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Sample records for international dobson spectrophotometer

  1. Results of international Dobson spectrophotometer calibrations at Arosa, Switzerland, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grass, R. D.; Komhyr, W. D.; Koenig, G. L.; Evans, R. D.

    1994-01-01

    An international comparison of Dobson ozone spectrophotometers, organized and partially funded by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), was held at the Lichtklimatisches Observatorium (LKO) in Arosa, Switzerland, July-August 1990. Countries participating with a total of 18 Dobson instruments were Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Rumania, Spain, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the United Soviet Socialist Republics. The reference standard instrument for the comparison was U.S.A. Secondary Standard Dobson Spectrophotometer 65 maintained by the NOAA Climate and Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado. The mean difference in ozone obtained with the Dobson instruments relative to Dobson instrument 65, calculated from ADDSGQP observations in the air mass range 1.15-3.2, was minus 1.0 plus or minus 1.2 (1 sigma) percent. The WMO Standard Brewer Spectrometer 39 also participated. In the mean, the Brewer instrument measured 0.6 plus or minus 0.2 (1 sigma) percent more ozone than did Dobson instrument 65. Results are presented, also, of ozone vertical profile measurements made with the Dobson instruments, two Brewer spectrometers, a LIDAR, a balloon ozonesonde flown from Hohenpeissenberg, Germany, and balloon ozonesondes flown from Payerne, Switzerland.

  2. Dobson spectrophotometer ozone measurements during international ozone rocketsonde intercomparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, C. L.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements of the total ozone content of the atmosphere, made with seven ground based instruments at a site near Wallops Island, Virginia, are discussed in terms for serving as control values with which the rocketborne sensor data products can be compared. These products are profiles of O3 concentration with altitude. By integrating over the range of altitudes from the surface to the rocket apogee and by appropriately estimating the residual ozone amount from apogee to the top of the atmosphere, a total ozone amount can be computed from the profiles that can be directly compared with the ground based instrumentation results. Dobson spectrophotometers were used for two of the ground-based instruments. Preliminary data collected during the IORI from Dobson spectrophotometers 72 and 38 are presented. The agreement between the two and the variability of total ozone overburden through the experiment period are discussed.

  3. Dobson ozone spectrophotometer modification.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komhyr, W. D.; Grass, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    Description of a modified version of the Dobson ozone spectrophotometer in which several outdated electronic design features have been replaced by circuitry embodying more modern design concepts. The resulting improvement in performance characteristics has been obtained without changing the principle of operation of the original instrument.

  4. An automated optical wedge calibrator for Dobson ozone spectrophotometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, R. D.; Komhyr, W. D.; Grass, R. D.

    1994-01-01

    The Dobson ozone spectrophotometer measures the difference of intensity between selected wavelengths in the ultraviolet. The method uses an optical attenuator (the 'Wedge') in this measurement. The knowledge of the relationship of the wedge position to the attenuation is critical to the correct calculation of ozone from the measurement. The procedure to determine this relationship is time-consuming, and requires a highly skilled person to perform it correctly. The relationship has been found to change with time. For reliable ozone values, the procedure should be done on a Dobson instrument at regular intervals. Due to the skill and time necessary to perform this procedure, many instruments have gone as long as 15 years between procedures. This article describes an apparatus that performs the procedure under computer control, and is adaptable to the majority of existing Dobson instruments. Part of the apparatus is usable for normal operation of the Dobson instrument, and would allow computer collection of the data and real-time ozone measurements.

  5. The impact of the ozone effective temperature on satellite validation using the Dobson spectrophotometer network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elissavet Koukouli, Maria; Zara, Marina; Lerot, Christophe; Fragkos, Konstantinos; Balis, Dimitris; van Roozendael, Michel; Antonius Franciscus Allart, Marcus; van der A, Ronald Johannes

    2016-05-01

    The main aim of the paper is to demonstrate an approach for post-processing of the Dobson spectrophotometers' total ozone columns (TOCs) in order to compensate for their known stratospheric effective temperature (Teff) dependency and its resulting effect on the usage of the Dobson TOCs for satellite TOCs' validation. The Dobson observations employed are those routinely submitted to the World Ozone and Ultraviolet Data Centre (WOUDC) of the World Meteorological Organization, whereas the effective temperatures have been extracted from two sources: the European Space Agency, ESA, Ozone Climate Change Initiative, Ozone-CCI, GODFIT version 3 (GOME-type Direct FITting) algorithm applied to the GOME2/MetopA, GOME2A, observations as well as the one derived from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) outputs. Both temperature sources are evaluated utilizing co-located ozonesonde measurements also retrieved from the WOUDC database. Both GODFIT_v3 and ECMWF Teffs are found to be unbiased against the ozonesonde observations and to agree with high correlation coefficients, especially for latitudes characterized by high seasonal variability in Teff. The validation analysis shows that, when applying the GODFIT_v3 effective temperatures in order to post-process the Dobson TOC, the mean difference between Dobson and GOME2A GODFIT_v3 TOCs moves from 0.63 ± 0.66 to 0.26 ± 0.46 % in the Northern Hemisphere and from 1.25 ± 1.20 to 0.80 ± 0.71 % in the Southern Hemisphere. The existing solar zenith angle dependency of the differences has been smoothed out, with near-zero dependency up to the 60-65° bin and the highest deviation decreasing from 2.38 ± 6.6 to 1.37 ± 6.4 % for the 80-85° bin. We conclude that the global-scale validation of satellite TOCs against collocated Dobson measurements benefits from a post-correction using suitably estimated Teffs.

  6. Comparison of Ozone Retrievals from the Pandora Spectrometer System and Dobson Spectrophotometer in Boulder, Colorado

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, J.; Evans, R.; Cede, A.; Abuhassan, N.; Petropavlovskikh, I.; McConville, G.

    2015-01-01

    A comparison of retrieved total column ozone (TCO) amounts between the Pandora #34 spectrometer system and the Dobson #061 spectrophotometer from direct-sun observations was performed on the roof of the Boulder, Colorado, NOAA building. This paper, part of an ongoing study, covers a 1-year period starting on 17 December 2013. Both the standard Dobson and Pandora TCO retrievals required a correction, TCO(sub corr) = TCO (1 + C(T)), using a monthly varying effective ozone temperature, T(sub E), derived from a temperature and ozone profile climatology. The correction is used to remove a seasonal difference caused by using a fixed temperature in each retrieval algorithm. The respective corrections C(T(sub E)) are C(sub Pandora) = 0.00333(T(sub E) - 225) and C(sub Dobson) = -0.0013(T(sub E) - 226.7) per degree K. After the applied corrections removed most of the seasonal retrieval dependence on ozone temperature, TCO agreement between the instruments was within 1% for clear-sky conditions. For clear-sky observations, both co-located instruments tracked the day-to-day variation in total column ozone amounts with a correlation of r(exp 2) = 0.97 and an average offset of 1.1 +/- 5.8 DU. In addition, the Pandora TCO data showed 0.3% annual average agreement with satellite overpass data from AURA/OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) and 1% annual average offset with Suomi-NPP/OMPS (Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership, the nadir viewing portion of the Ozone Mapper Profiler Suite).

  7. Total ozone trends over the USA during 1979-1991 from Dobson spectrophotometer observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komhyr, Walter D.; Grass, Robert D.; Koenig, Gloria L.; Quincy, Dorothy M.; Evans, Robert D.; Leonard, R. Kent

    1994-01-01

    Ozone trends for 1979-1991, determined from Dobson spectrophotometer observations made at eight stations in the United States, are augmented with trend data from four foreign cooperative stations operated by NOAA/CMDL. Results are based on provisional data archived routinely throughout the years at the World Ozone Data Center in Toronto, Canada, with calibration corrections applied to some of the data. Trends through 1990 exhibit values of minus 0.3 percent to minus 0.5 percent yr(exp -1) at mid-to-high latitudes in the northern hemisphere. With the addition of 1991 data, however, the trends become less negative, indicating that ozone increased in many parts of the world during 1991. Stations located within the plus or minus 20 deg N-S latitude band exhibit no ozone trends. Early 1992 data show decreased ozone values at some of the stations. At South Pole, Antarctica, October ozone values have remained low during the past 3 years.

  8. Unprecedented 1993 ozone decrease over the United States from Dobson spectrophotometer observations

    SciTech Connect

    Komhyr, W.D.; Grass, R.D.; Evans, R.D.; Leonard, R.K.; Quincy, D.M. ); Hoffman, D.J.; Koenig, G.L. )

    1994-02-01

    Dobson spectrophotometer observations conducted since the early-to-mid 1960's at Bismarck, North Dakota; Caribou, Maine; Boulder, Colorado; Wallops Island, Virginia; Nashville, Tennessee; and at Fresno, California, since 1983, have revealed record low total ozone values during 1993. The tendency toward the low ozone values began in May 1992, but accelerated in early 1993. During January-August 1993, ozone monthly means at the stations were more than 2 standard deviations below long-term normal monthly means 72% of the time and more than 3 standard deviations below normals 42% of the time. On average, the January-April 1993 ozone values were 12.6% below normal, with ozone deficits as large as 18% observed at Caribou and Wallops Island in January. Of particular concern are unusually low ozone values that occur in summertime when solar ultraviolet insolation is high. Such record lows occurred at four of the six stations (Caribou, Wallops Island, Fresno, and Nashville). During May-August 1993, ozone was on average 8.5% below normal at these sites. Monthly means at these stations were, furthermore, lower on average by 3.7% than corresponding lowest values observed there in the past. The ozone decrease of 12.6% below normal at the six continental Dobson instrument stations during the winter and spring months of 1993 implies a possible average increase in UV erythemal radiation at that time of 16-25% above normal. The 8.5% decrease in ozone at Caribou, Wallops Island, Fresno, and Nashville, implies that on average, UV erythemal radiation may have been higher than normal at these stations during the summer of 1993 by 11-17%. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Status report and FY95 plans -- Re-evaluation of NOAA Dobson spectrophotometer total ozone data. 1994 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The goal of this project was to re-evaluate NOAA/CMDL Dobson spectrophotometer total ozone data during FY94 from the stations Haute Provence, France; Lauder, New Zealand; Perth, Australia; and Poker Flat, Alaska and the Umkehr data from Boulder, Colorado and Mauna Loa, Hawaii. During the second year the authors planned to re-evaluate total ozone data from Byrd, Hallett and South Pole, Antarctica; Fairbanks, Alaska; Puerto Montt, Chile; Huancayo, Peru and Umkehr data from Huancayo.

  10. Re-evaluation of total and Umkehr ozone data from NOAA-CMDL Dobson spectrophotometer observatories. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Komhyr, W.D.; Quincy, D.M.; Grass, R.D.; Koenig, G.L. |

    1995-12-01

    This report describes work to improve the quality of total ozone and Umkehr data obtained in the past at the NOAA Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory and the Dobson spectrophotometer ozone observatories. The authors present results of total ozone data re-evaluations for ten stations: Byrd, Antarctica; Fairbanks, Alaska; Hallett, Antarctica; Huancayo, Peru; Haute Provence, France; Lauder, New Zealand; Perth, Australia; Poker Flat, Alaska; Puerto Montt, Chile; and South Pole, Antarctica. The improved data will be submitted in early 1996 to the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) World Ozone Data Center (WODC), and the Atmospheric Environment Service for archiving. Considerable work has been accomplished, also, in reevaluating Umkehr data from seven of the stations, viz., Huancayo, Haute Provence, Lauder, Perth, Poker Flat, Boulder, Colorado; and Mauna Loa, Hawaii.

  11. Ground-based intercomparisons of SBUV/2 flight instruments the world standard Dobson spectrophotometer 83 and overpass observations from Nimbus-7 TOMS and NOAA-11 SBUV/2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heath, D. F.; Ahmad, Z.; Torres, O.; Evans, R. D.; Grass, R. D.; Komhyr, W. A.; Nelson, W.

    1994-01-01

    Total ozone data obtained during summers at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii, with Dobson Spectrophotometer 83 are routinely compared with overpass total ozone data from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) spectrometer launched aboard the Nimbus 7 satellite in 1978. Results from the TOMS/Dobson instrument comparisons through 1990 have been presented by McPeters and Komhyr (1991). Dobson spectrophotometer 83 was established as the standard instrument for the U.S.A. Dobson instrument station network in 1962. In 1980, the instrument was designated by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) as the Standard Dobson Spectrophotometer for the World. Long-term ozone measurement precision of the instrument has been maintained at plus or minus 0.5 percent (Komhyr et al., 1989). On an absolute scale, the ozone measurement accuracy of the instrument is estimated to plus or minus 3 percent. In early April, 1990, comparison of total ozone and vertical distribution (Umkehr) observations were made for the first time with Dobson spectrophotometer 8.3. The work was conducted at the NOAA Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory (CMDL) in Boulder, Colorado, and at the research and instrument manufacturing facility of the Ball Aerospace System Division located about 2 km east of Boulder. (The SBUV-2 S/N-2 instrument, built by Ball Aerospace Systems Division, is scheduled for launch aboard the NOAA-13 satellite). We present results of the comparisons which include ozone vertical distribution data obtained with a balloon-borne electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesonde (Komhyr, 1969).

  12. Dobson spectrophotometer total ozone measurement errors caused by interfering absorbing species such as SO2, NO2, and photochemically produced O3 in polluted air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komhyr, W. D.; Evans, R. D.

    1980-02-01

    Total ozone measurements made with Dobson spectrophotometers in polluted air are subject to errors caused by interfering trace gas species that absorb solar ultraviolet radiation. While such interference is probably non-existent or small at the majority of Dobson instrument stations throughout the world, errors of up to 25% and 5%, resulting from absorption by SO2 and NO2 respectively, may occur occasionally at a few stations located in extremely polluted atmospheres. Interference by other absorbers, including N2O5, H2O2, HNO3, acetyldehyde, acetone, and acrolein has been found to be negligible. Ozone produced photochemically in polluted near-surface air may occasionally constitute from 5% to 10% of the atmospheric total ozone column. Such ozone interferes with measurements of atmospheric background total ozone.

  13. Ozone recovery as seen in perspective of the Dobson spectrophotometer measurements at Belsk (52°N, 21°E) in the period 1963-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzyścin, Janusz W.; Rajewska-Więch, Bonawentura

    2009-12-01

    The total ozone monthly means derived from measurements by the Dobson spectrophotometer at Belsk (52°N, 21°E) and satellite observations over central and midlatitudinal Europe are analyzed for the long-term changes between 1995 and 2008. Standard explanatory variables representing physical and chemical processes known to influence the ozone distribution are considered. The potential proxies are: atmospheric loading by the ozone depleting substances characterized by the equivalent effective stratospheric chlorine (EESC) time series, various drivers of ozone dynamical variability including solar cycle, teleconnection patterns, temperature at 50 hPa, and pressure at the tropopause level. The multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) methodology is used to find optimal set of the explanatory variables and shape of the anthropogenic trend curve. Following options for the trend curve are examined: proportional to EESC, piecewise linear (with the turning points in 1980 and 1995), and selected from a smooth curve fit to the total ozone time series having "natural variations" removed. Statistical estimates and their uncertainties are calculated using block bootstrapping. The analyses indicate that ozone over Belsk, in central Europe, and in midlatitudinal Europe reaches at least first stage of recovery as defined by the World Meteorological Organization: a statistically significant reduction in the rate of decline. Model using the EESC time series as a proxy for the anthropogenic trend pattern yields even the second stage, i.e., a positive trend in time series that remains after removal dynamical signal from the analyzed data. Substantial seasonal dependent long-term ozone oscillations by the dynamical drivers are revealed causing estimation of the ozone recovery time even more uncertain.

  14. Comparison of STOIC 1989 ground-based lidar, microwave spectrometer, and Dobson spectrophotometer Umkehr ozone profiles with ozone profiles from balloon-borne electrochemical concentration cell ozonesondes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komhyr, W. D.; Connor, B. J.; McDermid, I. S.; McGee, T. J.; Parrish, A. D.; Margitan, J. J.

    1995-05-01

    Ground-based measurements of stratospheric ozone using a Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) lidar, a NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) lidar, a Millitech Corporation/NASA Langley Research Center (Millitech/LaRC) microwave spectrometer, and a NOAA Dobson ozone spectrophotometer were compared with in situ measurements made quasi-simultaneously with balloon-borne electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes during 10 days of the Stratospheric Ozone Intercomparison Campaign (STOIC). The campaign was conducted at Table Mountain Observatory, California, during the summer of 1989. ECC ozonesondes were flown by NOAA Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory (CMDL) personnel as well as by personnel from the NASA Wallops Island Flight Facility (WFF). Within the altitude range of 20-32 km, ozone measurement precisions were estimated to be ±0.6 to ±1.2% for the JPL lidar, ±0.7% for the GSFC lidar, ±4% for the microwave spectrometer, and ±3% for the NOAA ECC ozonesonde instruments. These precisions decreased in the 32 to 38.6-km altitude range to ±1.3, ±1.5, and ±3% to ±10% for the JPL lidar, GSFC lidar, and the ECC sondes, respectively, but remained at ±4% for the microwave instrument. Ozone measurement accuracies in the 20 to 32 km altitude range were estimated to be ±1.2 to ±2.4% for the JPL lidar, ±1.4% for the GSFC lidar, ±6% for the microwave radiometer, and ±5% for the ECC ozonesondes. The accuracies decreased in the 32 to 38.6-km altitude range to ±2.6, ±3.0, ±7, and 1 ± 4% to -4 ± 10% for the JPL lidar, the GSFC lidar, the microwave spectrometer, and the ECC ozonesondes, respectively. While accuracy estimates for the ECC sondes were obtained by combining random and estimated bias errors, the accuracies for the lidar instruments were obtained by doubling the measurement precision figures, with the assumption that such doubling accounts for systematic errors. Within the altitude range of 20-36 km the mean ozone profiles produced by the

  15. Comparison of column ozone retrievals by use of an UV multifilter rotating shadow-band radiometer with those from Brewer and Dobson spectrophotometers.

    PubMed

    Slusser, J; Gibson, J; Bigelow, D; Kolinski, D; Mou, W; Koenig, G; Beaubien, A

    1999-03-20

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture UV-B Monitoring Program measures ultraviolet light at seven wavelengths from 300 to 368 nm with an ultraviolet multifilter rotating shadow-band radiometer (UV-MFRSR) at 25 sites across the United States, including Mauna Loa, Hawaii. Column ozone has been retrieved under all-sky conditions near Boulder, Colorado (40.177 degrees N, 105.276 degrees W), from global irradiances of the UV-MFRSR 332- and 305-nm channels (2 nm FWHM) using lookup tables generated from a multiple-scattering radiative transfer code suitable for solar zenith angles (SZA's) up to 90 degrees. The most significant sources of error for UV-MFRSR column ozone retrievals at SZA's less than 75 degrees are the spectral characterizations of the filters and the absolute calibration uncertainty, which together yield an estimated uncertainty in ozone retrievals of +/-4.0%. Using model sensitivity studies, we determined that the retrieved column ozone is relatively insensitive (<+/-2%) to typical variations in aerosol optical depth, cloud cover, surface pressure, stratospheric temperature, and surface albedo. For 5 months in 1996-1997 the mean ratio of column ozone retrieved by the UV-MFRSR divided by that retrieved by the collocated Brewer was 1.024 and for the UV-MFRSR divided by those from a nearby Dobson was 1.025. The accuracy of the retrieval becomes unreliable at large SZA's of more than 75 degrees as the detection limit of the 305-nm channel is reached and because of overall angular response errors. The UV-MFRSR advantages of relatively low cost, unattended operation, automated calibration stability checks using Langley plots, and minimal maintenance make it a unique instrument for column ozone measurement. PMID:18305778

  16. Temperature and slant path effects in Dobson and Brewer total ozone measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarnato, B.; Staehelin, J.; Peter, T.; GröBner, J.; Stübi, R.

