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Sample records for international dobson spectrophotometer

  1. Results of international Dobson spectrophotometer calibrations at Arosa, Switzerland, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grass, R. D.; Komhyr, W. D.; Koenig, G. L.; Evans, R. D.

    1994-01-01

    An international comparison of Dobson ozone spectrophotometers, organized and partially funded by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), was held at the Lichtklimatisches Observatorium (LKO) in Arosa, Switzerland, July-August 1990. Countries participating with a total of 18 Dobson instruments were Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Rumania, Spain, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the United Soviet Socialist Republics. The reference standard instrument for the comparison was U.S.A. Secondary Standard Dobson Spectrophotometer 65 maintained by the NOAA Climate and Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado. The mean difference in ozone obtained with the Dobson instruments relative to Dobson instrument 65, calculated from ADDSGQP observations in the air mass range 1.15-3.2, was minus 1.0 plus or minus 1.2 (1 sigma) percent. The WMO Standard Brewer Spectrometer 39 also participated. In the mean, the Brewer instrument measured 0.6 plus or minus 0.2 (1 sigma) percent more ozone than did Dobson instrument 65. Results are presented, also, of ozone vertical profile measurements made with the Dobson instruments, two Brewer spectrometers, a LIDAR, a balloon ozonesonde flown from Hohenpeissenberg, Germany, and balloon ozonesondes flown from Payerne, Switzerland.

  2. Dobson spectrophotometer ozone measurements during international ozone rocketsonde intercomparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, C. L.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements of the total ozone content of the atmosphere, made with seven ground based instruments at a site near Wallops Island, Virginia, are discussed in terms for serving as control values with which the rocketborne sensor data products can be compared. These products are profiles of O3 concentration with altitude. By integrating over the range of altitudes from the surface to the rocket apogee and by appropriately estimating the residual ozone amount from apogee to the top of the atmosphere, a total ozone amount can be computed from the profiles that can be directly compared with the ground based instrumentation results. Dobson spectrophotometers were used for two of the ground-based instruments. Preliminary data collected during the IORI from Dobson spectrophotometers 72 and 38 are presented. The agreement between the two and the variability of total ozone overburden through the experiment period are discussed.

  3. Dobson ozone spectrophotometer modification.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komhyr, W. D.; Grass, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    Description of a modified version of the Dobson ozone spectrophotometer in which several outdated electronic design features have been replaced by circuitry embodying more modern design concepts. The resulting improvement in performance characteristics has been obtained without changing the principle of operation of the original instrument.

  4. An automated optical wedge calibrator for Dobson ozone spectrophotometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, R. D.; Komhyr, W. D.; Grass, R. D.

    1994-01-01

    The Dobson ozone spectrophotometer measures the difference of intensity between selected wavelengths in the ultraviolet. The method uses an optical attenuator (the 'Wedge') in this measurement. The knowledge of the relationship of the wedge position to the attenuation is critical to the correct calculation of ozone from the measurement. The procedure to determine this relationship is time-consuming, and requires a highly skilled person to perform it correctly. The relationship has been found to change with time. For reliable ozone values, the procedure should be done on a Dobson instrument at regular intervals. Due to the skill and time necessary to perform this procedure, many instruments have gone as long as 15 years between procedures. This article describes an apparatus that performs the procedure under computer control, and is adaptable to the majority of existing Dobson instruments. Part of the apparatus is usable for normal operation of the Dobson instrument, and would allow computer collection of the data and real-time ozone measurements.

  5. Comparison between Brewer spectrometer, M 124 filter ozonometer and Dobson spectrophotometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feister, U.

    1994-01-01

    Concurrent measurements were taken using the Brewer spectrometer no. 30, the filter ozonometer M 124 no. 200 and the Dobson spectrophotometer no. 71 from September 1987 to December 1988 at Potsdam. The performance of the instrument types and the compatibility of ozone data was checked under the conditions of a field measuring station. Total ozone values derived from Dobson AD direct sun measurements were considered as standard. The Dobson instrument had been calibrated at intercomparisons with the World Standard Dobson instrument no. 83 (Boulder) and with the Regional Standard instrument no. 64 (Potsdam), while the Brewer instrument was calibrated several times with the Travelling Standard Brewer no. 17 (Canada). The differences between individual Brewer DS (direct sun) ozone data and Dobson ADDS are within plus or minus 3 percent with half of all differences within plus or minus 1 percent. Less than 0.7 percent of the systematic difference can be due to atmospheric SO2. Due to inadequate regression coefficients Brewer ZB (zenith blue) ozone measurements are by (3...4) percent higher than Dobson ADDS ozone values. M124 DS ozone data are systematically by (1...2) percent higher than Dobson ADDS ozone with 50 percent of the differences within plus or minus 4 percent, but with extreme differences up to plus or minus (20...25) percent. M124 ZB ozone values are by (3...5) percent higher than Dobson ADDS with all the differences within plus or minus 10 percent, i.e. the scatter of differences is smaller for ZB than for M 124 DS measurements, Results for differences in the daily mean ozone values are also addressed. The differences include the uncertainties in the ozone values derived from both types of measurements. They provide an indication of the uncertainty in ozone data and the comparability of ozone values derived from different types of instruments.

  6. Comparison of Ozone Retrievals from the Pandora Spectrometer System and Dobson Spectrophotometer in Boulder, Colorado

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, J.; Evans, R.; Cede, A.; Abuhassan, N.; Petropavlovskikh, I.; McConville, G.

    2015-01-01

    A comparison of retrieved total column ozone (TCO) amounts between the Pandora #34 spectrometer system and the Dobson #061 spectrophotometer from direct-sun observations was performed on the roof of the Boulder, Colorado, NOAA building. This paper, part of an ongoing study, covers a 1-year period starting on 17 December 2013. Both the standard Dobson and Pandora TCO retrievals required a correction, TCO(sub corr) = TCO (1 + C(T)), using a monthly varying effective ozone temperature, T(sub E), derived from a temperature and ozone profile climatology. The correction is used to remove a seasonal difference caused by using a fixed temperature in each retrieval algorithm. The respective corrections C(T(sub E)) are C(sub Pandora) = 0.00333(T(sub E) - 225) and C(sub Dobson) = -0.0013(T(sub E) - 226.7) per degree K. After the applied corrections removed most of the seasonal retrieval dependence on ozone temperature, TCO agreement between the instruments was within 1% for clear-sky conditions. For clear-sky observations, both co-located instruments tracked the day-to-day variation in total column ozone amounts with a correlation of r(exp 2) = 0.97 and an average offset of 1.1 +/- 5.8 DU. In addition, the Pandora TCO data showed 0.3% annual average agreement with satellite overpass data from AURA/OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) and 1% annual average offset with Suomi-NPP/OMPS (Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership, the nadir viewing portion of the Ozone Mapper Profiler Suite).

  7. Total ozone trends over the USA during 1979-1991 from Dobson spectrophotometer observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komhyr, Walter D.; Grass, Robert D.; Koenig, Gloria L.; Quincy, Dorothy M.; Evans, Robert D.; Leonard, R. Kent

    1994-01-01

    Ozone trends for 1979-1991, determined from Dobson spectrophotometer observations made at eight stations in the United States, are augmented with trend data from four foreign cooperative stations operated by NOAA/CMDL. Results are based on provisional data archived routinely throughout the years at the World Ozone Data Center in Toronto, Canada, with calibration corrections applied to some of the data. Trends through 1990 exhibit values of minus 0.3 percent to minus 0.5 percent yr(exp -1) at mid-to-high latitudes in the northern hemisphere. With the addition of 1991 data, however, the trends become less negative, indicating that ozone increased in many parts of the world during 1991. Stations located within the plus or minus 20 deg N-S latitude band exhibit no ozone trends. Early 1992 data show decreased ozone values at some of the stations. At South Pole, Antarctica, October ozone values have remained low during the past 3 years.

  8. Comparison of Eight Years Total Column Ozone Retrievals form Brewer and Dobson Spectrophotometers in South Pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, K. H.; Moeini, O.; McElroy, C. T.; Evans, R. D.; Petropavlovskikh, I. V.

    2015-12-01

    Total column ozone measured by a Brewer Mark III spectrophotometer (#85) from 2008 to 2015 is compared to the data obtained from three different Dobson spectrophotometers (#80, #82 and #42) that have been operating in parallel with the Brewer at the Amundsen-Scott Station near the South Pole. Measurements are made using either direct sunlight or light from the moon (up to 2 weeks per month). The result of the comparison was used to assess the performance of the two instrument types and determine the stability of the measurement systems. Both instruments suffer from non-linearity due to the presence of instrumental stray light caused by the out-off-band radiations scattered from the optics within the instrument. Stray light results in an underestimated ozone column at large ozone path lengths. Since measurements made at the location of the station (Latitude 89.99o, Longitude -24.80o) have solar zenith angles of 66.5 degrees or greater, the issue of stray light is a particular concern.

  9. Unprecedented 1993 ozone decrease over the United States from Dobson spectrophotometer observations

    SciTech Connect

    Komhyr, W.D.; Grass, R.D.; Evans, R.D.; Leonard, R.K.; Quincy, D.M. ); Hoffman, D.J.; Koenig, G.L. )

    1994-02-01

    Dobson spectrophotometer observations conducted since the early-to-mid 1960's at Bismarck, North Dakota; Caribou, Maine; Boulder, Colorado; Wallops Island, Virginia; Nashville, Tennessee; and at Fresno, California, since 1983, have revealed record low total ozone values during 1993. The tendency toward the low ozone values began in May 1992, but accelerated in early 1993. During January-August 1993, ozone monthly means at the stations were more than 2 standard deviations below long-term normal monthly means 72% of the time and more than 3 standard deviations below normals 42% of the time. On average, the January-April 1993 ozone values were 12.6% below normal, with ozone deficits as large as 18% observed at Caribou and Wallops Island in January. Of particular concern are unusually low ozone values that occur in summertime when solar ultraviolet insolation is high. Such record lows occurred at four of the six stations (Caribou, Wallops Island, Fresno, and Nashville). During May-August 1993, ozone was on average 8.5% below normal at these sites. Monthly means at these stations were, furthermore, lower on average by 3.7% than corresponding lowest values observed there in the past. The ozone decrease of 12.6% below normal at the six continental Dobson instrument stations during the winter and spring months of 1993 implies a possible average increase in UV erythemal radiation at that time of 16-25% above normal. The 8.5% decrease in ozone at Caribou, Wallops Island, Fresno, and Nashville, implies that on average, UV erythemal radiation may have been higher than normal at these stations during the summer of 1993 by 11-17%. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Status report and FY95 plans -- Re-evaluation of NOAA Dobson spectrophotometer total ozone data. 1994 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The goal of this project was to re-evaluate NOAA/CMDL Dobson spectrophotometer total ozone data during FY94 from the stations Haute Provence, France; Lauder, New Zealand; Perth, Australia; and Poker Flat, Alaska and the Umkehr data from Boulder, Colorado and Mauna Loa, Hawaii. During the second year the authors planned to re-evaluate total ozone data from Byrd, Hallett and South Pole, Antarctica; Fairbanks, Alaska; Puerto Montt, Chile; Huancayo, Peru and Umkehr data from Huancayo.

  11. Total ozone measurement: Intercomparison of prototype New Zealand filter instrument and Dobson spectrophotometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basher, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    A five month intercomparison showed that the total ozone amounts of a prototype narrowband interference filter instrument were 7% less than those of a Dobson instrument for an ozone range of 0.300 to 0.500 atm cm and for airmasses less than two. The 7% bias was within the intercomparison calibration uncertainty. An airmass dependence in the Dobson instrument made the bias relationship airmass-dependent but the filter instrument's ozone values were generally constant to 2% up to an airmass of four. Long term drift in the bias was negligible.

  12. Re-evaluation of total and Umkehr ozone data from NOAA-CMDL Dobson spectrophotometer observatories. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Komhyr, W.D.; Quincy, D.M.; Grass, R.D.; Koenig, G.L. |

    1995-12-01

    This report describes work to improve the quality of total ozone and Umkehr data obtained in the past at the NOAA Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory and the Dobson spectrophotometer ozone observatories. The authors present results of total ozone data re-evaluations for ten stations: Byrd, Antarctica; Fairbanks, Alaska; Hallett, Antarctica; Huancayo, Peru; Haute Provence, France; Lauder, New Zealand; Perth, Australia; Poker Flat, Alaska; Puerto Montt, Chile; and South Pole, Antarctica. The improved data will be submitted in early 1996 to the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) World Ozone Data Center (WODC), and the Atmospheric Environment Service for archiving. Considerable work has been accomplished, also, in reevaluating Umkehr data from seven of the stations, viz., Huancayo, Haute Provence, Lauder, Perth, Poker Flat, Boulder, Colorado; and Mauna Loa, Hawaii.

  13. Error analysis of Dobson spectrophotometer measurements of the total ozone content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, A. C.; Thomas, R. W. L.

    1975-01-01

    A study of techniques for measuring atmospheric ozone is reported. This study represents the second phase of a program designed to improve techniques for the measurement of atmospheric ozone. This phase of the program studied the sensitivity of Dobson direct sun measurements and the ozone amounts inferred from those measurements to variation in the atmospheric temperature profile. The study used the plane - parallel Monte-Carlo model developed and tested under the initial phase of this program, and a series of standard model atmospheres.

  14. Ground-based intercomparisons of SBUV/2 flight instruments the world standard Dobson spectrophotometer 83 and overpass observations from Nimbus-7 TOMS and NOAA-11 SBUV/2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heath, D. F.; Ahmad, Z.; Torres, O.; Evans, R. D.; Grass, R. D.; Komhyr, W. A.; Nelson, W.

    1994-01-01

    Total ozone data obtained during summers at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii, with Dobson Spectrophotometer 83 are routinely compared with overpass total ozone data from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) spectrometer launched aboard the Nimbus 7 satellite in 1978. Results from the TOMS/Dobson instrument comparisons through 1990 have been presented by McPeters and Komhyr (1991). Dobson spectrophotometer 83 was established as the standard instrument for the U.S.A. Dobson instrument station network in 1962. In 1980, the instrument was designated by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) as the Standard Dobson Spectrophotometer for the World. Long-term ozone measurement precision of the instrument has been maintained at plus or minus 0.5 percent (Komhyr et al., 1989). On an absolute scale, the ozone measurement accuracy of the instrument is estimated to plus or minus 3 percent. In early April, 1990, comparison of total ozone and vertical distribution (Umkehr) observations were made for the first time with Dobson spectrophotometer 8.3. The work was conducted at the NOAA Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory (CMDL) in Boulder, Colorado, and at the research and instrument manufacturing facility of the Ball Aerospace System Division located about 2 km east of Boulder. (The SBUV-2 S/N-2 instrument, built by Ball Aerospace Systems Division, is scheduled for launch aboard the NOAA-13 satellite). We present results of the comparisons which include ozone vertical distribution data obtained with a balloon-borne electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesonde (Komhyr, 1969).

  15. Comparison of STOIC 1989 ground-based lidar, microwave spectrometer, and Dobson spectrophotometer Umkehr ozone profiles with ozone profiles from balloon-borne elecrochemical concentration cell ozonesondes

    SciTech Connect

    Komhyr, W.D.; McDermid, I.S.; Margitan, J.J.

    1995-05-20

    Ground-based measurements of stratospheric ozone using a Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) lidar, a NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) lidar, a Millitech Corporation/NASA Langley Research Center (Millitech/LaRC) microwave spectrometer, and a NOAA Dobson ozone spectrophotometer were compared with in situ measurements made quasi-simultaneously with balloon-borne electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes during 10 days of the Stratospheric Ozone Intercomparison Campaign (STOIC). Within the altitude range of 20-32 km, ozone measurement precisions were estimated to be {+-}0.6 to {+-}1.2% for the JPL lidar, {+-}0.7% for the GSFC lidar, {+-}4% for the microwave spectrometer, and {+-}3% for the NOAA ECC ozonesonde instruments. These precisions decreased in the 32 to 38.6-km altitude range to {+-}1.3, {+-}1.5 and {+-}3% to {+-}10% for the JPL lidar, GSFC lidar, and the ECC sondes, respectively, but remained at {+-}4% for the microwave radiometer, and {+-}5% for the ECC ozonesondes. The accuracies decreased in the 32 to 38.6-km altitude range to {+-}2.6, {+-}3.0, {+-}7, and 1{+-}4% to {minus}4{+-}10% for the JPL lidar, the GSFC lidar, the microwave spectrometer, and the ECC ozonesondes, respectively. While accuracy estimates for the ECC sondes were obtained by combining random and estimated bias errors, the accuracies for the lidar instruments were obtained by doubling the measurement precision figures, with the assumption that such doubling accounts for systematic errors. Within the altitude range of 20-36 km the mean ozone profiles produced by the JPL, GSFC, and the Millitech/LaRC groups did not differ from the mean ozone profiles produced by the mean ECC sonde ozone profile by more than about 2, 4, and 5% respectively. Six morning Dobson instrument Umkehr observations yielded mean ozone amounts in layers 3 and 5-7 that agreed with comparison ECC ozonesonde data to within {+-}4%. In layer 4 the difference was 7.8%. 24 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Comparison of column ozone retrievals by use of an UV multifilter rotating shadow-band radiometer with those from Brewer and Dobson spectrophotometers.

    PubMed

    Slusser, J; Gibson, J; Bigelow, D; Kolinski, D; Mou, W; Koenig, G; Beaubien, A

    1999-03-20

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture UV-B Monitoring Program measures ultraviolet light at seven wavelengths from 300 to 368 nm with an ultraviolet multifilter rotating shadow-band radiometer (UV-MFRSR) at 25 sites across the United States, including Mauna Loa, Hawaii. Column ozone has been retrieved under all-sky conditions near Boulder, Colorado (40.177 degrees N, 105.276 degrees W), from global irradiances of the UV-MFRSR 332- and 305-nm channels (2 nm FWHM) using lookup tables generated from a multiple-scattering radiative transfer code suitable for solar zenith angles (SZA's) up to 90 degrees. The most significant sources of error for UV-MFRSR column ozone retrievals at SZA's less than 75 degrees are the spectral characterizations of the filters and the absolute calibration uncertainty, which together yield an estimated uncertainty in ozone retrievals of +/-4.0%. Using model sensitivity studies, we determined that the retrieved column ozone is relatively insensitive (<+/-2%) to typical variations in aerosol optical depth, cloud cover, surface pressure, stratospheric temperature, and surface albedo. For 5 months in 1996-1997 the mean ratio of column ozone retrieved by the UV-MFRSR divided by that retrieved by the collocated Brewer was 1.024 and for the UV-MFRSR divided by those from a nearby Dobson was 1.025. The accuracy of the retrieval becomes unreliable at large SZA's of more than 75 degrees as the detection limit of the 305-nm channel is reached and because of overall angular response errors. The UV-MFRSR advantages of relatively low cost, unattended operation, automated calibration stability checks using Langley plots, and minimal maintenance make it a unique instrument for column ozone measurement.

  17. Direct-Sun column ozone retrieval by the ultraviolet multifilter rotating shadow-band radiometer and comparison with those from Brewer and Dobson spectrophotometers.

    PubMed

    Gao, W; Slusser, J; Gibson, J; Scott, G; Bigelow, D; Kerr, J; McArthur, B

    2001-07-01

    A methodology for direct-Sun ozone retrieval using the ultraviolet multifilter rotating shadow-band radiometer (UV-MFRSR) is presented. Total vertical column ozone was retrieved in three stations: Mauna Loa, Hawaii, in the U.S., and Regina, Saskatchewan, and Toronto, Ontario, in Canada, from direct solar irradiances of the UV-MFRSR at 325-, 305-, 332-, and 311-nm channels (2-nm FWHM). The total uncertainty of ozone retrievals in this study is +/-2.0%. For Mauna Loa the mean ratios of the UV-MFRSR column ozone retrievals to the collocated Dobson and Brewer were 0.998 and 0.986 between May and September of 1999. The mean ratio of UV-MFRSR retrievals to the collocated Brewer retrievals was 1.012 in Toronto between April and August of 1999, and the mean ratio of retrievals of the UV-MFRSR to the collocated Brewer was 0.988 in Regina between June and September of 1999. Total vertical column ozone values for solar zenith angles of >70 degrees were not considered, because of the signal-to-noise ratio and the angular response of the instruments, and were not used in the evaluation. The advantages of total vertical column ozone retrieval using UV-MFRSR include relatively low cost, computer-controlled operation, automated calibration stability checks, and minimal maintenance. It allows for the real-time measurement of total vertical column ozone. The UV-MFRSR is being used at 28 sites across the United States and 2 sites in Canada that form the U.S. Department of Agriculture UV-B Radiation Monitoring and Research Program. This constitutes a unique network of total vertical colunm ozone measurement.

  18. Preliminary results of an intercomparison of total ozone spectrophotometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, C. L.; Gerlach, J. C.; Williams, M. E.; Kerr, J. B.

    1981-01-01

    Preliminary results from an intercomparison of five total ozone spectrophotometers are presented. These are the Dobson spectrophotometer, the USSR M-83 ozonometer, the Canterbury filter photometer, the SenTran Company filter photometer, and the Brewer grating spectrophotometer. The pertinent characteristics of each are described, and conclusions are drawn about the agreement of each instrument's measurements with the Dobson's values over a time period of nearly one year. A discussion of the importance of calibration and long-term stability and reliability is included.

  19. Status of the Dobson total ozone data set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Planet, Walter G.; Hudson, Robert D.

    1994-01-01

    During deliberations of the International Ozone Trends Panel (IOTP) it became obvious that satellite determinations of global ozone amounts by themselves could not provide the necessary confidence in the measured trends. During the time of the deliberations of the IOTP, Bojkov re-examined the records of serveral North American Dobson stations and Degorska re-examined the records of the Belsk station. They were able to improve the quality of the data sets, thus improving the precision of their total ozone data sets. These improvements showed the greater potential of the world-wide Dobson total ozone data set in two primary areas. Firstly, the improvements showed that the existing data set when evaluated will become more valuable for comparisons with satellite determinations of total ozone. Secondly, the Dobson data set covers a greater period of time than the satellite data sets thus offering the possibility of extending improved information on ozone trends further back in time. An International Dobson Workshop was convened in September, 1991, under the auspices of the NOAA Climate and Global Change Program. It was part of the Information Management element of the C&GC Program. Further, it was considered as a 'data archaeology' project under the above. Clearly if the existing Dobson data set can be improved by re-evaluating all data records, we will be able to uncover the 'true' or 'best' data and fulfill the role of archaeologists.

  20. Twenty years of revised Dobson total ozone measurements in Oslo, Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svendby, T. M.; Dahlback, A.

    2002-10-01

    Total ozone measurements using the Dobson spectrophotometer 56 (D56) have been performed on a regular basis in Oslo (59.9°N, 10.7°E), Norway, from 1978 to 1998. The data set for the entire period of observations has been critically examined. In this paper we present the results of the homogenization process and discuss the data quality of the record. Much effort has been made to optimize the zenith sky charts used for CC' zenith observations. The charts have been constructed using a semiempirical method, where a large number of quasi-simultaneous observations of direct Sun and zenith observations have been used in combination with a radiative transfer model. The same radiative transfer model has been used for constructing AD and CD zenith sky charts for various optical thicknesses of cloud cover. When the D56 ozone observations started up in 1978 the SO2 level in Oslo was significant. High concentrations of SO2 will generally influence the measurements of Dobson total ozone and might give fictitious ozone trends. Without the SO2 corrections the revised Oslo Dobson data shows a year-round ozone decrease of -5.22 ± 0.63% per decade from 1978 to 1998, while after SO2 corrections the decrease is reduced to -4.68 ± 0.63% per decade. The Dobson data from Oslo are compared to ozone data from Brewer spectrometer 42 and to Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) daily overpass data from satellites Nimbus 7, Meteor 3, and Earth Probe. The mean and standard deviation of the monthly percentage difference between Dobson and TOMS amount to -0.91 ± 1.41%.

  1. 19. John and James Dobson Carpet Mills, West parcel, topographical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. John and James Dobson Carpet Mills, West parcel, topographical plan, 1986. Barton and Martin, Engineers. 'Topographical Plan for Dobson Mills.' Prepared for Rouse Urban Housing, Inc., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1986. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  2. Evaluation of the use of five laboratory determined ozone absorption cross sections in brewer and dobson retrieval algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redondas, A.; Evans, R.; Stuebi, R.; Köhler, U.; Weber, M.

    2013-09-01

    The primary ground-based instruments used to report total column ozone (TOC) are Brewer and Dobson Spectrophotometers, in separate networks. These instruments make measurements of the UV irradiances, and through a well-defined process a TOC value is produced. Inherent in the algorithm is the use of a laboratory determined cross-section data set. We used five ozone cross section data sets: three Bass and Paur, Daumont, Malicet and Brion (DMB) and a new Institute of Environmental Physics (IUP), University of Bremen, set. The three Bass and Paur (1985) sets are: quadratic temperature coefficients from IGACO web page (IGQ4), the Brewer network operational calibration set (BOp), and the set used by Bernhard et al. (2005), in the reanalysis of the Dobson absorption coefficient values (B05). The ozone absorption coefficients for Brewer and Dobson are then calculated using the normal Brewer operative method which is essentially the same as used on Dobson. Considering the standard TOC algorithm for the Brewer instruments and comparing to the Brewer standard operational calibration data set, using the slit functions for the individual instruments: we find the UIP data set changes the calculated TOC by -0.5%, the DBM data set changes the calculate TOC by -3.2%, and the IGQ4 data set at -45 °C changes the calculated TOC by +1.3%. Considering the standard algorithm for the Dobson instruments, and comparing to results using the official 1992 ozone absorption coefficients values and the single set of slit functions defined for all Dobson instruments, the calculated TOC changes by +1%, with little variation depending on which data set is used We applied the changes to the European Dobson and Brewer reference instruments during the Izaña 2012 Absolute Calibration Campaign. The application of a common Langley calibration and the IUP cross section the differences between Brewer and Dobson vanish whereas using Bass and Paur and DBM produce differences of 1.5% and 2% respectively. A

  3. Perspectives on African Ozone from Sondes, Dobson and Aircraft Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, A. M.; Witte, J. C.; Chatfield, R. B.; Diab, R. D.; Thouret, V.; Sauvage, B.

    2004-01-01

    We have been studying variability in ozone over Africa using data from ozonesondes (vertical profiles from surface to stratosphere), aircraft (the MOZAIC dataset with cruise altitude and landing/takeoff profiles) and the ground (Dobson spectrophotometer total ozone column measurement). The following may give context for ozone investigations during AMMA: 1. Total ozone measurements since 1989 show considerable variability in mean value among the African stations in Algeria, Kenya, Egypt, South Africa, as well as in seasonal cycles and year-to-year. Trends are not evident. 2. The impacts of convection, stratospheric injection, biomass burning and lightning appear in ozone sounding profile data. Time-series analysis and case studies point to periodic influences of long-range interactions with the Atlantic ("ozone paradox," wave-one") and Indian Oceans. 3. Tropospheric ozone variations, observed in tropospheric profiles and integrated column amount, follow general seasonal patterns but short- term variability is so strong that simple averages are inadequate for describing "climatology" and statistical classification approaches may be required.

  4. Comparison of recalculated Dobson and TOMS total ozone at Hradec Kralove, Czechoslovakia, 1978-1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanek, Martin; Vanicek, Karel

    1994-01-01

    The reevaluated Dobson total ozone data from Hradec Kralove, Czechoslovakia were compared with independent Total Ozone Mapping Spectrophotometer (TOMS) 'version 6' data set. The comparison was performed by means of the parallel daily averages of ground-based and satellite total ozone pairs of the period November 1978 to December 1990. The comparison showed slight differences between both data series. Their average relative difference is 0.48 percent. The similar results have been reached for subsets of direct sun and zenith types of measurements as well. Their relative differences are 0.61 percent and 0.11 percent respectively. These facts indicate not only good mutual relation of both data sources but also reliability and accuracy of the zenith charts of the spectrophotometer No. 74 used at Hradec Kralove. Preliminary assessment of seasonal MU-dependence of the differences between Dobson and TOMS data was made while using total ozones of winter and summer months representing values of MU=2.70-5.20 and MU = 1.12-1.30 respectively. The results did not show systematic underestimation or overestimation of total ozone due to MU-dependence of the instrument at Hradec Kralove in both seasons.

  5. 18. VIEW TO NORTHWEST; EAST BACK MBE BUILDING, FIREBOXES (Dobson) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VIEW TO NORTHWEST; EAST BACK MBE BUILDING, FIREBOXES (Dobson) - Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, Mail, Baggage, & Express Building, 800 North Alameda Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. Evaluation of the use of five laboratory-determined ozone absorption cross sections in Brewer and Dobson retrieval algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redondas, A.; Evans, R.; Stuebi, R.; Köhler, U.; Weber, M.

    2014-02-01

    The primary ground-based instruments used to report total column ozone (TOC) are Brewer and Dobson spectrophotometers in separate networks. These instruments make measurements of the UV irradiances, and through a well-defined process, a TOC value is produced. Inherent to the algorithm is the use of a laboratory-determined cross-section data set. We used five ozone cross-section data sets: three data sets that are based on measurements of Bass and Paur; one derived from Daumont, Brion and Malicet (DBM); and a new set determined by Institute of Experimental Physics (IUP), University of Bremen. The three Bass and Paur (1985) sets are as follows: quadratic temperature coefficients from the IGACO (a glossary is provided in Appendix A) web page (IGQ4), the Brewer network operational calibration set (BOp), and the set used by Bernhard et al. (2005) in the reanalysis of the Dobson absorption coefficient values (B05). The ozone absorption coefficients for Brewer and Dobson instruments are then calculated using the normal Brewer operative method, which is essentially the same as that used for Dobson instruments. Considering the standard TOC algorithm for the Brewer instruments and comparing to the Brewer standard operational calibration data set, using the slit functions for the individual instruments, we find the IUP data set changes the calculated TOC by -0.5%, the DBM data set changes the calculated TOC by -3.2%, and the IGQ4 data set at -45 °C changes the calculated TOC by +1.3%. Considering the standard algorithm for the Dobson instruments, and comparing to results using the official 1992 ozone absorption coefficients values and the single set of slit functions defined for all Dobson instruments, the calculated TOC changes by +1%, with little variation depending on which data set is used. We applied the changes to the European Dobson and Brewer reference instruments during the Izaña 2012 Absolute Calibration Campaign. With the application of a common Langley

  7. Long-term changes in the total ozone mapping spectrometer relative to world primary standard Dobson spectrometer 83

    SciTech Connect

    McPeters, R.D. ); Komhyr, W.D. )

    1991-02-20

    The authors have examined the stability of the calibration of the Nimbus 7 solar backscatter ultraviolet (SBUV) and total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) instruments by comparing their ozone measurements with those made by a single, very stable Dobson instrument: the world primary standard Dobson spectrometer number 83. Measurements of ozone made with instrument 83 at Mauna Loa observatory in eight summers between 1979 and 1989 were compared with coincident TOMS ozone measurements. The comparison shows that relative to instrument 83, ozone measured by TOMS (and SBUV) was stable between 1979 and approximately 1983, had decreased by 3% by 1986, and had decreased by almost 7% by 1989. A similar time dependence is seen when data from an ensemble of 39 Dobson stations throughout the world is compared with TOMS over the period 1979-1987. The most likely reason for the relative drift is that the diffuser plate used by both SBUV and TOMS to measure solar flux has suffered an uncorrected wavelength dependent degradation, with most of the degradation occurring after 1983. The recently released version 6 TOMS data, corrected using the internal pair justification technique, show almost no drift relative to Dobson instrument 83. The authors conclude from these comparisons that accurate measurements of long-term global ozone change will require a coherent system incorporating both ground based and satellite based ozone measurements.

  8. Total ozone derived from UV spectrophotometer measurements on the NASA CV-990 aircraft for the fall 1976 latitude survey flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanser, F. A.

    1977-01-01

    An ultraviolet interference filter spectrophotometer was modified to use a photodiode and was flown on latitude survey flights in the fall of 1976. Comparison with Dobson station total ozone values shows agreement between UVS and Dobson total ozone of + or - 2 percent. The procedure used to convert UVS measured ozone above the aircraft altitude to total ozone above ground level introduces an additional 2 percent deviation for very high altitude UVS ozone data. Under stable aircraft operating conditions, the UVS derived ozone values have a variability, or reproducibility, of better than + or -1 percent. The UVS data from the latitude survey flights yield a detailed latitude profile of total ozone over the Pacific Ocean during November 1976. Significant latitudinal structure in total ozone is found at the middle latitudes (30 deg to 40 deg N and S).

  9. Ozone absorption coefficients' role in Dobson instrument ozone measurement accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basher, R. E.

    1982-11-01

    The differences of 10% or more between the laboratory measurements of UV absorption coefficients by different investigators indicate accuracies that are quite inadequate for current needs in the measurement of atmospheric ozone. The standard band-integrated set of coefficients now used with the Dobson instrument are mutually consistent to about 2%, but their absolute accuracy is still in question. The accurate calculation of band-integrated coefficients must take account of their dependence on source spectral irradiance, atmospheric spectral transmittance, mean ozone temperature, and instrument spectral transmittance. A careful examination shows that Komhyr's (1980) case for an error of about +5% in the standard Dobson AD ozone estimation is subject to large uncertainties and certain lacks of independence. The obvious solution to this accuracy problem lies in better laboratory measurements of ozone absorption.

  10. A Low-Cost Quantitative Absorption Spectrophotometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Daniel R.; Todt, Michael A.; Davis, H. Floyd

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to make absorption spectrophotometry available to high school chemistry and physics classes, we have designed an inexpensive visible light absorption spectrophotometer. The spectrophotometer was constructed using LEGO blocks, a light emitting diode, optical elements (including a lens), a slide-mounted diffraction grating, and a…

  11. Climate Change and the Brewer-Dobson Circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rind, David

    1999-01-01

    Using GCM simulations of the troposphere-stratosphere circulation in different climate regimes, the sensitivity of the Brewer-Dobson Circulation to climate change will be discussed. Included will be simulations of the stratosphere with increasing/doubled C02 as done with different versions of the GISS Global Climate Middle Atmosphere Model, with and without ozone response. To put the results in a broader perspective, stratospheric circulation changes from several paleoclimate simulations will also be presented, including the Last Glacial Maximum and the Paleocene, each with several different (plausible) latitudinal sea surface temperature gradients. Hence the climate changes investigated will include strong variations in baroclinic and topographic tropospheric planetary wave and gravity wave forcing, as well as global mean temperature and atmospheric C02 levels. Results will be analyzed in terms of wave driving via E-P flux convergences and gravity wave effects, and will be shown to be strongly dependent on wave propagation characteristics.

  12. Fundamental studies to develop certified reference material to calibrate spectrophotometer in the ultraviolet region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Conceição, F. C.; Borges, P. P.; Gomes, J. F. S.

    2016-07-01

    Spectrophotometry is the technique used in a great number of laboratories around the world. Quantitative determination of a high number of inorganic, organic and biological species can be made by spectrophotometry using calibrated spectrophotometers. International standards require the use of optical filters to perform the calibration of spectrophotometers. One of the recommended materials is the crystalline potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7), which is used to prepare solutions in specific concentrations for calibration or verification of spectrophotometers in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral regions. This paper presents the results concerning the fundamental studies for developing a certified reference material (CRM) of crystalline potassium dichromate to be used as standard of spectrophotometers in order to contribute to reliable quantitative analyses.

  13. The Fuge Tube Diode Array Spectrophotometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arneson, B. T.; Long, S. R.; Stewart, K. K.; Lagowski, J. J.

    2008-01-01

    We present the details for adapting a diode array UV-vis spectrophotometer to incorporate the use of polypropylene microcentrifuge tubes--fuge tubes--as cuvettes. Optical data are presented validating that the polyethylene fuge tubes are equivalent to the standard square cross section polystyrene or glass cuvettes generally used in…

  14. Enzyme Activity Experiments Using a Simple Spectrophotometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurlbut, Jeffrey A.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Experimental procedures for studying enzyme activity using a Spectronic 20 spectrophotometer are described. The experiments demonstrate the effect of pH, temperature, and inhibitors on enzyme activity and allow the determination of Km, Vmax, and Kcat. These procedures are designed for teaching large lower-level biochemistry classes. (MR)

  15. Climate Change and the Brewer-Dobson Circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rind, David

    1999-01-01

    Using GCM (General Circulation Model) simulations of the troposphere-stratosphere circulation in different climate regimes, the sensitivity of the Brewer-Dobson Circulation to climate change will be discussed. Included will be simulations of the stratosphere with increasing/doubled CO2 as done with different versions of the GISS (Goddard Institute for Space Studies) Global Climate Middle Atmosphere Model, with and without ozone response. To put the results in a broader perspective, stratospheric circulation changes from several paleoclimate simulations will also be presented, including the Last Glacial Maximum and the Paleocene, each with several different (plausible) latitudinal sea surface temperature gradients. Hence the climate changes investigated will include strong variations in baroclinic and topographic tropospheric planetary wave and gravity wave forcing, as well as global mean temperature and atmospheric CO2 levels. Results will be analyzed in terms of wave driving via E-P flux convergences and gravity wave effects, and will be shown to be strongly dependent on wave propagation characteristics.

  16. Brewer spectrophotometer measurements in the Canadian Arctic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerr, J. B.; Evans, W. F. J.

    1988-01-01

    In the winters of 1987 and 1988 measurements were conducted with the Brewer Spectrophotometer at Alert (82.5 N) and Resolute (74.5 N). The measurements were conducted as part of our Canadian Program to search for an Arctic Ozone Hole (CANOZE). Ozone measurements were conducted in the months of December, January and February using the moon as a light source. The total ozone measurements will be compared with ozonesonde profiles, from ECC sondes, flown once per week from Alert and Resolute. A modified Brewer Spectrophotometer was used in a special study to search for chlorine dioxide at Alert in March 1987. Ground based observations at Saskatoon in February and at Alert in March 1987 failed to detect any measureable chlorine dioxide. Interference from another absorbing gas, which we speculate may be nitrous acid, prevented the measurements at the low levels of chlorine dioxide detected in the Southern Hemisphere by Solomon et al.

  17. Solar EUV Spectrophotometer for Atmosphere Explorer Satellites.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-08-31

    spectral scans are made for each of the 21 monochro- mators. Results are examined for alignment , vigne tt in g , sca ttered light levels , and signal...drawings. “ Sol ar EUV Spectrophotometer for Atmosphere Explorer: Equipment Information Report” , Data Item A005 , Con trac t Fl9628-72-C- Oll S , prepared by BBRC for AFCRL , Apr i l , 1 9 7 6 . 4-1 I

  18. Calibration and monitoring of spectrometers and spectrophotometers.

    PubMed

    Frings, C S; Broussard, L A

    1979-06-01

    We have delineated some of the factors affecting the performance of spectrometers and spectrophotometers in the clinical laboratory and have presented some of the methods for verifying that these instruments are functioning properly. At a minimum, every laboratory should perform periodic inspections of spectrometric functions to check wavelength calibration, linearity of detector response, and stray radiation. Only through such an inspection program can a laboratory ensure that these instruments are not contributing to inaccurate analytical results.

  19. A mini-rapid-scan-spectrophotometer.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Werner

    2004-02-27

    The mini-rapid-scan-spectrophotometer (Mini-RSS) is a scanning single-beam spectrophotometer that has been patented. It is based on a minimum of reflections and involves exclusively mirrors as beam-deflecting components. This way stray light is minimized, which results in an excellent light-throughput, high dynamics, low cost, compactness and rigidity. The Mini-RSS has been designed as a multi-purpose instrument that allows absorption, transmission, reflection, fluorescence and luminescence measurements in a single-beam mode. Its spectral range extends from the UV and visible spectrum to the IR. This provides for the possibility to measure even optically unfavorable, highly turbid or scattering samples that would be otherwise inaccessible to investigations with commercial spectrophotometers. A miniaturized and very sensitive photomultiplier-module (PM) of high dynamics allows in the visible spectral range absorbance measurements that cover up to four OD units. The Mini-RSS is capable of scanning up to 100 spectra per second with a resolution of 12 bit and 500 points. The linear dispersion is currently 5 nm and the stray light level <0.01%.

  20. Applied Electronics: Construction of a Simple Spectrophotometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thal, Melissa A.; Samide, Michael J.

    2001-11-01

    In this paper we describe the construction of a simple spectrophotometer intended for use as a capstone circuit for an electronics laboratory exercise. Students in the undergraduate laboratory have learned basic circuitry and are now able to read a schematic and construct an instrument that has practical applications in chemical analysis. A simple LED is used as the source and is easily changed to correspond to different species being studied. Detection is accomplished through the use of one of three signal transducers (a photoresistor, a photodiode, or a photodarlington) and a current-to-voltage converter. A box lined with black felt is used to shield the spectrophotometer from ambient light. This spectrophotometer shows excellent Beer-Lambert law linearity over a large concentration range and has been used in the laboratory to determine the concentration of a metal cation in solution on the basis of a calibration curve. Of the transducers used, the photoresistor showed the best response at multiple wavelengths with error in concentration determination not greater than 6%. Through the building and testing of this circuit, the students can visualize applications of electronic circuitry.

  1. A Simple Spectrophotometer Using Common Materials and a Digital Camera

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widiatmoko, Eko; Widayani; Budiman, Maman; Abdullah, Mikrajuddin; Khairurrijal

    2011-01-01

    A simple spectrophotometer was designed using cardboard, a DVD, a pocket digital camera, a tripod and a computer. The DVD was used as a diffraction grating and the camera as a light sensor. The spectrophotometer was calibrated using a reference light prior to use. The spectrophotometer was capable of measuring optical wavelengths with a…

  2. A comparison of 40 years of SBUV measurements of column ozone with data from the Dobson/Brewer network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labow, Gordon J.; McPeters, Richard D.; Bhartia, Pawan K.; Kramarova, Natalya

    2013-07-01

    column ozone data from the Nimbus-4 Backscatter UltraViolet (BUV) instrument, Nimbus-7 Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) instrument, as well as from seven NOAA SBUV/2 instruments have been newly reprocessed with the Version 8.6 ozone retrieval algorithm. This yields a coherent data set that, unlike the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer ozone record, has no data gaps or significant time periods with large uncertainties due to calibration issues from 1979 to the present. The column ozone data from the first 3 years of the BUV record (1970-1972) is of high quality and can be used to extend the satellite ozone record back over 40 years. With the new algorithm, an improved total column ozone value is calculated by summing up the profile information as opposed to a single direct column measurement, and the algorithm is optimized for the detection of long-term trends. The results from this processing of these data have been systematically compared to total ozone data from Brewer and Dobson spectrophotometers for many individual ground stations as a function of time, satellite solar zenith angle, and latitude. The time series comparisons show an agreement within ± 1% over the past 40 years with the bias approaching zero over the last decade. The aerosols associated with the eruption of Mt Pinatubo in 1991 produced an underestimation of ozone for our retrievals at high slant columns while the near-nadir values were relatively unaffected. There is very little systematic offset between the satellite and ground-based measurements as a function of latitude with the Nimbus-4 BUV data (1970-1976) showing the largest offsets. The comparisons as a function of satellite solar zenith angle show consistent behavior for all instruments. Comparisons with ozonesonde data show good agreement in the integrated column up to 25 hPa with differences of no more than 5%.

  3. WWJD--What Would Jim Do? A Comparison of James Dobson's and Jim Fay's Philosophies of Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buttner, Carolyn; Fridley, William L.

    2007-01-01

    Jim Fay and James Dobson are two of America's most visible, popular, and influential "experts" on the topics of parenting and discipline for children. Dobson is widely known for the "pro-family" political activism of Focus on The Family, the organization he founded and currently directs. He first made a name for himself as a…

  4. Improved double beam, vacuum far infrared spectrophotometer.

    PubMed

    Iwahashi, I; Matsumoto, K; Matsudaira, S; Minami, S; Yoshinaga, H

    1969-03-01

    A double beam far ir spectrophotometer was improved in order to give more convenience and higher performance. The instrument is evacuable and the sample chamber alone can also be purged with dry air to remove water vapor. Three photometric systems, i.e., conventional double beam, double beam double chopping, and single beam systems can be selected for versatile measurements. The use of an efficient transmission filter system, not involving deliquescent crystals, results in many operational advantages. Accordingly, high resolution can be obtained through the entire spectral region from 400 cm(-1) to 30 cm(-1) Moreover, 30-min scan over the entire spectral region is achieved by completely automatic operation with a refined control system.

  5. Computer-Graphics Emulation of Chemical Instrumentation: Absorption Spectrophotometers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, D. D.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes interactive, computer-graphics program emulating behavior of high resolution, ultraviolet-visible analog recording spectrophotometer. Graphics terminal behaves as recording absorption spectrophotometer. Objective of the emulation is study of optimization of the instrument to yield accurate absorption spectra, including…

  6. Spectrophotometer spectral bandwidth calibration with absorption bands crystal standard.

    PubMed

    Soares, O D; Costa, J L

    1999-04-01

    A procedure for calibration of a spectral bandwidth standard for high-resolution spectrophotometers is described. Symmetrical absorption bands for a crystal standard are adopted. The method relies on spectral band shape fitting followed by a convolution with the slit function of the spectrophotometer. A reference spectrophotometer is used to calibrate the spectral bandwidth standard. Bandwidth calibration curves for a minimum spectral transmission factor relative to the spectral bandwidth of the reference spectrophotometer are derived for the absorption bands at the wavelength of the band absorption maximum. The family of these calibration curves characterizes the spectral bandwidth standard. We calibrate the spectral bandwidth of a spectrophotometer with respect to the reference spectrophotometer by determining the spectral transmission factor minimum at every calibrated absorption band of the bandwidth standard for the nominal instrument values of the spectral bandwidth. With reference to the standard spectral bandwidth calibration curves, the relation of the spectral bandwidth to the reference spectrophotometer is determined. We determine the discrepancy in the spectrophotometers' spectral bandwidths by averaging the spectral bandwidth discrepancies relative to the standard calibrated values found at the absorption bands considered. A weighted average of the uncertainties is taken.

