: impact of safety and licensing considerations on fast reactor design; safety aspects of innovative designs; intra-subassembly behavior; operational safety; design accommodation of seismic and other external events; natural circulation; safety design concepts; safety implications derived from operational plant data; decay heat removal; and assessment of HCDA consequences.

  5. International conference on the role of the polar regions in global change: Proceedings. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, G.; Wilson, C.L.; Severin, B.A.B.

    1991-12-01

    The International Conference on the Role of the Polar Regions in Global Change took place on the campus of the University of Alaska Fairbanks on June 11--15, 1990. The goal of the conference was to define and summarize the state of knowledge on the role of the polar regions in global change, and to identify gaps in knowledge. To this purpose experts in a wide variety of relevant disciplines were invited to present papers and hold panel discussions. While there are numerous conferences on global change, this conference dealt specifically with polar regions which occupy key positions in the global system. These two volumes of conference proceedings include papers on (1) detection and monitoring of change; (2) climate variability and climate forcing; (3) ocean, sea ice, and atmosphere interactions and processes; (4) effects on biota and biological feedbacks; (5) ice sheet, glacier and permafrost responses and feedbacks; (6) paleoenvironmental studies; and, (7) aerosols and trace gases.

  6. Fast reactor safety: proceedings of the international topical meeting. Volume 2. [R

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-07-01

    The emphasis of this meeting was on the safety-related aspects of fast reactor design, analysis, licensing, construction, and operation. Relative to past meetings, there was less emphasis on the scientific and technological basis for accident assessment. Because of its broad scope, the meeting attracted 217 attendees from a wide cross section of the design, safety analysis, and safety technology communities. Eight countries and two international organizations were represented. A total of 126 papers were presented, with contributions from the United States, France, Japan, the United Kingdom, Germany, and Italy. Sessions covered in Volume 2 include: safety design concepts; operational transient experiments; analysis of seismic and external events; HCDA-related codes, analysis, and experiments; sodium fires; instrumentation and control/PPS design; whole-core accident analysis codes; and impact of safety design considerations on future LMFBR developments.

  7. Correlations between ventricular enlargement and gray and white matter volumes of cortex, thalamus, striatum, and internal capsule in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Horga, Guillermo; Bernacer, Javier; Dusi, Nicola; Entis, Jonathan; Chu, Kingwai; Hazlett, Erin A; Haznedar, M Mehmet; Kemether, Eileen; Byne, William; Buchsbaum, Monte S

    2011-10-01

    Ventricular enlargement is one of the most consistent abnormal structural brain findings in schizophrenia and has been used to infer brain shrinkage. However, whether ventricular enlargement is related to local overlying cortex and/or adjacent subcortical structures or whether it is related to brain volume change globally has not been assessed. We systematically assessed interrelations of ventricular volumes with gray and white matter volumes of 40 Brodmann areas (BAs), the thalamus and its medial dorsal nucleus and pulvinar, the internal capsule, caudate and putamen. We acquired structural MRI ( patients with schizophrenia (n = 64) and healthy controls (n = 56)) and diffusion tensor fractional anisotropy (FA) (untreated schizophrenia n = 19, controls n = 32). Volumes were assessed by manual tracing of central structures and a semi-automated parcellation of BAs. Patients with schizophrenia had increased ventricular size associated with decreased cortical gray matter volumes widely across the brain; a similar but less pronounced pattern was seen in normal controls; local correlations (e.g. temporal horn with temporal lobe volume) were not appreciably higher than non-local correlations (e.g. temporal horn with prefrontal volume). White matter regions adjacent to the ventricles similarly did not reveal strong regional relationships. FA and center of mass of the anterior limb of the internal capsule also appeared differentially influenced by ventricular volume but findings were similarly not regional. Taken together, these findings indicate that ventricular enlargement is globally interrelated with gray matter volume diminution but not directly correlated with volume loss in the immediately adjacent caudate, putamen, or internal capsule.

  8. [Margin determination from clinical to planning target volume for lung cancer treated with conformal or intensity-modulated irradiation].

    PubMed

    Berthelot, K; Thureau, S; Giraud, P

    2016-10-01

    Technological progress in radiotherapy enables more precision for treatment planning and delivery. The margin determination between the clinical target volume and the planning target volumes stem from the estimation of geometric uncertainties of the tumour localization into the radiation beam. The inner motion complexity of lung tumours has led to the use of 4D computed tomography and nurtures specific dosimetric concerns. Few strategies consisting in integrating tumour motion allow margin reduction regarding inner movements. The patient immobilization and onboard imagery improvement decrease the setup uncertainties. Each step between the initial planning imagery and treatment delivery has to be analysed as systematic or random errors to calculate the optimal planning margin.

  9. Differences in Effective Target Volume Between Various Techniques of Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Shaitelman, Simona F.; Vicini, Frank A.; Grills, Inga S.; Martinez, Alvaro A.; Yan Di; Kim, Leonard H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Different cavity expansions are used to define the clinical target volume (CTV) for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) delivered via balloon brachytherapy (1 cm) vs. three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) (1.5 cm). Previous studies have argued that the CTVs generated by these different margins are effectively equivalent. In this study, we use deformable registration to assess the effective CTV treated by balloon brachytherapy on clinically representative 3D-CRT planning images. Methods and Materials: Ten patients previously treated with the MammoSite were studied. Each patient had two computed tomography (CT) scans, one acquired before and one after balloon implantation. In-house deformable registration software was used to deform the MammoSite CTV onto the balloonless CT set. The deformed CTV was validated using anatomical landmarks common to both CT scans. Results: The effective CTV treated by the MammoSite was on average 7% {+-} 10% larger and 38% {+-} 4% smaller than 3D-CRT CTVs created using uniform expansions of 1 and 1.5 cm, respectively. The average effective CTV margin was 1.0 cm, the same as the actual MammoSite CTV margin. However, the effective CTV margin was nonuniform and could range from 5 to 15 mm in any given direction. Effective margins <1 cm were attributable to poor cavity-balloon conformance. Balloon size relative to the cavity did not significantly correlate with the effective margin. Conclusion: In this study, the 1.0-cm MammoSite CTV margin treated an effective volume that was significantly smaller than the 3D-CRT CTV based on a 1.5-cm margin.

  10. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in high-grade glioma: judicious selection of small target volumes improves results.

    PubMed

    Bokstein, Felix; Blumenthal, Deborah T; Corn, Benjamin W; Gez, Eliahu; Matceyevsky, Diana; Shtraus, Natan; Ram, Zvi; Kanner, Andrew A

    2016-02-01

    We present a retrospective review of 55 Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) procedures performed in 47 consecutive patients with high-grade glioma (HGG). Thirty-three (70.2%) patients were diagnosed with glioblastoma and 14 (29.8%) with grade III glioma. The indications for SRS were small (up to 30 mm in diameter) locally progressing lesions in 32/47 (68%) or new distant lesions in 15/47 (32%) patients. The median target volume was 2.2 cc (0.2-9.5 cc) and the median prescription dose was 18 Gy (14-24 Gy). Three patients (5.5% incidence in 55 treatments) developed radiation necrosis. In eight cases (17%) patients received a second salvage SRS treatment to nine new lesions detected during follow-up. In 22/55 SRS treatments (40.0%) patients received concurrent chemo- or biological therapy, including temozolamide (TMZ) (15 patients), bevacizumab (BVZ) (6 patients) and carboplatin in one patient. Median time to progression after SRS was 5.0 months (1.0-96.4). Median survival time after SRS was 15.9 months (2.3-109.3) overall median survival (since diagnosis) was 37.4 months (9.6-193.6 months). Long-lasting responses (>12 months) after SRS were observed in 25/46 (54.3%) patients. We compared a matched (histology, age, KPS) cohort of patients with recurrent HGG treated with BVZ alone with the current study group. Median survival was significantly longer for SRS treated patients compared to the BVZ only cohort (12.6 vs. 7.3 months, p = 0.0102). SRS may be considered an effective salvage procedure for selected patients with small volume, recurrent high-grade gliomas. Long-term radiological control was observed in more than 50% of the patients.

  11. Impact Factors for Microinvasion in Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma: A Possible System for Defining Clinical Target Volume

    SciTech Connect

    Bi Aihong; Zeng Zhaochong; Ji Yuan; Zeng Haiying; Xu Chen; Tang Zhaoyou; Fan Jia; Zhou Jian; Zeng Mengsu; Tan Yunshan

    2010-12-01

    Purpose: To quantify microscopic invasion of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (IHC) into nontumor tissue and define the gross tumor volume (GTV)-to-clinical target volume (CTV) expansion necessary for radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: One-hundred IHC patients undergoing radical resection from January 2004 to July 2008 were enrolled in this study. Pathologic and clinical data including maximum tumor diameter, tumor boundary type, TNM stage, histologic grade, tumor markers, and liver enzymes were reviewed. The distance of microinvasion from the tumor boundary was measured by microscopy. The contraction coefficient for tumor measurements in radiographs and slide-mounted tissue was calculated. SPSS15.0 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Sixty-five patients (65%) exhibited tumor microinvasions. Microinvasions ranged from 0.4-8 mm, with 96% of patients having a microinvasion distance {<=}6 mm measured on slide. The radiograph-to-slide contraction coefficient was 82.1%. The degree of microinvasion was correlated with tumor boundary type, TNM stage, histologic grade, and serum levels of carbohydrate antigen 19-9, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, {gamma}-glutamyltransferase and alkaline phosphatase. To define CTV accurately, we devised a scoring system based on combination of these factors. According to this system, a score {<=}1.5 is associated with 96.1% sensitivity in detecting patients with a microextension {<=}4.9 mm in radiographs, whereas a score {>=}2 has a 95.1% sensitivity in detecting microextension {<=}7.9 mm measured on radiograph. Conclusions: Patients with a score {<=}1.5 and {>=}2 require a radiographic GTV-to-CTV expansions of 4.9 and 7.9 mm, respectively, to encompass >95% of microinvasions.

  12. Anatomic Boundaries of the Clinical Target Volume (Prostate Bed) After Radical Prostatectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Wiltshire, Kirsty L.; Brock, Kristy K.; Haider, Masoom A.; Zwahlen, Daniel; Kong, Vickie; Chan, Elisa; Moseley, Joanne; Bayley, Andrew; Catton, Charles; Chung, Peter W.M.; Gospodarowicz, Mary; Milosevic, Michael; Kneebone, Andrew; Warde, Padraig; Menard, Cynthia

    2007-11-15

    Purpose: We sought to derive and validate an interdisciplinary consensus definition for the anatomic boundaries of the postoperative clinical target volume (CTV, prostate bed). Methods and Materials: Thirty one patients who had planned for radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy were enrolled and underwent computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) simulation prior to radiotherapy. Through an iterative process of consultation and discussion, an interdisciplinary consensus definition was derived based on a review of published data, patterns of local failure, surgical practice, and radiologic anatomy. In validation, we analyzed the distribution of surgical clips in reference to the consensus CTV and measured spatial uncertainties in delineating the CTV and vesicourethral anastomosis. Clinical radiotherapy plans were retrospectively evaluated against the consensus CTV (prostate bed). Results: Anatomic boundaries of the consensus CTV (prostate bed) are described. Surgical clips (n = 339) were well distributed throughout the CTV. The vesicourethral anastomosis was accurately localized using central sagittal computed tomography reconstruction, with a mean {+-} standard deviation uncertainty of 1.8 {+-} 2.5 mm. Delineation uncertainties were small for both MRI and computed tomography (mean reproducibility, 0-3.8 mm; standard deviation, 1.0-2.3); they were most pronounced in the anteroposterior and superoinferior dimensions and at the superior/posterior-most aspect of the CTV. Retrospectively, the mean {+-} standard deviation CTV (prostate bed) percentage of volume receiving 100% of prescribed dose was only 77% {+-} 26%. Conclusions: We propose anatomic boundaries for the CTV (prostate bed) and present evidence supporting its validity. In the absence of gross recurrence, the role of MRI in delineating the CTV remains to be confirmed. The CTV is larger than historically practiced at our institution and should be encompassed by a microscopic tumoricidal dose.

  13. Uncertainties in target volume delineation in radiotherapy – are they relevant and what can we do about them?

    PubMed Central

    Segedin, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Modern radiotherapy techniques enable delivery of high doses to the target volume without escalating dose to organs at risk, offering the possibility of better local control while preserving good quality of life. Uncertainties in target volume delineation have been demonstrated for most tumour sites, and various studies indicate that inconsistencies in target volume delineation may be larger than errors in all other steps of the treatment planning and delivery process. The aim of this paper is to summarize the degree of delineation uncertainties for different tumour sites reported in the literature and review the effect of strategies to minimize them. Conclusions Our review confirmed that interobserver variability in target volume contouring represents the largest uncertainty in the process for most tumour sites, potentially resulting in a systematic error in dose delivery, which could influence local control in individual patients. For most tumour sites the optimal combination of imaging modalities for target delineation still needs to be determined. Strict use of delineation guidelines and protocols is advisable both in every day clinical practice and in clinical studies to diminish interobserver variability. Continuing medical education of radiation oncologists cannot be overemphasized, intensive formal training on interpretation of sectional imaging should be included in the program for radiation oncology residents. PMID:27679540

  14. Internalization and vacuolar targeting of the brassinosteroid hormone receptor BRI1 are regulated by ubiquitination.

    PubMed

    Martins, Sara; Dohmann, Esther M N; Cayrel, Anne; Johnson, Alexander; Fischer, Wolfgang; Pojer, Florence; Satiat-Jeunemaître, Béatrice; Jaillais, Yvon; Chory, Joanne; Geldner, Niko; Vert, Grégory

    2015-01-21

    Brassinosteroids are plant steroid hormones that control many aspects of plant growth and development, and are perceived at the cell surface by the plasma membrane-localized receptor kinase BRI1. Here we show that BRI1 is post-translationally modified by K63 polyubiquitin chains in vivo. Using both artificial ubiquitination of BRI1 and generation of an ubiquitination-defective BRI1 mutant form, we demonstrate that ubiquitination promotes BRI1 internalization from the cell surface and is essential for its recognition at the trans-Golgi network/early endosomes (TGN/EE) for vacuolar targeting. Finally, we demonstrate that the control of BRI1 protein dynamics by ubiquitination is an important control mechanism for brassinosteroid responses in plants. Altogether, our results identify ubiquitination and K63-linked polyubiquitin chain formation as a dual targeting signal for BRI1 internalization and sorting along the endocytic pathway, and highlight its role in hormonally controlled plant development.

  15. Radiation embrittlement of nuclear reactor pressure vessel steels: An international review (Fourth Volume)

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, L.E.

    1993-12-01

    The technical content is highly focused on the title subject, which is crucial to the continued operating safety of commercial nuclear electric power generating plants, as it treats the phenomenon of neutron embrittlement of the primary containment vessel of the nuclear reactor power source. Integrity of this nuclear reactor component is a primary goal of all the specialists who have participated in this series of four international meetings. These international meetings and the publication arising from them offer a progressive series of volumes that provide a valuable technical resource to nuclear power plant operators, national regulatory specialists, and researchers in this area of nuclear safety. The progressive nature of these publications is particularly valuable in teaching scientific and technical developments on what has become one of the most critical elements in reactor safety analysis with the aging of nuclear power reactors. The progress of research and vessel surveillance for neutron embrittlement reflects the aging of nuclear power reactors and, therefore, the attendant interest in assuring safe life attainment for this crucial element of electric power generation, as the authors approach the close of the Twentieth century. Separate abstracts were prepared for 31 papers of this book.

  16. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Uncertainty assessment for internal dosimetry. Volume 2: Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.; Cooke, R.M.; Harrison, J.D.; Harper, F.T.; Hora, S.C.

    1998-04-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA internal dosimetry models. This volume contains appendices that include (1) a summary of the MACCS and COSYMA consequence codes, (2) the elicitation questionnaires and case structures, (3) the rationales and results for the panel on internal dosimetry, (4) short biographies of the experts, and (5) the aggregated results of their responses.

  17. Early changes of volume and spatial location in target and normal tissues caused by IMRT for cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianwu; Liu, Ping; Chen, Wenjuan; Bai, Penggang; Li, Jiangshan; Ni, Xiaolei; Chen, Kaiqiang; Li, Qixin

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the early changes of volume and spatial location in target and normal tissues caused by intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for cervical cancer. Forty patients with cervical cancer were included in this study and treated by IMRT. Computed tomography (CT) was performed before radiotherapy and when the patient had received 27 Gy in 15 fractions. After image registration, the volume of interest (VOI) for the targets and organs at risk was delineated by clinicians on the CT images. Changes of volume, spatial location and Dice similarity were calculated for all VOIs. There were significant changes in gross tumor volume (GTV) in the primary tumor (GTV-T) with t = 8.304 (p<0.01) and visible pelvic lymph nodes (GTV-N) with t = 4.996 (p<0.01) caused by IMRT. The mean volume differences for GTV-T and GTV-N were 38.64% ± 19.50% (range 3.16%-86.49%) and 42.49% ± 25.68% (range 2.79%-87.42%), respectively. Among the organs at risk, the bladder had the greatest volume change with 55.13% ± 33.40% (range 3.25%-116.01%). The Dice similarity for GTV-T and GTV-N was 0.50 ± 0.18 (range 0.10-0.85) and 0.31 ± 0.20 (range 0.00-0.71), respectively. The rectum had the least Dice similarity among the normal tissues, with a mean value of 0.57 ± 0.14 (range 0.18-0.76). There were significant changes in volume and spatial location of the target and normal tissues after 27 Gy IMRT. In order to maintain the radiation dose to the targets and minimize the radiation to normal tissues, it is necessary to modify the radiotherapy planning.

  18. Dosimetric Comparison of Split Field and Fixed Jaw Techniques for Large IMRT Target Volumes in the Head and Neck

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, Shiv P.; Das, Indra J.; Kumar, Arvind; Johnstone, Peter A.S.

    2011-04-01

    Some treatment planning systems (TPSs), when used for large-field (>14 cm) intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), create split fields that produce excessive multiple-leaf collimator segments, match-line dose inhomogeneity, and higher treatment times than nonsplit fields. A new method using a fixed-jaw technique (FJT) forces the jaw to stay at a fixed position during optimization and is proposed to reduce problems associated with split fields. Dosimetric comparisons between split-field technique (SFT) and FJT used for IMRT treatment is presented. Five patients with head and neck malignancies and regional target volumes were studied and compared with both techniques. Treatment planning was performed on an Eclipse TPS using beam data generated for Varian 2100C linear accelerator. A standard beam arrangement consisting of nine coplanar fields, equally spaced, was used in both techniques. Institutional dose-volume constraints used in head and neck cancer were kept the same for both techniques. The dosimetric coverage for the target volumes between SFT and FJT for head and neck IMRT plan is identical within {+-}1% up to 90% dose. Similarly, the organs at risk (OARs) have dose-volume coverage nearly identical for all patients. When the total monitor unit (MU) and segments were analyzed, SFT produces statistically significant higher segments (17.3 {+-} 6.3%) and higher MU (13.7 {+-} 4.4%) than the FJT. There is no match line in FJT and hence dose uniformity in the target volume is superior to the SFT. Dosimetrically, SFT and FJT are similar for dose-volume coverage; however, the FJT method provides better logistics, lower MU, shorter treatment time, and better dose uniformity. The number of segments and MU also has been correlated with the whole body radiation dose with long-term complications. Thus, FJT should be the preferred option over SFT for large target volumes.

  19. Dosimetric comparison of split field and fixed jaw techniques for large IMRT target volumes in the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Shiv P; Das, Indra J; Kumar, Arvind; Johnstone, Peter A S

    2011-01-01

    Some treatment planning systems (TPSs), when used for large-field (>14 cm) intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), create split fields that produce excessive multiple-leaf collimator segments, match-line dose inhomogeneity, and higher treatment times than nonsplit fields. A new method using a fixed-jaw technique (FJT) forces the jaw to stay at a fixed position during optimization and is proposed to reduce problems associated with split fields. Dosimetric comparisons between split-field technique (SFT) and FJT used for IMRT treatment is presented. Five patients with head and neck malignancies and regional target volumes were studied and compared with both techniques. Treatment planning was performed on an Eclipse TPS using beam data generated for Varian 2100C linear accelerator. A standard beam arrangement consisting of nine coplanar fields, equally spaced, was used in both techniques. Institutional dose-volume constraints used in head and neck cancer were kept the same for both techniques. The dosimetric coverage for the target volumes between SFT and FJT for head and neck IMRT plan is identical within ± 1% up to 90% dose. Similarly, the organs at risk (OARs) have dose-volume coverage nearly identical for all patients. When the total monitor unit (MU) and segments were analyzed, SFT produces statistically significant higher segments (17.3 ± 6.3%) and higher MU (13.7 ± 4.4%) than the FJT. There is no match line in FJT and hence dose uniformity in the target volume is superior to the SFT. Dosimetrically, SFT and FJT are similar for dose-volume coverage; however, the FJT method provides better logistics, lower MU, shorter treatment time, and better dose uniformity. The number of segments and MU also has been correlated with the whole body radiation dose with long-term complications. Thus, FJT should be the preferred option over SFT for large target volumes. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  20. Note: Development of a volume-limited dot target for a high brightness extreme ultraviolet microplasma source

    SciTech Connect

    Dinh, Thanh Hung Suzuki, Yuhei; Hara, Hiroyuki; Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Hirose, Ryoichi; Ohashi, Hayato; Li, Bowen; Dunne, Padraig; O’Sullivan, Gerry; Sunahara, Atsushi

    2014-11-15

    We report on production of volume-limited dot targets based on electron beam lithographic and sputtering technologies for use in efficient high brightness extreme ultraviolet microplasma sources. We successfully produced cylindrical tin (Sn) targets with diameters of 10, 15, and 20 μm and a height of 150 nm. The calculated spectrum around 13.5 nm was in good agreement with that obtained experimentally.

  1. Sphaeropsidin A shows promising activity against drug-resistant cancer cells by targeting regulatory volume increase

    PubMed Central

    Mathieu, Véronique; Chantôme, Aurélie; Lefranc, Florence; Cimmino, Alessio; Miklos, Walter; Paulitschke, Verena; Mohr, Thomas; Maddau, Lucia; Kornienko, Alexander; Berger, Walter; Vandier, Christophe; Evidente, Antonio; Delpire, Eric; Kiss, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Despite the recent advances in the treatment of tumors with intrinsic chemotherapy resistance, such as melanoma and renal cancers, their prognosis remains poor and new chemical agents with promising activity against these cancers are urgently needed. Sphaeropsidin A, a fungal metabolite whose anticancer potential had previously received little attention, was isolated from Diplodia cupressi and found to display specific anticancer activity in vitro against melanoma and kidney cancer subpanels in the National Cancer Institute (NCI) 60-cell line screen. The NCI data revealed a mean LC50 of ca. 10 μM and a cellular sensitivity profile that did not match that of any other agent in the 765,000 compound database. Subsequent mechanistic studies in melanoma and other multidrug-resistant in vitro cancer models showed that sphaeropsidin A can overcome apoptosis as well as multidrug resistance by inducing a marked and rapid cellular shrinkage related to the loss of intracellular Cl− and the decreased HCO3− concentration in the culture supernatant. These changes in ion homeostasis and the absence of effects on the plasma membrane potential were attributed to the sphaeropsidin A-induced impairment of regulatory volume increase (RVI). Preliminary results also indicate that depending on the type of cancer, the sphaeropsidin A effects on RVI could be related to Na–K–2Cl electroneutral cotransporter or Cl−/HCO3− anion exchanger(s) targeting. This study underscores the modulation of ion-transporter activity as a promising therapeutic strategy to combat drug-resistant cancers and identifies the fungal metabolite, sphaeropsidin A, as a lead to develop anticancer agents targeting RVI in cancer cells. PMID:25868554

  2. WE-D-17A-04: Magnetically Focused Proton Irradiation of Small Volume Targets

    SciTech Connect

    McAuley, G; Slater, J; Wroe, A

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To explore the advantages of magnetic focusing for small volume proton irradiations and the potential clinical benefits for radiosurgery targets. The primary goal is to create narrow elongated proton beams of elliptical cross section with superior dose delivery characteristics compared to current delivery modalities (eg, collimated beams). In addition, more general beam shapes are also under investigation. Methods: Two prototype magnets consisting of 24 segments of samarium-cobalt (Sm2Co17) permanent magnetic material adhered into hollow cylinders were manufactured for testing. A single focusing magnet was placed on a positioning track on our Gantry 1 treatment table and 15 mm diameter proton beams with energies and modulation relevant to clinical radiosurgery applications (127 to 186 MeV, and 0 to 30 mm modulation) were delivered to a terminal water tank. Beam dose distributions were measured using a PTW diode detector and Gafchromic EBT2 film. Longitudinal and transverse dose profiles were analyzed and compared to data from Monte Carlo simulations analogous to the experimental setup. Results: The narrow elongated focused beam spots showed high elliptical symmetry indicating high magnet quality. In addition, when compared to unfocused beams, peak-to-entrance depth dose ratios were 11 to 14% larger (depending on presence or extent of modulation), and minor axis penumbras were 11 to 20% smaller (again depending on modulation) for focused beams. These results suggest that the use of rare earth magnet assemblies is practical and could improve dose-sparing of normal tissue and organs at risk while delivering enhanced dose to small proton radiosurgery targets. Conclusion: Quadrapole rare earth magnetic assemblies are a promising and inexpensive method to counteract particle out scatter that tends to degrade the peak to entrance performance of small field proton beams. Knowledge gained from current experiments will inform the design of a prototype treatment

  3. Seventh international conference on liquefied natural gas. Volume 1. Septieme Congres international sur le gaz naturel liquefie. Tome 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Four sessions of the conference included: (1) LNG and woroldwide energy supplies; (2) liquefaction of natural gas and vaporization of LNG; (3) LNG transport, handling and storage; and (4) legal, economic and financial aspects of LNG trade. Two volumes were published. This volume contains the sessions one and two. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual papers. (DP)

  4. Gross tumor volume and clinical target volume in prostate cancer: How do satellites relate to the index lesion.

    PubMed

    Hollmann, Birgit G; van Triest, Baukelien; Ghobadi, Ghazaleh; Groenendaal, Greetje; de Jong, Jeroen; van der Poel, Henk G; van der Heide, Uulke A

    2015-04-01

    There is an increasing interest for dose differentiation in prostate radiotherapy. The purpose of our study was to analyze the spatial distribution of tumor satellites inside the prostate. 61 prostatectomy specimens were stained with H&E. Tumor regions were delineated by the uro-pathologist. Volumes, distances and cell densities of all delineated tumor regions were measured and further analyzed. Multifocal disease was seen in 84% of the patients. The median number of tumor foci was 3. The median distance between the index lesion and the satellites was 1.0 cm, with a maximum of 4.4 cm. The index lesions accounted for 88% of the total tumor volume. The contribution of tumor foci<0.1 cm(3) to the total tumor volume was 2%. The median cell density of the index lesion and all satellites, regardless of size, were significantly higher than that of the prostate. Satellites do not appear in a limited margin around the index lesion (GTV). Consequently, a fixed CTV margin would not effectively cover all satellites. Thus if the aim is to treat all tumor foci, the entire prostate gland should be considered CTV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Clinical target volume delineation including elective nodal irradiation in preoperative and definitive radiotherapy of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Radiotherapy (RT) is widely used in the treatment of pancreatic cancer. Currently, recommendation has been given for the delineation of the clinical target volume (CTV) in adjuvant RT. Based on recently reviewed pathologic data, the aim of this study is to propose criteria for the CTV definition and delineation including elective nodal irradiation (ENI) in the preoperative and definitive treatment of pancreatic cancer. Methods The anatomical structures of interest, as well as the abdominal vasculature were identified on intravenous contrast-enhanced CT scans of two different patients with pancreatic cancer of the head and the body. To delineate the lymph node area, a margin of 10 mm was added to the arteries. Results We proposed a set of guidelines for elective treatment of high-risk nodal areas and CTV delineation. Reference CT images were provided. Conclusions The proposed guidelines could be used for preoperative or definitive RT for carcinoma of the head and body of the pancreas. Further clinical investigations are needed to validate the defined CTVs. PMID:22691275

  6. Proposed definition of the vaginal cuff and paracolpium clinical target volume in postoperative uterine cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Naoya; Norihisa, Yoshiki; Isohashi, Fumiaki; Murofushi, Keiko; Ariga, Takuro; Kato, Tomoyasu; Inaba, Koji; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Ito, Yoshinori; Toita, Takafumi; Itami, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an appropriate definition for vaginal cuff and paracolpium clinical target volume (CTV) for postoperative intensity modulated radiation therapy in patients with uterine cervical cancer. A working subgroup was organized within the Radiation Therapy Study Group of the Japan Clinical Oncology Group to develop a definition for the postoperative vaginal cuff and paracolpium CTV in December 2013. The group consisted of 5 radiation oncologists who specialized in gynecologic oncology and a gynecologic oncologist. A comprehensive literature review that included anatomy, surgery, and imaging fields was performed and was followed by multiple discreet face-to-face discussions and e-mail messages before a final consensus was reached. Definitions for the landmark structures in all directions that demarcate the vaginal cuff and paracolpium CTV were decided by consensus agreement of the working group. A table was created that showed boundary structures of the vaginal cuff and paracolpium CTV in each direction. A definition of the postoperative cervical cancer vaginal cuff and paracolpium CTV was developed. It is expected that this definition guideline will serve as a template for future radiation therapy clinical trial protocols, especially protocols involving intensity modulated radiation therapy. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The ADVANCE project: Formal evaluation of the targeted deployment. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The Advanced Driver and Vehicle Advisory Navigation ConcEpt (ADVANCE) was an invehicle advanced traveler information system (ATIS) that operated in the northwest suburbs of Chicago, Illinois. It was designed to provide origin-destination shortest-time route guidance to a vehicle based on (a) an on-board static (fixed) data base of average network link travel times by time of day, combined as available and appropriate with (b) dynamic (real-time) information on traffic conditions provided by radio frequency (RF) communications to and from a traffic information center (TIC). Originally conceived in 1990 as a major project that would have installed 3,000 to 5,000 route guidance units in privately owned vehicles throughout the test area, ADVANCE was restructured in 1995 as a {open_quotes}targeted deployment,{close_quotes} in which approximately 80 vehicles were to be equipped with the guidance units - Mobile Navigation Assistants (MNAs) - to be in full communication with the TIC while driving the ADVANCE test area road system. Volume one consists of the evaluation managers overview report, and several appendices containing test results.

  8. Assessment of target volume doses in radiotherapy based on the standard and measured calibration curves.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Gholamreza Fallah; Alam, Nader Riyahi; Rezaeejam, Hamed; Pourfallah, Tayyeb Allahverdi; Zakariaee, Seyed Salman

    2015-01-01

    In radiation treatments, estimation of the dose distribution in the target volume is one of the main components of the treatment planning procedure. To estimate the dose distribution, the information of electron densities is necessary. The standard curves determined by computed tomography (CT) scanner that may be different from that of other oncology centers. In this study, the changes of dose calculation due to the different calibration curves (HU-ρel) were investigated. Dose values were calculated based on the standard calibration curve that was predefined for the treatment planning system (TPS). The calibration curve was also extracted from the CT images of the phantom, and dose values were calculated based on this curve. The percentage errors of the calculated values were determined. The statistical analyses of the mean differences were performed using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test for both of the calibration curves. The results show no significant difference for both of the measured and standard calibration curves (HU-ρel) in 6, 15, and 18 MeV energies. In Wilcoxon ranked sum nonparametric test for independent samples with P<0.05, the equality of monitor units for both of the curves to transfer 200 cGy doses to reference points was resulted. The percentage errors of the calculated values were lower than 2% and 1.5% in 6 and 15 MeV, respectively. From the results, it could be concluded that the standard calibration curve could be used in TPS dose calculation accurately.

