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Sample records for internally displaced women

  1. The sexual and reproductive rights of internally displaced women: the embodiment of Colombia's crisis.

    PubMed

    Alzate, Mónica M

    2008-03-01

    As of 30 June 2006, more than 3.5 million Colombians are internally displaced persons (IDPs), the second largest IDP population in the world after that of Sudan. While most IDP studies treat the plight of internally displaced women (IDW) as an isolated phenomenon, this paper demonstrates that their situation reflects Colombia's chronic cultural, political and socio-economic crisis. This paper uses a sexual and reproductive rights framework to establish a connection between IDW and Colombia's culture of violence, discrimination and inequality. The effects of this culture of violence, discrimination and inequality are highlighted during a discussion of the rights to health, reproduction, privacy, physical integrity, education, and freedom from violence and sexual exploitation. This paper argues that a holistic understanding of Colombia's humanitarian emergency is essential to improving the lives of IDPs. It ends with some concrete, short-term recommendations to meet some of the needs of IDPs and other vulnerable populations.

  2. Internally displaced women as knowledge producers and users in humanitarian action: the view from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora; Lemaitre, Julieta

    2013-07-01

    The literature on evidence-based action in humanitarian crises commonly focuses on how inter-and non-governmental organisations can produce better knowledge and how this can be translated into improved programming. Yet, there is little recorded experience of, or concern about, how the beneficiaries of humanitarian relief can produce and use knowledge of their predicament. This paper is based on a case study of how the Liga de Mujeres Desplazadas, an internally displaced women's organisation in northern Colombia, employs proactively research-generated data to advance its own agenda in its interactions with donor bodies and the government. The paper finds that beneficiaries of humanitarian aid can, and do, use participatory research to advance their own ends in the legal and political spaces created around humanitarian crisis. However, their agency is limited by poverty, violence, and local balances of power. The paper concludes that beneficiaries' priorities in the production of data about humanitarian crises warrant further study.

  3. Internal displacement in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Shultz, James M; Ceballos, Ángela Milena Gómez; Espinel, Zelde; Oliveros, Sofia Rios; Fonseca, Maria Fernanda; Florez, Luis Jorge Hernandez

    2014-01-01

    This commentary aims to delineate the distinguishing features of conflict-induced internal displacement in the nation of Colombia, South America. Even as Colombia is currently implementing a spectrum of legal, social, economic, and health programs for “victims of armed conflict,” with particular focus on internally displaced persons (IDPs), the dynamics of forced migration on a mass scale within this country are little known beyond national borders.   The authors of this commentary are embarking on a global mental health research program in Bogota, Colombia to define best practices for reaching the displaced population and implementing sustainable, evidence-based screening and intervention for common mental disorders. Presenting the defining characteristics of internal displacement in Colombia provides the context for our work and, more importantly, conveys the compelling and complex nature of this humanitarian crisis. We attempt to demonstrate Colombia’s unique position within the global patterning of internal displacement. PMID:28228997

  4. Internal displacement in Burma.

    PubMed

    Lanjouw, S; Mortimer, G; Bamforth, V

    2000-09-01

    The internal displacement of populations in Burma is not a new phenomenon. Displacement is caused by numerous factors. Not all of it is due to outright violence, but much is a consequence of misguided social and economic development initiatives. Efforts to consolidate the state by assimilating populations in government-controlled areas by military authorities on the one hand, while brokering cease-fires with non-state actors on the other, has uprooted civilian populations throughout the country. Very few areas in which internally displaced persons (IDPs) are found are not facing social turmoil within a climate of impunity. Humanitarian access to IDP populations remains extremely problematic. While relatively little information has been collected, assistance has been focused on targeting accessible groups. International concern within Burma has couched the problems of displacement within general development modalities, while international attention along its borders has sought to contain displacement. With the exception of several recent initiatives, few approaches have gone beyond assistance and engaged in the prevention or protection of the displaced.

  5. Forced displacement and women's security in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Meertens, Donny

    2010-04-01

    In the protracted Colombian conflict, assistance to internally displaced persons has developed in the context of contradictory political processes. The Colombian government's launching of a transitional justice process in the midst of armed conflict has generated a complex situation displaying both conflict and post-conflict characteristics. The progressive Constitutional Court rulings on internal displacement, in particular the gender-sensitive Auto 092, constitute an attempt to bring together humanitarian interventions and transitional justice measures in a rights-based framework. However, the national government is reluctant to adopt them fully and local realities still hamper their integrated implementation. Displaced women, therefore, remain in an especially vulnerable position. This paper argues that gender-sensitive humanitarian interventions must take into account all of these complexities of scale and political process in order to make legal frameworks more effective at the local level. In these contexts, interventions should pay particular attention to strategies that contribute to transforming pre-existing gender regimes.

  6. Handheld solar light use, durability, and retention among women and girls in internally displaced persons camps in Haiti — 2013–2014

    PubMed Central

    Dynes, Michelle; Rosenthal, Mariana; Hulland, Erin; Hardy, Colleen; Torre, Lisandro; Tomczyk, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    During conflict and disasters, women and girls are at increased risk of gender based violence. International humanitarian guidelines call for the distribution of individual lighting to meet women and girls’ basic needs and to reduce risk of violence; however, little evidence exists to support these guidelines. This paper presents an evaluation of handheld solar light use, retention, and durability among women and girls living in two internally displaced persons camps in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Data was gathered prospectively via five household surveys from August 2013 to April 2014; a total of 754 females participated in the study. Women reported going outside at night more frequently at the end of the study than at the beginning. The handheld solar lights were the most common source of lighting at endline, whereas candle and gas lamp use declined significantly over time. Results from a Life-Table survival analysis estimated that households had an 83% probability of still owning a functioning light after seven months. Given the frequent use, acceptable durability, and retention of the lights, donors and humanitarian organizations should consider supporting light distribution to women and girls in internally displaced persons camps to help meet their basic needs. PMID:27482509

  7. Handheld solar light use, durability, and retention among women and girls in internally displaced persons camps in Haiti - 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Dynes, Michelle; Rosenthal, Mariana; Hulland, Erin; Hardy, Colleen; Torre, Lisandro; Tomczyk, Barbara

    2016-09-01

    During conflict and disasters, women and girls are at increased risk of gender based violence. International humanitarian guidelines call for the distribution of individual lighting to meet women and girls' basic needs and to reduce risk of violence; however, little evidence exists to support these guidelines. This paper presents an evaluation of handheld solar light use, retention, and durability among women and girls living in two internally displaced persons camps in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Data was gathered prospectively via five household surveys from August 2013 to April 2014; a total of 754 females participated in the study. Women reported going outside at night more frequently at the end of the study than at the beginning. The handheld solar lights were the most common source of lighting at endline, whereas candle and gas lamp use declined significantly over time. Results from a Life-Table survival analysis estimated that households had an 83% probability of still owning a functioning light after seven months. Given the frequent use, acceptable durability, and retention of the lights, donors and humanitarian organizations should consider supporting light distribution to women and girls in internally displaced persons camps to help meet their basic needs.

  8. 'My body is mine': Qualitatively exploring agency among internally displaced women participants in a small-group intervention in Leogane, Haiti.

    PubMed

    Logie, Carmen H; Daniel, CarolAnn

    2016-01-01

    The 2010 earthquake resulted in the breakdown of Haiti's social, economic and health infrastructure. Over one-quarter of a million people remain internally displaced (ID). ID women experience heightened vulnerability to intimate partner violence (IPV) due to increased poverty and reduced community networks. Scant research has examined experiences of IPV among ID women in post-earthquake Haiti. We conducted a qualitative study to explore the impact of participating in Famn an Aksyon Pou Santé Yo (FASY), a small-group HIV prevention intervention, on ID women's agency in Leogane, Haiti. We conducted four focus groups with ID women, FASY participants (n = 40) and in-depth individual interviews with peer health workers (n = 7). Our study was guided by critical ethnography and paid particular attention to power relations. Findings highlighted multiple forms of IPV (e.g., physical, sexual). Participants discussed processes of intrapersonal (confidence), interpersonal (communication), relational (support) and collective (women's rights) agency. Yet structural factors, including patriarchal gender norms and poverty, silenced IPV discussions and constrained women's agency. Findings suggest that agency among ID women is a multi-level, non-linear and incremental process. To effectively address IPV among ID women in Haiti, interventions should address structural contexts of gender inequity and poverty and concurrently facilitate multi-level processes of agency.

  9. Why not the University of New Orleans? Social disorganization and sexual violence among internally displaced women of Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Fagen, Jennifer L; Sorensen, William; Anderson, Peter B

    2011-10-01

    Researchers have reported that natural disasters lead to an increase in sexual violence against women and this is echoed by the current situation in Haiti. This is a social pattern throughout the world during periods of war, as well as natural disasters such as tsunamis, famine, and hurricanes. This article examines the prevalence of sexual violence experienced by women students at the University of New Orleans (UNO) before and after Hurricane Katrina using the CORE Alcohol and Drug Survey. Two hundred and thirty seven women participated in the pre-Katrina study and 215 women participated in the post-Katrina study. We hypothesized that, due to the trauma of this disaster, there would be a higher prevalence of sexual aggression against women after Katrina than there was before Katrina. Our analyses yielded no significant differences in any of the measures of sexual violence toward women (nine CORE survey items) pre to post Katrina, so our hypothesis was not supported. We suggest that social organization and cultural attenuation--often indicators of sexual assault in FEMA Greenfield communities--were mitigated by social cohesion found on the UNO campus post-Katrina.

  10. Internal displacement in Colombia: Fifteen distinguishing features.

    PubMed

    Shultz, James M; Ceballos, Ángela Milena Gómez; Espinel, Zelde; Oliveros, Sofia Rios; Fonseca, Maria Fernanda; Florez, Luis Jorge Hernandez

    2014-01-01

    This commentary aims to delineate the distinguishing features of conflict-induced internal displacement in the nation of Colombia, South America. Even as Colombia is currently implementing a spectrum of legal, social, economic, and health programs for "victims of armed conflict," with particular focus on internally displaced persons (IDPs), the dynamics of forced migration on a mass scale within this country are little known beyond national borders.   The authors of this commentary are embarking on a global mental health research program in Bogota, Colombia to define best practices for reaching the displaced population and implementing sustainable, evidence-based screening and intervention for common mental disorders. Presenting the defining characteristics of internal displacement in Colombia provides the context for our work and, more importantly, conveys the compelling and complex nature of this humanitarian crisis. We attempt to demonstrate Colombia's unique position within the global patterning of internal displacement.

  11. Gender-based violence in conflict and displacement: qualitative findings from displaced women in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Gender-based violence (GBV) is prevalent among, though not specific to, conflict affected populations and related to multifarious levels of vulnerability of conflict and displacement. Colombia has been marked with decades of conflict, with an estimated 5.2 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) and ongoing violence. We conducted qualitative research to understand the contexts of conflict, displacement and dynamics with GBV. This as part of a multi-phase, mixed method study, in collaboration with UNHCR, to develop a screening tool to confidentially identify cases of GBV for referral among IDP women who were survivors of GBV. Methods Qualitative research was used to identify the range of GBV, perpetrators, contexts in conflict and displacement, barriers to reporting and service uptake, as well as to understand experiences of service providers. Thirty-five female IDPs, aged 18 years and older, who self-identified as survivors of GBV were enrolled for in-depth interviews in San Jose de Guaviare and Quibdo, Colombia in June 2012. Thirty-one service providers participated in six focus group discussions and four interviews across these sites. Results Survivors described a range of GBV across conflict and displacement settings. Armed actors in conflict settings perpetrated threats of violence and harm to family members, child recruitment, and, to a lesser degree, rape and forced abortion. Opportunistic violence, including abduction, rape, and few accounts of trafficking were more commonly reported to occur in the displacement setting, often perpetrated by unknown individuals. Intrafamilial violence, intimate partner violence, including physical and sexual violence and reproductive control were salient across settings and may be exacerbated by conflict and displacement. Barriers to reporting and services seeking were reported by survivors and providers alike. Conclusions Findings highlight the need for early identification of GBV cases, with emphasis on

  12. International Women's Day speech.

    PubMed

    Kazibwe, S W

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of the International Women's Day are: 1) to celebrate the struggle for women's rights in the economic, social, political, and cultural domain; 2) to reaffirm women's solidarity in the struggle for peace; 3) and to show what women have achieved. In 1988, Uganda's government of the National Resistance Movement created the Ministry of Women in Development. The period 1988-1990 was one of consultations, needs assessment, planning, and recruiting staff for the Ministry. From 1990 to 1993, measurable results have been achieved. The Ministry's gender concerns pertained to the sector policies of the Ministries of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries, Education, Health, Water, Energy, Minerals, and Environment Protection. Under the Umbrella Project for Women in Development, gender sensitization has been achieved with policy makers in ministries, at district level, and in the media. Gender issues have also been incorporated in the National Political School Curriculum. The Ministry has also trained a corps of 73 women trainers from 38 districts. The Ministry, with funding from DANIDA, collected women's views on the constitution through meetings and seminars in all the districts in the country. Recommendations were submitted in a consolidated report to the Constitution Commission. A pilot para-legal scheme is successfully being implemented in Kamuli district. A community-based pool of legal advisors has been developed. Legal matters that affect both women and men are undertaken at the community level. The economic emancipation of women is a crucial part of the Ministry's mandate. In conjunction with NGOs, pilot credit programs are being run in Mukono, Jinja, Mbale, and Kapchorwa districts. Cross-sectoral programs are in close collaboration with the rural water and sanitation program, the Northern Uganda rehabilitation program, and the integrated Basic Education Pilot Project to be implemented in 8 districts.

  13. International Monetary Fund and aid displacement.

    PubMed

    Stuckler, David; Basu, Sanjay; McKee, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Several recent papers find evidence that global health aid is being diverted to reserves, education, military, or other sectors, and is displacing government spending. This is suggested to occur because ministers of finance have competing, possibly corrupt, priorities and deprive the health sector of resources. Studies have found that development assistance for health routed to governments has a negative impact on health spending and that similar assistance routed to private nongovernmental organizations has a positive impact. An alternative hypothesis is that World Bank and IMF macro-economic policies, which specifically advise governments to divert aid to reserves to cope with aid volatility and keep government spending low, could be causing the displacement of health aid. This article evaluates whether aid displacement was greater when countries undertook a new borrowing program from the IMF between 1996 and 2006. As found in existing studies, for each $1 of development assistance for health, about $0.37 is added to the health system. However, evaluating IMF-borrowing versus non-IMF-borrowing countries reveals that non-borrowers add about $0.45 whereas borrowers add less than $0.01 to the health system. On average, health system spending grew at about half the speed when countries were exposed to the IMF than when they were not. It is important to take account of the political economy of global health finance when interpreting data on financial flows.

  14. Internal displacement and health among the Palestinian minority in Israel.

    PubMed

    Daoud, Nihaya; Shankardass, Ketan; O'Campo, Patricia; Anderson, Kim; Agbaria, Ayman K

    2012-04-01

    Long term health impacts of internal displacement (ID) resulting from political violence are not well documented or understood. One such case is the ID of 300,000-420,000 Palestinian citizens of Israel and their descendants during the Nakba of 1948 (Palestinian Catastrophe). We aim to document the long term health impacts of this ID. We draw on data collected in 2005 from a nationwide random sample of 902 individuals aged 30-70. Research participants were interviewed in person after being selected through a multistage sampling procedure. About 24% of participants reported that either they or their families had been internally displaced. Palestinian internally displaced persons (IDPs), that is, those who were forcibly displaced and dispossessed from their homes and lands during the Nakba and its aftermath, as well as their families and descendants, and who reside within the current borders of Israel, had an odds ratio of 1.45 (95% CI = 1.02-2.07) for poor self-rated health (SRH) compared to non-IDPs after controlling for demographic, socioeconomic and psychosocial factors. No difference was found between IDPs and non-IDPs in limiting longstanding illness following control for confounders. Low socioeconomic position and chronic stress were significantly related to ID and to SRH. Our findings suggest adverse long term health impacts of the Nakba on the IDPs when compared to non-IDPs. We propose that these disparities might stem from IDPs' unhealed post-traumatic scars from the Nakba, or from becoming a marginalized minority within their own society due to their displacement and loss of collective identity. Given these long term health consequences, we conclude that displacement should be addressed with health and social policies for IDPs.

  15. [Adaptation and mental-hygienic characteristics of internally displaced adolescents].

    PubMed

    Maksimović, Milos; Kocijancić, Radojka; Backović, Dusan; Ille, Tatjana; Paunović, Katarina

    2005-01-01

    The change in socio-economic status, drastic decrease in living standards, war, and the introduction of sanctions to our country were complicated in addition by a large number of internally displaced people from Kosovo, which culminated with the 1999 NATO bombing. The aim of this investigation was to estimate the influence of internal displacement on the adaptation and mental health of adolescents. The investigation was conducted on 238 adolescents, comprising a control group of 206 adolescents from Belgrade and 32 internally displaced adolescents from Kosovo. A specific questionnaire regarding habits, behaviour, and psychosomatic state was used, as well as the Cornell Medical Index and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Internally displaced adolescents from Kosovo exhibited greater difficulties in adapting and had worse school records than adolescents from Belgrade, one year after the change in their location. Immediately after the NATO bombing, both groups reacted in the same way: they often talked about the events they had survived, they were afraid of the sounds of alarm sirens and of aeroplanes, and in addition had similar dreams (no statistical variation between the groups). Emotional disturbances, one year after the bombing, were not observed in 40.6% of adolescents from Kosovo, compared to the figure of 74.8% for adolescents from Belgrade. Adolescents from Belgrade consumed alcohol significantly more often: 75.7% compared to 56.3% for adolescents from Kosovo. In addition, 20.4% of adolescents from Belgrade consumed psychoactive substances compared to 6.3% of adolescents from Kosovo. There was no significant difference between the examined groups in the total scores on the scale for neuroticism. All in all, the girls from both examined groups displayed neurotic tendencies more frequently than the boys.

  16. International Women's Year: Impact and Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipila, Helvi

    1975-01-01

    An overview of the International Women's Year, 1975, the World Conference of the International Women's Year, the World Plan of Action for the Implementation of the Objectives of the International Women's Year, and a Declaration of Principles adopted by the World Conference is presented. (LH)

  17. Exploring gender norms, agency and intimate partner violence among displaced Colombian women: A qualitative assessment.

    PubMed

    Hynes, Michelle E; Sterk, Claire E; Hennink, Monique; Patel, Shilpa; DePadilla, Lara; Yount, Kathryn M

    2016-01-01

    Women displaced by conflict are often exposed to many factors associated with a risk of intimate partner violence (IPV) such as high levels of community violence and the breakdown of social support systems. Previous research found that Colombian women perceived IPV to increase after displacement. This study explored how the experience of displacement altered gendered roles in ways that influenced the risk of IPV. Thirty-three qualitative interviews were conducted with displaced partnered Colombian women. Women disclosed that couples often held patriarchal gender norms; however, the roles of each partner necessitated by conditions of displacement were often in conflict with these norms. Men's underemployment and women's employment outside the home were viewed as gender transgressive within some partnerships and increased relationship conflict. Economic resources intended to empower displaced women, notably women's earnings and home ownership, had unintended negative consequences for women's agency. These consequences included a corresponding decrease in partner financial contributions and reduced mobility. Women's ability to obtain support or leave violent relationships was hindered by interpersonal, social and structural barriers. For women to have agency to leave violent relationships, power relationships at all levels from the interpersonal to societal must be recognised and addressed.

  18. Public self-consciousness moderates the link between displacement behaviour and experience of stress in women.

    PubMed

    Mohiyeddini, Changiz; Bauer, Stephanie; Semple, Stuart

    2013-07-01

    When stressed, people typically show elevated rates of displacement behaviour--activities such as scratching and face touching that seem irrelevant to the ongoing situation. Growing evidence indicates that displacement behaviour may play a role in regulating stress levels, and thus may represent an important component of the coping response. Recently, we found evidence that this stress-regulating effect of displacement behaviour is found in men but not in women. This sex difference may result from women's higher levels of public self-consciousness, which could inhibit expression of displacement behaviour due to the fear of projecting an inappropriate image. Here, we explored the link between public self-consciousness, displacement behaviour and stress among 62 healthy women (mean age = 26.59 years; SD = 3.61). We first assessed participants' public self-consciousness, and then quantified displacement behaviour, heart rate and cognitive performance during a Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and used self-report questionnaires to assess the experience of stress afterwards. Public self-consciousness was negatively correlated with rate of displacement behaviour, and positively correlated with both the subjective experience of stress post-TSST and the number of mistakes in the cognitive task. Moderation analyses revealed that for women high in public self-consciousness, high levels of displacement behaviour were associated with higher reported levels of stress and poorer cognitive performance. For women low in public self-consciousness, stress levels and cognitive performance were unrelated to displacement behaviour. Our findings indicate that public self-consciousness is associated with both the expression of displacement behaviour and how such behaviour mediates responses to social stress.

  19. Displacement behaviour is associated with reduced stress levels among men but not women.

    PubMed

    Mohiyeddini, Changiz; Bauer, Stephanie; Semple, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Sex differences in the ability to cope with stress may contribute to the higher prevalence of stress-related disorders among women compared to men. We recently provided evidence that displacement behaviour--activities such as scratching and face touching--represents an important strategy for coping with stressful situations: in a healthy population of men, displacement behaviour during a social stress test attenuated the relationship between anxiety experienced prior to this test, and the subsequent self-reported experience of stress. Here, we extend this work to look at physiological and cognitive (in addition to self-reported) measures of stress, and study both men and women in order to investigate whether sex moderates the link between displacement behaviour and the response to stress. In a healthy study population, we quantified displacement behaviour, heart rate and cognitive performance during the Trier Social Stress Test, and used self-report questionnaires to assess the experience of stress afterwards. Men engaged in displacement behaviour about twice as often as women, and subsequently reported lower levels of stress. Bivariate correlations revealed that for men, higher rates of displacement behaviour were associated with decreased self-reported stress, fewer mistakes in the cognitive task and a trend towards lower heart rate; no relationships between displacement behaviour and stress measures were found for women. Moreover, moderation analyses revealed that high rates of displacement behaviour were associated with lower stress levels in men but not in women, and that high displacement behaviour rates were associated with poorer cognitive performance in women, but not men. These results point to an important sex difference in coping strategies, and highlight new avenues for research into sex biases in stress-related disorders.

  20. Displacement Behaviour Is Associated with Reduced Stress Levels among Men but Not Women

    PubMed Central

    Mohiyeddini, Changiz; Bauer, Stephanie; Semple, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Sex differences in the ability to cope with stress may contribute to the higher prevalence of stress-related disorders among women compared to men. We recently provided evidence that displacement behaviour - activities such as scratching and face touching - represents an important strategy for coping with stressful situations: in a healthy population of men, displacement behaviour during a social stress test attenuated the relationship between anxiety experienced prior to this test, and the subsequent self-reported experience of stress. Here, we extend this work to look at physiological and cognitive (in addition to self-reported) measures of stress, and study both men and women in order to investigate whether sex moderates the link between displacement behaviour and the response to stress. In a healthy study population, we quantified displacement behaviour, heart rate and cognitive performance during the Trier Social Stress Test, and used self-report questionnaires to assess the experience of stress afterwards. Men engaged in displacement behaviour about twice as often as women, and subsequently reported lower levels of stress. Bivariate correlations revealed that for men, higher rates of displacement behaviour were associated with decreased self-reported stress, fewer mistakes in the cognitive task and a trend towards lower heart rate; no relationships between displacement behaviour and stress measures were found for women. Moreover, moderation analyses revealed that high rates of displacement behaviour were associated with lower stress levels in men but not in women, and that high displacement behaviour rates were associated with poorer cognitive performance in women, but not men. These results point to an important sex difference in coping strategies, and highlight new avenues for research into sex biases in stress-related disorders. PMID:23457555

  1. Internally displaced peoples in Bosnia-Herzegovina: impacts of long-term displacement on health and well-being.

    PubMed

    Kett, Maria E

    2005-01-01

    Several hundred thousand people remain internally displaced in Bosnia-Herzegovina living in camps and settlements. The public gaze of the media has long since moved on elsewhere and donors have shifted their resources. Displaced peoples have specific burdens over belonging, housing, occupation, welfare, security and loss of communities. The decision whether to return to their homes is complex, with local and international political pressures adding to their uncertainties and insecurities. In addition there is the impact of the war, the experiences of violence, the remembering and issues of reconciliation, and a variety of mostly unevaluated psychosocial programmes aimed at helping with these. All this has a profound impact on their health and well-being. Understanding these processes and the views of chronically displaced people themselves should guide policies of post-conflict management to plan for the longer-term and to be more focussed on the human factors rather than simply rules and properties.

  2. Assisting Workers Displaced by Structural Change. An International Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leigh, Duane E.

    This monograph takes the perspective that increased awareness of how active labor market programs operate in other nations can substantially improve the way in which the United States deals with worker displacement. Chapter 1 considers the costs of worker displacement and how government programs designed to reduce these costs are evaluated.…

  3. 34 CFR 403.81 - How must funds be used under the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program? 403.81 Section 403.81 Education Regulations of the... Secretary Assist Under the Basic Programs? Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women... Pregnant Women Program? A State shall use funds reserved in accordance with § 403.180(b)(2)(i)...

  4. Access to medicines among internally displaced and non-displaced people in urban areas in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Rodríguez, Myriam; Wirtz, Veronika J; Idrovo, Alvaro J; Angulo, Mary Lupe

    2012-12-01

    This study analyzes access to medicines among displaced and non-displaced populations in urban areas in Bucaramanga, Colombia. A household survey was carried out to study access to medicines for self-reported and medically diagnosed health conditions. Multiple Poisson regression with robust variance was used to determine factors associated with access to medicines. Two thousand and sixty individuals from 514 families participated. Only 29.1% (95%CI: 22.04-37.08) of the individuals in the sample with prescriptions and 44.3% (95%CI: 40.42-48.25) with self-reported needs for pharmacotherapy were taking medicines. Greater access was associated with the perceived severity of the illness, higher income, having a health center nearby and not perceiving barriers in accessing services. Social security affiliation and being displaced were not related. Social security coverage alone does not have an effect on access to medicines because it does not include essential medicines that correspond to the health needs of this population. Resolving administrative and geographical barriers is likely to improve access to medicines.

  5. Violence against women: the international legal response.

    PubMed

    Chinkin, C

    1995-06-01

    Violence against women has only recently become an international legal concern, because human rights law has been directed to protect men in their public lives. The failure of human rights law to protect women from gender-specific violence has occurred because much of the violence against women occurs in private and because cultural assumptions are used to justify the oppression of women. The silent nature of this violence has masked the reality of the international nature of the problem. Also, international law primarily regulates the behavior of states. Women have lobbied for recognition of the problem of violence against women within the UN agencies concerned with crime and those concerned with women's issues. It is illustrative of the marginalization of women's human rights issues that the international instrument which guarantees women's equality, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), was not drafted through the Human Rights Commission. CEDAW's Recommendation 19 directs the attention of states towards the elimination of gender-based violence, but the participation of the 139 states which are party to CEDAW is limited by reservations the states have attached to their participation. Wider commitment to the eradication of violence against women has been sought using other UN bodies, and, in 1993, the Declaration and Programme of Action of the World Conference on Human Rights called for the integration of women's human rights into all UN human rights activities, the General Assembly adopted the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women, and the Security Council of the International Tribunal was established to prosecute offenses committed in the former Yugoslavia, including rape. In 1994, the UN appointed a Special Rapporteur on Violence Against Women to provide a continuing focus on gender violence. These calls for the recognition of the human rights of women and girls must be reinforced by the

  6. International human rights and women's reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Cook, R J

    1993-01-01

    Neglect of women's reproductive health, perpetuated by law, is part of a larger, systematic discrimination against women. Laws obstruct women's access to reproductive health services. Laws protective of women's reproductive health are rarely or inadequately implemented. Moreover, few laws or policies facilitate women's reproductive health services. Epidemiological evidence and feminist legal methods provide insight into the law's neglect of women's reproductive health and expose long-held beliefs in the law's neutrality that harm women fundamentally. Empirical evidence can be used to evaluate how effectively laws are implemented and whether alternative legal approaches exist that would provide greater protection of individual rights. International human rights treaties, including those discussed in this article, are being applied increasingly to expose how laws that obstruct women's access to reproductive health services violate their basic rights.

  7. 34 CFR 403.82 - In what settings may the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In what settings may the Single Parents, Displaced... Secretary Assist Under the Basic Programs? Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program § 403.82 In what settings may the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant...

  8. 34 CFR 403.82 - In what settings may the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false In what settings may the Single Parents, Displaced... Secretary Assist Under the Basic Programs? Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program § 403.82 In what settings may the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant...

  9. 34 CFR 403.82 - In what settings may the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false In what settings may the Single Parents, Displaced... Secretary Assist Under the Basic Programs? Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program § 403.82 In what settings may the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant...

  10. 34 CFR 403.82 - In what settings may the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In what settings may the Single Parents, Displaced... Secretary Assist Under the Basic Programs? Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program § 403.82 In what settings may the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant...

  11. Internally displaced "victims of armed conflict" in Colombia: the trajectory and trauma signature of forced migration.

    PubMed

    Shultz, James M; Garfin, Dana Rose; Espinel, Zelde; Araya, Ricardo; Oquendo, Maria A; Wainberg, Milton L; Chaskel, Roberto; Gaviria, Silvia L; Ordóñez, Anna E; Espinola, Maria; Wilson, Fiona E; Muñoz García, Natalia; Gómez Ceballos, Angela Milena; Garcia-Barcena, Yanira; Verdeli, Helen; Neria, Yuval

    2014-10-01

    While conflict-induced forced migration is a global phenomenon, the situation in Colombia, South America, is distinctive. Colombia has ranked either first or second in the number of internally displaced persons for 10 years, a consequence of decades of armed conflict compounded by high prevalence of drug trafficking. The displacement trajectory for displaced persons in Colombia proceeds through a sequence of stages: (1) pre-expulsion threats and vulnerability, (2) expulsion, (3) migration, (4) initial adaptation to relocation, (5) protracted resettlement (the end point for most forced migrants), and, rarely, (6) return to the community of origin. Trauma signature analysis, an evidence-based method that elucidates the physical and psychological consequences associated with exposures to harm and loss during disasters and complex emergencies, was used to identify the psychological risk factors and potentially traumatic events experienced by conflict-displaced persons in Colombia, stratified across the phases of displacement. Trauma and loss are experienced differentially throughout the pathway of displacement.

  12. Refugees: The New International Politics of Displacement. Worldwatch Paper 43.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newland, Kathleen

    Separate sections of this document deal with refugee concerns in terms of a global approach, definitions of a refugee, alternatives for refugees, the international response, and long-term prospects. The booklet states that the present number of 16 million refugees is bound to increase given increasing rivalry over land and resources. The global…

  13. Forced migration and mental health: prolonged internal displacement, return migration and resilience.

    PubMed

    Siriwardhana, Chesmal; Stewart, Robert

    2013-03-01

    Forced internal displacement has been rising steadily, mainly due to conflict. Many internally displaced people (IDP) experience prolonged displacement. Global research evidence suggests that many of these IDP are at high risk for developing mental disorders, adding weight to the global burden of disease. However, individual and community resilience may act as protective factors. Return migration may be an option for some IDP populations, especially when conflicts end, although return migration may itself be associated with worse mental health. Limited evidence is available on effects of resettlement or return migration following prolonged forced internal displacement on mental health. Also, the role of resilience factors remains to be clarified following situations of prolonged displacement. The public health impact of internal displacement is not clearly understood. Epidemiological and interventional research in IDP mental health needs to look beyond medicalised models and encompass broader social and cultural aspects. The resilience factor should be integrated and explored more in mental health research among IDP and a clearly focused multidisciplinary approach is advocated.

  14. Anterior fracture displacement in Colles' fractures after Kapandji wiring in women over 59 years.

    PubMed

    Hollevoet, Nadine; Verdonk, René

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the radiological results of Colles' fractures treated with Kapandji wiring and to determine the frequency of postoperative anterior fracture displacement. The X-rays of 89 fractures in women over 59 years of age were evaluated. Five weeks after injury, palmar shift of the distal fracture fragments and/or palmar tilt of more than 20 degrees were observed in 26 patients. In ten wrists dorsal tilt was not sufficiently corrected and measured more than 10 degrees . Increase in ulnar variance was more than 2 mm in 37 wrists and more than 5 mm in six wrists; this was more pronounced when the palmar tilt was not corrected properly or when anterior fracture displacement was present. We conclude that Kapandji wiring may not be able to prevent anterior fracture displacement in almost one-third of Colles' fractures in osteoporotic elderly patients.

  15. Assessment of reproductive health and violence against women among displaced Syrians in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The current conflict in Syria continues to displace thousands to neighboring countries, including Lebanon. Information is needed to provide adequate health and related services particularly to women in this displaced population. Methods We conducted a needs assessment in Lebanon (June-August 2012), administering a cross-sectional survey in six health clinics. Information was collected on reproductive and general health status, conflict violence, stress, and help-seeking behaviors of displaced Syrian women. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to examine associations between exposure to conflict violence, stress, and reproductive health outcomes. Results We interviewed 452 Syrian refugee women ages 18–45 who had been in Lebanon for an average of 5.1 (± 3.7) months. Reported gynecologic conditions were common, including: menstrual irregularity, 53.5%; severe pelvic pain, 51.6%; and reproductive tract infections, 53.3%. Among the pregnancy subset (n = 74), 39.5% of currently pregnant women experienced complications and 36.8% of those who completed pregnancies experienced delivery/abortion complications. Adverse birth outcomes included: low birthweight, 10.5%; preterm delivery, 26.5%; and infant mortality, 2.9%. Of women who experienced conflict-related violence (30.8%) and non-partner sexual violence (3.1%), the majority did not seek medical care (64.6%). Conflict violence and stress score was significantly associated with reported gynecologic conditions, and stress score was found to mediate the relationship between exposure to conflict violence and self-rated health. Conclusions This study contributes to the understanding of experience of conflict violence among women, stress, and reproductive health needs. Findings demonstrate the need for better targeting of reproductive health services in refugee settings, as well as referral to psychosocial services for survivors of violence. PMID:24552142

  16. Women and International Intellectual Co-Operation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Joyce

    2012-01-01

    The article explores ways in which intellectual co-operation at the League of Nations [SDN] provided a space for the engagement of culturally elite women in intellectual co-operation circles in Geneva, Paris and a range of national contexts stretching across Europe, Latin America and Asia. It discusses the language of the "international mind" and…

  17. An International Perspective on Women in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelman-Ribeiro, Ariel

    2006-03-01

    The 1^st International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) Conference on Women in Physics, held in 2002 in Paris, France, highlighted a number of issues facing women physicists around the world. A second conference was held in May 2005 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with the goal of examining the progress made since the last conference and also to provide an opportunity for the delegates to present their research, both physics research and gender-related research, and to make contacts for future collaborations. The conference was attended by 145 delegates from 42 countries, including a very diverse delegation of 22 women and men from the U.S. The conference was organized by the Working Group on Women in Physics of IUPAP, which is charged with making recommendations to IUPAP on how to attract, retain, and increase the participation of women in physics at all levels. The conference included a round table discussion on ``Research Funding and Women in Physics,'' several plenary talks, a poster session on women in physics in each country, a poster session on research by individual delegates, and discussion groups on six topics including attracting girls into physics, launching a successful career, getting women into leadership, improving the institutional climate, learning from regional differences, and balancing family and career. Conference proceedings have been published that include research abstracts, summaries from the discussion groups, articles on the plenary talks, and papers from each country on the status of women in physics in their country (proceedings can be found at http://proceedings.aip.org/proceedings/confproceed/795.jsp). This talk will discuss the U. S. delegation and their country paper on the situation for women in physics in the U.S. as well as highlights from the information presented by the delegates from other nations. The outcomes of the 2002 conference will be described briefly and then the signs of progress noted in 2005 will be summarized.

  18. 34 CFR 403.81 - How must funds be used under the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How must funds be used under the Single Parents... Secretary Assist Under the Basic Programs? Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program § 403.81 How must funds be used under the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and...

  19. 34 CFR 403.81 - How must funds be used under the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How must funds be used under the Single Parents... Secretary Assist Under the Basic Programs? Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program § 403.81 How must funds be used under the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and...

  20. 34 CFR 403.81 - How must funds be used under the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How must funds be used under the Single Parents... Secretary Assist Under the Basic Programs? Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program § 403.81 How must funds be used under the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and...

  1. 34 CFR 403.81 - How must funds be used under the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How must funds be used under the Single Parents... Secretary Assist Under the Basic Programs? Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program § 403.81 How must funds be used under the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and...

  2. Dignity and the right of internally displaced adolescents in Colombia to sexual and reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Bosmans, Marleen; Gonzalez, Fernando; Brems, Eva; Temmerman, Marleen

    2012-10-01

    In Colombia, national policies and laws on the protection of vulnerable populations pay specific attention to the sexual and reproductive health needs and rights of internally displaced adolescents. This paper describes how a United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)-supported programme (September 2000-August 2004) on the sexual and reproductive health of internally displaced adolescents contributed to restoring their dignity as a precursor to promoting their sexual and reproductive health rights. Different forms of the arts were used as basic techniques to discover their body and to provide sexual and reproductive health information and education. The arts were found to play a key role in restoring their dignity. Although dignity appeared to be a determinant of greater awareness of rights, it did not lead to increased empowerment with regard to rights. The availability of and access to sexual and reproductive health services remains a problem and displaced populations continue to have little or no power to hold their authorities accountable.

  3. Outreach to internally displaced persons in Bogotá, Colombia: challenges and potential solutions.

    PubMed

    Shultz, James M; García, Natalia Muñoz; Ceballos, Ángela Milena Gómez; Florez, Luis Jorge Hernandez; Araya, Ricardo; Verdeli, Helen; Espinel, Zelde; Bolivar, Sandra Patricia Cipagauta; Neria, Yuval

    2014-01-01

    Programs that provide services for internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Colombia, South America face challenges when attempting to engage and enroll the target population of forced migrants they intend to serve. Innovative multi-strategy outreach approaches must be used in order to effectively seek, recruit, provide services, monitor, and retain IDPs.

  4. The Effects of Violence and Internal Displacement on Rural-Agrarian Change in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonmez, Abdulkerim

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses two interrelated issues that have assumed major political significance in the handling of the Kurdish question in Turkey. The first is the impact of violence and resulting internal displacement in Eastern and Southeastern Turkey on rural-agrarian change. The second concerns the implications of the structural change and social…

  5. Outreach to internally displaced persons in Bogotá, Colombia: challenges and potential solutions

    PubMed Central

    Shultz, James M; García, Natalia Muñoz; Ceballos, Ángela Milena Gómez; Florez, Luis Jorge Hernandez; Araya, Ricardo; Verdeli, Helen; Espinel, Zelde; Bolivar, Sandra Patricia Cipagauta; Neria, Yuval

    2014-01-01

    Programs that provide services for internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Colombia, South America face challenges when attempting to engage and enroll the target population of forced migrants they intend to serve. Innovative multi-strategy outreach approaches must be used in order to effectively seek, recruit, provide services, monitor, and retain IDPs. PMID:28229001

  6. Armed conflict, homonegativity, and forced internal displacement: Implications for HIV among Colombian gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals

    PubMed Central

    Reisen, Carol A.; Bianchi, Fernanda T.; Gonzales, Felisa A.; Betancourt, Fabián; Aguilar, Marcela; Poppen, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Colombia has endured six decades of civil unrest, population displacement, and violence. We examined the relationships of contextual conditions, displacement, and HIV among gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals in Bogotá, Colombia. Nineteen key informants provided information about internal displacement of sexual minorities. Life history interviews were conducted with 42 participants aged 18 to 48 years, and included questions about displacement experiences, sexual behaviour, life prior to displacement, and participants’ economic and social situation in Bogotá. The interplay of a variety of factors—including internal conflict and violence, homonegativity and “social cleansing,” gender and sexual identity, and poverty—strongly shaped the varied experiences of displacement. Migration, sexual violence, exchange sex, and low rates of HIV testing were risk factors that increased vulnerability for HIV in this displaced sample. Although displacement and HIV in Colombia are major problems, both are understudied. PMID:23586420

  7. Armed conflict, homonegativity and forced internal displacement: implications for HIV among Colombian gay, bisexual and transgender individuals.

    PubMed

    Zea, Maria Cecilia; Reisen, Carol A; Bianchi, Fernanda T; Gonzales, Felisa A; Betancourt, Fabián; Aguilar, Marcela; Poppen, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    Colombia has endured six decades of civil unrest, population displacement and violence. We examined the relationships between contextual conditions, displacement and HIV among gay, bisexual and transgender individuals in Bogotá, Colombia. A total of 19 key informants provided information about internal displacement of sexual minorities. Life-history interviews were conducted with 42 participants aged 18 to 48 years and included questions about displacement experiences, sexual behaviour, life prior to displacement and participants' economic and social situation in Bogotá. The interplay of a variety of factors - including internal conflict and violence, homonegativity and 'social cleansing', gender and sexual identity and poverty - strongly shaped the varied experiences of displacement. Migration, sexual violence, exchange sex and low rates of HIV testing were risk factors that increased vulnerability for HIV in this displaced sample. Although displacement and HIV in Colombia are major problems, both are understudied.

  8. Displaced avulsion of the ischial apophysis: a hamstring injury requiring internal fixation

    PubMed Central

    Servant, C. T.; Jones, C. B.

    1998-01-01

    A case is reported of an adolescent sprinter who was chronically disabled by pain after non-operative management for an acute hamstring injury. He had sustained an avulsion fracture of the ischial apophysis with displacement of 2.5 cm. Avulsion fractures of the ischial apophysis with displacement of 2 cm or more are unusual, but they frequently result in a symptomatic non-union, and early diagnosis, open reduction, and internal fixation is to be encouraged. 


 PMID:9773178

  9. 34 CFR 403.82 - In what settings may the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... pregnant women. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 2335(b)) Sex Equity Program ... Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program be offered? 403.82 Section 403.82 Education Regulations of the... Secretary Assist Under the Basic Programs? Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant...

  10. Providing reproductive health care to internally displaced persons: barriers experienced by humanitarian agencies.

    PubMed

    Hakamies, Nina; Geissler, Paul Wenzel; Borchert, Matthias

    2008-05-01

    Reproductive health care for internally displaced persons (IDPs) is recognised by the Inter-Agency Working Group on Reproductive Health in Refugee Situations and the Reproductive Health Response in Conflict Consortium as a neglected area in humanitarian relief operations. To identify barriers to agencies providing reproductive health care to IDPs, and their strategies for overcoming these barriers, we interviewed representatives of 12 relief and development agencies providing health care to conflict-affected populations. Although material and human resources are significant constraints on agencies, the main challenge is to tackle ideological, managerial and policy barriers, and those related to donor influence. The absence of a legal instrument that recognises IDPs internationally has contributed to the difficulties agencies face in systematically reaching IDPs. Our findings suggest that considerable efforts are needed to close the gap between international commitments and the provision of services at field level. We recommend that agencies carry out awareness-raising activities internally and among partner organisations and donors, strengthen internal organisation and inter-agency collaboration and share expertise in order to maximise benefits and save resources at the local level. We also recommend exploring the possibility of an international convention to protect the rights of internally displaced persons.

  11. [Factors affecting access to health care institutions by the internally displaced population in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Mogollón-Pérez, Amparo Susana; Vázquez, María Luisa

    2008-04-01

    In Colombia, the on-going armed conflict causes displacement of thousands of persons that suffer its economic, social, and health consequences. Despite government regulatory efforts, displaced people still experience serious problems in securing access to health care. In order to analyze the institutional factors that affect access to health care by the internally displaced population, a qualitative, exploratory, and descriptive study was carried out by means of semi-structured individual interviews with a criterion sample of stakeholders (81). A narrative content analysis was performed, with mixed generation of categories and segmentation of data by themes and informants. Inadequate funding, providers' problems with reimbursement by insurers, and lack of clear definition as to coverage under the Social Security System in Health pose barriers to access to health care by the internally displaced population. Bureaucratic procedures, limited inter- and intra-sector coordination, and scarce available resources for public health service providers also affect access. Effective government action is required to ensure the right to health care for this population.

  12. The Gendered International School: Barriers to Women Managers' Progression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Ruth Elizabeth; Whitehead, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the barriers women identify to their promotion in international schools and also the ways in which women can overcome these barriers. Design/methodology/approach: The field of enquiry is international schools, with the study drawing on qualitative research. The researchers interviewed 11 women from…

  13. Ultrasonic array speckle image correlation for internal strain and displacement measurement in metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowler, Adam; Drinkwater, Bruce W.; Wilcox, Paul D.

    2009-03-01

    This paper describes an approach to measuring internal displacements and strains in metals. The technique has the advantage over optical surface strain measurement techniques in that internal information is obtained. The principle is to use an ultrasonic array to record images of the speckle pattern produced by the material microstructure before and after the application of load. A cross-correlation algorithm is then used to determine the relative displacement of portions of the images between the two load states, and hence the strain field. The mathematical basis of the technique is summarized, and experimental results are presented. The results demonstrate that the technique can be used for example to measure the onset of plasticity and non-uniform strain fields deep in a material.

  14. A small-displacement sensor using total internal reflection theory and surface plasmon resonance technology for heterodyne interferometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shinn-Fwu

    2009-01-01

    A small-displacement sensor based on total-internal reflection theory and surface plasmon resonance technology is proposed for use in heterodyne interferometry. A small displacement can be obtained simply by measuring the variation in phase difference between s- and p-polarization states with the small-displacement sensor. The theoretical displacement resolution of the small-displacement sensor can reach 0.45 nm. The sensor has some additional advantages, e.g., a simple optical setup, high resolution, high sensitivity and rapid measurement. Its feasibility is also demonstrated.

  15. Development of Displacement Gages Exposed to Solid Rocket Motor Internal Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolton, D. E.; Cook, D. J.

    2003-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) has three non-vented segment-to-segment case field joints. These joints use an interference fit J-joint that is bonded at assembly with a Pressure Sensitive Adhesive (PSA) inboard of redundant O-ring seals. Full-scale motor and sub-scale test article experience has shown that the ability to preclude gas leakage past the J-joint is a function of PSA type, joint moisture from pre-assembly humidity exposure, and the magnitude of joint displacement during motor operation. To more accurately determine the axial displacements at the J-joints, two thermally durable displacement gages (one mechanical and one electrical) were designed and developed. The mechanical displacement gage concept was generated first as a non-electrical, self-contained gage to capture the maximum magnitude of the J-joint motion. When it became feasible, the electrical displacement gage concept was generated second as a real-time linear displacement gage. Both of these gages were refined in development testing that included hot internal solid rocket motor environments and simulated vibration environments. As a result of this gage development effort, joint motions have been measured in static fired RSRM J-joints where intentional venting was produced (Flight Support Motor #8, FSM-8) and nominal non-vented behavior occurred (FSM-9 and FSM-10). This data gives new insight into the nominal characteristics of the three case J-joint positions (forward, center and aft) and characteristics of some case J-joints that became vented during motor operation. The data supports previous structural model predictions. These gages will also be useful in evaluating J-joint motion differences in a five-segment Space Shuttle solid rocket motor.

  16. "Here nobody holds your heart": metaphoric and embodied emotions of birth and displacement among Karen women in Australia.

    PubMed

    Niner, Sara; Kokanovic, Renata; Cuthbert, Denise; Cho, Violet

    2014-09-01

    Our objective was to explore the ways in which displaced Karen mothers expressed emotions in narrative accounts of motherhood and displacement. We contextualized and analyzed interview data from an ethnographic study of birth and emotions among 15 displaced Karen mothers in Australia. We found that women shared a common symbolic language to describe emotions centered on the heart, which was also associated with heart "problems." This, along with hypertension, collapsing, or a feeling of surrender were associated responses to extremely adverse events experienced as displaced peoples. A metaphoric schema of emotional terms centered on the heart was connected to embodied expressions of emotion related to illness of the heart. This and other embodied responses were reactions to overwhelming difficulties and fear women endured due to their exposure to political conflict and global inequity.

  17. International Women Students: Perspectives for the 80s. Report of the International Women Student Conference (Boston, MA, August 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Leslie, Ed.; Sjoberg, Steve, Ed.

    Proceedings of the 1981 International Women Student Conference, which disseminated information about the unique needs of international women students, are presented. Contents include the following: "The Role of the Educated Woman: Views from North Africa and the Middle East," Leila Fawaz; "The Role of Educated Women in…

  18. Vaccine-preventable diseases in humanitarian emergencies among refugee and internally-displaced populations

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Eugene; McCarthy, Amanda; Brennan, Muireann

    2015-01-01

    Humanitarian emergencies may result in breakdown of regular health services including routine vaccination programs. Displaced populations including refugees and internally displaced persons are particularly susceptible to outbreaks of communicable diseases such as vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs). Common VPDs encountered in humanitarian emergencies include measles, polio, and depending on geographical location, meningococcal meningitis, yellow fever, hepatitis A, and cholera. We conducted a review of 50 published articles from 2000 to 2015 concerning VPDs in humanitarian emergencies. This article provides an update on the available literature regarding vaccinations among this highly vulnerable population and describes the unique challenges of VPDs during humanitarian emergencies. Humanitarian emergencies place affected populations at risk for elevated morbidity and mortality from VPDs due to creation or exacerbation of factors associated with disease transmission such as mass population movements, overcrowding, malnutrition, and poor water and sanitation conditions. Vaccination is one of the most basic and critical health interventions for protecting vulnerable populations during emergencies. Growing insecurity, as seen in the increasing number of targeted attacks on health workers in recent years, as well as destruction of cold chain and infrastructure for transportation of supplies, are creating new challenges in provision of life saving vaccines in conflict settings. Population displacement can also threaten global VPD eradication and elimination efforts. While highly effective vaccines and guidelines to combat VPDs are available, the trend of increasing number of humanitarian emergencies globally poses new and emerging challenges in providing vaccination among displaced populations. PMID:26406333

  19. Learning in and from the West: International Students and International Women's Organisations in the Interwar Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandell, Marie

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the importance of higher education to international women's organisations such as the International Federation of University Women, the International Council of Women, the International Alliance of Women and Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, and asks how studying abroad contributed to the…

  20. Multi-level partnerships to promote health services among internally displaced in eastern Burma.

    PubMed

    Mahn, M; Maung, C; Oo, E K Shwe; Smith, L; Lee, C I; Whichard, E; Neumann, C; Richards, A K; Mullany, L C; Kuiper, H; Lee, T J

    2008-01-01

    Ethnic populations in eastern Burma are the target of military policies that result in forced labour, destruction of food supplies, and massive forced displacement. Despite international assistance to Burmese refugees along the Thai-Burma border, traditional humanitarian models have failed to reach these internally displaced persons (IDPs) within Burma. Nevertheless, through the cultivation of a model (cross border local-global partnerships) 300,000 IDPs in eastern Burma now receive critical health services where, otherwise, there would be none. We describe key elements of the partnership model's genesis in eastern Burma. The role of the local partner, Backpack Health Worker Team (BPHWT), is highlighted for its indigenous access to the IDP populations and its maintenance of programmatic autonomy. These local elements are potentiated by international support for technical assistance, training, resources, and advocacy. International policy and investment should prioritize support of locally-driven health initiatives that utilize local-global partnerships to reach not only IDPs but also other war-torn or traditionally inaccessible populations worldwide.

  1. Evaluation of Single Parent, Displaced Homemaker, and Single Pregnant Women Programs in Texas Public Schools. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teddlie, Jessie; And Others

    A study evaluated previously funded vocational/applied technology programs to provide marketable skills to single parents, displaced homemakers, and single pregnant women throughout Texas. Program assessment questionnaires were sent to the program directors, administrators, high school principals, counselors, and program advisory committee members…

  2. Ethical challenges in mental health research among internally displaced people: ethical theory and research implementation.

    PubMed

    Siriwardhana, Chesmal; Adikari, Anushka; Jayaweera, Kaushalya; Sumathipala, Athula

    2013-03-12

    Millions of people undergo displacement in the world. Internally displaced people (IDP) are especially vulnerable as they are not protected by special legislation in contrast to other migrants. Research conducted among IDPs must be correspondingly sensitive in dealing with ethical issues that may arise. Muslim IDPs in Puttalam district in the North-Western province of Sri Lanka were initially displaced from Northern Sri Lanka due to the conflict in 1991. In the backdrop of a study exploring the prevalence of common mental disorders among the IDPs, researchers encountered various ethical challenges. These included inter-related issues of autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, confidentiality and informed consent, and how these were tailored in a culture-specific way to a population that has increased vulnerability. This paper analyses how these ethical issues were perceived, detected and managed by the researchers, and the role of ethics review committees in mental health research concerning IDPs. The relevance of guidelines and methodologies in the context of an atypical study population and the benefit versus risk potential of research for IDPs are also discussed. The limitations that were encountered while dealing with ethical challenges during the study are discussed. The concept of post-research ethical conduct audit is suggested to be considered as a potential step to minimize the exploitation of vulnerable populations such as IDPs in mental health research.

  3. Maternal and Child Health of Internally Displaced Persons in Ukraine: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Nidzvetska, Svitlana; Rodriguez-Llanes, Jose M.; Aujoulat, Isabelle; Gil Cuesta, Julita; Tappis, Hannah; van Loenhout, Joris A. F.; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2017-01-01

    Due to the conflict that started in spring 2014 in Eastern Ukraine, a total of 1.75 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) fled the area and have been registered in government-controlled areas of the country. This paper explores perceived health, barriers to access to healthcare, caring practices, food security, and overall financial situation of mothers and young children displaced by the conflict in Ukraine. This is a qualitative study, which collected data through semi-structured in-depth interviews with nine IDP mothers via Skype and Viber with a convenience sample of participants selected through snowball technique. Contrary to the expectations, the perceived physical health of mothers and their children was found not to be affected by conflict and displacement, while psychological distress was often reported. A weak healthcare system, Ukraine’s proneness to informal payments, and heavy bureaucracy to register as an IDP were reported in our study. A precarious social safety net to IDP mothers in Ukraine, poor dietary diversity, and a generalized rupture of vaccine stocks, with halted or delayed vaccinations in children were identified. Increasing social allowances and their timely delivery to IDP mothers might be the most efficient policy measure to improve health and nutrition security. Reestablishment and sustainability of vaccine stocks in Ukraine is urgent to avoid the risks of a public health crisis. Offering psychological support for IDP mothers is recommended. PMID:28075363

  4. Maternal and Child Health of Internally Displaced Persons in Ukraine: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Nidzvetska, Svitlana; Rodriguez-Llanes, Jose M; Aujoulat, Isabelle; Gil Cuesta, Julita; Tappis, Hannah; van Loenhout, Joris A F; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2017-01-09

    Due to the conflict that started in spring 2014 in Eastern Ukraine, a total of 1.75 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) fled the area and have been registered in government-controlled areas of the country. This paper explores perceived health, barriers to access to healthcare, caring practices, food security, and overall financial situation of mothers and young children displaced by the conflict in Ukraine. This is a qualitative study, which collected data through semi-structured in-depth interviews with nine IDP mothers via Skype and Viber with a convenience sample of participants selected through snowball technique. Contrary to the expectations, the perceived physical health of mothers and their children was found not to be affected by conflict and displacement, while psychological distress was often reported. A weak healthcare system, Ukraine's proneness to informal payments, and heavy bureaucracy to register as an IDP were reported in our study. A precarious social safety net to IDP mothers in Ukraine, poor dietary diversity, and a generalized rupture of vaccine stocks, with halted or delayed vaccinations in children were identified. Increasing social allowances and their timely delivery to IDP mothers might be the most efficient policy measure to improve health and nutrition security. Reestablishment and sustainability of vaccine stocks in Ukraine is urgent to avoid the risks of a public health crisis. Offering psychological support for IDP mothers is recommended.