  7. Total ozone trend significance from space time variability of daily Dobson data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    Estimates of standard errors of total ozone time and area means, as derived from ozone's natural temporal and spatial variability and autocorrelation in middle latitudes determined from daily Dobson data are presented. Assessing the significance of apparent total ozone trends is equivalent to assessing the standard error of the means. Standard errors of time averages depend on the temporal variability and correlation of the averaged parameter. Trend detectability is discussed, both for the present network and for satellite measurements.

  8. A high performance micro-dual-wavelength-spectrophotometer (MDWS).

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Werner

    2004-01-30

    The dual wavelength spectrophotometer (DWS) has proven to be the most sensitive device to monitor minute optical absorbance changes, which are inaccessible to conventional single or double beam spectrophotometers. The typical set ups, e.g. extensively used for Ca2+ or phytochrome measurements, are huge, expensive and cumbrous. Therefore, a novel high performance micro-dual-wavelength spectrophotometer (MDWS) was developed. It is miniaturized and no moving parts such as vibrational mirrors or rotating filter wheels involved. Its specifications are superior compared to the conventional set up being capable of detecting minute optical changes (reflection, absorbance, transmittance) at particular wavelengths.

  9. Stability study of standards used for calibration of the spectrophotometer wavelength scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debossan, L. F.; Carvalho, E. M. S.; Souza, M. A.; Gomes, J. F. S.

    2016-07-01

    The calibration of spectrophotometers is a procedure recommended by international standards to provide quality assurance of results and traceability. Due to its intrinsic properties, holmium oxide filters are indicated as reference standards for calibrating the wavelength scale of such equipment. This paper presents a study aiming to assess the repeatability and drift of holmium oxide standard filters calibrated in the Radiometry and Photometry Laboratory (Laraf) of Inmetro in order to verify their stability.

  10. The first ozone observations with the Brewer spectrophotometer at the South Pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savastiouk, V.; McElroy, C. T.; Evans, R. D.

    2009-05-01

    In February of 2008, Environment Canada in cooperation with National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration installed the Brewer ozone spectrophotometer, serial number #085, at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, Antarctica. The Brewer spectrophotometer (the Brewer) is a fully automated instrument, which allows continuous 24-hour a day direct-sun observations at the South Pole from September to March and periodic moon observations for the remainder of the year. Brewer #085 has been independently calibrated before its deployment at the South Pole and the internal tests from the instrument show that the instrument has been stable for the past year. Brewer #085 has now collected more than a year worth of data. Both the direct-sun and moon observations have been processed and analyzed. The results of this analysis are presented and discussed.

  11. An assessment of the long-term drift in TOMS total ozone data, based on comparison with the Dobson network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleig, Albert J.; Silberstein, David S.; Wellemeyer, Charles G.; Cebula, Richard P.; Bhartia, Pawan K.

    1988-01-01

    Seven years of total ozone data derived from the TOMS instrument on Nimbus-7 are compared with results from 41 Dobson stations. In this study, a significant improvement in fit from previous studies is obtained using a model which assumes a change in the rate of drift between TOMS and Dobson around the middle of 1982. Results indicate that the TOMS measurements have drifted relative to the Dobson stations with a two-part linear trend of -0.25 + or - 0.17 percent per year during the period from launch to 6/30/82, and -0.51 + or - 0.21 percent per year during 7/1/82 - 10/31/85. The causes of this drift cannot be definitively separated between residual uncorrected drift in the TOMS instrument (a similar drift is apparent in the SBUV-Dobson comparisons), limited sensitivity of the TOMS to increases in tropospheric ozone, and the effect of local increases in pollution levels on individual Dobson stations.

  12. Understanding the strengthening of the Brewer-Dobson circulation in SH spring season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, P.; Fu, Q.

    2010-12-01

    Recent satellite measurements and reanalyses data showed a strengthening of the Brewer-Dobson circulation over the past three decades, especially in the SH spring season. We applied the spectral analysis on the wave field as indicated by the Eliassen-Palm flux from reanalyses data, and found the stationary planetary waves are the main driver of the trend. This enhancement of stationary wave forcing in the stratosphere can be resulted from changes in the wave transmissivity due to background flow change, or from an enhanced wave generation. Contribution from these two different processes are evaluated.

  13. Comparisons between TOMS, TOVS and DOBSON observations - Satellite and surface views of total column ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chesters, Dennis; Neuendorffer, Arthur

    1990-01-01

    The reliability of the ozone retrievals by the TIROS-N Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) calculated with the newly developed physical algorithm is investigated by comparing the quality of the TOVS total ozone soundings to the corresponding values obtained by the Nimbus-7 TOMS and by the ground-based DOBSON network. The three-way comparison concentrates on observations during the last 4 months of 1987, the period of the great Antarctic 'ozone hole'. It is shown that each instrument has characteristic strengths and weaknesses, and that each of the three systems makes serious errors under some conditions.

  14. TOMS total ozone data compared with northern latitude Dobson ground stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heese, B.; Barthel, K.; Hov, O.

    1994-01-01

    Ozone measurements from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer on the Nimbus 7 satellite are compared with ground-based measurements from five Dobson stations at northern latitudes to evaluate the accuracy of the TOMS data, particularly in regions north of 50 deg N. The measurements from the individual stations show mean differences from -2.5 percent up to plus 8.3 percent relative to TOMS measurements and two of the ground stations, Oslo and Longyearbyen, show a significant drift of plus 1.2 percent and plus 3.7 percent per year, respectively. It can be shown from nearly simultaneous measurements in two different wavelength double pairs at Oslo that at least 2 percent of the differences result from the use of the CC' wavelength double pair instead of the standard AD wavelength double pair. Since all Norwegian stations used the CC' wavelength double pair exclusively a similar error can be assumed for Tromso and Longyearbyren. A comparison between the tropospheric ozone content in TOMS data and from ECC ozonesonde measurements at Ny-Alesund and Bear Island shows that the amount of tropospheric ozone in the standard profiles used in the TOMS algorithm is too low, which leads to an error of about 2 percent in total ozone. Particularly at high solar zenith angles (greater than 80 deg), Dobson measurements become unreliable. They are up to 20 percent lower than TOMS measurements averaged over solar zenith angles of 88 deg to 89 deg.

  15. [Spectrophotometer detection of benzalkonium bromide concentration in seawater].

    PubMed

    Pan, Jianyu; Yin, Pinghe; Zhao, Ling; Qi, Yuzao; Xie, Longchu

    2003-07-01

    Benzalkonium bromide is a high-efficiency algaecide. Its concentration in seawater was measured by the method of spectrophotometer. The results indicated that the deposition appeared if the concentration of benzalkonium bromide in seawater was more than 50 mg.L-1, and affected the detection of benzalkonium bromide. But, there was a good linear relationship between concentration and absorbance when the concentration was lower than 50 mg.L-1 (R2 = 0.9996). Therefore, spectrophotometer could be used to detect benzalkonium bromide in seawater.

  16. The designated type strain of Pseudomonas halophila Fendrich 1989 is DSM 3051, the designated type strain of Halovibrio variabilis Fendrich 1989 is DSM 3050, the new name Halomonas utahensis (Fendrich 1989) Sorokin and Tindall 2006 is created for the species represented by DSM 3051 when treated as a member of the genus Halomonas, the combination Halomonas variabilis (Fendrich 1989) Dobson and Franzmann 1996 is rejected, and the combination Halovibrio denitrificans Sorokin et al. 2006 is validly published with an emendation of the description of the genus Halovibrio Fendrich 1989 emend. Sorokin et al. 2006. Opinion 93. Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Tindall, B J

    2014-10-01

    The Judicial Commission affirms that, according to information presented to it, the designated type strain of Pseudomonas halophila Fendrich 1989 is DSM 3051 (replacing DSM 3050) and the designated type strain of Halovibrio variabilis Fendrich 1989 is DSM 3050 (replacing DSM 3051). A new name, Halomonas utahensis (Fendrich 1989) Sorokin and Tindall 2006 nom. nov., is created for the species represented by DSM 3051 when treated as a member of the genus Halomonas, because the combination Halomonas halophila (Quesada et al. 1984) Dobson and Franzmann 1996 has priority based on the fact that the epithet halophila in the combination Halomonas halophila (Quesada et al. 1984) Dobson and Franzmann 1996 ( BASOYNM: Deleya halophila Quesada et al. 1984) has priority over the epithet halophila should the taxon Pseudomonas halophila Fendrich 1989 be treated as a member of the genus Halomonas. The combination Halomonas variabilis (Fendrich 1989) Dobson and Franzmann 1996 is rejected. The combination Halovibrio denitrificans Sorokin et al. 2006 is validly published with an emendation of the description of the genus Halovibrio Fendrich 1989 emend. Sorokin et al. 2006.

  17. Visible light nitrogen dioxide spectrophotometer intercomparison: Mount Kobau, British Columbia, July 28 to August 10, 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcelroy, C. T.; Elokhov, A. S.; Elansky, N.; Frank, H.; Johnston, P.; Kerr, J. B.

    1994-01-01

    Under the auspices of the World Meteorological Organization, Environment Canada hosted an international comparison of visible light spectrophotometers at Mt. Kobau, British Columbia in August of 1991. Instruments from four countries were involved. The intercomparison results have indicated that some significant differences exist in the responses of the various instruments, and have provided a basis for the comparison of the historical data sets which currently exist as a result of the independent researches carried out in the past in the former Soviet Union, New Zealand, and Canada.

  18. MEMS micromirrors for optical switching in multichannel spectrophotometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuantranont, Adisorn; Lomas, Tanom; Bright, Victor M.

    2004-04-01

    This paper reports for the first time that a novel MEMS-based micromirror switch has successfully demonstrated for optical switching in a multi-channel fiber optics spectrophotometer system. The conventional optomechanical fiber optic switches for multi-channel spectrophotometers available in market are bulky, slow, low numbers of channels and expensive. Our foundry MEMS-based micromirror switch designed for integrating with commercially available spectrophotometers offers more compact devices, increased number of probing channels, higher performance and cheaper. Our MEMS-based micromirror switch is a surface micromachined mirror fabricated through MUMPs foundry. The 280 μm x 280 μm gold coated mirror is suspended by the double-gimbal structure for X and Y axis scanning. Self-assembly by solders is used to elevate the torsion mirror 30 μm over the substrate to achieve large scan angle. The solder self-assembly approach dramatically reduces the time to assembly the switch. The scan mirror is electrostatically controlled by applying voltages. The individual probing signal from each probing head is guided by fibers with collimated lenses and incidents on the center of the mirror. The operating scan angle is in the range of 3.5 degrees with driving voltage of 0-100 V. The fastest switching time of 4 millisecond (1 ms rise time and 3 ms fall time) is measured corresponding to the maximum speed of the mirror of 0.25 kHz when the mirror is scanning at +/- 1.5 degrees. The micromirror switch is packaged with a multi-mode fiber bundle using active alignment technique. A centered fiber is the output fiber that is connected to spectrophotometer. Maximum insertion loss of 5 dB has been obtained. The accuracy of measured spectral data is equivalent to the single channel spectrophotometer with a small degradation on probing signal due to fiber coupling.

  19. Climate change reduces warming potential of nitrous oxide by an enhanced Brewer-Dobson circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kracher, Daniela; Reick, Christian H.; Manzini, Elisa; Schultz, Martin G.; Stein, Olaf

    2016-06-01

    The Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC), which is an important driver of the stratosphere-troposphere exchange, is expected to accelerate with climate change. One particular consequence of this acceleration is the enhanced transport of nitrous oxide (N2O) from its sources at the Earth's surface toward its main sink region in the stratosphere, thus inducing a reduction in its lifetime. N2O is a potent greenhouse gas and the most relevant currently emitted ozone-depleting substance. Here we examine the implications of a reduced N2O lifetime in the context of climate change. We find a decrease in its global warming potential (GWP) and, due to a decline in the atmospheric N2O burden, also a reduction in its total radiative forcing. From the idealized transient global warming simulation we can identify linear regressions for N2O sink, lifetime, and GWP with temperature rise. Our findings are thus not restricted to a particular scenario.

  20. Southern Westerly Winds submit to the ENSO regime: A multiproxy paleohydrology record from Lake Dobson, Tasmania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rees, Andrew B. H.; Cwynar, Les C.; Fletcher, Michael-Shawn

    2015-10-01

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Southern Westerly Winds (SWW) profoundly influence synoptic-scale climate in the Southern Hemisphere. Although many studies have invoked either phenomenon to explain trends in proxy data, few have demonstrated the transition from a climate dominated by SWW flow to one controlled by El Niño activity, which is postulated to have occurred after 5 cal ka BP in the mid-latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere. Tasmania, southeast Australia, is ideally situated to detect changes in both of these climatic controls. Currently, El Niño and La Niña events result in drier and wetter conditions island-wide, respectively, with the greatest impact in the north. Further, Tasmania houses north-south trending mountain ranges near its western coast. As a result, areas west of the mountains exhibit a positive correlation between SWW flow and precipitation, while eastern regions possess either no or a negative relationship. Here, we present data from chironomid remains, charcoal, and geochemical proxies to investigate the paleohydrological history of Lake Dobson, a site located in Mount Field National Park, Tasmania. The proxies revealed three broad periods: (1) an early Holocene (11.5-8.3 cal kyr BP) characterised by generally high rainfall, the occurrence of irregular fires, and elevated charcoal influx at 11.4 and 10.2 cal ka BP - conditions compatible with attenuated SWW flow over the site; (2) an ambiguous mid-Holocene (8.3-5 cal kyr BP) that marks the transition from a SWW- to ENSO-dominated climate; and (3) a relatively dry and stable late Holocene (5 cal kyr BP to present) that is consistent with the onset of a climate controlled by ENSO activity (i.e., characterised by a more mean El Niño climate state). The proxy record of Lake Dobson highlights the teleconnections between the equatorial Pacific and southern Australasia.

  1. An assessment of the long-term drift in SBUV total ozone data, based on comparison with the Dobson network. [Solar Backscatter UltraViolet experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleig, Albert J.; Bhartia, Pawan K.; Silberstein, David S.

    1986-01-01

    Six years of total ozone data derived from the Nimbus 7 Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) experiment are compared with results from 41 Dobson stations to determine year-to-year changes in addition to the monthly bias change for individual stations and for the network. The SBUV measurements are found to drift against the Dobson stations with a linear trend of .38 + or - .13 percent/yr. The cause of the drift could not be separated between residual uncorrected drift in the SBUV instrument, limited sensitivity of the SBUV to increases in tropospheric ozone, and the effect of local increases in pollution level on individual Dobson stations.

  2. Non-focusing optics spectrophotometer, and methods of use

    DOEpatents

    Kramer, David M.; Sacksteder, Colette A.

    2004-11-02

    In one aspect, the present invention provides kinetic spectrophotometers that each comprise: (a) a light source; and (b) a compound parabolic concentrator disposed to receive light from the light source and configured to (1) intensify and diffuse the light received from the light source, and (2) direct the intensified and diffused light onto a sample. In other aspects, the present invention provides methods for measuring a photosynthetic parameter, the methods comprising the steps of: (a) illuminating a plant leaf until steady-state photosynthesis is achieved; (b) subjecting the illuminated plant leaf to a period of darkness; (c) using a kinetic spectrophotometer of the invention to collect spectral data from the plant leaf treated in accordance with steps (a) and (b); and (d) determining a value for a photosynthetic parameter from the spectral data.

  3. Spectrophotometer-Integrating-Sphere System for Computing Solar Absorptance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, William G., Jr.; Slemp, Wayne S.; Perry, John E., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A commercially available ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared spectrophotometer was modified to utilize an 8-inch-diameter modified Edwards-type integrated sphere. Software was written so that the reflectance spectra could be used to obtain solar absorptance values of 1-inch-diameter specimens. A descriptions of the system, spectral reflectance, and software for calculation of solar absorptance from reflectance data are presented.

  4. [Design of a portable UV-Vis spectrophotometer].

    PubMed

    Wan, Feng; Sun, Hong-wei; Fan, Shi-fu

    2006-04-01

    In the present paper, a method for how to design a portable UV-Vis spectrophotometer is introduced. The Hamamatsu multichannel detector S3904-1024Q and a flat field concave grating are employed to design a miniaturized dispersion system. In order to solve the contradiction between the spectral width and energy-utilizing ratio of the light source, a multi-band optical fiber is employed, one side of which is arranged to be rectangle as the entrance slit. The touch screen is employed as the input and output system of the spectrophotometer, and the miniaturized fiber-optic UV-Vis light source is employed as the light source. The research results and testing results of the prototype show that the new spectrophotometer based on the authors' new method is of miniaturization in volume(190 mm x 170 mm x 100 mm), can realize multi-wavelength-detection on-line, and is easily handled (touch screen control), and its performance accords with the Chinese national standard.

  5. 21 CFR 862.2850 - Atomic absorption spectrophotometer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Atomic absorption spectrophotometer for clinical... Laboratory Instruments § 862.2850 Atomic absorption spectrophotometer for clinical use. (a) Identification. An atomic absorption spectrophotometer for clinical use is a device intended to identify and...

  6. 21 CFR 862.2850 - Atomic absorption spectrophotometer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Atomic absorption spectrophotometer for clinical... Laboratory Instruments § 862.2850 Atomic absorption spectrophotometer for clinical use. (a) Identification. An atomic absorption spectrophotometer for clinical use is a device intended to identify and...

  7. 21 CFR 862.2850 - Atomic absorption spectrophotometer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Atomic absorption spectrophotometer for clinical... Laboratory Instruments § 862.2850 Atomic absorption spectrophotometer for clinical use. (a) Identification. An atomic absorption spectrophotometer for clinical use is a device intended to identify and...

  8. Contradictory Evidence on Wave Forcing of Tropical Upwelling in the Brewer-Dobson Circulation - A Suggested Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Tiehan; Geller, Marvin A.; Lin, Wuyin

    2011-01-01

    ERA-40 data are analyzed to demonstrate that wave forcing at lower latitudes plays a crucial role in driving the tropical upwelling portion of the Brewer-Dobson circulation. It is shown that subtropical wave forcing is correlated with tropical upwelling on both intraseasonal and interannual time scales when transient waves are taken into account, and that tropical wave forcing exerts its influence on tropical upwelling via its body force on the zonal mean flow.

  9. Enhanced Brewer Dobson circulation reduces N2O warming potential under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kracher, Daniela; Reick, Christian; Manzini, Elisa; Schultz, Martin; Stein, Olaf

    2016-04-01

    One implication of climate change is an enhancement of the Brewer Dobson circulation (BDC) triggering the exchange between troposphere and stratosphere. This change in atmospheric dynamics will have effects on atmospheric constituents, especially those with stratospheric sinks such as ozone depleting substances (ODS) including nitrous oxide (N2O). N2O is the most important currently emitted ODS, and the third most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas. Under enhanced BDC, more N2O is transported from the troposphere into the stratosphere, reaching higher altitudes, resulting in an increased N2O sink and a decrease in N2O lifetime. Some aspects of the effect of an enhanced BDC on lifetimes of ODS have already been examined with focus on its implications for ozone. In this study, we examine the effect of a decreasing N2O lifetime in light of climate change. To this end we conduct idealized transient global warming simulations with ECHAM, the atmosphere component of the MPI Earth System Model. As we prescribe surface flux boundary conditions for N2O, we are able to examine further implications of an enhanced N2O sink on atmospheric abundance, which is an important factor for e.g. generating concentration scenarios. Due the idealized simulation setup, we derive findings that are scenario-independent and can easily be extended to other global warming scenarios.

  10. Time-varying changes in the simulated structure of the Brewer-Dobson Circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garfinkel, Chaim I.; Aquila, Valentina; Waugh, Darryn W.; Oman, Luke D.

    2017-01-01

    A series of simulations using the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry Climate Model are analyzed in order to assess changes in the Brewer-Dobson Circulation (BDC) over the past 55 years. When trends are computed over the past 55 years, the BDC accelerates throughout the stratosphere, consistent with previous modeling results. However, over the second half of the simulations (i.e., since the late 1980s), the model simulates structural changes in the BDC as the temporal evolution of the BDC varies between regions in the stratosphere. In the mid-stratosphere in the midlatitude Northern Hemisphere, the BDC does not accelerate in the ensemble mean of our simulations despite increases in greenhouse gas concentrations and warming sea surface temperatures, and it even decelerates in one ensemble member. This deceleration is reminiscent of changes inferred from satellite instruments and in situ measurements. In contrast, the BDC in the lower stratosphere continues to accelerate. The main forcing agents for the recent slowdown in the mid-stratosphere appear to be declining ozone-depleting substance (ODS) concentrations and the timing of volcanic eruptions. Changes in both mean age of air and the tropical upwelling of the residual circulation indicate a lack of recent acceleration. We therefore clarify that the statement that is often made that climate models simulate a decreasing age throughout the stratosphere only applies over long time periods and is not necessarily the case for the past 25 years, when most tracer measurements were taken.

  11. Evaluating the advective Brewer-Dobson circulation in three reanalyses for the period 1979-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abalos, Marta; Legras, Bernard; Ploeger, Felix; Randel, William J.

    2015-08-01

    Most chemistry-climate models show an intensification of the Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC) in the stratosphere associated with increasing greenhouse gas emissions and ozone depletion in the last decades, but this trend remains to be confirmed in observational data. In this work the evolution of the advective BDC for the period 1979-2012 is evaluated and compared in three modern reanalyses (ERA-Interim, MERRA, and JRA-55). Three different estimates of the BDC are computed for each reanalysis, one based on the definition of the residual circulation and two indirect estimates derived from momentum and thermodynamic balances. The comparison among the nine estimates shows substantial uncertainty in the mean magnitude (˜40%) but significant common variability. The tropical upwelling series show variability linked to the stratospheric quasi-biennial oscillation and to El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and also reflect extreme events such as major sudden stratospheric warmings and volcanic eruptions. The trend analysis suggests a strengthening of tropical upwelling of around 2-5%/decade throughout the layer 100-10 hPa. The global spatial structure of the BDC trends provides evidence of an overall acceleration of the circulation in both hemispheres, with qualitative agreement among the estimates. The global BDC trends are mainly linked to changes in the boreal winter season and can be tracked to long-term increases in the resolved wave drag in both hemispheres.

  12. [Calibration transfer between two FTNIR spectrophotometers using SVR].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Long-lian; Li, Jun-hui; Zhang, Wen-juan; Wang, Jian-cai; Zhang, Lu-da

    2008-10-01

    In the present research, a set of maize powder samples was used to study the calibration transfer between two fourier transform near-infrared (FTNIR) spectrophotometers, and a method of moving window support vector regression machines (SVR) was used to correct the differences between the two instruments. Bruker Vector 22/N was referred to as "master" on which the maize protein calibration model was built. Bruker MPA was referred to as "slave" instrument. A transformation matrix was constructed based on the spectra of a sample set (for calibration transfer) measured on both instruments. After transfer, NIR spectra acquired on "slave" will appear as if they were measured on master instrument. The calibration model available for the master can then be used to predict the transformed spectra measured on the slave. The transfer parameters were computed as follows. For wavelength i, the absorbance vector obtained on the master instrument was regressed against the corresponding absorbance matrix of a spectral window obtained on the slave instrument. Method of SVR was used for regression Moving the wavelength i and corresponding window, the transfer parameter for each wavelength can be obtained. For the two FTNIR spectrophotometers, a window size of 31 wavelengths and a subset of 15 transfer samples were chosen to establish the SVR regression model between "master" and "slave". Applying the calibration model to the prediction samples after being corrected by the transfer parameters, a good transfer performance can be achieved. The correlation coefficient (r) is 0.9434, while the relative standard deviation (RSD) is 4.23%. These results suggest that the SVR method can be used to successfully transfer the calibration model for protein of maize developed on a FTNIR spectrophotometer to another.

  13. UV-observations with a Brewer spectrophotometer at Hohenpeissenberg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandersee, Winfried; Koehler, U.

    1994-01-01

    Regular spectral UV-B measurements with a Brewer spectrophotometer have been performed at Hohenpeissenberg since 1990. Intercomparison of the Brewer instrument with other UV-B monitoring devices have shown agreement to within plus or minus 10 percent. Comparisons of UV-B spectra measured on fair weather days reveal the well known increasing influence of ozone on UV-B irradiance with decreasing wavelengths. The integral amplification factor the erythemal irradiance reaches values up to 2.8, which can be diminished by increasing turbidity. The influence of cirrus cloud on the UV-B is also shown.

  14. Simple LED spectrophotometer for analysis of color information.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Sun; Kim, A-Hee; Oh, Han-Byeol; Goh, Bong-Jun; Lee, Eun-Suk; Kim, Jun-Sik; Jung, Gu-In; Baek, Jin-Young; Jun, Jae-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    A spectrophotometer is the basic measuring equipment essential to most research activity fields requiring samples to be measured, such as physics, biotechnology and food engineering. This paper proposes a system that is able to detect sample concentration and color information by using LED and color sensor. Purity and wavelength information can be detected by CIE diagram, and the concentration can be estimated with purity information. This method is more economical and efficient than existing spectrophotometry, and can also be used by ordinary persons. This contribution is applicable to a number of fields because it can be used as a colorimeter to detect the wavelength and purity of samples.

  15. Monitoring the stability of wavelength calibration of spectrophotometers.

    PubMed

    Korzun, W J; Miller, W G

    1986-01-01

    The difference in absorbance (delta A) between equimolar acid and alkaline solutions of methyl red, at a wavelength near the isosbestic point of the indicator, is reproducible. Furthermore, this delta A is sensitive to changes in the wavelength calibration of the instrument used to make the measurement. The delta A of methyl red can be used to monitor wavelength accuracy in both manual and automated spectrophotometric instruments. Although this measurement does not establish wavelength calibration, it is useful for monitoring the wavelength accuracy of previously calibrated, automated spectrophotometers that do not easily lend themselves to calibration checks by conventional techniques.

  16. Seeing the light: The SpecUP educational spectrophotometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, P. B. C.

    2016-09-01

    Spectrophotometry is a cross-cutting analytical technique, which finds use in disciplines ranging from chemistry to pharmacy, biochemistry, food science and physics. The SpecUP (Spectrophotometer of the University of Pretoria) is an educational spectrophotometer which was developed so that students could build their own instruments from components in a kit, and then utilise it to generate analytically useful results. This initiative allows for institutions to have more spectroscopy equipment available, as the SpecUP costs less than 40 as opposed to 2 000 which is the cost of an entry-level commercial instrument. This is of particular importance in a developing country context, where student numbers are typically high and resources are scarce. In addition, the SpecUP has moving parts and an open design which allows users to understand what is inside the "black box" of commercial instruments and to discover what happens when they adjust components, allowing for active, inquiry-based learning. The SpecUP user network currently spans South Africa, Tunisia, Namibia, Lesotho, Botswana, Kenya, Swaziland, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Ivory Coast, Egypt, Turkey and Italy.

  17. Variability in the Speed of the Brewer-Dobson Circulation as Observed by Aura/MLS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flury, Thomas; Wu, Dong L.; Read, W. G.

    2013-01-01

    We use Aura/MLS stratospheric water vapour (H2O) measurements as tracer for dynamics and infer interannual variations in the speed of the Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC) from 2004 to 2011. We correlate one-year time series of H2O in the lower stratosphere at two subsequent pressure levels (68 hPa, approx.18.8 km and 56 hPa, approx 19.9 km at the Equator) and determine the time lag for best correlation. The same calculation is made on the horizontal on the 100 hPa (approx 16.6 km) level by correlating the H2O time series at the Equator with the ones at 40 N and 40 S. From these lag coefficients we derive the vertical and horizontal speeds of the BDC in the tropics and extra-tropics, respectively. We observe a clear interannual variability of the vertical and horizontal branch. The variability reflects signatures of the Quasi Biennial Oscillation (QBO). Our measurements confirm the QBO meridional circulation anomalies and show that the speed variations in the two branches of the BDC are out of phase and fairly well anti-correlated. Maximum ascent rates are found during the QBO easterly phase. We also find that transport of H2O towards the Northern Hemisphere (NH) is on the average two times faster than to the Southern Hemisphere (SH) with a mean speed of 1.15m/s at 100 hPa. Furthermore, the speed towards the NH shows much more interannual variability with an amplitude of about 21% whilst the speed towards the SH varies by only 10 %. An amplitude of 21% is also observed in the variability of the ascent rate at the Equator which is on the average 0.2mm/s.

  18. Methane as a Diagnostic Tracer of Changes in the Brewer-Dobson Circulation of the Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remsberg, E. E.

    2015-01-01

    This study makes use of time series of methane (CH4/ data from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) to detect whether there were any statistically significant changes of the Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC) within the stratosphere during 1992-2005. The HALOE CH4 profiles are in terms of mixing ratio versus pressure altitude and are binned into latitude zones within the Southern Hemisphere and the Northern Hemisphere. Their separate time series are then analyzed using multiple linear regression (MLR) techniques. The CH4 trend terms for the Northern Hemisphere are significant and positive at 10 N from 50 to 7 hPa and larger than the tropospheric CH4 trends of about 3%decade(exp -1) from 20 to 7 hPa. At 60 N the trends are clearly negative from 20 to 7 hPa. Their combined trends indicate an acceleration of the BDC in the middle stratosphere of the Northern Hemisphere during those years, most likely due to changes from the effects of wave activity. No similar significant BDC acceleration is found for the Southern Hemisphere. Trends from HALOE H2O are analyzed for consistency. Their mutual trends with CH4 are anti-correlated qualitatively in the middle and upper stratosphere, where CH4 is chemically oxidized to H2O. Conversely, their mutual trends in the lower stratosphere are dominated by their trends upon entry to the tropical stratosphere. Time series residuals for CH4 in the lower mesosphere also exhibit structures that are anti-correlated in some instances with those of the tracer-like species HCl. Their occasional aperiodic structures indicate the effects of transport following episodic, wintertime wave activity. It is concluded that observed multi-year, zonally averaged distributions of CH4 can be used to diagnose major instances of wave-induced transport in the middle atmosphere and to detect changes in the stratospheric BDC.

  19. A book of ideas collected from Medical Hypotheses: Death can be cured by Roger Dobson.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2008-01-01

    A new collection of ideas from Medical Hypotheses by Roger Dobson is entitled Death can be cured and 99 other Medical Hypotheses. It consists of humorous summaries of Medical Hypotheses articles from the past 30 years. The book's humour derives mainly from the subject matter, although sometimes also from the 'unconventional' approach of the authors with respect to matters such as evidence, argument or inference. Medical Hypotheses has generated such a lot of apparently- or actually-bizarre ideas because it aims to be open to potentially revolutionary science. The journal's official stance is that more harm is done by a failure to publish one idea that might have been true, than by publishing a dozen ideas that turn out to be false. Bizarre ideas tend to catch attention, and may stimulate a valuable response--even when a paper is mostly-wrong. A paper may be flawed but still contain the germ of an idea that can be elaborated and developed. The journal review process is susceptible to both false positives and false negatives. False positives occur when we publish an idea that is wrong; false negatives occur when we fail to publish an important idea that is right, and a potential scientific breakthrough never happens. False positives are more obvious, since the paper will be ignored, refuted, or fail to be replicated--and often attracts criticism and controversy. Editors may therefore take the more cautious path of avoiding false positives more assiduously than false negatives; however, this policy progressively favours less-ambitious science. Consequently, in Medical Hypotheses the 'set point' of risk is nearer to the false positive end of the spectrum than for most journals - and the publication of many apparently-bizarre papers is a natural consequence of this policy.

  20. Gelled colloidal crystals as tunable optical filters for spectrophotometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugao, Yukihiro; Onda, Sachiko; Toyotama, Akiko; Takiguchi, Yoshihiro; Sawada, Tsutomu; Hara, Shigeo; Nishikawa, Suguru; Yamanaka, Junpei

    2016-08-01

    We examined the performance of charged colloidal crystals immobilized in a polymer gel as tunable optical filters. The colloidal crystals of charged silica particles (particle diameter = 121 nm; particle concentration = 3.5 vol %; and Bragg wavelength λB = 630-720 nm) were produced by unidirectional crystallization under a temperature gradient. Photocurable gelation reagents were dissolved in the sample beforehand; this enabled gel immobilization of the crystals under ultraviolet illumination. The crystals had dimensions of more than 25 mm2 in area and 1 mm in thickness, and spatial λB variations of less than 1%. Upon mechanical compression, λB values shifted linearly and reversibly over almost the entire visible spectrum. Using the gelled crystals as tunable optical filters, we measured the transmittance spectra of various samples and found them to be in close agreement with those determined using a spectrophotometer equipped with optical gratings.

  1. Characterisation of spectrophotometers used for spectral solar ultraviolet radiation measurements.

    PubMed

    Gröbner, J

    2001-01-01

    Spectrophotometers used for spectral measurements of the solar ultraviolet radiation need to be well characterised to provide accurate and reliable data. Since the characterisation and calibration are usually performed in the laboratory under conditions very different from those encountered during solar measurements, it is essential to address all issues concerned with the representativity of the laboratory characterisation with respect to the solar measurements. These include among others the instrument stability, the instrument linearity, the instrument responsivity, the wavelength accuracy, the spectral resolution, stray light rejection and the instrument dependence on ambient temperature fluctuations. These instrument parameters need to be determined often enough so that the instrument changes only marginally in the period between successive characterisations and therefore provides reliable data for the intervening period.

  2. The Spectrophotometer II: A Module on the Spectral Properties of Light. Tech Physics Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Nathaniel; And Others

    This module is designed to give the learner an understanding of the nature of light and how its properties are used in the design of spectrophotometers. Problems promote the use of spectrophotometers in qualitative analysis, the optical elements used in a monochromator, and the physical properties of the prism and the diffraction grating. Other…

  3. [Research on calibration transfer of NIR filter spectrophotometer].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia-wei; Zhou, Chang-le; Zhang, Ye-hui; Xu, Xiao-jie; Lin, Kun-hui; Ye, Nan

    2008-10-01

    Calibration transfer is an important issue to building up universal and comparable performance of spectrometer data in near infrared spectral analysis technology. Methods of slope/bias correction, direct standardization (DS), and target factor analysis (TFA) were used for the calibration transfer among five NIR filter spectrophotometers using maize as the samples. The effects of three calibration transfer methods were compared. The DS method has the best performance. The average calibration transfer difference of DS is 7.01%. This study also relates to the dependence of calibration transfer on the number of standardization samples. It was proven by experiment that the results of calibration transfer will be better as the number of samples is increased and will be generally stable when there are twenty standardization samples. However, the effect of calibration transfer attained by DS is degraded sharply when the number of standardization samples decreases to be below twenty. Moreover, slope/bias and TFA are not sensitive to the number of standardization samples.

  4. Using the World Primary Standard Dobson Spectrometer to Monitor the Stability of a Multi-Instrument Satellite Ozone Dataset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McPeters, R.D.; Oltmans, Samuel J.

    2000-01-01

    NASA is creating a long term satellite ozone time series by combining data from multiple instruments: Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) (1978 - 1993), Meteor 3 TOMS (1991 - 1994), Earth Probe TOMS (1996 - present), Nimbus 7 SB-JV (1978 - 1990), NOAA-9 Solar Backscatter UV Spectrometer (SBUV/2) (1984 - 1997), NOAA-11 SBUV/2 (1989 - 1994), and NOAA-14 SBUV/2 (1995 - present). The stability of individual data sets and possible instrument-to-instrument differences are best checked by comparison with ground-based measurements. We have examined the time dependence of the calibrations of these instruments by comparing satellite derived ozone with that measured by the world primary standard Dobson spectrometer No. 83. This instrument has been maintained since 1962 as a standard for total ozone to an uncertainty of plus or minus 0.5%. Measurements of AD pair ozone made with instrument No. 83 at Mauna Loa observatory most summers since 1979 were compared with coincident TOMS and SBUV(/2) ozone measurements. The comparison shows that the various instruments were stable relative to instrument No. 83 to within about plus or minus 1%, but that there are instrument-to-instrument biases of as much as 3%. Earth Probe TOMS, for example, is 1% to 2% high relative to Nimbus 7 TOMS when the world standard instrument is used as a transfer standard. Similar results are seen when comparisons are made with an ensemble of 41 Dobson stations throughout the world, demonstrating that the ensemble as a whole is stable despite the fact that many instruments within the ensemble have clear calibration changes.

  5. Results from laboratory and field testing of nitrate measuring spectrophotometers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snazelle, Teri T.

    2015-01-01

    In Phase II, the analyzers were deployed in field conditions at three diferent USGS sites. The measured nitrate concentrations were compared to discrete (reference) samples analyzed by the Direct UV method on a Shimadzu UV1800 bench top spectrophotometer, and by the National Environmental Methods Index (NEMI) method I-2548-11 at the USGS National Water Quality Laboratory. The first deployment at USGS site 0249620 on the East Pearl River in Hancock County, Mississippi, tested the ability of the TriOs ProPs (10-mm path length), Hach NITRATAX (5 mm), Satlantic SUNA (10 mm), and the S::CAN Spectro::lyser (5 mm) to accurately measure low-level (less than 2 mg-N/L) nitrate concentrations while observing the effect turbidity and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) would have on the analyzers' measurements. The second deployment at USGS site 01389005 Passaic River below Pompton River at Two Bridges, New Jersey, tested the analyzer's accuracy in mid-level (2-8 mg-N/L) nitrate concentrations. This site provided the means to test the analyzers' performance in two distinct matrices—the Passaic and the Pompton Rivers. In this deployment, three instruments tested in Phase I (TriOS, Hach, and SUNA) were deployed with the S::CAN Spectro::lyser (35 mm) already placed by the New Jersey Water Science Center (WSC). The third deployment at USGS site 05579610 Kickapoo Creek at 2100E Road near Bloomington, Illinois, tested the ability of the analyzers to measure high nitrate concentrations (greater than 8 mg-N/L) in turbid waters. For Kickapoo Creek, the HIF provided the TriOS (10 mm) and S::CAN (5 mm) from Phase I, and a SUNA V2 (5 mm) to be deployed adjacent to the Illinois WSC-owned Hach (2 mm). A total of 40 discrete samples were collected from the three deployment sites and analyzed. The nitrate concentration of the samples ranged from 0.3–22.2 mg-N/L. The average absolute difference between the TriOS measurements and discrete samples was 0.46 mg-N/L. For the combined data

  6. An ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer automation system. Part 2: User's guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, G. S.; Teuschler, J. M.; Budde, W. L.

    1982-07-01

    The Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrophotometer (UVVIS) automation system facilitates computer-automated procedures for the analysis of chlorophyll concentrations and color evaluations of waters, as well as the quality assurance of the spectrophotometer. In addition to various types of reports, this system also offers plots of chlorophyll and color scan data for either plotting or non-plotting terminals. The UVVIS system also provides manual data-entry facilities for chlorophyll analysis and for three-filter photometer color analysis. The UVVIS system is described from a user's perspective. It concentrates on how one interacts with the system, and on what system features one may use. Two other related publications are 'An Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrophotometer Automation System - Part I Functional Specifications,' and 'An Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrophotometer Automation System - Part III Program Documentation.'

  7. Narrowing of the Upwelling Branch of the Brewer-Dobson Circulation and Hadley Cell in Chemistry-Climate Model Simulations of the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Feng; Stolarski, Richard S.; Pawson, Steven; Newman, Paul A.; Waugh, Darryn

    2010-01-01

    Changes in the width of the upwelling branch of the Brewer-Dobson circulation and Hadley cell in the 21st Century are investigated using simulations from a coupled chemistry-climate model. In these model simulations the tropical upwelling region narrows in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. The narrowing of the Brewer-Dobson circulation is caused by an equatorward shift of Rossby wave critical latitudes and Eliassen-Palm flux convergence in the subtropical lower stratosphere. In the troposphere, the model projects an expansion of the Hadley cell's poleward boundary, but a narrowing of the Hadley cell's rising branch. Model results suggest that eddy forcing may also play a part in the narrowing of the rising branch of the Hadley cell.

  8. Narrowing of the Upwelling Branch of the Brewer-Dobson Circulation and Hadley Cell in Chemistry-Climate Model Simulations of the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Feng; Stolarski, Richard S.; Pawson, Steven; Newman, Paul A.; Waugh, Darryn

    2010-01-01

    Changes in the width of the upwelling branch of the Brewer-Dobson circulation and Hadley cell in the 21st Century are investigated using simulations from a coupled chemistry-climate model. In these model simulations the tropical upwelling region narrows in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. The narrowing of the Brewer-Dobson circulation is caused by an equatorward shift of Rossby wave critical latitudes and Eliassen-Palm flux convergence in the subtropical lower stratosphere. In the troposphere, the model projects an expansion of the Hadley cell's poleward boundary, but a narrowing of the Hadley rising branch. Model results suggest that the narrowing of the Hadley cell ascent is also eddy-driven.

  9. Retrieval of aerosol optical depth in the visible range with a Brewer spectrophotometer in Athens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diémoz, Henri; Eleftheratos, Kostas; Kazadzis, Stelios; Amiridis, Vassilis; Zerefos, Christos S.

    2016-04-01

    A MkIV Brewer spectrophotometer has been operating in Athens since 2004. Direct-sun measurements originally scheduled for nitrogen dioxide retrievals were reprocessed to provide aerosol optical depths (AODs) at a wavelength of about 440 nm. A novel retrieval algorithm was specifically developed and the resulting AODs were compared to those obtained from a collocated Cimel filter radiometer belonging to the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). The series are perfectly correlated, with Pearson's correlation coefficients being as large as 0.996 and with 90 % of AOD deviations between the two instruments being within the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) traceability limits. In order to reach such a high agreement, several instrumental factors impacting the quality of the Brewer retrievals must be taken into account, including sensitivity to the internal temperature, and the state of the external optics and pointing accuracy must be carefully checked. Furthermore, the long-term radiometric stability of the Brewer was investigated and the performances of in situ Langley extrapolations as a way to track the absolute calibration of the Brewer were assessed. Other sources of error, such as slight shifts of the wavelength scale, are discussed and some recommendations to Brewer operators are drawn. Although MkIV Brewers are rarely employed to retrieve AODs in the visible range, they represent a key source of information about aerosol changes in the past three decades and a potential worldwide network for present and future coordinated AOD measurements. Moreover, a better understanding of the AOD retrieval at visible wavelengths will also contribute in improving similar techniques in the more challenging UV range.

  10. Chemical Fouling Reduction of a Submersible Steel Spectrophotometer in Estuarine Environments Using a Sacrificial Zinc Anode.

    PubMed

    Tait, Zachary S; Thompson, Megan; Stubbins, Aron

    2015-07-01

    The availability of in situ spectrophotometers, such as the S::CAN spectro::lyser, has expanded the possibilities for high-frequency water quality data collection. However, biological and chemical fouling can degrade the performance of in situ spectrophotometers, especially in saline environments with rapid flow rates. A complex freshwater washing system has been previously designed to reduce chemical fouling for the S::CAN spectro::lyser spectrophotometer. In the current study, we present a simpler, cheaper alternative: the attachment of a sacrificial zinc anode. Results are presented detailing the S::CAN spectro::lyser performance with and without the addition of the sacrificial anode. Attachment of the zinc anode provided efficient corrosion protection during 2-wk deployments in a highly dynamic (average tidal range, 2.5 m) saline tidal saltmarsh creek at Groves Creek, Skidaway Institute of Oceanography, Savannah, GA.

  11. Objective evaluation of whiteness of cooked rice and rice cakes using a portable spectrophotometer.

    PubMed

    Goto, Hajime; Asanome, Noriyuki; Suzuki, Keitaro; Sano, Tomoyoshi; Saito, Hiroshi; Abe, Yohei; Chuba, Masaru; Nishio, Takeshi

    2014-03-01

    The whiteness of cooked rice and rice cakes was evaluated using a portable spectrophotometer with a whiteness index (WI). Also, by using boiled rice for measurement of Mido values by Mido Meter, it was possible to infer the whiteness of cooked rice without rice cooking. In the analysis of varietal differences of cooked rice, 'Tsuyahime', 'Koshihikari' and 'Koshinokaori' showed high whiteness, while 'Satonoyuki' had inferior whiteness. The whiteness of rice cakes made from 'Koyukimochi' and 'Dewanomochi' was higher than the whiteness of those made from 'Himenomochi' and 'Koganemochi'. While there was a significant correlation (r = 0.84) between WI values and whiteness scores of cooked rice by the sensory test, no correlation was detected between the whiteness scores and Mido values, indicating that the values obtained by a spectrophotometer differ from those obtained by a Mido Meter. Thus, a spectrophotometer may be a novel device for measurement of rice eating quality.

  12. On the Relationship Between the Trends in the Brewer-Dobson Circulation and the Southern Annular Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, F.; Newman, P. A.