    2009-12-01

    There is a worldwide tendency to replace Dobson spectrophotometers in ground-based total ozone (TOZ) measurements by more advanced Brewer spectrophotometers. Ensuring the homogeneity of these data sets is of utmost importance if changes in TOZ of a few percent over long time periods are to be diagnosed accurately. Previous studies have identified a seasonal bias of a few percent between midlatitude Brewer and Dobson measurements. At Arosa (Switzerland), two Dobson and three Brewer instruments have been colocated since 1998, providing a unique data set of quasi-simultaneous observations, invaluable to study systematic differences between these measurements. The differences are partially attributed to the seasonal variability in atmospheric temperatures and ozone slant paths (OSP). The sensitivity to the temperature dependence of the ozone absorption cross section is calculated for each operational Brewer spectrophotometers at Arosa by using different high- and low-resolution reference spectra appropriately weighted with the instruments' slit functions, whereas the information on the primary standard instruments is used for all the Dobson instruments. The Brewer retrieval algorithm reveals a higher sensitivity to the reference spectra applied than the Dobson. When adopting the Bass and Paur (1985) or Malicet et al. (1995) ozone absorption spectra with their specific temperature dependence, and correcting for the OSP effect, the seasonal bias between Dobson and Brewer TOZ measurements is reduced to 0.6%. Conversely, these differences increase when using the spectral data of Burrows et al. (1999). This finding illustrates that the accuracy of ground-based spectrophotometric TOZ measurements is limited by the uncertainty in the ozone cross sections measured by different internationally leading laboratories.

  17. Temperature and Slant Path Effects in Dobson and Brewer Total Ozone Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarnato, B.; Staehelin, J.; Peter, T.; Groebner, J.; Stuebi, R.

    2009-12-01

    There is a worldwide tendency to replace Dobson spectrophotometers in ground-based total ozone (TOZ) measurements by more advanced Brewer spectrophotometers. Ensuring the homogeneity of these datasets is of utmost importance if changes in TOZ of few percent over long time periods are to be diagnosed accurately. Previous studies have identified a seasonal bias of few percent between mid-latitude Brewer and Dobson measurements. At Arosa (Switzerland), two Dobson and three Brewer instruments are co-located since 1998, providing a unique dataset of quasi-simultaneous observations, invaluable to study systematic differences between these measurements. The differences are partially attributed to the seasonal variability in atmospheric temperatures and ozone slant paths (OSP). The sensitivity to the temperature dependence of the ozone absorption cross-section are calculated for each operational Brewer spectrophotometers at Arosa by using different high and low resolution reference spectra appropriately weighted with the instruments' slit functions, whereas the information of the primary standard instruments are used for all the Dobson instruments. The Brewer retrieval algorithm reveals a higher sensitivity to the reference spectra applied than the Dobson. When adopting the Bass and Paur (1985) or Malicet et al. (1995) ozone absorption spectra with their specific temperature dependence, and correcting for the OSP effect, the seasonal bias between Dobson and Brewer TOZ measurements is reduced to 0.6%. Conversely these differences increase using the spectral data of Burrows (1999). This finding illustrates, that the accuracy of ground-based spectrophotometric TOZ measurements is limited by the uncertainty in the ozone cross-sections measured by different internationally leading laboratories.

  18. Status of the Dobson total ozone data set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Planet, Walter G.; Hudson, Robert D.

    1994-01-01

    During deliberations of the International Ozone Trends Panel (IOTP) it became obvious that satellite determinations of global ozone amounts by themselves could not provide the necessary confidence in the measured trends. During the time of the deliberations of the IOTP, Bojkov re-examined the records of serveral North American Dobson stations and Degorska re-examined the records of the Belsk station. They were able to improve the quality of the data sets, thus improving the precision of their total ozone data sets. These improvements showed the greater potential of the world-wide Dobson total ozone data set in two primary areas. Firstly, the improvements showed that the existing data set when evaluated will become more valuable for comparisons with satellite determinations of total ozone. Secondly, the Dobson data set covers a greater period of time than the satellite data sets thus offering the possibility of extending improved information on ozone trends further back in time. An International Dobson Workshop was convened in September, 1991, under the auspices of the NOAA Climate and Global Change Program. It was part of the Information Management element of the C&GC Program. Further, it was considered as a 'data archaeology' project under the above. Clearly if the existing Dobson data set can be improved by re-evaluating all data records, we will be able to uncover the 'true' or 'best' data and fulfill the role of archaeologists.

  19. Ultraviolet spectrophotometer for measuring columnar atmospheric ozone from aircraft.

    PubMed

    Hanser, F A; Sellers, B; Briehl, D C

    1978-05-15

    An ultraviolet spectrophotometer (UVS) to measure downward solar fluxes from an aircraft or other high altitude platform is described. The UVS uses an ultraviolet diffuser to obtain large angular response with no aiming requirement, a twelve-position filter wheel with narrow (2-nm) and broad (20-nm) bandpass filters, and an ultraviolet photodiode. The columnar atmospheric ozone above the UVS (aircraft) is calculated from the ratios of the measured ultraviolet fluxes. Comparison with some Dobson station measurements gives agreement to 2%. Some UVS measured ozone profiles over the Pacific Ocean for November 1976 are shown to illustrate the instrument's performance.

  20. 19. John and James Dobson Carpet Mills, West parcel, topographical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. John and James Dobson Carpet Mills, West parcel, topographical plan, 1986. Barton and Martin, Engineers. 'Topographical Plan for Dobson Mills.' Prepared for Rouse Urban Housing, Inc., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1986. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  1. 7. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West Parcels, May 17, 1926, (John and James Dobson, Inc. East Falls, Aero Service Corp., Neg. No. 5986, May 17, 1926, Free Library of Philadelphia, Print Collection). - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  2. Perspectives on African Ozone from Sondes, Dobson and Aircraft Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, A. M.; Witte, J. C.; Chatfield, R. B.; Diab, R. D.; Thouret, V.; Sauvage, B.

    2004-01-01

    We have been studying variability in ozone over Africa using data from ozonesondes (vertical profiles from surface to stratosphere), aircraft (the MOZAIC dataset with cruise altitude and landing/takeoff profiles) and the ground (Dobson spectrophotometer total ozone column measurement). The following may give context for ozone investigations during AMMA: 1. Total ozone measurements since 1989 show considerable variability in mean value among the African stations in Algeria, Kenya, Egypt, South Africa, as well as in seasonal cycles and year-to-year. Trends are not evident. 2. The impacts of convection, stratospheric injection, biomass burning and lightning appear in ozone sounding profile data. Time-series analysis and case studies point to periodic influences of long-range interactions with the Atlantic ("ozone paradox," wave-one") and Indian Oceans. 3. Tropospheric ozone variations, observed in tropospheric profiles and integrated column amount, follow general seasonal patterns but short- term variability is so strong that simple averages are inadequate for describing "climatology" and statistical classification approaches may be required.

  3. Comparison of recalculated Dobson and TOMS total ozone at Hradec Kralove, Czechoslovakia, 1978-1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanek, Martin; Vanicek, Karel

    1994-01-01

    The reevaluated Dobson total ozone data from Hradec Kralove, Czechoslovakia were compared with independent Total Ozone Mapping Spectrophotometer (TOMS) 'version 6' data set. The comparison was performed by means of the parallel daily averages of ground-based and satellite total ozone pairs of the period November 1978 to December 1990. The comparison showed slight differences between both data series. Their average relative difference is 0.48 percent. The similar results have been reached for subsets of direct sun and zenith types of measurements as well. Their relative differences are 0.61 percent and 0.11 percent respectively. These facts indicate not only good mutual relation of both data sources but also reliability and accuracy of the zenith charts of the spectrophotometer No. 74 used at Hradec Kralove. Preliminary assessment of seasonal MU-dependence of the differences between Dobson and TOMS data was made while using total ozones of winter and summer months representing values of MU=2.70-5.20 and MU = 1.12-1.30 respectively. The results did not show systematic underestimation or overestimation of total ozone due to MU-dependence of the instrument at Hradec Kralove in both seasons.

  4. 13. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West parcels, site plan-upper left, elevation-upper right, and survey-below, 1885. Hexamer, Ernest and Son. Hexamer General Surveys, 1867-1895, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: E. Hexamer and Son, 1885, pp. 1890-1891. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  5. 10. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West parcels, site plan-lower right, and surrounding environs, 1875. Hopkins, Griffith Morgan. City Atlas of Philadelphia by Wards, 7 vols., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: G. M. Hopkins and Co., 1875, pp. 46-47. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  6. 18. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West parcels, site plan-lower left, and surrounding environs, 1925. Bromley, George Washington and Bromley, Walter Scott. Atlas of the City of Philadelphia (North Philadelphia), Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: George W. and Walter S. Bromley, 1925, p. 106. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  7. 15. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West parcels, site plan-lower right, and surrounding environs, 1901. Baist, George William. Northern District of Baist's Detail Property Atlases of the City of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 7 vols., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: G. W. Bromley and Co., 1901, Plan 17. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. 11. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West parcels, site plan-upper left, elevation-lower left, and survey-right, 1877. Hexamer, Ernest and Son. Hexamer General Surveys, 1867-1895, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: E. Hexamer and Son, 1877, pp. 1095-1096. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. 17. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West Parcels, site plan, revised through 1914. Hexamer, Ernest and Son. Insurance Maps of the City of Philadelphia, Vol. 21., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: E. Hexamer and Son, 1893. Revisions, 1914, p. 446. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  10. 8. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West Parcels, site plan, and survey lower left, 1865. Hexamer, Ernest and Son. Hexamer General Surveys, 1867-1895, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: E. Hexamer and Son, 1865, p. 279. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  11. 9. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, portion of West ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, portion of West parcel, site plan-left, elevation-upper right, and survey-lower right, 1873. Hexamer, Ernest and Son. Hexamer General Surveys 1867-1895, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: E. Hexamer and Son, 1873, pp. 670-671. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. 14. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West parcels, site plan, revised through 1895. Hexamer, Ernest and Son. Insurance Maps of the City of Philadelphia, Vol. 21., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: E. Hexamer and Son, 1893. Revisions, 1895, p. 446. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  13. 12. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, West Parcel, site ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, West Parcel, site plan-upper right, and surrounding environs, 1884. Hopkins, Griffith Morgan. City Atlas of Philadelphia by Wards, 7 vols., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: G. M. Hopkins and Co., 1884, Plate 9. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. 16. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. John and James Dobson Carpet Mill, East and West parcels, site plan-right, and western environs, 1908. Smith, Elvino Victor. Atlas of the 38th and Part of the 37th Ward of the City of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Elvino V. Smith, 1908, Plate 24. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. Total ozone derived from UV spectrophotometer measurements on the NASA CV-990 aircraft for the fall 1976 latitude survey flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanser, F. A.

    1977-01-01

    An ultraviolet interference filter spectrophotometer was modified to use a photodiode and was flown on latitude survey flights in the fall of 1976. Comparison with Dobson station total ozone values shows agreement between UVS and Dobson total ozone of + or - 2 percent. The procedure used to convert UVS measured ozone above the aircraft altitude to total ozone above ground level introduces an additional 2 percent deviation for very high altitude UVS ozone data. Under stable aircraft operating conditions, the UVS derived ozone values have a variability, or reproducibility, of better than + or -1 percent. The UVS data from the latitude survey flights yield a detailed latitude profile of total ozone over the Pacific Ocean during November 1976. Significant latitudinal structure in total ozone is found at the middle latitudes (30 deg to 40 deg N and S).

  16. A Low-Cost Quantitative Absorption Spectrophotometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Daniel R.; Todt, Michael A.; Davis, H. Floyd

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to make absorption spectrophotometry available to high school chemistry and physics classes, we have designed an inexpensive visible light absorption spectrophotometer. The spectrophotometer was constructed using LEGO blocks, a light emitting diode, optical elements (including a lens), a slide-mounted diffraction grating, and a…

  17. Total ozone measurements made with the Brewer ozone spectrophotometer during STOIC 1989

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, J. B.; McElroy, C. T.

    1995-05-01

    The Canadian Atmospheric Environment Service participated in the Stratospheric Ozone Intercomparison Campaign (STOIC) by operating a Brewer ozone spectrophotometer at the Table Mountain Observatory from July 19 to August 2, 1989. Frequent direct Sun measurements of total column ozone were made throughout most days during the 2 weeks of the intercomparison. Results of the Brewer instrument total ozone measurements are given. They show that there is a diurnal variation of total ozone with values increasing on average by 6.6±2.4 Dobson units between early morning and late afternoon. Comparing the total ozone measurements with ozone concentration measurements made at ground level suggests that the daytime increase is a result of a buildup of surface ozone during the day. The total ozone measurements made by the Brewer instrument during STOIC are compared with total ozone measurements made by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Dobson instrument, the NASA/Wallops electrochemical concentration cell ozonesondes and the total ozone mapping spectrometer satellite instrument.

  18. Fiber Optic Spectrophotometer With Photodiode Linear Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velluet, M. T.; Blanc, F.; Vernet, P.

    1989-01-01

    Spectrophotometric measurements are used in a great number of industrial processes (chemical, pharmaceutical, farm-produce...) in nuclear environment and with optical precision components. Especially the evolution of a chemical process or of an optical coating could be followed by these measurements. Spectrophotometers, using optical fibers to transport the signal out of the instrument make possible the measurement "in-situ" and in real time. The advantage of using a diode array to detect the signal is an instantaneous measurement all over the spectral range without moving parts. It allows an excellent reproductibility of the measurements. The instrument is controlled by a micro computer. The spectrophotometer will be described and its technical performs presented. An extension using optical fibers on a "classical" spectrophotometer (a H.P. one) will be also described and its technical performs with such a system presented.

  19. Fundamental studies to develop certified reference material to calibrate spectrophotometer in the ultraviolet region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Conceição, F. C.; Borges, P. P.; Gomes, J. F. S.

    2016-07-01

    Spectrophotometry is the technique used in a great number of laboratories around the world. Quantitative determination of a high number of inorganic, organic and biological species can be made by spectrophotometry using calibrated spectrophotometers. International standards require the use of optical filters to perform the calibration of spectrophotometers. One of the recommended materials is the crystalline potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7), which is used to prepare solutions in specific concentrations for calibration or verification of spectrophotometers in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral regions. This paper presents the results concerning the fundamental studies for developing a certified reference material (CRM) of crystalline potassium dichromate to be used as standard of spectrophotometers in order to contribute to reliable quantitative analyses.

  20. Enzyme Activity Experiments Using a Simple Spectrophotometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurlbut, Jeffrey A.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Experimental procedures for studying enzyme activity using a Spectronic 20 spectrophotometer are described. The experiments demonstrate the effect of pH, temperature, and inhibitors on enzyme activity and allow the determination of Km, Vmax, and Kcat. These procedures are designed for teaching large lower-level biochemistry classes. (MR)

  1. The Fuge Tube Diode Array Spectrophotometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arneson, B. T.; Long, S. R.; Stewart, K. K.; Lagowski, J. J.

    2008-01-01

    We present the details for adapting a diode array UV-vis spectrophotometer to incorporate the use of polypropylene microcentrifuge tubes--fuge tubes--as cuvettes. Optical data are presented validating that the polyethylene fuge tubes are equivalent to the standard square cross section polystyrene or glass cuvettes generally used in…

  2. Applied Electronics: Construction of a Simple Spectrophotometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thal, Melissa A.; Samide, Michael J.

    2001-11-01

    In this paper we describe the construction of a simple spectrophotometer intended for use as a capstone circuit for an electronics laboratory exercise. Students in the undergraduate laboratory have learned basic circuitry and are now able to read a schematic and construct an instrument that has practical applications in chemical analysis. A simple LED is used as the source and is easily changed to correspond to different species being studied. Detection is accomplished through the use of one of three signal transducers (a photoresistor, a photodiode, or a photodarlington) and a current-to-voltage converter. A box lined with black felt is used to shield the spectrophotometer from ambient light. This spectrophotometer shows excellent Beer-Lambert law linearity over a large concentration range and has been used in the laboratory to determine the concentration of a metal cation in solution on the basis of a calibration curve. Of the transducers used, the photoresistor showed the best response at multiple wavelengths with error in concentration determination not greater than 6%. Through the building and testing of this circuit, the students can visualize applications of electronic circuitry.

  3. A Simple Spectrophotometer Using Common Materials and a Digital Camera

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widiatmoko, Eko; Widayani; Budiman, Maman; Abdullah, Mikrajuddin; Khairurrijal

    2011-01-01

    A simple spectrophotometer was designed using cardboard, a DVD, a pocket digital camera, a tripod and a computer. The DVD was used as a diffraction grating and the camera as a light sensor. The spectrophotometer was calibrated using a reference light prior to use. The spectrophotometer was capable of measuring optical wavelengths with a…

  4. The Brewer-Dobson circulation and higher latitude ozone changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budde, Martin; Weber, Mark

    2015-04-01

    The Brewer-Dobson Circulation (BDC) plays a major role in ozone transport from the tropics to the poles and by that it governs the global distribution of total column ozone. Climate models predict a strengthening of the BDC in times of climate change. This would lead to an accelerated recovery of ozone abundance in higher latitudes. However so far there is no clear evidence of this strengthening. The strength of the BDC is dependent on wave forcing which slows the meridional winds and by that disturbs the geostrophic balance of Coriolis force and pressure gradient force. A good measure for the wave forcing is the eddy heat flux in 100hPa. It is highly correlated with changes in the total ozone columns of the polar regions and the tropic. Another major driver of the global ozone distribution is the photochemical destruction of ozone, due to ozone depleting substances (ODS) such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). A special case of this is the rapid depletion of ozone in the presence of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs). These clouds build up inside the polar vortices, are highly temperature dependent and strengthen the efficiency of ODS. In order to analyse the evolution of the higher latitude ozone abundance as a function of dynamical changes and the change in the abundance of ODS it is necessary to quantify both effects separately. This work focusses on the influence of the mid-latitude 100hpa eddy heat flux on changes in ozone in higher latitudes.

  5. Is the Brewer-Dobson circulation increasing or moving upward?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberländer-Hayn, Sophie; Gerber, Edwin P.; Abalichin, Janna; Akiyoshi, Hideharu; Kerschbaumer, Andreas; Kubin, Anne; Kunze, Markus; Langematz, Ulrike; Meul, Stefanie; Michou, Martine; Morgenstern, Olaf; Oman, Luke D.

    2016-02-01

    The meridional circulation of the stratosphere, or Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC), is projected to accelerate with increasing greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations. The acceleration is typically quantified by changes in the tropical upward mass flux (Ftrop) across a given pressure surface. Simultaneously, models project a lifting of the entire atmospheric circulation in response to GHGs; notably, the tropopause rises about a kilometer over this century. In this study, it is shown that most of the BDC trend is associated with the rise in the circulation. Using a chemistry-climate model (CCM), Ftrop trends across 100 hPa are contrasted with those across the tropopause: while Ftrop at 100 hPa increases 1-2 %/decade, the mass flux entering the atmosphere above the tropopause actually decreases. Similar results are found for other CCMs, suggesting that changes in the BDC may better be described as an upward shift of the circulation, as opposed to an increase, with implications for the mechanism and stratosphere-troposphere exchange.

  6. Normal Incidence Spectrophotometer Film Thickness Measurement Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, S. A.

    1983-05-01

    The Normal Incidence Spectrophotometer (NIS) Measurement Tool is used to automatically measure the thickness of transparent films on silicon wafers. Under the control of an IBM. System 7 computer, both, wafer handling and the thickness measurement are performed. automatically. Wafers are transported through the tool on a covered airtrack, and after posi-tioning in a vacuum, chuck, are moved under the measurement head to pre-programmed measurement sites. Reflectivity data from the wafer surface, as a function of wavelength, is used by a software algorithm to calculate film, thickness. This tool is used on advanced manufacturing lines at IBM in both. East Fishkill, N.Y. and Burlington, Vt.

  7. Brewer-Dobson circulation diagnosed from JRA-55

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Chiaki; Iwasaki, Toshiki

    2016-02-01

    We examine the Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC) in the lower stratosphere diagnosed from the Japanese 55 year Reanalysis (JRA-55) data set and compare it with the BDCs diagnosed from the other reanalyses (i.e., ERA-Interim and JRA-25), and JRA-55-related data sets (i.e., JRA-55C, created by assimilating only in situ observations, and JRA-55AMIP, a simulation by a prediction model). The climatological mean seasonal change of the BDC in JRA-55 is similar to that in ERA-Interim but considerably different from that in JRA-25. Dynamical and thermodynamical consistencies among the variables are greatly improved in the JRA-55 data set. The interannual variations of the annual mean tropical upwellings in JRA-55 are almost coincident with those in JRA-55C. It suggests that the weakly increasing trend of the BDC found in JRA-55 does not have anything to do with changes in the satellite observing system. The climatological mean tropical upwelling diagnosed from JRA-55 is stronger than that from JRA-55AMIP. This difference is presumed to partly link to the model's inability to simulate the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO). The JRA-55AMIP data set, a simple simulation performed without data assimilation, does not simulate the QBO, whereas the JRA-55 data set represents the QBO with the aid of data assimilation. The climatological mean zonal mean states of JRA-55AMIP considerably deviate from those of JRA-55 in the lower stratosphere. The deviation of JRA-55AMIP is similar to the modulation pattern by the QBO in specific phase regions in which the BDC is rather weak. The simulated QBO might enhance the BDC and reduce the model biases in the tropical lower stratosphere.

