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Sample records for international capital market

  1. 77 FR 63763 - Regulatory Capital Rules: Standardized Approach for Risk-Weighted Assets; Market Discipline and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ... Approach for Risk-Weighted Assets; Market Discipline and Disclosure Requirements; Initial Regulatory..., titled, ``Regulatory Capital Rules: Standardized Approach for Risk-Weighted Assets; Market Discipline and... weaknesses identified over recent years, including by incorporating certain international capital...

  2. Bell's Paradox under Different Capital Market Regimes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Johan Moonwon

    1993-01-01

    In 1984 "Economics of Education Review" paper, E. Bell indicates that, when capital markets are imperfect in a certain sense, demand for education may not always be directly related with present net value of education. This study shows Bell's paradox is possible under the alternative definitions of capital market imperfections and specifies…

  3. Political Capital in a Market Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nee, Victor; Opper, Sonja

    2010-01-01

    This research applies a transaction-focused institutional analysis to compare the value of political capital in different institutional domains of China's market economy. Our results show that the value of political capital is associated with institutional domains of the economy in which agents can use political connections to secure advantages.…

  4. Self-consistency in Capital Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benbrahim, Hamid

    2013-03-01

    Capital Markets are considered, at least in theory, information engines whereby traders contribute to price formation with their diverse perspectives. Regardless whether one believes in efficient market theory on not, actions by individual traders influence prices of securities, which in turn influence actions by other traders. This influence is exerted through a number of mechanisms including portfolio balancing, margin maintenance, trend following, and sentiment. As a result market behaviors emerge from a number of mechanisms ranging from self-consistency due to wisdom of the crowds and self-fulfilling prophecies, to more chaotic behavior resulting from dynamics similar to the three body system, namely the interplay between equities, options, and futures. This talk will address questions and findings regarding the search for self-consistency in capital markets.

  5. 12 CFR 932.5 - Market risk capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Market risk capital requirement. 932.5 Section 932.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS § 932.5 Market risk capital requirement....

  6. 12 CFR 932.5 - Market risk capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Market risk capital requirement. 932.5 Section 932.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS § 932.5 Market risk capital requirement....

  7. 12 CFR 932.5 - Market risk capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Market risk capital requirement. 932.5 Section 932.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS § 932.5 Market risk capital requirement....

  8. 12 CFR 932.5 - Market risk capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Market risk capital requirement. 932.5 Section 932.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS § 932.5 Market risk capital requirement....

  9. Capital Punishment: An International Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Edy

    1983-01-01

    The debate over the death penalty in the United States has implications beyond our borders. Because of the lack of universal standards governing its use, only those countries which have abolished capital punishment may, with any moral authority, denounce its exploitation as an instrument of political expediency. (IS)

  10. The international uranium market

    SciTech Connect

    Neff, T.

    1984-01-01

    Shortages, glut, political manipulation and worries about security have all marked the international trade in uranium. In this book, the director of the International Energy Studies Program of the MIT Energy Laboratory sorts out these factors, looks closely at the position of a number of countries, and speculates on the future of a market in which supply will exceed demand, costs will vary widely, and governments will continue to be directly involved for as far ahead as anyone can see.

  11. Capital death in the world market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avakian, Adam; Podobnik, Boris; Piskor, Manuela; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2014-03-01

    We study the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita together with the market capitalization (MCAP) per capita as two indicators of the effect of globalization. We find that g, the GDP per capita, as a function of m, the MCAP per capita, follows a power law with average exponent close to 1/3. In addition, the Zipf ranking approach confirms that the m for countries with initially lower values of m tends to grow more rapidly than for countries with initially larger values of m. If the trends over the past 20 years continue to hold in the future, then the Zipf ranking approach leads to the prediction that in about 50 years, all countries participating in globalization will have comparable values of their MCAP per capita. We call this economic state "capital death," in analogy to the physics state of "heat death" predicted by thermodynamic arguments.

  12. International Study of Marketing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liander, Bertil, Ed.

    The International Marketing Federation (IMF), supported by the Marketing Science Institute, has surveyed IMF member countries and a representative scattering of others to determine the current state and future trends in marketing education. This volume presents the findings of the survey of 21 countries--Argentina, Australia, Canada, Denmark,…

  13. Joint-venture, capitation model can strengthen market share.

    PubMed

    Miller, R J; Brass, A W; Gilson, T J

    1991-06-01

    As health maintenance organizations (HMOs) and preferred provider organizations (PPOs) control an increasingly larger percentage of the healthcare market, many hospitals are entering capitation contracts to capture and preserve market share. A joint-venture and capitation model may provide an additional mechanism for large referral centers and community hospitals to jointly maintain or increase market share through improved service delivery. While the model includes many benefits, hospitals should thoroughly consider ramifications. Only through substantial institutional commitment, careful planning, and ongoing management will the model prove successful.

  14. Firm-Specific Marketing Capital and Job Satisfaction of Marketers: Evidence from Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Tho D.; Nguyen, Trang T. M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Based on the resource-based view of the firm, this study aims to examine antecedents and outcomes of firm-specific marketing capital pool invested by marketers in a transition market, Vietnam. Design/methodology/approach: A sample of 528 marketers in Ho Chi Minh City was surveyed to test the theoretical model. Structural equation…

  15. 13 CFR 108.10 - Description of the New Markets Venture Capital Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Venture Capital Program. 108.10 Section 108.10 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Introduction to Part 108 § 108.10 Description of the New Markets Venture Capital Program. The New Markets Venture Capital (“NMVC”) Program is...

  16. 12 CFR 932.5 - Market risk capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., commodity prices, and equity prices that could occur during periods of market stress, where the market value... options, to a comparable degree of stress for such factors as will be required for an internal market risk... to those that have been observed over 120-business day periods of market stress. For interest...

  17. International markets for CCTs

    SciTech Connect

    Ferriter, J.P.

    1997-12-31

    The paper begins by describing the role of the International Energy Agency, the importance of coal, what the IEA is doing in the area of clean coal technology, and the role of the IEA Coal Industry Advisory Board. The paper then discusses which coal technologies will be chosen, what the problem areas are, and what can be done to accelerate the take-up of clean coal technologies.

  18. Queer theory, late capitalism, and internalized homophobia.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, Max

    2006-01-01

    The emergence of queer theory represents a transformation in the approach to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered peoples. It has claimed new ground for treating sexuality and gender as worthy subjects in their own rights, rather than offshoots of gay and lesbian studies or of general cultural theory. The author contends, however, that it is doubtful that this approach can lead to social change. Queer theory has dismissed the usefulness of the disciplines that were the foundation of the social movements that initiated gay and lesbian studies, such as political economy, and in doing so, it has surreptitiously mirrored the social relations of reproduction that constitute late capitalism. This mirroring has had unseen consequences for the individual in society, and with queer theory's insistence on the relativity of experience and the dismissal of identity, has set the stage for a benign reinforcement of internalized homophobia. The author argues that this approach can be mediated by recognizing that identity is fluid, and that by focusing on identifying with social movements rather than centering analyses on the problems associated with identifying as a particular category of status and being, we can refocus our energies on the building and maintenance of mutual support and collective recognition that can lead to resolving the stagnation now dominating attempts to develop coalitions around issues that matter.

  19. 77 FR 52977 - Regulatory Capital Rules: Advanced Approaches Risk-Based Capital Rule; Market Risk Capital Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ...The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC), the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (Board), and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) (collectively, the agencies) are seeking comment on three notices of proposed rulemaking (NPRs) that would revise and replace the agencies' current capital rules. In this NPR (Advanced Approaches and Market Risk NPR) the......

  20. Human Capital Development in the International Organization: Rhetoric and Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulvisaechana, Somboon

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to present empirical evidence of the nature of corporate rhetoric in developing human capital and how it becomes embedded within a large international organization operating in the Nordic region. The qualitative case study aims to examine the sensemaking of individual managers, and how human capital rhetoric…

  1. 12 CFR 615.5136 - Emergencies impeding normal access of Farm Credit banks to capital markets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Investment Management § 615.5136 Emergencies impeding normal access of Farm Credit banks to capital markets... defense crisis could impede the normal access of Farm Credit banks to the capital markets. Whenever...

  2. 12 CFR 615.5136 - Emergencies impeding normal access of Farm Credit banks to capital markets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Investment Management § 615.5136 Emergencies impeding normal access of Farm Credit banks to capital markets... defense crisis could impede the normal access of Farm Credit banks to the capital markets. Whenever...

  3. 76 FR 9057 - Capital International, Inc., et al.;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Capital International, Inc., et al.; Notice of Application February 10, 2011. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission''). ACTION: Notice of application for an order under sections...

  4. Measuring capital market efficiency: Global and local correlations structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristoufek, Ladislav; Vosvrda, Miloslav

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new measure for capital market efficiency. The measure takes into consideration the correlation structure of the returns (long-term and short-term memory) and local herding behavior (fractal dimension). The efficiency measure is taken as a distance from an ideal efficient market situation. The proposed methodology is applied to a portfolio of 41 stock indices. We find that the Japanese NIKKEI is the most efficient market. From a geographical point of view, the more efficient markets are dominated by the European stock indices and the less efficient markets cover mainly Latin America, Asia and Oceania. The inefficiency is mainly driven by a local herding, i.e. a low fractal dimension.

  5. Housing market capitalization of energy-saving durable good investments

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.C.

    1981-07-01

    Rising energy prices provide an economic incentive to substitute capital for fuel in production processes, where the extent of substitution that is feasible is constrained by existing technologies. In the residential sector, such capital-fuel substitution depends upon the willingness of builders and homeowners to invest in the durable goods that make the house energy conserving. Since these durable goods become permanently attached to the dwelling unit and since ownership is likely to change over the lifetime of the house, the incentive to carry out an investment in energy conservation depends critically upon the efficiency of the housing market in capitalizing the financial benefits of future fuel savings. In this study of the Knoxville housing market during 1978, an hedonic price equation of the form P = f(U, X) was estimated, where P is the sale price of the house, U is the annual utility (fuel) bill, and X is a vector of structural, locational, and neighborhood attributes. The estimated hedonic price index reveals that, holding other influences constant, the marginal effect of a one-dollar savings in the annual fuel bill is to increase the sale price of the house by approximately $21. Estimates of implicit market discount rates, under various assumptions about fuel escalation rates and remaining lifetimes of the houses, indicate that the housing market performed in a manner consistent with a social discount rate of about 10 percent. The results of the study do not show whether or not investment in energy conservation is proceeding at a socially optimum rate, only that the housing market, in this location and period of time, did operate efficiently in capitalizing the investments.

  6. a Statistical Dynamic Approach to Structural Evolution of Complex Capital Market Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Xiao; Chai, Li H.

    As an important part of modern financial systems, capital market has played a crucial role on diverse social resource allocations and economical exchanges. Beyond traditional models and/or theories based on neoclassical economics, considering capital markets as typical complex open systems, this paper attempts to develop a new approach to overcome some shortcomings of the available researches. By defining the generalized entropy of capital market systems, a theoretical model and nonlinear dynamic equation on the operations of capital market are proposed from statistical dynamic perspectives. The US security market from 1995 to 2001 is then simulated and analyzed as a typical case. Some instructive results are discussed and summarized.

  7. Internal Labor Markets: An Empirical Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Thomas A.; Milkovich, George T.

    Methods of internal labor market analysis for three organizational areas are presented, along with some evidence about the validity and utility of conceptual descriptions of such markets. The general concept of an internal labor market refers to the process of pricing and allocation of manpower resources with an employing organization and rests…

  8. Health care capital market and product market constraints and the role of the chief financial officer.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, J R; Smith, D G

    2001-01-01

    To understand better the financial management practices and strategies of modern health care organizations, we conducted interviews with chief financial officers (CFOs) of several leading health care systems. The constraints imposed on health care systems by both capital and product markets has made the role of the CFO a challenge.

  9. An International Capital Budgeting Experiential Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manuel, Tim; Tangedahl, Lee

    2009-01-01

    This article describes an experiential exercise that uses a brief simulation model intended to introduce undergraduate international finance students to the complexities in corporate investments in foreign countries. Use of the model requires one or preferably two class periods. Student learning goals include: (a) understanding how different…

  10. The role of financial market performance in hospital capital investment.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Kristin L; Song, Paula H

    2011-01-01

    Many not-for-profit hospitals hold large portfolios of financial investments, making them vulnerable to fluctuations in market performance. This article examines the association of bond and equity market performance with investment in property, plant, and equipment by 194 not-for-profit general hospitals in California over the period 1997 to 2006. The study combines retrospective panel data from the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development with year-end returns on the S&P 500 and ten-year US Treasury bonds. Using fixed-effects regression, we find a significant positive association between S&P 500 performance and hospitals' capital investment; investment is not correlated with ten-year Treasury bond performance. PMID:21528832

  11. Social Capital and International Migration from Latin America.

    PubMed

    Massey, Douglas S; Aysa-Lastra, María

    2011-01-01

    We combine data from the Latin American Migration Project and the Mexican Migration Project to estimate models predicting the likelihood of taking of first and later trips to the United States from five nations: Mexico, the Dominican Republic, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Peru. The models test specific hypotheses about the effects of social capital on international migration and how these effects vary with respect to contextual factors. Our findings confirm the ubiquity of migrant networks and the universality of social capital effects throughout Latin America. They also reveal how the sizes of these effects are not uniform across settings. Social capital operates more powerfully on first as opposed to later trips and interacts with the cost of migration. In addition, effects are somewhat different when considering individual social capital (measuring strong ties) and community social capital (measuring weak ties). On first trips, the effect of strong ties in promoting migration increases with distance whereas the effect of weak ties decreases with distance. On later trips, the direction of effects for both individual and community social capital is negative for long distances but positive for short distances. PMID:21915379

  12. Social Capital and International Migration from Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Massey, Douglas S.; Aysa-Lastra, María

    2011-01-01

    We combine data from the Latin American Migration Project and the Mexican Migration Project to estimate models predicting the likelihood of taking of first and later trips to the United States from five nations: Mexico, the Dominican Republic, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Peru. The models test specific hypotheses about the effects of social capital on international migration and how these effects vary with respect to contextual factors. Our findings confirm the ubiquity of migrant networks and the universality of social capital effects throughout Latin America. They also reveal how the sizes of these effects are not uniform across settings. Social capital operates more powerfully on first as opposed to later trips and interacts with the cost of migration. In addition, effects are somewhat different when considering individual social capital (measuring strong ties) and community social capital (measuring weak ties). On first trips, the effect of strong ties in promoting migration increases with distance whereas the effect of weak ties decreases with distance. On later trips, the direction of effects for both individual and community social capital is negative for long distances but positive for short distances. PMID:21915379

  13. An International Marketing Curriculum - Development and Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abboushi, Suhail; Lackman, Conway; Peace, A. Graham

    1999-01-01

    Describes the process of market-driven curriculum design in the development of an undergraduate International Marketing (IM) major at Duquesne University (Pennsylvania) School of Business Administration. Reports on a market study revealing profiles and IM curriculum design preferences of exporting companies. Discusses the curriculum development,…

  14. The Bright Side of Corporate Diversification: Evidence from Internal Labor Markets

    PubMed Central

    Tate, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    We document differences in human-capital deployment between diversified and focused firms. We find that diversified firms have higher labor productivity and that they redeploy labor to industries with better prospects in response to changing opportunities. The opportunities and incentives provided in internal labor markets in turn affect the development of workers' human capital. We find that workers more frequently transition to other industries in which their diversified firms operate and with smaller wage losses compared with workers in the open market, even when they leave their original firms. Overall, internal labor markets provide a bright side to corporate diversification. PMID:26924889

  15. Spillovers among regional and international stock markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huen, Tan Bee; Arsad, Zainudin; Chun, Ooi Po

    2014-07-01

    Realizing the greater risk by the increase in the level of financial market integration, this study investigates the dynamic of international and regional stock markets co-movement among Asian countries with the world leading market, the US. The data utilized in this study comprises of weekly closing prices for four stock indices, that consists of two developing markets (Malaysia and China) and two developed markets (Japan and the US), and encompasses the period from January 1996 to December 2012. Multivariate Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (MGARCH) model with the BEKK parameterization is employed to investigate the mean and volatility spillover effects among the selected stock indices. The results show significant mean spillover not only from the larger developed markets to smaller developing markets but also from the smaller developing markets to larger developed markets. Volatility spillover between the developed markets is found to be smaller than that between the developing markets. Conditional correlations among the stock markets are found to increase over the sample period. The findings of significant mean and volatility spillovers are considered as bad news for international investors as it reduces the benefit from portfolio diversification but act as useful information for investors to be more aware in diversifying their investment or stock selection.

  16. International Voluntary Renewable Energy Markets (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Heeter, J.

    2012-06-01

    This presentation provides an overview of international voluntary renewable energy markets, with a focus on the United States and Europe. The voluntary renewable energy market is the market in which consumers and institutions purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs on a voluntary basis. In 2010, the U.S. voluntary market was estimated at 35 terawatt-hours (TWh) compared to 300 TWh in the European market, though key differences exist. On a customer basis, Australia has historically had the largest number of customers, pricing for voluntary certificates remains low, at less than $1 megawatt-hour, though prices depend on technology.

  17. 78 FR 76521 - Risk-Based Capital Guidelines; Market Risk

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ... capital adequacy and risk profile. In those cases, a banking organization must disclose the general nature... no longer reflective of the bank's capital adequacy and risk profile, then a brief discussion of this... definition of ``Covered position'' to read as follows: Appendix E to Part 225--Capital Adequacy...

  18. Integrating Sustainability Education into International Marketing Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perera, Chamila Roshani; Hewege, Chandana Rathnasiri

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to extend the current knowledge of curriculum developments in international business and marketing curricula. Integrating sustainability into business and marketing curricula of the universities are widely debated in previous literature. Sustainability is a global phenomenon; however, curriculum development…

  19. Marketing Instructional Development Internally, Externally.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lied, James

    This description of the marketing process as a practical way to manage the function of instruction development emphasizes the importance of the identification and evaluation of customer needs before developing objectives. To assist the instructional development agency in focusing on this aspect of planning, a check list of possible marketing…

  20. Schools, Choice and Reputation: Local School Markets and the Distribution of Symbolic Capital in Segregated Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunar, Nihad; Ambrose, Anna

    2016-01-01

    An exploration is presented of how urban spaces, polarized by class and ethnicity, structure the basic conditions of emerging local school markets. The authors investigate how the distribution of symbolic capital, or "hot knowledge" of the market, affects schools, the market, and the urban spaces themselves. The study is guided by…

  1. Labor market segmentation, human capital and the economics of crime. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McGahey, R.M.

    1982-08-24

    This dissertation analyzes the relationships between human capital, labor market structure and crime. Using a unique micro-level data base with individually matched crime and employment data for over 900 felony arrestees, it tests the relative explanatory power of neoclassical economic choice theory and labor market segmentation theory on the determinants of labor market outcomes, criminal behavior, and their interactions.

  2. International markets: Seizing the opportunity

    SciTech Connect

    Heyes, A.

    1997-12-31

    The author begins by highlighting some of the key facts and figures mentioned in a number of papers at this conference, together with a summary of the perceived market barriers. The author believes there are a number of positive things that can be done to smooth the path of encouraging the deployment of clean coal technologies over the next few years, and he discusses a few of these.

  3. Learning organizations, internal marketing, and organizational commitment in hospitals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Knowledge capital is becoming more important to healthcare establishments, especially for hospitals that are facing changing societal and industrial patterns. Hospital staff must engage in a process of continual learning to improve their healthcare skills and provide a superior service to their patients. Internal marketing helps hospital administrators to improve the quality of service provided by nursing staff to their patients and allows hospitals to build a learning culture and enhance the organizational commitment of its nursing staff. Our empirical study provides nursing managers with a tool to allow them to initiate a change in the attitudes of nurses towards work, by constructing a new ‘learning organization’ and using effective internal marketing. Methods A cross-sectional design was employed. Two hundred questionnaires were distributed to nurses working in either a medical centre or a regional hospital in Taichung City, Taiwan, and 114 valid questionnaires were returned (response rate: 57%). The entire process of distribution and returns was completed between 1 October and 31 October 2009. Hypothesis testing was conducted using structural equation modelling. Results A significant positive correlation was found between the existence of a ‘learning organization’, internal marketing, and organizational commitment. Internal marketing was a mediator between creating a learning organization and organizational commitment. Conclusion Nursing managers may be able to apply the creation of a learning organization to strategies that can strengthen employee organizational commitment. Further, when promoting the creation of a learning organization, managers can coordinate their internal marketing practices to enhance the organizational commitment of nurses. PMID:24708601

  4. International wind farm markets: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Rackstraw, K.

    1996-12-31

    More wind energy capacity was installed in 1995 than in any previous year. Two markets, Germany and India, accounted for nearly two-thirds of those installations, while the largest single market in the world historically, the US, ground nearly to a halt. Market supports in Germany and India, however, are vulnerable to political forces largely beyond the control of the wind industry. This paper examines the growth of international wind farm markets worldwide and notes that future markets will be more broadly based, leaving the industry less vulnerable to political changes. The paper also concludes that an additional 18,500 MW could be installed by the year 2005 even without assuming a dire ecological scenario that would create environmental drivers to accelerate wind market growth. 4 figs.

  5. Of neoliberalism and global health: human capital, market failure and sin/social taxes

    PubMed Central

    Reubi, David

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This article tells a different but equally important story about neoliberalism and global health than the narrative on structural adjustment policies usually found in the literature. Rather than focus on macroeconomic structural adjustment policies, this story draws our attention to microeconomic taxation policies on tobacco, alcohol and sugar now widely recognised as the best strategy to control the global non-communicable disease epidemic. Structural adjustment policies are the product of the shift from statist to market-based development models, which was brought about by neoliberal thinkers like Peter Blau and Deepak Lal. In contrast, taxation policies are the result of a different epistemological rupture in international development: the move from economies and physical capital to people and human capital, advocated by Gary Becker and others. This move was part of wider change, which saw Chicago School economists, under the influence of rational choice theory, redefine the object of their discipline, from the study of markets to individual choices. It was this concern with people and their choices that made it possible for Becker and others to identify the importance of price for the demand for tobacco, alcohol and sugar. The same concern also made it easier for them to recognise that there were inefficiencies in the tobacco, alcohol and sugar markets that required government intervention. This story, I suggest, shows that structural adjustment policies and pro-market ideology do not exhaust the relationship between neoliberalism and global health and should not monopolise how we, as political and social scientists, conceive it. PMID:27721572

  6. Applying temporal network analysis to the venture capital market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin; Feng, Ling; Zhu, Rongqian; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2015-10-01

    Using complex network theory to study the investment relationships of venture capital firms has produced a number of significant results. However, previous studies have often neglected the temporal properties of those relationships, which in real-world scenarios play a pivotal role. Here we examine the time-evolving dynamics of venture capital investment in China by constructing temporal networks to represent (i) investment relationships between venture capital firms and portfolio companies and (ii) the syndication ties between venture capital investors. The evolution of the networks exhibits rich variations in centrality, connectivity and local topology. We demonstrate that a temporal network approach provides a dynamic and comprehensive analysis of real-world networks.

  7. Bookworms and Party Animals: An Artificial Labour Market with Human and Social Capital Accumulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farhat, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Data show that educated workers earn higher wages and are unemployed less often. Some researchers believe that education improves a worker's productivity (or "human capital"), making them more desirable on the job market, while others believe that it improves a worker's network (or "social capital"), giving them more…

  8. 12 CFR 615.5136 - Emergencies impeding normal access of Farm Credit banks to capital markets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... defense crisis could impede the normal access of Farm Credit banks to the capital markets. Whenever the... financial, economic, agricultural, national defense, or other crisis could impede the normal access of...

  9. Commoditization of the international teleradiology market.

    PubMed

    McLean, Thomas

    2007-04-01

    Telemedicine improves access to medical care. However, telemedicine will also increase market volatility because of its ability to stimulate price competition and the insidious way it shifts liability for providing medical services. To cope with increased volatility, other economic sectors have evolved commodities markets by making greater use of standardized forward/future contracts. In the past, the need for medical services to be produced and consumed locally and a lack of an objective definition for medical quality, prohibited the use of forward contracts for health-care services. However, telemedicine, and the increasing use of statistical definitions of medical quality now make standardized forward contracts for health-care services conceivable. Commoditization of teleradiology would offer several advantages including increasing market transparency, a mechanism for ensuring medical quality, and a means for bringing capital into the health-care sector. To reap the benefits of a commodities market in teleradiology, the key will be for market stakeholders to overcome their fear of the unknown in order to organize a central exchange. PMID:17407664

  10. Commoditization of the international teleradiology market.

    PubMed

    McLean, Thomas

    2007-04-01

    Telemedicine improves access to medical care. However, telemedicine will also increase market volatility because of its ability to stimulate price competition and the insidious way it shifts liability for providing medical services. To cope with increased volatility, other economic sectors have evolved commodities markets by making greater use of standardized forward/future contracts. In the past, the need for medical services to be produced and consumed locally and a lack of an objective definition for medical quality, prohibited the use of forward contracts for health-care services. However, telemedicine, and the increasing use of statistical definitions of medical quality now make standardized forward contracts for health-care services conceivable. Commoditization of teleradiology would offer several advantages including increasing market transparency, a mechanism for ensuring medical quality, and a means for bringing capital into the health-care sector. To reap the benefits of a commodities market in teleradiology, the key will be for market stakeholders to overcome their fear of the unknown in order to organize a central exchange.

  11. Do online pharmacies fit European internal markets?

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, Mia Maria; Rautava, Päivi Tuire; Forsström, Jari Johannes

    2005-05-01

    The aim of this article is to consider the suitability of online pharmacies into European internal market area. This required considering the models of present online pharmacies in respect to the existing legislation. Data on online pharmacy settings was collected by looking some online pharmacies, which were found by using Goggle search machine with term "online pharmacy" and by studying websites of some well-known online pharmacies. European legislation and policy were studied from European Union's official website. Online drug markets seem to be increasing in popularity for reasons related to their ready availability and cost benefits. Few online pharmacies are based in Europe, yet online markets are worldwide. Community legislation does not stipulate on the legality of online pharmacies on European internal markets. Instead Community legislation offers framework for electronic commerce that could also include online pharmacy practise. National legislation, however, may rule them out either directly or indirectly. Regardless of European internal markets online pharmacies' cross-border operations are particularly complicated. Preliminary ruling from the European Court of Justice concerning one European online pharmacy's cross-border practise is awaited 2003-2004 and will offer some aspects for future. PMID:15802158

  12. Do online pharmacies fit European internal markets?

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, Mia Maria; Rautava, Päivi Tuire; Forsström, Jari Johannes

    2005-05-01

    The aim of this article is to consider the suitability of online pharmacies into European internal market area. This required considering the models of present online pharmacies in respect to the existing legislation. Data on online pharmacy settings was collected by looking some online pharmacies, which were found by using Goggle search machine with term "online pharmacy" and by studying websites of some well-known online pharmacies. European legislation and policy were studied from European Union's official website. Online drug markets seem to be increasing in popularity for reasons related to their ready availability and cost benefits. Few online pharmacies are based in Europe, yet online markets are worldwide. Community legislation does not stipulate on the legality of online pharmacies on European internal markets. Instead Community legislation offers framework for electronic commerce that could also include online pharmacy practise. National legislation, however, may rule them out either directly or indirectly. Regardless of European internal markets online pharmacies' cross-border operations are particularly complicated. Preliminary ruling from the European Court of Justice concerning one European online pharmacy's cross-border practise is awaited 2003-2004 and will offer some aspects for future.

  13. Critical Success Factors for International Education Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzarol, Tim

    1998-01-01

    Reports a survey of 315 higher education and private secondary institutions in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, United Kingdom, and United States that investigated factors critical to success in international marketing of educational programs. Results suggest that two factor groups (reputation and resources, and possession of international…

  14. Strategic Marketing Planning in International Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunnell, Tristan

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: International schools are a growing class of educational institution. It has been suggested that few schools of this type have a marketing plan whilst research into development planning showed that few had a long-range plan. This paper aims to investigate these issues. Design/methodology/approach: This paper deals with a survey of 32…

  15. Education and the Labour Market: Subjective Aspects of Human Capital Investment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killeen, John; Turton, Richard; Diamond, Wayne; Dosnon, Odile; Wach, Monique

    1999-01-01

    Explores subjective aspects of human-capital investment decisions in education. Explores connections that 11th- and 13th-year British students perceive between their education and the labor market, and between qualifications mechanisms and life chances. Most students believe education plays a market-signaling role and a marginal role in raising…

  16. Education, Labour Market and Human Capital Models: Swedish Experiences and Theoretical Analyses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sohlman, Asa

    An empirical study concerning development of the Swedish educational system from a labor market point of view, and a theoretical study on human capital models are discussed. In "Education and Labour Market; The Swedish Experience 1900-1975," attention is directed to the following concerns: the official educational policy regarding education and…

  17. A cross-section test of Cobb-Douglass production function between market capitalization and GDP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avakian, Adam; Podobnik, Boris; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2012-02-01

    Most classical economic theories imply that both (a) economies with lower output (GDP) per person tend to grow faster in per capita terms and (b) economies with lower capital per person tend to grow faster in per capita terms. It is well-known that the former was found to be wrong. Taking market capitalization as a proxy for physical capital, we analyze a cohort of countries over a 17-year period (1994-2010) and we find the latter statement in agreement with empirical data implying a contradictive result that while capital data worldwide tend to converge, GDP data tend to diverge. However, for the countries analyzed, for which we have both market capitalization and GDP data, we find that even economies with lower output (GDP) per person tend to grow faster in per capita terms. The result that for all countries one obtains divergence while for a group of countries having both market capitalization and GDP data we have convergence is in contrast with the refutation of (a) but our results only apply to countries that have an exchange market, and are thus participating in globalization, indicating the convergent effect of globalization.

  18. Changes and Challenges in the Flow of International Human Capital: China's Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Su-Yan

    2010-01-01

    This article tracks the changes in the directions of the international flow of Chinese human capital between the 1870s and 2000s. Although many studies on international academic flow adopt the pull-and-push approach, this article argues that the direction of human capital flow is not determined solely by an individual's choice when faced with a…

  19. Shifting Capital: Electronic Publishing on Bourdieu's Linguistic Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nahrwold, Cindy; Quaintance, J.

    A study examined scholarly journals available exclusively online, those available exclusively in traditional paper form, and an emerging category blurring the boundaries between them. The analysis uses Pierre Bourdieu's theory of linguistic habitus, the marketplaces, and symbolic capital to understand the difference(s) between traditional and…

  20. A market analysis approach to bidding for capitated clinical laboratory and pathology services contracts.

    PubMed

    Markel, S F; Venner, A M

    1995-07-01

    Traditional episodic, fee-for-service medical care and indemnity-type insurance are rapidly being replaced by managed health care plans that often include financial risk assumption by health care providers. This paper describes the application of marketing principles to the evaluation and capture of capitated clinical laboratory and pathology services contracts. It includes a method for developing capitation rates and describes advantages enjoyed by hospital-based laboratories that enhance their competitiveness in the marketplace. PMID:7625905

  1. A New View of Institutions, Human Capital, and Market Standardisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Jacob P.; Loomis, Steven R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues that the rule-making function of institutions introduces an information distortion into markets--economic, political, and cultural--that changes the rational pattern of resource allocation. As markets expand, this distortion raises the price of individual talent and skill development in production. It leads to a public-private…

  2. 78 FR 43829 - Risk-Based Capital Guidelines; Market Risk

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), which are referenced in the Board's market risk... transparency through enhanced disclosures. \\1\\ 77 FR 53060 (August 30, 2012). The agencies' market risk rules... additional detail on this history in the preamble to the August 2012 final rule. See, 77 FR 53060,...

  3. Evolution of FX Markets via Globalization of Capital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCauley, Joseph L.

    This paper is about money, and why today's foreign exchange (FX) markets are unstable. According to the literature [1], FX markets were fundamentally different before and after WW I. Any attempt to discuss this topic within standard economic theory necessarily fails because money/liquidity/uncertainty is completely excluded from that theory [2]. Fortunately, our market dynamics models adequately serve our purpose. Eichengreen [1] has presented a stimulating history of the evolution of FX markets from the gold standard of the late nineteenth century through the Bretton Woods Agreement (post WWII-1971) and later the floating currencies of our present market deregulation era (1971-present). He asserts a change from stability to instability over the time interval of WWI. Making his argument precise, we describe how speculators could have made money systematically from a market in statistical equilibrium. The present era normal liquid FX markets are in contrast very hard, to a first approximation impossible, to beat, and consequently are described as `martingales'. The ideas of martingales and options/hedging were irrelevant in the pre-WWI era. I end my historical discussion with the empirical evidence for the stochastic model that describes FX market dynamics quantitatively accurately during the last 7-17 years [3].

  4. Internal modelling under Risk-Based Capital (RBC) framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Ang Siew; Hin, Pooi Ah

    2015-12-01

    Very often the methods for the internal modelling under the Risk-Based Capital framework make use of the data which are in the form of run-off triangle. The present research will instead extract from a group of n customers, the historical data for the sum insured si of the i-th customer together with the amount paid yij and the amount aij reported but not yet paid in the j-th development year for j = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. We model the future value (yij+1, aij+1) to be dependent on the present year value (yij, aij) and the sum insured si via a conditional distribution which is derived from a multivariate power-normal mixture distribution. For a group of given customers with different original purchase dates, the distribution of the aggregate claims liabilities may be obtained from the proposed model. The prediction interval based on the distribution for the aggregate claim liabilities is found to have good ability of covering the observed aggregate claim liabilities.

  5. Market entry and exit by biotech and device companies funded by venture capital.

    PubMed

    Burns, Lawton R; Housman, Michael G; Robinson, Charles A

    2009-01-01

    Start-up companies in the biotechnology and medical device sectors are important sources of health care innovation. This paper describes the role of venture capital in supporting these companies and charts the growth in venture capital financial support. The paper then uses longitudinal data to describe market entry and exit by these companies. Similar factors are associated with entry and exit in the two sectors. Entries and exits in one sector also appear to influence entry in the other. These findings have important implications for developing innovative technologies and ensuring competitive markets in the life sciences.

  6. Human Capital and the Internal Rate of Return.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Sherwin

    The theory of human capital has made a significant impact on the practice of modern labor economics. At a broad and general level, the concept of human capital has obvious appeal for its simplicity, analytical power, and relationship to economic theory. The fundamental problem in labor economics is the determination of wage rates and earnings;…

  7. The International Business Research Agenda: Recommendations from Marketing Practitioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundstrom, William J.; White, D. Steven; Schuster, Camille P.

    1997-01-01

    A survey of 250 American Marketing Association members investigated which international business research topics were seen as having high utility or importance. It also identified five latent factors (global market expansion; international marketing management; management issues in an international context; quality, values, and expectations;…

  8. Setting capitation payments in markets for health services

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Randall P.; McGuire, Thomas G.

    1987-01-01

    Health maintenance organizations (HMO's) are paid a capitated amount for enrolled Medicare beneficiaries that is 95 percent of what these enrollees would be expected to cost in the fee-for-service sector. However, it appears that HMO enrollees are less costly than other Medicare beneficiaries. With a simulation model, we demonstrate that with a 95-percent pricing rule, any significant degree of biased selection leads to increased cost to the payer, even when HMO's are cost effective compared with the fee-for-service sector. Optimal pricing percentages from the point of view of cost minimization are considerably less than 95 percent. PMID:10312188

  9. A Dynamic Analysis of Social Capital-Building of International and UK Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rienties, Bart; Johan, Novie; Jindal-Snape, Divya

    2015-01-01

    Although many international students experience transitional issues, most research assumes these issues will disappear over time. Using principles of social capital theory, this study addressed whether after three years of study students were able to build multi-national and host social capital links. In this quantitative study of 81 students from…

  10. Labor Market Effects of Human Capital and of Its Adjustment to Technological Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mincer, Jacob

    This document, a review of labor market effects of human capital, focuses on two related topics. Part I describes the following early findings of the research on effects of education and job training on the wage structure, labor turnover, and unemployment: decline of training with experience, positive and significant effects of training on length…

  11. Resource adequacy, capital adequacy and investment uncertainty in the Australian power market

    SciTech Connect

    Simshauser, Paul

    2010-01-15

    Ignoring the importance of capital markets risks overlooking one of the most fundamental drivers of investment and price in the utilities industry. While the worst effects of the financial crisis are beginning to subside, the residual fallout will be more than a passing fad for energy utilities. (author)

  12. Capital Investment and Market Segmentation: Making Movies for Mormon Audiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Newell D.; Larsen, Val

    2014-01-01

    Is there a commercially viable market in the United States for movies made for Mormons? David "Dutch" Richards, a graduate of Brigham Young University's School of Film, thinks there is. He believes that in the Western United States, especially in Utah and the Intermountain West, there are enough Mormons who would pay to watch a film…

  13. 77 FR 53059 - Risk-Based Capital Guidelines: Market Risk

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... requirement under the internal models approach (see http://www.bis.org/press/p970918a.htm ). \\5\\ 61 FR 47358..., one-tail, 99.0 percent confidence level soundness standard. \\8\\ 76 FR 1890 (January 11, 2011)....

  14. Cultural, Social, and Economic Capital Constructs in International Assessments: An Evaluation Using Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caro, Daniel H.; Sandoval-Hernández, Andrés; Lüdtke, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The article employs exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) to evaluate constructs of economic, cultural, and social capital in international large-scale assessment (LSA) data from the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2006 and the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2009. ESEM integrates the…

  15. Income, Experience, and the Structure of Internal Labor Markets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Arthur J.

    This paper examines the relationships between the structure of internal labor markets and the mobility, experience, and income of workers. The author discusses the taxonomy of the markets and the predicted differential impact of experience. Internal labor markets are classified according to the assumption that structure is related to mobility. In…

  16. Embedding Marketing in International Campus Development: Lessons from UK Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Vicky

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides recommendations for embedding a market- and marketing-informed approach within the development process for a new international campus. It includes a brief outline of the current global profile of international campuses (as one form of transnational education) before highlighting the role of marketing at key stages of campus…

  17. Can Market Capitalism Be Greened? Environmental Education Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Deb J.; Tulloch, Lynley

    2013-01-01

    Widespread recognition of the detrimental effects that human activities have had on nature and its ecosystems can now be found in every domain of public policy. Since the inception of international accords in the 1970s provoked greater engagement by nations in environmental amelioration measures, "education" has been lauded as an important panacea…

  18. 76 FR 1889 - Risk-Based Capital Guidelines: Market Risk

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-11

    ... the internal models approach (see http://www.bis.org/press/p970918a.htm ). \\5\\ 61 FR 47358 (September... the Basel II Framework (collectively, the 2009 revisions). \\6\\ 71 FR 55958, (September 25, 2006). The... Condition and Income (Call Report) or to the FR Y-9C Consolidated Financial Statements for Bank...

  19. Fractality Evidence and Long-Range Dependence on Capital Markets: a Hurst Exponent Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oprean, Camelia; Tănăsescu, Cristina

    2014-07-01

    Since the existence of market memory could implicate the rejection of the efficient market hypothesis, the aim of this paper is to find any evidence that selected emergent capital markets (eight European and BRIC markets, namely Hungary, Romania, Estonia, Czech Republic, Brazil, Russia, India and China) evince long-range dependence or the random walk hypothesis. In this paper, the Hurst exponent as calculated by R/S fractal analysis and Detrended Fluctuation Analysis is our measure of long-range dependence in the series. The results reinforce our previous findings and suggest that if stock returns present long-range dependence, the random walk hypothesis is not valid anymore and neither is the market efficiency hypothesis.

  20. Summer 2014 Marketing Intern Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pereda-Ramos, Marlee

    2014-01-01

    As a summer 2014 Marketing Intern for NASA Kennedy Space Centers (KSCs) Center Planning and Development directorate, I have gained much experience and knowledge of what is expected of me in any work environment. Throughout my time at KSC, I have had a number of responsibilities and duties, many of which involved collaborating with other directorates in order to acquire guidance and information from other NASA experts, attending and participating in meetings, and also editing and providing input to a collective project. My goal in this paper is to summarize my experience at KSC by explaining my responsibilities in detail and the skills I am able to take away as a result that will further aid me in my career path for the future.