  9. Convergent Transmission of RNAi Guide-Target Mismatch Information across Argonaute Internal Allosteric Network

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Thomas T.; Osman, Roman

    2012-01-01

    In RNA interference, a guide strand derived from a short dsRNA such as a microRNA (miRNA) is loaded into Argonaute, the central protein in the RNA Induced Silencing Complex (RISC) that silences messenger RNAs on a sequence-specific basis. The positions of any mismatched base pairs in an miRNA determine which Argonaute subtype is used. Subsequently, the Argonaute-guide complex binds and silences complementary target mRNAs; certain Argonautes cleave the target. Mismatches between guide strand and the target mRNA decrease cleavage efficiency. Thus, loading and silencing both require that signals about the presence of a mismatched base pair are communicated from the mismatch site to effector sites. These effector sites include the active site, to prevent target cleavage; the binding groove, to modify nucleic acid binding affinity; and surface allosteric sites, to control recruitment of additional proteins to form the RISC. To examine how such signals may be propagated, we analyzed the network of internal allosteric pathways in Argonaute exhibited through correlations of residue-residue interactions. The emerging network can be described as a set of pathways emanating from the core of the protein near the active site, distributed into the bulk of the protein, and converging upon a distributed cluster of surface residues. Nucleotides in the guide strand “seed region” have a stronger relationship with the protein than other nucleotides, concordant with their importance in sequence selectivity. Finally, any of several seed region guide-target mismatches cause certain Argonaute residues to have modified correlations with the rest of the protein. This arises from the aggregation of relatively small interaction correlation changes distributed across a large subset of residues. These residues are in effector sites: the active site, binding groove, and surface, implying that direct functional consequences of guide-target mismatches are mediated through the cumulative

  10. Impact of Node Negative Target Volume Delineation on Contralateral Parotid Gland Dose Sparing Using IMRT in Head and Neck Cancer.

    PubMed

    Magnuson, William J; Urban, Erich; Bayliss, R Adam; Harari, Paul M

    2015-06-01

    There is considerable practice variation in treatment of the node negative (N0) contralateral neck in patients with head and neck cancer. In this study, we examined the impact of N0 neck target delineation volume on radiation dose to the contralateral parotid gland. Following institutional review board approval, 12 patients with head and neck cancer were studied. All had indications for treatment of the N0 neck, such as midline base of tongue or soft palate extension or advanced ipsilateral nodal disease. The N0 neck volumes were created using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group head and neck contouring atlas. The physician-drawn N0 neck clinical target volume (CTV) was expanded by 25% to 200% to generate volume variation, followed by a 3-mm planning target volume (PTV) expansion. Surrounding organs at risk were contoured and complete intensity-modulated radiation therapy plans were generated for each N0 volume expansion. The median N0 target volume drawn by the radiation oncologist measured 93 cm(3) (range 71-145). Volumetric expansion of the N0 CTV by 25% to 200% increased the resultant mean dose to the contralateral parotid gland by 1.4 to 8.5 Gray (Gy). For example, a 4.1-mm increase in the N0 neck CTV translated to a 2.0-Gy dose increase to the parotid, 7.4 mm to a 4.5 Gy dose increase, and 12.5 mm to an 8.5 Gy dose increase, respectively. The treatment volume designated for the N0 neck has profound impact on resultant dose to the contralateral parotid gland. Variations of up to 15 mm are routine across physicians in target contouring, reflecting individual preference and training expertise. Depending on the availability of immobilization and image guidance techniques, experts commonly recommend 3 to 10 mm margin expansions to generate the PTV. Careful attention to the original volume of the N0 neck CTV, as well as expansion margins, is important in achieving effective contralateral gland sparing to reduce the resultant xerostomia and dysguesia that may ensue

  11. The Coordination of Program Planning and Evaluation Systems for Occupational Education. Volume 2: A Targeting System for Occupational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riverside Research Inst., New York, NY.

    The second volume of the final report deals with the targeting system--one of a hierarchy of systems required to support the effective delivery of superior occupational education. It determines that program objectives match student training in occupations, that the best choice of occupations in which to train students has been made, and that the…

  12. Verification of Planning Target Volume Settings in Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy by Using In-Treatment 4-Dimensional Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Wataru; Yamashita, Hideomi; Kida, Satoshi; Masutani, Yoshitaka; Sakumi, Akira; Ohtomo, Kuni; Nakagawa, Keiichi; Haga, Akihiro

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate setup error and tumor motion during beam delivery by using 4-dimensional cone beam computed tomography (4D CBCT) and to assess the adequacy of the planning target volume (PTV) margin for lung cancer patients undergoing volumetric modulated arc therapy for stereotactic body radiation therapy (VMAT-SBRT). Methods and Materials: Fifteen lung cancer patients treated by single-arc VMAT-SBRT were selected in this analysis. All patients were treated with an abdominal compressor. The gross tumor volumes were contoured on maximum inspiration and maximum expiration CT datasets from 4D CT respiratory sorting and merged into internal target volumes (ITVs). The PTV margin was isotropically taken as 5 mm. Registration was automatically performed using “pre-3D” CBCT. Treatment was performed with a D95 prescription of 50 Gy delivered in 4 fractions. The 4D tumor locations during beam delivery were determined using in-treatment 4D CBCT images acquired in each fraction. Then, the discrepancy between the actual tumor location and the ITV was evaluated in the lateral, vertical, and longitudinal directions. Results: Overall, 55 4D CBCT sets during VMAT-SBRT were successfully obtained. The amplitude of tumor motion was less than 10 mm in all directions. The average displacements between ITV and actual tumor location during treatment were 0.41 ± 0.93 mm, 0.15 ± 0.58 mm, and 0.60 ± 0.99 mm for the craniocaudal, left-right, and anteroposterior directions, respectively. The discrepancy in each phase did not exceed 5 mm in any direction. Conclusions: With in-treatment 4D CBCT, we confirmed the required PTV margins when the registration for moving target was performed using pre-3D CBCT. In-treatment 4D CBCT is a direct method for quantitatively assessing the intrafractional location of a moving target.

  13. Verification of planning target volume settings in volumetric modulated arc therapy for stereotactic body radiation therapy by using in-treatment 4-dimensional cone beam computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Wataru; Yamashita, Hideomi; Kida, Satoshi; Masutani, Yoshitaka; Sakumi, Akira; Ohtomo, Kuni; Nakagawa, Keiichi; Haga, Akihiro

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate setup error and tumor motion during beam delivery by using 4-dimensional cone beam computed tomography (4D CBCT) and to assess the adequacy of the planning target volume (PTV) margin for lung cancer patients undergoing volumetric modulated arc therapy for stereotactic body radiation therapy (VMAT-SBRT). Fifteen lung cancer patients treated by single-arc VMAT-SBRT were selected in this analysis. All patients were treated with an abdominal compressor. The gross tumor volumes were contoured on maximum inspiration and maximum expiration CT datasets from 4D CT respiratory sorting and merged into internal target volumes (ITVs). The PTV margin was isotropically taken as 5 mm. Registration was automatically performed using "pre-3D" CBCT. Treatment was performed with a D95 prescription of 50 Gy delivered in 4 fractions. The 4D tumor locations during beam delivery were determined using in-treatment 4D CBCT images acquired in each fraction. Then, the discrepancy between the actual tumor location and the ITV was evaluated in the lateral, vertical, and longitudinal directions. Overall, 55 4D CBCT sets during VMAT-SBRT were successfully obtained. The amplitude of tumor motion was less than 10 mm in all directions. The average displacements between ITV and actual tumor location during treatment were 0.41 ± 0.93 mm, 0.15 ± 0.58 mm, and 0.60 ± 0.99 mm for the craniocaudal, left-right, and anteroposterior directions, respectively. The discrepancy in each phase did not exceed 5 mm in any direction. With in-treatment 4D CBCT, we confirmed the required PTV margins when the registration for moving target was performed using pre-3D CBCT. In-treatment 4D CBCT is a direct method for quantitatively assessing the intrafractional location of a moving target. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Use of volume-targeted non-invasive bilevel positive airway pressure ventilation in a patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis*,**

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Abad, Montserrat; Brown, John Edward

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease in which most patients die of respiratory failure. Although volume-targeted non-invasive bilevel positive airway pressure (BPAP) ventilation has been studied in patients with chronic respiratory failure of various etiologies, its use in ALS has not been reported. We present the case of a 66-year-old woman with ALS and respiratory failure treated with volume-targeted BPAP ventilation for 15 weeks. Weekly data downloads showed that disease progression was associated with increased respiratory muscle weakness, decreased spontaneous breathing, and increased use of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation, whereas tidal volume and minute ventilation remained relatively constant. PMID:25210968

  15. Third International Kharkov Symposium "Physics and Engineering of Millimeter and Submillimeter Waves" MSMW󈨦 Symposium Proceedings, Volume 1,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-09-01

    1 Jf» Third International Kharkov Symposium "Physics and Engineering of Millimeter and Submillimeter Waves" Kharkov, Ukraine September 15-17...34PHYSICS AND ENGINEERING OF MILLIMETER AND SUBMILLIMETER WAVES" MSMW󈨦 Symposium Volume 1 Kharkov, Ukraine September 15-17,1998 DISTRIBUTION...STATEMENT A Approved for Public Release Distribution Unlimited THIRD INTERNATIONAL KHARKOV SYMPOSIUM "PHYSICS AND ENGINEERING OF MILLIMETER AND

  16. FDG-PET/CT during concomitant chemo radiotherapy for esophageal cancer: Reducing target volumes to deliver higher radiotherapy doses.

    PubMed

    Nkhali, Lamyaa; Thureau, Sébastien; Edet-Sanson, Agathe; Doyeux, Kaya; Benyoucef, Ahmed; Gardin, Isabelle; Michel, Pierre; Vera, Pierre; Dubray, Bernard

    2015-06-01

    A planning study investigated whether reduced target volumes defined on FDG-PET/CT during radiotherapy allow total dose escalation without compromising normal tissue tolerance in patients with esophageal cancer. Ten patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), candidate to curative-intent concomitant chemo-radiotherapy (CRT), had FDG-PET/CT performed in treatment position, before and during (Day 21) radiotherapy (RT). Four planning scenarios were investigated: 1) 50 Gy total dose with target volumes defined on pre-RT FDG-PET/CT; 2) 50 Gy with boost target volume defined on FDG-PET/CT during RT; 3) 66 Gy with target volumes from pre-RT FDG-PET/CT; and 4) 66 Gy with boost target volume from during-RT FDG-PET/CT. The median metabolic target volume decreased from 12.9 cm3 (minimum 3.7-maximum 44.8) to 5.0 cm3 (1.7-13.5) (p=0.01) between pre- and during-RCT FDG-PET/CT. The median PTV66 was smaller on during-RT than on baseline FDG-PET/CT [108 cm3 (62.5-194) vs. 156 cm3 (68.8-251), p=0.02]. When total dose was set to 50 Gy, planning on during-RT FDG-PET/CT was associated with a marginal reduction in normal tissues irradiation. When total dose was increased to 66 Gy, planning on during-RT PET yielded significantly lower doses to the spinal cord [Dmax=44.1Gy (40.8-44.9) vs. 44.7Gy (41.5-45.0), p=0.007] and reduced lung exposure [V20Gy=23.2% (17.3-27) vs. 26.8% (19.7-30.2), p=0.006]. This planning study suggests that adaptive RT based on target volume reduction assessed on FDG-PET/CT during treatment could facilitate dose escalation up to 66 Gy in patients with esophageal SCC.

  17. Novel strategy for a bispecific antibody: induction of dual target internalization and degradation.

    PubMed

    Lee, J M; Lee, S H; Hwang, J-W; Oh, S J; Kim, B; Jung, S; Shim, S-H; Lin, P W; Lee, S B; Cho, M-Y; Koh, Y J; Kim, S Y; Ahn, S; Lee, J; Kim, K-M; Cheong, K H; Choi, J; Kim, K-A

    2016-08-25

    Activation of the extensive cross-talk among the receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), particularly ErbB family-Met cross-talk, has emerged as a likely source of drug resistance. Notwithstanding brilliant successes were attained while using small-molecule inhibitors or antibody therapeutics against specific RTKs in multiple cancers over recent decades, a high recurrence rate remains unsolved in patients treated with these targeted inhibitors. It is well aligned with multifaceted properties of cancer and cross-talk and convergence of signaling pathways of RTKs. Thereby many therapeutic interventions have been actively developed to overcome inherent or acquired resistance. To date, no bispecific antibody (BsAb) showed complete depletion of dual RTKs from the plasma membrane and efficient dual degradation. In this manuscript, we report the first findings of a target-specific dual internalization and degradation of membrane RTKs induced by designed BsAbs based on the internalizing monoclonal antibodies and the therapeutic values of these BsAbs. Leveraging the anti-Met mAb able to internalize and degrade by a unique mechanism, we generated the BsAbs for Met/epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Met/HER2 to induce an efficient EGFR or HER2 internalization and degradation in the presence of Met that is frequently overexpressed in the invasive tumors and involved in the resistance against EGFR- or HER2-targeted therapies. We found that Met/EGFR BsAb ME22S induces dissociation of the Met-EGFR complex from Hsp90, followed by significant degradation of Met and EGFR. By employing patient-derived tumor models we demonstrate therapeutic potential of the BsAb-mediated dual degradation in various cancers.

  18. Activatable iRGD-based peptide monolith: Targeting, internalization, and fluorescence activation for precise tumor imaging.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hong-Jun; Lee, Sung-Jin; Park, Sung-Jun; Paik, Chang H; Lee, Sang-Myung; Kim, Sehoon; Lee, Yoon-Sik

    2016-09-10

    A disulfide-bridged cyclic RGD peptide, named iRGD (internalizing RGD, c(CRGDK/RGPD/EC)), is known to facilitate tumor targeting as well as tissue penetration. After the RGD motif-induced targeting on αv integrins expressed near tumor tissue, iRGD encounters proteolytic cleavage to expose the CendR motif that promotes penetration into cancer cells via the interaction with neuropilin-1. Based on these proteolytic cleavage and internalization mechanism, we designed an iRGD-based monolithic imaging probe that integrates multiple functions (cancer-specific targeting, internalization and fluorescence activation) within a small peptide framework. To provide the capability of activatable fluorescence signaling, we conjugated a fluorescent dye to the N-terminal of iRGD, which was linked to the internalizing sequence (CendR motif), and a quencher to the opposite C-terminal. It turned out that fluorescence activation of the dye/quencher-conjugated monolithic peptide probe requires dual (reductive and proteolytic) cleavages on both disulfide and amide bond of iRGD peptide. Furthermore, the cleavage of the iRGD peptide leading to fluorescence recovery was indeed operative depending on the tumor-related angiogenic receptors (αvβ3 integrin and neuropilin-1) in vitro as well as in vivo. Compared to an 'always fluorescent' iRGD control probe without quencher conjugation, the dye/quencher-conjugated activatable monolithic peptide probe visualized tumor regions more precisely with lower background noise after intravenous injection, owing to the multifunctional responses specific to tumor microenvironment. All these results, along with minimal in vitro and in vivo toxicity profiles, suggest potential of the iRGD-based activatable monolithic peptide probe as a promising imaging agent for precise tumor diagnosis.

  19. Analysis of FET-PET imaging for target volume definition in patients with gliomas treated with conformal radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Rieken, Stefan; Habermehl, Daniel; Giesel, Frederik L; Hoffmann, Christoph; Burger, Ute; Rief, Harald; Welzel, Thomas; Haberkorn, Uwe; Debus, Jürgen; Combs, Stephanie E

    2013-12-01

    Modern radiotherapy (RT) techniques such as stereotactic RT, intensity-modulated RT, or particle irradiation allow local dose escalation with simultaneous sparing of critical organs. Several trials are currently investigating their benefit in glioma reirradiation and boost irradiation. Target volume definition is of critical importance especially when steep dose gradient techniques are employed. In this manuscript we investigate the impact of O-(2-(F-18)fluoroethyl)-l-tyrosine-positron emission tomography/computer tomography (FET-PET/CT) on target volume definition in low and high grade glioma patients undergoing either first or re-irradiation with particles. We investigated volumetric size and uniformity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)- vs. FET-PET/CT-derived gross tumor volumes (GTVs) and planning target volumes (PTVs) of 41 glioma patients. Clinical cases are presented to demonstrate potential benefits of integrating FET-PET/CT-planning into daily routine. Integrating FET-uptake into the delineation of GTVs yields larger volumes. Combined modality-derived PTVs are significantly enlarged in high grade glioma patients and in case of primary RT. The congruence of MRI and FET signals for the identification of glioma GTVs is poor with mean uniformity indices of 0.39. MRI-based PTVs miss 17% of FET-PET/CT-based GTVs. Non significant alterations were detected in low grade glioma patients and in those undergoing reirradiation. Target volume definition for malignant gliomas during initial RT may yield significantly differing results depending upon the imaging modality, which the contouring process is based upon. The integration of both MRI and FET-PET/CT may help to improve GTV coverage by avoiding larger incongruences between physical and biological imaging techniques. In low grade gliomas and in cases of reirradiation, more studies are needed in order to investigate a potential benefit of FET-PET/CT for planning of RT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All

  20. Atlas international de la vitalite linguistique. Volume 3: L'Afrique Occidentale = International Atlas of Language Vitality. Volume 3: West Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, Grant D., Ed.; Gendron, Jean-Denis, Ed.

    The third volume in a series of atlases of language vitality covers 13 countries of West Africa (Benin, Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo) and 59 major languages. The atlas consists of four main parts. The first offers comparative data, in bar graph and tabular…

  1. Characteristics of Movement-Induced Dose Reduction in Target Volume: A Comparison Between Photon and Proton Beam Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Myonggeun; Shin, Dongho; Kwak, Jungwon; Park, Soah; Lim, Young Kyung; Kim, Dongwook; Park, Sung Yong Lee, Se Byeong; Shin, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Tae Hyun; Cho, Kwan Ho

    2009-10-01

    We compared the main characteristics of movement-induced dose reduction during photon and proton beam treatment, based on an analysis of dose-volume histograms. To simulate target movement, a target contour was delineated in a scanned phantom and displaced by 3 to 20 mm. Although the dose reductions to the target in the 2 treatment systems were similar for transverse (perpendicular to beam direction) target motion, they were completely different for longitudinal (parallel to beam direction) target motion. While both modalities showed a relationship between the degree of target shift and the reduction in dose coverage, dose reduction showed a strong directional dependence in proton beam treatment. Clinical simulation of target movement for a prostate cancer patient showed that, although coverage and conformity indices for a 6-mm lateral movement of the prostate were reduced by 9% and 16%, respectively, for proton beam treatment, they were reduced by only 1% and 7%, respectively, for photon treatment. This difference was greater for a 15-mm target movement in the lateral direction, which lowered the coverage and conformity indices by 34% and 54%, respectively, for proton beam treatment, but changed little during photon treatment. In addition, we found that the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) and homogeneity index show similar characteristics during target movement. These results suggest that movement-induced dose reduction differs significantly between photon and proton beam treatment. Attention should be paid to the target margin in proton beam treatment due to the distinct characteristics of heavy ion beams.

  2. Treat-to-target in systemic lupus erythematosus: recommendations from an international task force.

    PubMed

    van Vollenhoven, Ronald F; Mosca, Marta; Bertsias, George; Isenberg, David; Kuhn, Annegret; Lerstrøm, Kirsten; Aringer, Martin; Bootsma, Hendrika; Boumpas, Dimitrios; Bruce, Ian N; Cervera, Ricard; Clarke, Ann; Costedoat-Chalumeau, Nathalie; Czirják, László; Derksen, Ronald; Dörner, Thomas; Gordon, Caroline; Graninger, Winfried; Houssiau, Frédéric; Inanc, Murat; Jacobsen, Søren; Jayne, David; Jedryka-Goral, Anna; Levitsky, Adrian; Levy, Roger; Mariette, Xavier; Morand, Eric; Navarra, Sandra; Neumann, Irmgard; Rahman, Anisur; Rovensky, Jozef; Smolen, Josef; Vasconcelos, Carlos; Voskuyl, Alexandre; Voss, Anne; Zakharova, Helena; Zoma, Asad; Schneider, Matthias

    2014-06-01

    The principle of treating-to-target has been successfully applied to many diseases outside rheumatology and more recently to rheumatoid arthritis. Identifying appropriate therapeutic targets and pursuing these systematically has led to improved care for patients with these diseases and useful guidance for healthcare providers and administrators. Thus, an initiative to evaluate possible therapeutic targets and develop treat-to-target guidance was believed to be highly appropriate in the management of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients as well. Specialists in rheumatology, nephrology, dermatology, internal medicine and clinical immunology, and a patient representative, contributed to this initiative. The majority convened on three occasions in 2012-2013. Twelve topics of critical importance were identified and a systematic literature review was performed. The results were condensed and reformulated as recommendations, discussed, modified and voted upon. The finalised bullet points were analysed for degree of agreement among the task force. The Oxford Centre level of evidence (LoE, corresponding to the research questions) and grade of recommendation (GoR) were determined for each recommendation. The 12 systematic literature searches and their summaries led to 11 recommendations. Prominent features of these recommendations are targeting remission, preventing damage and improving quality of life. LoE and GoR of the recommendations were variable but agreement was >0.9 in each case. An extensive research agenda was identified, and four overarching principles were also agreed upon. Treat-to-target-in-SLE (T2T/SLE) recommendations were developed by a large task force of multispecialty experts and a patient representative. It is anticipated that 'treating-to-target' can and will be applicable to the care of patients with SLE.

  3. Surgery resident participation in short-term humanitarian international surgical missions can supplement exposure where program case volumes are low.

    PubMed

    Bale, Asha G; Sifri, Ziad C

    2016-01-01

    General surgery training programs face declining case volume and diversity. We wanted to determine if resident participation in international surgical missions would increase exposure to cases underrepresented in our program case mix. Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education program data from 2008 to 2011 (University of Medicine and Dentistry-New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ) were analyzed to identify categories where volume was below national average. This was compared with case logs from 3 missions conducted by International Surgical Health Initiatives between 2011 and 2012. All chief residents completed more than minimum required index cases. Categories head and neck, alimentary tract, abdomen, and endocrine showed percentile below national average. Seven residents participated in 3 missions to Philippines and Sierra Leone. Sixty-five percent of the operations performed were in the 4 low-volume categories. International surgery missions expose residents to a high volume and variety of cases. Participation can be one way to increase case volume and diversity during training. Cases completed on missions with board certified surgeons should be considered for Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education credit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. REVIEW: Internal high linear energy transfer (LET) targeted radiotherapy for cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Barry J.

    2006-07-01

    High linear energy transfer (LET) radiation for internal targeted therapy has been a long time coming on to the medical therapy scene. While fundamental principles were established many decades ago, the clinical implementation has been slow. Localized neutron capture therapy, and more recently systemic targeted alpha therapy, are at the clinical trial stage. What are the attributes of these therapies that have led a band of scientists and clinicians to dedicate so much of their careers? High LET means high energy density, causing double strand breaks in DNA, and short-range radiation, sparing adjacent normal tissues. This targeted approach complements conventional radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Such therapies fail on several fronts. Foremost is the complete lack of progress for the control of primary GBM, the holy grail for cancer therapies. Next is the inability to regress metastatic cancer on a systemic basis. This has been the task of chemotherapy, but palliation is the major application. Finally, there is the inability to inhibit the development of lethal metastatic cancer after successful treatment of the primary cancer. This review charts, from an Australian perspective, the developing role of local and systemic high LET, internal radiation therapy.

  5. Foundations of the Unity of Science, Toward an International Encyclopedia of Unified Science, Volume 1, Numbers 1-10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neurath, Otto, Ed.; And Others

    The monographs published from 1938 through 1970 under the general title of the International Encyclopedia of Unified Science are now published in two volumes (see also SE 012 544). The monographs attempt to discover the basic, unifying principles of science as a whole to facilitate the dovetailing of the special sciences, so that advances in one…

  6. The Impact of Comparative Education Research on Institutional Theory. International Perspectives on Education and Society. Volume 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, David, Ed.; Wiseman, Alex, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This volume of International Perspectives on Education and Society explores how educational research from a comparative perspective has been instrumental in broadening and testing hypotheses from institutional theory. Institutional theory has also played an increasingly influential role in developing an understanding of education in society. This…

  7. Foundations of the Unity of Science, Toward an International Encyclopedia of Unified Science, Volume 1, Numbers 1-10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neurath, Otto, Ed.; And Others

    The monographs published from 1938 through 1970 under the general title of the International Encyclopedia of Unified Science are now published in two volumes (see also SE 012 544). The monographs attempt to discover the basic, unifying principles of science as a whole to facilitate the dovetailing of the special sciences, so that advances in one…

  8. PROCEEDINGS OF INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ORAL EDUCATION OF THE DEAF. VOLUME I. (WASHINGTON, D.C., NOVEMBER 1, 1967).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf, Inc., Washington, DC.

    THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ORAL EDUCATION OF THE DEAF ARE THE WRITTEN RECORD OF A CONFERENCE HELD AT CLARKE SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF AND LEXINGTON SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF IN JUNE 1967. VOLUME I CONTAINS THE PAPERS FROM FIVE PLENARY SESSIONS AND SEVERAL SECTIONAL MEETINGS PRESENTED BY REPRESENTATIVES FROM 16 COUNTRIES. SUBJECTS…

  9. PROCEEDINGS OF INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ORAL EDUCATION OF THE DEAF. VOLUME I. (WASHINGTON, D.C., NOVEMBER 1, 1967).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf, Inc., Washington, DC.

    THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ORAL EDUCATION OF THE DEAF ARE THE WRITTEN RECORD OF A CONFERENCE HELD AT CLARKE SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF AND LEXINGTON SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF IN JUNE 1967. VOLUME I CONTAINS THE PAPERS FROM FIVE PLENARY SESSIONS AND SEVERAL SECTIONAL MEETINGS PRESENTED BY REPRESENTATIVES FROM 16 COUNTRIES. SUBJECTS…

  10. Third International Mathematics and Science Study 1999 Video Study Technical Report: Volume 1--Mathematics. Technical Report. NCES 2003-012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Jennifer; Garnier, Helen; Gallimore, Ronald; Hollingsworth, Hilary; Givvin, Karen Bogard; Rust, Keith; Kawanaka, Takako; Smith, Margaret; Wearne, Diana; Manaster, Alfred; Etterbeek, Wallace; Hiebert, James; Stigler, James

    2003-01-01

    This first volume of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 1999 Video Study Technical Report focuses on every aspect of the planning, implementation, processing, analysis, and reporting of the mathematics components of the TIMSS 1999 Video Study. The report is intended to serve as a record of the actions and documentation…

  11. Third International Mathematics and Science Study 1999 Video Study Technical Report: Volume 2--Science. Technical Report. NCES 2011-049

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garnier, Helen E.; Lemmens, Meike; Druker, Stephen L.; Roth, Kathleen J.

    2011-01-01

    This second volume of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 1999 Video Study Technical Report focuses on every aspect of the planning, implementation, processing, analysis, and reporting of the science components of the TIMSS 1999 Video Study. The report is intended to serve as a record of the actions and documentation of…

  12. The Impact of Comparative Education Research on Institutional Theory. International Perspectives on Education and Society. Volume 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, David, Ed.; Wiseman, Alex, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This volume of International Perspectives on Education and Society explores how educational research from a comparative perspective has been instrumental in broadening and testing hypotheses from institutional theory. Institutional theory has also played an increasingly influential role in developing an understanding of education in society. This…

  13. Modern Radiation Therapy for Nodal Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma—Target Definition and Dose Guidelines From the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group

    SciTech Connect

    Illidge, Tim; Specht, Lena; Yahalom, Joachim; Aleman, Berthe; Berthelsen, Anne Kiil; Constine, Louis; Dabaja, Bouthaina; Dharmarajan, Kavita; Ng, Andrea; Ricardi, Umberto; Wirth, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is the most effective single modality for local control of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and is an important component of therapy for many patients. Many of the historic concepts of dose and volume have recently been challenged by the advent of modern imaging and RT planning tools. The International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group (ILROG) has developed these guidelines after multinational meetings and analysis of available evidence. The guidelines represent an agreed consensus view of the ILROG steering committee on the use of RT in NHL in the modern era. The roles of reduced volume and reduced doses are addressed, integrating modern imaging with 3-dimensional planning and advanced techniques of RT delivery. In the modern era, in which combined-modality treatment with systemic therapy is appropriate, the previously applied extended-field and involved-field RT techniques that targeted nodal regions have now been replaced by limiting the RT to smaller volumes based solely on detectable nodal involvement at presentation. A new concept, involved-site RT, defines the clinical target volume. For indolent NHL, often treated with RT alone, larger fields should be considered. Newer treatment techniques, including intensity modulated RT, breath holding, image guided RT, and 4-dimensional imaging, should be implemented, and their use is expected to decrease significantly the risk for normal tissue damage while still achieving the primary goal of local tumor control.

  14. Modern radiation therapy for nodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma-target definition and dose guidelines from the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group.

    PubMed

    Illidge, Tim; Specht, Lena; Yahalom, Joachim; Aleman, Berthe; Berthelsen, Anne Kiil; Constine, Louis; Dabaja, Bouthaina; Dharmarajan, Kavita; Ng, Andrea; Ricardi, Umberto; Wirth, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is the most effective single modality for local control of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and is an important component of therapy for many patients. Many of the historic concepts of dose and volume have recently been challenged by the advent of modern imaging and RT planning tools. The International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group (ILROG) has developed these guidelines after multinational meetings and analysis of available evidence. The guidelines represent an agreed consensus view of the ILROG steering committee on the use of RT in NHL in the modern era. The roles of reduced volume and reduced doses are addressed, integrating modern imaging with 3-dimensional planning and advanced techniques of RT delivery. In the modern era, in which combined-modality treatment with systemic therapy is appropriate, the previously applied extended-field and involved-field RT techniques that targeted nodal regions have now been replaced by limiting the RT to smaller volumes based solely on detectable nodal involvement at presentation. A new concept, involved-site RT, defines the clinical target volume. For indolent NHL, often treated with RT alone, larger fields should be considered. Newer treatment techniques, including intensity modulated RT, breath holding, image guided RT, and 4-dimensional imaging, should be implemented, and their use is expected to decrease significantly the risk for normal tissue damage while still achieving the primary goal of local tumor control.

  15. The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report - Volume 1: Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Behnke, Ties; Brau, James E.; Foster, Brian; Fuster, Juan; Harrison, Mike; Paterson, James McEwan; Peskin, Michael; Stanitzki, Marcel; Walker, Nicholas; Yamamoto, Hitoshi

    2013-06-26

    The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report (TDR) describes in four volumes the physics case and the design of a 500 GeV centre-of-mass energy linear electron-positron collider based on superconducting radio-frequency technology using Niobium cavities as the accelerating structures. The accelerator can be extended to 1 TeV and also run as a Higgs factory at around 250 GeV and on the Z0 pole. A comprehensive value estimate of the accelerator is give, together with associated uncertainties. It is shown that no significant technical issues remain to be solved. Once a site is selected and the necessary site-dependent engineering is carried out, construction can begin immediately. The TDR also gives baseline documentation for two high-performance detectors that can share the ILC luminosity by being moved into and out of the beam line in a "push-pull" configuration. These detectors, ILD and SiD, are described in detail. They form the basis for a world-class experimental programme that promises to increase significantly our understanding of the fundamental processes that govern the evolution of the Universe.

  16. The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report - Volume 3.I: Accelerator \\& in the Technical Design Phase

    SciTech Connect

    Adolphsen, Chris

    2013-06-26

    The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report (TDR) describes in four volumes the physics case and the design of a 500 GeV centre-of-mass energy linear electron-positron collider based on superconducting radio-frequency technology using Niobium cavities as the accelerating structures. The accelerator can be extended to 1 TeV and also run as a Higgs factory at around 250 GeV and on the Z0 pole. A comprehensive value estimate of the accelerator is give, together with associated uncertainties. It is shown that no significant technical issues remain to be solved. Once a site is selected and the necessary site-dependent engineering is carried out, construction can begin immediately. The TDR also gives baseline documentation for two high-performance detectors that can share the ILC luminosity by being moved into and out of the beam line in a "push-pull" configuration. These detectors, ILD and SiD, are described in detail. They form the basis for a world-class experimental programme that promises to increase significantly our understanding of the fundamental processes that govern the evolution of the Universe.

  17. The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report - Volume 3.II: Accelerator Baseline Design

    SciTech Connect

    Adolphsen, Chris

    2013-06-26

    The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report (TDR) describes in four volumes the physics case and the design of a 500 GeV centre-of-mass energy linear electron-positron collider based on superconducting radio-frequency technology using Niobium cavities as the accelerating structures. The accelerator can be extended to 1 TeV and also run as a Higgs factory at around 250 GeV and on the Z0 pole. A comprehensive value estimate of the accelerator is give, together with associated uncertainties. It is shown that no significant technical issues remain to be solved. Once a site is selected and the necessary site-dependent engineering is carried out, construction can begin immediately. The TDR also gives baseline documentation for two high-performance detectors that can share the ILC luminosity by being moved into and out of the beam line in a "push-pull" configuration. These detectors, ILD and SiD, are described in detail. They form the basis for a world-class experimental programme that promises to increase significantly our understanding of the fundamental processes that govern the evolution of the Universe.