  5. Quantifying Explosive Actions in International Women's Soccer.

    PubMed

    Meylan, César M; Trewin, Joshua; McKean, Kelly

    2016-08-24

    The aims of the current study were to examine the external validity of inertial based parameters (inertial movement analysis; IMA) to detect multi-planar explosive actions during maximal sprinting, change of direction (COD) and to further determine its reliability, set appropriate magnitude bands for match analysis and assess its variability during international women's soccer matches. Twenty U20 female soccer players, wearing GPS units with a built-in accelerometer, completed three trials of a 40-m sprint and a 20-m sprint with a change of direction to the right or left at 10-m. Further, thirteen women's national team players (157 files; 4-27 matches per player) were analyzed to ascertain match-to-match variability. Video synchronization indicated IMA signal was instantaneous with explosive movement (acceleration/deceleration/COD). Peak GPS velocity during the 40-m sprint showed similar reliability (CV = 2.1%) to timing gates, but increased pre- and post-COD (CV = 4.5-13%). IMA variability was greater at the start of sprints (CV = 16-21%) compared to pre- and post-COD (CV = 13-16%). IMA threshold for match analysis was set at 2.5m.s(-2) by subtracting one standard deviation from the mean IMA during sprint trials. IMA match variability (CV = 14%) differed from high-speed GPS metrics (35-60%). Practitioners are advised that timing lights should remain the gold standard for monitoring sprint and acceleration capabilities of athletes. However, IMA indicates a reliable method to monitor between match explosive actions and assess changes due to various factors such as congested schedule, tactics, heat or altitude.

  6. Independent Senior Women Who Travel Internationally: A Collective Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrett, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Nine independent women over age 55 who traveled internationally were investigated through a qualitative case study. The purpose of the study was to explore the women's attitudes, actions, and motivations during and after their international travel experiences. The adult, aging, experiential, and transformational theories of researchers such as…

  7. International women's movement comes of age at FWCW.

    PubMed

    O'haire, H

    1996-02-01

    This article focuses on what the women's conference achieved for women. The Fourth World Conference on Women (FWCW) recognized an international women's movement. Governments agreed that women were entitled to full human rights, reproductive rights, and equality in all aspects of life. Women were to become full and equal partners in the development process. Women are likely to demand action based on the paper declarations. The success of the conference is attributed to a powerful network of women's groups. A striking feature was the heading of most national delegations by women. It was recognized that women were full but neglected partners in families and societies. Governments acknowledged that women suffered discrimination within the family and society. Wording was rejected that would have given women the guaranteed right to determine the size and spacing of their families and the information and services to do so. The activity among women's groups in working together to restore this view strengthened the bonds between women's groups and created worldwide awareness and support for women's organizations. Networks that were established at Rio de Janeiro made their presence and position on reproductive health felt at the preparatory meetings to the UN Population Conference in Cairo. It was argued that a target-driven approach had the effect of treating women as reproduction machines. Women's groups also expressed strong positions on how women were to be treated in the formation of population policy and programs. 1) It was insisted that governments and population groups must stop dictating fertility regimes to women. 2) The concept of family planning must include reproductive health. 3) Women should have the freedom to exercise choice in planning their families. 4) Women should also have equal access to education and employment. Women came thus to Beijing with a clear vision of what they wanted. At Beijing domestic violence was for the first time condemned. Beijing

  8. International Women and Health Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's International and Communication Service, Carouge (Switzerland).

    Information on women and health from around the world is provided in this guide. So far, no country has formal mechanisms through which women themselves can create the policies and practices so critical to their own health and that of their families. A major purpose of the guide is to assist the many women's initiatives attempting to change this…

  9. Getting Women Into the Physics Leadership Structure Nationally and Internationally

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Elvira S.; Diaz, Lilliam Alvarez; Gebbie, Katharine B.; El-Sayed, Karimat

    2005-10-01

    The underrepresentation of women among physicists around the world, especially in leadership positions, has broad implications for industries and government agencies with a strong need for a technologically educated workforce. The dearth of women physicists in academia exacerbates the situation in that female students lack exposure to successful women in the field. Three years ago, an international group of women met for a round table discussion at the First IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics and discussed the importance of having women in leadership positions. They shared their experiences and successes, and drew up and reported a set of recommendations addressing the preparation of women for leadership, the selection process, and the responsibilities of institutions. They acknowledged that implementation of their recommendations would differ among countries. At the Second IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics an international group of women met again to review, revise, and move forward on revamped recommendations from the first conference. This is a report on the new set of revamped recommendations, which address why women should be in leadership positions, goal setting, best practices, commitments, and follow-up actions for the attendees of the second conference.

  10. Mental Disorders and Their Association With Disability Among Internally Displaced Persons and Returnees in Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Makhashvili, Nino; Chikovani, Ivdity; McKee, Martin; Bisson, Jonathan; Patel, Vikram; Roberts, Bayard

    2014-01-01

    There remains limited evidence on comorbidity of mental disorders among conflict-affected civilians, particularly internally displaced persons (IDPs) and former IDPs who have returned to their home areas (returnees). The study aim was to compare patterns of mental disorders and their influence on disability between IDPs and returnees in the Republic of Georgia. A cross-sectional household survey was conducted with adult IDPs from the conflicts in the 1990s, the 2008 conflict, and returnees. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, and disability were measured using cut scores on Trauma Screening Questionnaire, Patient Health Questionnaire 9, Generalised Anxiety Disorder 7, and the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0. Among the 3,025 respondents, the probable prevalence of PTSD, depression, anxiety, and comorbidity (>1 condition) was 23.3%, 14.0%, 10.4%, 12.4%, respectively. Pearson correlation coefficients (p < .001) were .40 (PTSD with depression), .38 (PTSD with anxiety), and .52 (depression with anxiety). Characteristics associated with mental disorders in regression analyses included displacement (particularly longer-term), cumulative trauma exposure, female gender, older age, poor community conditions, and bad household economic situation; coefficients ranged from 1.50 to 3.79. PTSD, depression, anxiety, and comorbidity were associated with increases in disability of 6.4%, 9.7%, 6.3%, and 15.9%, respectively. A high burden of psychiatric symptoms and disability persist among conflict-affected persons in Georgia. PMID:25322880

  11. Effect of the internal modulation of speckles in displacement measurements in optical vortex metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Tejada, Daniel; Sierra-Sosa, Daniel; Castañeda, Román.; Angel-Toro, Luciano

    2013-11-01

    The Optical Vortex Metrology is based on the possibility of characterizing, through topological and morphological parameters, each one of the vortices existing in the phase of the optical field, or in a pseudo-phase obtained by means of the Hibert, Reisz or Laguerre-Gauss transforms. On this basis, it is possible tracking and pairing the homologous vortices. Then, the locations and relative displacements between the homologous vortices are determined with sub-pixel precision. Because of the statistical nature of the measurements, their quality is determined, among other factors, by the amount of available vortices per unit area. In this work, it is proposed to use the internal modulation of the speckles to generate a significant increase in the vortex density, which can be achieved by employing a double aperture pupil optical system. Simulations of the speckle distributions are presented to analyze the increase of the vortex density as a function of the distance between the apertures, and to evaluate the influence of the increment of this density in the quality of uniform in-plane displacements measurements. The results corresponding to modulated speckles are compared with those obtained with a single aperture.

  12. Starting over from scratch: social support and youth coping with internal displacement.

    PubMed

    Makhoul, Jihad; Ghanem, Mary; Barbir, Farah

    2011-01-01

    This article presents findings from a qualitative research study with daughters of internally displaced families, more than a decade and half after the end of the Lebanese civil war. In-depth interviews with these adolescent girls indicate that in the absence of universal coverage of social security nets for the Lebanese, the effects of impoverishment and continuous mobility in the suburbs have adverse effects on their sense of stability, schooling, and coping. The article argues that although the effects of impoverishment are not new to similar urban youth populations, the quality of social support networks (ties to rural areas and support from welfare agency services) is a determining factor in the way they cope with adversity. Implications for policy are also presented.

  13. Internal fixation versus arthroplasty for displaced femoral neck fractures: what is the evidence?

    PubMed

    Heetveld, Martin J; Rogmark, Cecilia; Frihagen, Frede; Keating, John

    2009-07-01

    A review of the current evidence for internal fixation versus hemiarthroplasty versus primary total hip arthroplasty for displaced femoral neck fractures was undertaken. At the meta-analysis level no difference in postoperative pain, function, or quality of life can yet be demonstrated. A significant difference in mortality has also not been found, but a trend towards higher mortality after primary arthroplasty is possible. Internal fixation (IF) has less morbidity, but a higher risk of revision and less cost-effectiveness. Independent adjudication for IF technique is rare in studies and bias towards higher revision rates due to technical failure is an issue. Randomized trials comparing IF with arthroplasty remain underpowered in specific subgroups of patients, in which IF revision rates could be acceptable. In hemiarthroplasty the data suggest minimal differences in outcome between the prosthesis types. The cementless Austin-Moore prosthesis is out-dated. Currently a cemented unipolar or bipolar, depending on costs, hemi-arthroplasty is the treatment of choice for an elderly patient with functional limitations before the fracture. The role of modern, uncemented hemiarthroplasty designs are uncertain until more data are published. Total hip arthroplasty (THA) should be considered in any active older patient with a displaced femoral neck fracture. Patients with concomitant osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, or renal failure do poorly with other treatment options and should be treated with THA. Randomized trials have shown THA to be a cost-effective treatment with lower revision rates than IF. THA may also appear to be superior to hemiarthroplasty in specific subgroups, but larger trials are needed to confirm this observation.

  14. International Citizenship and the International Federation of University Women before 1939

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Joyce

    2011-01-01

    This article explores discursive languages through which leading women in the International Federation of University Women (IFUW) articulated their understandings of world citizenship and looks at what Caroline Spurgeon, the first President of the IFUW, called the "organised training of women to be citizens of the world." The central section…

  15. Women Work, Poverty Persists: A Status Report on Displaced Homemakers & Single Mothers in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women Work! The National Network for Women's Employment, Washington, DC.

    For many single mothers and displaced homemakers (homemakers who must suddenly enter the workforce), jobs often do not signify escape from poverty. 1990 U.S. Census data indicate that the number of single mothers and displaced homemakers rose dramatically during the 1980s. Workforce participation for this group also rose during that decade, but…

  16. Report on IUPAP's International Conference on Women in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karplus Hartline, Beverly

    2002-03-01

    Teams of physicists from more than 60 countries are expected to participate in IUPAP's International Conference on Women in Physics in Paris, France from 7-9 March 2002. Discussions and resolutions will focus on (1) Attracting Girls into Physics, (2) Launching a Successful Physics Career, (3) Improving the Institutional Structure and Climate for Women in Physics, (4) Getting Women into the Power Structure of Physics, Nationally and Internationally, (5) Learning from Regional Differences, and (6) Balancing Family and Career. This talk will summarize the results and insights from the conference, with an emphasis on followup actions and strategies applicable to the United States.

  17. Rapid establishment of an internally displaced persons disease surveillance system after an earthquake --- Haiti, 2010.

    PubMed

    2010-08-06

    On January 12, 2010, a 7.0-magnitude earthquake in Haiti disrupted infrastructure and displaced approximately 2 million persons, causing increased risk for communicable diseases from overcrowding and poor living conditions. Hundreds of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) established health-care clinics in camps of internally displaced persons (IDPs). To monitor conditions of outbreak potential identified at NGO camp clinics, on February 18, the Haiti Ministry of Public Health and Population (MSPP), the Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO), and CDC implemented the IDP Surveillance System (IDPSS). The Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) "cluster approach" was used to coordinate the Haiti humanitarian response. One of 11 clusters, the Global Health Cluster (GHC), builds global capacity, whereas the country-level cluster (in this case, the Haitian Health Cluster [HHC], led by PAHO) responds locally. During the Haiti response, HHC engaged NGOs serving large camps, established IDPSS, followed trends of reportable conditions, undertook epidemiologic and laboratory investigations, and fostered implementation of control measures. This report describes the design and implementation of IDPSS in the post-earthquake period. The primary challenges to implementing IDPSS were communication difficulties with an ever-changing group of NGO partners and limitations to the utility of IDPSS data because of lack of reliable camp population denominator estimates. The IDPSS experience reinforces the need to improve local communication and coordination strategies. Improving future humanitarian response requires advance development and distribution of easily adaptable standard surveillance tools, development of an interdisciplinary strategy for an early and reliable population census, and development of communication strategies using locally available Internet and cellular networks.

  18. Women in Physics: An International Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeil, Laurie

    1997-04-01

    This session organized by the APS Committee on the Status of Women in Physics will open with a brief memorial to Dr. Chien-Shung Wu, who died on February 16, 1997. It will continue with an exploration of the challenges faced by women in physics in various parts of the world. We will hear both personal and statistical pictures of the experiences of women in physics in Japan and Canada. The presentations from the two countries (approximately 20 min. each) will be followed by an open forum in which questions from the audience will be invited. "Chien-Shung Wu: In Memoriam" Speaker: Noemie Benczer-Koller. Dr. Chien-Shung Wu and her 1957 experiment on parity non-conservation shattered what was thought to be a fundamental law of physics. Her contributions to women in physics (including her election in 1975 to the APS Presidency) will be briefly recalled. The Japanese Perspective "A Female Physicist in Japan" Fumiko Yonezawa (President, Physical Society of Japan). Dr. Yonazawa will share her experiences as a female physicist in Japan, and describe the path she has taken to leadership in her professional society. The Canadian Perspective "Women in Physics in Canada: A Physics Graduate and Faculty Survey" Janis McKenna (Univ. of British Columbia). Dr. McKenna will present the results of a 1995 CAP-sponsored survey of women faculty and graduates in physics in Canada, which concluded that the situation for women in physics in Canada is very similar to that in the U.S. (only 5% of faculty members are women), and not as progressive as the situation in several European countries. "Physics on the Border: The 'Two-Body Problem' for Canadian Physicists" Ann McMillan (Atmospheric Environment Service). Dr. McMillan will describe how the geographic distribution of Canadian universities and research facilities poses unique problems for physicists balancing two careers in one family. She will discuss the particular challenges faced by female physicists, and the institutional responses to

  19. Open Reduction and Internal Fixation of Displaced Calcaneum, Intra-Articular Fractures by Locking Calcaneal Plate

    PubMed Central

    Santosha; Singh, Arambam Mahendra; Waikhom, Sanjib; Pakhrin, Vishal; Mukherjee, Sagnik; Debbarma, Rajkumar; Prashant, Prabhu Shrinivas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Calcaneal fractures constitute the most common fractures in hindfoot. Lots of controversies exist in the management of calcaneal fractures but now-a-days, it is preferable to perform open reduction and internal fixation and early mobilizatation. Aim To evaluate the functional outcome after open reduction and internal fixation of displaced intra-articular fractures of the calcaneum by locking calcaneal plate. Materials and Methods The study was conducted in the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery from September 2013 to April 2016. Thirty intra-articular fractures of the calcaneum were treated by locking calcaneal plate. Patients were followed up for a period of 24 months. Bohler’s angle was measured in preoperative, immediate Post-operative period and after 2 years, follow-up was compared. Results were evaluated according to American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) Score. Results After 24 months of follow-up, all 24 patients were available for evaluation. Radiological union was achieved in a mean time of 12.5 weeks. Mean duration of hospital stay was 21 days. Bohler’s angle was significantly higher after 2 years of follow-up when compared with preoperative x-ray. According to the AOFAS, Ankle–Hind foot Scale outcome score results were excellent in 43.3% of the patients, good in 33.3%, fair in 10%, and poor in 13.3% of patients. The mean AOFAS score was 79.9 (Range 49-96). Conclusion Open reduction and internal fixation of intra-articular fractures of the calcaneum with locking calcaneal plate gives good results. Maintenance of calcaneal height and Bohler’s angle helps to decrease the incidence of subtalar arthritis. PMID:28208957

  20. Integrating Material on the Internment into Anthropology and Women's Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacks, Karen B.

    1993-01-01

    Describes plans to use material from a seminar on integrating material about the Japanese-American internment in World War II into the curriculum of the University of California Los Angeles. Describes efforts to develop a unit on the gender and racial dimensions of internment for a women's studies course. (SLD)

  1. Immune Responses to an Oral Cholera Vaccine in Internally Displaced Persons in South Sudan.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Anita S; Bouhenia, Malika; Rumunu, John; Abubakar, Abdinasir; Gruninger, Randon J; Pita, Jane; Lino, Richard Lako; Deng, Lul L; Wamala, Joseph F; Ryan, Edward T; Martin, Stephen; Legros, Dominique; Lessler, Justin; Sack, David A; Luquero, Francisco J; Leung, Daniel T; Azman, Andrew S

    2016-10-24

    Despite recent large-scale cholera outbreaks, little is known about the immunogenicity of oral cholera vaccines (OCV) in African populations, particularly among those at highest cholera risk. During a 2015 preemptive OCV campaign among internally displaced persons in South Sudan, a year after a large cholera outbreak, we enrolled 37 young children (1-5 years old), 67 older children (6-17 years old) and 101 adults (≥18 years old), who received two doses of OCV (Shanchol) spaced approximately 3 weeks apart. Cholera-specific antibody responses were determined at days 0, 21 and 35 post-immunization. High baseline vibriocidal titers (>80) were observed in 21% of the participants, suggesting recent cholera exposure or vaccination. Among those with titers ≤80, 90% young children, 73% older children and 72% adults seroconverted (≥4 fold titer rise) after the 1(st) OCV dose; with no additional seroconversion after the 2(nd) dose. Post-vaccination immunological endpoints did not differ across age groups. Our results indicate Shanchol was immunogenic in this vulnerable population and that a single dose alone may be sufficient to achieve similar short-term immunological responses to the currently licensed two-dose regimen. While we found no evidence of differential response by age, further immunologic and epidemiologic studies are needed.

  2. Immune Responses to an Oral Cholera Vaccine in Internally Displaced Persons in South Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Anita S.; Bouhenia, Malika; Rumunu, John; Abubakar, Abdinasir; Gruninger, Randon J.; Pita, Jane; Lino, Richard Lako; Deng, Lul L.; Wamala, Joseph F.; Ryan, Edward T.; Martin, Stephen; Legros, Dominique; Lessler, Justin; Sack, David A.; Luquero, Francisco J.; Leung, Daniel T.; Azman, Andrew S.

    2016-01-01

    Despite recent large-scale cholera outbreaks, little is known about the immunogenicity of oral cholera vaccines (OCV) in African populations, particularly among those at highest cholera risk. During a 2015 preemptive OCV campaign among internally displaced persons in South Sudan, a year after a large cholera outbreak, we enrolled 37 young children (1–5 years old), 67 older children (6–17 years old) and 101 adults (≥18 years old), who received two doses of OCV (Shanchol) spaced approximately 3 weeks apart. Cholera-specific antibody responses were determined at days 0, 21 and 35 post-immunization. High baseline vibriocidal titers (>80) were observed in 21% of the participants, suggesting recent cholera exposure or vaccination. Among those with titers ≤80, 90% young children, 73% older children and 72% adults seroconverted (≥4 fold titer rise) after the 1st OCV dose; with no additional seroconversion after the 2nd dose. Post-vaccination immunological endpoints did not differ across age groups. Our results indicate Shanchol was immunogenic in this vulnerable population and that a single dose alone may be sufficient to achieve similar short-term immunological responses to the currently licensed two-dose regimen. While we found no evidence of differential response by age, further immunologic and epidemiologic studies are needed. PMID:27775046

  3. Clinical results of using the proximal humeral internal locking system plate for internal fixation of displaced proximal humeral fractures.

    PubMed

    Norouzi, Masoud; Naderi, Mohammad Nasir; Komasi, Mehdi Hemmati; Sharifzadeh, Seyyed Reza; Shahrezaei, Mostafa; Eajazi, Alireza

    2012-05-01

    Proximal humerus fractures are accounting for 4-5% of all fractures with increasing incidence. Proximal Humeral Internal Locking System (PHILOS) plate is a new plate which permits early mobility and lowers the risk of complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional outcome and the complication rate after using this plate. Between 2006-2008, 37 patients with displaced 2-, 3-, and 4-part fractures of the proximal humerus underwent surgery using PHILOS plate. The mean range of follow-up was 12 months. Twenty patients were aged 60 years and younger, and 17 were aged older than 60 years. The average American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score at the final follow-up was 77.62. According to Michener and colleagues classification, 5.4% of patients had an excellent outcome, 72.9% were minimally functionally limited, 16.2% were moderately functionally limited, and 5.4% were maximally functionally limited. The average ASES score between patients 60 years and older and those 60 years and younger was not different significantly. One patient developed avascular necrosis of the humeral head, 2 patients developed an infection, and no patients developed a nonunion. Fixation with PHILOS plate can be considered a good method with high union rates for this kind of fracture, especially in the older population with osteoporotic bone.

  4. Internally Displaced “Victims of Armed Conflict” in Colombia: The Trajectory and Trauma Signature of Forced Migration

    PubMed Central

    Shultz, James M.; Garfin, Dana Rose; Espinel, Zelde; Araya, Ricardo; Oquendo, Maria A.; Wainberg, Milton L.; Chaskel, Roberto; Gaviria, Silvia L.; Ordóñez, Anna E.; Espinola, Maria; Wilson, Fiona E.; García, Natalia Muñoz; Ceballos, Ángela Milena Gómez; Garcia-Barcena, Yanira; Verdeli, Helen; Neria, Yuval

    2016-01-01

    While conflict-induced forced migration is a global phenomenon, the situation in Colombia, South America, is distinctive. Colombia has ranked either first or second in the number of internally displaced persons for 10 years, a consequence of decades of armed conflict compounded by high prevalence of drug trafficking. The displacement trajectory for displaced persons in Colombia proceeds through a sequence of stages: (1) pre-expulsion threats and vulnerability, (2) expulsion, (3) migration, (4) initial adaptation to relocation, (5) protracted resettlement (the end point for most forced migrants), and, rarely, (6) return to the community of origin. Trauma signature analysis, an evidence-based method that elucidates the physical and psychological consequences associated with exposures to harm and loss during disasters and complex emergencies, was used to identify the psychological risk factors and potentially traumatic events experienced by conflict-displaced persons in Colombia, stratified across the phases of displacement. Trauma and loss are experienced differentially throughout the pathway of displacement. PMID:25135775

  5. Skirting the issue: women and international health in historical perspective.

    PubMed Central

    Birn, A E

    1999-01-01

    Over the last decades women have become central to international health efforts, but most international health agencies continue to focus narrowly on the maternal and reproductive aspects of women's health. This article explores the origins of this paradigm as demonstrated in the emergence of women's health in the Rockefeller Foundation's public health programs in Mexico in the 1920s and 1930s. These efforts bore a significant reproductive imprint; women dispensed and received services oriented to maternal and childbearing roles. Women's health and social advocacy movements in Mexico and the United States partially shaped this interest. Even more important, the emphasis on women in the Rockefeller programs proved an expedient approach to the Foundation's underlying goals: promoting bacteriologically based public health to the government, medical personnel, business interests, and peasants; helping legitimize the Mexican state; and transforming Mexico into a good political and commercial neighbor. The article concludes by showing the limits to the maternal and reproductive health model currently advocated by most donor agencies, which continue to skirt--or sidestep--major concerns that are integral to the health of women. Images p400-a p401-a p402-a p403-a PMID:10076494

  6. Women's Participation in Physics Internationally: the IUPAP Working Group on Women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franz, Judy

    2001-04-01

    In 1999 the General Assembly of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) voted to establish a Working Group on Women in Physics with the following charge: to survey the situation for women in physics in IUPAP member countries; to analyze and report the data collected along with suggestions on how to improve the situation; to suggest ways that women can become more involved in IUPAP, including the Liaison Committees, the Commissions, the Council, and the General Assemblies; and to report all findings at the next General Assembly in 2002. The Working Group was established in 2000 with 11 members representing North and South America, Europe, Asia and the Middle East/Africa. The Group has been gathering data on women in physics and is planning to hold an International Conference on Women in Physics at UNESCO Headquarters in Paris in March, 2002. I will discuss some of the findings and the plans for the future.

  7. Caribbean international circulation: are Puerto Rican women tied-circulators?

    PubMed

    Conway, D; Ellis, M; Shiwdhan, N

    1990-01-01

    Aspects of migration between Puerto Rico and the United States are explored. "This examination of the multiple-movement behaviour of a sample of Puerto Rican women seeks to unravel the relations between their circulation patterns, their family and contextual situations and their declared motives for undertaking international mobility. The leading question asked in this study is whether this international mobility behaviour of Puerto Rican women is autonomous or dependent upon the movement or decision-making of others. Structural theory suggests the latter is most likely, but behavioural divergence occurs in return movement."

  8. Violence against women in war: rape, AIDS, sex slavery. International.

    PubMed

    At an international conference attended by 2000 delegates, violence against women in Rwanda, former Yugoslavia, and Kurdistan was discussed. Kalliope Migirou, of the United Nations Human Rights Field Operation in Rwanda, described the slaughter of between 500,000 and 1.5 million Tutsis and moderate Hutus in 1994; estimates of the number of rapes ranged from 15,700 (Rwandan government) to 250,000-500,000 (UN special representative). Women were gang-raped and sexually mutilated; fathers were forced to rape their daughters, and sons, their mothers. The transmission of HIV was used as a weapon to murder women and their communities. Women were taken to refugee camps as sex slaves and have written their families about their "new marriages" to Hutu militia men. No rape charge is found among the more than 4000 cases prepared for the Rwandan war crimes trial. 80,000 Rwandans are in prison on suspicion of participating in the genocide; 8% are women. Violete Krasnic, of the Autonomous Women's Center Against Sexual Violence in Belgrade, spoke about the war in former Yugoslavia, which increased all forms of violence against women: 1) domestic violence, particularly in inter-ethnic marriages; 2) death threats against women (up 30-50%); 3) rape (up 30%); and 4) threats with weapons (40%). Men, upon exposure to nationalistic propaganda, used violence against their wives. Nazaneen Rasheed, a London-based representative of the Women's Union of Kurdistan, stated that women in northern Iraq had no power or land. While some turned to prostitution to survive, hundreds were killed by male relatives because of shame to the family.

  9. A women's support group for Asian international students.

    PubMed

    Carr, Joetta L; Koyama, Miki; Thiagarajan, Monica

    2003-01-01

    International students underuse counseling services, which are grounded in Western cultural values. The authors describe a support group for Asian international students that they launched at a large midwestern university to help students feel at ease with American university life, address homesickness, language problems, and academic and social stressors. Co-leaders created a safe and culturally sensitive atmosphere where the women could network, socialize, and address their issues. Group treatment offers many advantages over individual counseling and can enhance the health of international students.

  10. Violence Against Women in Hong Kong: Results of the International Violence Against Women Survey.

    PubMed

    Bouhours, Brigitte; Broadhurst, Roderic

    2015-11-01

    In Hong Kong, nearly 1,300 women participated by telephone in the International Violence Against Women Survey in 2006. One in five respondents had experienced violence since age 16. Sexual violence (13.4%) was more frequent than physical violence (11.7%). Women were more likely to be abused by men they knew (13.5%) than by strangers (8%). Compared with other surveyed countries, Hong Kong recorded among the lowest rates of violence by both intimate partners and non-partners. These results suggest that cultural influences linked to the interaction of modernization and some protective factors found in the adherence to traditional Chinese values are relevant.

  11. Costs of internal fixation and arthroplasty for displaced femoral neck fractures: a randomized study of 68 patients.

    PubMed

    Rogmark, Cecilia; Carlsson, Ake; Johnell, Olof; Sembo, Ingemar

    2003-06-01

    We included in a prospective, randomized study 68 patients aged 70 years or older, with displaced cervical hip fractures. The patients were randomized to internal fixation with hook-pins (36) or primary arthroplasty (32) (total or hemiarthroplasty due to their prefracture status) and followed for 2 years. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis, mental confusion and/or residence in an institution were excluded. The postoperative stay in hospital, rehabilitation wards or nursing homes were recorded as well as complications and the costs of surgery. The aim of this study was to compare the accumulated costs of each method, during the first 2 years after the fracture. In the internal fixation group, 15/36 were considered failures, as compared to 1/32 in the arthroplasty group. As regards primary treatment of the fracture, the durations of surgery and hospital stay were shorter after internal fixation, but the total need for hospitalization/institutionalization was somewhat longer in these patients. The mean 2-year cost for a patient with internal fixation was USD 21,000 and of one with primary arthroplasty USD 15,000. We conclude that primary arthroplasty is a cost-efficient treatment. Considering the very much higher failure rate after internal fixation--leading to increased suffering for these patients--primary arthroplasty stands out as the best method for displaced fractures of the femoral neck.

  12. Mixed Methods Research with Internally Displaced Colombian Gay and Bisexual Men and Transwomen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zea, Maria Cecilia; Aguilar-Pardo, Marcela; Betancourt, Fabian; Reisen, Carol A.; Gonzales, Felisa

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the use of mixed methods research to further understanding of displaced Colombian gay and bisexual men and transwomen, a marginalized population at risk. Within the framework of communicative action, which calls for social change through egalitarian dialog, we describe how our multinational, interdisciplinary research team explored the…

  13. Reproductive Health Education and Services Needs of Internally Displaced Persons and Refugees following Disaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westhoff, Wayne W.; Lopez, Guillermo E.; Zapata, Lauren B.; Wilke Corvin, Jaime A.; Allen, Peter; McDermott, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Following the occurrence of natural or man-made disaster, relief worker priorities include providing water, food, shelter, and immunizations for displaced persons. Like these essential initiatives, reproductive health education and services must also be incorporated into recovery efforts. Purpose: This study examined reproductive…

  14. International Trade and Worker Displacement: Evaluation of the Trade Adjustment Assistance Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Paul T.; Corson, Walter

    1995-01-01

    Two samples of Trade Adjustment Assistance Program participants before and after 1988 program changes were studied. The program served workers who were permanently displaced and suffered significant earnings losses, but there was no evidence that training affected earnings three years after initial unemployment. (SK)

  15. Women's Education and Empowerment. Report of the International Seminar (Hamburg, Germany, January 27-February 2, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. for Education.

    These proceedings contain the following papers: "The International Seminar on Women's Empowerment" (Anonuevo, Bochynek); "The Theoretical and Practical Bases for Empowerment" (Stromquist); "Some Reflections on the Empowerment of Women" (Lazo); "Women's Literacy and Empowerment: The Nellore Experience"…

  16. Women Physicists Speak: The 2001 International Study of Women in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivie, Rachel; Czujko, Roman; Stowe, Katie

    2002-09-01

    The Working Group on Women in Physics of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) subcontracted with the Statistical Research Center of the American Institute of Physics (AIP) to conduct an international study on women in physics. This study had two parts. First, we conducted a benchmarking study to identify reliable sources and collect data on the representation of women in physics in as many IUPAP member countries as possible. Second, we conducted an international survey of individual women physicists. The survey addressed issues related to both education and employment. On the education side, we asked about experiences and critical incidents from secondary school through the highest degree earned. On the employment side, we asked about how the respondents' careers had evolved and their self-assessment of how well their careers had progressed. In addition, the questionnaire also addressed issues that cut across education and employment, such as the impact of marriage and children, the factors that contributed the most toward the success they had achieved to date, and suggestions for what could be done to improve the situation of women physicists.

  17. Advancing Women in STEM at Florida International University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Caroline E.

    2015-01-01

    Florida International University (FIU) was awarded an NSF ADVANCE grant in 2011 to fund a partnership with the University of Michigan (UM) in order to improve the advancement of women faculty in STEM fields at FIU. FIU is a Carnegie "High Research Activity" doctoral granting institution, and is the fifth largest university in the country with over 54,000 students and 1,100 full-time faculty. The project at FIU was designed to adapt and implement some of the tools and practices shown to have increased the participation and advancement of women in the sciences at UM. The FIU ADVANCE program was funded from 2011-2014, and resulted in increased awareness of the issues facing women faculty in STEM fields, increased hiring of women into STEM faculty positions at FIU, and improved satisfaction for women in terms of some gender equity issues, pay, and recognition at FIU. I will give an overview of the program structure and components, provide examples and evidence of change, and discuss no-cost changes that can be implemented at other institutions.

  18. Putting the spotlight on internally displaced animals (IDAs): a survey of primate sanctuaries in Africa, Asia, and the Americas.

    PubMed

    Trayford, Hannah R; Farmer, Kay H

    2013-02-01

    As anthropogenic activity makes deeper incursions into forests, fragmenting habitat, wildlife is forced into closer proximity to humans leading to increased incidences of human-wildlife conflict and wildlife displacement. These same incursions facilitate poaching for the commercial trade in dead and live animals. As a direct result, the number of sanctuaries and internally displaced animals (IDAs) in need of sanctuary placement and rehabilitation are increasing. We focus on internally displaced primates given the prevalence of primate-focused facilities and anthropomorphic considerations surrounding this taxonomic group. Surveys were distributed globally to map the extent and range of native primate sanctuaries and species. Over 70 facilities care for more than 6,000 native primates comprising 64 species, with almost half listed as endangered or critically endangered. As not all sanctuaries were identified at the time of the survey distribution, we estimate that the actual number of facilities is closer to double this number with a captive population in excess of 10,000 individual primates. Native primate sanctuaries hold significant numbers of primates in long-term captive care, with less than half (37%) identified as candidates for release. The surveyed sanctuary population accounts for 35% of the world's captive primates, as compared to ISIS-registered (where ISIS is International Species Information System) zoological facilities, although we estimate that the actual population is closer to 58%. For some species, the sanctuary population represents the only population in captivity. We discuss the prevalence of range-state sanctuaries and their primate populations, and issues surrounding their future development and management.

  19. Carbon, land, and water footprint accounts for the European Union: consumption, production, and displacements through international trade.

    PubMed

    Steen-Olsen, Kjartan; Weinzettel, Jan; Cranston, Gemma; Ercin, A Ertug; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2012-10-16

    A nation's consumption of goods and services causes various environmental pressures all over the world due to international trade. We use a multiregional input-output model to assess three kinds of environmental footprints for the member states of the European Union. Footprints are indicators that take the consumer responsibility approach to account for the total direct and indirect effects of a product or consumption activity. We quantify the total environmental pressures (greenhouse gas emissions: carbon footprint; appropriation of biologically productive land and water area: land footprint; and freshwater consumption: water footprint) caused by consumption in the EU. We find that the consumption activities by an average EU citizen in 2004 led to 13.3 tCO(2)e of induced greenhouse gas emissions, appropriation of 2.53 gha (hectares of land with global-average biological productivity), and consumption of 179 m(3) of blue water (ground and surface water). By comparison, the global averages were 5.7 tCO(2)e, 1.23 gha, and 163 m(3) blue water, respectively. Overall, the EU displaced all three types of environmental pressures to the rest of the world, through imports of products with embodied pressures. Looking at intra-EU displacements only, the UK was the most important displacer overall, while the largest net exporters of embodied environmental pressures were Poland (greenhouse gases), France (land), and Spain (freshwater).

  20. Iraqi Refugee and Internally Displaced Persons Humanitarian Assistance, Resettlement, and Security Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Hastings, Alcee L. [D-FL-23

    2009-01-15

    03/16/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  1. Mixed Methods Research With Internally Displaced Colombian Gay and Bisexual Men and Transwomen

    PubMed Central

    Zea, Maria Cecilia; Aguilar-Pardo, Marcela; Betancourt, Fabian; Reisen, Carol A.; Gonzales, Felisa

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the use of mixed methods research to further understanding of displaced Colombian gay and bisexual men and transwomen, a marginalized population at risk. Within the framework of communicative action, which calls for social change through egalitarian dialog, we describe how our multinational, interdisciplinary research team explored the subjective, objective, and social worlds of participants through life history interviews and surveys. We also describe the unique Colombian context, conscious efforts to establish egalitarian relationships among research team members, and efforts to disseminate and reflect on findings. Through discussion of our research process and results, we aim to demonstrate how mixed methods research can be utilized to facilitate noncoercive discourse and contribute to social change. PMID:24926225

  2. 77 FR 65928 - The Secretary of State's International Council on Women's Business Leadership; Notice of Open...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ... Secretary of State's International Council on Women's Business Leadership; Notice of Open Meeting The Secretary of State's International Council on Women's Business Leadership (ICWBL) will meet from 3:00 p.m... the economic empowerment of women for global economic prosperity, where the State Department has...

  3. 76 FR 81005 - The Secretary of State's International Council on Women's Business Leadership; Notice of Open...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... Secretary of State's International Council on Women's Business Leadership; Notice of Open Meeting The Secretary of State's International Council on Women's Business Leadership (ICWBL) will meet from 9:15 a.m... the economic empowerment of women for global economic prosperity, where the State Department has...

  4. Archives of Transformation: A Case Study of the International Women's Network against Militarism's Archival System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cachola, Ellen-Rae Cabebe

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation describes the International Women's Network Against Militarism's (IWNAM) political epistemology of security from an archival perspective, and how they create community archives to evidence this epistemology. This research examines records created by Women for Genuine Security (WGS) and Women's Voices Women Speak (WVWS), U.S. and…

  5. InSAR time-series investigation of long-term ground displacement at Beijing Capital International Airport, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Mingliang; Gong, Huili; Chen, Beibei; Zhou, Chaofan; Chen, Wenfeng; Liang, Yue; Shi, Min; Si, Yuan

    2016-11-01

    Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) time-series analysis provides high spatial resolution and continuous temporal coverage for investigations of long-term ground displacement. Beijing, the capital city of China, has suffered from land subsidence since the 1950s, and extreme groundwater extraction has led to subsidence rates of > 100 mm/year. In this study, InSAR time-series analysis is performed on different data subsets to investigate the ground displacement at Capital International Airport, Beijing, between June 2003 and November 2013. The results show that the ground surface in the airport has deformed at different rates ranging from - 66.2 mm/year (sinking) to 8.2 mm/year (uplift) relative to the reference point. The projected vertical displacement rates agreed with measurements estimated from ground-leveling surveys, and the correlation coefficient of the fitting result is 0.96, with a standard deviation of 0.9 mm/year and a mean different of 2.0 mm/year. The runways and terminals have been affected by land subsidence to various degrees. Previous studies has indicated that long-term intense groundwater extraction is the main reason leading to land subsidence in this area. Other triggering factors, such as active faults, the quaternary compressible layers and urbanization, also have different degrees of contribution or impact on land subsidence in Beijing Plain. Furthermore, some interesting behaviors from groundwater (such as inter- and semi-annual variations) and subsidence, the relationship between them are also found in this study.

  6. Displaced Homemakers: Unresolved Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zawada, Mary Ann

    1980-01-01

    Problems of today's displaced homemakers overlap with those of women in the 1960s. Problems of women seeking employment are similar to those of minority groups, older workers and welfare recipients. Recent legislation has expanded to fulfill some of the needs of women returning to the labor force. (Author/BEF)

  7. Internal Fixation Versus Hemiarthroplasty for Displaced Intra-Capsular Femoral Neck Fractures in ASA 3-5 Geriatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Rezaie, W.; Wei, W.; Cleffken, B.I.; van der Vlies, C.H.; Cleffken, B.I.; Roukema, G.R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The treatment of choice for elderly with a displaced intra-capsular femoral neck fractures is prosthetic replacement. This is however a major surgical procedure for geriatric patients with multiple co-morbidities which can threaten hemodynamic stability and lead to death. In this study we compared the outcome of internal fixation (IF) versus hemiarthroplasty (HA) for the management of intra-capsular femoral neck fractures in the elderly with severe co-morbidities. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all the patients who were admitted to our Level-II trauma centre with a femoral neck fracture between January 2009 and June 2011. Inclusion criteria were: 70 years or older, ASA 3 or higher, a displaced femoral neck fracture and treatment with either internal fixation or a cemented hemiprosthesis. The primary outcome was 6-month mortality rate. Secondary outcomes were 30-day mortality, post-operative complications, re-operation rate and length of hospital stay. Results: 80 patients met our inclusion criteria. The mean age of the IF group was 81.6 years and in the HA group it was 84.5 years (P=0.07). The medical records were retrieved 34-64 months after surgery. Two intra-operative deaths due to cement implantation syndrome were found in the HA group and none in the IF group. Twelve patients (21.8%) in the HA group died within 30 days after surgery and 2 (8.0%) in the IF group (P=0.21). The mean operating time was 83 min. for the HA group and 51 min. for the IF group (P=0.000). There were more implant-related complications in the IF than in the HA group (36% vs 9.1% respectively, P=0.008). The 6-month mortality rates didn’t differ between the IF and the HA groups (respectively 28.0% vs 34.5%, P=0.62). Conclusion: The post-operative mortality rates did not differ between the IF and the HA groups in elderly patients with a displaced femoral neck fracture and ASA 3 to 5. However, the HA associated with less implant-related complications than

  8. Concurrent Outbreaks of Cholera and Peripheral Neuropathy Associated with High Mortality among Persons Internally Displaced by a Volcanic Eruption

    PubMed Central

    Rosewell, Alexander; Clark, Geoff; Mabong, Paul; Ropa, Berry; Posanai, Enoch; Man, Nicola W. Y.; Dutta, Samir R.; Wickramasinghe, Wasa; Qi, Lixia; Ng, Jack C.; Mola, Glen; Zwi, Anthony B.; MacIntyre, C. Raina

    2013-01-01

    Background In October 2004, Manam Island volcano in Papua New Guinea erupted, causing over 10 000 villagers to flee to internally displaced person (IDP) camps, including 550 from Dugulaba village. Following violence over land access in March 2010, the IDPs fled the camps, and four months later concurrent outbreaks of acute watery diarrhea and unusual neurological complaints were reported in this population. Materials and Methods A retrospective case-control study was conducted to identify the risk factors for peripheral neuropathy. Rectal swabs were collected from cases of acute watery diarrhea. Hair and serum metals and metalloids were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results There were 17 deaths among the 550 village inhabitants during the outbreak period at a crude mortality rate 21-fold that of a humanitarian crisis. Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor Ogawa was confirmed among the population. Access to community-level rehydration was crucial to mortality. Peripheral neuropathy was diagnosed among cases with neurological symptoms. A balanced diet was significantly protective against neuropathy. A dose-response relationship was seen between peripheral neuropathy and a decreasing number of micronutrient- rich foods in the diet. Deficiencies in copper, iron, selenium and zinc were identified among the cases of peripheral neuropathy. Conclusions Cholera likely caused the mostly preventable excess mortality. Peripheral neuropathy was not caused by cholera, but cholera may worsen existing nutritional deficiencies. The peripheral neuropathy was likely caused by complex micronutrient deficiencies linked to non-diversified diets that potentially increased the vulnerability of this population, however a new zinc-associated neuropathy could not be ruled out. Reoccurrence can be prevented by addressing the root cause of displacement and ensuring access to arable land and timely resettlement. PMID:24023752

  9. Predicting positive mental health in internally displaced persons in Indonesia: the roles of economic improvement and exposure to violent conflict.

    PubMed

    Saragih Turnip, Sherly; Sörbom, Dag; Hauff, Edvard

    2016-01-01

    Positive mental health, rather than just the absence of mental illness, is rarely investigated among the internally displaced persons (IDPs) affected by violent conflict in low-income countries. The purpose of this study was to investigate a model that could explain the interrelationship between factors contributing to positive mental health in displaced populations. In a longitudinal study we examine poverty, exposure to traumatic events and the change of material well-being after one year. We collected data in two consecutive years (2005 and 2006) from a community-based sample of IDPs in Ambon, Indonesia, through face-to-face structured interviews with consenting adults. Participants of this study were IDPs lived in Ambon during the violent conflict period. We interviewed 471 IDPs in the first year and reinterviewed 399 (85%) of the same subjects in the second year. The IDPs possessed good sense of coherence and subjective well-being. Our final model, which was generated by the use of structural equation modeling, fits the data well (χ(2) = 52.51, df = 45, p = .21, CFI = .99, RMSEA = .019). Exposure to violent conflict had a negative impact on IDPs' mental health initially and better economic conditions improved it (r = -.30 and .29 respectively). Mental health status one year previously was a strong predictor of future mental health, followed by individual economic growth in the past year (r = .43 and .29 respectively). On a group level the IDPs were resilient and adaptive to survive in adverse living conditions after devastating violent conflict, and the economic improvement contributed to it.

  10. Detection of Esophageal Fiducial Marker Displacement During Radiation Therapy With a 2-dimensional On-board Imager: Analysis of Internal Margin for Esophageal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Fukada, Junichi; Hanada, Takashi; Kawaguchi, Osamu; Ohashi, Toshio; Takeuchi, Hiroya; Kitagawa, Yuko; Seki, Satoshi; Shiraishi, Yutaka; Ogata, Haruhiko; Shigematsu, Naoyuki

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To quantify the interfraction displacement of esophageal fiducial markers for primary esophageal cancer radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Orthogonal 2-dimensional (2D) matching records fused to vertebrae were analyzed in clinically staged T1/2N0 esophageal cancer patients undergoing endoscopic clipping as fiducial metal markers. Displacement of the markers between the digitally reconstructed radiographs and on-board kilovoltage images during radiation therapy was analyzed according to direction and esophageal site. Results: Forty-four patients, with 81 markers (10 proximal, 42 middle, and 29 distal), underwent 367 2D matching sessions during radiation therapy. The mean (SD) absolute marker displacement was 0.26 (0.30) cm in the right–left (RL), 0.50 (0.39) cm in the superior–inferior (SI), and 0.24 (0.21) cm in the anterior–posterior (AP) direction. Displacement was significantly larger in the SI than in the RL and AP directions (P<.0001). In the SI direction, mean absolute displacements of the distal, middle, and proximal esophagus were 0.67 (0.45) cm, 0.42 (0.32) cm, and 0.36 (0.30) cm, respectively. Distal esophagus displacement was significantly larger than those of the middle and proximal esophagus (P<.0001). The estimated internal margin to cover 95% of the cases was 0.75 cm in the RL and AP directions. In the SI direction, the margin was 1.25 cm for the proximal and middle esophagus and 1.75 cm for the distal esophagus. Conclusions: The magnitude of interfraction displacement of esophageal clips was larger in the SI direction, particularly in the distal esophagus, but substantial displacement was observed in other directions and at other esophageal sites. It is practical to take estimated movements into account with internal margins, even if vertebrae-based 2D matching is performed.

  11. Engendering world conferences: the international women's movement and the United Nations.

    PubMed

    Chen, M A

    1995-01-01

    This article gives a brief history of how women's groups internationally have shaped UN and World Conferences for Women, the changes in the relationship between women's nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and the UN over time, and effective strategies for putting the women's agenda on international agendas. The article focuses on three recent UN conferences: the Rio conference on the environment, the Vienna conference on human rights, and the Cairo conference on population. The UN Decade for Women reshaped the international women's movement by including new players and by increasing the number and types of women's groups, particularly in developing countries. Women's NGOs learned how to operate on a global scale and to gain attention. New NGO alliances and networks were formed that were cross-regional and crossed North-South divisions. An increasing number of women's groups contributed to national and international policy-making situations. Women's groups were successful in receiving international and national recognition because of the effort expended to become well prepared in collecting, knowing, and analyzing their facts and in building broad-based coalitions. The key strategies that were used in participating effectively in the conference preparatory process and formal policy-making groups involved five types of activities: 1) NGOs mounted global campaigns on a variety of issues having to do with women's rights and women's involvement in the process; 2) NGOs held multiple strategic planning meetings and built coalitions and consensus at all levels; 3) women's NGOs drafted policy documents, resolutions, treaties, protocols, conventions, and platform documents; 4) women's NGOs gained seating on official delegations by publishing reports, holding meetings, and lobbying and nominating women as representatives; and 5) women's NGOs formed caucuses that met at a daily time and place for holding dialogues with official delegates and policy-makers.

  12. The effects of advertisements that sexually objectify women on state body dissatisfaction and judgments of women: The moderating roles of gender and internalization.

    PubMed

    Krawczyk, Ross; Thompson, J Kevin

    2015-09-01

    Experimental studies have demonstrated that exposure to idealized images of women increases state body image disturbance. However, little work has experimentally examined the effects of exposure to images that sexually objectify women, especially as it relates to women and men's state body dissatisfaction and judgments of women. In the current study, 437 women and men were randomly assigned to view advertisements that sexually objectify women and portray appearance ideals, or to view non-appearance-related advertisements. Results indicated that state body dissatisfaction increased for women and men exposed to advertisements that sexually objectified women, although this effect was larger for women. Trait internalization of appearance ideals moderated this effect, indicating that women and men with higher internalization exhibited greater state body dissatisfaction after viewing women sexually objectified in advertisements. Exposure to women sexually objectified in advertisements did not affect women's or men's attractiveness or competence ratings of women in university advertisements.

  13. Women's Studies and the International Student: A Report on a Course for Japanese Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosser, Sue V.

    Problems encountered by Japanese women who participated in an American women's studies seminar have been valuable to the development of a cross-cultural women's course at Mary Baldwin College in Virginia. In the summer of 1981, the school offered a special women's study course to 30 Japanese university women. The program had limited success…

  14. Expanding the Involvement of Women in International Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oglesby, Carole A.

    1979-01-01

    Resolutions concerning sports and medicine, the role of women in sports organizations and in physical education, and the relationship between women's athletics and the media were adopted by the conference members. (LH)

  15. Ethnic identity, thin-ideal internalization, and eating pathology in ethnically diverse college women.

    PubMed

    Rakhkovskaya, Liya M; Warren, Cortney S

    2014-09-01

    Although much research suggests that ethnic identity is positively correlated with psychological health for ethnic minority women, research examining ethnic identity's relationships to thin-ideal internalization, weight concerns, and eating concerns is sparse. Consequently, this study examined these relationships in European American, African American, Latina, and Asian American college women (N=816). As expected, univariate analyses of variance indicated that European American women scored lowest on ethnic identity and highest on eating and weight concerns, whereas African American women scored lowest on thin-ideal internalization. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that ethnic identity was negatively associated with eating and weight concerns, while body mass index and thin-ideal internalization were positively associated. Ethnic identity moderated the relationship between thin-ideal internalization and eating concerns such that the relationship was stronger for participants with lower ethnic identity. These results suggest ethnic identity may be a direct or interactive protective factor against eating concerns in ethnically diverse college women.

  16. Women's Networks towards the Twenty-first Century. Proceedings of the International Fourm on Women and Life-long Learning (Saitama, Japan, November 14-16, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Women's Education Centre, Saitama (Japan).

    The role of women's centers and other facilities for women has become increasingly important in promoting a variety of opportunities for women's learning and participation in society. This conference, with the theme of women's networks for the future, was designed to promote the international exchange of information and cooperative development…

  17. Internal Fixation Versus Nonoperative Treatment for Displaced 3-Part or 4-Part Proximal Humeral Fractures in Elderly Patients: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Chen, Aimin

    2013-01-01

    Background A few studies focused on open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) or nonoperative treatment of displaced 3-part or 4-part proximal humeral fractures in elderly patients have been published, all of whom had a low number of patients. In this meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), we aimed to assess the effect of ORIF or nonoperative treatment of displaced 3-part or 4-part proximal humeral fractures in elderly patients on the clinical outcomes and re-evaluate of the potential benefits of conservative treatment. Methods We searched PubMed and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases for randomized controlled trials comparing ORIF and nonoperative treatment of displaced 3-part or 4-part proximal humeral fractures in elderly patients. Our outcome measures were the Constant scores. Results: Three randomized controlled trials with a total of 130 patients were identified and analyzed. The overall results based on fixed-effect model did not support the treatment of open reduction and internal fixation to improve the functional outcome when compared with nonoperative treatment for treating elderly patients with displaced 3-part or 4-part proximal humeral fractures (WMD −0.51, 95% CI: −7.25 to 6.22, P = 0.88, I2 = 0%). Conclusions Although our meta-analysis did not support the treatment of open reduction and internal fixation to improve the functional outcome when compared with nonoperative treatment for treating elderly patients with displaced 3-part or 4-part proximal humeral fractures, this result must be considered in the context of variable patient demographics. Only a limited recommendation can be made based on current data. Considering the limitations of included studies, a large, well designed trial that incorporates the evaluation of clinically relevant outcomes in participants with different underlying risks of shoulder function is required to more adequately assess the role for ORIF or nonoperative

  18. [Epidemiologic profile of the population displaced by the internal armed conflict of the country in a neighborhood of Cartagena, Colombia, 2000].

    PubMed

    Cáceres, Diana Carolina; Izquierdo, Vilma Fabiola; Mantilla, Leonardo; Jara, Jorge; Velandia, Martha

    2002-12-01

    Colombia faces internal displacement as a consequence of internal armed conflict. From 1985 to the present, it is estimated that 1,500,000 people have been displaced. A transversal descriptive study aimed at characterizing the health situation of this highly vulnerable and continually growing population was carried out in Cartagena between September and December, 2000. The sample size was calculated to meet a 2% precision, 40% of maximum expected prevalence, design effect of 2 and 15% of information loss, total sample size 1.600 home's interviews. Single-stage sampling with replacement was done by clusters. To socioeconomic, sanitary conditions, morbidity and mental health variables was done univariate analysis, determining frequencies, central trend and dispersion, as well as a bivariate analysis to determine X2 or Fisher exact test, p values and stratified analysis. The study found severe deterioration in socioeconomic conditions, high exposure to violence (80% was exposed to violence before displacement and murder cause 60% of deads in teenagers and adults after displacement but even children under 4 years-old was affected by this phenomenon), family disintegration, bad sanitary conditions, high prevalence of tracing diseases in all ages (80% of under 5 years-old had respiratory symptoms, 30% diarrhoea and 32% purulent lesions in skin), school desertion (20% children between 5 and 11 years and 16% teenagers), late schooling, poor performance at school, high proportion of working children (4% children between 5 and 11 years and 20% teenagers), low affiliation to social security systems (only 20% under 5 years-old children and 50% adults), low coverage and access to health services, among many other factors whose interaction affects this population's physical and mental health. We found that is difficult to make an early detection of internally displaced populations and thus provide adequate health care when such displacements are recent or involve individual

  19. Comparing Research Activities of Women and Men Faculty in Departments of Internal Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levey, Barbara A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The study compared research activities of men and women from data obtained in a 1982-83 survey of 7,947 medical school faculty in departments of internal medicine. Among findings were that women researchers had significantly fewer National Institutes of Health grants as well as reduced laboratory space. (Author/DB)

  20. Final Report of Activities for International Women's Year in the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Washington, DC. Federal Women's Bureau.