  1. Selecting international markets: lessons from for-profit hospitals.

    PubMed

    Zinn, J S; Kashlak, R J; Balotsky, E R

    1994-01-01

    As growth potential in the U.S. market declines and regulatory constraints increase, providers of health-related services may look increasingly to international opportunities as a way to supplement the lost domestic market. In this article, critical factors bearing on the decision to compete in international markets are identified. Existing theories of multinational competition are expanded to provide a framework for analyzing international competition. Applied in the context of the proprietary hospital industry, the critical factors governing both the selection of foreign markets and mode of entry are proposed to be host country receptivity and market growth potential. PMID:10132097

  2. Selecting international markets: lessons from for-profit hospitals.

    PubMed

    Zinn, J S; Kashlak, R J; Balotsky, E R

    1994-01-01

    As growth potential in the U.S. market declines and regulatory constraints increase, providers of health-related services may look increasingly to international opportunities as a way to supplement the lost domestic market. In this article, critical factors bearing on the decision to compete in international markets are identified. Existing theories of multinational competition are expanded to provide a framework for analyzing international competition. Applied in the context of the proprietary hospital industry, the critical factors governing both the selection of foreign markets and mode of entry are proposed to be host country receptivity and market growth potential.

  3. Capital market based warning indicators of bank runs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakhtina, Elena; Wosnitza, Jan Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In this investigation, we examine the univariate as well as the multivariate capabilities of the log-periodic [super-exponential] power law (LPPL) for the prediction of bank runs. The research is built upon daily CDS spreads of 40 international banks for the period from June 2007 to March 2010, i.e. at the heart of the global financial crisis. For this time period, 20 of the financial institutions received federal bailouts and are labeled as defaults while the remaining institutions are categorized as non-defaults. The employed multivariate pattern recognition approach represents a modification of the CORA3 algorithm. The approach is found to be robust regardless of reasonable changes of its inputs. Despite the fact that distinct alarm indices for banks do not clearly demonstrate predictive capabilities of the LPPL, the synchronized alarm indices confirm the multivariate discriminative power of LPPL patterns in CDS spread developments acknowledged by bootstrap intervals with 70% confidence level.

  4. 78 FR 41128 - Market Test of International Merchandise Return Service

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... Market Test of International Merchandise Return Service AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION... test of a competitive experimental product called International Merchandise Return Service-Non... Service filed a notice, pursuant to 39 U.S.C. 3641, announcing its intent to conduct a market test of...

  5. Evidence of fueling of the 2000 new economy bubble by foreign capital inflow: implications for the future of the US economy and its stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sornette, Didier; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2004-02-01

    Previous analyses of a large ensemble of stock markets have demonstrated that a log-periodic power law (LPPL) behavior of the prices constitutes a qualifying signature of speculative bubbles that often land with a crash. We detect such a LPPL signature in the foreign capital inflow during the bubble on the US markets culminating in March 2000. We detect a weak synchronization and lag with the NASDAQ LPPL pattern. We propose to rationalize these observations by the existence of positive feedback loops between market-appreciation/increased-spending/increased-deficit-of-balance-of-payment/larger-foreign-surplus/increased-foreign-capital-inflows and so on. Our analysis suggests that foreign capital inflow has been following rather than causing the bubble. We then combine a macroeconomic analysis of feedback processes occurring between the economy and the stock market with a technical analysis of more than 200 years of the DJIA to investigate possible scenarios for the future, three years after the end of the bubble and deep into a bearish regime. We conclude that the low interest rates and depreciating dollar are the indispensable ingredients for a lower sustainable burden of the global US debt structure and for allowing the slow rebuilding of an internationally competitive economy. This will probably be accompanied by a weak stock market on the medium term as the growing Federal deficit is consuming a large part of the foreign surplus dollars and the stock market is remaining a very risky and unattractive investment. Notwithstanding strong surge of liquidity in recent months orchestrated by the Federal Reserve, this macroeconomic analysis which incorporates an element of collective behavior is in line with our recent analyses of the bearish market that started in 2000 in terms of a LPPL “anti-bubble”. We project this LPPL anti-bubble to continue at least for another year. On the short term, increased availability of liquidity (M1) and self-fulfilling bullish

  6. Asymmetric conditional volatility in international stock markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Nuno B.; Menezes, Rui; Mendes, Diana A.

    2007-08-01

    Recent studies show that a negative shock in stock prices will generate more volatility than a positive shock of similar magnitude. The aim of this paper is to appraise the hypothesis under which the conditional mean and the conditional variance of stock returns are asymmetric functions of past information. We compare the results for the Portuguese Stock Market Index PSI 20 with six other Stock Market Indices, namely the SP 500, FTSE 100, DAX 30, CAC 40, ASE 20, and IBEX 35. In order to assess asymmetric volatility we use autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity specifications known as TARCH and EGARCH. We also test for asymmetry after controlling for the effect of macroeconomic factors on stock market returns using TAR and M-TAR specifications within a VAR framework. Our results show that the conditional variance is an asymmetric function of past innovations raising proportionately more during market declines, a phenomenon known as the leverage effect. However, when we control for the effect of changes in macroeconomic variables, we find no significant evidence of asymmetric behaviour of the stock market returns. There are some signs that the Portuguese Stock Market tends to show somewhat less market efficiency than other markets since the effect of the shocks appear to take a longer time to dissipate.

  7. International Investment in Human Capital: Overseas Education for Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Craufurd D., Ed.

    This document contains 10 essays based on papers presented at a 1991 conference on the changed role of overseas education in development. The book discusses the impact of the end of the Cold War and a rapidly changing economic environment on the rationale for international student and faculty mobility. The practice in developing nations of…

  8. International Business Education in Estonia--from Socialism to Capitalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palm, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    Issues in reform of international business and economics education at Tartu University (Estonia) are discussed, including need for faculty development, faculty reallocation, and redistribution of resources within the country's new social and economic context. It is argued that reform depends on effective integration of foreign experts with more…

  9. Rethinking International Migration of Human Capital and Brain Circulation: The Case of Chinese-Canadian Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blachford, Dongyan Ru; Zhang, Bailing

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the dynamics of brain circulation through a historical review of the debates over international migration of human capital and a case study on Chinese-Canadian academics. Interviews with 22 Chinese-Canadian professors who originally came from China provide rich data regarding the possibilities and problems of the contemporary…

  10. World Development Report 1985. International Capital and Economic Development. World Development Indicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Washington, DC.

    Focusing on the contribution that international capital makes to economic development, this report shows how countries at different stages of development have used external finance productively; how the institutional and policy environment affects the volume and composition of financial flows to developing countries; and how the international…

  11. Surviving utopia: Energy, social capital, and international migration in Ixcan, Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Matthew John

    Mounting peasant impoverishment in Guatemala comes face to face with growing ecological impoverishment. Abysmal living standards for Guatemala's majority results from highly skewed land distribution, rapid population growth, and a brutal civil war, which lasted almost four decades and laid waste to many rural communities and fields. In the face of such adversity, Guatemalans migrate to remaining forested frontiers and make longer journeys to North America in search of work. In an attempt to understand and improve natural resource use, especially firewood, I uncover how networks of social relations (social capital) and international migration influence livelihoods in agricultural communities along a forested frontier. I used both qualitative and quantitative methods to gather information about the lives of residents in four agricultural villages in Ixcan, Guatemala. The results from extended fieldwork illustrate how high levels of social capital can benefit the lives of rural residents. I argue that development programs can take advantage of existing high levels of social capital and take measures to create social capital where it is lacking to ensure the successful implementation of development programs. I also discuss firewood management in each community and demonstrate the disjuncture between local firewood use and national energy plans. Finally, I show how migrants and the money they send home from North America radically alter land use and land distribution in this part of rural Guatemala. My study reveals the need to examine the linkages between large-scale international migration, social capital, and the environment in communities that rely on the land for survival.

  12. International Differences in the Labor Market Performance of Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borjas, George J.

    A study examined international differences in how immigrants perform in the labor market of their chosen country of residence. The empirical analysis used five census data sets from the three host countries to document the labor market performance of foreign-born persons in Australia, Canada, and the United States. Among the major empirical…

  13. The International Marketing Environment: Textbook Content versus Educators' Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonidou, Leonidas C.; Kaminarides, John S.; Panayides, Photis

    2007-01-01

    The article analyzes the content of 18 international marketing academic textbooks with regard to factors comprising the global marketing environment. Three broad categories of factors are identified, the macro (i.e., physical, demographic, and socio-cultural), meso (i.e., economic, political-legal, and technological), and micro (i.e.,…

  14. International livestock markets and the impact of animal disease.

    PubMed

    Morgan, N; Prakash, A

    2006-08-01

    Escalating and pervasive outbreaks of animal diseases are posing considerable challenges to livestock producers, industries, and policy-makers around the globe in a context of steadily rising demand for locally produced and imported livestock products. This paper reviews the factors and trends underpinning the growth in meat trade over the past decade and assesses the impact of animal diseases on international markets. The factors shaping the transmission of the impact of animal disease to global markets and back into domestic markets are identified and the potential global market impact of further animal disease outbreaks evaluated.

  15. Evaluating Knowledge and Critical Thinking in International Marketing Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manton, Edgar J.; English, Donald E.; Kernek, Courtney Russ

    2008-01-01

    In view of the increasing business globalization trend, the development and implementation of teaching/learning strategies appropriate for the international marketing curriculum is a critical factor for the success of international business students. Bloom's taxonomy is a useful tool that can assist the teacher in testing and instructional…

  16. Using Web-Based Foreign Advertisements in International Marketing Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Jason

    2011-01-01

    The author examines the use of the Web-based foreign advertisements for enhancing the international awareness of undergraduate marketing students. An analysis compares the adaptation of advertisements for identical products to the cultural perceptions and values of consumers in different countries. In a sample of 110 international marketing…

  17. Markets, Schools and the Convertibility of Economic Capital: The Complex Dynamics of Class Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Kathleen; Moran, Marie

    2006-01-01

    While economic capital is not synonymous with cultural, social or symbolic capital in either its constitutional or organizational form, it nevertheless remains the more flexible and convertible form of capital. The convertibility of economic capital has particular resonance within "Celtic Tiger" Ireland. The states reluctance to fully endorse an…

  18. NHS internal market 1991-2: towards a balance sheet.

    PubMed Central

    Petchey, R

    1993-01-01

    The first year of the internal market in the NHS has been claimed to have resulted in increased efficiency. These claims, however, are hard to substantiate because the systems for operating the market are not fully in place. Examination of data on tax relief for private health insurance premiums for over 60s, general practice fundholding, and implementation and transaction costs suggest that much of the increased efficiency is not due to the reforms but to increased funding. Furthermore, some of the changes seem to be decreasing market forces and reducing efficiency. Images p700-a PMID:8471927

  19. Gathering International Competitive Intelligence via Online Data Retrieval in the International Marketing Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Fred

    A unit on online data retrieval techniques designed for a college course in international marketing is described. The unit is intended to teach students how to compile information on overseas markets and competitors. Online retrieval is seen as a relatively inexpensive means of gathering important data from otherwise inaccessible international…

  20. A Road-Map for Creating Efficient Corporate Internal Labor Markets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotorov, Rado; Hsu, Emily

    2002-01-01

    Free internal labor markets allowing internal mobility aid in retaining employees. To design effective internal markets requires understanding potential conflicts of interest, designing processes to resolve them, communicating with employees, and alleviating their concerns. (Contains 15 references.) (SK)

  1. Establishing a Companywide Customer Orientation through Persuasive Internal Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Kathleen K.; Enis, Ben

    1990-01-01

    Argues that applying persuasion strategies to internal marketing efforts can facilitate the adoption of a customer orientation among employees and elicit greater commitment to the company and its goals. Examines four specific persuasion strategies: defining the customer satisfaction link; encouraging self-efficacy; providing rewards; and creating…

  2. An Exploratory Study of Marketing International Education Online.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomes, Liza; Murphy, Jamie

    2003-01-01

    Investigated from two perspectives the Internet's role in communicating educational opportunities: students' Internet use to facilitate information search and decision making, and educational institutions' e-business adoption and implementation. Two surveys of international students and face-to-face interviews with marketing executives from nine…

  3. Excellent Prospects for Beautiful Minds: Marketing International Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuori, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine how Finnish higher education institutions communicate market differentiation on the admissions webpages of their international business and technology programmes when attempting to appeal to prospective students and distinguish themselves from other institutions. Design/Methodology/Approach: The…

  4. Australian Educational Institutions International Markets: A Correspondence Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzarol, Timothy W.; Soutar, Geoffrey N.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The global market for international students have become highly competitive and many institutions, particularly higher education institutions, rely heavily on fee income from overseas students. This study aims to examine the countries from which Australian education institutions draw such students and used this information to better…

  5. International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland).

    The World Health Organization's final draft of the "International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes" is presented in its entirety. Recognizing that breast-feeding is an unequalled way of providing ideal food for the healthy growth and development of infants, the Code's aim is to contribute to the safe and adequate nutrition of infants…

  6. Native Internal Migration and the Labor Market Impact of Immigration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borjas, George J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical and empirical study of how immigration influences the joint determination of the wage structure and internal migration behavior for native-born workers in local labor markets. Using data from the 1960-2000 decennial censuses, the study shows that immigration is associated with lower in-migration rates, higher…

  7. Measuring efficiency of international crude oil markets: A multifractality approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niere, H. M.

    2015-01-01

    The three major international crude oil markets are treated as complex systems and their multifractal properties are explored. The study covers daily prices of Brent crude, OPEC reference basket and West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude from January 2, 2003 to January 2, 2014. A multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) is employed to extract the generalized Hurst exponents in each of the time series. The generalized Hurst exponent is used to measure the degree of multifractality which in turn is used to quantify the efficiency of the three international crude oil markets. To identify whether the source of multifractality is long-range correlations or broad fat-tail distributions, shuffled data and surrogated data corresponding to each of the time series are generated. Shuffled data are obtained by randomizing the order of the price returns data. This will destroy any long-range correlation of the time series. Surrogated data is produced using the Fourier-Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (F-DFA). This is done by randomizing the phases of the price returns data in Fourier space. This will normalize the distribution of the time series. The study found that for the three crude oil markets, there is a strong dependence of the generalized Hurst exponents with respect to the order of fluctuations. This shows that the daily price time series of the markets under study have signs of multifractality. Using the degree of multifractality as a measure of efficiency, the results show that WTI is the most efficient while OPEC is the least efficient market. This implies that OPEC has the highest likelihood to be manipulated among the three markets. This reflects the fact that Brent and WTI is a very competitive market hence, it has a higher level of complexity compared against OPEC, which has a large monopoly power. Comparing with shuffled data and surrogated data, the findings suggest that for all the three crude oil markets, the multifractality is mainly due to long

  8. Climate Change Impact Assessments for International Market Systems (CLIMARK)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, J. A.; Andresen, J.; Black, J.; Bujdoso, G.; Chmielewski, F.; Kirschke, D.; Kurlus, R.; Liszewska, M.; Loveridge, S.; Niedzwiedz, T.; Nizalov, D.; Rothwell, N.; Tan, P.; Ustrnul, Z.; von Witzke, H.; Zavalloni, C.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, S.

    2012-12-01

    The vast majority of climate change impact assessments evaluate how local or regional systems and processes may be affected by a future climate. Alternative strategies that extend beyond the local or regional scale are needed when assessing the potential impacts of climate change on international market systems, including agricultural commodities. These industries have multiple production regions that are distributed worldwide and are likely to be differentially impacted by climate change. Furthermore, for many industries and market systems, especially those with long-term climate-dependent investments, temporal dynamics need to be incorporated into the assessment process, including changing patterns of international trade, consumption and production, and evolving adaptation strategies by industry stakeholder groups. A framework for conducting climate change assessments for international market systems, developed as part of the CLIMARK (Climate Change and International Markets) project is outlined, and progress toward applying the framework for an impact assessment for the international tart cherry industry is described. The tart cherry industry was selected for analysis in part because tart cherries are a perennial crop requiring long-term investments by the producer. Components of the project include the preparation of fine resolution climate scenarios, evaluation of phenological models for diverse production regions, the development of a yield model for tart cherry production, new methods for incorporating individual decision making and adaptation options into impact assessments, and modification of international trade models for use in impact studies. Innovative aspects of the project include linkages between model components and evaluation of the mega-uncertainty surrounding the assessment outcomes. Incorporation of spatial and temporal dynamics provides a more comprehensive evaluation of climate change impacts and an assessment product of potentially greater

  9. [European integration and health policies: repercussions of the internal European Market on access to health services].

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Luisa; Giovanella, Lígia

    2006-09-01

    This article explores the health policy repercussions of countries' regional integration into the European Union. The aim is to review the regulation of access in other countries, with the conclusion of the single European market and the free circulation of persons, services, goods, and capital. The article begins by reviewing the various forms of integration and describes the expansion and institutionalization of Community agencies. The repercussions of European integration on health policies and regulation of access are analyzed. Market impacts on health result from Treaty directives and internal policy adjustments to free circulation. Health services access is gradually regulated and granted by rulings. Projects along borders illustrate the dynamics where differences are used to achieve comprehensive care. In the oldest integration experience, the market regulation has generated intentional and non-intentional impacts on the health policies of member states, regardless of the organizational model. Knowledge and analysis of this experience signals challenges for the Southern Cone Common Market (Mercosur) and adds to future debates and decisions.

  10. European health systems and the internal market: reshaping ideology?

    PubMed

    da Costa Leite Borges, Danielle

    2011-12-01

    Departing from theories of distributive justice and their relation with the distribution of health care within society, especially egalitarianism and libertarianism, this paper aims at demonstrating that the approach taken by the European Court of Justice regarding the application of the Internal Market principles (or the market freedoms) to the field of health care services has introduced new values which are more concerned with a libertarian view of health care. Moreover, the paper also addresses the question of how these new values introduced by the Court may affect common principles of European health systems, such as equity and accessibility.

  11. A cross-sectional description of social capital in an international sample of persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Social capital refers to the resources linked to having a strong social network. This concept plays into health outcomes among People Living with HIV/AIDS because, globally, this is a highly marginalized population. Case studies show that modifying social capital can lead to improvements in HIV transmission and management; however, there remains a lack of description or definition of social capital in international settings. The purpose of our paper was to describe the degree of social capital in an international sample of adults living with HIV/AIDS. Methods We recruited PLWH at 16 sites from five countries including Canada, China, Namibia, Thailand, and the United States. Participants (n = 1,963) completed a cross-sectional survey and data were collected between August, 2009 and December, 2010. Data analyses included descriptive statistics, factor analysis, and correlational analysis. Results Participant's mean age was 45.2 years, most (69%) identified as male, African American/Black (39.9%), and unemployed (69.5%). Total mean social capital was 2.68 points, a higher than average total social capital score. Moderate correlations were observed between self-reported physical (r = 0.25) and psychological condition (r = 0.36), social support (r = 0.31), and total social capital. No relationships between mental health factors, including substance use, and social capital were detected. Conclusions This is the first report to describe levels of total social capital in an international sample of PLWH and to describe its relationship to self-reported health in this population. PMID:22414342

  12. On the integration of financial markets: How strong is the evidence from five international stock markets?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentes, Sónia R.

    2015-07-01

    This paper examines the integration of financial markets using data from five international stock markets in the context of globalization. The theoretical basis of this study relies on the price theory and the Law of One Price, which was adjusted to the framework of financial markets. When price levels are nonstationary, cointegration and the error correction model constitute a powerful tool for the empirical examination of market integration. The error correction model provides a fully dynamic framework that allows to separating the long and the short run effects of the integration process. A dataset encompassing the daily stock price series of the PSI 20 (Portugal), IBEX 35 (Spain), FTSE 100 (UK), NIKKEI 225 (Japan) and SP 500 (US) indices from January 4th 1999 to September 19th 2014 is employed. The results highlight that these five stock markets are linked together by just one long-run relationship, although short-run movements are also present, which causes distinct deviations from the long-run equilibrium relationship. Endogeneity prevails in the system as a whole. While market integration in the sense of the Law of One Price holds, pairwise full price transmission has limited evidence. The results therefore show that stock market price movements are highly nonlinear and complex.

  13. An evaluation of the opinions of hospital employees regarding the contribution of internal marketing to the application of total quality management in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Karasa, Arzu; Akinci, Fevzi; EsatoElu, A; Parsons, Amy L; Sarp, Nilgòn

    2007-01-01

    This research was conducted in a training-research hospital in Ankara, the capital of Turkey, in order to assess the contributions of internal marketing to the success of TQM applications by means of employee communication and participation. The key findings of this research indicate that the cultural changes needed to maintain the success of TQM applications in the organization were not achieved, there were problems in the internal communication system, effective participation of employees was not achieved, and public relations and internal marketing activities were not employed in a sufficient manner. Specific managerial recommendations are offered in regard to ensuring effective employee support and participation in TQM applications, improving internal communication, and effective application of modern internal marketing tools and methods. PMID:19042534

  14. International trade, labour migrations and capital flows: long-term evidence for Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States.

    PubMed

    Clarke, H

    1998-01-01

    The following issues need to be examined when considering the historical links between international factor movements and international trade, and whether increases in factor flows stimulated trade or vice versa: the extent to which increased trade and factor mobility foster economic growth and development, how different factor flows are related, whether labor movements induce capital flows or vice versa, whether alternative types of factor mobility substitutes or complements, and whether trade liberalization promotes factor mobility or there are alternate types of international transactions substitutes as argued by those who ascribe to the classic Heckscher-Ohlin-Samuelson factor-price-equalization tradition. Accordingly, the historical links between international factor mobility and the extent of international trade are analyzed over the long term for Australia, Canada, and the US, high labor immigration countries; and the UK, a high labor emigration country. Time series data are used. Current international openness is assessed. International factor market integration has increased over time with trade liberalization, suggesting that traditional Heckscher-Ohlin thinking cannot be readily used to account for long-term trends in several important economies. Both trade and factor mobility have an episodic character which makes it misleading to assess current international openness only in terms of post-World War II economic trends.

  15. Risky Business I. Entering Capital Markets for the First Time. Panel I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appalachia, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Five panelists discuss how small businesses can acquire seed capital by considering venture; capital's role in the financing of business start-ups, using local banks as sources of advice and community support as well as funds for new entrepreneurs in rural areas, and investigating states' roles in supporting new ventures. (NEC)

  16. Academic Capitalism and the New Economy: Markets, State, and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaughter, Sheila; Rhoades, Gary

    2009-01-01

    As colleges and universities become more entrepreneurial in a post-industrial economy, they focus on knowledge less as a public good than as a commodity to be capitalized on in profit-oriented activities. In "Academic Capitalism and the New Economy," higher education scholars Sheila Slaughter and Gary Rhoades detail the aggressive engagement of…

  17. Introducing ICSMP, The International Contraceptive Social Marketing Project.

    PubMed

    1981-04-01

    The International Contraceptive Social Marketing Project (ICSMP) began operations in October 1980 to act as a central technical assistance and funding resource for contraceptive social marketing (CSM) programs in Latin America, Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. CSM is an interrelationship of the public and private sectors working to improve contraceptive availability by applying commercial advertising sales and management techniques. At present Bangladesh, Egypt, El Salvador, Ghana, India, Jamaica, Mexico, Nepal, and Sri Lanka have active programs. ICSMP provides the following services: 1) skilled CSM consultants to assist with studies, planning, product line expansion, management training, and marketing problems; and 2) grants and contracts to initiate or expand programs. ICSMP also sponsors regional and international conferences to provide practitioners a chance to share experiences. Its newsletter, "Update" is written to keep CSM directors in touch with developments. To communicate with "Update," write to Update, c/o CEFPA, Suite 202, 1717 Massachusetts avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C., 20036, USA. For more information about ICSMP write: Betty Butler Howell, Project Director, ICSMP, The Futures Group, 1029 Vermont Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C., 20005, USA. PMID:12264794

  18. Introducing ICSMP, The International Contraceptive Social Marketing Project.

    PubMed

    1981-04-01

    The International Contraceptive Social Marketing Project (ICSMP) began operations in October 1980 to act as a central technical assistance and funding resource for contraceptive social marketing (CSM) programs in Latin America, Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. CSM is an interrelationship of the public and private sectors working to improve contraceptive availability by applying commercial advertising sales and management techniques. At present Bangladesh, Egypt, El Salvador, Ghana, India, Jamaica, Mexico, Nepal, and Sri Lanka have active programs. ICSMP provides the following services: 1) skilled CSM consultants to assist with studies, planning, product line expansion, management training, and marketing problems; and 2) grants and contracts to initiate or expand programs. ICSMP also sponsors regional and international conferences to provide practitioners a chance to share experiences. Its newsletter, "Update" is written to keep CSM directors in touch with developments. To communicate with "Update," write to Update, c/o CEFPA, Suite 202, 1717 Massachusetts avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C., 20036, USA. For more information about ICSMP write: Betty Butler Howell, Project Director, ICSMP, The Futures Group, 1029 Vermont Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C., 20005, USA.

  19. Effect of market structure on international coal trade

    SciTech Connect

    Kolstad, C.D.; Abbey, D.S.

    1982-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the determinants of international steam-coal trade. Most work in projecting coal trade has been either qualitative (a consensus of experts) or, if quantitative, has been based on competitive spatial-equilibrium models. Unfortunately, the competitive model of trade does not appear to account for observed and anticipated trade flows. This is consistent with findings in the commodity trade literature that, although markets may behave in a rational economic fashion, market concentration among producers, traders, and consumers leads to trade patterns significantly different than those associated with competitive markets. The purpose of this paper is to explore the significance and effect on patterns of steam-coal trade of several deviations from the simple competitive model. In addition to perfect competition, we examine monopoly (South Africa) and duopoly (South Africa, Australia) with a competitive fringe (US, Canada, Poland, China and Columbia). Using a simple equilibrium model of coal trade, we examine these market structures and evaluate the extent to which they can explain existing and anticipated trade patterns.

  20. Alcohol marketing in televised international football: frequency analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol marketing includes sponsorship of individuals, organisations and sporting events. Football (soccer) is one of the most popular spectator sports worldwide. No previous studies have quantified the frequency of alcohol marketing in a high profile international football tournament. The aims were to determine: the frequency and nature of visual references to alcohol in a representative sample of EURO2012 matches broadcast in the UK; and if frequency or nature varied between matches broadcast on public service and commercial channels, or between matches that did and did not feature England. Methods Eight matches selected by stratified random sampling were recorded. All visual references to alcohol were identified using a tool with high inter-rater reliability. Results 1846 visual references to alcohol were identified over 1487 minutes of broadcast - an average of 1.24 references per minute. The mean number of references per minute was higher in matches that did vs did not feature England (p = 0.004), but did not differ between matches broadcast on public service vs commercial channels (p = 0.92). Conclusions The frequency of visual references to alcohol was universally high and higher in matches featuring the only UK home team - England - suggesting that there may be targeting of particularly highly viewed matches. References were embedded in broadcasts, and not particular to commercial channels including paid-for advertising. New UK codes-of-conduct on alcohol marketing at sporting events will not reduce the level of marketing reported here. PMID:24885718

  1. Exploring Zen Marketing: A Strategic Experiment in Leveraging End User Intellectual Capital to Stimulate Primary Market Demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Raymond

    2003-10-01

    Recently the Telecom Industry experienced an economic boom & bust cycle that hampered new service development & deployment. Consequently, there are significant problems in capturing key requirements for new network-based services and in educating CIO-IT leaders so they can promote investment proposals with their enterprise business leadership. This paper outlines a multi-functional initiative that Lucent Technologies established to engage and exchange with key Enterprises & their Telecom Suppliers views of future network technologies. This experiment is unique because it is facilitated by the corporate CIO-IT leadership & is focused on the latest 3G wireless technologies. CIO-IT provides externally facing resources that collaborate directly with Enterprises, and Service Providers while facilitating internal interactions with Bell Labs, Business Units and Sales teams. This program embodies a Zen Marketing approach since it seeks to create flashes of enlightenment with IT & business leaders by exercising all the knowledge, culture & behaviors available to an IT end user. The paper summarizes several organizational challenges & benefits uncovered by a program that is focused on transforming Mobility Provider relationships with their customers and expanding the overall awareness of the latest 3G wireless technologies.

  2. Internal marketing within a health care organization: developing an implementation plan.

    PubMed

    Hallums, A

    1994-05-01

    This paper discusses how the concept of internal marketing can be applied within a health care organization. In order to achieve a market orientation an organization must identify the needs and wants of its customers and how these may change in the future. In order to achieve this, internal marketing is a necessary step to the implementation of the organizations marketing strategy. An outline plan for the introduction of an internal marketing programme within an acute hospital trust is proposed. The plan identifies those individuals and departments who should be involved in the planning and implementation of the programme. The benefits of internal marketing to the Trust are also considered.

  3. Impacts of international sanctions on Iranian pharmaceutical market.

    PubMed

    Cheraghali, Abdol Majid

    2013-01-01

    Iran in recent decade faced several regional and international sanctions in foreign trade, financial and banking services. Iran national pharmaceutical industry has always played a major role in providing medicines to the Iranian patients. However, following the sanctions it has faced profound difficulties for importing of both finished products and pharmaceutical raw materials. Although medicines are exempted from sanctions, due to restriction on money transaction and proper insurance Iranian pharmaceutical companies have to pay cash in advance for imports of medicines and raw materials or to secure offshore funds at very high risks. Current situation in Iran pharmaceutical market confirms that the sanctions against Iran are affecting ordinary citizens and national health sector which resulted to reduction of availability of lifesaving medicines in the local market and has caused increasing pain and suffering for Iranian patients. PMID:23902642

  4. International wind power market: The US/ECRE

    SciTech Connect

    Lilley, A.

    1995-12-31

    Today, wind power is in its infancy, comprising less than .1% of the world`s total energy mix. However, the world installed base of wind turbines doubled in the period 1989 to 1994, from 1.7 GW to over 3.6 GW. More than 85% of this growth occurred outside the US. In a study commissioned by AWEA for the period 1994 to 2000, market growth in 10 target countries is projected to be from 2 GW to 3.5 GW. The World Energy Council projects a total installed base of nearly 10 GW by the year 2000. Much of this growth is expected to come in developing countries. Driven by market related factors, the US industry has recently turned its attention to the international arena. AWEA, US/ECRE, and their partners in government can play a critical supporting role to industry as they make the transition from a domestically focused industry to one that is globally focused.

  5. Influence of Finite Capital in the Cont-Bouchaud for Market Fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebreich, J.

    Introducing a finite capital of the shareholders in the Cont-Bouchaud-model leads to a partially realistic wealth distribution for middle positions in the wealth hierarchy. However, the number of poor shareholders is too small and the capitals of the wealthiest ones are too low. Also variation of the simulation time, of the activity and consideration of the fundamentalists' influence does not give data in agreement with reality.

  6. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 567 - Risk-Based Capital Requirements-Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Risk-Based Capital Requirements-Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches C Appendix C to Part 567 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF... Exposure Report); (iii) Is a subsidiary of a depository institution that uses 12 CFR part 3, appendix C,...

  7. The Influence of Early-Life Events on Human Capital, Health Status, and Labor Market Outcomes Over the Life Course*

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Rucker C.; Schoeni, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    Using national data from the U.S., we find that poor health at birth and limited parental resources (including low income, lack of health insurance, and unwanted pregnancy) interfere with cognitive development and health capital in childhood, reduce educational attainment, and lead to worse labor market and health outcomes in adulthood. These effects are substantial and robust to the inclusion of sibling fixed effects and an extensive set of controls. The results reveal that low birth weight ages people in their 30s and 40s by 12 years, increases the probability of dropping out of high school by one-third, lowers labor force participation by 5 percentage points, and reduces labor market earnings by roughly 15 percent. While poor birth outcomes reduce human capital accumulation, they explain only 10 percent of the total effect of low birth weight on labor market earnings. Taken together, the evidence is consistent with a negative reinforcing intergenerational transmission of disadvantage within the family; parental economic status influences birth outcomes, birth outcomes have long reaching effects on health and economic status in adulthood, which in turn leads to poor birth outcomes for one’s own children. PMID:23412970

  8. Cooperative Emissions Trading Game: International Permit Market Dominated by Buyers.

    PubMed

    Honjo, Keita

    2015-01-01

    Rapid reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is required to mitigate disastrous impacts of climate change. The Kyoto Protocol introduced international emissions trading (IET) to accelerate the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The IET controls CO2 emissions through the allocation of marketable emission permits to sovereign countries. The costs for acquiring additional permits provide buyers with an incentive to reduce their CO2 emissions. However, permit price has declined to a low level during the first commitment period (CP1). The downward trend in permit price is attributed to deficiencies of the Kyoto Protocol: weak compliance enforcement, the generous allocation of permits to transition economies (hot air), and the withdrawal of the US. These deficiencies created a buyer's market dominated by price-making buyers. In this paper, I develop a coalitional game of the IET, and demonstrate that permit buyers have dominant bargaining power. In my model, called cooperative emissions trading (CET) game, a buyer purchases permits from sellers only if the buyer forms a coalition with the sellers. Permit price is determined by bargaining among the coalition members. I evaluated the demand-side and supply-side bargaining power (DBP and SBP) using Shapley value, and obtained the following results: (1) Permit price is given by the product of the buyer's willingness-to-pay and the SBP (= 1 - DBP). (2) The DBP is greater than or equal to the SBP. These results indicate that buyers can suppress permit price to low levels through bargaining. The deficiencies of the Kyoto Protocol enhance the DBP, and contribute to the demand-side dominance in the international permit market. PMID:26244778

  9. Cooperative Emissions Trading Game: International Permit Market Dominated by Buyers

    PubMed Central

    Honjo, Keita

    2015-01-01

    Rapid reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is required to mitigate disastrous impacts of climate change. The Kyoto Protocol introduced international emissions trading (IET) to accelerate the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The IET controls CO2 emissions through the allocation of marketable emission permits to sovereign countries. The costs for acquiring additional permits provide buyers with an incentive to reduce their CO2 emissions. However, permit price has declined to a low level during the first commitment period (CP1). The downward trend in permit price is attributed to deficiencies of the Kyoto Protocol: weak compliance enforcement, the generous allocation of permits to transition economies (hot air), and the withdrawal of the US. These deficiencies created a buyer’s market dominated by price-making buyers. In this paper, I develop a coalitional game of the IET, and demonstrate that permit buyers have dominant bargaining power. In my model, called cooperative emissions trading (CET) game, a buyer purchases permits from sellers only if the buyer forms a coalition with the sellers. Permit price is determined by bargaining among the coalition members. I evaluated the demand-side and supply-side bargaining power (DBP and SBP) using Shapley value, and obtained the following results: (1) Permit price is given by the product of the buyer’s willingness-to-pay and the SBP (= 1 − DBP). (2) The DBP is greater than or equal to the SBP. These results indicate that buyers can suppress permit price to low levels through bargaining. The deficiencies of the Kyoto Protocol enhance the DBP, and contribute to the demand-side dominance in the international permit market. PMID:26244778

  10. Cooperative Emissions Trading Game: International Permit Market Dominated by Buyers.

    PubMed

    Honjo, Keita

    2015-01-01

    Rapid reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is required to mitigate disastrous impacts of climate change. The Kyoto Protocol introduced international emissions trading (IET) to accelerate the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The IET controls CO2 emissions through the allocation of marketable emission permits to sovereign countries. The costs for acquiring additional permits provide buyers with an incentive to reduce their CO2 emissions. However, permit price has declined to a low level during the first commitment period (CP1). The downward trend in permit price is attributed to deficiencies of the Kyoto Protocol: weak compliance enforcement, the generous allocation of permits to transition economies (hot air), and the withdrawal of the US. These deficiencies created a buyer's market dominated by price-making buyers. In this paper, I develop a coalitional game of the IET, and demonstrate that permit buyers have dominant bargaining power. In my model, called cooperative emissions trading (CET) game, a buyer purchases permits from sellers only if the buyer forms a coalition with the sellers. Permit price is determined by bargaining among the coalition members. I evaluated the demand-side and supply-side bargaining power (DBP and SBP) using Shapley value, and obtained the following results: (1) Permit price is given by the product of the buyer's willingness-to-pay and the SBP (= 1 - DBP). (2) The DBP is greater than or equal to the SBP. These results indicate that buyers can suppress permit price to low levels through bargaining. The deficiencies of the Kyoto Protocol enhance the DBP, and contribute to the demand-side dominance in the international permit market.

  11. Does More international transmission capacity increase competition in the Belgian electricity market?

    SciTech Connect

    Kuepper, Gerd; Delarue, Erik; Delvaux, Bram; Meeus, Leonardo; Bekaert, David; Willems, Bert; Proost, Stef; D'haeseleer, William; Deketelaere, Kurt; Belmans, Ronnie

    2009-01-15

    From a national market perspective, taking transmission capacity into account reduces current concentration measures, although they remain fairly high even after substantial capacity increases. From an international perspective, a more efficient use of current transmission capacity by coupling regional markets can increase competition. That suggests it may not be appropriate to assess market concentration using national market shares. (author)

  12. Sola schola et sanitate: human capital as the root cause and priority for international development?

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes new scientific evidence supporting the hypothesis that among the many factors contributing to international development, the combination of education and health stands out as a root cause on which other dimensions of development depend. Much of this recent analysis is based on new reconstructions and projections of populations by age, sex and four levels of educational attainment for more than 120 countries using the demographic method of multi-state population dynamics. It also refers to a series of systems analytical population–development–environment case studies that comprehensively assess the role of population and education factors relative to other factors in the struggle for sustainable development. The paper also claims that most concerns about the consequences of population trends are in fact concerns about human capital, and that only by adding the ‘quality’ dimension of education to the traditionally narrow focus on size and age structure can some of the long-standing population controversies be resolved. PMID:19770154

  13. Building an International Student Market: Educational-Balanced Scorecard Solutions for Regional Australian Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Linda; Hamilton, John

    2004-01-01

    There is an international student market suitable for regional Australia, but each region is different. Hence, each region must determine, target and niche market to its best potential international student customer base. For international education there remains scant, relevant, data for regional Australia, hence complete regional approaches to…

  14. The Impact of Degree Programme Educational Capital on the Transition of Graduates to the Labour Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piróg, Danuta

    2016-01-01

    The article aims to empirically verify the impact of educational capital on the success or failure of higher education graduates' transitions. The paper uses the example of geography graduates in Poland who took part in a nationwide survey in 2012, six months after their graduation. This allowed the author to collect detailed data on the…

  15. The Gender Pay Gap Beyond Human Capital: Heterogeneity in Noncognitive Skills and in Labor Market Tastes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grove, Wayne A.; Hussey, Andrew; Jetter, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Focused on human capital, economists typically explain about half of the gender earnings gap. For a national sample of MBAs, we account for 82 percent of the gap by incorporating noncognitive skills (for example, confidence and assertiveness) and preferences regarding family, career, and jobs. Those two sources of gender heterogeneity account for…

  16. Moving toward the Market and Away from Public Service? Effects of Resource Dependency and Academic Capitalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, Audrey J.; Thronton, Courtney H.

    2005-01-01

    Research-extensive land-grant institutions face the unique challenge of asking faculty to fulfill a historic mission of public service in a time of scarce resources. This article discusses the parallel between the effects of resource dependency and academic capitalism on the research enterprise and on public service endeavors through the…

  17. Tamworth, Australia's "Country Music Capital": Place Marketing, Rurality, and Resident Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Chris; Davidson, Deborah

    2004-01-01

    Since the 1970s, Tamworth has become well known as Australia's "country music capital". Its annual Country and Western Music Festival has become the leading event of its type in Australia, attracting over 60,000 visitors every year. The festival, and country music more generally, have become central to the town's identity and tourism marketing…

  18. Internal marketing, customer orientation, and organizational commitment: moderating effects of work status.

    PubMed

    Huang, Meiju; Chen, Mei-Yen

    2013-08-01

    Associations among internal marketing, customer orientation, and organizational commitment were examined, particularly with regard to the moderating effects of work status on the relationships between internal marketing and customer orientation or organizational commitment, in a cross-sectional design with structural equation modeling. Two studies (Ns = 119 and 251) were conducted among full- and part-time service employees at Taipei Sports Centers. Internal marketing was associated with organizational commitment and customer orientation. Customer orientation was associated with organizational commitment and partially mediated the relation between internal marketing and organizational commitment. Furthermore, work status significantly moderated the relationships between internal marketing and customer orientation but not between internal marketing and organizational commitment. Implications and directions for future research were discussed.