  18. Risks and benefits of reducing target volume margins in breast tangent radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Basaula, Deepak; Quinn, Alexandra; Walker, Amy; Batumalai, Vikneswary; Kumar, Shivani; Delaney, Geoff P; Holloway, Lois

    2017-02-27

    This study investigates the potential benefits of planning target volume (PTV) margin reduction for whole breast radiotherapy in relation to dose received by organs at risk (OARs), as well as reductions in radiation-induced secondary cancer risk. Such benefits were compared to the increased radiation-induced secondary cancer risk attributed from increased ionizing radiation imaging doses. Ten retrospective patients' computed tomography datasets were considered. Three computerized treatment plans with varied PTV margins (0, 5 and 10 mm) were created for each patient complying with the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 1005 protocol requirements. The BEIR VII lifetime attributable risk (LAR) model was used to estimate secondary cancer risk to OARs. The LAR was assessed for all treatment plans considering (a) doses from PTV margin variation and (b) doses from two (daily and weekly) kilovoltage cone beam computed tomography (kV CBCT) imaging protocols during the course of treatment. We found PTV margins from largest to smallest resulted in a mean OAR relative dose reduction of 31% (heart), 28% (lung) and 23% (contralateral breast) and the risk of radiation-induced secondary cancer by a relative 23% (contralateral breast) and 22% (contralateral lung). Daily image-guidance using kV CBCT increased the risk of radiation induced secondary cancer to the contralateral breast and contralateral lung by a relative 1.6-1.9% and 1.9-2.5% respectively. Despite the additional dose from kV CBCT for the two considered imaging protocols, smaller PTV margins would still result in an overall reduction in secondary cancer risk.

  19. Defining the Clinical Target Volume for Bladder Cancer Radiotherapy Treatment Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, Peter; Anjarwalla, Salim; Gilbert, Hugh; Kinder, Richard

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: There are currently no data for the expansion margin required to define the clinical target volume (CTV) around bladder tumors. This information is particularly relevant when perivesical soft tissue changes are seen on the planning scan. While this appearance may reflect extravesical extension (EVE), it may also be an artifact of previous transurethral resection (TUR). Methods and Materials: Eighty patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer who had undergone radical cystectomy were studied. All patients underwent preoperative TUR and staging computed tomography (CT) scans. The presence and extent of tumor growth beyond the outer bladder wall was measured radiologically and histopathologically. Results: Forty one (51%) patients had histologically confirmed tumor extension into perivesical fat. The median and mean extensions beyond the outer bladder wall were 1.7 and 3.1 mm, respectively. Thirty five (44%) patients had EVE, as seen on CT scans. The sensitivity and specificity of CT scans for EVE were 56% and 79%, respectively. False-positive results were infrequent and not affected by either the timing or the amount of tissue resected at TUR. CT scans consistently tended to overestimate the extent of EVE. Tumor size and the presence of either lymphovascular invasion or squamoid differentiation predict a greater extent of EVE. Conclusions: In patients with radiological evidence of extravesical disease, the CTV should comprise the outer bladder wall plus a 10-mm margin. In patients with no evidence of extravesical disease on CT scans, the CTV should be restricted to the outer bladder wall plus a 6-mm margin. These recommendations would encompass microscopic disease extension in 90% of cases.

  20. M-DCPS Student Performance in International Baccalaureate and Cambridge Advanced International Certificate of Education Programs. Research Brief. Volume 1102

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazer, Christie

    2011-01-01

    This Research Brief summarizes the performance of M-DCPS students participating in the International Baccalaureate (IB) and Cambridge Advanced International Certificate of Education (AICE) programs. Outcome data are provided for the eight M-DCPS schools offering the two programs and corresponding examinations. Participation in international…

  1. Structural Features Facilitating Tumor Cell Targeting and Internalization by Bleomycin and Its Disaccharide

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We have shown previously that the bleomycin (BLM) carbohydrate moiety can recapitulate the tumor cell targeting effects of the entire BLM molecule, that BLM itself is modular in nature consisting of a DNA-cleaving aglycone which is delivered selectively to the interior of tumor cells by its carbohydrate moiety, and that there are disaccharides structurally related to the BLM disaccharide which are more efficient than the natural disaccharide at tumor cell targeting/uptake. Because BLM sugars can deliver molecular cargoes selectively to tumor cells, and thus potentially form the basis for a novel antitumor strategy, it seemed important to consider additional structural features capable of affecting the efficiency of tumor cell recognition and delivery. These included the effects of sugar polyvalency and net charge (at physiological pH) on tumor cell recognition, internalization, and trafficking. Since these parameters have been shown to affect cell surface recognition, internalization, and distribution in other contexts, this study has sought to define the effects of these structural features on tumor cell recognition by bleomycin and its disaccharide. We demonstrate that both can have a significant effect on tumor cell binding/internalization, and present data which suggests that the metal ions normally bound by bleomycin following clinical administration may significantly contribute to the efficiency of tumor cell uptake, in addition to their characterized function in DNA cleavage. A BLM disaccharide-Cy5** conjugate incorporating the positively charged dipeptide d-Lys-d-Lys was found to associate with both the mitochondria and the nuclear envelope of DU145 cells, suggesting possible cellular targets for BLM disaccharide–cytotoxin conjugates. PMID:25905565

  2. Electron-Molecule Cross Sections for Plasma Applications: the Role of Internal Energy of the Target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capitelli, M.; Celiberto, R.

    The role of internal excitation in affecting electron-molecule cross sections is analyzed for H2, N2 and O2 systems. Particula emphasis is given to the role of vibrational energy in affecting both resonant and non-resonant electron molecule cross sections. In general for resonant transitions the cross sections dramatically depends on the initial vibrational quantum number of the target, while a minor effect if found for direct (non-resonant) transitions. Cross sections in this last case reflect the form of Franck-Condon factors and Franck-Condon densities linking the relevant boun-bound or bound-continuum transitions. A similar behaviour is presented when the target is electronically excited. In this case, however, the enhancement of cross section is much higher.

  3. Design and Preliminary Testing of the International Docking Adapter's Peripheral Docking Target

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, Christopher W.; Blaschak, Johnathan; Eldridge, Erin A.; Brazzel, Jack P.; Spehar, Peter T.

    2015-01-01

    The International Docking Adapter's Peripheral Docking Target (PDT) was designed to allow a docking spacecraft to judge its alignment relative to the docking system. The PDT was designed to be compatible with relative sensors using visible cameras, thermal imagers, or Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) technologies. The conceptual design team tested prototype designs and materials to determine the contrast requirements for the features. This paper will discuss the design of the PDT, the methodology and results of the tests, and the conclusions pertaining to PDT design that were drawn from testing.

  4. Spatial characterization of the internal gas target at the ESR for the FOCAL experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gassner, T.; Beyer, H. F.

    2015-11-01

    The FOCAL experiment involves a highly accurate twin crystal spectrometer, designed for the measurement of the ground state Lamb shift of stored highly charged ions, like hydrogen-like Au78+, via spectroscopy in the hard-x-ray regime with an accuracy down to the few-eV level where higher-order QED contributions become accessible. For this level of accuracy all geometrical parameters including the position of the x-ray source are of crucial importance. In this conference proceeding we present our efforts to characterize the internal gas target at the experiment storage ring at GSI Darmstadt where in 2012 the FOCAL experiment was conducted.

  5. First Experiments with the Polarized Internal Gas Target (PIT) at ANKE/COSY

    SciTech Connect

    Engels, R.; Lorentz, B.; Prasuhn, D.; Rathmann, F.; Sarkadi, J.; Schleichert, R.; Seyfarth, H.; Stroeher, H.; Chiladze, D.; Dymov, S.; Grigoryev, K.; Mikirtychyants, M.; Kacharava, A.; Klehr, F.; Mikirtychyants, S.; Vasilyev, A.; Schieck, H. Paetz gen.; Steffens, E.

    2009-08-04

    For future few-nucleon interaction studies with polarized beams and targets at COSY-Juelich, a polarized internal storage-cell gas target was implemented at the magnet spectrometer ANKE. First commissioning of the polarized Atomic Beam Source (ABS) at ANKE was carried out and some improvements of the system have been done. Storage-cell tests to determine the COSY beam dimensions have been performed. Electron cooling combined with stacking and stochastic cooling have been studied. Experiments with N{sub 2} gas in the storage cell to simulate the background produced by beam interaction with the aluminum cell walls were performed to investigate the beam heating by the target gas. The analysis of the d-vectorp-vector->dp and d-vectorp-vector->(dp{sub sp})pi{sup 0} reactions showed that events from different positions of the extended target can be clearly identified in the ANKE detector system. The polarization of the atomic beam of the ABS, positioned close to the strong dipole magnet D2 of ANKE, was tuned with a Lamb-shift polarimeter (LSP) beneath the target chamber. With use of the known analyzing powers of the quasi-free np->dpi{sup 0} reaction, the polarization in the storage cell was measured to be Q{sub y} = 0.79+-0.07 in the vertical stray field of the D2 magnet acting as a holding field. The target thickness achieved was 2x10{sup 13} atoms/cm{sup 2} for one hyperfine state populated in the ABS beam only. With a COSY beam intensity of 6x10{sup 9} stored polarized deuterons in the ring, the luminosity for double polarized experiments was 1x10{sup 29} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}.

  6. First Experiments with the Polarized Internal Gas Target (PIT) at ANKE/COSY

    SciTech Connect

    Engels, R.; Lorentz, B.; Prasuhn, D.; Rathmann, F.; Sarkadi, J.; Schleichert, R.; Seyfarth, H.; Stroeher, H.; Chiladze, D.; Dymov, S.; Grigoryev, K.; Mikirtychyants, M.; Kacharava, A.; Klehr, F.; Mikirtychyants, S.; Vasilyev, A.; Schieck, H. Paetz gen.; Steffens, E.

    2008-02-06

    For future few-nucleon interaction studies with polarized beams and targets at COSY-Juelich, a polarized internal storage-cell gas target was implemented at the magnet spectrometer ANKE in summer 2005. First commissioning of the polarized Atomic Beam Source (ABS) at ANKE was carried out and some improvements of the system have been done. Storage-cell tests to determine the COSY beam dimensions have been performed. Electron cooling combined with stacking and stochastic cooling have been studied. Experiments with N{sub 2} gas in the storage cell to simulate the background produced by beam interaction with the aluminum cell walls were performed to investigate the beam heating by the target gas. The analysis of the d-vector p-vector {yields}dp and d-vector p-vector{yields}(dp{sub sp}){pi}{sup 0} reactions showed that events from the extended target can be clearly identified in the ANKE detector system.The polarization of the atomic beam of the ABS, positioned close to the strong dipole magnet D2 of ANKE, was tuned with a Lamb-shift polarimeter (LSP) beneath the target chamber. With use of the known analyzing powers of the quasi-free np{yields}d{pi}{sup 0} reaction, the polarization in the storage cell was measured to be Q{sub y} = 0.79{+-}0.07 in the vertical stray field of the D2 magnet acting as a holding field. The achieved target thickness was 2x10{sup 13} atoms/cm{sup 2} for one hyperfine state populated in the ABS beam only. With a COSY beam intensity of 6x10{sup 9} stored polarized deuterons in the ring, the luminosity for double polarized experiments was 1x10{sup 29} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}.

  7. Variation in the Definition of Clinical Target Volumes for Pelvic Nodal Conformal Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lawton, Colleen A.F. Michalski, Jeff; El-Naqa, Issam; Kuban, Deborah; Lee, W. Robert; Rosenthal, Seth A.; Zietman, Anthony; Sandler, Howard; Shipley, William; Ritter, Mark; Valicenti, Richard; Catton, Charles; Roach, Mack; Pisansky, Thomas M.; Seider, Michael

    2009-06-01

    Purpose: We conducted a comparative study of clinical target volume (CTV) definition of pelvic lymph nodes by multiple genitourinary (GU) radiation oncologists looking at the levels of discrepancies amongst this group. Methods and Materials: Pelvic computed tomography (CT) scans from 2 men were distributed to 14 Radiation Therapy Oncology Group GU radiation oncologists with instructions to define CTVs for the iliac and presacral lymph nodes. The CT data with contours were then returned for analysis. In addition, a questionnaire was completed that described the physicians' method for target volume definition. Results: Significant variation in the definition of the iliac and presacral CTVs was seen among the physicians. The minimum, maximum, mean (SD) iliac volumes (mL) were 81.8, 876.6, 337.6 {+-} 203 for case 1 and 60.3, 627.7, 251.8 {+-} 159.3 for case 2. The volume of 100% agreement was 30.6 and 17.4 for case 1 and 2 and the volume of the union of all contours was 1,012.0 and 807.4 for case 1 and 2, respectively. The overall agreement was judged to be moderate in both cases (kappa = 0.53 (p < 0.0001) and kappa = 0.48 (p < 0.0001). There was no volume of 100% agreement for either of the two presacral volumes. These variations were confirmed in the responses to the associated questionnaire. Conclusions: Significant disagreement exists in the definition of the CTV for pelvic nodal radiation therapy among GU radiation oncology specialists. A consensus needs to be developed so as to accurately assess the merit and safety of such treatment.

  8. Seventh international conference on liquefied natural gas. Volume 2. Septieme congres international sur le gaz naturel liquefie. Tome 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Four sessions of the conference included: (1) LNG and world wide energy supplies; (2) liquefaction of natural gas and vaporization of LNG; (3) LNG transport, handling and storage; and (4) legal, economic and financial aspects of LNG trade. This volume contains sessions three and four. Individual papers were abstracted separately. (DP)

  9. Living Together in Space: The Design and Operation of the Life Support Systems on the International Space Station. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wieland, P. O.

    1998-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) incorporates elements designed and developed by an international consortium led by the United States (U.S.), and by Russia. For this cooperative effort to succeed, it is crucial that the designs and methods of design of the other partners are understood sufficiently to ensure compatibility. Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) is one system in which functions are performed independently on the Russian Segment (RS) and on the U.S./international segments. This document describes, in two volumes, the design and operation of the ECLS Systems (ECLSS) on board the ISS. This current volume, Volume 1, is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 is a general overview of the ISS, describing the configuration, general requirements, and distribution of systems as related to the ECLSS, and includes discussion of the design philosophies of the partners and methods of verification of equipment. Chapter 2 describes the U.S. ECLSS and technologies in greater detail. Chapter 3 describes the ECLSS in the European Attached Pressurized Module (APM), Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), and Italian Mini-Pressurized Logistics Module (MPLM). Volume II describes the Russian ECLSS and technologies in greater detail. These documents present thorough, yet concise, descriptions of the ISS ECLSS.

  10. Spatially controlled carbon sponge for targeting internalized radioactive materials in human body.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jin-Yong; Oh, Wan-Kyu; Shin, Keun-Young; Kwon, Oh Seok; Son, Suim; Jang, Jyongsik

    2012-07-01

    Carbon sponge, an adsorbent with spatially controlled structure is demonstrated for targeting internalized radiocesium and other radionuclides in human body. Three dimensionally ordered macroporous (3DOM) carbons derived from inverse opal replicas of colloidal-crystal template exhibit large surface area and high porosity, resulting in highly efficient adsorbents for radionuclides. It is also possible to enhance binding affinity and selectivity to radionuclide targets by decoration of 3DOM carbon surfaces with Prussian blue (PB) nanoparticles, and synthesized PB nanoparticles reveal low toxicity toward macrophage cells with potential advantages over oral administration. It is noteworthy that the maximum (133)Cs adsorption capacity of PB-decorated 3DOM carbons is 40.07 mmol g(-1) which is ca. 30 and 200 times higher than that of commercialized medicine Radiogardase(®) and bulk PB, respectively. Further, adsorption kinetics study indicates that the PB-decorated 3DOM carbons have the homogenous surface for (133)Cs ion adsorption and all sites have equal adsorption energies in terms of ion exchange between the cyano groups of the PB-decorated 3DOM carbons and radionuclides. As a concept of the oral-administrable "carbon sponge", the PB-decorated 3DOM carbons offer useful implications in the separation science of radioactive materials and important insight for designing novel materials for treatment of patients or suspected internal contamination with radioactive materials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Proceedings of the International Magnetic Pulse Compression Workshop. Volume 2: Technical summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirbie, H. C.; Newton, M. A.; Siemens, P. D.

    1991-04-01

    A few individuals have tried to broaden the understanding of specific and salient pulsed-power topics. One such attempt is this documentation of a workshop on magnetic switching as it applies primarily to pulse compression (power transformation), affording a truly international perspective by its participants under the initiative and leadership of Hugh Kirbie and Mark Newton of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and supported by other interested organizations. During the course of the Workshop at Granlibakken, a great deal of information was amassed and a keen insight into both the problems and opportunities as to the use of this switching approach was developed. The segmented workshop format proved ideal for identifying key aspects affecting optimum performance in a variety of applications. Individual groups of experts addressed network and system modeling, magnetic materials, power conditioning, core cooling and dielectrics, and finally circuits and application. At the end, they came together to consolidate their input and formulate the workshop's conclusions, identifying roadblocks or suggesting research projects, particularly as they apply to magnetic switching's trump card--its high average power handling capability (at least on a burst-mode basis). The workshop was especially productive both in the quality and quantity of information transfer in an environment conducive to a free and open exchange of ideas. We will not delve into the organization proper of this meeting, rather we wish to commend to the interested reader this volume, which provides the definitive and most up-to-date compilation on the subject of magnetic pulse compression from underlying principles to current state of the art as well as the prognosis for the future of magnetic pulse compression as a consensus of the workshop's organizers and participants.

  12. Human-computer interaction in radiotherapy target volume delineation: a prospective, multi-institutional comparison of user input devices.

    PubMed

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was the prospective comparison of objective and subjective effects of target volume region of interest (ROI) delineation using mouse-keyboard and pen-tablet user input devices (UIDs). The study was designed as a prospective test/retest sequence, with Wilcoxon signed rank test for matched-pair comparison. Twenty-one physician-observers contoured target volume ROIs on four standardized cases (representative of brain, prostate, lung, and head and neck malignancies) twice: once using QWERTY keyboard/scroll-wheel mouse UID and once with pen-tablet UID (DTX2100, Wacom Technology Corporation, Vancouver, WA, USA). Active task time, ROI manipulation task data, and subjective survey data were collected. One hundred twenty-nine target volume ROI sets were collected, with 62 paired pen-tablet/mouse-keyboard sessions. Active contouring time was reduced using the pen-tablet UID, with mean ± SD active contouring time of 26 ± 23 min, compared with 32 ± 25 with the mouse (p ≤ 0.01). Subjective estimation of time spent was also reduced from 31 ± 26 with mouse to 27 ± 22 min with the pen (p = 0.02). Task analysis showed ROI correction task reduction (p = 0.045) and decreased panning and scrolling tasks (p < 0.01) with the pen-tablet; drawing, window/level changes, and zoom commands were unchanged (p = n.s.) Volumetric analysis demonstrated no detectable differences in ROI volume nor intra- or inter-observer volumetric coverage. Fifty-two of 62 (84%) users preferred the tablet for each contouring task; 5 of 62 (8%) denoted no preference, and 5 of 62 (8%) chose the mouse interface. The pen-tablet UID reduced active contouring time and reduced correction of ROIs, without substantially altering ROI volume/coverage.

  13. Brain tumor target volume determination for radiation therapy treatment planning through the use of automated MRI segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzara, Gloria Patrika

    Radiation therapy seeks to effectively irradiate the tumor cells while minimizing the dose to adjacent normal cells. Prior research found that the low success rates for treating brain tumors would be improved with higher radiation doses to the tumor area. This is feasible only if the target volume can be precisely identified. However, the definition of tumor volume is still based on time-intensive, highly subjective manual outlining by radiation oncologists. In this study the effectiveness of two automated Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) segmentation methods, k-Nearest Neighbors (kNN) and Knowledge-Guided (KG), in determining the Gross Tumor Volume (GTV) of brain tumors for use in radiation therapy was assessed. Three criteria were applied: accuracy of the contours; quality of the resulting treatment plan in terms of dose to the tumor; and a novel treatment plan evaluation technique based on post-treatment images. The kNN method was able to segment all cases while the KG method was limited to enhancing tumors and gliomas with clear enhancing edges. Various software applications were developed to create a closed smooth contour that encompassed the tumor pixels from the segmentations and to integrate these results into the treatment planning software. A novel, probabilistic measurement of accuracy was introduced to compare the agreement of the segmentation methods with the weighted average physician volume. Both computer methods under-segment the tumor volume when compared with the physicians but performed within the variability of manual contouring (28% +/- 12% for inter-operator variability). Computer segmentations were modified vertically to compensate for their under-segmentation. When comparing radiation treatment plans designed from physician-defined tumor volumes with treatment plans developed from the modified segmentation results, the reference target volume was irradiated within the same level of conformity. Analysis of the plans based on post

  14. Non-intubated thoracoscopic surgery using internal intercostal nerve block, vagal block and targeted sedation.

    PubMed

    Hung, Ming-Hui; Hsu, Hsao-Hsun; Chan, Kuang-Cheng; Chen, Ke-Cheng; Yie, Jr-Chi; Cheng, Ya-Jung; Chen, Jin-Shing

    2014-10-01

    Thoracoscopic surgery using internal intercostal nerve block, vagal block and targeted sedation without endotracheal intubation is a promising technique for selected patients, but little is known about its feasibility and safety. We evaluated 109 patients with lung (105), mediastinal (3) or pleural (1) tumours treated using non-intubated thoracoscopic surgery. Internal, intercostal nerve block was performed at the T3-T8 intercostal level and vagal block was performed adjacent to the vagus nerve at the level of the lower trachea for right-sided operations and at the level of the aortopulmonary window for left-sided operations. Sedation was performed with propofol infusion to achieve a bispectral index value between 40 and 60. Thoracoscopic lobectomy was performed in 43 patients, wedge resection in 50, segmentectomy in 12 and mediastinal or pleural tumour excision in 4. Three patients (2.8%) required conversion to intubated one-lung ventilation because of vigorous mediastinal movement and dense diaphragmatic adhesions. Anaesthetic induction and operation had a median duration of 10.0 and 127.0 min, respectively. Operative complications developed in 13 patients with air leaks for more than 3 days and 1 patient required transfusion of blood products. The median postoperative chest drainage and hospital stay were 2.0 and 4.0 days, respectively. Non-intubated thoracoscopic surgery using internal intercostal nerve block, vagal block and targeted sedation is technically feasible and safe in surgical treatment of lung, mediastinal and pleural tumours in selected patients. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  15. Volumetric-modulated arc therapy for the treatment of a large planning target volume in thoracic esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Ahmar S; Moseley, Douglas; Kassam, Zahra; Kim, Sun Mo; Cho, Charles

    2013-05-06

    Recently, volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) has demonstrated the ability to deliver radiation dose precisely and accurately with a shorter delivery time compared to conventional intensity-modulated fixed-field treatment (IMRT). We applied the hypothesis of VMAT technique for the treatment of thoracic esophageal carcinoma to determine superior or equivalent conformal dose coverage for a large thoracic esophageal planning target volume (PTV) with superior or equivalent sparing of organs-at-risk (OARs) doses, and reduce delivery time and monitor units (MUs), in comparison with conventional fixed-field IMRT plans. We also analyzed and compared some other important metrics of treatment planning and treatment delivery for both IMRT and VMAT techniques. These metrics include: 1) the integral dose and the volume receiving intermediate dose levels between IMRT and VMATI plans; 2) the use of 4D CT to determine the internal motion margin; and 3) evaluating the dosimetry of every plan through patient-specific QA. These factors may impact the overall treatment plan quality and outcomes from the individual planning technique used. In this study, we also examined the significance of using two arcs vs. a single-arc VMAT technique for PTV coverage, OARs doses, monitor units and delivery time. Thirteen patients, stage T2-T3 N0-N1 (TNM AJCC 7th edn.), PTV volume median 395 cc (range 281-601 cc), median age 69 years (range 53 to 85), were treated from July 2010 to June 2011 with a four-field (n = 4) or five-field (n = 9) step-and-shoot IMRT technique using a 6 MV beam to a prescribed dose of 50 Gy in 20 to 25 F. These patients were retrospectively replanned using single arc (VMATI, 91 control points) and two arcs (VMATII, 182 control points). All treatment plans of the 13 study cases were evaluated using various dose-volume metrics. These included PTV D99, PTV D95, PTV V9547.5Gy(95%), PTV mean dose, Dmax, PTV dose conformity (Van't Riet conformation number (CN)), mean lung dose

  16. {sup 11}C-methionine PET improves the target volume delineation of meningiomas treated with stereotactic fractionated radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Grosu, Anca-Ligia . E-mail: anca-ligia.grosu@lrz.tum.de; Weber, Wolfgang A.; Astner, Sabrina T.; Adam, Markus; Krause, Bernd J.; Schwaiger, Markus; Molls, Michael; Nieder, Carsten

    2006-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the role of {sup 11}C-methionine positron emission tomography (MET-PET) in target volume delineation for meningiomas and to determine the interobserver variability. Methods and Materials: Two independent observers performed treatment planning in 10 patients according to a prospective written protocol. In the first step, they used coregistered computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In the second step, MET-PET was added to CT/MRI (image fusion based on mutual information). Results: The correlation between gross tumor volume (GTVs) delineated by the two observers based on CT/MRI was r = 0.855 (Spearman's correlation coefficient, p = 0.002) and r = 0.988 (p = 0.000) when MET-PET/CT/MRI were used. The number of patients with agreement in more then 80% of the outlined volume increased with the availability of MET-PET from 1 in 10 to 5 in 10. The median volume of intersection between the regions delineated by two observers increased significantly from 69% (from the composite volume) to 79%, by the addition of MET-PET (p = 0.005). The information of MET-PET was useful to delineate GTV in the area of cavernous sinus, orbit, and base of the skull. Conclusions: The hypothesis-generating findings of potential normal tissue sparing and reduced interobserver variability provide arguments for invasive studies of the correlation between MET-PET images and histologic tumor extension and for prospective trials of target volume delineation with CT/MRI/MET-PET image fusion.

  17. A New Suggestion for the Radiation Target Volume After a Subtotal Gastrectomy in Patients With Stomach Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Nam, Heerim; Lim, Do Hoon Kim, Sung; Kang, Won Ki; Sohn, Tae Sung; Noh, Jae Hyung; Kim, Yong Il; Park, Chan Hyung; Park, Chul Keun; Ahn, Yong Chan; Huh, Seung Jae

    2008-06-01

    Purpose: To compare treatment results between the use of two different radiation fields including and excluding remnant stomach and suggest new target volumes excluding remnant stomach after subtotal gastrectomy (STG) in patients with stomach cancer. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed 291 patients treated with adjuvant chemoradiotherapy after STG and D2 dissection at the Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea. Eighty-three patients registered from 1995 to 1997 underwent irradiation according to the INT 0116 protocol that recommended the inclusion of remnant stomach within the target volume (Group A). After this period, we excluded remnant stomach from the target volume for 208 patients (Group B). Median follow-up was 67 months. Results: Treatment failure developed in 93 patients (32.0%). Local and regional recurrence rates for Group A vs. Group B were 10.8% vs. 5.3% (p = not significant) and 9.6% vs. 6.3% (p = not significant), and recurrence rates for remnant stomach were 7.2% vs. 1.4% (p = 0.018), respectively. Overall and disease-free survival rates were not different between the two groups. Grade 3 or 4 vomiting and diarrhea developed more frequently in Group A than Group B (4.8% vs. 1.4% and 6.0% vs. 1.9%, respectively; p = 0.012; p < 0.001). Conclusion: Exclusion of remnant stomach from the radiation field had no effect on failure rates or survival, and a low complication rate occurred in patients treated excluding remnant stomach. We suggest that remnant stomach be excluded from the radiation target volume for patients with stomach cancer who undergo STG and D2 dissection.

  18. Recurrence pattern of squamous cell carcinoma in the midthoracic esophagus: implications for the clinical target volume design of postoperative radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoli; Luo, Yijun; Li, Minghuan; Yan, Hongjiang; Sun, Mingping; Fan, Tingyong

    2016-01-01

    Background Postoperative radiotherapy has shown positive efficacy in lowering the recurrence rate and improving the survival rate for patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). However, controversies still exist about the postoperative prophylactic radiation target volume. This study was designed to analyze the patterns of recurrence and to provide a reference for determination of the postoperative radiotherapy target volume for patients with midthoracic ESCC. Patients and methods A total of 338 patients with recurrent or metastatic midthoracic ESCC after radical surgery were retrospectively examined. The patterns of recurrence including locoregional and distant metastasis were analyzed for these patients. Results The rates of lymph node (LN) metastasis were 28.4% supraclavicular, 77.2% upper mediastinal, 32.0% middle mediastinal, 50.0% lower mediastinal, and 19.5% abdominal LNs. In subgroup analyses, the rate of abdominal LN metastasis was significantly higher in patients with histological node-positive than that in patients with histological node-negative (P=0.033). Further analysis in patients with histological node-positive demonstrated that patients with three or more positive nodes are more prone to abdominal LN metastasis, compared with patients with one or two positive nodes (χ2=4.367, P=0.037). The length of tumor and histological differentiation were also the high-risk factors for abdominal LN metastasis. Conclusion For midthoracic ESCC with histological node-negative, or one or two positive nodes, the supraclavicular and stations 2, 4, 5, and 7 LNs should be delineated as clinical target volume of postoperative prophylactic irradiation, and upper abdominal LNs should be excluded. While for midthoracic ESCC with three or more positive nodes, upper abdominal LNs should also be included. The length of tumor and histological differentiation should be considered comprehensively to design the clinical target volume for radiotherapy. PMID

  19. 1969 MLA International Bibliography of Books and Articles on the Modern Languages and Literatures. Volume I: General, English, American, Medieval and Neo-Latin, and Celtic Literatures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meserole, Harrison T., Comp.

    Volume 1 of the 4-volume, international bibliography contains some 9,000 entries referring to books and articles which focus on general, English, American, medieval and neo-Latin, and Celtic literatures. The master list of the nearly 1,500 periodicals from which entries are derived is furnished at the beginning of the volume with a table of…

  20. 1969 MLA International Bibliography of Books and Articles on the Modern Languages and Literatures. Volume I: General, English, American, Medieval and Neo-Latin, and Celtic Literatures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meserole, Harrison T., Comp.

    Volume 1 of the 4-volume, international bibliography contains some 9,000 entries referring to books and articles which focus on general, English, American, medieval and neo-Latin, and Celtic literatures. The master list of the nearly 1,500 periodicals from which entries are derived is furnished at the beginning of the volume with a table of…

  1. Using injectable hydrogel markers to assess resimulation for boost target volume definition in a patient undergoing whole-breast radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Henal; Goyal, Sharad; Kim, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    Several publications have recommended that patients undergoing whole-breast radiotherapy be resimulated for boost planning. The rationale for this is that the seroma may be smaller when compared with the initial simulation. However, the decision remains whether to use the earlier or later images to define an appropriate boost target volume. A patient undergoing whole-breast radiotherapy had new, injectable, temporary hydrogel fiducial markers placed 1 to 3 cm from the seroma at the time of initial simulation. The patient was resimulated 4.5 weeks later for conformal photon boost planning. Computed tomography (CT) scans acquired at the beginning and the end of whole-breast radiotherapy showed that shrinkage of the lumpectomy cavity was not matched by a corresponding reduction in the surrounding tissue volume, as demarcated by hydrogel markers. This observation called into question the usual interpretation of cavity shrinkage for boost target definition. For this patient, it was decided to define the boost target volume on the initial planning CT instead of the new CT.

  2. Comparison of Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Computed Tomography for Breast Target Volume Delineation in Prone and Supine Positions.