    2008-05-01

    The relationship between the decadal trends in the Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC) and the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) is investigated using coupled chemistry-climate model simulations of the second half of the twentieth century. This paper focuses on the Southern Hemisphere (SH) summer season when changes in the BDC and SAM are the strongest. Results from the GEOS CCM reveal that the strengthening of the BDC is strongly projected onto the high index of the SAM. An increase in the downwelling in the Antarctic stratosphere is highly correlated with a decrease in the geopotential height and temperature in the Antarctic troposphere and a barotropic poleward shift of the tropospheric jet. The enhancement of the stratospheric planetary wave forcing that leads to a stronger BDC is largely due to the westerly shift of the zonal mean zonal wind in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere in the SH middle to high latitudes, which allows more vertical Eliassen-Palm flux propagating up into the stratosphere. Interaction between eddies and zonal mean flow in the tropopause region plays a key role in maintaining a high SAM index and coupling between the BDC and SAM. We found that changes in the wave - mean flow interaction in the upper troposphere in the austral summer are strongly correlated with the Antarctic lower stratospheric temperature in the late spring. This suggests that the Antarctic ozone depletion has an important effect on the tropospheric circulation. Results from two experiments, one with halogen fixed at the 1960 level and one with halogen emissions increasing at a rate 3%/year, will also be presented.

  13. Authentic Performance in the Instrumental Analysis Laboratory: Building a Visible Spectrophotometer Prototype

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Mark V.; Wilson, Erin

    2017-01-01

    In this work we describe an authentic performance project for Instrumental Analysis in which students designed, built, and tested spectrophotometers made from simple components. The project addressed basic course content such as instrument design principles, UV-vis spectroscopy, and spectroscopic instrument components as well as skills such as…

  14. [An optical-fiber-sensor-based spectrophotometer for soil non-metallic nutrient determination].

    PubMed

    He, Dong-xian; Hu, Juan-xiu; Lu, Shao-kun; He, Hou-yong

    2012-01-01

    In order to achieve rapid, convenient and efficient soil nutrient determination in soil testing and fertilizer recommendation, a portable optical-fiber-sensor-based spectrophotometer including immersed fiber sensor, flat field holographic concave grating, and diode array detector was developed for soil non-metallic nutrient determination. According to national standard of ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometer with JJG 178-2007, the wavelength accuracy and repeatability, baseline stability, transmittance accuracy and repeatability measured by the prototype instrument were satisfied with the national standard of III level; minimum spectral bandwidth, noise and excursion, and stray light were satisfied with the national standard of IV level. Significant linear relationships with slope of closing to 1 were found between the soil available nutrient contents including soil nitrate nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, available phosphorus, available sulfur, available boron, and organic matter measured by the prototype instrument compared with that measured by two commercial single-beam-based and dual-beam-based spectrophotometers. No significant differences were revealed from the above comparison data. Therefore, the optical-fiber-sensor-based spectrophotometer can be used for rapid soil non-metallic nutrient determination with a high accuracy.

  15. 21 CFR 862.2300 - Colorimeter, photometer, or spectrophotometer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... clinical use. 862.2300 Section 862.2300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2300 Colorimeter, photometer, or spectrophotometer for clinical...

  16. An Improved Flame Test for Qualitative Analysis Using a Multichannel UV-Visible Spectrophotometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blitz, Jonathan P.; Sheeran, Daniel J.; Becker, Thomas L.

    2006-01-01

    Qualitative analysis schemes are used in undergraduate laboratory settings as a way to introduce equilibrium concepts and logical thinking. The main component of all qualitative analysis schemes is a flame test, as the color of light emitted from certain elements is distinctive and a flame photometer or spectrophotometer in each laboratory is…

  17. Analog Spectrophotometers in the Digital Age: Data Acquisition on a Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nazarenko, Alexander Y.; Nazarenko, Natalie A.

    2005-01-01

    The interfacing of various spectrometers with analog output to a personal computer running Microsoft Excel in the Windows environment is described. This low cost data acquisition solution is a useful replacement of a chart recorder for various UV-visible and infrared scanning spectrophotometers.

  18. 21 CFR 862.2300 - Colorimeter, photometer, or spectrophotometer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2300 Colorimeter, photometer, or spectrophotometer for clinical use... instrument intended to measure radiant energy emitted, transmitted, absorbed, or reflected under controlled...) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the premarket notification procedures...

  19. Intercomparison of total ozone data from nimbus 7 TOMS, the Brewer UV spectrophotometer and SOAZ uv-visible spectrophotometer at high latitudes observatory, Sodankylae

    SciTech Connect

    Kyroe, E.

    1993-04-09

    The use of visible spectroscopy makes it possible to measure stratospheric constituents when Solar Zenith Angle (SZA) is as large as 93[degree]. This fact allows the daily measurements of ozone and other species throughout the year at and beyond the latitudes of the polar circle. Because the visible spectroscopy is a new technique in ozone monitoring, it is useful to compare it with the classical uv spectroscopy. At Sodankylae the widely-used SAOZ uv/visible spectrophotometer (Systeme d'Analyse et d'Observations Zenithales) and the modern uv spectrophotometer Brewer have been measuring side by side since early 1990. This paper reports the first long-term intercomparison between the daily total ozone values measured by the SAOZ and the Brewer covering the period from February 1990 to June 1991. As a reference the intercomparison between the Brewer and TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) instruments from May 1988 to December 1991 is also reported. 13 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Fiberoptic spectrophotometer

    DOEpatents

    Tans, Petrus P.; Lashof, Daniel A.

    1986-01-01

    A device for determining the relative composition of a sample of a gas by comparison of the Raman-scattered light of the sample with that of a known gas comprising: a means for passing a single light source through the unknown and the known gases, choppers to alternate the Raman-scattered light into a common light detection and measuring system, optical fiber networks for spatially mixing the resulting Raman scattered light from each sample and directing the mixed light to selective detectors, and a compiler to record the light intensity of each wavelength of Raman-scattered light as a function of the sample from which it originated.

  1. Fiberoptic spectrophotometer

    DOEpatents

    Tans, P.P.; Lashof, D.A.

    1986-12-23

    A device is described for determining the relative composition of a sample of a gas by comparison of the Raman-scattered light of the sample with that of a known gas comprising: a means for passing a single light source through the unknown and the known gases, choppers to alternate the Raman-scattered light into a common light detection and measuring system, optical fiber networks for spatially mixing the resulting Raman scattered light from each sample and directing the mixed light to selective detectors, and a compiler to record the light intensity of each wavelength of Raman-scattered light as a function of the sample from which it originated. 6 figs.

  2. Comprehensive comparison between different mathematical models for inter-instrument agreement of reflectance spectrophotometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Sidney Y.; Xin, John H.; Sin, K. M.

    2002-06-01

    In color-related industry, reflectance spectrophotometers are one of the most popular equipment for evaluating the color quality and color difference. Currently, manufacturers claim that the measurement difference between models of spectrophotometer was lower than 0.1 CIELAB ΔE units. But in our investigation, the color difference values range from 0.5 to 0.8 CIE ΔE units, which implies that the correction models must be applied to correct such errors. In our investigation, two models were also developed, so call "Lab Model" and "R-Model". These two models only involve simple regression calculation and the results also showed significant improvement. A comprehensive comparison between those models and the previously reported models is made. The comparison involves the use of BCRA-NPL Series II titles as the calibration data and the testing is based on teh Color Curve Paper Samples.

  3. Construction, calibration, and application of a compact spectrophotometer for EUV (300-2500-A) plasma diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Moos, H W; Chen, K I; Terry, J L; Fastie, W G

    1979-04-15

    A 400-mm normal incidence concave grating spectrophotometer, specifically designed for plasma diagnostics, is described. The wavelength drive, in which the grating is translated as well as rotated, is discussed in detail; the wavelength linearity of the sine drive and methods of improving it are analyzed. The instrument can be used in any orientation, is portable under vacuum, and quite rugged. The construction techniques utilized produce a high quality vacuum making the instrument compatible with both high purity plasma devices and synchrotron radiation sources. The photometric sensitivity calibration was found to be very stable during extended use on high temperature plasma devices. The applications of the instrument to diagnose plasmas in two tokamaks and a mirror device are described. A facility used for photometric calibration of extreme ultraviolet (lambda > 300-A) spectrophotometers against NBS standard diodes is described. The instrumental calibration obtained using this facility was checked by using synchrotron radiation from SURF II; very good agreement was observed.

  4. Evaluation of a simple spectrophotometer to quantify fluorine gas from a cyclotron target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janabi, M.; Childs, B. C.; Vandehey, N. T.; O'Neil, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    In an effort to more quickly evaluate the conditioning of our 18F-fluorine target and determine the amount of F2 that is released with each unload, a simple spectrophotometer was fabricated that aids in quantifying the I2 produced as a result of bubbling F2 gas into a solution of potassium iodide. A narrow range LED (470 ± 10 nm), combined with a wide range photodiode (320-1100 nm) were used to construct the simple spectrophotometer device. We were able to use this device to quantitate the amount of F2 released and obtained a good correlation (R2>0.991) with the values obtained by the "traditional" titration method.

  5. A stopped-flow dual-wavelength spectrophotometer suitable for the study of respiratory chains.

    PubMed Central

    Garland, P B; Littleford, S J; Haddock, B A

    1976-01-01

    The requirements for a dual-wavelength stopped-flow spectrophotometer to be suitable for studying limited quantities of respiratory-chain preparations are described. They can be met by a design using mainly commercially available components. The constructed apparatus has a dead-time of approx. 2.6 ms, a mixing ratio of 17:1, and a minimal requirement for 0.5 ml of mixed reactants per flow. PMID:938452

  6. Development of an ultra-compact mid-infrared attenuated total reflectance spectrophotometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong Soo; Lee, Tae-Ro; Yoon, Gilwon

    2014-07-01

    Mid-infrared spectroscopy has been an important tool widely used for qualitative analysis in various fields. However, portable or personal use is size and cost prohibitive for either Fourier transform infrared or attenuated total reflectance (ATR) spectrophotometers. In this study, we developed an ultra-compact ATR spectrophotometer whose frequency band was 5.5-11.0 μm. We used miniature components, such as a light source fabricated by semiconductor technology, a linear variable filter, and a pyro-electric array detector. There were no moving parts. Optimal design based on two light sources, a zippered configuration of the array detector and ATR optics could produce absorption spectra that might be used for qualitative analysis. A microprocessor synchronized the pulsed light sources and detector, and all the signals were processed digitally. The size was 13.5×8.5×3.5 cm3 and the weight was 300 grams. Due to its low cost, our spectrophotometer can replace many online monitoring devices. Another application could be for a u-healthcare system installed in the bathroom or attached to a smartphone for monitoring substances in body fluids.

  7. Flight of a UV spectrophotometer aboard Galileo 2, the NASA Convair 990 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellers, B.; Hunderwadel, J. L.; Hanser, F. A.

    1976-01-01

    An ultraviolet interference-filter spectrophotometer (UVS) fabricated for aircraft-borne use on the DOT Climatic Impact Assessment Program (CIAP) has been successfully tested in a series of flights on the NASA Convair 990, Galileo II. UV flux data and the calculated total ozone above the flight path are reported for several of the flights. Good agreement is obtained with the total ozone as deducted by integration of an ozone sonde vertical profile obtained at Wallops Island, Virginia near the time of a CV-990 underpass. Possible advantages of use of the UVS in the NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program are discussed.

  8. Monitoring of rain events with a submersible UV/VIS spectrophotometer.

    PubMed

    Maribas, Aurélien; Laurent, Nadège; Battaglia, Philippe; do Carmo Lourenço da Silva, Maria; Pons, Marie-Noële; Loison, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    A submersible UV/VIS spectrophotometer has been implemented on the pre-treatment unit of a large-scale wastewater treatment plant (350,000 person-equivalent) to monitor the rapid changes in total Suspended Solids and total Chemical Oxygen Demand occurring during rain events as well as injections of reject water from the sludge treatment train or wasted activated sludge. Calibration has been proven to be difficult for fast composition-varying streams but the device is able to monitor qualitatively sudden quality changes, in spite of the noise affecting the signal.

  9. Simulation of the BSDF measurement capabilities for various materials with GCMS-4 gonio-spectrophotometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanov, Dmitry D.; Potemin, Igor S.; Sokolov, Vadim G.; Garbul, Alexey A.; Voloboy, Alexey G.; Galaktionov, Vladimir A.

    2016-10-01

    Physically accurate lighting simulation requires precise account of the optical properties (BSDF) which are usually measured using gonio-spectrophotometer. In this paper, the authors analyzed the accuracy of BSDF shape measured for later use of measurements in special software for photorealistic visualization and virtual prototyping. Visual and numerical analysis were done. In the first case we look at the sample image rendered under specified lighting conditions, replacing its properties on measurement results and visually estimate the similarity (or difference). In the second case we compare the results of simulation of spatial or angular radiance distribution with results of corresponding radiometric measurements.

  10. Determining the Absorbance Spectra of Photochromic Materials From Measured Spectrophotometer Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downie, John D.

    1998-01-01

    If a two-state photochromic material is optically bleached, the absorbance spectrum data measured by a spectrophotometer is in general comprised of components from both the ground state and the upper state. Under general conditions, it may be difficult to extract the actual upper state spectrum from the spectrum of the bleached material. A simple algorithm is presented here for the recovery of the pure absorbance spectra of the upper state of a material such as bacteriorhodopsin, given single wavelength bleaching illumination, steady-state conditions, and accurate knowledge of phototransition rates and thermal decay rates.

  11. Hemispheric asymmetries and seasonality of mean age of air in the lower stratosphere: Deep versus shallow branch of the Brewer-Dobson circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konopka, Paul; Ploeger, Felix; Tao, Mengchu; Birner, Thomas; Riese, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Based on multiannual simulations with the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere, (CLaMS) driven by ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis, we discuss hemispheric asymmetries and the seasonality of the mean age of air (AoA) in the lower stratosphere. First, the planetary wave forcing of the Brewer-Dobson circulation is quantified in terms of Eliassen Palm flux divergence calculated by using the isentropic coordinate θ. While the forcing of the deep branch at θ = 1000 K (around 10 hPa) has a clear maximum in each hemisphere during the respective winter, the shallow branch of the Brewer-Dobson circulation, i.e., between 100 and 70 hPa (380 < θ < 420 K), shows almost opposite seasonality in both hemispheres with a pronounced minimum between June and September in the Southern Hemisphere. Second, we decompose the time-tendency of AoA into the contributions of the residual circulation and of eddy mixing by analyzing the zonally averaged tracer continuity equation. In the tropical lower stratosphere between ±30°, the air becomes younger during boreal winter and older during boreal summer. During boreal winter, the decrease of AoA due to tropical upwelling outweighs aging by isentropic mixing. In contrast, weaker isentropic mixing outweighs an even weaker upwelling in boreal summer and fall making the air older during these seasons. Poleward of 60°, the deep branch locally increases AoA and eddy mixing locally decreases AoA with the strongest net decrease during spring. Eddy mixing in the Northern Hemisphere outweighs that in the Southern Hemisphere throughout the year.

  12. Laser-plasma sourced, temperature dependent, VUV spectrophotometer using dispersive analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, R. H.

    1990-04-01

    We have developed a vacuum ultraviolet spectrophotometer with wide energy and temperature range coverage, utilizing a laser-plasma light source (LPLS), CO2-laser sample heating and time-resolved dispersive analysis. Reflection and transmission spectra can be taken from 1.7 to 40eV (31-700nm) on samples at 15-1800K with a time resolution of 20-400ns. These capabilities permit the study of the temperature dependence of the electronic structure, encompassing the effects of thermal lattice expansion and electron-phonon interaction, and changes in the electronic structure associated with equilibrium and metastable phase transitions and stress relaxation. The LPLS utilizes a samarium laser-plasma created by a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (500mJ/pulse) to produce high brightness, stable, continuum radiation. The spectrophotometer is of a single beam design using calibrated iridium reference mirrors. White light is imaged off the sample in to the entrance slit of a l-m polychromator. The resolution is 0.1 to 0.3nm. The dispersed light is incident on a focal plane phosphor, fiber-optic-coupled to an image-intensified reticon detector. For spectroscopy between 300 and 1800K, the samples are heated in situ with a 150 Watt CO2 laser. The signal to noise ratio in the VUV, for samples at 1800 K, is excellent. From 300 K to 15 K samples are cooled using a He cryostat.

  13. Instrumentation-related uncertainty of reflectance and transmittance measurements with a two-channel spectrophotometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peest, Christian; Schinke, Carsten; Brendel, Rolf; Schmidt, Jan; Bothe, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    Spectrophotometers are operated in numerous fields of science and industry for a variety of applications. In order to provide confidence for the measured data, analyzing the associated uncertainty is valuable. However, the uncertainty of the measurement results is often unknown or reduced to sample-related contributions. In this paper, we describe our approach for the systematic determination of the measurement uncertainty of the commercially available two-channel spectrophotometer Agilent Cary 5000 in accordance with the Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurements. We focus on the instrumentation-related uncertainty contributions rather than the specific application and thus outline a general procedure which can be adapted for other instruments. Moreover, we discover a systematic signal deviation due to the inertia of the measurement amplifier and develop and apply a correction procedure. Thereby we increase the usable dynamic range of the instrument by more than one order of magnitude. We present methods for the quantification of the uncertainty contributions and combine them into an uncertainty budget for the device.

  14. Online inspection of poultry carcasses using a visible/near-infrared spectrophotometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yud-Ren; Hruschka, William R.; Early, Howard

    1999-01-01

    The Instrumentation and Sensing Laboratory (ISL) has developed an industrial prototype diode-array visible/near-infrared (Vis/NIR) spectrophotometer system for inspecting poultry for diseased and defective carcasses on-line. The ISL design is based on the principle that wholesome and diseased and defective birds have different chemical compositions of tissues and may have different skin color. This visible/near- infrared spectrophotometer system has been tested off-line at 60 and 90 birds per minute. On-line trials of the visible/near-infrared chicken carcass inspection system were conducted during an 8-day period in a slaughter plant in New Holland, Pennsylvania, where spectra (470 - 960 nm) of 1174 normal and 576 abnormal (diseased and/or defective) chicken carcasses were measured. The instrument measured the spectra of veterinarian-selected carcasses as they passed on a processing line at a speed of 70 birds per minute. Classification models using principal component analysis as a data pretreatment for input into neural networks were able to classify the carcasses from the spectral data with a success rate of 95%. Data from 3 days can predict the subsequent two days' chickens with high accuracy. This accuracy was consistent with the results obtained previously on off-line studies. Thus, the method shows promise for separation of diseased and defective carcasses from wholesome carcasses in a partially automated inspection system. Details of the models using various training regimens are discussed.

  15. Measurements of Nitrogen Dioxide Total Column Amounts using a Brewer Double Spectrophotometer in Direct Sun Mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cede, Alexander; Herman, Jay; Richter, Andreas; Krotkov, Nickolay; Burrows, John

    2006-01-01

    NO2 column amounts were measured for the past 2 years at Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, using a Brewer spectrometer in direct Sun mode. A new bootstrap method to calibrate the instrument is introduced and described. This technique selects the cleanest days from the database to obtain the solar reference spectrum. The main advantage for direct Sun measurements is that the conversion uncertainty from slant column to vertical column is negligible compared to the standard scattered light observations where it is typically on the order of 100% (2sigma) at polluted sites. The total 2sigma errors of the direct Sun retrieved column amounts decrease with solar zenith angle and are estimated at 0.2 to 0.6 Dobson units (DU, 1 DU approx. equal to 2.7 10(exp 16) molecules cm(exp -2)), which is more accurate than scattered light measurements for high NO2 amounts. Measured NO2 column amounts, ranging from 0 to 3 DU with a mean of 0.7 DU, show a pronounced daily course and a strong variability from day to day. The NO2 concentration typically increases from sunrise to noon. In the afternoon it decreases in summer and stays constant in winter. As expected from the anthropogenic nature of its source, NO2 amounts on weekends are significantly reduced. The measurements were compared to satellite retrievals from Scanning Image Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY). Satellite data give the same average NO2 column and show a seasonal cycle that is similar to the ground data in the afternoon. We show that NO2 must be considered when retrieving aerosol absorption properties, especially for situations with low aerosol optical depth.

  16. A Possibility Study on Gender Recognition Method Using Near Infrared Ray Scanning Spectrophotometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishino, Satoshi; Ohshima, Kenji

    Male and female recognition is necessary to make security stronger and when various statistics on the visitor are taken in commercial facilities and so on. The conventional method of male and female recognition is currently determined by using the person's appearance, the person's dress and in such cases, the way of walking, the foot pressure, the hair type. But, these characteristics can be intentionally changed by human intervention or design. The proposed method gets a difference in the male's and female's characteristics by taking absorbance characteristic of the fat distribution of the person's cheek by near infrared ray scanning spectrophotometer. This is a male and female recognition based on the new concept idea which this is used for. Consequently, this can be used to recognize a male from a female even if a male turns himself into the female intentionally (and vice versa), because this method involves biometrics authentication.

  17. Design and evaluation of an imaging spectrophotometer incorporating a uniform light source.

    PubMed

    Noble, S D; Brown, R B; Crowe, T G

    2012-03-01

    Accounting for light that is diffusely scattered from a surface is one of the practical challenges in reflectance measurement. Integrating spheres are commonly used for this purpose in point measurements of reflectance and transmittance. This solution is not directly applicable to a spectral imaging application for which diffuse reflectance measurements are desired. In this paper, an imaging spectrophotometer design is presented that employs a uniform light source to provide diffuse illumination. This creates the inverse measurement geometry to the directional illumination/diffuse reflectance mode typically used for point measurements. The final system had a spectral range between 400 and 1000 nm with a 5.2 nm resolution, a field of view of approximately 0.5 m by 0.5 m, and millimeter spatial resolution. Testing results indicate illumination uniformity typically exceeding 95% and reflectance precision better than 1.7%.

  18. SphinX soft X-ray spectrophotometer: Science objectives, design and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gburek, S.; Sylwester, J.; Kowalinski, M.; Bakala, J.; Kordylewski, Z.; Podgorski, P.; Plocieniak, S.; Siarkowski, M.; Sylwester, B.; Trzebinski, W.; Kuzin, S. V.; Pertsov, A. A.; Kotov, Yu. D.; Farnik, F.; Reale, F.; Phillips, K. J. H.

    2011-06-01

    The goals and construction details of a new design Polish-led X-ray spectrophotometer are described. The instrument is aimed to observe emission from entire solar corona and is placed as a separate block within the Russian TESIS X- and EUV complex aboard the CORONAS-PHOTON solar orbiting observatory. SphinX uses silicon PIN diode detectors for high time resolution measurements of the solar spectra in the range 0.8-15 keV. Its spectral resolution allows for discerning more than hundred separate energy bands in this range. The instrument dynamic range extends two orders of magnitude below and above these representative for GOES. The relative and absolute accuracy of spectral measurements is expected to be better than few percent, as follows from extensive ground laboratory calibrations.

  19. Calibration of a laboratory spectrophotometer for specular light by means of stacked glass plates.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, W. A.; Richardson, A. J.

    1971-01-01

    Stacked glass plates have been used to calibrate a laboratory spectrophotometer, over the spectral range 0.5-2.5 microns, for specular light. The uncalibrated instrument was characterized by systematic errors when used to measure the reflectance and transmittance of stacked glass plates. Calibration included first, a determination of the reflectance of a standard composed of barium sulfate paint deposited on an aluminum plate; second, the approximation of the reflectance and transmittance residuals between observed and computed values by means of cubic equations; and, finally, the removal of the systematic errors by a computer. The instrument, after calibration, was accurate to 1% when used to measure the reflectance and transmittance of stacked glass plates.

  20. An upper-branch Brewer-Dobson circulation index for attribution of stratospheric variability and improved ozone and temperature trend analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, William T.; Kuchař, Aleš; Rozanov, Eugene V.; Staehelin, Johannes; Tummon, Fiona; Smith, Anne K.; Sukhodolov, Timofei; Stenke, Andrea; Revell, Laura; Coulon, Ancelin; Schmutz, Werner; Peter, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    We find that wintertime temperature anomalies near 4 hPa and 50° N/S are related, through dynamics, to anomalies in ozone and temperature, particularly in the tropical stratosphere but also throughout the upper stratosphere and mesosphere. These mid-latitude anomalies occur on timescales of up to a month, and are related to changes in wave forcing. A change in the meridional Brewer-Dobson circulation extends from the middle stratosphere into the mesosphere and forms a temperature-change quadrupole from Equator to pole. We develop a dynamical index based on detrended, deseasonalised mid-latitude temperature. When employed in multiple linear regression, this index can account for up to 60 % of the total variability of temperature, peaking at ˜ 5 hPa and dropping to 0 at ˜ 50 and ˜ 0.5 hPa, respectively, and increasing again into the mesosphere. Ozone similarly sees up to an additional 50 % of variability accounted for, with a slightly higher maximum and strong altitude dependence, with zero improvement found at 10 hPa. Further, the uncertainty on all equatorial multiple-linear regression coefficients can be reduced by up to 35 and 20 % in temperature and ozone, respectively, and so this index is an important tool for quantifying current and future ozone recovery.

  1. Development of a low-cost NIR instrument for minced meat analysis: Part 1 - Spectrophotometer and sample presentations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The feasibility of using a compact, low-cost NIR spectrophotometer to predict moisture (MC) and total fat content of minced pork was demonstrated. Results were compared with those obtained using two research type instruments with high signal to noise ratio (S/N). The NIR measuring head of the compac...

  2. Assessing the Engagement, Learning, and Overall Experience of Students Operating an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer with Remote Access Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erasmus, Daniel J.; Brewer, Sharon E.; Cinel, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The use of internet-based technologies in the teaching of laboratories has emerged as a promising education tool. This study evaluated the effectiveness of using remote access technology to operate an atomic absorption spectrophotometer in analyzing the iron content in a crude myoglobin extract. Sixty-two students were surveyed on their level of…

  3. Determination of nanomolar chromate in drinking water with solid phase extraction and a portable spectrophotometer.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jian; Yang, Bo; Byrne, Robert H

    2012-06-15

    Determination of chromate at low concentration levels in drinking water is an important analytical objective for both human health and environmental science. Here we report the use of solid phase extraction (SPE) in combination with a custom-made portable light-emitting diode (LED) spectrophotometer to achieve detection of chromate in the field at nanomolar levels. The measurement chemistry is based on a highly selective reaction between 1,5-diphenylcarbazide (DPC) and chromate under acidic conditions. The Cr-DPC complex formed in the reaction can be extracted on a commercial C18 SPE cartridge. Concentrated Cr-DPC is subsequently eluted with methanol and detected by spectrophotometry. Optimization of analytical conditions involved investigation of reagent compositions and concentrations, eluent type, flow rate (sample loading), sample volume, and stability of the SPE cartridge. Under optimized conditions, detection limits are on the order of 3 nM. Only 50 mL of sample is required for an analysis, and total analysis time is around 10 min. The targeted analytical range of 0-500 nM can be easily extended by changing the sample volume. Compared to previous SPE-based spectrophotometric methods, this analytical procedure offers the benefits of improved sensitivity, reduced sample consumption, shorter analysis time, greater operational convenience, and lower cost.

  4. A study of a sector spectrophotometer and auroral O+(2P-2D) emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swenson, G. R.

    1976-01-01

    The metastable O+(2P-2D) auroral emission was investigated. The neighboring OH contaminants and low intensity levels of the emission itself necessitated the evolution of an instrument capable of separating the emission from the contaminants and having a high sensitivity in the wavelength region of interest. A new type of scanning photometer was developed and its properties are discussed. The theoretical aspects of auroral electron interaction with atomic oxygen and the resultant O+(2P-2D) emissions were examined in conjunction with N2(+)1NEG emissions. Ground based measurements of O+(2P-2D) auroral emission intensities were made using the spatial scanning photometer (sector spectrophotometer). Simultaneous measurements of N2(+)1NEG sub 1,0 emission intensity were made in the same field of view using a tilting photometer. Time histories of the ratio of these two emissions made in the magnetic zenith during auroral breakup periods are given. Theories of I sub 7319/I sub 4278 of previous investigators were presented. A rocket measurement of N2(+)1NEG sub 0,0 and O+(2P-2D) emission in aurora was examined in detail and was found to agree with the ground based measurements. Theoretical examination resulted in the deduction of the electron impact efficiency generating O+(2P) and also suggests a large source of O+(2P) at low altitude. A possible source is charge exchange of N+(1S) with OI(3P).

  5. UV/VIS liquid-core optical fiber long lightpath absorption system for spectrophotometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Wu, Guanyan; Xu, Zheng; Liao, Yuanmin; He, Qushe; Wang, Jufang; Feng, Mingzhao

    1998-08-01

    A new type of UV/VIS liquid-core optical fiber long lightpath absorption system, which was designed as an accessory and spectrum range was extended to UV with minimum wavelength 220 micrometer to compatible with conventional UV/VIS spectrophotometer, was described with high assembling precision RSD 1.4% and absorption 1 to approximately 700 cm for choice. The coupling between source light radiation and liquid-core optical fiber was tested and optimum condition was obtained. The samples introduction was presented and UV transmission spectra of optical fiber was detected. The system was applied to detect elements Cd(II), Pd(II), F-1, Cr(VI), Cu(II), Fe(II), Ti(IV), Pt(II) and medicines Carbamazipine and Vitamin E by using of 105 cm long LCOF, and sensitivities were 42 to approximately 158 times as much as those by 1 cm conventional cell in length, detection limits (3(sigma) ) 0.14 to approximately 17 ng/ml, relative errors less than 11.2%, and recoveries 94 to approximately 102%.

  6. Optofluidic UV-Vis spectrophotometer for online monitoring of photocatalytic reactions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ning; Tan, Furui; Zhao, Yu; Tsoi, Chi Chung; Fan, Xudong; Yu, Weixing; Zhang, Xuming

    2016-01-01

    On-chip integration of optical detection units into the microfluidic systems for online monitoring is highly desirable for many applications and is also well in line with the spirit of optofluidics technology–fusion of optics and microfluidics for advanced functionalities. This paper reports the construction of a UV-Vis spectrophotometer on a microreactor, and demonstrates the online monitoring of the photocatalytic degradations of methylene blue and methyl orange under different flow rates and different pH values by detecting the intensity change and/or the peak shift. The integrated device consists of a TiO2-coated glass substrate, a PDMS micro-sized reaction chamber and two flow cells. By comparing with the results of commercial equipment, we have found that the measuring range and the sensitivity are acceptable, especially when the transmittance is in the range of 0.01–0.9. This integrated optofluidic device can significantly cut down the test time and the sample volume, and would provide a versatile platform for real-time characterization of photochemical performance. Moreover, its online monitoring capability may enable to access the usually hidden information in biochemical reactions like intermediate products, time-dependent processes and reaction kinetics. PMID:27352840

  7. The Soft X-ray Spectrophotometer SphinX for the CORONAS-Photon Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylwester, Janusz; Kowalinski, Miroslaw; Szymon, Gburek; Bakala, Jaroslaw; Kuzin, Sergey; Kotov, Yury; Farnik, Frantisek; Reale, Fabio

    The purpose, construction details and calibration results of the new design, Polish-led solar X-ray spectrophotometer SphinX will be presented. The instrument constitutes a part of the Russian TESIS X-ray and EUV complex aboard the forthcoming CORONAS-Photon solar mission to be launched later in 2008. SphinX uses Si-PIN detectors for high time resolution (down to 0.01 s) measurements of solar spectra in the energy range between 0.5 keV and 15 keV. The spectral resolution allows separating 256 individual energy channels in this range with particular groups of lines clearly distinguishable. Unprecedented accuracy of the instrument calibration at the XACT (Palermo) and BESSY (Berlin) synchrotron will allow for establishing the solar soft X-ray photometric reference system. The cross-comparison between SphinX and the other instruments presently in orbit like XRT on Hinode, RHESSI and GOES X-ray monitor, will allow for a precise determination of the coronal emission measure and temperature during both very low and very high activity periods. Examples of the detectors' ground calibration results as well as the calculated synthetic spectra will be presented. The operation of the instrument while in orbit will be discussed allowing for suggestions from other groups to be still included in mission planning.

  8. Optofluidic UV-Vis spectrophotometer for online monitoring of photocatalytic reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ning; Tan, Furui; Zhao, Yu; Tsoi, Chi Chung; Fan, Xudong; Yu, Weixing; Zhang, Xuming

    2016-06-01

    On-chip integration of optical detection units into the microfluidic systems for online monitoring is highly desirable for many applications and is also well in line with the spirit of optofluidics technology–fusion of optics and microfluidics for advanced functionalities. This paper reports the construction of a UV-Vis spectrophotometer on a microreactor, and demonstrates the online monitoring of the photocatalytic degradations of methylene blue and methyl orange under different flow rates and different pH values by detecting the intensity change and/or the peak shift. The integrated device consists of a TiO2-coated glass substrate, a PDMS micro-sized reaction chamber and two flow cells. By comparing with the results of commercial equipment, we have found that the measuring range and the sensitivity are acceptable, especially when the transmittance is in the range of 0.01–0.9. This integrated optofluidic device can significantly cut down the test time and the sample volume, and would provide a versatile platform for real-time characterization of photochemical performance. Moreover, its online monitoring capability may enable to access the usually hidden information in biochemical reactions like intermediate products, time-dependent processes and reaction kinetics.

  9. Euclid near infrared spectrophotometer instrument concept and first test results at the end of phase B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciaszek, Thierry; Ealet, Anne; Jahnke, Knud; Prieto, Eric; Barbier, Rémi; Mellier, Yannick; Costille, Anne; Ducret, Franck; Fabron, Christophe; Gimenez, Jean-Luc; Grange, Robert; Martin, Laurent; Rossin, Christelle; Pamplona, Tony; Vola, Pascal; Clémens, Jean Claude; Smadja, Gérard; Amiaux, Jérome; Barrière, Jean Christophe; Berthe, Michel; De Rosa, Adriano; Franceschi, Enrico; Morgante, Gianluca; Trifoglio, Massimo; Valenziano, Luca; Bonoli, Carlotta; Bortoletto, Favio; D'Alessandro, Maurizio; Corcione, Leonardo; Ligori, Sebastiano; Garilli, Bianca; Riva, Marco; Grupp, Frank; Vogel, Carolin; Hormuth, Felix; Seidel, Gregor; Wachter, Stefanie; Diaz, Jose Javier; Grañena, Ferran; Padilla, Cristobal; Toledo, Rafael; Lilje, Per B.; Solheim, Bjarte G. B.; Toulouse-Aastrup, Corinne; Andersen, Michael; Holmes, Warren; Israelsson, Ulf; Seiffert, Michael; Weber, Carissa; Waczynski, Augustyn; Laureijs, René J.; Racca, Giuseppe; Salvignol, Jean-Christophe; Strada, Paolo

    2014-08-01

    The Euclid mission objective is to understand why the expansion of the Universe is accelerating by mapping the geometry of the dark Universe by investigating the distance-redshift relationship and tracing the evolution of cosmic structures. The Euclid project is part of ESA's Cosmic Vision program with its launch planned for 2020. The NISP (Near Infrared Spectro-Photometer) is one of the two Euclid instruments and is operating in the near-IR spectral region (0.9-2μm) as a photometer and spectrometer. The instrument is composed of: - a cold (135K) optomechanical subsystem consisting of a SiC structure, an optical assembly (corrector and camera lens), a filter wheel mechanism, a grism wheel mechanism, a calibration unit and a thermal control system - a detection subsystem based on a mosaic of 16 Teledyne HAWAII2RG cooled to 95K with their front-end readout electronic cooled to 140K, integrated on a mechanical focal plane structure made with Molybdenum and Aluminum. The detection subsystem is mounted on the optomechanical subsystem structure - a warm electronic subsystem (280K) composed of a data processing / detector control unit and of an instrument control unit that interfaces with the spacecraft via a 1553 bus for command and control and via Spacewire links for science data This presentation describes the architecture of the instrument at the end of the phase B (Preliminary Design Review), the expected performance, the technological key challenges and preliminary test results obtained on a detection system demonstration model.

  10. A combination spectrophotometer for measuring electronic absorption, natural circular dichroism, and magnetic circular dichroism spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Policke, Timothy A.; Schreiner, Anton F.; Trexler, Jack W.; Knopp, James A.

    1990-08-01

    The design, construction, and evaluation of a combination spectrometer for measuring electronic absorption (EA), natural circular dichroism (CD), and magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) are described. Around the optical components of a JASCO ORD/UV-5 spectropolarimeter, a new EA/CD/MCD instrument was built with the realized intentions of increasing sensitivity and upgrading the analog tube type circuitry to a solid-state digitally, computer-controlled spectrophotometer. It is a flexible, dynamic, and user-controllable system, interfaced to an Apple II Plus computer, for studying instrument and signal parameters. The monochromator (M), photoelastic modulator (PEM), photomultiplier tube applied voltage (PMHV), and photomultiplier tube dc output current (PMdc) are under complete and independent software control. Our system has two unique aspects for obtaining the circular dichroism. First, the ac signal is measured with a voltage-to-frequency (V/f) converter; and, second, both the ac and the dc are independently recorded and their ratio is digitally calculated. This design has several advantages which include the elimination of voltage divider integrated circuits or division electronics, a wide dynamic range, a greater precision of ac values at low percentages of full scale, and the capability of continuous integration over long time periods. Also, both types of spectra, EA and CD or MCD, are obtained from the current output of the PM. This paper not only describes the design of the instrument for obtaining the two types of spectra but also compares four methods of obtaining the circular dichroism. Sensitivities of ˜1×10-7ΔA units are achievable as determined by measuring CD spectra of the well-known enantiomer (+)-[Co(en)3]3+.

  11. PHASES: a concept for a satellite-borne ultra-precise spectrophotometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Burgo, C.; Allende Prieto, C.; Peacocke, T.

    2010-01-01

    The Planet Hunting and Asteroseismology Explorer Spectrophotometer, PHASES, is a concept for a space-borne instrument to obtain flux calibrated spectra and measure micro-magnitude photometric variations of nearby stars. The science drivers are the determination of the physical properties of stars and the characterisation of planets orbiting them, to very high precision. PHASES, intended to be housed in a micro-satellite, consists of a 20 cm aperture modified Baker telescope feeding two detectors: the tracking detector, with a field of 1 degree square, and the science detector for performing spectrophotometry. The optical design has been developed with the primary goal of avoiding stray light on the science detector, while providing spectra in the wavelength range 370-960 nm with a resolving power that ranges from ~ 900 at 370 nm to ~ 200 at 960 nm. The signal to noise per resolution element obtained for a V = 10 magnitude star in a 1 minute integration varies between ~ 35 and 140. An analysis of the light curve constrains the radii of the planets relative to their parent stars' radii, which are, in turn, tightly constrained by the combination of absolute spectrophotometry and trigonometric parallaxes. The provisional optical design satisfies all the scientific requirements, including a ~ 1% rms flux calibration strategy based on observations of bright A-type stars and model atmospheres, allowing the determination of stellar angular diameters for nearby solar-like stars to 0.5%. This level of accuracy will be propagated to the stellar radii for the nearest stars, with highly reliable Hipparcos parallaxes, and more significantly, to the planetary radii.

  12. EUV SpectroPhotometer (ESP) in Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE): Algorithms and Calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didkovsky, L.; Judge, D.; Wieman, S.; Woods, T.; Jones, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Extreme ultraviolet SpectroPhotometer (ESP) is one of five channels of the Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). The ESP channel design is based on a highly stable diffraction transmission grating and is an advanced version of the Solar Extreme ultraviolet Monitor (SEM), which has been successfully observing solar irradiance onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) since December 1995. ESP is designed to measure solar Extreme UltraViolet (EUV) irradiance in four first-order bands of the diffraction grating centered around 19 nm, 25 nm, 30 nm, and 36 nm, and in a soft X-ray band from 0.1 to 7.0 nm in the zeroth-order of the grating. Each band’s detector system converts the photo-current into a count rate (frequency). The count rates are integrated over 0.25-second increments and transmitted to the EVE Science and Operations Center for data processing. An algorithm for converting the measured count rates into solar irradiance and the ESP calibration parameters are described. The ESP pre-flight calibration was performed at the Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility of the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Calibration parameters were used to calculate absolute solar irradiance from the sounding-rocket flight measurements on 14 April 2008. These irradiances for the ESP bands closely match the irradiance determined for two other EUV channels flown simultaneously: EVE’s Multiple EUV Grating Spectrograph (MEGS) and SOHO’s Charge, Element and Isotope Analysis System/ Solar EUV Monitor (CELIAS/SEM).

  13. Improvised design of THz spectrophotometer using LT-GaAs photoconductive antennas, pyroelectric detector and band-pass filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottamchetty, V.; Chaudhary, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    We report the improvised design of LT-GaAs photoconductive antenna and pyroelectric detector-based terahertz (THz) spectrophotometer by introducing band-pass filters. The spectrophotometer provides direct optical/absorption information of materials in THz domain without using any signal processing devices (such as lock-in amplifier) and delay arrangement, etc., which are required in conventional THz spectrometer. Moreover, obtained absorption results from spectrometer are less affected by laser fluctuations and inherent noises of the detector. The laser pulses of duration 15 fs at 80 MHz repetition rate are utilized in this spectrometer to generate THz radiation with good conversion efficiency ( η) of the order 3 × 10-3. In addition, emphasis is also given to understand the effect of single- and two-photon absorption on generated THz power with respect to incident laser power density. Absorption properties of packing materials such as paper, Teflon, transparency and rubber (eraser) sheets are investigated in terms of their attenuation coefficients and absorbance at 0.5 and 1.5 THz region in our newly designed THz spectrophotometer. Our study demonstrates the significant information about their attenuation coefficients lying between 300 and 5000 dB/m. The attenuation in THz power has been measured as a function of the paper thickness (0.3-1.5 mm). The obtained results show the exponential growth in absorption with respect to paper thickness.

  14. On the reduced lifetime of nitrous oxide due to climate change induced acceleration of the Brewer-Dobson circulation as simulated by the MPI Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kracher, D.; Manzini, E.; Reick, C. H.; Schultz, M. G.; Stein, O.

    2014-12-01

    Greenhouse gas induced climate change will modify the physical conditions of the atmosphere. One of the projected changes is an acceleration of the Brewer-Dobson circulation in the stratosphere, as it has been shown in many model studies. This change in the stratospheric circulation consequently bears an effect on the transport and distribution of atmospheric components such as N2O. Since N2O is involved in ozone destruction, a modified distribution of N2O can be of importance for ozone chemistry. N2O is inert in the troposphere and decays only in the stratosphere. Thus, changes in the exchange between troposphere and stratosphere can also affect the stratospheric sink of N2O, and consequently its atmospheric lifetime. N2O is a potent greenhouse gas with a global warming potential of currently approximately 300 CO2-equivalents in a 100-year perspective. A faster decay in atmospheric N2O mixing ratios, i.e. a decreased atmospheric lifetime of N2O, will also reduce its global warming potential. In order to assess the impact of climate change on atmospheric circulation and implied effects on the distribution and lifetime of atmospheric N2O, we apply the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model, MPI-ESM. MPI-ESM consists of the atmospheric general circulation model ECHAM, the land surface model JSBACH, and MPIOM/HAMOCC representing ocean circulation and ocean biogeochemistry. Prognostic atmospheric N2O concentrations in MPI-ESM are determined by land N2O emissions, ocean-atmosphere N2O exchange and atmospheric tracer transport. As stratospheric chemistry is not explicitly represented in MPI-ESM, stratospheric decay rates of N2O are prescribed from a MACC MOZART simulation. Increasing surface temperatures and CO2 concentrations in the stratosphere impact atmospheric circulation differently. Thus, we conduct a series of transient runs with the atmospheric model of MPI-ESM to isolate different factors governing a shift in atmospheric circulation. From those transient

  15. Assessing the engagement, learning, and overall experience of students operating an atomic absorption spectrophotometer with remote access technology.

    PubMed

    Erasmus, Daniel J; Brewer, Sharon E; Cinel, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The use of internet-based technologies in the teaching of laboratories has emerged as a promising education tool. This study evaluated the effectiveness of using remote access technology to operate an atomic absorption spectrophotometer in analyzing the iron content in a crude myoglobin extract. Sixty-two students were surveyed on their level of engagement, learning, and overall experience. Feedback from students suggests that the use of remote access technology is effective in teaching students the principles of chemical analysis by atomic absorption spectroscopy.

  16. Comparison of UV-B measurements performed with a Brewer spectrophotometer and a new UVB-1 broad band detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bais, Alkiviadis F.; Zerefos, Christos S.; Meleti, Charicleia; Ziomas, Ioannis C.

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of the UV-B erythemal dose, based on solar spectra acquired with a Brewer spectrophotometer at Thessaloniki, Greece, are compared to measurements performed with the recently introduced, by the Yankee Environmental Systems, (Robertson type) broad band solar UV-B detector. The spectral response function of this detector, when applied to the Brewer spectral UV-B measurements, results in remarkably comparable estimates of the erythemal UV-B dose. The two instruments provide similar information on the UV-B dose when they are cross-examined under a variety of meteorological and atmospheric conditions and over the a large range of solar zenith angles and total ozone.