  19. Internal marketing, customer orientation, and organizational commitment: moderating effects of work status.

    PubMed

    Huang, Meiju; Chen, Mei-Yen

    2013-08-01

    Associations among internal marketing, customer orientation, and organizational commitment were examined, particularly with regard to the moderating effects of work status on the relationships between internal marketing and customer orientation or organizational commitment, in a cross-sectional design with structural equation modeling. Two studies (Ns = 119 and 251) were conducted among full- and part-time service employees at Taipei Sports Centers. Internal marketing was associated with organizational commitment and customer orientation. Customer orientation was associated with organizational commitment and partially mediated the relation between internal marketing and organizational commitment. Furthermore, work status significantly moderated the relationships between internal marketing and customer orientation but not between internal marketing and organizational commitment. Implications and directions for future research were discussed. PMID:24340810

  20. Cultural Orientation and Social Capital as Predictors of Condom Use among Internal Migrants in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, Hongfei; Li, Xiaoming; Lin, Danhua; Tam, Cheuk Chi

    2016-01-01

    Background: The global literature has revealed that cultural orientation, adaptation and social capital may influence HIV-related sexual behaviours among migrants. However, whether cultural orientations influence adaptation and social capital and thereby affect sexual behaviour is not well understood. Method: This study examined whether…

  1. Measuring capital market efficiency: long-term memory, fractal dimension and approximate entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristoufek, Ladislav; Vosvrda, Miloslav

    2014-07-01

    We utilize long-term memory, fractal dimension and approximate entropy as input variables for the Efficiency Index [L. Kristoufek, M. Vosvrda, Physica A 392, 184 (2013)]. This way, we are able to comment on stock market efficiency after controlling for different types of inefficiencies. Applying the methodology on 38 stock market indices across the world, we find that the most efficient markets are situated in the Eurozone (the Netherlands, France and Germany) and the least efficient ones in the Latin America (Venezuela and Chile).

  2. Culture, state and varieties of capitalism: a comparative study of life insurance markets in Hong Kong and Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chan, Cheris Shun-Ching

    2012-03-01

    This article examines the interplay between local culture, the state, and economic actors' agency in producing variation across markets. I adopt a political-cultural approach to examining why life insurance has been far more popular in Taiwan than Hong Kong, despite the presence of a cultural taboo on the topic of premature death in both societies. Based on interview data and documentary references, the findings reveal that as an independent state, the Taiwanese government heavily protected domestic insurance firms during their emergence. These domestic firms adopted a market-share approach by re-defining the concept of life insurance to accommodate the local cultural taboo. The colonial Hong Kong government, on the other hand, adopted laissez-faire policies that essentially favoured foreign insurance firms. When faced with the tension between local adaptation and the profitability of the business, these foreign firms chose the latter. Their reluctance to accommodate local cultures, however, resulted in a smaller market. I argue that state actions mediate who the dominant economic players are and that the nature of the dominant players affects the extent of localization. Specifically, the presence of competitive domestic players alongside transnational corporations is more likely to produce varieties of capitalism.

  3. Endogenous and exogenous dynamics in the fluctuations of capital fluxes. An empirical analysis of the Chinese stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Z.-Q.; Guo, L.; Zhou, W.-X.

    2007-06-01

    A phenomenological investigation of the endogenous and exogenous dynamics in the fluctuations of capital fluxes is carried out on the Chinese stock market using mean-variance analysis, fluctuation analysis, and their generalizations to higher orders. Non-universal dynamics have been found not only in the scaling exponent α, which is different from the universal values 1/2 and 1, but also in the distributions of the ratio η= σexo / σendo of individual stocks. Both the scaling exponent α of fluctuations and the Hurst exponent Hi increase in logarithmic form with the time scale Δt and the mean traded value per minute , respectively. We find that the scaling exponent αendo of the endogenous fluctuations is independent of the time scale. Multiscaling and multifractal features are observed in the data as well. However, the inhomogeneous impact model is not verified.

  4. Credit Enhancements and Capital Markets to Fund Solar Deployment: Leveraging Public Funds to Open Private Sector Investment

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelsohn, M.; Urdanick, M.; Joshi, J.

    2015-02-01

    Credit enhancements represent a variety of financial support structures that are designed to reduce risk to those holding the debt, including debt raised via a securitization process, and thus lower the required yield associated with the security. The purpose of all forms of credit enhancement is to increase the collateral against which notes are secured (Lin,1999). The following section evaluates is not guaranteed. Perceived risks of the solar asset class--including those related to technology, offtaker creditworthiness, and regulatory policy--can increase the required yield, increase probability of investor loss of interest and/or principal, or both. In many cases, this is a cyclical phenomenon: risk perception is fed by lack of historical knowledge, which is in turn fed by risk perception. Therefore, successful access to capital market investment in order to spur low-cost solar deployment depends on the success of this initial fledgling period.

  5. Information Technology-Based Innovation in International Marketing Education: An Exploration of Two Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinkovics, Rudolf R.; Haghirian, Parissa; Yu, Shasha

    2009-01-01

    Information technology (IT) innovations have and continue to have a significant impact on international marketing practice and customer interactions. With the marketing environment becoming increasingly dependent on technology, marketing teaching in higher education faces a challenging task of effectively leveraging technology in diverse learning…

  6. Creating International Community Service Learning Experiences in a Capstone Marketing-Projects Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalf, Lynn E.

    2010-01-01

    This article outlines the development of a project-based capstone marketing course, specifically designed to provide marketing students with an international community service learning experience. It differs significantly from previous studies, which focus on integrating service learning into existing marketing courses and on helping local…

  7. 78 FR 41129 - Market Test of Experimental Product - International Merchandise Return Service-Non-Published Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Market Test.... Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Postal Service hereby gives notice of a market test for... will begin a market test of its International Merchandise Return Service (IMRS) Non-published Rate...

  8. The treatment of capital in estimating fair market value of oil and gas properties

    SciTech Connect

    Hartsock, J.H.; Gruy, H.J.

    1995-12-31

    Fair market value has its origin in law and is defined as that price that a willing buyer will pay and a willing seller will sell at some point in time, with neither the buyer nor the seller under any compulsion to buy or sell, aid both having equal and reasonable knowledge of the facts. In reality, a perfect sale probably never occurs in which a willing buyer and a willing seller are under no compulsion to buy or sell and both are equally familiar with all the facts. Nonetheless, it is necessary to prepare fair market value estimates for oil and gas properties for the purpose of gift taxes, estate taxes, condemnation cases, mergers and divorce settlements. For the estimation of the fair market value of oil and gas properties, there are basically two approaches; namely, the income approach and the market data approach. The income approach requires the estimation of reserves, identification of their categories (proved, probable and possible), a detailed cash flow projection and the proper application of risk factors. The market data approach utilizes the comparable sales of properties The comparable sales approach is preferred, but for producing oil and gas properties it is difficult to identify sales comparable in net reserves, product prices, location, operating expenses, operator expertise, etc. Consequently, for proved, probable and possible reserves, the income approach has been accepted by the courts and is more generally applied. For nonproducing mineral interests the comparable sales approach is applied using multiples of lease bonuses in the area.

  9. The Effect of Internal Marketing on Organizational Commitment: Job Involvement and Job Satisfaction as Mediators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ting, Shueh-Chin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: After reviewing previous research, this study found that few school or educational studies have simultaneously explored both internal marketing and organizational commitment, and of those that have, only direct effects were examined. This study clarifies the relationship between school organization's internal marketing and teachers'…

  10. 75 FR 10332 - In the Matter of: Corridor Communications Corp., International Cosmetics Marketing Co., PNV, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION In the Matter of: Corridor Communications Corp., International Cosmetics Marketing Co., PNV, Inc... International Cosmetics Marketing Co. because it has not filed any periodic reports since the period ended...

  11. 12 CFR 204.122 - Secondary market activities of international banking facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Secondary market activities of international banking facilities. 204.122 Section 204.122 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF...) Interpretations § 204.122 Secondary market activities of international banking facilities. (a) Questions have...

  12. 12 CFR 204.122 - Secondary market activities of international banking facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Secondary market activities of international banking facilities. 204.122 Section 204.122 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF...) Interpretations § 204.122 Secondary market activities of international banking facilities. (a) Questions have...

  13. 12 CFR 204.122 - Secondary market activities of international banking facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Secondary market activities of international banking facilities. 204.122 Section 204.122 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF...) Interpretations § 204.122 Secondary market activities of international banking facilities. (a) Questions have...

  14. 12 CFR 204.122 - Secondary market activities of international banking facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Secondary market activities of international banking facilities. 204.122 Section 204.122 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF...) Interpretations § 204.122 Secondary market activities of international banking facilities. (a) Questions have...

  15. 12 CFR 204.122 - Secondary market activities of international banking facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Secondary market activities of international banking facilities. 204.122 Section 204.122 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF...) Interpretations § 204.122 Secondary market activities of international banking facilities. (a) Questions have...

  16. Facing Human Capital Challenges of the 21st Century: Education and Labor Market Initiatives in Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Gabriella; Karoly, Lynn A.; Constant, Louay; Salem, Hanine; Goldman, Charles A.

    2008-01-01

    Countries in the Arab region are faced with the challenge of developing their populations' skills and technical knowledge, or human capital, in order to compete in the 21st century global economy. The authors describe the education and labor market initiatives implemented or under way in four countries in the Arab region -- Lebanon, Oman, Qatar,…

  17. Capital Market Constraints, Parental Wealth and the Transition to Self-Employment among Men and Women. National Longitudinal Surveys Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Thomas; Holtz-Eakin, Douglas

    The effects of parental wealth and human capital on the probability of an individual entering self-employment and the relationship between gender and propensity toward self-employment were examined through an analysis of data from the four original cohorts of the National Longitudinal Survey (NLS) of Labor Market Experience. The data sets…

  18. The Promise of English: Linguistic Capital and the Neoliberal Worker in the South Korean Job Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Joseph Sung-Yul

    2011-01-01

    English is often assumed to be a key to material success and social inclusion, and this belief commonly works to justify the global dominance of English, glossing over and rationalizing broader social inequalities. This paper extends the discussion of this fallacy of "the promise of English" to the domain of the South Korean job market, where…

  19. Life expectancy and human capital: evidence from the international epidemiological transition.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Casper Worm

    2013-12-01

    Exploiting preintervention variation in mortality from various infectious diseases, together with the time variation arising from medical breakthroughs in the late 1940s and the 1950s, this study examines how a large positive shock to life expectancy influenced the formation of human capital within countries during the second half of the 20th century. The results establish that the rise in life expectancy was behind a significant part of the increase in human capital over this period. According to the baseline estimate, for one additional year of life expectancy, years of schooling increase by 0.17 year. Moreover, the evidence suggests that declines in pneumonia mortality are the underlying cause of this finding, indicating that improved childhood health increases human capital investments. PMID:24157844

  20. Life expectancy and human capital: evidence from the international epidemiological transition.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Casper Worm

    2013-12-01

    Exploiting preintervention variation in mortality from various infectious diseases, together with the time variation arising from medical breakthroughs in the late 1940s and the 1950s, this study examines how a large positive shock to life expectancy influenced the formation of human capital within countries during the second half of the 20th century. The results establish that the rise in life expectancy was behind a significant part of the increase in human capital over this period. According to the baseline estimate, for one additional year of life expectancy, years of schooling increase by 0.17 year. Moreover, the evidence suggests that declines in pneumonia mortality are the underlying cause of this finding, indicating that improved childhood health increases human capital investments.

  1. Does Human Capital Raise Earnings for Immigrants in the Low-Skill Labor Market?

    PubMed Central

    HALL, MATTHEW; FARKAS, GEORGE

    2008-01-01

    We use monthly Survey of Income and Program Participation data from 1996–1999 and 2001–2003 to estimate the determinants of differentiation in intercepts and slopes for age/earnings profiles of low-skill immigrant and native male workers. Our findings provide further depth of understanding to the “mixed” picture of earnings determination in the low-skill labor market that has been reported by others. On the positive side, many immigrants are employed in similar occupations and industries as natives. Both groups show substantial wage gains over time and generally receive similar returns to years of schooling completed. Immigrants also receive substantial returns to acculturation, measured as age at arrival and English language skill. These results cast doubt on the strong version of segmented labor market theory, in which low-skill immigrants are permanently consigned to dead-end jobs with no wage appreciation. On the negative side, immigrants earn approximately 24% less than natives and are less likely to occupy supervisory and managerial jobs. Latino immigrants receive lower returns to education than do white immigrants. Furthermore, age at arrival and language ability do not explain the lower returns to education experienced by Latino immigrants. These results suggest that Latino immigrants in particular may suffer from barriers to mobility and/or wage discrimination. Whether these negative labor market experiences occur primarily for illegal immigrants remains unknown. PMID:18939664

  2. International and Domestic Market Opportunities for Biomass Power: Volumes I and II

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1998-09-01

    This report examines the domestic and international markets for biopower. Domestic and foreign markets present fundamentally different challenges to private power developers. Volume I focuses on the domestic market for biopower. The domestic challenge lies in finding economically viable opportunities for biopower. Vol. I outlines the current state of the U.S. biomass industry, discusses policies affecting biomass development, describes some demonstration projects currently underway, and discusses the future direction of the industry. Volume II focuses on the international market for biopower. Recent literature states that the electricity investment and policy climate in foreign markets are the key elements in successful private project development. Vol. II discusses the financing issues, policy climate, and business incentives and barriers to biopower development. As India and China are the largest future markets for biopower, they are the focus of this volume. Three other top markets- -Brazil, Indonesia, and the Philippines--are also discussed. Potential financial resources wrap up the discussion.

  3. INTERNAL LABOR MARKETS, TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE, AND LABOR FORCE ADJUSTMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DOERINGER, PETER B.; PIORE, MICHAEL J.

    DIFFERENCES BETWEEN LABOR FORCE SKILLS AND THE REQUIREMENTS OF BLUE COLLAR JOBS ARE RECONCILED BY MEANS OVER WHICH THE EMPLOYER, ALONE OR WITH A LABOR ORGANIZATION, EXERCISES CONTROL. THE ADJUSTMENT MODEL PRESENTED IN THIS STUDY RECOGNIZES AN INPLANT LABOR MARKET CONNECTED TO THE EXTERNAL MARKET AT A LIMITED NUMBER OF POINTS. CERTAIN…

  4. Detection of toxoplasmosis in environmental samples at a wet market of a capital city centre.

    PubMed

    Nimir, Amal R; Linn, Tang Cher

    2011-01-01

    The local Chow Kit market is the largest wet market in the city of Kuala Lumpur. It is very close to the biggest government hospital in the city centre. However, the level of cleanliness in this area is always questionable and a matter of concern. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of T. gondii oocyst in water samples used by hawkers in that market and tissue cysts in rats' brains captured from the same area. Water samples were taken to the parasitology laboratory at the National Universtiy of MalaysiaUniversity and a sugar flotation concentration method was used. Supernatant microscopical examination was then performed. A total of 752 slides were screened for the presence of T. gondii oocyst. A hundred rats wandering in the same area were also captured by the hawkers using mousetraps. After each animal was sacrificed, and an electric microtome was used to cut out serial sections 5 microm thick from the rat brains. The de-waxed tissue sections were stained by the progressive Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) stain for microscopical examination. A total of 1000 slides were screened under a light microscope to detect the presence of T. gondii brain cysts. All the water samples were found to be negative for T. gondii oocyst. Out of the 100 rats captured, three rats were found to possess T. gondii cysts in their brains. Water samples reflect minimal or no solid food contamination, while the 3% of positive brain cysts influence the researchers to broaden their investigations for future projects.

  5. Unhealthy marketing of pharmaceutical products: An international public health concern.

    PubMed

    Mulinari, Shai

    2016-05-01

    I consider the current state of pharmaceutical marketing vis-à-vis ethical and legal standards and advocate measures to improve it. There is abundant evidence of unethical or illicit marketing. It fuels growing concerns about undue corporate influence over pharmaceutical research, education, and consumption. The most extensive evidence of industry transgressions comes from the United States (US), where whistle-blowers are encouraged by financial rewards to help uncover illicit marketing and fraud. Outside the US increasing evidence of transgressions exists. Recently I have observed a range of new measures to align pharmaceutical marketing practices with ethical and legal standards. In the interest of public health, I highlight the need for additional and more profound reforms to ensure that information about medicines supports quality and resource-efficient care.

  6. Unhealthy marketing of pharmaceutical products: An international public health concern.

    PubMed

    Mulinari, Shai

    2016-05-01

    I consider the current state of pharmaceutical marketing vis-à-vis ethical and legal standards and advocate measures to improve it. There is abundant evidence of unethical or illicit marketing. It fuels growing concerns about undue corporate influence over pharmaceutical research, education, and consumption. The most extensive evidence of industry transgressions comes from the United States (US), where whistle-blowers are encouraged by financial rewards to help uncover illicit marketing and fraud. Outside the US increasing evidence of transgressions exists. Recently I have observed a range of new measures to align pharmaceutical marketing practices with ethical and legal standards. In the interest of public health, I highlight the need for additional and more profound reforms to ensure that information about medicines supports quality and resource-efficient care. PMID:26911654

  7. Mandatory pooling as a supplement to risk-adjusted capitation payments in a competitive health insurance market.

    PubMed

    Van Barneveld, E M; Lamers, L M; van Vliet, R C; van de Ven, W P

    1998-07-01

    Risk-adjusted capitation payments (RACPs) to competing health insurers are an essential element of market-oriented health care reforms in many countries. RACPs based on demographic variables only are insufficient, because they leave ample room for cream skimming. However, the implementation of improved RACPs does not appear to be straightforward. A solution might be to supplement imperfect RACPs with a form of mandatory pooling that reduces the incentives for cream skimming. In a previous paper it was concluded that high-risk pooling (HRP), is a promising supplement to RACPs. The purpose of this paper is to compare HRP with two other main variants of mandatory pooling. These variants are called excess-of-loss (EOL) and proportional pooling (PP). Each variant includes ex post compensations to insurers for some members which depend to various degrees on actually incurred costs. Therefore, these pooling variants reduce the incentives for cream skimming which are inherent in imperfect RACPs, but they also reduce the incentives for efficiency and cost containment. As a rough measure of the latter incentives we use the percentage of total costs for which an insurer is at risk. This paper analyzes which of the three main pooling variants yields the greatest reduction of incentives for cream skimming given such a percentage. The results show that HRP is the most effective of the three pooling variants.

  8. Improving International Marketing Programs to Reflect Global Complexity and Risk: Curriculum Drivers and Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vos, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    This article looks at the curriculum redesign of a master's-level program in international marketing from a UK perspective. In order to ensure that the program would be more fit-for-purpose for future managers working under conditions of complexity, uncertainty, and within regimes often very different from the home market, the team began the…

  9. How to Build an Export Business. An International Marketing Guide for the Minority-Owned Firm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyner, Nelson T., Jr.; Lurie, Richard G.

    Designed to aid minority firms who are inexperienced in the export market, this handbook provides a step-by-step guide to the development of an export business, describing what to do, how to do it, and where to find more information on specific international marketing help. Starting with the easiest opportunities that do not require any…

  10. British Students' Perceptions of Ethical Issues in International Marketing: An Empirical Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amin, Sammy G.

    1996-01-01

    A survey investigated 122 British business students' perceptions of ethics in international marketing practices, particularly as they are affected by demographic characteristics. In response to 12 specific scenarios, students indicated relatively liberal attitudes. Implications for global marketing specialists and for business education are…

  11. Commentary on Andrew Coulson's "Comparing Public, Private, and Market Schools: The International Evidence"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfram, Gary; Coulson, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors comment on Andrew Coulson's "Comparing Public, Private, and Market Schools: The International Evidence." The authors believe that Coulson's paper is a very interesting review of the literature on the ability of market-produced education to outperform government-produced education. Coulson's response on this commentary…

  12. Content, Pedagogy, and Learning Outcomes in the International Marketing Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crittenden, Victoria L.; Wilson, Elizabeth J.

    2005-01-01

    The early internationalization of business school curricula was in response to corporate needs and expectations, and the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB International) fostered changes by instituting accreditation outcomes that focused upon international content in the curriculum. By the late 1990s, a course in…

  13. Transnational Academic Capitalism in the Arab Gulf: Balancing Global and Local, and Public and Private, Capitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findlow, Sally; Hayes, Aneta L.

    2016-01-01

    This article contributes to the emerging theoretical construct of what has been called "transnational academic capitalism", characterised by the blurring of traditional boundaries between public, private, local, regional and international, and between market-driven and critically transformative higher education visions. Here we examine…

  14. Academic Preparation for International Pre-MBA's in Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerfield, Kay

    Adjustments to the case study approach are recommended to address three major areas of difficulty for foreign students in master's-level marketing education programs: (1) language-related problems; (2) unfamiliar class format and methodology; and (3) lack of cultural background knowledge. For language-related problems, case studies are a good…

  15. After record sales and production, international met markets plummet

    SciTech Connect

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2009-03-15

    After surging in 2007 and most of 2008, both the demand and the pricing for coal collapsed in 2008's final quarter. The article discusses last year's market and gives some predictions on 2009's production and prices. The National Mining Association predicts that production of coking coal will fall 11% due to plunging demand for steel. 4 photos.

  16. Comparing Public, Private, and Market Schools: The International Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulson, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    Would large-scale, free-market reforms improve educational outcomes for American children? This question cannot be reliably answered by looking exclusively at domestic evidence, much less by looking exclusively at existing "school choice" programs. Though many such programs have been implemented around the United States, none has created a truly…

  17. Exploring the predicted effect of social networking site use on perceived social capital and psychological well-being of Chinese international students in Japan.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yu; Li, Yiwei; Ito, Naoya

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how social networking sites (SNSs) use by Chinese international students in Japan influenced their perceived social capital and psychological well-being. In addition, it examined how, as sojourners, Chinese international students' perceived acculturative stress varied. Data were collected from 142 Chinese international students. The results indicated that the intensity of SNS use was unable to predict individuals' perceived social capital and psychological well-being. The effect of SNS use varied according to the functions it serves. Specifically, SNS use for social and informational functions (SIF) increased individuals' levels of perceived bridging social capital and perceived life satisfaction, while SNS use for entertaining recreational functions (ERF) was unable to predict perceived social capital but increased individuals' levels of loneliness. It was also found that, in the intercultural environment, Chinese international students' levels of perceived acculturative stress were decreased by their perceived bonding social capital and increased by their perceived loneliness but had no relationship with their SNS use. Findings of the study suggest that individuals using SNSs to stay informed and connected will benefit with regard to their social network building and psychological well-being. PMID:23971431

  18. Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of InternationalExperience-- Technical Appendix: Market Descriptions

    SciTech Connect

    Grayson Heffner, Charles Goldman, Kintner-Meyer, M; Kirby, Brendan

    2007-05-01

    In this study, we examine the arrangements for andexperiences of end-use loads providing ancillary services (AS) in fiveelectricity markets: Australia, the United Kingdom (UK), the Nordicmarket, and the ERCOT and PJM markets in the United States. Our objectivein undertaking this review of international experience was to identifyspecific approaches or market designs that have enabled customer loads toeffectively deliver various ancillary services (AS) products. We hopethat this report will contribute to the ongoing discussion in the U.S.and elsewhere regarding what institutional and technical developments areneeded to ensure that customer loads can meaningfully participate in allwholesale electricity markets.

  19. Understanding the Symbolic Capital of Intercultural Interactions: A Case Study of International Students in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pham, Lien; Tran, Ly

    2015-01-01

    Intercultural interaction plays an important role in contributing to international students' learning and wellbeing in the host country. While research on international students' intercultural interactions reveals multifaceted aspects of personal and social factors, there is a tendency to consider language barrier and cultural differences as…

  20. Promoting Awareness of Government Export Assistance Programs in the International Marketing Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letovsky, Robert

    1995-01-01

    A survey of 67 Academy of International Business members found that while international marketing instructors felt federally-supported export assistance programs are important for export success, they were not very familiar with them and did not have positive perceptions about the quality of services already offered. Little class time is devoted…

  1. Contract Training: Avoiding the Rodney Dangerfield Syndrome by Practicing Good Internal Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kothenbeutel, Nancy; Dejardin, Conrad

    1994-01-01

    Suggests that, although customized training programs are often at the cutting edge of education and technology, they are not always fully integrated into the mainstream of colleges' internal operations. Discusses the role of internal marketing in promoting respect for community and adult education programs within community colleges. (MAB)

  2. Going International: What We Can Learn about International Strategy, Market Entry, and Resource Allocation from the Game of Go

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Andrew; Chatterjee, Sangit

    2006-01-01

    We identify three aspects of management particularly crucial in the environment of globalization: the formulation of international strategy; entry into foreign markets; and resource allocation. We advocate the board game Go as an aid to learning management amidst globalization. Our advocacy is based on drawing links between Go and each of the…

  3. Using internal communication as a marketing strategy: gaining physician commitment.

    PubMed

    Heine, R P

    1990-01-01

    In the ambulatory care industry, increased competition and promotional costs are pressuring managers to design more creative and effective marketing strategies. One largely overlooked strategy is careful monitoring of the daily communication between physicians and ambulatory care staff providing physician services. Satisfying physician communication needs is the key to increasing physician commitment and referrals. This article outlines the steps necessary to first monitor, then improve the quality of all communication provided to physicians by ambulatory care personnel. PMID:10110694

  4. Morality, consumerism and the internal market in health care.

    PubMed

    Sorell, T

    1997-04-01

    Unlike the managerially oriented reforms that have brought auditing and accounting into such prominence in the UK National Health Service (NHS), and which seem alien to the culture of the caring professions, consumerist reforms may seem to complement moves towards the acceptance of wide definitions of health, and towards increasing patient autonomy. The empowerment favoured by those who support patient autonomy sounds like the sort of empowerment that is sometimes associated with the patient's charter. For this reason moral criticism of recent NHS reforms may stop short of calling consumerism into question. This, however, would be a mistake: consumerism can be objectionable both within and beyond the health care market.

  5. The international market for environmental goods and services

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, W.; Sobin, R.

    1994-12-31

    Markets for environmental products and services are growing in most regions of the world. Some believe this growth will present major new opportunities for exports and export-related job growth, while also improving the environment. Others fear that commercial objectives will overshadow environmental goals; the danger is that inappropriate technologies will be transferred, especially to developing countries with limited experience in environmental management. These tensions are apparent as the US, Germany, Japan, and other industrialized countries shape policies for development assistance and export promotion. The challenge will be to assure that the commercial aspects of these policies contribute to development that is environmentally sound.

  6. The demographics of slipped capital femoral epiphysis. An international multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Loder, R T

    1996-01-01

    One thousand six hundred thirty children with 1993 slipped capital femoral epiphyses were reviewed; 41.2% were girls and 58.8% were boys. There were 47.5% white, 24.8% black, 16.9% Amerindian, 7.4% Indonesian-Malay, 2.1% Native Australian/Pacific Islands, and 1.3% Indo-Mediterranean children. The diseased hip was unilateral in 77.7% and bilateral in 22.3% of the children, and chronic in 85.5% and acute in 14.5% of the children. Of the unilateral slips, 40.3% involved the right hip and 59.7% the left hip. The child's weight was greater than or equal to the ninetieth percentile in 63.2% of the children. The average age for the girls and boys was 12 and 13.5 years. The age at diagnosis decreased with increasing obesity. The youngest children were the Native Australian/Pacific Island children (11.8 years) and the oldest were the white and Indo-Mediterranean children (13 years). The Indonesian-Malay and Indo-Mediterranean children were the lightest in weight, and the black children the heaviest. The Indo-Mediterranean children had the highest proportion of boys (90.5%), and the Native Australian/Pacific Island children the lowest (50%). The highest percentage of bilaterality was in the Native Australian/Pacific Island children (38.2%), and the lowest in the Amerindian children (16.5%). The relative racial frequency of slipped capital femoral epiphysis compared with the white population was 4.5 for the Polynesian, 2.2 for the black, 1.05 for the Amerindian, 0.5 for the Indonesian-Malay, and 0.1 for the Indo-Mediterranean children. In children with unilateral involvement, the age at presentation was younger for those children in whom bilateral disease later developed (12 versus 12.9 years old). In 82% of the children with sequential bilateral slips, the second slip was diagnosed within 18 months of the first slip. PMID:8542716

  7. Talent Wars: The International Market for Academic Staff. Policy Briefing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This policy briefing aims to raise awareness and understanding among policy-makers and UK higher institutions of the international dimensions of academic staff recruitment and the factors that may influence it. This briefing summarises recent research and considers its implications for institutions and for national policies. Annex A contains:…

  8. Promoting Human Capital Development: A Typology of International Scholarship Programs in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perna, Laura W.; Orosz, Kata; Gopaul, Bryan; Jumakulov, Zakir; Ashirbekov, Adil; Kishkentayeva, Marina

    2014-01-01

    This article sheds light on the availability and characteristics of international scholarship programs that are sponsored by national and federal governments worldwide and that are intended to promote student mobility. Utilizing descriptive and cluster analyses, the article produces a framework for organizing the population of these programs. The…

  9. Gatekeepers of a Profession? Employability as Capital in the Recruitment of Medical Interns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindberg, Ola

    2013-01-01

    The present article concerns employability in physicians' professional practice. Drawing on interview data from recruiters at 21 Swedish hospitals with the most applicants for a medical internship, the article seeks to develop a theory of what constitutes an "employable medical intern". Using Pierre Bourdieu's concept of…

  10. 78 FR 29199 - Avani International Group, Inc., Birch Mountain Resources Ltd., Capital Reserve Canada Ltd...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ... information concerning the securities of Laureate Resources & Steel Industries, Inc. because it has not filed...., Dynasty Gaming, Inc. (n/k/a Blue Zen Memorial Parks, Inc.), IXI Mobile, Inc., Laureate Resources & Steel Industries Inc., Millennium Energy Corp., Shannon International, Inc., and Welwind Energy...

  11. Global Cultural Capital and Global Positional Competition: International Graduate Students' Transnational Occupational Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jongyoung

    2016-01-01

    International graduate students' occupational trajectories have rarely been studied, although many studies exist on their learning experiences in foreign universities. Based on 80 qualitative interviews, this article aims to understand how, where, and why these students obtain jobs in academe and corporations. I focus particularly on Korean…

  12. Realigning Capital Portfolios: International Students' Educational Experiences in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Isadora Jung-Hsiu

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on first year experiences of international students who use English as an additional language (EAL) in higher education in Australia. It examines how valued resources can foster a positive educational experience of these students from sociological perspectives. It draws data from an interview study, exploring narrative accounts…

  13. Opportunities and issues in international photovoltaic market development

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.; Arent, D.; Baldwin, S.

    1996-05-01

    The confluence of technology development and market readiness is opening up major business opportunities for photovoltaic (PV) systems throughout the developing world. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Sandia National Laboratories in Abuquerque (Sandia), working on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, have launched pilot projects in several countries throughout the world over the past 3 years. The focus of these pilot projects has been the development of in-country institutional capabilities necessary to deliver the promise of PV electricity to the rural populations. In addition to country-specific activities, NREL is conducting several technology, information, and partnership projects focused on further accelerating the education, training, business, and technology developments necessary to bridge the gap between promise and reality. This paper summarizes these efforts.

  14. Liquidity spillover in international stock markets through distinct time scales.

    PubMed

    Righi, Marcelo Brutti; Vieira, Kelmara Mendes

    2014-01-01

    This paper identifies liquidity spillovers through different time scales based on a wavelet multiscaling method. We decompose daily data from U.S., British, Brazilian and Hong Kong stock markets indices in order to calculate the scale correlation between their illiquidities. The sample is divided in order to consider non-crisis, sub-prime crisis and Eurozone crisis. We find that there are changes in correlations of distinct scales and different periods. Association in finest scales is smaller than in coarse scales. There is a rise on associations in periods of crisis. In frequencies, there is predominance for significant distinctions involving the coarsest scale, while for crises periods there is predominance for distinctions on the finest scale.

  15. Opportunities and issues in international photovoltaic market development

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.; Arent, D.; Baldwin, S.

    1996-09-01

    The confluence of technology development and market readiness is opening up major business opportunities for photovoltaic (PV) systems throughout the developing world. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque (Sandia), working on behalf of the US Department of Energy, have launched pilot projects in several countries throughout the world over the past 3 years. The focus of these pilot projects has been the development of in-country institutional capabilities necessary to deliver the promise of PV electricity to the rural populations. In addition to country-specific activities, NREL is conducting several technology, information, and partnership projects focused on further accelerating the education, training, business, and technology developments necessary to bridge the gap between promise and reality. This paper summarizes these efforts.

  16. Liquidity Spillover in International Stock Markets through Distinct Time Scales

    PubMed Central

    Righi, Marcelo Brutti; Vieira, Kelmara Mendes

    2014-01-01

    This paper identifies liquidity spillovers through different time scales based on a wavelet multiscaling method. We decompose daily data from U.S., British, Brazilian and Hong Kong stock markets indices in order to calculate the scale correlation between their illiquidities. The sample is divided in order to consider non-crisis, sub-prime crisis and Eurozone crisis. We find that there are changes in correlations of distinct scales and different periods. Association in finest scales is smaller than in coarse scales. There is a rise on associations in periods of crisis. In frequencies, there is predominance for significant distinctions involving the coarsest scale, while for crises periods there is predominance for distinctions on the finest scale. PMID:24465918

  17. Regulation of international energy markets: Economic effects of political actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakova, Anastasia V.

    's participation in a regulated market results in an average decline in its stock returns of up to 50 basis points per day, and a cumulative loss of more than 3.5% of its market value. Negative shocks to securities returns persist for at least two months. Participation in a regulated market, however, is not always unfavorable, as involved firms not directly targeted by regulatory action appear to gain sizable risk premiums. Additional evidence suggests that, although there is no direct linear relationship between firm size and effect magnitude, large firms tend to be hurt more in the short term, while small firms suffer bigger declines in returns over a longer time period. The last chapter turns to global electricity sectors to examine the development of Demand Response (DR) programs, which have become popular means of addressing the sector's central market failure of pricing below marginal generation cost. DR programs incorporate demand signals into retail electricity rates, and have the potential to effectively and inexpensively improve grid reliability and increase end-use efficiency. However, DR faces many challenges, arguably the most important of which is a general lack of information among consumers regarding usage levels and existence of alternative providers and rate plans. Financial considerations, lack of access to technological infrastructure, and misaligned producer incentives also play an important role in DR's limited success.

  18. Ambient temperature and mortality: an international study in four capital cities of East Asia.

    PubMed

    Chung, Joo-Youn; Honda, Yasushi; Hong, Yun-Chul; Pan, Xiao-Chuan; Guo, Yue-Leon; Kim, Ho

    2009-12-20

    Extreme ambient temperature has been associated with increased daily mortality across the world. We describe the ambient temperature-mortality association for four capital cities in East Asia, Seoul, Beijing, Tokyo, and Taipei, and identify a threshold temperature for each city and the percent increase in mortality. We adapted generalized linear modeling with natural cubic splines (GLM+NS) to examine the association between daily mean apparent temperature (AT) and total mortality, as well as mortality due to respiratory (RD) and cardiovascular (CVD) causes in a threshold model. We conducted a time-series analysis adjusting for day of the week and long-term time trend. The study period differed by city. The threshold temperature for all seasons was estimated to be 30.1-33.5 degrees C, 31.3-32.3 degrees C, 29.4-30.8 degrees C, and 25.2 degrees -31.5 degrees C for Seoul, Beijing, Tokyo, and Taipei, respectively, on the same day. For the mean daily AT increase of 1 degrees C above the thresholds in Seoul, Tokyo, and Taipei, estimated percentage increases in daily total mortality were 2.7 (95% confidence interval (CI)=2.2-3.1), 1.7 (95% CI=1.5-2.0), and 4.3 (95% CI=2.9-5.7), respectively. Beijing provided no total mortality counts. Estimated percentage increases were 2.7-10.5 for RD mortality, 1.1-9.3 for CVD mortality in 4 cities. This study identified increased mortality due to exposure to elevated AT. The importance of effects of AT and city-specific threshold temperatures suggests that analyses of the impact of climate change should take regional differences into consideration.

  19. Are international securitized property markets converging or diverging?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Eddie C. M.; Chen, Jia; Chan, Ka Kwan Kevin

    2016-03-01

    This study establishes a new framework which combines the recursive model with the Fractionally Integrated Vector Error Correction Model (FIVECM) to investigate the cointegration relationship among 9 securitized real estate indices, which are divided into three groups: Asian, European and North American groups. Our new combined framework has the advantage of reflecting the changes in cointegration dynamics over a period of time instead of a single result for the whole period. The results show that the three groups of markets follow a similar cointegration trend: the cointegration relationship gradually increases before the global financial crisis, reaches a peak during the crisis, and dies down gradually after the crisis. However, cointegration among Asian and European countries occurs at a much later time than cointegration among North American countries does, showing that North America is the source of cointegration, while Asia and Europe are the recipients. This study has important implications to investors and related authorities that investors can adjust their portfolio according to the test results to reduce their risk, while related authorities can take appropriate measures to stabilize the economy and mitigate the effects of financial crises.

  20. Transnational Geographies of Academic Distinction: The Role of Social Capital in the Recognition and Evaluation of "Overseas" Credentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Johanna L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the role of specific and place-based social capital in the recognition and evaluation of international credentials. Whilst research on labour market segmentation has contributed towards an understanding of the spatial variability of the value of human capital, very little attention has been paid to the ways in which the…

  1. Effects of internal marketing on nurse job satisfaction and organizational commitment: example of medical centers in Southern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ching-Sheng; Chang, Hsin-Hsin

    2007-12-01

    As nurses typically represent the largest percentage of employees at medical centers, their role in medical care is exceptionally important and becoming more so over time. The quality and functions of nurses impact greatly on medical care quality. The concept of internal marketing, with origins in the field of market research, argues that enterprises should value and respect their employees by treating them as internal customers. Such a marketing concept challenges traditional marketing methods, which focus on serving external customers only. The main objective of internal marketing is to help internal customers (employees) gain greater job satisfaction, which should promote job performance and facilitate the organization accomplishing its ultimate business objectives. A question in the medical service industry is whether internal marketing can similarly increase the job satisfaction of nurses and enhance their commitment to the organization. This study aimed to explore the relational model of nurse perceptions related to internal marketing, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment by choosing nurses from two medical centers in Southern Taiwan as research subjects. Of 450 questionnaire distributed, 300 valid questionnaires were returned, giving a response rate of 66.7%. After conducting statistical analysis and estimation using structural equation modeling, findings included: (1) job satisfaction has positive effects on organizational commitment; (2) nurse perceptions of internal marketing have positive effects on job satisfaction; and (3) nurse perceptions of internal marketing have positive effects on organizational commitment. PMID:18080971

  2. The Effect of Internal Marketing on Organizational Citizenship Behavior of Academic Staff in Higher Educational Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildiz, Suleyman M.

    2016-01-01

    Due to their important roles in organizational performance, internal marketing and organizational citizenship behavior have become more interesting subjects among researchers and practitioners. However, empirical research is limited in the literature, and the relationship between these two variables in higher educational institutions is not clear.…

  3. Customer Orientation in Higher Education: The Missing Link in International Student Recruitment? A Relationship Marketing Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vauterin, Johanna Julia; Linnanen, Lassi; Marttila, Esa

    2011-01-01

    This paper suggests that the service mindset of academia needs attention to ensure that the potential of university-industry linkages for creating value is used strategically in building advantage in the increasingly competitive market for international higher education. Universities should clearly articulate the value of the higher education-…

  4. Observations on the NHS internal market: will the dodo get the last laugh?

    PubMed

    Royce, R G

    1995-08-12

    Distinguishing between the theory and practice of the internal market has been obscured by the considerable controversy generated by the reforms themselves. In such an environment both the advocates and the opponents of a market based solution have tended to promote their respective claims by reference to underlying political philosophies and economic theories rather than practical experience. Royce gives his observations of the actual operation of the internal market with particular reference to the commissioning function in Wales. He highlights inadequacies and inequities in the current system and proposes some remedial actions. Central to these are the importance of ensuring equitable funding for all purchasers, acknowledging the necessity of rationing, and promoting efficient and effective health care, sometimes at the expense of patient choice and guaranteed local service provision. PMID:7640593

  5. Incomplete international climate agreements: Optimal carbon taxes, market failures and welfare effects

    SciTech Connect

    Golombek, R.; Braten, J.