  8. Optics characterization with compact EUV spectrophotometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaschke, H.; Balasa, I.; Koch, L.; Starke, K.; Ristau, D.; Wies, C.; Lebert, R.; Bayer, A.; Barkusky, F.; Mann, K.

    2008-03-01

    The development of a novel compact EUV spectrophotometer will be presented. The device is capable of measuring reflectance and transmittance spectra of medium scale EUV-optics primary in the spectral range from 12nm to 21nm. Based on a new polychromatic measurement principle, the system uses the direct irradiation of a table-top EUV-source for illuminating the sample and a broad-band spectrograph for detecting the probe and reference beam. Samples can be investigated under different angles of incidence and in respect of lateral dependencies. Typical results of reflectivity investigations of Mo/Si-mirrors and transmitting foils will be shown and compared with reference measurements of certified institutes and calculations.

  9. WWJD--What Would Jim Do? A Comparison of James Dobson's and Jim Fay's Philosophies of Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buttner, Carolyn; Fridley, William L.

    2007-01-01

    Jim Fay and James Dobson are two of America's most visible, popular, and influential "experts" on the topics of parenting and discipline for children. Dobson is widely known for the "pro-family" political activism of Focus on The Family, the organization he founded and currently directs. He first made a name for himself as a…

  10. Computer-Graphics Emulation of Chemical Instrumentation: Absorption Spectrophotometers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, D. D.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes interactive, computer-graphics program emulating behavior of high resolution, ultraviolet-visible analog recording spectrophotometer. Graphics terminal behaves as recording absorption spectrophotometer. Objective of the emulation is study of optimization of the instrument to yield accurate absorption spectra, including…

  11. [Design of Dual-Beam Spectrometer in Spectrophotometer for Colorimetry].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi-xuan; Yan, Chang-xiang

    2015-07-01

    Spectrophotometers for colorimetry are usually composed of two independent and identical spectrometers. In order to reduce the volume of spectrophotometer for colorimetry, a design method of double-beam spectrometer is put forward. A traditional spectrometer is modified so that a new spectrometer can realize the function of double spectrometers, which is especially suitable for portable instruments. One slit is replaced by the double-slit, than two beams of spectrum can be detected. The working principle and design requirement of double-beam spectrometer are described. A spectrometer of portable spectrophotometer is designed by this method. A toroidal imaging mirror is used for the Czerny-Turner double-beam spectrometer in this paper, which can better correct astigmatism, and prevent the dual-beam spectral crosstalk. The results demonstrate that the double-beam spectrometer designed by this method meets the design specifications, with the spectral resolution less than 10 nm, the spectral length of 9.12 mm, and the volume of 57 mm x 54 mm x 23 mm, and without the dual-beam spectral overlap in the detector either. Comparing with a traditional spectrophotometer, the modified spectrophotometer uses a set of double-beam spectrometer instead of two sets of spectrometers, which can greatly reduce the volume. This design method can be specially applied in portable spectrophotometers, also can be widely applied in other double-beam spectrophotometers, which offers a new idea for the design of dual-beam spectrophotometers.

  12. A UV-Vis photoacoustic spectrophotometer.

    PubMed

    Wiegand, Joseph R; Mathews, L Dalila; Smith, Geoffrey D

    2014-06-17

    A novel photoacoustic spectrophotometer (PAS) for the measurement of gas-phase and aerosol absorption over the UV-visible region of the spectrum is described. Light from a broadband Hg arc lamp is filtered in eight separate bands from 300 to 700 nm using bandpass interference filters (centered at 301 nm, 314 nm, 364 nm, 405 nm, 436 nm, 546 nm, 578 and 687 nm) and modulated with an optical chopper before entering the photoacoustic cell. All wavelength bands feature a 20-s detection limit of better than 3.0 Mm(-1) with the exception of the lower-intensity 687 nm band for which it is 10.2 Mm(-1). Validation measurements of gas-phase acetone and nigrosin aerosol absorption cross sections at several wavelengths demonstrate agreement to within 10% with those measured previously (for acetone) and those predicted by Mie theory (for nigrosin). The PAS instrument is used to measure the UV-visible absorption spectrum of ambient aerosol demonstrating a dramatic increase in the UV region with absorption increasing by 300% from 405 to 301 nm. This type of measurement throughout the UV-visible region and free from artifacts associated with filter-based methods has not been possible previously, and we demonstrate its promise for classifying and quantifying different types of light-absorbing ambient particles. PMID:24905953

  13. Stability study of standards used for calibration of the spectrophotometer wavelength scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debossan, L. F.; Carvalho, E. M. S.; Souza, M. A.; Gomes, J. F. S.

    2016-07-01

    The calibration of spectrophotometers is a procedure recommended by international standards to provide quality assurance of results and traceability. Due to its intrinsic properties, holmium oxide filters are indicated as reference standards for calibrating the wavelength scale of such equipment. This paper presents a study aiming to assess the repeatability and drift of holmium oxide standard filters calibrated in the Radiometry and Photometry Laboratory (Laraf) of Inmetro in order to verify their stability.

  14. Total ozone trend significance from space time variability of daily Dobson data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    Estimates of standard errors of total ozone time and area means, as derived from ozone's natural temporal and spatial variability and autocorrelation in middle latitudes determined from daily Dobson data are presented. Assessing the significance of apparent total ozone trends is equivalent to assessing the standard error of the means. Standard errors of time averages depend on the temporal variability and correlation of the averaged parameter. Trend detectability is discussed, both for the present network and for satellite measurements.

  15. A Candide response to Panglossian accusations by Randolph and Dobson: biodiversity buffers disease.

    PubMed

    Ostfeld, Richard S

    2013-09-01

    Randolph and Dobson (2012) criticize the dilution effect, which describes the negative relationship between biodiversity and infectious disease risk. Unfortunately, their commentary includes distortions, errors of omission, and errors of commission, which are rebutted herein. Contrary to their claims, the dilution effect is not a 'mantra' that asserts that reduced disease risk is a 'universal' outcome of high diversity. Although universality of the dilution effect has not been claimed, and conditions under which diversity can amplify disease risk have been described, the growing literature indicates that the dilution effect is indeed a widespread phenomenon.

  16. Evidence for quasi-periodic components in Dobson network total ozone records

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guthrie, P. D.

    1983-01-01

    Power spectrum analysis has been applied to the total ozone time series at each of a sample of Dobson stations with records of more than 15 years in the interval 1957 to 1981. The distributions of strongly periodic or quasiperiodic signals in these spectral estimates, for three spectral estimators and two levels of confidence, show distinct features. These appear at the previously known or suspected periods of 3.5-4.0 years, 27 months, and 21 months as well as the previously unreported period of 11.5 months. Possible geophysical implications are discussed.

  17. Correction of wavelength errors in a digitally recording spectrophotometer.

    PubMed

    Robertson, A R; Budde, W; McNeely, F T

    1973-12-01

    A simple circuit is described that enables known wavelength errors of a digitally recording spectrophotometer to be corrected. The circuit delays the signal that triggers the recording system. The length of the delay is varied as a function of wavelength to correct for the errors. Significant improvement can be obtained in the measurement of CIE tristimulus values.

  18. Visible light nitrogen dioxide spectrophotometer intercomparison: Mount Kobau, British Columbia, July 28 to August 10, 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcelroy, C. T.; Elokhov, A. S.; Elansky, N.; Frank, H.; Johnston, P.; Kerr, J. B.

    1994-01-01

    Under the auspices of the World Meteorological Organization, Environment Canada hosted an international comparison of visible light spectrophotometers at Mt. Kobau, British Columbia in August of 1991. Instruments from four countries were involved. The intercomparison results have indicated that some significant differences exist in the responses of the various instruments, and have provided a basis for the comparison of the historical data sets which currently exist as a result of the independent researches carried out in the past in the former Soviet Union, New Zealand, and Canada.

  19. Non-focusing optics spectrophotometer, and methods of use

    DOEpatents

    Kramer, David M.; Sacksteder, Colette A.

    2004-11-02

    In one aspect, the present invention provides kinetic spectrophotometers that each comprise: (a) a light source; and (b) a compound parabolic concentrator disposed to receive light from the light source and configured to (1) intensify and diffuse the light received from the light source, and (2) direct the intensified and diffused light onto a sample. In other aspects, the present invention provides methods for measuring a photosynthetic parameter, the methods comprising the steps of: (a) illuminating a plant leaf until steady-state photosynthesis is achieved; (b) subjecting the illuminated plant leaf to a period of darkness; (c) using a kinetic spectrophotometer of the invention to collect spectral data from the plant leaf treated in accordance with steps (a) and (b); and (d) determining a value for a photosynthetic parameter from the spectral data.

  20. How Students Use Scientific Instruments To Create Understanding: CCD Spectrophotometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malina, Eric G.; Nakhleh, Mary B.

    2003-06-01

    We investigated how upper-division college students interacted with a CCD spectrophotometer to identify the characteristics of this instrument that influenced students‘ construction of scientific understanding. We specifically wanted to understand the mechanisms by which scientific instruments influence student learning. The ideas of distributed cognition and the theory of affordances were used as a framework to identify the affordances of the CCD spectrophotometer that affected learning. We found the primary affordances of the spectrophotometer were related to the graphical display of data. Students were able to use this feature in order to: (1) interpret their data, (2) discover unexpected results, (3) confirm the validity of their data, (4) make predictions about their solutions, and (5) check for error. We found other affordances that fit into four general areas: time, error, ease of use, and other physical affordances. Overall, we found that experimental designs and objectives influence the affordances that students perceive in instruments. Therefore, instructors must be cognizant of their objectives for instrument use in a laboratory setting and choose instruments and procedures that are consistent with those objectives.

  1. The designated type strain of Pseudomonas halophila Fendrich 1989 is DSM 3051, the designated type strain of Halovibrio variabilis Fendrich 1989 is DSM 3050, the new name Halomonas utahensis (Fendrich 1989) Sorokin and Tindall 2006 is created for the species represented by DSM 3051 when treated as a member of the genus Halomonas, the combination Halomonas variabilis (Fendrich 1989) Dobson and Franzmann 1996 is rejected, and the combination Halovibrio denitrificans Sorokin et al. 2006 is validly published with an emendation of the description of the genus Halovibrio Fendrich 1989 emend. Sorokin et al. 2006. Opinion 93. Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Tindall, B J

    2014-10-01

    The Judicial Commission affirms that, according to information presented to it, the designated type strain of Pseudomonas halophila Fendrich 1989 is DSM 3051 (replacing DSM 3050) and the designated type strain of Halovibrio variabilis Fendrich 1989 is DSM 3050 (replacing DSM 3051). A new name, Halomonas utahensis (Fendrich 1989) Sorokin and Tindall 2006 nom. nov., is created for the species represented by DSM 3051 when treated as a member of the genus Halomonas, because the combination Halomonas halophila (Quesada et al. 1984) Dobson and Franzmann 1996 has priority based on the fact that the epithet halophila in the combination Halomonas halophila (Quesada et al. 1984) Dobson and Franzmann 1996 ( BASOYNM: Deleya halophila Quesada et al. 1984) has priority over the epithet halophila should the taxon Pseudomonas halophila Fendrich 1989 be treated as a member of the genus Halomonas. The combination Halomonas variabilis (Fendrich 1989) Dobson and Franzmann 1996 is rejected. The combination Halovibrio denitrificans Sorokin et al. 2006 is validly published with an emendation of the description of the genus Halovibrio Fendrich 1989 emend. Sorokin et al. 2006.

  2. Validation of OMPS Ozone Profile Data with Expanded Dataset from Brewer and Automated Dobson Network.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petropavlovskikh, I.; Weatherhead, E.; Cede, A.; Oltmans, S. J.; Kireev, S.; Maillard, E.; Bhartia, P. K.; Flynn, L. E.

    2005-12-01

    The first NPOESS satellite is scheduled to be launched in 2010 and will carry the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) instruments for ozone monitoring. Prior this, the OMPS instruments and algorithms will be tested by flight on the NPOESS/NPP satellite, scheduled for launch in 2008. Pre-launch planning for validation, post launch data validation and verification of the nadir and limb profile algorithm are key components for insuring that the NPOESS will produce a high quality, reliable ozone profile data set. The heritage of satellite instrument validation (TOMS, SBUV, GOME, SCIAMACHY, SAGE, HALOE, ATMOS, etc) has always relied upon surface-based observations. While the global coverage of satellite observations is appealing for validating another satellite, there is no substitute for the hard reference point of a ground-based system such as the Dobson or Brewer network, whose instruments are routinely calibrated and intercompared to standard references. The standard solar occultation instruments, SAGE II and HALOE are well beyond their planned lifetimes and might be inoperative during the OMPS period. The Umkehr network has been one of the key data sets for stratospheric ozone trend calculations and has earned its place as a benchmark network for stratospheric ozone profile observations. The normalization of measurements at different solar zenith angle (SZAs) to the measurement at the smallest SZA cancels out many calibration parameters, including the extra-terrestrial solar flux and instrumental constant, thus providing a "self-calibrating" technique in the same manner relied upon by the occultation sensors on satellites. Moreover, the ground-based Umkehr measurement is the only technique that provides data with the same altitude resolution and in the same units (DU) as do the UV-nadir instruments (SBUV-2, GOME-2, OMPS-nadir), i.e., as ozone amount in pressure layers, whereas, occultation instruments measure ozone density with height. A new Umkehr algorithm

  3. 21 CFR 862.2850 - Atomic absorption spectrophotometer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Atomic absorption spectrophotometer for clinical... Laboratory Instruments § 862.2850 Atomic absorption spectrophotometer for clinical use. (a) Identification. An atomic absorption spectrophotometer for clinical use is a device intended to identify and...

  4. 21 CFR 862.2850 - Atomic absorption spectrophotometer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Atomic absorption spectrophotometer for clinical... Laboratory Instruments § 862.2850 Atomic absorption spectrophotometer for clinical use. (a) Identification. An atomic absorption spectrophotometer for clinical use is a device intended to identify and...

  5. 21 CFR 862.2850 - Atomic absorption spectrophotometer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Atomic absorption spectrophotometer for clinical... Laboratory Instruments § 862.2850 Atomic absorption spectrophotometer for clinical use. (a) Identification. An atomic absorption spectrophotometer for clinical use is a device intended to identify and...

  6. 21 CFR 862.2300 - Colorimeter, photometer, or spectrophotometer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Colorimeter, photometer, or spectrophotometer for... Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2300 Colorimeter, photometer, or spectrophotometer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A colorimeter, a photometer, or a spectrophotometer for clinical use is...

  7. 21 CFR 862.2300 - Colorimeter, photometer, or spectrophotometer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Colorimeter, photometer, or spectrophotometer for... Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2300 Colorimeter, photometer, or spectrophotometer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A colorimeter, a photometer, or a spectrophotometer for clinical use is...

  8. Climate change reduces warming potential of nitrous oxide by an enhanced Brewer-Dobson circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kracher, Daniela; Reick, Christian H.; Manzini, Elisa; Schultz, Martin G.; Stein, Olaf

    2016-06-01

    The Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC), which is an important driver of the stratosphere-troposphere exchange, is expected to accelerate with climate change. One particular consequence of this acceleration is the enhanced transport of nitrous oxide (N2O) from its sources at the Earth's surface toward its main sink region in the stratosphere, thus inducing a reduction in its lifetime. N2O is a potent greenhouse gas and the most relevant currently emitted ozone-depleting substance. Here we examine the implications of a reduced N2O lifetime in the context of climate change. We find a decrease in its global warming potential (GWP) and, due to a decline in the atmospheric N2O burden, also a reduction in its total radiative forcing. From the idealized transient global warming simulation we can identify linear regressions for N2O sink, lifetime, and GWP with temperature rise. Our findings are thus not restricted to a particular scenario.

  9. Dynamical forcing of sub-seasonal variability in the tropical Brewer-Dobson circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abalos, Marta; Randel, William; Serrano, Encarna

    2014-05-01

    Upwelling across the tropical tropopause exhibits strong sub-seasonal variability superimposed on the well-known annual cycle, and these variations directly affect temperature and tracers in the tropical lower stratosphere. The dynamical forcing of tropical upwelling on sub-seasonal timescales is investigated using the ERA-Interim reanalysis for 1979-2011. Momentum balance diagnostics reveal that transience is linked to the effects of extratropical wave forcing, with centers of action in the extratropical winter stratosphere and in the subtropical upper troposphere of both hemispheres. From a diagnostic point of view, the zonal-mean wind transient response is important for communicating the remote wave forcing to the tropical stratosphere. Dynamical patterns reflect distinctive forcing of the shallow versus deep branches of the Brewer-Dobson circulation.

  10. Southern Westerly Winds submit to the ENSO regime: A multiproxy paleohydrology record from Lake Dobson, Tasmania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rees, Andrew B. H.; Cwynar, Les C.; Fletcher, Michael-Shawn

    2015-10-01

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Southern Westerly Winds (SWW) profoundly influence synoptic-scale climate in the Southern Hemisphere. Although many studies have invoked either phenomenon to explain trends in proxy data, few have demonstrated the transition from a climate dominated by SWW flow to one controlled by El Niño activity, which is postulated to have occurred after 5 cal ka BP in the mid-latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere. Tasmania, southeast Australia, is ideally situated to detect changes in both of these climatic controls. Currently, El Niño and La Niña events result in drier and wetter conditions island-wide, respectively, with the greatest impact in the north. Further, Tasmania houses north-south trending mountain ranges near its western coast. As a result, areas west of the mountains exhibit a positive correlation between SWW flow and precipitation, while eastern regions possess either no or a negative relationship. Here, we present data from chironomid remains, charcoal, and geochemical proxies to investigate the paleohydrological history of Lake Dobson, a site located in Mount Field National Park, Tasmania. The proxies revealed three broad periods: (1) an early Holocene (11.5-8.3 cal kyr BP) characterised by generally high rainfall, the occurrence of irregular fires, and elevated charcoal influx at 11.4 and 10.2 cal ka BP - conditions compatible with attenuated SWW flow over the site; (2) an ambiguous mid-Holocene (8.3-5 cal kyr BP) that marks the transition from a SWW- to ENSO-dominated climate; and (3) a relatively dry and stable late Holocene (5 cal kyr BP to present) that is consistent with the onset of a climate controlled by ENSO activity (i.e., characterised by a more mean El Niño climate state). The proxy record of Lake Dobson highlights the teleconnections between the equatorial Pacific and southern Australasia.

  11. An assessment of the long-term drift in SBUV total ozone data, based on comparison with the Dobson network. [Solar Backscatter UltraViolet experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleig, Albert J.; Bhartia, Pawan K.; Silberstein, David S.

    1986-01-01

    Six years of total ozone data derived from the Nimbus 7 Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) experiment are compared with results from 41 Dobson stations to determine year-to-year changes in addition to the monthly bias change for individual stations and for the network. The SBUV measurements are found to drift against the Dobson stations with a linear trend of .38 + or - .13 percent/yr. The cause of the drift could not be separated between residual uncorrected drift in the SBUV instrument, limited sensitivity of the SBUV to increases in tropospheric ozone, and the effect of local increases in pollution level on individual Dobson stations.

  12. UV-observations with a Brewer spectrophotometer at Hohenpeissenberg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandersee, Winfried; Koehler, U.

    1994-01-01

    Regular spectral UV-B measurements with a Brewer spectrophotometer have been performed at Hohenpeissenberg since 1990. Intercomparison of the Brewer instrument with other UV-B monitoring devices have shown agreement to within plus or minus 10 percent. Comparisons of UV-B spectra measured on fair weather days reveal the well known increasing influence of ozone on UV-B irradiance with decreasing wavelengths. The integral amplification factor the erythemal irradiance reaches values up to 2.8, which can be diminished by increasing turbidity. The influence of cirrus cloud on the UV-B is also shown.

  13. Simple LED spectrophotometer for analysis of color information.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Sun; Kim, A-Hee; Oh, Han-Byeol; Goh, Bong-Jun; Lee, Eun-Suk; Kim, Jun-Sik; Jung, Gu-In; Baek, Jin-Young; Jun, Jae-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    A spectrophotometer is the basic measuring equipment essential to most research activity fields requiring samples to be measured, such as physics, biotechnology and food engineering. This paper proposes a system that is able to detect sample concentration and color information by using LED and color sensor. Purity and wavelength information can be detected by CIE diagram, and the concentration can be estimated with purity information. This method is more economical and efficient than existing spectrophotometry, and can also be used by ordinary persons. This contribution is applicable to a number of fields because it can be used as a colorimeter to detect the wavelength and purity of samples.