    PubMed

    Pogson, Elise M; Delaney, Geoff P; Ahern, Verity; Boxer, Miriam M; Chan, Christine; David, Steven; Dimigen, Marion; Harvey, Jennifer A; Koh, Eng-Siew; Lim, Karen; Papadatos, George; Yap, Mei Ling; Batumalai, Vikneswary; Lazarus, Elizabeth; Dundas, Kylie; Shafiq, Jesmin; Liney, Gary; Moran, Catherine; Metcalfe, Peter; Holloway, Lois

    2016-11-15

    To determine whether T2-weighted MRI improves seroma cavity (SC) and whole breast (WB) interobserver conformity for radiation therapy purposes, compared with the gold standard of CT, both in the prone and supine positions. Eleven observers (2 radiologists and 9 radiation oncologists) delineated SC and WB clinical target volumes (CTVs) on T2-weighted MRI and CT supine and prone scans (4 scans per patient) for 33 patient datasets. Individual observer's volumes were compared using the Dice similarity coefficient, volume overlap index, center of mass shift, and Hausdorff distances. An average cavity visualization score was also determined. Imaging modality did not affect interobserver variation for WB CTVs. Prone WB CTVs were larger in volume and more conformal than supine CTVs (on both MRI and CT). Seroma cavity volumes were larger on CT than on MRI. Seroma cavity volumes proved to be comparable in interobserver conformity in both modalities (volume overlap index of 0.57 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.54-0.60) for CT supine and 0.52 (95% CI 0.48-0.56) for MRI supine, 0.56 (95% CI 0.53-0.59) for CT prone and 0.55 (95% CI 0.51-0.59) for MRI prone); however, after registering modalities together the intermodality variation (Dice similarity coefficient of 0.41 (95% CI 0.36-0.46) for supine and 0.38 (0.34-0.42) for prone) was larger than the interobserver variability for SC, despite the location typically remaining constant. Magnetic resonance imaging interobserver variation was comparable to CT for the WB CTV and SC delineation, in both prone and supine positions. Although the cavity visualization score and interobserver concordance was not significantly higher for MRI than for CT, the SCs were smaller on MRI, potentially owing to clearer SC definition, especially on T2-weighted MR images. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Proceedings: 11th International Symposium on use and management of coal combustion by-products (CCBs). Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Tyson, S.S.; Blackstock, T.H.; Hunger, J.; Marshall, A.

    1995-01-01

    Topics discussed at the llth symposium on CCB use and management included fundamental CCB use research, product marketing, applied research, CCB management and the environment, and commercial uses. There is a continuing, international research interest in CCB use because of the prospects of avoiding disposal costs and generating revenue from CCB sales. Volume two contains the following sections on: Flowable fill; handling systems and equipment; international and regional perspectives; manufactured aggregate; mine reclamation; physical and chemical properties; structural fill and stabilized base; and waste management. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  4. Comparison between Internalizing Anti-HER2 mAbs and Non-Internalizing Anti-CEA mAbs in Alpha-Radioimmunotherapy of Small Volume Peritoneal Carcinomatosis Using 212Pb

    PubMed Central

    Busson, Muriel; Garambois, Véronique; Jarlier, Marta; Charalambatou, Paraskevi; Pèlegrin, André; Paillas, Salomé; Chouin, Nicolas; Quenet, François; Maquaire, Patrick; Torgue, Julien; Navarro-Teulon, Isabelle; Pouget, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose We assessed the contribution of antibody internalization in the efficacy and toxicity of intraperitoneal α-radioimmunotherapy (RIT) of small volume carcinomatosis using 212Pb-labeled monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that target HER2 (internalizing) or CEA (non-internalizing) receptors. Materials and Methods Athymic nude mice bearing 2–3 mm intraperitoneal tumor xenografts were intraperitoneally injected with similar activities (370, 740 and 1480 kBq; 37 MBq/mg) of 212Pb-labeled 35A7 (anti-CEA), trastuzumab (anti-HER2) or PX (non-specific) mAbs, or with equivalent amounts of unlabeled mAbs, or with NaCl. Tumor volume was monitored by bioluminescence and survival was reported. Hematologic toxicity and body weight were assessed. Biodistribution of 212Pb-labeled mAbs and absorbed dose-effect relationships using MIRD formalism were established. Results Transient hematological toxicity, as revealed by white blood cells and platelets numbering, was reported in mice treated with the highest activities of 212Pb-labeled mAbs. The median survival (MS) was significantly higher in mice injected with 1.48 MBq of 212Pb-35A7 (non-internalizing mAbs) (MS = 94 days) than in animals treated with the same activity of 212Pb-PX mAbs or with NaCl (MS = 18 days). MS was even not reached after 130 days when follow-up was discontinued in mice treated with 1.48 MBq of 212Pb-trastuzumab. The later efficacy was unexpected since final absorbed dose resulting from injection of 1.48 MBq, was higher for 212Pb-35A7 (35.5 Gy) than for 212Pb-trastuzumab (27.6 Gy). These results also highlight the lack of absorbed dose-effect relationship when mean absorbed dose was calculated using MIRD formalism and the requirement to perform small-scale dosimetry. Conclusions These data indicate that it might be an advantage of using internalizing anti-HER2 compared with non-internalizing anti-CEA 212Pb-labeled mAbs in the therapy of small volume xenograft tumors. They support clinical

  5. Theoretical volume profiles for conformational changes: Application to internal rotation of benzene ring in 1,12-dimethoxy-[12]-paracyclophane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiebe, Heather; Louwerse, Miranda; Weinberg, Noham

    2017-03-01

    Identification of the transition state is an important step in the study of reaction kinetics and mechanisms. However, for non-rigid chemical systems where multiple viable reaction pathways may exist, enumeration of all possible transition states quickly becomes computationally expensive, if at all feasible. As an alternative approach, we recently proposed a methodology where the volumetric properties of a flexible reaction system are used to locate its transition state ensemble through a comparison of its theoretically determined volume profile and experimental activation volumes derived from high pressure kinetic data. In this work, we apply this method to internal rotation of the benzene ring in 1,12-dimethoxy-[12]-paracyclophane. For this system, the transition state ensemble was found to be the state with the lowest volume, where the benzene ring and the flexible methylene tether are coplanar. This result was verified by comparison with a Gibbs free energy profile obtained via umbrella sampling.

  6. Theoretical volume profiles for conformational changes: Application to internal rotation of benzene ring in 1,12-dimethoxy-[12]-paracyclophane.

    PubMed

    Wiebe, Heather; Louwerse, Miranda; Weinberg, Noham

    2017-03-14

    Identification of the transition state is an important step in the study of reaction kinetics and mechanisms. However, for non-rigid chemical systems where multiple viable reaction pathways may exist, enumeration of all possible transition states quickly becomes computationally expensive, if at all feasible. As an alternative approach, we recently proposed a methodology where the volumetric properties of a flexible reaction system are used to locate its transition state ensemble through a comparison of its theoretically determined volume profile and experimental activation volumes derived from high pressure kinetic data. In this work, we apply this method to internal rotation of the benzene ring in 1,12-dimethoxy-[12]-paracyclophane. For this system, the transition state ensemble was found to be the state with the lowest volume, where the benzene ring and the flexible methylene tether are coplanar. This result was verified by comparison with a Gibbs free energy profile obtained via umbrella sampling.

  7. Sparing Healthy Tissue and Increasing Tumor Dose Using Bayesian Modeling of Geometric Uncertainties for Planning Target Volume Personalization

    SciTech Connect

    Herschtal, Alan; Te Marvelde, Luc; Mengersen, Kerrie; Foroudi, Farshad; Eade, Thomas; Pham, Daniel; Caine, Hannah; Kron, Tomas

    2015-06-01

    Objective: To develop a mathematical tool that can update a patient's planning target volume (PTV) partway through a course of radiation therapy to more precisely target the tumor for the remainder of treatment and reduce dose to surrounding healthy tissue. Methods and Materials: Daily on-board imaging was used to collect large datasets of displacements for patients undergoing external beam radiation therapy for solid tumors. Bayesian statistical modeling of these geometric uncertainties was used to optimally trade off between displacement data collected from previously treated patients and the progressively accumulating data from a patient currently partway through treatment, to optimally predict future displacements for that patient. These predictions were used to update the PTV position and margin width for the remainder of treatment, such that the clinical target volume (CTV) was more precisely targeted. Results: Software simulation of dose to CTV and normal tissue for 2 real prostate displacement datasets consisting of 146 and 290 patients treated with a minimum of 30 fractions each showed that re-evaluating the PTV position and margin width after 8 treatment fractions reduced healthy tissue dose by 19% and 17%, respectively, while maintaining CTV dose. Conclusion: Incorporating patient-specific displacement patterns from early in a course of treatment allows PTV adaptation for the remainder of treatment. This substantially reduces the dose to healthy tissues and thus can reduce radiation therapy–induced toxicities, improving patient outcomes.

  8. Impact of PET and MRI threshold-based tumor volume segmentation on patient-specific targeted radionuclide therapy dosimetry using CLR1404

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besemer, Abigail E.; Titz, Benjamin; Grudzinski, Joseph J.; Weichert, Jamey P.; Kuo, John S.; Robins, H. Ian; Hall, Lance T.; Bednarz, Bryan P.

    2017-08-01

    Variations in tumor volume segmentation methods in targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) may lead to dosimetric uncertainties. This work investigates the impact of PET and MRI threshold-based tumor segmentation on TRT dosimetry in patients with primary and metastatic brain tumors. In this study, PET/CT images of five brain cancer patients were acquired at 6, 24, and 48 h post-injection of 124I-CLR1404. The tumor volume was segmented using two standardized uptake value (SUV) threshold levels, two tumor-to-background ratio (TBR) threshold levels, and a T1 Gadolinium-enhanced MRI threshold. The dice similarity coefficient (DSC), jaccard similarity coefficient (JSC), and overlap volume (OV) metrics were calculated to compare differences in the MRI and PET contours. The therapeutic 131I-CLR1404 voxel-level dose distribution was calculated from the 124I-CLR1404 activity distribution using RAPID, a Geant4 Monte Carlo internal dosimetry platform. The TBR, SUV, and MRI tumor volumes ranged from 2.3-63.9 cc, 0.1-34.7 cc, and 0.4-11.8 cc, respectively. The average  ±  standard deviation (range) was 0.19  ±  0.13 (0.01-0.51), 0.30  ±  0.17 (0.03-0.67), and 0.75  ±  0.29 (0.05-1.00) for the JSC, DSC, and OV, respectively. The DSC and JSC values were small and the OV values were large for both the MRI-SUV and MRI-TBR combinations because the regions of PET uptake were generally larger than the MRI enhancement. Notable differences in the tumor dose volume histograms were observed for each patient. The mean (standard deviation) 131I-CLR1404 tumor doses ranged from 0.28-1.75 Gy GBq-1 (0.07-0.37 Gy GBq-1). The ratio of maximum-to-minimum mean doses for each patient ranged from 1.4-2.0. The tumor volume and the interpretation of the tumor dose is highly sensitive to the imaging modality, PET enhancement metric, and threshold level used for tumor volume segmentation. The large variations in tumor doses clearly demonstrate the need for standard

  9. Consensus Guidelines for Delineation of Clinical Target Volume for Intensity-Modulated Pelvic Radiotherapy in Postoperative Treatment of Endometrial and Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Small, William Mell, Loren K.; Anderson, Penny; Creutzberg, Carien; De Los Santos, Jennifer; Gaffney, David; Jhingran, Anuja; Portelance, Lorraine; Schefter, Tracey; Iyer, Revathy; Varia, Mahesh; Winter, Kathryn M.S.; Mundt, Arno J.

    2008-06-01

    Purpose: To develop an atlas of the clinical target volume (CTV) definitions for postoperative radiotherapy of endometrial and cervical cancer to be used for planning pelvic intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group led an international collaberation of cooperative groups in the development of the atlas. The groups included the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Gynecologic Oncology Group, National Cancer Institute of Canada, European Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, and American College of Radiology Imaging Network. The members of the group were asked by questionnaire to define the areas that were to be included in the CTV and to outline theses areas on individual computed tomography images. The initial formulation of the group began in late 2004 and culminated with a formal consensus conference in June 2005. Results: The committee achieved a consensus CTV definition for postoperative therapy for endometrial and cervical cancer. The CTV should include the common, external, and internal iliac lymph node regions. The upper 3.0 cm of the vagina and paravaginal soft tissue lateral to the vagina should also be included. For patients with cervical cancer, or endometrial cancer with cervical stromal invasion, it is also recommended that the CTV include the presacral lymph node region. Conclusion: This report serves as an international template for the definition of the CTV for postoperative intensity-modulated radiotherapy for endometrial and cervical cancer.

  10. CONSENSUS GUIDELINES FOR THE DELINEATION OF THE CLINICAL TARGET VOLUME FOR INTENSITY MODULATED PELVIC RADIOTHERAPY IN THE POSTOPERATIVE TREATMENT OF ENDOMETRIAL AND CERVICAL CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Small, William; Mell, Loren K.; Anderson, Penny; Creutzberg, Carien; De Los Santos, Jennifer; Gaffney, David; Jhingran, Anuja; Portelance, Lorraine; Schefter, Tracey; Iyer, Revathy; Varia, Mahesh; Winter, Kathryn; Mundt, Arno J.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE To develop an atlas of the clinical target volumes (CTV) definitions for the post-operative radiotherapy of endometrial and cervical cancer to be utilized for planning pelvic Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT). METHODS AND MATERIALS The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) led an international collaberation of cooperative groups in development of the atlas. The groups included RTOG the Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG), the National Cancer Institute of Canada (NCIC), the European Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO), and the American College of Radiology Imaging Network (ACRIN). Members of the group were asked by questionnaire to define areas that were to be included in the CTV and were asked to outline theses areas on individual Computed Tomography (CT) images. The initial formulation of the group began in late 2004 and culminated with a formal consensus conference in June of 2005. RESULTS The committee achieved a consensus CTV definition for the post-operative therapy of endometrial and cervical cancer. The CTV should include the common, external, and internal iliac lymph node regions. The upper 3.0 cm of vagina and paravaginal soft tissue lateral to the vagina should also be included. For patients with cervical cancer, or endometrial cancer with cervical stromal invasion, it is also recommended that the CTV include the presacral lymph node-region. CONCLUSIONS This manuscript serves as an international template for the definition of the CTV for the post-operative IMRT of endometrial and cervical cancer. PMID:18037584

  11. Consensus guidelines for delineation of clinical target volume for intensity-modulated pelvic radiotherapy in postoperative treatment of endometrial and cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Small, William; Mell, Loren K; Anderson, Penny; Creutzberg, Carien; De Los Santos, Jennifer; Gaffney, David; Jhingran, Anuja; Portelance, Lorraine; Schefter, Tracey; Iyer, Revathy; Varia, Mahesh; Winter, Kathryn; Mundt, Arno J

    2008-06-01

    To develop an atlas of the clinical target volume (CTV) definitions for postoperative radiotherapy of endometrial and cervical cancer to be used for planning pelvic intensity-modulated radiotherapy. The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group led an international collaboration of cooperative groups in the development of the atlas. The groups included the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Gynecologic Oncology Group, National Cancer Institute of Canada, European Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, and American College of Radiology Imaging Network. The members of the group were asked by questionnaire to define the areas that were to be included in the CTV and to outline theses areas on individual computed tomography images. The initial formulation of the group began in late 2004 and culminated with a formal consensus conference in June 2005. The committee achieved a consensus CTV definition for postoperative therapy for endometrial and cervical cancer. The CTV should include the common, external, and internal iliac lymph node regions. The upper 3.0 cm of the vagina and paravaginal soft tissue lateral to the vagina should also be included. For patients with cervical cancer, or endometrial cancer with cervical stromal invasion, it is also recommended that the CTV include the presacral lymph node region. This report serves as an international template for the definition of the CTV for postoperative intensity-modulated radiotherapy for endometrial and cervical cancer.

  12. FDG-PET/CT Imaging for Staging and Target Volume Delineation in Preoperative Conformal Radiotherapy of Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Bassi, Maria Chiara; Turri, Lucia; Sacchetti, Gianmauro; Loi, Gianfranco; Cannillo, Barbara; La Mattina, Pierdaniele; Brambilla, Marco; Inglese, Eugenio; Krengli, Marco

    2008-04-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential impact of using {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) on staging and target volume delineation for patients affected by rectal cancer and candidates for preoperative conformal radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Twenty-five patients diagnosed with rectal cancer T3-4 N0-1 M0-1 and candidates for preoperative radiotherapy underwent PET/CT simulation after injection of 5.18 MBq/kg of FDG. Clinical stage was reassessed on the basis of FDG-PET/CT findings. The gross tumor volume (GTV) and the clinical target volume (CTV) were delineated first on CT and then on PET/CT images. The PET/CT-GTV and PET/CT-CTV were analyzed and compared with CT-GTV and CT-CTV, respectively. Results: In 4 of 25 cases (24%), PET/CT affected tumor staging or the treatment purpose. In 3 of 25 cases (12%) staged N0 M0, PET/CT showed FDG uptake in regional lymph nodes and in a case also in the liver. In a patient with a single liver metastasis PET/CT detected multiple lesions, changing the treatment intent from curative to palliative. The PET/CT-GTV and PET/CT-CTV were significantly greater than the CT-GTV (p = 0.00013) and CT-CTV (p = 0.00002), respectively. The mean difference between PET/CT-GTV and CT-GTV was 25.4% and between PET/CT-CTV and CT-CTV was 4.1%. Conclusions: Imaging with PET/CT for preoperative radiotherapy of rectal cancer may lead to a change in staging and target volume delineation. Stage variation was observed in 12% of cases and a change of treatment intent in 4%. The GTV and CTV changed significantly, with a mean increase in size of 25% and 4%, respectively.

  13. International Conference on Mathematical Methods in Electromagnetic Theory (MMET 2000), Volume 1 Held in Kharkov, Ukraine on September 12-15, 2000

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-09-01

    Conference Proceedings 2000 International Conference on MATHEMATICAL METHODS IN ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY MMkT 2000 Volume 1 Kharkov. Ukraine September...Final 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS International Conference on Mathematical Methods In Electromagnetic Theory F61775-00-WF084 (MMET 2000...Maximum 200 words) This is Volume I of the final Conference Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Mathematical Methods in Electromagnetic

  14. The Archive of the Amateur Observation Network of the International Halley Watch. Volume 1; Comet Giacobini-Zinner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edberg, Stephen J. (Editor)

    1966-01-01

    The International Halley Watch (IHW) was organized for the purpose of gathering and archiving the most complete record of the apparition of a comet, Halley's Comet (1982i = 1986 III = 1P/Halley), ever compiled. The redirection of the International Sun-Earth Explorer 3 (ISEE-3) spacecraft, subsequently renamed the International Cometary Explorer (ICE), toward Comet Giacobini-Zinner (1984e = 1985 XIII = 21P/Giacobini-Zinner) prompted the initiation of a formal watch on that comet. All the data collected on P/Giacobini-Zinner and P/Halley have been published on CD-ROM in the Comet Halley Archive. This document contains a printed version of the archive data, collected by amateur astronomers, on these two comets. Volume 1 contains the Comet Giacobini-Zinner data archive and Volume 2 contains the Comet Halley archive. Both volumes include information on how to read the data in both archives, as well as a history of both comet watches (including the organizing of the network of astronomers and lessons learned from that experience).

  15. Present status of the liquid lithium target facility in the international fusion materials irradiation facility (IFMIF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Hiroo; Riccardi, B.; Loginov, N.; Ara, K.; Burgazzi, L.; Cevolani, S.; Dell'Orco, G.; Fazio, C.; Giusti, D.; Horiike, H.; Ida, M.; Ise, H.; Kakui, H.; Matsui, H.; Micciche, G.; Muroga, T.; Nakamura, Hideo; Shimizu, K.; Sugimoto, M.; Suzuki, A.; Takeuchi, H.; Tanaka, S.; Yoneoka, T.

    2004-08-01

    During the three year key element technology phase of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) project, completed at the end of 2002, key technologies have been validated. In this paper, these results are summarized. A water jet experiment simulating Li flow validated stable flow up to 20 m/s with a double reducer nozzle. In addition, a small Li loop experiment validated stable Li flow up to 14 m/s. To control the nitrogen content in Li below 10 wppm will require surface area of a V-Ti alloy getter of 135 m 2. Conceptual designs of diagnostics have been carried out. Moreover, the concept of a remote handling system to replace the back wall based on `cut and reweld' and `bayonet' options has been established. Analysis by FMEA showed safe operation of the target system. Recent activities in the transition phase, started in 2003, and plan for the next phase are also described.

  16. AACR-NCI-EORTC--21st International Symposium. Molecular targets and cancer therapeutics--Part 2.

    PubMed

    Walker, Karen; Padhiar, Meenal

    2010-01-01

    The 21st international symposium of the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR), the NCI and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC), held in Boston, included topics covering the development of therapeutics and molecular targets in the field of cancer research. This conference report highlights selected presentations on the development of novel drugs for cancer. Investigational drugs discussed include RO-506876 (F Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd), GDC-0980 (Genentech Inc), EMD-1214063 and EMD-1204831 (Merck Serono SA), AR-mTOR01 and AR-mTOR-26 (Array BioPharma Inc), GSK-2126458 (GlaxoSmithKline plc), EXEL-1415 and EXEL-2008 (Exelixis Inc), FP-1039 (FivePrime Therapeutics Inc), and AV-412 (AVEO Pharmaceuticals Inc).

  17. AACR-NCI-EORTC--21st International Symposium. Molecular targets and cancer therapeutics--Part 1.

    PubMed

    Walker, Karen; Padhiar, Meenal

    2010-01-01

    The 21st international symposium of the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR), the NCI and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC), held in Boston, included topics covering the development of therapeutics and molecular targets in the field of cancer research. This conference report highlights selected presentations on the development of novel drugs for cancer. Investigational drugs discussed include XL-139 (Bristol-Myers Squibb Co/Exelixis Inc), SPC-3042 (Enzon Pharmaceuticals Inc/ Santaris Pharma A/S), CH-5137291 (Chugai Pharmaceutical Co Ltd), SN-29966/SN-29926/SN-3000 (Proacta Inc), withaferin-A (University of Kansas), Reolysin (Oncolytics Biotech Inc), EZN-3889 and EZN-3892 (Enzon Pharmaceuticals/Santaris Pharma), and CBP-501 (CanBas Co Ltd/Takeda Pharmaceutical Co Ltd).

  18. Large-Scale Targeted Proteomics Using Internal Standard Triggered-Parallel Reaction Monitoring (IS-PRM).

    PubMed

    Gallien, Sebastien; Kim, Sang Yoon; Domon, Bruno

    2015-06-01

    Targeted high-resolution and accurate mass analyses performed on fast sequencing mass spectrometers have opened new avenues for quantitative proteomics. More specifically, parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) implemented on quadrupole-orbitrap instruments exhibits exquisite selectivity to discriminate interferences from analytes. Furthermore, the instrument trapping capability enhances the sensitivity of the measurements. The PRM technique, applied to the analysis of limited peptide sets (typically 50 peptides or less) in a complex matrix, resulted in an improved detection and quantification performance as compared with the reference method of selected reaction monitoring performed on triple quadrupole instruments. However, the implementation of PRM for the analysis of large peptide numbers requires the adjustment of mass spectrometry acquisition parameters, which affects dramatically the quality of the generated data, and thus the overall output of an experiment. A newly designed data acquisition scheme enabled the analysis of moderate-to-large peptide numbers while retaining a high performance level. This new method, called internal standard triggered-parallel reaction monitoring (IS-PRM), relies on added internal standards and the on-the-fly adjustment of acquisition parameters to drive in real-time measurement of endogenous peptides. The acquisition time management was designed to maximize the effective time devoted to measure the analytes in a time-scheduled targeted experiment. The data acquisition scheme alternates between two PRM modes: a fast low-resolution "watch mode" and a "quantitative mode" using optimized parameters ensuring data quality. The IS-PRM method exhibited a highly effective use of the instrument time. Applied to the analysis of large peptide sets (up to 600) in complex samples, the method showed an unprecedented combination of scale and analytical performance, with limits of quantification in the low amol range. The successful analysis of

  19. Large-Scale Targeted Proteomics Using Internal Standard Triggered-Parallel Reaction Monitoring (IS-PRM)*

    PubMed Central

    Gallien, Sebastien; Kim, Sang Yoon; Domon, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Targeted high-resolution and accurate mass analyses performed on fast sequencing mass spectrometers have opened new avenues for quantitative proteomics. More specifically, parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) implemented on quadrupole-orbitrap instruments exhibits exquisite selectivity to discriminate interferences from analytes. Furthermore, the instrument trapping capability enhances the sensitivity of the measurements. The PRM technique, applied to the analysis of limited peptide sets (typically 50 peptides or less) in a complex matrix, resulted in an improved detection and quantification performance as compared with the reference method of selected reaction monitoring performed on triple quadrupole instruments. However, the implementation of PRM for the analysis of large peptide numbers requires the adjustment of mass spectrometry acquisition parameters, which affects dramatically the quality of the generated data, and thus the overall output of an experiment. A newly designed data acquisition scheme enabled the analysis of moderate-to-large peptide numbers while retaining a high performance level. This new method, called internal standard triggered-parallel reaction monitoring (IS-PRM), relies on added internal standards and the on-the-fly adjustment of acquisition parameters to drive in real-time measurement of endogenous peptides. The acquisition time management was designed to maximize the effective time devoted to measure the analytes in a time-scheduled targeted experiment. The data acquisition scheme alternates between two PRM modes: a fast low-resolution “watch mode” and a “quantitative mode” using optimized parameters ensuring data quality. The IS-PRM method exhibited a highly effective use of the instrument time. Applied to the analysis of large peptide sets (up to 600) in complex samples, the method showed an unprecedented combination of scale and analytical performance, with limits of quantification in the low amol range. The successful

  20. Sci-Thur AM: Planning - 06: Planning target volume margin suitability in lung stereotactic body radiation therapy: A preliminary evaluation using cone-beam computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Mathew, L; Swaminath, A; Szabo, J; Wierzbicki, M

    2012-07-01

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) requires precise delivery of radiation to the target; intra- and inter-fraction lung tumour motion may adversely impact local tumour control. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the impact of planning target volume (PTV) margin size on the coverage of the internal target volume (ITV) as localized in pre- and post-treatment cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. Data from two patients undergoing SBRT were evaluated. For planning, free-breathing and 4DCT scans were performed, and used to contour the ITV. A 5mm margin was added to create the PTV. During treatment, 14 CBCTs were collected pre- and post-beam delivery. A data set comprising the average 4DCT intensities where available and treatment planning CT intensities for voxels that were beyond the field of view of the 4DCT was constructed. Registration of the combined planning image to each CBCT was performed using a deformable image registration algorithm. The transformations aligning the combined planning image with the CBCTs were applied to the planning ITV to obtain the treatment ITVs. For each CBCT, the fraction of treatment ITV within the PTV was determined using Boolean logic. This was repeated for various PTV margins ranging from 0 to 10 mm at 1mm intervals. The 3 and 5 mm PTV margins covered 95.1 ± 5.9% and 99.0 ± 2.0% of the ITV, respectively. Analysis of additional patients will be performed to confirm these preliminary results, which reinforce the use of a 5mm PTV margin for lung SBRT. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  1. Optimization and internalization mechanisms of PEGylated adenovirus vector with targeting peptide for cancer gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xing-Lei; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Ruan, Gui-Xin; Chen, Yu-Zhe; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Mukai, Yohei; Okada, Naoki; Gao, Jian-Qing; Nakagawa, Shinsaku

    2012-08-13

    We have previously developed a novel adenovirus vector (Adv) that targeted tumor tissues/vasculatures after systemic administration. The surface of this Adv is conjugated with CGKRK tumor homing peptide by the cross-linking reaction of polyethyleneglycol (PEG). In this study, we showed that the condition of PEG modification was important to minimize the gene expression in normal tissues after systemic treatment. When Adv was modified only with PEG-linked CGKRK, its luciferase expression was enhanced even in the liver tissue, as well as the tumor tissue. However, in the reaction with the mixture of non-cross-linking PEG and PEG-linked CGKRK, we found out that the best modification could suppress its gene expression in the liver, without losing that in the tumor. We also studied the internalization mechanisms of CGKRK-conjugated Adv. Results suggested that there is a specific interaction of the CGKRK peptide with a receptor at the cell surface enabling efficient internalization of CGKRK-conjugated Adv. The presence of cell-surface heparan sulfate is important receptor for the cellular binding and uptake of CGKRK-conjugated Adv. Moreover, macropinocytosis-mediated endocytosis is also important in endocytosis of CGKRK-conjugated Adv, aside from clathrin-mediated and caveolae-mediated endocytosis. These results could help evaluate the potentiality of CGKRK-conjugated Adv as a prototype vector with suitable efficacy and safety for systemic cancer gene therapy.

  2. Mechanisms of personality-targeted intervention effects on adolescent alcohol misuse, internalizing and externalizing symptoms.

    PubMed

    O'Leary-Barrett, Maeve; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Pihl, Robert O; Conrod, Patricia J

    2016-05-01

    This study aims to explore the mechanisms of personality-targeted intervention effects on problematic drinking, internalizing and externalizing symptoms. As part of a cluster-randomized trial, 1,210 high-risk students (mean age 13.7 years) in 19 London high schools (42.6% White, 54% male) were identified using the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale. Intervention school participants were invited to participate in personality-matched interventions by trained school staff. MacKinnon's products of coefficients method was used to compare 3 complementary mechanism hypotheses, namely, whether early changes in (a) alcohol use, (b) internalizing and externalizing symptoms, or (c) personality during the 6 months postintervention accounted for intervention effects over 2 years. Early intervention effects on drinking behaviors during the 6 months postintervention partially accounted for longer term intervention effects on the onset of binge drinking (95% confidence interval [CI] [-.349, -.062]) and drinking problems (95% CI [-.206, -.016]) over 2 years. Intervention effects on anxiety symptoms and conduct problems were partially mediated by early reductions in depressive symptoms (95% CI [-.013, -.001]; 95% CI [-.047, -.001]), and intervention effects on internalizing symptoms were also partially mediated by reductions in anxiety sensitivity (95% CI [-.003, 0]). 2-year intervention effects on problematic drinking were largely accounted for by early changes in drinking behaviors, and were not mediated by changes in mental health symptoms or personality risk factors. Early improvements in mood and anxiety sensitivity partially mediated longer term reductions in mental health problems. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Spin correlations in quasi-elastic electron scattering from a (3)He internal target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Six, R. Edward, III

    The measurement of spin observables in the 3He-> (e->,e' ,d) and 3He-> (e->,e' ,p) reactions have been carried out at the Internal Target Facility of the Dutch National Institute for Nuclear and High Energy Physics (NIKHEF) in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, with a 720-MeV stored electron beam having a longitudinal polarization of 65% and an average current of 80 mA. This was the first measurement of the spin correlation parameters for the reaction 3He-> (e->,e' ,d) . The average target polarization was 45% with a thickness of 5 × 1014 atoms/cm2. The scattered electrons were detected in a large-acceptance, nonfocusing magnetic spectrometer located at a central angle of 40°. The knockout hadrons were detected in a non-magnetic detector located at a central angle of -56°. The central positions of the detectors correspond to quasi-elastic kinematics. The asymmetries A'x and A'x provide information on small components of the 3He ground-state wave function and on the isoscalar/isovector structure of the nuclear electromagnetic current. The results are compared with model calculations.

  4. The control system of the polarized internal target of ANKE at COSY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleines, H.; Sarkadi, J.; Zwoll, K.; Engels, R.; Grigoryev, K.; Mikirtychyants, M.; Nekipelov, M.; Rathmann, F.; Seyfarth, H.; Kravtsov, P.; Vasilyev, A.

    2006-05-01

    The polarized internal target for the ANKE experiment at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY of the Forschungszentrum Jülich utilizes a polarized atomic beam source to feed a storage cell with polarized hydrogen or deuterium atoms. The nuclear polarization is measured with a Lamb-shift polarimeter. For common control of the two systems, industrial equipment was selected providing reliable, long-term support and remote control of the target as well as measurement and optimization of its operating parameters. The interlock system has been implemented on the basis of SIEMENS SIMATIC S7-300 family of programmable logic controllers. In order to unify the interfacing to the control computer, all front-end equipment is connected via the PROFIBUS DP fieldbus. The process control software was implemented using the Windows-based WinCC toolkit from SIEMENS. The variety of components, to be controlled, and the logical structure of the control and interlock system are described. Finally, a number of applications derived from the present development to other, new installations are briefly mentioned.