    1994-12-31

    This paper provides an empirical study of optimal carbon taxes and welfare effects under incomplete international climate agreements when there are market failures in the cooperating countries. The objective of the group of countries taking part in the international climate agreement is to design carbon taxes that maximize their aggregate net income, subject to a constraint on global CO{sub 2} emissions. We use a numerical energy model to study scenarios that differ with respect to types of CO{sub 2} taxes and countries taking part in the climate agreement. We also discuss the impact on regional net income following from different international climate agreements. 26 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. Economic Development and the Market Place for Education: Dynamics of the International Schools Sector in Shanghai, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamato, Yoko; Bray, Mark

    2006-01-01

    To some extent, all schools operate in a market place; but the interaction with the market place may be particularly evident in the international schools sector, since many such schools are operated by foundations or private companies which charge fees. This article focuses on the distinctive market place of Shanghai, China, which has undergone…

  7. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 3 - Capital Adequacy Guidelines for Banks: Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... procedures in 12 CFR 3.12. (c) Reservation of authority—(1) Additional capital in the aggregate. The OCC may require a bank to hold an amount of capital greater than otherwise required under this appendix if the OCC... and response procedures in 12 CFR 3.12. (2) Specific risk-weighted asset amounts. (i) If the...

  8. Teachers' Work in Curricular Markets: Conditions of Design and Relations between the International Baccalaureate Diploma and the Local Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, Catherine; Shield, Paul

    2012-01-01

    School-level strategy enabled by neoliberal choice policies can produce internal curricular markets whereby branded curricula such as the International Baccalaureate are offered alongside the local government curriculum in the same school. This project investigated how such curricular markets operating in Australian schools impacted on teachers'…

  9. "Into the Melting Pot": The Development of a European Dimension in a 4-Year Programme in Languages and International Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, R. Leslie

    In response to the need for improved international trade in Ireland, an undergraduate program of applied languages and international marketing was developed at the National Institute for Higher Education, a unique Irish technological university in Dublin. In the first year, students study French and German and four business subjects (marketing,…

  10. 12 CFR Appendix E to Part 225 - Capital Adequacy Guidelines for Bank Holding Companies: Market Risk Measure

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulation EE (12 CFR Part 231); or (B) If the transaction does not meet the criteria set forth in paragraph... (REGULATION Y) Pt. 225, App. E Appendix E to Part 225—Capital Adequacy Guidelines for Bank Holding Companies... liabilities as reported in the bank holding company's most recent quarterly Y-9C Report. (i) 10 percent...

  11. Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Explores the role of marketing in the modern firm and the key tasks of marketing management. Defines the term "marketing" and discusses it as an economic concept. Discusses three key marketing principals. (RKM)

  12. Capital disadvantage: America's failing capital investment system.

    PubMed

    Porter, M E

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. system of allocating investment capital is failing, putting American companies at a serious disadvantage and threatening the long-term growth of the nation's economy. The problem, says Michael Porter, goes beyond the usual formulation of the issue: accusations of "short-termism" by U.S. managers, ineffective corporate governance by directors, or a high cost of capital. The problem involves the external capital allocation system by which capital is provided to companies, as well as the system by which companies allocate capital internally. America's system is marked by fluid capital and a financial focus. Other countries--notably Japan and Germany--have systems with dedicated capital and a focus on corporate position. In global competition, where investment increasingly determines a company's capacity to upgrade and innovate, the U.S. system does not measure up. These conclusions come out of a two-year research project sponsored by the Harvard Business School and the Council on Competitiveness. Porter recommends five far-reaching reforms to make the U.S. system superior to Japan's and Germany's: 1. Improve the present macroeconomic environment. 2. Expand true ownership throughout the system so that directors, managers, employees, and even customers and suppliers hold positions as owners. 3. Align the goals of capital providers, corporations, directors, managers, employees, customers, suppliers, and society. 4. Improve the information used in decision making. 5. Foster more productive modes of interaction and influence among capital providers, corporations, and business units. PMID:10121317

  13. Why Women Are Progressive in Education? Gender Disparities in Human Capital, Labor Markets, and Family Arrangement in the Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamauchi, Futoshi; Tiongco, Marites

    2013-01-01

    This paper shows mutually consistent evidence to support female advantage in education and disadvantage in labor markets observed in the Philippines. We set up a model that shows multiple Nash equilibria to explain schooling and labor market behaviors for females and males. Our evidence from unique sibling data of schooling and work history and…

  14. Weathering the Great Recession with Human Capital? Evidence on Labor Market Returns to Education from Arkansas. A CAPSEE Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belfield, Clive

    2015-01-01

    The Great Recession was one of the sharpest economic downturns of the past century, with significant impacts across the U.S. labor market. Over past decades, one key feature of the U.S. labor market has been the high and stable returns to education. In this paper I estimate the returns to education for large samples of young workers in Arkansas…

  15. The human capital characteristics and household living standards of returning international migrants in Eastern and Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Kevin J A

    2014-01-01

    Africa’s experience with return migration is not new. However, few empirical studies have examined the social and economic characteristics of returning migrants within the continent. In this study, the human capital endowments and household living standards of returning migrants in Uganda and South Africa are examined using recently available data. The study compares returnees in both countries with immigrants as well as the native-born population with no international migration experience. It also investigates how factors such as previous country of residence, year of arrival, and other demographic factors predict levels of education and living standards among returning migrants. In Uganda, the results show that recently arrived returning migrants had better educational endowments than both immigrants and non-migrants. Migrants who returned to Uganda following the fall of Idi Amin’s regime had the lowest educational levels and lowest living standards compared to other returnees. Furthermore, the results indicate that previous residence in countries in the West was associated with four additional years of schooling while returning migrants arriving from other African countries had the lowest levels of schooling among returning migrants. In South Africa, the study finds that returnees arriving almost immediately following the end of Apartheid had the highest levels of education compared to either immigrants or non-migrants. Returnees on average also had the highest household living standards in South Africa. Among South African immigrants, the results indicate that those arriving towards the end of the century had lower educational endowments compared to immigrants who arrived in the country two to four years after the end of Apartheid. PMID:24970950

  16. International energy policy: the conflict of investment needs and market signals

    SciTech Connect

    Tempest, P.

    1985-04-01

    The Arabian Gulf is a neglected opportunity and Western Europe a neglected risk on resource and production cost grounds, but the greatest danger to energy security lies in the US imposing its highly market-oriented energy logic on the rest of the world. Speaking for the International Association of Energy Economists, the author points out that energy prospects look different to Europeans than to Americans. Europe needs to develop a balancing factor to Soviet gas, but is ahead of the US in its concern for energy security and the impact of energy development on the environment and society. The US message that free markets provide the best solutions tends to be ignored because the US message persists in its claim that the price of oil drives the entire energy machine. Natural gas offers the most hope as an alternative, but it is necessary to develop committed markets.

  17. Intellectual Capital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Herbert W.; Pierce, Jennifer Burek

    2002-01-01

    This review focuses on intellectual capital and its relationship to information professionals. Discusses asset recognition; national practices and the acceptance of intellectual capital; definitions of intellectual capital; measuring intellectual capital, including multiple and single variable measures; managing intellectual capital; and knowledge…

  18. Multifractal detrended cross-correlation between the Chinese domestic and international gold markets based on DCCA and DMCA methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Guangxi; Han, Yan; Chen, Yuemeng; Yang, Chunxia

    2014-05-01

    Based on the daily price data of Shanghai and London gold spot markets, we applied detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) and detrended moving average cross-correlation analysis (DMCA) methods to quantify power-law cross-correlation between domestic and international gold markets. Results show that the cross-correlations between the Chinese domestic and international gold spot markets are multifractal. Furthermore, forward DMCA and backward DMCA seems to outperform DCCA and centered DMCA for short-range gold series, which confirms the comparison results of short-range artificial data in L. Y. He and S. P. Chen [Physica A 390 (2011) 3806-3814]. Finally, we analyzed the local multifractal characteristics of the cross-correlation between Chinese domestic and international gold markets. We show that multifractal characteristics of the cross-correlation between the Chinese domestic and international gold markets are time-varying and that multifractal characteristics were strengthened by the financial crisis in 2007-2008.

  19. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 325 - Risk-Based Capital for State Non-Member Banks: Market Risk

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... commodity prices. (2) Specific risk means changes in the market value of specific positions due to factors... to an adverse environment and have been validated through backtesting which assesses whether specific... short covered debt position by the appropriate specific risk weighting factor indicated in Table 2...

  20. Negotiating markets for health: an exploration of physicians' engagement in dual practice in three African capital cities.

    PubMed

    Russo, Giuliano; McPake, Barbara; Fronteira, Inês; Ferrinho, Paulo

    2014-09-01

    Scarce evidence exists on the features, determinants and implications of physicians' dual practice, especially in resource-poor settings. This study considered dual practice patterns in three African cities and the respective markets for physician services, with the objective of understanding the influence of local determinants on the practice. Forty-eight semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted in the three cities to understand features of the practice and the respective markets. A survey was carried out in a sample of 331 physicians to explore their characteristics and decisions to work in public and private sectors. Descriptive analysis and inferential statistics were employed to explore differences in physicians' engagement in dual practice across the three locations. Different forms of dual practice were found to exist in the three cities, with public physicians engaging in private practice outside but also inside public facilities, in regulated as well as unregulated ways. Thirty-four per cent of the respondents indicated that they worked in public practice only, and 11% that they engaged exclusively in private practice. The remaining 55% indicated that they engaged in some form of dual practice, 31% 'outside' public facilities, 8% 'inside' and 16% both 'outside' and 'inside'. Local health system governance and the structure of the markets for physician services were linked to the forms of dual practice found in each location, and to their prevalence. Our analysis suggests that physicians' decisions to engage in dual practice are influenced by supply and demand factors, but also by how clearly separated public and private markets are. Where it is possible to provide little-regulated services within public infrastructure, less incentive seems to exist to engage in the formal private sector, with equity and efficiency implications for service provision. The study shows the value of analysing health markets to understand physicians' engagement in

  1. Negotiating markets for health: an exploration of physicians’ engagement in dual practice in three African capital cities

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Giuliano; McPake, Barbara; Fronteira, Inês; Ferrinho, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Scarce evidence exists on the features, determinants and implications of physicians’ dual practice, especially in resource-poor settings. This study considered dual practice patterns in three African cities and the respective markets for physician services, with the objective of understanding the influence of local determinants on the practice. Forty-eight semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted in the three cities to understand features of the practice and the respective markets. A survey was carried out in a sample of 331 physicians to explore their characteristics and decisions to work in public and private sectors. Descriptive analysis and inferential statistics were employed to explore differences in physicians’ engagement in dual practice across the three locations. Different forms of dual practice were found to exist in the three cities, with public physicians engaging in private practice outside but also inside public facilities, in regulated as well as unregulated ways. Thirty-four per cent of the respondents indicated that they worked in public practice only, and 11% that they engaged exclusively in private practice. The remaining 55% indicated that they engaged in some form of dual practice, 31% ‘outside’ public facilities, 8% ‘inside’ and 16% both ‘outside’ and ‘inside’. Local health system governance and the structure of the markets for physician services were linked to the forms of dual practice found in each location, and to their prevalence. Our analysis suggests that physicians’ decisions to engage in dual practice are influenced by supply and demand factors, but also by how clearly separated public and private markets are. Where it is possible to provide little-regulated services within public infrastructure, less incentive seems to exist to engage in the formal private sector, with equity and efficiency implications for service provision. The study shows the value of analysing health markets to understand

  2. Negotiating markets for health: an exploration of physicians' engagement in dual practice in three African capital cities.

    PubMed

    Russo, Giuliano; McPake, Barbara; Fronteira, Inês; Ferrinho, Paulo

    2014-09-01

    Scarce evidence exists on the features, determinants and implications of physicians' dual practice, especially in resource-poor settings. This study considered dual practice patterns in three African cities and the respective markets for physician services, with the objective of understanding the influence of local determinants on the practice. Forty-eight semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted in the three cities to understand features of the practice and the respective markets. A survey was carried out in a sample of 331 physicians to explore their characteristics and decisions to work in public and private sectors. Descriptive analysis and inferential statistics were employed to explore differences in physicians' engagement in dual practice across the three locations. Different forms of dual practice were found to exist in the three cities, with public physicians engaging in private practice outside but also inside public facilities, in regulated as well as unregulated ways. Thirty-four per cent of the respondents indicated that they worked in public practice only, and 11% that they engaged exclusively in private practice. The remaining 55% indicated that they engaged in some form of dual practice, 31% 'outside' public facilities, 8% 'inside' and 16% both 'outside' and 'inside'. Local health system governance and the structure of the markets for physician services were linked to the forms of dual practice found in each location, and to their prevalence. Our analysis suggests that physicians' decisions to engage in dual practice are influenced by supply and demand factors, but also by how clearly separated public and private markets are. Where it is possible to provide little-regulated services within public infrastructure, less incentive seems to exist to engage in the formal private sector, with equity and efficiency implications for service provision. The study shows the value of analysing health markets to understand physicians' engagement in

  3. Costs, commitment, and rewards: factors influencing the design and implementation of internal labor markets.

    PubMed

    Bills, D B

    1987-06-01

    Much research on internal labor markets has been hampered by the failure to differentiate the wide variety of ILMs, by accounts of their determinants that too heavily emphasize isolated causal factors, by the lack of detailed material describing the economic and organizational dimensions of their design and implementation, and by the neglect of managerial perceptions of and motivations for constructing ILMs. This paper presents detailed case studies of three organizations that have constructed very different ILMs. Based on this material, a model of the determinants of ILMs is developed that centers around the concepts of costs, commitment, and rewards and that attempts to assess the interactions of effects of markets and hierarchies on ILMs. The model is built on the premise that the underlying imperatives typically held to affect ILMs are inevitably filtered through managerial beliefs and the constraints on managerial decision making. The implications of these findings for theory and research on ILMs are discussed.

  4. 12 CFR Appendix G to Part 225 - Capital Adequacy Guidelines for Bank Holding Companies: Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (FFIEC) 009 Country Exposure Report); (iii) Is a subsidiary of a depository institution that uses 12 CFR part 3, appendix C, 12 CFR part 208, appendix F, 12 CFR part 325, appendix D, or 12 CFR part 567... company that uses 12 CFR part 225, appendix G, to calculate its risk-based capital requirements. (2)...

  5. 76 FR 17986 - Public Notice for Waiver of Aeronautical Land-Use Assurance; Capital Region International Airport...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Public Notice for Waiver of Aeronautical Land-Use Assurance; Capital..., totaling approximately 7.33 acres. Current use and present condition is undeveloped land compatible with... aeronautical use. Subject land may provide good commercial/industrial development opportunities for...

  6. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 3 - Capital Adequacy Guidelines for Banks: Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... subject to 12 CFR part 3, appendix B, calculates its risk-based capital requirements under this appendix, the bank must also refer to 12 CFR part 3, appendix B, for supplemental rules to calculate risk-based.... 1467a) provided all or substantially all of the holding company's activities are permissible for...

  7. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 167 - Risk-Based Capital Requirements-Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... depository institution that uses 12 CFR part 3, appendix C, 12 CFR part 208, appendix F, 12 CFR part 325, appendix D, or 12 CFR part 167, appendix C, to calculate its risk-based capital requirements; or (iv) Is a subsidiary of a bank holding company that uses 12 CFR part 225, appendix G, to calculate its...

  8. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 567 - Risk-Based Capital Requirements-Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... depository institution that uses 12 CFR part 3, appendix C, 12 CFR part 208, appendix F, 12 CFR part 325, appendix D, or 12 CFR part 567, appendix C, to calculate its risk-based capital requirements; or (iv) Is a subsidiary of a bank holding company that uses 12 CFR part 225, appendix G, to calculate its...

  9. 12 CFR Appendix F to Part 208 - Capital Adequacy Guidelines for Banks: Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... institution that uses 12 CFR part 3, appendix C, 12 CFR part 208, appendix F, 12 CFR part 325, appendix D, or 12 CFR part 567, appendix C, to calculate its risk-based capital requirements; or (iv) Is a subsidiary of a bank holding company that uses 12 CFR part 225, appendix G, to calculate its...

  10. 12 CFR Appendix D to Part 325 - Capital Adequacy Guidelines for Banks: Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (FFIEC) 009 Country Exposure Report); (iii) Is a subsidiary of a depository institution that uses 12 CFR part 3, appendix C, 12 CFR part 208, appendix F, 12 CFR part 325, appendix D, or 12 CFR part 567... company that uses 12 CFR part 225, appendix G, to calculate its risk-based capital requirements. (2)...

  11. 12 CFR Appendix D to Part 325 - Capital Adequacy Guidelines for Banks: Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (FFIEC) 009 Country Exposure Report); (iii) Is a subsidiary of a depository institution that uses 12 CFR part 3, appendix C, 12 CFR part 208, appendix F, 12 CFR part 325, appendix D, or 12 CFR part 567... company that uses 12 CFR part 225, appendix G, to calculate its risk-based capital requirements. (2)...

  12. 12 CFR Appendix G to Part 225 - Capital Adequacy Guidelines for Bank Holding Companies: Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (FFIEC) 009 Country Exposure Report); (iii) Is a subsidiary of a depository institution that uses 12 CFR part 3, appendix C, 12 CFR part 208, appendix F, 12 CFR part 325, appendix D, or 12 CFR part 567... company that uses 12 CFR part 225, appendix G, to calculate its risk-based capital requirements. (2)...

  13. 12 CFR Appendix F to Part 208 - Capital Adequacy Guidelines for Banks: Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... institution that uses 12 CFR part 3, appendix C, 12 CFR part 208, appendix F, 12 CFR part 325, appendix D, or 12 CFR part 567, appendix C, to calculate its risk-based capital requirements; or (iv) Is a subsidiary of a bank holding company that uses 12 CFR part 225, appendix G, to calculate its...

  14. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 567 - Risk-Based Capital Requirements-Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... depository institution that uses 12 CFR part 3, appendix C, 12 CFR part 208, appendix F, 12 CFR part 325, appendix D, or 12 CFR part 567, appendix C, to calculate its risk-based capital requirements; or (iv) Is a subsidiary of a bank holding company that uses 12 CFR part 225, appendix G, to calculate its...

  15. 12 CFR Appendix D to Part 325 - Capital Adequacy Guidelines for Banks: Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (FFIEC) 009 Country Exposure Report); (iii) Is a subsidiary of a depository institution that uses 12 CFR part 3, appendix C, 12 CFR part 208, appendix F, 12 CFR part 325, appendix D, or 12 CFR part 567... company that uses 12 CFR part 225, appendix G, to calculate its risk-based capital requirements. (2)...

  16. 12 CFR Appendix D to Part 325 - Capital Adequacy Guidelines for Banks: Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (FFIEC) 009 Country Exposure Report); (iii) Is a subsidiary of a depository institution that uses 12 CFR part 3, appendix C, 12 CFR part 208, appendix F, 12 CFR part 325, appendix D, or 12 CFR part 567... company that uses 12 CFR part 225, appendix G, to calculate its risk-based capital requirements. (2)...

  17. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 567 - Risk-Based Capital Requirements-Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... depository institution that uses 12 CFR part 3, appendix C, 12 CFR part 208, appendix F, 12 CFR part 325, appendix D, or 12 CFR part 567, appendix C, to calculate its risk-based capital requirements; or (iv) Is a subsidiary of a bank holding company that uses 12 CFR part 225, appendix G, to calculate its...

  18. 12 CFR Appendix G to Part 225 - Capital Adequacy Guidelines for Bank Holding Companies: Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (FFIEC) 009 Country Exposure Report); (iii) Is a subsidiary of a depository institution that uses 12 CFR part 3, appendix C, 12 CFR part 208, appendix F, 12 CFR part 325, appendix D, or 12 CFR part 567... company that uses 12 CFR part 225, appendix G, to calculate its risk-based capital requirements. (2)...

  19. 12 CFR Appendix F to Part 208 - Capital Adequacy Guidelines for Banks: Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... institution that uses 12 CFR part 3, appendix C, 12 CFR part 208, appendix F, 12 CFR part 325, appendix D, or 12 CFR part 567, appendix C, to calculate its risk-based capital requirements; or (iv) Is a subsidiary of a bank holding company that uses 12 CFR part 225, appendix G, to calculate its...

  20. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 167 - Risk-Based Capital Requirements-Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... depository institution that uses 12 CFR part 3, appendix C, 12 CFR part 208, appendix F, 12 CFR part 325, appendix D, or 12 CFR part 167, appendix C, to calculate its risk-based capital requirements; or (iv) Is a subsidiary of a bank holding company that uses 12 CFR part 225, appendix G, to calculate its...

  1. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 3 - Capital Adequacy Guidelines for Banks: Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (FFIEC) 009 Country Exposure Report); (iii) Is a subsidiary of a depository institution that uses 12 CFR part 3, appendix C, 12 CFR part 208, appendix F, 12 CFR part 325, appendix D, or 12 CFR part 567... company that uses 12 CFR part 225, appendix G, to calculate its risk-based capital requirements. (2)...

  2. 12 CFR Appendix G to Part 225 - Capital Adequacy Guidelines for Bank Holding Companies: Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (FFIEC) 009 Country Exposure Report); (iii) Is a subsidiary of a depository institution that uses 12 CFR part 3, appendix C, 12 CFR part 208, appendix F, 12 CFR part 325, appendix D, or 12 CFR part 567... company that uses 12 CFR part 225, appendix G, to calculate its risk-based capital requirements. (2)...

  3. A Review of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development's International Education Surveys: Governance, Human Capital Discourses, and Policy Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Clara; Volante, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Given the influential role that the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) plays in educational governance, we believe it is timely to provide an in-depth review of its education surveys and their associated human capital discourses. By reviewing and summarizing the OECD's suite of education surveys, this paper identifies the…

  4. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 567 - Risk-Based Capital Requirements-Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... hold an amount of capital greater than otherwise required under this appendix if the OTS determines... it were consolidated on the savings association's balance sheet. OTS will look to the substance of... form or in substance: (1) Represents a contractual right to receive some or all of the interest and...

  5. Analysis and Design of International Emission Trading Markets Applying System Dynamics Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Bo; Pickl, Stefan

    2010-11-01

    The design and analysis of international emission trading markets is an important actual challenge. Time-discrete models are needed to understand and optimize these procedures. We give an introduction into this scientific area and present actual modeling approaches. Furthermore, we develop a model which is embedded in a holistic problem solution. Measures for energy efficiency are characterized. The economic time-discrete "cap-and-trade" mechanism is influenced by various underlying anticipatory effects. With a systematic dynamic approach the effects can be examined. First numerical results show that fair international emissions trading can only be conducted with the use of protective export duties. Furthermore a comparatively high price which evokes emission reduction inevitably has an inhibiting effect on economic growth according to our model. As it always has been expected it is not without difficulty to find a balance between economic growth and emission reduction. It can be anticipated using our System Dynamics model simulation that substantial changes must be taken place before international emissions trading markets can contribute to global GHG emissions mitigation.

  6. Deaf capital: an exploration of the relationship between stigma and value in deaf multilevel marketing participation in Urban India.

    PubMed

    Friedner, Michele

    2014-12-01

    This article ethnographically examines how some deaf people in urban India have begun to orient themselves toward the future by participating in multilevel marketing businesses. In the absence of other structural possibilities for deaf future-making, deaf Indians have turned to such businesses in search of social, economic, and moral livelihood. This article analyzes participation in one particular business and asks how participating within the business both enables and disables the cultivation of specific ideas of development. Particular attention is devoted to exploring the multiple registers of the concept of "deaf development" and how such development may be cultivated through multilevel marketing businesses. This article aims to make a critical intervention in medical anthropology studies of disability by arguing that disability (or in this case deafness) can function as a source of value, therefore highlighting tensions between stigma and value. PMID:24947829

  7. DOE`s multiprogram laboratories: The structure of an internal market

    SciTech Connect

    Beggs, S.D.

    1996-04-15

    Individual Department of Energy offices make R and D program assignments to competing multiprogram laboratories that are concentrated consistently more or less than the assignments of other offices over their full range, from largest assignment to smallest. Defense-related offices ignore as R and D performers the laboratories they do not dominate, by extends even greater than would be predicted from giving the three weapons laboratories their largest assignments. Certain DOE offices cluster their lab assignments together; others tend to avoid one another. To frame new legislation with net benefits for this internal market, Congress must appreciate the role of interlab competition.

  8. 12 CFR 932.6 - Operations risk capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Section 932.6 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS § 932.6 Operations risk capital requirement... capital requirement and market risk capital requirement. (b) Alternative requirements. With the...

  9. 12 CFR 932.6 - Operations risk capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Section 932.6 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS § 932.6 Operations risk capital requirement... capital requirement and market risk capital requirement. (b) Alternative requirements. With the...

  10. Patient choice and mobility in the UK health system: internal and external markets.

    PubMed

    Dusheiko, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The National Health Service (NHS) has been the body of the health care system in the United Kingdom (UK) for over 60 years and has sought to provide the population with a high quality service free of user charges for most services. The information age has seen the NHS rapidly transformed from a socialist, centrally planned and publicly provided system to a more market based system orientated towards patients as consumers. The forces of globalization have provided patients in the UK with greater choice in their health care provision, with NHS treatment now offered from any public or approved private provider and the possibility of treatment anywhere in the European Economic Area (EEA) or possibly further. The financial crisis, a large government deficit and austerity public spending policies have imposed a tight budget constraint on the NHS at a time of increasing demand for health care and population pressure. Hence, further rationing of care could imply that patients are incentivised to seek private treatment outside the constraints of the NHS, where the possibility of much greater choice exists in an increasingly globally competitive health care market. This chapter examines the evidence on the response of patients to the possibilities of increased choice and mobility within the internal NHS and external overseas health care markets. It also considers the relationships between patient mobility, health care provision and health policy. Patients are more mobile and willing to travel further to obtain better care outcomes and value for money, but are exposed to greater risk. PMID:24864384

  11. The role of bioethics in the international prescription drug market: economics and global justice.

    PubMed

    Newland, Shelby E

    2006-01-01

    In terms of health care access, bioethics has an important role to inform and shape policy issues and develop interdisciplinary ideas and interventions. The rising price of prescription drugs presents one of the most looming barriers to health care access in the world today. Including both theoretical and practical features of the pharmaceutical industry's behavior is necessary to find ethical solutions towards increasing access. Bioethics can evaluate global justice by weighing human rights theory and future innovation at the macro level, and by addressing market forces and responsibilities at the micro level. Inherent structural features of pharmaceuticals, such as its reliance on research and development, cause the industry to employ pricing strategies that seem counter-intuitive to conventional wisdom, but that result in producing a just allocation as defined by market forces. Parallel trade and drug exportation/reimportation threaten the saliency of the industry's differential pricing scheme; a case-study of a single "Euro-price" within the European Union illustrates how this will actually create harm to the most needy member states. This complex situation requires solutions weighing arguments from human rights theory with those from economic theory to arrive at the most globally just allocation of prescription drugs in the global marketplace, as well as to ensure future innovation and scientific progress. Bioethicists as well as economists need to partake urgently in this discourse for the betterment of the global injustices in the international prescription drug market.

  12. Patient choice and mobility in the UK health system: internal and external markets.

    PubMed

    Dusheiko, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The National Health Service (NHS) has been the body of the health care system in the United Kingdom (UK) for over 60 years and has sought to provide the population with a high quality service free of user charges for most services. The information age has seen the NHS rapidly transformed from a socialist, centrally planned and publicly provided system to a more market based system orientated towards patients as consumers. The forces of globalization have provided patients in the UK with greater choice in their health care provision, with NHS treatment now offered from any public or approved private provider and the possibility of treatment anywhere in the European Economic Area (EEA) or possibly further. The financial crisis, a large government deficit and austerity public spending policies have imposed a tight budget constraint on the NHS at a time of increasing demand for health care and population pressure. Hence, further rationing of care could imply that patients are incentivised to seek private treatment outside the constraints of the NHS, where the possibility of much greater choice exists in an increasingly globally competitive health care market. This chapter examines the evidence on the response of patients to the possibilities of increased choice and mobility within the internal NHS and external overseas health care markets. It also considers the relationships between patient mobility, health care provision and health policy. Patients are more mobile and willing to travel further to obtain better care outcomes and value for money, but are exposed to greater risk.

  13. The role of bioethics in the international prescription drug market: economics and global justice.

    PubMed

    Newland, Shelby E

    2006-01-01

    In terms of health care access, bioethics has an important role to inform and shape policy issues and develop interdisciplinary ideas and interventions. The rising price of prescription drugs presents one of the most looming barriers to health care access in the world today. Including both theoretical and practical features of the pharmaceutical industry's behavior is necessary to find ethical solutions towards increasing access. Bioethics can evaluate global justice by weighing human rights theory and future innovation at the macro level, and by addressing market forces and responsibilities at the micro level. Inherent structural features of pharmaceuticals, such as its reliance on research and development, cause the industry to employ pricing strategies that seem counter-intuitive to conventional wisdom, but that result in producing a just allocation as defined by market forces. Parallel trade and drug exportation/reimportation threaten the saliency of the industry's differential pricing scheme; a case-study of a single "Euro-price" within the European Union illustrates how this will actually create harm to the most needy member states. This complex situation requires solutions weighing arguments from human rights theory with those from economic theory to arrive at the most globally just allocation of prescription drugs in the global marketplace, as well as to ensure future innovation and scientific progress. Bioethicists as well as economists need to partake urgently in this discourse for the betterment of the global injustices in the international prescription drug market. PMID:17146900

  14. Career preferences and perceptions of the medical labor market among Mexican interns.

    PubMed

    Frenk, J; Bashshur, R

    1983-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between choice of career and perception of the medical labor market, as well as the effects of social origin, type of medical school, and place of internship. The data are derived from a survey of interns which was conducted in Mexico during 1978, when a substantial proportion of physicians was unemployed or underemployed. Career preferences were operationalized in terms of type of activity (general practice or specialty), site (ambulatory or hospital) and institution (public assistance, social security or private). Perceptions of the medical labor market were measured as an 'objective' feasibility perception and a 'subjective' opportunity assessment. Additionally, composite indices of career preferences and perceptions were constructed in order to take account of two integrated career patterns: dominant (or majority preference) vs alternative (or minority preference). Analysis of the data consistently revealed that perception of the medical labor market had a much stronger impact on preference for alternative than for dominant career patterns. Whereas social origin had no effect on career preference, type of medical school and place of internship exhibited a statistical interaction with career preference, suggesting that certain structural conditions of the medical school and the teaching hospitals led to preference for alternative rather than dominant careers. The implications of the findings are discussed with regard to health manpower policy, to conceptions of rational career choice and to the professional status of medicine in Mexico. PMID:6879230

  15. The Public Good, the Market, and Academic Capitalism: U.S. Cross-Border Higher Education in Panama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montoto, Lisette

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, U.S. colleges and universities have begun to extend their international presence through different models of cross-border higher education. This research explores three models of U.S. higher education in Panama City, Panama: a branch campus, a franchise model and merger/acquisition models. Using a qualitative approach, this study…

  16. Redundancy of Supply in the International Nuclear Fuel Fabrication Market: Are Fabrication Services Assured?

    SciTech Connect

    Seward, Amy M.; Toomey, Christopher; Ford, Benjamin E.; Wood, Thomas W.; Perkins, Casey J.

    2011-11-14

    For several years, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been assessing the reliability of nuclear fuel supply in support of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration. Three international low enriched uranium reserves, which are intended back up the existing and well-functioning nuclear fuel market, are currently moving toward implementation. These backup reserves are intended to provide countries credible assurance that of the uninterrupted supply of nuclear fuel to operate their nuclear power reactors in the event that their primary fuel supply is disrupted, whether for political or other reasons. The efficacy of these backup reserves, however, may be constrained without redundant fabrication services. This report presents the findings of a recent PNNL study that simulated outages of varying durations at specific nuclear fuel fabrication plants. The modeling specifically enabled prediction and visualization of the reactors affected and the degree of fuel delivery delay. The results thus provide insight on the extent of vulnerability to nuclear fuel supply disruption at the level of individual fabrication plants, reactors, and countries. The simulation studies demonstrate that, when a reasonable set of qualification criteria are applied, existing fabrication plants are technically qualified to provide backup fabrication services to the majority of the world's power reactors. The report concludes with an assessment of the redundancy of fuel supply in the nuclear fuel market, and a description of potential extra-market mechanisms to enhance the security of fuel supply in cases where it may be warranted. This report is an assessment of the ability of the existing market to respond to supply disruptions that occur for technical reasons. A forthcoming report will address political disruption scenarios.

  17. Allergy Capitals

    MedlinePlus

    ... Allergy Capitals Anaphylaxis in America Extreme Allergies and Climate Change Access to Pseudoephedrine Consensus Study on Food Allergies ... Allergy Capitals Anaphylaxis in America Extreme Allergies and Climate Change Access to Pseudoephedrine Consensus Study on Food Allergies ...

  18. Capital access.

    PubMed

    Towne, Jennifer

    2004-06-01

    To maintain their viability, hospitals are being compelled to invest in big capital projects such as information technology and renovation and construction. This gatefold examines the trends in credit and capital, and how they affect hospitals' access to money.

  19. Intellectual Capital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, Royal

    2001-01-01

    According to Thomas Stewart's book, intellectual capital comprises three broad categories: human, structural, and customer. Structural, or organizational capital, is knowledge that does not leave at night (with workers, or human capital). Developing a "best practices" database using Lotus Notes software would preserve and access schools'…

  20. Immunitary bioeconomy: the economisation of life in the international cord blood market.

    PubMed

    Brown, Nik; Machin, Laura; McLeod, Danae

    2011-04-01

    This paper examines an emerging bioeconomy centred on the international banking and trade in cord blood. Since the late 1980s cord blood has been used in an expanding range of treatments and as an alternative to the use of bone marrow stem cells. This is particularly the case in treating ethnic minority populations who have historically been under-represented in bone marrow registries. The paper explores the mobilisation and commercialisation of an increasingly important bioeconomic resource with cord blood units trading internationally at high prices. This is a market mediated through a sophisticated global network of immunologically typed and matched bodily matter in which immunity has become a form of 'corporeal currency'. Based on recent international figures we reflect upon the balance of trade between imports and exports across the world's cord blood bioeconomy. Theoretically, this case is, we suggest, an extension of what Roberto Esposito (2008) has termed an 'immunitary paradigm' in which immunity has become the basis for new forms of bioeconomic flow, circulation and exchange. Esposito (2008). Bios: Biopolitics and Philosophy. Minnesota, MN: University of Minnesota Press.

  1. Immunitary bioeconomy: the economisation of life in the international cord blood market.

    PubMed

    Brown, Nik; Machin, Laura; McLeod, Danae

    2011-04-01

    This paper examines an emerging bioeconomy centred on the international banking and trade in cord blood. Since the late 1980s cord blood has been used in an expanding range of treatments and as an alternative to the use of bone marrow stem cells. This is particularly the case in treating ethnic minority populations who have historically been under-represented in bone marrow registries. The paper explores the mobilisation and commercialisation of an increasingly important bioeconomic resource with cord blood units trading internationally at high prices. This is a market mediated through a sophisticated global network of immunologically typed and matched bodily matter in which immunity has become a form of 'corporeal currency'. Based on recent international figures we reflect upon the balance of trade between imports and exports across the world's cord blood bioeconomy. Theoretically, this case is, we suggest, an extension of what Roberto Esposito (2008) has termed an 'immunitary paradigm' in which immunity has become the basis for new forms of bioeconomic flow, circulation and exchange. Esposito (2008). Bios: Biopolitics and Philosophy. Minnesota, MN: University of Minnesota Press. PMID:21398003

  2. Marketing.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    There is not enough marketing of dentistry; but there certainly is too much selling of poor quality service that is being passed off as dentistry. The marketing concept makes the patient and the patients' needs the ultimate criteria of marketing efforts. Myths and good practices for effective marketing that will promote oral health are described under the traditional four "Ps" categories of "product" (best dental care), "place" (availability), "promotion" (advertising and other forms of making patients aware of available services and how to use them), and "price" (the total cost to patients of receiving care). PMID:20836416

  3. 26 CFR 1.266-1 - Taxes and carrying charges chargeable to capital account and treated as capital items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Taxes and carrying charges chargeable to capital account and treated as capital items. 1.266-1 Section 1.266-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.266-1 Taxes and carrying charges chargeable to capital account and treated as capital items....

  4. 26 CFR 1.266-1 - Taxes and carrying charges chargeable to capital account and treated as capital items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxes and carrying charges chargeable to capital account and treated as capital items. 1.266-1 Section 1.266-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Taxes and carrying charges chargeable to capital account and treated as capital items. (a)(1) In...

  5. Conditional independence graph for nonlinear time series and its application to international financial markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Wei; Zhao, Hongxia

    2013-05-01

    Conditional independence graphs are proposed for describing the dependence structure of multivariate nonlinear time series, which extend the graphical modeling approach based on partial correlation. The vertexes represent the components of a multivariate time series and edges denote direct dependence between corresponding series. The conditional independence relations between component series are tested efficiently and consistently using conditional mutual information statistics and a bootstrap procedure. Furthermore, a method combining information theory with surrogate data is applied to test the linearity of the conditional dependence. The efficiency of the methods is approved through simulation time series with different linear and nonlinear dependence relations. Finally, we show how the method can be applied to international financial markets to investigate the nonlinear independence structure.

  6. Locating Environmental Education between Modern Capitalism and Postmodern Socialism: A Reply to Lucie Sauve.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huckle, John

    1999-01-01

    Claims that structural-adjustment programs, deregulation, and opening of markets may be good for international capital, but such processes increase inequalities, encourage people and countries to over-exploit natural resources, and contribute to reductions in spending on social and environmental welfare. (Author/CCM)

  7. Compliance status of product labels to the international code on marketing of breast milk substitutes.

    PubMed

    Ergin, Ahmet; Hatipoğlu, Celile; Bozkurt, Ali Ihsan; Erdoğan, Aslı; Güler, Serdar; Ince, Gülberat; Kavurgacı, Nuran; Oz, Ahmet; Yeniay, Mustafa K

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the compliance status of product labels regarding Article 9 of the International Code on Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes (the Code) in Denizli province, Turkey. A cross-sectional study design was employed to determine the compliance status. The product labels were obtained from a convenience sample of five supermarkets, one store and 5 pharmacies in the City centre and district of Honaz. Using a data collection form prepared by previously published studies, data were collected between July 26, 2010 and August 06, 2010. Data collection form included 13 criteria. In addition, we checked the boxes for the availability of a Turkish written label. Forty product labels of 7 companies were reached and evaluated. These products consisted of 83.0% of the products marketed by these companies in Turkey. Thirty seven (92.5%) of the labels violated Article 9 of the Code in terms of one or more criteria. Thirty four (85.0%) of the labels had photos or pictures idealizing the use of infant formula. Nine (22.5%) had a photo, a picture or any representation of an infant, and five (12.5%) had text which idealize the use of infant formula or discouraging breastfeeding. Eight (20%) did not state that breastfeeding is the best. Four (10%) had a term such as 'similar to breast milk or human milk'. In conclusion, the majority of the product labels of breast milk substitutes marketed in our country violate the Code. It is appropriate that the Turkish Ministry of Health, medical organizations, companies, and NGOs work more actively to increase awareness of this issue. PMID:22367068

  8. International market assessment of stand-alone photovoltaic power systems for cottage industry applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philippi, T. M.

    1981-01-01

    The final result of an international assessment of the market for stand-alone photovoltaic systems in cottage industry applications is reported. Nonindustrialized countries without centrally planned economies were considered. Cottage industries were defined as small rural manufacturers, employing less than 50 people, producing consumer and simple products. The data to support this analysis were obtained from secondary and expert sources in the U.S. and in-country field investigations of the Philippines and Mexico. The near-term market for photovoltaics for rural cottage industry applications appears to be limited to demonstration projects and pilot programs, based on an in-depth study of the nature of cottage industry, its role in the rural economy, the electric energy requirements of cottage industry, and a financial analysis of stand-alone photovoltaic systems as compared to their most viable competitor, diesel driven generators. Photovoltaics are shown to be a better long-term option only for very low power requirements. Some of these uses would include clay mixers, grinders, centrifuges, lathes, power saws and lighting of a workshop.