  14. Microcontroller based spectrophotometer using compact disc as diffraction grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bano, Saleha; Altaf, Talat; Akbar, Sunila

    2010-12-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a portable, inexpensive and cost effective spectrophotometer. The device combines the use of compact disc (CD) media as diffraction grid and 60 watt bulb as a light source. Moreover it employs a moving slit along with stepper motor for obtaining a monochromatic light, photocell with spectral sensitivity in visible region to determine the intensity of light and an amplifier with a very high gain as well as an advanced virtual RISC (AVR) microcontroller ATmega32 as a control unit. The device was successfully applied to determine the absorbance and transmittance of KMnO4 and the unknown concentration of KMnO4 with the help of calibration curve. For comparison purpose a commercial spectrophotometer was used. There are not significant differences between the absorbance and transmittance values estimated by the two instruments. Furthermore, good results are obtained at all visible wavelengths of light. Therefore, the designed instrument offers an economically feasible alternative for spectrophotometric sample analysis in small routine, research and teaching laboratories, because the components used in the designing of the device are cheap and of easy acquisition.

  15. Contradictory Evidence on Wave Forcing of Tropical Upwelling in the Brewer-Dobson Circulation - A Suggested Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Tiehan; Geller, Marvin A.; Lin, Wuyin

    2011-01-01

    ERA-40 data are analyzed to demonstrate that wave forcing at lower latitudes plays a crucial role in driving the tropical upwelling portion of the Brewer-Dobson circulation. It is shown that subtropical wave forcing is correlated with tropical upwelling on both intraseasonal and interannual time scales when transient waves are taken into account, and that tropical wave forcing exerts its influence on tropical upwelling via its body force on the zonal mean flow.

  16. The advective Brewer-Dobson circulation in three reanalyses (1979-2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abalos, Marta; Legras, Bernard; Ploeger, Felix; Randel, William

    2015-04-01

    Most chemistry-climate models predict an intensification of the Brewer-Dobson circulation in the stratosphere in the last decades, but this trend remains to be confirmed in observational data. In this work the evolution of the advective BDC for the period 1979-2012 is evaluated and compared in three modern reanalyses (ERA-Interim, MERRA and JRA-55). Three different estimates of the BDC are computed for each reanalysis, one based on the definition of the residual circulation and two indirect estimates derived from momentum and thermodynamic balance. The comparison among the nine estimates shows substantial uncertainty in the mean magnitude but significant common variability. The trend analysis suggests an intensification in tropical upwelling throughout the layer 100-10 hPa. Globally, an acceleration of the circulation is observed in both hemispheres, with qualitative agreement among the estimates. The global BDC trends are mainly due to changes in the DJF circulation and can be tracked to changes in the resolved wave drag in both hemispheres, which are highly consistent in the three reanalyses.

  17. Evaluating the advective Brewer-Dobson circulation in three reanalyses for the period 1979-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abalos, Marta; Legras, Bernard; Ploeger, Felix; Randel, William J.

    2015-08-01

    Most chemistry-climate models show an intensification of the Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC) in the stratosphere associated with increasing greenhouse gas emissions and ozone depletion in the last decades, but this trend remains to be confirmed in observational data. In this work the evolution of the advective BDC for the period 1979-2012 is evaluated and compared in three modern reanalyses (ERA-Interim, MERRA, and JRA-55). Three different estimates of the BDC are computed for each reanalysis, one based on the definition of the residual circulation and two indirect estimates derived from momentum and thermodynamic balances. The comparison among the nine estimates shows substantial uncertainty in the mean magnitude (˜40%) but significant common variability. The tropical upwelling series show variability linked to the stratospheric quasi-biennial oscillation and to El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and also reflect extreme events such as major sudden stratospheric warmings and volcanic eruptions. The trend analysis suggests a strengthening of tropical upwelling of around 2-5%/decade throughout the layer 100-10 hPa. The global spatial structure of the BDC trends provides evidence of an overall acceleration of the circulation in both hemispheres, with qualitative agreement among the estimates. The global BDC trends are mainly linked to changes in the boreal winter season and can be tracked to long-term increases in the resolved wave drag in both hemispheres.

  18. Enhanced Brewer Dobson circulation reduces N2O warming potential under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kracher, Daniela; Reick, Christian; Manzini, Elisa; Schultz, Martin; Stein, Olaf

    2016-04-01

    One implication of climate change is an enhancement of the Brewer Dobson circulation (BDC) triggering the exchange between troposphere and stratosphere. This change in atmospheric dynamics will have effects on atmospheric constituents, especially those with stratospheric sinks such as ozone depleting substances (ODS) including nitrous oxide (N2O). N2O is the most important currently emitted ODS, and the third most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas. Under enhanced BDC, more N2O is transported from the troposphere into the stratosphere, reaching higher altitudes, resulting in an increased N2O sink and a decrease in N2O lifetime. Some aspects of the effect of an enhanced BDC on lifetimes of ODS have already been examined with focus on its implications for ozone. In this study, we examine the effect of a decreasing N2O lifetime in light of climate change. To this end we conduct idealized transient global warming simulations with ECHAM, the atmosphere component of the MPI Earth System Model. As we prescribe surface flux boundary conditions for N2O, we are able to examine further implications of an enhanced N2O sink on atmospheric abundance, which is an important factor for e.g. generating concentration scenarios. Due the idealized simulation setup, we derive findings that are scenario-independent and can easily be extended to other global warming scenarios.

  19. Observations and Interpretation of Descent and Mixing in the Northern Hemisphere Brewer Dobson Circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gille, J. C.; Karol, S.; Kinnison, D. E.; Yudin, V.; Nardi, B.

    2012-12-01

    In 1929 Brewer proposed that the motions now known as the Brewer-Dobson (BD) circulation were responsible for the observed high values of ozone at high latitudes, far from their low-latitude region of formation. Here data from the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) instrument, with 1 km vertical resolution and 100 km along track spacing, are used examine how this circulation creates that distribution and its seasonal variation through the interactions between the overturning motions of the BD circulation and isentropic mixing in the lower and lowermost stratosphere (350-450K). Isopleths of ozone in equivalent latitude-potential temperature coordinates illustrate the high-latitude descent, controlled by diabatic cooling, from September to the lowest altitudes in January and February. This descent creates large gradients along isentropic surfaces, where mixing above ~ 360K is weak at this time. The strength of mixing is taken to be the effective diffusivity Deff as formulated by Nakamura [1996]. By late winter into spring the BD circulation weakens, as does the transport barrier near 35° associated with the sub-tropical jet. These processes allow strong equator-ward mixing, leading to progressively smaller latitudinal ozone gradients on the isentropes, and the rising and flattening of the ozone isopleths. By the end of the summer the isopleths show only small slopes, preparatory for the next cycle. These results for the ozone dynamics are similar, but not identical, to those obtained with NCAR's Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) Version 4.

  20. Estimation of total alkaloid in Chitrakadivati by UV-Spectrophotometer

    PubMed Central

    Ajanal, Manjunath; Gundkalle, Mahadev B.; Nayak, Shradda U.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Herbal formulation standardization by adopting newer technique is need of the hour in the field of Ayurvedic pharmaceutical industry. As very few reports exist. These kind of studies would certainly widen the herbal research area. Chitrakadivati is one such popular herbal formulation used in Ayurveda. Many of its ingredients are known for presence of alkaloids. Methodology: Presence of alkaloid was tested qualitatively by Dragondroff's method then subjected to quantitative estimation by UV-Spectrophotometer. This method is based on the reaction between alkaloid and bromocresol green (BCG). Results and Conclusion: Study discloses that out of 16 ingredients, 9 contain alkaloid. Chitrakadivati has shown 0.16% of concentration of alkaloid and which is significantly higher than it's individual ingredients. PMID:23661869

  1. Gelled colloidal crystals as tunable optical filters for spectrophotometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugao, Yukihiro; Onda, Sachiko; Toyotama, Akiko; Takiguchi, Yoshihiro; Sawada, Tsutomu; Hara, Shigeo; Nishikawa, Suguru; Yamanaka, Junpei

    2016-08-01

    We examined the performance of charged colloidal crystals immobilized in a polymer gel as tunable optical filters. The colloidal crystals of charged silica particles (particle diameter = 121 nm; particle concentration = 3.5 vol %; and Bragg wavelength λB = 630–720 nm) were produced by unidirectional crystallization under a temperature gradient. Photocurable gelation reagents were dissolved in the sample beforehand; this enabled gel immobilization of the crystals under ultraviolet illumination. The crystals had dimensions of more than 25 mm2 in area and 1 mm in thickness, and spatial λB variations of less than 1%. Upon mechanical compression, λB values shifted linearly and reversibly over almost the entire visible spectrum. Using the gelled crystals as tunable optical filters, we measured the transmittance spectra of various samples and found them to be in close agreement with those determined using a spectrophotometer equipped with optical gratings.

  2. Gelled colloidal crystals as tunable optical filters for spectrophotometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugao, Yukihiro; Onda, Sachiko; Toyotama, Akiko; Takiguchi, Yoshihiro; Sawada, Tsutomu; Hara, Shigeo; Nishikawa, Suguru; Yamanaka, Junpei

    2016-08-01

    We examined the performance of charged colloidal crystals immobilized in a polymer gel as tunable optical filters. The colloidal crystals of charged silica particles (particle diameter = 121 nm; particle concentration = 3.5 vol %; and Bragg wavelength λB = 630-720 nm) were produced by unidirectional crystallization under a temperature gradient. Photocurable gelation reagents were dissolved in the sample beforehand; this enabled gel immobilization of the crystals under ultraviolet illumination. The crystals had dimensions of more than 25 mm2 in area and 1 mm in thickness, and spatial λB variations of less than 1%. Upon mechanical compression, λB values shifted linearly and reversibly over almost the entire visible spectrum. Using the gelled crystals as tunable optical filters, we measured the transmittance spectra of various samples and found them to be in close agreement with those determined using a spectrophotometer equipped with optical gratings.

  3. RECALIBRATION OF H CANYON ONLINE SPECTROPHOTOMETER AT EXTENDED URANIUM CONCENTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Lascola, R

    2008-10-29

    The H Canyon online spectrophotometers are calibrated for measurement of the uranium and nitric acid concentrations of several tanks in the 2nd Uranium Cycle.[1] The spectrometers, flow cells, and prediction models are currently optimized for a process in which uranium concentrations are expected to range from 0-15 g/L and nitric acid concentrations from 0.05-6 M. However, an upcoming processing campaign will involve 'Super Kukla' material, which has a lower than usual enrichment of fissionable uranium. Total uranium concentrations will be higher, spanning approximately 0-30 g/L U, with no change in the nitric acid concentrations. The new processing conditions require the installation of new flow cells with shorter path lengths. As the process solutions have a higher uranium concentration, the shorter path length is required to decrease the absorptivity to values closer to the optimal range for the instrument. Also, new uranium and nitric acid prediction models are required to span the extended uranium concentration range. The models will be developed for the 17.5 and 15.4 tanks, for which nitric acid concentrations will not exceed 1 M. The restricted acid range compared to the original models is anticipated to reduce the measurement uncertainty for both uranium and nitric acid. The online spectrophotometers in H Canyon Second Uranium Cycle were modified to allow measurement of uranium and nitric acid for the Super Kukla processing campaign. The expected uranium concentrations, which are higher than those that have been recently processed, required new flow cells with one-third the optical path length of the existing cells. Also, new uranium and nitric acid calibrations were made. The estimated reading uncertainties (2{sigma}) for Tanks 15.4 and 17.5 are {approx}5% for uranium and {approx}25% for nitric acid.

  4. Methane as a Diagnostic Tracer of Changes in the Brewer-Dobson Circulation of the Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remsberg, E. E.

    2015-01-01

    This study makes use of time series of methane (CH4/ data from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) to detect whether there were any statistically significant changes of the Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC) within the stratosphere during 1992-2005. The HALOE CH4 profiles are in terms of mixing ratio versus pressure altitude and are binned into latitude zones within the Southern Hemisphere and the Northern Hemisphere. Their separate time series are then analyzed using multiple linear regression (MLR) techniques. The CH4 trend terms for the Northern Hemisphere are significant and positive at 10 N from 50 to 7 hPa and larger than the tropospheric CH4 trends of about 3%decade(exp -1) from 20 to 7 hPa. At 60 N the trends are clearly negative from 20 to 7 hPa. Their combined trends indicate an acceleration of the BDC in the middle stratosphere of the Northern Hemisphere during those years, most likely due to changes from the effects of wave activity. No similar significant BDC acceleration is found for the Southern Hemisphere. Trends from HALOE H2O are analyzed for consistency. Their mutual trends with CH4 are anti-correlated qualitatively in the middle and upper stratosphere, where CH4 is chemically oxidized to H2O. Conversely, their mutual trends in the lower stratosphere are dominated by their trends upon entry to the tropical stratosphere. Time series residuals for CH4 in the lower mesosphere also exhibit structures that are anti-correlated in some instances with those of the tracer-like species HCl. Their occasional aperiodic structures indicate the effects of transport following episodic, wintertime wave activity. It is concluded that observed multi-year, zonally averaged distributions of CH4 can be used to diagnose major instances of wave-induced transport in the middle atmosphere and to detect changes in the stratospheric BDC.

  5. Variability in the Speed of the Brewer-Dobson Circulation as Observed by Aura/MLS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flury, Thomas; Wu, Dong L.; Read, W. G.

    2013-01-01

    We use Aura/MLS stratospheric water vapour (H2O) measurements as tracer for dynamics and infer interannual variations in the speed of the Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC) from 2004 to 2011. We correlate one-year time series of H2O in the lower stratosphere at two subsequent pressure levels (68 hPa, approx.18.8 km and 56 hPa, approx 19.9 km at the Equator) and determine the time lag for best correlation. The same calculation is made on the horizontal on the 100 hPa (approx 16.6 km) level by correlating the H2O time series at the Equator with the ones at 40 N and 40 S. From these lag coefficients we derive the vertical and horizontal speeds of the BDC in the tropics and extra-tropics, respectively. We observe a clear interannual variability of the vertical and horizontal branch. The variability reflects signatures of the Quasi Biennial Oscillation (QBO). Our measurements confirm the QBO meridional circulation anomalies and show that the speed variations in the two branches of the BDC are out of phase and fairly well anti-correlated. Maximum ascent rates are found during the QBO easterly phase. We also find that transport of H2O towards the Northern Hemisphere (NH) is on the average two times faster than to the Southern Hemisphere (SH) with a mean speed of 1.15m/s at 100 hPa. Furthermore, the speed towards the NH shows much more interannual variability with an amplitude of about 21% whilst the speed towards the SH varies by only 10 %. An amplitude of 21% is also observed in the variability of the ascent rate at the Equator which is on the average 0.2mm/s.

  6. Unraveling impact factors for future changes in the Brewer-Dobson circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberländer, Sophie; Langematz, Ulrike; Meul, Stefanie

    2013-09-01

    Climate models project an increase in the Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC) with increasing future greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations. This study identifies the causes of future changes in the BDC from sensitivity simulations with the EMAC chemistry-climate model, by changing the external forcings, like GHG concentrations, sea surface temperatures (SSTs) together with sea ice concentrations, and ozone-depleting substances (ODS), separately. The particular influence of rising tropical SSTs is assessed. Contributions of different waves to changes in the residual circulation are calculated as well as changes in mean age of stratospheric air (AoA) to account for the effect of mixing processes. We find that in boreal winter the tropical upward mass flux increases by about 1%/dec in the upper and 2%/dec in the lower stratosphere until the end of the 21st century. Mean AoA decreases by up to 60 and 30 days/dec, respectively. Changes in transient planetary and synoptic waves account for the strengthening of the BDC in the lower stratosphere, whereas upper stratospheric changes are due to improved propagation properties for gravity waves in future climate. Regarding the external forcings, the radiative impact of rising GHG concentrations is detected to affect upper stratospheric layers only, whereas lower stratospheric signals are almost entirely due to rising SSTs. Changes in tropical SSTs influence not only the shallow but also the deep branch of the BDC as confirmed from both changes in residual circulation and mixing. Declining ODS will slightly counteract the BDC increase in the Southern Hemisphere.

  7. A chemistry-climate model study of past changes in the Brewer-Dobson circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberländer-Hayn, Sophie; Meul, Stefanie; Langematz, Ulrike; Abalichin, Janna; Haenel, Florian

    2015-07-01

    Model simulations indicate an acceleration of the Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC) in the past with a direct impact on the exchange of air masses between the troposphere and the stratosphere. However, most observational data sets do not confirm the model results. Bönisch et al. (2011) and Ray et al. (2010) indicate a strengthening of the BDC in its shallow branch and a weakening in its deep branch. In contrast, balloon-borne measurements and Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding satellite observations show no significant acceleration of the BDC at Northern Hemisphere (NH) midlatitudes. In our study, the change of the BDC in the recent past is analyzed from simulations with the chemistry-climate model ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry. As the sign of change considerably depends on the underlying forcings, namely, changes in concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and ozone-depleting substances (ODSs), as well as their interactions, we separate their contributions by using sensitivity simulations. The changes in tropical upward mass flux indicate a strengthening of the BDC between 1960 and 2000 in NH winter season in the lower and a weakening in the upper stratosphere with a change in sign at 10 hPa. While the lower stratospheric increase of about 2%/decade is caused by equal contributions from rising GHGs and ODSs, rising ODS concentrations counteract the GHG effect in the middle and upper stratosphere with a total decrease of about 0.5%/decade. Changes in mean age of air show a decrease of about 0.13 yr/decade in the lower and middle stratosphere and a slight increase in the Arctic upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere, which is induced by interactions between the forcings.

  8. The Spectrophotometer II: A Module on the Spectral Properties of Light. Tech Physics Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Nathaniel; And Others

    This module is designed to give the learner an understanding of the nature of light and how its properties are used in the design of spectrophotometers. Problems promote the use of spectrophotometers in qualitative analysis, the optical elements used in a monochromator, and the physical properties of the prism and the diffraction grating. Other…

  9. White Light Pump-Probe Photothermal Mirror Spectrophotometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlaing, May; Marcano, Aristides

    2016-05-01

    We develop a new kind of spectrophotometer based on the photothermal mirror effect. The absorption of a focused tunable pump light by first atomic layers of the sample's surface generates a nanometric surface distortion or bump of thermal origin. A probe beam of light of fixed wavelength and with spot dimensions much larger than the pump beam's spot is used to test this thermal distortion. Changes in the wave-front of the reflected probe beam yields changes of the diffraction pattern of the reflected beam at the far field which can be used to produce a signal proportional to the amount of released heat. Tuning of the wavelength of the pump field generates a photothermal mirror spectrum. As tunable pump source we use the light from a Xenon arc-lamp filtered using a series of interference filter. This way we generate tunable pump light in the spectral region of 370-730 nm with a HWHM of 5 nm and power density of the order of tens of microwatts per nanometer. We obtain photothermal mirror spectra of metallic surfaces and other non-transparent samples. We show that these spectra are fundamentally different from the usual reflectance spectra which measure the percentage of the total of the total energy reflected by the surface.

  10. The Erlangen micro-lightguide spectrophotometer EMPHO I.

    PubMed

    Frank, K H; Kessler, M; Appelbaum, K; Dümmler, W

    1989-12-01

    The Erlangen micro-lightguide spectrophotometer EMPHO 1 was designed for fast diffuse reflection (remission) spectrophotometry in small tissue volumes. The aim was to construct a compact, modular instrument with a high repetition rate which can be adapted to moving organs, e.g. the beating heart in situ, by the use of highly flexible micro-lightguides. Focusing problems, which cannot be solved when conventional optical devices such as microscopes are used in moving tissues, become negligible. A bandpass interference filter disk, which is rotated by a motor serves as a monochromating unit. One diffuse reflection spectrum in a selected wavelength domain is recorded during each revolution of the motor. Special filter disks, with spectral ranges of 400-520, 500-630, 600-1200 nm can be used for different tasks. The monochromated light is transmitted by means of a flexible fluid-lightguide to a photomultiplier tube. The electrical signal, which is proportional to the light intensity is recorded by an IBM-compatible AT. An analogue to digital converter has been developed for the AD conversion. Sampling of the spectra occurs in steps of 2 nm triggered by a decoding unit, containing an EPROM where the function between the wavelength-angular position characteristic of the filter disk is stored. A decoder wheel mounted on the same axle as the driving motor is used to program the decoder unit and to recall the wavelength position function. The decoding procedure enables a high wavelength reproducibility to be attained. The monochromating device allows a sampling velocity of 100 spectra per second. The EMPHO I has been successfully applied to experiments in the beating heart, the brain, the eye, the liver, the small intestine and the skeletal muscle of mammals. First investigations have also been performed in the heart during open heart surgery and in human skin. The apparatus has a high sampling rate and the small catchment volume allows measurements of remission spectra in

  11. Calibrating the Astronomical Extinction Spectrophotometer for NIST Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGraw, John T.; Zimmer, P. C.; Karle, J.; Zirzow, D. C.; Cramer, C.; Lykke, K.; Woodward, J. T.