    Descriptions are given of mission-oriented or programmatic activities for or of concern to women, ongoing or initiated by the Department of Health, Education and Welfare during International Women's Year. Extensive comments are made about background and progress of programs, research, workshops, and other activities in the following eight…

  1. Fuel Efficient Stoves for Darfur Camps of Internally DisplacedPersons - Report of Field Trip to North and South Darfur, Nov. 16 -Dec.17, 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Gadgil, Ashok; Jacobs, Mark; Lee, Yoo-Mi

    2006-02-01

    Approximately 2.2 million internally displaced persons (''IDPs'') in Darfur are living in dense camps scattered in arid areas with low fuelwood productivity. Unsustainable harvesting of fuelwood by the IDPs has created ever increasing zones of denudation, that now (in November 2005) have reached several kilometers from the camp boundaries. Leaving the safety of the camps to fetch fuelwood from farther and farther away imposes great risk and hardship on the IDP women. Three different metal fuel efficient stove (''FES'') designs were tested in Darfur IDP camps for their suitability to substantially reduce the fuelwood needs of IDPs. The mud-and-dung ''ITDG'' stoves being promoted under the current FES program were also examined and tested. A modified design of the ITDG mud-and-dung stove, ''Avi'', was developed, built and tested. Systematic informal surveys of IDP households were undertaken in North and South Darfur to understand the household parameters related to family size, food, fuel, cooking habits, cooking pots, expenditure on fuel, and preferences related to alternative ways to spend time/money if fuel could be saved. Surveys found that a significant fraction of families are missing meals for lack of fuel (50% in South Darfur, and 90% in the North Darfur camps visited by the mission). About 60% of women in South Darfur, and about 90% of women in North Darfur camps purchase fuelwood. Selling some of the food rations to purchase fuel to cook meals was significant (40%) in South Darfur and has become common (80%) in North Darfur. The LBNL mission found that two of the metal stoves and the mud-and-dung Avi can significantly reduce fuelwood consumption using the same fuel, pot, cooking methods, and food ingredients used by Darfur IDPs. The most suitable design for Darfur conditions would be a modified ''Tara'' stove. With training of the cooks in tending the fire, this stove can save 50% fuel for the IDPs. The stove costs less than $10 (US) to produce in Darfur

  2. The health of women and girls determines the health and well-being of our modern world: A white paper from the International Council on Women's Health Issues.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Patricia M; McGrath, Sarah J; Meleis, Afaf I; Stern, Phyllis; Digiacomo, Michelle; Dharmendra, Tessa; Correa-de-Araujo, Rosaly; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Hochleitner, Margarethe; Messias, Deanne K H; Brown, Hazel; Teitelman, Anne; Sindhu, Siriorn; Reesman, Karen; Richter, Solina; Sommers, Marilyn S; Schaeffer, Doris; Stringer, Marilyn; Sampselle, Carolyn; Anderson, Debra; Tuazon, Josefina A; Cao, Yingjuan; Krassen Covan, Eleanor

    2011-10-01

    The International Council on Women's Health Issues (ICOWHI) is an international nonprofit association dedicated to the goal of promoting health, health care, and well-being of women and girls throughout the world through participation, empowerment, advocacy, education, and research. We are a multidisciplinary network of women's health providers, planners, and advocates from all over the globe. We constitute an international professional and lay network of those committed to improving women and girl's health and quality of life. This document provides a description of our organization mission, vision, and commitment to improving the health and well-being of women and girls globally.

  3. May 28 International Day of Action for Women's Health.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    The 1993 Day of Action for Women's Health focused on the number of deaths which occur as a result of unsafe and illegal abortion. In Argentina, a signature campaign to support decriminalization of abortion enlisted the aid of more than 100 influential citizens. The campaign in Brazil coincided with the introduction of reforms which would decriminalize abortion. In Chile, a nationwide campaign was launched to reinstate therapeutic abortion. The day was commemorated in Colombia with several events which advocated the decriminalization of abortion. Women in Costa Rica demanded being treated as subjects, not objects, of health policies, while Ecuadorian activists spent the day distributing an article analyzing the importance of the day and discussing the health problems of Ecuadorian women, especially those related to overwork, subordinate status, and illegal abortion. A new study was released in Mexico which revealed that four women die every day of pregnancy and child-birth related causes (40% of these are the complications of induced abortion). Nationwide activities were coordinated in Nicaragua including forums, theater presentations, festivals, and a women's march. A labor group joined the campaign in Peru, and efforts in Puerto Rico centered on preventing and surviving breast cancer. Elsewhere in the world, genital mutilation was the topic of a seminar in Canada, women in the Philippines launched a campaign against "needless" maternal mortality, and a Spanish group issued a publication analyzing abortion around the world and discussing the introduction of RU-486 to Spain. The next important date is September 28, when women's health groups in Latin America and the Caribbean will join to call for the legalization of abortion.

  4. [International recommandations on physical exercise for pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Filhol, G; Bernard, P; Quantin, X; Espian-Marcais, C; Ninot, G

    2014-12-01

    Benefits of physical exercise on the physical and psychological health lead to specifics guidelines during pregnancy. For pregnant women, to take part in aerobics exercise (walking, biking) (i.e. 30 minutes, three times per week at 60-90% of the maximal heart rate) and strength training (i.e. one to two times per week) is recommended. Physical exercise programs during pregnancy have shown benefits for preventing and treating complications pregnancy (e.g. gestational diabetes mellitus, overweight). Benefits of exercise and risks associated with sedentary should be widely diffused among pregnant women and prenatal caregivers.

  5. Women's Center Volunteer Intern Program: Building Community While Advancing Social and Gender Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Margaret A.; Vlasnik, Amber L.

    2015-01-01

    This program description explores the purpose, structure, activities, and outcomes of the volunteer intern program at the Wright State University Women's Center. Designed to create meaningful, hands-on learning experiences for students and to advance the center's mission, the volunteer intern program builds community while advancing social and…

  6. Celebrating International Women's Day, March 8. A Curriculum Sample. Women's Issues Series, Vol. I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Refugee Women's Alliance, Seattle, WA.

    The Refugee Women's Alliance, a nonprofit organization helping refugee and immigrant women achieve self-sufficiency in the United States, has developed a class integrating English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) instruction and discussion of family issues, child-rearing, and related problems in a new cultural context. The project focuses on developing…

  7. Educating Women about HIV/AIDS: Some International Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulman, Donna; Coben, Diana; Nguyen, Van Anh

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes current trends in the HIV/AIDS epidemic. It looks at issues and strategies involved in educating women about HIV/AIDS in the context of the global pandemic, focusing particularly on Canada and Vietnam. These strategies are essential steps in preventing the spread of HIV and in caring for those who have already developed AIDS.…

  8. Women, Human Rights, and Counseling: Crossing International Boundaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Rita Chi-Ying

    2005-01-01

    The fast-paced movement of globalization has affected all walks of life including professional counselors. As the world becomes more accessible, increased instances of social injustice on a global scale have become more apparent, with women and children being especially identified as victims of social injustice and human rights violations (World…

  9. Stresses and Displacements in Steel-Lined Pressure Tunnels and Shafts in Anisotropic Rock Under Quasi-Static Internal Water Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachoud, Alexandre J.; Schleiss, Anton J.

    2016-04-01

    Steel-lined pressure tunnels and shafts are constructed to convey water from reservoirs to hydroelectric power plants. They are multilayer structures made of a steel liner, a cracked backfill concrete layer, a cracked or loosened near-field rock zone and a sound far-field rock zone. Designers often assume isotropic behavior of the far-field rock, considering the most unfavorable rock mass elastic modulus measured in situ, and a quasi-static internal water pressure. Such a conventional model is thus axisymmetrical and has an analytical solution for stresses and displacements. However, rock masses often have an anisotropic behavior and such isotropic assumption is usually conservative in terms of quasi-static maximum stresses in the steel liner. In this work, the stresses and displacements in steel-lined pressure tunnels and shafts in anisotropic rock mass are studied by means of the finite element method. A quasi-static internal water pressure is considered. The materials are considered linear elastic, and tied contact is assumed between the layers. The constitutive models used for the rock mass and the cracked layers are presented and the practical ranges of variation of the parameters are discussed. An extensive systematic parametric study is performed and stresses and displacements in the steel liner and in the far-field rock mass are presented. Finally, correction factors are derived to be included in the axisymmetrical solution which allow a rapid estimate of the maximum stresses in the steel liners of pressure tunnels and shafts in anisotropic rock.

  10. Differential effects of weight bias experiences and internalization on exercise among women with overweight and obesity.

    PubMed

    Pearl, Rebecca L; Puhl, Rebecca M; Dovidio, John F

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of experiences with weight stigma and weight bias internalization on exercise. An online sample of 177 women with overweight and obesity (M(age) = 35.48 years, M(BMI) = 32.81) completed questionnaires assessing exercise behavior, self-efficacy, and motivation; experiences of weight stigmatization; weight bias internalization; and weight-stigmatizing attitudes toward others. Weight stigma experiences positively correlated with exercise behavior, but weight bias internalization was negatively associated with all exercise variables. Weight bias internalization was a partial mediator between weight stigma experiences and exercise behavior. The distinct effects of experiencing versus internalizing weight bias carry implications for clinical practice and public health.

  11. Outplacement Services for Displaced Employees: Attitudes of Human Resource Managers Based on Differences in Internal and External Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilcrease, Kelly M.

    2013-01-01

    The results from a survey of 238 human resources executives from organizations that offer outplacement counseling (OPC) internally and 168 that offer it externally suggest that internal OPC delivery is inferior to external OPC delivery. The author found that most internal OPC organizations did not offer the 13 traditional OPC services, even when…

  12. Educating Women for Peace: The United States Section of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom and Political Organization during the 1930s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pois, Anne Marie

    The focus of this paper is the U.S. section of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom (US WILPF) and its efforts to mobilize an activist and durable women's peace reform organization in the 1930s. Members wished US WILPF to serve as an avenue for expanding women's political power and for reaching the goals of nonviolent change and…

  13. Childhood Victimization, Internalizing Symptoms, and Substance Use Among Women Who Identify as Mostly Heterosexual

    PubMed Central

    Grimaldo, Gabriella; Wilsnack, Sharon C.; Hughes, Tonda L.; Kristjanson, Arlinda F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: The current article examines substance use behavior and associated factors that contribute to risk of substance misuse, such as history of childhood victimization and reports of internalizing symptoms among women from various sexual identity subgroups. Methods: We recruited a convenience sample of 332 community and university student women (M age = 20.88). Approximately 61.1% of the sample (n = 203) identified as exclusively heterosexual (or “straight”; EH) at the time of the survey, whereas 21.4% (n = 71) identified as primarily heterosexual (or “mostly heterosexual”), 6.6% (n = 22) as bisexual (or “equally gay/lesbian and heterosexual”), 3.0% (n = 10) as primarily gay/lesbian (or “mostly gay/lesbian”) and 7.8% (n = 26) as exclusively gay/lesbian. Results: Mostly heterosexual women were more likely than EH women to report childhood physical abuse and lifetime tobacco and marijuana use. Mostly heterosexual women also had higher levels of past-year alcohol use disorder symptomology, recent tobacco and marijuana use, and depressive symptoms. Mostly heterosexual women were more likely than bisexual women to have ever tried marijuana, although, among lifetime users, bisexual women reported more frequent recent use. Conclusion: Mostly heterosexual women reported levels of pathological alcohol use, lifetime rates of tobacco and marijuana use, and recent depressive symptoms that were higher than EH women and relatively similar to lesbian and mostly lesbian women. Bisexual women reported heavier current use of marijuana and were more likely than mostly heterosexual women to report childhood sexual abuse. Implications for mental health services for clients who identify as non-EH are discussed. PMID:27269733

  14. International migration, sex ratios, and the socioeconomic outcomes of nonmigrant Mexican women.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Steven

    2013-06-01

    This article assesses whether international migration from Mexico affects the marital, fertility, schooling, and employment outcomes of the Mexican women who remain behind by exploiting variation over time as well as across Mexican states in the demographic imbalance between men and women. I construct a gauge of the relative supply of men for women of different age groups based on state-level male and female population counts and the empirically observed propensity of men of specific ages to marry women of specific ages. Using Mexican census data from 1960 through 2000, I estimate a series of models in which the dependent variable is the intercensus change in an average outcome for Mexican women measured by state and for specific age groups, and the key explanatory variable is the change in the relative supply of men to women in that state/age group. I find that the declining relative supply of males positively and significantly affects the proportion of women who have never been married as well as the proportion of women who have never had a child. In addition, states experiencing the largest declines in the relative supply of men also experience relatively large increases in female educational attainment and female employment rates. However, I find little evidence that women who do marry match to men who are younger or less educated than themselves.

  15. Arthroplasty versus Internal Fixation for Displaced Intracapsular Femoral Neck Fracture in the Elderly: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Short- and Long-term Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Chen-Yi; Liu, An; Xu, Ming-Yuan; Nonso, Nwofor Samuel; He, Rong-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is conflicting evidence as to whether the femoral head should be preserved or replaced in elderly patients with displaced intracapsular femoral neck fractures. In this article, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the short- and long-term effectiveness of arthroplasty (AR) and internal fixation (IF). Methods: PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched systematically up to January 2016. All randomized controlled trials directly comparing the effectiveness of AR and IF for displaced intracapsular fracture were retrieved with no limitation on language or publication year. Results: In total, eight prospective randomized studies involving 2206 patients were included. The results of our study showed that patients in the AR group reported significantly lower complication (risk ratio: 0.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.38–0.80), re-operation (risk ratio: 0.17, 95% CI = 0.13–0.22), revision rates (risk ratio: 0.11, 95% CI: 0.08–0.16), and better function compared with their IF counterparts, and they were less likely to suffer postoperative pain. No statistically significant differences for the rates of mortality, infection, and/or deep vein thrombosis between AR and IF were found. Conclusions: Based on our analysis, we recommend that AR should be used as the primary treatment for displaced intracapsular femoral neck fractures in the elderly. However, IF may be appropriate for those who are very frail. PMID:27779172

  16. Women Academics and Research Productivity: An International Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiston, Sarah Jane; Jung, Jisun

    2015-01-01

    In the prestige economy of higher education, research productivity is highly prized. Previous research indicates, however, a gender gap with respect to research output. This gap is often explained by reference to familial status and responsibilities. In this article, we examine the research productivity gender gap from an international perspective…

  17. Half the human race: the international women's movement at the end of the twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Cloud, K

    1996-01-01

    This overview of the current status of the international women's movement traces the growth of the movement from a "trickle to a torrent" during the past 150 years and credits the UN with providing the framework necessary for expanding the international policy dialogue about women's rights. The next section asks why this great burst of women's energy in public settings is occurring now and proposes that the answer can be found in the fact that a major transformation is creating a smaller, more interdependent world marked by rising productivity and environmental pressures. This transformation has also led to increased life expectancy and reduced fertility, thus giving women more productive time to be applied to education, to outside employment, to political organizing and community work, and to the support of nongovernmental organizations. The article continues by reviewing the diverse strategies used by women's groups, including "boring from within," applying political pressure, and demonstrating alternatives. After noting the existence of international networks that exchange successful strategies, the article concludes with an analysis of the processes and achievements of the 1995 Fourth Conference on Women and its Non-Governmental Forum.

  18. Collective trauma in the Vanni- a qualitative inquiry into the mental health of the internally displaced due to the civil war in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background From January to May, 2009, a population of 300,000 in the Vanni, northern Sri Lanka underwent multiple displacements, deaths, injuries, deprivation of water, food, medical care and other basic needs caught between the shelling and bombings of the state forces and the LTTE which forcefully recruited men, women and children to fight on the frontlines and held the rest hostage. This study explores the long term psychosocial and mental health consequences of exposure to massive, existential trauma. Methods This paper is a qualitative inquiry into the psychosocial situation of the Vanni displaced and their ethnography using narratives and observations obtained through participant observation; in depth interviews; key informant, family and extended family interviews; and focus groups using a prescribed, semi structured open ended questionnaire. Results The narratives, drawings, letters and poems as well as data from observations, key informant interviews, extended family and focus group discussions show considerable impact at the family and community. The family and community relationships, networks, processes and structures are destroyed. There develops collective symptoms of despair, passivity, silence, loss of values and ethical mores, amotivation, dependency on external assistance, but also resilience and post-traumatic growth. Conclusions Considering the severity of family and community level adverse effects and implication for resettlement, rehabilitation, and development programmes; interventions for healing of memories, psychosocial regeneration of the family and community structures and processes are essential. PMID:20667090

  19. Report from the Third IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeland, Emily E.; Murphy, N.; Jang-Condell, H.; Gomez Maqueo Chew, Y.

    2009-12-01

    The Third IUPAP (International Union of Pure and Applied Physics) International Conference on Women in Physics was held in Seoul, South Korea from October 8-10, 2008 with 283 participants from 57 countries. Topics discussed included personal and professional development, attracting girls to physics, site visits for assessing and improving the climate for women, fundraising and leadership, and organizing women in physics working groups. Resolutions unanimously passed by the conference assembly recommend (1) the formation of additional regional or national working groups for women in physics, (2) promotion of site visits as an effective tool for improving the climate of the physics workplace, (3) increased professional development opportunities and outreach activities associated with conferences, and (4) a global survey of physicists in 2009 to assess the status of women in physics. See http://www.icwip2008.org/ for the text of the resolutions and the conference program. In this poster, AAS members who participated will report on this conference as well as resolutions from the first (Paris, 2002) and second (Rio de Janeiro, 2005) conferences. The next IUPAP Conference on Women in Physics is expected to occur in South Africa in 2011.

  20. Internalizing the impossible: anorexic outpatients' experiences with women's beauty and fashion magazines.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, S R; McCoy, J K; Williams, M

    2001-01-01

    A growing body of research has linked the readership of women's beauty and fashion magazines with the development and perpetuation of anorexic behaviors in some young women. Although we know the link exists, little is known about the actual cognitive processes and the ways in which at risk women "use" these magazines to internalize the impossible thin ideal that appears to drive the illness. To understand this phenomenon and the process of internalization in greater depth, the authors conducted qualitative, semi-structured interviews with 28 outpatients at an eating disorder treatment facility in the western United States. Using a grounded theory approach, the authors' analysis provides a detailed description drawn from the patients' personal accounts of how the magazines have influenced their lives and eating-disordered behaviors.

  1. 75 FR 82424 - The Secretary of State's International Council on Women's Business Leadership

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ... objective of the Council is to bring to the United States Government a source of expertise, knowledge and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE The Secretary of State's International Council on Women's Business Leadership AGENCY: Department of...

  2. Participation of Women in the International Conferences on Education, 1934-2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortez, David Sifuentes

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the participation of women in decision-making processes in the field of education, from a global perspective, through their roles and positions in International Conferences on Education (ICEs). This analysis is based on a sample of sixteen of the forty-six ICEs held from 1934 to this day. All of the ICEs that took place over…

  3. Complex Collaborations: India and International Agendas on Girls' and Women's Education, 1947-1990

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Rosie Peppin

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the dynamics of global campaigns for education through a study of the movement for girls' and women's education in India since independence in 1947. In particular, it uses the trajectory of ideas within India to theorise about international collaboration on educational goals, with UNESCO and the World Bank being two of the…

  4. Integration of Women's Health into an Internal Medicine Core Curriculum for Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolette, JoDean; Jacobs, Michael D.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a collaboration to analyze and integrate elements of women's health into the core curriculum in internal medicine for a medical school's third year clerkship. Illustrates the new curriculum by describing the new module in pulmonary medicine and discusses the use of the process to integrate curricula in other interdisciplinary fields.…

  5. Eating Disorders of White American, Racial and Ethnic Minority American, and International Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osvold, Lise Leigh; Sodowsky, Gargi Roysircar

    1993-01-01

    Considers eating attitudes and behaviors related to anorexia nervosa, bulimia, and obesity of white American, African-American, Native American, and some international women from the point of view of cultural influences such as sex role, the media, socioeconomic class, and acculturation to Western society. (Author/NB)

  6. Comparison of amplitude-mode ultrasound versus air displacement plethysmography for assessing body composition changes following participation in a structured weight-loss programme in women.

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, Brad J; Aragon, Alan A; Moon, Jordan; Krieger, James W; Tiryaki-Sonmez, Gul

    2016-03-11

    The purpose of this study was to compare body composition changes as measured by A-mode ultrasound (US) versus a criterion densitometry-based measure, air displacement plethysmography (ADP), over a 4-week weight-loss protocol in healthy, non-obese young women. Twenty healthy, young female volunteers were provided with customized dietary plans for the length of the study intended to facilitate a 500 calorie-a-day deficit. Subjects also performed 3 h a week of supervised aerobic exercise. Per cent fat mass and lean body mass were obtained via ADP and US both pre- and postintervention. Pretesting, post-testing and delta data for %fat resulted in no significant differences in mean values along with a slope of the regression line no different than one and a y-intercept no different than zero (P<0·05). Similar to %fat values, pretesting, post-testing and delta data for fat-free mass resulted in no significant differences in mean values along with a slope of the regression line no different than one and a y-intercept no different than zero (P<0·05) with the exception of the delta for slope (0·39, P = 0·04). The current findings indicate that US can provide a similar degree of accuracy for tracking group-based fat loss in women compared to ADP. Given the low-cost relative to DXA and ADP, researchers and practitioners therefore can consider US as a viable option for monitoring group-based changes in body fat over time.

  7. The Application of Closed Reduction Internal Fixation and Iliac Bone Block Grafting in the Treatment of Acute Displaced Femoral Neck Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yanling; Zhang, Qi; Hou, Zhiyong; Pan, Jinshe; Zhang, Yingze

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to evaluate the preliminary clinical and radiographic outcomes of acute displaced femoral neck fracture treated by closed reduction and internal fixation (CRIF) with free iliac bone block grafting with comparison to a routine protocol of CRIF without bone grafting. Methods From December 2008 to February 2010, 220 adult patients with acute displaced femoral neck fractures were enrolled in this study. In study group, there were 124 patients (57 males, 67 females) with a mean age of 44.8 years (range, 20-64 years). There were 70 transcervical fractures and 54 subcapital fractures. The patients were treated by CRIF and free iliac bone block grafting. The control group consisted of 96 adult patients (46 males, 50 females) with a mean age of 46.3 years (range, 23-64 years). There were 61 transcervical fractures and 35 subcapital fractures. The patients in control group were treated by CRIF without bone grafting. Results In study group, 112 patients were followed up for an average of 27.4 months (range, 24-34 months). All fractures healed within 5 months. However, 10 patients presented AVN of the femoral heads. The mean Harris score was 88.6 (range, 41-100). In control group, 68 patients were followed up for an average of 31.2 months (range, 24-42 months). The rates of AVN of the femoral head and fracture nonunion in control group were 26.5% (18/68) and 16.2% (11/68), respectively, significantly higher than those in study group (both P<0.05). The mean Harris score in control group was 83.8 (41–100), significantly lower than that in study group (P<0.05). Conclusion Acute displaced femoral neck fractures can be treated by CRIF and free iliac bone block grafting in a minimally invasive manner. This technique can guarantee uneventful fracture healing and significantly reduce the rate of femoral head osteonecrosis. PMID:24040414

  8. Mental health of women entering fertility treatment: What role do age and internal resources play?

    PubMed

    Ben Shlomo, Shirley; Skvirsky, Vera; Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit; Azuri, Yoseph; Horowitz, Eran

    2016-11-24

    Drawing on Lazarus and Folkman's (1984) model of stress and coping, the study aimed at (a) examining the associations between the mental health of women entering fertility treatment and their internal resources (hope and two aspects of self-consciousness: reflection and rumination); (b) indicating whether mental health is associated with age (above or below 35), and whether this association is mediated by the internal resources. The sample consisted of 137 women (76 aged 20-34; 61 aged 35-44) at the start of fertility treatment who completed a series of self-report questionnaires. Results indicated that younger women reported higher distress and rumination than older women. Higher hope was associated with greater well-being, and higher rumination was associated with greater distress. Furthermore, hope and rumination were found to mediate the association between age and mental health. These findings highlight the importance of developing age-based interventions for women entering fertility treatment, aimed at strengthening their resilience to effectively cope with the demanding process ahead.

  9. The 3^rd International Conference on Women in Physics: Global Perspectives, Common Concerns, Worldwide Views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zastavker, Yevgeniya V.

    2009-03-01

    The 3^rd International Conference on Women in Physics (ICWIP), held in Seoul, Korea, in October 2008, brought together 300 participants from 57 countries, including a diverse 22-member U.S. Delegation, for a 3-day summit of stimulating discussions, thought-provoking presentations, inspirational posters, and networking. Held under the auspices of the Working Group on Women in Physics of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP), this meeting built on the successes of the 1^st (Paris, 2002) and 2^nd (Rio de Janeiro, 2005) Conferences and further clarified the importance of diversifying the field of physics worldwide. Although considerable progress has been made since 2002, it was clear that the global scientific workforce is still under-utilizing a large percentage of the available female talent pool. If human society is to benefit to its fullest from various contributions that the field of physics can offer in addressing global issues of economic crisis, energy, environment, water, health, poverty, and hunger, women of all races and nationalities need to become fully included and engaged in the national and international physical community. To address these and many other issues, the ICWIP unanimously approved a five-part resolution to IUPAP recommending actions to promote the recruitment, retention, and advancement of women in physics and related fields.

  10. Women in Development: Towards the Development Making Women Visible. Proceedings of the International Forum on Intercultural Exchange (Saitama, Japan, September 30-October 2, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Women's Education Centre, Saitama (Japan).

    This document was prepared in Japanese with an English translation for the 1992 International Forum on Intercultural Exchange sponsored by the National Women's Education Centre of Japan. Discussions for 1992 were to center on the theme of development to make women visible. The conference agenda is followed by profiles of the presenters with some…

  11. Long-term Results, Functional Outcomes and Complications after Open Reduction and Internal Fixation of Neglected and Displaced Greater Tuberosity of Humerus Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Amroodi, Morteza Nakhaei; Behshad, Vahid; Motaghi, Paniz

    2016-01-01

    Background: Humerus fractures include 5% to 8% of total fractures. Non-union and delayed union of GT (GT) fractures is uncommon; however they present a challenge to the orthopedic surgeons. Significant controversy surrounds optimal treatment of neglected fractures. The purpose of this article was to perform a comparative study to evaluate the outcomes of open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) of neglected GT fractures. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the results of surgical intervention in 12 patients with displaced nonunion of GT fractures who were referred to our center. Before and minimally 25 months after surgery ROM, muscle forces, Constant Shoulder Score (Constant-Murley score) (CSS), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Activities of Daily Living (ADL) Score and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) Score were all recorded. Additionally, the results were compared with undamaged shoulder. Results: Between March 2006 and January 2013, 12 patients underwent surgical intervention and followed for 36.2 months in average. All fractures healed. Anatomic reduction achieved only in 6 cases with no report of avascular necrosis or infection. All ROMs and muscle forces increased significantly (Mean Forward Flexion: 49.16 to 153.3, Mean Internal Rotation: 3 to 9, Mean External Rotation: -5 to 27.5) (P value<0.0001). All functional scores including CSS, VAS, ADL and ASES score improved significantly (Mean VAS: 6.5 to 1.3, Mean CSS: 29.83 to 86, Mean ADL: 6.6 to 27.1,: Mean ASES: 28.6 to 88.9) (P value<0.0001). Conclusion: ORIF for neglected and displaced GT fractures has satisfactory functional outcomes, despite of non-anatomical reduction of the fracture. PMID:27847845

  12. Literature review: Afghanistan women's health crisis, health service delivery, and ethical issues for international aid.

    PubMed

    Turner, Helen

    2006-09-01

    The literature indicates that the health of women in Afghanistan is poor. In 1997 maternal mortality in Afghanistan was one of the worst in the world. Difficulties in establishing health services revolve around fundamentalist Islamic ideas and ongoing violence within Afghanistan. The literature holds advice on key behaviours for health professionals who may chose to work in Afghanistan. The literature also identifies the local level action that is occurring as the issue of women's health is recognised. Humanitarian assistance has been provided, with international aid agencies having to weigh the ethical responsibilities they hold and one agency tragically facing the violent loss of its own staff. Easy answers are not in the literature, merely an opportunity to understand, consider, and take action about what is facing women in Afghanistan and those who try to help.

  13. The ESWN network as a platform to increase international collaboration between women in the Earth Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braker, Gesche; Wang, Yiming; Glessmer, Mirjam; Kirchgaessner, Amelie

    2014-05-01

    The Earth Science Women's Network (ESWN; ESWNonline.org) is an international peer-mentoring network of women in the Earth Sciences, many in the early stages of their careers. ESWN's mission is to promote career development, build community, provide opportunities for informal mentoring and support, and facilitate professional collaborations. This has been accomplished via email and a listserv, on Facebook, at in-person networking events, and at professional development workshops. In an effort to facilitate international connections among women in the Earth Sciences, ESWN has developed a password protected community webpage supported by AGU and a National Science Foundation ADVANCE grant where members can create an online presence and interact with each other. For example, groups help women to connect with co-workers or center around a vast array of topics ranging from research interests, funding opportunities, work-life balance, teaching, scientific methods, and searching for a job to specific challenges faced by women in the earth sciences. Members can search past discussions and share documents like examples of research statements, useful interview materials, or model recommendation letters. Over the last 10 years, ESWN has grown by word of mouth to include more than 1600 members working on all 7 continents. ESWN also offers professional development workshops at major geologic conferences around the world and at ESWN-hosted workshops mostly exclusively throughout the United States. In 2014, ESWN offers a two day international workshop on communication and networking skills and career development. Women working in all disciplines of Earth Sciences from later PhD level up to junior professors in Europe are invited to the workshop that will be held in Kiel, Germany. The workshop offers participants an individual personality assessment and aims at providing participants with improved communication and networking skills. The second focus will be to teach them how to

  14. Molecular inference of sources and spreading patterns of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites in internally displaced persons settlements in Myanmar-China border area.

    PubMed

    Lo, Eugenia; Zhou, Guofa; Oo, Winny; Lee, Ming-Chieh; Baum, Elisabeth; Felgner, Philip L; Yang, Zhaoqing; Cui, Liwang; Yan, Guiyun

    2015-07-01

    In Myanmar, civil unrest and establishment of internally displaced persons (IDP) settlement along the Myanmar-China border have impacted malaria transmission. The growing IDP populations raise deep concerns about health impact on local communities. Microsatellite markers were used to examine the source and spreading patterns of Plasmodium falciparum between IDP settlement and surrounding villages in Myanmar along the China border. Genotypic structure of P. falciparum was compared over the past three years from the same area and the demographic history was inferred to determine the source of recent infections. In addition, we examined if border migration is a factor of P. falciparum infections in China by determining gene flow patterns across borders. Compared to local community, the IDP samples showed a reduced and consistently lower genetic diversity over the past three years. A strong signature of genetic bottleneck was detected in the IDP samples. P. falciparum infections from the border regions in China were genetically similar to Myanmar and parasite gene flow was not constrained by geographical distance. Reduced genetic diversity of P. falciparum suggested intense malaria control within the IDP settlement. Human movement was a key factor to the spread of malaria both locally in Myanmar and across the international border.

  15. Aid effectiveness and women's empowerment: practices of governance in the funding of international development.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Marie L; Teghtsoonian, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Although the empowerment of women is a prominent goal in international development, feminist development professionals, activists, and scholars remain deeply dissatisfied with the limited extent to which women's empowerment is actually achieved. Their experiences and analyses raise questions about the connections and disjunctions between discourse, institutional practices, and everyday life. A major effort to reform development aid guided by the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness raises new questions about the place of gender in development practice. Drawing on recently conducted research on women and development in Kyrgyzstan and using a range of institutional texts, we interrogate how development professionals and activists engage with the aid effectiveness discourse. Our analytic approach, institutional ethnography, shares with work on governmentality an empirical focus on practices undertaken by diversely situated people and how these practices constitute a particular field of action. Institutional ethnography directs analytic attention to the operation of texts as local and translocal coordinators of people's everyday activities. The product of this coordinated work is what we call, in this case, the development institution. For those concerned about women and development, we see the usefulness of making visible how global governance is accomplished in both enactments of and resistance to institutional practices, but in ways that do not necessarily benefit women.

  16. Legal aspects of conflict-induced migration by women.

    PubMed

    Macklin, Audrey

    2008-05-01

    This paper surveys the international legal frameworks, including the many guidelines, handbooks, resolutions, toolkits, conclusions and manuals produced by various United Nations bodies, that confirm an awareness of the protection issues specific to women and girls displaced by conflict. It explores the extent to which these documents address the gendered impacts of conflict-induced migration, and the role of United Nations bodies as international governmental organisations in implementing these norms. The main focus is upon internally displaced women and women refugees. In addition to problems of enforcing compliance with existing guidelines, the paper concludes that two areas--developing strategies to accommodate the realities of long-term, even permanent displacement and enhancing women's literal and legal literacy--require much greater attention on the part of governmental and non-governmental international organisations.

  17. Four-Dimensional Measurement of the Displacement of Internal Fiducial and Skin Markers During 320-Multislice Computed Tomography Scanning of Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yamashita, Hideomi; Okuma, Kae; Tada, Keiichiro; Shiraishi, Kenshiro; Takahashi, Wataru; Shibata-Mobayashi, Shino; Sakumi, Akira; Saotome, Naoya; Haga, Akihiro; Onoe, Tsuyoshi; Ino, Kenji; Akahane, Masaaki; Ohtomo, Kuni; Nakagawa, Keiichi

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To study the three-dimensional movement of internal tumor bed fiducial and breast skin markers, using 320-multislice computed tomography (CT); and to analyze intrafractional errors for breast cancer patients undergoing breast irradiation. Methods and Materials: This study examined 280 markers on the skin of the breast (200 markers) and on the primary tumor bed (80 markers) of 20 patients treated by external-beam photon radiotherapy. Motion assessment was analyzed in 41 respiratory phases during 20 s of cine CT in the radiotherapy position. To assess intrafractional errors resulting from respiratory motion, four-dimensional CT scans were acquired for 20 patients. Results: Motion in the anterior-posterior (A/P) and superior-inferior (S/I) directions showed a strong correlation (|r| > 0.7) with the respiratory curve for most markers (79% and 70%, respectively). The average marker displacements between maximum and minimum value during 20 s for the 200 breast skin metal markers were 1.1 {+-} 0.3 mm, 2.1 {+-} 0.6 mm, and 1.6 {+-} 0.4 mm in the left-right, A/P, and S/I directions, respectively. For the 80 tumor bed clips, displacements were 0.9 {+-} 0.2 mm in left-right, 1.7 {+-} 0.5 mm in A/P, and 1.1 {+-} 0.3 mm in S/I. There was no significant difference in the motion between breast quadrant regions or between the primary site and the other regions. Conclusions: Motion in primary breast tumors was evaluated with 320-multislice CT. Very little change was detected during individual radiation treatment fractions.

  18. High prevalence of bedbugs Cimex hemipterus and Cimex lectularis in camps for internally displaced persons in Freetown, Sierra Leone: a pilot humanitarian investigation.

    PubMed

    Gbakima, A A; Terry, B C; Kanja, F; Kortequee, S; Dukuley, I; Sahr, F

    2002-01-01

    The prevalence of bedbugs Cimex hemipera and C. lectularis was investigated in camps for the internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Freetown, Sierra Leone. Two hundred and thirty eight rooms were searched during the day and at night, and 233 (98%) of those rooms in 30 booths were infested with different life cycle stages of bedbugs. There hundred and ninety-eight (68%) of the bedbugs were adults, 145 (24.8%) were nymphs of various instars, and 41 (7%) were clusters of eggs. Significantly (P > 0.05) more bedbugs were recovered during the night inspections 64.6% as compared to 35.4% during the day inspections. In addition, more adult bedbugs were recovered at night than during the day, a manifestation of their peak feeding period. Of the total of 570 adults and nymphs collected and identified, 320 (56.1%) and 250 (43.9%) were Cimex lectularis and Cimex hemipterus respectively. Clinical examination of 221 individuals living in the booths during 3 consecutive weeks of examinations and treatment for conditions suggestive of bedbug infestation (bites and skin reactions as well as treatments for other health and medical conditions) showed that 196 (86%) had wheals as a direct result of bedbug bites. The data of this pilot humanitarian investigation shows a high prevalence of bedbug infestation in these displacement camps. It is recommended that some control measures be instituted, like residual insecticide application along with integrating control methods within the primary health care system, because bedbugs are a source of great irritation and sleepless nights that could lead to stress.

  19. Displaced Intra-Articular Fractures of the Distal Radius: Open Reduction With Internal Fixation Versus Bridging External Fixation

    PubMed Central

    Fakoor, Mohammad; Fakoor, Morteza; Mohammadhoseini, Payam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Distal radius fracture is common in all ages. Mobility and wrist function is important. The choice of treatment should aim for optimal function with minimal complications. Objectives: In this study we compared two surgical approaches, open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) and closed reduction with external fixation (CR + EF), for treatment of intra-articular distal radius fractures. Patients and Methods: Ninety-four patients with distal radius fracture (type 3, 4 and 5 Fernandez classification) were treated with two surgical methods (ORIF and CR + EF); 55 were treated with CR + EF and 39 were treated with ORIF by different surgeons. All patients were assessed at the end of the first, third and sixth week; and then after the third, sixth and 12th month. At the end of the follow-up, all patients completed the Michigan hand outcome questionnaire (MHOQ). We compared radiological parameters of distal radius, range of motion (ROM) of the wrist, duration of rehabilitation, complication and patient satisfaction of the methods. Results: In our study, radiological findings for the ORIF group were radial inclination (RI): 19.35, radial length (RL): 10.35, radial tilt (RT): 8.92, and ulnar variance (UV): 1.64, while for the CR + EF group these were RI: 15.13, RL: 8, RT: 4.78, and UV: 0.27. The ROM for ORIF were flexion/extension (F/E): 137, Radial/Ulnar deviation (R/U): 52, and Supination/Pronation (S/P): 141, while for the CR + EF group these were F/E: 117, R/U: 40 and S/P: 116. Michigan hand outcome score for ORIF was 75% and for Ext. fix was 60%. The rate of complication with the ORIF method was 58% and in Ext. fix this was 69%. The patients in CR + EF had more than the ORIF course of physiotherapy and rehabilitation. Conclusions: In comparison of ORIF and CR + EF, all results including functional score, clinical and radiologic criteria were in favor of the ORIF method while there were less complications with this method. We believe that ORIF is a better

  20. Association of Eating Disorder Symptoms with Internalizing and Externalizing Dimensions of Psychopathology among Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Karen S.; Wolf, Erika J.; Reardon, Annemarie F.; Miller, Mark W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective A large body of factor analytic research supports the idea that common mental disorders are organized along correlated latent dimensions termed internalizing and externalizing. Eating disorders (EDs) have been associated with both internalizing (mood and anxiety disorders) and externalizing (substance use, antisocial personality disorder) forms of psychopathology. Previous studies found that EDs are best classified as internalizing disorders. However, no previous factor analytic studies of EDs and the internalizing/externalizing dimensions have evaluated if the EDs align with these spectra similarly for men and women. We examined the location of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) symptoms within this model of psychopathology among a sample of veterans, a population traditionally understudied in EDs. Method Data were from two studies of veterans and their intimate partners (N = 453 men and 307 women). Participants were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV without skip-outs. Lifetime symptom severity scores were used in confirmatory factor analytic models. Results A model with AN, BN, and BED symptoms loading onto the distress sub-factor of the internalizing domain fit the data best in the full sample and the male and female subsamples. This model was statistically equivalent for men and women. Discussion All three EDs loaded onto distress, indicating that these conditions overlap with psychopathology characterized by negative affect. Investigating latent dimensions of psychopathology is one approach to identifying common factors that partially account for patterns of comorbidity among psychiatric disorders which may aid in translating research findings into clinical practice. PMID:24849585

  1. Just a Book in a Library? The Sybil Campbell Library Collection Fostering International Friendship amongst Graduate Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    In 1927 the British Federation of University Women (BFUW) established Crosby Hall in London as a hall of residence for women graduates from overseas. The Federation aimed to foster international understanding and peace at a time of social and political turmoil. Accessions to the library at the Hall were on a somewhat ad hoc basis and provide an…

  2. Social integration and heath policy issues for international marriage migrant women in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Sil

    2010-01-01

    Until very recently, Korea was largely considered to be a homogenous, racially intolerant country that had little or no experience with large-scale immigration. However, this paradigm is in the process of changing. For the first time in the country's history, large numbers of foreigners are immigrating to work and live in Korea, and many are seeking to become Koreans. In particular, international marriage migrations, especially those of women entering the country through marriages to Korean men, have become common in South Korea. This has given rise to serious challenges within the country. Although conventional ideologies portray Korea as a country of a single race, culture, and language, the growing number of immigrants has disrupted this homogenous monoculture. Indeed, there are signs that Korea has reached a turning point, with an increasingly permanent and visible migrant population challenging the country's national identity. This article explores the statistics and trends related to international marriage migrant women in South Korea, particularly in terms of their social insecurities and health-related problems. In addition, some aspects of Korean governmental policies for the social integration and health promotion of these women are examined, and some suggestions are made for ways in which public health nursing and nursing education may be changed in response to the current trends.

  3. The Interrelations Between Internalized Homophobia, Depressive Symptoms, and Suicidal Ideation Among Australian Gay Men, Lesbians, and Bisexual Women.

    PubMed

    McLaren, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Internalized homophobia has been linked to depression among gay men, lesbians, and bisexuals. Relatively little research has investigated the link between internalized homophobia and suicidal thoughts and behaviors. The current research investigated the interrelations among internalized homophobia, depressive symptoms, and suicidal ideation by testing additive, mediation, and moderation models. Self-identified Australian gay men (n = 360), lesbians (n = 444), and bisexual women (n = 114) completed the Internalized Homophobia Scale, the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, and the suicide subscale of the General Health Questionnaire. Results supported the additive and partial mediation models for gay men and the mediation and moderation models for lesbians. None of the models were supported for bisexual women. The findings imply that clinicians should focus on reducing internalized homophobia and depressive symptoms among gay men and lesbians, and depressive symptoms among bisexual women, to reduce suicidal ideation.

  4. Risk Factors for Preterm Birth in an International Prospective Cohort of Nulliparous Women

    PubMed Central

    Dekker, Gustaaf Albert; Lee, Shalem Y.; North, Robyn A.; McCowan, Lesley M.; Simpson, Nigel A. B.; Roberts, Claire T.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To identify risk factors for spontaneous preterm birth (birth <37 weeks gestation) with intact membranes (SPTB-IM) and SPTB after prelabour rupture of the membranes (SPTB-PPROM) for nulliparous pregnant women. Design Prospective international multicentre cohort. Participants 3234 healthy nulliparous women with a singleton pregnancy, follow up was complete in 3184 of participants (98.5%). Results Of the 3184 women, 156 (4.9%) had their pregnancy complicated by SPTB; 96 (3.0%) and 60 (1.9%) in the SPTB-IM and SPTB-PPROM categories, respectively. Independent risk factors for SPTB-IM were shorter cervical length, abnormal uterine Doppler flow, use of marijuana pre-pregnancy, lack of overall feeling of well being, being of Caucasian ethnicity, having a mother with diabetes and/or a history of preeclampsia, and a family history of low birth weight babies. Independent risk factors for SPTB-PPROM were shorter cervical length, short stature, participant’s not being the first born in the family, longer time to conceive, not waking up at night, hormonal fertility treatment (excluding clomiphene), mild hypertension, family history of recurrent gestational diabetes, and maternal family history of any miscarriage (risk reduction). Low BMI (<20) nearly doubled the risk for SPTB-PPROM (odds ratio 2.64; 95% CI 1.07–6.51). The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC), after internal validation, was 0.69 for SPTB-IM and 0.79 for SPTB-PPROM. Conclusion The ability to predict PTB in healthy nulliparous women using clinical characteristics is modest. The dissimilarity of risk factors for SPTB-IM compared with SPTB-PPROM indicates different pathophysiological pathways underlie these distinct phenotypes. Trial Registration ACTR.org.au ACTRN12607000551493 PMID:22815699

  5. Refugees and displaced persons. War, hunger, and public health.

    PubMed

    Toole, M J; Waldman, R J

    1993-08-04

    The number of refugees and internally displaced persons in need of protection and assistance has increased from 30 million in 1990 to more than 43 million today. War and civil strife have been largely responsible for this epidemic of mass migration that has affected almost every region of the world, including Europe. Since 1990, crude death rates (CDRs) during the early influx of refugees who crossed international borders have been somewhat lower than CDRs reported earlier among Cambodian and Ethiopian refugees. Nevertheless, CDRs among refugees arriving in Ethiopia, Kenya, Nepal, Malawi, and Zimbabwe since 1990 ranged from five to 12 times the baseline CDRs in the countries of origin. Among internally displaced populations in northern Iraq, Somalia, and Sudan, CDRs were extremely high, ranging from 12 to 25 times the baseline CDRs for the nondisplaced. Among both refugees and internally displaced persons, death rates among children less than 5 years of age were far higher than among older children and adults. In Bangladesh, the death rate in female Rohingya refugees was several times higher than in males. Preventable conditions such as diarrheal disease, measles, and acute respiratory infections, exacerbated often by malnutrition, caused most deaths. Although relief programs for refugees have improved since 1990, the situation among the internally displaced may have worsened. The international community should intervene earlier in the evolution of complex disasters involving civil war, human rights abuses, food shortages, and mass displacement. Relief programs need to be based on sound health and nutrition information and should focus on the provision of adequate shelter, food, water, sanitation, and public health programs that prevent mortality from diarrhea, measles, and other communicable diseases, especially among young children and women.

  6. COPING AS A MEDIATOR OF INTERNALIZED HOMOPHOBIA AND PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTRESS AMONG YOUNG ADULT SEXUAL MINORITY WOMEN.

    PubMed

    Kaysen, Debra; Kulesza, Magdalena; Balsam, Kimberly F; Rhew, Isaac C; Blayney, Jessica A; Lehavot, Keren; Hughes, Tonda L

    2014-09-01

    Sexual minorities have higher rates of depression and anxiety than their heterosexual counterparts. This elevated risk of psychological distress has generally been hypothesized to be a result of the effects of discrimination including internalized negative beliefs about sexual minorities. However, little research has examined the role of various types of coping in mediating between internalized homophobia and mental health. We tested the direct relationship between internalized homophobia and psychological distress and evaluated general and sexual minority-specific coping strategies as potential mediators using structural equation modeling. Data are from a national sample of 1,099 young adult sexual minority women who were on average 20.86 (SD= 2.12) years old, participating in a study on mental health and substance use. The model demonstrated acceptable fit, χ(2) (83) = 402.9, p <.001, CFI=.94, TLI=.92, SRMR= .07, and RMSEA=.06, accounting for 73% of variance in psychological distress. Greater use of maladaptive coping and less use of sexual minority-specific coping were associated with higher psychological distress. Although maladaptive coping mediated the relationship between internalized homophobia and psychological distress, sexual minority-specific coping did not. Our findings support previous studies that have demonstrated the impact of internalized homophobia on psychological distress as well as the role of coping as a protective/risk factor in this relationship.

  7. Status of women and infants in complex humanitarian emergencies.

    PubMed

    Al Gasseer, Naeema; Dresden, Elissa; Keeney, Gwen Brumbaugh; Warren, Nicole

    2004-01-01

    Women and children bear the greatest burden in the midst of war and long-term disasters. Complex humanitarian emergencies are characterized by social disruption, armed conflict, population displacement, collapse of public health infrastructure, and food shortages. Humanitarian assistance for refugees and internally displaced populations requires particular attention to the common issues affecting morbidity and mortality in women and infants. Gender-based violence and reproductive health concerns are discussed within the context of populations affected by conflict and forced migration. Recommendations for midwives and women's health care providers engaging in care for women and children in complex humanitarian emergencies are discussed.

  8. [Levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane internal exposure levels in pregnant women of Xiamen and influencing factors].

    PubMed

    Yu, X S; He, J; Chen, J H; Lai, Z B; Su, Y H; Shi, M M; Huang, Z X; Cheng, Q J; Ke, X Y; Zhao, B H

    2016-11-06

    Objective: To investigate the level of and factors influencing internal exposure to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in pregnant women. Methods: In all, 1 064 pregnant women were recruited in a hospital of Xiamen. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire to obtain data on sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle. Peripheral venous blood and cord blood samples were collected. Of the 1 064 pregnant women, 600 were enrolled in this study after completing the questionnaire and providing peripheral venous blood and cord blood. Among those women, 150 were selected randomly using a systematic sampling method. A gas chromatography coupled electron capture detector was used to determine the concentration of six DDT homologues: p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), o,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (o,p'-DDT), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p'-DDD), o,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (o,p'-DDD), p,p'-dichlorodiphenylethylene (p,p'-DDE), and o,p'-dichlorodiphenylethylene (o,p'-DDE) . Pregnant women were divided into two groups according to DDT concentration: a low concentration group (detection value≤P50) and a high concentration group (detection value>P50). multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze the association between the DDT levels and potential influencing factors which investigated in the questionnaire. Results: The detection rates of p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, o,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE and o,p'-DDE in the peripheral venous blood samples from the 150 pregnant women were 83.3% (125), 29.3% (44), 58.0% (87), 24.0% (36), 82.0% (123), and 34.7% (52), respectively. The median concentrations were 1.56, 0.03, 0.07, 0.03, 0.93 and 0.03 μg/ml, respectively. The detection rates of p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, o,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE and o,p'-DDE in the cord blood samples were 69.3% (104), 10.7% (16), 29.3% (44), 20.7% (31), 81.3% (122) and 45.3% (68), and the median concentrations were 0.41, 0.03, 0.03, 0.03, 0.42 and 0.03

  9. Women in Development: Towards Global Networking. Extract from the Proceedings of the International Forum on Intercultual Exchange (Saitama, Japan), October 29-30, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Women's Education Centre, Saitama (Japan).

    The Japanese National Women's Education Centre (NWEC) held its International Forum on Intercultural Exchange to undertake a broad exchange of information on socioeconomic development, focusing on the present condition of women and their roles, and to conduct detailed discussions of international cooperation with regard to women's solidarity on a…

  10. Measuring vulnerability to disaster displacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brink, Susan A.; Khazai, Bijan; Power, Christopher; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2015-04-01

    aggregate these ideas into a framework of disaster displacement vulnerability that distinguishes between three main aspects of disaster displacement. Disaster displacement can be considered in terms of the number of displaced people and the length of that displacement. However, the literature emphasizes that the severity of disaster displacement can not be measured completely in quantitative terms. Thus, we include a measure representing people who are trapped and unable to leave their homes due to mobility, resources or for other reasons. Finally the third main aspect considers the difficulties that are associated with displacement and reflects the difference between the experiences of those who are displaced into safe and supportive environments as compared to those whose only alternate shelter is dangerous and inadequate for their needs. Finally, we apply the framework to demonstrate a methodology to estimate vulnerability to disaster displacement. Using data from the Global Earthquake Model (GEM) Social and Economic Vulnerability sub-National Database, we generate an index to measure the vulnerability of Japanese prefectures to the dimensions of displacement included in the framework. References Yonitani, M. (2014). Global Estimates 2014: People displaced by disasters. http://www.internal-displacement.org/publications/2014/global-estimates-2014-people-displaced-by-disasters/

  11. Networking among women snowboarders: a study of participants at an International Woman Snowboard Camp.

    PubMed

    Sisjord, M K

    2012-02-01

    The article focuses on women snowboarders' networking and relationships with national snowboard associations and commercial organizers. The study was conducted at an International Women Snowboard Camp, which attracted women snowboarders from five different countries. A qualitative interview was undertaken with participants from each country, eight in total, plus an interview with one of the organizers (a woman). The results indicate that participants from the Nordic countries adopt a more proactive stand to promote snowboarding by organizing specific groups in relation to national associations, particularly the Norwegians and the Finnish. Furthermore, some collaboration across national boarders appeared. The only Swedish participant was associated with several snowboarding communities; whereas the Italian (only one) and the Latvian snowboarders had links with commercial organizers, apparently male dominated in structure. The findings are discussed in the light of Castells' network theory and identity construction in social movements, and gender perspectives. The participants' doing/undoing gender reveals different strategies in negotiating hegemonic masculinity and the power structure in the organizations. Narratives from the Nordic participants reflect undoing gender that impacts on identity constructions in terms of project and/or resistance identity. The Italians and Latvians seemingly do gender while undertaking a subordinate position in the male-dominated structure.

  12. An integrative affect regulation process model of internalized weight bias and intuitive eating in college women.

    PubMed

    Webb, Jennifer B; Hardin, Abigail S

    2016-07-01

    The present study extended the weight stigma and well-being process model (Tylka et al., 2014) by examining three affect regulation pathways that may help simultaneously explain the predicted inverse association between internalized weight bias and intuitive eating. A weight-diverse sample of 333 college women completed an online survey assessing internalized weight stigma, intuitive eating, body shame, body image flexibility, and self-compassion. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate body mass index (BMI). Non-parametric bootstrap resampling procedures were computed to ascertain the presence of the indirect effects of internalized weight bias on intuitive eating via the three hypothesized mediators controlling for BMI in a combined model. Results demonstrated that body image flexibility significantly and self-compassion marginally contributed unique variance in accounting for this relationship. Our preliminary cross-sectional findings contribute to a nascent body of scholarship seeking to provide a theoretically-driven understanding of how negative and positive forms of experiencing and relating to the body may co-occur within individuals. Results also point to potential target variables to consider incorporating in later-stage efforts to promote more adaptive ways of eating amidst internalized weight stigma.

  13. Factorial validity and internal consistency of the PRAFAB questionnaire in women with stress urinary incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Hendriks, Erik JM; Bernards, Arnold TM; Staal, J Bart; de Vet, Henrica CW; de Bie, Rob A

    2008-01-01

    Background To investigate the factor structure, dimensionality and construct validity of the (5-item) PRAFAB questionnaire score in women with stress urinary incontinence (stress UI). Methods A cross validation study design was used in a cohort of 279 patients who were randomly divided into Sample A or B. Sample A was used for preliminary exploratory factor analyses with promax rotation. Sample B provided an independent sample for confirming the premeditated and proposed factor structure and item retention. Internal consistency, item-total and subscale correlations were determined to assess the dimensionality. Construct validity was assessed by comparing factor-based scale means by clinical characteristics based on known relationships. Results Factor analyses resulted in a two-factor structure or subscales: items related to 'leakage severity' (protection, amount and frequency) and items related to its 'perceived symptom impact' or consequences of stress UI on the patient's life (adjustment and body (or self) image). The patterns of the factor loadings were fairly identical for both study samples. The two constructed subscales demonstrated adequate internal consistency with Cronbach's alphas in a range of 0.78 and 0.84 respectively. Scale scores differed by clinical characteristics according to the expectations and supported the construct validity of the scales. Conclusion The findings suggest a two-factorial structure of the PRAFAB questionnaire. Furthermore the results confirmed the internal consistency and construct validity as demonstrated in our previous study. The best description of the factorial structure of the PRAFAB questionnaire was given by a two-factor solution, measuring the stress UI leakage severity items and the perceived symptom impact items. Future research will be necessary to replicate these findings in different settings, type of UI and non-white women and men. PMID:18218110

  14. Termination of pregnancy under French law: from criminalization to a right in accordance with international developments on women's rights.