  5. Aperture Test for Internal Target Operation in the JLAB High-current ERL

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Shukui

    2013-06-01

    A high current beam transmission test has been successfully completed at the JLAB FEL Facility, culminating in very low-loss transmission of a high current CW beam through a small aperture. The purpose of this test was to determine if an ERL is capable of meeting the stringent requirements imposed by the use of a 1018/cm3 internal gas target proposed for the DarkLight experiment*. Minimal beamline modifications were made to create a machine configuration that is substantially different from those used in routine UV or IR FEL operation. A sustained (8 hour) high power beam run was performed, with clean transmission through a 2 mm transverse aperture of 127 mm length simulating the target configuration. A beam size of 50 um (rms) was measured near the center of the aperture. Experimental data from a week-long test run consistently exhibited beam loss of only a few ppm on the aperture while running 4.5 mA current at 100 MeV -- or nearly 0.5 MW beam power. This surpassed the users? expectation and demonstrated a unique capability of an ERL for this type of experiments. This report presents a summary of the experiment, a brief overview of our activities, and outlines future plans.

  6. Proceedings of the 6. international conference on stability and handling of liquid fuels. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Giles, H.N.

    1998-12-01

    Volume 1 of these proceedings contain 29 papers related to aviation fuels and long term and strategic storage. Studies investigated fuel contamination, separation processes, measurement techniques, thermal stability, compatibility with fuel system materials, oxidation reactions, and degradation during storage.

  7. Abstracts: US-International Biological Program ecosystems analysis studies. Volume 5. No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, J.A.; Myers, V.G.

    1980-12-01

    This issue documents 162 entries to the US/IBP Abstracts computerized data base. Only contributions from the Eastern Deciduous Forest Biome (EDFB) and the Tundra Biome (TNB) are included. Literature contributions and numeric data are abstracted in this volume.

  8. SOLLIMS Sampler: Targeting Peace & Stability Operations Lessons & Best Practices. Volume 3, Issue 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    influence in the politics of the province. In the southern portion of Ninewa, Sunni Arabs had endured four years of severe drought. Agricultural, mineral ...Valley: Sociocultural Impacts at the Local Level," by Jessica Lee and Maureen Farrell, Prism, Volume 2, Number 2, March 2011. Table of Contents

  9. Short Communication: Conformal Therapy for Peri-Ventricular Brain Tumors: Is Target Volume Deformation an Issue?

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, Glenn Woodford, Curtis; Yartsev, Slav

    2008-04-01

    Physiologic variations in ventricular volumes could have important implications for treating patients with peri-ventricular brain tumors, yet no data exist in the literature addressing this issue. Daily megavoltage computed tomography (CT) scans in a patient with neurocytoma receiving fractionated radiation revealed minimal changes, suggesting that margins accounting for ventricular deformation are not necessary.

  10. Target Volume Delineation in Dynamic Positron Emission Tomography Based on Time Activity Curve Differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teymurazyan, Artur

    Tumor volume delineation plays a critical role in radiation treatment planning and simulation, since inaccurately defined treatment volumes may lead to the overdosing of normal surrounding structures and potentially missing the cancerous tissue. However, the imaging modality almost exclusively used to determine tumor volumes, X-ray Computed Tomography (CT), does not readily exhibit a distinction between cancerous and normal tissue. It has been shown that CT data augmented with PET can improve radiation treatment plans by providing functional information not available otherwise. Presently, static PET scans account for the majority of procedures performed in clinical practice. In the radiation therapy (RT) setting, these scans are visually inspected by a radiation oncologist for the purpose of tumor volume delineation. This approach, however, often results in significant interobserver variability when comparing contours drawn by different experts on the same PET/CT data sets. For this reason, a search for more objective contouring approaches is underway. The major drawback of conventional tumor delineation in static PET images is the fact that two neighboring voxels of the same intensity can exhibit markedly different overall dynamics. Therefore, equal intensity voxels in a static analysis of a PET image may be falsely classified as belonging to the same tissue. Dynamic PET allows the evaluation of image data in the temporal domain, which often describes specific biochemical properties of the imaged tissues. Analysis of dynamic PET data can be used to improve classification of the imaged volume into cancerous and normal tissue. In this thesis we present a novel tumor volume delineation approach (Single Seed Region Growing algorithm in 4D (dynamic) PET or SSRG/4D-PET) in dynamic PET based on TAC (Time Activity Curve) differences. A partially-supervised approach is pursued in order to allow an expert reader to utilize the information available from other imaging

  11. Curcumin-loaded nanoliposomes linked to homing peptides for integrin targeting and neuropilin-1-mediated internalization.

    PubMed

    Kangarlou, Sogol; Ramezanpour, Sorour; Balalaie, Saeed; Roudbar Mohammadi, Shahla; Haririan, Ismaeil

    2017-12-01

    Curcumin, a naturally occurring polyphenol, has been extensively studied for its broad-spectrum anticancer effects. The potential benefits are, however, limited due to its poor water solubility and rapid degradation which result in low bioavailability on administration. This study encapsulates curcumin in nanoliposomes including an integrin-homing peptide combined with a C end R neuropilin-1 targeting motif for targeted delivery and receptor-mediated internalization, respectively. The linear GHHNGR (Glycine-Histidine-Histidine-Asparagine-Glycine-Arginine) was synthesized through F-moc chemistry on 2-chlorotrityl chloride resin and conjugated to oleic acid. The lipoyl-peptide units were then co-assembled with lecithin and 0-75 mole % Tween-80 into liposomes. Curcumin was passively entrapped using a film hydration technique and its degradation profile was examined within seven consecutive days. The cytotoxic effects of the curcumin-loaded liposomes were studied on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-468, during 24 h exposure in MTT assay. The maximum curcumin entrapment (15.5% W/W) and minimum degradation (< 23%) were obtained in a pH switch loading method from 5.7 to 8, in nanoliposomes (< 50 nm) containing oleyl-peptide, lecithin and Tween-80 (1:1:0.75 mole ratio). The oleyl-peptide did not prove any haemolytic activity (< 1.5%) up to 10-fold of its experimental concentration. The curcumin-loaded liposomes displayed significant reduction in the viabilities of MCF-7 (IC50 3.8 μM) and MDA-MB-468 (IC50 5.4 μM). This study indicated potential advantages of the peptide-conjugated liposomes in drug transport to the cancer cells. This feature might be an outcome of probable interactions between the targeted nanoliposomes with the integrin and neuropilin-1 receptors.

  12. What's new in target volume definition for radiologists in ICRU Report 71? How can the ICRU volume definitions be integrated in clinical practice?

    PubMed

    Berthelsen, Anne Kiil; Dobbs, Jane; Kjellén, Elisabeth; Landberg, Torsten; Möller, Torgil R; Nilsson, Per; Specht, Lena; Wambersie, André

    2007-06-11

    The optimal definition of the size, shape and location of gross tumour volume is one of the most important steps in the planning of radiation therapy, and necessitates a proper understanding of the procedure from both the oncologic radiologist and the radiation oncologist. This overview reports on the different terms and concepts that have been recommended in the ICRU Reports for this purpose; the latest Report 71 focuses on both previously given recommendations, and especially on electron beam therapy. This paper also highlights some of the problems that are encountered in the use of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) recommendations in clinical practice, and at the interface between the radiation oncologist and the diagnostic oncologist.

  13. Stereotactic ultrasound for target volume definition in a patient with prostate cancer and bilateral total hip replacement.

    PubMed

    Boda-Heggemann, Judit; Haneder, Stefan; Ehmann, Michael; Sihono, Dwi Seno Kuncoro; Wertz, Hansjörg; Mai, Sabine; Kegel, Stefan; Heitmann, Sigrun; von Swietochowski, Sandra; Lohr, Frank; Wenz, Frederik

    2015-01-01

    Target-volume definition for prostate cancer in patients with bilateral metal total hip replacements (THRs) is a challenge because of metal artifacts in the planning computed tomography (CT) scans. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used for matching and prostate delineation; however, at a spatial and temporal distance from the planning CT, identical rectal and vesical filling is difficult to achieve. In addition, MRI may also be impaired by metal artifacts, even resulting in spatial image distortion. Here, we present a method to define prostate target volumes based on ultrasound images acquired during CT simulation and online-matched to the CT data set directly at the planning CT. A 78-year-old patient with cT2cNxM0 prostate cancer with bilateral metal THRs was referred to external beam radiation therapy. T2-weighted MRI was performed on the day of the planning CT with preparation according to a protocol for reproducible bladder and rectal filling. The planning CT was obtained with the immediate acquisition of a 3-dimensional ultrasound data set with a dedicated stereotactic ultrasound system for online intermodality image matching referenced to the isocenter by ceiling-mounted infrared cameras. MRI (offline) and ultrasound images (online) were thus both matched to the CT images for planning. Daily image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) was performed with transabdominal ultrasound and compared with cone beam CT. Because of variations in bladder and rectal filling and metal-induced image distortion in MRI, soft-tissue-based matching of the MRI to CT was not sufficient for unequivocal prostate target definition. Ultrasound-based images could be matched, and prostate, seminal vesicles, and target volumes were reliably defined. Daily IGRT could be successfully completed with transabdominal ultrasound with good accordance between cone beam CT and ultrasound. For prostate cancer patients with bilateral THRs causing artifacts in planning CTs, ultrasound referenced to

  14. Cellular recognition and macropinocytosis-like internalization of nanoparticles targeted to integrin α2β1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kankaanpää, P.; Tiitta, S.; Bergman, L.; Puranen, A.-B.; von Haartman, E.; Lindén, M.; Heino, J.

    2015-10-01

    Targeting nanoparticles to desired intracellular compartments is a major challenge. Integrin-type adhesion receptors are connected to different endocytosis routes in a receptor-specific manner. According to our previous observations, the internalization of an α2β1-integrin-echovirus-1 complex takes place via a macropinocytosis-like mechanism, suggesting that the receptor could be used to target nanoparticles to this specific entry route. Here, silica-based nanoparticles, carrying monoclonal antibodies against the α2β1 integrin as address labels, were synthesized. Studies with flow cytometry, atomic force microscopy and confocal microscopy showed the particles to attach to the cell surface via the α2β1 integrin. Furthermore, quantitative analysis of nanoparticle trafficking inside the cell performed with the BioImageXD software indicated that the particles enter cells via a macropinocytosis-like process and end up in caveolin-1 positive structures. Thus, we suggest that different integrins can guide particles to distinct endocytosis routes and, subsequently, also to specific intracellular compartments. In addition, we show that with the BioImageXD software it is possible to conduct sensitive and complex analyses of the behavior of small fluorescent particles inside cells, using basic confocal microscopy images.Targeting nanoparticles to desired intracellular compartments is a major challenge. Integrin-type adhesion receptors are connected to different endocytosis routes in a receptor-specific manner. According to our previous observations, the internalization of an α2β1-integrin-echovirus-1 complex takes place via a macropinocytosis-like mechanism, suggesting that the receptor could be used to target nanoparticles to this specific entry route. Here, silica-based nanoparticles, carrying monoclonal antibodies against the α2β1 integrin as address labels, were synthesized. Studies with flow cytometry, atomic force microscopy and confocal microscopy showed the

  15. The effect of internalizing human single chain antibody fragment on liposome targeting to epithelioid and sarcomatoid mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Arun K; Su, Yang; Feng, Jinjin; Lan, Xiaoli; Zhu, Xiaodong; Liu, Yue; Gao, Dongwei; Seo, Youngho; Vanbrocklin, Henry F; Courtney Broaddus, V; Liu, Bin; He, Jiang

    2011-04-01

    Immunoliposomes (ILs) anchored with internalizing human antibodies capable of targeting all subtypes of mesothelioma can be useful for targeted imaging and therapy of this malignant disease. The objectives of this study were to evaluate both the in vitro and in vivo tumor targeted internalization of novel internalizing human single chain antibody (scFv) anchored ILs on both epithelioid (M28) and sarcomatoid (VAMT-1) subtypes of human mesothelioma. ILs were prepared by post-insertion of mesothelioma-targeting human scFv (M1) onto preformed liposomes and radiolabeled with (111)In ((111)In-IL-M1), along with control non-targeted liposomes ((111)In-CL). Incubation of (111)In-IL-M1 with M28, VAMT-1, and a control non-tumorigenic cell line (BPH-1) at 37 °C for 24 h revealed efficient binding and rapid internalization of ILs into both subtypes of tumor cells but not into the BPH-1 cells; internalization accounted for approximately 81-94% of total cell accumulation in mesothelioma cells compared to 37-55% in control cells. In tumor-bearing mice intravenous (i.v.) injection of (111)In-IL-M1 led to remarkable tumor accumulation: 4% and 4.7% injected dose per gram (% ID/g) for M28 and VAMT-1 tumors, respectively, 48 h after injection. Furthermore, tumor uptake of (111)In-IL-M1 in live xenograft animal models was verified by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT/CT). In contrast, i.v. injection of (111)In-CL in tumor-bearing mice revealed very low uptake in both subtypes of mesothelioma, 48 h after injection. In conclusion, M1 scFv-anchored ILs showed selective tumor targeting and rapid internalization into both epithelioid and sarcomatoid subtypes of human mesothelioma, demonstrating its potential as a promising vector for enhanced tumor drug targeting.

  16. A clip-based protocol for breast boost radiotherapy provides clear target visualisation and demonstrates significant volume reduction over time

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Lorraine; Cox, Jennifer; Morgia, Marita; Atyeo, John; Lamoury, Gillian

    2015-09-15

    The clinical target volume (CTV) for early stage breast cancer is difficult to clearly identify on planning computed tomography (CT) scans. Surgical clips inserted around the tumour bed should help to identify the CTV, particularly if the seroma has been reabsorbed, and enable tracking of CTV changes over time. A surgical clip-based CTV delineation protocol was introduced. CTV visibility and its post-operative shrinkage pattern were assessed. The subjects were 27 early stage breast cancer patients receiving post-operative radiotherapy alone and 15 receiving post-operative chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy. The radiotherapy alone (RT/alone) group received a CT scan at median 25 days post-operatively (CT1rt) and another at 40 Gy, median 68 days (CT2rt). The chemotherapy/RT group (chemo/RT) received a CT scan at median 18 days post-operatively (CT1ch), a planning CT scan at median 126 days (CT2ch), and another at 40 Gy (CT3ch). There was no significant difference (P = 0.08) between the initial mean CTV for each cohort. The RT/alone cohort showed significant CTV volume reduction of 38.4% (P = 0.01) at 40 Gy. The Chemo/RT cohort had significantly reduced volumes between CT1ch: median 54 cm{sup 3} (4–118) and CT2ch: median 16 cm{sup 3}, (2–99), (P = 0.01), but no significant volume reduction thereafter. Surgical clips enable localisation of the post-surgical seroma for radiotherapy targeting. Most seroma shrinkage occurs early, enabling CT treatment planning to take place at 7 weeks, which is within the 9 weeks recommended to limit disease recurrence.

  17. Interobserver variability of clinical target volume delineation in supra-diaphragmatic Hodgkin's disease: a multi-institutional experience.

    PubMed

    Genovesi, Domenico; Cèfaro, Giampiero Ausili; Vinciguerra, Annamaria; Augurio, Antonietta; Di Tommaso, Monica; Marchese, Rita; Ricardi, Umberto; Filippi, Andrea Riccardo; Girinsky, Theodore; Di Biagio, Katiuscia; Belfiglio, Maurizio; Barbieri, Enza; Valentini, Vincenzo

    2011-06-01

    To determine interobserver variability in clinical target volume (CTV) of supra-diaphragmatic Hodgkin's lymphoma. At the 2008 AIRO (Italian Society of Radiation Oncology) Meeting, the Radiation Oncology Department of Chieti proposed a multi-institutional contouring dummy-run of two cases of early stage supra-diaphragmatic Hodgkin's lymphoma after chemotherapy. Clinical history, diagnostics, and planning CT imaging were available on Chieti's radiotherapy website (www.radioterapia.unich.it). Participating centers were requested to delineate the CTV and submit it to the coordinating center. To quantify interobserver variability of CTV delineations, the total volume, craniocaudal, laterolateral, and anteroposterior diameters were calculated. A total of 18 institutions for case A and 15 institutions for case B submitted the targets. Case A presented significant variability in total volume (range: 74.1-1,157.1 cc), craniocaudal (range: 6.5-22.5 cm; median: 16.25 cm), anteroposterior (range: 5.04-14.82 cm; median: 10.28 cm), and laterolateral diameters (range: 8.23-22.88 cm; median: 15.5 cm). Mean CTV was 464.8 cc (standard deviation: 280.5 cc). Case B presented significant variability in total volume (range: 341.8-1,662 cc), cranio-caudal (range: 8.0-28.5 cm; median: 23 cm), anteroposterior (range: 7.9-1.8 cm; median: 11.1 cm), and laterolateral diameters (range: 12.9-24.0 cm; median: 18.8 cm). Mean CTV was 926.0 cc (standard deviation: 445.7 cc). This significant variability confirms the need to apply specific guidelines to improve contouring uniformity in Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  18. INTERNATIONAL STUDY OF ACHIEVEMENT IN MATHEMATICS, A COMPARISON OF TWELVE COUNTRIES, VOLUME I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HUSEN, TORSTEN; AND OTHERS

    THIS REPORT OF AN INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH ALLIANCE OF TWELVE COUNTRIES EXPLAINS THE ESTABLISHMENT OF PROCEDURES OF RESEARCH AND QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT FOR THE COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EDUCATION THROUGHOUT THE WORLD. RESEARCH INSTITUTES FROM TWELVE COUNTRIES ORGANIZED THE COUNCIL OF THE INTERNATIONAL PROJECT FOR THE EVALUATION OF EDUCATIONAL…

  19. International Union for Conservation of Nature Bulletin (IUCN), Volume 4 Number 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Morges, (Switzerland).

    Compiled in this newsletter are activities, viewpoints, reports, book reviews, and conference proceedings emanating from the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN). Principle items deal with viewpoints of politics and conservation and the International Workshop on Environmental Studies in Higher Education and…

  20. Proceedings of the third ISHS international symposium of plant genetic resources volume 1

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Third International ISHS Symposium on plant genetic resources occurred as Symposium 12 of the International Horticulture Congress in Lisbon, in August 2010. This symposium lasted4 days and emphasized new tools in plant genetic resource management. Six speakers gave invited presentations, and 30 ...

  1. Proceedings of the third ISHS international symposium on plant genetic resources volume 2

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Third International ISHS Symposium on plant genetic resources occurred as Symposium 12 of the International Horticulture Congress in Lisbon, in August 2010. This symposium lasted4 days and emphasized new tools in plant genetic resource management. Six speakers gave invited presentations, and 30 ...

  2. International Struggles for Critical Democratic Education. Counterpoints: Studies in the Postmodern Theory of Education. Volume 427

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoester, Matthew, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Drawing from rich data, "International Struggles for Critical Democratic Education" profiles teachers, students, and schools struggling to interrupt the reproduction of social inequalities from one generation to the next. International in its nature, the work collected here illustrates how forces of globalization create greater inequalities, and…

  3. PROCEEDINGS: 1989 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION - VOLUME 1: SESSIONS 0, 1, 2, AND 3

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings document presentations at the International Conference on Municipal Waste Combustion (MWC), held on April 11-14, 1989, in Hollywood, Florida. The objective of the Conference was to provide an effective international forum for the exchange and transfer of informati...

  4. PROCEEDINGS: 1989 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION - VOLUME 4: SESSIONS 9, 10, 11, AND 12

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings document presentations at the International Conference on Municipal Waste Combustion (MWC), held on April 11-14, 1989, in Hollywood, Florida. The objective of the Conference was to provide an effective international forum for the exchange and transfer of informati...

  5. PROCEEDINGS: 1989 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION - VOLUME 3: SESSIONS 7 AND 8

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings document presentations at the International Conference on Municipal Waste Combustion (MWC), held on April 11-14, 1989, in Hollywood, Florida. The objective of the Conference was to provide an effective international forum for the exchange and transfer of informati...

  6. PROCEEDINGS: 1989 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION - VOLUME 2: SESSIONS 4, 5, AND 6

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings document presentations at the International Conference on Municipal Waste Combustion (MWC), held on April 11-14, 1989, in Hollywood, Florida. The objective of the Conference was to provide an effective international forum for the exchange and transfer of informati...

  7. International Struggles for Critical Democratic Education. Counterpoints: Studies in the Postmodern Theory of Education. Volume 427

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoester, Matthew, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Drawing from rich data, "International Struggles for Critical Democratic Education" profiles teachers, students, and schools struggling to interrupt the reproduction of social inequalities from one generation to the next. International in its nature, the work collected here illustrates how forces of globalization create greater inequalities, and…

  8. PROCEEDINGS: 1989 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION - VOLUME 1: SESSIONS 0, 1, 2, AND 3

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings document presentations at the International Conference on Municipal Waste Combustion (MWC), held on April 11-14, 1989, in Hollywood, Florida. The objective of the Conference was to provide an effective international forum for the exchange and transfer of informati...

  9. PROCEEDINGS: 1989 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION - VOLUME 4: SESSIONS 9, 10, 11, AND 12

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings document presentations at the International Conference on Municipal Waste Combustion (MWC), held on April 11-14, 1989, in Hollywood, Florida. The objective of the Conference was to provide an effective international forum for the exchange and transfer of informati...

  10. PROCEEDINGS: 1989 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION - VOLUME 2: SESSIONS 4, 5, AND 6

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings document presentations at the International Conference on Municipal Waste Combustion (MWC), held on April 11-14, 1989, in Hollywood, Florida. The objective of the Conference was to provide an effective international forum for the exchange and transfer of informati...

  11. PROCEEDINGS: 1989 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION - VOLUME 3: SESSIONS 7 AND 8

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings document presentations at the International Conference on Municipal Waste Combustion (MWC), held on April 11-14, 1989, in Hollywood, Florida. The objective of the Conference was to provide an effective international forum for the exchange and transfer of informati...

  12. Validation of a reaction volume reduction protocol for analysis of Y chromosome haplotypes targeting DNA databases.

    PubMed

    Souza, C A; Oliveira, T C; Crovella, S; Santos, S M; Rabêlo, K C N; Soriano, E P; Carvalho, M V D; Junior, A F Caldas; Porto, G G; Campello, R I C; Antunes, A A; Queiroz, R A; Souza, S M

    2017-04-28

    The use of Y chromosome haplotypes, important for the detection of sexual crimes in forensics, has gained prominence with the use of databases that incorporate these genetic profiles in their system. Here, we optimized and validated an amplification protocol for Y chromosome profile retrieval in reference samples using lesser materials than those in commercial kits. FTA(®) cards (Flinders Technology Associates) were used to support the oral cells of male individuals, which were amplified directly using the SwabSolution reagent (Promega). First, we optimized and validated the process to define the volume and cycling conditions. Three reference samples and nineteen 1.2 mm-diameter perforated discs were used per sample. Amplification of one or two discs (samples) with the PowerPlex(®) Y23 kit (Promega) was performed using 25, 26, and 27 thermal cycles. Twenty percent, 32%, and 100% reagent volumes, one disc, and 26 cycles were used for the control per sample. Thereafter, all samples (N = 270) were amplified using 27 cycles, one disc, and 32% reagents (optimized conditions). Data was analyzed using a study of equilibrium values between fluorophore colors. In the samples analyzed with 20% volume, an imbalance was observed in peak heights, both inside and in-between each dye. In samples amplified with 32% reagents, the values obtained for the intra-color and inter-color standard balance calculations for verification of the quality of the analyzed peaks were similar to those of samples amplified with 100% of the recommended volume. The quality of the profiles obtained with 32% reagents was suitable for insertion into databases.

  13. International Experience with Key Program Elements of IndustrialEnergy Efficiency or Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Target-SettingPrograms

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Kramer, Klaas Jan

    2008-02-02

    Target-setting agreements, also known as voluntary ornegotiated agreements, have been used by a number of governments as amechanism for promoting energy efficiency within the industrial sector. Arecent survey of such target-setting agreement programs identified 23energy efficiency or GHG emissions reduction voluntary agreement programsin 18 countries. International best practice related to target-settingagreement programs calls for establishment of a coordinated set ofpolicies that provide strong economic incentives as well as technical andfinancial support to participating industries. The key program elementsof a target-setting program are the target-setting process,identification of energy-saving technologies and measures usingenergy-energy efficiency guidebooks and benchmarking as well as byconducting energy-efficiency audits, development of an energy-savingsaction plan, development and implementation of energy managementprotocols, development of incentives and supporting policies, monitoringprogress toward targets, and program evaluation. This report firstprovides a description of three key target-setting agreement programs andthen describes international experience with the key program elementsthat comprise such programs using information from the three keytarget-setting programs as well as from other international programsrelated to industrial energy efficiency or GHG emissionsreductions.

  14. The Archive of the Amateur Observation Network of the International Halley Watch. Volume 1; Comet Giacobini-Zinner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edberg, Stephen J. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    The International Halley Watch (IHW) was organized for the purpose of gathering and archiving the most complete record of the apparition of a comet, Comet Halley (1982i = 1986 III = 1P/Halley), ever compiled. The redirection of the International Cometary Explorer (ICE), toward Comet Giacobini-Zinner (1984e = 1985 XIII = 21P/Giacobini-Zinner) prompted the initiation of a formal watch on that comet. All the data collected on P/Giacobini-Zinner and P/Halley have been published on CD-ROM in the Comet Halley Archive. This document contains a printed version of the archive data, collected by amateur astronomers, on these two comets. Volume 1 contains the Comet Giacobini-Zinner data archive and Volume 2 contains the Comet Halley archive. Both volumes include information on how to read the data in both archives, as well as a history of both comet watches (including the organizing of the network of astronomers and lessons learned from that experience).

  15. Hierarchical imaging: a new concept for targeted imaging of large volumes from cells to tissues.

    PubMed

    Wacker, Irene; Spomer, Waldemar; Hofmann, Andreas; Thaler, Marlene; Hillmer, Stefan; Gengenbach, Ulrich; Schröder, Rasmus R

    2016-12-12

    Imaging large volumes such as entire cells or small model organisms at nanoscale resolution seemed an unrealistic, rather tedious task so far. Now, technical advances have lead to several electron microscopy (EM) large volume imaging techniques. One is array tomography, where ribbons of ultrathin serial sections are deposited on solid substrates like silicon wafers or glass coverslips. To ensure reliable retrieval of multiple ribbons from the boat of a diamond knife we introduce a substrate holder with 7 axes of translation or rotation specifically designed for that purpose. With this device we are able to deposit hundreds of sections in an ordered way in an area of 22 × 22 mm, the size of a coverslip. Imaging such arrays in a standard wide field fluorescence microscope produces reconstructions with 200 nm lateral resolution and 100 nm (the section thickness) resolution in z. By hierarchical imaging cascades in the scanning electron microscope (SEM), using a new software platform, we can address volumes from single cells to complete organs. In our first example, a cell population isolated from zebrafish spleen, we characterize different cell types according to their organelle inventory by segmenting 3D reconstructions of complete cells imaged with nanoscale resolution. In addition, by screening large numbers of cells at decreased resolution we can define the percentage at which different cell types are present in our preparation. With the second example, the root tip of cress, we illustrate how combining information from intermediate resolution data with high resolution data from selected regions of interest can drastically reduce the amount of data that has to be recorded. By imaging only the interesting parts of a sample considerably less data need to be stored, handled and eventually analysed. Our custom-designed substrate holder allows reproducible generation of section libraries, which can then be imaged in a hierarchical way. We demonstrate, that EM

  16. Evaluation of atlas based auto-segmentation for head and neck target volume delineation in adaptive/replan IMRT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speight, R.; Karakaya, E.; Prestwich, R.; Sen, M.; Lindsay, R.; Harding, R.; Sykes, J.

    2014-03-01

    IMRT for head and neck patients requires clinicians to delineate clinical target volumes (CTV) on a planning-CT (>2hrs/patient). When patients require a replan-CT, CTVs must be re-delineated. This work assesses the performance of atlas-based autosegmentation (ABAS), which uses deformable image registration between planning and replan-CTs to auto-segment CTVs on the replan-CT, based on the planning contours. Fifteen patients with planning-CT and replan-CTs were selected. One clinician delineated CTVs on the planning-CTs and up to three clinicians delineated CTVs on the replan-CTs. Replan-CT volumes were auto-segmented using ABAS using the manual CTVs from the planning-CT as an atlas. ABAS CTVs were edited manually to make them clinically acceptable. Clinicians were timed to estimate savings using ABAS. CTVs were compared using dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and mean distance to agreement (MDA). Mean inter-observer variability (DSC>0.79 and MDA<2.1mm) was found to be greater than intra-observer variability (DSC>0.91 and MDA<1.5mm). Comparing ABAS to manual CTVs gave DSC=0.86 and MDA=2.07mm. Once edited, ABAS volumes agreed more closely with the manual CTVs (DSC=0.87 and MDA=1.87mm). The mean clinician time required to produce CTVs reduced from 169min to 57min when using ABAS. ABAS segments volumes with accuracy close to inter-observer variability however the volumes require some editing before clinical use. Using ABAS reduces contouring time by a factor of three.

  17. Microspheres targeted with a mesothelin antibody and loaded with doxorubicin reduce tumor volume of human mesotheliomas in xenografts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Malignant mesotheliomas (MMs) are chemoresistant tumors related to exposure to asbestos fibers. The long latency period of MM (30-40 yrs) and heterogeneity of tumor presentation make MM difficult to diagnose and treat at early stages. Currently approved second-line treatments following surgical resection of MMs include a combination of cisplatin or carboplatin (delivered systemically) and pemetrexed, a folate inhibitor, with or without subsequent radiation. The systemic toxicities of these treatments emphasize the need for more effective, localized treatment regimens. Methods Acid-prepared mesoporous silica (APMS) microparticles were loaded with doxorubicin (DOX) and modified externally with a mesothelin (MB) specific antibody before repeated intraperitoneal (IP) injections into a mouse xenograft model of human peritoneal MM. The health/weight of mice, tumor volume/weight, tumor necrosis and cell proliferation were evaluated in tumor-bearing mice receiving saline, DOX high (0.2 mg/kg), DOX low (0.05 mg/kg), APMS-MB, or APMS-MB-DOX (0.05 mg/kg) in saline. Results Targeted therapy (APMS-MB-DOX at 0.05 mg/kg) was more effective than DOX low (0.05 mg/kg) and less toxic than treatment with DOX high (0.2 mg/kg). It also resulted in the reduction of tumor volume without loss of animal health and weight, and significantly decreased tumor cell proliferation. High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) of tumor tissue confirmed that APMS-MB-DOX particles delivered DOX to target tissue. Conclusions Data suggest that targeted therapy results in greater chemotherapeutic efficacy with fewer adverse side effects than administration of DOX alone. Targeted microparticles are an attractive option for localized drug delivery. PMID:24024776

  18. International Space Station Human Behavior and Performance Competency Model: Volume II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Lacey

    2008-01-01

    This document further defines the behavioral markers identified in the document "Human Behavior and Performance Competency Model" Vol. I. The Human Behavior and Performance (HBP) competencies were recommended as requirements to participate in international long duration missions, and form the basis for determining the HBP training curriculum for long duration crewmembers. This document provides details, examples, knowledge areas, and affective skills to support the use of the HBP competencies in training and evaluation. This document lists examples and details specific to HBP competencies required of astronauts/cosmonauts who participate in ISS expedition and other international long-duration missions. Please note that this model does not encompass all competencies required. While technical competencies are critical for crewmembers, they are beyond the scope of this document. Additionally, the competencies in this model (and subsequent objectives) are not intended to limit the internal activities or training programs of any international partner.

  19. Communication satellite technology, volume 4. Citations from the International Aerospace Abstracts data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zollars, G. F.

    1980-01-01

    The cited articles from the international literature concern all aspects of communication satellite technology. Included are articles on satellite networks, data transmission efficiency, time division multiple access, data links, and phase shift keying. This bibliography contains 239 citations.

  20. Proceedings of the 1987 IEEE international conference on systems, man, and cybernetics. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the IEE international conference on systems Man, and cybernetics. Topics include the following: robotics; knowledge base simulation; software systems, image and pattern recognition; neural networks; and image processing.

  1. Communication satellite technology, volume 4. Citations from the International Aerospace Abstracts data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zollars, G. F.