  9. International market assessment of stand-alone photovoltaic power systems for cottage industry applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philippi, T. M.

    1981-11-01

    The final result of an international assessment of the market for stand-alone photovoltaic systems in cottage industry applications is reported. Nonindustrialized countries without centrally planned economies were considered. Cottage industries were defined as small rural manufacturers, employing less than 50 people, producing consumer and simple products. The data to support this analysis were obtained from secondary and expert sources in the U.S. and in-country field investigations of the Philippines and Mexico. The near-term market for photovoltaics for rural cottage industry applications appears to be limited to demonstration projects and pilot programs, based on an in-depth study of the nature of cottage industry, its role in the rural economy, the electric energy requirements of cottage industry, and a financial analysis of stand-alone photovoltaic systems as compared to their most viable competitor, diesel driven generators. Photovoltaics are shown to be a better long-term option only for very low power requirements. Some of these uses would include clay mixers, grinders, centrifuges, lathes, power saws and lighting of a workshop.

  10. Promoting medical tourism to India: messages, images, and the marketing of international patient travel.

    PubMed

    Crooks, Valorie A; Turner, Leigh; Snyder, Jeremy; Johnston, Rory; Kingsbury, Paul

    2011-03-01

    The practice of medical tourism depends on successfully informing potential patients about procedure options, treatment facilities, tourism opportunities, travel arrangements, and destination countries. The promotion of medical tourism includes a wide range of marketing materials such as flyers, booklets, and websites. Yet, there is a paucity of knowledge about the dissemination, content, and reception of these promotional materials. Drawing on a thematic content analysis of the promotional print material distributed at the first medical tourism trade show in Canada in 2009, the main purpose of this article is to identify and understand the messages and images that companies use to market India as a global destination. While researchers and news media frequently cite low cost procedures as a key determinant for international patient travel, particularly to developing nations, our analysis reveals few low cost-related images or messages in the promotional materials distributed at the trade show. To help explain this surprising disjuncture, we consider four related issues: (1) promotional materials may be designed to be circulated amongst potential patients' concerned family and friends who privilege knowing about things such as the use of advanced technologies; (2) developing nations need to portray safe and advanced treatment facilities in order to dispel potential patients' suspicions that their medical care is inferior; (3) companies may avoid making cost saving claims that cannot be fulfilled for all of their international patients, especially those traveling from developing nations; and (4) messages of low cost may detract from and even undermine messages about quality. We conclude by identifying numerous avenues for future research by social and health scientists, and by considering the implications of our findings for existing knowledge gaps and debates within health geography specifically.

  11. Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appel, David L.

    This booklet suggests ways in which institutions--Catholic schools in particular--can move beyond public relations and advertising to engage in the broader arena of marketing with its focus on consumer satisfaction. The first of the book's three chapters reviews the concept of marketing, providing definitions of key terms, clarification of…

  12. Modernising the regulation of medical migration: moving from national monopolies to international markets

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Traditional top-down national regulation of internationally mobile doctors and nurses is fast being rendered obsolete by the speed of globalisation and digitisation. Here we propose a bottom-up system in which responsibility for hiring and accrediting overseas staff begins to be shared by medical employers, managers, and insurers. Discussion In this model, professional Boards would retain authority for disciplinary proceedings in response to local complaints, but would lose their present power of veto over foreign practitioners recruited by employers who have independently evaluated and approved such candidates' ability. Evaluations of this kind could be facilitated by globally accessible National Registers of professional work and conduct. A decentralised system of this kind could also dispense with time-consuming national oversight of continuing professional education and license revalidation, which tasks could be replaced over time by tighter institutional audit supported by stronger powers to terminate underperforming employees. Summary Market forces based on the reputation (and, hence, financial and political viability) of employers and institutions could continue to ensure patient safety in the future, while at the same time improving both national system efficiency and international professional mobility. PMID:23039098

  13. Learning with LinkedIn: Students' Perceptions of Incorporating Subject-Related Blogging in an International Marketing Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galan, Nataliya; Khodabandehloo, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to report the results of implementation of blogging within a LinkedIn discussion group in an international marketing course for a multicultural group of students focusing on the students' perceptions of the subject-related blogging. Design/Methodology/ Approach: This study adopts a qualitative approach; data have been…

  14. Web Based Interactive Software in International Business: The Case of the Global Market Potential System Online (GMPSO[C])

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janavaras, Basil J.; Gomes, Emanuel; Young, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This paper seeks to confirm whether students using the Global Market Potential System Online (GMPSO) web based software, (http://globalmarketpotential.com), for their class project enhanced their knowledge and understanding of international business. The challenge most business instructors and practitioners face is to determine how to bring the…

  15. Maximum Capital Project Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Matt

    2002-01-01

    Describes the stages of capital project planning and development: (1) individual capital project submission; (2) capital project proposal assessment; (3) executive committee; and (4) capital project execution. (EV)

  16. 12 CFR Appendix D to Part 325 - Capital Adequacy Guidelines for Banks: Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 52Simple Risk Weight Approach (SRWA) Section 53Internal Models Approach (IMA) Section 54Equity... Exposure Report); (iii) Is a subsidiary of a depository institution that uses 12 CFR part 3, appendix C, 12 CFR part 208, appendix F, 12 CFR part 325, appendix D, or 12 CFR part 567, appendix C, to...

  17. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 3 - Capital Adequacy Guidelines for Banks: Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 52Simple Risk Weight Approach (SRWA) Section 53Internal Models Approach (IMA) Section 54Equity... Exposure Report); (iii) Is a subsidiary of a depository institution that uses 12 CFR part 3, appendix C, 12 CFR part 208, appendix F, 12 CFR part 325, appendix D, or 12 CFR part 567, appendix C, to...

  18. Taking Capital Requirements into Account.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenny, Hans; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive capital charge policy is recommended as an integral part of college budgeting and reporting. It includes three components: a capital renewal and replacement charge, a new equipment and library and laboratory acquisitions budget, and a debt repayment schedule using internal borrowing. (MSE)

  19. Intellectual Capital Import for the Benefit of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenca, Airita; Gravite, Aija

    2013-01-01

    The article explores the role of intellectual capital in the development of higher education system. The description of economic and marketing values of intellectual capital demonstrates its importance for an institution's establishing in education market. Import and export of intellectual capital is a reality of globalisation processes, and it is…

  20. Systemic risk and causality dynamics of the world international shipping market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin; Podobnik, Boris; Kenett, Dror Y.; Eugene Stanley, H.

    2014-12-01

    Various studies have reported that many economic systems have been exhibiting an increase in the correlation between different market sectors, a factor that exacerbates the level of systemic risk. We measure this systemic risk of three major world shipping markets, (i) the new ship market, (ii) the second-hand ship market, and (iii) the freight market, as well as the shipping stock market. Based on correlation networks during three time periods, that prior to the financial crisis, during the crisis, and after the crisis, minimal spanning trees (MSTs) and hierarchical trees (HTs) both exhibit complex dynamics, i.e., different market sectors tend to be more closely linked during financial crisis. Brownian distance correlation and Granger causality test both can be used to explore the directional interconnectedness of market sectors, while Brownian distance correlation captures more dependent relationships, which are not observed in the Granger causality test. These two measures can also identify and quantify market regression periods, implying that they contain predictive power for the current crisis.

  1. An approach to developing the market for space shuttle payloads: Business/public policy issues and international marketing considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krebs, W. A. W.

    1974-01-01

    The business and public policies were assessed that were determined to be important for NASA to consider in the design of a program for stimulating use of the space transportation system (STS) among potential users in the U.S. private sector and in foreign countries, in preparation for operations of the space shuttle in the early 1980's. Salient factors related to international cooperation in space are identified for special consideration in the development of user potential of the STS.

  2. How venture capital works.

    PubMed

    Zider, B

    1998-01-01

    The popular mythology surrounding the U.S. venture-capital industry derives from a previous era. Venture capitalists who nurtured the computer industry in its infancy were legendary both for their risk taking and for their hands-on operating experience. But today things are different, and separating the myths from the realities is crucial to understanding this important piece of the U.S. economy. Today's venture capitalists are more like conservative bankers than the risk takers of days past. They have carved out a specialized niche in the capital markets, filling a void that other institutions cannot serve. They are the linch-pins in an efficient system for meeting the needs of institutional investors looking for high returns, of entrepreneurs seeking funding, and of investment bankers looking for companies to sell. Venture capitalists must earn a consistently superior return on investments in inherently risky businesses. The myth is that they do so by investing in good ideas and good plans. In reality, they invest in good industries--that is, industries that are more competitively forgiving than the market as a whole. And they structure their deals in a way that minimizes their risk and maximizes their returns. Although many entrepreneurs expect venture capitalists to provide them with sage guidance as well as capital, that expectation is unrealistic. Given a typical portfolio of ten companies and a 2,000-hour work year, a venture capital partner spends on average less than two hours per week on any given company. In addition to analyzing the current venture-capital system, the author offers practical advice to entrepreneurs thinking about venture funding. PMID:10187243

  3. How venture capital works.

    PubMed

    Zider, B

    1998-01-01

    The popular mythology surrounding the U.S. venture-capital industry derives from a previous era. Venture capitalists who nurtured the computer industry in its infancy were legendary both for their risk taking and for their hands-on operating experience. But today things are different, and separating the myths from the realities is crucial to understanding this important piece of the U.S. economy. Today's venture capitalists are more like conservative bankers than the risk takers of days past. They have carved out a specialized niche in the capital markets, filling a void that other institutions cannot serve. They are the linch-pins in an efficient system for meeting the needs of institutional investors looking for high returns, of entrepreneurs seeking funding, and of investment bankers looking for companies to sell. Venture capitalists must earn a consistently superior return on investments in inherently risky businesses. The myth is that they do so by investing in good ideas and good plans. In reality, they invest in good industries--that is, industries that are more competitively forgiving than the market as a whole. And they structure their deals in a way that minimizes their risk and maximizes their returns. Although many entrepreneurs expect venture capitalists to provide them with sage guidance as well as capital, that expectation is unrealistic. Given a typical portfolio of ten companies and a 2,000-hour work year, a venture capital partner spends on average less than two hours per week on any given company. In addition to analyzing the current venture-capital system, the author offers practical advice to entrepreneurs thinking about venture funding.

  4. The effect of internal marketing on job satisfaction in health services: a pilot study in public hospitals in Northern Greece

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of internal marketing on job satisfaction in health services, particularly in public hospitals in Northern Greece. Methods A questionnaire with three sections was used. The first one referred to internal marketing by using Foreman and Money's scale, while the second one contained questions on job satisfaction based on Stamps and Piermonte's work. The last section included demographic questions. Three categories of health care professionals, nurses, doctors and paramedic personnel working in public hospitals have participated. Results Doctors tend to be more satisfied with their job than nurses in the same hospitals. Male personnel also tend to be more satisfied with their job than female. Time-defined work contract personnel have a greater level of job satisfaction than permanent personnel. Marital status, position, and educational level have no statistically significant impact on job satisfaction. A slight decline in job satisfaction occurs as the personnel age. Conclusions Internal marketing has a positive effect on the job satisfaction of hospital staff in Northern Greece. Also, doctors and male personnel seem to have greater levels of job satisfaction. Staff with time-defined work contracts with the hospital are more satisfied than permanent staff, and as the staff age, there is a slight decline in job satisfaction. PMID:21981753

  5. The Transition from Higher Education to the Labour Market: International Perspectives and Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehlert, Holger, Ed.; Cordier, Heidi, Ed.

    This book examines the transition from higher education to the labor market in 10 countries. Although the individual papers do not follow a rigid standard format, they all consider the following issues: (1) how the labor market for graduates is organized; (2) how vocational orientation is achieved in degree courses in individual countries; and (3)…

  6. Teaching of the International Component in the Introductory Marketing Course: A Replication Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmer, Robert; Koernig, Stephen K.; Greene, Scott

    2004-01-01

    For almost three decades, the AACSB and business leaders have sought increased emphasis on internationalizing students' perspectives. Recent studies demonstrate mixed results in the extent to which business schools have globalized their curricula. With decreasing student interest in the marketing major, Introductory Marketing emerges as a critical…

  7. Measuring Social Capital Investment: Scale Development and Examination of Links to Social Capital and Perceived Stress

    PubMed Central

    Wegner, Rhiana; Gong, Jie; Fang, Xiaoyi; Kaljee, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with greater social capital have better health outcomes. Investment in social capital likely increases one’s own social capital, bearing great implications for disease prevention and health promotion. In this study, the authors developed and validated the Social Capital Investment Inventory (SCII). Direct effects of social capital investment on perceived stress, and indirect effects through social capital were examined. 397 Participants from Beijing and Wuhan, China completed surveys. Analyses demonstrated that the SCII has a single factor structure and strong internal consistency. Structural equation modeling showed that individuals who invested more in social capital had greater bonding social capital, and subsequently less perceived stress. Results suggest that disease prevention and health promotion programs should consider approaches to encourage social capital investment; individuals may be able to reduce stress by increasing their investment in social capital. Future research is needed to provide additional empirical support for the SCII and observed structural relationships. PMID:25648725

  8. 13 CFR 108.210 - Minimum capital requirements for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.210 Minimum capital requirements for NMVC Companies. You must have Regulatory Capital of at... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum capital requirements...

  9. 26 CFR 1.1202-1 - Deduction for capital gains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Deduction for capital gains. 1.1202-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Wash Sales of Stock Or Securities § 1.1202-1 Deduction for capital gains. (a) In computing gross income, adjusted gross income, taxable income, capital gain net income (net capital gain...

  10. Theory and evidence about the structure of the international oil market: 1974-1980; a collection of related essays

    SciTech Connect

    Loderer, C.F.

    1983-01-01

    One can argue that the international oil market is competitive. This dissertation, a collection of related essays, tries to resolve that issue by considering the 1974-80 period. The first essay tests the hypotheses that OPEC affects market prices. The analysis employs time-series tests involving spot prices of oil products and stock market portfolio returns. The findings confirm the hypothesis. The second essay looks for other evidence supporting the claim that OPEC is an effective cartel. The cartel is modelled as a dominant producer in a multiperiod world. The evidence contradicts the model. The findings cast doubts on most cartel explanations of the high oil prices. The third essay builds on MacAvoy's findings that the oil prices of the 1970's are mainly the result of an increasing demand and of declining new discoveries. During the first half of the 1970's, ownership of most crude oil reserves in the world was shifted from the international oil producing companies to their host countries through nationalizations and more or less forced equity participation agreements. The evidence shows that the timing of output policy changes in individual countries. However, controlling for changes in price expectations and reserve accumulations, these events are not an important determinant of output rates. Assuming the methodology used is correct, they cannot be a major reason for the oil price increase of the 1970's.

  11. Plus ça change, plus c'est la meme chose: to the internal market and back in the British National Health Service?

    PubMed

    Allen, Pauline

    2002-01-01

    Continuities and changes in policy concerning the organisational structure of the British National Health Service are evident throughout the last decade. This paper presents lessons learned from the internal market experience and discusses the extent to which New Labour policies have taken these into account. The role of decentralised contracts and central government direction in each system is explored. The internal market was less decentralised than expected, and direction from central government continued to be a key element. In the post internal market system, less faith has been placed in the capacity of contracts to improve quality of care, and centralised direction to set and enforce standards has increased. But simultaneously the mechanism of contracting has been retained and it is likely to be extended in increased dealings with the private sector. Efforts are also being made to curtail the high degree of centralisation in the early post internal market years. PMID:14619246

  12. provider venture capital funds: investing in innovation.

    PubMed

    Potter, Mary Jo; Wesslund, Rick

    2016-05-01

    As health systems continue to embrace disruptive innovation, they are increasingly likely to consider making a move into venture capital. Working in venture capital can benefit a health system in several ways, including: Allowing it to operate outside of bureaucracy and align projects with its core values. Encouraging innovation within the organization. Enabling it to respond quickly to changes in the market.

  13. Capital Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Robert W.

    2004-01-01

    "Social capital" describes the strength of community as measured by the connections and levels of trust among its members. These connections are both formal and informal and the benefits include better health and better academic achievement. In this article, the author proposes two types of experiments to determine whether the relationship between…

  14. Capital Campaigns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalessandro, David; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Eight articles focus on capital campaigns including setting goals (D. Dalessandro), the lead gift (D. A. Campbell), motivating trustees (J. J. Ianolli, Jr.), alumni associations (W. B. Adams), role of public relations officers (R. L. Williams), special events( H.R. Gilbert), the campaign document (R. King), and case statements (D. R. Treadwell,…

  15. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets: Best Practices from International Experience (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-10-01

    Many countries--reflecting very different geographies, markets, and power systems--are successfully managing high levels of variable renewable energy (RE) on the grid. Australia (South Australia), Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Spain, and the United States (Colorado and Texas), for example, have effectively integrated variable RE utilizing diverse approaches. Analysis of the results from these case studies reveals a wide range of mechanisms that can be used to accommodate high penetrations of variable RE (e.g., from new market designs to centralized planning). Nevertheless, the myriad approaches collectively suggest that governments can best enable variable RE grid integration by implementing best practices in five areas of intervention: lead public engagement, particularly for new transmission; coordinate and integrate planning; develop rules for market evolution that enable system flexibility; expand access to diverse resources and geographic footprint of operations; and improve system operations.

  16. Discourses of Antagonism and Desire: Marketing for International Students in Neighbourhood Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arber, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the consequences of these discourses for the ways that international students are identified and positioned within school communities. My argument is developed in four sections. The first describes my ongoing exploration into the impact of international student programmes in Australia. The second exemplifies my argument:…

  17. Globalization or Marketization?: The Dilemma of International Schools in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Sheena

    2004-01-01

    A troubling aspect of international schools is their dearth of academic discourse. Mark Bray has observed that two characteristics of international schools contribute to such a lack of research: first, the smallness of the sector; and second, and more important, the fact that such schools lie outside the mainstream local education system, serving…

  18. Building relationships with physicians. Internal marketing efforts help strengthen organizational bonds at a rural health care clinic.

    PubMed

    Peltier, J W; Boyt, T; Westfall, J E

    1997-01-01

    Physician turnover is costly for health care organizations, especially for rural organizations. One approach management can take to reduce turnover is to promote physician loyalty by treating them as an important customer segment. The authors develop an information--oriented framework for generating physician loyalty and illustrate how this framework has helped to eliminate physician turnover at a rural health care clinic. Rural health care organizations must develop a more internal marketing orientation in their approach to establishing strong relationship bonds with physicians. PMID:10173904

  19. Determinants of Effective Information Transfer in International Regulatory Standards Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popescu, Denisa

    2010-01-01

    The role of international regulatory standards within the current global environment has become of the most importance. The age of the global system and free market capitalism carried us into the unprecedented age of regulations, and standard setting. Regulations are now becoming the emerging mode of global governance. This study focuses on…

  20. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets. Best Practices from International Experience, Summary for Policymakers

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, Jaquelin; Bird, Lori; Heeter, Jenny; Arent, Douglas J.

    2012-04-30

    Many countries - reflecting very different geographies, markets, and power systems - are successfully managing high levels of variable renewable energy on the electric grid, including that from wind and solar energy. This document summarizes policy best practices that energy ministers and other stakeholders can pursue to ensure that electricity markets and power systems can effectively coevolve with increasing penetrations of variable renewable energy. There is no one-size-fits-all approach; each country studied has crafted its own combination of policies, market designs, and system operations to achieve the system reliability and flexibility needed to successfully integrate renewables. Notwithstanding this diversity, the approaches taken by the countries studied all coalesce around five strategic areas: lead public engagement, particularly for new transmission; coordinate and integrate planning; develop rules for market evolution that enable system flexibility; expand access to diverse resources and geographic footprint of operations; and improve system operations. This study also emphatically underscores the value of countries sharing their experiences. The more diverse and robust the experience base from which a country can draw, the more likely that it will be able to implement an appropriate, optimized, and system-wide approach.

  1. U.S. Television Programs in the International Market: Unfair Pricing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoskins, Colin; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Provides a microeconomic analysis of United States (U.S.) television program export prices. Finds that U.S. producers, acting like a dominant firm, are responsible for establishing the general level of foreign program prices in each national market. (MS)

  2. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets. Best Practices from International Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, Jaquelin; Bird, Lori; Heeter, Jenny; Arent, Douglas J.

    2012-04-30

    Many countries—reflecting very different geographies, markets, and power systems—are successfully managing high levels of variable renewable energy on the electric grid, including that from wind and solar energy. This document summarizes policy best practices that energy ministers and other stakeholders can pursue to ensure that electricity markets and power systems can effectively coevolve with increasing penetrations of variable renewable energy. There is no one-size-fits-all approach; each country studied has crafted its own combination of policies, market designs, and system operations to achieve the system reliability and flexibility needed to successfully integrate renewables. Notwithstanding this diversity, the approaches taken by the countries studied all coalesce around five strategic areas: lead public engagement, particularly for new transmission; coordinate and integrate planning; develop rules for market evolution that enable system flexibility; expand access to diverse resources and geographic footprint of operations; and improve system operations. This study also emphatically underscores the value of countries sharing their experiences. The more diverse and robust the experience base from which a country can draw, the more likely that it will be able to implement an appropriate, optimized, and system-wide approach.

  3. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets: Best Practices from International Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, J.; Bird, L.; Heeter, J.; Arent, D. A.

    2012-04-01

    Many countries -- reflecting very different geographies, markets, and power systems -- are successfully managing high levels of variable renewable energy on the electric grid, including that from wind and solar energy. This study documents the diverse approaches to effective integration of variable renewable energy among six countries -- Australia (South Australia), Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Spain, and the United States (Western region-Colorado and Texas)-- and summarizes policy best practices that energy ministers and other stakeholders can pursue to ensure that electricity markets and power systems can effectively coevolve with increasing penetrations of variable renewable energy. Each country has crafted its own combination of policies, market designs, and system operations to achieve the system reliability and flexibility needed to successfully integrate renewables. Notwithstanding this diversity, the approaches taken by the countries studied all coalesce around five strategic areas: lead public engagement, particularly for new transmission; coordinate and integrate planning; develop rules for market evolution that enable system flexibility; expand access to diverse resources and geographic footprint of operations; and improve system operations. The ability to maintain a broad ecosystem perspective, to organize and make available the wealth of experiences, and to ensure a clear path from analysis to enactment should be the primary focus going forward.

  4. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets: Best Practices from International Experience, Summary for Policymakers

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, J.; Bird, L.; Heeter, J.; Arent, D. A.

    2012-04-01

    Many countries -- reflecting very different geographies, markets, and power systems -- are successfully managing high levels of variable renewable energy on the electric grid, including that from wind and solar energy. This document summarizes policy best practices that energy ministers and other stakeholders can pursue to ensure that electricity markets and power systems can effectively coevolve with increasing penetrations of variable renewable energy. There is no one-size-fits-all approach; each country studied has crafted its own combination of policies, market designs, and system operations to achieve the system reliability and flexibility needed to successfully integrate renewables. Notwithstanding this diversity, the approaches taken by the countries studied all coalesce around five strategic areas: lead public engagement, particularly for new transmission; coordinate and integrate planning; develop rules for market evolution that enable system flexibility; expand access to diverse resources and geographic footprint of operations; and improve system operations. This study also emphatically underscores the value of countries sharing their experiences. The more diverse and robust the experience base from which a country can draw, the more likely that it will be able to implement an appropriate, optimized, and system-wide approach.

  5. International Commodity Markets, Local Food Prices and Environment in West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, M. E.; Hintermann, B.; Higgins, N.

    2008-12-01

    The recent massive increase in food and energy prices in the past five years, coupled with the awareness of the long term challenges of climate change to small holder agriculture in Africa has brought the issue of food security for the world's poorest people to the forefront once again. Asymmetric and limited integration of local commodity markets in West Africa highlights the weak position of Africa's rural countries in the face of climate change and demographic expansion. This paper will describe the functioning of local informal food markets in West African over the past twenty years and evaluate the impact of their limited integration with each other and with global commodity markets. Satellite remote sensing of vegetation has been used as a proxy for agricultural production in economic models to improve prediction of large swings in prices from year to year due to differences in supply. As demand increases, improvements in market functioning will be necessary to counter likely increases in production variability. Increasing Africa's stability in the face of climate change will require investment in agricultural production and transportation infrastructure in order to ensure an affordable flow of food to people in these extremely poor, landlocked countries.

  6. Career Effects of Occupation-Related Vocational Education: Evidence from the Military's Internal Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pema, Elda; Mehay, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Prior research on the labor market success of secondary vocational education has produced mixed results, with several studies finding wage gains only for individuals who work in training-related occupations. We contribute to this debate by focusing on a single occupation and organization and by comparing the careers of employees with and without…

  7. Small, modular, low-cost coal-fired power plants for the international market

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, B.; Frain, B.; Borck, B.; Baldwin, A.L.

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents recent operating results of Coal Tech`s second generation, air cooled, slagging coal combustor, and its application to power plants in the 1 to 20 MW range. This 20 MMBtu/hour combustor was installed in a new demonstration plant in Philadelphia, PA in 1995. It contains the combustion components of a 1 MWe coal fired power plant, a 17,500 lb/hour steam boiler, coal storage and feed components, and stack gas cleanup components. The plant`s design incorporates improvements resulting from 2,000 hours of testing between 1987 and 1993 on a first generation, commercial scale, air cooled combustor of equal thermal rating. Since operations began in early 1996, a total of 51 days of testing have been successfully completed. Major results include durability of the combustor`s refractory wall, excellent combustion with high ash concentration in the fuel, removal of 95% to 100% of the slag in the combustor, very little ash deposition in the boiler, major reduction of in-plant parasitic power, and simplified power system control through the use of modular designs of sub-systems and computer control. Rapid fuel switching between oil, gas, and coal and turndown of up to a factor of three was accomplished. All these features have been incorporated in advanced coal fired plant designs in the 1 to 20 MWe range. Incremental capital costs are only $100 to $200/kW higher than comparable rated gas or oil fired steam generating systems. Most of its components and subsystems can be factory assembled for very rapid field installation. The low capital, low operating costs, fuel flexibility, and compatibility with very high ash fuels, make this power system very attractive in regions of the world having domestic supplies of these fuels.

  8. 78 FR 62417 - Regulatory Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital, Implementation of Basel III, Capital Adequacy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... comments that appeared in the Federal Register of September 10, 2013 (78 FR 55340), regarding Regulatory... NW., Washington, DC 20429. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In FR Doc. 2013-21357, appearing on page 55518... Assets, Market Discipline and Disclosure Requirements, Advanced Approaches Risk-Based Capital Rule,...

  9. Measurement and Application of Intellectual Capital in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozbura, F. Tunc

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to define the elements of intellectual capital of firms in Turkey and to empirically investigate the relationship between intellectual capital and market value of firms in Istanbul Stock Exchange. To create a suitable intellectual capital measurement model for this study, a wide literature research was made. In almost…

  10. Steering Capital: Optimizing Financial Support for Innovation in Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kim; Petersen, Julie

    2011-01-01

    This paper revisits the central question of how to improve the provision of capital for entrepreneurial change in public education, but emphasizes the innovation ecosystem that surrounds the capital markets. The authors consider capital as one of the most important levers individuals need to align in this innovation ecosystem, but as a force that…

  11. 26 CFR 1.266-1 - Taxes and carrying charges chargeable to capital account and treated as capital items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... account and treated as capital items. 1.266-1 Section 1.266-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.266-1 Taxes and carrying charges chargeable to capital account and treated as capital items. (a)(1... the Code. No deduction is allowable for any items so treated. (2) See §§ 1.263A-8 through...

  12. Recurrence quantification analysis of global stock markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastos, João A.; Caiado, Jorge

    2011-04-01

    This study investigates the presence of deterministic dependencies in international stock markets using recurrence plots and recurrence quantification analysis (RQA). The results are based on a large set of free float-adjusted market capitalization stock indices, covering a period of 15 years. The statistical tests suggest that the dynamics of stock prices in emerging markets is characterized by higher values of RQA measures when compared to their developed counterparts. The behavior of stock markets during critical financial events, such as the burst of the technology bubble, the Asian currency crisis, and the recent subprime mortgage crisis, is analyzed by performing RQA in sliding windows. It is shown that during these events stock markets exhibit a distinctive behavior that is characterized by temporary decreases in the fraction of recurrence points contained in diagonal and vertical structures.

  13. A model of strategic marketing alliances for hospices: vertical, internal, osmotic alliances and the complete model.

    PubMed

    Starnes, B J; Self, D R

    1999-01-01

    This article develops two previous research efforts. William J. Winston (1994, 1995) has proposed a set of strategies by which health care organizations can benefit from forging strategic alliances. Raadt and Self (1997) have proposed a classification model of alliances including horizontal, vertical, internal, and osmotic. In the second of two articles, this paper presents a model of vertical, internal, and osmotic alliances. Advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed. Finally, the complete alliance system model is presented. PMID:10623195

  14. Role of markets, governments and international bodies in joint implementation with the south

    SciTech Connect

    Parikh, J.K.

    1995-11-01

    Joint Implementation (JI) opens up `markets` for carbon emission reduction projects of all cost categories spread throughout the World. Projects commissioned in the developing countries by the Global Environment Facility (GEF) suggest that the cost of CO{sub 2} emissions reductions ranged from US 20 cents per tonne to $42 per tonne on the basis of incremental costs. These costs are much lower than those indicated in the literature referring to the costs in the industrial countries (IC). Even if the costs are similar, the markets for cheaper credits will be widened by the inclusion of more countries. Thus, JI requires a thorough analysis as it could serve as a potential vehicle to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in a cost effective manner.

  15. CO₂ emission mitigation and fossil fuel markets: Dynamic and international aspects of climate policies

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Nico; Bosetti, Valentina; Hamdi-Cherif, Meriem; Kitous, Alban; McCollum, David; Mejean, Aurelie; Rao, Shilpa; Turton, Hal; Paroussos, Leonidas; Ashina, Shuichi; Calvin, Katherine; Wada, Kenichi; van Vuuren, Detlef

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores a multi-model scenario ensemble to assess the impacts of idealized and non-idealized climate change stabilization policies on fossil fuel markets. Under idealized conditions climate policies significantly reduce coal use in the short- and long-term. Reductions in oil and gas use are much smaller, particularly until 2030, but revenues decrease much more because oil and gas prices are higher than coal prices. A first deviation from optimal transition pathways is delayed action that relaxes global emission targets until 2030 in accordance with the Copenhagen pledges. Fossil fuel markets revert back to the no-policy case: though coal use increases strongest, revenue gains are higher for oil and gas. To balance the carbon budget over the 21st century, the long-term reallocation of fossil fuels is significantly larger—twice and more—than the short-term distortion. This amplifying effect results from coal lock-in and inter-fuel substitution effects to balance the full-century carbon budget. The second deviation from the optimal transition pathway relaxes the global participation assumption. The result here is less clear-cut across models, as we find carbon leakage effects ranging from positive to negative because trade and substitution patterns of coal, oil, and gas differ across models. In summary, distortions of fossil fuel markets resulting from relaxed short-term global emission targets are more important and less uncertain than the issue of carbon leakage from early mover action.

  16. CO2 emissions mitigation and fossil fuel markets: Dynamic and international aspects of climate policies

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Nico; Bosetti, Valentina; Hamdi-Cherif, Meriem; Kitous, Alban; McCollum, David; Mejean, Aurelie; Rao, Shilpa; Turton, Hal; Paroussos, Leonidas; Ashina, Shuichi; Calvin, Katherine V.; Wada, Kenichi; Van Vuuren, Detlef

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores a multi-model scenario ensemble to assess the impacts of idealized and non-idealized climate change stabilization policies on fossil fuel markets. Under idealized conditions climate policies significantly reduce coal use in the short- and long-term. Reductions in oil and gas use are much smaller, particularly until 2030, but revenues decrease much more because oil and gas prices are higher and decrease with mitigation. A first deviation from the optimal transition pathway relaxes global emission targets until 2030, in accordance with the Copenhagen pledges and regionally-specific low-carbon technology targets. Fossil fuel markets revert back to the no-policy case: though coal use increases strongest, revenue gains are higher for oil and gas. To balance the carbon budget over the 21st century, the long-term reallocation of fossil fuels is significantly larger - twice and more - than the short-term distortion. This amplifying effect results from coal lock-in and inter-fuel substitution effects. The second deviation from the optimal transition pathway relaxes the global participation assumption. The result here is less clear cut across models, as we find carbon leakage effects ranging from positive to negative because leakage and substitution patterns of coal, oil, and gas differ. In summary, distortions of fossil fuel markets resulting from relaxed short-term global emission targets are more important and less uncertain than the issue of carbon leakage from early mover action.

  17. The international pharmaceutical market as a source of low-cost prescription drugs for U.S. patients.

    PubMed

    Kesselheim, Aaron S; Choudhry, Niteesh K

    2008-04-15

    In response to increasing prescription drug costs, more U.S. patients and policymakers are importing less-expensive pharmaceutical products from other countries. Large-scale prescription drug importation is currently illegal, but the U.S. Food and Drug Administration permits individuals to bring in 90-day supplies of drugs for personal use. As patient use of foreign-bought drugs has increased, federal legislators have continued to debate the full legalization of importation. Three factors help guide whether U.S. patients and policymakers can rely on other countries as sources of imported prescription drugs: whether the safety of the product can be ensured, how the import price compares with domestic prices, and how importation might affect the exporting country's pharmaceutical market. In wealthier countries with active regulatory systems, drug safety can be adequately ensured, and brand-name products are usually less expensive than in the United States (although generic drugs may be more expensive). However, implementing large-scale importation can negatively impact the originating country's market and can diminish the long-term cost savings for U.S. consumers. In low- and middle-income countries, prices may be reduced for both brand-name and generic drugs, but the prevalence of unauthorized products on the market makes ensuring drug safety more difficult. It may be reasonable for individual U.S. consumers to purchase essential medicines from certain international markets, but the most effective way to decrease drug costs overall is the appropriate use of domestic generic drugs, which are available for almost every major therapeutic class.

  18. CO₂ emission mitigation and fossil fuel markets: Dynamic and international aspects of climate policies

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bauer, Nico; Bosetti, Valentina; Hamdi-Cherif, Meriem; Kitous, Alban; McCollum, David; Mejean, Aurelie; Rao, Shilpa; Turton, Hal; Paroussos, Leonidas; Ashina, Shuichi; et al

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores a multi-model scenario ensemble to assess the impacts of idealized and non-idealized climate change stabilization policies on fossil fuel markets. Under idealized conditions climate policies significantly reduce coal use in the short- and long-term. Reductions in oil and gas use are much smaller, particularly until 2030, but revenues decrease much more because oil and gas prices are higher than coal prices. A first deviation from optimal transition pathways is delayed action that relaxes global emission targets until 2030 in accordance with the Copenhagen pledges. Fossil fuel markets revert back to the no-policy case: though coal use increasesmore » strongest, revenue gains are higher for oil and gas. To balance the carbon budget over the 21st century, the long-term reallocation of fossil fuels is significantly larger—twice and more—than the short-term distortion. This amplifying effect results from coal lock-in and inter-fuel substitution effects to balance the full-century carbon budget. The second deviation from the optimal transition pathway relaxes the global participation assumption. The result here is less clear-cut across models, as we find carbon leakage effects ranging from positive to negative because trade and substitution patterns of coal, oil, and gas differ across models. In summary, distortions of fossil fuel markets resulting from relaxed short-term global emission targets are more important and less uncertain than the issue of carbon leakage from early mover action.« less

  19. The Children's Development Commission Act--H.R. 3637. Field Hearing before the Subcommittee on Capital Markets, Securities and Government Sponsored Enterprises of the Committee on Banking and Financial Services. U.S. House of Representatives, One Hundred Fifth Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Banking and Financial Services.

    This document presents testimony from the June 1998 hearing on the Children's Development Act (H.R. 3637) held before the Subcommittee on Capital Markets, Securities and Government Sponsored Enterprises. H.R. 3637 encourages the lending of resources to child care facilities by allowing a bank or lender access to a federal reinsurance program that…

  20. Capitation and the Medicare program: History, issues, and evidence

    PubMed Central

    Langwell, Kathryn M.; Hadley, James P.

    1986-01-01

    This article reviews the history of capitation in the Medicare program and examines issues and research findings related to Medicare capitation. Specific capitation issues and related research findings reviewed include: the feasibility and extent of health maintenance organization participation in Medicare; plan marketing; beneficiary choice behavior; quality of care; and the use and cost of services. In addition, areas requiring further study are noted, and the potential for extensions of capitation under Medicare are explored. PMID:10311935

  1. Microform Market Place 1974/1975. An International Directory of Micropublishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veaner, Allen B., Ed.; Meckler, Alan M., Ed.

    The information for this international buyer's guide for the microform purchaser was gathered from questionnaires to the publishers themselves. The guide is divided into eight sections: directory of micropublishers, mergers and acquisitions, bibliography of first sources for the microform library, microform jobbers, organizations, a geographical…

  2. Student Recruitment at International Branch Campuses: Can They Compete in the Global Market?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Stephen; Huisman, Jeroen

    2011-01-01

    The majority of international branch campuses are located in competitive higher education hubs, such as Singapore and the United Arab Emirates. Many find themselves having to recruit students regionally, and some, even globally, which results in them competing head-to-head with the home campuses of well-respected Western universities. The purpose…

  3. A Comparative Analysis of Curriculum in International Marketing and Business between Peruvian and Guatemalan University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pestonjee, Daanish D.; Spillan, John E.; Song, Hongwei; Virzi, Nicholas D.

    2010-01-01

    Business education is important for economic development. A skilled workforce allows for greater advancements in productivity, the creation of new business opportunities, increased employment, and enhances the quality of life of the citizenry. With the changing international business environment it is important for academics and practitioners…

  4. Education, Work and Social Capital: Towards a New Conception of Vocational Education. Routledge International Studies in the Philosophy of Education, Number 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winch, Christopher

    This book examines the relationship among education, work, and social capital at the beginning of the 21st century. The following are among the topics discussed in the book's 15 chapters: (1) necessity, work, effort, and leisure; (2) the economic and work-related aims of education, including liberal, vocational, and civic education; (3) the…

  5. 12 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Z of... - Risk-Based Capital Requirements-Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... a subsidiary of a depository institution that uses 12 CFR part 3, appendix C, 12 CFR part 208, appendix F, 12 CFR part 325, appendix D, or 12 CFR subpart Z of part 390, appendix A, to calculate its risk-based capital requirements; or (iv) Is a subsidiary of a bank holding company that uses 12 CFR part...

  6. 12 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Z of... - Risk-Based Capital Requirements-Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... a subsidiary of a depository institution that uses 12 CFR part 3, appendix C, 12 CFR part 208, appendix F, 12 CFR part 325, appendix D, or 12 CFR subpart Z of part 390, appendix A, to calculate its risk-based capital requirements; or (iv) Is a subsidiary of a bank holding company that uses 12 CFR part...

  7. 12 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Z of... - Risk-Based Capital Requirements-Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... a subsidiary of a depository institution that uses 12 CFR part 3, appendix C, 12 CFR part 208, appendix F, 12 CFR part 325, appendix D, or 12 CFR subpart Z of part 390, appendix A, to calculate its risk-based capital requirements; or (iv) Is a subsidiary of a bank holding company that uses 12 CFR part...

  8. 12 CFR 303.241 - Reduce or retire capital stock or capital debt instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...; (5) If the proposal involves the repurchase of capital instruments, the amount of the repurchase price and the basis for establishing the fair market value of the repurchase price; (6) A statement...

  9. Realizing your marketing influence, Part 1. Meeting patient needs through collaboration.

    PubMed

    Woods, Dana K

    2002-04-01

    To what degree do or should marketing and nursing overlap? If marketing is about meeting patient needs, who better than the nursing staff to inform marketing decisions? Meeting patient needs profitably ensures that patient care can continue to move toward excellence. As competition continues to intensify and reimbursement remains insufficient, using all of the healthcare system's available intellectual capital is imperative to achieving maximum competitive advantage. The author applies current marketing theory to the healthcare environment and provides practical suggestions on how nursing administrators and staff can work collaboratively with marketing colleagues to develop and implement strategic marketing programs. This is the first in a series of 3 articles, which will move readers from broad marketing strategy to specific applications. The second (June, 2002) and third articles (July/August, 2002) will focus on internal marketing and using professional certification as a marketing tool.