    PubMed

    Madanamoothoo, Allane

    2011-12-01

    Termination of pregnancy is the premature exit of the products of conception, which include the placenta, bag of waters, embryo or fetus from the uterus. In general, the term "termination of pregnancy" refers to non-medical termination of pregnancy, which is requested for different reasons other than medical ones. When such a request is made in countries where it is lawful, women have access to induced termination of pregnancy under lawful and limited conditions. However, in countries where the practice is illegal, women tend to suffer and die of complications from unsafe termination of pregnancy. Nowadays, there seems to be a worldwide trend towards the legalization of termination of pregnancy. The impact of international developments on women's rights has played an increasing role in improving access to termination of pregnancy. This article aims at describing how legalization of termination of pregnancy in France has become a right which is in accordance with international developments on women's rights.

  15. Sex, Career and Family: Including an International Review of Women's Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogarty, Michael P.; And Others

    Although concerned primarily with women in top jobs, the study also extends to women's opportunities in professional and managerial positions. It also focuses on the general pattern of relationships between men and women. Examining the special problem of women's promotion to top jobs, Part 1 studies the discrepancy between women's contribution to…

  16. Racial Disparities in Health Behaviors and Conditions Among Lesbian and Bisexual Women: The Role of Internalized Stigma

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Yamile; Lehavot, Keren; Beadnell, Blair; Simoni, Jane

    2013-01-01

    There are documented disparities in physical health behaviors and conditions, such as physical activity and obesity, with regard to both race/ethnicity and sexual orientation. However, physical health disparities for lesbian and bisexual (LB) women who are also racial minorities are relatively unexplored. Minority stressors, such as internalized stigma, may account for disparities in such multiply marginalized populations. We sought to (1) characterize inequalities among non-Hispanic white and African American LB women and (2) examine the roles of internalized sexism and homophobia in disparities. Data on health behaviors (diet, physical activity); physical health (hypertension, diabetes, overweight/obesity); internalized sexism; and internalized homophobia were collected via a web-based survey. Recruitment ads were sent electronically to over 200 listservs, online groups, and organizations serving the lesbian, gay, and bisexual community in all 50 U.S. states. The analytic sample consisted of 954 white and 75 African American LB women. African American participants were more likely than white participants to report low fruit/vegetable intake and physical activity, a higher body mass index, and a history of diabetes and hypertension. There were no racial differences in internalized homophobia, but African American women reported higher levels of internalized sexism. Internalized sexism partially mediated racial disparities in physical activity and diabetes, but not in the other outcomes. Findings suggest that African American LB women may be at greater risk than their white counterparts for poor health and that internalized sexism may be a mediator of racial differences for certain behaviors and conditions. PMID:25364769

  17. Toward Earlier Inclusion of Pregnant and Postpartum Women in Tuberculosis Drug Trials: Consensus Statements From an International Expert Panel.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Amita; Mathad, Jyoti S; Abdel-Rahman, Susan M; Albano, Jessica D; Botgros, Radu; Brown, Vikki; Browning, Renee S; Dawson, Liza; Dooley, Kelly E; Gnanashanmugam, Devasena; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Hernandez-Diaz, Sonia; Jean-Philippe, Patrick; Kim, Peter; Lyerly, Anne D; Mirochnick, Mark; Mofenson, Lynne M; Montepiedra, Grace; Piper, Jeanna; Sahin, Leyla; Savic, Radojka; Smith, Betsy; Spiegel, Hans; Swaminathan, Soumya; Watts, D Heather; White, Amina

    2016-03-15

    Tuberculosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in women of childbearing age (15-44 years). Despite increased tuberculosis risk during pregnancy, optimal clinical treatment remains unclear: safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic data for many tuberculosis drugs are lacking, and trials of promising new tuberculosis drugs exclude pregnant women. To advance inclusion of pregnant and postpartum women in tuberculosis drug trials, the US National Institutes of Health convened an international expert panel. Discussions generated consensus statements (>75% agreement among panelists) identifying high-priority research areas during pregnancy, including: (1) preventing progression of latent tuberculosis infection, especially in women coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus; (2) evaluating new agents/regimens for treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis; and (3) evaluating safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of tuberculosis drugs already in use during pregnancy and postpartum. Incorporating pregnant women into clinical trials would extend evidence-based tuberculosis prevention and treatment standards to this special population.

  18. Hepatitis-C-virus-like internal ribosome entry sites displace eIF3 to gain access to the 40S subunit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashem, Yaser; Des Georges, Amedee; Dhote, Vidya; Langlois, Robert; Liao, Hstau Y.; Grassucci, Robert A.; Pestova, Tatyana V.; Hellen, Christopher U. T.; Frank, Joachim

    2013-11-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and classical swine fever virus (CSFV) messenger RNAs contain related (HCV-like) internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs) that promote 5'-end independent initiation of translation, requiring only a subset of the eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs) needed for canonical initiation on cellular mRNAs. Initiation on HCV-like IRESs relies on their specific interaction with the 40S subunit, which places the initiation codon into the P site, where it directly base-pairs with eIF2-bound initiator methionyl transfer RNA to form a 48S initiation complex. However, all HCV-like IRESs also specifically interact with eIF3 (refs 2, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12), but the role of this interaction in IRES-mediated initiation has remained unknown. During canonical initiation, eIF3 binds to the 40S subunit as a component of the 43S pre-initiation complex, and comparison of the ribosomal positions of eIF3 and the HCV IRES revealed that they overlap, so that their rearrangement would be required for formation of ribosomal complexes containing both components. Here we present a cryo-electron microscopy reconstruction of a 40S ribosomal complex containing eIF3 and the CSFV IRES. Remarkably, although the position and interactions of the CSFV IRES with the 40S subunit in this complex are similar to those of the HCV IRES in the 40S-IRES binary complex, eIF3 is completely displaced from its ribosomal position in the 43S complex, and instead interacts through its ribosome-binding surface exclusively with the apical region of domain III of the IRES. Our results suggest a role for the specific interaction of HCV-like IRESs with eIF3 in preventing ribosomal association of eIF3, which could serve two purposes: relieving the competition between the IRES and eIF3 for a common binding site on the 40S subunit, and reducing formation of 43S complexes, thereby favouring translation of viral mRNAs.

  19. The 5th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics: Making progress in the number of women in physics around the world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Beth

    2015-04-01

    A short report on the 5th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics (ICWIP) will be presented. In particular, a summary of the structure of the 5th ICWIP that occurred in Waterloo, Canada in August 2014 will be provided and placed into context of the previous four conferences. In addition, a synopsis of the recent efforts that are happening around the world to encourage girls and women to participate in physics will be given. Several US projects have been very successful in introducing girls to science and physics (e.g., ``Expanding Your Horizons'' intervention) and encouraging undergraduate women physics majors to continue into physics careers (e.g., Conferences for Undergraduate Women in Physics). Projects from other countries, such as the Juno Project in the UK that rates physics departments on their climate for women, might be implemented by US physics professional societies as well as colleges and universities. Several projects originating from the conference will be described: the new ``HERstories: Encouraging words from women in physics'' video based on interviews with delegates of the Conference, the My STEM Story project (http://mystemstory.wlu.ca), and the proceedings of the conference. Partial support provided by NSF #PHY-1419453.

  20. Lateral displacement and rotational displacement sensor

    DOEpatents

    Duden, Thomas

    2014-04-22

    A position measuring sensor formed from opposing sets of capacitor plates measures both rotational displacement and lateral displacement from the changes in capacitances as overlapping areas of capacitors change. Capacitances are measured by a measuring circuit. The measured capacitances are provided to a calculating circuit that performs calculations to obtain angular and lateral displacement from the capacitances measured by the measuring circuit.

  1. From Bonding Wires to Banding Women. Proceedings of the International Consultation on Micro-Chips Technology (Manila, Philippines, October 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Women's Resources, Quezon City (Philippines).

    In October 1986, 40 women from 12 countries gathered in the Philippines for a 10-day meeting of organizers, educators, and workers affected by and confronting the international electronics industry in microchip plants and in automated offices. Participants were from Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, the Philippines, Hong Kong, Japan, the Netherlands,…

  2. Women's Education, Learning and Empowerment. Proceedings of the International Forum on Intercultural Exchange (Saitama, Japan, November 20-23, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Women's Education Centre, Saitama (Japan).

    This document in Japanese and English was prepared for the International Forum on Intercultural Exchange sponsored by the National Women's Education Centre in Japan to give participants the conference schedule and profiles of the presenters. Profiles are accompanied by comments from the presenters about their paper topics or the general theme of…

  3. International Consultation on Micro-Chip Technology: Its Impact on the Lives of Women Workers. Summary of Proceedings (Manila, Philippines, October 5-15, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Participatory Research Group, Toronto (Ontario).

    An international consultation was attended by 40 women workers, educators, and organizers who work directly with women affected by the new "global assembly line" that has developed as a part of the microchip technology industry. The women, who represented 12 countries, shared information and organizing experiences and worked to…

  4. Does Polyvictimization Affect Incarcerated and Non-Incarcerated Adult Women Differently? An Exploration Into Internalizing Problems.

    PubMed

    Radatz, Dana L; Wright, Emily M

    2015-06-10

    In this study, we used data from life histories of 424 non-incarcerated (n = 266) and incarcerated (n = 158) women to examine the extent to which women are exposed to multiple forms of victimization, including child abuse, intimate partner violence, sexual assault, and traumatic life events. We assessed the effects of polyvictimization (e.g., multiple victimizations) on women's health-related outcomes (e.g., attempted suicide, drug and alcohol problems) as well as whether the prevalence rates and effects of victimization were significantly different between the subsamples of women. Results indicate that incarcerated women experience significantly more victimization than non-incarcerated women, and while polyvictimization was associated with a higher likelihood of alcohol problems, drug problems, and attempted suicide among non-incarcerated women, it was only marginally associated with an increased likelihood of alcohol problems among incarcerated women. Finally, low levels of polyvictimization affected alcohol and drug problems among incarcerated and non-incarcerated women differently.

  5. Gender Differences in Displacement Cost: Evidence and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Thomas F.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Canadian displaced worker data show that predisplacement wages rise at about the same rate, but women lose more from displacement than men and loss increases with tenure. Results do not support the hypothesis that women accumulate less job-specific human capital; gender differences in job search may be a cause. (SK)

  6. Cambodia: the women want justice and peace.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    Refugees and internally displaced people are an unfortunate and inevitable consequence of war. Among these, women refugees are most vulnerable to sexual violence as they go through various stages of displacement. During the war in Cambodia, women refugees experienced sexual violence in the form of rape, gang rape, sexual exploitation, and forced prostitution. This report presents a summary of a testimony by Yi Leang Eng, a Cambodian woman refugee, on her experiences during the war. According to her, violations of rape happened inside and outside the refugee camps everyday, relegating the violence as a normal occurrence. In this regard, nongovernmental organizations and governments are urged to cooperate and insist that perpetrators of such crimes must be punished and such practices must be immediately stopped. In addition, the issue of supporting women survivors and ensuring that they are given justice should also be discussed. Moreover, for the women survivors themselves, the welfare of their families should be top priority.

  7. Engineering education research: Impacts of an international network of female engineers on the persistence of Liberian undergraduate women studying engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimer, Sara; Reddivari, Sahithya; Cotel, Aline

    2015-11-01

    As international efforts to educate and empower women continue to rise, engineering educators are in a unique position to be a part of these efforts by encouraging and supporting women across the world at the university level through STEM education and outreach. For the past two years, the University of Michigan has been a part of a grassroots effort to encourage and support the persistence of engineering female students at University of Liberia. This effort has led to the implementation of a leadership camp this past August for Liberian engineering undergraduate women, meant to: (i) to empower engineering students with the skills, support, and inspiration necessary to become successful and well-rounded engineering professionals in a global engineering market; and (ii) to strengthen the community of Liberian female engineers by building cross-cultural partnerships among students resulting in a international network of women engineers. This session will present qualitative research findings on the impact of this grassroots effort on Liberian female students? persistence in engineering, and the future directions of this work.

  8. The Impact of Network Relationships, Prison Experiences, and Internal Transformation on Women's Success after Prison Release

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bui, Hoan N.; Morash, Merry

    2010-01-01

    Using data obtained from retrospective, in-depth interviews with 20 successful female parolees, the present study examines the effects of women offenders' relationships with people in their social networks (i.e., their network relationships) before, during, and after incarceration on their postrelease desistence from crime. Because women's social…

  9. Education, Internationalism and Empire at the 1928 and 1930 Pan-Pacific Women's Conferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Joyce

    2014-01-01

    In order to explore education at the first two Pan-Pacific Women's Conferences, this article builds on Campbell and Sherington's account of education in Oceania and on empirical research undertaken by Selleck and others, along with relevant primary source material. It traces elements of empire as they played out in inter-war women's education and…

  10. Refining the Measurement of Women's Autonomy: An International Application of a Multi-dimensional Construct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agarwala, Rina; Lynch, Scott M.

    2006-01-01

    Women's autonomy has long been a central concern for researchers examining the social position of women in developing countries. However, little emphasis has been placed on the measurement of autonomy, despite its importance for assessing the validity of comparative research. In this research, we use confirmatory factor analyses to determine (1)…

  11. "You Pulled Me out of a Dark Well": A Case Study of a Colombian Displaced Woman Empowered Through Interpersonal Counseling (IPC).

    PubMed

    Ceballos, Angela Milena Gomez; Andrade, Ana Claudia; Markowitz, Talia; Verdeli, Helen

    2016-08-01

    Interpersonal counseling (IPC), a briefer and simplified adaptation of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), was used with internally displaced women (IDW) in Bogotá, Colombia, an implementation study of a mental health care pathway funded by Grand Challenges Canada. Preliminary evidence suggests that IPC led to positive outcomes for IDW and may be a feasible first line treatment for displaced women with elevated symptoms of common mental disorders. The case study demonstrates the use of IPC as an intervention to treat depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress symptoms in one participant across 11 sessions, from the case formulation through the termination phase.

  12. Women of Burma Speak Out: Workshops to Deconstruct Gender-Based Violence and Build Systems of Peace and Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norsworthy, Kathryn L.; Khuankaew, Ouyporn

    2004-01-01

    Refugee and internally displaced women of Burma examined structural and institutional violence against women within their communities within workshop formats. Group members also discussed strategies for transforming systems supporting gender-based violence into structures of peace and gender justice. The authors describe their methodology, based…

  13. Women in Development: We as Agents of Social Change. Proceedings of the International Forum on Intercultural Exchange (3rd, Saitama [Japan], December 17-19, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Women's Education Centre, Saitama (Japan).

    The third International Forum on Intercultural Exchange focused on four important issues for developing nations: literacy education, environmental protection, economic activities, and violence against women. In all of these areas, women are striving for social change as agents and beneficiaries of development. Following the conference agenda, the…

  14. Financing care for aging women in the U.S.: international perspectives.

    PubMed

    Neuman, P H; Rice, D P; Hussey, P S

    2000-04-01

    The aging of the U.S. population presents challenges in financing care and meeting the health and long-term care needs of older Americans. Women, who constitute a majority of the older adult population and a disproportionate share of those with low incomes, chronic conditions and long-term care needs, have much at stake in the future direction of health programs for aging Americans. This paper examines the status of older women in 12 industrialized nations to assess how the U.S. compares to other countries in terms of its aging female population. We find that women across the 12 industrialized countries have a longer life expectancy than men at ages 65 and 80, underscoring the universality of aging as a "women's issue". With respect to age composition, the U.S. lags behind many industrialized nations in the share of its elderly female population; by 2030, the proportion of women aged 65 and older, and 80 and older, will be lower in the U.S. than in any of the industrialized nations compared in this paper. Against this backdrop, the paper examines the characteristics of older adult women in the U.S., considers the role of Medicare in meeting the needs of aging women, and identifies gaps in coverage, primarily prescription drug and long-term care, that disproportionately affect older women. The paper concludes by considering how other nations provide and finance prescription drug and long-term care services for older adults, suggesting useful models for the U.S. to consider as it struggles to meet the demands of its aging population.

  15. An empirical examination of women's empowerment and transformative change in the context of international development.

    PubMed

    Grabe, Shelly

    2012-03-01

    This paper responds to calls from social scientists in the area of globalization and women's empowerment to test a model that investigates both structural and individual components of women's empowerment in the context of globalization. The investigation uses a liberation psychology framework by taking into account the effects of globalization, human rights discourse, and women's activism within social movements to identify how structural inequities may be related to empowerment. Surveys conducted in rural Nicaragua revealed that land ownership and organizational participation among women were related to more progressive gender ideology, and in turn, women's power and control within the marital relationship, individual levels of agency, and subjective well-being. The study demonstrates that psychology can bridge the theoretical arguments surrounding human rights with the practical implementation of development interventions, and provide empirical support that has yet to be demonstrated elsewhere. The findings have important implications for strategies and interventions that can improve conditions for women and contribute to the aims of social justice articulated in the Beijing Platform for Action.

  16. International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health in women with breast cancer: a proposal for measurement instruments.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Flávia Nascimento de; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge; Bergmann, Anke

    2013-06-01

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) aims at standardization, but its applicability requires consistent instruments. In Brazil, invasive therapeutic approaches are frequent, leading to functional alterations. The current study thus aimed to identify and discuss instruments capable of measuring ICF core set codes for breast cancer. The review included ICF studies in women with breast cancer diagnosis and studies with the objective of translating and validating instruments for the Brazilian population, and consistent with the codes. Review studies, systematic or not, were excluded. Eight instruments were selected, and the WHOQOL-Bref was the most comprehensive. The use of various instruments showed 19 coinciding codes, and the instruments as a whole covered 58 of the total of 81 codes. The use of multiple instruments is time-consuming, so new studies are needed to propose parsimonious tools capable of measuring functioning in women treated for breast cancer.

  17. Internal iliac and uterine arteries Doppler ultrasound in the assessment of normotensive and chronic hypertensive pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Guedes-Martins, L.; Cunha, A.; Saraiva, J.; Gaio, R.; Macedo, F.; Almeida, H.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to compare Doppler flows pulsatility index (PI) and resistance indexes (RI) of uterine and internal iliac arteries during pregnancy in low risk women and in those with stage-1 essential hypertension. From January 2010 and December 2012, a longitudinal and prospective study was carried out in 103 singleton uneventful pregnancies (72 low-risk pregnancies and 31 with stage 1 essential hypertension)at the 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimesters. Multiple linear regression models, fitted using generalized least squares and whose errors were allowed to be correlated and/or have unequal variances, were employed; a model for the relative differences of both arteries impedance was utilized. In both groups, uterine artery PI and RI exhibited a gestational age related decreasing trend whereas internal iliac artery PI and RI increased. The model testing the hemodynamic adaptation in women with and without hypertension showed similar trend. Irrespective of blood pressure conditions, the internal iliac artery resistance pattern contrasts with the capacitance pattern of its immediate pelvic division, suggesting a pregnancy-related regulatory mechanism in the pelvic circulation. PMID:24445576

  18. Movement profiles of elite women soccer players during international matches and the effect of opposition's team ranking.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Adam; Norton, Kevin; Lyons, Keith

    2014-12-01

    Abstract Movement patterns in elite men's soccer have been reported in depth, but less research exists for women's soccer. Aims of the study were to identify the movement profiles of elite women soccer players in international competition and examine the effect the level of opposition, based on Federation Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) rankings, had on the physical demands of the game. MinimaxX athlete tracking devices were used by 15 players during 13 international matches against opponent teams of varying ability. Total distance covered averaged 9292 ± 175 m. There was a decrease in high-intensity running (HIR) in the 60- to 75-min and 75- to 90-min periods compared to the 0- to 15-min period of 22.4% and 26.1%, respectively (P = 0.022, P = 0.004) although sprint distances remained unchanged across game periods. HIR distances covered were significantly greater for midfielders versus defenders, while defenders had lower sprinting compared to both midfielders and attackers. Stronger opponents elicited less HIR and greater low-speed activity (LSA) compared to playing teams of similar or lower ranking. These results are important to coaches to prepare players for international competition and show the differing demands required depending on the ability of the opponents.

  19. Participation of childbearing international migrant women in research: the ethical balance.

    PubMed

    Merry, Lisa; Low, Amy; Carnevale, Franco; Gagnon, Anita J

    2016-02-01

    Fear of burdening or harming childbearing, migrant women, particularly refugees or others who have experienced war, torture, abuse, or rape, can result in their exclusion from research. This exclusion prohibits health issues and related solutions to be identified for this population. For this reason, while it may be challenging to include these women in studies, it is ethically problematic not to do so. Using ethical guidelines for research involving humans as a framework, and drawing on our research experiences. This discussion article proposes a number of strategies to improve the conditions for childbearing migrant women to participate in health research. What emerged as key for studying this diverse population and ensuring an ethically responsible approach are the use of methods that are adapted to the circumstances of childbearing migrant women and the involvement and support from "migrant-friendly" organizations. Ensuring migrant women are involved in the research process and knowledge produced is also critical. The more researchers working in this field communicate their experiences, the more will be learnt about how best to approach research with migrants. More migration and health research will enable a greater contribution to the knowledge base upon which the needs of this population can be met and their strengths maximized.

  20. Precision displacement reference system

    DOEpatents

    Bieg, Lothar F.; Dubois, Robert R.; Strother, Jerry D.

    2000-02-22

    A precision displacement reference system is described, which enables real time accountability over the applied displacement feedback system to precision machine tools, positioning mechanisms, motion devices, and related operations. As independent measurements of tool location is taken by a displacement feedback system, a rotating reference disk compares feedback counts with performed motion. These measurements are compared to characterize and analyze real time mechanical and control performance during operation.

  1. Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder: International Society for the Study of Women's Sexual Health (ISSWSH) Expert Consensus Panel Review.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Irwin; Kim, Noel N; Clayton, Anita H; DeRogatis, Leonard R; Giraldi, Annamaria; Parish, Sharon J; Pfaus, James; Simon, James A; Kingsberg, Sheryl A; Meston, Cindy; Stahl, Stephen M; Wallen, Kim; Worsley, Roisin

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the International Society for the Study of Women's Sexual Health expert consensus panel was to develop a concise, clinically relevant, evidence-based review of the epidemiology, physiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD), a sexual dysfunction affecting approximately 10% of adult women. Etiologic factors include conditions or drugs that decrease brain dopamine, melanocortin, oxytocin, and norepinephrine levels and augment brain serotonin, endocannabinoid, prolactin, and opioid levels. Symptoms include lack or loss of motivation to participate in sexual activity due to absent or decreased spontaneous desire, sexual desire in response to erotic cues or stimulation, or ability to maintain desire or interest through sexual activity for at least 6 months, with accompanying distress. Treatment follows a biopsychosocial model and is guided by history and assessment of symptoms. Sex therapy has been the standard treatment, although there is a paucity of studies assessing efficacy, except for mindfulness-based cognitive behavior therapy. Bupropion and buspirone may be considered off-label treatments for HSDD, despite limited safety and efficacy data. Menopausal women with HSDD may benefit from off-label testosterone treatment, as evidenced by multiple clinical trials reporting some efficacy and short-term safety. Currently, flibanserin is the only Food and Drug Administration-approved medication to treat premenopausal women with generalized acquired HSDD. Based on existing data, we hypothesize that all these therapies alter central inhibitory and excitatory pathways. In conclusion, HSDD significantly affects quality of life in women and can effectively be managed by health care providers with appropriate assessments and individualized treatments.

  2. [Screening for intimate partner violence against women. International discussion, considerations for Germany].

    PubMed

    Brzank, P; Blättner, B

    2010-02-01

    Domestic violence and partner violence against women is a serious problem in many countries, including Germany. This type of violence has far-reaching social, economic, and health consequences for victims. The health sector can play a decisive role within intervention and prevention, if healthcare providers discover at an early stage that violence is the cause for injuries and disorders. Screenings can identify victims of domestic and partner violence. In several other countries, recommendations or agreements about screening for domestic and partner violence in the health sector are already in place. In Germany, however, the discussion about this kind of screening is just beginning. This article introduces the debate by referring to a Health Technology Assessment from the UK and giving an overview. The present findings also justify screening for partner violence against women in Germany. However, further research on the screening instruments used with women as well as other victims, such as men or elderly, is recommended.

  3. Freeing Ourselves: Removing Internal Barriers to Equality. A Workshop for Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collier, Helen V.; And Others

    This manual is for a developmental workshop for 12-18 women that uses didactic and experiential techniques to train participants to make freer educational and career choices. It contains four parts. Part 1, for the workshop administrator, overviews the nature of the workshop and provides information necessary for publicizing, organizing,…

  4. African American Women Scholars and International Research: Dr. Anna Julia Cooper's Legacy of Study Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Stephanie Y.

    2009-01-01

    EIn this article, the author presents a little-known but detailed history of Black women's tradition of study abroad. Specifically, she situates Dr. Anna Julia Cooper within the landscape of historic African American students who studied in Japan, Germany, Jamaica, England, Italy, Haiti, India, West Africa, and Thailand, in addition to France. The…

  5. Tactile suppression of displacement.

    PubMed

    Ziat, Mounia; Hayward, Vincent; Chapman, C Elaine; Ernst, Marc O; Lenay, Charles

    2010-10-01

    In vision, the discovery of the phenomenon of saccadic suppression of displacement has made important contributions to the understanding of the stable world problem. Here, we report a similar phenomenon in the tactile modality. When scanning a single Braille dot with two fingers of the same hand, participants were asked to decide whether the dot was stationary or whether it was displaced from one location to another. The stimulus was produced by refreshable Braille devices that have dots that can be swiftly raised and recessed. In some conditions, the dot was stationary. In others, a displacement was created by monitoring the participant's finger position and by switching the dot activation when it was not touched by either finger. The dot displacement was of either 2.5 mm or 5 mm. We found that in certain cases, displaced dots were felt to be stationary. If the displacement was orthogonal to the finger movements, tactile suppression occurred effectively when it was of 2.5 mm, but when the displacement was of 5 mm, the participants easily detected it. If the displacement was medial-lateral, the suppression effect occurred as well, but less often when the apparent movement of the dot opposed the movement of the finger. In such cases, the stimulus appeared sooner than when the brain could predict it from finger movement, supporting a predictive rather than a postdictive differential processing hypothesis.

  6. Displacement data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenthal, W. Steven; Venkataramani, Shankar; Mariano, Arthur J.; Restrepo, Juan M.

    2017-02-01

    We show that modifying a Bayesian data assimilation scheme by incorporating kinematically-consistent displacement corrections produces a scheme that is demonstrably better at estimating partially observed state vectors in a setting where feature information is important. While the displacement transformation is generic, here we implement it within an ensemble Kalman Filter framework and demonstrate its effectiveness in tracking stochastically perturbed vortices.

  7. Building international research partnerships to develop HIV programs for women of color in the context of social inequalities and human rights.

    PubMed

    Sanders-Phillips, Kathy; Pretorius, Liezille; Reddy, Priscilla

    2009-01-01

    This article examines relationships among social inequality, drug use, and HIV risk for women of color in the United States and South Africa. In the first section, social and cultural factors that may place women of color at risk for drug use and exposure to HIV are identified. In the second section, lessons learned while developing HIV prevention research protocols for women of color in South Africa are presented and discussed. Experience suggests that to effectively address women's risks of drug use and AIDS requires specific theoretical models and methodological approaches that acknowledge the critical interface that may exist among social inequality, drug use, and AIDS risk for women worldwide. Successful HIV prevention and intervention programs for women of color worldwide also require international research partnerships that are based on mutual respect between partners and attention to the needs and priorities of the target populations.

  8. Large scale displacements and internal deformations of the Outer Western Carpathians during the Cenozoic as manifested in paleomagnetic rotations and in the magnetic fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Márton, Emö; Tokarski, Antek K.

    2016-04-01

    The paleomagnetic and magnetic anisotropy results interpreted in this presentation in terms of tectonics were obtained on the fine grained members, mostly mudstones/claystones, of the flysch from the Magura, the Silesian and the Dukla rootless nappes. The results are the best from the Upper Oligocene Krosno beds, which were affected by compression soon after deposition. These beds were available for sampling in the Silesian and Dukla nappes, but absent in the Magura nappe. Thus, in the latter older Paleogene strata were tested. A common feature of all sampled sediments is the low susceptibility (in the range of 10-4 SI or lower), weak remanence and the presence of pyrite. AMS measurements point to quite strong and probably repeated deformation in the Magura nappe, and the remanence is of-post-folding age. The AMS of the Silesian and Dukla nappes indicate weaker deformation, the orientations of the AMS lineations reflect compression. The remanence is of pre-folding age in the western and central segments of the Silesian nappe and is a mixture of pre and post-folding magnetization in the eastern segment. All the so far mentioned areas must have been affected by about 60° CCW rotation which followed the internal deformation. The Dukla nappe also rotated in the CCW sense, but the angle is far from well-defined. This can be attributed to the complicated internal structure of the nappe (e.g. presence of olistoliths) and non-removable overprint magnetizations. The relationship between local tectonic strikes and AMS lineations seems to imply that the ductile deformation responsible for the AMS lineations were acquired first, and the map-scale structures came into being during the CCW rotation of the studied segment of the nappe. AARM measurements documented that the fabrics of the ferrimagnetic minerals are often different from the orientation of the AMS fabrics. In such cases, they either fail to define an ellipsoid or the general orientations of the maxima are different

  9. Conflict, displacement and health in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Mowafi, Hani

    2011-01-01

    Displacement is a hallmark of modern humanitarian emergencies. Displacement itself is a traumatic event that can result in illness or death. Survivors face challenges including lack of adequate shelter, decreased access to health services, food insecurity, loss of livelihoods, social marginalisation as well as economic and sexual exploitation. Displacement takes many forms in the Middle East and the Arab World. Historical conflicts have resulted in long-term displacement of Palestinians. Internal conflicts have driven millions of Somalis and Sudanese from their homes. Iraqis have been displaced throughout the region by invasion and civil strife. In addition, large numbers of migrants transit Middle Eastern countries or live there illegally and suffer similar conditions as forcibly displaced people. Displacement in the Middle East is an urban phenomenon. Many displaced people live hidden among host country populations in poor urban neighbourhoods - often without legal status. This represents a challenge for groups attempting to access displaced populations. Furthermore, health information systems in host countries often do not collect data on displaced people, making it difficult to gather data needed to target interventions towards these vulnerable populations. The following is a discussion of the health impacts of conflict and displacement in the Middle East. A review was conducted of published literature on migration and displacement in the region. Different cases are discussed with an emphasis on the recent, large-scale and urban displacement of Iraqis to illustrate aspects of displacement in this region.

  10. Human resources for health: task shifting to promote basic health service delivery among internally displaced people in ethnic health program service areas in eastern Burma/Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Low, Sharon; Tun, Kyaw Thura; Mhote, Naw Pue Pue; Htoo, Saw Nay; Maung, Cynthia; Kyaw, Saw Win; Shwe Oo, Saw Eh Kalu; Pocock, Nicola Suyin

    2014-01-01

    report provides evidence of the substantive system of health care provision and access in the Karen/Kayin State over the past 20 years. It underscores the climate of vulnerability of the EHOs and CBHOs due to lack of regional and international understanding of the political complexities in Burma/Myanmar. As Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) integration gathers pace, this case study highlights potential issues relating to migration and health access. The case also documents the challenge of integrating indigenous and/or cross-border health systems, with the ongoing risk of deepening ethnic conflicts in Burma/Myanmar as the peace process is negotiated. PMID:25280737

  11. ATLANTIC-DIP: prevalence of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus by International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Groups criteria.

    PubMed

    Noctor, Eoin; Crowe, Catherine; Carmody, Louise A; Kirwan, Breda; O'Dea, Angela; Glynn, Liam G; McGuire, Brian E; O'Shea, Paula M; Dunne, Fidelma P

    2015-02-01

    Women with previous gestational diabetes (GDM) are a high-risk group for future development of diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. The new International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria significantly increase the number of women diagnosed with GDM. The long-term metabolic outcome in these women is unknown. We set out to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, using adult treatment panel-III criteria; and insulin resistance, using HOMA2-IR, in white European women with previous GDM. Using a cohort design, we invited women meeting IADPSG GDM criteria across four Irish antenatal centres between 2007 and 2010 to participate. Two hundred and sixty-five women with previous values meeting IADPSG criteria for GDM participated (44 % of the population eligible for participation). Mean age was 36.7 years (SD 5.0). These women were compared with a randomly selected control group of 378 women (mean age 37.6 years, SD 5.1) known to have normal glucose tolerance (NGT) in pregnancy during the same period. A total of 25.3 % of women with previous IADPSG-defined GDM met metabolic syndrome criteria, compared to 6.6 % of women with NGT [at 2.6 (SD 1.0) vs. 3.3 years (SD 0.7) post-partum]. The prevalence of HOMA2-IR >1.8 was higher in women with previous IADPSG-defined GDM (33.6 vs. 9.1 % with NGT, p < 0.001). Women with previous GDM by IADPSG criteria demonstrate a greater than threefold prevalence of metabolic syndrome compared to women with NGT in pregnancy. Efforts to prevent projected long-term consequences of this should focus on interventions both in the preconception and post-partum periods.

  12. Advanced Triangulation Displacement Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poteet, Wade M.; Cauthen, Harold K.

    1996-01-01

    Advanced optoelectronic triangulation displacement sensors undergoing development. Highly miniaturized, more stable, more accurate, and relatively easy to use. Incorporate wideband electronic circuits suitable for real-time monitoring and control of displacements. Measurements expected to be accurate to within nanometers. In principle, sensors mass-produced at relatively low unit cost. Potential applications numerous. Possible industrial application in measuring runout of rotating shaft or other moving part during fabrication in "zero-defect" manufacturing system, in which measured runout automatically corrected.

  13. International Marriages between Eastern European-Born Women and U.S.-Born Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levchenko, Polina; Solheim, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Globalization has increased the occurrence of "international marriages" due to expanded marriage markets resulting from increased travel and communication avenues. Although Eastern Europe is one of the top three regions of origin for marriage migrants, little is known about who chooses this type of marriage arrangement. This study…

  14. The Role of an International Higher Education Partnership to Improve Gender Equality and Empower Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Sandra Louise Clements

    2014-01-01

    This is a research case study of an International Higher Education Partnership (IHEP) between Vanguard University of Southern California (VUSC) and the University of Duhok (UoD) in the Kurdistan Region of northern Iraq funded by the British Council DelPHE-Iraq project targeting Millennial Development Goal (MDG) #3 to promote gender equality and…

  15. Medicine and nursing in the Spanish Civil War: women who served in the health services of the International Brigades (1936-1939).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Aguado, María del Carmen; Brugues, Eulalia; de Leiva-Perez, Alejandra; de Leiva, Alberto

    2010-12-01

    The outbreak of the Spanish Civil War in 1936 had repercussions throughout the world. Even though Western democracies had signed a Non-Intervention Agreement, thousands of foreign volunteers fought on the Republican side. This paper briefly summarizes the issues that directly led to the war, and focuses on the intervention of the International Brigades, the origins of the International Sanitary Service (ISS) and the role played by women at the ISS. These women implemented and collaborated in important and innovative procedures in military medicine, that we analyze below.

  16. A proposed new international convention supporting the rights of pregnant women and girls and their newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Winrow, Benjamin; Bile, Khalif; Hafeez, Assad; Davies, Hugh; Brown, Nick; Zafar, Shamsa; Cham, Mamady; Phillips, Barbara; MacDonald, Rhona; Southall, David P

    2012-05-01

    For a multitude of eminently modifiable reasons, death rates for pregnant women and girls and their newborn infants in poorly resourced countries remain unacceptably high. The concomitant high morbidity rates compound the situation. The rights of these vulnerable individuals are incompletely protected by existing United Nations human rights conventions, which many countries have failed to implement. The authors propose a novel approach grounded on both human rights and robust evidence-based clinical guidelines to create a 'human rights convention specifically for pregnant women and girls and their newborn infants'. The approach targets the 'right to health' of these large, vulnerable and neglected populations. The proposed convention is designed so that it can be monitored, audited and evaluated objectively. It should also foster a sense of national ownership and accountability as it is designed to be relevant to local situations and to be incorporated into local clinical governance systems. It may be of particular value to those countries that are not yet on target to meet the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), especially MDGs 4 and 5, which target child and maternal mortality, respectively. To foster a sense of international responsibility, two additional initiatives are integral to its philosophy: the promotion of twinning between well and poorly resourced regions and a raising of awareness of how some well-resourced countries can damage the health of mothers and babies, for example, through the recruitment of health workers trained by national governments and taken from the public health system.

  17. Functionality in Women with Breast Cancer: The Use of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) in Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento de Carvalho, Flávia; Bergmann, Anke; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the functionality of women diagnosed with breast cancer according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). [Subjects and Methods] This was a cross-sectional study. We applied instruments consistent with the summary of ICF codes for breast cancer: quality of life questionnaire (WHOQOL), upper limb symptoms and function (DASH), social support, physical examination and functional medical record data. [Results] The study included 105 women who were 55 years old and subjected to surgical treatment within an average of 1.63 year previously. The ‘function’ component considered in the WHOQOL, the DASH and physical examination. There were high prevalences of positive responses for most codes, and only b130, d430, d445, d640, d650, d920 and codes of environmental factors considered by the Social Support Questionnaire showed high prevalences of negative responses (47.6%, 61%, 43.8%, 63.8%, 56.2%, 52.4%, and 35.2%, respectively). [Conclusion] There was a lower prevalence of disability, with the exception of issues related to strenuous activity and load. Some findings showed conflicting results between different instruments that measure the same code, and studies that propose more accurate tools and are able to consider the ICF codes specific to this pathology are necessary. PMID:24926139

  18. Mechanisms for the Negative Effects of Internalized HIV-Related Stigma on Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence in Women: The Mediating Roles of Social Isolation and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Whitney; Cohen, Mardge H.; Wilson, Tracey E.; Adimora, Adaora A.; Merenstein, Daniel; Adedimeji, Adebola; Wentz, Eryka L.; Foster, Antonina G.; Metsch, Lisa; Tien, Phyllis C.; Weiser, Sheri D.; Turan, Janet M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Internalization of HIV-related stigma may inhibit a person's ability to manage HIV disease through adherence to treatment regimens. Studies, mainly with white men, have suggested an association between internalized stigma and suboptimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, there is a scarcity of research with women of different racial/ethnic backgrounds and on mediating mechanisms in the association between internalized stigma and ART adherence. Methods: The Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) is a multicenter cohort study. Women living with HIV complete interviewer-administered questionnaires semiannually. Cross-sectional analyses for the current article included 1168 women on ART for whom data on medication adherence were available from their last study visit between April 2013 and March 2014, when the internalized stigma measure was initially introduced. Results: The association between internalized stigma and self-reported suboptimal ART adherence was significant for those in racial/ethnic minority groups (AOR = 0.69, P = 0.009, 95% CI: 0.52 to 0.91), but not for non-Hispanic whites (AOR = 2.15, P = 0.19, 95% CI: 0.69 to 6.73). Depressive symptoms, loneliness, and low perceived social support mediated the association between internalized stigma and suboptimal adherence in the whole sample, as well as in the subsample of minority participants. In serial mediation models, internalized stigma predicted less-perceived social support (or higher loneliness), which in turn predicted more depressive symptoms, which in turn predicted suboptimal medication adherence. Conclusions: Findings suggest that interconnected psychosocial mechanisms affect ART adherence, and that improvements in adherence may require multifaceted interventions addressing both mental health and interpersonal factors, especially for minority women. PMID:26885803

  19. Celebrate Women's History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Carolyn M.; Baradar, Mariam

    This teachers' guide to activities celebrating Women's History Month focuses on women whose important contributions have been omitted from history textbooks. Women's History Month grew from a 1977 celebration of Women's History Week and is intended to bring women's history into the school curriculum. International Women's Day, celebrated on March…

  20. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Secondhand Smoke Exposure among Internal Chinese Migrant Women of Reproductive Age: Evidence from China's Labor-Force Dynamic Survey.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xiao; Luo, Xiaofeng; Ling, Li

    2016-04-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) is a major risk factor for poor health outcomes among women in China, where proportionately few women smoke. This is especially the case as it pertains to women's reproductive health, specifically migrant women who are exposed to SHS more than the population at large. There are several factors which may increase migrant women's risk of SHS exposure. This paper aims to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of SHS exposure among internal Chinese migrant women of reproductive age. The data used were derived from the 2014 Chinese Labor Dynamic Survey, a national representative panel survey. The age-adjusted rate of SHS exposure of women of reproductive age with migration experience was of 43.46% (95% CI: 40.73%-46.40%), higher than those without migration experience (35.28% (95% CI: 33.66%-36.97%)). Multivariate analysis showed that participants with a marital status of "Widowed" had statistically lower exposure rates, while those with a status of "Cohabitation" had statistically higher exposure. Those with an undergraduate degree or above had statistically lower SHS exposure. Those with increasing levels of social support, and those who currently smoke or drink alcohol, had statistically higher SHS exposure. Participants' different work-places had an effect on their SHS exposure, with outdoor workers statistically more exposed. Our findings suggest that urgent tobacco control measures should be taken to reduce smoking prevalence and SHS exposure. Specific attention should be paid to protecting migrant women of reproductive age from SHS.

  1. Appearance Self-Attitudes of African American and European American Women: Media Comparisons and Internalization of Beauty Ideals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson, Deana L.; Stake, Jayne E.

    2009-01-01

    African American (AA) women have reported less body image disturbance than European American (EA) women, but questions remain about the nature and extent of this difference. This study examined differences in the body image of 80 AA women and 89 EA women with an improved methodology that controlled for body size, distinguished between satisfaction…

  2. Water displacement mercury pump

    DOEpatents

    Nielsen, M.G.

    1984-04-20

    A water displacement mercury pump has a fluid inlet conduit and diffuser, a valve, a pressure cannister, and a fluid outlet conduit. The valve has a valve head which seats in an opening in the cannister. The entire assembly is readily insertable into a process vessel which produces mercury as a product. As the mercury settles, it flows into the opening in the cannister displacing lighter material. When the valve is in a closed position, the pressure cannister is sealed except for the fluid inlet conduit and the fluid outlet conduit. Introduction of a lighter fluid into the cannister will act to displace a heavier fluid from the cannister via the fluid outlet conduit. The entire pump assembly penetrates only a top wall of the process vessel, and not the sides or the bottom wall of the process vessel. This insures a leak-proof environment and is especially suitable for processing of hazardous materials.

  3. Water displacement mercury pump

    DOEpatents

    Nielsen, Marshall G.

    1985-01-01

    A water displacement mercury pump has a fluid inlet conduit and diffuser, a valve, a pressure cannister, and a fluid outlet conduit. The valve has a valve head which seats in an opening in the cannister. The entire assembly is readily insertable into a process vessel which produces mercury as a product. As the mercury settles, it flows into the opening in the cannister displacing lighter material. When the valve is in a closed position, the pressure cannister is sealed except for the fluid inlet conduit and the fluid outlet conduit. Introduction of a lighter fluid into the cannister will act to displace a heavier fluid from the cannister via the fluid outlet conduit. The entire pump assembly penetrates only a top wall of the process vessel, and not the sides or the bottom wall of the process vessel. This insures a leak-proof environment and is especially suitable for processing of hazardous materials.

  4. Optical displacement sensor

    DOEpatents

    Carr, Dustin W.

    2008-04-08

    An optical displacement sensor is disclosed which uses a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) coupled to an optical cavity formed by a moveable membrane and an output mirror of the VCSEL. This arrangement renders the lasing characteristics of the VCSEL sensitive to any movement of the membrane produced by sound, vibrations, pressure changes, acceleration, etc. Some embodiments of the optical displacement sensor can further include a light-reflective diffractive lens located on the membrane or adjacent to the VCSEL to control the amount of lasing light coupled back into the VCSEL. A photodetector detects a portion of the lasing light from the VCSEL to provide an electrical output signal for the optical displacement sensor which varies with the movement of the membrane.

  5. Feasibility, Acceptability, and Preliminary Efficacy of the Unity Workshop: An Internalized Stigma Reduction Intervention for African American Women Living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Desmond, Michelle; Andrasik, Michele; Rasberry, Tonya; Lambert, Nina; Cohn, Susan E.; Simoni, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Observational studies have examined the prevalence and impact of internalized stigma among African American women living with HIV, but there are no intervention studies investigating stigma reduction strategies in this population. Based on qualitative data previously collected, we adapted the International Center for Research on Women's HIV Stigma Toolkit for a domestic population of African American women to be consistent with Corrigan's principles of strategic stigma change. We implemented the intervention, led by an African American woman living with HIV, as a workshop across two afternoons. The participants discussed issues “triggered” by videos produced specifically for this purpose, learned coping mechanisms from each other, and practiced them in role plays with each other. We pilot tested the intervention with two groups of women (total N=24), measuring change in internalized stigma with the Stigma Scale for Chronic Illness before and after workshop participation. Sixty-two percent of the participants self-reported acquiring HIV through heterosexual sexual contact, 17% through intravenous drug use, 4% in utero, and 13% did not know the route of transmission. The intervention was feasible, enthusiastically accepted by the women, and led to decreased stigma from the start of the workshop to the end (p=0.05) and 1 week after (p=0.07) the last session of workshop. Findings suggest the intervention warrants further investigation. PMID:22984780

  6. The Internalized Homophobia Scale for Vietnamese Sexual Minority Women: Conceptualization, Factor Structure, Reliability, and Associations With Hypothesized Correlates.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trang Quynh; Poteat, Tonia; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; German, Danielle; Nguyen, Yen Hai; Vu, Loan Kieu-Chau; Nguyen, Nam Thi-Thu; Knowlton, Amy R

    2016-08-01

    We developed the first Vietnamese Internalized Homophobia (IH) scale for use with Vietnamese sexual minority women (SMW). Drawing from existing IH scales in the international literature and based on prior qualitative research about SMW in the Viet Nam context, the scale covers two domains: self-stigma (negative attitudes toward oneself as a sexual minority person) and sexual prejudice (negative attitudes toward homosexuality/same-sex relations in general). Scale items, including items borrowed from existing scales and items based on local expressions, were reviewed and confirmed by members of the target population. Quantitative evaluation used data from an anonymous web-based survey of Vietnamese SMW, including those who identified as lesbian (n = 1187), or as bisexual (n = 641) and those who were unsure about their sexual identity (n = 353). The scale was found to consist of two highly correlated factors reflecting self-stigma (not normal/wholesome and self-reproach and wishing away same-sex sexuality) and one factor reflecting sexual prejudice, and to have excellent internal consistency. Construct validity was evidenced by subscale associations with a wide range of hypothesized correlates, including perceived sexual stigma, outness, social support, connection to other SMW, relationship quality, psychological well-being, anticipation of heterosexual marriage, and endorsement of same-sex marriage legalization. Self-stigma was more strongly associated with psychosocial correlates, and sexual prejudice was more associated with endorsement of legal same-sex marriage. The variations in these associations across the hypothesized correlates and across sexual identity groups were consistent with the minority stress model and the IH literature, and exhibited context-specific features, which are discussed.

  7. Thyroid tumors and thyroid function in women exposed to internal and external radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Polednak, A.P.

    1986-09-01

    The frequency of tumors and other conditions of the thyroid gland were examined in 686 female radium dial workers first employed before 1930, who had a radium body-burden measurement while living (1958-76). If one assumed that the two thyroid cancers ascertained were radiation-induced and that a linear dose-response relationship existed, the estimated thyroid cancer risk was 69 (4-124, 95% confidence range) per 10(6) person-rem thyroid dose equivalent from internal and external radiation. Using data from the Connecticut tumor registry to obtain expected numbers of thyroid cancer, the estimated risk (2 observed vs. 0.67 expected cases) was 46 (95% confidence interval = -19 to 101) excess cases per 10(6) person-rem. Risk estimates were based on crude estimates of external radiation exposure and uncertain quality factors for internal radiation from alpha particles ingested. The frequencies of benign tumor (adenoma), nodules, and goiters were not significantly higher in the higher thyroid-dose groups (5-19, greater than or equal to 20 or greater than or equal to 50 rem) than in the lowest dose group (less than 5 rem). In 1237 female dial workers first employed before 1930, with or without a radium body-burden measurement, no deaths due to thyroid cancer (underlying cause of death on death certificates) were observed during 1950-76, when 0.4 deaths were expected. In a subgroup of 84 Illinois female dial workers who were long-term survivors, means for thyroid function test (T3 resin uptake and free thyroxine index) results did not differ among the thyroid-dose groups.

  8. Islam, Perestroika, and the Education of Women: Principles and Possibilities. International Seminar on Literacy and Lifelong Education for Women (Frunze, Kirghizstan, November 26-December 1, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    Female illiteracy and the overall educational status of women in Islamic societies are the two main themes of this collection of conference papers. The papers include: THe Eradication of Female Illiteracy in Kirghizia: the Historical Situation (1920-1930) (I. S. Boldzhurova); Women's Education in Kirghiszstan (R. Achylova); Literacy and Education…

  9. RTV 21 Displacements

    SciTech Connect

    Kurita, C.H.; /Fermilab

    1987-02-04

    A seal is needed for the cover of the Nitrogen Test Vessel in order to prevent leakage of the N{sub 2} gas. This seal is to be molded out of RTV 21. In this experiment, the Modulus of Elasticity of the RTV was sought after, and the displacements of the RTV due to various stresses were measured to see if they were large enough to provide a tight seal between the vessel and its cover.

  10. The photoelectric displacement converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragoner, Valeriu V.

    2005-02-01

    In the article are examined questions of constructing photoelectric displacement converter satisfying demands that are stated above. Converter has channels of approximate and precise readings. The approximate reading may be accomplished either by the method of reading from a code mask or by the method of the consecutive calculation of optical scale gaps number. Phase interpolator of mouar strips" gaps is determined as a precise measuring. It is shown mathematical model of converter that allow evaluating errors and operating speed of conversion.

  11. Tunable beam displacer

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar-Serrano, Luis José; Valencia, Alejandra; Torres, Juan P.

    2015-03-15

    We report the implementation of a tunable beam displacer, composed of a polarizing beam splitter (PBS) and two mirrors, that divides an initially polarized beam into two parallel beams whose separation can be continuously tuned. The two output beams are linearly polarized with either vertical or horizontal polarization and no optical path difference is introduced between them. The wavelength dependence of the device as well as the maximum separation between the beams achievable is limited mainly by the PBS characteristics.

  12. Variable displacement vane pump

    SciTech Connect

    Tschantz, J.S.; Bisson, B.J.

    1997-12-31

    What has been developed under this program is a pumping system which can vary the amount of fuel delivered according to engine needs, thereby reducing the temperature rise of the fuel to very low levels. This permits the elimination of the air/oil coolers and conserves the vital airflow through the fan. The variable displacement vane pump (VDVP) also permits a substantial simplification of the control system with the elimination of complex metering valves, offering a significant reduction in fuel system cost. This program was initiated to develop a technology that embodied the ruggedness of the gear pump with the efficiency and metering versatility of the variable displacement vane pump. Thick metal vanes emulate the teeth on pumping gears while the simple, elegant swing cam feature provides the variable displacement capability without the unwieldy multiple cam segments found in other concepts. The result is a pumping architecture which is rugged, light in weight and extremely versatile, having demonstrated superb heat management and controllability in extensive bench and engine testing. This paper will report the results that the pumps have achieved to date both in terms of durability and efficiency.

  13. An international comparison of women's health issues in the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Canada, Hong Kong, and Singapore: the CIDA-SEAGEP Study.

    PubMed

    Choi, Bernard C K

    2004-11-19

    This was an international study of women's health issues, based on an Official Study Tour in Southeast Asia (the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Hong Kong, and Singapore) and Canada. The objectives of the study were to identify and compare current gaps in surveillance, research, and programs and policies, and to predict trends of women's health issues in developing countries based on the experience of developed countries. Key informant interviews (senior government officials, university researchers, and local experts), self-administered questionnaires, courtesy calls, and literature searches were used to collect data. The participating countries identified women's health as an important issue, especially for reproductive health (developing countries) and senior's health (developed countries). Cancer, lack of physical activity, high blood pressure, diabetes, poverty, social support, caring role for family, and informing, educating, and empowering people about women's health issues were the main concerns. Based on this study, 17 recommendations were made on surveillance, research, and programs and policies. A number of forthcoming changes in women''s health patterns in developing countries were also predicted.

  14. Nurses across borders: displaced Russian and Soviet nurses after World War I and World War II.

    PubMed

    Grant, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Russian and Soviet nurse refugees faced myriad challenges attempting to become registered nurses in North America and elsewhere after the World War II. By drawing primarily on International Council of Nurses refugee files, a picture can be pieced together of the fate that befell many of those women who left Russia and later the Soviet Union because of revolution and war in the years after 1917. The history of first (after World War I) and second (after World War II) wave émigré nurses, integrated into the broader historical narrative, reveals that professional identity was just as important to these women as national identity. This became especially so after World War II, when Russian and Soviet refugee nurses resettled in the West. Individual accounts become interwoven on an international canvas that brings together a wide range of personal experiences from women based in Russia, the Soviet Union, China, Yugoslavia, Canada, the United States, and elsewhere. The commonality of experience among Russian nurses as they attempted to establish their professional identities highlights, through the prism of Russia, the importance of the history of the displaced nurse experience in the wider context of international migration history.

  15. Empowering Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brundtland, Gro Harlem

    1994-01-01

    An edited version of Prime Minister of Norway Gro Harlem Brundtland's keynote address to the International Conference on Population and Development in September 1994. This address focuses on the role played by women in population growth and emphasizes the urgency of economic and political rights and education for women. (LZ)

  16. Body satisfaction, thin-ideal internalization, and perceived pressure to be thin among Canadian women: The role of acculturation and religiosity.

    PubMed

    Chaker, Zina; Chang, Felicia M; Hakim-Larson, Julie

    2015-06-01

    In an online study, 143 Canadian women of various religious backgrounds completed measures of acculturation, religiosity, body satisfaction, internalization of the thin ideal, perceived pressure from media, and manner of dress. Heritage acculturation correlated with appearance satisfaction, but not weight satisfaction. After accounting for BMI and social desirability, higher heritage acculturation and lower mainstream acculturation were associated with lower perceived pressure from media. Thus, heritage acculturation across religious denominations may serve as a buffer against appearance dissatisfaction and perceived media pressure. Manner of dress among the Muslim subgroup and its relation to religiosity and acculturation were also assessed. Muslim women who dressed in greater accordance with Islamic principles reported lower heritage acculturation and greater religiosity. Thus, Muslim women's manner of dress was related to their religiosity and the extent to which they embraced cultural values. These findings are discussed in terms of the possible distinctions between heritage acculturation and religiosity.

  17. An electromechanical displacement transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villiers, Marius; Mahboob, Imran; Nishiguchi, Katsuhiko; Hatanaka, Daiki; Fujiwara, Akira; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    Two modes of an electromechanical resonator are coupled through the strain inside the structure with a cooperativity as high as 107, a state-of-the-art value for purely mechanical systems, which enables the observation of normal-mode splitting. This coupling is exploited to transduce the resonator’s fundamental mode into the bandwidth of the second flexural mode, which is 1.4 MHz higher in frequency. Thus, an all-mechanical heterodyne detection scheme is implemented that can be developed into a high-precision displacement sensor.