  17. Development of a low cost infrared spectrophotometer and a Matlab program to detect terrestrial and extraterrestrial water vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, Lakshmi

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a low cost infrared spectrophotometer to measure terrestrial or extraterrestrial water vapor and to create a Matlab program to analyze the absorption data. Narrow bandwidth infrared filters of 940 nm and 1000 nm were used to differentially detect absorption due to vibrational frequency of water vapor. Light travelling through a collimating tube with varying humidity was allowed to pass through respective filters. The intensity of exiting light was measured using a silicon photodiode connected to a multimeter and a laptop with Matlab program. Absorption measured (decrease in voltage) using the 940nm filter was significantly higher with increasing humidity (p less than 0.05) demonstrating that the instrument can detect and relatively quantify water vapor. A Matlab program was written to comparatively graph absorption data. In conclusion, a novel, low cost infrared spectrophotometer was successfully created to detect water vapor and serves as a prototype to detect water on the moon. This instrument can also assist in teaching and learning spectrophotometry.

  18. Comparison of Three Near Infrared Spectrophotometers for Infestation Detection in Wild Blueberries Using Multivariate Calibration Models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) method for automated non-destructive detection of insect infestation internal to small fruit is desirable because of the zero-to-zero tolerance of the fresh and processed fruit markets. Three NIRS instruments: the Ocean Optics SD2000, the Perten DA7000 and the Ori...

  19. Simultaneous detection of the absorption spectrum and refractive index ratio with a spectrophotometer: monitoring contaminants in bioethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontturi, V.; Hyvärinen, S.; García, A.; Carmona, R.; Murzin, D. Yu; Mikkola, J.-P.; Peiponen, K.-E.

    2011-05-01

    The optical properties of a biofuel resulting from the fungi-treated lignocellulosic biomass in an ethanol matrix were studied. The matrix simulates the case that the bioethanol is contaminated by sugars, water and colour pigments that reduce the quality of the biofuel and compromise the combustion process. It is suggested that by applying a spectrophotometer only, it is possible to obtain valid information, i.e. the spectral features of the contaminants as well as the refractive index ratio of bioethanol. This allows for simultaneous purity and density detection of biomass-derived liquids or liquid biofuels, in comparison to a reference representing an ideal bioethanol (pure ethyl alcohol, ethanol of 99.5% purity (v/v)).

  20. X-ray spectrophotometer SphinX and particle spectrometer STEP-F of the satellite experiment CORONAS-PHOTON. Preliminary results of the joint data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudnik, O. V.; Podgorski, P.; Sylwester, J.; Gburek, S.; Kowalinski, M.; Siarkowski, M.; Plocieniak, S.; Bakala, J.

    2012-04-01

    A joint analysis is carried out of data obtained with the help of the solar X-ray SphinX spectrophotometer and the electron and proton satellite telescope STEP-F in May 2009 in the course of the scientific space experiment CORONAS-PHOTON. In order to determine the energies and particle types, in the analysis of spectrophotometer records data are used on the intensities of electrons, protons, and secondary γ-radiation, obtained by the STEP-F telescope, which was located in close proximity to the SphinX spectrophotometer. The identical reaction of both instruments is noted at the intersection of regions of the Brazilian magnetic anomaly and the Earth's radiation belts. It is shown that large area photodiodes, serving as sensors of the X-ray spectrometer, reliably record electron fluxes of low and intermediate energies, as well as fluxes of the secondary gamma radiation from construction materials of detector modules, the TESIS instrument complex, and the spacecraft itself. The dynamics of electron fluxes, recorded by the SphinX spectrophotometer in the vicinity of a weak geomagnetic storm, supplements the information about the processes of radial diffusion of electrons, which was studied using the STEP-F telescope.

  1. Measurement of carboxyhemoglobin and total hemoglobin by five specialized spectrophotometers (CO-oximeters) in comparison with reference methods.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, J J; Vreman, H J; Stevenson, D K; Van Kessel, A L

    1993-08-01

    We measured total hemoglobin (CtHb) and carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) in 100 patients' blood samples by using five specialized spectrophotometers (CO-oximeters)--IL 482 CO-Oximeter, Corning 2500 CO-oximeter, Radiometer OSM 3 Hemoximeter, Corning 270 CO-oximeter, and the AVL 912 CO-Oxylite--and compared the results with those obtained with the manual cyanmethemoglobin method and a gas-chromatographic (GC) method, respectively. For the CtHb measurements, the differences between the cyanmethemoglobin method and the CO-oximeters were not clinically important for any model. For the blood COHb measurements, the direction of the bias relative to GC was dependent on COHb concentration. In general, the CO-oximeters underestimated COHb concentration for COHb > 2.5% of total hemoglobin but overestimated COHb concentration for COHb < or = 2.5%. We conclude that all five CO-oximeters compared favorably with the reference methods for CtHb and for high concentrations of COHb. However, the inaccuracy of CO-oximeters for low-concentration (< or = 2.5%) COHb measurements may make these instruments unsuitable for some applications.

  2. Loop system for creating jet fuel vapor standards used in the calibration of infrared spectrophotometers and gas chromatographs.

    PubMed

    Reboulet, James; Cunningham, Robert; Gunasekar, Palur G; Chapman, Gail D; Stevens, Sean C

    2009-02-01

    A whole body inhalation study of mixed jet fuel vapor and its aerosol necessitated the development of a method for preparing vapor only standards from the neat fuel. Jet fuel is a complex mixture of components which partitions between aerosol and vapor when aspirated based on relative volatility of the individual compounds. A method was desired which could separate the vapor portion from the aerosol component to prepare standards for the calibration of infrared spectrophotometers and a head space gas chromatography system. A re-circulating loop system was developed which provided vapor only standards whose composition matched those seen in an exposure system. Comparisons of nominal concentrations in the exposure system to those determined by infrared spectrophotometry were in 92-95% agreement. Comparison of jet fuel vapor concentrations determined by infrared spectrophotometry compared to head space gas chromatography yielded a 93% overall agreement in trial runs. These levels of agreement show the loop system to be a viable method for creating jet fuel vapor standards for calibrating instruments.

  3. Intersstellar absorption lines between 2000 and 3000 A in nearby stars observed with BUSS. [Balloon Borne Ultraviolet Spectrophotometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Boer, K. S.; Lenhart, H.; Van Der Hucht, K. A.; Kamperman, T. M.; Kondo, Y.

    1986-01-01

    Spectra obtained between 2000 and 3000 A with the Balloon Borne Ultraviolet Spectrophotometer (BUSS) payload were examined for interstellar absorption lines. In bright stars, with spectral types between O9V and F5V, such lines were measured of Mg I, Mg II, Cr II, Mn II, Fe II and Zn II, with Cr II and Zn II data of especially high quality. Column densities were derived and interstellar abundances were determined for the above species. It was found that metal depletion increases with increasing E(B-V); Fe was most affected and Zn showed a small depletion for E(B-V) greater than 0.3 towards Sco-Oph. The metal column densities, derived for Alpha-And, Kappa-Dra, Alpha-Com, Alpha-Aql, and 29 Cyg were used to infer N(H I). It was shown that the ratio of Mg I to Na I is instrumental in determining the ionization structure along each line of sight. The spectra of Aql stars confirms the presence of large gas densities near Alpha-Oph. Moreover, data indicated that the Rho-Oph N(H I) value needs to be altered to 35 x 10 to the 20th/sq cm, based on observed ion ratios and analysis of the Copernicus L-alpha profile.

  4. Improved fiberoptic spectrophotometer

    DOEpatents

    Tans, P.P.; Lashof, D.A.

    1985-04-02

    The present invention allows for accurate spectrophotmetric comparison of the Raman scattering from a sample gas with the Raman scattering from a known gas via a novel fiber optic network. The need for complicated electronic of optical circuit balancing, control, or error compensation circuitry is eliminated. The laser cavity is split into two regions, one of which houses the plasma discharge and produces laser power, and the other of which is adapted to house tubes containing the gas samples. Light from the laser source is beamed simultaneously through samples of the reference gas and the unknown gas, and Raman-scattered light is emitted. The Raman-scattered light from the known and unknown mixtures is then alternately passed through a fiber optic network where the various wavelengths are spatially mixed. The mixed light is then passed into a system of light detectors, each of which are adapted to measure one of the wavelengths of light representing a constituent element of the gases. When the test is complete, each gas sample can be assigned a Raman-scattered profile from the data consisting of the ratios each of the constituent elements bear to each other. (LEW)

  5. A novel statistical approach to detect differences in fat and protein test values among mid-infrared spectrophotometers.

    PubMed

    Adams, Michael C; Barbano, David M

    2015-06-01

    Our objective was to develop a statistical approach that could be used to determine whether a handler's fat, protein, or other solids mid-infrared (MIR) spectrophotometer test values were different, on average, from a milk regulatory laboratory's MIR test values when split-sampling test values are not available. To accomplish this objective, the Proc GLM procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) was used to develop a multiple linear regression model to evaluate 4 mo of MIR producer payment testing data (112 to 167 producers per month) from 2 different MIR instruments. For each of the 4 mo and each of the 2 components (fat or protein), the GLM model was Response=Instrument+Producer+Date+2-Way Interactions+3-Way Interaction. Instrument was significant in determining fat and protein tests for 3 of the 4 mo, and Producer was significant in determining fat and protein tests for all 4 mo. This model was also used to establish fat and protein least significant differences (LSD) between instruments. Fat LSD between instruments ranged from 0.0108 to 0.0144% (α=0.05) for the 4 mo studied, whereas protein LSD between instruments ranged from 0.0046 to 0.0085% (α=0.05). In addition, regression analysis was used to determine the effects of component concentration and date of sampling on fat and protein differences between 2 MIR instruments. This statistical approach could be performed monthly to document a regulatory laboratory's verification that a given handler's instrument has obtained a different test result, on average, from that of the regulatory laboratory's and that an adjustment to producer payment may be required.

  6. Automatic gonio-spectrophotometer for the absolute measurement of the spectral BRDF at in- and out-of-plane and retroreflection geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabal, A. M.; Ferrero, A.; Campos, J.; Fontecha, J. L.; Pons, A.; Rubiño, A. M.; Corróns, A.

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents the description and the characterization of the gonio-spectrophotometer GEFE (the acronym for 'Gonio-EspectroFotómetro Español'). This device has been designed and built for the low-uncertainty absolute measurement of the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). It comprises a fixed, collimated and uniform light source, a six-axis robot-arm to rotate the sample and a spectroradiometer that may revolve around the sample to be able to vary the source-to-detector angular separation. This gonio-spectrophotometer makes it possible to perform spectral measurements in the visible range, both inside and outside the incidence plane, as well as measurements in retroreflection conditions. This fully automated system is able to measure autonomously a sample's complete spectral BRDF (comprising around 1000 different angular configurations) in less than 4 h.

  7. Support Vector Machine and Artificial Neural Network Models for the Classification of Grapevine Varieties Using a Portable NIR Spectrophotometer

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Salvador; Tardaguila, Javier; Fernández-Novales, Juan; Diago, María P.

    2015-01-01

    The identification of different grapevine varieties, currently attended using visual ampelometry, DNA analysis and very recently, by hyperspectral analysis under laboratory conditions, is an issue of great importance in the wine industry. This work presents support vector machine and artificial neural network’s modelling for grapevine varietal classification from in-field leaf spectroscopy. Modelling was attempted at two scales: site-specific and a global scale. Spectral measurements were obtained on the near-infrared (NIR) spectral range between 1600 to 2400 nm under field conditions in a non-destructive way using a portable spectrophotometer. For the site specific approach, spectra were collected from the adaxial side of 400 individual leaves of 20 grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) varieties one week after veraison. For the global model, two additional sets of spectra were collected one week before harvest from two different vineyards in another vintage, each one consisting on 48 measurement from individual leaves of six varieties. Several combinations of spectra scatter correction and smoothing filtering were studied. For the training of the models, support vector machines and artificial neural networks were employed using the pre-processed spectra as input and the varieties as the classes of the models. The results from the pre-processing study showed that there was no influence whether using scatter correction or not. Also, a second-degree derivative with a window size of 5 Savitzky-Golay filtering yielded the highest outcomes. For the site-specific model, with 20 classes, the best results from the classifiers thrown an overall score of 87.25% of correctly classified samples. These results were compared under the same conditions with a model trained using partial least squares discriminant analysis, which showed a worse performance in every case. For the global model, a 6-class dataset involving samples from three different vineyards, two years and leaves

  8. Gluing interface qualification test results and gluing process development of the EUCLID near-infrared spectro-photometer optical assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottaghibonab, A.; Thiele, H.; Gubbini, E.; Dubowy, M.; Gal, C.; Mecsaci, A.; Gawlik, K.; Vongehr, M.; Grupp, F.; Penka, D.; Wimmer, C.; Bender, R.

    2016-07-01

    The Near Infrared Spectro-Photometer Optical assembly (NIOA) of EUCLID satellite requires high precision large lens holders with different lens materials, shapes and diameters. The aspherical lenses are glued into their separate CTE matched lens holder. The gluing of the lenses in their holder with 2K epoxy is selected as bonding process to minimize the stress in the lenses to achieve the required surface form error (SFE) performance (32nm) and lens position stability (+/-10μm) due to glue shrinkage. Adhesive shrinkage stress occurs during the glue curing at room temperature and operation in cryogenic temperatures, which might overstress the lens, cause performance loss, lens breakage or failure of the gluing interface. The selection of the suitable glue and required bonding parameters, design and qualification of the gluing interface, development and verification of the gluing process was a great challenge because of the low TRL and heritage of the bonding technology. The different material combinations (CaF2 to SS316L, LF5G15 and S-FTM16 to Titanium, SUPRASIL3001 to Invar M93), large diameter (168mm) and thin edge of the lenses, cryogenic nonoperational temperature (100K) and high performance accuracy of the lenses were the main design driver of the development. The different coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) between lens and lens holder produce large local mechanical stress. As hygroscopic crystal calcium fluoride (CaF2) is very sensitive to moisture therefore an additional surface treatment of the gluing area is necessary. Extensive tests e.g glue handling and single lap shear tests are performed to select the suitable adhesive. Interface connection tests are performed to verify the feasibility of selected design (double pad design), injection channel, the roughness and treatment of the metal and lens interfaces, glue thickness, glue pad diameter and the gluing process. CTE and dynamic measurements of the glue, thermal cycling, damp- heat, connection

  9. Calibration Transfer Between a Bench Scanning and a Submersible Diode Array Spectrophotometer for In Situ Wastewater Quality Monitoring in Sewer Systems.

    PubMed

    Brito, Rita S; Pinheiro, Helena M; Ferreira, Filipa; Matos, José S; Pinheiro, Alexandre; Lourenço, Nídia D

    2016-03-01

    Online monitoring programs based on spectroscopy have a high application potential for the detection of hazardous wastewater discharges in sewer systems. Wastewater hydraulics poses a challenge for in situ spectroscopy, especially when the system includes storm water connections leading to rapid changes in water depth, velocity, and in the water quality matrix. Thus, there is a need to optimize and fix the location of in situ instruments, limiting their availability for calibration. In this context, the development of calibration models on bench spectrophotometers to estimate wastewater quality parameters from spectra acquired with in situ instruments could be very useful. However, spectra contain information not only from the samples, but also from the spectrophotometer generally invalidating this approach. The use of calibration transfer methods is a promising solution to this problem. In this study, calibration models were developed using interval partial least squares (iPLS), for the estimation of total suspended solids (TSS) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in sewage from Ultraviolet-visible spectra acquired in a bench scanning spectrophotometer. The feasibility of calibration transfer to a submersible, diode array equipment, to be subsequently operated in situ, was assessed using three procedures: slope and bias correction (SBC); single wavelength standardization (SWS) on mean spectra; and local centering (LC). The results showed that SBC was the most adequate for the available data, adding insignificant error to the base model estimates. Single wavelength standardization was a close second best, potentially more robust, and independent of the base iPLS model. Local centering was shown to be inadequate for the samples and instruments used.

  10. Combination of an on-line biomonitor using light emitting bacteria and a UV spectrophotometer probe for homeland security and drinking water safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appels, Joep; Küster, Eberhard; van den Broeke, Joep; Tangena, Ben; de Zwart, Dick; Brandt, Albert

    2007-04-01

    The interest in on-line water quality monitors has increased significantly in the last years, because of the need for rapid, reliable and continuous monitoring. This has resulted in the introduction of new monitors which can provide (near) real-time information on water quality. They can be used for continuous river water quality control as well as for drinking water protection against intentional contamination. Still no universal monitor is yet available which is able to protect against all kinds of threats. The combination of complementary systems into a single integrated monitoring platform would greatly enhance the applicability of real time monitoring devices. Such a combination should be found in the complementary information derived from a chemical analytical technique and from an effect monitor (biomonitor). Where a chemical analytical monitoring system identifies and quantifies specific water contaminants, biomonitoring gives an indication of the total quality, including the effects of unknown toxic substances. This combination was found in using the TOXcontrol, a biological toxicity monitor using luminescent bacteria, and the scan spectroyser TM, a submersible UV-VIS spectrophotometer probe, to evaluate drinking water safety. This combination allows for the verification of alarm signals from one instrument with the signal of the other, reducing false alarm rates. Experiments were performed in a laboratory setting and in a field test. It is concluded that the combination of the UV-VIS spectrophotometer and the toxicity biomonitor comprises a monitoring system with a high added value being capable of detecting a broad range of contaminants at low concentrations.

  11. Defense meteorological satellite measurements of total ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovill, J. E.; Ellis, J. S.; Luther, F. M.; Sullivan, T. J.; Weichel, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    A multichannel filter radiometer (MFR) on Defense Meteorological Satellites (DMS) that measured total ozone on a global-scale from March 1977 - February 1980 is described. The total ozone data measured by the MFR were compared with total ozone data taken by surfaced-based Dobson spectrophotometers. When comparisons were made for five months, the Dobson spectrophotometer measured 2-5% more total ozone than the MFR. Comparisons between the Dobson spectrophotometer and the MFR showed a reduced RMS difference as the comparisons were made at closer proximity. A Northern Hemisphere total ozone distribution obtained from MFR data is presented.

  12. A portable, non-focusing optics spectrophotometer (NoFOSpec) for measurements of steady-state absorbance changes in intact plants.

    PubMed

    Sacksteder, C A; Jacoby, M E; Kramer, D M

    2001-01-01

    Kinetically-resolved absorbance measurements during extended, or steady-state illumination are typically hindered by large, light-induced changes in the light-scattering properties of the material. In this work, a new type of portable spectrophotometer, the Non-Focusing Optical Spectrophotometer (NoFOSpec), is introduced, which reduces interference from light-scattering changes and is in a form suitable for fieldwork. The instrument employs a non-focusing optical component, called a compound parabolic concentrator (CPC), to simultaneously concentrate and homogeneously diffuse measuring and actinic light (from light-emitting diode sources) onto the leaf sample. Light passing through the sample is then collected and processed using a subsequent series of CPCs leading to a photodiode detector. The instrument is designed to be compact, lightweight and rugged for field work. The pulsed measuring beam allows for high sensitivity (typically < 100 ppm noise) and time resolution ( approximately 10 mus) measurements in the visible and near infrared spectral regions. These attributes allow high-resolution measurements of signals associated with energization of the thylakoid membrane (the electrochromic shifting of carotenoid pigments), as well as electron transfer, e.g., the 820-nm changes associated with electron transfer through Photosystem I (PS I). In addition, the instrument can be used as a kinetic fluorimeter, e.g., to measure saturation-pulse fluorescence changes indicative of Photosystem II (PS II) quantum efficiency. The instrument is demonstrated by estimating electron and proton fluxes through the photosynthetic apparatus in an intact tobacco leaf, using respectively the saturation-pulse fluorescence changes and dark-interval relaxation kinetics (DIRK) of the electrochromic shift. A linear relationship was found, confirming our earlier results with the laboratory-based diffused-optics flash spectrophotometer, indicating a constant H(+)/e(-) stoichiometry for

  13. Impact of energy-related pollutants on chromosome structure. Progress report, January 1-December 31, 1980. IQUID COLUMN CHROMATOGRAPHY; ABSORPTION SPECTRA; COMPUTER CODES; DICHROISM; EQUIPMENT INTERFACES; MICROPROCESSORS; SPECTROPHOTOMETERS; ; CARBON 13; COMPLEXES; NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Methods for rapidly analyzing methylated and ethylated nucleosides and bases by high pressure liquid chromatography were investigated. Deoxyribonucleotides were alkylated with alkyl iodides and dialkyl sulfates. Several unreported products of the reactions of methyl and ethyl iodide in dimethylsulfoxide were found and are being characterized. The Cary 219 UV-Vis spectrophotometer was interfaced to a microcomputer and several utility programs were written. Preliminary absorption and circular dichroism studies of the binding of ethidium to DNA and nucleosome cores showed binding to cores to be quite different from binding to DNA. Free radical and additional reactions of bisulfite with DNA in chromatin were examined. Free radical attack was minimal. Some conversion of cytosine to uracil was noted, but protein crosslinking to DNA was not detected. The first valid natural abundance /sup 13/C nmr spectra of double-stranded DNA and double-stranded DNA complexed with ethidium were obtained. These spectra suggested that DNA undergoes considerable internal motion. The data show that 13-C nmr studies of the conformational and motional properties of native DNA and of complexes of native DNA with small molecules are practical and promising. Studies of subnucleosomes derived from nucleosomes were completed. Based on these studies, a model of the linear arrangement of histone C-terminal and N-terminal chain regions along nucleosome DNA was proposed. The use of staphylococcal protease to probe histone conformations in nucleosomes was explored. Preliminary data indicate that H3 is much more susceptible to protease than other core histones, and is cleaved in its hydrophobic domain. A procedure for fractionating chromatin was alos developed. (ERB)

  14. A new on-axis micro-spectrophotometer for combining Raman, fluorescence and UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy with macromolecular crystallography at the Swiss Light Source.

    PubMed

    Pompidor, Guillaume; Dworkowski, Florian S N; Thominet, Vincent; Schulze-Briese, Clemens; Fuchs, Martin R

    2013-09-01

    The combination of X-ray diffraction experiments with optical methods such as Raman, UV/Vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy greatly enhances and complements the specificity of the obtained information. The upgraded version of the in situ on-axis micro-spectrophotometer, MS2, at the macromolecular crystallography beamline X10SA of the Swiss Light Source is presented. The instrument newly supports Raman and resonance Raman spectroscopy, in addition to the previously available UV/Vis absorption and fluorescence modes. With the recent upgrades of the spectral bandwidth, instrument stability, detection efficiency and control software, the application range of the instrument and its ease of operation were greatly improved. Its on-axis geometry with collinear X-ray and optical axes to ensure optimal control of the overlap of sample volumes probed by each technique is still unique amongst comparable facilities worldwide and the instrument has now been in general user operation for over two years.

  15. A new on-axis micro-spectrophotometer for combining Raman, fluorescence and UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy with macromolecular crystallography at the Swiss Light Source

    PubMed Central

    Pompidor, Guillaume; Dworkowski, Florian S. N.; Thominet, Vincent; Schulze-Briese, Clemens; Fuchs, Martin R.

    2013-01-01

    The combination of X-ray diffraction experiments with optical methods such as Raman, UV/Vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy greatly enhances and complements the specificity of the obtained information. The upgraded version of the in situ on-axis micro-spectrophotometer, MS2, at the macromolecular crystallography beamline X10SA of the Swiss Light Source is presented. The instrument newly supports Raman and resonance Raman spectroscopy, in addition to the previously available UV/Vis absorption and fluorescence modes. With the recent upgrades of the spectral bandwidth, instrument stability, detection efficiency and control software, the application range of the instrument and its ease of operation were greatly improved. Its on-axis geometry with collinear X-ray and optical axes to ensure optimal control of the overlap of sample volumes probed by each technique is still unique amongst comparable facilities worldwide and the instrument has now been in general user operation for over two years. PMID:23955041

  16. Combination of an on-line biomonitor using light emitting bacteria and a UV spectrophotometer probe for homeland security and drinking water safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appels, Joep; Küster, Eberhard; van den Broeke, Joep

    2007-10-01

    The interest in on-line water quality monitors has increased significantly in the last years, because of the need for rapid, reliable and continuous monitoring. This has resulted in the introduction of new monitors which can provide (near) real-time information on water quality. They can be used for continuous river water quality control as well as for drinking water protection against intentional contamination. Still no universal monitor is yet available which is able to protect against all kinds of threats. The combination of complementary systems into a single integrated monitoring platform would greatly enhance the applicability of real time monitoring devices. Such a combination should be found in the complementary information derived from a chemical analytical technique and from an effect monitor (biomonitor). Where a chemical analytical monitoring system identifies and quantifies specific water contaminants, biomonitoring gives an indication of the total quality, including the effects of unknown toxic substances. This combination was found in using the TOXcontrol, a biological toxicity monitor using luminescent bacteria, and the s::can spectro::lyser TM, a submersible UV-VIS spectrophotometer probe, to evaluate drinking water safety. This combination allows for the verification of alarm signals from one instrument with the signal of the other, reducing false alarm rates. Experiments were performed in a laboratory setting and in a field test. It is concluded that the combination of the UV-VIS spectrophotometer and the toxicity biomonitor comprises a monitoring system with a high added value being capable of detecting a broad range of contaminants at low concentrations.

  17. Imaging Grating SpectroPhotometer (I-GRASP) for Solar Soft X-Ray Spectra and Images from a Cube Sat Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didkovsky, Leonid V.; Wieman, Seth; Woods, Thomas N.; Jones, Andrew; Chao, Weilun

    2016-05-01

    We describe the Soft X-ray Imaging Grating SpectroPhotometer (I-GRASP), a novel spectrophotometer with four times narrower transmission grating period (about 50 nm) compared to the MIT-designed 200 nm gratings successfully used for the SOHO/SEM, the SDO/EVE/ESP, and the Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM) onboard the EVE sounding rocket suite of instruments. The new grating is based on technology developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and provides four to five time greater diffraction dispersion than the 200 nm period gratings. Such new technology will provide detection of both 0.1 nm - resolved solar spectra in about 1.0 to 7.0 nm spectral range and a soft X-ray pin-hole solar image from the I-GRASP instrument that is appropriately sized for a CubeSat platform. The solar observations of this soft X-ray range do not currently have spectral resolution, so I-GRASP concurrent spectral and imaging X-ray observations will be important for:Improvements in modeling of coronal dynamics and heating by comparing measured and modeled spectra through identifying changes in abundances from different active regions- Resolving some differences in certain iron spectral line intensity ratios observed with SAM, identifying key emission lines, and comparing to those modeled with the CHIANTI atomic database- Studying SXR spectral variability for different solar activity periods including solar flares and the 27-day solar rotation- Studying of the Earth’s ionosphere, thermosphere and mesosphere responses using as input the detailed soft X-ray spectra from I-GRASP- Improving solar soft X-ray reference spectra for accurate calculations of absolute solar irradiance from the SDO/EVE/ESP, SDO/EVE/SAM, TIMED/SEE/XPS, and SORCE/XPS channels that have broadband measurements of the 1-7 nm band- Providing validation for the soft X-Ray observations from the MinXSS CubeSat X123 spectrometer (0.04 to 2.5 nm) with the I-GRASP spectral observations from 1.0 to 7.0 nm- Comparing I

  18. Spectroscopic Studies of Model Photo-Receptors: Validation of a Nanosecond Time-Resolved Micro-Spectrophotometer Design Using Photoactive Yellow Protein and α-Phycoerythrocyanin

    PubMed Central

    Purwar, Namrta; Tenboer, Jason; Tripathi, Shailesh; Schmidt, Marius

    2013-01-01

    Time-resolved spectroscopic experiments have been performed with protein in solution and in crystalline form using a newly designed microspectrophotometer. The time-resolution of these experiments can be as good as two nanoseconds (ns), which is the minimal response time of the image intensifier used. With the current setup, the effective time-resolution is about seven ns, determined mainly by the pulse duration of the nanosecond laser. The amount of protein required is small, on the order of 100 nanograms. Bleaching, which is an undesirable effect common to photoreceptor proteins, is minimized by using a millisecond shutter to avoid extensive exposure to the probing light. We investigate two model photoreceptors, photoactive yellow protein (PYP), and α-phycoerythrocyanin (α-PEC), on different time scales and at different temperatures. Relaxation times obtained from kinetic time-series of difference absorption spectra collected from PYP are consistent with previous results. The comparison with these results validates the capability of this spectrophotometer to deliver high quality time-resolved absorption spectra. PMID:24065094

  19. Measurements of the total ozone column using a Brewer spectrophotometer and TOMS and OMI satellite instruments over the Southern Space Observatory in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz Peres, Lucas; Bencherif, Hassan; Mbatha, Nkanyiso; Passaglia Schuch, André; Toihir, Abdoulwahab Mohamed; Bègue, Nelson; Portafaix, Thierry; Anabor, Vagner; Kirsch Pinheiro, Damaris; Paes Leme, Neusa Maria; Valentin Bageston, José; Schuch, Nelson Jorge

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents 23 years (1992-2014) of quasi-continuous measurements of the total ozone column (TOC) over the Southern Space Observatory (SSO) in São Martinho da Serra, Brazil (29.26° S, 53.48° and 488 m altitude). The TOC was measured by a Brewer spectrometer, and the results are also compared to daily and monthly observations from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) and OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) satellite instruments. Analyses of the main interannual modes of variability computed using the wavelet transform method were performed. A favorable agreement between the Brewer spectrophotometer and satellite datasets was found. The seasonal TOC variation is dominated by an annual cycle, with a minimum of approximately 260 DU in April and a maximum of approximately 295 DU in September. The wavelet analysis applied in the SSO TOC anomaly time series revealed that the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) modulation was the main mode of interannual variability. The comparison between the SSO TOC anomaly time series with the QBO index revealed that the two are in opposite phases.

  20. Influence of Light Conditions and Light Sources on Clinical Measurement of Natural Teeth Color using VITA Easyshade Advance 4,0® Spectrophotometer. Pilot Study.

    PubMed Central

    Posavec, Ivona; Prpić, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare lightness (L), chroma (C) and hue (h), green-red (a) and blue-yellow (b) character of the color of maxillary right central incisors in different light conditions and light sources. Materials and methods Two examiners who were well trained in digital color evaluation participated in the research. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to analyze intra- and interobserver reliability. The LCh and L*a*b* values were determined at 08.15 and at 10.00 in the morning under three different light conditions. Tooth color was assessed in 10 subjects using intraoral spectrophotometer VITA Easyshade Advance 4.0® set at the central region of the vestibular surface of the measured tooth. Results Intra- and interobserver ICC values were high for both examiners and ranged from 0.57 to 0.99. Statistically significant differences in LCh and L*a*b* values measured in different time of the day and certain light condition were not found (p>0.05). Statistically significant differences in LCh and L*a*b* values measured under three different light conditions were not found, too (p>0.05). Conclusions VITA Easyshade Advance 4.0® is reliable enough for daily clinical work in order to assess tooth color during the fabrication of esthtic appliances because it is not dependent on light conditions and light sources. PMID:28275281

  1. Calibration of UV/Vis spectrophotometers: A review and comparison of different methods to estimate TSS and total and dissolved COD concentrations in sewers, WWTPs and rivers.

    PubMed

    Lepot, Mathieu; Torres, Andres; Hofer, Thomas; Caradot, Nicolas; Gruber, Günter; Aubin, Jean-Baptiste; Bertrand-Krajewski, Jean-Luc

    2016-09-15

    UV/Vis spectrophotometers have been used for one decade to monitor water quality in various locations: sewers, rivers, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), tap water networks, etc. Resulting equivalent concentrations of interest can be estimated by three ways: i) by manufacturer global calibration; ii) by local calibration based on the provided global calibration and grab sampling; iii) by advanced calibration looking for relations between UV/Vis spectra and corresponding concentrations from grab sampling. However, no study has compared the applied methods so far. This collaborative work presents a comparison between five different methods. A Linear Regression (LR), Support Vector Machine (SVM), EVOlutionary algorithm method (EVO) and Partial Least Squares (PLS) have been applied on various data sets (sewers, rivers, WWTPs under dry, wet and all weather conditions) and for three water quality parameters: TSS, COD total and dissolved. Two criteria (r(2) and Root Mean Square Error RMSE) have been calculated - on calibration and verification data subsets - to evaluate accuracy and robustness of the applied methods. Values of criteria have then been statistically analysed for all and separated data sets. Non-consistent outcomes come through this study. According to the Kruskal-Wallis test and RMSEs, PLS and SVM seem to be the best methods. According to uncertainties in laboratory analysis and ranking of methods, LR and EVO appear more robust and sustainable for concentration estimations. Conclusions are mostly independent of water matrices, weather conditions or concentrations investigated.

  2. International Space Station Columbus Payload SoLACES Degradation Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, William A.; Schmidl, William D.; Mikatarian, Ron; Soares, Carlos; Schmidtke, Gerhard; Erhardt, Christian

    2016-01-01

    SOLAR is a European Space Agency (ESA) payload deployed on the International Space Station (ISS) and located on the Columbus Laboratory. It is located on the Columbus External Payload Facility in a zenith location. The objective of the SOLAR payload is to study the Sun. The SOLAR payload consists of three instruments that allow for measurement of virtually the entire electromagnetic spectrum (17 nm to 2900 nm). The three payload instruments are SOVIM (SOlar Variable and Irradiance Monitor), SOLSPEC (SOLar SPECctral Irradiance measurements), and SolACES (SOLar Auto-Calibrating Extreme UV/UV Spectrophotometers).

  3. A Portable Diode Array Spectrophotometer.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, David

    2016-05-01

    A cheap portable visible light spectrometer is presented. The spectrometer uses readily sourced items and could be constructed by anyone with a knowledge of electronics. The spectrometer covers the wavelength range 450-725 nm with a resolution better than 5 nm. The spectrometer uses a diffraction grating to separate wavelengths, which are detected using a 128-element diode array, the output of which is analyzed using a microprocessor. The spectrum is displayed on a small liquid crystal display screen and can be saved to a micro SD card for later analysis. Battery life (2 × AAA) is estimated to be 200 hours. The overall dimensions of the unit are 120 × 65 × 60 mm, and it weighs about 200 g.

  4. Temporal variation of carbon-13 signature of soil respiration in a beech forest ecosystem measured with a tunable diode laser spectrophotometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marron, N.; Plain, C.; Longdoz, B.; Bernard, S.; Gerant, D.; Epron, D.

    2007-12-01

    Under temperate latitudes, soil respiration is responsible for the reemission of almost half of the carbon assimilated by the forest vegetation. Soil respiration is well-known to be very sensitive to environmental factors such as temperature and moisture and has been shown to widely vary during the growing season. The main difficulty when studying the impact of environment on this process is to differentiate the sources of CO2 in the soil and their specific response to environmental factors. With regard to this drawback, high frequency measurements of 13C in the respiratory flux of the different compartments would help in differentiating emission compartments with short residence time (i.e. using photosynthates as respiratory carbon sources) from compartments with longer residence time (i.e. using soil organic matter as respiratory carbon sources). A tunable diode laser spectrophotometer (TDLS) was installed in the Hesse forest (northeast of France) early during the 2007 growing season in order to determine the seasonal variability in the composition in 13C of the CO2 efflux released by a forest soil. This innovative method, based on the measurement of the absorption of an infrared laser at the specific wave lengths of the 13CO2 and 12CO2, allows the monitoring of the two isotopologues at a very high frequency. The concentrations of the two isotopologues in the soil respiration flux were continuously monitored from June to October 2007 using both chamber measurements and below canopy Keeling plots. Continuous TDLS measurements and punctual Keeling plots gave very similar values of 13C composition of soil respired CO2, showing the reliability of the TDLS system in this context. Results were analysed with regard to seasonal changes in climatic and edaphic variables, in the 13C signatures of the potentially respiratory sources (i.e. root carbohydrates), and in water use efficiency of the canopy as inferred from eddy flux measurements of gross photosynthesis and

  5. [The content of mineral elements in Camellia olei fera ovary at pollination and fertilization stages determined by auto discrete analyzers and atomic absorption spectrophotometer].

    PubMed

    Zou, Feng; Yuan, De-Yi; Gao, Chao; Liao, Ting; Chen, Wen-Tao; Han, Zhi-Qiang; Zhang, Lin

    2014-04-01

    In order to elucidate the nutrition of Camellia olei fera at pollination and fertilization stages, the contents of mineral elements were determined by auto discrete analyzers and atomic absorption spectrophotometer, and the change in the contents of mineral elements was studied and analysed under the condition of self- and cross-pollination. The results are showed that nine kinds of mineral elements contents were of "S" or "W" type curve changes at the pollination and fertilization stages of Camellia olei fera. N, K, Zn, Cu, Ca, Mn element content changes showed "S" curve under the self- and out-crossing, the content of N reaching the highest was 3.445 8 mg x g(-1) in self-pollination of 20 d; K content reaching the highest at the cross-pollination 20 d was 6.275 5 mg x g(-1); Zn content in self-pollination of 10 d reaching the highest was 0.070 5 mg x g(-1); Cu content in the cross-pollination of 5 d up to the highest was 0.061 0 mg x g(-1); Ca content in the cross-pollination of 15 d up to the highest was 3.714 5 mg x g(-1); the content of Mn reaching the highest in self-pollination 30 d was 2. 161 5 mg x g(-1). Fe, P, Mg element content changes was of "S" type curve in selfing and was of "W" type curve in outcrossing, Fe content in the self-pollination 10 d up to the highest was 0.453 0 mg x g(-1); P content in self-pollination of 20 d reaching the highest was 6.731 8 mg x g(-1); the content of Mg up to the highest in self-pollination 25 d was 2.724 0 mg x g(-1). The results can be used as a reference for spraying foliar fertilizer, and improving seed setting rate and yield in Camellia olei fera.

  6. Design of the detector to observe the energetic charged particles: a part of the solar X-ray spectrophotometer ChemiX onboard Interhelio-Probe mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudnik, Oleksiy; Sylwester, Janusz; Kowalinski, Miroslaw; Bakala, Jaroslaw; Siarkowski, Marek; Evgen Kurbatov, mgr..

    2016-07-01

    -layer detector stack: first two layers consist of silicon detectors; the third one is based on the p-terphenyl scintillation detector coupled with pixelated silicon photomultiplier. Coincidence logic allows collecting systematic data on particle variety and their energy with 1 and/or 10 s time resolutions. Digital processing unit is constructed based on FPGA Actel ProAsic M1A3PE1500, and contains each event processing logic, forms telemetry data and housekeeping frames, communicates with ChemiX digital processing unit and executes received telecommands. In order to increase the reliability and time resource of the BPM its digital processing unit and secondary power supply unit has backup sets. Switching between backup sets is commanded by externally orders. The BPM is capable to sort out in situ abundances of individual particle constituents from electrons up to oxygen nuclei. 1. O.V.Dudnik, E.V.Kurbatov, V.O.Tarasov, L.A.Andryushenko, I.L.Zajtsevsky, J.Sylwester, J.Bąkala, M.Kowaliński. Background particle detector for the solar X-ray photometer ChemiX of space mission "Interhelioprobe": an adjustment of breadboard model modules (in Russian) / ISSN 1561-8889: Kosmichna Nauka I Tekhnologiya, 2015, Vol.21, No.2, P.3-14. 2. O.V.Dudnik, E.V.Kurbatov, J.Sylwester, M.Siarkowski, P.Podgórski, M.Kowaliński. Background Particle Monitor - a part of the solar X-ray spectrophotometer ChemiX: principles of the operation and construction / in: Abstracts of 15th Ukrainian conference on space research, Odesa, Ukraine, August 24-28, 2015, P.80, doi:10.13140/RG.2.1.2284.2649. 3. O.V.Dudnik, E.V.Kurbatov, M.Kowaliński, M.Siarkowski, P.Podgórski, J.Sylwester. Operational features of Background Particle Monitor, a vital part of the solar X-ray spectrophotometer ChemiX / in: Abstract book of the Conference "Progress on EUV&X-ray spectroscopy and imaging II", Wroclaw, Poland, November 17 19, 2015, P.9, doi:10.13140/RG.2.1.1184.3604.

  7. Simple and Versatile Turbidimetric Monitoring of Bacterial Growth in Liquid Cultures Using a Customized 3D Printed Culture Tube Holder and a Miniaturized Spectrophotometer: Application to Facultative and Strictly Anaerobic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Maia, Margarida R. G.; Marques, Sara; Cabrita, Ana R. J.; Wallace, R. John; Thompson, Gertrude; Fonseca, António J. M.; Oliveira, Hugo M.

    2016-01-01

    Here we introduce a novel strategy for turbidimetric monitoring of bacterial growth in liquid culture. The instrumentation comprises a light source, a customized 3D printed culture tube holder and a miniaturized spectrophotometer, connected through optical cables. Due to its small footprint and the possibility to operate with external light, bacterial growth was directly monitored from culture tubes in a simple and versatile fashion. This new portable measurement technique was used to monitor the growth of facultative (Escherichia coli ATCC/25922, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC/29213) and strictly (Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens JW11, Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus P18, and Propionibacterium acnes DSMZ 1897) anaerobic bacteria. For E. coli and S. aureus, the growth rates calculated from normalized optical density values were compared with those ones obtained using a benchtop spectrophotometer without significant differences (P = 0.256). For the strictly anaerobic species, a high precision (relative standard deviation < 3.5%) was observed between replicates up to 48 h. Regarding its potential for customization, this manifold could accommodate further developments for customized turbidimetric monitoring, such as the use of light-emitting diodes as a light source or flow cells. PMID:27630632

  8. International Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... create refugee populations with immediate and long-term health problems. Some of the major diseases currently affecting ... also an international problem which can affect people's health. Many countries and health organizations are working together ...

  9. International Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Linn

    1977-01-01

    Briefly discusses recent international programs in various areas of geology, including land-use problems, coping with geological hazards, and conserving the environment while searching for energy and mineral resources. (MLH)

  10. Internal shim

    DOEpatents

    Barth, Clyde H.; Blizinski, Theodore W.

    2003-05-13

    An internal shim used to accurately measure spaces in conjunction with a standard small probe has a shim top and a chassis. The internal shim is adjustably fixed within the space to be measured using grippers that emerge from the chassis and which are controlled by an arm pivotably attached to the shim top. A standard small probe passes through the shim along guides on the chassis and measures the distance between the exterior of the chassis and the boundary. By summing the measurements on each side of the chassis and the width of the chassis, the dimension of the space can be determined to within 0.001 inches.

  11. International Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Nancy D.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Three reports discuss the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions; the Frankfurt Book Fair, focusing on electronics; and Canadian library trends, including resource sharing, technology projects, information policy, censorship, services for persons with disabilities, construction projects, and library education and…

  12. Internet International.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodard, Colin

    1995-01-01

    The unexpectedly rapid expansion of the Internet in Eastern and Central Europe is having a significant effect on institutions of higher education, still suffering from decades of isolation. The benefits include global access to information and cost-effective communications. A number of international efforts are under way to expand Internet access,…

  13. International Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saba, Farhad, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    Completes a discussion of a systems model of distance education (in articles since May 1999) focusing on the most complex level, international. Discussion includes transfer of technology from United States universities to developing nations, the free market, and the age of the global economy. Presents a list of "early indicators" of changes in…

  14. International Entomology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pests and diseases of plants in agriculture are a shared international problem. Yet some of the very places that pest invaders come from often lack the institutional structure and organization necessary to help in understanding the biology of the pest or disease. Strengthening entomology by stimulat...

  15. International Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabb, Winston; Bender, David R.; Haycock, Ken; Horodyski, John

    2001-01-01

    Includes three annual reports: one from the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, the Special Libraries Association, and a report on innovations in Canadian libraries that discusses electronic initiatives, partnerships, books and publishing, school libraries, national issues, local challenges, and funding. (LRW)

  16. Annual Report of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to the Federal Aviation Administration on the High Altitude Pollution Program - 1980.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    stations are in previously data-void areas and will be useful in model evaluation comparisons. We also ob’.ained data from Amundsen - Scott ( South Pole ...corresponding ozone data obtained at selected stations in the world surface network of Dobson spectrophotometer observatories. A description of the methodology...for 10 additional years of observation (see NASA 1049, 1979). This detection limit is small because the data from 9 Dobson stations could be used for

  17. Teaching International Law: Concepts in International Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starbird, Caroline; Pettit, Jenny; Singleton, Laurel

    2004-01-01

    This book is designed to introduce students to public international law. Topics covered include international public organizations, such as the United Nations and World Trade Organization, international courts, international human rights law, international trade law, and international environmental law. The goal of each study is to examine how…

  18. Determination of Total Ozone over Mauna Loa Using Very High Resolution Infrared Solar Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    David, Shelle J.; Beaton, Sheryl A.; Anderberg, Mary H.; Murcray, Frank J.

    1993-01-01

    A very high resolution infrared Fourier transform spectrometer has been used to record solar spectra at the Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii. Spectra are normally taken one day a week at sunrise. These spectra have been analyzed for ozone and N2O total columns, and the ozone column compared with the value reported by tile Mauna Loa Dobson spectrophotometer. Aside from the FTIR reporting about 5% lower values than the Dobson (which may be due to a systematic difference in the treatment of tropospheric ozone), the FTIR and Dobson agree to within 2.7% (RMS) during this period.

  19. Total ozone, ozone vertical distributions, and stratospheric temperatures at South Pole, Antarctica, in 1986 and 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komhyr, W. D.; Grass, R. D.; Reitelbach, P. J.; Franchois, P. R.; Kuester, S. E.

    1988-01-01

    Seventy-six electrochemical cell (ECC) ozonesondes were flown at South Pole, Antarctica, during 1987 in a continuing program to document year-round changes in Antarctica ozone that are dynamically and photochemically induced. Dobson spectrophotometer total ozone observations were also made. For the twilight months of March and September when Dobson instrument observations cannot be made at South Pole, total ozone amounts were deduced from the ECC ozonesonde soundings. ECC sonde total ozone data obtained during the polar night (April to August), supplemented the sparse total ozone data obtained from Dobson instrument moon observations. Similar ozone profile and total ozone observations were made at South Pole in 1986.