    2013-01-01

    The NIST Stars program is currently creating a new generation of absolutely calibrated spectroradiometric standard stars traceable to NIST laboratory standards. A fundamental task required to accomplish this is the transfer of the laboratory irradiance standard to telescopes in the field. We describe the system for calibration transfer for the Astronomical Extinction Spectrophotometer (AESOP), a 100mm diameter objective grating spectrometer designed to precisely and accurately measure the spectral energy distribution of bright (V<6) stars. The transfer standard for AESoP is a nearly identical 100mm diameter optical system with no dispersive element, CAL, which is co-mounted with AESoP but can be easily removed and taken to NIST for calibration in their Telescope Calibration Facility (TCF). CAL is designed to measure one wavelength at a time using a novel technique where CAL’s input pupil is imaged onto a CCD read out in TDI mode. The row read rate and on-chip binning can be modulated to match a very large dynamic range, from 100aW at a signal-to-noise ratio of 10 per second to 1nW at a signal-to-noise of >20000 per second. Moreover, CAL never observes the sky, only calibration sources and otherwise has its aperture covered to prevent dust accumulation. In the TCF, CAL measures a wavelength-tunable source that is simultaneous monitored using a NIST working standard photodiode. The responsivity of the photodiode and its distance from the source is accurately known. The distance from CAL to the source, of the order 50m, is also accurately known, as is CAL’s collecting area, allowing highly accurate transfer of the diode calibration to CAL. In AESoP’s mobile calibration lab, CAL and AESoP are mounted side-by-side with apertures aligned and both observe a collimated, tunable source that simultaneously illuminates both systems. AESoP and CAL are currently under field testing. We present calibration data and some initial stellar spectral energy distribution

  12. Results from laboratory and field testing of nitrate measuring spectrophotometers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snazelle, Teri T.

    2015-01-01

    In Phase II, the analyzers were deployed in field conditions at three diferent USGS sites. The measured nitrate concentrations were compared to discrete (reference) samples analyzed by the Direct UV method on a Shimadzu UV1800 bench top spectrophotometer, and by the National Environmental Methods Index (NEMI) method I-2548-11 at the USGS National Water Quality Laboratory. The first deployment at USGS site 0249620 on the East Pearl River in Hancock County, Mississippi, tested the ability of the TriOs ProPs (10-mm path length), Hach NITRATAX (5 mm), Satlantic SUNA (10 mm), and the S::CAN Spectro::lyser (5 mm) to accurately measure low-level (less than 2 mg-N/L) nitrate concentrations while observing the effect turbidity and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) would have on the analyzers' measurements. The second deployment at USGS site 01389005 Passaic River below Pompton River at Two Bridges, New Jersey, tested the analyzer's accuracy in mid-level (2-8 mg-N/L) nitrate concentrations. This site provided the means to test the analyzers' performance in two distinct matrices—the Passaic and the Pompton Rivers. In this deployment, three instruments tested in Phase I (TriOS, Hach, and SUNA) were deployed with the S::CAN Spectro::lyser (35 mm) already placed by the New Jersey Water Science Center (WSC). The third deployment at USGS site 05579610 Kickapoo Creek at 2100E Road near Bloomington, Illinois, tested the ability of the analyzers to measure high nitrate concentrations (greater than 8 mg-N/L) in turbid waters. For Kickapoo Creek, the HIF provided the TriOS (10 mm) and S::CAN (5 mm) from Phase I, and a SUNA V2 (5 mm) to be deployed adjacent to the Illinois WSC-owned Hach (2 mm). A total of 40 discrete samples were collected from the three deployment sites and analyzed. The nitrate concentration of the samples ranged from 0.3–22.2 mg-N/L. The average absolute difference between the TriOS measurements and discrete samples was 0.46 mg-N/L. For the combined data

  13. An ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer automation system. Part 2: User's guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, G. S.; Teuschler, J. M.; Budde, W. L.

    1982-07-01

    The Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrophotometer (UVVIS) automation system facilitates computer-automated procedures for the analysis of chlorophyll concentrations and color evaluations of waters, as well as the quality assurance of the spectrophotometer. In addition to various types of reports, this system also offers plots of chlorophyll and color scan data for either plotting or non-plotting terminals. The UVVIS system also provides manual data-entry facilities for chlorophyll analysis and for three-filter photometer color analysis. The UVVIS system is described from a user's perspective. It concentrates on how one interacts with the system, and on what system features one may use. Two other related publications are 'An Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrophotometer Automation System - Part I Functional Specifications,' and 'An Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrophotometer Automation System - Part III Program Documentation.'

  14. Using the World Primary Standard Dobson Spectrometer to Monitor the Stability of a Multi-Instrument Satellite Ozone Dataset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McPeters, R.D.; Oltmans, Samuel J.

    2000-01-01

    NASA is creating a long term satellite ozone time series by combining data from multiple instruments: Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) (1978 - 1993), Meteor 3 TOMS (1991 - 1994), Earth Probe TOMS (1996 - present), Nimbus 7 SB-JV (1978 - 1990), NOAA-9 Solar Backscatter UV Spectrometer (SBUV/2) (1984 - 1997), NOAA-11 SBUV/2 (1989 - 1994), and NOAA-14 SBUV/2 (1995 - present). The stability of individual data sets and possible instrument-to-instrument differences are best checked by comparison with ground-based measurements. We have examined the time dependence of the calibrations of these instruments by comparing satellite derived ozone with that measured by the world primary standard Dobson spectrometer No. 83. This instrument has been maintained since 1962 as a standard for total ozone to an uncertainty of plus or minus 0.5%. Measurements of AD pair ozone made with instrument No. 83 at Mauna Loa observatory most summers since 1979 were compared with coincident TOMS and SBUV(/2) ozone measurements. The comparison shows that the various instruments were stable relative to instrument No. 83 to within about plus or minus 1%, but that there are instrument-to-instrument biases of as much as 3%. Earth Probe TOMS, for example, is 1% to 2% high relative to Nimbus 7 TOMS when the world standard instrument is used as a transfer standard. Similar results are seen when comparisons are made with an ensemble of 41 Dobson stations throughout the world, demonstrating that the ensemble as a whole is stable despite the fact that many instruments within the ensemble have clear calibration changes.

  15. Measurement of protein-like fluorescence in river and waste water using a handheld spectrophotometer.

    PubMed

    Baker, Andy; Ward, David; Lieten, Shakti H; Periera, Ryan; Simpson, Ellie C; Slater, Malcolm

    2004-07-01

    Protein-like fluorescence intensity in rivers increases with increasing anthropogenic DOM inputs from sewerage and farm wastes. Here, a portable luminescence spectrophotometer was used to investigate if this technology could be used to provide both field scientists with a rapid pollution monitoring tool and process control engineers with a portable waste water monitoring device, through the measurement of river and waste water tryptophan-like fluorescence from a range of rivers in NE England and from effluents from within two waste water treatment plants. The portable spectrophotometer determined that waste waters and sewerage effluents had the highest tryptophan-like fluorescence intensity, urban streams had an intermediate tryptophan-like fluorescence intensity, and the upstream river samples of good water quality the lowest tryptophan-like fluorescence intensity. Replicate samples demonstrated that fluorescence intensity is reproducible to +/- 20% for low fluorescence, 'clean' river water samples and +/- 5% for urban water and waste waters. Correlations between fluorescence measured by the portable spectrophotometer with a conventional bench machine were 0.91; (Spearman's rho, n = 143), demonstrating that the portable spectrophotometer does correlate with tryptophan-like fluorescence intensity measured using the bench spectrophotometer.

  16. Retrieval of aerosol optical depth in the visible range with a Brewer spectrophotometer in Athens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diémoz, Henri; Eleftheratos, Kostas; Kazadzis, Stelios; Amiridis, Vassilis; Zerefos, Christos S.

    2016-04-01

    A MkIV Brewer spectrophotometer has been operating in Athens since 2004. Direct-sun measurements originally scheduled for nitrogen dioxide retrievals were reprocessed to provide aerosol optical depths (AODs) at a wavelength of about 440 nm. A novel retrieval algorithm was specifically developed and the resulting AODs were compared to those obtained from a collocated Cimel filter radiometer belonging to the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). The series are perfectly correlated, with Pearson's correlation coefficients being as large as 0.996 and with 90 % of AOD deviations between the two instruments being within the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) traceability limits. In order to reach such a high agreement, several instrumental factors impacting the quality of the Brewer retrievals must be taken into account, including sensitivity to the internal temperature, and the state of the external optics and pointing accuracy must be carefully checked. Furthermore, the long-term radiometric stability of the Brewer was investigated and the performances of in situ Langley extrapolations as a way to track the absolute calibration of the Brewer were assessed. Other sources of error, such as slight shifts of the wavelength scale, are discussed and some recommendations to Brewer operators are drawn. Although MkIV Brewers are rarely employed to retrieve AODs in the visible range, they represent a key source of information about aerosol changes in the past three decades and a potential worldwide network for present and future coordinated AOD measurements. Moreover, a better understanding of the AOD retrieval at visible wavelengths will also contribute in improving similar techniques in the more challenging UV range.

  17. An ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer automation system. Part 3: Program documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, G. S.; Teuschler, J. M.; Budde, W. L.

    1982-07-01

    The Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrophotometer (UVVIS) automation system accomplishes 'on-line' spectrophotometric quality assurance determinations, report generations, plot generations and data reduction for chlorophyll or color analysis. This system also has the capability to process manually entered data for the analysis of chlorophyll or color. For each program of the UVVIS system, this document contains a program description, flowchart, variable dictionary, code listing, and symbol cross-reference table. Also included are descriptions of file structures and of routines common to all automated analyses. The programs are written in Data General extended BASIC, Revision 4.3, under the RDOS operating systems, Revision 6.2. The BASIC code has been enhanced for real-time data acquisition, which is accomplished by CALLS to assembly language subroutines. Two other related publications are 'An Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrophotometer Automation System - Part I Functional Specifications,' and 'An Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrophotometer Automation System - Part II User's Guide.'

  18. Chemical Fouling Reduction of a Submersible Steel Spectrophotometer in Estuarine Environments Using a Sacrificial Zinc Anode.

    PubMed

    Tait, Zachary S; Thompson, Megan; Stubbins, Aron

    2015-07-01

    The availability of in situ spectrophotometers, such as the S::CAN spectro::lyser, has expanded the possibilities for high-frequency water quality data collection. However, biological and chemical fouling can degrade the performance of in situ spectrophotometers, especially in saline environments with rapid flow rates. A complex freshwater washing system has been previously designed to reduce chemical fouling for the S::CAN spectro::lyser spectrophotometer. In the current study, we present a simpler, cheaper alternative: the attachment of a sacrificial zinc anode. Results are presented detailing the S::CAN spectro::lyser performance with and without the addition of the sacrificial anode. Attachment of the zinc anode provided efficient corrosion protection during 2-wk deployments in a highly dynamic (average tidal range, 2.5 m) saline tidal saltmarsh creek at Groves Creek, Skidaway Institute of Oceanography, Savannah, GA.

  19. Chemical Fouling Reduction of a Submersible Steel Spectrophotometer in Estuarine Environments Using a Sacrificial Zinc Anode.

    PubMed

    Tait, Zachary S; Thompson, Megan; Stubbins, Aron

    2015-07-01

    The availability of in situ spectrophotometers, such as the S::CAN spectro::lyser, has expanded the possibilities for high-frequency water quality data collection. However, biological and chemical fouling can degrade the performance of in situ spectrophotometers, especially in saline environments with rapid flow rates. A complex freshwater washing system has been previously designed to reduce chemical fouling for the S::CAN spectro::lyser spectrophotometer. In the current study, we present a simpler, cheaper alternative: the attachment of a sacrificial zinc anode. Results are presented detailing the S::CAN spectro::lyser performance with and without the addition of the sacrificial anode. Attachment of the zinc anode provided efficient corrosion protection during 2-wk deployments in a highly dynamic (average tidal range, 2.5 m) saline tidal saltmarsh creek at Groves Creek, Skidaway Institute of Oceanography, Savannah, GA. PMID:26437114

  20. Objective evaluation of whiteness of cooked rice and rice cakes using a portable spectrophotometer.

    PubMed

    Goto, Hajime; Asanome, Noriyuki; Suzuki, Keitaro; Sano, Tomoyoshi; Saito, Hiroshi; Abe, Yohei; Chuba, Masaru; Nishio, Takeshi

    2014-03-01

    The whiteness of cooked rice and rice cakes was evaluated using a portable spectrophotometer with a whiteness index (WI). Also, by using boiled rice for measurement of Mido values by Mido Meter, it was possible to infer the whiteness of cooked rice without rice cooking. In the analysis of varietal differences of cooked rice, 'Tsuyahime', 'Koshihikari' and 'Koshinokaori' showed high whiteness, while 'Satonoyuki' had inferior whiteness. The whiteness of rice cakes made from 'Koyukimochi' and 'Dewanomochi' was higher than the whiteness of those made from 'Himenomochi' and 'Koganemochi'. While there was a significant correlation (r = 0.84) between WI values and whiteness scores of cooked rice by the sensory test, no correlation was detected between the whiteness scores and Mido values, indicating that the values obtained by a spectrophotometer differ from those obtained by a Mido Meter. Thus, a spectrophotometer may be a novel device for measurement of rice eating quality.

  1. Improved entrance optic for global irradiance measurements with a Brewer spectrophotometer.

    PubMed

    Gröbner, Julian

    2003-06-20

    A new entrance optic for a Brewer spectrophotometer has been designed and tested both in the laboratory and during solar measurements. The integrated cosine response deviates by 2.4% from the ideal, with an uncertainty of +/- 1%. The systematic uncertainties of global solar irradiance measurements with this new entrance optic are considerably reduced compared with measurements with the traditional design. Simultaneous solar irradiance measurements between the Brewer spectrophotometer and a spectroradiometer equipped with a state-of-the-art shaped diffuser agreed to within +/- 2% during a five-day measurement period. PMID:12833953

  2. Narrowing of the Upwelling Branch of the Brewer-Dobson Circulation and Hadley Cell in Chemistry-Climate Model Simulations of the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Feng; Stolarski, Richard S.; Pawson, Steven; Newman, Paul A.; Waugh, Darryn

    2010-01-01

    Changes in the width of the upwelling branch of the Brewer-Dobson circulation and Hadley cell in the 21st Century are investigated using simulations from a coupled chemistry-climate model. In these model simulations the tropical upwelling region narrows in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. The narrowing of the Brewer-Dobson circulation is caused by an equatorward shift of Rossby wave critical latitudes and Eliassen-Palm flux convergence in the subtropical lower stratosphere. In the troposphere, the model projects an expansion of the Hadley cell's poleward boundary, but a narrowing of the Hadley rising branch. Model results suggest that the narrowing of the Hadley cell ascent is also eddy-driven.

  3. [An optical-fiber-sensor-based spectrophotometer for soil non-metallic nutrient determination].

    PubMed

    He, Dong-xian; Hu, Juan-xiu; Lu, Shao-kun; He, Hou-yong

    2012-01-01

    In order to achieve rapid, convenient and efficient soil nutrient determination in soil testing and fertilizer recommendation, a portable optical-fiber-sensor-based spectrophotometer including immersed fiber sensor, flat field holographic concave grating, and diode array detector was developed for soil non-metallic nutrient determination. According to national standard of ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometer with JJG 178-2007, the wavelength accuracy and repeatability, baseline stability, transmittance accuracy and repeatability measured by the prototype instrument were satisfied with the national standard of III level; minimum spectral bandwidth, noise and excursion, and stray light were satisfied with the national standard of IV level. Significant linear relationships with slope of closing to 1 were found between the soil available nutrient contents including soil nitrate nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, available phosphorus, available sulfur, available boron, and organic matter measured by the prototype instrument compared with that measured by two commercial single-beam-based and dual-beam-based spectrophotometers. No significant differences were revealed from the above comparison data. Therefore, the optical-fiber-sensor-based spectrophotometer can be used for rapid soil non-metallic nutrient determination with a high accuracy. PMID:22497162

  4. Analog Spectrophotometers in the Digital Age: Data Acquisition on a Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nazarenko, Alexander Y.; Nazarenko, Natalie A.

    2005-01-01

    The interfacing of various spectrometers with analog output to a personal computer running Microsoft Excel in the Windows environment is described. This low cost data acquisition solution is a useful replacement of a chart recorder for various UV-visible and infrared scanning spectrophotometers.

  5. An Improved Flame Test for Qualitative Analysis Using a Multichannel UV-Visible Spectrophotometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blitz, Jonathan P.; Sheeran, Daniel J.; Becker, Thomas L.

    2006-01-01

    Qualitative analysis schemes are used in undergraduate laboratory settings as a way to introduce equilibrium concepts and logical thinking. The main component of all qualitative analysis schemes is a flame test, as the color of light emitted from certain elements is distinctive and a flame photometer or spectrophotometer in each laboratory is…

  6. Fiberoptic spectrophotometer

    DOEpatents

    Tans, P.P.; Lashof, D.A.

    1986-12-23

    A device is described for determining the relative composition of a sample of a gas by comparison of the Raman-scattered light of the sample with that of a known gas comprising: a means for passing a single light source through the unknown and the known gases, choppers to alternate the Raman-scattered light into a common light detection and measuring system, optical fiber networks for spatially mixing the resulting Raman scattered light from each sample and directing the mixed light to selective detectors, and a compiler to record the light intensity of each wavelength of Raman-scattered light as a function of the sample from which it originated. 6 figs.

  7. Fiberoptic spectrophotometer

    DOEpatents

    Tans, Petrus P.; Lashof, Daniel A.

    1986-01-01

    A device for determining the relative composition of a sample of a gas by comparison of the Raman-scattered light of the sample with that of a known gas comprising: a means for passing a single light source through the unknown and the known gases, choppers to alternate the Raman-scattered light into a common light detection and measuring system, optical fiber networks for spatially mixing the resulting Raman scattered light from each sample and directing the mixed light to selective detectors, and a compiler to record the light intensity of each wavelength of Raman-scattered light as a function of the sample from which it originated.

  8. Evaluation of a simple spectrophotometer to quantify fluorine gas from a cyclotron target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janabi, M.; Childs, B. C.; Vandehey, N. T.; O'Neil, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    In an effort to more quickly evaluate the conditioning of our 18F-fluorine target and determine the amount of F2 that is released with each unload, a simple spectrophotometer was fabricated that aids in quantifying the I2 produced as a result of bubbling F2 gas into a solution of potassium iodide. A narrow range LED (470 ± 10 nm), combined with a wide range photodiode (320-1100 nm) were used to construct the simple spectrophotometer device. We were able to use this device to quantitate the amount of F2 released and obtained a good correlation (R2>0.991) with the values obtained by the "traditional" titration method.

  9. Automated Solar Tracking Spectrophotometer for Remote Sensing of Column Aerosol Optical Depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rainwater, B.; Arnott, W. P.; Moosmuller, H.; Karr, D.

    2012-12-01

    Aerosols in the atmosphere are poorly understood in terms of how they affect weather and climate. In an effort to advance this knowledge, an automated solar tracking spectrophotometer has been constructed to measure direct solar radiation from the ultraviolet to infrared. This instrument facilitates determination of solar irradiance, precipitable water, aerosol optical depth (AOD), and the Ångström turbidity exponent related to aerosol size distribution. Measurements with a CIMEL CE-318 sun photometer (part of the global NASA AERONET network) and a manual solar spectrophotometer are being used to evaluate the accuracy of our instrument. Upon successful evaluation, this instrument will provide a basis for research into spectral information that will supplement CIMEL measurements. Presented is the design of this instrument and measurement comparisons with the aforementioned instruments for the air above Reno, Nevada, USA.

  10. Solar UVB measurements with the double- and single-monochromator Brewer ozone spectrophotometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bais, A. F.; Zerefos, C. S.; McElroy, C. T.