    1980-01-01

    The cited articles from the international literature concern all aspects of communication satellite technology. Included are articles on satellite networks, data transmission efficiency, time division multiple access, data links, and phase shift keying. This bibliography contains 239 citations.

  2. APS-5: 5th international symposium on automotive propulsion systems. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1980-10-01

    Thirty papers presented at the meeting are included in this volume. A separate abstract was prepared for each of 28 papers. Two papers were previously processed for the Energy Data Base. Abstracts for individual papers were not prepared for Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA). (LCL)

  3. Proceedings of the 6. international conference on stability and handling of liquid fuels. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Giles, H.N.

    1998-12-01

    Volume 2 of these proceedings contain 42 papers arranged under the following topical sections: Fuel blending and compatibility; Middle distillates; Microbiology; Alternative fuels; General topics (analytical methods, tank remediation, fuel additives, storage stability); and Poster presentations (analysis methods, oxidation kinetics, health problems).

  4. Intercultural Communication Theory: Current Perspectives. International and Intercultural Communication Annual, Volume VII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudykunst, William B., Ed.

    The seventh in a series dealing with intercultural communication, this volume is organized around the theme of theorizing in intercultural communication. Papers in the introductory section of the book discuss theory building, cultural assumptions of East and West, and an overview of theorizing in intercultural communication. The second section…

  5. Proceedings of the 5th international conference on stability and handling of liquid fuels. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Giles, H.N.

    1995-04-01

    Volume 2 of these proceedings contains 34 papers divided into the following sessions: Deposit and insolubles measurement (5 papers); Gasolines (4 papers); Heavy oils and refinery processing (3 papers); Middle distillate fuels (7 papers); New fuels and environmental mandates (5 papers); and a Poster session (10 papers). Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  6. Internal model of gravity for hand interception: parametric adaptation to zero-gravity visual targets on Earth.

    PubMed

    Zago, Myrka; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2005-08-01

    Internal model is a neural mechanism that mimics the dynamics of an object for sensory motor or cognitive functions. Recent research focuses on the issue of whether multiple internal models are learned and switched to cope with a variety of conditions, or single general models are adapted by tuning the parameters. Here we addressed this issue by investigating how the manual interception of a moving target changes with changes of the visual environment. In our paradigm, a virtual target moves vertically downward on a screen with different laws of motion. Subjects are asked to punch a hidden ball that arrives in synchrony with the visual target. By using several different protocols, we systematically found that subjects do not develop a new internal model appropriate for constant speed targets, but they use the default gravity model and reduce the central processing time. The results imply that adaptation to zero-gravity targets involves a compression of temporal processing through the cortical and subcortical regions interconnected with the vestibular cortex, which has previously been shown to be the site of storage of the internal model of gravity.

  7. Development of whole-building energy design targets for commercial buildings: Phase 1, Planning: Volume 2, Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Crawley, D.B.; Briggs, R.S.; Jones, J.W.; Seaton, W.W.; Kaufman, J.E.; Deringer, J.J.; Kennett, E.W.

    1987-08-01

    This is the second volume of the Phase 1 report and discusses the 10 tasks performed in Phase 1. The objective of this research is to develop a methodology for setting energy design targets to provide voluntary guidelines for the buildings industry. The whole-building energy targets project is being conducted at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to encourage the construction of energy-efficient buildings by informing designers and owners about cost-effective goals for energy use in new commercial buildings. The outcome of this research will be a flexible methodology for setting such targets. The tasks are listed and discussed in this report as follows: Task 1 - Develop Detailed Project Goals and Objectives; Task 2 - Establish Buildings-Industry Liaison; Task 3 - Develop Approaches to the Energy Targets Model, Building Operations, and Climate; Task 4 - Develop an Approach for Treating Economic Considerations; Task 5 - Develop an Approach for Treating Energy Sources; Task 6 - Collect Energy-Use Data; Task 7 - Survey Energy Expert Opinion; Task 8 - Evaluation Procedure Specification and Integration; Task 9 - Phase 1 Report Development; and Task 10 - Phase 1 Review Planning.

  8. Physics of laser fusion. Volume II. Diagnostics of experiments on laser fusion targets at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlstrom, H.G.

    1982-01-01

    These notes present the experimental basis and status for laser fusion as developed at LLNL. There are two other volumes in this series: Vol. I, by C.E. Max, presents the theoretical laser-plasma interaction physics; Vol. III, by J.F. Holzrichter et al., presents the theory and design of high-power pulsed lasers. A fourth volume will present the theoretical implosion physics. The notes consist of six sections. The first, an introductory section, provides some of the history of inertial fusion and a simple explanation of the concepts involved. The second section presents an extensive discussion of diagnostic instrumentation used in the LLNL Laser Fusion Program. The third section is a presentation of laser facilities and capabilities at LLNL. The purpose here is to define capability, not to derive how it was obtained. The fourth and fifth sections present the experimental data on laser-plasma interaction and implosion physics. The last chapter is a short projection of the future.

  9. Effect of the 16-hour work limit on general surgery intern operative case volume: a multi-institutional study.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Samuel I; Galante, Joseph; Kaji, Amy; Dolich, Matthew; Easter, David; Melcher, Marc L; Patel, Kevin; Reeves, Mark E; Salim, Ali; Senagore, Anthony J; Takanishi, Danny M; de Virgilio, Christian

    2013-09-01

    The 80-hour work-week limit for all residents was instituted in 2003 and studies looking at its effect have been mixed. Since the advent of the 16-hour mandate for postgraduate year 1 residents in July 2011, no data have been published regarding the effect of this additional work-hour restriction. To determine whether the 16-hour intern work limit, implemented in July 2011, has adversely affected operative experience. A retrospective review of categorical postgraduate year 1 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education case logs from the intern class (N = 52) (with 16-hour work limit) compared with the 4 preceding years (2007-2010; N = 197) (without 16-hour work limit). A total of 249 categorical general surgery interns from 10 general surgery residency programs in the western United States were included. Total, major, first-assistant, and defined-category case totals. As compared with the preceding 4 years, the 2011-2012 interns recorded a 25.8% decrease in total operative cases (65.9 vs 88.8, P = .005), a 31.8% decrease in major cases (54.9 vs 80.5, P < .001), and a 46.3% decrease in first-assistant cases (11.1 vs 20.7, P = .008). There were statistically significant decreases in cases within the defined categories of abdomen, endocrine, head and neck, basic laparoscopy, complex laparoscopy, pediatrics, thoracic, and soft tissue/breast surgery in the 16-hour shift intern era, whereas there was no decrease in trauma, vascular, alimentary, endoscopy, liver, and pancreas cases. The 16-hour work limit for interns, implemented in July 2011, is associated with a significant decrease in categorical intern operative experience. If the 16-hour shift were to be extended to all postgraduate year levels, one can anticipate that additional years of training will be needed to maintain the same operative volume.

  10. SOLLIMS Sampler: Targeting Peace & Stability Operations Lessons & Best Practices. Volume 3, Issue 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    from crimes of sexual slavery and rape. The peace accord was signed on August 18, 2003, after months of international mediation. It was facilitated by...attainment of several core benchmarks be initiated. UNMIL has implemented measures to prevent, detect, investigate, and punish acts of sexual ...exploitation and abuse (SEA), in line with recent reforms and renewed U.N.-wide regulations regarding sexual conduct, following abuses in several U.N

  11. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) (24th, Hiroshima, Japan, July 23-27, 2000), Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakahara, Tadao, Ed.; Koyama, Masataka, Ed.

    The first volume of the 24th annual conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education includes plenary addresses, plenary panel discussions, research forum, project groups, discussion groups, short oral communications, and poster presentations. (ASK)

  12. Proceedings of the Fifth International Workshop on Targetry and Target Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, J.R.; Ferrieri, R.; Finn, R.; Schlyer, D.J.

    1994-12-31

    The goal of the International Workshop on Targetry and Target Chemistry series has always been to provide an open forum for discussion of medical radionuclide production, primarily with particle accelerators. The format is intended to encourage the participants to set the direction of the ensuing discussion, allowing the participants to focus on areas of greatest immediate interest. The preceding workshops have set this tone and this workshop was designed to continue in this spirit. The topics of each session were selected by the local organizing committee after discussion with many of the attendees of the previous workshops. The formality of the workshops has gradually increased from the first rather small, very informal gathering in Heidelburg to the larger contingent present in Villigen, but the open discussion of topics of preoccupation has been maintained. Each Workshop has had areas of particular fascination. In the Fifth workshop the major focus was on the development of new accelerators and on the production of ammonia. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  13. The optimization of intensity modulated radiotherapy in cases where the planning target volume extends into the build-up region.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, T B; Hoole, A C F; Burnet, N G; Thomas, S J

    2009-04-21

    A common clinical problem in IMRT, especially when treating head and neck cases, is that the clinical target volume (CTV) stops short of the skin surface, whilst the margin for geometric uncertainties may take the planning target volume (PTV) to the skin surface or beyond. In these cases, optimization leads to over-dosing of the skin, unless the planner resorts to procedural tricks to avoid this, such as the use of pretend bolus or reduction of the PTV followed by adding 'flash' after optimization. This paper describes a method of avoiding the need for these tricks by using a multiple-isocentre CTV-based objective function. This enables plans to be produced that will give good coverage of the CTV for all the geometrical uncertainties that would have been covered by the PTV without causing the problem of over-dosing the skin. Eight isocentre shifts, equally distributed on the surface of a sphere with a radius equal to the CTV-PTV margin, are shown to be adequate for the optimization process. The resulting fluence maps are much simpler than those resulting from PTV optimization and will therefore be simpler to deliver. The method also permits better sparing of organs at risk such as the spinal cord.

  14. The optimization of intensity modulated radiotherapy in cases where the planning target volume extends into the build-up region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, T. B.; Hoole, A. C. F.; Burnet, N. G.; Thomas, S. J.

    2009-04-01

    A common clinical problem in IMRT, especially when treating head and neck cases, is that the clinical target volume (CTV) stops short of the skin surface, whilst the margin for geometric uncertainties may take the planning target volume (PTV) to the skin surface or beyond. In these cases, optimization leads to over-dosing of the skin, unless the planner resorts to procedural tricks to avoid this, such as the use of pretend bolus or reduction of the PTV followed by adding 'flash' after optimization. This paper describes a method of avoiding the need for these tricks by using a multiple-isocentre CTV-based objective function. This enables plans to be produced that will give good coverage of the CTV for all the geometrical uncertainties that would have been covered by the PTV without causing the problem of over-dosing the skin. Eight isocentre shifts, equally distributed on the surface of a sphere with a radius equal to the CTV-PTV margin, are shown to be adequate for the optimization process. The resulting fluence maps are much simpler than those resulting from PTV optimization and will therefore be simpler to deliver. The method also permits better sparing of organs at risk such as the spinal cord.

  15. Histopathological correlation of (11)C-choline PET scans for target volume definition in radical prostate radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Chang, Joe H; Joon, Daryl Lim; Lee, Sze Ting; Gong, Sylvia J; Scott, Andrew M; Davis, Ian D; Clouston, David; Bolton, Damien; Hamilton, Christopher S; Khoo, Vincent

    2011-05-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of (11)C-choline PET scans in defining dominant intraprostatic lesions (DILs) for radiotherapy target volume definition. Eight men with prostate cancer who had (11)C-choline PET scans prior to radical prostatectomy were studied. Several methods were used to contour the DIL on the PET scans: visual, PET Edge, Region Grow, absolute standardised uptake value (SUV) thresholds and percentage of maximum SUV thresholds. Prostatectomy specimens were sliced in the transverse plane and DILs were delineated on these by a pathologist. These were then compared with the PET scans. The accuracy of correlation was assessed by the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and the Youden index. The contouring method resulting in both the highest DSC and the highest Youden index was 60% of the maximum SUV (SUV(60%)), with values of 0.64 and 0.51, respectively. However SUV(60%) was not statistically significantly better than all of the other methods by either measure. Although not statistically significant, SUV(60%) resulted in the best correlation between (11)C-choline PET and pathology amongst all the methods studied. The degree of correlation shown here is consistent with previous studies that have justified using imaging for DIL radiotherapy target volume definition. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Target Volume Delineation in Oropharyngeal Cancer: Impact of PET, MRI, and Physical Examination

    SciTech Connect

    Thiagarajan, Anuradha; Caria, Nicola; Schoeder, Heiko; Iyer, N. Gopalakrishna; Wolden, Suzanne; Wong, Richard J.; Sherman, Eric; Fury, Matthew G.; Lee, Nancy

    2012-05-01

    Introduction: Sole utilization of computed tomography (CT) scans in gross tumor volume (GTV) delineation for head-and-neck cancers is subject to inaccuracies. This study aims to evaluate contributions of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and physical examination (PE) to GTV delineation in oropharyngeal cancer (OPC). Methods: Forty-one patients with OPC were studied. All underwent contrast-enhanced CT simulation scans (CECTs) that were registered with pretreatment PETs and MRIs. For each patient, three sets of primary and nodal GTV were contoured. First, reference GTVs (GTVref) were contoured by the treating radiation oncologist (RO) using CT, MRI, PET, and PE findings. Additional GTVs were created using fused CT/PET scans (GTVctpet) and CT/MRI scans (GTVctmr) by two other ROs blinded to GTVref. To compare GTVs, concordance indices (CI) were calculated by dividing the respective overlap volumes by overall volumes. To evaluate the contribution of PE, composite GTVs derived from CT, MRI, and PET (GTVctpetmr) were compared with GTVref. Results: For primary tumors, GTVref was significantly larger than GTVctpet and GTVctmr (p < 0.001). Although no significant difference in size was noted between GTVctpet and GTVctmr (p = 0.39), there was poor concordance between them (CI = 0.62). In addition, although CI (ctpetmr vs. ref) was low, it was significantly higher than CI (ctpet vs. ref) and CI (ctmr vs. ref) (p < 0.001), suggesting that neither modality should be used alone. Qualitative analyses to explain the low CI (ctpetmr vs. ref) revealed underestimation of mucosal disease when GTV was contoured without knowledge of PE findings. Similar trends were observed for nodal GTVs. However, CI (ctpet vs. ref), CI (ctmr vs. ref), and CI (ctpetmr vs. ref) were high (>0.75), indicating that although the modalities were complementary, the added benefit was small in the context of CECTs. In addition, PE did not aid greatly in nodal GTV delineation

  17. International Space Station Human Behavior and Performance Competency Model: Volume I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Lacey

    2008-01-01

    This document defines Human Behavior and Performance (HBP) competencies that are recommended to be included as requirements to participate in international long duration missions. They were developed in response to the Multilateral Crew Operations Panel (MMOP) request to develop HBP training requirements for the International Space Station (ISS). The competency model presented here was developed by the ITCB HBPT WG and forms the basis for determining the HBP training curriculum for long duration crewmembers. This document lists specific HBP competencies and behaviors required of astronauts/cosmonauts who participate in ISS expedition and other international longduration missions. Please note that this model does not encompass all competencies required. For example, outside the scope of this document are cognitive skills and abilities, including but not limited to concentration, memorization, perception, imagination, and thinking. It is assumed that these skills, which are crucial in terms of human behavior and performance, are considered during selection phase since such professionally significant qualities of the operator should be taken into consideration in order to ensure sufficient baseline levels that can be further improved during general astronaut training. Also, technical competencies, even though critical for crewmembers, are beyond the scope of this document. It should also be noted that the competencies in this model (and subsequent objectives) are not intended to limit the internal activities or training programs of any international partner.

  18. Selected Bibliographies and State-of-the-Art Review for Environmental Health. Volume 2: Environmental Health References. International Health Planning Reference Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Renee White; Shani, Hadasa

    Intended as a companion piece to volume 2 in the Method Series, Environmental Health Planning (CE 024 230), this second of six volumes in the International Health Planning Reference Series is a combined literature review and annotated bibliography dealing with environmental factors in health planning for developing countries. The review identifies…

  19. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (30th, Prague, Czech Republic, July 16-21, 2006). Volume 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novotna, Jarmila, Ed.; Moraova, Hana, Ed.; Kratka, Magdalena, Ed.; Stehlikova, Nad'a, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This document contains the second volume of the proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education. Conference presentations are centered around the theme "Mathematics at the Centre." This volume features 60 research reports by presenters with last names beginning between Abr…

  20. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) (28th, Bergen, Norway, July 14-18, 2004). Volume 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoines, Marit Johnsen, Ed.; ; Fuglestad, Anne Berit, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    This document contains the fourth volume of the proceedings of the 28th annual conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education. Conference presentations are centered around the theme "Inclusion and Diversity". This volume features 64 research report papers: (1) Situated or Abstract: The Effect of Combining Context…

  1. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (30th, Prague, Czech Republic, July 16-21, 2006). Volume 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novotna, Jarmila, Ed.; Moraova, Hana, Ed.; Kratka, Magdalena, Ed.; Stehlikova, Nad'a, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This document contains the fourth volume of the proceedings of the 30th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education. Conference presentations are centered around the theme "Mathematics at the Centre." This volume features 59 research reports by presenters with last names beginning between Kun and…

  2. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (29th, Melbourne, Australia, July 10-15, 2005). Volume 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chick, Helen L., Ed.; Vincent, Jill L., Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This document is the fourth volume of the proceedings of the 29th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education. Conference papers are centered around the theme of "Learners and Learning Environments." This volume features 42 research reports by presenters with last names beginning between Mul and Wu:…

  3. 1970 MLA International Bibliography of Books and Articles on the Modern Languages and Literatures, Volume I: General, English, American, Medieval and Neo-Latin, Celtic Literatures; and Folklore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meserole, Harrison T., Comp.

    Volume 1 of the four-volume, international bibliography contains over 11,140 entries referring to books, Festschriften, analyzed collections, and articles which focus on General, English, American, medieval and neo-Latin, and Celtic literatures. A section of folklore is also included. The section on general literature includes: (1) aesthetics, (2)…

  4. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (30th, Prague, Czech Republic, July 16-21, 2006). Volume 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novotna, Jarmila, Ed.; Moraova, Hana, Ed.; Kratka, Magdalena, Ed.; Stehlikova, Nad'a, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This document contains the third volume of the proceedings of the 30th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education. Conference presentations are centered around the theme "Mathematics at the Centre." This volume features 60 research reports by presenters with last names beginning between Ead and Kou:…

  5. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) (28th, Bergen, Norway, July 14-18, 2004). Volume 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoines, Marit Johnsen, Ed.; ; Fuglestad, Anne Berit, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    This document contains the second volume of the proceedings of the 28th annual conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education. Conference presentations are centered around the theme "Inclusion and Diversity". This volume features 65 research report papers: (1) Constructing Meanings and Utilities within Algebraic…

  6. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (29th, Melbourne, Australia, July 10-15, 2005). Volume 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chick, Helen L., Ed.; Vincent, Jill L., Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This document contains the second volume of the proceedings of the 29th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education. Conference papers are centered around the theme of "Learners and Learning Environments." This volume features 43 research reports by presenters with last names beginning between Adl…

  7. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (30th, Prague, Czech Republic, July 16-21, 2006). Volume 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novotna, Jarmila, Ed.; Moraova, Hana, Ed.; Kratka, Magdalena, Ed.; Stehlikova, Nad'a, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This document contains the fifth volume of the proceedings of the 30th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education. Conference presentations are centered around the theme "Mathematics at the Centre." This volume features 59 research reports by presenters with last names beginning between Sac and Zaz:…

  8. Selected Bibliographies and State-of-the-Art Review for Health Manpower Planning. Volume 3: Health Manpower Planning References. International Health Planning Reference Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White (E.H.) Co., San Francisco, CA.

    Intended as a companion piece to volume 3 in the Method Series, Health Manpower Planning (CE 024 231), this third of six volumes in the International Health Planning Reference Series is a combined literature review and annotated bibliography dealing with health manpower planning for developing countries. The review identifies literature relevant…

  9. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (29th, Melbourne, Australia, July 10-15, 2005). Volume 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chick, Helen L., Ed.; Vincent, Jill L., Ed.

    2005-01-01

    The first volume of the 29th annual conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education contains plenary lecture and research forum papers as listed below. Short oral communications papers, poster presentations, brief summaries of discussion groups, and working sessions are also included in the volume. The plenary…

  10. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) (28th, Bergen, Norway, July 14-18, 2004). Volume 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoines, Marit Johnsen, Ed.; ; Fuglestad, Anne Berit, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    This document contains the first volume of the proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education. Conference presentations are centered around the theme "Inclusion and Diversity". In total, 147 presentations centered around the vision of mathematics for all. This volume features eight…

  11. Sixth International Limnogeology Congress: abstract volume, Reno, Nevada, June 15-19, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosen, Michael R.; Cohen, Andrew S.; Kirby, Matthew; Gierlowski-Kordesch, Elizabeth; Starratt, Scott W.; Valero Garcés, Blas L.; Varekamp, Johan

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has sponsored each ILIC that has been held in the United States because of the importance of understanding paleoclimate and contaminant histories of lakes, two main themes of the Congress. This volume provides a permanent record of the wide variety of studies that are being conducted in modern lakes and ancient lake deposits worldwide, and it provides a stepping stone for any one desiring further discussion of the work that was presented at ILIC6.

  12. Solid rocket booster performance evaluation model. Volume 3: Sample case. [propellant combustion simulation/internal ballistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The solid rocket booster performance evaluation model (SRB-11) is used to predict internal ballistics in a sample motor. This motor contains a five segmented grain. The first segment has a 14 pointed star configuration with a web which wraps partially around the forward dome. The other segments are circular in cross-section and are tapered along the interior burning surface. Two of the segments are inhibited on the forward face. The nozzle is not assumed to be submerged. The performance prediction is broken into two simulation parts: the delivered end item specific impulse and the propellant properties which are required as inputs for the internal ballistics module are determined; and the internal ballistics for the entire burn duration of the motor are simulated.

  13. Impact of targeted-volume ventilation on pulmonary dynamics in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Alkan Ozdemir, Senem; Arun Ozer, Esra; Ilhan, Ozkan; Sutcuoglu, Sumer

    2017-02-01

    Mechanical ventilation is an essential therapy in the treatment of respiratory failure in preterm infants. However, optimal ventilation strategy continues to be difficult to define. To compare the effects of volume guarantee (VG) combined with intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV) and VG combined with pressure support ventilation (PSV) on the pulmonary mechanics and short term prognosis in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. Infants of <32 weeks gestational age ventilated for respiratory distress syndrome were randomized to receive either SIMV + VG or PSV + VG. The patient characteristics, ventilator variables including PIP, PEEP, MAP, VT, dynamic compliance, resistance, C20/C, and neonatal outcomes (IVH, ROP, oxygen dependency at 28th postnatal day and 36 weeks of PMA), mortality and extubation failure were recorded in each groups. Thirty-four infants were enrolled in to the study: 19 patients were randomized to the SIMV + VG group, and 15 patients to the PSV + VG group. No significant differences were observed between the two groups in terms of the birth weight, gestational age, gender, multiple pregnancy, delivery mode, and antenatal steroid treatment. The respiratory and ventilatory parameters were similar in the groups. The need for reintubation were common in SIMV + VG group (P < 0.01). Volume guaranteed ventilation combined with PSV may be a convenient method for preterm infants with RDS in terms of reducing postextubation atelectasis and the need for reintubation. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2017;52:213-216. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Proceedings of the twentieth international symposium on remote sensing of environment. Volume 1-3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This book contains papers presented at the Twentieth International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment. The meeting was intended to promote international cooperation in research, development and application of remote sensing technology, and to stimulate an exchange of information of all aspects of this multidisciplinary field. Presentations contained herein include those concerned with the application of data collection, analysis and methodology of global environmental monitoring and research, information systems for resource management, desertification, African famine and early warning, geology and mineral resources, forestry, and rangeland resources, hydrology and water resources, ocean and coastal applications, and earth observation systems for resource and environmental assessment.

  15. Near-Millimeter Wave Technology Base Study: Volume I. Propagation and Target/Background Characteristics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-01

    80%6) perc~entile deviation 2 1As ton truck 15.2 1229. 130. 80. 120. 116. 25 Data points; Dep ang~les: 3 to 9 deg Armored personnel 18.9 1546. 130...M60 tank - Honeywell -TARADCOM, Warren, ~ 36- and 94-GH&, Ftoreign armored Grass Georgia Instl. of Joint Army-AVr efforti tower- Aberdeen PG, MD pulked...ARRADCOM): Balistic Research Laboratory Propagation through aerosols (particularly smokes and Arthur LaGrange (BRL) obscurants) target/background signatures

  16. Hypervelocity Impact (HVI). Volume 3; WLE Small-Scale Fiberglass Panel Flat Target C-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorman, Michael R.; Ziola, Steven M.

    2007-01-01

    During 2003 and 2004, the Johnson Space Center's White Sands Testing Facility in Las Cruces, New Mexico conducted hypervelocity impact tests on the space shuttle wing leading edge. Hypervelocity impact tests were conducted to determine if Micro-Meteoroid/Orbital Debris impacts could be reliably detected and located using simple passive ultrasonic methods. The objective of Target C-1 was to study hypervelocity impacts on the reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) panels of the Wing Leading Edge. Fiberglass was used in place of RCC in the initial tests. Impact damage was detected using lightweight, low power instrumentation capable of being used in flight.

  17. Hypervelocity Impact (HVI). Volume 4; WLE Small-Scale Fiberglass Panel Flat Target C-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorman, Michael R.; Ziola, Steven M.

    2007-01-01

    During 2003 and 2004, the Johnson Space Center's White Sands Testing Facility in Las Cruces, New Mexico conducted hypervelocity impact tests on the space shuttle wing leading edge. Hypervelocity impact tests were conducted to determine if Micro-Meteoroid/Orbital Debris impacts could be reliably detected and located using simple passive ultrasonic methods. The objective of Target C-2 was to study impacts through the reinforced carboncarbon (RCC) panels of the Wing Leading Edge. Fiberglass was used in place of RCC in the initial tests. Impact damage was detected using lightweight, low power instrumentation capable of being used in flight.

  18. International review of cytology. Volume 109: A survey of cell biology

    SciTech Connect

    Bourne, G.; Jeon, K.W.; Friedlander, M.

    1987-01-01

    This book's contents are: Local Regulation of Testicular Function;Microtubules and DNA Replication;Differentiation of Spermatogenic Cells from Vertebrates in Vitro;The Developmental Program of Spermiogenesis in Drosophila: A Genetic Analysis;Cell Motility and Ionic Relations in Characean Cells as Revealed by Internal Perfusion and Other Cell Models;and The Culture of Oral Epithelium. Each chapter includes references.

  19. International Union for Conservation of Nature Bulletin (IUCN), Volume 3 Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IUCN Bulletin, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Compiled in this newsletter are activities, viewpoints, reports, and publications of the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN). The principal article in this issue is a discussion of land use, one of the major forces contributing to the crisis of the human environment in addition to population and pollution.…

  20. Third International Mathematics and Science Study. Technical Report. Volume I: Design and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Michael O., Ed.; Kelly, Dana L., Ed.

    The Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) developed and administered tests and questionnaires in three student populations to document the quality of mathematics and science education in 45 participating countries. Study design, instrument development, and research procedures were achieved through a complex collaborative…

  1. The DISAM Journal of International Security Assistance Management. Volume 30, Number 3, September 2008

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT 15 . SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT...Fiscal Year 2009 International Affairs Budget Request” ............................... 15 Howard L. Berman, Congressman, Chairman House Committee on...headquarters MFR provides 9 Inf Bns as operational reserve Uncl ssified 6The DISAM Journal, September 2008 deployed for episodic security cooperation

  2. CRITERIA POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES IN THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes emission factors for criteria pollutants (NOx, CO, CH4, C2H6, THC, NMHC, and NMEHC) from stationary internal combustion engines and gas turbines used in the natural gas industry. The emission factors were calculated from test results from five test campaigns...

  3. International Union for Conservation of Nature Bulletin (IUCN), Volume 3 Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IUCN Bulletin, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Compiled in this newsletter are activities, viewpoints, reports, and publications of the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN). The principal article in this issue is a discussion of land use, one of the major forces contributing to the crisis of the human environment in addition to population and pollution.…

  4. International Aspects of Environmental Education. Monographs in Environmental Education and Environmental Studies. Volume III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, John H., Ed.; And Others

    This document contains four sections which deal with various aspects of international environmental education. Section 1 includes papers that describe environmental education projects and programs in South America, Europe, India, Scotland, the Arab states, and the Sudan. An additional article in this chapter compares the environmental education…

  5. The Career Intern Program: Preliminary Results of an Experiment in Career Education. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibboney, Richard A.; And Others

    The report describes the first year of development and present operation of the Career Intern Program (CIP), a component of the Urban Career Education Center's alternative school for high school dropouts and potential dropouts. The purpose of the program, operated by the Opportunities Industrialization Centers of America under a contract from the…

  6. CRITERIA POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES IN THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes emission factors for criteria pollutants (NOx, CO, CH4, C2H6, THC, NMHC, and NMEHC) from stationary internal combustion engines and gas turbines used in the natural gas industry. The emission factors were calculated from test results from five test campaigns...

  7. INTERNATIONAL STUDY OF ACHIEVEMENT IN MATHEMATICS, A COMPARISON OF TWELVE COUNTRIES, VOLUME II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HUSEN, TORSTEN; AND OTHERS

    THIS REPORT BY AN INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH ORGANIZATION SUMMARIZES AN ASSESSMENT OF MATHEMATICAL ACHIEVEMENT IN TWELVE COUNTRIES. THE STUDY WAS DESIGNED TO TEST HYPOTHESES WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF COMPARATIVE EDUCATION. MANY OF THE PROBLEMS AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY ARE EXPLAINED, AND INTERPRETATIONS AND GENERALIZATIONS ARE TEMPERED WITH CAUTION.…

  8. International Institute for Capacity Building in Africa Newsletter. Volume 6, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UNESCO International Institute for Capacity Building in Africa, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This issue of the International Institute for Capacity Building in Africa (IICBA) Newsletter, published quarterly in English and French, focuses on the impact of decentralization of education management on education outcomes in Africa. It contains the following articles: (1) Decentralisation and School Improvement: A Comment on Research in West…

  9. International Institute for Capacity Building in Africa Newsletter. Volume 6, Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UNESCO International Institute for Capacity Building in Africa, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This issue of the International Institute for Capacity Building in Africa (IICBA) Newsletter, a bi-annual publication in English and French, looks at the practical and operational aspects of dealing with HIV/AIDS in the African context: school-based anti-AIDS clubs and life skills approaches to HIV/AIDS education in Africa, and the ways in which…

  10. International Aspects of Environmental Education. Monographs in Environmental Education and Environmental Studies. Volume III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, John H., Ed.; And Others

    This document contains four sections which deal with various aspects of international environmental education. Section 1 includes papers that describe environmental education projects and programs in South America, Europe, India, Scotland, the Arab states, and the Sudan. An additional article in this chapter compares the environmental education…

  11. International Institute for Capacity Building in Africa Newsletter. Volume 7, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UNESCO International Institute for Capacity Building in Africa, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Over the past three decades, practitioners have been reminded at workshops, seminars, and conferences that gender equity is an issue for effectiveness of development programs, not just a matter of political correctness, or as some colleagues believe, kindness to women. This issue of the International Institute for Capacity Building in Africa…

  12. T and D Publications: International Labour Office: Volume 13, Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland).

    Abstracts of material covering a variety of topics regarding vocational and labor development throughout the world are presented in the fourth dispatch. Noted, in particular, are publications regarding education and training in rural areas, research, vocational guidance, and international instruments. The first section, News in Brief, contains 21…

  13. International Institute for Capacity Building in Africa Newsletter. Volume 7, Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UNESCO International Institute for Capacity Building in Africa, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This issue of the International Institute for Capacity Building in Africa (IICBA) Newsletter, published bi-annually in English and French, sheds light on the needs of teachers and teacher training in emergency situations with practical approaches and strategies provided on capacity building in the area of teacher education. Furthermore, it…

  14. The importance of cellular internalization of antibody-targeted carbon nanotubes in the photothermal ablation of breast cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marches, Radu; Mikoryak, Carole; Wang, Ru-Hung; Pantano, Paul; Draper, Rockford K.; Vitetta, Ellen S.