  20. Operating internationally

    SciTech Connect

    Seeley, R.S.

    1994-02-01

    When Enron Power Corp. took over a 28 MW power facility at the former US Naval base in Subic Bay, the Philippines, the company was required to employ 139 people to run the plant. This large labor force was necessary not because of the plant's operational needs, but because of local labor practices and unemployment pressures. Independent power companies have become all too familiar with the high cost and complexity of developing projects in emerging international markets. Some of the most significant issues involve taxation, unfamiliar legal systems, changing regulations, and foreign investment restrictions. In addition, questions about currency exchange, national credit worthiness, and political stability add to the difficulty of international development. However, one of the most daunting challenges centers not on development, but on long-term operations and maintenance (O M). A key concern is finding qualified labor. Most developers and O M companies agree that local people should run the plant, with the top person, or persons, thoroughly trained in the developer's company philosophy.

  1. Updates in SDO/EVE/EUV SpectroPhotometer (ESP) Data Processing and Inter-comparison of Calibrated ESP Irradiances with Measurements from Other On-orbit EUV Instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieman, S. R.; Didkovsky, L. V.; Woodraska, D.

    2014-12-01

    Prior to the May 2014 anomaly which indefinitely suspended SDO/EVE Multiple EUV Spectrographs-A (MEGS-A) science operations, MEGS-A spectral distributions were used in the data processing algorithm for determining absolute EUV irradiance values from the SDO/EVE EUV Spectrophotometer (ESP) raw data. We discuss a revised ESP data processing algorithm which, in lieu of concurrently measured MEGS-A spectra, adopts reference spectra selected (based on solar activity at the time of the ESP observation) from a discrete set of spectra derived from MEGS-A spectra for various levels of activity observed prior to the anomaly. We present evaluations of the revised algorithm and adopted reference spectra based on comparisons of the resultant ESP irradiance values with EUV measurements from other on-orbit instrumentation including the SOHO/Solar EUV Monitor (SEM). The results of comparisons between ESP irradiances determined using the revised algorithm and those based on the pre-anomaly algorithm which uses concurrent MEGS-A spectra are also presented

  2. Method development for the determination of fluorine in toothpaste via molecular absorption of aluminum mono fluoride using a high-resolution continuum source nitrous oxide/acetylene flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer.

    PubMed

    Ozbek, Nil; Akman, Suleyman

    2012-05-30

    Fluorine was determined via the rotational molecular absorption line of aluminum mono fluoride (AlF) generated in C(2)H(2)/N(2)O flame at 227.4613 nm using a high-resolution continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (HR-CS-FAAS). The effects of AlF wavelength, burner height, fuel rate (C(2)H(2)/N(2)O) and amount of Al on the accuracy, precision and sensitivity were investigated and optimized. The Al-F absorption band at 227.4613 nm was found to be the most suitable analytical line with respect to sensitivity and spectral interferences. Maximum sensitivity and a good linearity were obtained in acetylene-nitrous oxide flame at a flow rate of 210 L h(-1) and a burner height of 8mm using 3000 mg L(-1) of Al for 10-1000 mg L(-1)of F. The accuracy and precision of the method were tested by analyzing spiked samples and waste water certified reference material. The results were in good agreement with the certified and spiked amounts as well as the precision of several days during this study was satisfactory (RSD<10%). The limit of detection and characteristic concentration of the method were 5.5 mg L(-1) and 72.8 mg L(-1), respectively. Finally, the fluorine concentrations in several toothpaste samples were determined. The results found and given by the producers were not significantly different. The method was simple, fast, accurate and sensitive.

  3. International Education for Wisconsin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moebius, Barbara

    1990-01-01

    Describes an international trade education program offered by Waukesha (WI) County Technical College. The program includes international business principles, international marketing, cultural awareness, business Spanish, international documentation, transportation, and finance. (JOW)

  4. Community College Internal Auditors: Internal Audit Guidebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ronna; And Others

    This guidebook includes information compiled by the "Audit Manual" committee of Community College Internal Auditors (CCIA) from several California community college districts regarding their internal auditing practices. The first section of the guidebook discusses the purpose of internal audits, indicating that audits assist members of…

  5. Ultraviolet spectrophotometry of Comet Giacobini-Zinner during the ICE encounter. [International Cometary Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfadden, Lucy A.; Ahearn, Michael F.; Feldman, Paul D.; Boehnhardt, Hermann; Rahe, Juergen; Festou, Michel C.; Brandt, John C.; Maran, Stephen P.; Niedner, Malcolm B.; Smith, Andrew M.

    1987-01-01

    The IUE's UV spectrophotometer was used to monitor Comet Giacobini-Zinner's H2O production rate from June to October, 1985, in support of the International Cometary Explorer (ICE) mission. Observation results for the spatial and temporal variation and the abundance or upper limits of C, CO, CO(+), CO2(+), CS, H, Mg(+), O, OH, and S, between September 9 and 12, included the time of the ICE encounter: at this time, the H2O production rate obtained was consistent with a number of gas production rates derived indirectly from the ICE experiments. A comparison of the CO2(+) ion abundance with the total electron density measured by the plasma electron and radio science experiments on ICE implies an ion deficiency relative to electrons, so that the satisfaction of charge balance criteria requires the presence of a major ion population not detected by remote sensing.

  6. Surveying your internal customers.

    PubMed

    Weir, V L

    1998-06-01

    Internal customers often are overlooked when business techniques are applied. By applying common external customer satisfaction survey techniques to internal business functions, one hospital identified areas for improvement.

  7. Travelers' Health: International Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... a malaria-endemic area (See Chapter 3, Malaria ). Tuberculosis All internationally adopted children should be screened for tuberculosis (TB) after arriving in the United States. Internationally ...

  8. Meteorological and constituent data for January and February 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Balloon data consisting of a plot showing the mixing ratio of ozone partial pressure in micromillibors and temperature in degrees centigrade versus pressure altitude in millibars is presented. An accompanying tabulation of meteorological and constituent data is also presented. The total overburden was aquired by Dobson Spectrophotometer 72.

  9. Procedure for measuring simultaneously the solar and visible properties of glazing with complex internal or external structures.

    PubMed

    Gentle, A R; Smith, G B

    2014-10-20

    Accurate solar and visual transmittances of materials in which surfaces or internal structures are complex are often not easily amenable to standard procedures with laboratory-based spectrophotometers and integrating spheres. Localized "hot spots" of intensity are common in such materials, so data on small samples is unreliable. A novel device and simple protocols have been developed and undergone validation testing. Simultaneous solar and visible transmittance and reflectance data have been acquired for skylight components and multilayer polycarbonate roof panels. The pyranometer and lux sensor setups also directly yield "light coolness" in lumens/watt. Sample areas must be large, and, although mainly in sheet form, some testing has been done on curved panels. The instrument, its operation, and the simple calculations used are described. Results on a subset of diffuse and partially diffuse materials with no hot spots have been cross checked using 150 mm integrating spheres with a spectrophotometer and the Air Mass 1.5 spectrum. Indications are that results are as good or better than with such spheres for transmittance, but reflectance techniques need refinement for some sample types.

  10. Reviews Book: The Babylonian Theorem Video Game: BrainBox360 (Physics Edition) Book: Teaching and Learning Science: Towards a Personalized Approach Book: Good Practice in Science Teaching: What Research Has to Say Equipment: PAPERSHOW Equipment: SEP Steady State Bottle Kit Equipment: Sciencescope Datalogging Balance Equipment: USB Robot Arm Equipment: Sciencescope Spectrophotometer Web Watch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-07-01

    WE RECOMMEND Good Practice in Science Teaching: What Research Has to Say Book explores and summarizes the research Steady State Bottle Kit Another gem from SEP Sciencescope Datalogging Balance Balance suits everyday use Sciencescope Spectrophotometer Device displays clear spectrum WORTH A LOOK The Babylonian Theorem Text explains ancient Egyptian mathematics BrainBox360 (Physics Edition) Video game tests your knowledge Teaching and Learning Science: Towards a Personalized Approach Book reveals how useful physics teachers really are PAPERSHOW Gadget kit is useful but has limitations Robotic Arm Kit with USB PC Interface Robot arm teaches programming WEB WATCH Simple applets teach complex topics

  11. BPPD Internal Application Checklists

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA, Office of Pesticide Programs, BPPD internal application checklists for internal guidance to assist BPPD employees in their evaluation of applications submitted to BPPD by applicants and/or registrants.

  12. International Space Station Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, William V., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    The overview of the International Space Station (ISS) is comprised of the program vision and mission; Space Station uses; definition of program phases; as well as descriptions and status of several scheduled International Space Station Overview assembly flights.

  13. Fishbone and internal kinks

    SciTech Connect

    Strauss, H.; Park, W.; Monticello, D.; Izzo, R.; White, R.; McGuire, K.; Manickam, J.; Goldston, R.

    1983-07-01

    The internal-kink mode, combined with neutral-beam heating and beam losses, appears to be responsible for the fishbone soft x-ray oscillations in PDX. Nonlinear simulations of both ideal and resistive kinks are presented and shown to be consistent with experimental observations. The internal kink may also be important in low-beta internal disruptions.

  14. Improving Internal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonus, Thaddeus, Ed.

    Guidelines for developing the internal communications of colleges and universities, researching internal communication needs, and increasing information flow through traditional and nontraditional media are provided in 11 articles. Titles and authors include the following: "Work for an Open Internal Communication Policy" (Thaddeus Bonus); "Five…

  15. International utilization and operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Stanley R.

    1989-01-01

    The international framework of the Space Station Freedom Program is described. The discussion covers the U.S. space policy, international agreements, international Station elements, overall program management structure, and utilization and operations management. Consideration is also given to Freedom's user community, Freedom's crew, pressurized payload and attached payload accommodations, utilization and operations planning, user integration, and user operations.

  16. National and International Views.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilgour, David

    1992-01-01

    Discusses Canadian government policy dealing with internal matters of party politics and international questions of human rights. Describes the political situation in Burma as an oppressive military regime. Urges the Canadian government to take a firmer stand to influence the international community against tolerating regimes that are guilty of…

  17. International safeguards data authentication

    SciTech Connect

    Melton, R.B.; Smith, C.E.; DeLand, S.M.; Manatt, D.R.

    1996-07-01

    The International Safeguards community is becoming increasingly reliant on information stored in electronic form. In international monitoring and related activities it must be possible to verify and maintain the integrity of this electronic information. This paper discusses the use of data authentication technology to assist in accomplishing this task. The paper provides background information, identifies the relevance to international safeguards, discusses issues related to export controls, algorithm patents, key management and the use of commercial vs. custom software.

  18. International Standard for Phenoxymethylpenicillin

    PubMed Central

    Humphrey, J. H.; Lightbown, J. W.; Mussett, Marjorie V.

    1959-01-01

    A batch of highly purified phenoxymethylpenicillin has been examined by eight laboratories in seven different countries, and has been assayed against the phenoxymethylpenicillin standard of the Food and Drug Administration of the US Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. The material examined has been established as the International Standard for Phenoxymethylpenicillin, and the International Unit of Phenoxymethylpenicillin is defined as the activity contained in 0.000590 mg of the International Standard. PMID:14405369

  19. International environmental policy

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, L.K.

    1990-01-01

    This report presents a survey of the global international movement for protection of the human environment. It describes the expanding dimensions of international environmental policy, clarifies that policy's present status, and provides a record of events of continuing historical significance. The author calls attention to the need for international agreements and proposals for such vital global environmental issues as climate change, disintegration of the stratospheric ozone layer, and long-range trans-boundary air pollution.

  20. EM International. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    It is the intent of EM International to describe the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) various roles and responsibilities within the international community. Cooperative agreements and programs, descriptions of projects and technologies, and synopses of visits to international sites are all highlighted in this semiannual journal. Focus on EM programs in this issue is on international collaboration in vitrification projects. Technology highlights covers: in situ sealing for contaminated sites; and remote sensors for toxic pollutants. Section on profiles of countries includes: Arctic contamination by the former Soviet Union, and EM activities with Germany--cooperative arrangements.

  1. International migration, international relations and foreign policy.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, C

    1989-01-01

    Recent literature on migration, international relations, and foreign policy is reviewed in this article, stressing applications of global systems paradigms, studies of state entry and exit rules, and anatomies of domestic policy-setting processes on migration. After a concise assessment of the contemporary theory of global political economy, the paper argues for seeking mid-range generalizations on the international relations of migration. It also suggests that analysis begin with the policy-setting processes of the state. Especially through the use of comparative perspectives available from domestic policy making studies and from the field of international comparative public policy, this approach offers the opportunity to fix empirically the political roles of transnational social forces, which often present themselves as participants in domestic policy contests. Promising future directions in the study of state-to-state relations are also evaluated, with the anticipation that verifying regional or other intermediate patterns of world migration politics may contribute to more general theories of international political economy.

  2. International Cooperation at NASA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawney, Timothy; Feldstein, Karen

    International cooperation is a cornerstone principle of NASA’s activities, especially within the activities of the Science Mission Directorate. Nearly two thirds of the flight missions in which NASA leads or participates involve international cooperation. Numerous ground based activities also rely on international cooperation, whether because of unique expertise, unique geography, or the need for a global response. Going forward, in an era of tighter budgets and a more integrated global perspective, NASA and the rest of the space agencies around the world will be forced to work more closely together, in a broader array of activities than ever before, in order to be able to afford to push the boundaries of space exploration. The goal of this presentation is to provide an overview of NASA’s current international science cooperative activities. It will include a discussion of why NASA conducts international cooperation and look at the mechanisms through which international cooperation can occur at NASA, including peer-to-peer development of relationships. It will also discuss some of the limiting factors of international cooperation, such as export control, and ways in which to manage those constraints. Finally, the presentation would look at some of the present examples where NASA is working to increase international cooperation and improve coordination. Case studies will be used to demonstrate these mechanisms and concepts. For example, NASA continues to participate in international coordination groups such as the International Mars Exploration Working Group (IMEWG) and International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG), but is expanding into new areas as well. NASA is one of the leaders in expanding and improving international coordination in the area of Near-Earth Object detection, characterization, and mitigation. Having participated in the first meetings of such groups as the International Asteroid Warning Network (IAWN) and Space Missions Planning

  3. Ozone measurement systems improvements studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. W.; Guard, K.; Holland, A. C.; Spurling, J. F.

    1974-01-01

    Results are summarized of an initial study of techniques for measuring atmospheric ozone, carried out as the first phase of a program to improve ozone measurement techniques. The study concentrated on two measurement systems, the electro chemical cell (ECC) ozonesonde and the Dobson ozone spectrophotometer, and consisted of two tasks. The first task consisted of error modeling and system error analysis of the two measurement systems. Under the second task a Monte-Carlo model of the Dobson ozone measurement technique was developed and programmed for computer operation.

  4. Reviews Equipment: Vibration detector Equipment: SPARK Science Learning System PS-2008 Equipment: Pelton wheel water turbine Book: Atomic: The First War of Physics and the Secret History of the Atom Bomb 1939-49 Book: Outliers: The Story of Success Book: T-Minus: The Race to the Moon Equipment: Fridge Rover Equipment: Red Tide School Spectrophotometer Web Watch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-03-01

    WE RECOMMEND Vibration detector SEP equipment measures minor tremors in the classroom SPARK Science Learning System PS-2008 Datalogger is easy to use and has lots of added possibilities Atomic: The First War of Physics and the Secret History of the Atom Bomb 1939-49 Book is crammed with the latest on the atom bomb T-Minus: The Race to the Moon Graphic novel depicts the politics as well as the science Fridge Rover Toy car can teach magnetics and energy, and is great fun Red Tide School Spectrophotometer Professional standard equipment for the classroom WORTH A LOOK Pelton wheel water turbine Classroom-sized version of the classic has advantages Outliers: The Story of Success Study of why maths is unpopular is relevant to physics teaching WEB WATCH IOP webcasts are improving but are still not as impressive as Jodrell Bank's Chromoscope website

  5. International Education (Working Paper).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruson, Edward S.

    The history, objectives, and funding patterns for international education are discussed. Attention is directed toward the language and area study centers of the U.S. Office of Education, undergraduate/graduate and scholarly exchange programs, and the support of advanced research in international studies. The main source of funds for language and…

  6. International Perspectives. Chapter 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acampora, Alfonso P., Ed.; Nebelkopf, Ethan, Ed.

    This document contains seven papers from the ninth World Conference of Therapeutic Communities that provide an international perspective on the therapeutic community (TC) movement as it is today. Papers include: (1) "What's Happening on an International Level" (William B. O'Brien); (2) "Therapeutic Communities of America"…

  7. International Resource Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schabel, H. G.

    The International Resource Management program enables undergraduate students of the University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point, College of Natural Resources to complete an academic minor in International Resource Management. The program attempts to alert students and faculty to global environmental issues and their interconnectedness with a variety of…

  8. International Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Clayton

    2016-01-01

    This article, with a focus on North American postsecondary education, identifies international students as a strategic enrollment management institutional priority; presents themes in the international student retention, satisfaction, and success research literature; and describes related best practices. It also presents the findings from an…

  9. Alberta's International Education Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Learning and Teaching Resources Branch.

    Globalization is driving rapid change in knowledge, skills, and innovation. The economic well-being of future generations of Albertans depends on investment in education today to ensure that the knowledge and skills acquired continues to be in demand in international communities. International student recruitment in both the basic education and…

  10. Teaching International Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, James M.

    The accelerated pace of society suggests that social education be clearly formulated from a conceptual golobal framework, recognizing the oneness of earth and man's sharing of a common fate, and that the curriculum be designed from a point of view toward improving international understanding. Effective approaches in international relations…

  11. International Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, Richard F.

    In response to global changes and a growing focus on international affairs, Foothill and De Anza Colleges have developed a number of international education programs. Since their beginnings, both colleges have hosted full-time students from other countries under the F-1 Visa Program. Another program, Campus Abroad, is a partnership arrangement…

  12. Publishing International Counseling Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohenshil, Thomas H.; Amundson, Norman E.

    2011-01-01

    This article begins with a rationale for including international articles in the "Journal of Counseling & Development." Then, 2 general categories of international articles are described. First are articles that provide a general overview of counseling in a particular country. The 2nd category is more general and might involve international…

  13. International. [SITE 2002 Section].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Dee Anna, Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on international issues from the SITE (Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education) 2002 conference: (1) "The Management of Technological Change within Faculties in International American Schools" (Martine Audeoud); (2) "Going Global: Using a Website Development Project To…

  14. International Education Curriculum Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    This curriculum guide is intended to integrate international education into the curriculum of elementary and secondary schools in Washington State. Section 1, "Introduction," comprises a brief list of statistical data about Washington and the world, and a copy of the 1987 Washington State international education legislation. Section 2,…

  15. International Terrorism: Soviet Connectivity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-02-01

    International terrorists may only be remotely part of a larger target group such as a government and Institu- tion or even military organization. People are...the nationality of the target group or the terrorists."(7:34) Waugh sums up the elements of International terrorism by . . ." the qualifications

  16. International Trade and Protectionism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This unit is designed to investigate the reasons for international trade and the issue of trade protectionism by focusing on the case study of the U.S. trade relationship with Taiwan. The unit begins with a simulation that highlights the concepts of global interdependence, the need for international trade, and the distribution of the world's…

  17. Cancer from internal emitters

    SciTech Connect

    Boecker, B.B.; Griffith, W.C. Jr.

    1995-10-01

    Irradiation from internal emitters, or internally deposited radionuclides, is an important component of radiation exposures encountered in the workplace, home, or general environment. Long-term studies of human populations exposed to various internal emitters by different routes of exposure are producing critical information for the protection of workers and members of the general public. The purpose of this report is to examine recent developments and discuss their potential importance for understanding lifetime cancer risks from internal emitters. The major populations of persons being studied for lifetime health effects from internally deposited radionuclides are well known: Lung cancer in underground miners who inhaled Rn progeny, liver cancer from persons injected with the Th-containing radiographic contrast medium Thorotrast, bone cancer from occupational or medical intakes of {sup 226}Ra or medical injections of {sup 224}Ra, and thyroid cancer from exposures to iodine radionuclides in the environment or for medical purposes.

  18. Internal tide oceanic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhongxiang

    2016-09-01

    A concept of internal tide oceanic tomography (ITOT) is proposed to monitor ocean warming on a global scale. ITOT is similar to acoustic tomography, but that work waves are internal tides. ITOT detects ocean temperature changes by precisely measuring travel time changes of long-range propagating internal tides. The underlying principle is that upper ocean warming strengthens ocean stratification and thus increases the propagation speed of internal tides. This concept is inspired by recent advances in observing internal tides by satellite altimetry. In particular, a plane wave fit method can separately resolve multiple internal tidal waves and thus accurately determines the phase of each wave. Two examples are presented to demonstrate the feasibility and usefulness of ITOT. In the eastern tropical Pacific, the yearly time series of travel time changes of the M2 internal tide is closely correlated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation index. In the North Atlantic, significant interannual variations and bidecadal trends are observed and consistent with the changes in ocean heat content measured by Argo floats. ITOT offers a long-term, cost-effective, environmentally friendly technique for monitoring global ocean warming. Future work is needed to quantify the accuracy of this technique.

  19. Waves: Internal Tides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard D.

    1999-01-01

    Oceanic internal tides are internal waves with tidal periodicities. They are ubiquitous throughout the ocean, although generally more pronounced near large bathymetric features such as mid-ocean ridges and continental slopes. The internal vertical displacements associated with these waves can be extraordinarily large. Near some shelf breaks where the surface tides are strong, internal displacements (e.g., of an isothermal surface) can exceed 200 meters. Displacements of 10 meters in the open ocean are not uncommon. The associated current velocities are usually comparable to or larger than the currents of the surface tide. On continental shelves internal tides can occasionally generate packets of internal solitons, which are detectable in remote sensing imagery. Other common nonlinear features are generation of higher harmonics (e.g., 6-hr waves) and wave breaking. Internal tides are known to be an important energy source for mixing of shelf waters. Recent research suggests that they may also be a significant energy source for deep-ocean mixing.

  20. NASA International Environmental Partnerships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Pattie; Valek, Susan

    2010-01-01

    For nearly five decades, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been preeminent in space exploration. NASA has landed Americans on the moon, robotic rovers on Mars, and led cooperative scientific endeavors among nations aboard the International Space Station. But as Earth's population increases, the environment is subject to increasing challenges and requires more efficient use of resources. International partnerships give NASA the opportunity to share its scientific and engineering expertise. They also enable NASA to stay aware of continually changing international environmental regulations and global markets for materials that NASA uses to accomplish its mission. Through international partnerships, NASA and this nation have taken the opportunity to look globally for solutions to challenges we face here on Earth. Working with other nations provides NASA with collaborative opportunities with the global science/engineering community to explore ways in which to protect our natural resources, conserve energy, reduce the use of hazardous materials in space and earthly applications, and reduce greenhouse gases that potentially affect all of Earth's inhabitants. NASA is working with an ever-expanding list of international partners including the European Union, the European Space Agency and, especially, the nation of Portugal. Our common goal is to foster a sustainable future in which partners continue to explore the universe while protecting our home planet's resources for future generations. This brochure highlights past, current, and future initiatives in several important areas of international collaboration that can bring environmental, economic, and other benefits to NASA and the wider international space community.

  1. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world, in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  2. International energy annual 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    The International Energy Annual presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 220 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy reported in the International Energy Annual includes hydroelectric power, geothermal, solar, and wind electric power, biofuels energy for the US, and biofuels electric power for Brazil. New in the 1996 edition are estimates of carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of petroleum and coal, and the consumption and flaring of natural gas. 72 tabs.

  3. Internal Swash and Surf

    PubMed Central

    Emery, K. O.; Gunnerson, C. G.

    1973-01-01

    114 temperature sections, each containing an average of 10 bathythermograms, show that internal waves commonly become altered on crossing the shoaling bottom of the continental shelf in Santa Monica Bay, Calif. The alteration takes the form of internal swash (in which the lower isotherms reach farther landward than would be expected from their depth above the outer shelf or above deeper bottom) and of internal surf (that is, denoted by temperature inversions, isolated boluses of colder water at the bottom, and complex short wave-length variations of isotherms). PMID:16592105

  4. The internal customer.

    PubMed

    Labovitz, G H; Lowenhaupt, M

    1993-01-01

    To realize the full potential of CQI, the needs of internal customers throughout the health care organization must be met. This is best done through a collaborative customer-supplier dialogue, where suppliers take the initiative to understand their internal customers' needs and make their own requirements clear. Unfortunately, physicians--the most critical group of internal customers--are unaccustomed to collaborative efforts and are often unwilling to participate in CQI training. The solution is to use the customer-supplier dialogue to understand physicians' unique needs so that they can be trained effectively and drawn into the CQI process.

  5. Internal dosimetry - a review.

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, Charles Augustus

    2004-06-01

    The field history and current status of internal dosimetry is reviewed in this article. Elements of the field that are reviewed include standards and models, derivation of dose coefficients and intake retention fractions, bioassay measurements, and intake and dose calculations. In addition, guidance is developed and provided as to the necessity of internal dosimetry for a particular facility or operation and methodology for implementing a program. A discussion of the purposes of internal dosimetry is included as well as recommendations for future development and direction.

  6. International Space Station Columbus Payload SoLACES Degradation Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harman, William; Schmidl, William; Mikatarian, Ron; Soares, Carlos; Schmidtke, Gerhard; Erhardt, Christian

    2014-01-01

    SOLAR is a European Space Agency (ESA) payload deployed on the International Space Station (ISS) and located on the Columbus Laboratory. It is located on the Columbus External Payload Facility in a zenith location. The objective of the SOLAR payload is to study the Sun. The SOLAR payload consists of three instruments that allow for measurement of virtually the entire electromagnetic spectrum (17 nm to 100 um). The three payload instruments are SOVIM (SOlar Variable and Irradiance Monitor), SOLSPEC (SOLar SPECctral Irradiance measurements), and SolACES (SOLar Auto-Calibrating Extreme UV/UV Spectrophotometers). The SolACES payload includes a set of 4 spectrometers that measure the solar EUV flux from 17 nm to 220 nm. One of these 4 spectrometers failed early on (before deployment). EUV data is important in understanding the solar dynamo. Also, EUV flux is the source of most of the ionization that produces the ionosphere plasma. Plasma production is important in understanding the ionosphere environment. The ionosphere conditions affect many subjects including spacecraft charging, dynamo processes, instabilities, and communications. The 3 remaining spectrometers have collected valuable data during the historically low solar cycle 24. Some of this data will be presented. A significant trend in degradation of the remaining SolACES spectrometers was observed towards the end of CY2010 (GMT 310) through mid CY 2011 (GMT 132). The Principle Investigators of SolACES initiated a Mission Evaluation Room (MER) Chit to request an investigation of the degradation in CY 2011 (GMT 230). The Boeing Space Environments team was asked to respond to the ESA initiated MER Chit request to investigate the cause of the degradation. This paper will discuss the findings of that investigation.

  7. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; stocks from 1973 through 1995, and trade from 1985 through 1995.

  8. Xenon International Automated Control

    SciTech Connect

    2016-08-05

    The Xenon International Automated Control software monitors, displays status, and allows for manual operator control as well as fully automatic control of multiple commercial and PNNL designed hardware components to generate and transmit atmospheric radioxenon concentration measurements every six hours.

  9. Geoscientists for international development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hastings, David A.

    1980-01-01

    Professional societies are usually concerned with the advancement of scientific knowledge, but a relative newcomer to the international scene has a different focus - geoscience development in the Third World. David Hastings, a member of AGID, explains.

  10. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994.

  11. International Understanding Through Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, William G.

    1977-01-01

    The American Council on International Sports (ACIS), with a State Department grant, planned, organized, and conducted a program designed to revolutionize physical education and sports in all Iranian public schools. Some of the results are discussed. (LBH)

  12. Internal displacement in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Shultz, James M; Ceballos, Ángela Milena Gómez; Espinel, Zelde; Oliveros, Sofia Rios; Fonseca, Maria Fernanda; Florez, Luis Jorge Hernandez

    2014-01-01

    This commentary aims to delineate the distinguishing features of conflict-induced internal displacement in the nation of Colombia, South America. Even as Colombia is currently implementing a spectrum of legal, social, economic, and health programs for “victims of armed conflict,” with particular focus on internally displaced persons (IDPs), the dynamics of forced migration on a mass scale within this country are little known beyond national borders.   The authors of this commentary are embarking on a global mental health research program in Bogota, Colombia to define best practices for reaching the displaced population and implementing sustainable, evidence-based screening and intervention for common mental disorders. Presenting the defining characteristics of internal displacement in Colombia provides the context for our work and, more importantly, conveys the compelling and complex nature of this humanitarian crisis. We attempt to demonstrate Colombia’s unique position within the global patterning of internal displacement. PMID:28228997

  13. International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    The InterLymph Consortium, or formally the International Consortium of Investigators Working on Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Epidemiologic Studies, is an open scientific forum for epidemiologic research in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  14. Fogarty International Center

    MedlinePlus

    ... Toronto, CEO of Grand Challenges Canada, Former Fogarty bioethics grantee > More Viewpoints from researchers Home Sub Feature ... 2017 Global Health Matters newsletter Funding News International Bioethics Training Due May 18 Global Infectious Disease Research ...

  15. International Student Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prieto-Welch, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes the mental health status of international students in institutions of higher education, unique challenges these students face and their impact on mental health, and suggestions for ways to address these challenges.

  16. International resources law

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This book covers: Historical origins of civil code legal systems; Modern civil law practice for mineral lawyers; Treaties and agreements for protection of international investments; Europe 1992-toward a single energy market; Dispute resolution in international agreements; Assessment of political risk; Reducing political risk; Protecting mineral investments from upheaval in developing countries; Typical world petroleum arrangements; government take in the Pacific Rim - Papua New Guinea; Mineral base of the USSR and prospects of investment; International taxation for the mining practitioner; Tax considerations - branch versus subsidiary; Doing business in the host country - nontax considerations; Impact of host-country laws on operations and profits; Mineral development and native rights - New Zealand; Designing the investment vehicle: mining; International oil and gas joint ventures; Selected U.S. laws with extraterritorial effect; U.S. tax and securities laws applied to foreign joint venturers; and Extraterritorial effect of U.S. laws.

  17. National narcissism: Internal dimensions and international correlates.

    PubMed

    Cai, Huajian; Gries, Peter

    2013-08-01

    In studies conducted in the United States and China, we explored the impact of national narcissism, grandiosity, and entitlement, demonstrating that: (a) national narcissism was distinct from both individual narcissism and collective self-esteem (patriotism); (b) national entitlement and national grandiosity constituted two distinct dimensions of national narcissism; and (c) national narcissism, national grandiosity, and national entitlement, but not individual narcissism, were uniquely predictive of political attitudes, foreign policy preferences, and purchase intentions. Together, these findings provided convergent evidence for the utility of national narcissism and its two internal dimensions, national entitlement and national grandiosity.

  18. International Cometary Explorer (ICE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    NASA spacecraft, originally known as ISEE-3 (International Sun-Earth Explorer). First spacecraft to encounter a comet. Launched in August 1978. After completing its original mission, it was reactivated and diverted to pass through the tail of Comet Giacobini-Zinner on 11 September 1985. It also observed Halley's Comet from a distance of 28 million km in March 1986. (See also INTERNATIONAL SUN-EAR...

  19. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This monthly publication provides current international oil data. The Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the OECD. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  20. International energy outlook 1992

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-04-01

    The report presents the current Energy Information Administration (EIA) assessment of the long-term outlook for international energy markets. The report is provided, as are other EIA reports, as a statistical service for use by managers and international energy analysts and not as a government energy plan. Current U.S. Government policies and foreign government policies are assumed to hold over the projection interval, which extends to the year 2010.

  1. (International meetings on ecology)

    SciTech Connect

    DeAngelis, D.L.; Garten, C.T. Jr.; Turner, M.G.

    1990-09-25

    the travelers attended the Fifth International Congress of Ecology (INTECOL) in Yokohama, Japan, and two presented invited papers and chaired symposia. One traveler also attended the OJI International Seminar in Gifu, Japan and the Fukuoka Symposium on Theoretical Ecology in Fukuoka, Japan and presented invited papers. At these scientific gatherings, a large number of symposia and specific presentations were relevant to current research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), especially in the areas of landscape dynamics, plant physiology, and aquatic ecosystems.

  2. Improving Internal Customer Service

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    sector to find a morse comprehensive model. , , /, v-/ii viii IMPROVING INTERNAL CUSTOMER SERVICE I. Introduction Backgro’rnd More and more American...service, but this research is mostly limited to the general issue of customer service and external customers in regard to the civilian sector of business...the focus is on what quality customer service is, both internal and external, and why customer service is so important today. Second, the dimensions of

  3. International dental standards.

    PubMed

    Jones, Derek W

    2007-09-22

    International dental standards are vital in maintaining the safety and quality of both the products and materials used by dental professionals and the many oral health products used by members of the general public, yet many dentists will be unaware of the role standards play in their daily practice. In this article, Derek W. Jones outlines the vital work of the International Standards Organization and highlights how standards pervade nearly every dental procedure.

  4. Criteria for internal auditing.

    PubMed

    Holder, W W; Clay, R J

    1979-01-01

    An effective, inclusive internal auditing endeavor should help assure hospital managements that (1) an adequate system of internal control exists to assure the safeguarding of assets and the reliability of data produced by the financial information system, (2) uneconomic operating practices are detected promptly so they can be remedied, and (3) program results and effectiveness levels are of sufficiently high quality to demonstrate managerial competence.

  5. Psychopathy and internalizing psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Willemsen, Jochem; Verhaeghe, Paul

    2012-01-01

    There is general consensus in clinical and research literature that the core feature of psychopathy consists of an affective deficit. However, previous studies tend to find weak and inconsistent associations between psychopathy and measures of internalizing psychopathology. In this study we test whether the predominant practice of using questionnaires to assess internalizing psychopathology has influenced the results of previous research. We argue that questionnaires measure general distress rather than specific symptoms of internalizing psychopathology, and that the validity of questionnaires might be impaired by psychopathic traits, such as impression management and lack of affective experience. Combining a questionnaire (Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21; DASS-21) and a semi-structured interview (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-R Axis 1 Disorders; SCID-I) for internalizing psychopathology, we test the differential association of both measures with the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) in a sample of 89 male detainees. In accordance with our prediction, we found moderate negative associations between the Interpersonal and Affective facets of the PCL-R and SCID-I, but no significant associations with the DASS-21. We found no evidence that psychopathic traits decrease the validity of the responses on a questionnaire. We conclude that the interpersonal and affective features of psychopathy are negatively related to specific symptoms of internalizing psychopathology, but not with general distress.

  6. International energy annual 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    The International Energy Annual presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 220 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy reported in the International Energy Annual includes hydroelectric power and geothermal, solar, and wind electric power. Also included are biomass electric power for Brazil and the US, and biomass, geothermal, and solar energy produced in the US and not used for electricity generation. This report is published to keep the public and other interested parties fully informed of primary energy supplies on a global basis. The data presented have been largely derived from published sources. The data have been converted to units of measurement and thermal values (Appendices E and F) familiar to the American public. 93 tabs.

  7. International energy outlook 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The International Energy Outlook 1994 (IEO94) presents an assessment by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the outlook for international energy markets between 1990 and 2010. The report is provided as a statistical service to assist energy managers and analysts, both in government and in the private sector. These forecasts are used by international agencies, Federal and State governments, trade associations, and other planners and decisionmakers. They are published pursuant to the Depart. of Energy Organization Act of 1977 (Public Law 95-91), Section 205(c). The IEO94 projections are based on US and foreign government policies in effect on October 1, 1993-which means that provisions of the Climate Change Action Plan unveiled by the Administration in mid-October are not reflected by the US projections.

  8. The International Space University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidian, Kenneth J.

    1990-01-01

    The International Space University (ISU) was founded on the premise that any major space program in the future would require international cooperation as a necessary first step toward its successful completion. ISU is devoted to being a leading center for educating future authorities in the world space industry. ISU's background, goals, current form, and future plans are described. The results and benefits of the type of education and experience gained from ISU include technical reports describing the design projects undertaken by the students, an exposure to the many different disciplines which are a part of a large space project, an awareness of the existing activities from around the world in the space community, and an international professional network which spans all aspects of space activities and covers the globe.

  9. ILO - International Migration Programme.

    PubMed

    Boudraa, Miriam

    2011-01-01

    In a wide International Context characterised not only by the economical development but also by the social, cultural, political and individual development, we witness more and more to a exchange between the developed and the developing countries, which can be translated especially in the migration of the work force. In theory, all countries are either countries of origin either countries of transit or destination, and they are all responsible for the rights of migrant workers by promoting the rights, by monitoring and by preventing the abusive conditions. The process of migration of the workforce can be divided into three stages: the first coincides with the period prior to departure, the second is represented by the aftermath of the departure and the period of stay in the country of destination, the third stage corresponds to the return in the country of origin. The workers must be protected throughout this process by the international organizations that perform the catalytic role of communication and exchange between countries, for the only purpose of protecting the rights of immigrant and/or immigrants workers. The responsibility for the protection of workers is divided among the various players in the International Labour Organisation. Every country has to apply measures according to the international standards regarding workers' rights, standards that guide the various countries in the formulation and implementation of their policies and legislation. These standards are suggested by International Conventions, the ILO Conventions and other international instruments such as the human rights instrument. There has been a big step forward once the ILO Fundamental Conventions and Conventions on Migrant Workers where implemented and this implementation represented the use of the Guidelines "ILO Multilateral Framework on Labour Migration".

  10. Comparison of total ozone amounts derived from satellite and ground-based measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Planet, Walter G.; Miller, Alvin J.; Angell, James K.

    1988-01-01

    Total ozone amounts derived from the NOAA operational sounder (TOVS) are compared to measurements from Nimbus-7 SBUV and ground-based Dobson spectrophotometer observations over a seven-year period. The global trends of the data, in terms of deviations from long-term averages, derived from measurements by each satellite instrument show qualitative agreement until mid-1984 when the data diverge with the TOVS-derived data showing higher values. Additionally, more significant differences appear in both the north and south temperate zones' records. The trends derived from the satellite systems' measurements also show differences from that of the Dobson instrument measurements with the trend of the TOVS measurements showing generally better overall agreement with the Dobson data record.

  11. An evaluation of electrochemical concentration Cell (ECC) sonde measurements of atmospheric ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geraci, M. J.; Luers, J. K.

    1978-01-01

    Using Dobson spectrophotometer measurements of total ozone as a comparison, an analysis of the electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesonde's measurement accuracy is presented. Days of conjunctive ECC-Dobson observations (from 1970 to 1976 at Wallops Flight Center) provide a set of 123 pairs of total ozone values. Sample set statistics are generated with means and standard deviations of total ozone values and differences being noted. An in-depth study of factors such as time assumptions used in calculating residual ozone, and other possible sources of errors are examined. A study of ECC ozone profiles is also presented with an evaluation of sonde measurement of seasonal trends, altitude or peak ozone concentration, and other important ozone parameters. Short-period changes in total ozone using Dobson data during the observational period are also described.

  12. An evaluation of electrochemical concentration cell sonde measurements of atmospheric ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geraci, M. J.; Luers, J. K.

    1978-01-01

    Using Dobson spectrophotometer measurements of total ozone as a comparison, an analysis of the Electrochemical Concentration Cell (ECC) ozonesonde's measurement accuracy is presented. Days of conjunctive ECC-Dobson observations (from 1970 to 1976 at Wallops Flight Center) provide a set of 123 pairs of total ozone values. Sample set statistics are generated with means and standard deviations of total ozone values and differences being noted. An in-depth study of factors such as time differences between associated observations, integration techniques used, assumptions used in calculating residual ozone and other possible sources of errors are examined. Short-period changes in total ozone using Dobson data during the observational period are also described.

  13. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    This document is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. The Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the OECD. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand and trade in OECD countries.

  14. The international RESPO network

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    Winrock International, with sponsorship from the Center for Environment of the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and the U.S. Export Council for Renewable Energy (US/ECRE), is building a global network of non-governmental organizations to help catalyze the use of renewable energy technologies for rural energy supply in developing countries. Known as the Renewable Energy Project Support Offices (REPSOs), these in-country facilities are managed by local institutions in coordination with Winrock. REPSOs provide an array of technical and financial support services to help developers identify and evaluate opportunities for renewable energy projects.

  15. Internal polarized targets

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, E.R.; Coulter, K.; Gilman, R.; Holt, R.J.; Kowalczyk, R.S.; Napolitano, J.; Potterveld, D.H.; Young, L. ); Mishnev, S.I.; Nikolenko, D.M.; Popov, S.G.; Rachek, I.A.; Temnykh, A.B.; Toporkov, D.K.; Tsentalovich, E.P.; Wojtsekhowski, B.B. . Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki)

    1989-01-01

    Internal polarized targets offer a number of advantages over external targets. After a brief review of the basic motivation and principles behind internal polarized targets, the technical aspects of the atomic storage cell will be discussed in particular. Sources of depolarization and the means by which their effects can be ameliorated will be described, especially depolarization by the intense magnetic fields arising from the circulating particle beam. The experience of the Argonne Novosibirsk collaboration with the use of a storage cell in a 2 GeV electron storage ring will be the focus of this technical discussion. 17 refs., 11 figs.

  16. INTERNAL CUTTING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Russell, W.H. Jr.

    1959-06-30

    A device is described for removing material from the interior of a hollow workpiece so as to form a true spherical internal surface in a workpiece, or to cut radial slots of an adjustable constant depth in an already established spherical internal surface. This is accomplished by a spring loaded cutting tool adapted to move axially wherein the entire force urging the tool against the workpiece is derived from the spring. Further features of importance involve the provision of a seal between the workpiece and the cutting device and a suction device for carrying away particles of removed material.

  17. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2003-05-01

    The two broad categories of deposited weld metal repair and fiber-reinforced composite repair technologies were reviewed for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Preliminary test programs were developed for both deposited weld metal repairs and for fiber-reinforced composite repair. To date, all of the experimental work pertaining to the evaluation of potential repair methods has focused on fiber-reinforced composite repairs. Hydrostatic testing was also conducted on four pipeline sections with simulated corrosion damage: two with composite liners and two without.

  18. INTERNATIONAL DATA ARCHIVE AND ANALYSIS CENTER. INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS ARCHIVE

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The International Relations Archive undertakes as its primary goal the acquisition, management and dissemination of international affairs data. This...goal necessitates direct interaction between the International Relations Archive staff and the academic community to ensure more adequate standards...contains two documents. The first document is the latest version of the memorandum, ’Data Holdings and Servicing Policies, International Relations Archive

  19. International Space University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kassler, Maggie (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The International Space University (ISU) is described in this video, hosted by Marina Sirtis from the 'Star Trek' television show's Starship Enterprise. A complete explanation of what ISU is, how the university functions, and the benefits that the university provides are described. Included are brief comments from former ISU graduates.

  20. Requirements for Xenon International

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, James C.; Ely, James H.

    2013-09-26

    This document defines the requirements for the new Xenon International radioxenon system. The output of this project will be a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) developed prototype and a manufacturer-developed production prototype. The two prototypes are intended to be as close to matching as possible; this will be facilitated by overlapping development cycles and open communication between PNNL and the manufacturer.

  1. [Internal and external haemorrhoids].

    PubMed

    Schuurman, J P; Go, P M N Y H

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we present 3 cases of patients with different types of haemorrhoidal disease. The first patient is a 27-year-old woman who had been experiencing incidental rectal blood loss without pain during defecation for 3 months. The second patient is a 76-year-old woman who had been bothered by varying degrees of pain from a swelling nearby the anus for 1 year. The third case involves a 31-year-old man who had had continuous severe pain in the anal area for 3 consecutive days. The first patient appeared to have internal hemorrhoids, whereas different forms of external hemorrhoids affected the patients in the other 2 cases. Internal haemorrhoids develop from the intraluminal corpus cavernosum recti; external haemorrhoids from the perianal marginal veins. Patients with internal haemorrhoids present with symptoms that include blood loss and prolaps feeling during defecation. In patients with external haemorrhoids pain is the prominent symptom. Internal haemorrhoids are treated either conservatively or surgically, depending upon their severity. Considering external haemorrhoidal disease surgical treatment provides the most rapid and persistent relief of symptoms.

  2. ETV International Brief

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. ETV Program has been active internationally for more than 10 years. Initially these efforts focused on sharing information about the U.S. program. Over the last four years, ETV has formalized working relationships with other countries with the objective of developing a...

  3. International Youth Year Features.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palla, Pier Giovanni, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    A digest of ideas and initiatives to make higher education more responsive to young people is provided. Part 1 includes excerpts of articles and reports concerning the International Youth Year (IYY), a United Nations' sponsored year of celebration of youth and a program of meetings to discuss youth problems and solutions. The themes selected for…

  4. International energy outlook 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This International Energy Outlook presents historical data from 1970 to 1993 and EIA`s projections of energy consumption and carbon emissions through 2015 for 6 country groups. Prospects for individual fuels are discussed. Summary tables of the IEO96 world energy consumption, oil production, and carbon emissions projections are provided in Appendix A. The reference case projections of total foreign energy consumption and of natural gas, coal, and renewable energy were prepared using EIA`s World Energy Projection System (WEPS) model. Reference case projections of foreign oil production and consumption were prepared using the International Energy Module of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). Nuclear consumption projections were derived from the International Nuclear Model, PC Version (PC-INM). Alternatively, nuclear capacity projections were developed using two methods: the lower reference case projections were based on analysts` knowledge of the nuclear programs in different countries; the upper reference case was generated by the World Integrated Nuclear Evaluation System (WINES)--a demand-driven model. In addition, the NEMS Coal Export Submodule (CES) was used to derive flows in international coal trade. As noted above, foreign projections of electricity demand are now projected as part of the WEPS. 64 figs., 62 tabs.