    In this work, the new double-monochromator version of the Brewer Ozone Spectrophotometer, especially designed for spectral UV measurements, is briefly described and its measurements are compared with those obtained by a conventional, single-monochromator Brewer instrument. The comparison shows that the performance of the new instrument is much superior in the low UVB wavelengths (λ<305 nm), because of the much higher stray-light rejection capability of the instrument. The conventional Brewer spectrophotometer is capable of recording accurately solar UVB spectra at wavelengths greater than about 300 nm. The error in UVB dose calculations made using data from the conventional Brewer is estimated to be of the order of +1%, while the absolute irradiances at wavelengths below 300 nm may be overestimated by more than 10%, depending on the measured wavelength and the solar zenith angle.

  11. A stopped-flow dual-wavelength spectrophotometer suitable for the study of respiratory chains.

    PubMed Central

    Garland, P B; Littleford, S J; Haddock, B A

    1976-01-01

    The requirements for a dual-wavelength stopped-flow spectrophotometer to be suitable for studying limited quantities of respiratory-chain preparations are described. They can be met by a design using mainly commercially available components. The constructed apparatus has a dead-time of approx. 2.6 ms, a mixing ratio of 17:1, and a minimal requirement for 0.5 ml of mixed reactants per flow. PMID:938452

  12. Development of an ultra-compact mid-infrared attenuated total reflectance spectrophotometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong Soo; Lee, Tae-Ro; Yoon, Gilwon

    2014-07-01

    Mid-infrared spectroscopy has been an important tool widely used for qualitative analysis in various fields. However, portable or personal use is size and cost prohibitive for either Fourier transform infrared or attenuated total reflectance (ATR) spectrophotometers. In this study, we developed an ultra-compact ATR spectrophotometer whose frequency band was 5.5-11.0 μm. We used miniature components, such as a light source fabricated by semiconductor technology, a linear variable filter, and a pyro-electric array detector. There were no moving parts. Optimal design based on two light sources, a zippered configuration of the array detector and ATR optics could produce absorption spectra that might be used for qualitative analysis. A microprocessor synchronized the pulsed light sources and detector, and all the signals were processed digitally. The size was 13.5×8.5×3.5 cm3 and the weight was 300 grams. Due to its low cost, our spectrophotometer can replace many online monitoring devices. Another application could be for a u-healthcare system installed in the bathroom or attached to a smartphone for monitoring substances in body fluids.

  13. Development of spectrophotometer for breast tumor diagnostic spectrometer based on virtual instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Zhong; Liu, Guodong; Liu, Ying; Huang, Zhen

    2013-12-01

    Although some progresses have been achieved by the traditional diagnostic methods, such as X mammography, computer tomography (CT) imaging and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) etc, their applications are limited by some drawbacks to some extent. As a more promising alternative method, the breast tumor diagnosis method based on infrared spectrometer was introduced. According to the theory of spectral unique characteristics for matter, i.e. the spectrums are different for the matter with different properties, so the spectrums are different between the tumor and normal tissues. Therefore, a spectrometer system was developed to diagnose the breast tumor in this paper. Meanwhile, a spectrophotometer for breast tumor diagnostic spectrometer was designed, and the plane holography concave (PHV) grating was used as the dispersion device in this spectrophotometer because of excellent performances. In this system, linear CCD detector combined with PCI data acquisition card was used as the spectral detector, and the virtual instruments (VI) technique was used to control the data acquisition and data processing. In experiments, the spectral calibration based on mercury lamp was performed. Experimental results illustrated that the construction of the spectrophotometer system is available, the spectral range is from 300-850nm, its wavelength resolution reached 2nm. The simulation experimental result proved that the design of the diagnostic system was very satisfied and diagnostic method was also feasible.

  14. Monitoring of rain events with a submersible UV/VIS spectrophotometer.

    PubMed

    Maribas, Aurélien; Laurent, Nadège; Battaglia, Philippe; do Carmo Lourenço da Silva, Maria; Pons, Marie-Noële; Loison, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    A submersible UV/VIS spectrophotometer has been implemented on the pre-treatment unit of a large-scale wastewater treatment plant (350,000 person-equivalent) to monitor the rapid changes in total Suspended Solids and total Chemical Oxygen Demand occurring during rain events as well as injections of reject water from the sludge treatment train or wasted activated sludge. Calibration has been proven to be difficult for fast composition-varying streams but the device is able to monitor qualitatively sudden quality changes, in spite of the noise affecting the signal.

  15. Flight of a UV spectrophotometer aboard Galileo 2, the NASA Convair 990 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellers, B.; Hunderwadel, J. L.; Hanser, F. A.

    1976-01-01

    An ultraviolet interference-filter spectrophotometer (UVS) fabricated for aircraft-borne use on the DOT Climatic Impact Assessment Program (CIAP) has been successfully tested in a series of flights on the NASA Convair 990, Galileo II. UV flux data and the calculated total ozone above the flight path are reported for several of the flights. Good agreement is obtained with the total ozone as deducted by integration of an ozone sonde vertical profile obtained at Wallops Island, Virginia near the time of a CV-990 underpass. Possible advantages of use of the UVS in the NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program are discussed.

  16. Novel spectrophotometer for the investigation of short term variability in stellar spectra.

    PubMed

    Stiff, T; Jeffers, S

    1978-06-01

    A variety of astronomical objects (e.g., O(f) stars, B(e) stars, optical counterparts of X-ray sources, etc.) exhibit emission line spectra. For some of these objects the emission line strengths are suspected as being variable (and possibly periodic) over time scales as short as minutes or less. A spectrophotometer has been built whose output signal is a measure of the line strength only. The spectrophotometer is used to look at the emission feature and the adjacent continuum in rapid succession by means of magnetic modulation of the electron image of the optical spectrum in an image tube, thus generating a modulated signal which is detected with a lockin amplifier. This detection technique essentially subtracts off an instrumental dark current signal due to sky background and the signal due to the continuum of the star giving a real time measure of the line strength only. The design of the instrument, its laboratory calibration, and some preliminary observational data are presented. PMID:20198073

  17. White light photothermal lens spectrophotometer for the determination of absorption in scattering samples.

    PubMed

    Marcano, Aristides; Alvarado, Salvador; Meng, Junwei; Caballero, Daniel; Moares, Ernesto Marín; Edziah, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    We developed a pump-probe photothermal lens spectrophotometer that uses a broadband arc-lamp and a set of interference filters to provide tunable, nearly monochromatic radiation between 370 and 730 nm as the pump light source. This light is focused onto an absorbing sample, generating a photothermal lens of millimeter dimensions. A highly collimated monochromatic probe light from a low-power He-Ne laser interrogates the generated lens, yielding a photothermal signal proportional to the absorption of light. We measure the absorption spectra of scattering dye solutions using the device. We show that the spectra are not affected by the presence of scattering, confirming that the method only measures the absorption of light that results in generation of heat. By comparing the photothermal spectra with the usual absorption spectra determined using commercial transmission spectrophotometers, we estimate the quantum yield of scattering of the sample. We discuss applications of the device for spectroscopic characterization of samples such as blood and gold nanoparticles that exhibit a complex behavior upon interaction with light.

  18. Online inspection of poultry carcasses using a visible/near-infrared spectrophotometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yud-Ren; Hruschka, William R.; Early, Howard

    1999-01-01

    The Instrumentation and Sensing Laboratory (ISL) has developed an industrial prototype diode-array visible/near-infrared (Vis/NIR) spectrophotometer system for inspecting poultry for diseased and defective carcasses on-line. The ISL design is based on the principle that wholesome and diseased and defective birds have different chemical compositions of tissues and may have different skin color. This visible/near- infrared spectrophotometer system has been tested off-line at 60 and 90 birds per minute. On-line trials of the visible/near-infrared chicken carcass inspection system were conducted during an 8-day period in a slaughter plant in New Holland, Pennsylvania, where spectra (470 - 960 nm) of 1174 normal and 576 abnormal (diseased and/or defective) chicken carcasses were measured. The instrument measured the spectra of veterinarian-selected carcasses as they passed on a processing line at a speed of 70 birds per minute. Classification models using principal component analysis as a data pretreatment for input into neural networks were able to classify the carcasses from the spectral data with a success rate of 95%. Data from 3 days can predict the subsequent two days' chickens with high accuracy. This accuracy was consistent with the results obtained previously on off-line studies. Thus, the method shows promise for separation of diseased and defective carcasses from wholesome carcasses in a partially automated inspection system. Details of the models using various training regimens are discussed.

  19. Novel spectrophotometer for the investigation of short term variability in stellar spectra.

    PubMed

    Stiff, T; Jeffers, S

    1978-06-01

    A variety of astronomical objects (e.g., O(f) stars, B(e) stars, optical counterparts of X-ray sources, etc.) exhibit emission line spectra. For some of these objects the emission line strengths are suspected as being variable (and possibly periodic) over time scales as short as minutes or less. A spectrophotometer has been built whose output signal is a measure of the line strength only. The spectrophotometer is used to look at the emission feature and the adjacent continuum in rapid succession by means of magnetic modulation of the electron image of the optical spectrum in an image tube, thus generating a modulated signal which is detected with a lockin amplifier. This detection technique essentially subtracts off an instrumental dark current signal due to sky background and the signal due to the continuum of the star giving a real time measure of the line strength only. The design of the instrument, its laboratory calibration, and some preliminary observational data are presented.

  20. Measurements of Nitrogen Dioxide Total Column Amounts using a Brewer Double Spectrophotometer in Direct Sun Mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cede, Alexander; Herman, Jay; Richter, Andreas; Krotkov, Nickolay; Burrows, John

    2006-01-01

    NO2 column amounts were measured for the past 2 years at Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, using a Brewer spectrometer in direct Sun mode. A new bootstrap method to calibrate the instrument is introduced and described. This technique selects the cleanest days from the database to obtain the solar reference spectrum. The main advantage for direct Sun measurements is that the conversion uncertainty from slant column to vertical column is negligible compared to the standard scattered light observations where it is typically on the order of 100% (2sigma) at polluted sites. The total 2sigma errors of the direct Sun retrieved column amounts decrease with solar zenith angle and are estimated at 0.2 to 0.6 Dobson units (DU, 1 DU approx. equal to 2.7 10(exp 16) molecules cm(exp -2)), which is more accurate than scattered light measurements for high NO2 amounts. Measured NO2 column amounts, ranging from 0 to 3 DU with a mean of 0.7 DU, show a pronounced daily course and a strong variability from day to day. The NO2 concentration typically increases from sunrise to noon. In the afternoon it decreases in summer and stays constant in winter. As expected from the anthropogenic nature of its source, NO2 amounts on weekends are significantly reduced. The measurements were compared to satellite retrievals from Scanning Image Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY). Satellite data give the same average NO2 column and show a seasonal cycle that is similar to the ground data in the afternoon. We show that NO2 must be considered when retrieving aerosol absorption properties, especially for situations with low aerosol optical depth.

  1. A Possibility Study on Gender Recognition Method Using Near Infrared Ray Scanning Spectrophotometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishino, Satoshi; Ohshima, Kenji

    Male and female recognition is necessary to make security stronger and when various statistics on the visitor are taken in commercial facilities and so on. The conventional method of male and female recognition is currently determined by using the person's appearance, the person's dress and in such cases, the way of walking, the foot pressure, the hair type. But, these characteristics can be intentionally changed by human intervention or design. The proposed method gets a difference in the male's and female's characteristics by taking absorbance characteristic of the fat distribution of the person's cheek by near infrared ray scanning spectrophotometer. This is a male and female recognition based on the new concept idea which this is used for. Consequently, this can be used to recognize a male from a female even if a male turns himself into the female intentionally (and vice versa), because this method involves biometrics authentication.

  2. Fourier-transform spectrophotometer for time-resolved emission measurements using a 100-point transient digitizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preses, Jack M.; Hall, Gregory E.; Muckerman, James T.; Sears, Trevor J.; Weston, Ralph E., Jr.; Guyot, Christian; Hanson, Jonathan C.; Flynn, George W.; Bernstein, Herbert J.

    1993-01-01

    An infrared time-resolved Fourier-transform emission spectrophotometer was constructed and its use demonstrated. The instrument is based on a commercial interferometer combined with a data acquisition system. Operation in a smooth scan mode and the use of a transient digitizer provides good time efficiency for data acquisition and reduces the need to maintain constant energy pulses for long periods of time. An entire 100-point time history of a single point of an interferogram is obtained from a single laser pulse and usable data can be obtained from 10 to 50 mirror scans. The experimental apparatus, data acquisition program, and data evaluation are reviewed. Time-resolved Fourier-transform spectroscopy is an efficient method of determining the dynamics of molecular reactions and relaxation.

  3. High sensitive pulse oximeter-spectrophotometer for laser-optical dosimetry in biology and medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asimov, M. M.; Asimov, R. M.; Rubinov, A. N.; Mamilov, S. A.; Plaksiy, Yu. S.

    2006-03-01

    High sensitive multi channel pulse oxymeter - spectrophotometer for control of the local tissue oxygen saturation is presented. Due to an original method of data storing and processing the accuracy of measurements 3-4 times are increased in compare with similar systems. This system is used for registration of the local changes of arterial blood saturation with oxygen under effect of low intensity laser radiation. It is shown that the photodissociation of oxyhemoglobin in cutaneous blood vessels play a dominant role in the mechanism of biostimulating and therapeutic effect of low intensity laser radiation. The results of experimental investigation in vivo the dependence of arterial oxygen blood saturation on temperature and the wavelength of laser radiation are presented. It is suggested that dosimetry for laser therapy could be base on regulation of local concentration of free oxygen in tissue.

  4. SphinX soft X-ray spectrophotometer: Science objectives, design and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gburek, S.; Sylwester, J.; Kowalinski, M.; Bakala, J.; Kordylewski, Z.; Podgorski, P.; Plocieniak, S.; Siarkowski, M.; Sylwester, B.; Trzebinski, W.; Kuzin, S. V.; Pertsov, A. A.; Kotov, Yu. D.; Farnik, F.; Reale, F.; Phillips, K. J. H.

    2011-06-01

    The goals and construction details of a new design Polish-led X-ray spectrophotometer are described. The instrument is aimed to observe emission from entire solar corona and is placed as a separate block within the Russian TESIS X- and EUV complex aboard the CORONAS-PHOTON solar orbiting observatory. SphinX uses silicon PIN diode detectors for high time resolution measurements of the solar spectra in the range 0.8-15 keV. Its spectral resolution allows for discerning more than hundred separate energy bands in this range. The instrument dynamic range extends two orders of magnitude below and above these representative for GOES. The relative and absolute accuracy of spectral measurements is expected to be better than few percent, as follows from extensive ground laboratory calibrations.

  5. Hemispheric asymmetries and seasonality of mean age of air in the lower stratosphere: Deep versus shallow branch of the Brewer-Dobson circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konopka, Paul; Ploeger, Felix; Tao, Mengchu; Birner, Thomas; Riese, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Based on multiannual simulations with the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere, (CLaMS) driven by ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis, we discuss hemispheric asymmetries and the seasonality of the mean age of air (AoA) in the lower stratosphere. First, the planetary wave forcing of the Brewer-Dobson circulation is quantified in terms of Eliassen Palm flux divergence calculated by using the isentropic coordinate θ. While the forcing of the deep branch at θ = 1000 K (around 10 hPa) has a clear maximum in each hemisphere during the respective winter, the shallow branch of the Brewer-Dobson circulation, i.e., between 100 and 70 hPa (380 < θ < 420 K), shows almost opposite seasonality in both hemispheres with a pronounced minimum between June and September in the Southern Hemisphere. Second, we decompose the time-tendency of AoA into the contributions of the residual circulation and of eddy mixing by analyzing the zonally averaged tracer continuity equation. In the tropical lower stratosphere between ±30°, the air becomes younger during boreal winter and older during boreal summer. During boreal winter, the decrease of AoA due to tropical upwelling outweighs aging by isentropic mixing. In contrast, weaker isentropic mixing outweighs an even weaker upwelling in boreal summer and fall making the air older during these seasons. Poleward of 60°, the deep branch locally increases AoA and eddy mixing locally decreases AoA with the strongest net decrease during spring. Eddy mixing in the Northern Hemisphere outweighs that in the Southern Hemisphere throughout the year.

  6. Assessing the Engagement, Learning, and Overall Experience of Students Operating an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer with Remote Access Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erasmus, Daniel J.; Brewer, Sharon E.; Cinel, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The use of internet-based technologies in the teaching of laboratories has emerged as a promising education tool. This study evaluated the effectiveness of using remote access technology to operate an atomic absorption spectrophotometer in analyzing the iron content in a crude myoglobin extract. Sixty-two students were surveyed on their level of…

  7. Sensitive determination of mercury by a miniaturized spectrophotometer after in situ single-drop microextraction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fangwen; Liu, Rui; Tan, Zhiqiang; Wen, Xiaodong; Zheng, Chengbin; Lv, Yi

    2010-11-15

    An in situ single-drop microextraction (SDME) method was developed for trace mercury determination by a miniaturized spectrophotometer, in which a simple and cheap light-emitting diode (LED) was employed as the light source, and a handheld charge coupled device (CCD) was served as the detector. A droplet of 0.006% dithizone-CCl(4) (m/v) was used as extraction phase and hanged on a rolled PTFE tube. LED light was adjusted carefully to pass through the centre of the droplet and the entrance slit of the CCD detector. The radiation intensities of 475 nm before and after SDME (I(0) and I(i)) were recorded for quantification. Under the optimum conditions, the system provided a linear range of 2-50 μg L(-1), with a correlation coefficient of 0.9983 and a limit of detection (3σ) of 0.2 μg L(-1). The enrichment factor was about 69. The present method showed the merits of high sensitivity, simplicity, rapidity, low reagent consumption and field analysis potential. Finally, this method was successfully applied for the determination of the total mercury in spiked tap water sample, spiked river water sample and certified reference material (GBW (E) 080393, simulated water). PMID:20696521

  8. A study of a sector spectrophotometer and auroral O+(2P-2D) emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swenson, G. R.

    1976-01-01

    The metastable O+(2P-2D) auroral emission was investigated. The neighboring OH contaminants and low intensity levels of the emission itself necessitated the evolution of an instrument capable of separating the emission from the contaminants and having a high sensitivity in the wavelength region of interest. A new type of scanning photometer was developed and its properties are discussed. The theoretical aspects of auroral electron interaction with atomic oxygen and the resultant O+(2P-2D) emissions were examined in conjunction with N2(+)1NEG emissions. Ground based measurements of O+(2P-2D) auroral emission intensities were made using the spatial scanning photometer (sector spectrophotometer). Simultaneous measurements of N2(+)1NEG sub 1,0 emission intensity were made in the same field of view using a tilting photometer. Time histories of the ratio of these two emissions made in the magnetic zenith during auroral breakup periods are given. Theories of I sub 7319/I sub 4278 of previous investigators were presented. A rocket measurement of N2(+)1NEG sub 0,0 and O+(2P-2D) emission in aurora was examined in detail and was found to agree with the ground based measurements. Theoretical examination resulted in the deduction of the electron impact efficiency generating O+(2P) and also suggests a large source of O+(2P) at low altitude. A possible source is charge exchange of N+(1S) with OI(3P).