    2011-03-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) convert absorbed near infrared (NIR) light into heat. The use of CNTs in the NIR-mediated photothermal ablation of tumor cells is attractive because the penetration of NIR light through normal tissues is optimal and the side effects are minimal. Targeted thermal ablation with minimal collateral damage can be achieved by using CNTs attached to tumor-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). However, the role that the cellular internalization of CNTs plays in the subsequent sensitivity of the target cells to NIR-mediated photothermal ablation remains undefined. To address this issue, we used CNTs covalently coupled to an anti-Her2 or a control MAb and tested their ability to bind, internalize, and photothermally ablate Her2 + but not Her2 - breast cancer cell lines. Using flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, and confocal Raman microscopy, we observed the gradual time-dependent receptor-mediated endocytosis of anti-Her2-CNTs whereas a control MAb-CNT conjugate did not bind to the cells. Most importantly, the Her2 + cells that internalized the MAb-CNTs were more sensitive to NIR-mediated photothermal damage than cells that could bind to, but not internalize the MAb-CNTs. These results suggest that both the targeting and internalization of MAb-CNTs might result in the most effective thermal ablation of tumor cells following their exposure to NIR light.

  15. Middle Atmosphere Program. Handbook for MAP. Volume 30: International School on Atmospheric Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fukao, Shoichiro (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Broad, tutorial coverage is given to the technical and scientific aspects of mesosphere stratosphere troposphere (MST) meteorological radar systems. Control issues, signal processing, atmospheric waves, the historical aspects of radar atmospheric dynamics, incoherent scatter radars, radar echoes, radar targets, and gravity waves are among the topics covered.

  16. Effects of incrementally increasing tidal volume on the cross-sectional area of the right internal jugular vein.

    PubMed

    Jo, Youn Yi; Kim, Hong Soon; Lee, Mi Geum; Kim, Dong Young; Kil, Hae Keum

    2013-10-01

    Different tidal volume (TV) settings during mechanical ventilation alter intrathoracic blood volume, and these changes could alter central venous pressure and the cross sectional area (CSA) of the right internal jugular vein (RIJV). The aim of this study was to determine the optimal TV for maximizing the CSA of the RIJV in the supine and Trendelenburg positions in anesthetized patients. Forty patients were randomly allocated to a supine group (Group S, n = 20) or a Trendelenburg group (Group T, n = 20) by computer generated randomization. RIJV CSAs were measured repeatedly after increasing the inspiratory volume in 1 ml/kg increments from a TV of 8 ml/kg to 14 ml/kg using ultrasound images. Peak inspiratory pressure increased significantly on increasing TV from 11 ml/kg to 14 ml/kg and between baseline (TV 8 ml/kg) and 11 ml/kg in both groups (P < 0.05). RIJV CSA was not increased versus baseline even after TV changes in either group and no intergroup difference was found. TV increases do not increase the CSA of the RIJV within the TV range 8 to 14 ml/kg in the supine or 10° Trendelenburg position.

  17. Effects of incrementally increasing tidal volume on the cross-sectional area of the right internal jugular vein

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Youn Yi; Kim, Hong Soon; Lee, Mi Geum; Kim, Dong Young

    2013-01-01

    Background Different tidal volume (TV) settings during mechanical ventilation alter intrathoracic blood volume, and these changes could alter central venous pressure and the cross sectional area (CSA) of the right internal jugular vein (RIJV). The aim of this study was to determine the optimal TV for maximizing the CSA of the RIJV in the supine and Trendelenburg positions in anesthetized patients. Methods Forty patients were randomly allocated to a supine group (Group S, n = 20) or a Trendelenburg group (Group T, n = 20) by computer generated randomization. RIJV CSAs were measured repeatedly after increasing the inspiratory volume in 1 ml/kg increments from a TV of 8 ml/kg to 14 ml/kg using ultrasound images. Results Peak inspiratory pressure increased significantly on increasing TV from 11 ml/kg to 14 ml/kg and between baseline (TV 8 ml/kg) and 11 ml/kg in both groups (P < 0.05). RIJV CSA was not increased versus baseline even after TV changes in either group and no intergroup difference was found. Conclusions TV increases do not increase the CSA of the RIJV within the TV range 8 to 14 ml/kg in the supine or 10° Trendelenburg position. PMID:24228143

  18. Intensity modulated radiotherapy for high risk prostate cancer based on sentinel node SPECT imaging for target volume definition

    PubMed Central

    Ganswindt, Ute; Paulsen, Frank; Corvin, Stefan; Eichhorn, Kai; Glocker, Stefan; Hundt, Ilse; Birkner, Mattias; Alber, Markus; Anastasiadis, Aristotelis; Stenzl, Arnulf; Bares, Roland; Budach, Wilfried; Bamberg, Michael; Belka, Claus

    2005-01-01

    Background The RTOG 94-13 trial has provided evidence that patients with high risk prostate cancer benefit from an additional radiotherapy to the pelvic nodes combined with concomitant hormonal ablation. Since lymphatic drainage of the prostate is highly variable, the optimal target volume definition for the pelvic lymph nodes is problematic. To overcome this limitation, we tested the feasibility of an intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) protocol, taking under consideration the individual pelvic sentinel node drainage pattern by SPECT functional imaging. Methods Patients with high risk prostate cancer were included. Sentinel nodes (SN) were localised 1.5–3 hours after injection of 250 MBq 99mTc-Nanocoll using a double-headed gamma camera with an integrated X-Ray device. All sentinel node localisations were included into the pelvic clinical target volume (CTV). Dose prescriptions were 50.4 Gy (5 × 1.8 Gy / week) to the pelvis and 70.0 Gy (5 × 2.0 Gy / week) to the prostate including the base of seminal vesicles or whole seminal vesicles. Patients were treated with IMRT. Furthermore a theoretical comparison between IMRT and a three-dimensional conformal technique was performed. Results Since 08/2003 6 patients were treated with this protocol. All patients had detectable sentinel lymph nodes (total 29). 4 of 6 patients showed sentinel node localisations (total 10), that would not have been treated adequately with CT-based planning ('geographical miss') only. The most common localisation for a probable geographical miss was the perirectal area. The comparison between dose-volume-histograms of IMRT- and conventional CT-planning demonstrated clear superiority of IMRT when all sentinel lymph nodes were included. IMRT allowed a significantly better sparing of normal tissue and reduced volumes of small bowel, large bowel and rectum irradiated with critical doses. No gastrointestinal or genitourinary acute toxicity Grade 3 or 4 (RTOG) occurred. Conclusion IMRT

  19. Impacts of ultra-low volume resmethrin applications on non-target insects.

    PubMed

    Oberhauser, Karen S; Manweiler, Stephen A; Lelich, Rosemary; Blank, Meredith; Batalden, Rebecca V; de Anda, Alma

    2009-03-01

    We studied the impacts of exposure to ultra-low volume (ULV) applications of resmethrin (Scourge) on monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) larvae and adults. In a series of 3 experiments, we measured short- and long-term survival of monarch larvae and adults, and the impacts of consuming previously exposed host plants on monarch larvae. We measured efficacy during all experiments with caged sentinel mosquitoes, and during Experiments 1 and 2 with pretreatment, treatment, and posttreatment measurements of mosquito abundance in CO2 traps. Downwind monarch larval and adult mortality were higher than upwind or control mortality up to 120 m, but not 170 m, from the spray path. In 1 experiment, monarchs exposed to spray as larvae developed into smaller adults, suggesting sublethal impacts. Milkweed host plants sprayed 1, but not 2 or 4 days previously, resulted in increased monarch larval mortality. Sentinel mosquito mortality was generally high, and CO2 traps revealed substantially lower mosquito abundance immediately after the treatment (>90% reduction) but <20% reduction 24 h after treatment. Our results suggest that ULV resmethrin applications will impact lepidopteran larvae and adults that are directly exposed to the spray but that generalizations about other nontarget taxa will require additional research. The magnitude of population-level impacts on monarchs will depend on the proportion of the population that is exposed.

  20. Target volume definition for upper abdominal irradiation using CT scans obtained during inhale and exhale phases.

    PubMed

    Aruga, T; Itami, J; Aruga, M; Nakajima, K; Shibata, K; Nojo, T; Yasuda, S; Uno, T; Hara, R; Isobe, K; Machida, N; Ito, H

    2000-09-01

    To evaluate the clinical utility of a treatment-planning technique involving the use of CT images obtained during both the static exhalation phase and static inhalation phase (two-phase planning). Ten patients with pancreatic or liver tumors underwent CT scanning under static exhale and inhale conditions, after a period of mild ventilation. By setting image positions differently, we were able to treat the two-phase images as one dataset. Each gross tumor volume (GTV) was contoured separately and the mixed GTV was used for the two-phase treatment planning. Treatment plans were constructed to compare the two-phase plans with the plans constructed using static exhalation images. The shift of the center of the GTV and kidneys and the minimum dose of GTV were then calculated. The shift of the GTV ranged from 2.6 to 27. 3 mm and that of the kidneys from 2.2 to 24 mm. In some patients whose treatment was planned using exhalation planning, the minimum dose of GTV at inhalation was less than 90% of the isocenter dose. Two-phase planning is a simple technique that can visualize tumor and organ movement simultaneously using CT. It further defines adequate field margins around the tumor and prevents unexpected radiation exposure to critical organs. Routine use of this technique for upper abdominal irradiation is recommended.

  1. Comparison of planning target volumes based on three-dimensional and four-dimensional CT imaging of thoracic esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Li, Jianbin; Zhang, Yingjie; Shao, Qian; Xu, Min; Fan, Tingyong; Wang, Jinzhi

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the definition of planning target volumes (PTVs) based on four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) compared with conventional PTV definition and PTV definition using asymmetrical margins for thoracic primary esophageal cancer. Forty-three patients with esophageal cancer underwent 3DCT and 4DCT simulation scans during free breathing. The motions of primary tumors located in the proximal (group A), middle (group B), and distal (group C) thoracic esophagus were obtained from the 4DCT scans. PTV3D was defined on 3DCT using the tumor motion measured based on 4DCT, PTV conventional (PTVconv) was defined on 3DCT by adding a 1.0 cm margin to the clinical target volume, and PTV4D was defined as the union of the target volumes contoured on the ten phases of the 4DCT images. The centroid positions, volumetric differences, and dice similarity coefficients were evaluated for all PTVs. The median centroid shifts between PTV3D and PTV4D and between PTVconv and PTV4D in all three dimensions were <0.3 cm for the three groups. The median size ratios of PTV4D to PTV3D were 0.80, 0.88, and 0.71, and PTV4D to PTVconv were 0.67, 0.73, and 0.76 (χ (2)=-3.18, -2.98, and -3.06; P=0.001, 0.003, and 0.002) for groups A, B, and C, respectively. The dice similarity coefficients were 0.87, 0.90, and 0.81 between PTV4D and PTV3D and 0.80, 0.84, and 0.83 between PTV4D and PTVconv (χ (2) =-3.18, -2.98, and -3.06; P=0.001, 0.003, and 0.002) for groups A, B, and C, respectively. The difference between the degree of inclusion of PTV4D in PTV3D and that of PTV4D in PTVconv was <2% for all groups. Compared with PTVconv, the amount of irradiated normal tissue for PTV3D was decreased by 11.81% and 11.86% in groups A and B, respectively, but was increased by 2.93% in group C. For proximal and middle esophageal cancer, 3DCT-based PTV using asymmetrical margins provides good coverage of PTV4D; however, for distal esophageal cancer, 3DCT-based PTV using conventional margins provides ideal

  2. Water-filled balloon in the postoperative resection cavity improves dose distribution to target volumes in radiotherapy of maxillary sinus carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qun; Lin, Shi-Rong; He, Fang; Kang, De-Hua; Chen, Guo-Zhang; Luo, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Postoperative radiotherapy is a major treatment for patients with maxillary sinus carcinoma. However, the irregular resection cavity poses a technical difficulty for this treatment, causing uneven dose distribution to target volumes. In this study, we evaluated the dose distribution to target volumes and normal tissues in postoperative intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) after placing a water-filled balloon into the resection cavity. Three postoperative patients with advanced maxillary sinus carcinoma were selected in this trial. Water-filled balloons and supporting dental stents were fabricated according to the size of the maxillary resection cavity. Simulation CT scans were performed with or without water-filled balloons, IMRT treatment plans were established, and dose distribution to target volumes and organs at risk were evaluated. Compared to those in the treatment plan without balloons, the dose (D98) delivered to 98% of the gross tumor volume (GTV) increased by 2.1 Gy (P = 0.009), homogeneity index (HI) improved by 2.3% (P = 0.001), and target volume conformity index (TCI) of 68 Gy increased by 18.5% (P = 0.011) in the plan with balloons. Dosimetry endpoints of normal tissues around target regions in both plans were not significantly different (P > 0.05) except for the optic chiasm. In the plan without balloons, 68 Gy high-dose regions did not entirely cover target volumes in the ethmoid sinus, posteromedial wall of the maxillary sinus, or surgical margin of the hard palate. In contrast, 68 Gy high-dose regions entirely covered the GTV in the plan with balloons. These results suggest that placing a water-filled balloon in the resection cavity for postoperative IMRT of maxillary sinus carcinoma can reduce low-dose regions and markedly and simultaneously increase dose homogeneity and conformity of target volumes. PMID:22035860

  3. Personality and Biography: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on the History of Adult Education. Volume I: General, Comparative, and Synthetic Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedenthal-Haase, Martha, Ed.

    This volume includes the following papers: "Foreword: The Standing International Conference on the History of Adult Education (AE)" (Franz Poeggeler); "Editor's Introduction: Perspectives on the Sixth International Conference on the History of AE" (Martha Friedenthal-Haase); two special addresses by Joerg Prinzhausen and Ursula…

  4. Learning from Success: Campus Case Studies in International Program Development. Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Studies in Science, Technology and Culture. Volume 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelleher, Ann

    The case studies presented in this volume offer comparative examples of undergraduate international education innovations in a wide variety of categories: curriculum, study abroad, community outreach, faculty development, and international students. The studies were conducted in the mid-1990s, and programs had to meet several criteria: they had to…

  5. Personality and Biography: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on the History of Adult Education. Volume I: General, Comparative, and Synthetic Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedenthal-Haase, Martha, Ed.

    This volume includes the following papers: "Foreword: The Standing International Conference on the History of Adult Education (AE)" (Franz Poeggeler); "Editor's Introduction: Perspectives on the Sixth International Conference on the History of AE" (Martha Friedenthal-Haase); two special addresses by Joerg Prinzhausen and Ursula…

  6. IEA Civic Education Study Phase I: The United States, Volume III. Responses to the Four Core International Framing Questions g-q.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Carole L.; Dilworth, Paulette Patterson; Hughes, Michael; Sen, Trisha

    This document is the third of four prepared for Phase 1 of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) Civics Education Study. The more than 20 countries that participated were asked to gather data to answer four Core International Framing Questions (CIFQs). Volume 2 explains the process from which the CIFQs…

  7. Transactions of the International Astronomical Union, Volume XIXB: Proceedings of the Nineteenth General Assembly, Delhi 1985.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swings, J.-P.

    The XIXth General Assembly of the IAU was held in New Delhi, India, from November 19 to 28, 1985. This volume summarizes the work of the XIXth General Assembly. The discourses given during the Inaugural Ceremony, held at Siri Fort Auditorium, are reproduced. The proceedings of the two sessions of the General Assembly on November 19 and 28, 1985 are given, as well as the Resolutions and other aspects of the administration of the Union: they provide the official recordof the business of the General Assembly, and, together with the Executive Committee report, constitute the permanent record for the Union in the period 1982 - 1985. In addition, this volume contains the Commission Reports from Delhi, compiled by the Presidents of the Commissions. Pending re-edition of a complete Astronomer's Handbook, which is in preparation, some information about a few activities of the Union, as well as its Statutes and By laws are given. Finally, the chapter "Membership" contains the list of countries adhering to the Union, member lists of IAU Commissions, and also an alphabetical list of the more than 6000 individual members of the IAU (with addresses, phone and telex numbers, affiliation to commission(s)).

  8. Proceedings of the sixth international conference on fluidized bed combustion. Volume III. Technical sessions

    SciTech Connect

    1980-08-01

    The Sixth International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion was held April 9-11, 1980, at the Atlanta Hilton, Atlanta, Georgia. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Electric Power Research Institute, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Tennessee Valley Authority. Forty-five papers from Vol. III of the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. Two papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  9. AAS/GSFC 13th International Symposium on Space Flight Dynamics. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengle, Tom (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    This conference proceedings preprint includes papers and abstracts presented at the 13th International Symposium on Space Flight Dynamics. Cosponsored by American Astronautical Society and the Guidance, Navigation and Control Center of the Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination, and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude dynamics; and mission design.

  10. AAS/GSFC 13th International Symposium on Space Flight Dynamics. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengle, Tom (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    This conference proceedings preprint includes papers and abstracts presented at the 13th International Symposium on Space Flight Dynamics, May 11-15, 1998. Co-sponsored by American Astronautical Society and the Guidance, Navigation and Control Center of the Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination, and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude dynamics; and mission design.

  11. The 1991 International Aerospace and Ground Conference on Lightning and Static Electricity, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The proceedings of the 1991 International Aerospace and Ground Conference on Lightning and Static Electricity are reported. Some of the topics covered include: lightning, lightning suppression, aerospace vehicles, aircraft safety, flight safety, aviation meteorology, thunderstorms, atmospheric electricity, warning systems, weather forecasting, electromagnetic coupling, electrical measurement, electrostatics, aircraft hazards, flight hazards, meteorological parameters, cloud (meteorology), ground effect, electric currents, lightning equipment, electric fields, measuring instruments, electrical grounding, and aircraft instruments.

  12. SU-E-J-75: Importance of 4DCT for Target Volume Definition in Stereotactic Lung Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Goksel, E; Cone, D; Kucucuk, H; Senkesen, O; Yilmaz, M; Aslay, I; Tezcanli, E; Garipagaoglu, M; Sengoz, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: We aimed to investigate the importance of 4DCT for lung tumors treated with SBRT and whether maximum intensity projection (MIP) and free breathing (FB) images can compansate for tumor movement. Methods: Six patients with primary lung cancer and 2 patients with lung metastasis with a median age of 69.5 (42–86) were included. Patients were positioned supine on a vacuum bag. In addition to FB planning CT images, 4DCT images were obtained at 3 mm intervals using Varian RPM system with (Siemens Somatom Sensetion 64). MIP series were reconstructed using 4DCT images. PTV-FB and PTV-MIP (GTV+5mm) volumes were contoured using FB and MIP series, respectively. GTVs were defined on each of eight different breathing phase images and were merged to create the ITV. PTV-4D was generated with a 5 mm margin to ITV. PTV-MIP and PTV-4D contours were copied to FB CT series and treatment plans for PTV-MIP and PTV-FB were generated using RapidArc (2 partial arc) technique in Eclipse (version 11, AAA algorithm). The prescription dose was 5600cGy in 7 fractions. ITV volumes receiving prescription dose (%) and V95 for ITV were calculated for each treatment plan. Results: The mean PTV-4B, PTV-MIP and PTV-FB volumes were 23.2 cc, 15.4cc ve 11cc respectively. Median volume of ITV receiving the prescription dose was 34.6% (16.4–70 %) and median V95 dose for ITV was 1699cGy (232cGy-5117cGy) in the plan optimized for PTV-FB as the reference. When the plan was optimized for PTV-MIP, median ITV volume receiving the prescription dose was 67.15% (26–86%) and median V95 dose for ITV was 4231cGy (1735cGy-5290cGy). Conclusion: Images used in lung SBRT are critical for treatment quality; FB and MIP images did not compensate target movement, therefore 4DCT images should be obtained for all patients undergoing lung SBRT or the safety margins should be adjusted.

  13. Superior target volume and organ stability with the use of endorectal balloons in post-prostatectomy radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    de Leon, Jeremiah F; Jameson, Michael G; Windsor, Apsara; Cloak, Kirrily; Keats, Sarah; Vial, Philip; Holloway, Lois; Metcalfe, Peter; Sidhom, Mark

    2015-08-01

    We investigated the endorectal balloon (ERB) as a method to improve post-prostatectomy clinical target volume (CTV) stability. Seventy cone-beam CT (CBCT) obtained during radiotherapy treatment from seven patients treated with an ERB and 68 CBCT from seven patients treated without an ERB were contoured according to published guidelines. CTV was subdivided into superior and inferior CTV; whole rectal volume was subdivided into superior and inferior rectum and anal volume. Concordance index (CI) of CBCT treatment volumes compared with planning volumes was calculated and displacements were measured. Whole rectal, superior and inferior rectum and anal CI were significantly improved with the ERB by 21%, 17%, 26% and 17% respectively (P < 0.0001). Overall CTV and inferior CTV CI was improved by 4% with the ERB (overall CTV P = 0.021; Inferior CTV P < 0.0001). In the ERB cohort, average displacement for superior CTV was 0.37 cm anterior-posterior (AP) and 0.10 cm left-right (LR). Average standard deviation was 0.27 cm AP and 0.11 cm LR. Inferior CTV average displacement was 0.11 cm AP and 0.02 cm LR. Average standard deviation was 0.11 cm AP and 0.02 cm LR. In the non-ERB cohort, average displacement for superior CTV was 0.43 cm AP and 0.10 mm left-right (LR). Average standard deviation was 0.45 cm AP and 0.13 cm LR. Inferior CTV average displacement was 0.16 cm AP and 0.01 cm LR. Average standard deviation was 0.17 cm AP and 0.03 cm LR. There was no statistically significant impact of bladder filling on CTV CI in ERB patients (P = 0.551) as opposed to non-ERB patients (P = 0.0421). ERBs in the post-prostatectomy setting resulted in increased rectal and CTV stability while negating the effects of bladder filling on CTV stability. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  14. Are we ready for positron emission tomography/computed tomography-based target volume definition in lymphoma radiation therapy?

    PubMed

    Yeoh, Kheng-Wei; Mikhaeel, N George

    2013-01-01

    Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) has become indispensable for the clinical management of lymphomas. With consistent evidence that it is more accurate than anatomic imaging in the staging and response assessment of many lymphoma subtypes, its utility continues to increase. There have therefore been efforts to incorporate PET/CT data into radiation therapy decision making and in the planning process. Further, there have also been studies investigating target volume definition for radiation therapy using PET/CT data. This article will critically review the literature and ongoing studies on the above topics, examining the value and methods of adding PET/CT data to the radiation therapy treatment algorithm. We will also discuss the various challenges and the areas where more evidence is required. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Are We Ready for Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography-based Target Volume Definition in Lymphoma Radiation Therapy?

    SciTech Connect

    Yeoh, Kheng-Wei; Mikhaeel, N. George

    2013-01-01

    Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) has become indispensable for the clinical management of lymphomas. With consistent evidence that it is more accurate than anatomic imaging in the staging and response assessment of many lymphoma subtypes, its utility continues to increase. There have therefore been efforts to incorporate PET/CT data into radiation therapy decision making and in the planning process. Further, there have also been studies investigating target volume definition for radiation therapy using PET/CT data. This article will critically review the literature and ongoing studies on the above topics, examining the value and methods of adding PET/CT data to the radiation therapy treatment algorithm. We will also discuss the various challenges and the areas where more evidence is required.

  16. Planning target volume margins for prostate radiotherapy using daily electronic portal imaging and implanted fiducial markers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Fiducial markers and daily electronic portal imaging (EPI) can reduce the risk of geographic miss in prostate cancer radiotherapy. The purpose of this study was to estimate CTV to PTV margin requirements, without and with the use of this image guidance strategy. Methods 46 patients underwent placement of 3 radio-opaque fiducial markers prior to prostate RT. Daily pre-treatment EPIs were taken, and isocenter placement errors were corrected if they were ≥ 3 mm along the left-right or superior-inferior axes, and/or ≥ 2 mm along the anterior-posterior axis. During-treatment EPIs were then obtained to estimate intra-fraction motion. Results Without image guidance, margins of 0.57 cm, 0.79 cm and 0.77 cm, along the left-right, superior-inferior and anterior-posterior axes respectively, are required to give 95% probability of complete CTV coverage each day. With the above image guidance strategy, these margins can be reduced to 0.36 cm, 0.37 cm and 0.37 cm respectively. Correction of all isocenter placement errors, regardless of size, would permit minimal additional reduction in margins. Conclusions Image guidance, using implanted fiducial markers and daily EPI, permits the use of narrower PTV margins without compromising coverage of the target, in the radiotherapy of prostate cancer. PMID:20537161

  17. Dosimetric evaluation of planning target volume margin reduction for prostate cancer via image-guided intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Taejin; Kang, Sei-Kwon; Cheong, Kwang-Ho; Park, Soah; Yoon, Jai-Woong; Han, Taejin; Kim, Haeyoung; Lee, Meyeon; Kim, Kyoung-Joo; Bae, Hoonsik; Suh, Tae-Suk

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to quantitatively estimate the dosimetric benefits of the image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) system for the prostate intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) delivery. The cases of eleven patients who underwent IMRT for prostate cancer without a prostatectomy at our institution between October 2012 and April 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. For every patient, clinical target volume (CTV) to planning target volume (PTV) margins were uniformly used: 3 mm, 5 mm, 7 mm, 10 mm, 12 mm, and 15 mm. For each margin size, the IMRT plans were independently optimized by one medical physicist using Pinnalce3 (ver. 8.0.d, Philips Medical System, Madison, WI) in order to maintain the plan quality. The maximum geometrical margin (MGM) for every CT image set, defined as the smallest margin encompassing the rectum at least at one slice, was between 13 mm and 26 mm. The percentage rectum overlapping PTV (%V ROV ), the rectal normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) and the mean rectal dose (%RD mean ) increased in proportion to the increase of PTV margin. However the bladder NTCP remained around zero to some extent regardless of the increase of PTV margin while the percentage bladder overlapping PTV (%V BOV ) and the mean bladder dose (%BD mean ) increased in proportion to the increase of PTV margin. Without relatively large rectum or small bladder, the increase observed for rectal NTCP, %RDmean and %BD mean per 1-mm PTV margin size were 1.84%, 2.44% and 2.90%, respectively. Unlike the behavior of the rectum or the bladder, the maximum dose on each femoral head had little effect on PTV margin. This quantitative study of the PTV margin reduction supported that IG-IMRT has enhanced the clinical effects over prostate cancer with the reduction of normal organ complications under the similar level of PTV control.

  18. Cranial location of level II lymph nodes in laryngeal cancer: Implications for elective nodal target volume delineation

    SciTech Connect

    Braam, Petra M. . E-mail: P.M.Braam@umcutrecht.nl; Raaijmakers, Cornelis P.J.; Terhaard, Chris

    2007-02-01

    Purpose: To analyze the cranial distribution of level II lymph nodes in patients with laryngeal cancer to optimize the elective radiation nodal target volume delineation. Methods and Materials: The most cranially located metastatic lymph node was delineated in 67 diagnostic CT data sets. The minimum distance from the base of the skull (BOS) to the lymph node was determined. Results: A total of 98 lymph nodes were delineated including 62 ipsilateral and 36 contralateral lymph nodes. The mean ipsilateral and contralateral distance from the top of the most cranial metastatic lymph node to the BOS was 36 mm (range, -9-120; standard deviation [SD], 17.9) and 35 mm (range, 14-78; SD 15.0), respectively. Only 5% and 12% of the ipsilateral and 3% and 9% of the contralateral metastatic lymph nodes were located within 15 mm and 20 mm below the BOS, respectively. No significant differences were found between patients with only ipsilateral metastatic lymph nodes and patients with bilateral metastatic lymph nodes. Between tumors that do cross the midline and those that do not, no significant difference was found in the distance of the most cranial lymph node to the BOS and the occurrence ipsilateral or contralateral. Conclusions: Setting the cranial border of the nodal target volume 1.5 cm below the base of the skull covers 95% of the lymph nodes and should be considered in elective nodal irradiation for laryngeal cancer. Bilateral neck irradiation is mandatory, including patients with unilateral laryngeal cancer, when elective irradiation is advised.

  19. Abstracts: US-International Biological Program ecosystems analysis studies. Volume 5. No. 3-4

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, J.A.; Myers, V.G.

    1980-12-01

    This issue documents 1149 entries to the US/IBP Abstracts computerized data base and completes the Abstracts journal series. Contributions from all five US/IBP biomes (Coniferous Forest, Desert, Eastern Deciduous Forest, Grassland, and Tundra) are included. Citations only for theses are included as abstracts were not available to the Ecosystem Analysis Data Center staff. Presentations and literature publications from the Desert Biome (Desert Biome 1975) have also been included in order to document the results of the US/IBP studies as completely as possible. Publication lists submitted by each biome (Brown 1977, Desert Biome 1975, Grassland Biome 1976, Coniferous Forest 1976, Eastern Deciduous Forest 1979) were used in compiling this volume.

  20. Blood volume, blood pressure and total body sodium: internal signalling and output control.

    PubMed

    Bie, P

    2009-01-01

    Total body sodium and arterial blood pressure (ABP) are mutually dependent variables regulated by complex control systems. This review addresses the role of ABP in the normal control of sodium excretion (NaEx), and the physiological control of renin secretion. NaEx is a pivotal determinant of ABP, and under experimental conditions, ABP is a powerful, independent controller of NaEx. Blood volume is a function of dietary salt intake; however, ABP is not, at least not in steady states. A transient increase in ABP after a step-up in sodium intake could provide a causal relationship between ABP and the regulation of NaEx via a hypothetical integrative control system. However, recent data show that subtle sodium loading (simulating salty meals) causes robust natriuresis without changes in ABP. Changes in ABP are not necessary for natriuresis. Normal sodium excretion is not regulated by pressure. Plasma renin is log-linearly related to salt intake, and normally, decreases in renin secretion are a precondition of natriuresis after increases in total body sodium. Renin secretion is controlled by renal ABP, renal nerve activity and the tubular chloride concentrations at the macula densa (MD). Renal nerve activity is related to blood volume, also at constant ABP, and elevates renin secretion by means of beta(1)-adrenoceptors. Recent results indicate that renal denervation reduces ABP and renin activity, and that sodium loading may decrease renin without changes in ABP, glomerular filtration rate or beta(1)-mediated nerve activity. The latter indicates an essential role of the MD mechanism and/or a fourth mediator of the physiological control of renin secretion.

  1. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference and Exhibition: World Congress on Superconductivity, Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishen, Kumar (Editor); Burnham, Calvin (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    This document contains papers presented at the 4th International Conference Exhibition: World Congress on Superconductivity held June 27-July 1, 1994 in Orlando, Florida. These documents encompass research, technology, applications, funding, political, and social aspects of superconductivity. The areas covered included: high-temperature materials; thin films; C-60 based superconductors; persistent magnetic fields and shielding; fabrication methodology; space applications; physical applications; performance characterization; device applications; weak link effects and flux motion; accelerator technology; superconductivity energy; storage; future research and development directions; medical applications; granular superconductors; wire fabrication technology; computer applications; technical and commercial challenges; and power and energy applications.

  2. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference and Exhibition: World Congress on Superconductivity, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishen, Kumar (Editor); Burnham, Calvin (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The papers presented at the 4th International Conference Exhibition: World Congress on Superconductivity held at the Marriott Orlando World Center, Orlando, Florida, are contained in this document and encompass the research, technology, applications, funding, political, and social aspects of superconductivity. Specifically, the areas covered included: high-temperature materials; thin films; C-60 based superconductors; persistent magnetic fields and shielding; fabrication methodology; space applications; physical applications; performance characterization; device applications; weak link effects and flux motion; accelerator technology; superconductivity energy; storage; future research and development directions; medical applications; granular superconductors; wire fabrication technology; computer applications; technical and commercial challenges, and power and energy applications.

  3. Development of techniques for advanced optical contamination measurement with internal reflection spectroscopy, phase 1, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    The feasibility of monitoring volatile contaminants in a large space simulation chamber using techniques of internal reflection spectroscopy was demonstrated analytically and experimentally. The infrared spectral region was selected as the operational spectral range in order to provide unique identification of the contaminants along with sufficient sensitivity to detect trace contaminant concentrations. It was determined theoretically that a monolayer of the contaminants could be detected and identified using optimized experimental procedures. This ability was verified experimentally. Procedures were developed to correct the attenuated total reflectance spectra for thick sample distortion. However, by using two different element designs the need for such correction can be avoided.