  5. Internal split field generator

    DOEpatents

    Thundat,; George, Thomas [Knoxville, TN; Van Neste, Charles W [Kingston, TN; Vass, Arpad Alexander [Oak Ridge, TN

    2012-01-03

    A generator includes a coil of conductive material. A stationary magnetic field source applies a stationary magnetic field to the coil. An internal magnetic field source is disposed within a cavity of the coil to apply a moving magnetic field to the coil. The stationary magnetic field interacts with the moving magnetic field to generate an electrical energy in the coil.

  6. Requirements for Xenon International

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, James C.; Ely, James H.; Haas, Derek A.; Harper, Warren W.; Heimbigner, Tom R.; Hubbard, Charles W.; Humble, Paul H.; Madison, Jill C.; Morris, Scott J.; Panisko, Mark E.; Ripplinger, Mike D.; Stewart, Timothy L.

    2015-12-30

    This document defines the requirements for the new Xenon International radioxenon system. The output of this project will be a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) developed prototype and a manufacturer-developed production prototype. The two prototypes are intended to be as close to matching as possible; this will be facilitated by overlapping development cycles and open communication between PNNL and the manufacturer.

  7. Study Canada: International Outlook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Robert L.; And Others

    This self-contained unit of study on Canada is one of a series which can be used to supplement secondary level courses of social studies, contemporary world problems, government, history, and geography. Developed by teachers, the unit focuses on international relations. A comparative approach is used which stresses understanding Canada from…

  8. Merit Pay International

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woessmann, Ludger

    2011-01-01

    American 15-year-olds continue to perform no better than at the industrial-world average in reading and science, and below that in mathematics. According to the results of the 2009 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) tests, released in December 2010 by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the United…

  9. Requiem for Cultural Internationalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ninkovich, Frank

    1986-01-01

    Reviews Mary Brown Bullock's 1980 book,"An American Transplant: The Rockefeller Foundation and Peking Union Medical College." Far more than a narrow, scholarly history, this book is a case study of the far-reaching cultural impact of international educational exchange efforts. (JDH)

  10. International Summer Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, June

    1979-01-01

    The article describes five summer programs for gifted and talented students offered internationally. The programs outlined are workshops in the publication arts, a study of humanistic development; computer science, writing, and photography workshops; a language study; a historical/social study of English history; and a workshop on photography,…

  11. Melanoma International Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Jason J. Luke, MD January 07, 2016 Surgical Management of Melanoma: A 2015 Primer Presented by Jeffrey Gershenwald, MD May 09, 2015 Our Awards Melanoma International Foundation Our Mission: To develop personalized strategies with patients so they may live longer, better ...

  12. Diversity and International.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Justice, Madeline, Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on diversity and international issues in technology and teacher education: (1) "'At-Risk' Learners and the 'Digital Divide': Exploring the Equity in Access Issue" (Jeanne M. Foster and Sharla L. Snider); (2) "Integrating Standards-Based Instructional Technology" (Nicole M. Snow); (3)…

  13. International Development: Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RTI International, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This report lists RTI International's efforts to improve education around the world by strengthening education system management. Projects are organized based on the following themes: (1) Conducting research to inform the education policy process; (2) Promoting education reform and policy support; (3) Facilitating and enabling participation; (4)…

  14. Midwifery. An international career.

    PubMed

    Vansintejan, G A

    1989-01-01

    International work is an unforgettable experience that promotes personal growth and fosters adaptability to any professional environment thereafter. The author describes highlights of her own professional career with the hope of encouraging others to undertake midwifery service in less developed countries.

  15. International Aviation (Selected Articles).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-12

    service properties. Multi-directional 4ie forming is adapted to the production of comlex -shaped forgings with internal cavities or convex rims. Through...an ’electronic computer ] program was written in marking complicated electronic diffraction spectra of two phases, twinning crystals and high-level

  16. Independence of Internal Auditors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montondon, Lucille; Meixner, Wilda F.

    1993-01-01

    A survey of 288 college and university auditors investigated patterns in their appointment, reporting, and supervisory practices as indicators of independence and objectivity. Results indicate a weakness in the positioning of internal auditing within institutions, possibly compromising auditor independence. Because the auditing function is…

  17. International Student Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Melinda; Kia, Parandeh

    2000-01-01

    Describes international student service units in higher education, including their primary functions, staff roles and responsibilities, major functional challenges, professional challenges and support systems, professional literature, and tips for those interested in the field. Also describes the author's personal career path in international…

  18. [Internal migration in Tanzania].

    PubMed

    Banyikwa, W F

    1982-01-01

    A general survey of population distribution in Tanzania is first presented using data from censuses taken between 1948 and 1979. Variations in distribution patterns are identified and discussed. The author then considers both spontaneous and planned internal migration trends and the factors affecting them. The effects of the official policy to resettle the rural population in larger villages are considered. (summary in ENG, RUS)

  19. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report is published for the use of Members of Congress, Federal agencies, State agencies, industry, and the general public. Publication of this report is in keeping with responsibilities given the Energy Information Administration in Public Law 95-91. The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995.

  20. Internal displacement in Burma.

    PubMed

    Lanjouw, S; Mortimer, G; Bamforth, V

    2000-09-01

    The internal displacement of populations in Burma is not a new phenomenon. Displacement is caused by numerous factors. Not all of it is due to outright violence, but much is a consequence of misguided social and economic development initiatives. Efforts to consolidate the state by assimilating populations in government-controlled areas by military authorities on the one hand, while brokering cease-fires with non-state actors on the other, has uprooted civilian populations throughout the country. Very few areas in which internally displaced persons (IDPs) are found are not facing social turmoil within a climate of impunity. Humanitarian access to IDP populations remains extremely problematic. While relatively little information has been collected, assistance has been focused on targeting accessible groups. International concern within Burma has couched the problems of displacement within general development modalities, while international attention along its borders has sought to contain displacement. With the exception of several recent initiatives, few approaches have gone beyond assistance and engaged in the prevention or protection of the displaced.

  1. Literature: Internal Forms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Curriculum Project, Atlanta, GA.

    This curriculum guide in literature, developed as part of a total English curriculum for pre-kindergarten through grade 10, suggests that students can best understand literature by recognizing its internal forms (i.e., characteristics that recur in settings, characters, and narrative patterns). Materials cover (1) an overview for teachers on the…

  2. Introduction to International Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crummett, Dan M.; Crummett, Jerrie

    This set of student and teacher guides is intended for use in a course to prepare students for entry-level employment in such occupational areas in international trade as business/finance, communications, logistics, and marketing. The following topics are covered in the course's five instructional units: introduction to careers in international…

  3. International Study Tour Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Frances L.; Matt, John J.; McCaw, William P.; Kero, Patty; Stewart, Courtney; Haddouch, Reda

    2014-01-01

    Using the context of international study tour groups, this study examined the personal and professional transformation that occurred among host faculty and staff at The University of Montana-Missoula as a result of their interactions with traveling academics from other countries. Data were collected from participant responses (n = 27) using a…

  4. Clarifying the Internment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulman, Bruce J.

    1993-01-01

    Through efforts to interpret and condemn the internment of Japanese Americans during World War II, the experience of internees themselves has been neglected. To clarify the experience, the author has focused on the internees in faculty seminars and in history classes at the University of California Los Angeles. (SLD)

  5. GNU debugger internal architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, P.; Nessett, D.; Pizzi, R.

    1993-12-16

    This document describes the internal and architecture and implementation of the GNU debugger, gdb. Topics include inferior process management, command execution, symbol table management and remote debugging. Call graphs for specific functions are supplied. This document is not a complete description but offers a developer an overview which is the place to start before modification.

  6. International HRD Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on international perspectives on human resource development (HRD). The first paper, "Human Resource Development Practices in American and Chinese High-technology Companies in Taiwan" (Hsin-yi Chen), uses quantitative and qualitative data on HRD practices in high-technology companies in…

  7. Introduction to International Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Intercom, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Focusing mainly on United States-Japan relations, this issue provides 11 lesson plans and student handouts dealing with international trade topics such as protective tariffs, currency exchange rates, unofficial trade barriers, causes of unemployment, the balance of payments and the internationalization of the automobile industry. (JDH)

  8. International Business Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendon, Donald W.

    The new International Business major within the School of Business, begun in fall 1989, is an ongoing, enriched program for highly motivated students of above-average scholastic achievement. Its primary purposes are to (1) prepare students to understand America's trading partners and (2) teach the technical knowledge needed in an international…

  9. Internalism, Externalism and Coding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Philip

    2007-01-01

    I examine some of the issues connected with the internalist/externalist distinction in work on the ontology of language. I note that Chomskyan radical internalism necessarily leads to a passive conception of child language acquisition. I reject that passive conception, and support current versions of constructivism [Tomasello, M., 2001. "The…

  10. The International System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, Maurice A.

    Designed as a unit for an international relations course, this systems approach paper outlines a learning method which contributes to the student's awareness that the United States is only one of many actors in the world. It also makes the student aware that there are limitations on the U. S. individual actions because of this interdependence and…

  11. The International Astronomy Olympiad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilov, Michael G.

    2011-06-01

    The International Astronomy Olympiad (IAO) is an annual scientific-educating event for students of the junior high-school classes, aged 14-18 years. The Euro-Asian Astronomical Society founded the IAO in 1996. The Olympiad includes an intellectual competition between these students. The style of the problems is aimed at developping the imagination, creativity and independent thinking.

  12. International. [SITE 2001 Section].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Dee Anna, Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on international issues from the SITE (Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education) 2001 conference: (1) "Attitudes of Malaysian Vocational Trainee Teachers towards the Integration of Computer in Teaching" (Ab. Rahim Bakar and Shamsiah Mohamed); (2) "Views from an Asian…

  13. International Ultraviolet Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This report is the November 6, 1996 - October 9, 1997, IUE Final Report for the International Ultraviolet Explorer Final Archive contract. The ultimate objective of this contract is the completion of the archival reprocessing of all IUE data obtained at GSFC between 1978 and 1995.

  14. International Intelligence Forum 2002

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    FORUM 39 Peavie, Barrett K . Intelligence Sharing in Bosnia. Fort Leavenworth, KS : U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, School of Advanced...Investigative Service, 2000. Jenssen, Lars Christian and Olav Riste. Intelligence in the Cold War: Organiza- tion, Role, International Cooperation. Oslo

  15. Childhood Education: International Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hujala, Eeva, Ed.

    Education is bound to society, and different educational strategies rise from the society and culture in which people live. This book presents an international perspective on problems and challenges from early education through adult education and highlights teacher education from the point of view of individual cultures and from a cross-cultural…

  16. Fall 2013 International Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Evaluation Association, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This Fall report is an aggregated statistical analysis of Measures of Academic Progress® (MAP®) data from international schools. The report provides a consistent means of comparisons of specific sub-groups by subject and grade, which allows partners to compare their MAP® results with other schools within their region or membership organization.…

  17. International Activities of ASE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symonds, Lynne; Jackson, Graham

    2013-01-01

    The Association for Science Education (ASE) has been involved in exchanges with various countries in a number of ways. Teachers from all over the world visit the Annual Conference and their own associations have often used ASE methods in developing their own programmes. The responsibilities of the International Committee of ASE range from…

  18. Technology in International Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    In a relatively short time, technology applications have become an essential feature of the admissions business. They make the jobs of international admissions professionals easier in many ways, allowing for more robust communication with applicants and counselors, a streamlined application process, and quicker access to information about…

  19. International reference ionosphere 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilitza, Dieter; Rawer, K.; Bossy, L.; Kutiev, I.; Oyama, K.-I.; Leitinger, R.; Kazimirovsky, E.

    1990-01-01

    The International Reference Ionosphere 1990 (IRI-90) is described. IRI described monthly averages of the electron density, electron temperature, ion temperature, and ion composition in the altitude range from 50 to 1000 km for magnetically quiet conditions in the non-auroral ionosphere. The most important improvements and new developments are summarized.

  20. Science Teaching and International Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    2007-01-01

    This article is an introduction to the international assessments Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) and the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and a review of results from 2003. International comparisons, especially in the media, have elevated interest in science education and stimulated discussions…

  1. Internal Auditing for School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuzzetto, Charles

    This book provides guidelines for conducting internal audits of school districts. The first five chapters provide an overview of internal auditing and describe techniques that can be used to improve or implement internal audits in school districts. They offer information on the definition and benefits of internal auditing, the role of internal…

  2. International Water Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The urban district of Nancy and the Town of Nancy, France, have taken the initiative of creating an International Center of Water (Centre International de l'Eau à Nancy—NAN.C.I.E.) in association with two universities, six engineering colleges, the Research Centers of Nancy, the Rhine-Meuse Basin Agency, and the Chamber of Commerce and Industry. The aim of this center is to promote research and technology transfer in the areas of water and sanitation. In 1985 it will initiate a research program drawing on the experience of 350 researchers and engineers of various disciplines who have already been assigned to research in these fields. The research themes, the majority of which will be multidisciplinary, concern aspects of hygiene and health, the engineering of industrial processes, water resources, and the environment and agriculture. A specialist training program offering five types of training aimed at university graduates, graduates of engineering colleges, or experts, will start in October 1984.

  3. International Nuclear Security

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, James E.

    2012-08-14

    This presentation discusses: (1) Definitions of international nuclear security; (2) What degree of security do we have now; (3) Limitations of a nuclear security strategy focused on national lock-downs of fissile materials and weapons; (4) What do current trends say about the future; and (5) How can nuclear security be strengthened? Nuclear security can be strengthened by: (1) More accurate baseline inventories; (2) Better physical protection, control and accounting; (3) Effective personnel reliability programs; (4) Minimize weapons-usable materials and consolidate to fewer locations; (5) Consider local threat environment when siting facilities; (6) Implement pledges made in the NSS process; and (7) More robust interdiction, emergency response and special operations capabilities. International cooperation is desirable, but not always possible.

  4. Internal core tightener

    DOEpatents

    Brynsvold, Glen V.; Snyder, Jr., Harold J.

    1976-06-22

    An internal core tightener which is a linear actuated (vertical actuation motion) expanding device utilizing a minimum of moving parts to perform the lateral tightening function. The key features are: (1) large contact areas to transmit loads during reactor operation; (2) actuation cam surfaces loaded only during clamping and unclamping operation; (3) separation of the parts and internal operation involved in the holding function from those involved in the actuation function; and (4) preloaded pads with compliant travel at each face of the hexagonal assembly at the two clamping planes to accommodate thermal expansion and irradiation induced swelling. The latter feature enables use of a "fixed" outer core boundary, and thus eliminates the uncertainty in gross core dimensions, and potential for rapid core reactivity changes as a result of core dimensional change.

  5. The international petrochemical industry

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, K.

    1991-01-01

    The petrochemical industry occupies a crucial place in economic, strategic and political terms in the twentieth century. The author explains its growth and international distribution from the 1920s tot he present, relating the particular experience of petrochemicals to the processes that have shaped the long-term evolution of industry in general. The geographical coverage of this book extends from the regional to international scale, and its historical scope embraces one hundred years from the laboratory origins of polymer science and petrochemistry to the massive operations of modern industry. It represents the result of twenty years of research, and reflects the author's privileged access to company sources in both the U.S. and Europe.

  6. [Vaccination for international travelers].

    PubMed

    Arrazola, M Pilar; Serrano, Almudena; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2016-05-01

    Traveler's vaccination is one of the key strategies for the prevention of infectious diseases during international travel. The risk of acquiring an infectious disease is determined in each case by the characteristics of the traveler and the travel, so the pre-departure medical advice of the traveler must be individualized. The World Health Organization classifies travelerś vaccines into three groups. - Vaccines for routine use in national immunization programs: Haemophilus influenzae type b, hepatitis B, polio, measles-mumps-rubella, tetanus-diphtheria-whooping a cough, and chickenpox. - Vaccinations required by law in certain countries before to enter them: yellow fever, meningococcal disease and poliomyelitis. - Vaccines recommended depending on the circumstances: cholera, japanese encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis, meningococcal disease, typhoid fever, influenza, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, rabies and BCG. This review is intended to introduce the reader to the field of international vaccination.

  7. First International Microgravity Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmahan, Tracy; Shea, Charlotte; Wiginton, Margaret; Neal, Valerie; Gately, Michele; Hunt, Lila; Graben, Jean; Tiderman, Julie; Accardi, Denise

    1990-01-01

    This colorful booklet presents capsule information on every aspect of the International Microgravity Laboratory (IML). As part of Spacelab, IML is divided into Life Science Experiments and Materials Science Experiments. Because the life and materials sciences use different Spacelab resources, they are logically paired on the IML missions. Life science investigations generally require significant crew involvement, and crew members often participate as test subjects or operators. Materials missions capitalize on these complementary experiments. International cooperation consists in participation by the European Space Agency, Canada, France, Germany, and Japan who are all partners in developing hardware and experiments of IML missions. IML experiments are crucial to future space ventures, like the development of Space Station Freedom, the establishment of lunar colonies, and the exploration of other planets. Principal investigators are identified for each experiment.

  8. Is internal friction friction?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savage, J.C.; Byerlee, J.D.; Lockner, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    Mogi [1974] proposed a simple model of the incipient rupture surface to explain the Coulomb failure criterion. We show here that this model can plausibly be extended to explain the Mohr failure criterion. In Mogi's model the incipient rupture surface immediately before fracture consists of areas across which material integrity is maintained (intact areas) and areas across which it is not (cracks). The strength of the incipient rupture surface is made up of the inherent strength of the intact areas plus the frictional resistance to sliding offered by the cracked areas. Although the coefficient of internal friction (slope of the strength versus normal stress curve) depends upon both the frictional and inherent strengths, the phenomenon of internal friction can be identified with the frictional part. The curvature of the Mohr failure envelope is interpreted as a consequence of differences in damage (cracking) accumulated in prefailure loading at different confining pressures.

  9. Internal friction in solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wert, C. A.

    1986-09-01

    Study of the damping of vibrations in solids has developed into an acoustical spectroscopy which can elucidate many geometrical, thermodynamic, and kinetic characteristics of solids. In a relatively brief 15 years, between 1935 and 1950, Clarence Zener contributed physical insight, analytical procedures, and suggestions for important topics which persist even today. This review traces development of ideas and techniques from that period to the present. It uses chiefly as examples the flow of heat across vibrating reeds (and the corollary Gorsky effect), the Snoek effect in interstitial alloys, and the Zener effect in substitutional alloys. Internal friction of molecular reorientation in polymeric solids is described. Finally, the joint use of internal friction and dielectric loss is demonstrated to provide additional insight into molecular configurations in solids which are both mechanical and electric dipoles.

  10. Polarized internal target apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Holt, R.J.

    1984-10-10

    A polarized internal target apparatus with a polarized gas target of improved polarization and density (achieved by mixing target gas atoms with a small amount of alkali metal gas atoms, and passing a high intensity polarized light source into the mixture to cause the alkali metal gas atoms to become polarized which interact in spin exchange collisions with target gas atoms yielding polarized target gas atoms) is described.

  11. Polarized internal target apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Holt, Roy J.

    1986-01-01

    A polarized internal target apparatus with a polarized gas target of improved polarization and density achieved by mixing target gas atoms with a small amount of alkali metal gas atoms, and passing a high intensity polarized light source into the mixture to cause the alkali metal gas atoms to become polarized which interact in spin exchange collisions with target gas atoms yielding polarized target gas atoms.

  12. Project: Internal communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, Lydia

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the perceived information needs of NASA Langley employees. One hundred and twelve face-to-face interviews were conducted with a representative sample of aero-space technologists, administrative professionals, technicians. and secretarial/clerical personnel. Results of employee perceptions are analyzed and summarized using affinity diagramming. Particular strategies to maximize use of existing internal communication networks are discussed.

  13. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the OECD. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world, presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production, oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  14. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    This monthly publication provides current data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the OECD. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  15. The International Lunar Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    A new lunar science flight projects line has been introduced within NASA s Science Mission Directorate's (SMDs) proposed 2009 budget, including two new robotic missions designed to accomplish key scientific objectives and, when possible, provide results useful to the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) and the Space Operations Mission Directorate (SOMD) as those organizations grapple with the challenges of returning humans to the Moon. The first mission in this line will be the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, an ESMD mission that will acquire key information for human return to the moon activities, which will transition after one year of operations to the SMD Lunar Science Program for a 2-year nominal science mission. The second mission, the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) will be launch in 2011 along with the GRAIL Discovery mission to the moon. The third is delivery of two landed payloads as part of the International Lunar Network (ILN). This flight projects line provides a robust robotic lunar science program for the next 8 years and beyond, complements SMD s initiatives to build a robust lunar science community through R&A lines, and increases international participation in NASA s robotic exploration plans. The International Lunar Network is envisioned as a global lunar geophysical network, which fulfills many of the stated recommendations of the recent National Research Council report on The Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon [2], but is difficult for any single space agency to accomplish on its own. The ILN would provide the necessary global coverage by involving US and international landed missions as individual nodes working together. Ultimately, this network could comprise 8-10 or more nodes operating simultaneously, while minimizing the required contribution from each space agency. Indian, Russian, Japanese, and British landed missions are currently being formulated and SMD is actively seeking partnership with

  16. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    This document is a monthly publication which provides current data on international oil production,demand,imports and stocks. This report has four sections which contain time series data on world oil production and oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Also included is oil supply/demand balance information for the world, and data on oil imports and trade by OECD countries.

  17. USSR Report, International Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-27

    Caribbean Sea, the Atlantic Ocean and in the mouth of the Orinoco River. According to the firm’s estimates, the total natural - gas reserves on the shelf...significance of the World Ocean in the system of relations regulated by international law results from the fact that most of this natural complex lies...34charter of the seas" their hopes for the expansion of their control over the natural resources of the marine regions adjacent to their shores, for the

  18. International Flight Planning Handbook.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-01

    SAC pilots and navigators for international operations and provide increased confidence to deal effectively with contingencies that might occur. -, The...control and altitude separation. Therefore, aircrft separation is greater than operations within a radar enviro :..en:. The service is provided by the ICAO...within the CONUS ARTCC system are connected. Therefore, a handoff of a flight will be effected prior to entry into an adjoining FIR or UIR. Once a flight

  19. International Data Archive

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1971-01-01

    and the International System. 20. Russett Bruce M., Karl Deutsch , Hayward Alker, and Harold Lasswell, World Handbook of Political and Social...Russett, Bruce M., Karl Deutsch , Hayward Alker, and Harold Lasswell. World Handbook of Political and Social Indicators. Data for 141 polities...August, 1969, Charles McClelland. (23,000 Events) World Handbook of Political and Social Indicators, First Edition, Bruce Russett, Karl Deutsch

  20. INTERNATIONAL ENGLISH MANUAL

    SciTech Connect

    AMADOR, MABLE; KELLER, YVONNE KELLER

    2002-02-22

    This document presents a set of guidelines for authors who wish to express themselves more clearly to foreign readers, or readers whose first language is not American English. Topics include idioms, technical terms, jargon, word meaning, acronyms, and international conventions of measurement. The guidelines will help writers of technical documents present their ideas more effectively to audiences that may include individuals whose first language is not American English, including audiences with individuals from other English-speaking countries.

  1. Foreign Internal Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-12

    projects conducted were a primary factor in the decision to form the JTF. Other JTFs may be organized to accomplish specific functional missions such...IV-8 Table of Contents viii JP 3-22 VI-1 Force Employment Factors in Foreign Internal Defense Operations ........ VI-2 VI-2...US combat operations in support of FID Executive Summary xi operations, which requires a Presidential decision and serves only as a temporary

  2. International markets for CCTs

    SciTech Connect

    Ferriter, J.P.

    1997-12-31

    The paper begins by describing the role of the International Energy Agency, the importance of coal, what the IEA is doing in the area of clean coal technology, and the role of the IEA Coal Industry Advisory Board. The paper then discusses which coal technologies will be chosen, what the problem areas are, and what can be done to accelerate the take-up of clean coal technologies.

  3. USSR Report, International Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    absorbed by everyone yet, was once expressed with great emotional force by India’s outstanding leader, Indira Gandhi. Imagine, she...their chests sat on the tight hand side of fhe struc- ture, playing religious tunes on musical instruments. The women wore saris and had a dot on their...deterrence, it’s the real evil in the international realtions , because that’s the source of the arms race. [Kuznetsov2 And you think those fears

  4. USSR Report, International Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    the Federation of Students of Secondary Academic Institutions (around 460,000 members in all) and the Jose Marti Pioneer Organization (more than...through terrorist acts is a delusion. "We," announced one of the leaders of the group, Luis Ötero, "are not fighting for the immediate seizure of...proposed two possible successors— Luis Maria Arganha, chairman of the supreme court and once a member of the International Court of Justice in The

  5. The International DORIS Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavernier, G.; Fagard, H.; Feissel-Vernier, M.; Lemoine, F.; Noll, C.; Ries, J.; Soudarin, L.; Willis, P.

    The DORIS system was initially developed for precise orbit determination and precise positioning on the Earth. In continuation of the DORIS Pilot Experiment initiated in 1999, the International DORIS Service (IDS) officially started on July 1, 2003 as an IAG Service after an official acceptance from the IAG Executive Committee at the IUGG General Assembly in Sapporo, Japan. Following this decision, the IERS Directing board accepted the DORIS Service as a new IERS external service. Six satellites carrying DORIS receivers are currently in orbit, permanently observed by 56 well-distributed tracking stations. Among these, three satellites (Jason-1, ENVISAT and SPOT5) are equipped with the new generation of DORIS receivers and were launched between December 2001 and May 2002. The DORIS receivers on these three spacecraft include a navigation function, called DIODE. The permanent tracking network has been constantly improved and specific campaigns of observations have been conducted in Wettzell, Gads and in Antarctica. Recent DORIS performances for precise positioning were improved by this large increase in the satellite constellation, leading to almost 1 cm precision for weekly station coordinates. Significant improvements were also obtained in Polar Motion estimations, leading to 1.0-1.5 mas daily results. In 2003 and 2004, several steps were taken to improve the operations of the IDS, as well as its international cooperation, by organizing several specific analysis campaigns. The International DORIS Service has now started its scientific activity on a routine basis for the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) and the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS).

  6. USSR Report, International Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    AFFAIRS CONTENTS SOCIALIST COMMUNITY AND CEMA AFFAIRS International Scientific Coordinating Conference in USSR (ZARYA VOSTOKA, 30 Oct 86) • ■ • • 1 ...Czechoslovak Meeting on S&T Cooperation With CEMA (EKONOMICHESKAYA GAZETA, No 1 , Jan 87) 2 Non-Use of CEMA Economic Experience Queried (V. G...U.S. Export Control Laws Revised (Moscow in English to North America, 1 Mar 87) 64 Reagan’s 1984 Directive on Concentration Camps Noted (Vadim

  7. The International Halley Watch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    In preparation for the 1985 to 1986 apparition of Halley's Comet, the International Halley Watch (IHW) has initiated a comprehensive program to simulate, encourage, and coordinate scientific observation of the apparition. The observing groups with which the IHW plans to interact are discussed and the ground based observing nets are described in detail. An outline of the history of observations of Halley's Comet and a synopsis of comet properties and physics are included.

  8. Fair trade international surrogacy.

    PubMed

    Humbyrd, Casey

    2009-12-01

    Since the development of assisted reproductive technologies, infertile individuals have crossed borders to obtain treatments unavailable or unaffordable in their own country. Recent media coverage has focused on the outsourcing of surrogacy to developing countries, where the cost for surrogacy is significantly less than the equivalent cost in a more developed country. This paper discusses the ethical arguments against international surrogacy. The major opposition viewpoints can be broadly divided into arguments about welfare, commodification and exploitation. It is argued that the only valid objection to international surrogacy is that surrogate mothers may be exploited by being given too little compensation. However, the possibility of exploitation is a weak argument for prohibition, as employment alternatives for potential surrogate mothers may be more exploitative or more harmful than surrogacy. It is concluded that international surrogacy must be regulated, and the proposed regulatory mechanism is termed Fair Trade Surrogacy. The guidelines of Fair Trade Surrogacy focus on minimizing potential harms to all parties and ensuring fair compensation for surrogate mothers.

  9. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international data. The report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent 12 months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1996; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1996; and OECD trade from 1986 through 1996.

  10. Remote and ground-based measurements of ozone profiles during the MAP/GLOBUS 1983 campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Noe, J.; Brillet, J.; Turati, C.; Megie, G.; Godin, S.

    1987-05-01

    Ozone observations were carried out during the MAP/GLOBUS campaign in September 1983 by five ground-based instruments located either at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence (the Dobson spectrophotometer, the IR SISAM spectrometer, and the UV Lidar) the Bordeaux Observatory (a microwave spectrometer), or at the Biscarosse station (another Dobson spectrophotometer). A balloon-borne microwave spectrometer was flown from Aire-sur-l'Adour on September 28. A brief description of the instruments is given. Results obtained by the different instruments are also given. Their comparison is done first with respect to the ozone content over the whole month of September, then within layers 4, 5 and part of 6 for which Brewer-Mast sonde measurements were included, and finally for vertical profiles at altitudes higher than 30 km. Most comparisons show a good agreement, in general within 5 percent on the average.

  11. Effect of El Niæo observed over Indian continent from satellite-derived ozone data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ramesh P.; Sarkar, Sudipta; Singh, Ashbindu

    After the discovery of the ozone hole over Antarctica, assessment of the long-term trend of ozone in different regions of the globe has become a frontline topic of Earth system sciences. Trends in total ozone column (TOC) have been estimated by various authors [McPeters et al., 1996; Hollandsworth et al., 1995] using the data obtained from the Dobson spectrophotometer, satellite-borne instruments, and balloon-borne ozonesondes.Most such studies are for mid- and highlatitude regions, whereas studies made with data from low-latitude regions are meager. No detailed sensor-based approach has been undertaken so far to understand the total ozone scenario from an Indian perspective, apart from a few observations [Chakrabarty et al., 1998] that were largely based on a ground-based Dobson spectrophotometer at major Indian cities.

  12. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-04-12

    The two broad categories of deposited weld metal repair and fiber-reinforced composite liner repair technologies were reviewed for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Preliminary test programs were developed for both deposited weld metal repair and for fiber-reinforced composite liner repair. Evaluation trials have been conducted using a modified fiber-reinforced composite liner provided by RolaTube and pipe sections without liners. All pipe section specimens failed in areas of simulated damage. Pipe sections containing fiber-reinforced composite liners failed at pressures marginally greater than the pipe sections without liners. The next step is to evaluate a liner material with a modulus of elasticity approximately 95% of the modulus of elasticity for steel. Preliminary welding parameters were developed for deposited weld metal repair in preparation of the receipt of Pacific Gas & Electric's internal pipeline welding repair system (that was designed specifically for 559 mm (22 in.) diameter pipe) and the receipt of 559 mm (22 in.) pipe sections from Panhandle Eastern. The next steps are to transfer welding parameters to the PG&E system and to pressure test repaired pipe sections to failure. A survey of pipeline operators was conducted to better understand the needs and performance requirements of the natural gas transmission industry regarding internal repair. Completed surveys contained the following principal conclusions: (1) Use of internal weld repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling (HDD) when a new bore must be created to

  13. Internal absorber solar collector

    DOEpatents

    Sletten, Carlyle J.; Herskovitz, Sheldon B.; Holt, F. S.; Sletten, E. J.

    1981-01-01

    Thin solar collecting panels are described made from arrays of small rod collectors consisting of a refracting dielectric rod lens with an absorber imbedded within it and a reflecting mirror coated on the back side of the dielectric rod. Non-tracking collector panels on vertical walls or roof tops receive approximately 90% of solar radiation within an acceptance zone 60.degree. in elevation angle by 120.degree. or more in the azimuth sectors with a collector concentration ratio of approximately 3.0. Miniaturized construction of the circular dielectric rods with internal absorbers reduces the weight per area of glass, plastic and metal used in the collector panels. No external parts or insulation are needed as heat losses are low due to partial vacuum or low conductivity gas surrounding heated portions of the collector. The miniature internal absorbers are generally made of solid copper with black selective surface and the collected solar heat is extracted at the collector ends by thermal conductivity along the absorber rods. Heat is removed from end fittings by use of liquid circulants. Several alternate constructions are provided for simplifying collector panel fabrication and for preventing the thermal expansion and contraction of the heated absorber or circulant tubes from damaging vacuum seals. In a modified version of the internal absorber collector, oil with temperature dependent viscosity is pumped through a segmented absorber which is now composed of closely spaced insulated metal tubes. In this way the circulant is automatically diverted through heated portions of the absorber giving higher collector concentration ratios than theoretically possible for an unsegmented absorber.

  14. INTERNATIONAL LAW: HINDRANCE OR HELP?

    EPA Science Inventory

    As international Remote Sensing/Geographic Information Systems (RS/GIS)
    organizations develop, legal issues are becoming an important factor in promoting or limiting international cooperation. We must keep legal considerations in mind during the creation, implementation, and ...

  15. The Japanese "Internment" Cases Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Edward T.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews topics discussed in the OAH article, "Incarcerating Japanese Americans" (Roger Daniels). States that the three internment cases were correct. Asks whether internment could re-occur given the climate in U.S. society since September 11, 2001. (CMK)

  16. Learning Activities for International Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    The National Standards for Business Education include nine areas relating to international business: awareness, communication, environmental factors, ethics, finance, management, marketing, import/export, and organizational structure of international business. (SK)

  17. Goddard Summer Interns: Danielle Wood

    NASA Video Gallery

    Profile of Goddard intern Danielle Wood. Danielle is interning at Goddard in the Innovative Partnerships Program and at NASA Headquarters in the Office of the Chief Technologist in the summer of 20...

  18. Threats to international science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisslinger, Carl

    The role of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) as effective agents for promoting world science is seriously threatened. It is ironic that the threat comes from Norway and Denmark, two countries that have demonstrated a deep commitment to individual freedom and human rights. Motivated by a sincere desire to express their strongest disapproval of the “apartheid” policies of the government of the Republic of South Africa, these countries have passed laws that have the effect of rejecting the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) principles of nondiscrimination and free circulation of scientists.

  19. Internal insulation system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gille, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    The development of an internal insulation system for cryogenic liquids is described. The insulation system is based on a gas layer concept in which capillary or surface tension effects are used to maintain a stable gas layer within a cellular core structure between the tank wall and the contained cryogen. In this work, a 1.8 meter diameter tank was insulated and tested with liquid hydrogen. Ability to withstand cycling of the aluminum tank wall to 450 K was a design and test condition.

  20. International energy annual 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    The International Energy Annual presents information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu). Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Data are provided on crude oil refining capacity and electricity installed capacity by type. Prices are included for selected crude oils and for refined petroleum products in selected countries. Population and Gross Domestic Product data are also provided.

  1. International energy annual, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-08

    This document presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 200 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy includes hydroelectric, geothermal, solar and wind electric power and alcohol for fuel. The data were largely derived from published sources and reports from US Embassy personnel in foreign posts. EIA also used data from reputable secondary sources, industry reports, etc.

  2. International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wahlberg, Jennifer; Gordon, Randy

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the research on the International Space Station (ISS), including the sponsorship of payloads by country and within NASA. Included is a description of the space available for research, the Laboratory "Rack" facilities, the external research facilities and those available from the Japanese Experiment Module (i.e., Kibo), and highlights the investigations that JAXA has maintained. There is also a review of the launch vehicles and spacecraft that are available for payload transportation to the ISS, including cargo capabilities of the spacecraft.

  3. Rural intern training.

    PubMed

    Mugford, B V; Braund, W; Worley, P S; Martin, A

    2001-01-01

    In recent times, legislative initiatives in Australia have changed the method by which doctors enter general practice. One result of this tightening has been to restrict the access of junior doctors to medical experiences outside the hospital environment, and force a closer examination of the 'generalist training' provided to junior doctors. The Australian Medical Training Review Panel, created as part of these legislative changes, developed a series of recommendations about general training in 1996, one of which was to provide for rural and community experiences for junior doctors. This article describes the experience of a 'rural intern' rotation from Flinders Medical Centre to the rural community of Jamestown, in South Australia.

  4. Amplified total internal reflection.

    PubMed

    Fan, J; Dogariu, A; Wang, L J

    2003-02-24

    Totally internal reflected beams can be amplified if the lowerindex medium has gain. We analyze the reflection and refraction of light, and analytically derive the expression for the Goos-Hänchen shifts of a Gaussian beam incident on a lower-index medium, both active and absorptive. We examine the energy flow and the Goos-Hänchen shifts for various cases. The analytical results are consistent with the numerical results. For the TE mode, the Goos-Hänchen shift for the transmitted beam is exactly half of that of the reflected beam, resulting in a "1/2" rule.

  5. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This monthly publication provides international oil data for January 1998. The report presents data on oil production, demand, imports, and stocks in four sections. Section 1 containes time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 containes annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  6. Hanford internal dosimetry program manual

    SciTech Connect

    Carbaugh, E.H.; Sula, M.J.; Bihl, D.E.; Aldridge, T.L.

    1989-10-01

    This document describes the Hanford Internal Dosimetry program. Program Services include administrating the bioassay monitoring program, evaluating and documenting assessments of internal exposure and dose, ensuring that analytical laboratories conform to requirements, selecting and applying appropriate models and procedures for evaluating internal radionuclide deposition and the resulting dose, and technically guiding and supporting Hanford contractors in matters regarding internal dosimetry. 13 refs., 16 figs., 42 tabs.

  7. Two Years of Ozone Observations from the South Pole Brewer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McElroy, Tom; Savastiouk, Volodya; Evans, Robert; Oltmans, Samuel; Booth, John; Cox, Amy

    2010-05-01

    A Mark III, double-monochromator Brewer Ozone Spectrophotometer has now been operating at the Amundsen-Scott Antarctic Base for more than two years. The instrument was installed under an agreement with the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) by Environment Canada in February of 2008. It has now collected more than two years of observations. Both direct sun data and moon measurements have been made and the results compared with the station Dobson Spectrophotometer observations. The Brewer has operated well under the harsh conditions at the South Pole, enduring outside temperatures below -70C. Some the results of the analysis of these data will be presented and discussed.

  8. Fiber sample presentation system for spectrophotometer cotton fiber color measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI) is used to class U.S. cotton for fiber color, yielding the industry accepted, cotton-specific color parameters Rd and +b. The HVI examines a 9 square inch fiber sample, and it is also used to test large AMS standard cotton “biscuits” or rectangles. Much inte...

  9. A Correlation Study between Two Color-Measuring Spectrophotometers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    a color difference pair) were_ measured for short- and long-term repeataoility. Each instrument was found to show a repeatability of 0.12 CIELAB color...for the Green Fabric Samples on the ACS II: Standard Deviation of Tristimulus 26 Values (X,Y,Z) 5. CIELAB Color Differences for Tan Color Difference...value on the ACS I is considerably higher. The largest AE ( CIELAB color difference between the two means) observed was 0.5 CIELAB units. The two-sample

  10. Aerosol Optical Depth: A study using Thailand based Brewer Spectrophotometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumharn, Wilawan; Sudhibrabha, Sumridh; Hanprasert, Kesrin

    2015-12-01

    The Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) was retrieved from the direct-sun Brewer observation by the application of the Beer's law for the years 1997-2011 at two monitoring sites in Thailand (Bangkok and Songkhla). AOD values measured in Bangkok exhibited higher values than Songkhla. In addition, AOD values were higher in the morning and evening in Bangkok. In contrast, the AOD values in Songkhla were slightly lower during the mornings and late afternoons. The variation of AOD was seasonal in Bangkok, with the higher values found in summer (from Mid-February to Mid-May) compared with rainy season (Mid-May to Mid-October), whilst there was no clear seasonal pattern of AOD in Songkhla.

  11. Spectrophotometers for plutonium monitoring in HB-line

    SciTech Connect

    Lascola, R. J.; O'Rourke, P. E.; Kyser, E. A.; Immel, D. M.; Plummer, J. R.; Evans, E. V.

    2016-02-12

    This report describes the equipment, control software, calibrations for total plutonium and plutonium oxidation state, and qualification studies for the instrument. It also provides a detailed description of the uncertainty analysis, which includes source terms associated with plutonium calibration standards, instrument drift, and inter-instrument variability. Also included are work instructions for instrument, flow cell, and optical fiber setup, work instructions for routine maintenance, and drawings and schematic diagrams.

  12. At-line cotton color measurements by portable color spectrophotometers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a result of reports of cotton bales that had significant color changes from their initial Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI™) color measurements, a program was implemented to measure cotton fiber color (Rd, +b) at-line in remote locations (warehouse, mill, etc.). The measurement of cotton fiber...

  13. Spec UV-Vis: An Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrophotometer Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, N.; Limniou, Maria; Koklamanis, Giannis; Tsarouxas, Apostolos; Roilidis, Mpampis; Bigger, Stephen W.

    2001-11-01

    The software and its accompanying manual can be used to illustrate the recording of an absorption spectrum and the Beer-Lambert law (5-7) as well as various aspects of acid-base indicators such as the spectrophotometric determination of pKa (8), the isosbestic point (6, 9), and distribution diagrams (10, 11).

    Literature Cited

    1. Shiowatana, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 730.
    2. Altemose, I. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, A216, A262.
    3. Piepmeier, E. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 640.
    4. Lott, P. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A89, A169, A182, A273.
    5. Skoog, D. A.; West, D. M.; Holler, F. J. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry, 7th ed.; Saunders College Publishing: Fort Worth, TX, 1996, Chapters 22-24.
    6. Christian, G. D. Analytical Chemistry, 5th ed.; Wiley: New York, 1994; Chapter 14.
    7. Kennedy, J. H. Analytical Chemistry--Principles, 2nd ed.; Saunders College Publishing: New York, 1990; Chapters 11,12.
    8. Patterson, G. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 395.
    9. Harris, D. C. Quantitative Chemical Analysis, 5th ed.; Freeman: New York, 1997; Chapters 19, 20.
    10. Butler, J. N. Ionic Equilibrium--A Mathematical Approach; Addison-Wesley: Reading, MA, 1964; Chapter 5.
    11. Sawyer, C. A.; McCarty, P. L.; Parkin, G. F. Chemistry for Environmental Engineering, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill: Singapore, 1994; Chapter 4.

  14. Development of Liquid Xenon Imaging Gamma-Ray Spectrophotometers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-01

    ground potential. The cathode plane is made from 63/rm diameter silver-plated beryllium copper wire set at 0.55mm pitch on a 15cm span. These wires are...100000 ( ! IUD i 10 10000 .. SCUID GAS Pressure Density (torr) 10 ,..........I (gm/cc) 10 1 1 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 Temperature (K...The freon is kept in a 30cm diameter by 10cm deep SS cryostat large enough to accomodate a 15cm diameter by 5cm deep liquid xenon cell and copper

  15. Journey to International Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Qi

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author describes her journey to international adult education and shares some lessons learned from her journey. The author developed her interest in international adult education through the Scientific Research Institute of International and Comparative Education (SRIICE) at Beijing Normal University and discovered its…

  16. Simulation in International Relations Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkey, Brigid A.; Blake, Elizabeth L.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the educational implications of simulations in international relations. Highlights include the development of international relations simulations; the role of technology; the International Communication and Negotiation Simulations (ICONS) project at the University of Maryland; evolving information technology; and simulating real-world…

  17. Project Management for International Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axelrod, Valija M.; Magisos, Joel H.

    A project developed a content model for international project management training. It also compiled a bibliography of project management references, identified specific project management training needs based upon a survey of international sponsors and contractor personnel, and documented the training needs of international project managers. Data…

  18. Affect Control in International Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heise, David R.; Lerner, Steven J.

    2006-01-01

    This research tests the proposition that national leaders generate international interactions in the process of maintaining sentiments about nations and international actions. The analysis deals with 1,934 international incidents in which one of 25 Middle Eastern nations responded twice within four weeks to an instigation by another of the 25…

  19. The Internal-Candidate Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barden, Dennis M.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author explains the complications involved when an internal candidate is included in an open search for a leadership position in an academic institution. Internal-candidate syndrome is a dilemma faced by institutions when they have to choose between an internal candidate and an external one. There are two reasons why…

  20. International Cooperation in Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Magnus

    This paper addresses some of the general issues of international cooperation within the context of distance education. Examples of the types of international cooperation are introduced in order to explain some of the pitfalls that can occur when coordinating organizations on an international level. Extensive discussion is undertaken concerning…

  1. Celebrate International School Library Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braxton, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    The Fourth Monday in October is International School Library Day (ISLD)--an opportunity for school libraries around the world to celebrate the contribution they make to the education of the children in their care. International School Library Day was proclaimed in 1999 by Dr Blanche Woolls, president of the International Association of School…

  2. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1084 through 1994.

  3. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. Word oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995.

  4. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994.

  5. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-27

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994.