  9. Determination of mercury by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometer in Tongkat Ali preparations obtained in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ang, Hooi-Hoon; Lee, Ee-Lin; Cheang, Hui-Seong

    2004-01-01

    The DCA (Drug Control Authority), Malaysia, has implemented the phase 3 registration of traditional medicines on 1 January 1992, with special emphasis on the quality, efficacy, and safety (including the presence of heavy metals) in all pharmaceutical dosage forms of traditional medicine preparations. As such, a total of 100 products in various pharmaceutical dosage forms of a herbal preparation, containing Tongkat Ali, were analyzed for mercury content using cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results showed that 36% of the above products possessed 0.52 to 5.30 ppm of mercury and, therefore, do not comply with the quality requirement for traditional medicines in Malaysia. Out of these 36 products, 5 products that possessed 1.05 to 4.41 ppm of mercury were in fact have already registered with the DCA, Malaysia. However, the rest of the products that contain 0.52 to 5.30 ppm of mercury still have not registered with the DCA, Malaysia. Although this study showed that only 64% of the products complied with the quality requirement for traditional medicines in Malaysia pertaining to mercury, they cannot be assumed safe from mercury contamination because of batch-to-batch inconsistency. PMID:15162849

  10. Optofluidic UV-Vis spectrophotometer for online monitoring of photocatalytic reactions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Tan, Furui; Zhao, Yu; Tsoi, Chi Chung; Fan, Xudong; Yu, Weixing; Zhang, Xuming

    2016-01-01

    On-chip integration of optical detection units into the microfluidic systems for online monitoring is highly desirable for many applications and is also well in line with the spirit of optofluidics technology-fusion of optics and microfluidics for advanced functionalities. This paper reports the construction of a UV-Vis spectrophotometer on a microreactor, and demonstrates the online monitoring of the photocatalytic degradations of methylene blue and methyl orange under different flow rates and different pH values by detecting the intensity change and/or the peak shift. The integrated device consists of a TiO2-coated glass substrate, a PDMS micro-sized reaction chamber and two flow cells. By comparing with the results of commercial equipment, we have found that the measuring range and the sensitivity are acceptable, especially when the transmittance is in the range of 0.01-0.9. This integrated optofluidic device can significantly cut down the test time and the sample volume, and would provide a versatile platform for real-time characterization of photochemical performance. Moreover, its online monitoring capability may enable to access the usually hidden information in biochemical reactions like intermediate products, time-dependent processes and reaction kinetics. PMID:27352840

  11. [Determination of soil exchangeable base cations by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer and extraction with ammonium acetate].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-ge; Xiao, Min; Dong, Yi-hua; Jiang, Yong

    2012-08-01

    A method to determine soil exchangeable calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), and sodium (Na) by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) and extraction with ammonium acetate was developed. Results showed that the accuracy of exchangeable base cation data with AAS method fits well with the national standard referential soil data. The relative errors for parallel samples of exchangeable Ca and Mg with 66 pair samples ranged from 0.02%-3.14% and 0.06%-4.06%, and averaged to be 1.22% and 1.25%, respectively. The relative errors for exchangeable K and Na with AAS and flame photometer (FP) ranged from 0.06%-8.39% and 0.06-1.54, and averaged to be 3.72% and 0.56%, respectively. A case study showed that the determination method for exchangeable base cations by using AAS was proven to be reliable and trustable, which could reflect the real situation of soil cation exchange properties in farmlands. PMID:23156790

  12. Monitoring of pre-frontal oxygen status in helicopter pilots using near-infrared spectrophotometers

    PubMed Central

    Kikukawa, Azusa; Kobayashi, Asao; Miyamoto, Yoshinori

    2008-01-01

    Background There are few in-flight studies of cognition-related cerebral oxygen status in helicopter pilots. Methods Four male helicopter pilots volunteered for nine sorties during visual flight in a BK117 and UH-60J. The pilots' pre-frontal oxy-hemoglobin (O2Hb) and deoxy-hemoglobin (HHb) concentration were continuously monitored from the right/left sections of the forehead using near-infrared spectrophotometers with a consideration of motion artifacts. Results The concentration of O2Hb progressively increased (13.98 μmol•L-1 as a maximum increased concentration) in both the right/left sections of the forehead from the basal level during the heightened cognitive demand of helicopter flight. There was comparatively little change (4.32 μmol•L-1 as a maximum increased concentration) in HHb concentration during measurement of helicopter flight. HHb changes were apparently not affected by a heightened cognitive demand of helicopter pilots. Conclusion These results demonstrate that near-infrared spectroscopy, especially O2Hb measurements, provides a sensitive method for the monitoring of cognitive demand (maneuvers) in helicopter pilots. PMID:18616829

  13. Design of a novel spectrophotometer for water quality monitor based on holography concave grating and CCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Zhong; Liu, Guodong; Zeng, Lvming; Huang, Zhen

    2011-11-01

    With the rapid development of the society and living standard, the water resources have been polluted more and more seriously, which is threatening the health of people and producing of the industry and agriculture. To protect the sustainable water resource, the monitoring of the water quality became an urgent task. There are some methods used to monitor the water quality, including the liquid chromatograph(LC), electrolysis method, electrochemical method, colorimetry method, atomic absorption spectrometric method, etc. But some drawbacks are existed in these methods. So, a fluorescence spectrophotometry method is adopted into this paper. And a novel water quality monitor(WQM) is designed. Meanwhile, in order to improve the spectral resolution and prevision, an improved spectrophotometer(SPM) based on holography concave (HC)grating is designed. In addition, the linear CCD with combined data acquisition (DAQ) card is used as the spectral detection system and virtual instrument(VI) technology based on LabVIEW is used to control the spectral acquisition and analysis. Experimental results show that the performances of the novel SPM for WQM are improved, its resolution can reach 2nm, the stray-light is less and the checking prevision of this WQM is higher than others. Therefore, the novel SPM for WQM has the potential value in the water quality monitoring and biochemical application.

  14. Design of a novel spectrophotometer for water quality monitor based on holography concave grating and CCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Zhong; Liu, Guodong; Zeng, Lvming; Huang, Zhen

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid development of the society and living standard, the water resources have been polluted more and more seriously, which is threatening the health of people and producing of the industry and agriculture. To protect the sustainable water resource, the monitoring of the water quality became an urgent task. There are some methods used to monitor the water quality, including the liquid chromatograph(LC), electrolysis method, electrochemical method, colorimetry method, atomic absorption spectrometric method, etc. But some drawbacks are existed in these methods. So, a fluorescence spectrophotometry method is adopted into this paper. And a novel water quality monitor(WQM) is designed. Meanwhile, in order to improve the spectral resolution and prevision, an improved spectrophotometer(SPM) based on holography concave (HC)grating is designed. In addition, the linear CCD with combined data acquisition (DAQ) card is used as the spectral detection system and virtual instrument(VI) technology based on LabVIEW is used to control the spectral acquisition and analysis. Experimental results show that the performances of the novel SPM for WQM are improved, its resolution can reach 2nm, the stray-light is less and the checking prevision of this WQM is higher than others. Therefore, the novel SPM for WQM has the potential value in the water quality monitoring and biochemical application.

  15. Optofluidic UV-Vis spectrophotometer for online monitoring of photocatalytic reactions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ning; Tan, Furui; Zhao, Yu; Tsoi, Chi Chung; Fan, Xudong; Yu, Weixing; Zhang, Xuming

    2016-01-01

    On-chip integration of optical detection units into the microfluidic systems for online monitoring is highly desirable for many applications and is also well in line with the spirit of optofluidics technology–fusion of optics and microfluidics for advanced functionalities. This paper reports the construction of a UV-Vis spectrophotometer on a microreactor, and demonstrates the online monitoring of the photocatalytic degradations of methylene blue and methyl orange under different flow rates and different pH values by detecting the intensity change and/or the peak shift. The integrated device consists of a TiO2-coated glass substrate, a PDMS micro-sized reaction chamber and two flow cells. By comparing with the results of commercial equipment, we have found that the measuring range and the sensitivity are acceptable, especially when the transmittance is in the range of 0.01–0.9. This integrated optofluidic device can significantly cut down the test time and the sample volume, and would provide a versatile platform for real-time characterization of photochemical performance. Moreover, its online monitoring capability may enable to access the usually hidden information in biochemical reactions like intermediate products, time-dependent processes and reaction kinetics. PMID:27352840

  16. Optofluidic UV-Vis spectrophotometer for online monitoring of photocatalytic reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ning; Tan, Furui; Zhao, Yu; Tsoi, Chi Chung; Fan, Xudong; Yu, Weixing; Zhang, Xuming

    2016-06-01

    On-chip integration of optical detection units into the microfluidic systems for online monitoring is highly desirable for many applications and is also well in line with the spirit of optofluidics technology–fusion of optics and microfluidics for advanced functionalities. This paper reports the construction of a UV-Vis spectrophotometer on a microreactor, and demonstrates the online monitoring of the photocatalytic degradations of methylene blue and methyl orange under different flow rates and different pH values by detecting the intensity change and/or the peak shift. The integrated device consists of a TiO2-coated glass substrate, a PDMS micro-sized reaction chamber and two flow cells. By comparing with the results of commercial equipment, we have found that the measuring range and the sensitivity are acceptable, especially when the transmittance is in the range of 0.01–0.9. This integrated optofluidic device can significantly cut down the test time and the sample volume, and would provide a versatile platform for real-time characterization of photochemical performance. Moreover, its online monitoring capability may enable to access the usually hidden information in biochemical reactions like intermediate products, time-dependent processes and reaction kinetics.

  17. Outdoor solar UVA dose assessment with EBT2 radiochromic film using spectrophotometer and densitometer measurements.

    PubMed

    Abukassem, I; Bero, M A

    2015-04-01

    Direct measurements of solar ultraviolet radiations (UVRs) have an important role in the protection of humans against UVR hazard. This work presents simple technique based on the application of EBT2 GAFCHROMIC(®) film for direct solar UVA dose assessment. It demonstrates the effects of different parts of the solar spectrum (UVB, visible and infrared) on performed UVA field measurements and presents the measurement uncertainty budget. The gradient of sunlight exposure level permitted the authors to establish the mathematical relationships between the measured solar UVA dose and two measured quantities: the first was the changes in spectral absorbance at the wavelength 633 nm (A633) and the second was the optical density (OD). The established standard relations were also applied to calculate the solar UVA dose variations during the whole day; 15 min of exposure each hour between 8:00 and 17:00 was recorded. Results show that both applied experimental methods, spectrophotometer absorbance and densitometer OD, deliver comparable figures for EBT2 solar UVA dose assessment with relative uncertainty of 11% for spectral absorbance measurements and 15% for OD measurements. PMID:25500756

  18. Euclid near infrared spectrophotometer instrument concept and first test results at the end of phase B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciaszek, Thierry; Ealet, Anne; Jahnke, Knud; Prieto, Eric; Barbier, Rémi; Mellier, Yannick; Costille, Anne; Ducret, Franck; Fabron, Christophe; Gimenez, Jean-Luc; Grange, Robert; Martin, Laurent; Rossin, Christelle; Pamplona, Tony; Vola, Pascal; Clémens, Jean Claude; Smadja, Gérard; Amiaux, Jérome; Barrière, Jean Christophe; Berthe, Michel; De Rosa, Adriano; Franceschi, Enrico; Morgante, Gianluca; Trifoglio, Massimo; Valenziano, Luca; Bonoli, Carlotta; Bortoletto, Favio; D'Alessandro, Maurizio; Corcione, Leonardo; Ligori, Sebastiano; Garilli, Bianca; Riva, Marco; Grupp, Frank; Vogel, Carolin; Hormuth, Felix; Seidel, Gregor; Wachter, Stefanie; Diaz, Jose Javier; Grañena, Ferran; Padilla, Cristobal; Toledo, Rafael; Lilje, Per B.; Solheim, Bjarte G. B.; Toulouse-Aastrup, Corinne; Andersen, Michael; Holmes, Warren; Israelsson, Ulf; Seiffert, Michael; Weber, Carissa; Waczynski, Augustyn; Laureijs, René J.; Racca, Giuseppe; Salvignol, Jean-Christophe; Strada, Paolo

    2014-08-01

    The Euclid mission objective is to understand why the expansion of the Universe is accelerating by mapping the geometry of the dark Universe by investigating the distance-redshift relationship and tracing the evolution of cosmic structures. The Euclid project is part of ESA's Cosmic Vision program with its launch planned for 2020. The NISP (Near Infrared Spectro-Photometer) is one of the two Euclid instruments and is operating in the near-IR spectral region (0.9-2μm) as a photometer and spectrometer. The instrument is composed of: - a cold (135K) optomechanical subsystem consisting of a SiC structure, an optical assembly (corrector and camera lens), a filter wheel mechanism, a grism wheel mechanism, a calibration unit and a thermal control system - a detection subsystem based on a mosaic of 16 Teledyne HAWAII2RG cooled to 95K with their front-end readout electronic cooled to 140K, integrated on a mechanical focal plane structure made with Molybdenum and Aluminum. The detection subsystem is mounted on the optomechanical subsystem structure - a warm electronic subsystem (280K) composed of a data processing / detector control unit and of an instrument control unit that interfaces with the spacecraft via a 1553 bus for command and control and via Spacewire links for science data This presentation describes the architecture of the instrument at the end of the phase B (Preliminary Design Review), the expected performance, the technological key challenges and preliminary test results obtained on a detection system demonstration model.

  19. Improved retrieval of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) column densities by means of MKIV Brewer spectrophotometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diémoz, H.; Siani, A. M.; Redondas, A.; Savastiouk, V.; McElroy, C. T.

    2014-07-01

    A new algorithm to retrieve nitrogen dioxide (NO2) column densities using MKIV Brewer spectrophotometers is described. The method includes several improvements, such as a more recent spectroscopic dataset, the reduction of the measurement noise and interferences by other atmospheric species and instrumental settings, and a better determination of the air mass enhancement factors. The technique was tested during an ad-hoc calibration campaign at the high-altitude site of Izaña (Tenerife, Spain) and provided results compatible to those obtained from a spectrometer associated to the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC), with deviations of less than 0.02 DU. To determine the extraterrestrial constant, an easily implementable generalisation of the standard Langley technique was developed which takes into account the daytime linear drift of nitrogen dioxide due to the photochemistry. Estimates obtained from different observation geometries, by collecting the light from either the sun or the zenith sky, were found to be comparable within the measurement uncertainty. The latter was thoroughly determined by using a Monte Carlo technique. Finally, a method to retrieve additional products such as the degree of linear polarisation of the zenith sky and the oxygen dimer optical depth is presented. The new algorithm is backward-compatible, thus allowing for the reprocessing of historical datasets.

  20. The Soft X-ray Spectrophotometer SphinX for the CORONAS-Photon Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylwester, Janusz; Kowalinski, Miroslaw; Szymon, Gburek; Bakala, Jaroslaw; Kuzin, Sergey; Kotov, Yury; Farnik, Frantisek; Reale, Fabio

    The purpose, construction details and calibration results of the new design, Polish-led solar X-ray spectrophotometer SphinX will be presented. The instrument constitutes a part of the Russian TESIS X-ray and EUV complex aboard the forthcoming CORONAS-Photon solar mission to be launched later in 2008. SphinX uses Si-PIN detectors for high time resolution (down to 0.01 s) measurements of solar spectra in the energy range between 0.5 keV and 15 keV. The spectral resolution allows separating 256 individual energy channels in this range with particular groups of lines clearly distinguishable. Unprecedented accuracy of the instrument calibration at the XACT (Palermo) and BESSY (Berlin) synchrotron will allow for establishing the solar soft X-ray photometric reference system. The cross-comparison between SphinX and the other instruments presently in orbit like XRT on Hinode, RHESSI and GOES X-ray monitor, will allow for a precise determination of the coronal emission measure and temperature during both very low and very high activity periods. Examples of the detectors' ground calibration results as well as the calculated synthetic spectra will be presented. The operation of the instrument while in orbit will be discussed allowing for suggestions from other groups to be still included in mission planning.

  1. Optofluidic UV-Vis spectrophotometer for online monitoring of photocatalytic reactions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Tan, Furui; Zhao, Yu; Tsoi, Chi Chung; Fan, Xudong; Yu, Weixing; Zhang, Xuming

    2016-06-29

    On-chip integration of optical detection units into the microfluidic systems for online monitoring is highly desirable for many applications and is also well in line with the spirit of optofluidics technology-fusion of optics and microfluidics for advanced functionalities. This paper reports the construction of a UV-Vis spectrophotometer on a microreactor, and demonstrates the online monitoring of the photocatalytic degradations of methylene blue and methyl orange under different flow rates and different pH values by detecting the intensity change and/or the peak shift. The integrated device consists of a TiO2-coated glass substrate, a PDMS micro-sized reaction chamber and two flow cells. By comparing with the results of commercial equipment, we have found that the measuring range and the sensitivity are acceptable, especially when the transmittance is in the range of 0.01-0.9. This integrated optofluidic device can significantly cut down the test time and the sample volume, and would provide a versatile platform for real-time characterization of photochemical performance. Moreover, its online monitoring capability may enable to access the usually hidden information in biochemical reactions like intermediate products, time-dependent processes and reaction kinetics.

  2. Evaluation of the Guided Wave Model 200 Scanning Spectrophotometer for plutonium (VI) determination

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, L.F.; Temer, D.J.; Lujan, E.

    1991-04-01

    We measured the plutonium(VI) in 2M HNO{sub 3} using a Model 200 Guided Wave Scanning Spectrophotometer. In evaluating this instrument for use with the plutonium peak at 831 nm, we determined its precision, stability, and resolution. Chloride and other anions that can strongly complex plutonium must be removed before assay. Plutonium solutions that are free of these anions are diluted with 2M HNO{sub 3} and distributed into calibrated 50-mL volumetric flasks for analysis. The plutonium is oxidized by addition of ceric ammonium nitrate, diluted to 50 mL, and the net peak absorbance at 831 nm measured. The Guided Wave instrument does not completely resolve the plutonium(VI) peak at 831 nm. Poor resolution of the peak results in a lower apparent molar absorptivity (less sensitivity) and diminished compliance with Beer's Law, requiring higher order fits for calibration data. Also small changes in measurements caused by spectral drift of the instrument do not significantly limit its use on this system. Precisions of 0.07% relative for absorbance measurements enable us to quantitate changes resulting from temperature and nitric acid concentration. Absorbances from standards are used to generate a quadratic fit of the calibration data. We then use the quadratic coefficients combined with sample absorbances to calculate the plutonium content of samples. Our calibration data have precisions of 0.15% relative. Compared with coulometric results, assay recoveries are 100.0% with a relative standard deviation of 0.2% for samples (both oxides and nitrates). Once system variables for the chemistry are controlled, the instrument can successfully measure total plutonium in samples. We discuss some system parameters, including nitric acid concentration and temperature at varying plutonium concentrations. Finally, we describe a procedure to assay plutonium content in plutonium oxide and plutonium nitrate solutions. 10 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. The upward branch of the Brewer-Dobson circulation quantified by tropical stratospheric water vapor and carbon monoxide measurements from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minschwaner, K.; Su, H.; Jiang, J. H.

    2016-03-01

    The vertical distributions of water vapor (H2O) and carbon monoxide (CO) in the tropical lower stratosphere are controlled largely by their mixing ratios near the tropopause and by ascending motions as part of the Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC). The upward propagation of seasonal variations imprinted on H2O and CO vertical profiles, often referred to as the tropical "tape recorder," can be used to derive the mean vertical velocity, w*>¯, in this region of the lower stratosphere where quasi-horizontal mixing is not strong enough to erase the seasonal tape recorder signals. We used Aura Microwave Limb Sounder observations of the tropical tape recorders from 2004 to 2014 to derive values of w*>¯ at pressures between 90 and 16 hPa (about 18 to 28 km altitude). Mean vertical profiles of w*>¯ are consistent with calculated velocities derived from net radiative heating rates based on observed temperature, humidity, cloud, and trace gas amounts. Temporal variations in w*>¯ are dominated by a quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) and seasonal cycles, with maximum upwelling coinciding with easterly phases of the QBO in zonal wind shear and during the November-December period of the seasonal cycle. Both the QBO and annual modes emphasize the importance of wave phenomena in modulating the strength of tropical upwelling in the BDC. Interannual anomalies in w*>¯ are correlated with variations in the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), with enhanced stratospheric upwelling during El Niño phases and reduced upwelling during La Niña. A small decreasing linear trend (~6%/decade) in w*>¯ is observed from 2005 to 2014, although confidence is low in identifying such a trend as part of a long-term change due to the influence of ENSO over this period.

  4. The Role of Gravity Waves from Severe US Convection in Driving the Brewer-Dobson Circulation Using a Model with Realistic Thermodynamic Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephan, C. C.; Alexander, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    An inter-model comparison of the annual-mean upward mass flux at 70 hPa in comprehensive chemistry-climate models shows reasonably good agreement on the total strength of the Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC) and its trend in the 21st century, but there is large variability in terms of the relative contributions by parameterized gravity waves (GWs) versus resolved Rossby waves. This model dependency presents a major weakness in our current understanding of the BDC and can partly be attributed to deficiencies in non-orographic GW drag parameterizations. We quantify the contribution of small-scale GWs from summer US storm systems to the BDC using a high-resolution, GW-resolving modeling approach. A nonlinear idealized dry version of the WRF model is forced with high-resolution latent heating/cooling derived from precipitation observations. For several case studies, it is shown that this model produces an excellent quantitative comparison to waves observed by satellite and captures the intermittency associated with convective sources of strong GW events. We model the entire month of June 2014 over the continental US. The contribution of GWs from summer US storm systems to the BDC is quantified and compared to MERRA reanalysis data and the CAM5 model. Non-orographic GW drag parameterizations used in large-scale models are poorly constrained by observational validation and commonly have tuning parameters with large uncertainties. In particular, capturing the high intermittency of the GW field presents an ongoing important challenge, as a given averaged momentum flux carried by a large number of small-amplitude GWs will produce a drag at much higher altitudes than that produced by the same averaged flux carried by a small number of high-amplitude GWs. In studying the relationship between precipitation strength, GW momentum flux amplitude and magnitude of the stratospheric GW drag, we highlight the potential for improving gravity wave drag parameterizations in global models.