  10. Marketing occupational health care.

    PubMed

    Norris, M J; Harris, J C

    1981-01-01

    A very basic part of marketing success is determining areas of your business in which you have a competitive advantage. In drafting a marketing plan for the Denver Clinic, the competitive advantages group practices have in the area of occupational health were quickly realized. This competitive edge is presented along with the Denver Clinic's marketing strategies and plans to capitalize on occupational healthcare advantages.

  11. Chiapas’ Delayed Entry into the International Labour Market: A Story of Peasant Isolation, Exploitation, and Coercion

    PubMed Central

    Eakin, Hallie

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript presents a synthetic view of Chiapas’ migration history over the last century through a thorough examination of relevant English and Spanish-language literature sources. Unlike most Mexican states, Chiapas did not heavily rely upon migration, especially international migration, as an economic strategy until very recently. The reasons that underlie Chiapas’ late adoption of economic migration include socio-political and economic structural factors that shaped rural and agrarian policy and demographic trends. This paper evaluates these structural factors with regards to several migration theories to assist our understanding of how and why Chiapans were prevented or discouraged from leaving their native communities. The paper concludes by detailing the perfect cascade of climatic, demographic, economic and political factors that ultimately forced Chiapans to resort to international migration as a major economic diversification strategy. PMID:25685638

  12. NASA technology utilization program: The small business market

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannoy, J. K.; Garcia-Otero, F.; Johnson, F. D.; Staskin, E.

    1980-01-01

    Technology transfer programs were studied to determine how they might be more useful to the small business community. The status, needs, and technology use patterns of small firms are reported. Small business problems and failures are considered. Innovation, capitalization, R and D, and market share problems are discussed. Pocket, captive, and new markets are summarized. Small manufacturers and technology acquisition are discussed, covering external and internal sources, and NASA technology. Small business and the technology utilization program are discussed, covering publications and industrial applications centers. Observations and recommendations include small business market development and contracting, and NASA management technology.

  13. PCR-based assessment of shellfish traceability and sustainability in international Mediterranean seafood markets.

    PubMed

    Galal-Khallaf, Asmaa; Ardura, Alba; Borrell, Yaisel J; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2016-07-01

    Two mitochondrial markers (cytochrome oxidase COI and 16S rDNA) were employed for species identification of commercial shellfish from two Mediterranean countries. New COI Barcodes were generated for six species: Pleoticus robustus, Metapenaeopsis barbata, Parapenaeus fissuroides, Hymenopenaeus debilis, Metapenaeus affinis and Sepia aculeata. Biodiversity of the seafood species analyzed was greater in Egypt, with nine crustacean and two cephalopod species found compared with only three crustaceans and three cephalopods in Spain. In total, 17.2% and 15.2% products were mislabeled in Egypt and Spain, respectively. Population decline is a problem for some of the substitute species. Others were exotic and/or invasive in exporters' regions. This study offers the first comparable study of shellfish traceability in these Mediterranean markets. The PCR-based method used in this study proved to be reliable, effective and, therefore, could be employed for routine seafood analysis. PMID:26920298

  14. PCR-based assessment of shellfish traceability and sustainability in international Mediterranean seafood markets.

    PubMed

    Galal-Khallaf, Asmaa; Ardura, Alba; Borrell, Yaisel J; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2016-07-01

    Two mitochondrial markers (cytochrome oxidase COI and 16S rDNA) were employed for species identification of commercial shellfish from two Mediterranean countries. New COI Barcodes were generated for six species: Pleoticus robustus, Metapenaeopsis barbata, Parapenaeus fissuroides, Hymenopenaeus debilis, Metapenaeus affinis and Sepia aculeata. Biodiversity of the seafood species analyzed was greater in Egypt, with nine crustacean and two cephalopod species found compared with only three crustaceans and three cephalopods in Spain. In total, 17.2% and 15.2% products were mislabeled in Egypt and Spain, respectively. Population decline is a problem for some of the substitute species. Others were exotic and/or invasive in exporters' regions. This study offers the first comparable study of shellfish traceability in these Mediterranean markets. The PCR-based method used in this study proved to be reliable, effective and, therefore, could be employed for routine seafood analysis.

  15. Transplant tourism: the ethics and regulation of international markets for organs.

    PubMed

    Cohen, I Glenn

    2013-01-01

    "Medical Tourism" is the travel of residents of one country to another country for treatment. In this article I focus on travel abroad to purchase organs for transplant, what I will call "Transplant Tourism." With the exception of Iran, organ sale is illegal across the globe, but many destination countries have thriving black markets, either due to their willful failure to police the practice or more good faith lack of resources to detect it. I focus on the sale of kidneys, the most common subject of transplant tourism, though much of what I say could be applied to other organs as well. Part I briefly reviews some data on sellers, recipients, and brokers. Part II discusses the bioethical issues posed by the trade, and Part III focuses on potential regulation to deal with these issues.

  16. Transplant tourism: the ethics and regulation of international markets for organs.

    PubMed

    Cohen, I Glenn

    2013-01-01

    "Medical Tourism" is the travel of residents of one country to another country for treatment. In this article I focus on travel abroad to purchase organs for transplant, what I will call "Transplant Tourism." With the exception of Iran, organ sale is illegal across the globe, but many destination countries have thriving black markets, either due to their willful failure to police the practice or more good faith lack of resources to detect it. I focus on the sale of kidneys, the most common subject of transplant tourism, though much of what I say could be applied to other organs as well. Part I briefly reviews some data on sellers, recipients, and brokers. Part II discusses the bioethical issues posed by the trade, and Part III focuses on potential regulation to deal with these issues. PMID:23581670

  17. Patient mobility in the European Union: pushing for EU internal health market.

    PubMed

    Lang, Iris Goldner

    2009-12-01

    Having access to high-quality healthcare is a priority issue for European citizens and is recognised by the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU. The right to healthcare also encompasses situations where patients travel from one EU Member State to another and receive treatment there. This paper will explore the contradictory relation between the competence of EU Member States to regulate their health systems on their own, on the one hand, and free movement of services in the European Union, on the other hand. It will discuss the consequences of the decisions of the European Court of Justice in this field and the provisions of the Proposal for a Directive on Patients' Rights in Cross-Border Healthcare, especially in the light of opening up of EU Member States' healthcare markets, the need to control national healthcare expenditures and to protect the welfare state and the population of the host state. PMID:20157977

  18. Association between in-transit loss, internal trailer temperature, and distance traveled by Ontario market hogs.

    PubMed

    Haley, Charles; Dewey, Catherine E; Widowski, Tina; Friendship, Robert

    2008-10-01

    An observational study was conducted from July to October 2004 to determine the association between in-transit losses of swine and internal trailer temperature after controlling for loading density, trip distance, herd size, and random trip effect. A convenience sample of 3 trucking companies was used to collect temperature, relative humidity, and global positioning data for 104 trips that delivered 21,834 pigs from 371 producers to Ontario abattoirs. The association between in-transit loss and trailer temperature was determined using the 90th percentiles of internal temperature for each trip. Average loading density was 0.36 m2/100 kg pig (range 0.28 to 0.50 m2/100 kg pig). Average in-transit loss was 0.12%; however, 94% of producers experienced no losses. As the 90th percentile of internal trailer temperature increased from a range of 8.6 degrees C to 23.3 degrees C to a range of 23.4 degrees C to 26.1degreesC, average in-transit loss ratio increased approximately 3-fold, with an additional 2-fold increase as the range increased from 26.2 degrees C to 28.9 degrees C to 29.0 degrees C to 30.5 degrees C. As the 90th percentile of temperature increased by 1degreesC over the full range of temperatures in this study, in-transit loss was expected to increase 1.26 times. The in-transit loss was expected to decrease 0.81 times for each 50-km increase in distance traveled between the farm and the abattoir. PMID:19086369

  19. 13 CFR 108.585 - Voluntary decrease in NMVC Company's Regulatory Capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...'s Regulatory Capital. 108.585 Section 108.585 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Managing the Operations of a NMVC Company Voluntary Decrease in Regulatory Capital § 108.585 Voluntary decrease in NMVC Company's Regulatory Capital. You...

  20. 13 CFR 108.1830 - NMVC Company's Capital Impairment definition and general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM NMVC Company's Noncompliance With Terms of Leverage Computation of Nmvc Company's Capital Impairment § 108.1830 NMVC Company's Capital Impairment definition and... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false NMVC Company's Capital...

  1. 13 CFR 108.1840 - Computation of NMVC Company's Capital Impairment Percentage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Capital Impairment Percentage. 108.1840 Section 108.1840 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM NMVC Company's Noncompliance With Terms of Leverage Computation of Nmvc Company's Capital Impairment § 108.1840 Computation of NMVC Company's Capital...

  2. Making Democracy Work Better: Mediating Structures, Social Capital, and the Democratic Prospect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couto, Richard A.

    This book explores relationships among democracy, social capital, and community-based mediating structures, focusing on Appalachia because of the obvious failures of market capitalism there. It suggests that mediating structures protect communities from the savage side of market capitalism and promote the democratic prospect by increasing and…

  3. The choice of disease control strategies to secure international market access for aquaculture products.

    PubMed

    Chinabut, S; Puttinaowarat, S

    2005-01-01

    Since production from capture fisheries cannot meet the demands of exports, aquaculture has subsequently played a major role in securing the raw materials for the world's food industries. Aquaculture has rapidly developed from extensive systems to semi-intensive, intensive and super-intensive systems. This has introduced the use of chemicals and drugs into the systems, which cause residual problems in the products. In the developed world, food safety has become a major issue of concern. The world market now demands healthy aquaculture products from farm to table. To achieve these requirements and to keep their markets, countries involved in aquaculture have implemented control measures such as farm licensing, code of conduct for sustainable aquaculture, hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) and good aquaculture practice. However, infectious diseases in aquaculture are of major concern to the industry and are typically controlled by eradication of the pathogen, treatment with antibiotic or chemotherapeutics, and/or by preventative measures such as the use of probiotics or vaccines. To limit the use of chemicals and antibiotics, good farm management is highly recommended. In terms of treatment, chemicals and antibiotics should be evaluated to establish recommended doses and withdrawal periods, otherwise alternative treatments should be developed. Environmentally-friendly probiotics have been introduced to aquaculture practice in the last decade to replace pathogenic bacteria with beneficial bacteria transient in the gut. Micro-organisms have also been prepared for the purpose of biocontrol and bioremediation. The application of probiotic, biocontrol and bioremediation seem promising; however considerable efforts of further research in terms of food and environmental safety are needed. Vaccination has proved highly effective in controlling diseases in the salmon industry mainly in Europe, America and Japan. In other Asian countries, this practice seem to

  4. Rush to the border? Market liberalization and urban- and rural-origin internal migration in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, Andrés; Hamilton, Erin R

    2012-09-01

    In this study we examine the social and economic factors driving internal migration flows in Mexico. We pay particular attention to the effect that economic liberalization has had in encouraging migration to border cities. Our analysis of the origin and destination of migrants is carried out at a finer level of geographical detail than ever before. Microdata files from the 2000 population census allow us to distinguish urban- and rural-origin migrants to the largest 115 cities and metropolitan areas in the country. Our results indicate that economic liberalization, measured by the level of foreign investment and employment in the maquiladora export industry, strongly influences migrants' choice of destinations. However, economic liberalization fails to fully account for the attraction of the border, as do the higher emigration rates to the United States from border cities. Our analysis also reveals that migrants to the border region and to cities with high levels of foreign investment are younger, less educated and more likely to be men than migrants to other parts of Mexico. Rural migrants are significantly more likely to move to the border and to cities with high levels of foreign investment than urban migrants. The results of our study have important implication for other countries opening their economies to foreign investment and international trade.

  5. Clean coal technologies---An international seminar: Seminar evaluation and identification of potential CCT markets

    SciTech Connect

    Guziel, K.A.; Poch, L.A.; Gillette, J.L.; Buehring, W.A.

    1991-07-01

    The need for environmentally responsible electricity generation is a worldwide concern. Because coal is available throughout the world at a reasonable cost, current research is focusing on technologies that use coal with minimal environmental effects. The United States government is supporting research on clean coal technologies (CCTs) to be used for new capacity additions and for retrofits to existing capacity. To promote the worldwide adoption of US CCTs, the US Department of Energy, the US Agency for International Development, and the US Trade and Development Program sponsored a two-week seminar titled Clean Coal Technologies -- An International Seminar. Nineteen participants from seven countries were invited to this seminar, which was held at Argonne National Laboratory in June 1991. During the seminar, 11 US CCT vendors made presentations on their state-of-the-art and commercially available technologies. The presentations included technical, environmental, operational, and economic characteristics of CCTs. Information on financing and evaluating CCTs also was presented, and participants visited two CCT operating sites. The closing evaluation indicated that the seminar was a worthwhile experience for all participants and that it should be repeated. The participants said CCT could play a role in their existing and future electric capacity, but they agreed that more CCT demonstration projects were needed to confirm the reliability and performance of the technologies.

  6. A status report on international utility-scale wind energy markets

    SciTech Connect

    Rackstraw, K.; Vaupen, S.

    1997-12-31

    AWEA`s latest ten-year projections for new installations of utility-scale wind turbines show nearly 30,000 new megawatts (MW) should be installed between the years 1997 and 2006. The study also briefly explores the potential impact of a significant event, such as a fossil fuel price spike or a strong move to slow global climate change, that could double installed new wind capacity to nearly 60,000 MW over the same period. This outlook is substantially more optimistic than last year`s (about 20,000 MW), but the numbers are somewhat skewed by rolling the outlook forward one year. In other words, the new projections cover a ten-year period beginning one year later than last year`s study. The skewing is a result of substituting the lowest year in last year`s study with the highest year in the new ten-year period (2006), when far more capacity additions can be expected. In addition, AWEA has adjusted upward the numbers for some countries, most notably Germany, Denmark, Spain, Italy, China and the US. Last year`s projections were decidedly, and purposefully, conservative but trends are such that greater optimism about future markets is justified.

  7. Marketing and the medical specialist in the managed care environment.

    PubMed

    Treister, N W

    1997-01-01

    Marketing means more than just communicating or advertising to potential patients; marketing means identifying your customers and working to meet or exceed their expectations. There are five key areas of a marketing plan: (1) Establish the foundation, beginning with your mission statement; (2) Assess your marketing environment by internal and external research; (3) Target your efforts, looking at image and perception; (4) Develop your particular mix of product, price, place of distribution, and promotion; and (5) implement and evaluate your marketing process. This article discusses the importance of a marketing plan for the medical specialist and highlights the features unique to a practice working in a system of capitated reimbursement. Applying these principles will help to demonstrate added value, protect the fundamental role of the patient-physician relationship, ensure that our efforts are aligned with professional missions and goals, and ultimately increase profitability and professional success. PMID:10169343

  8. Marketing and the medical specialist in the managed care environment.

    PubMed

    Treister, N W

    1997-01-01

    Marketing means more than just communicating or advertising to potential patients; marketing means identifying your customers and working to meet or exceed their expectations. There are five key areas of a marketing plan: (1) Establish the foundation, beginning with your mission statement; (2) Assess your marketing environment by internal and external research; (3) Target your efforts, looking at image and perception; (4) Develop your particular mix of product, price, place of distribution, and promotion; and (5) implement and evaluate your marketing process. This article discusses the importance of a marketing plan for the medical specialist and highlights the features unique to a practice working in a system of capitated reimbursement. Applying these principles will help to demonstrate added value, protect the fundamental role of the patient-physician relationship, ensure that our efforts are aligned with professional missions and goals, and ultimately increase profitability and professional success.

  9. Come on Higher Ed...Get with the Programme! A Study of Market Orientation in International Student Recruitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Mitchell; Grace, Debra; Shao, Wei

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates higher education (HE) student recruitment practices from the standpoint of market orientation. By adopting the well-established market orientation framework of Narver and Slater [1990, The effect of a market orientation on a business profitability. "Journal of Marketing" 54, no. 4: 20-35], we examine the extent to which…

  10. Social marketing and the fight against malaria in Africa: population services international (PSI) and insecticide treated nets (ITNS).

    PubMed

    Omona, Julius

    2009-12-01

    This textual analyses on Social marketing, Insecticide Treated Nets (ITNs) and Population Services International (PSI) were undertaken to achieve two objectives: (a) to contribute to the continuing debate and search for a better strategy for combating malaria in sub-Saharan Africa; and (b) to contribute to theory building on social marketing. The analyses revealed that Malaria has reached an epidemic proportion and despite major inroads by PSI in combating malaria on the principles of social marketing, the strategies of pricing and segmentation of the clients are not appropriate for Sub-Saharan African countries that are mired in absolute poverty where majority of the rural communities eke a living on less than a dollar per day and the health sector does not receive priority attention from policy makers and politicians. The descriptive statistics and a one sample t test for the sampled countries suggest that sub-Saharan countries have not even met the hypothesized 5% investment of their GDP on health, compared to their counterparts, the developed countries, who are all above this figure. The null hypothesis that there is no significant different between the population and the sample means of both developed and a developing country in their investments in the health sector was also tested and rejected. Though the elements in some of the existent models and theories of social marketing such as Health Belief Model, Theory of Reasoned Action, Social Cognitive Theory and Trans-theoretical Models all attempt to advocate for elimination of constraints and barriers to effective access to a service or product, PSI is adamant to these and try to generalize these principles in all contexts, including in Sub-Saharan Africa. The African scenario, where about 90% of Malaria related deaths cases in the world occur, demands more than what these theories present. Accordingly, it was concluded that however good intentioned social marketing is, in the case of ITNs in this region, it

  11. Social marketing and the fight against malaria in Africa: population services international (PSI) and insecticide treated nets (ITNS).

    PubMed

    Omona, Julius

    2009-12-01

    This textual analyses on Social marketing, Insecticide Treated Nets (ITNs) and Population Services International (PSI) were undertaken to achieve two objectives: (a) to contribute to the continuing debate and search for a better strategy for combating malaria in sub-Saharan Africa; and (b) to contribute to theory building on social marketing. The analyses revealed that Malaria has reached an epidemic proportion and despite major inroads by PSI in combating malaria on the principles of social marketing, the strategies of pricing and segmentation of the clients are not appropriate for Sub-Saharan African countries that are mired in absolute poverty where majority of the rural communities eke a living on less than a dollar per day and the health sector does not receive priority attention from policy makers and politicians. The descriptive statistics and a one sample t test for the sampled countries suggest that sub-Saharan countries have not even met the hypothesized 5% investment of their GDP on health, compared to their counterparts, the developed countries, who are all above this figure. The null hypothesis that there is no significant different between the population and the sample means of both developed and a developing country in their investments in the health sector was also tested and rejected. Though the elements in some of the existent models and theories of social marketing such as Health Belief Model, Theory of Reasoned Action, Social Cognitive Theory and Trans-theoretical Models all attempt to advocate for elimination of constraints and barriers to effective access to a service or product, PSI is adamant to these and try to generalize these principles in all contexts, including in Sub-Saharan Africa. The African scenario, where about 90% of Malaria related deaths cases in the world occur, demands more than what these theories present. Accordingly, it was concluded that however good intentioned social marketing is, in the case of ITNs in this region, it

  12. The Effectiveness of Tobacco Marketing Regulations on Reducing Smokers’ Exposure to Advertising and Promotion: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kasza, Karin A.; Hyland, Andrew J.; Brown, Abraham; Siahpush, Mohammad; Yong, Hua-Hie; McNeill, Ann D.; Li, Lin; Cummings, K. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to tobacco product marketing promotes the initiation, continuation, and reuptake of cigarette smoking and as a result the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) has called upon member Parties to enact comprehensive bans on tobacco advertising and promotion. This study examines the immediate and long term effectiveness of advertising restrictions enacted in different countries on exposure to different forms of product marketing, and examines differences in exposure across different socioeconomic status (SES) groups. Nationally representative data from the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and the United States, collected from adult smokers between 2002 and 2008 using the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey (ITC-4), were used in this study (N = 21,615). In light of the specific marketing regulation changes that occurred during the course of this study period, changes in awareness of tobacco marketing via various channels were assessed for each country, and for different SES groups within countries. Tobacco marketing regulations, once implemented, were associated with significant reductions in smokers’ reported awareness of pro-smoking cues, and the observed reductions were greatest immediately following the enactment of regulations. Changes in reported awareness were generally the same across different SES groups, although some exceptions were noted. While tobacco marketing regulations have been effective in reducing exposure to certain types of product marketing there still remain gaps, especially with regard to in-store marketing and price promotions. PMID:21556189

  13. The effectiveness of tobacco marketing regulations on reducing smokers' exposure to advertising and promotion: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey.

    PubMed

    Kasza, Karin A; Hyland, Andrew J; Brown, Abraham; Siahpush, Mohammad; Yong, Hua-Hie; McNeill, Ann D; Li, Lin; Cummings, K Michael

    2011-02-01

    Exposure to tobacco product marketing promotes the initiation, continuation, and reuptake of cigarette smoking and as a result the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) has called upon member Parties to enact comprehensive bans on tobacco advertising and promotion. This study examines the immediate and long term effectiveness of advertising restrictions enacted in different countries on exposure to different forms of product marketing, and examines differences in exposure across different socioeconomic status (SES) groups. Nationally representative data from the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and the United States, collected from adult smokers between 2002 and 2008 using the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey (ITC-4), were used in this study (N = 21,615). In light of the specific marketing regulation changes that occurred during the course of this study period, changes in awareness of tobacco marketing via various channels were assessed for each country, and for different SES groups within countries. Tobacco marketing regulations, once implemented, were associated with significant reductions in smokers' reported awareness of pro-smoking cues, and the observed reductions were greatest immediately following the enactment of regulations. Changes in reported awareness were generally the same across different SES groups, although some exceptions were noted. While tobacco marketing regulations have been effective in reducing exposure to certain types of product marketing there still remain gaps, especially with regard to in-store marketing and price promotions.

  14. The effectiveness of tobacco marketing regulations on reducing smokers' exposure to advertising and promotion: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey.

    PubMed

    Kasza, Karin A; Hyland, Andrew J; Brown, Abraham; Siahpush, Mohammad; Yong, Hua-Hie; McNeill, Ann D; Li, Lin; Cummings, K Michael

    2011-02-01

    Exposure to tobacco product marketing promotes the initiation, continuation, and reuptake of cigarette smoking and as a result the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) has called upon member Parties to enact comprehensive bans on tobacco advertising and promotion. This study examines the immediate and long term effectiveness of advertising restrictions enacted in different countries on exposure to different forms of product marketing, and examines differences in exposure across different socioeconomic status (SES) groups. Nationally representative data from the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and the United States, collected from adult smokers between 2002 and 2008 using the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey (ITC-4), were used in this study (N = 21,615). In light of the specific marketing regulation changes that occurred during the course of this study period, changes in awareness of tobacco marketing via various channels were assessed for each country, and for different SES groups within countries. Tobacco marketing regulations, once implemented, were associated with significant reductions in smokers' reported awareness of pro-smoking cues, and the observed reductions were greatest immediately following the enactment of regulations. Changes in reported awareness were generally the same across different SES groups, although some exceptions were noted. While tobacco marketing regulations have been effective in reducing exposure to certain types of product marketing there still remain gaps, especially with regard to in-store marketing and price promotions. PMID:21556189

  15. Capitated contracting of integrated health provider organizations.

    PubMed

    Bazzoli, G J; Dynan, L; Burns, L R

    This paper examines global capitation of integrated health provider organizations that link physicians and hospitals, such as physician-hospital organizations and management service organizations. These organizations have proliferated in recent years, but their contracting activity has not been studied. We develop a conceptual model to understand the capitated contracting bargaining process. Exploratory multivariate analysis suggests that global capitation of these organizations is more common in markets with high health maintenance organization (HMO) market share, greater numbers of HMOs, and fewer physician group practices. Additionally, health provider organizations with more complex case mix, nonprofit status, more affiliated physicians, health system affiliations, and diversity in physician organizational arrangements are more likely to have global capitation. Finally, state regulation of provider contracting with self-insured employers appears to have spillover effects on health plan risk contracting with health providers. PMID:10711318

  16. Capitated contracting of integrated health provider organizations.

    PubMed

    Bazzoli, G J; Dynan, L; Burns, L R

    This paper examines global capitation of integrated health provider organizations that link physicians and hospitals, such as physician-hospital organizations and management service organizations. These organizations have proliferated in recent years, but their contracting activity has not been studied. We develop a conceptual model to understand the capitated contracting bargaining process. Exploratory multivariate analysis suggests that global capitation of these organizations is more common in markets with high health maintenance organization (HMO) market share, greater numbers of HMOs, and fewer physician group practices. Additionally, health provider organizations with more complex case mix, nonprofit status, more affiliated physicians, health system affiliations, and diversity in physician organizational arrangements are more likely to have global capitation. Finally, state regulation of provider contracting with self-insured employers appears to have spillover effects on health plan risk contracting with health providers.

  17. 26 CFR 1.1247-3 - Treatment of capital gains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Treatment of capital gains. 1.1247-3 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Special Rules for Determining Capital Gains and Losses § 1.1247-3 Treatment of capital gains. (a) Treatment by the company—(1) In general. If an election to distribute income...

  18. 26 CFR 1.1211-1 - Limitation on capital losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Limitation on capital losses. 1.1211-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Treatment of Capital Losses § 1.1211-1 Limitation on capital losses. (a... equal to the sum of: (i) Losses sustained during the taxable year from sales or exchanges of...

  19. 26 CFR 1.1247-3 - Treatment of capital gains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Treatment of capital gains. 1.1247-3 Section 1... Treatment of capital gains. (a) Treatment by the company—(1) In general. If an election to distribute income... made. (b) Treatment of capital gains by qualified shareholder—(1) Definition of qualified...

  20. 26 CFR 1.1247-3 - Treatment of capital gains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Treatment of capital gains. 1.1247-3 Section 1... Treatment of capital gains. (a) Treatment by the company—(1) In general. If an election to distribute income... made. (b) Treatment of capital gains by qualified shareholder—(1) Definition of qualified...

  1. Strategies for the Legal Implementation of the International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes: Report on a WHO Meeting (Copenhagen, Denmark, November 10-12, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    For various reasons, several countries have had difficulty implementing the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes. To address those problems, a meeting was convened under the auspices of the World Health Organization. Specific purposes of the meeting were to inform member states about the Code and to develop national…

  2. Export Odyssey: An Exposition and Analytical Review of Literature Concerning an Undergraduate Student Project in International Marketing on Key Teaching-Learning Dimensions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Nicholas C.

    2001-01-01

    Describes Export Odyssey (EO), a structured, Internet-intensive, team-based undergraduate student project in international marketing. Presents an analytical review of articles in the literature that relate to three key teaching-learning dimensions of student projects (experiential versus non-experiential active learning, team-based versus…

  3. The Rise of the Big Emerging Markets of Brazil, Russia, India, and China: Implications for International Business Teaching in the Next Decade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott-Kennel, Joanna; Salmi, Asta

    2008-01-01

    The rise of Brazil, Russia, India, and China will shape global resource use, the location of market demand and international institutions and interdependencies in the decade to come. In this paper we argue that an understanding of the historical and institutional context of the BRICs, and the potential shift towards a multi-polar world is…

  4. 13 CFR 108.506 - Safeguarding the NMVC Company's assets/Internal controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safeguarding the NMVC Company's assets/Internal controls. 108.506 Section 108.506 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Managing the Operations of a NMVC Company...

  5. Long memory in international financial markets trends and short movements during 2008 financial crisis based on variational mode decomposition and detrended fluctuation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahmiri, Salim

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate long-range dependence in trend and short variation of stock market price and return series before, during, and after 2008 financial crisis. Variational mode decomposition (VMD), a newly introduced technique for signal processing, is adopted to decompose stock market data into a finite set of modes so as to obtain long term trends and short term movements of stock market data. Then, the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and range scale (R/S) analysis are used to estimate Hurst exponent in each variational mode obtained from VMD. For both price and return series, the empirical results from twelve international stock markets show evidence that long term trends are persistent, whilst short term variations are anti-persistent before, during, and after 2008 financial crisis.

  6. Analysis of capital spending and capital financing among large US nonprofit health systems.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Louis J

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the recent trends (2006 to 2009) in capital spending among 25 of the largest nonprofit health systems in the United States and analyzes the financing sources that these large nonprofit health care systems used to fund their capital spending. Total capital spending for these 25 nonprofit health entities exceeded $41 billion for the four-year period of this study. Less than 3 percent of total capital spending resulted in mergers and acquisition activities. Total annual capital spending grew at an average annual rate of 17.6 percent during the first three year of this study's period of analysis. Annual capital spending for 2009 fell by more than 22 percent over prior year's level due to the impact of widespread disruption in US tax-exempt variable rate debt markets. While cash inflow from long-term debt issues was a significant source of capital financing, this study's primary finding was that operating cash flow was the predominant source of capital spending funding. Key words: nonprofit, mergers and acquisitions (M&A), capital spending, capital financing.

  7. Analysis of capital spending and capital financing among large US nonprofit health systems.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Louis J

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the recent trends (2006 to 2009) in capital spending among 25 of the largest nonprofit health systems in the United States and analyzes the financing sources that these large nonprofit health care systems used to fund their capital spending. Total capital spending for these 25 nonprofit health entities exceeded $41 billion for the four-year period of this study. Less than 3 percent of total capital spending resulted in mergers and acquisition activities. Total annual capital spending grew at an average annual rate of 17.6 percent during the first three year of this study's period of analysis. Annual capital spending for 2009 fell by more than 22 percent over prior year's level due to the impact of widespread disruption in US tax-exempt variable rate debt markets. While cash inflow from long-term debt issues was a significant source of capital financing, this study's primary finding was that operating cash flow was the predominant source of capital spending funding. Key words: nonprofit, mergers and acquisitions (M&A), capital spending, capital financing. PMID:22515040

  8. The creation of a global electricity market

    SciTech Connect

    DePinto, D.; Anderson, A.

    1998-07-01

    The global embrace of market-based economics has led to significant growth and prosperity resulting in increased needs for electricity. The burgeoning demand for energy has created requirements for capital investment at time when the state-owned energy companies cannot provide it. Governments, busy trying to find ways to manage already inflated debt burdens, have little capacity for funding the capital needed to expand energy production. In these strategic industries, governments are beginning to embrace the principles of free market capitalism and private ownership, recognizing the significant benefits to be realized: reduced national deficits, a more efficient energy sector, access to foreign capital, greater internal capital generation, and more energy to fuel economic growth. This is driving the governments to embrace privatization and is creating a market for the sale of electric utilities. On the other side of this equation are the fast developing global electric companies that are prepared to expand in both developing and developed countries through significant acquisitions of either companies or strategic assets. This scenario is further enhanced as the Independent Power Developers chase projects from Brazil to China and bring competition to the development of new generation. Never before has there been such a movement to the complete transformation of the energy industry. Countries on every continent are exploring how they can reform and restructure the energy sector. The analysis will address: Global transformation sweeping the various regions of the world; Impact on developers and the strategy required for success; Global electric companies and their impact on the transformation process; and Future of the electric power industry: Will it bring the world closer together?

  9. Intervening in global markets to improve access to HIV/AIDS treatment: an analysis of international policies and the dynamics of global antiretroviral medicines markets

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Universal access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in low- and middle-income countries faces numerous challenges: increasing numbers of people needing ART, new guidelines recommending more expensive antiretroviral (ARV) medicines, limited financing, and few fixed-dose combination (FDC) products. Global initiatives aim to promote efficient global ARV markets, yet little is known about market dynamics and the impact of global policy interventions. Methods We utilize several data sources, including 12,958 donor-funded, adult first-line ARV purchase transactions, to describe the market from 2002-2008. We examine relationships between market trends and: World Health Organization (WHO) HIV/AIDS treatment guidelines; WHO Prequalification Programme (WHO Prequal) and United States (US) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approvals; and procurement policies of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria (GFATM), US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) and UNITAID. Results WHO recommended 7, 4, 24, and 6 first-line regimens in 2002, 2003, 2006 and 2009 guidelines, respectively. 2009 guidelines replaced a stavudine-based regimen ($88/person/year) with more expensive zidovudine- ($154-260/person/year) or tenofovir-based ($244-465/person/year) regimens. Purchase volumes for ARVs newly-recommended in 2006 (emtricitabine, tenofovir) increased >15-fold from 2006 to 2008. Twenty-four generic FDCs were quality-approved for older regimens but only four for newer regimens. Generic FDCs were available to GFATM recipients in 2004 but to PEPFAR recipients only after FDA approval in 2006. Price trends for single-component generic medicines mirrored generic FDC prices. Two large-scale purchasers, PEPFAR and UNITAID, together accounted for 53%, 84%, and 77% of market volume for abacavir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir, respectively, in 2008. PEPFAR and UNITAID purchases were often split across two manufacturers. Conclusions Global initiatives facilitated the

  10. Using real-estate-based financing to access capital.

    PubMed

    Tobin, W C; Kryzaniak, L A

    1998-07-01

    One strategy employed by healthcare organizations to increase their market presence is the construction of new facilities. Accessing capital to fund such construction, however, has become more of a challenge. One relatively untapped source of building capital is real-estate-based financing. Nonrecourse mortgages, turnkey net leases, and synthetic leases can provide several advantages to healthcare organizations seeking capital, assuming issues related to building ownership, debt and balance sheet effects, and tax-exempt status have been thoroughly explored first.

  11. Social capital and community development: practitioner emptor.

    PubMed

    Labonte, R

    1999-08-01

    Social capital has become the latest 'flavour of the month'. There is considerable disagreement over what the term means, and calls for theorising and measurement of the construct. Health promoters, among others, are being challenged to re-construct their efforts around this still contested idea. Social capital doesn't exist, but is being created by those aspects of social relations particular theorists or researchers choose to study in its name. The choice of these relations is directed by ideology. To those aligned more with neoliberal, market-driven ideology, social capital is a means to the end of economic growth, something that can pick up the slack of privatised or reduced public services. To those aligned more with social justice and communitarian ideology, social capital is an end in itself, requiring the defence of strong, egalitarian state intervention into market practices that create inequalities. Community development is one of many state interventions used to buffer market-generated inequalities. Social capital may be a useful concept for practitioners, researchers and policy makers in bring the missing 'social' into economic and fiscal policy debates. But its use should be approached cautiously as a construct of potential strategic value. It should not confuse all of the previous 'good' work undertaken in the name of empowerment and community capacity. PMID:10462871

  12. Compliance with the International Code of Marketing of breast-milk substitutes: an observational study of pediatricians' waiting rooms.

    PubMed

    Dodgson, Joan E; Watkins, Amanda L; Bond, Angela B; Kintaro-Tagaloa, Cheryl; Arellano, Alondra; Allred, Patrick A

    2014-04-01

    Abstract The importance of breastmilk as a primary preventative intervention is widely known and understood by most healthcare providers. The actions or non-actions that heathcare providers take toward promoting and supporting breastfeeding families make a difference in the success and duration of breastfeeding. Recognizing this relationship, the World Health Organization developed the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes (the Code), which defines best practices in breastfeeding promotion, including physicians' offices. The pediatric practices' waiting rooms are often a family's first experience with pediatric care. The specific aims of this study were to describe (1) Code compliance, (2) the demographic factors affecting the Code compliance, and (3) the amount and type of breastfeeding-supportive materials available in the pediatricians' waiting rooms. An observational cross-sectional design was used to collect data from 163 (82%) of the pediatric practices in Maricopa County, Arizona. None of the 100 waiting rooms that had any materials displayed (61%) was found to be completely Code compliant, with 81 of the offices having formula-promotional materials readily available. Waiting rooms in higher income areas offered more non-Code-compliant materials and gifts. Breastfeeding support information and materials were lacking in all but 18 (18%) offices. A positive relationship (t97=-2.31, p=0.02) occurred between the presence of breastfeeding educational materials and higher income areas. We were able to uncover some practice-related patterns that impact families and potentially undermine breastfeeding success. To move current practices toward breastfeeding-friendly physicians' offices, change is needed.

  13. Capital Access for Main Street Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Perlmutter, Ed [D-CO-7

    2011-04-04

    05/02/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Capital Markets and Government Sponsored Enterprises. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. Small Business Access to Capital Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Royce, Edward R. [R-CA-40

    2011-12-13

    01/12/2012 Referred to the Subcommittee on Capital Markets and Government Sponsored Enterprises. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. Uncovering the Internal Structure of the Indian Financial Market: Large Cross-correlation Behavior in the NSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Sitabhra; Pan, Raj Kumar

    The cross-correlations between price fluctuations of 201 frequently traded stocks in the National Stock Exchange (NSE) of India are analyzed in this paper. We use daily closing prices for the period 1996-2006, which coincides with the period of rapid transformation of the market following liberalization. The eigenvalue distribution of the cross-correlation matrix, C, of NSE is found to be similar to that of developed markets, such as the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE): the majority of eigenvalues fall within the bounds expected for a random matrix constructed from mutually uncorrelated time series. Of the few largest eigenvalues that deviate from the bulk, the largest is identified with market-wide movements. The intermediate eigenvalues that occur between the largest and the bulk have been associated in NYSE with specific business sectors with strong intra-group interactions. However, in the Indian market, these deviating eigenvalues are comparatively very few and lie much closer to the bulk. We propose that this is because of the relative lack of distinct sector identity in the market, with the movement of stocks dominantly influenced by the overall market trend. This is shown by explicit construction of the interaction network in the market, first by generating the minimum spanning tree from the unfiltered correlation matrix, and later, using an improved method of generating the graph after filtering out the market mode and random effects from the data. Both methods show, compared to developed markets, the relative absence of clusters of co-moving stocks that belong to the same business sector. This is consistent with the general belief that emerging markets tend to be more correlated than developed markets.

  16. Social Capital and Economic Integration of Migrants in Urban China*

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yao; Ruan, Danching; Lai, Gina

    2013-01-01

    Based on data from a 2005 survey conducted in Shanghai, China, this research examines the role of social capital in income inequality between rural migrants and urbanites. We find strong income return on social capital, in particular on social capital from strong ties. We also observe a great disparity in social capital possession between rural migrants and urban local residents. Although social capital from strong ties seems to be more important for rural migrants than for urbanites, local ties and high-status ties do not seem to benefit rural migrants. Hence, migrants not only suffer severe social capital deficits but also capital return deficits. Given the strong income returns on social capital and the substantial differences in access to and return on social capital between migrants and urban residents, social capital is consequently found to explain a large part of the income inequality between the two groups. Overall, our findings reveal macro-structural effects on the role of social capital in labor market stratification. In China, the lack of formal labor market mechanisms continues to create both a strong need for and opportunities for economic actions to be organized around informal channels via social relations. Yet, the long-standing institutional exclusion of migrants caused by the household registration system has resulted in pervasive social exclusion and discrimination which have substantially limited rural migrants’ accumulation and mobilization of social capital. Under these conditions, social capital reinforces the economic inequality between migrants and urban residents in China. Such empirical evidence adds to our understanding of the role of social capital in the economic integration of migrants and in shaping intergroup inequality in general. PMID:24376290

  17. Reducing the cost of health care capital.

    PubMed

    Silberman, R

    1984-08-01

    Although one may ask four financial experts their opinion on the future of the hospital capital market and receive five answers, the blatant need for financial strategic planning is evident. Clearly, the hospital or system with sound financial management will be better positioned to gain and/or maintain an edge in the competitive environment of the health care sector. The trends of the future include hospitals attempting to: Maximize the efficiency of invested capital. Use the expertise of Board members. Use alternative capital sources. Maximize rate of return on investments. Increase productivity. Adjust to changes in reimbursements. Restructure to use optimal financing for capital needs, i.e., using short-term to build up debt capacity if long-term financing is needed in the future. Take advantage of arbitrage (obtain capital and reinvest it until the funds are needed). Delay actual underwriting until funds are to be used. Better management of accounts receivable and accounts payable to avoid short-term financing for cash flow shortfalls. Use for-profit subsidiaries to obtain venture capital by issuing stock. Use product line management. Use leasing to obtain balance sheet advantages. These trends indicate a need for hospital executives to possess a thorough understanding of the capital formation process. In essence, the bottom line is that the short-term viability and long-term survival of a health care organization will greatly depend on the financial expertise of its decision-makers.