  18. Synthesis of finite displacements and displacements in continental margins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Speed, R. C.; Elison, M. W.; Heck, F. R.; Russo, R. M.

    1988-01-01

    The scope of the project is the analysis of displacement-rate fields in the transitional regions between cratonal and oceanic lithospheres over Phanerozoic time (last 700 ma). Associated goals are an improved understanding of range of widths of major displacement zones; the partition of displacement gradients and rotations with position and depth in such zones; the temporal characteristics of such zones-the steadiness, episodicity, and duration of uniform versus nonunifrom fields; and the mechanisms and controls of the establishment and kinematics of displacement zones. The objective is to provide a context of time-averaged kinematics of displacement zones. The initial phase is divided topically among the methodology of measurement and reduction of displacements in the lithosphere and the preliminary analysis from geologic and other data of actual displacement histories from the Cordillera, Appalachians, and southern North America.

  19. "It runs in my family …": The association of perceived family history with body dissatisfaction and weight bias internalization among overweight women.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Miriam H; Street, Richard L; Persky, Susan

    2017-04-01

    Aspects of poor body acceptance (BA), such as internalized weight bias and dissatisfaction with one's shape and size, are the strongest predictors of disordered eating and are associated with reduced engagement in healthy behaviors. Perceiving oneself as having a family history of overweight (PFH) could boost BA by increasing attributions for inherited, biological causes of weight. A community sample of 289 women who were overweight from the Washington, DC metropolitan area who were dissatisfied with their current weight (68% Black; 32% White) enrolled in this study in 2012. PFH of overweight was associated with decreased internalized weight bias among white women and marginally increased body shape satisfaction generally. The relationship between PFH and BA was not explained by biological attributions for weight. Perceptions that overweight runs in one's family can be protective with respect to BA. This is suggestive of the potential benefit of integrating family-based approaches into weight management interventions.

  20. Internalization of the ultra-thin ideal: positive implicit associations with underweight fashion models are associated with drive for thinness in young women.

    PubMed

    Ahern, Amy L; Bennett, Kate M; Hetherington, Marion M

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether young women who make implicit associations between underweight models and positive attributes report elevated eating disorder symptoms. Ninety nine female undergraduates completed a weight based implicit association test (IAT) and self report measures of body dissatisfaction, thin-ideal internalization and eating disorder symptoms. IAT scores were associated with drive for thinness (r = -0.26, p < 0.05). This relationship was moderated by attitude importance. The relationship between drive for thinness and IAT scores was stronger (r = 0.34; p < 0.02) in participants who report that the media is an important source of information about fashion and being attractive. The IAT used in the current study is sensitive enough to discriminate between participants on drive for thinness. Women who have developed cognitive schemas that associate being underweight with positive attributes report higher eating disorder symptoms. Attitude importance is highlighted as a key construct in thin ideal internalization.

  1. Refugee women: the forgotten half.

    PubMed

    Ogata, S

    1995-01-01

    The Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing 1995 presented a global Platform for Action on the consequences of conflict and violence for women. The UN High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) was given the task of providing international protection and seeking solutions for refugees. Refugees included those who had fled their country, returnees who had come home but were not fully reintegrated and civilians displaced inside their own country. Demographic data was designed for appropriate protection and assistance programs that could be implemented at the outset of any humanitarian crisis. The sample covered Yugoslavian refugees, 64% of whom were female, and Somali women in northern Kenya aged 19-44 years. In humanitarian crises the focus has been on providing basic health care and meeting urgent needs; however, reproductive health has been ignored. Thus, since women have been dynamic actors of change, efforts should be redoubled to ensure that women have access to food, education, health and basic material needs, which would result in the improvement of the health of the whole refugee population.

  2. Making sense of ambiguity: evaluation in internal reliability and face validity of the SF 36 questionnaire in women presenting with menorrhagia.

    PubMed Central

    Jenkinson, C; Peto, V; Coulter, A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the face validity and internal reliability of the short form 36 (SF 36) health survey questionnaire in women presenting with menorrhagia. DESIGN--Postal survey of women recruited by their general practitioners followed by interviews of a selected subsample. PATIENTS--348 women who had consulted their general practitioner with excessive menstrual bleeding and completed questionnaires after treatment. 49 women selected from this group were interviewed in depth about their health status, and requested to complete the SF 36 questionnaire. MAIN MEASURES--Subjective accounts of functioning and wellbeing as measured by the eight scales of the SF 36 questionnaire. RESULTS--Data from the postal survey indicated that the ¿general health perceptions¿ and ¿mental health¿ scales of the SF 36 questionnaire had lower internal reliability coefficients than documented elsewhere. In the follow up interviews several questions on the SF 36 questionnaire were commented on as inappropriate or difficult to answer for patients with heavy menstrual bleeding. CONCLUSIONS--Some questions on the SF 36 questionnaire were difficult to answer for this group of patients. Such problems can adversely effect the validity of the measure. It is suggested that comments of patients upon measures such as the SF 36 questionnaire could both determine the appropriateness of such measures for given studies and influence questionnaire design. PMID:10157276

  3. Women's exposure to thin-and-beautiful media images: body image effects of media-ideal internalization and impact-reduction interventions.

    PubMed

    Yamamiya, Yuko; Cash, Thomas F; Melnyk, Susan E; Posavac, Heidi D; Posavac, Steven S

    2005-03-01

    Exposure to media images of thin-and-beautiful women negatively affects the body image and mood states of young women. However, not all women are equally susceptible to these effects. The present experimental investigation with 123 young college women evaluated the moderating effects of the extent of internalization of media ideals. It also examined the preventative impact of two brief interventions (i.e., media literacy information with and without a dissonance-induction procedure). Results indicated that relative to a control group, the exposure to thin-and-beautiful media images adversely influenced the state body image of participants with high internalization levels. Media-literacy psychoeducation prior to the media exposure prevented this adverse effect. Adding a pre-exposure dissonance-induction procedure did not significantly enhance the preventative effects relative to psychoeducation alone. These results and their implications for the treatment and prevention of body image disturbances are discussed in the context of the empirical literature on the media's effects on body image.

  4. Proceedings of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases International Symposium on Epidemiologic Issues in Urinary Incontinence in Women.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jeanette S; Nyberg, Leroy M; Kusek, John W; Burgio, Kathryn L; Diokno, Ananias C; Foldspang, Anders; Fultz, Nancy H; Herzog, A Regula; Hunskaar, Steinar; Milsom, Ian; Nygaard, Ingrid; Subak, Leslee L; Thom, David H

    2003-06-01

    The Epidemiologic Issues in Urinary Incontinence: Current Databases and Future Collaborations Symposium included an international group of 29 investigators from 10 countries. The purpose of the symposium was to discuss the current understanding and knowledge gaps of prevalence, incidence, associated risk factors, and treatment outcomes for incontinence in women. During the symposium, investigators identified existing large databases and ongoing studies that provide substantive information on specific incontinence research questions. The investigators were able to form an international collaborative research working group and identify potential collaborative projects to further research on the epidemiology of urinary incontinence and bladder dysfunction.

  5. [Factorial analysis and internal consistency of the French version of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS 20), in obese women].

    PubMed

    Pinaquy, S; Chabrol, H; Barbe, P

    2002-01-01

    The term alexithymia is derived from the Greek and means no words for feeling and is used to describe a personality trait characterized by the inability to experience and express emotion. Alexithymia is a relevant feature in subjects with eating disorders. The Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS) is the more used scale to assess alexithymia. The TAS 20 represents the latest revised and short version of the TAS, with psychometric properties clearly superior to the other alexithymia scales. The TAS 20 is a 20-items self-administered questionnaire including three subscales: ability to identify feelings, ability to describe feelings and externally oriented thinking. The TAS 20 was sparsely used in obese people and its validity was not studied at the present time in this specific population. The aim of this study was to assess the internal consistency and the factorial structure of the TAS 20 in a group of obese women. Method-The TAS 20 was administered to 192 obese women willing to loose weight, aged from 18 to 60 years. Their body mass index (BMI) was ranged from 27.5 to 55,0 kg/m2. The patients also completed a depression scale (Beck Depression Inventory 13). Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used to investigate the internal consistency of the scale. A confirmatory factorial analysis was performed to examine the validity of the initial three-factor structure in this population. The confirmatory factor analysis was conducted using STATISTICA 5.0((R)). Results-An exploratory factorial analysis using the principal components method was performed to search for a more relevant factorial structure. The global internal consistency value (a) was 0,74 for the full scale. The a coefficients were 0.78 and 0.67 respectively, for the two first subscales, (ability to identify feelings and ability to describe feelings), but was low (a=0.33) for the last subscale (externally oriented thinking). This result questionned the initial three-factor solution and conducted us to perform a

  6. Angular displacement measuring device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seegmiller, H. Lee B. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A system for measuring the angular displacement of a point of interest on a structure, such as aircraft model within a wind tunnel, includes a source of polarized light located at the point of interest. A remote detector arrangement detects the orientation of the plane of the polarized light received from the source and compares this orientation with the initial orientation to determine the amount or rate of angular displacement of the point of interest. The detector arrangement comprises a rotating polarizing filter and a dual filter and light detector unit. The latter unit comprises an inner aligned filter and photodetector assembly which is disposed relative to the periphery of the polarizer so as to receive polarized light passing the polarizing filter and an outer aligned filter and photodetector assembly which receives the polarized light directly, i.e., without passing through the polarizing filter. The purpose of the unit is to compensate for the effects of dust, fog and the like. A polarization preserving optical fiber conducts polarized light from a remote laser source to the point of interest.

  7. Angular displacement measuring device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seegmiller, H. Lee B.

    1992-08-01

    A system for measuring the angular displacement of a point of interest on a structure, such as aircraft model within a wind tunnel, includes a source of polarized light located at the point of interest. A remote detector arrangement detects the orientation of the plane of the polarized light received from the source and compares this orientation with the initial orientation to determine the amount or rate of angular displacement of the point of interest. The detector arrangement comprises a rotating polarizing filter and a dual filter and light detector unit. The latter unit comprises an inner aligned filter and photodetector assembly which is disposed relative to the periphery of the polarizer so as to receive polarized light passing the polarizing filter and an outer aligned filter and photodetector assembly which receives the polarized light directly, i.e., without passing through the polarizing filter. The purpose of the unit is to compensate for the effects of dust, fog and the like. A polarization preserving optical fiber conducts polarized light from a remote laser source to the point of interest.

  8. The Health of Women and Girls Determines the Health and Well-Being of Our Modern World: A White Paper From the International Council on Women’s Health Issues

    PubMed Central

    DAVIDSON, PATRICIA M.; McGRATH, SARAH J.; MELEIS, AFAF I.; STERN, PHYLLIS; DiGIACOMO, MICHELLE; DHARMENDRA, TESSA; CORREA-de-ARAUJO, ROSALY; CAMPBELL, JACQUELYN C.; HOCHLEITNER, MARGARETHE; MESSIAS, DeANNE K. H.; BROWN, HAZEL; TEITELMAN, ANNE; SINDHU, SIRIORN; REESMAN, KAREN; RICHTER, SOLINA; SOMMERS, MARILYN S.; SCHAEFFER, DORIS; STRINGER, MARILYN; SAMPSELLE, CAROLYN; ANDERSON, DEBRA; TUAZON, JOSEFINA A.; CAO, YINGJUAN; COVAN, ELEANOR KRASSEN

    2013-01-01

    The International Council on Women’s Health Issues (ICOWHI) is an international nonprofit association dedicated to the goal of promoting health, health care, and well-being of women and girls throughout the world through participation, empowerment, advocacy, education, and research. We are a multidisciplinary network of women’s health providers, planners, and advocates from all over the globe. We constitute an international professional and lay network of those committed to improving women and girl’s health and quality of life. This document provides a description of our organization mission, vision, and commitment to improving the health and well-being of women and girls globally. PMID:21919625

  9. Women and Literacy Development in the Third World. Papers Presented at an International Seminar on Women and Literacy Development--Constraints and Prospects (Linkoping, Sweden, August 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malmquist, Eve, Ed.

    Organized to focus world-wide public attention on the massive gender inequalities in many areas of the world, a seminar entitled "Women and Literacy Development--Constraints and Prospects" was held in Sweden during August 1991. This book presents conference papers by female literacy experts from 12 developing nations (three in Latin…

  10. Women in conflict zones first victims.

    PubMed

    Prakash, S

    1996-06-12

    In areas of the world plagued by armed conflict, women are often forced to engage in sexual intercourse to obtain food and shelter. The magnitude of the problem can be seen by the fact that in 1995, 30 major civil conflicts created 15 million refugees and 26.5 million internally displaced citizens. Emergency food supplies are so vulnerable to diversion by military groups that aid agencies now reserve a portion of the supplies for diversion. In certain part of Africa, only 12% of food aid reached its intended beneficiaries, and scores of feeding centers were attacked. In Bosnia, 20,000-50,000 women have been the victims of mass rape. In Uganda, the exchange of sex for security has contributed to the high rate of HIV infection. With women stripped of their traditional protective mechanisms, refugee camps must be carefully designed to avoid creating further opportunities for sexual or physical aggression.

  11. Internalizing sexism within close relationships: Perceptions of intimate partners' benevolent sexism promote women's endorsement of benevolent sexism.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Matthew D; Overall, Nickola C; Cross, Emily J

    2016-02-01

    The current research demonstrated that women's adoption of benevolent sexism is influenced by their perceptions of their intimate partners' agreement with benevolent sexism. In 2 dyadic longitudinal studies, committed heterosexual couples reported on their own sexism and perceptions of their partner's sexism twice across 9 months (Study 1) and 5 times across 1 year (Study 2). Women who perceived that their male partner more strongly endorsed benevolent sexism held greater and more stable benevolent sexism across time, whereas lower perceptions of partners' benevolent sexism predicted declines in women's benevolent sexism across time. Changes in men's endorsement of sexism were unrelated to perceptions of their partner's sexist attitudes. The naturalistic change in sexist attitudes shown in Studies 1 and 2 was supported by experimental evidence in Studies 3 and 4: Manipulations designed to increase perceptions of partner's benevolent sexism led women (but not men) to report greater benevolent sexism. Studies 3 and 4 also provided evidence that perceptions of partner's benevolent sexism fosters perceived regard and relationship security in women, but not men, and these relationship factors enhance attitude alignment. Discriminant analyses demonstrated that these effects were specific to women's perceptions of partner's, rather than societal, levels of sexism. In sum, these studies illustrate that women endorse benevolent sexism when they perceive that the reverence and security that benevolent sexism promises women are accessible in their relationships.

  12. Variable displacement blower

    DOEpatents

    Bookout, Charles C.; Stotts, Robert E.; Waring, Douglass R.; Folsom, Lawrence R.

    1986-01-01

    A blower having a stationary casing for rotatably supporting a rotor assembly having a series of open ended chambers arranged to close against the surrounding walls of the casing. Pistons are slidably mounted within each chamber with the center of rotation of the pistons being offset in regard to the center of rotation of the rotor assembly whereby the pistons reciprocate in the chambers as the rotor assembly turns. As inlet port communicates with the rotor assembly to deliver a working substance into the chamber as the pistons approach a top dead center position in the chamber while an outlet port also communicates with the rotor to exhaust the working substance as the pistons approach a bottom dead center position. The displacement of the blower is varied by adjusting the amount of eccentricity between the center of rotation of the pistons and the center of rotation of the rotor assembly.

  13. The Mediating Roles of Rejection Sensitivity and Proximal Stress in the Association Between Discrimination and Internalizing Symptoms Among Sexual Minority Women.

    PubMed

    Dyar, Christina; Feinstein, Brian A; Eaton, Nicholas R; London, Bonita

    2016-10-17

    The negative impact of discrimination on mental health among lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations has been well documented. However, the possible mediating roles of sexual orientation rejection sensitivity and rejection-based proximal stress in the association between discrimination and internalizing symptoms remain unclear. Rejection-based proximal stress is a subset of proximal stressors that are theorized to arise from concerns about and expectations of sexual orientation-based rejection and discrimination. Drawing on minority stress theory, we tested potential mediating effects using indirect effects structural equation modeling in a sample of 300 sexual minority women. Results indicated that the indirect effect of discrimination on internalizing symptoms (a latent variable indicated by depression and anxiety symptoms) through sexual orientation rejection sensitivity and rejection-based proximal stress (a latent variable indicated by preoccupation with stigma, concealment motivation, and difficulty developing a positive sexual identity) was significant. Additionally, the indirect effects of discrimination on rejection-based proximal stress through sexual orientation rejection sensitivity and of sexual orientation rejection sensitivity on internalizing symptoms through rejection-based proximal stress were also significant. These findings indicate that sexual orientation rejection sensitivity plays an important role in contributing to rejection-based proximal stress and internalizing symptoms among sexual minority women.

  14. Sex work among men who have sex with men and transgender women in Bogotá.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Fernanda T; Reisen, Carol A; Zea, Maria Cecilia; Vidal-Ortiz, Salvador; Gonzales, Felisa A; Betancourt, Fabián; Aguilar, Marcela; Poppen, Paul J

    2014-11-01

    This qualitative study examined sex work among internally displaced male and transgender female sex workers in Bogotá, Colombia. Internal displacement has occurred in Colombia as a result of decades of conflict among armed groups and has created large-scale migration from rural to urban areas. Informed by the polymorphous model of sex work, which posits that contextual conditions shape the experience of sex work, we examined three main research questions. The first dealt with how internal displacement was related to the initiation of sex work; the second concerned the effect of agency on sex worker satisfaction; and the third examined how sex work in this context was related to HIV and other risks. Life history interviews were conducted with 26 displaced individuals who had done sex work: 14 were men who have sex with men and 12 were transgender women (natal males). Findings revealed that many participants began doing sex work in the period immediately after displacement, because of a lack of money, housing, and social support. HIV risk was greater during this time due to limited knowledge of HIV and inexperience negotiating safer sex with clients. Other findings indicated that sex workers who exerted more control and choice in the circumstances of their work reported greater satisfaction. In addition, we found that although many sex workers insisted on condom use with clients, several noted that they would sometimes have unprotected sex for additional money. Specific characteristics affecting the experience of sex work among the transgender women were also discussed.

  15. Displacement parameter inversion for a novel electromagnetic underground displacement sensor.

    PubMed

    Shentu, Nanying; Li, Qing; Li, Xiong; Tong, Renyuan; Shentu, Nankai; Jiang, Guoqing; Qiu, Guohua

    2014-05-22

    Underground displacement monitoring is an effective method to explore deep into rock and soil masses for execution of subsurface displacement measurements. It is not only an important means of geological hazards prediction and forecasting, but also a forefront, hot and sophisticated subject in current geological disaster monitoring. In previous research, the authors had designed a novel electromagnetic underground horizontal displacement sensor (called the H-type sensor) by combining basic electromagnetic induction principles with modern sensing techniques and established a mutual voltage measurement theoretical model called the Equation-based Equivalent Loop Approach (EELA). Based on that work, this paper presents an underground displacement inversion approach named "EELA forward modeling-approximate inversion method". Combining the EELA forward simulation approach with the approximate optimization inversion theory, it can deduce the underground horizontal displacement through parameter inversion of the H-type sensor. Comprehensive and comparative studies have been conducted between the experimentally measured and theoretically inversed values of horizontal displacement under counterpart conditions. The results show when the measured horizontal displacements are in the 0-100 mm range, the horizontal displacement inversion discrepancy is generally tested to be less than 3 mm under varied tilt angles and initial axial distances conditions, which indicates that our proposed parameter inversion method can predict underground horizontal displacement measurements effectively and robustly for the H-type sensor and the technique is applicable for practical geo-engineering applications.

  16. Prevalence, symptoms and management of uterine fibroids: an international internet-based survey of 21,746 women

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In 2009 the Uterine Bleeding and Pain Women's Research Study (UBP-WRS) was conducted interviewing 21,479 women across 8 countries in order to gain patient-based prevalence data on uterine pain and bleeding indications and investigate uterine symptoms and women's treatment experiences. This article shows relevant results of the study for the indication uterine fibroids providing data on self-reported prevalence, symptomatology and management of uterine fibroids. Methods 2,500 women (USA: 4,500 women) in each country (Brazil, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, South Korea, the UK, the USA) completed an online survey. Women included were in their reproductive age (age group 15-49 years; USA: 18-49 years) and had ever experienced menstrual bleedings. Quotas were applied for age, region, level of education and household income of respondents. Variables have been analyzed descriptively and exploratory statistical tests have been performed. Results The self-reported prevalence of uterine fibroids ranged from 4.5% (UK) to 9.8% (Italy), reaching 9.4% (UK) to 17.8% (Italy) in the age group of 40-49 years. Women with a diagnosis of uterine fibroids reported significantly more often about bleeding symptoms than women without a diagnosis: heavy bleedings (59.8% vs. 37.4%), prolonged bleedings (37.3% vs. 15.6%), bleeding between periods (33.3% vs. 13.5%), frequent periods (28.4% vs. 15.2%), irregular and predictable periods (36.3% vs. 23.9%). Furthermore women with diagnosed uterine fibroids reported significantly more often about the following pain symptoms: pressure on the bladder (32.6% vs. 15.0%), chronic pelvic pain (14.5% vs. 2.9%), painful sexual intercourse (23.5% vs. 9.1%) and pain occurring mid-cycle, after and during menstrual bleeding (31.3%, 16.7%, 59.7%, vs. 17.1%, 6.4%, 52.0%). 53.7% of women reported that their symptoms had a negative impact on their life in the last 12 month, influencing their sexual life (42.9%), performance at work (27.7%) and

  17. Building relations with women's organisations in relief work.

    PubMed

    Gell, F

    1997-02-01

    An Oxfam Emergency Team arrived in Ingushetia in the Northern Caucasus region of the former Soviet Union in August 1996 to set up a program of shelter, rehabilitation, and relief in response to the large influx of people displaced by conflicts in the neighboring republics of Chechnya and North Ossetia. The team was also tasked with contacting community organizations such as women's groups and developing a relationship with them through joint relief work. The Chechen population was comprised of mainly women, children, and the elderly. The internally displaced population of 100,000 people is now scattered throughout the republic in collective centers and host families. Small committees of women were formed to help identify the most vulnerable residents and to distribute winter clothing. It was found during the relief work that fledgling women's groups are establishing themselves as vehicles for change, increasingly open to work with and learn from international organizations such as Oxfam. The Chechen branch of the Union of North Caucasian Women and the Ingushetian ALMOS played leading roles in peacemaking, human rights observance, and humanitarian relief.

  18. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Secondhand Smoke Exposure among Internal Chinese Migrant Women of Reproductive Age: Evidence from China’s Labor-Force Dynamic Survey

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Xiao; Luo, Xiaofeng; Ling, Li

    2016-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) is a major risk factor for poor health outcomes among women in China, where proportionately few women smoke. This is especially the case as it pertains to women’s reproductive health, specifically migrant women who are exposed to SHS more than the population at large. There are several factors which may increase migrant women’s risk of SHS exposure. This paper aims to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of SHS exposure among internal Chinese migrant women of reproductive age. The data used were derived from the 2014 Chinese Labor Dynamic Survey, a national representative panel survey. The age-adjusted rate of SHS exposure of women of reproductive age with migration experience was of 43.46% (95% CI: 40.73%–46.40%), higher than those without migration experience (35.28% (95% CI: 33.66%–36.97%)). Multivariate analysis showed that participants with a marital status of “Widowed” had statistically lower exposure rates, while those with a status of “Cohabitation” had statistically higher exposure. Those with an undergraduate degree or above had statistically lower SHS exposure. Those with increasing levels of social support, and those who currently smoke or drink alcohol, had statistically higher SHS exposure. Participants’ different work-places had an effect on their SHS exposure, with outdoor workers statistically more exposed. Our findings suggest that urgent tobacco control measures should be taken to reduce smoking prevalence and SHS exposure. Specific attention should be paid to protecting migrant women of reproductive age from SHS. PMID:27043604

  19. Displacement Damage in Bipolar Linear Integrated Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rax, B. G.; Johnston, A. H.; Miyahira, T.

    2000-01-01

    Although many different processes can be used to manufacture linear integrated circuits, the process that is used for most circuits is optimized for high voltage -- a total power supply voltage of about 40 V -- and low cost. This process, which has changed little during the last twenty years, uses lateral and substrate p-n-p transistors. These p-n-p transistors have very wide base regions, increasing their sensitivity to displacement damage from electrons and protons. Although displacement damage effects can be easily treated for individual transistors, the net effect on linear circuits can be far more complex because circuit operation often depends on the interaction of several internal transistors. Note also that some circuits are made with more advanced processes with much narrower base widths. Devices fabricated with these newer processes are not expected to be significantly affected by displacement damage for proton fluences below 1 x 10(exp 12) p/sq cm. This paper discusses displacement damage in linear integrated circuits with more complex failure modes than those exhibited by simpler devices, such as the LM111 comparator, where the dominant response mode is gain degradation of the input transistor. Some circuits fail catastrophically at much lower equivalent total dose levels compared to tests with gamma rays. The device works satisfactorily up to nearly 1 Mrad(Si) when it is irradiated with gamma rays, but fails catastrophically between 50 and 70 krad(Si) when it is irradiated with protons.

  20. Preferences for prenatal tests for Down syndrome: an international comparison of the views of pregnant women and health professionals.

    PubMed

    Hill, Melissa; Johnson, Jo-Ann; Langlois, Sylvie; Lee, Hyun; Winsor, Stephanie; Dineley, Brigid; Horniachek, Marisa; Lalatta, Faustina; Ronzoni, Luisa; Barrett, Angela N; Advani, Henna V; Choolani, Mahesh; Rabinowitz, Ron; Pajkrt, Eva; van Schendel, Rachèl V; Henneman, Lidewij; Rommers, Wieke; Bilardo, Caterina M; Rendeiro, Paula; Ribeiro, Maria João; Rocha, José; Bay Lund, Ida Charlotte; Petersen, Olav B; Becher, Naja; Vogel, Ida; Stefánsdottir, Vigdis; Ingvarsdottir, Sigrun; Gottfredsdottir, Helga; Morris, Stephen; Chitty, Lyn S

    2016-07-01

    Non-invasive prenatal testing is increasingly available worldwide and stakeholder viewpoints are essential to guide implementation. Here we compare the preferences of women and health professionals from nine different countries towards attributes of non-invasive and invasive prenatal tests for Down syndrome. A discrete choice experiment was used to obtain participants' stated preference for prenatal tests that varied according to four attributes: accuracy, time of test, risk of miscarriage, and type of information. Pregnant women and health professionals were recruited from Canada, Denmark, Iceland, Israel, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Singapore, and the United Kingdom. A total of 2666 women's and 1245 health professionals' questionnaires were included in the analysis. Differences in preferences were seen between women and health professionals within and between countries. Overall, women placed greater emphasis on test safety and comprehensive information than health professionals, who emphasised accuracy and early testing. Differences between women's and health professionals' preferences are marked between countries. Varied approaches to implementation and service delivery are therefore needed and individual countries should develop guidelines appropriate for their own social and screening contexts.

  1. Women's high hopes -- dashed again?

    PubMed

    Mason, M L

    1995-01-01

    The March 1995 UN Social Summit failed to build on the success women experienced at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. Rather than endorsing the recommendations (complete with timetables) that women's groups had prepared for the Social Summit, the delegates paid them only lip service. Resistance to monitored government accountability has also been noted during the preparatory meetings for the September UN Conference for Women. This resistance to the will of the people is illustrated by actions taken by the World Bank and the Government of India to construct the world's largest dam on the Narmada River in central India. Construction of this dam would benefit sugar cane farmers and factory owners but would displace 160,000 people from the most fertile valley in the subcontinent. This aid project, funded by the World Bank, will increase poverty and discontent. Activists organized a "Save Narmada Movement" which involved protest marches and hunger strikes. Despite international pressure to review the project, however, the building has continued because the government continues to ignore the voices of the people. In order to engender the respect for people needed to stop projects like this one and to support recommendations such as those presented at the Social Summit, a world court must be created to administer world law.

  2. Isothermal Multiple Displacement Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Luthra, Rajyalakshmi; Medeiros, L. Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    Isothermal multiple strand displacement amplification (IMDA) of the whole human genome is a promising method for procuring abundant DNA from valuable and often limited clinical specimens. However, whether DNA generated by this method is of high quality and a faithful replication of the DNA in the original specimen, allowing for subsequent molecular diagnostic testing, requires verification. In this study, we evaluated the suitability of IMDA-generated DNA (IMDA-DNA) for detecting antigen receptor gene rearrangements, chromosomal translocations, and gene mutations using Southern blot analysis, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods, or sequencing methods in 28 lymphoma and leukemia clinical specimens. Molecular testing before and after whole genome amplification of these specimens using the IMDA technique showed concordance in 27 of 28 (96%) specimens. Analysis of IMDA-DNA by Southern blot analysis detected restriction fragments >12 kilobases long. No amplification bias was observed at all loci tested demonstrating that this method can be useful in generating large amounts of unbiased, high molecular weight DNA from limited clinical specimens. PMID:15269301

  3. Laser optical displacement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starritt, Larry W.; Matthews, Larryl K.

    1995-04-01

    The current quality of our nations bridges is on a decline. There are roughly half a million highway bridges in the United States and out of the half a million more than 200,000 are deficient. With catastrophic failure of bridges causing the loss of life and property, the need for bridge inspection and maintenance is evident. When the Silver Bridge that crossed the Ohio River collapsed in December 1967, 46 people were killed. The failure to prevent the disaster was attributed to the poor inspection techniques used by the bridge inspectors. Current inspection techniques depend on humans being able to recognize structural imperfections without the aid of instrumentation. The Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1968 mandated both national bridge inspection standards and training for bridge inspectors. This act has encouraged the development of instruments that would allow inspectors to perform more complete inspections of bridges. To improve the quality of inspection and data, there is a great need for proven methods and instruments used to acquire data. The Laser Optical Displacement System (L.O.D.S.) developed at New Mexico State University by the Optical and Materials Science Lab is such a device. The L.O.D.S. has been tested and proven in both laboratory situations and in the field. This paper describes some of the methods that are now being used to measure deflections in bridges. Then, a description of the development and application of the L.O.D.S. unit is given.

  4. NGO action on refugees and displaced people.

    PubMed

    1998-06-01

    This article summarizes some issues that emerged from a 1997 seminar on reproductive health among refugees. 90 delegates from 16 countries shared ideas about how to better lend support in emergencies and discussed the prevention and control of AIDS. The role was not clear for nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) that preferred constructing community-based institutions instead of satisfying the basic, urgent needs of displaced persons. The NGO sector recognizes its reliance on UN funding, but desires better UNHCR and UNAIDS guidelines and more positive support. NGOs were very reluctant to integrate HIV testing and counseling in already mistrustful settings, while ignoring the violence against women, which is closely tied to their vulnerability to AIDS. UNHCR solutions appeared to prolong the conflict and offer opportunities to channel energies into negative sexuality. Most refugees are women and children. There is wide inconsistency in beliefs and government responses to basic human rights issues. It was proposed that a deterrent to the spread of AIDS is an emphasis on self-respect and a concept of belonging. Management issues in resettled populations vary with essential needs and different phases of an emergency. Common HIV and refugee concerns include a balance between the needs of host and displaced persons; a balance between long- and short-term HIV emergency needs; and a reduction of violence among militarized refugees. Pressing concerns were advocacy, vulnerability, and research on gender and effects of militarization.

  5. Investigating the influence of shame, depression, and distress tolerance on the relationship between internalized homophobia and binge eating in lesbian and bisexual women.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Vanessa; Robert-McComb, Jacalyn J; Clopton, James R; Reich, Darcy A

    2017-01-01

    There is limited research evidence about the specific factors influencing disordered eating for lesbian and bisexual women. Therefore, this study investigated relationships among binge eating, internalized homophobia, shame, depression, and distress tolerance in a sample of lesbian (n=72) and bisexual women (n=66). Two hypotheses were tested. First, it was hypothesized that shame and depression would mediate the relationship between internalized homophobia and binge eating. Second, it was hypothesized that distress tolerance would moderate the relationship between shame and binge eating and the relationship between depression and binge eating in the mediation relationships proposed in the first hypothesis. Results indicated that shame was a significant mediator for the relationship between internalized homophobia and binge eating, that depression was not a significant mediator, and that distress tolerance did not moderate the significant mediation relationship between shame and binge eating. The data in this study also indicated that the proportions of lesbian and bisexual participants who reported binge eating and compensatory behavior did not differ significantly, but that bisexual participants reported significantly more depression and shame than lesbian participants.

  6. Displacement, Substitution, Sublimation: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    Sigmund Freund worked with the mechanisms of displacement, substitution, and sublimation. These mechanisms have many similarities and have been studied diagnostically and therapeutically. Displacement and substitution seem to fit in well with phobias, hysterias, somatiyations, prejudices, and scapegoating. Phobias, prejudices, and scapegoating…

  7. The role of environmental degradation in population displacement.

    PubMed

    Lonergan, S

    1998-01-01

    This article answers a series of questions about the role of environmental degradation in population displacement, refugee movement, and migration. The environment tends not to be included in the reasons for migration. Roger's indicators of migration potential include population growth, economic restructuring, increased economic disparities, and increased refugee flows. Myers (1993) estimated that international displacement and internal displacement may amount to about 25 million and may rise to 150 million by 2050. The role of the environment in displacement must be examined in the broader political and cultural context. Definitions of environmental refugees are ambiguous and inconsistent, and research has not answered why people continue to move to Mexico City and Chongqing, China, which both have very high levels of pollution. El-Hinnawi (1985) defined 3 groups of environmental refugees: those displaced due to natural disasters; those displaced due to permanent habitat changes; and those displaced who migrated from areas that cannot support their basic needs and who desire an improved quality of life. Lonergan (1994) identified environmental stresses as natural disasters, cumulative or slow-onset changes, accidental disruptions or industrial accidents, development projects, and conflict and warfare. These 5 causes must be treated separately and not lumped together as environmental degradation. Shoreline erosion, coastal flooding, and agricultural disruption associated with climate change may increase migration. Global measures must address world poverty and promote sustainable development.

  8. Measurement of axial injection displacement with trim coil current unbalance

    SciTech Connect

    Covo, Michel Kireeff

    2014-08-15

    The Dee probe used for measuring internal radial beam intensity shows large losses inside the radius of 20 cm of the 88 in. cyclotron. The current of the top and bottom innermost trim coil 1 is unbalanced to study effects of the axial injection displacement. A beam profile monitor images the ion beam bunches, turn by turn. The experimental bunch center of mass position is compared with calculations of the magnetic mirror effect displacement and shows good agreement.

  9. Measurement of axial injection displacement with trim coil current unbalance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covo, Michel Kireeff

    2014-08-01

    The Dee probe used for measuring internal radial beam intensity shows large losses inside the radius of 20 cm of the 88 in. cyclotron. The current of the top and bottom innermost trim coil 1 is unbalanced to study effects of the axial injection displacement. A beam profile monitor images the ion beam bunches, turn by turn. The experimental bunch center of mass position is compared with calculations of the magnetic mirror effect displacement and shows good agreement.

  10. Internalization of U.S. female beauty standards as a mediator of the relationship between Mexican American women's acculturation and body dissatisfaction.

    PubMed

    Poloskov, Elizabeth; Tracey, Terence J G

    2013-09-01

    The relationships among acculturation, internalization of U.S. sociocultural standards of female beauty, and body dissatisfaction were examined in a sample of 211 Mexican American college women. Structural equation modeling was used to identify the paths among these three factors. Results demonstrated that there are two distinct types of body dissatisfaction: global evaluations and composite site-specific evaluations. The relationships between acculturation toward dominant U.S. culture and both types of body dissatisfaction were found to be fully mediated by internalization of U.S. standards of female beauty. There were no relationships between Mexican orientation and any of the study variables. The results from this study imply that it is important for therapists working with Mexican American female clients to assess the client's level of acculturation, examine the cultural (U.S. and Mexican) messages the client receives, and explore how these messages impact her body image.

  11. Fulbright-Hays Group Projects Abroad Program on International Women's Studies Seminar on Changing Status Roles in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoder-Salmon, Marilyn

    In July 1988, 14 Florida scholars traveled to India on a 6-week followup of a 1976 project on the status of women in India. Headquartered in Madras (India), the group also studied in 12 other locations. A pre-departure orientation program included lectures on health and related issues, a discussion of life in an Indian village, films, and slides…

  12. Optimal Methods to Screen Men and Women for Intimate Partner Violence: Results from an Internal Medicine Residency Continuity Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapur, Nitin A.; Windish, Donna M.

    2011-01-01

    Contradictory data exist regarding optimal methods and instruments for intimate partner violence (IPV) screening in primary care settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal method and screening instrument for IPV among men and women in a primary-care resident clinic. We conducted a cross-sectional study at an urban, academic,…

  13. Girls and Young Women in Education: A European Perspective. Pergamon Comparative and International Education Series, Volume 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Maggie, Ed.

    This book examines the experience of European young women in secondary and higher education. After an introductory chapter by Maggie Wilson, chapter 2 (by Nadine Plateau) presents an account of the failure of educational reforms and the introduction of co-education in French-speaking Belgium to mitigate divergent patterns of choice between boys…

  14. The Representation of Women in Publication: An Analysis of "Political Communication" and the "International Journal of Press/Politics"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Heather K.; Bucy, Erik P.

    2010-01-01

    Scholarly publication in peer-reviewed journals is widely regarded as the road to scholarly success. However, in a diversity of fields such as sociology, economics, and political science, it has been shown that the rate of publication is much lower for women than for men. The question of whether a systematic relationship exists between gender and…

  15. Films by and/or about Women, 1972: Directory of Filmmakers, Films, and Distributors; Internationally; Past and Present.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faxon, Pookie, Comp.; Bolint, Mary, Comp.

    This directory lists a variety of films about women. Reflective of the content, the directory is divided into categories: animated; anthropology, ethnology, sociology, and science; birth and control of birth; careers and job discrimination; children and child care; documentaries; experimental, avant-garde, and classics; male-female relations and…

  16. Lactation, fertility and the working women. Working Conference organized by International Planned Parenthood Federation and the International Union of Nutritional Sciences.

    PubMed

    1979-02-01

    20 participants from 15 countries discussed lactation, fertility and the working woman at a conference held in Bellagio, Italy, July 1977. The purpose of the conference was to suggest ways that mothers can combine their 2 roles: salaried worker and mother, with necessary legislation and social measures. Breastfeeding, because of the demands of the work place, has been in decline in recent years. Lack of support by health services, inadequate education of health workers, and the production and promotion of milk substitutes by the food industry have played a part in the decline of breastfeeding. Bottle-feeding has contributed to serious health problems in children, e.g., marasmus and diarrhoea, as well as smaller birth intervals. Some of the measures suggested to help working mothers included a minimum period of 3 months maternity leave, the development of social support services suited to mother and child in different societies, and the provision of suitable facilities where a woman can breastfeed her child. The cost of such services should be paid by the society or community as a whole, not by the employer or employee. More research is needed regarding approprite family planning methods for working women in developing countries; the effects of hormonal contraception on breastfeeding and the health of the infant; and, the effects on working women and their babies of breastfeeding only during their time away from work.

  17. Regenerative rotary displacer Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Isshiki, Naotsugu; Watanabe, Hiroichi; Raggi, L.; Isshiki, Seita; Hirata, Koichi

    1996-12-31

    A few rotary displacer Stirling engines in which the displacer has one gas pocket space at one side and rotates in a main enclosed cylinder, which is heated from one side and cooled from opposite side without any regenerator, have been studied for some time by the authors. The authors tried to improve this engine by equipping it with a regenerator, because without a regenerator, pressure oscillation and efficiency are too small. Here, several types of regenerative rotary displacer piston Stirling engines are proposed. One is the contra-rotating tandem two disc type displacer engine using axial heat conduction through side walls or by heat pipes and another is a single disc type with circulating fluid regenerator or heat pipes. Stirling engines of this new rotary displacer type are thought to attain high speed. Here, experimental results of the original rotary displacer Stirling engine without a regenerator, and one contra-rotating tandem displacer engine with side wall regenerator by axial heat conduction are reported accompanied with a discussion of the results.

  18. Postpartum Depressive Symptoms Across Time and Place: Structural Invariance of the Self-Reporting Questionnaire Among Women from the International, Multi-Site MAL-ED Study

    PubMed Central

    Pendergast, Laura L.; Scharf, Rebecca J.; Rasmussen, Zeba A.; Seidman, Jessica C.; Schaefer, Barbara A.; Svensen, Erling; Tofail, Fahmida; Koshy, Beena; Kosek, Margaret; Rasheed, Muneera A.; Roshan, Reeba; Maphula, Angelina; Shrestha, Rita; Murray-Kolb, Laura E.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) is a screening instrument that has been shown to be an effective measure of depression in postpartum women and is widely used in developing nations. Methods The SRQ was administered to 2,028 mothers from eight nations at two time points: one and six months postpartum. All data were obtained from the Interactions of Malnutrition and Enteric Infections: Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) study. The sample included women from MAL-ED sites in Bangladesh, Brazil, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Peru, South Africa, and Tanzania. This study examined three aspects of validity of SRQ scores including (a) structural validity, (b) cross-cultural invariance, and (c) invariance over time. Results A 16-item, one-factor structure with items reflecting somatic symptoms removed was deemed to be superior to the original structure in this postpartum population. Although differential item functioning (DIF) across sites was evident, the one-factor model was a good fit to the data from seven sites, and the structure was invariant across the one- and six-month time points. Limitations Findings are based on data from self-report scales. No information about the clinical status of the participants was available. Conclusions Overall, findings support the validity of a modified model of the SRQ among postpartum women. Somatic symptoms (e.g., headaches, not sleeping well) may not reflect internalizing problems in a postpartum population. Implications for researchers and practitioners are discussed. PMID:24981251

  19. 1986 Index/Directory of Women's Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Martha Leslie, Ed.

    This is a directory of women's media, i.e., media primarily owned and operated by and for women. The mission of this annual publication is to aid networking among women, women's organizations, and women's media, both nationally and internationally. The directory includes two sections: women's media groups, and individual media women and…

  20. Mind over matter: internalization of the thinness norm as a moderator of responsiveness to norm misperception education in college women.

    PubMed

    Mutterperl, Jenny A; Sanderson, Catherine A

    2002-09-01

    The authors examine the effectiveness of norm misperception education in decreasing disordered eating. One hundred seven 1st-year college women completed questionnaires assessing their own and others' actual and ideal body size as well as their own disordered eating and were then randomly assigned to read either a norm misperception or a control brochure. Participants completed questionnaires immediately after reading the brochures and again 3 months later. Although there were no main effects of brochure condition at the follow-up, participants who primarily compared themselves with other college women and who read the norm misperception brochure had higher actual and ideal weight as well as less frequent disordered eating. The discussion focuses on the theoretical and applied implications of these findings.

  1. Young women and breast cancer: challenges and answers—report from the Sixth Annual International Symposium, Mexico, 20–21 October 2014

    PubMed Central

    Cordera, David Barros Sierra; Marx, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Tómatelo a Pecho, Funsalud, the Harvard Global Equity Initiative, and the Mexican Ministry of Health led a group of institutions in organising the Sixth Annual International Symposium marking breast cancer awareness month in Mexico on 20–21 October 2014. This year’s event, with the theme ‘Young Women and Breast Cancer: Challenges and Answers’, took place at the National Institute of Perinatology in Mexico City. This was the first time the symposium focused almost entirely on young women. The reasons for this emphasis were reported on by many national and global experts, who also presented evidence to show that breast cancer has become a leading cause of death among younger women in Mexico, and conveyed the benefits of early breast cancer detection and the need to create innovative solutions for care and survivorship support for this age group. Over the course of one-and-a-half days, the symposium covered a wide range of topics and perspectives, including the epidemiology, biology, and genetics of breast cancer; challenges; and innovative answers to early detection and the myriad of short- and long-term challenges faced by patients with breast cancer, such as some cutting-edge techniques used to preserve fertility in women undergoing chemotherapy. How the presence of local and global stakeholders will ensure the accountability of the multiple participants already immersed in the various areas of research and activities related to breast cancer. The voices of the Ministry of Health and of other institutions central to the Mexican health system show that there is a political will for work in this area, and there are the means to make a change happen. PMID:25624876

  2. Displacement sensing system and method

    DOEpatents

    VunKannon, Jr., Robert S

    2006-08-08

    A displacement sensing system and method addresses demanding requirements for high precision sensing of displacement of a shaft, for use typically in a linear electro-dynamic machine, having low failure rates over multi-year unattended operation in hostile environments. Applications include outer space travel by spacecraft having high-temperature, sealed environments without opportunity for servicing over many years of operation. The displacement sensing system uses a three coil sensor configuration, including a reference and sense coils, to provide a pair of ratio-metric signals, which are inputted into a synchronous comparison circuit, which is synchronously processed for a resultant displacement determination. The pair of ratio-metric signals are similarly affected by environmental conditions so that the comparison circuit is able to subtract or nullify environmental conditions that would otherwise cause changes in accuracy to occur.

  3. Lucky interferometry for displacement measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioniţă, Bogdan; Logofătu, Petre Cătălin; Apostol, Dan

    2009-11-01

    We extrapolated the lucky imaging technique, mostly used in astronomy, to the field of interferometry for displacement measurement. From the batch of interferograms generated by a Twyman-Green-type interferometer and acquired by a CCD camera, those with high overall contrast were selected and fitted to a sinusoidal function. The high-contrast interferograms showed a significantly lower dispersion and, consequently, a lower uncertainty of the measured displacement.

  4. Evaluation of internal alpha-particle radiation exposure and subsequent fertility among a cohort of women formerly employed in the radium dial industry

    SciTech Connect

    Schieve, L.A.; Davis, F.; Freels, S.

    1997-02-01

    This study examined the effect of internal exposure to {alpha}-particle radiation on subsequent fertility among women employed in radium dial industry prior to 1930, when appreciable amounts of radium were often ingested through the practice of pointing the paint brush with the lips. The analysis was limited to women for whom a radium body burden measurement had been obtained and who were married prior to age 45 (n = 603). Internal radiation dose to the ovary was calculated based on initial intakes of radium-226 and radium-228, average ovarian mass, number and energy of {alpha} particles emitted, fraction of energy absorbed within the ovary, effective retention integrals and estimated photon irradiation. Time between marriage and pregnancy, number of pregnancies and number of live births served as surrogates for fertility. Radiation appeared to have no effect on fertility at estimated cumulative ovarian dose equivalents below 5 Sv; above this dose, however, statistically significant declines in both number of pregnancies and live births were observed. These trends persisted after multivariable adjustment for potential confounding variables and after exclusion of subjects contributing a potential classification or selection bias to the study. Additionally, the high-dose group experienced fewer live births than would have been expected based on population rates. There were no differences in time to first pregnancy between high- and low-dose groups. These results are consistent with earlier studies of {gamma}-ray exposures and suggest that exposure to high doses of radiation from internally deposited radium reduces fertility rather than inducing sterility. 42 refs., 5 tabs.

  5. Evaluation of internal alpha radiation exposure and subsequent infertility among a cohort of women formerly employed in the radium dial industry.

    SciTech Connect

    Schieve, L. A.; Davis, F.; Roeske, J.; Handler, A.; Freels, S.; Stinchcomb, T.; Keane, A.; Environmental Research; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago; Univ. of Chicago; DePaul Univ.

    1997-02-01

    This study examined the effect of internal exposure to {alpha}-particle radiation on subsequent fertility among women employed in the radium dial industry prior to 1930, when appreciable amounts of radium were often ingested through the practice of pointing the paint brush with the lips. The analysis was limited to women for whom a radium body burden measurement had been obtained and who were married prior to age 45 (n=603). Internal radiation dose to the ovary was calculated based on initial intakes of radium-226 and radium-228, average ovarian mass, number and energy of {alpha} particles emitted, fraction of energy absorbed with in the ovary, effective retention integrals and estimated photon irradiation. Time between marriage and pregnancy, number of pregnancies and number of live births served as surrogates for fertility. Radiation appeared to have no effect on fertility at estimated cumulative ovarian dose equivalents below 5 Sv; above this dose, however, statistically significant declines in both number of pregnancies and live births were observed. These trends persisted after multivariable adjustment for potential confounding variables and after exclusion of subjects contributing a potential classification or selection bias to the study. Additionally, the high-dose group experienced fewer live births than would have been expected based on population rates. There were no differences in time to first pregnancy between high- and low-dose groups. These results are consistent with earlier studies of {gamma}-ray exposures and suggest that exposure to high doses of radiation from internally deposited radium reduces fertility rather than inducing sterility.

  6. Dynamic measurement of local displacements within curing resin-based dental composite using optical coherence elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomlins, Peter H.; Rahman, Mohammed Wahidur; Donnan, Robert S.

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the feasibility of using optical coherence elastography to measure internal displacements during the curing phase of a light-activated, resin-based composite material. Displacement vectors were spatially mapped over time within a commercial dental composite. Measurements revealed that the orientation of cure-induced displacement vectors varied spatially in a complex manner; however, each vector showed a systematic evolution with time. Precision of individual displacements was estimated to be ˜1 to 2 μm, enabling submicrometer time-varying displacements to be detected.

  7. Women as refugees: perspectives from Burma.

    PubMed

    Lang, H J

    1995-01-01

    This article highlights the experiences of women refugees in an effort to provide an accurate portrayal of the civil war and its impact. An estimated 19 million refugees and further 24 million internally displaced civilians face the overwhelming post-war situation with significant effect on women and children. To obtain an accurate understanding on the sociopolitical life, inclusion of female experiences must be done. Counterinsurgency tactics have been done through infliction of fear among civilians to maintain the control or victory over a population. One of the tactics includes the cut-off of 4 main links of food, funding, intelligence and recruits among insurgent fighters, their families and local villages. A carefully detailed documentation of these experiences, such as the one done by the Karen Human Rights Group, an indigenous organization, could lead not only to the elimination of the pain but also the encouragement of its further infliction. With men collected as forced porters to carry military supplies, women were forced to take additional roles in their communities. Several women groups have been established to provide health services, educational opportunities and resources, and financial development for women and children. This article concludes that inclusion and recognition of the needs are necessary in the establishment of epistemological systems.

  8. Vietnamese women at solidarity meeting of world women in Cuba.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    This article summarizes experiences of a Vietnamese delegation at a solidarity meeting of world women during April 13-16, 1998, in Cuba. The President of the Viet Nam Women's Union headed the delegation. The advisor was the vice-chairperson of the Vietnamese National Assembly. The delegation participated in 6 forums: women and sustainable economic development; women, health, education, and social security; women, communication and the mass media; women in politics and decision-making; women, violence and discrimination; and national independence, sovereignty, peace, and women. The delegation also participated in sessions on women's issues; implementation issues; women parliamentarians; and migrant and displaced women. The delegation met with delegates from other countries and participated in a world meeting and an Asian-Pacific meeting to support Cuban women. The entire delegation presented a stage show of songs, which was well received by the 3000 participants. The delegation met with Cuban delegates to discuss the formation of women's groups and to build better relations between the women of both countries. The delegation visited a training center of women cadres and the center for gender education. Participants adopted the Havana Declaration, which states the intention of world women to eradicate poverty and war and to promote peace, progress, and happiness in all countries. The Havana Declaration condemned the US embargo against Cuba. Fidel Castro spoke and expressed gratitude for the strong support from world women, especially Vietnamese women.

  9. Psychometric Properties of Eating Disorder Instruments in Black and White Young Women: Internal Consistency, Temporal Stability, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardone-Cone, Anna M.; Boyd, Clarissa A.

    2007-01-01

    Most of the major instruments in the eating disorder field have documented psychometric support only in predominantly White samples. The current study examined the internal consistency, temporal stability, and convergent and discriminant validity of a variety of eating disorder measures in Black (n = 97) and White (n = 179) female undergraduates.…

  10. Job Displacement Among Single Mothers:

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Jennie E.; Thomas, Juli Simon

    2015-01-01

    Given the recent era of economic upheaval, studying the effects of job displacement has seldom been so timely and consequential. Despite a large literature associating displacement with worker well-being, relatively few studies focus on the effects of parental displacement on child well-being, and fewer still focus on implications for children of single parent households. Moreover, notwithstanding a large literature on the relationship between single motherhood and children’s outcomes, research on intergenerational effects of involuntary employment separations among single mothers is limited. Using 30 years of nationally representative panel data and propensity score matching methods, we find significant negative effects of job displacement among single mothers on children’s educational attainment and social-psychological well-being in young adulthood. Effects are concentrated among older children and children whose mothers had a low likelihood of displacement, suggesting an important role for social stigma and relative deprivation in the effects of socioeconomic shocks on child well-being. PMID:25032267

  11. Dietary Patterns and Their Associations with the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I) in Korean Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Moon-Kyung; Kim, Yoo-Sun; Kim, Jung-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine dietary pattern, nutritional intake, and diet quality of Korean pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Between October 2008 and May 2012, 166 pregnant women diagnosed with GDM completed a questionnaire and dietary intake was assessed using a 3-day food record. Blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) concentrations were measured and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed. Two major dietary patterns ("carbohydrate and vegetable" and "western" patterns) were identified through factor analysis. Dietary pattern scores for each dietary pattern were categorized into tertiles. The dietary quality index-international (DQI-I) was used to measure overall diet quality. Subjects with higher carbohydrate and vegetable pattern scores reported less physical activity (p < 0.05) and have higher diastolic blood pressure levels (p = 0.05). After adjusting for age and energy intake, higher carbohydrate and vegetable pattern scores were associated with higher sodium intakes (p = 0.02), but lower intakes of fat (p = 0.002) and other micronutrients. On the other hand, higher western pattern scores were associated with higher fat intake (p = 0.0001), but lower intakes of sodium (p = 0.01) and other micronutrients. Higher scores for both dietary patterns were associated with lower scores in the moderation category of the DQI-I (p < 0.0001). HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose levels were significantly lower among participants with high DQI-I than those with low DQI-I (p < 0.05). The study findings suggest that many Korean women with GDM do not consume nutritionally adequate or balanced diets, regardless of dietary pattern. PMID:26566516

  12. Integrating group counseling, cell phone messaging, and participant-generated songs and dramas into a microcredit program increases Nigerian women's adherence to international breastfeeding recommendations.

    PubMed

    Flax, Valerie L; Negerie, Mekebeb; Ibrahim, Alawiyatu Usman; Leatherman, Sheila; Daza, Eric J; Bentley, Margaret E

    2014-07-01

    In northern Nigeria, interventions are urgently needed to narrow the large gap between international breastfeeding recommendations and actual breastfeeding practices. Studies of integrated microcredit and community health interventions documented success in modifying health behaviors but typically had uncontrolled designs. We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial in Bauchi State, Nigeria, with the aim of increasing early breastfeeding initiation and exclusive breastfeeding among female microcredit clients. The intervention had 3 components. Trained credit officers led monthly breastfeeding learning sessions during regularly scheduled microcredit meetings for 10 mo. Text and voice messages were sent out weekly to a cell phone provided to small groups of microcredit clients (5-7 women). The small groups prepared songs or dramas about the messages and presented them at the monthly microcredit meetings. The control arm continued with the regular microcredit program. Randomization occurred at the level of the monthly meeting groups. Pregnant clients were recruited at baseline and interviewed again when their infants were aged ≥6 mo. Logistic regression models accounting for clustering were used to estimate the odds of performing recommended behaviors. Among the clients who completed the final survey (n = 390), the odds of exclusive breastfeeding to 6 mo (OR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.4, 4.0) and timely breastfeeding initiation (OR: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.6, 4.1) were increased in the intervention vs. control arm. Delayed introduction of water explained most of the increase in exclusive breastfeeding among clients receiving the intervention. In conclusion, a breastfeeding promotion intervention integrated into microcredit increased the likelihood that women adopted recommended breastfeeding practices. This intervention could be scaled up in Nigeria, where local organizations provide microcredit to >500,000 clients. Furthermore, the intervention could be adopted more widely

  13. Interferometric measurement of displacements and displacement velocities for nondestructive quality control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shpeĭzman, V. V.; Peschanskaya, N. N.