  6. International energy outlook 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    The International Energy Outlook 1998 (IEO98) presents an assessment by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the outlook for international energy markets through 2020. Projections in IEO98 are displaced according to six basic country groupings. The industrialized region includes projections for four individual countries -- the United States, Canada, Mexico, and Japan -- along with the subgroups Western Europe and Australasia (defined as Australia, New Zealand, and the US Territories). The developing countries are represented by four separate regional subgroups: developing Asia, Africa, Middle East, and Central and South America. China and India are represented in developing Asia. New to this year`s report, country-level projections are provided for Brazil -- which is represented in Central and South America. Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union (EE/FSU) are considered as a separate country grouping. The report begins with a review of world trends in energy demand. Regional consumption projections for oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear power, and renewable energy (hydroelectricity, geothermal, wind, solar, and other renewables) are presented in five fuel chapters, with a review of the current status of each fuel on a worldwide basis. Summary tables of the IEO98 projections for world energy consumption, carbon emissions, oil production, and nuclear power generating capacity are provided in Appendix A. 88 figs., 77 tabs.

  7. International petroleum transactions

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, E.E.; Dzienkowski, J.S.; Anderson, O.L.; Conine, G.B.; Lowe, J.S.

    1993-12-31

    This book is intended primarily as a casebook for students. However, it should not be discarded on these grounds because if compiles important materials that are useful to practitioners as their energy practices become global. The opening chapter is broad in scope and discusses NAFTA, GATT, the EC, and provides comprehensive and current statistical information on world energy resources and the pivotal role of host countries. Legal issues are analyzed in Chapter 2 which provides an excellent discussion of sovereign immunity and the act of state doctrine. Also, this chapter includes model clauses which are helpful even to a seasoned practitioner. Given that security of investment is critical to an international transaction, the book concludes its opening section with a discussion of expropriation issues. Part II is entitled Exploration, development and Production and is divided into four chapters. Using both cases and source materials, a comprehensive survey of ownership of mineral rights and concessions is presented. From a practitioner`s standpoint, Chapters 5 and 6 are important because of the inclusion of model clauses and contracts for production sharing arrangements, licenses, participation agreements, service contracts, and technology transfers. Chapter 8 deals with joint development and operations. The book concludes with three chapters on the history of the markets and international transactions involving oil and natural gas.

  8. International space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLucas, Lawrence J.

    1996-02-01

    The International Space Station represents the largest scientific and technological cooperative program in history, drawing on the resources of thirteen nations. The early stages of construction will involve significant participation from the Russian Space Agency (RSA), numerous nations of the European Space Agency (ESA), and the space agencies of Canada (CSA), Japan (NASDA) and the United States Space Agency (NASA). Its purpose is to place a unique, highly capable laboratory in tower orbit, where high value scientific research can be performed in microgravity. In addition to providing facilities where an international crew of six astronaut-scientists can live and work in space, it will provide important laboratory research facilities for performing basic research in life science, biomedical and material sciences, as well as space and engineering technology development which cannot be accomplished on Earth. The Space Station will be comprised of numerous interlocking components which are currently being constructed on Earth. Space Station will be assembled in orbit over a period of time and will provide several experimentation modules as well as habitation modules and interfaces for logistic modules. Including the four extensive solar rays from which it will draw electrical power, the Station will measure more than 300 feet wide by 200 feet long. This paper will present an overview of the various phases of construction of the Space Station and the planned science thought will be performed during the construction phase and after completion.

  9. Understanding Lustre Internals

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Feiyi; Oral, H Sarp; Shipman, Galen M; Drokin, Oleg; Wang, Di; Huang, He

    2009-04-01

    Lustre was initiated and funded, almost a decade ago, by the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) Office of Science and National Nuclear Security Administration laboratories to address the need for an open source, highly-scalable, high-performance parallel filesystem on by then present and future supercomputing platforms. Throughout the last decade, it was deployed over numerous medium-to-large-scale supercomputing platforms and clusters, and it performed and met the expectations of the Lustre user community. As it stands at the time of writing this document, according to the Top500 list, 15 of the top 30 supercomputers in the world use Lustre filesystem. This report aims to present a streamlined overview on how Lustre works internally at reasonable details including relevant data structures, APIs, protocols and algorithms involved for Lustre version 1.6 source code base. More importantly, it tries to explain how various components interconnect with each other and function as a system. Portions of this report are based on discussions with Oak Ridge National Laboratory Lustre Center of Excellence team members and portions of it are based on our own understanding of how the code works. We, as the authors team bare all responsibilities for all errors and omissions in this document. We can only hope it helps current and future Lustre users and Lustre code developers as much as it helped us understanding the Lustre source code and its internal workings.

  10. International Clean Energy Coalition

    SciTech Connect

    Erin Skootsky; Matt Gardner; Bevan Flansburgh

    2010-09-28

    In 2003, the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) and National Energy Technology Laboratories (NETL) collaboratively established the International Clean Energy Coalition (ICEC). The coalition consisting of energy policy-makers, technologists, and financial institutions was designed to assist developing countries in forming and supporting local approaches to greenhouse gas mitigation within the energy sector. ICEC's work focused on capacity building and clean energy deployment in countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation. Under ICEC, the coalition formed a steering committee consisting of NARUC members and held a series of meetings to develop and manage the workplan and define successful outcomes for the projects. ICEC identified India as a target country for their work and completed a country assessment that helped ICEC build a framework for discussion with Indian energy decisionmakers including two follow-on in-country workshops. As of the conclusion of the project in 2010, ICEC had also conducted outreach activities conducted during United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Ninth Conference of Parties (COP 9) and COP 10. The broad goal of this project was to develop a coalition of decision-makers, technologists, and financial institutions to assist developing countries in implementing affordable, effective and resource appropriate technology and policy strategies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Project goals were met through international forums, a country assessment, and in-country workshops. This project focused on countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation.

  11. International communications via satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLucas, J. L.

    The evolution of communications satellite systems is traced in terms of technical capabilities and technological advances. The Communications Act of 1962 led to the establishment of INTELSAT on an international basis in 1964. The original 19 signatory nations has grown to over 100, and over 800 ground relay stations have been built. The INTELSAT system comprises spacecraft over the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans and handles 2/3 of the world's international electronic communications and all transoceanic television. The 1965 Early Bird satellite had a 240 two-way telephone link capacity and weighed 38 kg, while the Intelsat V satellites, of which there will be nine, have increased the capacity to 20,000 voice circuits and Intelsat VI will double the number by 1993. Increasing demand for satellite communications links is driving the design and development of space platforms for multiple missions of communications, meteorological studies, and on-board switching and data processing in excess of current multiple satellite systems.

  12. Hospitals' Internal Accountability

    PubMed Central

    Kraetschmer, Nancy; Jass, Janak; Woodman, Cheryl; Koo, Irene; Kromm, Seija K.; Deber, Raisa B.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to enhance understanding of the dimensions of accountability captured and not captured in acute care hospitals in Ontario, Canada. Based on an Ontario-wide survey and follow-up interviews with three acute care hospitals in the Greater Toronto Area, we found that the two dominant dimensions of hospital accountability being reported are financial and quality performance. These two dimensions drove both internal and external reporting. Hospitals' internal reports typically included performance measures that were required or mandated in external reports. Although respondents saw reporting as a valuable mechanism for hospitals and the health system to monitor and track progress against desired outcomes, multiple challenges with current reporting requirements were communicated, including the following: 58% of survey respondents indicated that performance-reporting resources were insufficient; manual data capture and performance reporting were prevalent, with the majority of hospitals lacking sophisticated tools or technology to effectively capture, analyze and report performance data; hospitals tended to focus on those processes and outcomes with high measurability; and 53% of respondents indicated that valuable cross-system accountability, performance measures or both were not captured by current reporting requirements. PMID:25305387

  13. Country watch: international.

    PubMed

    Dionne, P

    1998-01-01

    The International Tribunal for Children's Rights (ITCR) was established to conduct individual and public inquiries and propose concrete solutions to violations of children's rights. This article reports on the efforts of the ITCR to enforce extraterritorial laws in response to the international dimension of child sex exploitation. The primary message being advocated is that travelers cannot go to foreign countries to engage in sexual crimes against children, evade criminal prosecution in the countries where the crimes are committed and then expect to return home without any consequences. In its first public hearings held in Paris, France to the address the effectiveness of extraterritorial legislation, governments and nongovernmental organizations informed the ITCR about their attempts to halt child sexual exploitation. Several changes needed to make extraterritorial laws more effective were cited. These include public awareness-raising; supporting existing instruments; application of preventive approaches to child abuse; and sensitizing and motivating judicial, police and administrative authorities to provide for the needs to fight child sex tourism.

  14. [Vaccinations for international travelers].

    PubMed

    Berens-Riha, N; Alberer, M; Löscher, T

    2014-03-01

    Vaccinations are a prominent part of health preparations before international travel. They can avoid or significantly reduce the risk of numerous infectious diseases. Until recently, vaccination against yellow fever was the only obligatory vaccination. However, according to updated international health regulations, other vaccinations and prophylactic measures may be required at entry from certain countries. For all routine vaccinations as recommended in Germany, necessary revaccination and catch-up of missed vaccinations should be administered before travel. At most destinations the risk of infection is higher than in Germany. Hepatitis A vaccine is generally recommended for travelers to areas of increased risk, polio vaccine for all destinations where eradication is not yet confirmed (Asia and Africa). The indications for other travel vaccines must take into consideration travel destination and itinerary, type and duration of travel, individual risk of exposure as well as the epidemiology of the disease to be prevented. Several vaccines of potential interest for travel medicine, e.g., new vaccines against malaria and dengue fever, are under development.

  15. 1991 international petroleum encyclopedia

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    There is no other petroleum industry publication quite like the International Petroleum Encyclopedia. With a timely, accurate combination of global industry coverage and analysis, detailed statistical surveys, cutting-edge reports on technological advancements and the ever-popular atlas maps, the 1991 International Petroleum Encyclopedia is a smart buy for professionals whose business is oil and gas, as well as for those whose business is affected by the industry's trends and developments. Written by a professional staff of Oil and Gas Journal petroleum experts, the 1991 IPE gives you the all important global perspective for constructing sound business strategies for the 90's. The petroleum industry is scrambling for information that will help it survive this volitile period. This book reports on the topics in the petroleum industry the latest developments in horizontal drilling, world refining (the latest information on reformulated fuels), and predictions about the post-war Persian Gulf industry. PULS, discussions on changes in the Gulf of Mexico, developments in the LNG trade, and crude oil tanker supply/.demand curves.

  16. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-12-31

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without

  17. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Bill Bruce; Nancy Porter; George Ritter; Matt Boring; Mark Lozev; Ian Harris; Bill Mohr; Dennis Harwig; Robin Gordon; Chris Neary; Mike Sullivan

    2005-07-20

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without

  18. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-08-17

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners

  19. Long term trends in Total Ozone derived from Dobson or ground based instrument data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Savita; Datta, Savita; Sharma, Ashok

    World ozone and ultraviolet data center (WOUDC) receives data from all over the world and after making necessary corrections, archives all ozone and ultraviolet data. An attempt has been made to study the long-term trends of ozone at each station. The total ozone data for the month of January of more than 50 stations across different continents of the world, which are having large temporal data sets since their beginning (in some cases as early as 1956) to 2006, have been analyzed. It is interesting to note that amidst worldwide ozone-decrease some of the stations in the Tropics (30° N -30° S) have shown positive trends while some others have shown negative trend. Very few stations have shown neutral trend. It can be further stated that the stations with positive trend generally lay between 15° N and 30° N . Very few stations in the South America and Europe have shown positive trend in comparison to a relatively larger number of stations in India, Japan and China. The number of stations with positive trend reduces further when we move to Southern tropical belt from the northern tropical belt. In mid-latitudes (30° N - 60° N and 30° S - 60° S) very few stations have shown positive trend that too in the northern hemisphere. None of the stations in the southern hemisphere has shown positive trend in mid latitudes. In higher latitudes, all stations have shown negative trend only. The study indicated that the worldwide ozone-decrease caused by Ozone hole and by chemical processes has not affected the world uniformly. In this paper, an attempt has been made to explain this trend by studying the general circulation and the regional chemistry of the atmosphere.

  20. International energy indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, E., Jr.

    1981-12-01

    Data on international energy indicators were tabulated and graphically represented. The following data are presented: world crude oil production, 1974 to October 1981; OPEC crude oil productive capacity; world crude oil and refined product inventory levels, 1975 to October, 1981; oil consumption in OECD countries, 1975 to October 1981; USSR crude oil production and exports, 1975 to October 1981; free world and US nuclear electricity generation, 1973 to December, 1981 and current capacity. Specific US data presented are: US domestic oil supply, 1977 to June, 1981; US gross imports of crude oil and products, 1973 to October, 1981; landed cost of Saudi crude current and 1974 dollars; US coal trade, 1975 to September, 1981; US natural gas trade, 1981; and energy/GNP ratio.

  1. Control Techtronics International

    SciTech Connect

    West, J.

    1995-12-31

    Polish graded coal can be burned in existing stoker boilers and meet the 1998 Air Quality standard. This is accomplished with the Control Techtronics microprocessor-based combustion controller accurately and repeatedly: (a) matching the combustion air to the coal firing rate, with continuous stack sensor feedback; (b) continuously varying the boiler`s firing rate based on output water temperature or steam pressure; (c) continuously varying the exhaust fan`s speed to maintain minimum negative pressure in the boiler`s combustion chamber; and recirculating a portion of the flue gas, at varying amounts throughout the boiler`s firing rate. Systems for five boilers have been installed and are operating on MPEC`s Balicka plant in Krakow. Control Techtronics International has $10 million of U.S. Export-Import Bank funds available for similar projects throughout Poland.

  2. International energy indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, E. K.

    1981-02-01

    Extensive data are compiled for energy on the international scene and for the US. Data included are: world crude oil production, 1975 to date; Iran: crude oil capacity, production, and shut-in, 1974 to date; Saudi Arabia: crude oil capacity, production, and shut-in, 1974 to date; OPEC (Ex-Iran and Saudi Arabia): capacity, production, and shut-in, 1974 to date; oil stocks: Free World, US, Japan, and Europe (landed), 1973 to date; petroleum consumption by industrial countries, 1973 to date; USSR crude oil production, 1974 to date; Free World and US nuclear generation capacity, 1973 to date. Data are supplied specifically for the US on US gross imports of crude oil and products, 1973 to date; landed cost of Saudi crude in current and 1974 dollars; US trade in bituminous coal, 1973 to date; summary of US merchandise trade, 1976 to date; and energy/GNP ratio.

  3. INTERNATIONAL DECOMMISSIONING SYMPOSIUM 2000

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of IDS 2000 was to deliver a world-class conference on applicable global environmental issues. The objective of this conference was to publicize environmental progress of individual countries, to provide a forum for technology developer and problem-holder interaction, to facilitate environmental and technology discussions between the commercial and financial communities, and to accommodate information and education exchange between governments, industries, universities, and scientists. The scope of this project included the planning and execution of an international conference on the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, and the providing of a business forum for vendors and participants sufficient to attract service providers, technology developers, and the business and financial communities. These groups, when working together with attendees from regulatory organizations and government decision-maker groups, provide an opportunity to more effectively and efficiently expedite the decommissioning projects.

  4. Chromosome 19 International Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Pericak-Vance, M.A. . Medical Center); Ropers, H.H. . Dept. of Human Genetics); Carrano, A.J. )

    1993-01-04

    The Second International Workshop on Human Chromosome 19 was hosted on January 25 and 26, 1992, by the Department of Human Genetics, University Hospital Nijmegen, The Netherlands, at the 'Meerdal Conference Center'. The workshop was supported by a grant from the European Community obtained through HUGO, the Dutch Research Organization (NWO) and the Muscular Dystrophy Association (MDA). Travel support for American participants was provided by the Department of Energy. The goals of this workshop were to produce genetic, physical and integrated maps of chromosome 19, to identify inconsistencies and gaps, and to discuss and exchange resources and techniques available for the completion of these maps. The second day of the meeting was largely devoted to region or disease specific efforts. In particular, the meeting served as a platform for assessing and discussing the recent progress made into the molecular elucidation of myotonic dystrophy.

  5. Internal constitution of Mars.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.

    1972-01-01

    Models of the internal structure of Mars consistent with the mass, radius and moment of inertia of the planet are constructed. The models assume that the radius of the core is between 0.36 and 0.60 of the radius of the planet, that the zero-pressure density of the mantle is between 3.54 and 3.49 g/cu cm, and that the planet contains 25 to 28% iron. Meteorite models of Mars containing 25 wt % iron and 12 wt % core are also proposed. It is maintained that Mars in contrast to the earth is an incompletely differentiated planet with a core substantially richer in sulfur than the core of the earth. The absence of a magnetic field on Mars is possibly linked with lack of lunar precessional torque and the small size and high resistivity of the Martian core.

  6. International Reference Ionosphere -2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilitza, Dieter; Reinisch, Bodo

    The International Reference Ionosphere 2010 includes several important improvements and ad-ditions. This presentation introduces these changes and discusses their benefits. The electron and ion density profiles for the bottomside ionosphere will be significantly improved by using more ionosonde data as well as photochemical considerations. As an additional lower iono-sphere parameter IRI-2010 will include the transition height from molecular to cluster ions. At the F2 peak Neural Net models for the peak density and the propagation factor M3000F2, which is related to the F2 peak height, are introduced as new options. At high latitudes the model will benefit from the introduction of auroral oval boundaries and their variation with magnetic activity. Regarding the electron temperature, IRI-2010 now models variations with solar activity. The homepage for the IRI project is at http://IRI.gsfc.nasa.gov/.

  7. Internal Ocean Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Internal waves are waves that travel within the interior of a fluid. The waves propagate at the interface or boundary between two layers with sharp density differences, such as temperature. They occur wherever strong tides or currents and stratification occur in the neighborhood of irregular topography. They can propagate for several hundred kilometers. The ASTER false-color VNIR image off the island of Tsushima in the Korea Strait shows the signatures of several internal wave packets, indicating a northern propagation direction.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 60 by 120 kilometers (37.2 by 74.4 miles) Location: 34.6 degrees North latitude, 129.5 degrees East longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 3, 2, and 1

  8. [International migration: 1979].

    PubMed

    1981-01-01

    Statistics on international migration in Panama in 1979 are provided for the 3 airports, 6 seaports, and 2 border crossings used by international travelers. The categories of visitors, temporary visitors, immigrants, and residents among those entering and leaving the country are defined and the data collection procedures are briefly specified. Between 1975-79, the number of persons entering the country through all points increased from 392,449 to 520,454, while the number departing increased from 397,759 to a figure provisionally estimated at 514,250. In 1979, 317,303 men and 203,151 women entered the country, 427,527 by air, 89,764 by land, and 3,163 by sea. 473 men and 355 women immigrated, all arriving by air. 391,502 of those entering were visitors, 2,407 were temporary visitors, and 98,589 were residents, of whom 81,462 were Panamanian and 17,127 foreign. Another table indicates the number of persons by category entering at each point by month; December had the highest number of arrivals, 56,070, followed by July, with 47,889. Other tables indicate the number of arrivals by category according to country of nationality and country of permanent residence; the number of arrivals by sex and category in 5-year age groups; the number of visitors entering for motives related to travel according to nationality and country of residence; the number entering by duration of stay, according to reasons for travel and country of residence; the number entering through the airport at Tocumen or the border crossing at Paso de Canoa, by motives for travel, according to country of residence, and by sex and age; and the number of returning Panamanian residents by port of entry and nationality, according to point of origin. Data are also provided on the number leaving by category for each point of departure and month of departure.

  9. International health care spending.

    PubMed

    Schieber, G J; Puollier, J P

    1986-01-01

    Trends in health are reviewed for the member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) covering the following: the basic difficulties inherent in international comparative studies; the absolute levels of health expenditures in 1984; the levels and rates of growth of the health share in the gross domestic product (GDP) and the public share of total health expenditures; the elasticities of real health expenditures to real GDP for the 1960-75, 1975-84, and 1960-84 time periods; growth in health expenditures for the largest 7 OECD countries in terms of growth in population, health prices, health care prices in excess of overall prices, and utilization/intensity of services per person. International comparisons are a problem due to differences in defining the boundaries of the health sector, the heterogeneity of data, and methodological problems arising from comparing different economic, demographic, cultural, and institutional structures. The most difficult problem in international comparisons of health expenditures is lack of appropriate measures of health outcome. Exhibit 1 contains per capita health expenditures denominated in US dollars based on GDP purchasing power parities for 21 OECD countries for 1984. Per capita health expenditures ranged from less than $500 in Greece, Portugal, and Spain to over $1400 in Sweden and the US, with an OECD average of $871. After adjusting for price level differences, there still appears to be a greater than 3-fold difference in the "volume" of services consumed across the OECD countries. To determine if per capita health expenditures are related to a country's wealth as measured by its per capita GDP, the relationship between per capita health expenditures and per capita GDP for the 21 countries were examined for 1984. The data points and the "best fitting" trend line indicate a statistically significant relationship in which each $100 difference in per capita GDP is associated with a $10

  10. International red meat trade.

    PubMed

    Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L

    2003-07-01

    The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a

  11. Guidelines for dynamic international programs

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, M.A. )

    1993-06-01

    Matters of global concern-deforestation, global warming, biodiversity loss, sustainable development, fuelwood crises, watershed destruction, and large-scale flooding-frequently involve forests and natural resources. In the future, university students will enter a global setting that more than ever depends on a strong knowledge of international issues. USA land-grant universities are attempting to prepare students for this challenge by improving their international programs including forestry. To improve university programs, several factors will need to be addressed and are discussed, with examples, in this article: commitment of the faculty; program specialization; geographic specialization; reward systems for international contributions; international collaboration; recycled dollars within the university; active teaching programs; research; extention and outreach; language training; international faculty; travel grants; twinning relationships with sister institutions; selective in pursuit of international development assistance; and study centers. 6 refs.

  12. Turbulent Shear and Internal Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munroe, James; Sutherland, Bruce

    2008-11-01

    A series of experiments is presented that model the generation of non-hydrostatic internal gravity waves in upper ocean by the forcing of wind driven turbulent eddies in the surface mixed layer. A turbulent shear layer is forced by a conveyor belt with affixed flat plates near the surface of a stratified fluid and downward propagating internal waves are generated. The turbulence in the shear layer is characterized using particle image velocimetry to measure the kinetic energy as well as length and time scales. The internal waves are measured using synthetic schlieren to determine the amplitudes, frequencies, momentum fluxes, and the energy of the generated waves. The fraction of energy that leaks from the mixed layer to the internal wave field is presented. Consistent with other studies, it is found that the frequencies of internal waves generated by turbulence are an approximate constant fraction of the buoyancy frequency. Implications to internal waves propagating into the deep ocean will be discussed.

  13. Solid rocket motor internal insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Twichell, S. E. (Editor); Keller, R. B., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Internal insulation in a solid rocket motor is defined as a layer of heat barrier material placed between the internal surface of the case propellant. The primary purpose is to prevent the case from reaching temperatures that endanger its structural integrity. Secondary functions of the insulation are listed and guidelines for avoiding critical problems in the development of internal insulation for rocket motors are presented.

  14. Internal Waves in Straits Experiment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    generation, propagation and dissipation of large amplitude internal tides . OBJECTIVES To obtain time series and spatial structure of internal tidal...of the largest internal tides in the ocean, with depth-integrated energy fluxes >60 kW m−1 (Figures 1–2), are generated at two parallel ridges in...model (red), or mooring (blue). Spring tides are labelled 1–4 (Figure 2a). Areas of model overlap (light red) may suffer from edge effects. 2 In the

  15. Shoaling internal solitary waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, B. R.; Barrett, K. J.; Ivey, G. N.

    2013-09-01

    The evolution and breaking of internal solitary waves in a shallow upper layer as they approach a constant bottom slope is examined through laboratory experiments. The waves are launched in a two-layer fluid through the standard lock-release method. In most experiments, the wave amplitude is significantly larger than the depth of the shallow upper layer so that they are not well described by Korteweg-de Vries theory. The dynamics of the shoaling waves are characterized by the Iribarren number, Ir, which measures the ratio of the topographic slope to the square root of the characteristic wave slope. This is used to classify breaking regimes as collapsing, plunging, surging, and nonbreaking for increasing values of Ir. For breaking waves, the maximum interface descent, Hi⋆, is predicted to depend upon the topographic slope, s, and the incident wave's amplitude and width, Asw and Lsw, respectively, as Hi⋆≃4sAswLsw. This prediction is corroborated by our experiments. Likewise, we apply simple heuristics to estimate the speed of interface descent, and we characterize the speed and range of the consequent upslope flow of the lower layer after breaking has occurred.

  16. International energy outlook 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    This report presents international energy projections through 2020, prepared by the Energy Information Administration. The outlooks for major energy fuels are discussed, along with electricity, transportation, and environmental issues. The report begins with a review of world trends in energy demand. The historical time frame begins with data from 1970 and extends to 1996, providing readers with a 26-year historical view of energy demand. The IEO99 projections covers a 24-year period. The next part of the report is organized by energy source. Regional consumption projections for oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear power, and renewable energy (hydroelectricity, geothermal, wind, solar, and other renewables) are presented in the five fuel chapters, along with a review of the current status of each fuel on a worldwide basis. The third part of the report looks at energy consumption in the end-use sectors, beginning with a chapter on energy use for electricity generation. New to this year`s outlook are chapters on energy use in the transportation sector and on environmental issues related to energy consumption. 104 figs., 87 tabs.

  17. Internal Surface Water Flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murray, Mitchell H.

    1999-01-01

    Introduction The South Florida Ecosystem Restoration Program is an intergovernmental effort to reestablish and maintain the ecosystem of south Florida. One element of the restoration effort is the development of a firm scientific basis for resource decision making.The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides scientitic information as part of the South Florida Ecosystem Restoration Program. The USGS began its own project, called the South Florida Ecosystem Project in fiscal year 1995 for the purpose of gathering hydrologic, cartographic, and geologic data that relate to the mainland of south Florida, Florida Bay, and the Florida Keys and Reef ecosystems. Historical changes in water-management practices to accommodate a large and rapidly growing urban population along the Atlantic coast, as well as intensive agricultural activities, have resulted in a highly managed hydrologic system with canals, levees, and pumping stations. These structures have altered the hydology of the Everglades ecosystem on both coastal and interior lands. Surface-water flows in a direction south of Lake Okeechobee have been regulated by an extensive canal network, begun in the 1940's, to provide for drainage, flood control, saltwater intrusion control, agricultural requirements, and various environmental needs. Much of the development and subsequent monitoring of canal and river discharge south of Lake Okeechobee has traditionally emphasized the eastern coastal areas of Florida. Recently, more emphasis has been placed on providing a more accurate water budget for internal canal flows.

  18. International exploration by independent

    SciTech Connect

    Bertragne, R.G.

    1992-04-01

    Recent industry trends indicate that the smaller U.S. independents are looking at foreign exploration opportunities as one of the alternatives for growth in the new age of exploration. Foreign finding costs per barrel usually are accepted to be substantially lower than domestic costs because of the large reserve potential of international plays. To get involved in overseas exploration, however, requires the explorationist to adapt to different cultural, financial, legal, operational, and political conditions. Generally, foreign exploration proceeds at a slower pace than domestic exploration because concessions are granted by a country's government, or are explored in partnership with a national oil company. First, the explorationist must prepare a mid- to long-term strategy, tailored to the goals and the financial capabilities of the company; next, is an ongoing evaluation of quality prospects in various sedimentary basins, and careful planning and conduct of the operations. To successfully explore overseas also requires the presence of a minimum number of explorationists and engineers thoroughly familiar with the various exploratory and operational aspects of foreign work. Ideally, these team members will have had a considerable amount of on-site experience in various countries and climates. Independents best suited for foreign expansion are those who have been financially successful in domestic exploration. When properly approached, foreign exploration is well within the reach of smaller U.S. independents, and presents essentially no greater risk than domestic exploration; however, the reward can be much larger and can catapult the company into the 'big leagues.'

  19. International exploration by independents

    SciTech Connect

    Bertagne, R.G. )

    1991-03-01

    Recent industry trends indicate that the smaller US independents are looking at foreign exploration opportunities as one of the alternatives for growth in the new age of exploration. It is usually accepted that foreign finding costs per barrel are substantially lower than domestic because of the large reserve potential of international plays. To get involved overseas requires, however, an adaptation to different cultural, financial, legal, operational, and political conditions. Generally foreign exploration proceeds at a slower pace than domestic because concessions are granted by the government, or are explored in partnership with the national oil company. First, a mid- to long-term strategy, tailored to the goals and the financial capabilities of the company, must be prepared; it must be followed by an ongoing evaluation of quality prospects in various sedimentary basins, and a careful planning and conduct of the operations. To successfully explore overseas also requires the presence on the team of a minimum number of explorationists and engineers thoroughly familiar with the various exploratory and operational aspects of foreign work, having had a considerable amount of onsite experience in various geographical and climatic environments. Independents that are best suited for foreign expansion are those that have been financially successful domestically, and have a good discovery track record. When properly approached foreign exploration is well within the reach of smaller US independents and presents essentially no greater risk than domestic exploration; the reward, however, can be much larger and can catapult the company into the big leagues.

  20. International energy indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, E. K.

    1980-03-01

    For the international sector, a table of data is first presented followed by corresponding graphs of the data for the following: (1) Iran: crude oil capacity, production, and shut in, 1974 to February 1980; (2) Saudi Arabia (same as Iran); (3) OPEC (ex-Iran and Saudi Arabia); capacity, production, and shutin, 1974 to January 1980; (4) non-OPEC Free World and US production of crude oil, 1973 to January 1980; (5) oil stocks: Free World, US, Japan, and Europe (landed), 1973 to 1979; (6) petroleum consumption by industrial countries, 1973 to October 1979; (7) USSR crude oil production, 1974 to February 1980; (8) Free World and US nuclear generation capacity, 1973 to January 1980. For the United States, the same data format is used for the following: US imports of crude oil and products 1973 to January 1980; landed cost of Saudi Arabia crude oil in current and 1974 dollars, 1974 to October 1979; US trade in coal, 1973 to 1979; summary of US merchandise trade, 1976 to January 1980; and US energy/GNP ratio (in 1972 dollars), 1947 to 1979.

  1. Improving election prediction internationally.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Ryan; Wojcik, Stefan; Lazer, David

    2017-02-03

    This study reports the results of a multiyear program to predict direct executive elections in a variety of countries from globally pooled data. We developed prediction models by means of an election data set covering 86 countries and more than 500 elections, and a separate data set with extensive polling data from 146 election rounds. We also participated in two live forecasting experiments. Our models correctly predicted 80 to 90% of elections in out-of-sample tests. The results suggest that global elections can be successfully modeled and that they are likely to become more predictable as more information becomes available in future elections. The results provide strong evidence for the impact of political institutions and incumbent advantage. They also provide evidence to support contentions about the importance of international linkage and aid. Direct evidence for economic indicators as predictors of election outcomes is relatively weak. The results suggest that, with some adjustments, global polling is a robust predictor of election outcomes, even in developing states. Implications of these findings after the latest U.S. presidential election are discussed.

  2. Update in Internal Medicine

    PubMed Central

    López-Jiménez, Francisco; Brito, Máximo; Aude, Y. Wady; Scheinberg, Phillip; Kaplan, Mariana; Dixon, Denise A.; Schneiderman, Neil; Trejo, Jorge F.; López-Salazar, Luis Humberto; Ramírez-Barba, Ector Jaime; Kalil, Roberto; Ortiz, Carmen; Goyos, José; Buenaño, Alvaro; Kottiech, Samer; Lamas, Gervasio A.

    2009-01-01

    More than 500,000 new medical articles are published every year and available time to keep updated is scarcer every day. Nowadays, the task of selecting useful, consistent, and relevant information for clinicians is a priority in many major medical journals. This review has the aim of gathering the results of the most important findings in clinical medicine in the last few years. It is focused on results from randomized clinical trials and well-designed observational research. Findings were included preferentially if they showed solid results, and we avoided as much as possible including only preliminary data, or results that included only non-clinical outcomes. Some of the most relevant findings reported here include the significant benefit of statins in patients with coronary artery disease even with mean cholesterol level. It also provides a substantial review of the most significant trials assessing the effectiveness of IIb/IIIa receptor blockers. In gastroenterology many advances have been made in the H. pylori eradication, and the finding that the cure of H. pylori infection may be followed by gastroesophageal reflux disease. Some new antivirals have shown encouraging results in patients with chronic hepatitis. In the infectious disease arena, the late breaking trials in anti-retroviral disease are discussed, as well as the new trends regarding antibiotic resistance. This review approaches also the role of leukotriene modifiers in the treatment of asthma and discusses the benefit of using methylprednisolone in patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome, among many other advances in internal medicine. PMID:11068074

  3. Internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuura, M.; Nakamori, M.; Honda, S.; Ishida, Y.; Nakanishi, T.

    1988-05-03

    An internal combustion engine is described comprising: (a) an engine body having a chamber; (b) a crankshaft rotatably mounted on the engine body; (c) a camshaft rotatably mounted on the engine body; (d) an oil lubricated endless transmission member extended around and operatively engaged with the crankshaft and the camshaft, the endless transmission member being movable along a closed path of travel in the chamber; (e) a tensioner hanger comprising an upper hanger member detachably secured to the engine body and a lower hanger member secured at an upper portion thereof to the upper hanger member, the upper hanger member having oil passage means adapted to receive lubrication oil from the endless transmission member at an inlet and guide the oil downwardly therethrough to an outlet; (f) a hollow mounting member affixed at an upper portion thereof to a lower portion of the lower hanger member of the tensioner hanger; (g) a hydraulic lock mechanism comprising a hollow cylinder and a plunger slidably received in the cylinder to define a hydraulic chamber in the cylinder; (h) a replenishable oil reservoir defined by a funnel-shaped space between the mounting member and the cylinder for receiving oil from the oil passage means and for holding the oil received therein; and (i) a tensioner member movably attached to the engine body and operatively engaged with the plunger.

  4. Asymmetrical internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Barret, P.

    1983-03-08

    An internal combustion engine adapted to be powered by a burnable gaseous fuel includes one cylinder, first and second pistons reciprocally movable in the cylinder substantially in opposite directions, inlet and outlet valves for controlling the flow of the gaseous fuel into the cylinder, and the exhaust of the burnt fuel therefrom, respectively, and a linkage device connected to the pistons for converting the reciprocating movement thereof into a rotary movement. The linkage device includes change-of-rate-of-displacement devices for increasing the rate of velocity in the maximum acceleration range, and for reducing the rate of displacement in the maximum velocity range of one piston with respect to the other piston, first and second piston rods pivotably connected to the first and second pistons, respectively, first and second crankshafts pivotably connected to the first and second piston rods, rotatable about first and second axes disposed substantially parallel to, and displaced by a predetermined angle from one another, respectively, and a gear train coupling the first and second crankshafts to one another. The gear train includes first and second fixedly mounted gearwheels, first and second concentrically mounted gear wheels, and a position-shiftable coupling mechanism for coupling the first gear wheels and the second gear wheels to one another, respectively, and an engaging device for meshing the eccentrically mounted gear wheels with one another.

  5. Transient internal probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarboe, Thomas R.; Mattick, Arthur T.

    1993-12-01

    The Transient Internal Probe (TIP) diagnostic is a novel method for probing the interior of hot magnetic fusion plasmas that are inaccessible with ordinary stationary probes. A small probe of magneto-optic (Verdet) material is fired through a plasma at speeds of several km/sec, illuminated by a laser beam. The beam's polarization is rotated in the probe by the local magnetic field and retroreflection back to a polarimetry detector allows determination of the B-field profile across the diameter of a plasma at a spatial resolution of better than 1-cm and an absolute B-field resolution of a few tens of Gauss. The principal components of a TIP diagnostic system were developed and tested. A two-stage light gas gun was constructed that accelerates 30-caliber projectiles to 3 km/sec, and methods were examined for stripping a lexan sabot from a probe prior to entry into a plasma. Probes of CdMnTe and FR-5 Verdet glass were fabricated, and a polarimetry system was constructed for resolving polarization to within 0.25 deg. The diagnostic was validated by measuring a static B-field with a moving (dropped) TIP probe, and finding agreement with Hall-probe measurements to within experimental accuracy (40 Gauss).

  6. International Energy Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Summarizes the overall structure of the International Energy Model and its interface with other NEMS modules, mathematical specifications of behavioral relationships, and data sources and estimation methods.

  7. International radioactive material recycling challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Greeves, John T.; Lieberman, James

    2007-07-01

    The paper explores current examples of successful International radioactive recycling programs and also explores operational regulatory and political challenges that need to be considered for expanding international recycling world-wide. Most countries regulations are fully consistent with the International Atomic Agency (IAEA) Code of Practice on the International Transboundary Movement of Radioactive Material and the IAEA Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources. IAEA member States reported on the status of their efforts to control transboundary movement of radioactive material recently during the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management meeting in May 2006. (authors)

  8. International Grants and Cooperative Agreements

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA provides grants and enters into cooperative agreements that support protecting human health and the environment while advancing U.S. national interests through international environmental collaboration.

  9. International Activities Related to Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Regulating pesticides involves many international issues and working with our regulatory partners in other countries. Learn about EPA's activities, upcoming meetings and workshops, and various regulatory issues.

  10. Core competencies in internal medicine.

    PubMed

    Porcel, José Manuel; Casademont, Jordi; Conthe, Pedro; Pinilla, Blanca; Pujol, Ramón; García-Alegría, Javier

    2012-06-01

    The working group on Competencies of Internal Medicine from the Spanish Society of Internal Medicine (SEMI) proposes a series of core competencies that we consider should be common to all European internal medicine specialists. The competencies include aspects related to patient care, clinical knowledge, technical skills, communication skills, professionalism, cost-awareness in medical care and academic activities. The proposal could be used as a working document for the Internal Medicine core curriculum in the context of the educational framework of medical specialties in Europe.

  11. International Space Station Research Racks

    NASA Video Gallery

    The International Space Station has a variety of multidisciplinary laboratory facilities and equipment available for scientists to use. This video highlights the capabilities of select facilities. ...

  12. Comparing International Curriculum Systems: The International Instructional Systems Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creese, Brian; Gonzalez, Alvaro; Isaacs, Tina

    2016-01-01

    This paper sets out the main findings of the International Instructional Systems Study (IISS), conducted by the UCL Institute of Education and funded by the Center on International Education Benchmarking (CIEB). The study examined the instructional systems and intended curricula of six "high performing" countries and two US states. The…

  13. International Relations. International Perspectives on Higher Education Research. Volume 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tight, Malcolm, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This is the third volume of International Perspectives on Higher Education Research, a series which aims to feature something of the variety of research being undertaken into higher education systems and issues outside of North America. The theme of this volume is International Relations, or how students, academics, universities and higher…

  14. Teaching International Economics and Trade--Concepts in International Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starbird, Caroline; DeBoer, Dale; Pettit, Jenny

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to introduce students to real-life issues in international economics. The sections of the book are: (1) The Advantages of Trade; (2) Judging NAFTA; (3) Does Globalization Benefit Poor Countries?; (4) Pocket Guide to International Financial Institutions; (5) What Do You Know about the WTO?; (6) Free Trade and Shifting…

  15. Fogarty International Center: A Resource for International Nursing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glittenberg, JoAnn E.

    1989-01-01

    The Fogarty International Center of the National Institutes of Health is an international research center for research training of foreign health professionals and allied health personnel, strengthening of health institutional research capability in foreign countries, direct technical assistance for disease control, and improvement of the…

  16. What Is International about International Schools? An Institutional Legitimacy Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunnell, Tristan; Fertig, Michael; James, Chris

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the number of International Schools around the world has increased rapidly largely as a result of growth of new forms of International Schools, which differ markedly from the traditional forms. These new forms: are often operated on a for-profit commercial basis; are usually for children from the local (indigenous), wealthy…

  17. International Education: The International Baccalaureate, Montessori and Global Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunold-Conesa, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    The International Baccalaureate (IB) programs and Montessori education both claim to promote values associated with global citizenship in order to help prepare students for new challenges presented by an increasingly globalized world. While the IB's secondary programs are widespread in international schools, Montessori programs at that level are…

  18. International Women's Day speech.

    PubMed

    Kazibwe, S W

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of the International Women's Day are: 1) to celebrate the struggle for women's rights in the economic, social, political, and cultural domain; 2) to reaffirm women's solidarity in the struggle for peace; 3) and to show what women have achieved. In 1988, Uganda's government of the National Resistance Movement created the Ministry of Women in Development. The period 1988-1990 was one of consultations, needs assessment, planning, and recruiting staff for the Ministry. From 1990 to 1993, measurable results have been achieved. The Ministry's gender concerns pertained to the sector policies of the Ministries of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries, Education, Health, Water, Energy, Minerals, and Environment Protection. Under the Umbrella Project for Women in Development, gender sensitization has been achieved with policy makers in ministries, at district level, and in the media. Gender issues have also been incorporated in the National Political School Curriculum. The Ministry has also trained a corps of 73 women trainers from 38 districts. The Ministry, with funding from DANIDA, collected women's views on the constitution through meetings and seminars in all the districts in the country. Recommendations were submitted in a consolidated report to the Constitution Commission. A pilot para-legal scheme is successfully being implemented in Kamuli district. A community-based pool of legal advisors has been developed. Legal matters that affect both women and men are undertaken at the community level. The economic emancipation of women is a crucial part of the Ministry's mandate. In conjunction with NGOs, pilot credit programs are being run in Mukono, Jinja, Mbale, and Kapchorwa districts. Cross-sectoral programs are in close collaboration with the rural water and sanitation program, the Northern Uganda rehabilitation program, and the integrated Basic Education Pilot Project to be implemented in 8 districts.

  19. Landsat's international partners

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byrnes, Raymond A.

    2012-01-01

    Since the launch of the first Landsat satellite 40 years ago, International Cooperators (ICs) have formed a key strategic alliance with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to not only engage in Landsat data downlink services but also to enable a foundation for scientific and technical collaboration. The map below shows the locations of all ground stations operated by the United States and IC ground station network for the direct downlink and distribution of Landsat 5 (L5) and Landsat 7 (L7) image data. The circles show the approximate area over which each station has the capability for direct reception of Landsat data. The red circles show the components of the L5 ground station network, the green circles show components of the L7 station network, and the dashed circles show stations with dual (L5 and L7) status. The yellow circles show L5 short-term ("campaign") stations that contribute to the USGS Landsat archive. Ground stations in South Dakota and Australia currently serve as the primary data capture facilities for the USGS Landsat Ground Network (LGN). The Landsat Ground Station (LGS) is located at the USGS Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota. The Alice Springs (ASN) ground station is located at the Geoscience Australia facility in Alice Springs, Australia. These sites receive the image data, via X-band Radio Frequency (RF) link, and the spacecraft housekeeping data, via S-band RF link. LGS also provides tracking services and a command link to the spacecrafts.

  20. [Fundamentals of internal medicine].

    PubMed

    Stehouwer, C D A

    2006-04-08

    The most important diagnostic tools of the internist are the patient history and physical examination, after which a plan must be made for further diagnostic evaluation and treatment. For this the internist uses clinical reasoning based on his or her knowledge of evidence-based medicine and pathobiology. Pathobiology is primarily concerned with the question of how something works; evidence-based medicine is concerned with whether something works, and if so, how often or how much on average. Diseases do not exist in their own right and diagnostic criteria are based on consensus. A diagnosis of a 'disease' is based on our observation of patients as well as our opinions, whether right or wrong, regarding its cause. It is important to distinguish between 'partial causes' and a 'causative complement'. As a result of this concept, the biological relevance of a partial cause in the development of a disease cannot be derived from the strength of the link between it and the disease. Our opinions regarding the cause of disease appear to be based on induction. However, induction is not a good foundation from which to determine causation. Hypotheses on the cause of disease cannot be proved. They can, however, be disproved. Education, training, research and patient care all depend on effective communication. Communication is enhanced if the thesis is given first and thereafter the arguments. Hence, transfer of patient information such as during a morning report should begin with a working diagnosis (the 'thesis') and thereafter the findings of patient history, et cetera (the 'arguments'). At this time, too little attention is given to these branches of clinical reasoning and communication in education and continuing education in internal medicine.

  1. Internal rotor friction instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, J.; Artiles, A.; Lund, J.; Dill, J.; Zorzi, E.

    1990-01-01

    The analytical developments and experimental investigations performed in assessing the effect of internal friction on rotor systems dynamic performance are documented. Analytical component models for axial splines, Curvic splines, and interference fit joints commonly found in modern high speed turbomachinery were developed. Rotor systems operating above a bending critical speed were shown to exhibit unstable subsynchronous vibrations at the first natural frequency. The effect of speed, bearing stiffness, joint stiffness, external damping, torque, and coefficient of friction, was evaluated. Testing included material coefficient of friction evaluations, component joint quantity and form of damping determinations, and rotordynamic stability assessments. Under conditions similar to those in the SSME turbopumps, material interfaces experienced a coefficient of friction of approx. 0.2 for lubricated and 0.8 for unlubricated conditions. The damping observed in the component joints displayed nearly linear behavior with increasing amplitude. Thus, the measured damping, as a function of amplitude, is not represented by either linear or Coulomb friction damper models. Rotordynamic testing of an axial spline joint under 5000 in.-lb of static torque, demonstrated the presence of an extremely severe instability when the rotor was operated above its first flexible natural frequency. The presence of this instability was predicted by nonlinear rotordynamic time-transient analysis using the nonlinear component model developed under this program. Corresponding rotordynamic testing of a shaft with an interference fit joint demonstrated the presence of subsynchronous vibrations at the first natural frequency. While subsynchronous vibrations were observed, they were bounded and significantly lower in amplitude than the synchronous vibrations.