  18. Systems of Organization and Allocation of National Resources for Scientific Research: Some International Comparisons and Conclusions for New Market Economies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Charles, Jr.; Passman, Sidney

    1991-01-01

    Reviews science and technology policymaking in five countries with free-market economies: the United Kingdom, Germany, France, the Republic of Korea, and the United States. Implications for eastern European and other countries currently reorganizing toward domestic market economies and greater orientation toward world trade are discussed. (61…

  19. Gender Differences in Training, Capital, and Wages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, John M.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Employment survey data show that, although training intensity in the first three months of employment is similar for men and women, women are employed in positions with shorter training and less capital. These differences and lower market valuation for women's work experience account for much of the wage gap. (SK)

  20. Capitalism in Six Westerns by John Ford

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Carlos Rodriguez

    2011-01-01

    The economic and institutional analysis of capitalism can be illustrated through John Ford's Westerns. This article focuses on six classics by Ford that show the move toward modern order, the creation of a new society, and the rule of law. Economic features are pervading, from property rights and contracts to markets, money, and trade. Ford has…

  1. International solar commercialization study of the market potential of solar products in Latin America: Jamaica. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    The current and forecasted economic situations in Jamaica are reviewed. The logistics of doing business is reviewed, including finance, labor, investment and import policy. Market penetration strategy is presented, with emphasis on the Kingston free zone analysis. A Market Potential for US Renewable Energy Products in Jamaica included government, agricultural, tourism, manufacturing, and mining sectors. Conclusions and recommendations are given. The market readiness of the following renewable technologies was analyzed: photovoltaics; industrial process heat; active and passive solar; biomass; wind; small-scale hydro; ocean thermal; geothermal; and conservation. When appropriate, the foreign competition was also analyzed.

  2. Strategies that fit emerging markets.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Tarun; Palepu, Krishna G; Sinha, Jayant

    2005-06-01

    It's no easy task to identify strategies for entering new international markets or to decide which countries to do business with. Many firms simply go with what they know-and fall far short of their goals. Part of the problem is that emerging markets have "institutional voids": They lack specialized intermediaries, regulatory systems, and contract-enforcing methods. These gaps have made it difficult for multinationals to succeed in developing nations; thus, many companies have resisted investing there. That may be a mistake. If Western companies don't come up with good strategies for engaging with emerging markets, they are unlikely to remain competitive. Many firms choose their markets and strategies for the wrong reasons, relying on everything from senior managers' gut feelings to the behaviors of rivals. Corporations also depend on composite indexes for help making decisions. But these analyses can be misleading; they don't account for vital information about the soft infrastructures in developing nations. A better approach is to understand institutional variations between countries. The best way to do this, the authors have found, is by using the five contexts framework. The five contexts are a country's political and social systems, its degree of openness, its product markets, its labor markets, and its capital markets. By asking a series of questions that pertain to each ofthe five areas, executives can map the institutional contexts of any nation. When companies match their strategies to each country's contexts, they can take advantage of a location's unique strengths. But first firms should weigh the benefits against the costs. If they find that the risks of adaptation are too great, they should try to change the contexts in which they operate or simply stay away. PMID:15938439

  3. 78 FR 25490 - Corporate Capital Trust, Inc., et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... COMMISSION Corporate Capital Trust, Inc., et al.; Notice of Application April 25, 2013. AGENCY: Securities... companies. Applicants: Corporate Capital Trust, Inc. (the ``Company''); CNL Fund Advisors Company (``CFA... Limited, KKR Capital Markets Asia Limited, KKR Corporate Lending LLC, KKR Corporate Lending...

  4. National and international capital shortages slowing, perhaps preventing, American economic growth and leading to a decline in the domestic standard of living

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    It is shown that many of the basic industries that the U.S. has relied upon in the past for economic growth and development are now so obsolete, so old, and so technologically inferior to that of foreign competitors that the U.S. is losing its international competitive position. The most conservative estimate suggests that it will require $325 billion between now and 1982 merely to meet existing and currently anticipated pollution requirements and that it would take an additional $197 billion to replace outmoded existing facilities.

  5. Markets and Trading Reorganization Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Frank, Barney [D-MA-4

    2012-11-29

    12/20/2012 Referred to the Subcommittee on Capital Markets and Government Sponsored Enterprises. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. Facing Price Risks in Internet-of-Services Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matros, Raimund; Streitberger, Werner; Koenig, Stefan; Eymann, Torsten

    Internet-of-Services markets allow companies to procure computational resources and application services externally and thus to save both internal capital expenditures and operational costs. Despite the advantages of this new paradigm only few work has been done in the field of risk management concerning Internet-of-Services markets. We simulate such a market using a Grid simulator. The results show that market participants are exposed to price risk. Based on our results we identify and assess technical failures which could lead to loss on service consumer's side. We also show that technical failures influence service prices which lead to volatile prices. Both, service provider and service consumer are exposed to this uncertainty and need a way to face it. Therefore we apply a financial option model to overcome price risk.

  7. Inner structure of capital control networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battiston, Stefano

    2004-07-01

    We study the topological structure of the network of shareholding relationships in the Italian stock market (MIB) and in two US stock markets (NYSE and NASDAQ). The portfolio diversification and the wealth invested on the market by economical agents have been shown in our previous work to have all a power law behavior. However, a further investigation shows that the inner structure of the capital control network are not at all the same across markets. The shareholding network is a weighted graph, therefore we introduce two quantities analogous to in-degree and out-degree for weighted graphs which measure, respectively: the number of effective shareholders of a stock and the number of companies effectively controlled by a single holder. Combining the information carried by the distributions of these two quantities we are able to extract the backbone of each market and we find that while the MIB splits into several separated groups of interest, the US markets is characterized by very large holders sharing control on overlapping subsets of stocks. This method seems promising for the analysis of the topology of capital control networks in general and not only in the stock market.

  8. Financing U.S. Renewable Energy Projects Through Public Capital Vehicles: Qualitative and Quantitative Benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelsohn, M.; Feldman, D.

    2013-04-01

    This paper explores the possibility of financing renewable energy projects through raising capital in the public markets. It gives an overview of the size, structure, and benefits of public capital markets, as well as showing how renewable energy projects might take advantage of this source of new funds to lower the cost of electricity.

  9. Rethinking traditional methods for measuring intellectual capital.

    PubMed

    Corso, John A

    2007-01-01

    Historically, approaches to measuring intellectual capital have included both conventional accounting-based measures, such as variants of the market-to-book ratio, and more progressive measures, such as the measurement of intangible assets found in approaches such as the Balanced Scorecard and Human Resource Accounting. As greater emphasis is placed on intellectual capital and its various aspects in the continually growing service and knowledge economy, the use of assessment instruments to inventory the alignment, balance, and variety of intellectual capacities and metrics that assess the effectiveness of succession planning may represent new directions in which organizations can head in the measurement of this important construct.

  10. Rethinking traditional methods for measuring intellectual capital.

    PubMed

    Corso, John A

    2007-01-01

    Historically, approaches to measuring intellectual capital have included both conventional accounting-based measures, such as variants of the market-to-book ratio, and more progressive measures, such as the measurement of intangible assets found in approaches such as the Balanced Scorecard and Human Resource Accounting. As greater emphasis is placed on intellectual capital and its various aspects in the continually growing service and knowledge economy, the use of assessment instruments to inventory the alignment, balance, and variety of intellectual capacities and metrics that assess the effectiveness of succession planning may represent new directions in which organizations can head in the measurement of this important construct. PMID:17198113

  11. Marketing Human Resource Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Eric, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    Describes three human resource development activities: training, education, and development. Explains marketing from the practitioners's viewpoint in terms of customer orientation; external and internal marketing; and market analysis, research, strategy, and mix. Shows how to design, develop, and implement strategic marketing plans and identify…

  12. have you looked at your capital process lately?

    PubMed

    Guimond, John-paul

    2016-05-01

    Hospital executives seeking to instill rigor into their organization's capital review process should focus their attention on four areas: Establishing and ensuring compliance with clear internal policy and procedures governing the organization's capital equipment review and purchase process. Cultivating a collaborative culture, while eschewing an "us against them" mentality. Managing provider-vendor relationships. Having a clear definition of success for the capital review process that is championed by executive leadership. PMID:27382710

  13. International Education for Wisconsin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moebius, Barbara

    1990-01-01

    Describes an international trade education program offered by Waukesha (WI) County Technical College. The program includes international business principles, international marketing, cultural awareness, business Spanish, international documentation, transportation, and finance. (JOW)

  14. [A retrospective study on the incidence of chronic renal failure in the Department of Internal Medicine and Nephrology at University Hospital of Antananarivo (the capital city of Madagascar)].

    PubMed

    Ramilitiana, Benja; Ranivoharisoa, Eliane Mikkelsen; Dodo, Mihary; Razafimandimby, Evanirina; Randriamarotia, Willy Franck

    2016-01-01

    Chronic renal failure is a global public health problem. In developed countries, this disease occurs mainly in the elderly, but in Africa it rather affects active young subjects. This disease need for expensive treatments in a low income country, because of its costs. Our aim is to describe the epidemiology of new cases of chronic renal failure in Madagascar. This is a retrospective, descriptive study of 239 patients with chronic renal failure over a 3 year period, starting from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2009, in the Department of Internal Medicine and Nephrology at University Hospital of Antananarivo. The incidence was 8.51% among patients hospitalized in the Department. The average age of patients was 45.4 years with extremes of 16 and 82 years and a sex ratio 1,46. The main antecedent was arterial hypertension (59.8%). Chronic renal failure was terminal in 75.31% of the cases (n=180). The causes of chronic renal failure were dominated by chronic glomerulonephritis (40.1%), nephroangiosclerosis (35.5%). Hemodialysis was performed in 3 patients (1.26%), no patient was scheduled for a renal transplantation. Mortality rate in the Department was 28.87%. Chronic renal failure is a debilitating disease with a dreadful prognosis which affects young patients in Madagascar. Its treatment remains inaccessible to the majority of patients. The focus must be mainly on prevention, especially on early effective management of infections, arterial hypertension and diabetes to reduce its negative impacts on the community and public health. The project on renal transplantation: living donor, effective and less expensive treatment compared to hemodialysis could also be a good solution for these Malagasy young subjects.

  15. Integrating Cross-Cultural Marketing Research Training in International Business Education Programs: It's Time, and Here's Why and How

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ruth Lesher; Brodowsky, Glen H.

    2012-01-01

    International business necessitates that its international business educators prepare today's workforce with skills necessary to take on cross-cultural research tasks and challenges. Yet, global business finds these skills in short supply. Perhaps this is the case because empirical evidence shows U.S. academic coverage of cross-cultural research…

  16. Undergraduate Regional Migration in the UK: Perspectives on Local Markets and Trends for Gender and International Student Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, Robert J.; Gandy, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of degree course acceptances for UK undergraduate students in 2002 and 2008. It examines student mobility between the UK regions, and the trends in their movement within local markets. Data shows a growing trend for students to study within local regions, especially women. Increases in acceptances of over 10% are…

  17. 26 CFR 1.1502-22A - Consolidated net capital gain or loss generally applicable for consolidated return years...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... capital gain of the group is $4,000, determined as follows: P's net capital gain of $2,000, representing... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Consolidated net capital gain or loss generally... Consolidated net capital gain or loss generally applicable for consolidated return years beginning...

  18. 26 CFR 1.1502-22A - Consolidated net capital gain or loss generally applicable for consolidated return years...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... capital gain of the group is $4,000, determined as follows: P's net capital gain of $2,000, representing... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Consolidated net capital gain or loss generally... Consolidated net capital gain or loss generally applicable for consolidated return years beginning...

  19. 26 CFR 1.1502-22A - Consolidated net capital gain or loss generally applicable for consolidated return years...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... capital gain of the group is $4,000, determined as follows: P's net capital gain of $2,000, representing... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Consolidated net capital gain or loss generally... Consolidated net capital gain or loss generally applicable for consolidated return years beginning...

  20. 26 CFR 1.362-2 - Certain contributions to capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain contributions to capital. 1.362-2... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Effects on Corporation § 1.362-2 Certain contributions to capital. The... motivating the contribution; (b) In the case of an excess of the amount of money contributed over the cost...

  1. Capital Costs: A Conceptual Framework for Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cash, Samuel G.

    2004-01-01

    The increased attention to costs in recent years at colleges and universities draws attention to the matter of whether all costs are reflected and accounted for in the institution's internal and external financial reports. One category--capital costs--is thought by some to be overlooked at times. The possible neglect of capital costs in…

  2. 75 FR 61790 - Capital Southwest Corporation; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    .... Applicant's Representations 1. Capital Southwest, a Texas corporation, is an internally managed, non... and four are not interested persons (the ``Non-interested Directors''). Capital Southwest has four... of the Board (the ``Compensation Committee'') is comprised solely of the Non-interested Directors....

  3. Imagining "Alternativas" to Global, Corporate, New Economy Academic Capitalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoades, Gary; Maldonado-Maldonado, Alma; Ordorika, Imanol; Velazquez, Martin

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors detail the conditions and patterns of academic capitalism and the new economy in US higher education. Subsequently, a conceptual model is offered for considering the international reach and national and local patterns of academic capitalism. Further, a distinctive Mexican case of entrepreneurialism is offered. The…

  4. Field Theory in Cultural Capital Studies of Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krarup, Troels; Munk, Martin D.

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that there is a double problem in international research in cultural capital and educational attainment: an empirical problem, since few new insights have been gained within recent years; and a theoretical problem, since cultural capital is seen as a simple hypothesis about certain isolated individual resources, disregarding…

  5. Cultural Capital and Distinction: Aspirations of the "Other" Foreign Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sin, I. Lin

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the perceived role of UK international education as foreign cultural capital, obtained outside the UK, in facilitating middle-class social mobility. Drawing on interviews with students in Malaysia, it extends Bourdieu's concept of cultural capital to explain understandings of the rewards and limitations of undertaking UK…

  6. Open-market innovation.

    PubMed

    Rigby, Darrell; Zook, Chris

    2002-10-01

    Companies in many industries are feeling immense pressure to improve their ability to innovate. Even in these tough economic times, executives have pushed innovation initiatives to the top of their priority lists, but they know that the best ideas aren't always coming out of their own R&D labs. That's why a growing number of companies are exploring the idea of open-market innovation--an approach that uses tools such as licensing, joint ventures, and strategic alliances to bring the benefits of free trade to the flow of new ideas. For instance, when faced with the unanticipated anthrax scare last fall, Pitney Bowes had nothing in its R&D pipeline to help its customers combat the deadly spores. So it sought help from outside innovators to come up with scanning and imaging technologies that could alert its customers to tainted letters and packages. And Dow Chemical and Cargill jointly produced a new form of plastic derived from plant starches--a breakthrough product that neither company could have created on its own. In this article, Bain consultants Darrell Rigby and Chris Zook describe the advantages and disadvantages of open-market innovation and the ways some companies are using it to gain competitive advantage. By importing ideas from the outside, the authors say, companies can collect more and better ideas from different kinds of experts. Creative types within a company will stick around longer if they know their ideas will eventually find a home--as internal R&D projects or as concepts licensed to outside buyers. Exporting ideas also gives companies a way to measure an innovation's real value. However, the authors warn against entering into open-market innovation without properly structuring deals: Xerox and TRW virtually gave away their innovations and had to stand by while other companies capitalized on them. PMID:12389463

  7. Open-market innovation.

    PubMed

    Rigby, Darrell; Zook, Chris

    2002-10-01

    Companies in many industries are feeling immense pressure to improve their ability to innovate. Even in these tough economic times, executives have pushed innovation initiatives to the top of their priority lists, but they know that the best ideas aren't always coming out of their own R&D labs. That's why a growing number of companies are exploring the idea of open-market innovation--an approach that uses tools such as licensing, joint ventures, and strategic alliances to bring the benefits of free trade to the flow of new ideas. For instance, when faced with the unanticipated anthrax scare last fall, Pitney Bowes had nothing in its R&D pipeline to help its customers combat the deadly spores. So it sought help from outside innovators to come up with scanning and imaging technologies that could alert its customers to tainted letters and packages. And Dow Chemical and Cargill jointly produced a new form of plastic derived from plant starches--a breakthrough product that neither company could have created on its own. In this article, Bain consultants Darrell Rigby and Chris Zook describe the advantages and disadvantages of open-market innovation and the ways some companies are using it to gain competitive advantage. By importing ideas from the outside, the authors say, companies can collect more and better ideas from different kinds of experts. Creative types within a company will stick around longer if they know their ideas will eventually find a home--as internal R&D projects or as concepts licensed to outside buyers. Exporting ideas also gives companies a way to measure an innovation's real value. However, the authors warn against entering into open-market innovation without properly structuring deals: Xerox and TRW virtually gave away their innovations and had to stand by while other companies capitalized on them.

  8. A Social Capital Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzàlez-Aranguena, Enrique; Khmelnitskaya, Anna; Manuel, Conrado; del Pozo, Mónica

    2011-09-01

    We define an index of social capital using game-theoretical concepts. We assume that interests of individuals are presented by means of a cooperative game which take into account possible different players abilities whereas the network of relations is modeled by a graph. The social capital of each actor is then measured as the difference between his Myerson value and his Shapley value.

  9. Linguistic Capital Pays Dividends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linse, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Some 37 million U.S. residents speak Spanish at home and more than 55% of them say they also speak English. That creates what is called linguistic capital. Although linguistic capital is difficult to quantify, it is enormously valuable and is determined by an individual's language competency, and is too frequently wasted instead of being…

  10. Implementing a Capital Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daigneau, William A.

    2003-01-01

    Addresses four questions regarding implementation of a long-term capital plan to manage a college's facilities portfolio: When should the projects be implemented? How should the capital improvements be implemented? What will it actually cost in terms of project costs as well as operating costs? Who will implement the plan? (EV)

  11. Financing Human Capital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juffras, Jason; Sawhill, Isabel V.

    This paper examines the government's role in financing human capital investments. It first examines why private investments in education, training, and other forms of human capital are likely to fall short of socially desirable levels. It then reviews past trends in public support for human resource investments. Finally, it discusses current…

  12. International migration of health professionals and the marketization and privatization of health education in India: from push-pull to global political economy.

    PubMed

    Walton-Roberts, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Health worker migration theories have tended to focus on labour market conditions as principal push or pull factors. The role of education systems in producing internationally oriented health workers has been less explored. In place of the traditional conceptual approaches to understanding health worker, especially nurse, migration, I advocate global political economy (GPE) as a perspective that can highlight how educational investment and global migration tendencies are increasing interlinked. The Indian case illustrates the globally oriented nature of health care training, and informs a broader understanding of both the process of health worker migration, and how it reflects wider marketization tendencies evident in India's education and health systems. The Indian case also demonstrates how the global orientation of education systems in source regions is increasingly central to comprehending the place of health workers in the global and Asian rise in migration. The paper concludes that Indian corporate health care training systems are increasingly aligned with the production of professionals orientated to globally integrated health human resource labour markets, and our conceptual analysis of such processes must effectively reflect these tendencies. PMID:25445935

  13. International migration of health professionals and the marketization and privatization of health education in India: from push-pull to global political economy.

    PubMed

    Walton-Roberts, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Health worker migration theories have tended to focus on labour market conditions as principal push or pull factors. The role of education systems in producing internationally oriented health workers has been less explored. In place of the traditional conceptual approaches to understanding health worker, especially nurse, migration, I advocate global political economy (GPE) as a perspective that can highlight how educational investment and global migration tendencies are increasing interlinked. The Indian case illustrates the globally oriented nature of health care training, and informs a broader understanding of both the process of health worker migration, and how it reflects wider marketization tendencies evident in India's education and health systems. The Indian case also demonstrates how the global orientation of education systems in source regions is increasingly central to comprehending the place of health workers in the global and Asian rise in migration. The paper concludes that Indian corporate health care training systems are increasingly aligned with the production of professionals orientated to globally integrated health human resource labour markets, and our conceptual analysis of such processes must effectively reflect these tendencies.

  14. 76 FR 42768 - Capital Distribution

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Capital Distribution AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS), Treasury... concerning the following information collection. Title of Proposal: Capital Distribution. OMB Number: 1550..., the information provides the OTS with a mechanism for monitoring capital distributions since...

  15. Marketing Data Warehouse

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, C.V.

    1994-11-01

    In January 1993 the New Products and Services (NP&S) department of Tennessee Valley Authority`s (TVA) Marketing Organization embarked on a project to provide greater access and sharing of market data. This project is the Marketing Data Warehouse (MDW). The goal of the MDW is to provide for the integration and access of market relevant data collected by TVA internally or purchased from external sources. The MDW is a repository of secondary information, allowing marketing analysts to answer market questions in a matter of minutes rather hours or days. The application of the data warehouse approach allows marketing groups to take full advantage of new market data sources, market analysis software and marketing techniques. Marketers can perform impact analysis of market relevant legislation, business trends and technology breakthroughs much quicker with greater confinence in the results.

  16. 12 CFR 615.5200 - Capital planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the capital adequacy plan: (1) Capability of management and the board of directors; (2) Quality of operating policies, procedures, and internal controls; (3) Quality and quantity of earnings; (4) Asset quality and the adequacy of the allowance for losses to absorb potential loss within the loan and...

  17. 12 CFR 615.5200 - Capital planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the capital adequacy plan: (1) Capability of management and the board of directors; (2) Quality of operating policies, procedures, and internal controls; (3) Quality and quantity of earnings; (4) Asset quality and the adequacy of the allowance for losses to absorb potential loss within the loan and...

  18. 12 CFR 615.5200 - Capital planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the capital adequacy plan: (1) Capability of management and the board of directors; (2) Quality of operating policies, procedures, and internal controls; (3) Quality and quantity of earnings; (4) Asset quality and the adequacy of the allowance for losses to absorb potential loss within the loan and...

  19. Intellectual Capital in Egyptian Software Firms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seleim, Ahmed; Ashour, Ahmed; Bontis, Nick

    2004-01-01

    The distribution of knowledge around the world varies significantly with developed countries possessing most of the world's current intellectual capital (IC) compared to developing countries. Most IC research has been conducted in a variety of international settings such as the UK, Scandinavia, Australia, Canada, Austria, Malaysia, the USA, and…

  20. Capital structure strategy in health care systems.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, J R; Smith, D G; Rivenson, H L; Reiter, K L

    2000-01-01

    The capital structures (the relative use of debt and equity to support assets) of leading health care systems are viewed as a strategic component of their financial plans. While not-for-profit hospitals as a group have maintained nearly constant levels of debt over the past decade, investor-owned hospitals and a group of leading health care systems have reduced their relative use of debt. Chief financial officers indicated that in addition to reducing debt because of less favorable reimbursement incentives, there was a focus on maintaining high bond ratings. Debt levels have not been reduced as sharply in these health care systems as they have in investor-owned hospitals, in part due to the use of debt to support investments in financial markets. Because these health care systems do not have easy access to equity, high bond ratings and solid investment earnings are central to their capital structure policies of preserving access to debt markets.

  1. Adaptive governance, ecosystem management, and natural capital

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Lisen; Folke, Carl; Österblom, Henrik; Olsson, Per

    2015-01-01

    To gain insights into the effects of adaptive governance on natural capital, we compare three well-studied initiatives; a landscape in Southern Sweden, the Great Barrier Reef in Australia, and fisheries in the Southern Ocean. We assess changes in natural capital and ecosystem services related to these social–ecological governance approaches to ecosystem management and investigate their capacity to respond to change and new challenges. The adaptive governance initiatives are compared with other efforts aimed at conservation and sustainable use of natural capital: Natura 2000 in Europe, lobster fisheries in the Gulf of Maine, North America, and fisheries in Europe. In contrast to these efforts, we found that the adaptive governance cases developed capacity to perform ecosystem management, manage multiple ecosystem services, and monitor, communicate, and respond to ecosystem-wide changes at landscape and seascape levels with visible effects on natural capital. They enabled actors to collaborate across diverse interests, sectors, and institutional arrangements and detect opportunities and problems as they developed while nurturing adaptive capacity to deal with them. They all spanned local to international levels of decision making, thus representing multilevel governance systems for managing natural capital. As with any governance system, internal changes and external drivers of global impacts and demands will continue to challenge the long-term success of such initiatives. PMID:26082542

  2. Adaptive governance, ecosystem management, and natural capital.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Lisen; Folke, Carl; Österblom, Henrik; Olsson, Per

    2015-06-16

    To gain insights into the effects of adaptive governance on natural capital, we compare three well-studied initiatives; a landscape in Southern Sweden, the Great Barrier Reef in Australia, and fisheries in the Southern Ocean. We assess changes in natural capital and ecosystem services related to these social-ecological governance approaches to ecosystem management and investigate their capacity to respond to change and new challenges. The adaptive governance initiatives are compared with other efforts aimed at conservation and sustainable use of natural capital: Natura 2000 in Europe, lobster fisheries in the Gulf of Maine, North America, and fisheries in Europe. In contrast to these efforts, we found that the adaptive governance cases developed capacity to perform ecosystem management, manage multiple ecosystem services, and monitor, communicate, and respond to ecosystem-wide changes at landscape and seascape levels with visible effects on natural capital. They enabled actors to collaborate across diverse interests, sectors, and institutional arrangements and detect opportunities and problems as they developed while nurturing adaptive capacity to deal with them. They all spanned local to international levels of decision making, thus representing multilevel governance systems for managing natural capital. As with any governance system, internal changes and external drivers of global impacts and demands will continue to challenge the long-term success of such initiatives. PMID:26082542

  3. Adaptive governance, ecosystem management, and natural capital.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Lisen; Folke, Carl; Österblom, Henrik; Olsson, Per

    2015-06-16

    To gain insights into the effects of adaptive governance on natural capital, we compare three well-studied initiatives; a landscape in Southern Sweden, the Great Barrier Reef in Australia, and fisheries in the Southern Ocean. We assess changes in natural capital and ecosystem services related to these social-ecological governance approaches to ecosystem management and investigate their capacity to respond to change and new challenges. The adaptive governance initiatives are compared with other efforts aimed at conservation and sustainable use of natural capital: Natura 2000 in Europe, lobster fisheries in the Gulf of Maine, North America, and fisheries in Europe. In contrast to these efforts, we found that the adaptive governance cases developed capacity to perform ecosystem management, manage multiple ecosystem services, and monitor, communicate, and respond to ecosystem-wide changes at landscape and seascape levels with visible effects on natural capital. They enabled actors to collaborate across diverse interests, sectors, and institutional arrangements and detect opportunities and problems as they developed while nurturing adaptive capacity to deal with them. They all spanned local to international levels of decision making, thus representing multilevel governance systems for managing natural capital. As with any governance system, internal changes and external drivers of global impacts and demands will continue to challenge the long-term success of such initiatives.

  4. Working capital management, corporate performance, and strategic choices of the wholesale and retail industry in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Chuan-guo; Dong, Hui-min; Chen, Shou; Yang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    We examine the influence of strategic choice on working capital configurations and observe how the relationship between working capital ratio and operational performance differs depending on strategy. By clustering the strategic factors of the wholesale and retail industry, we find three categories of strategies: terminal market strategy, middle market strategy, and hybrid strategy. Using the panel data of the listed companies of the wholesale and retail industry as our sample, we analyze the differences in the ways companies configure working capital, the speed with which working capital adjusts to its target, and the effects of working capital on performance for companies that make different strategic choices. The empirical results suggest that working capital is configured and adjusted to its target in different ways under different competitive strategic choices. This effect is finally transferred to influence the relationship between working capital configuration and operational performance. PMID:25121141

  5. Working capital management, corporate performance, and strategic choices of the wholesale and retail industry in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Chuan-guo; Dong, Hui-min; Chen, Shou; Yang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    We examine the influence of strategic choice on working capital configurations and observe how the relationship between working capital ratio and operational performance differs depending on strategy. By clustering the strategic factors of the wholesale and retail industry, we find three categories of strategies: terminal market strategy, middle market strategy, and hybrid strategy. Using the panel data of the listed companies of the wholesale and retail industry as our sample, we analyze the differences in the ways companies configure working capital, the speed with which working capital adjusts to its target, and the effects of working capital on performance for companies that make different strategic choices. The empirical results suggest that working capital is configured and adjusted to its target in different ways under different competitive strategic choices. This effect is finally transferred to influence the relationship between working capital configuration and operational performance.

  6. Working Capital Management, Corporate Performance, and Strategic Choices of the Wholesale and Retail Industry in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chuan-guo; Dong, Hui-min; Chen, Shou; Yang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    We examine the influence of strategic choice on working capital configurations and observe how the relationship between working capital ratio and operational performance differs depending on strategy. By clustering the strategic factors of the wholesale and retail industry, we find three categories of strategies: terminal market strategy, middle market strategy, and hybrid strategy. Using the panel data of the listed companies of the wholesale and retail industry as our sample, we analyze the differences in the ways companies configure working capital, the speed with which working capital adjusts to its target, and the effects of working capital on performance for companies that make different strategic choices. The empirical results suggest that working capital is configured and adjusted to its target in different ways under different competitive strategic choices. This effect is finally transferred to influence the relationship between working capital configuration and operational performance. PMID:25121141

  7. 26 CFR 1.1223-1 - Determination of period for which capital assets are held.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Determination of period for which capital assets are held. 1.1223-1 Section 1.1223-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Rules for Determining Capital Gains and Losses § 1.1223-1 Determination...

  8. 26 CFR 1.1223-1 - Determination of period for which capital assets are held.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Determination of period for which capital assets are held. 1.1223-1 Section 1.1223-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Rules for Determining Capital Gains and Losses § 1.1223-1 Determination...

  9. 26 CFR 301.6501(h)-1 - Net operating loss or capital loss carrybacks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Net operating loss or capital loss carrybacks. 301.6501(h)-1 Section 301.6501(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Assessment and Collection § 301.6501(h)-1 Net operating loss or capital loss carrybacks. In the case of...

  10. 26 CFR 301.6501(h)-1 - Net operating loss or capital loss carrybacks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net operating loss or capital loss carrybacks. 301.6501(h)-1 Section 301.6501(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Assessment and Collection § 301.6501(h)-1 Net operating loss or capital loss carrybacks. In the case of...

  11. Measurement of social capital among clinical research trainees.

    PubMed

    Primack, Brian A; Colditz, Jason B; Cohen, Elan; Switzer, Galen E; Robinson, Georgeanna F W B; Seltzer, Deborah L; Rubio, Doris M; Kapoor, Wishwa N

    2014-02-01

    While physical and human capital are established as important predictors of success among early-career clinical investigators, less is known about the role of social capital. The authors aimed to develop a brief scale to assess social capital in this population and test its reliability and validity. A three-item assessment was developed based on a conceptual framework and measures of social capital from other fields and was administered to 414 clinical research trainees at the University of Pittsburgh in 2007-2012. The measure exhibited good internal consistency reliability (α = 0.71) and a normal distribution. On a 10-point scale, mean social capital was 6.4 (SD = 1.7). Social capital was significantly associated with 7 of the 9 expected constructs: sex, age, confidence in research skills, work-related motivation, burnout, and social support. Exploratory multivariable regression analysis demonstrated that social capital was most strongly associated with higher research confidence (β = 0.35, p < 0.001), higher extrinsic motivation (β = 0.50, p = 0.003), and lower burnout (ptrend = 0.02). This three-item scale measures social capital in this population with adequate internal consistency reliability, face validity, and construct validity. This brief assessment provides a tool that may be valuable to benchmark social capital of clinical research trainees and to better contextualize programmatic and trainee outcomes. PMID:24118964

  12. Measurement of Social Capital among Clinical Research Trainees

    PubMed Central

    Primack, Brian A.; Colditz, Jason B.; Cohen, Elan; Switzer, Galen E.; Robinson, Georgeanna; Seltzer, Deborah L.; Rubio, Doris M.; Kapoor, Wishwa N.

    2013-01-01

    While physical- and human capital are established as important predictors of success among early-career clinical investigators, less is known about the role of social capital. The authors aimed to develop a brief scale to assess social capital in this population and test its reliability and validity. A three-item assessment was developed based on a conceptual framework and measures of social capital from other fields and was administered to 414 clinical research trainees at the University of Pittsburgh in 2007–2012. The measure exhibited good internal consistency reliability (α=0.71) and a normal distribution. On a 10-point scale, mean social capital was 6.4 (SD=1.7). Social capital was significantly associated with 7 of the 9 expected constructs: sex, age, confidence in research skills, work-related motivation, burnout, and social support. Exploratory multivariable regression analysis demonstrated that social capital was most strongly associated with higher research confidence (β=0.35, P<.001), higher extrinsic motivation (β=0.50, P=.003), and lower burnout (Ptrend=.02). This 3-item scale measures social capital in this population with adequate internal consistency reliability, face validity, and construct validity. This brief assessment provides a tool which may be valuable to benchmark social capital of clinical research trainees and to better contextualize programmatic and trainee outcomes. PMID:24118964

  13. Measurement of social capital among clinical research trainees.

    PubMed

    Primack, Brian A; Colditz, Jason B; Cohen, Elan; Switzer, Galen E; Robinson, Georgeanna F W B; Seltzer, Deborah L; Rubio, Doris M; Kapoor, Wishwa N

    2014-02-01

    While physical and human capital are established as important predictors of success among early-career clinical investigators, less is known about the role of social capital. The authors aimed to develop a brief scale to assess social capital in this population and test its reliability and validity. A three-item assessment was developed based on a conceptual framework and measures of social capital from other fields and was administered to 414 clinical research trainees at the University of Pittsburgh in 2007-2012. The measure exhibited good internal consistency reliability (α = 0.71) and a normal distribution. On a 10-point scale, mean social capital was 6.4 (SD = 1.7). Social capital was significantly associated with 7 of the 9 expected constructs: sex, age, confidence in research skills, work-related motivation, burnout, and social support. Exploratory multivariable regression analysis demonstrated that social capital was most strongly associated with higher research confidence (β = 0.35, p < 0.001), higher extrinsic motivation (β = 0.50, p = 0.003), and lower burnout (ptrend = 0.02). This three-item scale measures social capital in this population with adequate internal consistency reliability, face validity, and construct validity. This brief assessment provides a tool that may be valuable to benchmark social capital of clinical research trainees and to better contextualize programmatic and trainee outcomes.

  14. Social capital in an outdoor recreation context.

    PubMed

    Mann, Marilynne; Leahy, Jessica

    2010-02-01

    This study examined social capital development in three all-terrain vehicles (ATV) clubs in Maine using an adapted version of Lin's (2001) social capital theory model. The structural components of social capital identified included collective assets and individual assets in the form of normative behavior and trust relationships. Also identified were counter-norms for individual ATV riders identified as having divergent norms from club members. The second component of social capital is access to and mobilization of network contacts and resources. Access networks in the context of the ATV clubs studied were identified as community and landowner relations while mobilization of resources was existent in club membership attempts toward self-governance and efforts of the statewide "umbrella" organization. Instrumental outcomes benefit society and expressive outcomes benefit the individual. Both types of returns are present in the data suggesting that ATV clubs are creating social capital. This is important information to clubs who desire to market themselves, improve their reputations, and enhance their volunteer association. It is of further interest to state governments who fund clubs through trail grants as proof that a return on investment is being realized. Theoretical and applied implications for these and other types of recreation-based volunteer associations (e.g., clubs, friends groups, advocacy groups) are presented.

  15. Social Capital in an Outdoor Recreation Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Marilynne; Leahy, Jessica

    2010-02-01

    This study examined social capital development in three all-terrain vehicles (ATV) clubs in Maine using an adapted version of Lin’s (2001) social capital theory model. The structural components of social capital identified included collective assets and individual assets in the form of normative behavior and trust relationships. Also identified were counter-norms for individual ATV riders identified as having divergent norms from club members. The second component of social capital is access to and mobilization of network contacts and resources. Access networks in the context of the ATV clubs studied were identified as community and landowner relations while mobilization of resources was existent in club membership attempts toward self-governance and efforts of the statewide “umbrella” organization. Instrumental outcomes benefit society and expressive outcomes benefit the individual. Both types of returns are present in the data suggesting that ATV clubs are creating social capital. This is important information to clubs who desire to market themselves, improve their reputations, and enhance their volunteer association. It is of further interest to state governments who fund clubs through trail grants as proof that a return on investment is being realized. Theoretical and applied implications for these and other types of recreation-based volunteer associations (e.g., clubs, friends groups, advocacy groups) are presented.

  16. Social capital in an outdoor recreation context.

    PubMed

    Mann, Marilynne; Leahy, Jessica

    2010-02-01

    This study examined social capital development in three all-terrain vehicles (ATV) clubs in Maine using an adapted version of Lin's (2001) social capital theory model. The structural components of social capital identified included collective assets and individual assets in the form of normative behavior and trust relationships. Also identified were counter-norms for individual ATV riders identified as having divergent norms from club members. The second component of social capital is access to and mobilization of network contacts and resources. Access networks in the context of the ATV clubs studied were identified as community and landowner relations while mobilization of resources was existent in club membership attempts toward self-governance and efforts of the statewide "umbrella" organization. Instrumental outcomes benefit society and expressive outcomes benefit the individual. Both types of returns are present in the data suggesting that ATV clubs are creating social capital. This is important information to clubs who desire to market themselves, improve their reputations, and enhance their volunteer association. It is of further interest to state governments who fund clubs through trail grants as proof that a return on investment is being realized. Theoretical and applied implications for these and other types of recreation-based volunteer associations (e.g., clubs, friends groups, advocacy groups) are presented. PMID:20016986

  17. Assessment of religious and spiritual capital in African American communities.

    PubMed

    Holt, Cheryl L; Schulz, Emily; Williams, Beverly; Clark, Eddie M; Wang, Min Qi; Southward, Penny L

    2012-12-01

    African American faith communities are an important source of social capital. The present study adapted a theory-based social capital instrument to result in religious (e.g., from organized worship) and spiritual (e.g., from relationship with higher power) capital measures. Data from a national sample of 803 African Americans suggest the instruments have high internal reliability and are distinct from general religiosity. Measurement models confirmed factor structures. Religious capital was positively associated with self-rated health status. Religious and spiritual capital were negatively associated with depressive symptoms, but these associations largely became nonsignificant in multivariate models that controlled for demographic characteristics. An exception is for spiritual capital in the form of community participation, which retained a negative association with depressive symptoms. These instruments may have applied value for health promotion research and practice in African American communities.

  18. Chaotic Footloose Capital.

    PubMed

    Commendatore, Pasquale; Currie, Martin; Kubin, Ingrid

    2007-04-01

    This paper examines the long-term behavior of a discrete-time Footloose Capital model, where capitalists, who are themselves immobile between regions, move their physical capital between regions in response to economic incentives. The spatial location of industry can exhibit cycles of any periodicity or behave chaotically. Long-term behavior is highly sensitive to transport costs and to the responsiveness of capitalists to profit differentials. The concentration of industry in one region can result from high transport costs or from rapid responses by capitalists. In terms of possible dynamical behaviors, the discrete-time model is much richer than the standard continuous-time Footloose Capital model.

  19. 26 CFR 1.1016-2 - Items properly chargeable to capital account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Items properly chargeable to capital account. 1... chargeable to capital account. (a) The cost or other basis shall be properly adjusted for any expenditure, receipt, loss, or other item, properly chargeable to capital account, including the cost of...

  20. 26 CFR 1.263(a)-2 - Examples of capital expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Examples of capital expenditures. 1.263(a)-2...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Items Not Deductible § 1.263(a)-2 Examples of capital expenditures. The following paragraphs of this section include examples of capital expenditures: (a) The cost...

  1. The Appeal of the International Baccalaureate in Australia's Educational Market: A Curriculum of Choice for Mobile Futures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    In Australia there is growing interest in a national curriculum to replace the variety of matriculation credentials managed by State Education departments, ostensibly to address increasing population mobility. Meanwhile, the International Baccalaureate (IB) is attracting increasing interest and enrolments in State and private schools in Australia,…

  2. 26 CFR 1.6045-3 - Information reporting for an acquisition of control or a substantial change in capital structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... capital structure. (a) In general. Any broker (as defined in § 1.6045-1(a)(1)) that holds shares on behalf... control or a substantial change in capital structure. 1.6045-3 Section 1.6045-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...) (acquisition of control) or § 1.6043-4(d) (substantial change in capital structure) shall file a return...