  4. XVIIth international symposium on discharges and electrical insulation in vacuum. Volume 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    This is the proceedings of the XVIIth International Symposium on Discharges and Electrical Insulation in Vacuum, held in Berkeley, CA, July 21-26, 1996. Papers were presented in the following areas: vacuum breakdown and prebreakdown phenomena; vacuum arcs; switching in vacuum; surface flashover; vacuum insulation including magnetic insulation, accelerators, and others; high current diodes, intense particle beams, and vacuum arc ion sources; discharges in the space environment; arcing in controlled fusion devices; emission processes and electrode phenomena; cathodic arc deposition; pseudospark discharges; industrial applications. Separate abstracts have been indexed into the database for some articles from this proceedings.

  5. International Atomic Energy Agency Bulletin, volume 22, no. 5 and 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-10-01

    The assessment of benefits and risks associated with various energy sources and systems is considered in relation to human needs. Particular emphasis is given to occupational hazards connected with coal mining, the handling of natural and liquified petroleum gases, and the use of nuclear energy for electric power generation. A method of energy risk comparison is examined as well as the approach of a regulatory agency to the concept of risk. Reports of international conferences on the management of alpha contaminated waste and on plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion research are included.

  6. The 19th International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment. Proceedings, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The technology and applications of terrestrial remote sensing (RS) are discussed in reviews and reports. Topics examined include the future of the NASA earth-sciences program, NOAA plans for earth observations in the 1990s, space RS in France, international coordination of RS satellite programs, and applications of geocoded imagery. Consideration is given to spatial and tabular databases for order-three soil surveys, an AVHRR and Landsat regional inventory of irrigated agriculture, classification of wetlands, microwave radiometry of ocean surface winds and sea ice, and floodplain land-cover mapping with Thematic-Mapper data.

  7. Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on High Energy Physics (in 2 Volumes)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajduk, Z.; Wroblewski, A. K.

    1997-04-01

    The Table of Contents for the book is as follows: * VOLUME I * Foreword * Conference Organization * Welcome Address * PLENARY SESSIONS * Pl-01 New Results in Spectroscopy * New Results in Spectroscopy * Pl-02 Soft Interactions and Diffraction Phenomena * Soft Interactions and Diffraction Phenomena * Pl-03 Spin Structure of the Nucleon * Spin Structure of the Nucleon * Pl-04 QCD, Low x and High pT Physics * Tests of QCD at Low x * High pT QCD Physics Results from the Tevatron * Pl-05 QCD and Hard Scattering * Status of the Strong Coupling Constant * Hard Scattering in QCD * Pl-06 Top Quark Properties and Their Theoretical Implications * Experimental Top Quark Physics * Top Quark Theory * Pl-07 Heavy Flavours * Progress in Understanding Heavy Flavor Decays * Theoretical Review of Heavy Flavour Physics * Pl-08 Quark Masses and Mixing from Weak Processes * Status of Weak Quark Mixing * Pl-09 Status of the Electroweak Interactions * Experimental Tests of the Electroweak Theory * Electroweak Interactions - Theory * Pl-10 FCNC Processes: Experimental Status and Theoretical Implications * Flavour Changing Neutral Current Processes * Pl-11 Neutrino Masses and Oscillations * Neutrino Masses and Oscillations - Experiment * Neutrino Masses and Oscillations - Theory * Pl-12 Searches for New Particles * Searches for New Particles * Pl-13 Developments in Non-Perturbative Quantum Field Theory * Recent Developments in Non-Perturbative Quantum Field Theory * Development in Lattice QCD * Pl-14 Supersymmetry and GUT's * Supersymmetry and (Grand) Unification * Pl-15 Non-Supersymmetric Extensions of the Standard Model * Non-Supersymmetric Extensions of the Standard Model * Pl-16 High Energy Nuclear Interactions and Heavy Ion Collisions * High Energy Nuclear Interactions and Heavy Ion Collisions * Pl-17 Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology * Experimental Particle Astrophysics * Zeroing in on the Fundamental Parameters of Cosmology * Pl-18 New Experimental Techniques and Detectors

  8. High Energy Physics: Ichep 2000 - Proceedings of the 30th International Conference (in 2 Volumes)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, C. S.; Yamanaka, Taku

    The Table of Contents for the book is as follows: * VOLUME I * Foreword * Conference Organization * PLENARY SESSIONS * PL-01 New Results from e+e- B-factories * First CP Violation Results from BaBar * A Measurement of CP Violation in B0 Meson Decays at Belle * New Results from CLEO * PL-02 CP Violation and Rare Decays * Recent Experimental Results on CP Violating and Rare K and μ Decays * PL-03 Heavy Flavor Physics (charm, bottom, top and τ) * Heavy Flavour Physics * PL-04 Flavor Dynamics (theory) * Flavour Dynamics - Central Mysteries of the Standard Model * PL-05 Lattice Field Theory * Lattice Field Theory * PL-06 Precision Tests of the Standard Model * Precision Tests of the Electroweak Gauge Theory * New Results from the Muon G-2 Experiment * PL-07 Search for New Particles and New Phenomena * Searches for New Particles and New Physics: Results from e+e- Colliders * Searching for New Particles and Phenomena at Hadron Colliders * PL-08 Neutrino Physics * Accelerator and Reactor Neutrino Experiments * Results from Atmospheric and Solar Neutrinos Experiments * PL-09 Beyond the Standard Model * Beyond the Standard Model * PL-10 Recent Progress in Field Theory * The Utility of Quantum Field Theory * PL-11 Hard Interaction Processes (high Q2: DIS, jets) * Hard Interactions at High Q2: DIS, Jets * PL-12 Soft Interaction Processes (low Q2: diffraction, two-photon and spin structure) * Soft Hadronic Interactions * PL-14 Future Accelerators * Future Accelerators * PL-15 High Energy Heavy Ion Collisions * High Energy Heavy Ion Collisions: The Physics of Super-Dense Matter * PL-16 Experimental Particle Astrophysics * High Energy Particles from the Universe * Low Energy Particles from the Universe * PL-17 Cosmology and Particle Physics * Cosmology and Particle Physics * PL-18 Reports on IUPAP and ICFA * IUPAP The International Union of Pure and Applied Physics * Report on ICFA * PL-19 Summary * Summary * PARALLEL SESSIONS * PA-01 Hadron Spectroscopy (light and heavy quarks

  9. Defining the Optimal Planning Target Volume in Image-Guided Stereotactic Radiosurgery of Brain Metastases: Results of a Randomized Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, John P.; Wang, Zhiheng; Sampson, John H.; McSherry, Frances; Herndon, James E.; Allen, Karen J.; Duffy, Eileen; Hoang, Jenny K.; Chang, Zheng; Yoo, David S.; Kelsey, Chris R.; Yin, Fang-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To identify an optimal margin about the gross target volume (GTV) for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) of brain metastases, minimizing toxicity and local recurrence. Methods and Materials: Adult patients with 1 to 3 brain metastases less than 4 cm in greatest dimension, no previous brain radiation therapy, and Karnofsky performance status (KPS) above 70 were eligible for this institutional review board–approved trial. Individual lesions were randomized to 1- or 3- mm uniform expansion of the GTV defined on contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The resulting planning target volume (PTV) was treated to 24, 18, or 15 Gy marginal dose for maximum PTV diameters less than 2, 2 to 2.9, and 3 to 3.9 cm, respectively, using a linear accelerator–based image-guided system. The primary endpoint was local recurrence (LR). Secondary endpoints included neurocognition Mini-Mental State Examination, Trail Making Test Parts A and B, quality of life (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Brain), radionecrosis (RN), need for salvage radiation therapy, distant failure (DF) in the brain, and overall survival (OS). Results: Between February 2010 and November 2012, 49 patients with 80 brain metastases were treated. The median age was 61 years, the median KPS was 90, and the predominant histologies were non–small cell lung cancer (25 patients) and melanoma (8). Fifty-five, 19, and 6 lesions were treated to 24, 18, and 15 Gy, respectively. The PTV/GTV ratio, volume receiving 12 Gy or more, and minimum dose to PTV were significantly higher in the 3-mm group (all P<.01), and GTV was similar (P=.76). At a median follow-up time of 32.2 months, 11 patients were alive, with median OS 10.6 months. LR was observed in only 3 lesions (2 in the 1 mm group, P=.51), with 6.7% LR 12 months after SRS. Biopsy-proven RN alone was observed in 6 lesions (5 in the 3-mm group, P=.10). The 12-month DF rate was 45.7%. Three months after SRS, no significant change in

  10. Variation in radiotherapy target volume definition, dose to organs at risk and clinical target volumes using anatomic (computed tomography) versus combined anatomic and molecular imaging (positron emission tomography/computed tomography): intensity-modulated radiotherapy delivered using a tomotherapy Hi Art machine: final results of the VortigERN study.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, S; Frew, J; Mott, J; McCallum, H; Stevenson, P; Maxwell, R; Wilsdon, J; Kelly, C G

    2012-12-01

    Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) is the current standard for delineating tumours of the head and neck for radiotherapy. Although metabolic imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) has been used in recent years, the studies were non-confirmatory in establishing its routine role in radiotherapy planning in the modern era. This study explored the difference in gross tumour volume and clinical target volume definitions for the primary and nodal volumes when FDG PET/CT was used as compared with CECT in oropharyngeal cancer cases. Twenty patients with oropharyngeal cancers had a PET/CT scan in the treatment position after consent. Target volumes were defined on CECT scans by a consultant clinical oncologist who was blind to the PET scans. After obtaining inputs from a radiologist, another set of target volumes were outlined on the PET/CT data set. The gross and clinical target volumes as defined on the two data sets were then analysed. The hypothesis of more accurate target delineation, preventing geographical miss and comparative overlap volumes between CECT and PET/CT, was explored. The study also analysed the volumes of intersection and analysed whether there was any TNM stage migration when PET/CT was used as compared with CECT for planning. In 17 of 20 patients, the TNM stage was not altered when adding FDG PET information to CT. PET information prevented geographical miss in two patients and identified distant metastases in one case. PET/CT gross tumour volumes were smaller than CECT volumes (mean ± standard deviation: 25.16 cm(3) ± 35.8 versus 36.56 cm(3) ± 44.14; P < 0.015) for the primary tumour. Interestingly, our study showed no significant differences in gross tumour volume for T1/T2 disease, although differences in gross tumour volumes for advanced disease (T3/T4) were significant. The nodal target volumes (mean ± standard deviation: CECT versus PET/CT 32.48 cm(3) ± 36.63 versus 32.21 cm(3) ± 37.09; P > 0.86) were not statistically

  11. Impact of (18)F-Fluciclovine PET on Target Volume Definition for Postprostatectomy Salvage Radiotherapy: Initial Findings from a Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Jani, Ashesh B; Schreibmann, Eduard; Rossi, Peter J; Shelton, Joseph; Godette, Karen; Nieh, Peter; Master, Viraj A; Kucuk, Omer; Goodman, Mark; Halkar, Raghuveer; Cooper, Sherrie; Chen, Zhengjia; Schuster, David M

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of the synthetic amino acid PET radiotracer (18)F-fluciclovine in modifying the defined clinical and treatment-planning target volumes in postprostatectomy patients undergoing salvage radiotherapy and to evaluate the resulting dosimetric consequences to surrounding organs at risk. Methods: Ninety-six patients were enrolled in a randomized, prospective intention-to-treat clinical trial for potential salvage radiotherapy for recurrent prostate cancer after prostatectomy. The initial treatment plan was based on the results from conventional abdominopelvic CT and MRI. The 45 patients in the experimental arm also underwent abdominopelvic (18)F-fluciclovine PET/CT, and the images were registered with the conventional images to determine whether the results would modify the initial treatment plan. The 51 patients in the control arm did not undergo (18)F-fluciclovine PET/CT. For each patient, the clinical and treatment-planning target volumes that would have been treated before (18)F-fluciclovine registration were compared with those after registration. For organs at risk (rectum, bladder, and penile bulb), the volumes receiving 40 Gy and 65 Gy before registration were compared with those after registration. Statistical comparisons were made using the paired t test. Acute genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicity as defined by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group was compared between the control and experimental arms using the χ(2) test. Results: In 24 cases, radiotherapy was planned to a clinical target volume consisting of the prostate bed alone (CTV) (64.8-66.6 Gy). In 21 cases, radiotherapy was planned to a clinical target volume consisting of the pelvis (CTV1) (45.0 Gy) followed by a boost to the prostate bed (CTV2) (19.8-25.2 Gy). In each case, the respective treatment-planning target volume expansion (PTV, PTV1, or PTV2) was 0.8 cm (0.6 cm posterior). With the exception of PTV2, all postregistration volumes were

  12. High dose and compartmental target volume may improve patient outcome after radiotherapy for pelvic bone metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Taehyung; Cha, Hye Jung; Kim, Jun Won; Seong, Jinsil; Lee, Ik Jae

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Pelvic bone metastases are difficult to treat because of complex pelvic bone anatomy and the proximity of normal organs. The adequacy of radiation dose and field coverage was evaluated. Patients and methods We analyzed 146 cases of pelvic bone metastases from HCC treated with radiotherapy (RT). Bone metastases were confirmed using CT/MRI. Subjective pain response was assessed using the visual analogue scale, and treatment-related toxicity with the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0. Local failure free survival (LFFS) and overall survival were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results The local control rate was 80.1% and the pain control rate was 68.5%. Compartmental target volume (CTV), encompassing the whole compartment of the involved bone, was found to be a significant factor (1-year LFFS, 78% vs. 50%; p=0.001). Sites of metastasis were categorized as either upper or lower pelvic bone; both categories showed improved local control with CTV. Metastatic lesions that received more than 50 Gy of EQD2 showed more partial response in pain after RT (58% vs. 79%; p=0.007). No patient showed toxicity higher than Grade IV. Conclusion Compartmental RT targeted to the involved bone was associated with improved local control and LFFS. High-dose radiation was associated with an improved treatment response. PMID:27259272

  13. Intensity targeted radial structure tensor analysis and its application for automated mediastinal lymph node detection from CT volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Hirohisa; Nimura, Yukitaka; Oda, Masahiro; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Iwano, Shingo; Honma, Hirotoshi; Takabatake, Hirotsugu; Mori, Masaki; Natori, Hiroshi; Mori, Kensaku

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a new blob-like enhancement filter based on Intensity Targeted Radial Structure Tensor (ITRST) analysis to improve mediastinal lymph node detection from chest CT volumes. Blob-like structure enhancement filter based on Radial Structure Tensor (RST) analysis can be utilized for initial detection of lymph node candidate regions. However, some of lymph nodes cannot be detected because RST analysis is influenced by neighboring regions whose intensity is very high or low, such as contrast-enhanced blood vessels and air. To overcome the problem, we propose ITRST analysis that integrate the prior knowledge on detection target intensity into RST analysis. Our lymph node detection method consists of two steps. First, candidate regions are obtained by ITRST analysis. Second, false positives (FPs) are removed by the Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier. We applied the proposed method to 47 cases. Among 19 lymph nodes whose short axis is no less than 10 mm, 100.0 % of them were detected with 247.7 FPs/case by ITRST analysis, while only 80.0 % were detected with 123.0 FPs/case by RST analysis. After the false positive (FP) reduction by SVM, ITRST analysis outperformed RST analysis in lymph node detection performance.

  14. Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, J. J.

    1972-01-01

    These Proceedings contain papers presented at the Eighth International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment, held October 2nd through 6th, 1972, on the campus of the University of Michigan. The symposium was conducted by the Center for Remote Sensing Information and Analysis of the Environmental Research Institute of Michigan (formerly the University of Michigan's Willow Run Laboratories) as a part of a continuing program investigating current activities in the field of remote sensing. Presentations include those on the use of this technology by regional governmental units and by federal governmental agencies, as well as various applications in monitoring and managing the earth's resources and man's global environment. Ground-based, airborne, and spaceborne sensor systems and manual and machine-assisted data analysis and interpretation are included.

  15. National performance review: Internal Team report to the Secretary. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The team received over 300 suggestions for changes in legislation, procedures, and directives that govern the operations of DOE. The suggestions were distilled to 41 issues. DOE employees want to be empowered in areas of decision-making and responsibility, believe that contracting can be done better, are eager to learn quality management, and believe that communications between HQ and field can be improved. A number of internal barriers to efficient operation were identified, that fell away; this can be continued through the Quality Council. Recommendations for action are listed. It is recommended that each of the issues that have been referred for action to a task force or focus group be followed by the Quality Council to successful resolution.

  16. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Uncertainty assessment for internal dosimetry. Volume 1: Main report

    SciTech Connect

    Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.; Cooke, R.M.; Harrison, J.D.; Harper, F.T.; Hora, S.C.

    1998-04-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA internal dosimetry models.

  17. Assessing the contribution of internal climate variability to anthropogenic changes in ice sheet volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Chii-Yun; Forest, Chris E.; Pollard, David

    2017-06-01

    Understanding ice sheet response to different sources of uncertainty in projecting the climate is essential for assessing long-term risk of sea level rise (SLR). The impact of uncertainty caused by internal climate variability (ICV) on future ice sheet changes has not been assessed explicitly. Here we estimate how ICV affects ice sheet projections using a three-dimensional ice sheet model driven by climate fields from two large ensembles of climate model simulations differing in initial climate states. We find that ICV causes approximately 2 mm uncertainty in the estimated SLR due to Greenland ice sheet mass loss during 1992-2011, which is nearly double the observational uncertainty. Additionally, SLR differences due to ICV are about 17% of the mean total change of SLR in 2100. This study highlights a critical need to assess uncertainties of projecting ice sheet loss due to ICV to obtain robust estimates of both historical and future SLR.

  18. Erosion in radial inflow turbines. Volume 4: Erosion rates on internal surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clevenger, W. B., Jr.; Tabakoff, W.

    1975-01-01

    An analytic study of the rate at which material is removed by ingested dust impinging on the internal surfaces of a typical radial inflow turbine is presented. Results show that there are several regions which experience very severe erosion loss, and other regions that experience moderate levels of erosion loss: (1) the greatest amount of material loss occurs on the trailing edges of the nozzle blades where very high velocity, moderate angle impacts occur. The tip regions of ductile materials are also subjected to serious levels of erosion loss; (2) moderate amounts of erosion occur near the end of the scroll and on a few of the nozzle blades near this location. Results are presented in the form of surface contours that exist on the scroll and blade surfaces after continuous particulate ingestion with time.

  19. Characteristics of surface-wave and volume-wave plasmas produced with internally mounted large-area planar microwave launcher

    SciTech Connect

    Nagatsu, Masaaki; Naito, Katsutoshi; Ogino, Akihisa; Ninomiya, Keigo; Nanko, Shohei

    2005-10-17

    We studied discharge characteristics of microwave plasmas excited with a large-area planar microwave launcher installed internally in a 600-mm-diam cylindrical vacuum chamber. With the microwave power less than roughly 400 W, we demonstrated the large volumetric volume-wave plasma (VWP) spread in the entire chamber at a pressure of 14-27 Pa in He. Above 400 W, the plasma discharge made a sudden transition to higher-density, uniform surface-wave plasma (SWP) having a spatial uniformity of {+-}3.5% over 300 mm in diameter. Electron energy probability functions in the downstream region were studied using Langmuir probe measurements with Druyvesteyn method in both the SWP and VWP discharges.

  20. Listening to Local Voices? International Targets and Decentralised Education Planning in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caddell, M.

    2005-01-01

    This article draws on a case study of district educational planning in Nepal to explore how education for all priorities and targets impact on educational practice at the sub-national level. It raises questions about the extent of local ownership of education and development targets and highlights the micro-politics of data collection exercises.…

  1. Listening to Local Voices? International Targets and Decentralised Education Planning in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caddell, M.

    2005-01-01

    This article draws on a case study of district educational planning in Nepal to explore how education for all priorities and targets impact on educational practice at the sub-national level. It raises questions about the extent of local ownership of education and development targets and highlights the micro-politics of data collection exercises.…

  2. Relationship Between Infarct Volume and Prothrombin Time-International Normalized Ratio in Ischemic Stroke Patients With Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Mari; Sakaguchi, Manabu; Okazaki, Shuhei; Hashikawa, Kazuo; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Matsumoto, Masayasu; Ohtsuki, Toshiho; Shimazu, Takeshi; Yoshimine, Toshiki; Mochizuki, Hideki; Kitagawa, Kazuo

    2017-02-24

    In Japan, warfarin treatment at prothrombin time-international normalized ratio (PT-INR) of 1.60-2.60 is recommended for elderly patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). But it remains unknown whether PT-INR 1.60-1.99 has a similar effect on stroke severity as a value >2.0. The purpose of this study was to clarify the association between infarct volume and PT-INR levels.Methods and Results:The 180 patients (mean age, 76 years [SD, 10 years], 53% male) selected from 429 consecutive ischemic stroke patients admitted within 48 h of onset between 2004 and 2014 with NVAF were included. We classified them into 4 groups according to their PT-INR values on admission: no warfarin (NW), 129 patients; PT-INR <1.60 (poor control: PC), 29 patients; PT-INR 1.60-1.99 (low-intensity control: LC), 14 patients; and PT-INR ≥2.00 (high-intensity control: HC), 8 patients. Median (interquartile range: IQR) of infarct volume was 55 mL (IQR 14-175) in the NW, 42 mL (IQR 27-170) in the PC, 36 mL (IQR 6-130) in the LC, and 11 mL (IQR 0-39) in the HC groups. The infarct volume of the HC group was significantly smaller than in the other 3 groups, but no difference existed between the LC and PC groups or the LC and NW groups. Warfarin control at PT-INR of 1.60-1.99 is not effective for reducing the severity of ischemic stroke in NVAF patients.

  3. Investigation on the role of integrated PET/MRI for target volume definition and radiotherapy planning in patients with high grade glioma.

    PubMed

    Navarria, Pierina; Reggiori, Giacomo; Pessina, Federico; Ascolese, Anna Maria; Tomatis, Stefano; Mancosu, Pietro; Lobefalo, Francesca; Clerici, Elena; Lopci, Egesta; Bizzi, Alberto; Grimaldi, Marco; Chiti, Arturo; Simonelli, Matteo; Santoro, Armando; Bello, Lorenzo; Scorsetti, Marta

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the impact of fluid-attenuated-inversion-recovery MRI (FLAIR/MRI) and Carbon-11-labeled-methionine PET (11C-MET-PET) on high grade glioma (HGG) tumor volume delineation for radiotherapy planning. Sixty-nine patients with HGG were evaluated. The clinical target volumes (CTV1, generated by adding a 10mm margin to FLAIRMRI area, CTV2 by adding a 20mm margin to enhanced T1MRI) and biological target volume (BTV) were delineated on pre-operative MRI images and 11CMETPET respectively. The overlap between CTV1 and CTV2 showed a low correlation between the two volumes with CTV1 not always fully included into the CTV2. In all cases the whole BTV was included into the CTV1, while in 35/69 patients (50%) part of BTV was outside the CTV2 despite larger margins were added. In all cases recurrences were within the CTV1 volume and in 19/38 (50%) partially outside the CTV2. In all patients relapse corresponded to the BTV area. Our data suggest that the target volume definition using FLAIR-MRI is more adequate compared to enhanced T1MRI. 11C-METPET uptake could help identify microscopic residual areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Proceedings of the fourth international conference and exhibition: World Congress on superconductivity. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Krishen, K.; Burnham, C.

    1994-12-31

    This document contains papers presented at the 4th International Conference Exhibition: World Congress on Superconductivity held at the Marriott Orlando World Center, Orlando, Florida, June 27--July 1, 1994. This conference encompassed research, technology, applications, funding, political, and social aspects of superconductivity. Specifically, the areas of research, technology, and development covered during the conference included high-temperature materials, thin films, C-60 based superconductors, persistent magnetic fields and shielding, fabrication methodology, space applications, physical applications, performance characterization, device applications, weak link effects and flux motion, accelerator technology, superconductivity energy, storage, future research and development directions, medical applications, granular superconductors, wire fabrication technology, computer applications, technical and commercial challenges, and power and energy applications. The key objective of this conference was to provide a forum for the world community to share technological results of recent advances made in the field of superconductivity and to discuss translation of the research to technology which will benefit humanity. More than 150 presentations were made at this conference. Individual papers are indexed separately on the Energy Data Bases.

  5. Internal models of target motion: expected dynamics overrides measured kinematics in timing manual interceptions.

    PubMed

    Zago, Myrka; Bosco, Gianfranco; Maffei, Vincenzo; Iosa, Marco; Ivanenko, Yuri P; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2004-04-01

    Prevailing views on how we time the interception of a moving object assume that the visual inputs are informationally sufficient to estimate the time-to-contact from the object's kinematics. Here we present evidence in favor of a different view: the brain makes the best estimate about target motion based on measured kinematics and an a priori guess about the causes of motion. According to this theory, a predictive model is used to extrapolate time-to-contact from expected dynamics (kinetics). We projected a virtual target moving vertically downward on a wide screen with different randomized laws of motion. In the first series of experiments, subjects were asked to intercept this target by punching a real ball that fell hidden behind the screen and arrived in synchrony with the visual target. Subjects systematically timed their motor responses consistent with the assumption of gravity effects on an object's mass, even when the visual target did not accelerate. With training, the gravity model was not switched off but adapted to nonaccelerating targets by shifting the time of motor activation. In the second series of experiments, there was no real ball falling behind the screen. Instead the subjects were required to intercept the visual target by clicking a mousebutton. In this case, subjects timed their responses consistent with the assumption of uniform motion in the absence of forces, even when the target actually accelerated. Overall, the results are in accord with the theory that motor responses evoked by visual kinematics are modulated by a prior of the target dynamics. The prior appears surprisingly resistant to modifications based on performance errors.

  6. Targeting Interventions: Moderators of the Effects of Expressive Writing and Assertiveness Training on the Adjustment of International University Students

    PubMed Central

    Hijazi, Alaa M.; Tavakoli, Shedeh; Slavin-Spenny, Olga M.; Lumley, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Acculturative stress is a common experience for international students and is associated with psychological and physical problems. In a previous study, the authors reported that two stress reduction interventions—expressive writing (EW) and assertiveness training (AT)—had limited overall benefits among international students at an American University. The current analyses of data from that study investigated whether individual differences moderated the effects of EW and AT. Results indicate that greater acculturative stress at baseline predicted greater improvement from both interventions, compared with control. Women benefited more from AT than EW, except that EW improved women’s physical symptoms. Men benefited more from EW than AT. Students with limited emotional awareness and expression tended to benefit from both interventions, relative to control. Finally, nation of origin cultural differences generally did not predict outcomes. It is concluded that the benefits of EW and AT and can be enhanced by targeting these interventions to specific subgroups of international students. PMID:21660220

  7. Targeting Interventions: Moderators of the Effects of Expressive Writing and Assertiveness Training on the Adjustment of International University Students.

    PubMed

    Hijazi, Alaa M; Tavakoli, Shedeh; Slavin-Spenny, Olga M; Lumley, Mark A

    2011-06-01

    Acculturative stress is a common experience for international students and is associated with psychological and physical problems. In a previous study, the authors reported that two stress reduction interventions-expressive writing (EW) and assertiveness training (AT)-had limited overall benefits among international students at an American University. The current analyses of data from that study investigated whether individual differences moderated the effects of EW and AT. Results indicate that greater acculturative stress at baseline predicted greater improvement from both interventions, compared with control. Women benefited more from AT than EW, except that EW improved women's physical symptoms. Men benefited more from EW than AT. Students with limited emotional awareness and expression tended to benefit from both interventions, relative to control. Finally, nation of origin cultural differences generally did not predict outcomes. It is concluded that the benefits of EW and AT and can be enhanced by targeting these interventions to specific subgroups of international students.

  8. Residual Tumor After Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation Outside the Radiation Therapy Target Volume: A New Prognostic Factor for Survival in Esophageal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Muijs, Christina; Smit, Justin; Karrenbeld, Arend; Beukema, Jannet; Mul, Veronique; Dam, Go van; Hospers, Geke; Kluin, Phillip; Langendijk, Johannes; Plukker, John

    2014-03-15

    Purpose/Objective(s): The aim of this study was to analyze the accuracy of gross tumor volume (GTV) delineation and clinical target volume (CTV) margins for neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (neo-CRT) in esophageal carcinoma at pathologic examination and to determine the impact on survival. Methods and Materials: The study population consisted of 63 esophageal cancer patients treated with neo-CRT. GTV and CTV borders were demarcated in situ during surgery on the esophagus, using anatomical reference points to provide accurate information regarding tumor location at pathologic evaluation. To identify prognostic factors for disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS), a Cox regression analysis was performed. Results: After resection, macroscopic residual tumor was found outside the GTV in 7 patients (11%). Microscopic residual tumor was located outside the CTV in 9 patients (14%). The median follow-up was 15.6 months. With multivariate analysis, only microscopic tumor outside the CTV (hazard ratio [HR], 4.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-15.36), and perineural growth (HR, 5.77; 95% CI, 1.27-26.13) were identified as independent prognostic factors for OS. The 1-year OS was 20% for patients with tumor outside the CTV and 86% for those without (P<.01). For DFS, microscopic tumor outside the CTV (HR, 5.92; 95% CI, 1.89-18.54) and ypN+ (HR, 3.36; 95% CI, 1.33-8.48) were identified as independent adverse prognostic factors. The 1-year DFS was 23% versus 77% for patients with or without tumor outside the CTV (P<.01). Conclusions: Microscopic tumor outside the CTV is associated with markedly worse OS after neo-CRT. This may either stress the importance of accurate tumor delineation or reflect aggressive tumor behavior requiring new adjuvant treatment modalities.

  9. Highly Conformal Craniospinal Radiotherapy Techniques Can Underdose the Cranial Clinical Target Volume if Leptomeningeal Extension through Skull Base Exit Foramina is not Contoured.

    PubMed

    Noble, D J; Ajithkumar, T; Lambert, J; Gleeson, I; Williams, M V; Jefferies, S J

    2017-07-01

    Craniospinal irradiation (CSI) remains a crucial treatment for patients with medulloblastoma. There is uncertainty about how to manage meningeal surfaces and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that follows cranial nerves exiting skull base foramina. The purpose of this study was to assess plan quality and dose coverage of posterior cranial fossa foramina with both photon and proton therapy. We analysed the radiotherapy plans of seven patients treated with CSI for medulloblastoma and primitive neuro-ectodermal tumours and three with ependymoma (total n = 10). Four had been treated with a field-based technique and six with TomoTherapy™. The internal acoustic meatus (IAM), jugular foramen (JF) and hypoglossal canal (HC) were contoured and added to the original treatment clinical target volume (Plan_CTV) to create a Test_CTV. This was grown to a test planning target volume (Test_PTV) for comparison with a Plan_PTV. Using Plan_CTV and Plan_PTV, proton plans were generated for all 10 cases. The following dosimetry data were recorded: conformity (dice similarity coefficient) and homogeneity index (D2 - D98/D50) as well as median and maximum dose (D2%) to Plan_PTV, V95% and minimum dose (D99.9%) to Plan_CTV and Test_CTV and Plan_PTV and Test_PTV, V95% and minimum dose (D98%) to foramina PTVs. Proton and TomoTherapy™ plans were more conformal (0.87, 0.86) and homogeneous (0.07, 0.04) than field-photon plans (0.79, 0.17). However, field-photon plans covered the IAM, JF and HC PTVs better than proton plans (P = 0.002, 0.004, 0.003, respectively). TomoTherapy™ plans covered the IAM and JF better than proton plans (P = 0.000, 0.002, respectively) but the result for the HC was not significant. Adding foramen CTVs/PTVs made no difference for field plans. The mean Dmin dropped 3.4% from Plan_PTV to Test_PTV for TomoTherapy™ (not significant) and 14.8% for protons (P = 0.001). Highly conformal CSI techniques may underdose meninges and CSF in the dural reflections of

  10. PEGASYS/Mark II: A program of internal target physics using the Mark II detector at the PEP storage ring

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    This document is a proposal to SLAC on behalf of the PEGASYS Collaboration for a program of internal target physics at PEP utilizing the Mark A detector. Having completed its tour of duty at SLC in November 1990, we propose that the Mark A detector be returned to the PEP storage ring, where it will be used in conjunction with a long gas target for studies of QCD with nucleon and nuclear targets, as well as tests of QED in lepton pair production, and a search for new neutral bosons. We expect that the detector in its new configuration could be commissioned by late 1991 and begin taking data by 1992. This document presents the physics to be accomplished with the Mark A, and describes the minimal changes to the detector that we will need to make it function for internal target experiments.