    2007-07-01

    It is shown that the interferometric measurement of small displacements and small-displacement velocities can be used to determine internal stresses or the stresses induced by an applied load in solids and to control structural changes in them. The interferometric method based on the measurement of the reaction of a solid to a small perturbation in its state of stress is applied to determine stresses from the deviation of the reaction to perturbations from that in the standard stress-free case. For structural control, this method is employed to study the specific features of the characteristics of microplastic deformation that appear after material treatment or operation and manifest themselves in the temperature and force dependences of the rate of a small inelastic strain.

  14. Perceived displacement explains wolfpack effect

    PubMed Central

    Šimkovic, Matúš; Träuble, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the influence of perceived displacement of moving agent-like stimuli on the performance in dynamic interactive tasks. In order to reliably measure perceived displacement we utilize multiple tasks with different task demands. The perceived center of an agent's body is displaced in the direction in which the agent is facing and this perceived displacement is larger than the theoretical position of the center of mass would predict. Furthermore, the displacement in the explicit judgment is dissociated from the displacement obtained by the implicit measures. By manipulating the location of the pivot point, we show that it is not necessary to postulate orientation as an additional cue utilized by perception, as has been suggested by earlier studies. These studies showed that the agent's orientation influences the detection of chasing motion and the detection-related performance in interactive tasks. This influence has been labeled wolfpack effect. In one of the demonstrations of the wolfpack effect participants control a green circle on a display with a computer mouse. It has been shown that participants avoid display areas with agents pointing toward the green circle. Participants do so in favor of areas where the agents point in the direction perpendicular to the circle. We show that this avoidance behavior arises because the agent's pivot point selected by the earlier studies is different from where people locate the center of agent's body. As a consequence, the nominal rotation confounds rotation and translation. We show that the avoidance behavior disappears once the pivot point is set to the center of agent's body. PMID:25566114

  15. Particle displacement tracking for PIV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wernet, Mark P.

    1990-01-01

    A new Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) data acquisition and analysis system, which is an order of magnitude faster than any previously proposed system has been constructed and tested. The new Particle Displacement Tracing (PDT) system is an all electronic technique employing a video camera and a large memory buffer frame-grabber board. Using a simple encoding scheme, a time sequence of single exposure images are time coded into a single image and then processed to track particle displacements and determine velocity vectors. Application of the PDT technique to a counter-rotating vortex flow produced over 1100 velocity vectors in 110 seconds when processed on an 80386 PC.

  16. Rotor component displacement measurement system

    DOEpatents

    Mercer, Gary D.; Li, Ming C.; Baum, Charles R.

    2003-05-27

    A measuring system for measuring axial displacement of a tube relative to an axially stationary component in a rotating rotor assembly includes at least one displacement sensor adapted to be located normal to a longitudinal axis of the tube; an insulated cable system adapted for passage through the rotor assembly; a rotatable proximitor module located axially beyond the rotor assembly to which the cables are connected; and a telemetry system operatively connected to the proximitor module for sampling signals from the proximitor module and forwarding data to a ground station.

  17. Polybenzimidazoles Via Aromatic Nucleophilic Displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W.; Hergenrother, Paul M.; Smith, Joseph G.

    1994-01-01

    Soluble polybenzimidazoles (PBI's) synthesized by nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenyl)-benzimidazole monomers with activated aromatic difluoride compounds in presence of anhydrous potassium carbonate. These polymers exhibit good thermal, thermo-oxidative, and chemical stability, and high mechanical properties. Using benzimidazole monomers, more economical, and new PBI's processed more easily than commercial PBI, without loss of desirable physical properties.

  18. Retraining Displaced Workers. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaLonde, Robert; Sullivan, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Robert LaLonde of the University of Chicago and Daniel Sullivan of the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago suggest that retraining through our nation's community colleges is a way to reduce the skills gaps of at least some of these displaced workers and increase their reemployment earnings. Although workers may still experience significant earnings…

  19. Albanian women in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deda, Antoneta; Alushllari, Mirela; Mico, Silvana

    2015-12-01

    In this report, presented at the 5th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics, we describe the status of women physicists in Albania and offer some statistical data illustrating the present situation. Undergraduate physics enrollment by girls is high and stable, more women are receiving financial support for doctoral studies, women are well represented in recent academic promotions, and recently women scientists have been appointed to several leadership positions. However, both women and men are challenged by the overall low levels of funding for research and by issues of availability and affordability of child care.

  20. Women, Work and Age: A Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Commission on Working Women, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet provides statistics on various aspects of the special concern of midlife and older women in the labor force. It looks at the number of such women in the work force, marital status, displaced homemakers, and occupational categories represented by these women. Other areas of consideration are the cost-effectiveness of hiring older…

  1. "I Don't Feel Right Sized; I Feel Out-of-Work Sized." Gender, Race, Ethnicity, and the Unequal Costs of Displacement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spalter-Roth, Roberta; Deitch, Cynthia

    1999-01-01

    Application of queuing theory to displaced-worker data indicates that White men head the queue in reemployment after displacement. White women experience gender discrimination, Black men are racially disadvantaged and do not benefit from gender, Black women are doubly disadvantaged, and Hispanic men benefit from gender. (SK)

  2. Free displacer and Ringbom displacer for a Malone refrigerator

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, G.W.; Brown, A.O.

    1994-05-01

    Malone refrigeration uses a liquid near its critical point (instead of the customary gas) as the working fluid in a Stirling, Brayton, or similar regenerative or recuperative cycle. Thus far, we have focused on the Stirling cycle, to avoid the difficult construction of the high-pressure-difference counterflow recuperator required for a Brayton machine. Our first Malone refrigerator used liquid propylene (C{sub 3}H{sub 6}) in a double-acting 4-cylinder Stirling configuration. First measurements with a free displacer used in a liquid working fluid are presented. The displacer was operated both in harmonic mode and in Ringbom mode, in liquid carbon dioxide. The results are in reasonable agreement with expectations.

  3. Preference for attractiveness and thinness in a partner: influence of internalization of the thin ideal and shape/weight dissatisfaction in heterosexual women, heterosexual men, lesbians, and gay men.

    PubMed

    Legenbauer, Tanja; Vocks, Silja; Schäfer, Corinna; Schütt-Strömel, Sabine; Hiller, Wolfgang; Wagner, Christof; Vögele, Claus

    2009-06-01

    This study assesses whether characteristics of one's own body image influences preferences of attractiveness in a partner. The role of gender and sexual orientation is also considered. Heterosexual women (n=67), lesbian women (n=73), heterosexual men (n=61) and gay men (n=82) participated in an internet survey assessing attitudes towards the body and preferences of attractiveness in a partner. Men in particular were found to prefer attractive partners, regardless of sexual orientation. Weight/shape dissatisfaction was found to be a negative predictor for heterosexual men and women. For gay men, preferences were better explained by internalization and weight/shape dissatisfaction. No such associations were found in the lesbian group. Levels of weight/shape dissatisfaction and internalization of socio-cultural slenderness ideals influence expectations of thinness and attractiveness in a partner with this effect being modified by gender and sexual orientation.

  4. DIC Score in Pregnant Women – A Population Based Modification of the International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis Score

    PubMed Central

    Erez, Offer; Novack, Lena; Beer-Weisel, Ruthy; Dukler, Doron; Press, Fernanda; Zlotnik, Alexander; Than, Nandor Gabor; Tomer, Aaron; Mazor, Moshe

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were: 1) To determine the component needed to generate a validated DIC score during pregnancy. 2) To validate such scoring system in the identification of patients with clinical diagnosis of DIC. Material and Methods This is a population based retrospective study, including all women who gave birth at the ‘Soroka University Medical Center’ during the study period, and have had blood coagulation tests including complete blood cell count, prothrombin time (PT)(seconds), partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen, and D-dimers. Nomograms for pregnancy were established, and DIC score was constructed based on ROC curve analyses. Results 1) maternal plasma fibrinogen concentrations increased during pregnancy; 2) maternal platelet count decreased gradually during gestation; 3) the PT and PTT values did not change with advancing gestation; 4) PT difference had an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.96 (p<0.001), and a PT difference ≥1.55 had an 87% sensitivity and 90% specificity for the diagnosis of DIC; 5) the platelet count had an AUC of 0.87 (p<0.001), an 86% sensitivity and 71% specificity for the diagnosis of DIC; 6) fibrinogen concentrations had an AUC of 0.95 (p<0.001) and a cutoff point ≤3.9 g/L had a sensitivity of 87% and a specificity of 92% for the development of DIC; and 7) The pregnancy adjusted DIC score had an AUC of 0.975 (p<0.001) and at a cutoff point of ≥26 had a sensitivity of 88%, a specificity of 96%, a LR(+) of 22 and a LR(−) of 0.125 for the diagnosis of DIC. Conclusion We could establish a sensitive and specific pregnancy adjusted DIC score. The positive likelihood ratio of this score suggests that a patient with a score of ≥26 has a high probability to have DIC. PMID:24728139

  5. Interplay between interstitial displacement and displacive lattice transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xie; Hickel, Tilmann; Rogal, Jutta; Neugebauer, Jörg

    2016-09-01

    Diffusionless displacive lattice rearrangements, which include martensitic transformations, are in real materials often accompanied by a displacive drag of interstitials. The interplay of both processes leads to a particular atomistic arrangement of the interstitials in the product phase, which is decisive for its performance. An archetype example is the martensitic transformation in Fe-C alloys. One of the puzzles for this system is that the deviation from the cubic symmetry (i.e., the tetragonality) in the martensite resulting from this interplay is lower than what thermodynamics dictates. In our ab initio approach, the relative motion of C in the transforming lattice is studied with the nudged elastic band method. We prove that an atomic shearlike shuffle mechanism of adjacent (11 2 ¯) Fe layers along the ±[111] bcc directions is essential to achieve a redistribution of C atoms during the fcc → bcc transition, which fully explains the abnormal behavior. Furthermore, the good agreement with experiment validates our method to treat a diffusionless redistribution of interstitials and a displacive rearrangement of the host lattice simultaneously.

  6. Forest transitions, trade, and the global displacement of land use.

    PubMed

    Meyfroidt, Patrick; Rudel, Thomas K; Lambin, Eric F

    2010-12-07

    Reducing tropical deforestation is an international priority, given its impacts on carbon emissions and biodiversity. We examined whether recent forest transitions--a shift from net deforestation to net reforestation--involved a geographic displacement of forest clearing across countries through trade in agricultural and forest products. In most of the seven developing countries that recently experienced a forest transition, displacement of land use abroad accompanied local reforestation. Additional global land-use change embodied in their net wood trade offset 74% of their total reforested area. Because the reforesting countries continued to export more agricultural goods than they imported, this net displacement offset 22% of their total reforested area when both agriculture and forestry sectors are included. However, this net displacement increased to 52% during the last 5 y. These countries thus have contributed to a net global reforestation and/or decrease in the pressure on forests, but this global environmental benefit has been shrinking during recent years. The net decrease in the pressure on forests does not account for differences in their ecological quality. Assessments of the impacts of international policies aimed at reducing global deforestation should integrate international trade in agricultural and forest commodities.

  7. Forest transitions, trade, and the global displacement of land use

    PubMed Central

    Meyfroidt, Patrick; Rudel, Thomas K.; Lambin, Eric F.

    2010-01-01

    Reducing tropical deforestation is an international priority, given its impacts on carbon emissions and biodiversity. We examined whether recent forest transitions—a shift from net deforestation to net reforestation—involved a geographic displacement of forest clearing across countries through trade in agricultural and forest products. In most of the seven developing countries that recently experienced a forest transition, displacement of land use abroad accompanied local reforestation. Additional global land-use change embodied in their net wood trade offset 74% of their total reforested area. Because the reforesting countries continued to export more agricultural goods than they imported, this net displacement offset 22% of their total reforested area when both agriculture and forestry sectors are included. However, this net displacement increased to 52% during the last 5 y. These countries thus have contributed to a net global reforestation and/or decrease in the pressure on forests, but this global environmental benefit has been shrinking during recent years. The net decrease in the pressure on forests does not account for differences in their ecological quality. Assessments of the impacts of international policies aimed at reducing global deforestation should integrate international trade in agricultural and forest commodities. PMID:21078977

  8. [Control of tuberculosis in refugees and displaced].

    PubMed

    Kessler, C; Connolly, M; Levy, M; Chaulet, P

    1997-10-01

    As a result of national and international conflicts, the number of refugees and displaced persons in various countries of the world is increasing. The complex and protracted nature of these conflicts often forces refugees to remain away from their countries for long periods, living in refugee camps. Many refugees come from countries where tuberculosis is endemic and, once the immediate problems of establishing a camp are overcome, this disease becomes the principal problem affecting refugee camps. In order to advise the persons in charge of refugee camps on how to set up tuberculosis control programs, this document details the general requirements and specific recommendations of WHO for the implementation of such programs, as well as guidelines for their evaluation and monitoring, including criteria that would justify camp closure.

  9. Can Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) Represent Invisible Displacement?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filion, Christine M.; Washburn, David A.; Gulledge, Jonathan P.

    1996-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to assess whether or not rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) could represent the unperceived movements of a stimulus. Subjects were tested on 2 computerized tasks, HOLE (monkeys) and LASER (humans and monkeys), in which subjects needed to chase or shoot at, respectively, a moving target that either remained visible or became invisible for a portion of its path of movement. Response patterns were analyzed and compared between target-visible and target-invisible conditions. Results of Experiments 1, 2, and 3 demonstrated that the monkeys are capable of extrapolating movement. That this extrapolation involved internal representation of the target's invisible movement was suggested but not confirmed. Experiment 4, however, demonstrated that the monkeys are capable of representing the invisible displacements of a stimulus.

  10. Women's rights to health.

    PubMed

    1997-08-01

    Women's rights and health are threatened by cultural, religious, and social biases against women that create barriers in women's ability to access health information, education, and services. The fact that women's basic human rights include a right to health has been incorporated in international rights covenants, but violations occur in the form of 1) direct state actions, such as coercive abortion; 2) failure of states to meet health needs; 3) discrimination that denies health care to specific groups; and 4) failure of states to protect women from violence, child marriage, female infanticide, and other forms of health- and life-threatening discrimination. In order to improve this situation, a basic set of indicators must be developed to monitor implementation of agreements to protect women. Health professionals must continue to incorporate women's rights into the ethics or charters of health practices, to improve service to women, and to increase governmental advocacy on behalf of women. Governments must acknowledge the benefits of applying a rights approach to women's health status and must develop plans to implement recommendations arising from international conferences on women's rights. Women-centered nongovernmental organizations must create a clear framework on women's rights to health and develop advocacy and networking strategies.

  11. What Factors Contribute to Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in Urban, Conflict-Affected Settings? Qualitative Findings from Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, L F; Gupta, J; Shuman, S; Cole, H; Kpebo, D; Falb, K L

    2016-04-01

    Rapid urbanization is a key driver of the unique set of health risks facing urban populations. One of the most critical health hazards facing urban women is intimate partner violence (IPV). In post-conflict urban areas, women may face an even greater risk of IPV. Yet, few studies have examined the IPV experiences of urban-dwelling, conflict-affected women, including those who have been internally displaced. This study qualitatively examined the social and structural characteristics of the urban environment that contributed to the IPV experiences of women residing in post-conflict Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. Ten focus groups were conducted with men and women, both internally displaced (IDPs) and non-displaced. Lack of support networks, changing gender roles, and tensions between traditional gender norms and those of the "modern" city were reported as key contributors to IPV. Urban poverty and with it unemployment, food insecurity, and housing instability also played a role. Finally, IDPs faced heightened vulnerability to IPV as a result of displacement and discrimination. The relationship between economic strains and IPV are similar to other conflict-affected settings, but Abidjan's urban environment presented other unique characteristics contributing to IPV. Understanding these factors is crucial to designing appropriate services for women and for implementing IPV reduction interventions in urban areas. Strengthening formal and informal mechanisms for help-seeking, utilizing multi-modal interventions that address economic stress and challenge inequitable gender norms, as well as tailoring programs specifically for IDPs, are some considerations for IPV program planning focused on conflict-affected women in urban areas.

  12. Atomic displacements in quantum crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusseault, Marisa; Boninsegni, Massimo

    2017-03-01

    Displacements of atoms and molecules away from lattice sites in helium and parahydrogen solids at low temperature have been studied by means of quantum Monte Carlo simulations. In the bcc phases of 3He and 4He, atomic displacements are largely quantum-mechanical in character, even at melting. The computed Lindemann ratio at melting is found to be in good agreement with experimental results for 4He. Unlike the case of helium, in solid parahydrogen there exists near melting a significant thermal contribution to molecular vibrations, accounting for roughly half of the total effect. Although the Lindemann ratio at melting is in quantitative agreement with experiment, computed molecular mean square fluctuations feature a clear temperature dependence, in disagreement with recent experimental observations.

  13. Polybenzimidazole via aromatic nucleophilic displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Di(hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazole monomers were prepared from phenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate and aromatic bis(o-diamine)s. These monomers were used in the synthesis of soluble polybenzimidazoles. The reaction involved the aromatic nucleophilic displacement of various di(hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazole monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds in the presence of an alkali metal base. These polymers exhibited lower glass transition temperatures, improved solubility, and better compression moldability over their commercial counterparts.

  14. Polyphenylquinoxalines via aromatic nucleophilic displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    Polyphenylquinoxalines are prepared by the nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenyl)quinoxaline monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or dinitro compounds. The reactions are carried out in polar aprotic solvents using alkali metal bases at elevated temperatures under nitrogen. The di(hydroxyphenyl)quinoxaline monomers are prepared either by reacting stoichiometric quantities of aromatic bis(o-diamines) with a hydroxybenzil or by reacting o-phenylenediamine with a dihydroxybenzil or bis(hydroxyphenylglyoxylyl)benzene.

  15. Polyphenylquinoxalines via aromatic nucleophilic displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyphenylquinoxalines are prepared by the nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenyl)quinoxaline monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or dinitro compounds. The reactions are carried out in polar aprotic solvents during alkali metal bases at elevated temperatures under nitrogen. The di(hydroxyphenyl)quinoxaline monomers are prepared either by reacting stoichiometric quantities of aromatic bis(o-diamines) with a hydroxybenzil or by reacting o-phenylenediamine with a dihydroxybenzil or bis(hydroxyphenylglyoxylyl)benzene.

  16. Single-mode displacement sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duivenvoorden, Kasper; Terhal, Barbara M.; Weigand, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    We show that one can determine both parameters of a displacement acting on an oscillator with an accuracy which scales inversely with the square root of the number of photons in the oscillator. Our results are obtained by using a grid state as a sensor state for detecting small translations in phase space (displacements). Grid states were first proposed [D. Gottesman et al., Phys. Rev. A 64, 012310 (2001), 10.1103/PhysRevA.64.012310] for encoding a qubit into an oscillator: an efficient preparation protocol of such states, using a coupling to a qubit, was later developed [B. M. Terhal and D. Weigand, Phys. Rev. A 93, 012315 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.93.012315]. We compare the performance of the grid state with the quantum compass or cat code state and place our results in the context of the two-parameter quantum Cramér-Rao lower bound on the variances of the displacement parameters. We show that the accessible information about the displacement for a grid state increases with the number of photons in the state when we measure and prepare the state using a phase estimation protocol. This is in contrast with the accessible information in the quantum compass state which we show is always upper bounded by a constant, independent of the number of photons. We present numerical simulations of a phase estimation based preparation protocol of a grid state in the presence of photon loss, nonlinearities, and qubit measurement, using no post-selection, showing how the two effective squeezing parameters which characterize the grid state change during the preparation. The idea behind the phase estimation protocol is a simple maximal-information gain strategy.

  17. Treatment of displaced mandibular condylar fracture with botulinum toxin A.

    PubMed

    Akbay, Ercan; Cevik, Cengiz; Damlar, Ibrahim; Altan, Ahmet

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this case report is to discuss the effect on condylar reduction of botulinum toxin A treatment used in a child with displaced fracture at condylar neck of mandible. A 3-years old boy was admitted to our clinic for incomplete fracture of mandibular symphysis and displaced condylar fracture at the left side. An asymmetrical occlusal splint with intermaxillary fixation was used instead of open reduction and internal fixation because of incomplete fracture of symphysis and possible complications of condyle surgery. However, it was observed that condylar angulation persisted despite this procedure. Thus, botulinum toxin A was administered to masseter, temporalis and pterygoideus medialis muscles. At the end of first month, it was seen that mandibular condyle was almost completely recovered and that fusion was achieved. In conclusion, Botulinum A toxin injection aiming the suppression of masticatory muscle strength facilitates the reduction in the conservative management of displaced condyle in pediatric patients.

  18. 40 CFR 1054.140 - What is my engine's maximum engine power and displacement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-section area of the cylinders, the stroke length, and the number of cylinders. Calculate the engine's... internal diameter of 6.00 cm and a 6.25 cm stroke length, the rounded displacement would be: (1) ×...

  19. 40 CFR 1054.140 - What is my engine's maximum engine power and displacement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-section area of the cylinders, the stroke length, and the number of cylinders. Calculate the engine's... internal diameter of 6.00 cm and a 6.25 cm stroke length, the rounded displacement would be: (1) ×...

  20. 40 CFR 1054.140 - What is my engine's maximum engine power and displacement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-section area of the cylinders, the stroke length, and the number of cylinders. Calculate the engine's... internal diameter of 6.00 cm and a 6.25 cm stroke length, the rounded displacement would be: (1) ×...

  1. 40 CFR 1054.140 - What is my engine's maximum engine power and displacement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-section area of the cylinders, the stroke length, and the number of cylinders. Calculate the engine's... internal diameter of 6.00 cm and a 6.25 cm stroke length, the rounded displacement would be: (1) ×...

  2. 40 CFR 1054.140 - What is my engine's maximum engine power and displacement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-section area of the cylinders, the stroke length, and the number of cylinders. Calculate the engine's... internal diameter of 6.00 cm and a 6.25 cm stroke length, the rounded displacement would be: (1) ×...

  3. The Breast International Group 1-98 trial: big results for women with hormone-sensitive early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Monnier, Alain M

    2007-05-01

    As there is a risk for relapse in early breast cancer, especially at 1-3 years post surgery, the need for adjuvant therapy is clear. In terms of disease-free survival, aromatase inhibitors have emerged as superior to tamoxifen for the adjuvant treatment of hormone-sensitive breast cancer in several Phase III clinical trials. Of these trials, the Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98 trial stands out as unique in design, as it is the only trial to address whether an aromatase inhibitor is more effective as initial adjuvant therapy or as sequential therapy with an aromatase inhibitor and tamoxifen in either order and in rigor of end points and safety evaluations. When compared with tamoxifen, letrozole has been shown to significantly reduce recurrence risk in the overall population by 19% and also significantly reduced recurrence risk in the patient subgroups at increased risk: node-positive and previously chemotherapy-treated patients. Letrozole is the only aromatase inhibitor to demonstrate a significant 27% reduction in the risk of distant metastases (p = 0.001) in the clinically relevant, hormone receptor-positive population in the initial adjuvant setting. Recent results also suggest that letrozole in particular reduces the risk of distant metastases early on after initial surgery for breast cancer. This is important, as early distant metastatic events compose the majority of early recurrences and are a well-recognized predictor of breast cancer death. Letrozole has been found to be well tolerated in the initial adjuvant treatment setting, and these data have been confirmed by long-term safety data from the monotherapy analysis in the BIG 1-98 study. Thus far, the results from the BIG 1-98 trial provide clear support for the use of letrozole in the initial adjuvant treatment of breast cancer. Future studies will provide the definitive answer to questions of which initial adjuvant therapy is superior (i.e., anastrozole or letrozole) and information as to the

  4. Women's Literacy in World-Wide Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limage, Leslie J.

    1994-01-01

    This overview of the special issue includes worldwide statistics on women's literacy, women's role in international decision making, and the role of international aid in increasing or decreasing sex bias. (SK)

  5. Sex Work among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgender Women in Bogotá

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Fernanda T.; Reisen, Carol A.; Zea, Maria Cecilia; Vidal-Ortiz, Salvador; Gonzales, Felisa A.; Betancourt, Fabián; Aguilar, Marcela; Poppen, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study examined sex work among internally displaced male and transgender female sex workers in Bogotá, Colombia. Internal displacement has occurred in Colombia as a result of decades of conflict among armed groups and has created large-scale migration from rural to urban areas. Informed by the polymorphous model of sex work, which posits that contextual conditions shape the experience of sex work, we examined three main research questions. The first dealt with how internal displacement was related to the initiation of sex work; the second concerned the effect of agency on sex worker satisfaction; and the third examined how sex work in this context was related to HIV and other risks. Life history interviews were conducted with a 26 displaced individuals who had done sex work: 14 were men who have sex with men (MSM) and 12 were transgender women (natal males). Findings revealed that many participants began doing sex work in the period immediately after displacement, because of a lack of money, housing, and social support. HIV risk was greater during this time due to limited knowledge of HIV and inexperience negotiating safer sex with clients. Other findings indicated that sex workers who exerted more control and choice in the circumstances of their work reported greater satisfaction. In addition, we found that although many sex workers insisted on condom use with clients, several noted that they would sometimes have unprotected sex for additional money. Specific characteristics affecting the experience of sex work among the transgender women were also discussed. PMID:24464550

  6. Fiber-Optic Differential Displacement Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tcheng, Ping

    1996-01-01

    Dual fiber-optic sensor measures small relative displacements of two proximate objects along common surface. Dual sensor comprises two fiber-optic sensors in differential configuration increasing sensitivity to displacement while decreasing sensitivity to thermal expansion and contraction.

  7. The case for character displacement in plants

    PubMed Central

    Beans, Carolyn M

    2014-01-01

    The evidence for character displacement as a widespread response to competition is now building. This progress is largely the result of the establishment of rigorous criteria for demonstrating character displacement in the animal literature. There are, however, relatively few well-supported examples of character displacement in plants. This review explores the potential for character displacement in plants by addressing the following questions: (1) Why aren't examples of character displacement in plants more common? (2) What are the requirements for character displacement to occur and how do plant populations meet those requirements? (3) What are the criteria for testing the pattern and process of character displacement and what methods can and have been used to address these criteria in the plant literature? (4) What are some additional approaches for studying character displacement in plants? While more research is needed, the few plant systems in which character displacement hypotheses have been rigorously tested suggest that character displacement may play a role in shaping plant communities. Plants are especially amenable to character displacement studies because of the experimental ease with which they can be used in common gardens, selection analyses, and breeding designs. A deeper investigation of character displacement in plants is critical for a more complete understanding of the ecological and evolutionary processes that permit the coexistence of plant species. PMID:24683467

  8. The case for character displacement in plants.

    PubMed

    Beans, Carolyn M

    2014-03-01

    The evidence for character displacement as a widespread response to competition is now building. This progress is largely the result of the establishment of rigorous criteria for demonstrating character displacement in the animal literature. There are, however, relatively few well-supported examples of character displacement in plants. This review explores the potential for character displacement in plants by addressing the following questions: (1) Why aren't examples of character displacement in plants more common? (2) What are the requirements for character displacement to occur and how do plant populations meet those requirements? (3) What are the criteria for testing the pattern and process of character displacement and what methods can and have been used to address these criteria in the plant literature? (4) What are some additional approaches for studying character displacement in plants? While more research is needed, the few plant systems in which character displacement hypotheses have been rigorously tested suggest that character displacement may play a role in shaping plant communities. Plants are especially amenable to character displacement studies because of the experimental ease with which they can be used in common gardens, selection analyses, and breeding designs. A deeper investigation of character displacement in plants is critical for a more complete understanding of the ecological and evolutionary processes that permit the coexistence of plant species.

  9. 40 CFR 205.153 - Engine displacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine displacement. 205.153 Section... TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.153 Engine displacement. (a) Engine displacement must be calculated using nominal engine values and rounded to the nearest whole cubic...

  10. 40 CFR 205.153 - Engine displacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine displacement. 205.153 Section... TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.153 Engine displacement. (a) Engine displacement must be calculated using nominal engine values and rounded to the nearest whole cubic...

  11. Displacement Compensation of Temperature Probe Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Christopher S.; Hubert, James A.; Barber, Patrick G.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of temperature data from a probe in a vertical Bridgman furnace growing germanium crystals revealed a displacement of the temperature profile due to conduction error. A theoretical analysis shows that the displacement compensation is independent of local temperature gradient. A displacement compensation value should become a standard characteristic of temperature probes used for temperature profile measurements.

  12. 25 CFR 700.59 - Displaced person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Displaced person. 700.59 Section 700.59 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.59 Displaced person. Displaced person means a member of...

  13. Polyphenylquinoxalines via Aromatic Nucleophilic Displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, Paul M.; Connell, John W.

    1988-01-01

    Polyphenylquinoxalines are produced by an aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction involving an activated aromatic dihalide with an appropriate quinoxaline monomer. Polyphenylquinoxalines are high temperature thermoplastics used as adhesives, coatings, films and composite matrices. The novelty of this invention is threefold: (1) some of the quinoxaline monomers are new compositions of matter; (2) the phenylquinoxaline polymers which are the end products of the invention are new compositions of matter; and (3) the method of forming the polymers is novel, replacing a more costly prior art process, which is also limited in the kinds of products prepared therefrom.

  14. Displacement Current and Surface Flashover

    SciTech Connect

    harris, J R; Caporaso, G J; Blackfield, D; Chen, Y J

    2007-07-17

    High-voltage vacuum insulator failure is generally due to surface flashover rather than insulator bulk breakdown. Vacuum surface flashover is widely believed to be initiated by a secondary electron emission avalanche along the vacuum-insulator interface. This process requires a physical mechanism to cause secondary electrons emitted from the insulator surface to return to that surface. Here, we show that when an insulator is subjected to a fast high-voltage pulse, the magnetic field due to displacement current through the insulator can provide this mechanism. This indicates the importance of the voltage pulse shape, especially the rise time, in the flashover initiation process.

  15. Interferometric fiber optic displacement sensor

    DOEpatents

    Farah, John

    1999-01-01

    A method is presented to produce a change in the optical path length in the gap between two single mode optical fibers proportional to the lateral displacement of either fiber end normal to its axis. This is done with the use of refraction or diffraction at the interface between a guiding and non-guiding media to change the direction of propagation of the light in the gap. A method is also presented for laying a waveguide on a cantilever so that the displacement of the tip of the cantilever produces a proportional path length change in the gap by distancing the waveguide from the neutral axis of the cantilever. The fiber is supported as a cantilever or a waveguide is deposited on a micromachined cantilever and incorporated in an interferometer which is made totally on a silicon substrate with the use of integrated-optic technology. A resonant element in the form of a micro-bridge is incorporated in the ridge waveguide and produces a frequency output which is readily digitizeable and immune to laser frequency noise. Finally, monolithic mechanical means for phase modulation are provided on the same sensor substrate. This is done by vibrating the cantilever or micro-bridge either electrically or optically.

  16. Interferometric fiber optic displacement sensor

    DOEpatents

    Farah, J.

    1999-04-06

    A method is presented to produce a change in the optical path length in the gap between two single mode optical fibers proportional to the lateral displacement of either fiber end normal to its axis. This is done with the use of refraction or diffraction at the interface between a guiding and non-guiding media to change the direction of propagation of the light in the gap. A method is also presented for laying a waveguide on a cantilever so that the displacement of the tip of the cantilever produces a proportional path length change in the gap by distancing the waveguide from the neutral axis of the cantilever. The fiber is supported as a cantilever or a waveguide is deposited on a micromachined cantilever and incorporated in an interferometer which is made totally on a silicon substrate with the use of integrated-optic technology. A resonant element in the form of a micro-bridge is incorporated in the ridge waveguide and produces a frequency output which is readily digitizeable and immune to laser frequency noise. Finally, monolithic mechanical means for phase modulation are provided on the same sensor substrate. This is done by vibrating the cantilever or micro-bridge either electrically or optically. 23 figs.

  17. Interferometric fiber optic displacement sensor

    DOEpatents

    Farah, John

    1995-01-01

    A method is presented to produce a change in the optical path length in the gap between two single mode optical fibers proportional to the lateral displacement of either fiber end normal to its axis. This is done with the use of refraction or diffraction at the interface between a guiding and non-guiding media to change the direction of propagation of the light in the gap. A method is also presented for laying a waveguide on a cantilever so that the displacement of the tip of the cantilever produces a proportional path length change in the gap by distancing the waveguide from the neutral axis of the cantilever. The fiber is supported as a cantilever or a waveguide is deposited on a micromachined cantilever and incorporated in an interferometer which is made totally on a silicon substrate with the use of integrated-optic technology. A resonant element in the form of a micro-bridge is incorporated in the ridge waveguide and produces a frequency output which is readily digitizeable and immune to laser frequency noise. Finally, monolithic mechanical means for phase modulation are provided on the same sensor substrate. This is done by vibrating the cantilever or micro-bridge either electrically or optically.

  18. Interferometric fiber optic displacement sensor

    DOEpatents

    Farah, J.

    1995-05-30

    A method is presented to produce a change in the optical path length in the gap between two single mode optical fibers proportional to the lateral displacement of either fiber end normal to its axis. This is done with the use of refraction or diffraction at the interface between a guiding and non-guiding media to change the direction of propagation of the light in the gap. A method is also presented for laying a waveguide on a cantilever so that the displacement of the tip of the cantilever produces a proportional path length change in the gap by distancing the waveguide from the neutral axis of the cantilever. The fiber is supported as a cantilever or a waveguide is deposited on a micromachined cantilever and incorporated in an interferometer which is made totally on a silicon substrate with the use of integrated-optic technology. A resonant element in the form of a micro-bridge is incorporated in the ridge waveguide and produces a frequency output which is readily digitizeable and immune to laser frequency noise. Finally, monolithic mechanical means for phase modulation are provided on the same sensor substrate. This is done by vibrating the cantilever or micro-bridge either electrically or optically. 29 figs.

  19. Does the Intent to Irradiate the Internal Mammary Nodes Impact Survival in Women With Breast Cancer? A Population-Based Analysis in British Columbia

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, Robert A.; Woods, Ryan; Speers, Caroline; Lau, Jeffrey; Lo, Andrea; Truong, Pauline T.; Tyldesley, Scott; Olivotto, Ivo A.; Weir, Lorna

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To determine the value of the intent to include internal mammary nodes (IMNs) in the radiation therapy (RT) volume for patients receiving adjuvant locoregional (breast or chest wall plus axillary and supraclavicular fossa) RT for breast cancer. Methods and Materials: 2413 women with node-positive or T3/4N0 invasive breast cancer, treated with locoregional RT from 2001 to 2006, were identified in a prospectively maintained, population-based database. Intent to include IMNs in RT volume was determined through review of patient charts and RT plans. Distant relapse free survival (D-RFS), breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS), and overall survival (OS) were compared between the two groups. Prespecified pN1 subgroup analyses were performed. Results: The median follow-up time was 6.2 years. Forty-one percent of study participants received IMN RT. The 5-year D-RFS for IMN inclusion and exclusion groups were 82% vs. 82% (p = 0.82), BCSS was 87% vs. 87% (p = 0.81), and OS was 85% vs. 83% (p = 0.06). In the pN1 subgroup, D-RFS was 90% vs. 88% (p = 0.31), BCSS was 94% vs. 92% (p = 0.18), and OS was 91% vs. 88% (p = 0.01). After potential confounding variables were controlled for, women who received IMN RT did not have significantly different D-RFS (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.02 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84-1.24; p = 0.85), BCSS (HR = 0.98 (95% CI, 0.79-1.22; p = 0.88), or OS (HR = 0.95; 95% CI, 0.78-1.15; p = 0.57). In the pN1 subgroup, IMN RT was associated with trends for improved survival that were not statistically significant: D-RFS (HR = 0.87; 95% CI, 0.63-1.22; p = 0.42), BCSS (HR = 0.85; 95% CI, 0.57-1.25; p = 0.39), and OS (HR = 0.78; 95% CI, 0.56-1.09; p = 0.14). Conclusions: After a median follow-up time of 6.2 years, although intentional IMN RT was not associated with a significant improvement in survival, this population-based study suggests that IMN RT may contribute to improved outcomes in selected patients with N1 disease.

  20. Advancing Women's Health and Women's Leadership With Endowed Chairs in Women's Health.

    PubMed

    Carnes, Molly; Johnson, Paula; Klein, Wendy; Jenkins, Marjorie; Bairey Merz, C Noel

    2017-02-01

    Gender-based bias and conflation of gender and status are root causes of disparities in women's health care and the slow advancement of women to leadership in academic medicine. More than a quarter of women physicians train in internal medicine and its subspecialties, and women physicians almost exclusively constitute the women's health focus within internal medicine. Thus, internal medicine has considerable opportunity to develop women leaders in academic medicine and promote women's health equity.To probe whether holding an endowed chair-which confers status-in women's health may be an effective way to advance women leaders in academic medicine and women's health, the authors explored the current status of endowed chairs in women's health in internal medicine. They found that the number of these endowed chairs in North America increased from 7 in 2013 to 19 in 2015, and all were held by women. The perceptions of incumbents and other women's health leaders supported the premise that an endowed chair in women's health would increase women's leadership, the institutional stature of women's health, and activities in women's health research, education, and clinical care.Going forward, it will be important to explore why not all recipients perceived that the endowed chair enhanced their own academic leadership, whether providing women's health leaders with fundraising expertise fosters future success in increasing the number of women's health endowed chairs, and how the conflation of gender and status play out (e.g., salary differences between endowed chairs) as the number of endowed chairs in women's health increases.

  1. Displacement of squeezed propagating microwave states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, Kirill G.; Zhong, Ling; Pogorzalek, Stefan; Eder, Peter; Fischer, Michael; Goetz, Jan; Wulschner, Friedrich; Xie, Edwar; Menzel, Edwin; Deppe, Frank; Marx, Achim; Gross, Rudolf

    Displacement of propagating squeezed states is a fundamental operation for quantum communications. It can be applied to fundamental studies of macroscopic quantum coherence and has an important role in quantum teleportation protocols with propagating microwaves. We generate propagating squeezed states using a Josephson parametric amplifier and implement displacement using a cryogenic directional coupler. We study single- and two-mode displacement regimes. For the single-mode displacement we find that the squeezing level of the displaced squeezed state does not depend on the displacement amplitude. Also, we observe that quantum entanglement between two spatially separated channels stays constant across 4 orders of displacement power. We acknowledge support by the German Research Foundation through SFB 631 and FE 1564/1-1, the EU project PROMISCE, and Elite Network of Bavaria through the program ExQM.

  2. A theoretical model to predict both horizontal displacement and vertical displacement for electromagnetic induction-based deep displacement sensors.

    PubMed

    Shentu, Nanying; Zhang, Hongjian; Li, Qing; Zhou, Hongliang; Tong, Renyuan; Li, Xiong

    2012-01-01

    Deep displacement observation is one basic means of landslide dynamic study and early warning monitoring and a key part of engineering geological investigation. In our previous work, we proposed a novel electromagnetic induction-based deep displacement sensor (I-type) to predict deep horizontal displacement and a theoretical model called equation-based equivalent loop approach (EELA) to describe its sensing characters. However in many landslide and related geological engineering cases, both horizontal displacement and vertical displacement vary apparently and dynamically so both may require monitoring. In this study, a II-type deep displacement sensor is designed by revising our I-type sensor to simultaneously monitor the deep horizontal displacement and vertical displacement variations at different depths within a sliding mass. Meanwhile, a new theoretical modeling called the numerical integration-based equivalent loop approach (NIELA) has been proposed to quantitatively depict II-type sensors' mutual inductance properties with respect to predicted horizontal displacements and vertical displacements. After detailed examinations and comparative studies between measured mutual inductance voltage, NIELA-based mutual inductance and EELA-based mutual inductance, NIELA has verified to be an effective and quite accurate analytic model for characterization of II-type sensors. The NIELA model is widely applicable for II-type sensors' monitoring on all kinds of landslides and other related geohazards with satisfactory estimation accuracy and calculation efficiency.

  3. A Theoretical Model to Predict Both Horizontal Displacement and Vertical Displacement for Electromagnetic Induction-Based Deep Displacement Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Shentu, Nanying; Zhang, Hongjian; Li, Qing; Zhou, Hongliang; Tong, Renyuan; Li, Xiong

    2012-01-01

    Deep displacement observation is one basic means of landslide dynamic study and early warning monitoring and a key part of engineering geological investigation. In our previous work, we proposed a novel electromagnetic induction-based deep displacement sensor (I-type) to predict deep horizontal displacement and a theoretical model called equation-based equivalent loop approach (EELA) to describe its sensing characters. However in many landslide and related geological engineering cases, both horizontal displacement and vertical displacement vary apparently and dynamically so both may require monitoring. In this study, a II-type deep displacement sensor is designed by revising our I-type sensor to simultaneously monitor the deep horizontal displacement and vertical displacement variations at different depths within a sliding mass. Meanwhile, a new theoretical modeling called the numerical integration-based equivalent loop approach (NIELA) has been proposed to quantitatively depict II-type sensors’ mutual inductance properties with respect to predicted horizontal displacements and vertical displacements. After detailed examinations and comparative studies between measured mutual inductance voltage, NIELA-based mutual inductance and EELA-based mutual inductance, NIELA has verified to be an effective and quite accurate analytic model for characterization of II-type sensors. The NIELA model is widely applicable for II-type sensors’ monitoring on all kinds of landslides and other related geohazards with satisfactory estimation accuracy and calculation efficiency. PMID:22368467

  4. The influence of materialism and ideal body internalization on body-dissatisfaction and body-shaping behaviors of young men and women: support for the Consumer Culture Impact Model.

    PubMed

    Guðnadóttir, Unnur; Garðarsdóttir, Ragna B

    2014-04-01

    Exposure to media images of the 'body-perfect' ideal has been partly blamed for the pursuit of thinness among women and muscularity among men. Research has largely overlooked the materialistic messages frequently associated with these images. We present findings from two studies with Icelandic students aged 18-21, one focusing on young women (n = 303) and one on young men (n = 226), which test associations of materialistic and body-perfect ideals with body dissatisfaction and excessive body shaping behaviors. In both studies, the internalization of materialistic values is strongly linked to the internalization of body-perfect ideals: the thin-ideal for young women, and the muscular-ideal for young men. A materialist value orientation also predicted body dissatisfaction in both studies, and was linked to body shaping behaviors, albeit differently for young women and men. Thus, the research identifies materialism as a further correlate of both body dissatisfaction and excessive body-shaping behaviors. The findings support Dittmar's (2008) Consumer Culture Impact Model, which proposes that the body-perfect and 'material good life' ideals jointly impact well-being.

  5. Vietnamese women love physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anh, Kim Tran; Vu, Thi Bich; Nguyen, Ngoc Toan; Do, Tran Cat; Vo, Thach Son

    2013-03-01

    More and more females are studying physics and applying their physics knowledge in Vietnam. Women are well represented in physics in Vietnam, occupy high positions in the field, and win many national and international science awards. Overwhelmingly, women in physics in Vietnam have happy families with children who love physics.

  6. Women in Science

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    To coincide with International Women's Day, Genome Biology asked several female scientists about their experience of an academic career, how they managed to balance an active research career with family life, and what should be done to encourage more women to pursue research careers to stop the 'leaky' pipeline. PMID:22405408

  7. Women in science.

    PubMed

    Dean, Caroline; Osborn, Mary; Oshlack, Alicia; Thornton, Janet

    2012-01-01

    To coincide with International Women's Day, Genome Biology asked several female scientists about their experience of an academic career, how they managed to balance an active research career with family life, and what should be done to encourage more women to pursue research careers to stop the 'leaky' pipeline.

  8. Polyimidazoles via aromatic nucleophilic displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimidazoles (Pl) are prepared by the aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenyl)imidazole monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds. The reactions are carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as N,N-dimethylacetamide, sulfolane, N-methylpyrroldinone, dimethylsulfoxide, or diphenylsulfone using alkali metal bases such as potassium carbonate at elevated temperature under nitrogen. The di(hydroxyphenyl)imidazole monomers are prepared by reacting an aromatic aldehyde with a dimethoxybenzil or by reacting an aromatic dialdehyde with a methoxybenzil in the presence of ammonium acetate. The di(methoxyphenyl)imidazole is subsequently treated with aqueous hydrobromic acid to give the di(hydroxyphenyl)imidazole monomer. This synthetic route has provided high molecular weight Pl of new chemical structure, is economically and synthetically more favorable than other routes, and allows for facile chemical structure variation due to the availability of a large variety of activated aromatic dihalides and dinitro compounds.

  9. Polyimidazoles via aromatic nucleophilic displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    Polyimidazoles (PI) are prepared by the aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenyl) imidazole monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds. The reactions are carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as N,N-dimethyl acetamide, sulfolane, N-methylpyrrolidinone, dimethylsulfoxide, or diphenylsulfone using alkali metal bases such as potassium carbonate at elevated temperatures under nitrogen. The di(hydroxyphenyl) imidazole monomers are prepared by reacting an aromatic aldehyde with a dimethoxybenzil or by reacting an aromatic dialdehyde with a methoxybenzil in the presence of ammonium acetate. The di(methoxyphenyl) imidazole is subsequently treated with aqueous hydrobromic acid to give the di(hydroxphenyl) imidazole monomer. This synthetic route has provided high molecular weight PI of new chemical structure, is economically and synthetically more favorable than other routes, and allows for facile chemical structure variation due to the availability of a large variety of activated aromatic dihalides and dinitro compounds.

  10. Polybenzimidazoles via aromatic nucleophilic displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Novel molecular weight controlled and endcapped polybenzimidazoles (PBI) are prepared by the aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenyl benzimidazole) monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds. The PBI are endcapped with mono(hydroxyphenyl) benzimidazoles. The polymerizations are carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone or N,N-dimethylacetamide using alkali metal bases such as potassium carbonate at elevated temperatures under nitrogen. Mono(hydroxyphenyl) benzimidazoles are synthesizedby reacting phenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate with aromatic (o-diamine)s in diphenylsulfone. Molecular weight controlled and endcapped PBI of new chemical structures are prepared that exhibit a favorable combination of physical and mechanical properties.

  11. Polybenzimidazoles Via Aromatic Nucleophilic Displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergerrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Novel molecular weight controlled and endcapped polybenzimidazoles (PBI) are prepared by the aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenylbenzimidazole) monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds. The PBI are endcapped with mono(hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazoles. The polymerizations are carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone or N,N-dimethylacetamide using alkali metal bases such as potassium carbonate at elevated temperatures under nitrogen. Mono(hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazoles are synthesized by reacting phenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate with aromatic (o-diamine)s in diphenylsulfone. Molecular weight controlled and endcapped PBI of new chemical structures are prepared that exhibit a favorable combination of physical and mechanical properties.

  12. Variable delivery, fixed displacement pump

    SciTech Connect

    Sommars, Mark F.

    2001-01-01

    A variable delivery, fixed displacement pump comprises a plurality of pistons reciprocated within corresponding cylinders in a cylinder block. The pistons are reciprocated by rotation of a fixed angle swash plate connected to the pistons. The pistons and cylinders cooperate to define a plurality of fluid compression chambers each have a delivery outlet. A vent port is provided from each fluid compression chamber to vent fluid therefrom during at least a portion of the reciprocal stroke of the piston. Each piston and cylinder combination cooperates to close the associated vent port during another portion of the reciprocal stroke so that fluid is then pumped through the associated delivery outlet. The delivery rate of the pump is varied by adjusting the axial position of the swash plate relative to the cylinder block, which varies the duration of the piston stroke during which the vent port is closed.

  13. Limb displacement and brightness seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emilio, Marcelo; Cunnyngham, Ian; Kuhn, Jeff; Mehret, Leandro; Bush, Rock; Scholl, Isabelle

    2015-08-01

    The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) abord the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) has been used to obtain the most sensitive spectrally resolved observation of individual p-modes at the extreme solar limb. Such oscillation observations of the limb displacement and brightness for some spatial and temporal regimes are even competitive in signal-to-noise to full-disk doppler measurements of the p-mode spectrum. Limb measurements of 5-min p-modes, while having many similarities to full-disk doppler observations, have significantly different sensitivities to the solar rotation and the 5-min mode solar atmospheric structure. These may provide information about the solar structure which is complementary to full-disk measurements. In this work we present results from Individual spherical harmonic p-modes that were detected around solar limb with amplitudes at the micro-arcsecond level.

  14. Displaced electrode process for welding

    DOEpatents

    Heichel, L.J.

    1975-08-26

    A method is described for the butt-welding of a relatively heavy mass to a relatively small mass such as a thin-wall tube. In butt-welding heat is normally applied at the joint between the two pieces which are butt-welded together. The application of heat at the joint results in overheating the tube which causes thinning of the tube walls and porosity in the tube material. This is eliminated by displacing the welding electrode away from the seam toward the heavier mass so that heat is applied to the heavy mass and not at the butt seam. Examples of the parameters used in welding fuel rods are given. The cladding and end plugs were made of Zircalloy. The electrode used was of 2 percent thoriated tungsten. (auth)

  15. Displaceable Gear Torque Controlled Driver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Joseph S., Jr. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for a torque driver including a displaceable gear to limit torque transfer to a fastener at a precisely controlled torque limit. A biasing assembly biases a first gear into engagement with a second gear for torque transfer between the first and second gear. The biasing assembly includes a pressurized cylinder controlled at a constant pressure that corresponds to a torque limit. A calibrated gage and valve is used to set the desired torque limit. One or more coiled output linkages connect the first gear with the fastener adaptor which may be a socket for a nut. A gear tooth profile provides a separation force that overcomes the bias to limit torque at the desired torque limit. Multiple fasteners may be rotated simultaneously to a desired torque limit if additional output spur gears are provided. The torque limit is adjustable and may be different for fasteners within the same fastener configuration.

  16. DISPLACEMENT BASED SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA

    SciTech Connect

    HOFMAYER,C.H.

    1999-03-29

    The USNRC has initiated a project to determine if any of the likely revisions to traditional earthquake engineering practice are relevant to seismic design of the specialized structures, systems and components of nuclear power plants and of such significance to suggest that a change in design practice might be warranted. As part of the initial phase of this study, a literature survey was conducted on the recent changes in seismic design codes/standards, on-going activities of code-writing organizations/communities, and published documents on displacement-based design methods. This paper provides a summary of recent changes in building codes and on-going activities for future codes. It also discusses some technical issues for further consideration.

  17. Fiber optic multimode displacement sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Karl A.; Jarzynski, Jacek

    1996-04-01

    An underwater Optical Motion Sensor (OMS) based on a design first presented by W. B. Spillman, Schlieren multimode fiber-optic hydrophone, Applied Physics Letters 37(2), 15 July 1980, p. 145-146 is described. The displacement sensor uses the same acoustooptical intensity modulation mechanism as Spillman, however the sensing mechanism is isolated from the ambient fluid environment by a small cylindrical aluminum enclosure (1″ OD×3/4″). The enclosure contains an inertial mass and the fiber collimators. The inertial mass is suspended in the center of the enclosure by three small wires rigidly mounted to the walls. The mass and wires act as a cantilever beam system with a mechanical resonance near 100 Hz. The transduction mechanism consists of two opposed optical gratings aligned and positioned between the fiber collimators. One grating is mounted on the inertial mass while the other is mounted on the lower end cap of the enclosure. Relative motion between the gratings causes a modulation of the light transmitted through the gratings. The modulated beam is focused onto a photodetector and converted to electric current. The frequency response is flat from 200 Hz-9 kHz with a minimum detectable displacement of 0.002 A and the dynamic range is 136 dB. The small size and light weight give the sensor an effective density of 1.08 g/cm3 making it almost neutrally buoyant in water. This in conjunction with the performance characteristics make this sensor suitable for use in acoustical sensing applications.

  18. Modelling Toehold-Mediated RNA Strand Displacement

    PubMed Central

    Šulc, Petr; Ouldridge, Thomas E.; Romano, Flavio; Doye, Jonathan P.K.; Louis, Ard A.

    2015-01-01

    We study the thermodynamics and kinetics of an RNA toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction with a recently developed coarse-grained model of RNA. Strand displacement, during which a single strand displaces a different strand previously bound to a complementary substrate strand, is an essential mechanism in active nucleic acid nanotechnology and has also been hypothesized to occur in vivo. We study the rate of displacement reactions as a function of the length of the toehold and temperature and make two experimentally testable predictions: that the displacement is faster if the toehold is placed at the 5′ end of the substrate; and that the displacement slows down with increasing temperature for longer toeholds. PMID:25762335

  19. Modelling toehold-mediated RNA strand displacement.

    PubMed

    Šulc, Petr; Ouldridge, Thomas E; Romano, Flavio; Doye, Jonathan P K; Louis, Ard A

    2015-03-10

    We study the thermodynamics and kinetics of an RNA toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction with a recently developed coarse-grained model of RNA. Strand displacement, during which a single strand displaces a different strand previously bound to a complementary substrate strand, is an essential mechanism in active nucleic acid nanotechnology and has also been hypothesized to occur in vivo. We study the rate of displacement reactions as a function of the length of the toehold and temperature and make two experimentally testable predictions: that the displacement is faster if the toehold is placed at the 5' end of the substrate; and that the displacement slows down with increasing temperature for longer toeholds.

  20. Displacement in urban areas: new challenges, new partnerships.

    PubMed

    Crisp, Jeff; Morris, Tim; Refstie, Hilde

    2012-07-01

    Rapid urbanisation is a key characteristic of the modern world, interacting with and reinforcing other global mega trends, including armed conflict, climate change, crime, environmental degradation, financial and economic instability, food shortages, underemployment, volatile commodity prices, and weak governance. Displaced people also are affected by and engaged in the process of urbanisation. Increasingly, refugees, returnees, and internally displaced persons (IDPs) are to be found not in camps or among host communities in rural areas, but in the towns and cities of developing and middle-income countries. The arrival and long-term settlement of displaced populations in urban areas needs to be better anticipated, understood, and planned for, with a particular emphasis on the establishment of new partnerships. Humanitarian actors can no longer liaise only with national governments; they must also develop urgently closer working relationships with mayors and municipal authorities, service providers, urban police forces, and, most importantly, the representatives of both displaced and resident communities. This requires linking up with those development actors that have established such partnerships already.