  3. 26 CFR 1.6045-3 - Information reporting for an acquisition of control or a substantial change in capital structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... capital structure. (a) In general. Any broker (as defined in § 1.6045-1(a)(1)) that holds shares on behalf... control or a substantial change in capital structure. 1.6045-3 Section 1.6045-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...) (acquisition of control) or § 1.6043-4(d) (substantial change in capital structure) shall file a return...

  4. Dietary supplements: International legal framework and adulteration profiles, and characteristics of products on the Brazilian clandestine market.

    PubMed

    da Justa Neves, Diana Brito; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    2015-10-01

    The objectives of this work were to evaluate current legislation on dietary supplements in the United States, the European Union and Brazil, and the profile of adulterated and/or irregular products on these markets. Due to a less restrictive legal framework, a supplement product that is freely available in the US may be considered a drug or even be proscribed in the EU and Brazil, thus giving rise to a clandestine market based on smuggling. From 2007 to 2014, the United States Food and Drug Administration reported 572 cases of supplement adulterations in the country, mainly products for sexual enhancement (41.6%). Data from the European Union Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed showed 929 adulterations during the same period, over 40% due to unauthorized ingredients or undeclared medicines. From 2007 to 2013, the Brazilian Federal Police Department seized 5470 supplement products, 92.2% with an American-declared origin. Qualitative chemical analyses performed on 2898 products found 180 adulterations, 41.1% due to undeclared drugs, mainly anabolic steroids, anorectics and products for erectile dysfunction, all considered medicines in Brazil. Educating the public regarding the potential risks they are taking when consuming adulterated or irregular products is necessary to protect the health of consumers.

  5. Risk assessments of lumpy skin diseases in Borena bull market chain and its implication for livelihoods and international trade.

    PubMed

    Alemayehu, Gezahegn; Zewde, Girma; Admassu, Berhanu

    2013-06-01

    Risks of introduction of lumpy skin disease (LSD) through traded Borena bulls to market chain and its consequences were assessed. The assessment used the framework that has been recommended by the World Animal Health Organization (OIE) for risk analysis. Likelihoods for release and exposure were estimated by a qualitative scale ranging from negligible to very high, whereas the consequences which resulted from disease occurrences were assessed quantitatively. The likelihood of the introduction of LSD to the market chain through traded Borena bulls is found to be high (medium uncertainty), whereas the probability of exposure is very high (medium uncertainty). From the total of 11,189 bulls observed during outbreak investigation of LSD in six sites of feedlot operation in and around Adama, 681(6.1 %) and 204 (1.8 %) bulls were found to be affected and dead with LSD, respectively. The total economic loss due to LSD was estimated to be 667,785.6 USD. The risk estimates for LSD are greater than negligible; therefore, disease prevention and control strategy along the chain should be carefully considered by the Ethiopian veterinary services.

  6. Dietary supplements: International legal framework and adulteration profiles, and characteristics of products on the Brazilian clandestine market.

    PubMed

    da Justa Neves, Diana Brito; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    2015-10-01

    The objectives of this work were to evaluate current legislation on dietary supplements in the United States, the European Union and Brazil, and the profile of adulterated and/or irregular products on these markets. Due to a less restrictive legal framework, a supplement product that is freely available in the US may be considered a drug or even be proscribed in the EU and Brazil, thus giving rise to a clandestine market based on smuggling. From 2007 to 2014, the United States Food and Drug Administration reported 572 cases of supplement adulterations in the country, mainly products for sexual enhancement (41.6%). Data from the European Union Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed showed 929 adulterations during the same period, over 40% due to unauthorized ingredients or undeclared medicines. From 2007 to 2013, the Brazilian Federal Police Department seized 5470 supplement products, 92.2% with an American-declared origin. Qualitative chemical analyses performed on 2898 products found 180 adulterations, 41.1% due to undeclared drugs, mainly anabolic steroids, anorectics and products for erectile dysfunction, all considered medicines in Brazil. Educating the public regarding the potential risks they are taking when consuming adulterated or irregular products is necessary to protect the health of consumers. PMID:26107294

  7. Enforcing the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes for Better Promotion of Exclusive Breastfeeding: Can Lessons Be Learned?

    PubMed

    Barennes, Hubert; Slesak, Guenther; Goyet, Sophie; Aaron, Percy; Srour, Leila M

    2016-02-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding, one of the best natural resources, needs protection and promotion. The International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes (the Code), which aims to prevent the undermining of breastfeeding by formula advertising, faces implementation challenges. We reviewed frequently overlooked challenges and obstacles that the Code is facing worldwide, but particularly in Southeast Asia. Drawing lessons from various countries where we work, and following the example of successful public health interventions, we discussed legislation, enforcement, and experiences that are needed to successfully implement the Code. Successful holistic approaches that have strengthened the Code need to be scaled up. Community-based actions and peer-to-peer promotions have proved successful. Legislation without stringent enforcement and sufficient penalties is ineffective. The public needs education about the benefits and ways and means to support breastfeeding. It is crucial to combine strong political commitment and leadership with strict national regulations, definitions, and enforcement. National breastfeeding committees, with the authority to improve regulations, investigate violations, and enforce the laws, must be established. Systematic monitoring and reporting are needed to identify companies, individuals, intermediaries, and practices that infringe on the Code. Penalizing violators is crucial. Managers of multinational companies must be held accountable for international violations, and international legislative enforcement needs to be established. Further measures should include improved regulations to protect the breastfeeding mother: large-scale education campaigns; strong penalties for Code violators; exclusion of the formula industry from nutrition, education, and policy roles; supportive legal networks; and independent research of interventions supporting breastfeeding. PMID:26416439

  8. Enforcing the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes for Better Promotion of Exclusive Breastfeeding: Can Lessons Be Learned?

    PubMed

    Barennes, Hubert; Slesak, Guenther; Goyet, Sophie; Aaron, Percy; Srour, Leila M

    2016-02-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding, one of the best natural resources, needs protection and promotion. The International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes (the Code), which aims to prevent the undermining of breastfeeding by formula advertising, faces implementation challenges. We reviewed frequently overlooked challenges and obstacles that the Code is facing worldwide, but particularly in Southeast Asia. Drawing lessons from various countries where we work, and following the example of successful public health interventions, we discussed legislation, enforcement, and experiences that are needed to successfully implement the Code. Successful holistic approaches that have strengthened the Code need to be scaled up. Community-based actions and peer-to-peer promotions have proved successful. Legislation without stringent enforcement and sufficient penalties is ineffective. The public needs education about the benefits and ways and means to support breastfeeding. It is crucial to combine strong political commitment and leadership with strict national regulations, definitions, and enforcement. National breastfeeding committees, with the authority to improve regulations, investigate violations, and enforce the laws, must be established. Systematic monitoring and reporting are needed to identify companies, individuals, intermediaries, and practices that infringe on the Code. Penalizing violators is crucial. Managers of multinational companies must be held accountable for international violations, and international legislative enforcement needs to be established. Further measures should include improved regulations to protect the breastfeeding mother: large-scale education campaigns; strong penalties for Code violators; exclusion of the formula industry from nutrition, education, and policy roles; supportive legal networks; and independent research of interventions supporting breastfeeding.

  9. International project development -- Strategies for the future

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, S.B.; Maynard, B.H.

    1995-12-31

    It seems everywhere one looks today the international power development markets look incredibly large. 150,000 MWs are needed in China, 50,000 MWs are needed in India, 15,000 MWs are needed in Indonesia, 25,000 MWs are needed in Brazil. The list goes on and on and according to current IPP ``mythology`` these markets offer potential projects providing ``huge`` internal rates of return on investment. Unfortunately, against this favorable market backdrop remain some irrefutable facts; (1) There is not enough fabrication capacity in the world to meet the current capacity addition requirements, (2) There is not enough debt capital in the world to finance all the required MWs, further portfolio considerations reduce this on a country-by-country basis. (3) There are not enough qualified development and operational personnel to develop, construct and manage all of these projects. This paper will attempt to cover the broad mosaic of issues relative to the international development market. The authors illuminate the risks that will help optimize development funds, and human resources as well as the issues surrounding construction and operations.

  10. The inevitable commoditization of electric power markets

    SciTech Connect

    Mango, B.; Woodley, J.A.C.

    1994-11-01

    As competition grows between electric suppliers it is inevitable that a spot market in electricity will evolve. The impetus is the market demand for greater asset productivity. With prices revealed, a commodity market will follow. With spot and commodity markets will come the power to reallocate risk and make capital investment more productive. Given price volatility, separate markets will develop for near- and long-term hedging instruments.

  11. Venture Capital Investment Base on Grey Relational Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xubo

    This paper builds a venture capital investment projects selection evaluation model base on risk-weight investment return using grey relational analysis. The risk and return in venture capital investment projects selection process is analyses. These risk and return mainly constricted in management ability, operation ability, market ability, exit obtain and investment cost. The 18 sub-indicators are the impact factors contributed to these five evaluation aspects. Grey relation analysis is use to evaluate the venture capital investment selection. Get the optimal solution of risk-weight double objective investment selection evaluation model. An example is used to demonstrate the model in this paper.

  12. International red meat trade.

    PubMed

    Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L

    2003-07-01

    The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a

  13. International red meat trade.

    PubMed

    Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L

    2003-07-01

    The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a

  14. Homecare marketing and product management.

    PubMed

    Wells, J B

    1985-09-01

    Entirely too much lip service is paid to marketing and product management in the health sector with too little action. Home health to one degree or another is guilty of this. Successful home health organizations will capitalize on the power of traditional marketing and product management approaches. Product, pricing, packaging, position, and penetration may be foreign concepts. But marketing is built on these concepts and they are key to product definition and management.

  15. Efficiency, new equity capital enable systems to compete.

    PubMed

    Brown, M; McCool, B P

    1985-01-01

    Because of limited cash, sponsors of some community and religious hospitals have sought to sell or lease their institutions to a not-for-profit (NFP) system or to a for-profit system. A number of national alliances address the capital formation problem of NFP institutions. Until now they have been almost exclusively concerned with acquiring less costly debt. Without new equity capital, market influence is difficult to obtain. Even well-managed voluntary systems face a serious threat from well-capitalized investor-owned systems. Increased competition among hospitals and physicians will force future advantages to those who have capital. It will also restrict funding of certain programs and services by voluntary enterprises. In anticipation of this, various forms of partnerships have developed with investor-owned systems. To regain the initiative as the premier sponsors of health care, religious and other voluntary systems must go beyond merely competing in their markets to acquiring weaker institutions. They also must revitalize private giving and excel in efficiency to offset threats from ambulatory, day-care operations and from high-technology hospitals. Structural changes in the industry can be predicted, including the following: The trend toward integration for production, financing, and marketing will continue. Public market equity capital will be increasingly used to finance medical practice. Hospitals that sell their equity values will establish service foundations. National alliances will continue, but strictly local systems will maintain operation. Investor-owned systems will move increasingly into high-technology tertiary care.

  16. Social capital and mental illness: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    De Silva, M. J; McKenzie, K.; Harpham, T.; Huttly, S.

    2005-01-01

    Study objective: The concept of social capital has influenced mental health policies of nations and international organisations despite its limited evidence base. This papers aims to systematically review quantitative studies examining the association between social capital and mental illness. Design and setting: Twenty electronic databases and the reference sections of papers were searched to identify published studies. Authors of papers were contacted for unpublished work. Anonymised papers were reviewed by the authors of this paper. Papers with a validated mental illness outcome and an exposure variable agreed as measuring social capital were included. No limitations were put on date or language of publication. Main results: Twenty one studies met the inclusion criteria for the review. Fourteen measured social capital at the individual level and seven at an ecological level. The former offered evidence for an inverse relation between cognitive social capital and common mental disorders. There was moderate evidence for an inverse relation between cognitive social capital and child mental illness, and combined measures of social capital and common mental disorders. The seven ecological studies were diverse in methodology, populations investigated, and mental illness outcomes, making them difficult to summarise. Conclusions: Individual and ecological social capital may measure different aspects of the social environment. Current evidence is inadequate to inform the development of specific social capital interventions to combat mental illness. PMID:16020636

  17. A comparison of polymerase chain reaction and international organization for standardization methods for determination of Enterobacter sakazakii contamination of infant formulas from Chinese mainland markets.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yingwang; Wu, Qingping; Yao, Lin; Dong, Xiaohui; Wu, Kui; Zhang, Jumei

    2009-12-01

    Enterobacter sakazakii is an emerging foodborne pathogen associated with meningitis, necrotizing enterocolitis, and sepsis in infants. One of the main transmission vehicles is the commercially available infant formulas. To provide efficient options and direction for detecting E. sakazakii in infant formulas, evaluation of different polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays targeting the 16S-23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS), the ompA gene, and the alpha-1,4-glucosidase gene (gluA) of this organism, were compared to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) method for detecting E. sakazakii in the 243 commercial infant formula samples. Twelve samples were found to be positive for E. sakazakii by all the PCR assays used, followed by sequencing of PCR products. Ten samples were found to be positive by the ISO method, and all 10 gave positive signals for all the PCR amplifications. In contrast, four false-positive results were generated by single-PCR of the ITS region and one false-positive result targeting the ompA gene, while two false-negative results occurred with the ISO method. Combined with selective enrichment step(s), duplex-PCR targeting ITS and ompA and targeting ompA and gluA genes or single-PCR of the gluA gene can be used to test for contamination by E. sakazakii in infant formulas before they enter the market. PCR techniques will be helpful for routine monitoring and risk assessment for large-scale screenings.

  18. The Future of Capitation

    PubMed Central

    Goodson, John D; Bierman, Arlene S; Fein, Oliver; Rask, Kimberly; Rich, Eugene C; Selker, Harry P

    2001-01-01

    Capitation-based reimbursement significantly influences the practice of medicine. As physicians, we need to assure that payment models do not jeopardize the care we provide when we accept higher levels of personal financial risk. In this paper, we review the literature relevant to capitation, consider the interaction of financial incentives with physician and medical risk, and conclude that primary care physicians need to work to assure that capitated systems incorporate checks and balances which protect both patients and providers. We offer the following proposals for individuals and groups considering capitated contracts: (1) reimbursement for primary care physicians should recognize both individual patient encounters and the administrative work of patient care management; (2) reimbursement for subspecialists should recognize both access to subspecialty knowledge and expertise as well as patient care encounters, but in some situations, subspecialists may provide the majority of care to individual patients and will be reimbursed as primary care providers; (3) groups of physicians should accept financial risk for patient care only if they have the tools and resources to manage the care; (4) physicians sharing risk for patient care should meet regularly to discuss care and resource management; and (5) physicians must disclose the financial relationships they have with health plans and medical care organizations, and engage patients and communities in discussions about resource allocation. As a payment model, capitation offers opportunities for primary care physicians to influence the future of health care by improving the management of resources at a local level. PMID:11318926

  19. Capital Expert System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowell, Laurie; Gary, Jack; Illingworth, Bill; Sargent, Tom

    1987-05-01

    Gathering information, necessary forms, and financial calculations needed to generate a "capital investment proposal" is an extremely complex and difficult process. The intent of the capital investment proposal is to ensure management that the proposed investment has been thoroughly investigated and will have a positive impact on corporate goals. Meeting this requirement typically takes four or five experts a total of 12 hours to generate a "Capital Package." A Capital Expert System was therefore developed using "Personal Consultant." The completed system is hybrid and as such does not depend solely on rules but incorporates several different software packages that communicate through variables and functions passed from one to another. This paper describes the use of expert system techniques, methodology in building the knowledge base, contexts, LISP functions, data base, and special challenges that had to be overcome to create this system. The Capital Expert System is the successful result of a unique integration of artificial intelligence with business accounting, financial forms generation, and investment proposal expertise.

  20. 12 CFR 1777.20 - Capital classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... notice of proposed capital classification, holds core capital equaling or exceeding the minimum capital... classification, holds core capital equaling or exceeding the minimum capital level. (3) Significantly... the date specified in the notice of proposed capital classification, holds core capital less than...

  1. The future for healthcare capital investments.

    PubMed

    Betz, R

    1992-03-01

    Hospitals have entered into a new era of capital planning. A number of factors will influence hospital buying behavior now that the Medicare capital regulations are being implemented. As purchasing responsibility for additional departments is continually folded into hospitals' central purchasing function there will be increased opportunities for group contracts. As resources shrink and demand for services increases, GPOs will be relied upon for their expertise and financial finesse. The emphasis will be on boosting the use of group contracts among existing members, rather then seeking additional members in a shrinking hospital market. Through effective purchasing, it is generally recognized that a hospital can recover and keep, at best, 5-10 percent of the cost of all purchased goods and services. Group purchasing organizations need to develop better strategies of cooperation with vendors, distributors and hospitals to help providers control capital costs. In this challenging environment, GPOs will aggressively target markets other than acute care as the source of their future growth, just as healthcare facilities are branching out. To accommodate changing needs, the strongest GPOs will continue their evolution into structures more like alliances, offering an array of other cooperative and support programs beyond the purchase of goods and services. PMID:10116769

  2. Endovascular repair of aortic disease: a venture capital perspective.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Lucas W; Stavropoulos, S William; Resnick, Joshua B; Solomon, Jeffrey

    2009-03-01

    Endovascular devices for the treatment of abdominal and thoracic aortic disease are poised to become the next $1 billion medical device market. A shift from open repair to endovascular repair, advances in technology, screening initiatives, and new indications are driving this growth. Although billion-dollar medical device markets are rare, this field is fraught with risk and uncertainty for startups and their venture capital investors. Technological hurdles, daunting clinical and regulatory timelines, market adoption issues, and entrenched competitors pose significant barriers to successful new venture creation. In fact, the number of aortic endografts that have failed to reach commercialization or have been pulled from the market exceeds the number of Food and Drug Administration-approved endografts in the United States. This article will shed some light on the venture capital mind-set and decision-making paradigm in the context of aortic disease.

  3. 26 CFR 1.904(f)-3 - Allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... capital losses. 1.904(f)-3 Section 1.904(f)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Income from Sources Without the United States § 1.904(f)-3 Allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses. For rules relating to...

  4. 26 CFR 1.904(f)-3 - Allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... capital losses. 1.904(f)-3 Section 1.904(f)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Income from Sources Without the United States § 1.904(f)-3 Allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses. For rules relating to...

  5. The Global Competition for Talent: The Rapidly Changing Market for International Students and the Need for a Strategic Approach in the US. Research & Occasional Paper Series. CSHE.8.09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglass, John Aubrey; Edelstein, Richard

    2009-01-01

    There is growing evidence that students throughout the world no longer see the US as the primary place to study; that in some form this correlates with a rise in perceived quality and prestige in the EU and elsewhere; and further, that this may mean a continued decline in the US's market share of international students. There clearly are a complex…

  6. Experiential Learning of the Efficient Market Hypothesis: Two Trading Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    In goods markets, an equilibrium price balances demand and supply. In a financial market, an equilibrium price also aggregates people's information to reveal the true value of a financial security. Although the underlying idea of informationally efficient markets is one of the centerpieces of capital market theory, students often have difficulties…

  7. Human Capital Obsolescence: The Effects on Earnings Patterns of Engineers of the Expansion of Technical Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haines, John Stirling, Jr.

    This study analyzes the impact on earnings of human-capital obsolescence, human-capital deterioration, unstructured on-the-job learning, and structured on-the-job learning. The study defines these four concepts, discusses their determinants, and analyzes the market mechanics by which each influences earning rates. A model is developed and adapted…

  8. Accumulating Human Capital While Increasing Educational Inequality: A Study on Higher Education Policy in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Wing Kit; Ngok, Kinglun

    2011-01-01

    Since 1999, the expansion of higher education has been viewed as an important step in accumulating human capital for China that was to gradually open its domestic sectors to the global market at a turbulent time at the turn of the century. Recent studies suggest that the improvement of human capital has succeeded in preparing China with a solid…

  9. Knowledge Creation and Human Capital for Development: The Role of Graduate Entrepreneurship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitra, Jay; Abubakar, Y. A.; Sagagi, M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Tackling structural and emergent problems in the labour market, valorising skilled human capital (HC) for opportunity creation, economic development and growth, are some of the key drivers for graduate entrepreneurship. This paper aims to examine developments in Africa, focusing on the significance of improving human capital through…

  10. Creating Schools without Capital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolke, Mark

    2001-01-01

    A shortage of capital and appropriate education facilities prompted the Edmonton (Alberta) Public Schools to explore creative solutions such as leasing retrofitted facilities to house new academic programs. Landlords generally like school districts, considering them reliable, long-term tenants for hard-to-rent larger buildings. (MLH)

  11. Understanding your capital options.

    PubMed

    Payne, Christopher T

    2012-05-01

    When planning capital expenditures, hospitals and health systems should understand the following financing considerations: Traditional fixed-rate tax-exempt bonds; Variable-rate financing alternatives; Basel III Accord requirements; Direct tax-exempt bank loans; Total return swaps Taxable financings; Interest-rate swaps and collateral requirements

  12. Manage "Human Capital" Strategically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odden, Allan

    2011-01-01

    To strategically manage human capital in education means restructuring the entire human resource system so that schools not only recruit and retain smart and capable individuals, but also manage them in ways that support the strategic directions of the organization. These management practices must be aligned with a district's education improvement…

  13. Reggio Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stejzygier, Aneta

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents the social capital as the essential element of success of the Reggio Emilia preschools known for their unique approach to the early childhood education. The collaborative effort is introduced through examples of the currently ongoing "Reggio Narrates" project of Reggio preschools, the "Dialogue with the Places" and "The…

  14. Planning for Capital Reinvestment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biedenweg, Frederick; Weisburg-Swanson, Lynda; Gardner, Catherine

    1998-01-01

    Describes and evaluates four alternatives for planning and budgeting for capital reinvestment for college and university facilities: physical plant auditing; a depreciation-based approach; percentage of current replacement value; and facility subsystem modeling, or life-cycle modeling. Each has advantages and limitations in budgeting for and…

  15. Towards Transnational Academic Capitalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauppinen, Ilkka

    2012-01-01

    This paper contributes to current debates on the relationship between globalisation and higher education. The main argument of the paper is that we are currently witnessing transnationalisation of academic capitalism. This argument is illustrated by examining the collaboration between transnational corporations and research universities, and how…

  16. Energy and the capital of nations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios

    2016-04-01

    significant production factor. This work enriches such studies via integrating the analysis all forms of capital and for a wider range of countries; estimating the trade-off -as output elasticity ratios- between the accumulation of various anthropogenic capital forms and the deterioration of natural capital -considered both as resource stock and carrying capacities of the environment. Keywords: energy, fossil fuels, industrial civilization, capital, production factor, natural capital, 2nd Law, entropy, irreversibility, exergy, LINEX function, output elasticity References 1. Ayres, Robert U. and Benjamin Warr (2009), The Economic Growth Engine: How Energy and Work Drive Material Prosperity, Edward Elgar and IIASA 2. Kümmel, Reiner (2011), The Second Law of Economics: Energy, Entropy and the Origins of Wealth, Springer 3. Lindenberger, Dietmar and Reiner Kümmel (2011), Energy and the state of nations, Energy 36, 6010 - 6018 4. Wall, Goran (2005), Exergy Capital and Sustainable Development, Proceedings of the Second International Exergy, Energy and Environment Symposium, Kos, Greece, Paper No. XII-I49

  17. Social capital: theory, evidence, and implications for oral health.

    PubMed

    Rouxel, Patrick L; Heilmann, Anja; Aida, Jun; Tsakos, Georgios; Watt, Richard G

    2015-04-01

    In the last two decades, there has been increasing application of the concept of social capital in various fields of public health, including oral health. However, social capital is a contested concept with debates on its definition, measurement, and application. This study provides an overview of the concept of social capital, highlights the various pathways linking social capital to health, and discusses the potential implication of this concept for health policy. An extensive and diverse international literature has examined the relationship between social capital and a range of general health outcomes across the life course. A more limited but expanding literature has also demonstrated the potential influence of social capital on oral health. Much of the evidence in relation to oral health is limited by methodological shortcomings mainly related to the measurement of social capital, cross-sectional study designs, and inadequate controls for confounding factors. Further research using stronger methodological designs should explore the role of social capital in oral health and assess its potential application in the development of oral health improvement interventions.

  18. How to invest in social capital.

    PubMed

    Prusak, L; Cohen, D

    2001-06-01

    Business runs better when people within a company have close ties and trust one another. But the relationships that make organizations work effectively are under assault for several reasons. Building such "social capital" is difficult in volatile times. Disruptive technologies spawn new markets daily, and organizations respond with constantly changing structures. The problem is worsened by the virtuality of many of today's workplaces, with employees working off-site or on their own. What's more, few managers know how to invest in such social capital. The authors describe how managers can help their organizations thrive by making effective investments in social capital. For instance, companies that value social capital demonstrate a commitment to retention as a way of limiting workplace volatility. The authors cite SAS's extensive efforts to signal to employees that it sees them as human beings, not just workers. Managers can build trust by showing trust themselves, as well as by rewarding trust and sending clear signals to employees. They can foster cooperation by giving employees a common sense of purpose through good strategic communication and inspirational leadership. Johnson & Johnson's well-known credo, which says the company's first responsibility is to the people who use its products, has helped the company in time of adversity, as in 1982 when cyanide in Tylenol capsules killed seven people. Other methods of fostering cooperation include rewarding the behavior with cash and establishing rules that get people into the habit of cooperating. Social capital, once a given in organizations, is now rare and endangered. By investing in it, companies will be better positioned to seize the opportunities in today's volatile, virtual business environment.

  19. A contemporary perspective on capitated reimbursement for imaging services.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, H W

    1995-01-01

    Capitation ensures predictability of healthcare costs, requires acceptance of a premium in return for providing all required medical services and defines the actual dollar amount paid to a physician or hospital on a per member per month basis for a service or group of services. Capitation is expected to dramatically affect the marketplace in the near future, as private enterprise demands lower, more stable healthcare costs. Capitation requires detailed quantitative and financial data, including: eligibility and benefits determination, encounter processing, referral management, claims processing, case management, physician compensation, insurance management functions, outcomes reporting, performance management and cost accounting. It is important to understand actuarial risk and capitation marketing when considering a capitation contract. Also, capitated payment methodologies may vary to include modified fee-for-service, incentive pay, risk pool redistributions, merit, or a combination. Risk is directly related to the ability to predict utilization and unit cost of imaging services provided to a specific insured population. In capitated environments, radiologists will have even less control over referrals than they have today and will serve many more "covered lives"; long-term relationships with referring physicians will continue to evaporate; and services will be provided under exclusive, multi-year contracts. In addition to intensified use of technology for image transfer, telecommunications and sophisticated data processing and tracking systems, imaging departments must continue to provide the greatest amount of appropriate diagnostic information in a timely fashion at the lowest feasible cost and risk to the patient. PMID:10141102

  20. Intellectual Capital: Comparison and Contrast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Susan R.

    2001-01-01

    Suggests that one of the most important keys for improving individual and organizational performance is in developing and strengthening intellectual capital (IC) and explores the similarities and differences between the concepts of intellectual capital, human capital, and knowledge management. Presents four IC characteristics and addresses the…

  1. Capital Improvements for Energy Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Alan C.

    1981-01-01

    Although colleges and universities have been aggressive in making capital improvements to conserve energy, their efforts have been hampered by limited capital funds. Decisions about capital investments tend to be complex because of the interrelatedness of conservation strategies and the need to consider the cost advantage of alternatives.…

  2. A comparison of polymerase chain reaction and international organization for standardization methods for determination of Enterobacter sakazakii contamination of infant formulas from Chinese mainland markets.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yingwang; Wu, Qingping; Yao, Lin; Dong, Xiaohui; Wu, Kui; Zhang, Jumei

    2009-12-01

    Enterobacter sakazakii is an emerging foodborne pathogen associated with meningitis, necrotizing enterocolitis, and sepsis in infants. One of the main transmission vehicles is the commercially available infant formulas. To provide efficient options and direction for detecting E. sakazakii in infant formulas, evaluation of different polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays targeting the 16S-23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS), the ompA gene, and the alpha-1,4-glucosidase gene (gluA) of this organism, were compared to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) method for detecting E. sakazakii in the 243 commercial infant formula samples. Twelve samples were found to be positive for E. sakazakii by all the PCR assays used, followed by sequencing of PCR products. Ten samples were found to be positive by the ISO method, and all 10 gave positive signals for all the PCR amplifications. In contrast, four false-positive results were generated by single-PCR of the ITS region and one false-positive result targeting the ompA gene, while two false-negative results occurred with the ISO method. Combined with selective enrichment step(s), duplex-PCR targeting ITS and ompA and targeting ompA and gluA genes or single-PCR of the gluA gene can be used to test for contamination by E. sakazakii in infant formulas before they enter the market. PCR techniques will be helpful for routine monitoring and risk assessment for large-scale screenings. PMID:19743923

  3. K-12 Marketplace Sees Major Flow of Venture Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ash, Katie

    2012-01-01

    The flow of venture capital into the K-12 education market has exploded over the past year, reaching its highest transaction values in a decade in 2011, industry observers say. They attribute that rise to such factors as a heightened interest in educational technology; the decreasing cost of electronic devices such as tablet computers, laptops,…

  4. 26 CFR 1.383-2 - Limitations on certain capital losses and excess credits in computing alternative minimum tax...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Limitations on certain capital losses and excess credits in computing alternative minimum tax. 1.383-2 Section 1.383-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Reorganizations § 1.383-2 Limitations on certain capital losses and excess credits in computing...

  5. Bring real capitalism to electric utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, B.F.

    1991-01-15

    This article examines the reasons that the electric utilities are price regulated and makes an argument for market-based economics to regulate prices and stimulate revolutionary improvements in the industry. The author examines and refutes the arguments that: The industry is a natural monopoly; Competition leads to unnecessary duplication of facilities; and The industry is so vital to the economy and security of the US that it cannot be trusted to the risks inherent in capitalism, including the success and failure of companies.

  6. Do Earthquakes Shake Stock Markets?

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Susana; Karali, Berna

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how major earthquakes affected the returns and volatility of aggregate stock market indices in thirty-five financial markets over the last twenty years. Results show that global financial markets are resilient to shocks caused by earthquakes even if these are domestic. Our analysis reveals that, in a few instances, some macroeconomic variables and earthquake characteristics (gross domestic product per capita, trade openness, bilateral trade flows, earthquake magnitude, a tsunami indicator, distance to the epicenter, and number of fatalities) mediate the impact of earthquakes on stock market returns, resulting in a zero net effect. However, the influence of these variables is market-specific, indicating no systematic pattern across global capital markets. Results also demonstrate that stock market volatility is unaffected by earthquakes, except for Japan.

  7. Do Earthquakes Shake Stock Markets?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how major earthquakes affected the returns and volatility of aggregate stock market indices in thirty-five financial markets over the last twenty years. Results show that global financial markets are resilient to shocks caused by earthquakes even if these are domestic. Our analysis reveals that, in a few instances, some macroeconomic variables and earthquake characteristics (gross domestic product per capita, trade openness, bilateral trade flows, earthquake magnitude, a tsunami indicator, distance to the epicenter, and number of fatalities) mediate the impact of earthquakes on stock market returns, resulting in a zero net effect. However, the influence of these variables is market-specific, indicating no systematic pattern across global capital markets. Results also demonstrate that stock market volatility is unaffected by earthquakes, except for Japan. PMID:26197482

  8. Capital cost estimate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The capital cost estimate for the nuclear process heat source (NPHS) plant was made by: (1) using costs from the current commercial HTGR for electricity production as a base for items that are essentially the same and (2) development of new estimates for modified or new equipment that is specifically for the process heat application. Results are given in tabular form and cover the total investment required for each process temperature studied.

  9. The social architecture of capitalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Ian

    2005-02-01

    A dynamic model of the social relations between workers and capitalists is introduced. The model self-organises into a dynamic equilibrium with statistical properties that are in close qualitative and in many cases quantitative agreement with a broad range of known empirical distributions of developed capitalism, including the power-law firm size distribution, the Laplace firm and GDP growth distribution, the lognormal firm demises distribution, the exponential recession duration distribution, the lognormal-Pareto income distribution, and the gamma-like firm rate-of-profit distribution. Normally these distributions are studied in isolation, but this model unifies and connects them within a single causal framework. The model also generates business cycle phenomena, including fluctuating wage and profit shares in national income about values consistent with empirical studies. The generation of an approximately lognormal-Pareto income distribution and an exponential-Pareto wealth distribution demonstrates that the power-law regime of the income distribution can be explained by an additive process on a power-law network that models the social relation between employers and employees organised in firms, rather than a multiplicative process that models returns to investment in financial markets. A testable consequence of the model is the conjecture that the rate-of-profit distribution is consistent with a parameter-mix of a ratio of normal variates with means and variances that depend on a firm size parameter that is distributed according to a power-law.

  10. The contradictory logic of global ecosystem services markets.

    PubMed

    McAfee, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Commodification and transnational trading of ecosystem services is the most ambitious iteration yet of the strategy of ‘selling nature to save it’. The World Bank and UN agencies contend that global carbon markets can slow climate change while generating resources for development. Consonant with ‘inclusionary’ versions of neoliberal development policy, advocates assert that international payment for ecosystem services (PES) projects, financed by carbon-offset sales and biodiversity banking, can benefit the poor. However, the World Bank also warns that a focus on poverty reduction can undermine efficiency in conservation spending. The experience of ten years of PES illustrates how, in practice, market-efficiency criteria clash directly with poverty-reduction priorities. Nevertheless, the premises of market-based PES are being extrapolated as a model for global REDD programmes financed by carbon-offset trading. This article argues that the contradiction between development and conservation observed in PES is inevitable in projects framed by the asocial logic of neoclassical economics. Application in international conservation policy of the market model, in which profit incentives depend upon differential opportunity costs, will entail a net upward redistribution of wealth from poorer to wealthier classes and from rural regions to distant centres of capital accumulation, mainly in the global North. PMID:22616121

  11. The contradictory logic of global ecosystem services markets.

    PubMed

    McAfee, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Commodification and transnational trading of ecosystem services is the most ambitious iteration yet of the strategy of ‘selling nature to save it’. The World Bank and UN agencies contend that global carbon markets can slow climate change while generating resources for development. Consonant with ‘inclusionary’ versions of neoliberal development policy, advocates assert that international payment for ecosystem services (PES) projects, financed by carbon-offset sales and biodiversity banking, can benefit the poor. However, the World Bank also warns that a focus on poverty reduction can undermine efficiency in conservation spending. The experience of ten years of PES illustrates how, in practice, market-efficiency criteria clash directly with poverty-reduction priorities. Nevertheless, the premises of market-based PES are being extrapolated as a model for global REDD programmes financed by carbon-offset trading. This article argues that the contradiction between development and conservation observed in PES is inevitable in projects framed by the asocial logic of neoclassical economics. Application in international conservation policy of the market model, in which profit incentives depend upon differential opportunity costs, will entail a net upward redistribution of wealth from poorer to wealthier classes and from rural regions to distant centres of capital accumulation, mainly in the global North.

  12. Creating a Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazimirski, J.; And Others

    The second in a series of programmed books, "Creating a Market" is published by the International Labour Office as a manual for persons studying marketing. This manual was designed to meet the needs of the labor organization's technical cooperation programs and is primarily concerned with consumer goods industries. Using a fill-in-the-blanks and…

  13. You have more capital than you think.

    PubMed

    Merton, Robert C

    2005-11-01

    Senior executives typically delegate the responsibility for managing a firm's derivatives portfolio to in-house financial experts and the company's financial advisers. That's a strategic blunder, argues this Nobel laureate, because the inventiveness of modern financial markets makes it possible for companies to double or even triple their capacity to invest in their strategic assets and competencies. Risks fall into two categories: either a company adds value by assuming them on behalf of its shareholders or it does not. By hedging or insuring against non-value-adding risks with derivative securities and contracts, thereby removing them from what the author calls the risk balance sheet, managers can release equity capital for assuming more value-adding risk. This is not just a theoretical possibility. One innovation-the interest rate swap, introduced about 20 years ago-has already enabled the banking industry to dramatically increase its capacity for adding value to each dollar of invested equity capital. With the range of derivative instruments growing, there is no reason why other companies could not similarly remove strategic risks, potentially creating billions of dollars in shareholder value. The possibilities are especially important for private companies that have no access to public equity markets and therefore cannot easily increase their equity capital by issuing more shares. The author describes how derivative contracts of various kinds are already being employed strategically to mitigate or eliminate various risks. He also shows how companies can use the risk balance sheet to identify risks they should not bear directly and to determine how much equity capacity they can release for assuming more value-adding risk. PMID:16299963

  14. Measuring Social Capital: The Development of the Social Capital and Cohesion Scale and the Associations between Social Capital and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magson, Natasha R.; Craven, Rhonda G.; Bodkin-Andrews, Gawaian H.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, social capital has received increasing attention in the international literature. Despite the popularity of the construct, problems concerning definition, theoretical conceptualisation, and measurement continue to plague research and policy in this area. This investigation aimed to address this gap by developing a new…

  15. Institutional Venture Capital for the Space Industry: Providing Risk Capital for Space Companies that Provide Investor Returns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Roscoe M., III

    2002-01-01

    provided by an institution. Those institutions tend to be Banks, Pension Funds, Insurance Funds, Corporations, and other incorporated entities that are obligated to earn a return on their invested capital. These institutions invest in a venture capital firm for the sole purpose of getting their money back with a healthy profit - within a set period of time. The venture capital firm is responsible for investing in and managing companies whose risk and return are higher than other less risky classes of investment. The venture capital firm's primary skill is its ability to manage the high risk of its venture investments while maintaining the high return potential of its venture investments. to businesses for the purpose of providing the above-mentioned Institutions a substantial return on their invested capital. Institutional Venture Capital for the Space Industry cannot be provided to projects or companies whose philosophy or intention is not to increase shareholder equity value within a set time period. efficiently when tied up in companies that intend to spend billions of dollars before the first dollar of revenue is generated. If 2 billion dollars of venture capital is invested in the equity of a Space Company for a minority equity position, then that Space Company must build that minority shareholder's equity value to a minimum investment return of 4 to 8 billion dollars. There are not many start-up companies that are able to reach public market equity valuations in the tens of billions of dollars within reasonable time horizons. Foundations, Manufacturers, and Strategic Investors can invest in projects that cannot realistically provide a substantial return on their equity to their investors within a reasonable period (5-7 years) of time. Venture Capitalists have to make money. Venture capitalists have made money on Satellite Television, Satellite Radio, Fixed Satellite Services, and other businesses. Venture capitalists have not made money on stand

  16. The Nature of Credit Constraints and Human Capital. NBER Working Paper No. 13912

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lochner, Lance J.; Monge-Naranjo, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the nature and impact of credit constraints in the market for human capital. We derive endogenous constraints from the design of government student loan programs and from the limited repayment incentives in private lending markets. These constraints imply cross-sectional patterns for schooling, ability, and family income that…

  17. To Market, to Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barden, Dennis M.

    2006-01-01

    The institution is part of a national market and its presidential options are dictated by that market, the reputation, the challenges of the position, and the relative compensation for the opportunity to lead the organization. Many in academe are uncomfortable with the idea that hiring in higher education should be governed by the laws of supply…

  18. Investing in Human Capital. Leadership for the Challenges of the 21st Century. Edited Proceedings of the Institute of International Education Forum (75th, New York, New York, October 27, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of International Education, New York, NY.

    These proceedings highlight the Institute for International Education's forum on the implications of the emergence of a global economy and the worldwide communications revolutions for international education and training. Over 200 individuals from the corporate, foundation, government, academic, and diplomatic communities participated in the…

  19. 12 CFR 615.5200 - Capital planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Capital Adequacy § 615.5200 Capital planning. (a) The Board...'s capital adequacy plan. Rather, the standards are intended to serve as minimum levels of capital... capital adequacy plan as a part of the financial plan required by § 618.8440 of this chapter. The...

  20. 12 CFR 652.61 - Capital planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... equity capital instrument, a payment of common or preferred stock dividends, a payment that may be... projections extend. Tier 1 Capital means the components meeting the criteria of Common Equity Tier 1 Capital..., including the core capital and regulatory capital ratios required by sections 8.32 and 8.33 of the Act,...