  2. Discussion of internal erosion modeling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Internal erosion is one common mode of dam failure. Internal erosion occurs when water flows through a cavity, crack, and/or other continuous opening within the embankment, detaching material. The detachment of material (erosion) results in expansion of the continuous flow path, increased discharg...

  3. The International Project. Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutimann, Hans

    The International Project of the Commission on Preservation and Access was begun in June 1988 to explore the feasibility of creating an international database of preserved materials. Its main goals are to: (1) determine the extent to which preservation records exist in other countries; (2) identify the difficulties in converting records to…

  4. International Space Station Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Propp, Timothy William

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives a general overview of the International Space Station Power Systems. The topics include: 1) The Basics of Power; 2) Space Power Systems Design Constraints; 3) Solar Photovoltaic Power Systems; 4) Energy Storage for Space Power Systems; 5) Challenges of Operating Power Systems in Earth Orbit; 6) and International Space Station Electrical Power System.

  5. Internal Benchmarking for Institutional Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronco, Sharron L.

    2012-01-01

    Internal benchmarking is an established practice in business and industry for identifying best in-house practices and disseminating the knowledge about those practices to other groups in the organization. Internal benchmarking can be done with structures, processes, outcomes, or even individuals. In colleges or universities with multicampuses or a…

  6. International Comparisons and Educational Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purves, Alan C., Ed.

    Increasingly over the past decade there have appeared in the press bar graphs comparing the performance of U.S. students with their counterparts in other countries. Usually these graphs have been accompanied by dire warnings and pointing fingers. The main source of the data on international comparisons has been the International Association for…

  7. Factor Analysis of Intern Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Womack, Sid T.; Hannah, Shellie Louise; Bell, Columbus David

    2012-01-01

    Four factors in teaching intern effectiveness, as measured by a Praxis III-similar instrument, were found among observational data of teaching interns during the 2010 spring semester. Those factors were lesson planning, teacher/student reflection, fairness & safe environment, and professionalism/efficacy. This factor analysis was as much of a…

  8. International Recognition of Vocational Qualifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imrie, Bradford W.

    Certain issues are relevant to the international recognition of vocational qualifications: (1) the assumption that each country does or should value vocational education and training; (2) the quality of the national system and the implications for international recognition of qualifications, including recognition of the accrediting and awarding…

  9. AFOSR International Science Program Office

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-04

    abroad, and hosting 4 • Window-on-the-World ( WOW ) • 7 participants to 6 different countries in FY12 • Data Mining • Developing methods to leverage...combining old and new tasks to best support all of IO • ESEP, WOW , international agreements, developing international initiatives, “1-800-AFOSR

  10. International Research and Studies Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Postsecondary Education, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The International Research and Studies Program supports surveys, studies, and instructional materials development to improve and strengthen instruction in modern foreign languages, area studies, and other international fields. The purpose of the program is to improve and strengthen instruction in modern foreign languages, area studies and other…

  11. An Accounting International Experience Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Leigh Redd; Rudolph, Holly R.; Seay, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    Accounting students need practical opportunities to personally experience other cultures and international business practices if they are to effectively compete in today's global marketplace. In order to address this need, the Department of Accounting at Murray State University offers an international experience course which includes a short-term…

  12. International. Go8 Backgrounder 17

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    International education, particularly study in Australia, provides significant economic benefits for Australia. It is both a major export industry and a source of domestic economic growth. If Australia can attract talented international students through scholarships and a reputation for quality, they will return to their home countries to become…

  13. Sharing International Culture at Kingsmont.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyman, Kim Houston

    1987-01-01

    Camp Kingsmont, a weight reduction and fitness facility for boys and girls located near West Stockbridge, Massachusetts, traditionally celebrates International Day each July. Campers design costumes, prepare native dances and songs, enjoy an outdoor feast, stage an "International Beautyless Contest," and gather around a bonfire to view a…

  14. [Core competencies in internal medicine].

    PubMed

    Porcel, J M; Casademont, J; Conthe, P; Pinilla, B; Pujol, R; García-Alegría, J

    2011-06-01

    The working group of the Spanish Society of Internal Medicine (SEMI) on "Competencies of the Internist" has defined the basic medical knowledge, skills and attitudes that all internists in Spain should have. This list of competencies represents the Internal Medicine core curriculum within the context of the future educational framework of medical specialties in Health Sciences.

  15. International Experiential Learning Course Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmore, Andrew Curtis

    2006-01-01

    International experiential learning projects have increased in popularity over recent years, and many of these projects focus on environmental topics in the developing world. An experimental course in International Groundwater Studies was developed to bridge the gap between extracurricular service type programs and academically-based study abroad…

  16. Emerging Opportunities in International Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Maxwell C.; Koller, Albert M., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the development and activities of Community Colleges for International Development, Inc. (CCID), a 70-member consortium of community colleges promoting global economic development through postsecondary international education. Provides brief descriptions of CCID programs in Suriname, Guyana, Russia, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Taiwan,…

  17. Australian University International Student Finances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Marginson, Simon; Nyland, Chris; Ramia, Gaby; Sawir, Erlenawati

    2009-01-01

    The omission of international students from the Australian Vice-Chancellor's Committee (AVCC) 2007 national study on student finances is indicative of a pattern of exclusion. The exclusion is unacceptable from a humane perspective and feeds the belief that Australians perceive international students primarily as "cash cows". This study…

  18. Business and International Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Postsecondary Education, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Business and International Education Program of the International Education Programs Service (IEPS). This program provides funds to institutions of higher education that enter into an agreement with a trade association, a business, or both for the purpose of improving business curriculum and as a means of…

  19. Geography in the International Baccalaureate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semple, Stuart; Dawson, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    The International Baccalaureate Organization (IBO) is doing much to promote the teaching of geography in schools. Since its establishment in 1968 to provide a common curriculum and university entrance credential for children of a geographically mobile international community, it has evolved and now includes schools in national systems all over the…

  20. International law and communicable diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Aginam, Obijiofor

    2002-01-01

    Historically, international law has played a key role in global communicable disease surveillance. Throughout the nineteenth century, international law played a dominant role in harmonizing the inconsistent national quarantine regulations of European nation-states; facilitating the exchange of epidemiological information on infectious diseases; establishing international health organizations; and standardization of surveillance. Today, communicable diseases have continued to re-shape the boundaries of global health governance through legally binding and "soft-law" regimes negotiated and adopted within the mandate of multilateral institutions - the World Health Organization, the World Trade Organization, the Food and Agriculture Organization, and the Office International des Epizooties. The globalization of public health has employed international law as an indispensable tool in global health governance aimed at diminishing human vulnerability to the mortality and morbidity burdens of communicable diseases. PMID:12571722

  1. Putting 'international' back in IPEC.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.

    2000-10-27

    During the previous six annual sessions of the International Petroleum Environmental Conference (IPEC), little attention has been given to international issues. Although the US is clearly a leader in oil field research and regulatory development information is available on interesting projects throughout the world Many participants in IPEC have little exposure to international oil and gas environmental problems and solutions. Beginning with the 7th IPEC, a stronger effort is being made to include international issues in the confidence. This paper describes some of the author's experiences in working with international oil and gas environmental issues in North America, Latin America, Europe, and Asia. Among the topics to be discussed are the issues that developing oil and gas-producing nations face and the need for sensitivity to other nation's cultures and legal systems.

  2. International Perspectives on Plagiarism and Considerations for Teaching International Trainees

    PubMed Central

    Heitman, Elizabeth; Litewka, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    In the increasingly global community of biomedical science and graduate science education, many US academic researchers work with international trainees whose views on scientific writing and plagiarism can be strikingly different from US norms. Although a growing number of countries and international professional organizations identify plagiarism as research misconduct, many international trainees come from research environments where plagiarism is ill-defined and even commonly practiced. Two research-ethics educators consider current perspectives on plagiarism around the world and contend that US research-training programs should focus on trainees’ scientific writing skills and acculturation, not simply on preventing plagiarism. PMID:21194646

  3. International perspectives on plagiarism and considerations for teaching international trainees.

    PubMed

    Heitman, Elizabeth; Litewka, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    In the increasingly global community of biomedical science and graduate science education, many US academic researchers work with international trainees whose views on scientific writing and plagiarism can be strikingly different from US norms. Although a growing number of countries and international professional organizations identify plagiarism as research misconduct, many international trainees come from research environments where plagiarism is ill-defined and even commonly practiced. Two research-ethics educators consider current perspectives on plagiarism around the world and contend that US research-training programs should focus on trainees' scientific writing skills and acculturation, not simply on preventing plagiarism.

  4. International Telecommunication Control: International Law and the Ordering of Satellite and Other Forms of International Broadcasting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Delbert D.

    The need for and the available alternatives for international telecommunication controls are examined, and a functional approach to this area of law is offered. Information from a number of areas is collected and examined as it relates to the basic problem. These areas include general principles of international law, the activities of the…

  5. Continental Drift: International Students Become International Alumni and Create International Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulley, John

    2009-01-01

    No nation would entrust its foreign relations to ambassadors bereft of international experience. Nor would a global conglomerate ignore overseas markets and expect to prosper. Yet colleges and universities have frequently taken a remarkably unsophisticated and laissez faire approach to advancing their international interests--if they have bothered…

  6. International Cell Exchange, 1994.

    PubMed

    Lau, M; Terasaki, P I; Park, M S

    1994-01-01

    1. We summarize typings of 40 cells for Class I antigens and 20 cultured cell lines for Class II antigens through the International Cell Exchange in 1994. Serologic Class II typings were compared with DNA typings for the same 20 cells. Two hundred eighty-one laboratories participated in the monthly Class I Serum Exchange. One hundred nineteen serology laboratories and 74 DNA laboratories reported Class II specificities on a monthly basis. 2. The average detection levels, as well as the high detection levels, were determined for 16 A-locus and 27 B-locus antigens. Mean detection rates of 95% or greater average detection were obtained for 12 A-locus and 10 B-locus antigens. Lower than 80% agreement was calculated for one A-locus antigen (A74) and 7 B-locus (B46, B48, B61, B67, B73, B75, B77) antigens. 3. We compared discrepancy rates of 10 A-locus and 7 B-locus antigens typed 3 times or more. The false-negative discrepancy rates, i.e. how often the antigen was missed, were greater for more of the B-locus specificities than for the A-locus antigens. B62, having the highest false-positive rate, tended to be overassigned. The discrepancy rates, especially the false-negative rate, for B70 were shown to decrease over a 7-year period. 4. In 1994, 8 laboratories attained records of total no misses for all analyzed antigens. Twelve laboratories had final records of only one discrepancy, and 5 laboratories had impressive perfect records (zero false negatives and false positives) for their yearly antigen reports. 5. Retyping of 12 Class I and 8 Class II reference cells showed improved detection of antigens. Results of a donor typed 4 times over 11 years demonstrated marked improvement, nearly doubling for A33, B38, and B75. Two cells first typed in 1991, then retyped in 1994, showed improved detection for Class II splits by serology and DNA typing. 6. We updated the list of sequenced Class I Exchange cells. Seven new cells were added as well as confirmatory sequence data for A

  7. International cooperation in water resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, J.R.; Beall, R.M.; Giusti, E.V.

    1979-01-01

    Advancements in hydrology proceeded slowly until the late 1800's when new ventures created a surge of interest and accomplishment. Progress waned again until the middle 20th century when an International Hydrological Decade was conceived, eventually receiving wide multinational support from governmental agencies and nongovernmental institutions. Organized by UNESCO, the Decade program was launched January 1, 1965. Participation included 107 nations, six United Nations agencies, and more than a dozen international scientific organizations. The initial program emphasized scientific research, and international cooperation; the second half of the Decade, emphasized technical assistance and technology transfer, largerly through education, training and demonstration. The success of the Decade led to the establishment of the International Hydrological Program, again under the aegis of UNESCO, to continue the work of the Decade indefinitely. The five major program activities, now involving about 90 countries and several international organizations, include: the scientific program, the promotion of education and training, the enhancement of information exchange, support of technical assistance, and the enlargement of regional cooperation. A significant amount of activity related to hydrological data networks and forecasting is carried on in an Operational Hydrology Programme by the WMO, chiefly through its Commission for Hydrology. Other international governmental organizations with a strong interest in water include the UN, the UN Development Programme, the FAO, the WHO, the International Atomic Energy Agency, the UN Environment Programme, the International Standardization Organization, and developmental institutions such as the World Bank. The specialized interests of researchers outside of the governmental structure, are met through association in various scientific and technical organizations which are world wide in scope and membership. Notwithstanding a sometimes

  8. The international standard for colistin*

    PubMed Central

    Lightbown, J. W.; Bond, J. M.; Grab, B.

    1973-01-01

    An International Standard for Colistin has been established and the International Unit defined as the activity contained in 0.00004878 mg of this preparation. The unit was defined on the basis of a collaborative assay in which nine laboratories from six different countries participated. The material used to prepare the international standard had been manufactured in Japan; it was shown to have a composition similar to that of material produced in Europe and to be suitable for the assay of colistin from the existing sources of manufacture. PMID:4541149

  9. Problems of International Students Enrolled in Texas Public Community Colleges as Perceived by International Students and International Student Advisors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Roy H.

    This study investigates student personnel problem perceptions of international students and international student advisors on selected community college campuses in Texas. The International Student Problem Inventory (ISPI) was administered to 220 international students and 30 international student advisors. Percentages were utilized to identify…

  10. Lab-on-a-Chip: From Astrobiology to the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maule, Jake; Wainwright, Nor; Steele, Andrew; Gunter, Dan; Monaco, Lisa A.; Wells, Mark E.; Morris, Heather C.; Boudreaux, Mark E.

    2008-01-01

    The continual and long-term habitation of enclosed environments, such as Antarctic stations, nuclear submarines and space stations, raises unique engineering, medical and operational challenges. There is no easy way out and no easy way to get supplies in. This situation elevates the importance of monitoring technology that can rapidly detect events within the habitat that affect crew safety such as fire, release of toxic chemicals and hazardous microorganisms. Traditional methods to monitor microorganisms on the International Space Station (ISS) have consisted of culturing samples for 3-5 days and eventual sample return to Earth. To augment these culture methods with new, rapid molecular techniques, we developed the Lab-on-a-Chip Application Development - Portable Test System (LOCAD-PTS). The system consists of a hand-held spectrophotometer, a series of interchangeable cartridges and a surface sampling/dilution kit that enables crew to collect samples and detect a range of biological molecules, all within 15 minutes. LOCAD-PTS was launched to the ISS aboard Space Shuttle Discovery in December 2006, where it was operated for the first time during March-May 2007. The surfaces of five separate sites in the US Lab and Node 1 of ISS were analyzed for endotoxin, using cartridges that employ the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay; results of these tests will be presented. LOCAD-PTS will remain permanently onboard ISS with new cartridges scheduled for launch in February and October of 2008 for the detection of fungi (Beta-glucan) and Gram-positive bacteria (lipoteichoic acid), respectively.

  11. OLED devices with internal outcoupling

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Jr., Jie Jerry; Sista, Srinivas Prasad; Shi, Xiaolei; Zhao, Ri-An; Chichak, Kelly Scott; Youmans, Jeffrey Michael; Janora, Kevin Henry; Turner, Larry Gene

    2016-12-06

    Optoelectronic devices with enhanced internal outcoupling include a substrate, an anode, a cathode, an electroluminescent layer, and an electron transporting layer comprising inorganic nanoparticles dispersed in an organic matrix.

  12. The International Space Station Habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Patricia Mendoza; Engle, Mike

    2003-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is an engineering project unlike any other. The vehicle is inhabited and operational as it is constructed. The habitability resources available to the crew are the sleep quarters, the galley, the waste and hygiene compartment, and exercise equipment. These items are mainly in the Russian Service Module and their placement is awkward for the crew to use and work around. ISS assembly will continue with the truss build and the addition of the International Partner Laboratories. Prior to the addition of the International Partner Laboratories. Node 2 will be added. The Node 2 module will provide additional stowage volume and room for more crew sleep quarters. The purpose of the ISS is to perform research and a major area of emphasis is on the effects of long duration space flight on humans, as result of this research the habitability requirements for the International Space Station crews will be determined.

  13. International Affairs Sector (NAICS 928120)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find EPA laws and regulatory information for international agreements, including import and export, Montreal Protocol for Ozone depleting substances, ocean vessels, MARPOL, and port and border compliance assistance centers.

  14. Internal dosimetry technical basis manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-20

    The internal dosimetry program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) consists of radiation protection programs and activities used to detect and evaluate intakes of radioactive material by radiation workers. Examples of such programs are: air monitoring; surface contamination monitoring; personal contamination surveys; radiobioassay; and dose assessment. The objectives of the internal dosimetry program are to demonstrate that the workplace is under control and that workers are not being exposed to radioactive material, and to detect and assess inadvertent intakes in the workplace. The Savannah River Site Internal Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual (TBM) is intended to provide a technical and philosophical discussion of the radiobioassay and dose assessment aspects of the internal dosimetry program. Detailed information on air, surface, and personal contamination surveillance programs is not given in this manual except for how these programs interface with routine and special bioassay programs.

  15. Goddard Summer Interns: Andy Ryan

    NASA Video Gallery

    Andy Ryan is an intern staff assistant with the Lunar and Planetary Science Academy. This summer the LPSA traveled to the Channeled Scablands of eastern Washington to study and map the geology of t...

  16. Astronomy and international science diplomacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, Claus

    2015-08-01

    Since WW2, science has played an important, if sometimes overlooked, role in international relations and international diplomacy. The founding of CERN in 1954 and the more recent establishment of SESAME as a major research infrastructure in the Middle East are examples of this. The IAU has played its own role in the field of science diplomacy ranging from quietly fostering interaction between the antagonists of the Cold War period to the world-uniting initiative of the International Year of Astronomy. Beyond the IAU, yet still with clear links to it, we have seen ESO as an example as well as the more recent one of SKA as a vehicle for development and for strengthening international relations.

  17. The proposed international DORIS service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, P.; Tavernier, G.; Feissel-Vernier, M.; Lemoine, F.; Noll, C.; Ries, J.; Soudarin, L.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to discuss the status of the DORIS Pilot experiment, to analyze the progress made during the past two years and to propose the official creation within the IAG of an International DORIS Service (IDS).

  18. International Megan's Law of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Smith, Christopher H. [R-NJ-4

    2009-03-19

    04/27/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. International reference standards in coagulation.

    PubMed

    Raut, Sanj; Hubbard, Anthony R

    2010-07-01

    Measurement of coagulation factor activity using absolute physico-chemical techniques is not possible and estimation therefore relies on comparative bioassay relative to a reference standard with a known or assigned potency. However the inherent variability of locally prepared and calibrated reference standards can give rise to poor agreement between laboratories and methods. Harmonisation of measurement between laboratories at the international level relies on the availability of a common source of calibration for local reference standards and this is provided by the World Health Organization (WHO) International Standards which define the International Unit for the analyte. This article describes the principles, practices and problems of biological standardisation and the development and use of reference standards for assays of coagulation factors, with particular emphasis on WHO International Standards for both concentrates and plasma.

  20. Aplastic Anemia & MDS International Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Menu Donate I'm Like You. "The Aplastic Anemia and MDS International Foundation is helping patients like ... cope with bone marrow failure disease." Diseases Aplastic Anemia Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS) Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria (PNH) Related ...

  1. International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Nat; Davila, Joseph M.

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI) is an international scientific program to understand the external drivers of space weather. The science and applications of space weather has been brought to prominence because of the rapid development of space based technology that is useful for all human beings. The ISWI program has its roots in the successful International Heliophysical Year (IHY) program that ran during 2007 - 2009. The primary objective of the ISWI program is to advance the space weather science by a combination of instrument deployment, analysis and interpretation of space weather data from the deployed instruments in conjunction with space data, and communicate the results to the public and students. Like the IHY, the ISWI will be a grass roots organization with key participation from national coordinators in cooperation with an international steering committee. This talk outlines the ISWI program including its organization and proposed activities.

  2. The International Space Weather Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nat, Gopalswamy; Joseph, Davila; Barbara, Thompson

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI) is a program of international cooperation aimed at understanding the external drivers of space weather. The ISWI program has its roots in the successful International Heliophysical Year (IHY) program that ran during 2007 - 2009 and will continue with those aspects that directly affect life on Earth. The primary objective of the ISWI program is to advance the space weather science by a combination of instrument deployment, analysis and interpretation of space weather data from the deployed instruments in conjunction with space data, and communicate the results to the public and students. Like the IHY, the ISWI will be a grass roots organization with key participation from national coordinators in cooperation with an international steering committee. This presentation outlines the ISWI program including its organizational aspects and proposed activities. The ISWI observatory deployment and outreach activities are highly complementary to the CAWSES II activities of SCOSTEP.

  3. Goddard Summer Interns: Alejandro Arambula

    NASA Video Gallery

    Alejandro Arambula is an aerospace engineering student at M.I.T. and a 2011 summer intern in Goddard's Propulsion Lab. This summer he is working with his mentor Khary Parker in building a test asse...

  4. Robots Aboard International Space Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    Ames Research Center, MIT and Johnson Space Center have two new robotics projects aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Robonaut 2, a two-armed humanoid robot with astronaut-like dexterity,...

  5. International Physics Olympiad still alive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polma, Richard; Kříž, Jan

    2017-01-01

    The International Physics Olympiad (IPhO) is an annual physics competition for high school students. In our article, we will discuss its development and results of research among former contestants from Czechoslovakia, resp. from Czech Republic.

  6. The International Planetary Data Alliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkissian, A.; Crichton, D. J.; Hughes, J. S.; Heather, D.; Martinez, S.; Beebe, R.; Neakrase, L. D. V.; Yamamoto, Y.; Capria, M. T.; Krishna, B. G.

    2013-09-01

    The International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA) is an international collaboration of space agencies with a mission of providing access to scientific data returned from solar system missions archived at international data centers. In order to improve access and share scientific data, the IPDA was founded to develop data and software standards. The IPDA has focused on promoting standards that drive common methods for collecting and describing planetary science data. An initial starting point for developing such a standard has been the internationalization of NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) standard, which has become the de-facto archival data standard. Given the demands of supporting more capable and international missions and collaborations, the Planetary Data System, in partnership with the IPDA, has embarked on developing a next generation data standard and system called PDS4. Significant progress has been made on PDS4 and early adopters are beginning to use the emerging standard on new planetary science missions.

  7. International Conference on Human Relations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Festinger , Sherif, Ex, Rohrer, Pinto, Singh, and Mailhiot. One outcome of the Conference was the formation of a working committee to establish an International Documentation and Information Center for the field of Human Relations.

  8. Linking International Cancer Screening Efforts

    Cancer.gov

    Drs. Sudha Sivaram and Steve Taplin speak at the International Cancer Screening Network (ICSN) Meeting, which brings together individuals involved in cancer screening research and cancer screening programs from the ICSN’s member countries.

  9. Computerized international geothermal information systems

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, S.L.; Lawrence, J.D.; Lepman, S.R.

    1980-03-01

    The computerized international geothermal energy information system is reviewed. The review covers establishment of the Italy - United States linked data centers by the NATO Committee on Challenges of Modern Society, through a bilateral agreement, and up to the present time. The result of the information exchange project is given as the bibliographic and numerical data available from the data centers. Recommendations for the exchange of computerized geothermal information at the international level are discussed.

  10. INTERNAL AUTOSCOPY : A CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Rao, K.N.

    1992-01-01

    Internal autoscopy, a rare special type of visual hallucination, is claimed to have been mainly reported by French psychiatrist who considered it to occur mainly in young female subjects suffering from hysteria. In this report, such a cases is described in a 70 year old male patient suffering from M.D.P. (Depression). Its differential diagnosis and phenomenology is discussed. It is suggested that Internal autoscopy may be cognitive or ideational disturbance, expressed as a perceptual experience. PMID:21776133

  11. Information Warfare and International Law

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources , gathering and...OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 1998 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-1998 to 00-00-1998 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Information Warfare and...for International Studies; Melanie Greenberg of the Stanford University Center for International Security and Arms Control (CISAC); Daniel Kuehl of

  12. Finding international Landsat data online

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1997-01-01

    The Global Land Information System (GLIS) lists Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) and thematic mapper (TM) data available from the participating international ground stations shown below. These databases of the Landsat Ground Station Operations Working Group (LGSOWG) can be searched, but not ordered, using GLIS. To order Landsat scenes identified on the GLIS data search, contact the international ground station where those scenes are available, indicated by the second character of the Entity ID.

  13. Internal Wave Generation in Straits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    echo sounders (PIESs) so as to observe the generation of internal waves by tidal interaction with topography in Luzon Strait (Fig. 1), and to...Pressure sensor equipped Inverted Echo Sounders [PIES] (see Li et al. 2009). Five instruments were deployed in a pilot study and 13 were deployed at the...internal waves using the inverted echo sounder , J. Atmos. Oceanic Technology, 26, 2228−2242. Li Qiang & David M Farmer (2011), The Generation and

  14. The International Lunar Decade Declaration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beldavs, V.; Foing, B.; Bland, D.; Crisafulli, J.

    2015-10-01

    The International Lunar Decade Declaration was discussed at the conference held November 9-13, 2014 in Hawaii "The Next Giant Leap: Leveraging Lunar Assets for Sustainable Pathways to Space" - http://2014giantleap.aerospacehawaii.info/ and accepted by a core group that forms the International Lunar Decade Working Group (ILDWG) that is seeking to make the proposed global event and decade long process a reality. The Declaration will be updated from time to time by members of the ILDWreflecting new knowledge and fresh perspectives that bear on building a global consortium with a mission to progress from lunar exploration to the transformation of the Moon into a wealth gene rating platform for the expansion of humankind into the solar system. When key organizations have endorsed the idea and joined the effort the text of the Declaration will be considered final. An earlier International Lunar Decade proposal was issued at the 8th ICEUM Conference in 2006 in Beijing together with 13 specific initiatives for lunar exploration[1,2,3]. These initiatives have been largely implemented with coordination among the different space agencies involved provided by the International Lunar Exploration Working Group[2,3]. The Second International Lunar Decade from 2015 reflects current trends towards increasing involvement of commercial firms in space, particularly seeking opportunities beyond low Earth orbit. The central vision of the International Lunar Decade is to build the foundations for a sustainable space economy through international collaboration concurrently addressing Lunar exploration and building a shared knowledge base;Policy development that enables collabo rative research and development leading to lunar mining and industrial and commercial development;Infrastructure on the Moon and in cislunar space (communications, transport, energy systems, way-stations, other) that reduces costs, lowers risks and speeds up the time to profitable operations;Enabling technologies

  15. Incorporating International Business Topics into Every Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perreault, Heidi; Burchfield, Kathy

    2001-01-01

    Presents activities and resources for addressing international business in the curriculum, including e-mail partnerships, international document specifications, currency comparisons, marketing to other cultures, scavenger hunt, business lunch, and international telephone and travel etiquette. (SK)

  16. 77 FR 76091 - International Mail Contract

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... International Mail Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... international mail contract. This document invites public comments on the request and addresses several related... an expired International Business Reply Service (IBRS) competitive contract.\\1\\ The Postal...

  17. School's Still out on Internal Auditing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuzzetto, Charles E.; Moran, Daniel D.

    1988-01-01

    Survey responses from 271 members of the Association of School Business Officials International were analyzed to determine the extent and use of internal auditing in school districts and the characteristics of districts with internal auditing positions. (MLF)

  18. 75 FR 19944 - International Code Council: The Update Process for the International Codes and Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology International Code Council: The Update Process for the International Codes and Standards AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The International Code Council (ICC), promulgator of the International Codes...

  19. 78 FR 18321 - International Code Council: The Update Process for the International Codes and Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology International Code Council: The Update Process for the International Codes and Standards AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The International Code Council (ICC), promulgator of the International Codes...

  20. MONJU AS AN INTERNATIONAL ASSET: INTERNATIONAL ASSISTANCE AND COOPERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, G.; Wisner, R.S.; Stuart, R.

    2004-10-06

    The role of the fast breeder reactor prototype Monju has expanded to meet the challenges of the 21st century. Today instead of being merely a demonstration of an economical, safe, environmentally responsible source of energy, as originally designed, it has also the capability to be transformed into a unique International Irradiations Test Facility. The potential for Monju's role in the Generation IV nuclear energy systems development, and fast reactor research and development area is clear. Its incomparable fast neutron spectrum density will be a major interest not only for Sodium Fast Reactor but for all the Generation IV concepts. As Monju's potential future role is laid out, plans for future tests can be made. Tests of advanced fuels and materials in support of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative, as well as Minor Actinide Burning can be envisaged. Tests planned on transmutation of minor actinides have the objectives of an industrial demonstration of the reduction of toxic wastes and the stewardship burden of the long-lived wastes. Tests and demonstrations carried out at Monju will provide a bridge from existing Generation III fast reactor systems, now in the later stages of their projected operational lifetimes, to Generation IV nuclear energy systems. The JNC founded the International Cooperation and Technology Development Center and the International Research Fellowship program to facilitate this international effort. The Center exists specifically to formulate and perform projects ensuring the maximum technical benefit from Monju. The staff includes physicists, engineers and nuclear industry leaders from around the world. Research Fellowships center is based on several technical areas: advanced instrumentation, inspection techniques, plant reliability and safety, nucleonics, sodium handling technologies, irradiation and experiment management and coordination and advanced post-irradiation examination capabilities and techniques. This paper describes the recent

  1. Strategic business planning for internal medicine.

    PubMed

    Ervin, F R

    1996-07-01

    The internal medicine generalist is at market risk with expansion of managed care. The cottage industry of Academic Departments of internal medicine should apply more business tools to the internal medicine business problem. A strength, weakness, opportunity, threat (SWOT) analysis demonstrates high vulnerability to the internal medicine generalist initiative. Recommitment to the professional values of internal medicine and enhanced focus on the master clinician as the competitive core competency of internal medicine will be necessary to retain image and market share.

  2. Precise quantification of nanoparticle internalization.

    PubMed

    Gottstein, Claudia; Wu, Guohui; Wong, Benjamin J; Zasadzinski, Joseph Anthony

    2013-06-25

    Nanoparticles have opened new exciting avenues for both diagnostic and therapeutic applications in human disease, and targeted nanoparticles are increasingly used as specific drug delivery vehicles. The precise quantification of nanoparticle internalization is of importance to measure the impact of physical and chemical properties on the uptake of nanoparticles into target cells or into cells responsible for rapid clearance. Internalization of nanoparticles has been measured by various techniques, but comparability of data between different laboratories is impeded by lack of a generally accepted standardized assay. Furthermore, the distinction between associated and internalized particles has been a challenge for many years, although this distinction is critical for most research questions. Previously used methods to verify intracellular location are typically not quantitative and do not lend themselves to high-throughput analysis. Here, we developed a mathematical model which integrates the data from high-throughput flow cytometry measurements with data from quantitative confocal microscopy. The generic method described here will be a useful tool in biomedical nanotechnology studies. The method was then applied to measure the impact of surface coatings of vesosomes on their internalization by cells of the reticuloendothelial system (RES). RES cells are responsible for rapid clearance of nanoparticles, and the resulting fast blood clearance is one of the major challenges in biomedical applications of nanoparticles. Coating of vesosomes with long chain polyethylene glycol showed a trend for lower internalization by RES cells.

  3. Mask strategy at International SEMATECH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimmel, Kurt R.

    2002-08-01

    International SEMATECH (ISMT) is a consortium consisting of 13 leading semiconductor manufacturers from around the globe. Its objective is to develop the infrastructure necessary for its member companies to realize the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) through efficiencies of shared development resources and knowledge. The largest area of effort is lithography, recognized as a crucial enabler for microelectronics technology progress. Within the Lithography Division, most of the efforts center on mask-related issues. The development strategy at International SEMATCH will be presented and the interlock of lithography projects clarified. Because of the limited size of the mask production equipment market, the business case is weak for aggressive investment commensurate with the pace of the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors. With masks becoming the overwhelming component of lithography cost, new ways of reducing or eliminating mask costs are being explored. Will mask technology survive without a strong business case? Will the mask industry limit the growth of the semiconductor industry? Are advanced masks worth their escalating cost? An analysis of mask cost from the perspective of mask value imparted to the user is presented with examples and generic formulas for the reader to apply independently. A key part to the success for both International SEMATECH and the industry globally will be partnerships on both the local level between mask-maker and mask-user, and the macro level where global collaborations will be necessary to resolve technology development cost challenges.

  4. In Pursuit of Internal Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    Orders of magnitude larger than surface waves, and so powerful that their generation impacts the lunar orbit, internal waves, propagating disturbances of a density-stratified fluid, are ubiquitous throughout the ocean and atmosphere. Following the discovery of the phenomenon of ``dead water'' by early Arctic explorers and the classic laboratory visualizations of the curious St. Andrew's Cross internal wave pattern, there has been a resurgence of interest in internal waves, inspired by their pivotal roles in local environmental and global climate processes, and their profound impact on ocean and aerospace engineering. We detail our widespread pursuit of internal waves through theoretical modeling, laboratory experiments and field studies, from the Pacific Ocean one thousand miles north and south of Hawaii, to the South China Sea, and on to the Arctic Ocean. We also describe our recent expedition to surf the most striking internal wave phenomenon of them all: the Morning Glory cloud in remote Northwest Australia. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation through a CAREER Grant OCE-064559 and through Grants OCE-1129757 and OCE-1357434, and by the Office of Naval Research through Grants N00014-09-1-0282, N00014-08-1-0390 and N00014-05-1-0575.

  5. Internal to external wavelength calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Kailash C.

    1999-01-01

    The spectra of Hen 1357 (the Stingray nebula) were used to check the internal to external wavelength calibration of the STIS first order CCD modes. The radial velocity of the Stingray nebula is known to high accuracy (< 1 km/sec) and the line with of the nebular line is very narrow (< 8 km/sec for the integrated nebula). Thus the observations of the Stingray nebula are ideal to check the internal to external wavelength calibration of the first order modes. The observations were taken in G430L and G750M modes using a 52 x 0.05 arcsec slit covering the wavelength range 2900 to 5700 A and 6295 to 6867 A, respectively. The observed wavelength range includes many nebular emission lines. The wavelengths of the nebular lines derived using the pipeline internal wavelength calibration were compared with the wavelengths derived from other ground based observations. In all cases, the wavelength match between the two is of the same order as the accuracy to which the line center can be measured. These results imply that there is no significant offset between the internal and external wavelength calibrations for these modes. The HDF-S QSO observations were also used for this test both for the first order and the Echelle modes. The results of the HDF-S QSO observations further confirm the above finding for the first order modes, and imply that there is no significant offset between the internal and external wavelength calibration for the Echelle modes.

  6. Hypoallometric scaling in international collaborations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiehchen, David; Espinoza, Magdalena; Hsieh, Antony

    2016-02-01

    Collaboration is a vital process and dominant theme in knowledge production, although the effectiveness of policies directed at promoting multinational research remains ambiguous. We examined approximately 24 million research articles published over four decades and demonstrated that the scaling of international publications to research productivity for each country obeys a universal and conserved sublinear power law. Inefficient mechanisms in transborder team dynamics or organization as well as increasing opportunity costs may contribute to the disproportionate growth of international collaboration rates with increasing productivity among nations. Given the constrained growth of international relationships, our findings advocate a greater emphasis on the qualitative aspects of collaborations, such as with whom partnerships are forged, particularly when assessing research and policy outcomes.

  7. Internal fixation: a historical review.

    PubMed

    Greenhagen, Robert M; Johnson, Adam R; Joseph, Alison

    2011-08-01

    Internal fixation has become a pillar of surgical specialties, yet the evolution of these devices has been relatively short. The first known description of medical management of a fracture was found in the Edwin Smith Papyrus of Ancient Egypt (circa 2600 bc). The first description of internal fixation in the medical literature was in the 18th century. The advancement of techniques and technology over the last 150 years has helped to preserve both life and function. The pace of advancement continues to accelerate as surgeons continue to seek new technology for osseous fixation. The authors present a thorough review of the history of internal fixation and the transformation into a multibillion dollar industry.

  8. Internal Stresses in Laminated Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heim, A L; Knauss, A C; Seutter, Louis

    1923-01-01

    This report reviews the procedure employed in an investigation of the sources and influence of internal stresses in laminated construction, and discusses the influence of shrinkage and swelling stresses caused by atmospheric conditions upon the tensile strength across grain in laminated construction with special reference to airplane propellers. The investigation covered three sources of internal stress, namely, the combination of plain-sawed and quarter-sawed material in the same construction, the gluing together of laminations of different moisture contents, and the gluing together of laminations of different densities. Glued specimens and free specimens, made up under various manufacturing conditions, were subjected to various climatic changes inducing internal stresses and then were tested.

  9. INTERNAL HEMIPELVECTOMY: REPORT ONEIGHT CASES

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Alexandre Ferreira; Vieira, Leonardo José; do Nascimento, Antônio Carlos Rodrigues; de Paula Fraga, João Baptista; Costa, Rómmel Ribeiro Lourenço; do Nascimento, Luiz Gustavo Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    Internal hemipelvectomy is a surgical procedure adequate for treatment of certain tumors of the pelvic girdle. Being a lower limb-preserving approach, it is a therapeutic alternative to the classical interilioabdominal amputation and hip joint disarticulation. According to Enneking's classification, there are four types of internal hemipelvectomies, although the association of different types of resection in the same procedure is feasible if necesary. This surgical approach should be correctly indicated to positively affect the patient's morbidity, mortality and quality of life. We report eight cases of internal hemipelvectomy in patients diagnosed with tumors of the pelvic girdle. We also discuss the neoadjuvant and adjuvant treatments used, along with their follow-up. PMID:27047900

  10. International Nuclear Safeguards at Sandia

    SciTech Connect

    Sternat, Matthew R.

    2015-02-01

    As global nuclear energy expands, assuring peaceful uses of nuclear technology becomes increasingly important. In addition to complying with international nuclear safeguards, a responsible nuclear energy program promotes a corresponding safeguards culture. Establishment of transparent peaceful uses of nuclear technologies starts with cooperative international engagements and safeguards systems. Developing states investing in nuclear energy must assure the international community of their longterm commitment to safeguards, safety, and security (3S) of nuclear materials and technologies. Cultivating a safeguards culture starts in the initial phases of infrastructure planning and must be integrated into the process of developing a responsible nuclear energy program. Sandia National Laboratories supports the implementation of safeguards culture through a variety of activities, including infrastructure development.

  11. International program for Earth observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    During the 1990 summer session of the International Space University, graduate students of many different countries and with various academic backgrounds carried out a design project that focused on how to meet the most pressing environmental information requirements of the 1990's. The International Program for Earth Observations (IPEO) is the result of the students labor. The IPEO report examines the legal and institutional, scientific, engineering and systems, financial and economic, and market development approaches needed to improve international earth observations and information systems to deal with environmental issues of global importance. The IPEO scenario is based on the production of a group of lightweight satellites to be used in global remote sensing programs. The design and function of the satellite is described in detail.

  12. Fourth International Bemisia Workshop International Whitefly Genomics Workshop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invited speakers from around the world presented research and management tactics conducted in their respective geographic regions and areas of expertise. Sessions were arranged with a slate of invited speakers followed by discussion, comments, and questions. Attendance was truly international with m...

  13. Processes of Internal and International Migration from Chitwan, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Bohra, Pratikshya; Massey, Douglas S.

    2011-01-01

    In this study we examine which factors predict internal and international migration from Chitwan, a flat valley located in the South-Central region of Nepal, seeking to measure the effect of theoretically specified variables such as human capital, social capital, physical capital, and neighborhood socioeconomic conditions while controlling for demographic variables. We use data from the Chitwan Valley Family Study (CVFS) to estimate a series of discrete time event history models of first and repeat migration to three competing destinations: other locations within Chitwan, other districts within Nepal, and places outside of Nepal. Results support hypotheses derived from neoclassical economics, the theory of new economics of migration, social capital theory, and cumulative causation theory. Our results underscore the need for a synthetic theoretical model that incorporates factors operating at the individual, household, and community levels. The use of multiple explanatory models yields a clearer picture of the forces driving internal and international migration from rural districts in developing nations such as Nepal. PMID:21423821

  14. International ties. [international cooperation in the space sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A historical overview of NASA's participation in international activities in space science is given. The Ariel, Alouette, Isis, and San Marco satellite programs are addressed along with sounding rocket and ground based projects. Relations and cooperation with the Soviet Union are also discussed.

  15. Developing International Business Managers through International Study Visits to China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Yiming; Rose, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Globalization is a key factor in the success of business organizations today, impacting many aspects of management performance. Understanding the global business environment has therefore become a key objective in the teaching of international business on Executive MBA programs. Drawing on the theory of experiential learning, this study examines…

  16. University Employment Transitions in International Performing Arts: The Intern's Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carneiro, Maria

    2013-01-01

    This article reflects my journey as a performing arts student and intern both in Portugal and abroad. It is not intended as a personal journal, but rather a reflection and an aftermath comment on my experiences and learning processes. First it provides a context regarding my university education in a Southern European country, against a previous…

  17. Internal and International Migration Across the Urban Hierarchy in Albania.

    PubMed

    Lerch, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    The interactions between the processes of urbanization and international migration in less developed and transition countries have important repercussions for socioeconomic development, but are not well understood. Based on the retrospective data from the Albanian Living Standards Measurement Survey 2008, we first assess the geography of migration in terms of the rural-urban continuum, the urban hierarchy and the outside world since 1990. We then investigate the spatio-temporal diffusion of rural-to-urban and international movements using survival models. Results reveal an immediate onset of large-scale rural exodus, despite the post-communist crisis. Internal migrants mainly moved to the capital, bypassing secondary cities, and were predominantly female. Initially, international migrants were primarily men who tended to originate from the main urban agglomerations. The diffusion of opportunities to emigrate down the urban hierarchy and across the sexes then redirected the rural exodus abroad, despite domestic economic development. This evolution in population mobility is related to the gendered patterns and interlinkages of the two flows, as well as to rising inequalities within the urban hierarchy.

  18. The International Reference Ionosphere 2012 - a model of international collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilitza, Dieter; Altadill, David; Zhang, Yongliang; Mertens, Chris; Truhlik, Vladimir; Richards, Phil; McKinnell, Lee-Anne; Reinisch, Bodo

    2014-02-01

    The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) project was established jointly by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) and the International Union of Radio Science (URSI) in the late sixties with the goal to develop an international standard for the specification of plasma parameters in the Earth's ionosphere. COSPAR needed such a specification for the evaluation of environmental effects on spacecraft and experiments in space, and URSI for radiowave propagation studies and applications. At the request of COSPAR and URSI, IRI was developed as a data-based model to avoid the uncertainty of theory-based models which are only as good as the evolving theoretical understanding. Being based on most of the available and reliable observations of the ionospheric plasma from the ground and from space, IRI describes monthly averages of electron density, electron temperature, ion temperature, ion composition, and several additional parameters in the altitude range from 60 km to 2000 km. A working group of about 50 international ionospheric experts is in charge of developing and improving the IRI model. Over time as new data became available and new modeling techniques emerged, steadily improved editions of the IRI model have been published. This paper gives a brief history of the IRI project and describes the latest version of the model, IRI-2012. It also briefly discusses efforts to develop a real-time IRI model. The IRI homepage is at http://IRImodel.org.

  19. Mesoscale Eddy - Internal Wave Coupling:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polzin, K. L.

    2012-12-01

    The issue of internal wave--mesoscale eddy interactions is revisited. Direct estimates of energy transfer from the Local Dynamics Experiment of the PolyMode field program (Polzin, 2010 JPO) return viscosity estimates of ν h \\cong 50 m2 s-1 and ν v + (f2)/(N^2) Kh \\cong 2.5×10-3 m2 s-1. These estimates indicate that mesoscale eddy-internal wave interactions may play an O(1) role in the mesoscale eddy energy budget as dissipation and the internal wave budget as a source. Radiation balance equation formulations for this coupling (Müller 1976, JFM) are examined. In these formulations permanent transfer of energy and internal wave pseudomomentum for mesoscale eddy potential vorticity is enabled by nonlinearity in the wavefield. Revision of radiation balance equation formulations to account for non-local effects returns predictions of ν h \\cong 50-100 m2 s-1 and ν v + (f2)/(N^2) Kh \\cong -1×10-3 to 4×10-3 m2 s-1. The prediction for the effective vertical viscosity is sensitive to how internal wave energy is distributed in the spectral domain with negative values appropriate to the Garrett and Munk spectrum and positive values appropriate to the background spectrum in the LDE area. Geographic scalings in terms of latitude, stratification and mesoscale eddy variability will be described. The process described here is best interpreted as an amplifier of a pre-existing or externally forced finite amplitude wavefield rather than the spontaneous imbalance of a linear field. Energy, pseudomomentum and vorticity can be transfered from the slow manifold (geostrophically balanced motions) to the fast manifold (internal gravity waves) via linear wave propagation in asymmetric background flows, but that transfer is reversible. The permanent transfer is accomplished by nonlinearity on the fast manifold.

  20. Technology and international climate policy

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, Leon; Calvin, Kate; Edmonds, James A.; Kyle, Page; Wise, Marshall

    2009-05-01

    Both the nature of international climate policy architectures and the development and diffusion of new energy technologies could dramatically influence future costs of reducing global emissions of greenhouse gases. This paper explores the implications of interactions between technology availability and performance and international policy architectures for technology choice and the social cost of limiting atmospheric CO2 concentrations to 500 ppm by the year 2095. Key issues explored in the paper include the role of bioenergy production with CO2 capture and storage (CCS), overshoot concentration pathways, and the sensitivity of mitigation costs to policy and technology.