  1. Precise displacement measurement for a local surface.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Sheng Lih; Lin, Shyh Tsong; Chang, Yu Hsin

    2009-11-01

    An optical measurement method to get the in-plane and out-of-plane displacements of a local surface using a laser is proposed. The proposed method simultaneously derives the in-plane and out-of-plane displacements by measuring the shift of interference fringes formed by scattered beams. The average errors of the in-plane and out-of-plane displacement measurements are significantly smaller than 10 nm. Moreover, the proposed method uses only low-cost optical elements.

  2. Displacement speeds in turbulent premixed flame simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Day, Marcus S.; Shepherd, Ian G.; Bell, J.; Grcar, Joseph F.; Lijewski, Michael J.

    2007-07-01

    The theory of turbulent premixed flames is based on acharacterization of the flame as a discontinuous surface propagatingthrough the fluid. The displacement speed, defined as the local speed ofthe flame front normal to itself, relative to the unburned fluid,provides one characterization of the burning velocity. In this paper, weintroduce a geometric approach to computing displacement speed anddiscuss the efficacy of the displacement speed for characterizing aturbulent flame.

  3. Barriers to Women in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    The Presiding Officer of the National Assembly for Wales, Rosemary Butler AM, has put the issue of barriers to women in public life at the top of the political agenda in Wales. She has held sessions with women across Wales to find out what those barriers are and how they can be tackled. On International Women's Day in February, she invited…

  4. Phalangeal fractures: displaced/nondisplaced.

    PubMed

    Gaston, R Glenn; Chadderdon, Christopher

    2012-08-01

    Nonsurgical management is the preferred treatment of stable, extra-articular fractures of the proximal and middle phalanx, most distal phalanx fractures, and, rarely, nondisplaced intraarticular fractures in elite athletes. Techniques that afford maximal strength with minimal dissection, thus allowing earlier return to play, are ideal. Open reduction with internal fixation with plate fixation is most often chosen for unstable phalangeal shaft fractures in high-demand athletes to provide rigid internal fixation and allow immediate range of motion and more rapid return to sport. It is our practice to routinely treat unicondylar fractures with surgery with percutaneous headless compression screws in elite athletes.

  5. Cervicitis associated with lateral cervical displacement.

    PubMed

    Gjoni, Indira; Muneyyirci-Delale, Ozgul

    2012-01-01

    Lateral cervical displacement has been recognized as a sign of endometriosis; however, other causes of the finding have not been explored. In our experience, patients without endometriosis are presenting with lateral cervical displacement, mainly towards the left of midline. The common finding in these cases is the presence of cervicitis leading us to hypothesize the role of cervicitis in causing lateral displacement of the cervix. Future research into this area will provide us with a stronger understanding of the role that lateral cervical displacement plays in the development of pelvic pathology and the development of cervical cancer.

  6. Displacement of Propagating Squeezed Microwave States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, Kirill G.; Zhong, L.; Pogorzalek, S.; Eder, P.; Fischer, M.; Goetz, J.; Xie, E.; Wulschner, F.; Inomata, K.; Yamamoto, T.; Nakamura, Y.; Di Candia, R.; Las Heras, U.; Sanz, M.; Solano, E.; Menzel, E. P.; Deppe, F.; Marx, A.; Gross, R.

    2016-07-01

    Displacement of propagating quantum states of light is a fundamental operation for quantum communication. It enables fundamental studies on macroscopic quantum coherence and plays an important role in quantum teleportation protocols with continuous variables. In our experiments, we have successfully implemented this operation for propagating squeezed microwave states. We demonstrate that, even for strong displacement amplitudes, there is no degradation of the squeezing level in the reconstructed quantum states. Furthermore, we confirm that path entanglement generated by using displaced squeezed states remains constant over a wide range of the displacement power.

  7. Are Children Really Inferior Goods? Evidence from Displacement-Driven Income Shocks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindo, Jason M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the causal link between income and fertility by analyzing women's fertility response to the large and permanent income shock generated by a husband's job displacement. I find that the shock reduces total fertility, suggesting that the causal effect of income on fertility is positive. A model that incorporates the time cost of…

  8. Women's Health

    MedlinePlus

    Women have unique health issues. And some of the health issues that affect both men and women can affect women differently. Unique issues ... and men also have many of the same health problems. But these problems can affect women differently. ...

  9. Conservative Treatment for Bilateral Displaced Proximal Humerus Head Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Velutini-Becker, Ricardo; Aguilar-Alcalá, Luis D

    2016-01-01

    Proximal humerus fracture represents five to eight percent of all fractures and is twice as common in women than in men. Most cases of displaced fracture of the proximal humerus are treated surgically; it is probable that more cases are preferred to be treated surgically greater than required. The optimal treatment for these fractures remains controversial, but physicians have a tendency to treat via open reduction and fixation with angular locking plates or glenohumeral arthroplasty.  We present a case of a 71-year-old woman with bilateral displaced proximal humeral fracture. Conservative treatment was initiated with two hanging casts, achieving radiological reduction on week one. After two additional weeks of casting, treatment continued with radiologic control and home physical therapy, ultimately an excellent functional outcome and adequate radiological reduction was obtained.    Even in bilaterally displaced proximal humerus fractures, conservative treatment can be an efficient option, reducing complications, reaching adequate functional results and acceptable radiographic reduction.​ PMID:27489750

  10. Polybenzoxazole via aromatic nucleophilic displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Polybenzoxazoles (PBO) are heterocyclic macromolecules which were first synthesized in a two-step process by the initial formation of aromatic diacid chlorides with bis(o-aminophenol)s through solution condensation of aromatic diacid chlorides with bis(o-aminophenol)s followed by thermal cyclodehydration. Since then several methods were utilized in their synthesis. The most common synthetic method for PBO involves a polycondensation of bis(o-aminophenol)s with aromatic diacid diphenyl esters. Another preparative route involves the solution polycondensation of the hydrochloride salts of bis(o-amino phenol)s with aromatic diacids in polyphosphoric acid. Another synthetic method involves the initial formation of poly(o-hydroxy amide)s from silylated bis(o-aminophenol)s with aromatic diacid chlorides followed by thermal cyclodehydration to PBO. A recent preparative route involves the reaction of aromatic bisphenols with bis(fluorophenyl) benzoxazoles by the displacement reaction to form PBO. The novelty of the present invention is that high molecular weight PBO of new chemical structures are prepared that exhibit a favorable combination of physical and mechanical properties.

  11. Women's Rights Network (WRN).

    PubMed

    Slote, K; Cuthbert, C

    1997-02-01

    The Massachusetts-based Women's Rights Network (WRN) was founded in 1995 in response to the need to develop collaborative, crosscultural, and international strategies to eliminate domestic violence. The WRN initiated meetings with local advocates to identify the most pressing issues facing the US battered women's movement and then began to contact advocates for battered women throughout the world. To date, the WRN offers a resource center documenting strategies used around the world to end domestic violence, gives workshops and presentations to increase public education and awareness about domestic violence, organizes international strategy sessions between women's advocates in Massachusetts and those in other countries, facilitates one-on-one partnerships between groups for battered women in Massachusetts and sister organizations in other countries, and participates in the annual "16 Days of Activism Against Gender Violence." The WRN also plans to publish a biannual journal.

  12. Effects of Fault Displacement on Emplacement Drifts

    SciTech Connect

    F. Duan

    2000-04-25

    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate potential effects of fault displacement on emplacement drifts, including drip shields and waste packages emplaced in emplacement drifts. The output from this analysis not only provides data for the evaluation of long-term drift stability but also supports the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) process model report (PMR) and Disruptive Events Report currently under development. The primary scope of this analysis includes (1) examining fault displacement effects in terms of induced stresses and displacements in the rock mass surrounding an emplacement drift and (2 ) predicting fault displacement effects on the drip shield and waste package. The magnitude of the fault displacement analyzed in this analysis bounds the mean fault displacement corresponding to an annual frequency of exceedance of 10{sup -5} adopted for the preclosure period of the repository and also supports the postclosure performance assessment. This analysis is performed following the development plan prepared for analyzing effects of fault displacement on emplacement drifts (CRWMS M&O 2000). The analysis will begin with the identification and preparation of requirements, criteria, and inputs. A literature survey on accommodating fault displacements encountered in underground structures such as buried oil and gas pipelines will be conducted. For a given fault displacement, the least favorable scenario in term of the spatial relation of a fault to an emplacement drift is chosen, and the analysis is then performed analytically. Based on the analysis results, conclusions are made regarding the effects and consequences of fault displacement on emplacement drifts. Specifically, the analysis will discuss loads which can be induced by fault displacement on emplacement drifts, drip shield and/or waste packages during the time period of postclosure.

  13. Women Empowering Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anyikwa, Victoria A.; Chiarelli-Helminiak, Christina M.; Hodge, Diane M.; Wells-Wilbon, Rhonda

    2015-01-01

    As women in this female-centered profession of social work, we have not effectively advocated for ourselves in terms of leadership in our educational systems. We reexamine the 2008 special section of the "Journal of Social Work Education" on women in the academy and build on information that suggests social work has lost its momentum to…

  14. Women's Speech, Women's Strength?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coates, Jennifer

    A discussion of women's oral discourse patterns focuses on the uses made of minimal responses, hedges, and tag questions. The analysis draws on transcriptions of conversations among a group of women friends over a period of months. It is proposed that the conventional treatment of these forms as "weak" is inappropriate in all-female…

  15. Kicking the digital dog: a longitudinal investigation of young adults' victimization and cyber-displaced aggression.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michelle F; Li, Yan

    2012-09-01

    Using the general strain theory as a theoretical framework, the present longitudinal study investigated both face-to-face and cyber victimization in relation to cyber-displaced aggression. Longitudinal data were collected from 130 (70 women) young adults who completed measures assessing their victimization (face-to-face and cyber), cyber aggression, and both face-to-face and cyber-displaced aggression. Findings indicated that victimization in both social contexts (face-to-face and cyber) contributed to cyber-displaced aggression 6 months later (Time 2), after controlling for gender, cyber aggression, face-to-face displaced aggression, and cyber-displaced aggression at Time 1. A significant two-way interaction revealed that Time 1 cyber victimization was more strongly related to Time 2 cyber-displaced aggression when young adults had higher levels of face-to-face victimization at Time 1. Implications of these findings are discussed as well as a call for more research investigating displaced aggression in the cyber context.

  16. 40 CFR 205.153 - Engine displacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine displacement. 205.153 Section 205.153 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.153 Engine displacement. (a)...

  17. 40 CFR 205.153 - Engine displacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Engine displacement. 205.153 Section 205.153 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.153 Engine displacement. (a)...

  18. 40 CFR 205.153 - Engine displacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Engine displacement. 205.153 Section 205.153 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.153 Engine displacement. (a)...

  19. Is Maxwell's Displacement Current a Current?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, A. P.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses in detail the claim that certain well-known physics experiments demonstrate the magnetic field produced by Maxwell's displacement current. Addresses the question of whether the displacement current acts as a source of magnetic field in the same way as a current in a wire would. (Contains 12 references.) (WRM)

  20. Worker Displacement in a Strong Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helwig, Ryan T.

    2001-01-01

    As economic growth continued in 1997 and 1998, job losses declined and the displacement rate was the lowest of the 1990s. Many displaced workers were able to find new jobs with little or no change in weekly earnings. (Author/JOW)

  1. Video Games, Adolescents, and the Displacement Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Carla Christine

    2012-01-01

    The displacement effect (the idea that time spent in one activity displaces time spent in other activities) was examined within the lens of adolescents' video game use and their time spent reading, doing homework, in physically active sports and activities, in creative play, and with parents and friends. Data were drawn from the Panel Study…

  2. Displaced Homemakers: Vo-Tech Workshop Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peltier, Wanda Jo

    Written for displaced homemaker programs in vocational-technical schools, this curriculum contains material designed so that instructors can prepare student manuals appropriate to almost any educational support situation for displaced homemakers. An overview provides information on special needs groups, curriculum use, and resources and sample…

  3. The Psychological Impact of Forced Displacement and Related Risk Factors on Eastern Congolese Adolescents Affected by War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mels, Cindy; Derluyn, Ilse; Broekaert, Eric; Rosseel, Yves

    2010-01-01

    Background: While the current knowledge base on the mental health effects of displacement is mainly limited to refugees residing in industrialised countries, this paper examines the impact of war-induced displacement and related risk factors on the mental health of Eastern Congolese adolescents, and compares currently internally displaced…

  4. Instability in Immiscible Fluids Displacement from Cracks and Porous Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, N. N.; Nikitin, V. F.; Ivashnyov, O. E.

    2002-01-01

    number of fingers in the cell, and allowed us to make some additional suggestions for the cleanup procedure. depending on the resident fluid properties, for which the displacement still remains stable. viscous one were carried out. Validation of the code was performed by comparing the results of model problems simulations with the existing solutions published in literature. Being in a good agreement with the previously obtained results, nevertheless, the developed code is an advanced one. While the existing codes could operate with linear equations and regular geometry and initial disturbances only, the new code permits taking into account non-linear effects as well. characterizing the quality of displacement. The functional dependence of the dimensionless criteria on the values of governing parameters needs further investigations. Services, an international company in the oil and gas industry.

  5. Interpreting breast international group (BIG) 1-98: a randomized, double-blind, phase III trial comparing letrozole and tamoxifen as adjuvant endocrine therapy for postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive, early breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98 study is a four-arm trial comparing 5 years of monotherapy with tamoxifen or with letrozole or with sequences of 2 years of one followed by 3 years of the other for postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive early invasive breast cancer. From 1998 to 2003, BIG -98 enrolled 8,010 women. The enhanced design f the trial enabled two complementary analyses of efficacy and safety. Collection of tumor specimens further enabled treatment comparisons based on tumor biology. Reports of BIG 1-98 should be interpreted in relation to each individual patient as she weighs the costs and benefits of available treatments. Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT00004205. PMID:21635709

  6. Vietnamese women in struggle for national independence.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    The 30-year struggle for independence in Viet Nam took a huge toll on women, but even in the hardest times, Vietnamese women received support from the world-wide women's movement. As the world prepares to enter the new millennium, it is important to determine what policies can be created to prevent war and guarantee peace. These policies must grow out of international agreement on basic principles such as respect for independence and sovereignty and must not resort to the embargoes and sanctions that have placed a disproportionate burden on women and children. Another challenge of the new millennium is to encourage implementation of national programs, policies, and measures to help women realize their rights while preserving traditional family values. Despite the heightened visibility of the international women's movement, women still suffer from widespread inequalities. In accordance with the goals of the Communist Party of Viet Nam, the 8th Congress of Vietnamese Women in 1997 created a national plan for women that is a blueprint for the women's movement for the years 1997-2000. Among the goals are creating jobs for women, upgrading their standard of living, eliminating hunger, decreasing poverty, and ensuring that women have educational opportunities. Vietnamese women also seek to strengthen their relationship with other women in the international community, and the Vietnamese Women's Union has actively forwarded the objectives of the Federation of International Democratic Women.

  7. 40 CFR 1042.140 - Maximum engine power, displacement, power density, and maximum in-use engine speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of the cylinders, the stroke length, and the number of cylinders. Calculate the engine's intended... cylinders having an internal diameter of 13.0 cm and a 15.5 cm stroke length, the rounded displacement...

  8. 40 CFR 1042.140 - Maximum engine power, displacement, power density, and maximum in-use engine speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of the cylinders, the stroke length, and the number of cylinders. Calculate the engine's intended... cylinders having an internal diameter of 13.0 cm and a 15.5 cm stroke length, the rounded displacement...

  9. 40 CFR 1042.140 - Maximum engine power, displacement, power density, and maximum in-use engine speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of the cylinders, the stroke length, and the number of cylinders. Calculate the engine's intended... cylinders having an internal diameter of 13.0 cm and a 15.5 cm stroke length, the rounded displacement...

  10. Displacement of location in illusory line motion.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Timothy L; Ruppel, Susan E

    2013-05-01

    Six experiments examined displacement in memory for the location of the line in illusory line motion (ILM; appearance or disappearance of a stationary cue is followed by appearance of a stationary line that is presented all at once, but the stationary line is perceived to "unfold" or "be drawn" from the end closest to the cue to the end most distant from the cue). If ILM was induced by having a single cue appear, then memory for the location of the line was displaced toward the cue, and displacement was larger if the line was closer to the cue. If ILM was induced by having one of two previously visible cues vanish, then memory for the location of the line was displaced away from the cue that vanished. In general, the magnitude of displacement increased and then decreased as retention interval increased from 50 to 250 ms and from 250 to 450 ms, respectively. Displacement of the line (a) is consistent with a combination of a spatial averaging of the locations of the cue and the line with a relatively weaker dynamic in the direction of illusory motion, (b) might be implemented in a spreading activation network similar to networks previously suggested to implement displacement resulting from implied or apparent motion, and (c) provides constraints and challenges for theories of ILM.

  11. Waves: Internal Tides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard D.

    1999-01-01

    Oceanic internal tides are internal waves with tidal periodicities. They are ubiquitous throughout the ocean, although generally more pronounced near large bathymetric features such as mid-ocean ridges and continental slopes. The internal vertical displacements associated with these waves can be extraordinarily large. Near some shelf breaks where the surface tides are strong, internal displacements (e.g., of an isothermal surface) can exceed 200 meters. Displacements of 10 meters in the open ocean are not uncommon. The associated current velocities are usually comparable to or larger than the currents of the surface tide. On continental shelves internal tides can occasionally generate packets of internal solitons, which are detectable in remote sensing imagery. Other common nonlinear features are generation of higher harmonics (e.g., 6-hr waves) and wave breaking. Internal tides are known to be an important energy source for mixing of shelf waters. Recent research suggests that they may also be a significant energy source for deep-ocean mixing.

  12. Early pregnancy prediction of preeclampsia in nulliparous women, combining clinical risk and biomarkers: the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) international cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Louise C; Black, Michael A; Poston, Lucilla; Taylor, Rennae; Myers, Jenny E; Baker, Philip N; McCowan, Lesley M; Simpson, Nigel A B; Dekker, Gus A; Roberts, Claire T; Rodems, Kelline; Noland, Brian; Raymundo, Michael; Walker, James J; North, Robyn A

    2014-09-01

    More than half of all cases of preeclampsia occur in healthy first-time pregnant women. Our aim was to develop a method to predict those at risk by combining clinical factors and measurements of biomarkers in women recruited to the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) study of low-risk nulliparous women. Forty-seven biomarkers identified on the basis of (1) association with preeclampsia, (2) a biological role in placentation, or (3) a role in cellular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia were measured in plasma sampled at 14 to 16 weeks' gestation from 5623 women. The cohort was randomly divided into training (n=3747) and validation (n=1876) cohorts. Preeclampsia developed in 278 (4.9%) women, of whom 28 (0.5%) developed early-onset preeclampsia. The final model for the prediction of preeclampsia included placental growth factor, mean arterial pressure, and body mass index at 14 to 16 weeks' gestation, the consumption of ≥3 pieces of fruit per day, and mean uterine artery resistance index. The area under the receiver operator curve (95% confidence interval) for this model in training and validation cohorts was 0.73 (0.70-0.77) and 0.68 (0.63-0.74), respectively. A predictive model of early-onset preeclampsia included angiogenin/placental growth factor as a ratio, mean arterial pressure, any pregnancy loss <10 weeks, and mean uterine artery resistance index (area under the receiver operator curve [95% confidence interval] in training and validation cohorts, 0.89 [0.78-1.0] and 0.78 [0.58-0.99], respectively). Neither model included pregnancy-associated plasma protein A, previously reported to predict preeclampsia in populations of mixed parity and risk. In nulliparous women, combining multiple biomarkers and clinical data provided modest prediction of preeclampsia.

  13. Environmental and project displacement of population in India. Part I: Development and deracination.

    PubMed

    Maloney, C

    1991-01-01

    Official development projects in India have displaced at least 20 million persons since Indian independence in 1947, and the majority have not been relocated in planned resettlement. India is in a race to implement development projects needed to support the growth of its population, which increased from 361 million in 1951 to 840 million in 1990. Through the 1960s and 1970s about 1/4 of these oustees were minimally resettled and the rest had to find their own way to get reestablished. There is no international consensus on the rights of internally displaced persons, but most countries compensate people. Agricultural labor and construction labor are the most common types of work of the landless oustees. 1,589 large dams built since independence ousted the largest number of people. Dams, reservoirs, and canals displaced 11,000,000 people; 2,750,000 were rehabilitated and 8,250,000 found their own way. Mines displaced 1,700,000; 450,000 were rehabilitated and 1,250,000 found their own way. Industries displaced 1,000,000; 300,000 were rehabilitated and 700,000 found their own way. Parks and sanctuaries displaced 600,000; 150,000 were rehabilitated and 450,000 relocated on their own. Other projects displacing people are forest preserves, wildlife sanctuaries, military installations, weapons testing grounds, nuclear installations, and railroads and roads. The World Bank requires compensation for people displaced by 12 dam projects it is funding in India: the underestimated count is 610,500 persons. The Pong Dam, a 130 m high gravel dam, under the western Himalayas ousted 30,330 families, about 167,000 people, but only 16,001 families were found eligible for compensation. The Subarnarekha Project in southern Bihar is displacing 10,000 families, about 55,000 people. The state government estimates that 35% of these will not settle in suggested relocation sites because land is not available.

  14. Variable displacement alpha-type Stirling engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homutescu, V. M.; Bălănescu, D. T.; Panaite, C. E.; Atanasiu, M. V.

    2016-08-01

    The basic design and construction of an alpha-type Stirling engine with on load variable displacement is presented. The variable displacement is obtained through a planar quadrilateral linkage with one on load movable ground link. The physico-mathematical model used for analyzing the variable displacement alpha-type Stirling engine behavior is an isothermal model that takes into account the real movement of the pistons. Performances and power adjustment capabilities of such alpha-type Stirling engine are calculated and analyzed. An exemplification through the use of the numerical simulation was performed in this regard.

  15. Displacement sensor based on plasmonic slot metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wei; Ren, Mengxin; Pi, Biao; Cai, Wei; Xu, Jingjun

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a plasmonic type displacement sensor based on slot metamaterials. The sensors are formed by arranging metamaterial arrays with different dimension parameters adjacently. Hence, the measured spectra would be modified as a result of moving the sensors across the detecting area of the spectrometer. From the spectral changes, the displacement amount could be retrieved. The sensor is demonstrated to be capable of recognizing a displacement of 200 nm, which is equal to the period of the metamaterial lattice, and the sensitivity is largely dependent on the shape and size of the acquisition area of the spectrometer used for spectra analysis.

  16. The impact of displacement on the expression of depressive disorder and social functioning among the war refugees.

    PubMed

    Radanović-Grgurić, Ljiljana; Barkić, Jelena; Filaković, Pavo; Koić, Oliver; Laufer, Davor; Petek, Anamarija; Mandić, Nikola

    2009-12-01

    Our research objective was to estimate the characteristics of major depressive disorder and social adaptation of women displaced during the war in Croatia in the early 1990s. We aimed to establish the relationship between major depressive disorder and displacement and study its impact on the outcome of depression in order to improve treatment and avoid possible complications. A group of 20 women, 35 to 55 years of age, displaced some time during the 199l.-1995. war in Croatia were compared to 27 women of the same age but with no experience of exile. All the patients suffered from major depressive disorder based upon DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, the Zung Self Rating Depression Scale and the Social Adaptation Self-evaluation Scale were used. The objective intensity of depression of the displaced significantly decreased over time but not their personal experience of depression. All depressed patients manifested poor social adaptation. Many aspects of social functioning remained poor even after the improvement of depressive disorder. Displacement characteristics were: the length of time spent in exile, the place, and the circumstances of displacement regarding the members of the family accompanying the displaced women. These characteristics significantly influenced the expression of their major depressive disorder as well as social functioning. Displaced persons/refugees are at high risk of developing depressive disorder. Recognition of all risk factors and early diagnosis of depressive disorder followed by appropriate treatment could decrease the risk of chronic and complicated depression as well as the risk of poor social adaptation.

  17. PDT - PARTICLE DISPLACEMENT TRACKING SOFTWARE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wernet, M. P.

    1994-01-01

    Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) is a quantitative velocity measurement technique for measuring instantaneous planar cross sections of a flow field. The technique offers very high precision (1%) directionally resolved velocity vector estimates, but its use has been limited by high equipment costs and complexity of operation. Particle Displacement Tracking (PDT) is an all-electronic PIV data acquisition and reduction procedure which is simple, fast, and easily implemented. The procedure uses a low power, continuous wave laser and a Charged Coupled Device (CCD) camera to electronically record the particle images. A frame grabber board in a PC is used for data acquisition and reduction processing. PDT eliminates the need for photographic processing, system costs are moderately low, and reduced data are available within seconds of acquisition. The technique results in velocity estimate accuracies on the order of 5%. The software is fully menu-driven from the acquisition to the reduction and analysis of the data. Options are available to acquire a single image or 5- or 25-field series of images separated in time by multiples of 1/60 second. The user may process each image, specifying its boundaries to remove unwanted glare from the periphery and adjusting its background level to clearly resolve the particle images. Data reduction routines determine the particle image centroids and create time history files. PDT then identifies the velocity vectors which describe the particle movement in the flow field. Graphical data analysis routines are included which allow the user to graph the time history files and display the velocity vector maps, interpolated velocity vector grids, iso-velocity vector contours, and flow streamlines. The PDT data processing software is written in FORTRAN 77 and the data acquisition routine is written in C-Language for 80386-based IBM PC compatibles running MS-DOS v3.0 or higher. Machine requirements include 4 MB RAM (3 MB Extended), a single or

  18. Mass population displacement. A global public health challenge.

    PubMed

    Toole, M J

    1995-06-01

    Since the end of the Cold War, there has been a dramatic increase in civil conflicts resulting in approximately 50 million refugees and internally displaced civilians. The public health impact of these situations has been immense, comprising high rates of communicable diseases, elevated prevalence of acute malnutrition, and high excess mortality rates. The prevention of these adverse public health effects includes early warning and intervention; prompt supply of adequate food, water, and sanitation; measles immunization; effective management of epidemic communicable diseases; and simple and timely information systems.

  19. Fanm ayisyen pap kase: respecting the right to health of Haitian women and girls.

    PubMed

    Davis, Lisa; Bookey, Blaine

    2011-07-14

    Only in recent years has violence against women begun to receive international attention as both a public health and human rights concern. This article argues that the right to be free from sexual violence is a fundamental component of the right to health, and the need is particularly acute in post-disaster contexts. This article uses post-earthquake Haiti as a case study to illustrate conditions for women and girls who suffer daily threats of physical, emotional, economic, and social harm in ways that have no direct parallels for their male counterparts. In addition, this article discusses the reasons that the humanitarian response in Haiti has not effectively protected women and girls and has instead exacerbated structural inequalities, making women, girls, and their families even more vulnerable to human rights violations including interference in their right to health. The article argues that the failure to guarantee the right of women to be free from sexual violence - an essential component of the right to health - is due in large part to the exclusion of displaced women from meaningful participation in formal humanitarian interventions.

  20. International Symposium on the Right of Women to Education with a View to Their Access to Employment (Paris, France, September 14-18, 1987). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This document reports on a symposium held to analyze major obstacles hampering the equality of educational opportunity for girls and women and to exchange experiences and information on efforts to remove such obstacles and improve access. The welcoming speech by K. Savolainen is outlined, and other proceedings are briefly discussed. The summary of…

  1. Stepping Aside: Correlates of Displacement in Pedestrians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Frank N., Jr.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Examines the effects of gender, age, race, group size, and other characteristics on spatial displacement in the general population. Considers the relative contributions of power, gallantry, and status in the determining of who yields to whom. (JMF)

  2. Displacement field measurement in the nanometer range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surrel, Yves; Fournier, Nicolas

    1996-09-01

    The grid method is a classical tool for displacement measurement, which provides field data. This method has benefited very much from the phase-shifting technique in recent years. Two examples of applications of this method in the nanometer range are presented. The first one concerns the materials science: it is shown that microgrids observed by SEM can provide displacement field data with an accuracy of a few nanometers. The second one concerns the measurement of a rigid-body displacement. In this case, displacement data can be averaged over the whole field, drastically increasing the sensitivity. It is shown that a sensitivity of 7 nm can be achieved by using a coarse grid with 8 lines per mm. This sensitivity corresponds to 1/18000 of the grid pitch.

  3. Bucky gel actuator displacement: experiment and model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghamsari, A. K.; Jin, Y.; Zegeye, E.; Woldesenbet, E.

    2013-02-01

    Bucky gel actuator (BGA) is a dry electroactive nanocomposite which is driven with a few volts. BGA’s remarkable features make this tri-layered actuator a potential candidate for morphing applications. However, most of these applications would require a better understanding of the effective parameters that influence the BGA displacement. In this study, various sets of experiments were designed to investigate the effect of several parameters on the maximum lateral displacement of BGA. Two input parameters, voltage and frequency, and three material/design parameters, carbon nanotube type, thickness, and weight fraction of constituents were selected. A new thickness ratio term was also introduced to study the role of individual layers on BGA displacement. A model was established to predict BGA maximum displacement based on the effect of these parameters. This model showed good agreement with reported results from the literature. In addition, an important factor in the design of BGA-based devices, lifetime, was investigated.

  4. Women, work and pregnancy outcome.

    PubMed

    Huffman, S

    1988-01-01

    In developing countries, 1/3 of infants are born weighing less than 2500 grams. A study conducted in Ethiopia among women consuming about 1600 kcal/day, those who were very physically active during pregnancy bore smaller babies, and gained less weight during pregnancy, than those who were not so active. Average birth weight was 3068 grams for the 1st group, 3270 grams for the less active. The active group of women gained an average of 6.5 kilograms, and the less active 9.2 kilograms. Women who did not engage in heavy work during pregnancy, although they were undernourished, apparently did not bear growth-retarded babies. Indirect evidence for the effect of physical activity on pregnancy outcome comes from studies conducted in Taiwan, and the Gambia. These studies, and others from Malawi, Burkina Faso, and Kenya have shown that women's energy expenditures vary greatly with the agricultural season. Daily housekeeping tasks, however, also consume a lot of women's energy. Technologies that allow women to reduce energy expenditure can have beneficial effects, if they do not simultaneously reduce their incomes. For instance, programs improving water or fuel availability, or reducing fuel needs, reduce women's energy expenditures. Food processing mills can help too if women have access to them, and are thus not in danger of being displaced from their jobs and losing necessary income. Examples of technology improving women's tasks are pedal drying machines for nice in Bangladesh, using a greater and pressing machine to prepare gari in Ghana; but growing thicker rice stalks in Indonesia displaced women workers and reduced income.

  5. Method of Bonding Optical Elements with Near-Zero Displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, David; McClelland, Ryan; Byron, Glenn; Evans, Tyler

    2012-01-01

    The International X-ray Project seeks to build an x-ray telescope using thousands of pieces of thin and flexible glass mirror segments. Each mirror segment must be bonded into a housing in nearly perfect optical alignment without distortion. Forces greater than 0.001 Newton, or displacements greater than 0.5 m of the glass, cause unacceptable optical distortion. All known epoxies shrink as they cure. Even the epoxies with the least amount of shrinkage (<0.01%) cause unacceptable optical distortion and misalignment by pulling the mirror segments towards the housing as it cures. A related problem is that the shrinkage is not consistent or predictable so that it cannot be accounted for in the setup (i.e., if all of the bonds shrunk an equal amount, there would be no problem). A method has been developed that allows two components to be joined with epoxy in such a way that reduces the displacement caused by epoxy shrinking as it cures to less than 200 nm. The method involves using ultraviolet-cured epoxy with a displacement sensor and a nanoactuator in a control loop. The epoxy is cured by short-duration exposures to UV light. In between each exposure, the nano-actuator zeroes out the displacement caused by epoxy shrinkage and thermal expansion. After a few exposures, the epoxy has cured sufficiently to prevent further displacement of the two components. Bonding of optical elements has been done for many years, but most optics are thick and rigid elements that resist micro-Newton-level forces without causing distortion. When bonding thin glass optics such as the 0.40-mm thick IXO X-ray mirrors, forces in the micro- and milli-Newton levels cause unacceptable optical figure error. This innovation can now repeatedly and reliably bond a thin glass mirror to a metal housing with less than 0.2 m of displacement (<200 nm). This is an enabling technology that allows the installation of virtually stress-free, undistorted thin optics onto structures. This innovation is

  6. Impact of femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD discordances on FRAX probabilities in women: A meta-analysis of international cohorts

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, H.; Kanis, J. A.; Oden, A.; Leslie, W. D.; Fujiwara, S.; Gluer, C. C.; Kroger, H.; LaCroix, A. Z.; Lau, E.; Melton, L. J.; Eisman, J. A.; O’Neill, T. W.; Goltzman, D.; Reid, D. M.; McCloskey, E.

    2014-09-04

    There are occasional marked discordances in BMD T-scores at the lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN). We investigated whether such discordances could contribute independently to fracture prediction using FRAX. In this paper, we studied 21,158 women, average age 63 years, from 10 prospective cohorts with baseline FRAX variables as well as FN and LS BMD. Incident fractures were collected by self-report and/or radiographic reports. Extended Poisson regression examined the relationship between differences in LS and FN T-scores (ΔLS–FN) and fracture risk, adjusted for age, time since baseline and other factors including FRAX 10-year probability for major osteoporotic fracture calculated using FN BMD. To examine the effect of an adjustment for ΔLS–FN on reclassification, women were separated into risk categories by their FRAX major fracture probability. High risk was classified using two approaches: being above the National Osteoporosis Guideline Group intervention threshold or, separately, being in the highest third of each cohort. The absolute ΔLS–FN was greater than 2 SD for 2.5 % of women and between 1 and 2 SD for 21 %. ΔLS–FN was associated with a significant risk of fracture adjusted for baseline FRAX (HR per SD change = 1.09; 95 % CI = 1.04–1.15). In reclassification analyses, only 2.3–3.2 % of the women moved to a higher or lower risk category when using FRAX with ΔLS–FN compared with FN-derived FRAX alone. Adjustment of estimated fracture risk for a large LS/FN discrepancy (>2SD) impacts to a large extent on only a relatively small number of individuals. More moderate (1–2SD) discordances in FN and LS T-scores have a small impact on FRAX probabilities. Finally, this might still improve clinical decision-making, particularly in women with probabilities close to an intervention threshold.

  7. Impact of femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD discordances on FRAX probabilities in women; a meta-analysis of international cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, H; Kanis, JA; Odén, A; Leslie, WD; Fujiwara, S; Glüer, CC; Kroger, H; LaCroix, AZ; Lau, E; Melton, LJ; Eisman, J; O’Neill, TW; Goltzman, D; Reid, DM

    2015-01-01

    There are occasional marked discordances in BMD T-scores at the lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN). We investigated whether such discordances could contribute independently to fracture prediction using FRAX. We studied 21,158 women, average age 63 years, from 10 prospective cohorts with baseline FRAX variables as well as FN and LS BMD. Incident fractures were collected by self-report and/or radiographic reports. Extended Poisson regression examined the relationship between differences in LS and FN T-scores (ΔLS-FN) and fracture risk, adjusted for age, time since baseline and other factors including FRAX 10-year probability for major osteoporotic fracture calculated using FN BMD. To examine the effect of an adjustment for ΔLS-FN on reclassification, women were separated into risk categories by their FRAX major fracture probability. High risk was classified using two approaches: being above the National Osteoporosis Guideline Group intervention threshold or, separately, being in the highest third of each cohort. The absolute ΔLS-FN was greater than 2 SD for 2.5% of women and between 1 and 2 SD for 21%. ΔLS-FN was associated with a significant risk of fracture adjusted for baseline FRAX (HR per SD change = 1.09; 95% CI = 1.04–1.15). In reclassification analyses, only 2.3–3.2% of the women moved to a higher or lower risk category when using FRAX with ΔLS-FN compared with FN-derived FRAX alone. Adjustment of estimated fracture risk for a large LS/FN discrepancy (>2SD) impacts to a large extent on only a relatively small number of individuals. More moderate (1-2SD) discordances in FN and LS T-scores have a small impact on FRAX probabilities. This might still improve clinical decision-making, particularly in women with probabilities close to an intervention threshold. PMID:25187239

  8. Buoyant miscible displacement flows in vertical pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiri, A.; Larachi, F.; Taghavi, S. M.

    2016-10-01

    The displacement flow of two miscible Newtonian fluids is investigated experimentally in a vertical pipe of long aspect ratio (δ-1 ≈ 210). The fluids have a small density difference and they have the same viscosity. The heavy displacing fluid is initially placed above the light displaced fluid. The displacement flow is downwards. The experiments cover a wide range of the two dimensionless parameters that largely describe the flow: the modified Reynolds number (0 ≤ Ret⪅800) and the densimetric Froude number (0 ≤ Fr ≤ 24). We report on the stabilizing effect of the imposed flow and uncover the existence of two main flow regimes at long times: a stable displacement flow and an unstable displacement flow. The transition between the two regimes occurs at a critical modified Reynolds number " separators=" R et | Critical , as a function of Fr. We study in depth the stable flow regime: First, a lubrication model combined with a simple initial acceleration formulation delivers a reasonable prediction to the time-dependent penetrating displacing front velocity. Second, we find two sub-regimes for stable displacements, namely, sustained-back-flows and no-sustained-back-flows. The transition between the two sub-regimes is a marginal stationary interface flow state, which is also well predicted by the lubrication model. The unstable regime is associated to instabilities and diffusive features of the flow. In addition, particular patterns such as front detachment phenomenon appear in the unstable flow regime, for which we quantify the regions of existence versus the dimensionless groups.

  9. Monolithically integrated interferometer for optical displacement measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofstetter, Daniel; Zappe, Hans P.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss the fabrication of a monolithically integrated optical displacement sensors using III-V semiconductor technology. The device is configured as a Michelson interferometer and consists of a distributed Bragg reflector laser, a photodetector and waveguides forming a directional coupler. Using this interferometer, displacements in the 100 nm range could be measured at distances of up to 45 cm. We present fabrication, device results and characterization of the completed interferometer, problems, limitations and future applications will also be discussed.

  10. Creative Business Ownership for Women. Final Report from July 1, 1986 to June 30, 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Constance Q.; Poitier, Vera R.

    The Creative Business Ownership for Women Project was established at Valencia Community College (Florida) to provide displaced homemakers and single parents with the special help they need to achieve entrepreneurial success. During the course of the project, displaced homemakers, single parents, and rural disadvantaged women interested in owning a…

  11. Trade Readjustment Act Women in Developmental Writing: Preparing for Education and Retraining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Katherine Lelia

    This is a qualitative study of four women receiving assistance through the Trade Readjustment Act (TRA) and who were enrolled in a developmental writing course. The TRA provides money to displaced workers for the purposes of retraining them to reenter the workforce. The four women in the study were nontraditional students and displaced garment…

  12. Displacement sensor for indoor machine calibrations.

    PubMed

    Mudassar, Asloob Ahmad; Butt, Saira

    2013-05-20

    This paper presents a simple displacement sensor for indoor machine calibrations. The sensor, which is placed in the path of a diverging laser beam, consists of two plane mirror pieces laterally displaced with the line joining their centers initially held perpendicular to the optical axis of the beam during the displacement of the sensor with one of the mirrors always traveling along the optical axis of the laser beam. The optical signals from the two mirrors are combined and a simple detector at the interference plane counts the fringes during the sensor displacement. The sensor could be mounted on the moving head of any mechanical machine, e.g., the lathe machine for displacement calibration. The device has been tested over a range of 10 cm beyond a distance of 150 cm from a diverging laser source giving an accuracy of 1.1015 μm. Theoretical modeling, simulation, and experimental results are presented which establish that the proposed sensor can be used as a promising displacement measuring device.

  13. Development and evolution of character displacement.

    PubMed

    Pfennig, David W; Pfennig, Karin S

    2012-05-01

    Character displacement occurs when competition for either resources or successful reproduction imposes divergent selection on interacting species, causing divergence in traits associated with resource use or reproduction. Here, we describe how character displacement can be mediated either by genetically canalized changes (i.e., changes that reflect allelic or genotype frequency changes) or by phenotypic plasticity. We also discuss how these two mechanisms influence the tempo of character displacement. Specifically, we suggest that, under some conditions, character displacement mediated by phenotypic plasticity might occur more rapidly than that mediated by genetically canalized changes. Finally, we describe how these two mechanisms may act together and determine character displacement's mode, such that it proceeds through an initial phase in which trait divergence is environmentally induced to a later phase in which divergence becomes genetically canalized. This plasticity-first hypothesis predicts that character displacement should be generally mediated by ancestral plasticity and that it will arise similarly in multiple, independently evolving populations. We conclude by highlighting future directions for research that would test these predictions.

  14. Maladaptive Schemas as Mediators in the Relationship Between Child Sexual Abuse and Displaced Aggression.

    PubMed

    Estévez, Ana; Ozerinjauregi, Nagore; Herrero-Fernández, David

    2016-01-01

    Child sexual abuse is one of the most serious forms of abuse due to the psychological consequences that persist even into adulthood. Expressions of anger among child sexual abuse survivors remain common even years after the event. While child sexual abuse has been extensively studied, the expression of displaced aggression has been studied less. Some factors, such as the maladaptive early schemas, might account for this deficiency. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationships between child sexual abuse, displaced aggression, and these schemas according to gender and determine if these early schemas mediate the relationship between child sexual abuse and displaced aggression. A total of 168 Spanish subjects who were victims of child sexual abuse completed measures of childhood trauma, displaced aggression, and early maladaptive schemas. The results depict the relationship between child sexual abuse, displaced aggression, and early maladaptive schemas. Women scored higher than men in child sexual abuse, emotional abuse, disconnection or rejection and impaired autonomy. Mediational analysis found a significant mediation effect of disconnection or rejection on the relationship between child sexual abuse and displaced aggression; however, impaired autonomy did not mediate significantly.

  15. [A clinical case of young, oral combined contraceptive using women, heterozygous carrier of the Factor V (Leiden) which revealed thrombosis of the left internal jugular vein and brain ischemia with cerebral infarction and ischemic stroke].

    PubMed

    Kovachev, S; Ramshev, K; Ramsheva, Z; Ivanov, A; Ganovska, A

    2013-01-01

    Thrombophilia is associated with increased risks of venous thrombosis in women taking oral contraceptive preparations. Universal thrombophilia screening in women prior to prescribing oral contraceptive preparations is not supported by current evidence. The case is presented of a 23 year-old women with a personal history of interruption and on the same day started with oral contraceptive (0.03 microg ethynil estradiol - 0.075 microg gestodene), which due on a 18 pill/day to acute headache, increasing vomiting and speaking defects. Physical/neurologic/gynecologic examinations observed a normal status. The MRI and CT revealed thrombosis of the left internal jugular vein and brain ischemia with cerebral infarction and ischemic stroke. The acute therapy of thrombotic findings was accompanied with many tests. The thrombophilia PCR-Real time - test finds heterozygous carrier of the Factor V (Leiden). This case shows the need of large prospective studies that should be undertaken to refine the risks and establish the associations of thrombophilias with venous thrombosis among contraceptive users. The key to a prompt diagnosis is to know the risk factors. The relative value of a thrombophilia screening programme before contraceptive using needs to be established.

  16. Autonomous dynamic displacement estimation from data fusion of acceleration and intermittent displacement measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Junhee; Kim, Kiyoung; Sohn, Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Addressing the importance of displacement measurement of structural responses in the field of structural health monitoring, this paper presents an autonomous algorithm for dynamic displacement estimation from acceleration integration fused with displacement data intermittently measured. The presented acceleration integration algorithm of multi-rate Kalman filtering distinguishes itself from the past study in the literature by explicitly considering acceleration measurement bias. Furthermore, the algorithm is formulated by unique state definition of integration errors and error dynamics system modeling. To showcase performance of the algorithm, a series of laboratory dynamic experiments for measuring structural responses of acceleration and displacement are conducted. Improved results are demonstrated through comparison between the proposed and past study.

  17. Displaced supracondylar fractures of the humerus in children.

    PubMed

    Mulhall, K J; Abuzakuk, T; Curtin, W; O'Sullivan, M

    2000-01-01

    We performed an outcome study of completely displaced supracondylar fractures in children in order to assess the outcome of primary open reduction and internal fixation for these injuries. A total of 16 patients (mean age of 5.9 years) were included in the study. The mean follow-up was 2.6 years and patients were assessed after fracture healing using the criteria of Flynn et al. and Mark et al. Thirteen patients had an excellent result, two had good results with less than 10 degrees loss of carrying angle and one had a fair result based on degree of loss of elbow flexion. Open reduction and internal fixation of these fractures is an effective and safe method of primary treatment and is associated with good outcomes. We recommend a low threshold of proceeding to open treatment in these serious injuries.

  18. Effect of Sanitary-Environmental Conditions of Diabetic Hypertension Incidence in Displaced Persons

    PubMed Central

    Muraspahić, Muamer; Kastrat, Isaja; Plojović, Semsudin; Imamovic, Mirsad; Ketin, Sonja; Biocanin, Rade

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The abnormal conditions of life and genetic factors often play a major role in the incidence of “diabetes - diabetes”, heart disease and vascular disease, jaundice and posttraumatic stress. AIM: Trauma and posttraumatic stress are most common in the displaced persons, and the focus of this paper is to focus on this issue regarding cases in former Yugoslavia, and now in our country. These diseases are caused by increased beta-cell sensitivity to viruses, the development of autoimmune antibodies attacking their pancreas cells, degenerative changes in cells that result in the change of structure and of insulin production. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this paper, we have taken into account the traumatic events and long-term psychosocial consequences for internally displaced persons, several years after displacement, and found a high level of PTSD symptoms. RESULTS: This stress is present in almost 1/3 of internally displaced persons, and every sixth person has suffered from PTSD in the past. Respondents suffer from symptoms of intrusion, but there was a large number of symptoms, such as avoidance and increased arousal. We also found that gender, age and education are related to the symptoms. CONCLUSION: Females, and older respondents and internally displaced persons with lower levels of education show a higher level of PTSD symptoms. PMID:28293323

  19. Impact of femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD discordances on FRAX probabilities in women: A meta-analysis of international cohorts

    DOE PAGES

    Johansson, H.; Kanis, J. A.; Oden, A.; ...

    2014-09-04

    There are occasional marked discordances in BMD T-scores at the lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN). We investigated whether such discordances could contribute independently to fracture prediction using FRAX. In this paper, we studied 21,158 women, average age 63 years, from 10 prospective cohorts with baseline FRAX variables as well as FN and LS BMD. Incident fractures were collected by self-report and/or radiographic reports. Extended Poisson regression examined the relationship between differences in LS and FN T-scores (ΔLS–FN) and fracture risk, adjusted for age, time since baseline and other factors including FRAX 10-year probability for major osteoporotic fracture calculatedmore » using FN BMD. To examine the effect of an adjustment for ΔLS–FN on reclassification, women were separated into risk categories by their FRAX major fracture probability. High risk was classified using two approaches: being above the National Osteoporosis Guideline Group intervention threshold or, separately, being in the highest third of each cohort. The absolute ΔLS–FN was greater than 2 SD for 2.5 % of women and between 1 and 2 SD for 21 %. ΔLS–FN was associated with a significant risk of fracture adjusted for baseline FRAX (HR per SD change = 1.09; 95 % CI = 1.04–1.15). In reclassification analyses, only 2.3–3.2 % of the women moved to a higher or lower risk category when using FRAX with ΔLS–FN compared with FN-derived FRAX alone. Adjustment of estimated fracture risk for a large LS/FN discrepancy (>2SD) impacts to a large extent on only a relatively small number of individuals. More moderate (1–2SD) discordances in FN and LS T-scores have a small impact on FRAX probabilities. Finally, this might still improve clinical decision-making, particularly in women with probabilities close to an intervention threshold.« less

  20. Women's Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, James E., Ed.; Davis, Hazel K., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    The 16 articles in this journal issue deal with women's studies within the English curriculum. Topics discussed in the articles include (1) the feminist challenge to the male-centered curriculum in higher education; (2) the women's movement and women's studies; (3) connotations of the word "girl"; (4) women in English education; (5) the new…

  1. Ultra-Sensitive Magnetoresistive Displacement Sensing Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olivas, John D. (Inventor); Lairson, Bruce M. (Inventor); Ramesham, Rajeshuni (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An ultrasensitive displacement sensing device for use in accelerometers, pressure gauges, temperature transducers, and the like, comprises a sputter deposited, multilayer, magnetoresistive field sensor with a variable electrical resistance based on an imposed magnetic field. The device detects displacement by sensing changes in the local magnetic field about the magnetoresistive field sensor caused by the displacement of a hard magnetic film on a movable microstructure. The microstructure, which may be a cantilever, membrane, bridge, or other microelement, moves under the influence of an acceleration a known displacement predicted by the configuration and materials selected, and the resulting change in the electrical resistance of the MR sensor can be used to calculate the displacement. Using a micromachining approach, very thin silicon and silicon nitride membranes are fabricated in one preferred embodiment by means of anisotropic etching of silicon wafers. Other approaches include reactive ion etching of silicon on insulator (SOI), or Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition of silicon nitride films over silicon substrates. The device is found to be improved with the use of giant magnetoresistive elements to detect changes in the local magnetic field.

  2. Quantification of the vocal folds’ dynamic displacements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Socorro Hernández-Montes, María; Muñoz, Silvino; De La Torre, Manuel; Flores, Mauricio; Pérez, Carlos; Mendoza-Santoyo, Fernando

    2016-05-01

    Fast dynamic data acquisition techniques are required to investigate the motional behavior of the vocal folds (VFs) when they are subjected to a steady air-flow through the trachea. High-speed digital holographic interferometry (DHI) is a non-invasive full-field-of-view technique that has proved its usefulness to study rapid and non-repetitive object movements. Hence it is an ideal technique used here to measure VF displacements and vibration patterns at 2000 fps. Analyses from a set of 200 displacement images showed that VFs’ vibration cycles are established along their width (y) and length (x). Furthermore, the maximum deformation for the right and left VFs’ area may be quantified from these images, which in itself represents an important result in the characterization of this structure. At a controlled air pressure, VF displacements fall within the range ~100-1740 nm, with a calculated precision and accuracy that yields a variation coefficient of 1.91%. High-speed acquisition of full-field images of VFs and their displacement quantification are on their own significant data in the study of their functional and physiological behavior since voice quality and production depend on how they vibrate, i.e. their displacement amplitude and frequency. Additionally, the use of high speed DHI avoids prolonged examinations and represents a significant scientific and technological alternative contribution in advancing the knowledge and working mechanisms of these tissues.

  3. Fingering phenomena during grain-grain displacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mello, Nathália M. P.; Paiva, Humberto A.; Combe, G.; Atman, A. P. F.

    2017-04-01

    Spontaneous formation of fingered patterns during the displacement of dense granular assemblies was experimentally reported few years ago, in a radial Hele-Shaw cell. Here, by means of discrete element simulations, we have recovered the experimental findings and extended the original study to explore the control parameters space. In particular, using assemblies of grains with different geometries (monodisperse, bidisperse, or polydisperse), we measured the macroscopic stress tensor in the samples in order to confirm some conjectures proposed in analogy with Saffman-Taylor viscous fingering phenomena for immiscible fluids. Considering an axial setup which allows to control the discharge of grains and to follow the trajectory and the pressure gradient along the displacing interface, we have applied the Darcy law for laminar flow in fluids in order to measure an "effective viscosity" for each assembly combination, in an attempt to mimic variation of the viscosity ratio between the injected/displaced fluids in the Saffman-Taylor experiment. The results corroborate the analogy with the viscous fluids displacement, with the bidisperse assembly corresponding to the less viscous geometry. But, differently to fluid case, granular fingers only develop for a specific combination of displaced/injected geometries, and we have demonstrated that it is always related with the formation of a force chain network along the finger direction.

  4. Women's Work: What Women Want, Expect, and Get.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieva, Veronica F.; Gutek, Barbara A.

    1979-01-01

    Women making career choices need to know what women want and get from their jobs to form realistic expectations and prevent disappointment. Intrinsic job facets (internal characteristics such as challenge and autonomy) and extrinsic facets (external characteristics such as pleasant coworkers, promotion, and pay) are described. (MLW)

  5. Displacement Cascade Damage Production in Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Stoller, Roger E; Malerba, Lorenzo; Nordlund, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Radiation-induced changes in microstructure and mechanical properties in structural materials are the result of a complex set of physical processes initiated by the collision between an energetic particle (neutron or ion) and an atom in the lattice. This primary damage event is called an atomic displacement cascade. The simplest description of a displacement cascade is to view it as a series of many billiard-ball-like elastic collisions among the atoms in the material. This chapter describes the formation and evolution of this primary radiation damage mechanism to provide an overview of how stable defects are formed by displacement cascades, as well as the nature and morphology of the defects themselves. The impact of the relevant variables such as cascade energy and irradiation temperature is discussed, and defect formation in different materials is compared.

  6. Amorphization of Silicon Carbide by Carbon Displacement

    SciTech Connect

    Devanathan, Ram; Gao, Fei; Weber, William J.

    2004-05-10

    We have used molecular dynamics simulations to examine the possibility of amorphizing silicon carbide (SiC) by exclusively displacing C atoms. At a defect generation corresponding to 0.2 displacements per atom, the enthalpy surpasses the level of melt-quenched SiC, the density decreases by about 15%, and the radial distribution function shows a lack of long-range order. Prior to amorphization, the surviving defects are mainly C Frenkel pairs (67%), but Si Frenkel pairs (18%) and anti-site defects (15%) are also present. The results indicate that SiC can be amorphized by C sublattice displacements. Chemical short-range disorder, arising mainly from interstitial production, plays a significant role in the amorphization.

  7. Simple and sensitive strain gauge displacement transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramana, Y. V.; Sarma, L. P.

    1981-09-01

    We describe a simple and sensitive strain gauge displacement transducer. It is based on the linear movement of a shaft (with two cantilevers and four strain gauges) in a tapered chamber, resulting in a change in resistance proportional to the cantilever deformation. The transducer with its Wheatstone full bridge configuration is calibrated against a mechanical dial indicator of 0.002 mm accuracy for both ac and dc voltage excitations. Its output is linear for measurements of full range displacement up to 25 mm. It has a sensitivity of ±0.0082 mm for ac excitation with a strain indicator whose resolution is ±1 μɛ. It has a dc full range sensitivity of 1.5 mV/V for excitation levels up to 5 V. It can have varied field and laboratory applications wherever displacements are precisely read, recorded, or monitored.

  8. Miscible, porous media displacements with density stratification.

    PubMed

    Riaz, Amir; Meiburg, Eckart

    2004-11-01

    High accuracy, three-dimensional numerical simulations of miscible displacements with gravity override, in both homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media, are discussed for the quarter five-spot configuration. The influence of viscous and gravitational effects on the overall displacement dynamics is described in terms of the vorticity variable. Density differences influence the flow primarily by establishing a narrow gravity layer, in which the effective Peclet number is enhanced due to the higher flow rate. Although this effect plays a dominant role in homogeneous flows, it is suppressed to some extent in heterogeneous displacements. This is a result of coupling between the viscous and permeability vorticity fields. When the viscous wavelength is much larger than the permeability wavelength, gravity override becomes more effective because coupling between the viscous and permeability vorticity fields is less pronounced. Buoyancy forces of a certain magnitude can lead to a pinch-off of the gravity layer, thereby slowing it down.

  9. An international comparative public health analysis of sex trafficking of women and girls in eight cities: achieving a more effective health sector response.

    PubMed

    Macias Konstantopoulos, Wendy; Ahn, Roy; Alpert, Elaine J; Cafferty, Elizabeth; McGahan, Anita; Williams, Timothy P; Castor, Judith Palmer; Wolferstan, Nadya; Purcell, Genevieve; Burke, Thomas F

    2013-12-01

    Sex trafficking, trafficking for the purpose of forced sexual exploitation, is a widespread form of human trafficking that occurs in all regions of the world, affects mostly women and girls, and has far-reaching health implications. Studies suggest that up to 50 % of sex trafficking victims in the USA seek medical attention while in their trafficking situation, yet it is unclear how the healthcare system responds to the needs of victims of sex trafficking. To understand the intersection of sex trafficking and public health, we performed in-depth qualitative interviews among 277 antitrafficking stakeholders across eight metropolitan areas in five countries to examine the local context of sex trafficking. We sought to gain a new perspective on this form of gender-based violence from those who have a unique vantage point and intimate knowledge of push-and-pull factors, victim health needs, current available resources and practices in the health system, and barriers to care. Through comparative analysis across these contexts, we found that multiple sociocultural and economic factors facilitate sex trafficking, including child sexual abuse, the objectification of women and girls, and lack of income. Although there are numerous physical and psychological health problems associated with sex trafficking, health services for victims are patchy and poorly coordinated, particularly in the realm of mental health. Various factors function as barriers to a greater health response, including low awareness of sex trafficking and attitudinal biases among health workers. A more comprehensive and coordinated health system response to sex trafficking may help alleviate its devastating effects on vulnerable women and girls. There are numerous opportunities for local health systems to engage in antitrafficking efforts while partnering across sectors with relevant stakeholders.

  10. Women and Nation-Building

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Women and Nation-Building 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...goal of establishing equitable, democratic, and egalitarian societies in which the human rights of women are respected. Many, however, express the...example, Bergen (2007). 7 World Bank, 2005; Amnesty International, 2005a. 8 Women and Nation-Building society with a lowered propensity for war. As

  11. Frictional behavior of large displacement experimental faults

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeler, N.M.; Tullis, T.E.; Blanpied, M.L.; Weeks, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    The coefficient of friction and velocity dependence of friction of initially bare surfaces and 1-mm-thick simulated fault gouges (400 mm at 25??C and 25 MPa normal stress. Steady state negative friction velocity dependence and a steady state fault zone microstructure are achieved after ???18 mm displacement, and an approximately constant strength is reached after a few tens of millimeters of sliding on initially bare surfaces. Simulated fault gouges show a large but systematic variation of friction, velocity dependence of friction, dilatancy, and degree of localization with displacement. At short displacement (<10 mm), simulated gouge is strong, velocity strengthening and changes in sliding velocity are accompanied by relatively large changes in dilatancy rate. With continued displacement, simulated gouges become progressively weaker and less velocity strengthening, the velocity dependence of dilatancy rate decreases, and deformation becomes localized into a narrow basal shear which at its most localized is observed to be velocity weakening. With subsequent displacement, the fault restrengthens, returns to velocity strengthening, or to velocity neutral, the velocity dependence of dilatancy rate becomes larger, and deformation becomes distributed. Correlation of friction, velocity dependence of friction and of dilatancy rate, and degree of localization at all displacements in simulated gouge suggest that all quantities are interrelated. The observations do not distinguish the independent variables but suggest that the degree of localization is controlled by the fault strength, not by the friction velocity dependence. The friction velocity dependence and velocity dependence of dilatancy rate can be used as qualitative measures of the degree of localization in simulated gouge, in agreement with previous studies. Theory equating the friction velocity dependence of simulated gouge to the sum of the friction velocity dependence of bare surfaces and the velocity

  12. Lymph drainage in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Cataldo Oportus, Sylvia; de Paiva Rodrigues, Lilian; Pereira de Godoy, José Maria; Guerreiro Godoy, Maria de Fátima

    2013-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of lymph drainage to reduce edema of pregnant women. Method. Pregnant women (30 limbs) from the Obstetrics Outpatient Clinic of the Medical School of Santa Casa in São Paulo in the period December 2009 to May 2010 were enrolled in this quantitative, prospective study. The patients, in the 5th to 8th months of gestation, were submitted to one hour of manual lymph drainage of the legs. The volume of the legs was measured by water displacement volumetry before and after one hour of drainage using the Godoy & Godoy manual lymph drainage technique. The paired t-test was used for statistical analysis with an alpha error of 5% being considered significant. Results. Manual lymph drainage significantly reduced swelling of the legs of pregnant women during the day (P = 0.04). Conclusion. Manual lymph drainage helps to reduce limb size during the day of pregnant women.

  13. Atomistic Simulation of Displacement Cascades in Zircon

    SciTech Connect

    Devanathan, Ram; Weber, William J.; Corrales, Louis R.; BP McGrail and GA Cragnolino

    2002-05-06

    Low energy displacement cascades in zircon (ZrSiO4) initiated by a Zr primary knock-on atom have been investigated by molecular dynamics simulations using a Coulombic model for long-range interactions, Buckingham potential for short-range interactions and Ziegler-Biersack potentials for close pair interactions. Displacements were found to occur mainly in the O sublattice, and O replacements by a ring mechanism were predominant. Clusters containing Si interstitials bridged by O interstitials, vacancy clusters and anti-site defects were found to occur. This Si-O-Si bridging is considerable in quenched liquid ZrSiO4.

  14. Force based displacement measurement in micromechanical devices

    SciTech Connect

    O {close_quote}Shea, S. J.; Ng, C. K.; Tan, Y. Y.; Xu, Y.; Tay, E. H.; Chua, B. L.; Tien, N. C.; Tang, X. S.; Chen, W. T.

    2001-06-18

    We demonstrate how force detection methods based on atomic force microscopy can be used to measure displacement in micromechanical devices. We show the operation of a simple microfabricated accelerometer, the proof mass of which incorporates a tip which can be moved towards an opposing surface. Both noncontact operation using long range electrostatic forces and tapping mode operation are demonstrated. The displacement sensitivity of the present device using feedback to control the tip-surface separation is approximately 1 nm. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  15. Displacement sensors using soft magnetostrictive alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hristoforou, E.; Reilly, R. E.

    1994-09-01

    We report results on the response of a family of displacement sensors, which are based on the magentostrictive delay line (MDL) technique, using current conductors orthogonal to the MDL. Such sensing technique is based on the change of the magnetic circuit at the acoustic stress point of origin due to the displacement of a soft magnetic material above it. Integrated arrays of sensors can be obtained due to the acoustic delay line technique and they can be used as tactile arrays, digitizers or devices for medical applications (gait analysis etc.), while absence of hysteresis and low cost of manufacturing make them competent in this sector of sensor market.

  16. Computing Displacements And Strains From Video Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Samuel S.; Mcneill, Stephen R.; Lansing, Matthew D.

    1996-01-01

    Subpixel digital video image correlation (SDVIC) technique for measuring in-plane displacements on surfaces of objects under loads, without contact. Used for analyses of experimental research specimens or actual service structures of virtually any size or material. Only minimal preparation of test objects needed, and no need to isolate test objects from minor vibrations or fluctuating temperatures. Technique implemented by SDVIC software, producing color-graduated, full-field representations of in-plane displacements and partial derivatives with respect to position along both principal directions in each image plane. From representations, linear strains, shear strains, and rotation fields determined. Written in C language.

  17. 40 CFR 1051.140 - What is my vehicle's maximum engine power and displacement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... product of the internal cross-section area of the cylinders, the stroke length, and the number of....00 cm and a 6.25 cm stroke length, the rounded displacement would be: (1)×(6.00/2) 2 × (π) ×...

  18. 40 CFR 1051.140 - What is my vehicle's maximum engine power and displacement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... product of the internal cross-section area of the cylinders, the stroke length, and the number of....00 cm and a 6.25 cm stroke length, the rounded displacement would be: (1)×(6.00/2) 2 × (π) ×...

  19. 40 CFR 1051.140 - What is my vehicle's maximum engine power and displacement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... product of the internal cross-section area of the cylinders, the stroke length, and the number of....00 cm and a 6.25 cm stroke length, the rounded displacement would be: (1)×(6.00/2) 2 × (π) ×...

  20. 40 CFR 1051.140 - What is my vehicle's maximum engine power and displacement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... product of the internal cross-section area of the cylinders, the stroke length, and the number of....00 cm and a 6.25 cm stroke length, the rounded displacement would be: (1)×(6.00/2) 2 × (π) ×...

  1. Displaced Workers: A Challenge for Voc Ed. Information Series No. 255.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Donald M.

    Worker displacement is a priority human resource issue that must be resolved to improve economic productivity, to further revitalize the American economy, and to cope with growing international competition. The work force and work place of the 1980s are undergoing changes that could result in ever larger scale joblessness. These changes include…

  2. 40 CFR 1051.140 - What is my vehicle's maximum engine power and displacement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... product of the internal cross-section area of the cylinders, the stroke length, and the number of....00 cm and a 6.25 cm stroke length, the rounded displacement would be: (1)×(6.00/2) 2 × (π) ×...

  3. Groundwater resources monitoring and population displacement in northern Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalikakis, K.; Hammache, Y.; Nawa, A.; Slinski, K.; Petropoulos, G.; Muteesasira, A.

    2009-04-01

    Northern Uganda has been devastated by more than 20 years of open conflict by the LRA (Lord's Resistance Army) and the Government of Uganda. This war has been marked by extreme violence against civilians, who had been gathered in protected IDP (Internally Displaced Persons) camps. At the height of the displacement in 2007, the UN office for coordination of humanitarian affairs, estimated that nearly 2.5 million people were interned into approximately 220 camps throughout Northern Uganda. With the improved security since mid-2006, the people displaced by the conflict in Northern Uganda started to move out of the overcrowded camps and return either to their villages/parishes of origin or to resettlement/transit sites. However, basic water, sanitation and hygiene infrastructure in the return areas or any new settlements sites are minimal. People returning to their villages of origin encounter a situation where in many cases there is no access to safe water. Since 1998 ACF (Action Against Hunger, part of the Action Contre la Faim International Network) activities have been concentrated in the Acholi and Lango regions of Northern Uganda. ACF's WASH (Water, sanitation and hygiene) department interventions concern sanitation infrastructure, hygiene education and promotion as well as water points implementation. To ensure safe water access, actions are focused in borehole construction and traditional spring rehabilitation, also called "protected" springs. These activities follow the guidelines as set forth by the international WASH cluster, led by UNICEF. A three year project (2008-2010) is being implemented by ACF, to monitor the available groundwater resources in Northern Uganda. The main objectives are: 1. to monitor the groundwater quality from existing water points during different hydrological seasons, 2. to identify, if any, potential risks of contamination from population concentrations and displacement, lack of basic infrastructure and land use, and finally 3. to

  4. Crafts and Craft Education as Expressions of Cultural Heritage: Individual Experiences and Collective Values among an International Group of Women University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokko, Sirpa; Dillon, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores relationships between crafts, craft education and cultural heritage as reflected in the individual experiences and collective values of fifteen female university students of different nationalities. The students (all trainee teachers) were following a course in crafts and craft education as part of an International Study…

  5. Jobs: women's double burden.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    Whereas international conventions and national laws provide equal opportunities for women in employment, the reality of women's lives keeps a disproportionate number of women unemployed, underemployed, and living in poverty. The UN itself, which officially is working toward equity among its employees, has a staff composed of just 32.6% women, and women comprise only 10.5% of the top end of the hierarchy. In areas where women's labor force participation has increased dramatically, women typically earn 30-40% less than men doing the same job or else their employment is limited to "traditional female" service positions. The fact that women and girls have received an inadequate education makes it extremely difficult to break the barriers of discrimination in developing countries. The empowerment of women will break the education barrier, and, when that falls, many other barriers will follow suit. Efforts are already underway to break structural barriers caused by economic and social policies. For example, a more flexible pattern of work has been proposed which will include the voluntary assumption of flexible hours, job-sharing, and part-time work. The concept of work is also being broadened to include the important human services that women traditionally provide on a volunteer basis. This will lead to a valuation of women's contribution to society which can be added to calculations of gross domestic product. Women also need protection as they attempt to eke out a living in the informal sector which has been the traditional avenue for women to earn money. This sector is not protected by law and is subject to extortion by officials and by male competitors. A variety of measures is under consideration to increase the protection of informal sector workers. Women also need protection in the conventional work place, especially as they enter fields traditionally reserved for men. These questions are important even in the context of global unemployment because these issues

  6. A Workshop Guide for Post-Secondary Displaced Homemaker Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahlberg, Maurine

    Based on a survey of displaced homemakers and displaced homemaker advisory committee members in Texas and on a literature review, this guide was developed to help leaders of displaced homemaker programs conduct workshops for their clients. Following an introduction which explains the rationale for conducting workshops for displaced homemakers, the…

  7. 24 CFR 882.810 - Displacement, relocation, and acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... section. (c) Relocation assistance for displaced persons. A “displaced person” (defined in paragraph (g... displaced person must be advised of his or her rights under the Fair Housing Act (42 U.S.C. 3601-19) and, if... qualifies as a displaced person, or the amount of relocation assistance for which the person is...

  8. 24 CFR 92.353 - Displacement, relocation, and acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... assistance for displaced persons—(1) General. A displaced person (defined in paragraph (c)(2) of this section... U.S.C. 4201-4655) and 49 CFR part 24. A “displaced person” must be advised of his or her rights..., safe, and sanitary replacement dwellings not located in such areas. (2) Displaced Person. (i)...

  9. 24 CFR 941.207 - Displacement, relocation, and acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... paragraph (b)(1) of this section. (c) Relocation assistance for displaced persons. A “displaced person... CFR part 24. A “displaced person” shall be advised of his/her rights under the Fair Housing Act (42 U... qualifies as a “displaced person,” or the amount of relocation assistance for which the person is...

  10. Positive predictive values of International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision codes for dermatologic events and hypersensitivity leading to hospitalization or emergency room visit among women with postmenopausal osteoporosis in the Danish and Swedish national patient registries

    PubMed Central

    Adelborg, Kasper; Christensen, Lotte Brix; Munch, Troels; Kahlert, Johnny; Trolle Lagerros, Ylva; Tell, Grethe S; Apalset, Ellen M; Xue, Fei; Ehrenstein, Vera

    2017-01-01

    Background Clinical epidemiology research studies, including pharmacoepidemiology and pharmacovigilance studies, use routinely collected health data, such as diagnoses recorded in national health and administrative registries, to assess clinical effectiveness and safety of treatments. We estimated positive predictive values (PPVs) of International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10) codes for primary diagnoses of dermatologic events and hypersensitivity recorded at hospitalization or emergency room visit in the national patient registries of Denmark and Sweden among women with postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO). Methods This validation study included women with PMO identified from the Danish and Swedish national patient registries (2005–2014). Medical charts of the potential cases served as the gold standard for the diagnosis confirmation and were reviewed and adjudicated by physicians. Results We obtained and reviewed 189 of 221 sampled medical records (86%). The overall PPV was 92.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 85.1%–96.3%) for dermatologic events, while the PPVs for bullous events and erythematous dermatologic events were 52.5% (95% CI, 37.5%–67.1%) and 12.5% (95% CI, 2.2%–47.1%), respectively. The PPV was 59.0% (95% CI, 48.3%–69.0%) for hypersensitivity; however, the PPV of hypersensitivity increased to 100.0% (95% CI, 67.6%–100.0%) when restricting to diagnostic codes for anaphylaxis. The overall results did not vary by country. Conclusion Among women with PMO, the PPV for any dermatologic event recorded as the primary diagnosis at hospitalization or at an emergency room visit was high and acceptable for epidemiologic research in the Danish and Swedish national patient registries. The PPV was substantially lower for hypersensitivity leading to hospitalization or emergency room visit.

  11. Insect Wing Displacement Measurement Using Digital Holography

    SciTech Connect

    Aguayo, Daniel D.; Mendoza Santoyo, Fernando; Torre I, Manuel H. de la; Caloca Mendez, Cristian I.

    2008-04-15

    Insects in flight have been studied with optical non destructive techniques with the purpose of using meaningful results in aerodynamics. With the availability of high resolution and large dynamic range CCD sensors the so called interferometric digital holographic technique was used to measure the surface displacement of in flight insect wings, such as butterflies. The wings were illuminated with a continuous wave Verdi laser at 532 nm, and observed with a CCD Pixelfly camera that acquire images at a rate of 11.5 frames per second at a resolution of 1392x1024 pixels and 12 Bit dynamic range. At this frame rate digital holograms of the wings were captured and processed in the usual manner, namely, each individual hologram is Fourier processed in order to find the amplitude and phase corresponding to the digital hologram. The wings displacement is obtained when subtraction between two digital holograms is performed for two different wings position, a feature applied to all consecutive frames recorded. The result of subtracting is seen as a wrapped phase fringe pattern directly related to the wing displacement. The experimental data for different butterfly flying conditions and exposure times are shown as wire mesh plots in a movie of the wings displacement.

  12. Ko Displacement Theory for Structural Shape Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.

    2010-01-01

    The development of the Ko displacement theory for predictions of structure deformed shapes was motivated in 2003 by the Helios flying wing, which had a 247-ft (75-m) wing span with wingtip deflections reaching 40 ft (12 m). The Helios flying wing failed in midair in June 2003, creating the need to develop new technology to predict in-flight deformed shapes of unmanned aircraft wings for visual display before the ground-based pilots. Any types of strain sensors installed on a structure can only sense the surface strains, but are incapable to sense the overall deformed shapes of structures. After the invention of the Ko displacement theory, predictions of structure deformed shapes could be achieved by feeding the measured surface strains into the Ko displacement transfer functions for the calculations of out-of-plane deflections and cross sectional rotations at multiple locations for mapping out overall deformed shapes of the structures. The new Ko displacement theory combined with a strain-sensing system thus created a revolutionary new structure- shape-sensing technology.

  13. RECOVERY OF METAL USING ALUMINUM DISPLACEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The removal of typical metals (Cu, Pb, Sn, Ni) from printed circuit and metal finishing waste streams was evaluated using displacement with aluminum. he metal is recovered as non-hazardous metal particles and can be recycled by smelting. n acceptable aluminum metal configuration ...

  14. Opening Doors for the Displaced Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Martha Norris

    2000-01-01

    Describes the many benefits now available to laid-off and displaced textile and apparel-related workers through the North American Free Trade Agreement's Transitional Adjustment Allowance (NAFTA-TAA), which allows them to attend college for the first time. Examines the effectiveness of the TAA program and concludes that there is room for…

  15. Retraining Displaced Workers--Barriers and Facilitators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolansky, William D.

    Although plant closings and layoffs have been happening for a long time, today's recessions, major changes in the structure of the economy, and a tight job market have combined to make plant closings a more serious problem. Workers are faced with unemployment from both traditional labor-displacing changes, such as the increasing use of robotics;…

  16. Job Displacement and the Rural Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podgursky, Michael

    High rates of unemployment in rural areas poses questions as what education can do with the problem. This report examines the effects of rural American economies as they grow away from agriculture and toward dependence on manufacturing and service industries. Using data from the federal Bureau of Labor Statistics' Displaced Worker Survey, the…

  17. Positive displacement cylinder measures corrosive liquid volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mariman, R. A.; Vendl, C. J.

    1966-01-01

    Positive displacement cylinder accurately measures volumetric flow rates of corrosive liquids. The cylinder is compatible with corrosive liquids and handles flow rates from zero to 75 gpm at pressures to 900 psig with an accuracy of 0.25 per cent.

  18. Effect of aileron displacement on wing characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heald, R H

    1933-01-01

    The effect of aileron displacement on wing characteristics has been investigated for the Clark Y and the U.S.A. 27 wing sections equipped with rectangular ailerons. The airfoils, rectangular in plan, and having a 10 inch chord and 60 inch span, were mounted on a model fuselage.

  19. A Personal Appearance Program for Displaced Homemakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiore, Ann Marie; De Long, Marilyn Revell

    1990-01-01

    A career counseling program evaluated the self-esteem of 28 displaced homemakers, then presented 3 sessions on the importance of personal appearance in hiring practices, wardrobe management, nonverbal communication, professional image, and self-concept. Analysis of participant evaluations indicated improved levels of control and confidence and…

  20. The Income Losses of Displaced Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hijzen, Alexander; Upward, Richard; Wright, Peter W.

    2010-01-01

    We use a new, matched worker-firm dataset for the United Kingdom to estimate the income loss resulting from firm closure and mass layoffs. We track workers for up to nine years after the displacement event, and the availability of predisplacement characteristics allows us to implement difference-in-differences estimators using propensity score…

  1. The Effects of Economic Policies and Employment Assistance Programs on the Well-Being of Displaced Female Apparel Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocha, Cynthia; Strand, Elizabeth B.

    2004-01-01

    This article explores how labor market trends and current employment assistance policies affect reemployment opportunities and emotional well-being in a sample of female dislocated apparel workers. The study follows the displaced women from the time the plant closed for 6 months to assess their financial and emotional well-being as they reentered…

  2. Systematic approach to sonographic evaluation of the pelvis in women with suspected endometriosis, including terms, definitions and measurements: a consensus opinion from the International Deep Endometriosis Analysis (IDEA) group.

    PubMed

    Guerriero, S; Condous, G; van den Bosch, T; Valentin, L; Leone, F P G; Van Schoubroeck, D; Exacoustos, C; Installé, A J F; Martins, W P; Abrao, M S; Hudelist, G; Bazot, M; Alcazar, J L; Gonçalves, M O; Pascual, M A; Ajossa, S; Savelli, L; Dunham, R; Reid, S; Menakaya, U; Bourne, T; Ferrero, S; Leon, M; Bignardi, T; Holland, T; Jurkovic, D; Benacerraf, B; Osuga, Y; Somigliana, E; Timmerman, D

    2016-09-01

    The IDEA (International Deep Endometriosis Analysis group) statement is a consensus opinion on terms, definitions and measurements that may be used to describe the sonographic features of the different phenotypes of endometriosis. Currently, it is difficult to compare results between published studies because authors use different terms when describing the same structures and anatomical locations. We hope that the terms and definitions suggested herein will be adopted in centers around the world. This would result in consistent use of nomenclature when describing the ultrasound location and extent of endometriosis. We believe that the standardization of terminology will allow meaningful comparisons between future studies in women with an ultrasound diagnosis of endometriosis and should facilitate multicenter research. Copyright © 2016 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Enforcing women's rights through law.

    PubMed

    Cook, R J

    1995-06-01

    Because women have to be equal partners in development to insure its sustainability, the human rights of women must be foremost on development agendas. Ratification of and adherence to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (the Women's Convention) would be a powerful international tool in this regard. In various countries, progress towards legalizing rights for women is passing through a first stage which focusses on the protection of specific rights to a second stage in which sex is included as a prohibited ground of discrimination to a third stage which addresses the pervasive and structural nature of the violation of women's rights. It is expected that governments will renew their commitment to the Women's Convention at the Fourth World Conference on Women (WCW) and, thus, take more seriously their obligations to report progress and remove reservations. Regional initiatives, such as the Organization of American States' 1994 Convention on the Prevention, Punishment, and Eradication of Violence Against Women, can also be used to protect women's rights, and the application of national constitutions and domestic laws remains the first line of defence for women. Particular attention must be paid to laws which apply to property rights, nationality, equality within the family, reproductive and other health issues, and violence against women. The Draft Plan of Action prepared for the WCW challenges states to specify their plans to eliminate discrimination. While this Plan may prove to lack vision, women's nongovernmental organizations are playing a major role in accelerating the movement of international and domestic law towards justice for women.

  4. Development of a grating-based interferometer for six-degree-of-freedom displacement and angle measurements.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Hung-Lin; Pan, Ssu-Wen

    2015-02-09

    A grating-based interferometer for 6-DOF displacement and angle measurement is proposed in this study. The proposed interferometer is composed of three identical detection parts sharing the same light source. Each detection part utilizes three techniques: heterodyne, grating shearing, and Michelson interferometries. Displacement information in the three perpendicular directions (X, Y, Z) can be sensed simultaneously by each detection part. Furthermore, angle information (θX, θY, θZ) can be obtained by comparing the displacement measurement results between two corresponding detection parts. The feasibility and performance of the proposed grating-based interferometer are evaluated in displacement and angle measurement experiments. In comparison with the internal capacitance sensor built into the commercial piezo-stage, the measurement resolutions of the displacement and angle of our proposed interferometer are about 2 nm and 0.05 μrad.

  5. Mass Transport by Second Mode Internal Solitary Waves

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    simulating internal wave instabilities • Forced wedge displacement – simulating flow over a seamount . 3 Experiments were conducted to measure...internal wave instabilities) while the wedge ( seamount generation) generates medium amplitude waves and the oscillator/box (intrusion generation

  6. Design, conduct, and analyses of Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98: A randomized, double-blind, phase-III study comparing letrozole and tamoxifen as adjuvant endocrine therapy for postmenopausal women with receptor-positive, early breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Giobbie-Hurder, Anita; Price, Karen N; Gelber, Richard D

    2010-01-01

    Background Aromatase inhibitors provide superior disease control when compared with tamoxifen as adjuvant therapy for postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive early breast cancer. Purpose To present the design, history, and analytic challenges of the Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98 trial: an international, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, phase-III study comparing the aromatase inhibitor letrozole with tamoxifen in this clinical setting. Methods From 1998–2003, BIG 1-98 enrolled 8028 women to receive monotherapy with either tamoxifen or letrozole for 5 years, or sequential therapy of 2 years of one agent followed by 3 years of the other. Randomization to one of four treatment groups permitted two complementary analyses to be conducted several years apart. The first, reported in 2005, provided a head-to-head comparison of letrozole versus tamoxifen. Statistical power was increased by an enriched design, which included patients who were assigned sequential treatments until the time of the treatment switch. The second, reported in late 2008, used a conditional landmark approach to test the hypothesis that switching endocrine agents at approximately 2 years from randomization for patients who are disease-free is superior to continuing with the original agent. Results The 2005 analysis showed the superiority of letrozole compared with tamoxifen. The patients who were assigned tamoxifen alone were unblinded and offered the opportunity to switch to letrozole. Results from other trials increased the clinical relevance about whether or not to start treatment with letrozole or tamoxifen, and analysis plans were expanded to evaluate sequential versus single-agent strategies from randomization. Limitations Due to the unblinding of patients assigned tamoxifen alone, analysis of updated data will require ascertainment of the influence of selective crossover from tamoxifen to letrozole. Conclusions BIG 1-98 is an example of an enriched design, involving

  7. The use of a displacement device negatively affects the performance of dogs (Canis familiaris) in visible object displacement tasks

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Corsin A.; Riemer, Stefanie; Range, Friederike; Huber, Ludwig

    2014-01-01

    Visible and invisible displacement tasks have been used widely for comparative studies of animals’ understanding of object permanence, with evidence accumulating that some species can solve invisible displacement tasks and thus reach Piagetian stage 6 of object permanence. In contrast, dogs appear to rely on associative cues, such as the location of the displacement device, during invisible displacement tasks. It remains unclear, however, whether dogs, and other species that failed in invisible displacement tasks, do so due to their inability to form a mental representation of the target object, or simply due to the involvement of a more salient but potentially misleading associative cue, the displacement device. Here we show that the use of a displacement device impairs the performance of dogs also in visible displacement tasks: their search accuracy was significantly lower when a visible displacement was performed with a displacement device, and only two of initially 42 dogs passed the sham-baiting control conditions. The negative influence of the displacement device in visible displacement tasks may be explained by strong associative cues overriding explicit information about the target object’s location, reminiscent of an overshadowing effect, and/or object individuation errors as the target object is placed within the displacement device and moves along a spatiotemporally identical trajectory. Our data suggest that a comprehensive appraisal of a species’ performance in object permanence tasks should include visible displacement tasks with the same displacement device used in invisible displacements, which typically has not been done in the past. PMID:24611641

  8. Sustainable development: women as partners.

    PubMed

    Dem, M

    1993-02-01

    The economic recession and the structural adjustment programs imposed y the International Monetary Fund have caused sluggish or no economic growth and a decline in living conditions in sub-Saharan Africa. Senegal's New Agricultural Policy has eliminated subsidies for agricultural inputs, worsening the already declining living conditions. Population growth in Senegal exceeds food production; it is very rapid in cities (urban growth rate, 2.7%). Women, especially, suffer from the economic crisis; it increases the burden on women for income generation, but the increased workload does not equate more income. This workload restricts women's opportunities to improve their physical environment and does not improve their status within society. Women still face discrimination daily; power lies with men. Oxfam supports urban women financially and technically as they organize and pursue income generation activities to institute change leading to sustainable development. It has helped a Serere women's group in Dakar to organize and provided credit funds to support their trading activities and family planning sensitization training. Oxfam also finances rural women coming to Dakar during the dry season to pound millet to sell. Problems which have to be overcome to achieve sustainable development acceptable to women are numerous. Women need access to the ways and means of food production. Resources are insufficient and inaccessible to women because women are excluded from the decision-making process. Women generally do not have access to information and training which would help them make their own choices and manage their own lives. Political and sociocultural environments, especially those of the poor, do not easily allow women opportunities for independent reflection and expression. Grassroots women's groups provide the best base to develop female solidarity and women's representation, leading to sustainable development. Development organizations must take up a new dynamic

  9. Women Appointed to State Boards and Commissions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutgers, The State Univ., New Brunswick, NJ. Center for the American Woman and Politics.

    The report analyzed the average proportions of women on 2,134 state boards and commissions in ten areas of state government. Data were collected in 1975 at the request of the Women in Power Committee of the National Commission on the Observance of International Women's Year. The ten functional areas of government were business regulation, economic…

  10. Carbon Sequestered, Carbon Displaced and the Kyoto Context

    SciTech Connect

    Marland, G.; Schlamadinger, B.

    1999-04-18

    The integrated system that embraces forest management, forest products, and land-use change impacts the global carbon cycle - and hence the net emission of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide - in four fundamental ways. Carbon is stored in living and dead biomass, carbon is stored in wood products and landfills, forest products substitute in the market place for products made from other materials, and forest harvests can be used wholly or partially to displace fossil fuels in the energy sector. Implementation of the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change would result in the creation of international markets for carbon dioxide emissions credits, but the current Kyoto text does not treat all carbon identically. We have developed a carbon accounting model, GORCAM, to examine a variety of scenarios for land management and the production of forest products. In this paper we explore, for two simple scenarios of forest management, the carbon flows that occur and how these might be accounted for under the Kyoto text. The Kyoto protocol raises questions about what activities can result in emissions credits, which carbon reservoirs will be counted, who will receive the credits, and how much credit will be available? The Kyoto Protocol would sometimes give credits for carbon sequestered, but it would always give credits when fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions are displaced.

  11. Global surface displacement data for assessing variability of displacement at a point on a fault

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hecker, Suzanne; Sickler, Robert; Feigelson, Leah; Abrahamson, Norman; Hassett, Will; Rosa, Carla; Sanquini, Ann

    2014-01-01

    This report presents a global dataset of site-specific surface-displacement data on faults. We have compiled estimates of successive displacements attributed to individual earthquakes, mainly paleoearthquakes, at sites where two or more events have been documented, as a basis for analyzing inter-event variability in surface displacement on continental faults. An earlier version of this composite dataset was used in a recent study relating the variability of surface displacement at a point to the magnitude-frequency distribution of earthquakes on faults, and to hazard from fault rupture (Hecker and others, 2013). The purpose of this follow-on report is to provide potential data users with an updated comprehensive dataset, largely complete through 2010 for studies in English-language publications, as well as in some unpublished reports and abstract volumes.

  12. Refugee and Displaced Youth Negotiating Imagined and Lived Identities in a Photography-Based Educational Project in the United States and Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerrero, Alba Lucy; Tinkler, Tessa

    2010-01-01

    Drawing from sociocultural theories of identity, this study uses ethnographic tools to compare how displaced children living in two distinct international contexts, who are linked by their participation in a community-based photography project, negotiate their identities and the discourses constructed around their experiences of displacement. We…

  13. Trunk and Lower Extremity Kinematics During Stair Descent in Women With or Without Patellofemoral Pain

    PubMed Central

    Schwane, Brandi G.; Goerger, Benjamin M.; Goto, Shiho; Blackburn, J. Troy; Aguilar, Alain J.; Padua, Darin A.

    2015-01-01

    Context There is limited evidence indicating the contribution of trunk kinematics to patellofemoral pain (PFP). A better understanding of the interaction between trunk and lower extremity kinematics in this population may provide new avenues for interventions to treat PFP. Objective To compare trunk and lower extremity kinematics between participants with PFP and healthy controls during a stair-descent task. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants Twenty women with PFP (age = 22.2 ± 3.1 years, height = 164.5 ± 9.2 cm, mass = 63.5 ± 13.6 kg) and 20 healthy women (age = 21.0 ± 2.6 years, height = 164.5 ± 7.1 cm, mass = 63.8 ± 12.7 kg). Intervention(s) Kinematics were recorded as participants performed stair descent at a controlled velocity. Main Outcome Measure(s) Three-dimensional joint displacement of the trunk, hip, and knee during the stance phase of stair descent for the affected leg was measured using a 7-camera infrared optical motion-capture system. Pretest and posttest pain were assessed using a visual analogue scale. Kinematic differences between groups were determined using independent-samples t tests. A 2 × 2 mixed-model analysis of variance (group = PFP, control; time = pretest, posttest) was used to compare knee pain. Results We observed greater knee internal-rotation displacement for the PFP group (12.8° ± 7.2°) as compared with the control group (8.9° ± 4.4°). No other between-groups differences were observed for the trunk, hip, or other knee variables. Conclusions We observed no difference in trunk kinematics between groups but did note differences in knee internal-rotation displacement. These findings contribute to the current knowledge of altered movement in those with PFP and provide direction for exercise interventions. PMID:25898109

  14. Character displacement of Cercopithecini primate visual signals

    PubMed Central

    Allen, William L.; Stevens, Martin; Higham, James P.

    2014-01-01

    Animal visual signals have the potential to act as an isolating barrier to prevent interbreeding of populations through a role in species recognition. Within communities of competing species, species recognition signals are predicted to undergo character displacement, becoming more visually distinctive from each other, however this pattern has rarely been identified. Using computational face recognition algorithms to model primate face processing, we demonstrate that the face patterns of guenons (tribe: Cercopithecini) have evolved under selection to become more visually distinctive from those of other guenon species with whom they are sympatric. The relationship between the appearances of sympatric species suggests that distinguishing conspecifics from other guenon species has been a major driver of diversification in guenon face appearance. Visual signals that have undergone character displacement may have had an important role in the tribe’s radiation, keeping populations that became geographically separated reproductively isolated on secondary contact. PMID:24967517

  15. Wirelessly Interrogated Position or Displacement Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Taylor, Bryant D.

    2007-01-01

    Two simple position or displacement sensors based on inductance-capacitance resonant circuits have been conceived. These sensors are both powered and interrogated without use of wires and without making contact with other objects. Instead, excitation and interrogation are accomplished by means of a magnetic-field-response recorder. Both of the present position or displacement sensors consist essentially of variable rectangular parallel-plate capacitors electrically connected in series with fixed inductors. Simple inductance-capacitance circuits of the type used in these sensors are inherently robust; their basic mode of operation does not depend on maintenance of specific environmental conditions. Hence, these sensors can be used under such harsh conditions as cryogenic temperatures, high pressures, and radioactivity.

  16. Charge-displacement analysis for excited states

    SciTech Connect

    Ronca, Enrico Tarantelli, Francesco; Pastore, Mariachiara Belpassi, Leonardo; De Angelis, Filippo; Angeli, Celestino; Cimiraglia, Renzo

    2014-02-07

    We extend the Charge-Displacement (CD) analysis, already successfully employed to describe the nature of intermolecular interactions [L. Belpassi et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 13046 (2010)] and various types of controversial chemical bonds [L. Belpassi et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 1048 (2008); N. Salvi et al., Chem. Eur. J. 16, 7231 (2010)], to study the charge fluxes accompanying electron excitations, and in particular the all-important charge-transfer (CT) phenomena. We demonstrate the usefulness of the new approach through applications to exemplary excitations in a series of molecules, encompassing various typical situations from valence, to Rydberg, to CT excitations. The CD functions defined along various spatial directions provide a detailed and insightful quantitative picture of the electron displacements taking place.

  17. Wireless Measurement of Rotation and Displacement Rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Taylor, Bryant D.

    2007-01-01

    A magnetic field response sensor is designed to measure displacement or rotation rate without a physical connection to a power source, microprocessor, data acquisition equipment, or electrical circuitry. The sensor works with the magnetic field response recorder, which was described in Magnetic-Field-Response Measurement-Acquisition System, NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 30, No. 6 (June 2006), page 28. These sensors are wirelessly powered and interrogated, and the measurement acquisition system and sensors are extremely lightweight.The response recorder uses oscillating magnetic fields to power the sensors. Once powered, the sensors respond with their own magnetic field. For displacement/ rotation measurements, the response recorder uses the sensor s response amplitude, which is dependent on the distance from the antenna. The recorder s antenna orientation and position are kept fixed, and the sampling period is constant.

  18. Prevalence and gender differences in symptomatology of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression among Iraqi Yazidis displaced into Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Tekin, Atilla; Karadağ, Hekim; Süleymanoğlu, Metin; Tekin, Merve; Kayran, Yusuf; Alpak, Gökay; Şar, Vedat

    2016-01-01

    Background Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression are common among populations displaced due to large-scale political conflicts and war. Objective The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence and gender-based differences in symptoms of PTSD and depression among Iraqi Yazidis displaced into Turkey. Method The study was conducted on 238 individuals who were evaluated using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I) and the Stressful Life Events Screening Questionnaire. Results Of the participants, 42.9% met the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for PTSD, 39.5% for major depression, and 26.4% for both disorders. More women than men suffered from PTSD and major depression. More women than men with PTSD or depression reported having experienced or witnessed the death of a spouse or child. Women with PTSD reported flashbacks, hypervigilance, and intense psychological distress due to reminders of trauma more frequently than men. Men with PTSD reported feelings of detachment or estrangement from others more frequently than women. More depressive women than men reported feelings of guilt or worthlessness. Conclusions PTSD and major depression affected women more frequently than men. While women tended to respond to traumatic stress by undermodulation of emotions and low self-esteem, men tended to respond by overmodulation of emotions. Rather than being a derivative of sex differences, this complementary diversity in response types between genders seems to be shaped by social factors in consideration of survival under extreme threat. PMID:26886485

  19. Character displacement and the origins of diversity

    PubMed Central

    Pfennig, David W.; Pfennig, Karin S.

    2012-01-01

    In The Origin of Species, Darwin proposed his ‘principle of divergence of character’ (a process now termed ‘character displacement’) to explain how new species arise and why they differ from one other phenotypically. Darwin maintained that the origin of species, and the evolution of differences between them, is ultimately caused by divergent selection acting to minimize competitive interactions between initially similar individuals, populations, and species. Here, we examine the empirical support for the various claims that constitute Darwin’s principle, specifically that: (1) competition promotes divergent trait evolution; (2) the strength of competitively mediated divergent selection increases with increasing phenotypic similarity between competitors; (3) divergence can occur within species; and (4) competitively mediated divergence can trigger speciation. We also explore aspects that Darwin failed to consider. In particular, we describe how: (1) divergence can arise from selection acting to lessen reproductive interactions; (2) divergence is fueled by the intersection of character displacement and sexual selection; and (3) phenotypic plasticity may play a key role in promoting character displacement. Generally, character displacement is well supported empirically, and it remains a vital explanation for how new species arise and diversify. PMID:21043778

  20. Simultaneous muscle force and displacement transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldstein, C.; Lewis, G. W.; Culler, V. H. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A myocardial transducer for simultaneously measuring force and displacement within a very small area of myocardium is disclosed. The transducer comprised of an elongated body forked at one end to form an inverted Y shaped beam with each branch of the beam constituting a low compliant tine for penetrating the myocardium to a predetermined depth. Bonded to one of the low compliance tines is a small piezoresistive element for converting a force acting on the beam into an electrical signal. A third high compliant tine of the transducer, which measures displacement of the myocardium in a direction in line with the two low compliant tines, is of a length that just pierces the surface membrane. A small piezoresistive element is bonded to the third tine at its upper end where its bending is greatest. Displacement of the myocardium causes a deformation in curvature of the third tine, and the second small piezoresistive element bonded to the surface of its curved end converts its deformation into an electrical signal.

  1. Contactless sub-millimeter displacement measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sliepen, Guus; Jägers, Aswin P. L.; Bettonvil, Felix C. M.; Hammerschlag, Robert H.

    2008-07-01

    Weather effects on foldable domes, as used at the DOT and GREGOR, are investigated, in particular the correlation between the wind field and the stresses caused to both metal framework and tent clothing. Camera systems measure contactless the displacement of several dome points. The stresses follow from the measured deformation pattern. The cameras placed near the dome floor do not disturb telescope operations. In the set-ups of DOT and GREGOR, these cameras are up to 8 meters away from the measured points and must be able to detect displacements of less than 0.1 mm. The cameras have a FireWire (IEEE1394) interface to eliminate the need for frame grabbers. Each camera captures 15 images of 640 × 480 pixels per second. All data is processed on-site in real-time. In order to get the best estimate for the displacement within the constraints of available processing power, all image processing is done in Fourier-space, with all convolution operations being pre-computed once. A sub-pixel estimate of the peak of the correlation function is made. This enables to process the images of four cameras using only one commodity PC with a dual-core processor, and achieve an effective sensitivity of up to 0.01 mm. The deformation measurements are well correlated to the simultaneous wind measurements. The results are of high interest to upscaling the dome design (ELTs and solar telescopes).

  2. Anterior condylar displacement: its diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, L A

    1975-08-01

    A deflective slide in centric relation to centric occlusion does not necessarily mean anterior condylar displacement. Its diagnosis and treatment depend on the correlation of three factors: the direction and magnitude of the mandibular slide from centric relation to centric occlusion, the change in vertical dimension of occlusion during the slide, and the position of the condyles in the fossae when the teeth are in the maximum occlusion (centric occlusion). When the change in vertical dimension almost equals to amount of slide from the deflective contact in centric relation to maximum intercuspation, very little anterior condylar displacement would be expected. Conversely, with proportionately little change in vertical dimension, more anterior condylar translation is required for a given degree of anterior slide. Examples of each type of anterior slide were related to the TMJ radiographs of the condylar position. If the direction and magnitude of the deflective occlusal contact can be correlated with the TMJ radiographs, the centric relation is "functional,'' and the clinically retruded mandibular position should be used. When this correlation does not exist, the centric relation is "dysfunctional'' and the terminal hinge position (retruded mandibular position) should not be used for restorative or corrective procedures. Examples of anterior condylar displacement were given, including deviation, with a comparison of "before'' and "after'' TMJ radiographs.

  3. Character displacement promotes cooperation in bacterial biofilms.

    PubMed

    Brockhurst, Michael A; Hochberg, Michael E; Bell, Thomas; Buckling, Angus

    2006-10-24

    Resource competition within a group of cooperators is expected to decrease selection for cooperative behavior but can also result in diversifying selection for the use of different resources, which in turn could retard the breakdown of cooperation. Diverse groups are likely to be less susceptible to invasion by noncooperating social cheats: First, competition repression resulting from character displacement may provide less of a selective advantage to cheating; second, cheats may trade off the ability to exploit cooperators that specialize in one type of resource against cooperators that specialize in another ; third, diverse communities of any kind may have higher invasion resistance because there are fewer resources available for an invader to use . Furthermore, diverse groups are likely to be more productive than clonal groups if a wider range of total resources are being used . We addressed these issues by using the cooperative trait of biofilm formation in Pseudomonas fluorescens. Character displacement through resource competition evolved within biofilms; productivity increased with increasing character displacement, and diverse biofilms were less susceptible to invasion by cheats. These results demonstrate that diversification into different ecological niches can minimize selection against cooperation in the face of local resource competition.

  4. Comparing Teaching Approaches About Maxwell's Displacement Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karam, Ricardo; Coimbra, Debora; Pietrocola, Maurício

    2014-08-01

    Due to its fundamental role for the consolidation of Maxwell's equations, the displacement current is one of the most important topics of any introductory course on electromagnetism. Moreover, this episode is widely used by historians and philosophers of science as a case study to investigate several issues (e.g. the theory-experiment relationship). Despite the consensus among physics educators concerning the relevance of the topic, there are many possible ways to interpret and justify the need for the displacement current term. With the goal of understanding the didactical transposition of this topic more deeply, we investigate three of its domains: (1) The historical development of Maxwell's reasoning; (2) Different approaches to justify the term insertion in physics textbooks; and (3) Four lectures devoted to introduce the topic in undergraduate level given by four different professors. By reflecting on the differences between these three domains, significant evidence for the knowledge transformation caused by the didactization of this episode is provided. The main purpose of this comparative analysis is to assist physics educators in developing an epistemological surveillance regarding the teaching and learning of the displacement current.

  5. Research Funding and Women in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, Karen E.; Eblen-Zayas, Melissa; Michelman-Ribeiro, Ariel; Valentine, Jami M.

    2005-10-01

    A round table discussion on research funding and its relation to women in physics was held during the Second IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics. Panelists were the director of the Office of Education, Science, and Technology of the Organization of American States; the director of Programs on Women, Science, and Technology for UNESCO; the Minister of Women for Brazil; and a professor of physics from the University of Yamanashi, Japan.

  6. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart IIIi of... - Requirements for Performance Tests for Stationary CI ICE With a Displacement of ≥30 Liters per...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... following requirements 1. Stationary CI internal combustion engine with a displacement of ≥ 30 liters per...-hour or longer runs. b. Limit the concentration of NOX in the stationary CI internal combustion engine... stationary internal combustion engine; (a) For NOX, O2, and moisture measurement, ducts ≤6 inches in...

  7. Women in extreme poverty.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    international and government efforts to promote change. Policies should be questioned that rely on a traditional division of labor. Countries vary widely in the status of women and economic, social, and political structures. The recommendations should be taken into account in the upcoming 1995 World Summit on Social Development.

  8. 24 CFR 882.810 - Displacement, relocation, and acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... racial, ethnic, gender, and disability status of displaced persons. (g) Definition of displaced person... between the owner and the HA. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under OMB control...

  9. 24 CFR 882.810 - Displacement, relocation, and acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... racial, ethnic, gender, and disability status of displaced persons. (g) Definition of displaced person... between the owner and the HA. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under OMB control...

  10. 7 CFR 1944.667 - Relocation and displacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... permanent or temporary relocation of displaced persons for units repaired or rehabilitated or for individual... displaced persons. The applicant shall include in its statement of activities, a statement concerning...

  11. Introducing the Concept of Displacement Center in Statics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jong, I. C.; Crook, C. W.

    1990-01-01

    The concept of displacement center for teaching the virtual work method in statistics is described. An analytical treatment of the displacement center is presented. An example which illustrates the essential elements of this concept is provided. (CW)

  12. Violence against women.

    PubMed

    Nelson, T

    1996-01-01

    This essay opens its discussion of violence against women by referring to the 1994 television broadcast of a 10-year-old Egyptian girl undergoing female genital mutilation (FGM) without benefit of infection control measures or anesthesia at the hands of a local barber. After presenting a brief description of FGM, its various justifications, and its impacts on its victims, the official Egyptian policy is described as ambiguous, and the broadcast is shown to have caused influential religious leaders and medical personnel to defend FGM and, thus, led to postponement of a bill to outlaw FGM. The next section of the essay shows that Egypt's response to FGM reflects the international debate on all forms of violence against women emerging from and reinforcing the social relationships that give men power over women. These forms of violence include domestic violence in almost all societies; the dowry-related, bride-burning homicides that claim 5000-12,000 lives each year in India; son preference that leads to abortion of female fetuses and female infanticide; and crimes such as rape, sexual abuse, and forced prostitution. The essay continues with a look at the costs of violence hidden in the damage to women that increases health care costs substantially and reduces economic productivity. Violence towards women, which occurs throughout the world and can prevent women from participating in public life or from controlling their fertility, is a male tool to inhibit women from gaining autonomy outside the home. The essay concludes that victims of violence are beginning to break the silence that surrounded these deeds and are seeking legislative protection. Laws may not result in real-life changes, but the movement to eliminate FGM may prove to be the first success in women's efforts to achieve human rights. An example is the important precedent being set in the US by a woman seeking asylum to avoid facing an arranged marriage and FGM in her native Togo.

  13. The displacement estimation error back-propagation (DEEP) method for a multiple structural displacement monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, H.; Shin, J. U.; Myung, H.

    2013-04-01

    Visually servoed paired structured light system (ViSP) has been found to be useful in estimating 6-DOF relative displacement. The system is composed of two screens facing each other, each with one or two lasers, a 2-DOF manipulator and a camera. The displacement between two sides is estimated by observing positions of the projected laser beams and rotation angles of the manipulators. To apply the system to massive structures, the whole area should be partitioned and each ViSP module is placed in each partition in a cascaded manner. The estimated displacement between adjoining ViSPs is combined with the next partition so that the entire movement of the structure can be estimated. The multiple ViSPs, however, have a major problem that the error is propagated through the partitions. Therefore, a displacement estimation error back-propagation (DEEP) method which uses Newton-Raphson or gradient descent formulation inspired by the error back-propagation algorithm is proposed. In this method, the estimated displacement from the ViSP is updated using the error back-propagated from a fixed position. To validate the performance of the proposed method, various simulations and experiments have been performed. The results show that the proposed method significantly reduces the propagation error throughout the multiple modules.

  14. Is competition needed for ecological character displacement? Does displacement decrease competition?

    PubMed

    Abrams, Peter A; Cortez, Michael H

    2015-12-01

    Interspecific competition for resources is generally considered to be the selective force driving ecological character displacement, and displacement is assumed to reduce competition. Skeptics of the prevalence of character displacement often cite lack of evidence of competition. The present article uses a simple model to examine whether competition is needed for character displacement and whether displacement reduces competition. It treats systems with competing resources, and considers cases when only one consumer evolves. It quantifies competition using several different measures. The analysis shows that selection for divergence of consumers occurs regardless of the level of between-resource competition or whether the indirect interaction between the consumers is competition (-,-), mutualism (+,+), or contramensalism (+,-). Also, divergent evolution always decreases the equilibrium population size of the evolving consumer. Whether divergence of one consumer reduces or increases the impact of a subsequent perturbation of the other consumer depends on the parameters and the method chosen for measuring competition. Divergence in mutualistic interactions may reduce beneficial effects of subsequent increases in the other consumer's population. The evolutionary response is driven by an increase in the relative abundance of the resource the consumer catches more rapidly. Such an increase can occur under several types of interaction.

  15. Optical knife-edge technique for nanomechanical displacement detection

    SciTech Connect

    Karabacak, D.; Kouh, T.; Huang, C.C.; Ekinci, K.L.

    2006-05-08

    We describe an optical knife-edge technique for nanomechanical displacement detection. Here, one carefully focuses a laser spot on a moving edge and monitors the reflected power as the edge is displaced sideways. To demonstrate nanomechanical displacement detection using the knife-edge technique, we have measured in-plane resonances of nanometer scale doubly clamped beams. The obtained displacement sensitivity is in the {approx}1 pm/{radical}(Hz) range--in close agreement with a simple analytical model.

  16. Medical and social problems among women headed families in Baghdad

    PubMed Central

    Lafta, Riyadh K; Hayawi, Ali H; Khudhairi, Jamal M

    2012-01-01

    Background: Women-headed families tend to be the most marginalized and poverty prone in any given community. One in 10 Iraqi households is headed by woman according to International Organization for Migration, though their assessments suggest that this ratio rises to 1 in 8 in displaced families. Objective: To draw attention to the exposure and vulnerability of women headed families to key medical and social problems. Methods: This cross – sectional study was conducted from March through February 2011. Eleven non-governmental organizations (NGOs) were chosen to be the pool of data collection, in addition to 50 primary, intermediate, and secondary schools for girls. The actual participants were 720 with a response rate of (97%). Women headed families participated in the study were distributed in different areas of Baghdad and the districts around. Results: Hypertension is the leading disease (20%) followed by arthritis (9.6%), heart disease (7.6%), and diabetes mellitus (5.2%), the least was tuberculosis (0.1%). On the other hand, the number of sons and daughters with chronic disease was 159 (6.4%). Respiratory system disease is at the top of the list at a rate of (20.6 per 1000) while the gastrointestinal disease is at the bottom at a rate of (1.6 per 1000). 7.8% of the studied household-heading women were exposed to violence that was either verbal (75%) or physical (25%), the source was the woman's parents (42.9%), husband's family (34%), neighbors (8.9%), and others (14.3%). The percentage of problematic sons (17.9%) who show different types of behavior, (30.2%) of them not obeying their mothers, (21%) hit their brothers, (9.3%) insulting the mother, (2.3%) have problems with neighbors. PMID:25003041

  17. [Rwanda: violence committed against women in the context of generalized armed conflict].

    PubMed

    Mukakayumba, E

    1995-01-01

    Over the course of less than 3 months, the massacres in Rwanda, which followed the assassination of Rwanda¿s president on April 6, 1994, beat all historical records of such horrors in the end of the 20th century. From April 6 to the beginning of July 1994, more than 1 million people were killed in the internal conflict. In addition, millions of refugees were displaced inside and outside of the country. Even in the refugee camps, displaced people were not safe. For example, in the Goma refugee camp, more than 20,000 people died from cholera during the second half of July. Also during the period, the number of unaccompanied children reached more than 200,000. In this context of war, death, and disease, women suffered and continue to suffer violence. Mental and physical cruelty, and being condemned to living a miserable life in silence and isolation are discussed with regard to women in Rwanda. The most frequent reported forms of physical cruelty are rape, bodily mutilation, especially of the reproductive organs, forced marriage, and forced servitude. Such violence and cruelty are discussed. One form of mental cruelty involves forcing a mother to help mutilate and/or kill family members. Young boys were sometimes forced to rape their mothers, while other times soldiers cut off husbands¿ genitals in front of their wives, then placed the body parts into their mouths.

  18. Model for Providing Displaced Workers' Services. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, B. Harold; Naylor, Mary Lou

    This handbook presents a model that helps vocational educators and other individuals, institutions, and agencies plan programs to maintain displaced workers' dignity and economic security. Section 1 discusses identification of displaced workers. Section 2 offers guidelines for developing a profile for a specific group of displaced workers. A list…

  19. From Word to Image: Displacement and Meaning in "Greed."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grindon, Leger

    1989-01-01

    Describes levels of displacement in Stroheim's film "Greed," including (1) the displacement of reason, pleasure, and life by the desire for gold; and (2) the displacement that points to a double movement in Stroheim's cinematic style. Argues that the film's sense of doom arises from the psychic nightmare operating through the mechanics…

  20. Implications of Research on Displaced Workers. ERIC Digest No. 80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naylor, Michele

    Worker displacement is more closely related to structural features associated with firms than to the characteristics of the individuals who lost their jobs. Despite economic growth, large numbers of displaced workers continue to experience difficulty in making labor market adjustments. Programs to retrain and reemploy displaced workers exist at…