  5. On-line process applications development using a fiber optic-based Hewlett-Packard 8452A spectrophotometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetter, Hans; Ponstingl, Mike

    1995-01-01

    The introduction of fiber optic accessories for the Hewlett-Packard 8452A diode array spectrophotometer has greatly expanded its utility and, in particular, has enhanced its use as a process application development tool. There is a clear trend toward fiber optic based process photometric analyzers. With the advent of spectroscopy using fiber optics, the stage is set for a logical transition of laboratory developed applications to process implementation. This is particularly true when both the laboratory spectrophotometric and the process photometric analyzers are capable of using the same sensors. This paper presents an example of an application development and its transition to process implementation.

  6. On-line process applications development using a fiber-optic based Hewlett-Packard 8452A spectrophotometer

    SciTech Connect

    Vetter, H.; Ponstingl, M.

    1995-12-31

    The introduction of fiber optic accessories for the Hewlett-Packard 8452A diode array spectrophotometer has greatly expanded its utility and, in particular, has enhanced its use as a process application development tool. There is a clear trend toward fiber optic based process photometric analyzers. With the advent of spectroscopy using fiber optics, the stage is set for a logical transition of laboratory developed applications to process implementation. This is particularly true when both the laboratory spectrophotometric and the process photometric analyzers are capable of using the same sensors. This paper presents an example of an application development and its transition to process implementation.

  7. Comparison of UV-B measurements performed with a Brewer spectrophotometer and a new UVB-1 broad band detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bais, Alkiviadis F.; Zerefos, Christos S.; Meleti, Charicleia; Ziomas, Ioannis C.

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of the UV-B erythemal dose, based on solar spectra acquired with a Brewer spectrophotometer at Thessaloniki, Greece, are compared to measurements performed with the recently introduced, by the Yankee Environmental Systems, (Robertson type) broad band solar UV-B detector. The spectral response function of this detector, when applied to the Brewer spectral UV-B measurements, results in remarkably comparable estimates of the erythemal UV-B dose. The two instruments provide similar information on the UV-B dose when they are cross-examined under a variety of meteorological and atmospheric conditions and over the a large range of solar zenith angles and total ozone.

  8. Assessing the engagement, learning, and overall experience of students operating an atomic absorption spectrophotometer with remote access technology.

    PubMed

    Erasmus, Daniel J; Brewer, Sharon E; Cinel, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The use of internet-based technologies in the teaching of laboratories has emerged as a promising education tool. This study evaluated the effectiveness of using remote access technology to operate an atomic absorption spectrophotometer in analyzing the iron content in a crude myoglobin extract. Sixty-two students were surveyed on their level of engagement, learning, and overall experience. Feedback from students suggests that the use of remote access technology is effective in teaching students the principles of chemical analysis by atomic absorption spectroscopy.

  9. Water Quality Data at High Time and Space Resolution in the Field : Expanding Spectrophotometer Capabilities with Arduino Driven Autosamplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birgand, F.; Maxwell, B.; Aveni-Deforge, K.; Etheridge, R.

    2014-12-01

    Availability of continuous hydrological data (e.g. flow rates, rainfall, etc.) for over a century has shaped our current understanding of the hydrological cycle. Until now, there has been no equivalence for water quality. Optics based systems now open the possibility to obtain data at a temporal resolution in par with that commonly used in quantitative hydrology (e.g. 15 min - 1 hr). We show that absorbance measured in the field using spectrophotometers can be statistically correlated with light- and none- absorbing constituents in the water. Water quality rating curves for 6-12 parameters can be derived as such using a single spectrophotometer, opening access to continuous water quality data for many parameters at a time. We then show that attaching such probe in the field with multiplexed pumping systems driven by Arduinos can expand the high temporal resolution capabilities to space as our systems can sample up to 12 different water sources located within 15 m of the water quality probe.

  10. Comparison of Three Near Infrared Spectrophotometers for Infestation Detection in Wild Blueberries Using Multivariate Calibration Models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) method for automated non-destructive detection of insect infestation internal to small fruit is desirable because of the zero-to-zero tolerance of the fresh and processed fruit markets. Three NIRS instruments: the Ocean Optics SD2000, the Perten DA7000 and the Ori...

  11. On the reduced lifetime of nitrous oxide due to climate change induced acceleration of the Brewer-Dobson circulation as simulated by the MPI Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kracher, D.; Manzini, E.; Reick, C. H.; Schultz, M. G.; Stein, O.

    2014-12-01

    Greenhouse gas induced climate change will modify the physical conditions of the atmosphere. One of the projected changes is an acceleration of the Brewer-Dobson circulation in the stratosphere, as it has been shown in many model studies. This change in the stratospheric circulation consequently bears an effect on the transport and distribution of atmospheric components such as N2O. Since N2O is involved in ozone destruction, a modified distribution of N2O can be of importance for ozone chemistry. N2O is inert in the troposphere and decays only in the stratosphere. Thus, changes in the exchange between troposphere and stratosphere can also affect the stratospheric sink of N2O, and consequently its atmospheric lifetime. N2O is a potent greenhouse gas with a global warming potential of currently approximately 300 CO2-equivalents in a 100-year perspective. A faster decay in atmospheric N2O mixing ratios, i.e. a decreased atmospheric lifetime of N2O, will also reduce its global warming potential. In order to assess the impact of climate change on atmospheric circulation and implied effects on the distribution and lifetime of atmospheric N2O, we apply the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model, MPI-ESM. MPI-ESM consists of the atmospheric general circulation model ECHAM, the land surface model JSBACH, and MPIOM/HAMOCC representing ocean circulation and ocean biogeochemistry. Prognostic atmospheric N2O concentrations in MPI-ESM are determined by land N2O emissions, ocean-atmosphere N2O exchange and atmospheric tracer transport. As stratospheric chemistry is not explicitly represented in MPI-ESM, stratospheric decay rates of N2O are prescribed from a MACC MOZART simulation. Increasing surface temperatures and CO2 concentrations in the stratosphere impact atmospheric circulation differently. Thus, we conduct a series of transient runs with the atmospheric model of MPI-ESM to isolate different factors governing a shift in atmospheric circulation. From those transient

  12. Signal-to-noise optimization and evaluation of a home-made visible diode-array spectrophotometer

    PubMed Central

    Raimundo, Jr., Ivo M.; Pasquini, Celio

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a simple low-cost multichannel visible spectrophotometer built with an RL512G EGG-Reticon photodiode array. A symmetric Czerny-Turner optical design was employed; instrument control was via a single-board microcomputer based on the 8085 Intel microprocessor. Spectral intensity data are stored in the single-board's RAM and then transferred to an IBM-AT 3865X compatible microcomputer through a RS-232C interface. This external microcomputer processes the data to recover transmittance, absorbance or relative intensity of the spectra. The signal-to-noise ratio and dynamic range were improved by using variable integration times, which increase during the same scan; and by the use of either weighted or unweighted sliding average of consecutive diodes. The instrument is suitable for automatic methods requiring quasi-simultaneous multiwavelength detections, such as multivariative calibration and flow-injection gradient scan techniques. PMID:18924979

  13. Optical characterization of ex-vivo axillary lymph nodes of breast-cancer patients using a custom-built spectrophotometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampathkumar, Ashwin; Saegusa-Beecroft, Emi; Mamou, Jonathan; Chitnis, Parag V.; Machi, Junji; Feleppa, Ernest J.

    2014-03-01

    Quantitative photoacoustics is emerging as a new hybrid modality to investigate diseases and cells in human pathology and cytology studies. Optical absorption of light is the predominant mechanism behind the photoacoustic effect. Therefore, a need exits to characterize the optical properties of specimens and to identify the relevant operating wavelengths for photoacoustic imaging. We have developed a custom low-cost spectrophotometer to measure the optical properties of human axillary lymph nodes dissected for breast-cancer staging. Optical extinction curves of positive and negative nodes were determined in the spectral range of 400 to 1000 nm. We have developed a model to estimate tissue optical properties, taking into account the role of fat and saline. Our results enabled us to select the optimal optical wavelengths for maximizing the imaging contrast between metastatic and noncancerous tissue in axillary lymph nodes.

  14. A New High-sensitivity solar X-ray Spectrophotometer SphinX:early operations and databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gburek, Szymon; Sylwester, Janusz; Kowalinski, Miroslaw; Siarkowski, Marek; Bakala, Jaroslaw; Podgorski, Piotr; Trzebinski, Witold; Plocieniak, Stefan; Kordylewski, Zbigniew; Kuzin, Sergey; Farnik, Frantisek; Reale, Fabio

    The Solar Photometer in X-rays (SphinX) is an instrument operating aboard Russian CORONAS-Photon satellite. A short description of this unique instrument will be presented and its unique capabilities discussed. SphinX is presently the most sensitive solar X-ray spectrophotometer measuring solar spectra in the energy range above 1 keV. A large archive of SphinX mea-surements has already been collected. General access to these measurements is possible. The SphinX data repositories contain lightcurves, spectra, and photon arrival time measurements. The SphinX data cover nearly continuously the period since the satellite launch on January 30, 2009 up to the end-of November 2009. Present instrument status, data formats and data access methods will be shown. An overview of possible new science coming from SphinX data analysis will be discussed.

  15. Normal incidence spectrophotometer using high density transmission grating technology and highly efficiency silicon photodiodes for absolute solar EUV irradiance measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogawa, H. S.; Mcmullin, D.; Judge, D. L.; Korde, R.

    1992-01-01

    New developments in transmission grating and photodiode technology now make it possible to realize spectrometers in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral region (wavelengths less than 1000 A) which are expected to be virtually constant in their diffraction and detector properties. Time dependent effects associated with reflection gratings are eliminated through the use of free standing transmission gratings. These gratings together with recently developed and highly stable EUV photodiodes have been utilized to construct a highly stable normal incidence spectrophotometer to monitor the variability and absolute intensity of the solar 304 A line. Owing to its low weight and compactness, such a spectrometer will be a valuable tool for providing absolute solar irradiance throughout the EUV. This novel instrument will also be useful for cross-calibrating other EUV flight instruments and will be flown on a series of Hitchhiker Shuttle Flights and on SOHO. A preliminary version of this instrument has been fabricated and characterized, and the results are described.

  16. Simultaneous detection of the absorption spectrum and refractive index ratio with a spectrophotometer: monitoring contaminants in bioethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontturi, V.; Hyvärinen, S.; García, A.; Carmona, R.; Murzin, D. Yu; Mikkola, J.-P.; Peiponen, K.-E.

    2011-05-01

    The optical properties of a biofuel resulting from the fungi-treated lignocellulosic biomass in an ethanol matrix were studied. The matrix simulates the case that the bioethanol is contaminated by sugars, water and colour pigments that reduce the quality of the biofuel and compromise the combustion process. It is suggested that by applying a spectrophotometer only, it is possible to obtain valid information, i.e. the spectral features of the contaminants as well as the refractive index ratio of bioethanol. This allows for simultaneous purity and density detection of biomass-derived liquids or liquid biofuels, in comparison to a reference representing an ideal bioethanol (pure ethyl alcohol, ethanol of 99.5% purity (v/v)).

  17. Indication of a Near Surface Cloud Layer on Venus from Reanalysis of Venera 13/14 Spectrophotometer Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grieger, B.; Ignatiev, N.; Hoekzema, N.; Keller, H. U.

    2003-12-01

    In 1982, Venera 13 and 14 reached the surface of Venus as the last, most developed probes of the Venera lander series. During the descent, the spec\\-tro\\-pho\\-to\\-me\\-ter measured the radiance inside the atmosphere at different directions and wavelengths. In January 2005, the Descent Imager/Spectral Radiometer (DISR) on board the Huygens probe will make similar observations --- albeit at higher spatial and spectral resolution --- during its descent through Titan's atmosphere. To retrieve the optical properties from DISR data, the Titan Inverse Radiation Model ({\\sf T!RM}) has been developed. Deep in an optically thick atmosphere like Venus', the volume extinction coefficient can approximately be estimated from zenith and nadir radiances. The respective analysis of Venera spectrophotometer data at high vertical resolution yields a pronounced peak of extinction 1--2 km above the surface of Venus. To check wether this peak could be an artefact due to the neglection of the near surface in the analytical approximation applied, we alternatively reconstruct the extinction profile with {\\sf T!RM}. The radiative transfer computations imply assimilation of Venera 14 measurements at 705 nm and take into account the surface considering different albedo values. The modeled extinction profiles differ only marginally from the analytical approximation (cf. figure), supporting the indication of a pronounced layer of increased extinction, possibly due to clouds. The peak 1--2 km above the surface shows also up for Venera 13 data and over the complete observed wavelength range of 480--1140 nm. This work was supported by the German Aerospace Center (DLR), contract number 50 OH 98044.

  18. Modified calibration procedures for a Yankee Environmental System UVB-1 biometer based on spectral measurements with a brewer spectrophotometer.

    PubMed

    Vilaplana, José M; Cachorro, Victoria E; Sorribas, Mar; Luccini, Eduardo; de Frutos, Angel M; Berjón, Alberto; de la Morena, Benito

    2006-01-01

    The calibration of the erythemal irradiance measured by a Yankee Environmental System (YES) UVB-1 biometer is presented using two methods of calibration with a wide range of experimental solar zenith angles (SZAs) and ozone values. The calibration is performed through simultaneous spectral measurements by a calibrated double-monochromator Brewer MK-III spectrophotometer at "El Arenosillo" station, located in southwestern Spain. Because the range of spectral measurements of the Brewer spectrophotometer is 290-363 nm, a previously validated radiative transfer model was used to account for the erythemal contribution between 363 and 400 nm. Both methods are recommended by the World Meteorological Organization and we present and discuss here a wide range of results and features given by modified procedures applied to these two general methods. As is well established, the calibration factor for this type of radiometric system is dependent on atmospheric conditions, the most important of which are the ozone content and the SZA. Although the first method is insensitive to these two factors, we analyze this behavior in terms of the range used for the SZA and the use of two different mathematical approaches for its determination. The second method shows the dependence on SZA and ozone content and, thus, a polynomial as a function of SZA or a matrix including SZA and ozone content were determined as general calibration factors for the UV radiometric system. We must note that the angular responses of the YES radiometer and Brewer spectroradiometer have not been considered, because of the difficulty in correcting them. The results show in detail the advantages and drawbacks (and the corresponding associated error) given by the different approaches used for the determination of these calibration coefficients.

  19. X-ray spectrophotometer SphinX and particle spectrometer STEP-F of the satellite experiment CORONAS-PHOTON. Preliminary results of the joint data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudnik, O. V.; Podgorski, P.; Sylwester, J.; Gburek, S.; Kowalinski, M.; Siarkowski, M.; Plocieniak, S.; Bakala, J.

    2012-04-01

    A joint analysis is carried out of data obtained with the help of the solar X-ray SphinX spectrophotometer and the electron and proton satellite telescope STEP-F in May 2009 in the course of the scientific space experiment CORONAS-PHOTON. In order to determine the energies and particle types, in the analysis of spectrophotometer records data are used on the intensities of electrons, protons, and secondary γ-radiation, obtained by the STEP-F telescope, which was located in close proximity to the SphinX spectrophotometer. The identical reaction of both instruments is noted at the intersection of regions of the Brazilian magnetic anomaly and the Earth's radiation belts. It is shown that large area photodiodes, serving as sensors of the X-ray spectrometer, reliably record electron fluxes of low and intermediate energies, as well as fluxes of the secondary gamma radiation from construction materials of detector modules, the TESIS instrument complex, and the spacecraft itself. The dynamics of electron fluxes, recorded by the SphinX spectrophotometer in the vicinity of a weak geomagnetic storm, supplements the information about the processes of radial diffusion of electrons, which was studied using the STEP-F telescope.

  20. An improved algorithm for the determination of aerosol optical depth in the ultraviolet spectral range from Brewer spectrophotometer observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellitto, P.; di Sarra, A.; Siani, A. M.

    2006-10-01

    Methods to derive aerosol optical depth in the UV spectral range from ground-based remote-sensing stations equipped with Brewer spectrophotometers have been recently developed. In this study a modified Langley plot method has been implemented to retrieve aerosol optical depth from direct sun Brewer measurements. The method uses measurements over an extended range of atmospheric airmasses obtained with two different neutral density filters, and accounts for short-term variations of total ozone, derived from the same direct sun observations. The improved algorithm has been applied to data collected with a Brewer mark IV, operational in Rome, Italy, and with a Brewer mark III, operational in Lampedusa, Italy, in the Mediterranean. The efficiency of the improved algorithm has been tested comparing the number of determinations of the extraterrestrial constant against those obtained with a standard Langley plot procedure. The improved method produces a larger number of reliable Langley plots, allowing for a better statistical characterization of the extraterrestrial constant and a better study of its temporal variability. The values of aerosol optical depth calculated in Rome and Lampedusa compare well with simultaneous determinations in the 416-440 nm interval derived from MFRSR and CIMEL measurements.

  1. Intersstellar absorption lines between 2000 and 3000 A in nearby stars observed with BUSS. [Balloon Borne Ultraviolet Spectrophotometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Boer, K. S.; Lenhart, H.; Van Der Hucht, K. A.; Kamperman, T. M.; Kondo, Y.

    1986-01-01

    Spectra obtained between 2000 and 3000 A with the Balloon Borne Ultraviolet Spectrophotometer (BUSS) payload were examined for interstellar absorption lines. In bright stars, with spectral types between O9V and F5V, such lines were measured of Mg I, Mg II, Cr II, Mn II, Fe II and Zn II, with Cr II and Zn II data of especially high quality. Column densities were derived and interstellar abundances were determined for the above species. It was found that metal depletion increases with increasing E(B-V); Fe was most affected and Zn showed a small depletion for E(B-V) greater than 0.3 towards Sco-Oph. The metal column densities, derived for Alpha-And, Kappa-Dra, Alpha-Com, Alpha-Aql, and 29 Cyg were used to infer N(H I). It was shown that the ratio of Mg I to Na I is instrumental in determining the ionization structure along each line of sight. The spectra of Aql stars confirms the presence of large gas densities near Alpha-Oph. Moreover, data indicated that the Rho-Oph N(H I) value needs to be altered to 35 x 10 to the 20th/sq cm, based on observed ion ratios and analysis of the Copernicus L-alpha profile.

  2. Improved fiberoptic spectrophotometer

    DOEpatents

    Tans, P.P.; Lashof, D.A.

    1985-04-02

    The present invention allows for accurate spectrophotmetric comparison of the Raman scattering from a sample gas with the Raman scattering from a known gas via a novel fiber optic network. The need for complicated electronic of optical circuit balancing, control, or error compensation circuitry is eliminated. The laser cavity is split into two regions, one of which houses the plasma discharge and produces laser power, and the other of which is adapted to house tubes containing the gas samples. Light from the laser source is beamed simultaneously through samples of the reference gas and the unknown gas, and Raman-scattered light is emitted. The Raman-scattered light from the known and unknown mixtures is then alternately passed through a fiber optic network where the various wavelengths are spatially mixed. The mixed light is then passed into a system of light detectors, each of which are adapted to measure one of the wavelengths of light representing a constituent element of the gases. When the test is complete, each gas sample can be assigned a Raman-scattered profile from the data consisting of the ratios each of the constituent elements bear to each other. (LEW)

  3. An in-line spectrophotometer on a centrifugal microfluidic platform for real-time protein determination and calibration.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhaoxiong; Zhang, Dongying; Wang, Guanghui; Tang, Minghui; Dong, Yumin; Zhang, Yixin; Ho, Ho-Pui; Zhang, Xuping

    2016-09-21

    In this paper, an in-line, low-cost, miniature and portable spectrophotometric detection system is presented and used for fast protein determination and calibration in centrifugal microfluidics. Our portable detection system is configured with paired emitter and detector diodes (PEDD), where the light beam between both LEDs is collimated with enhanced system tolerance. It is the first time that a physical model of PEDD is clearly presented, which could be modelled as a photosensitive RC oscillator. A portable centrifugal microfluidic system that contains a wireless port in real-time communication with a smartphone has been built to show that PEDD is an effective strategy for conducting rapid protein bioassays with detection performance comparable to that of a UV-vis spectrophotometer. The choice of centrifugal microfluidics offers the unique benefits of highly parallel fluidic actuation at high accuracy while there is no need for a pump, as inertial forces are present within the entire spinning disc and accurately controlled by varying the spinning speed. As a demonstration experiment, we have conducted the Bradford assay for bovine serum albumin (BSA) concentration calibration from 0 to 2 mg mL(-1). Moreover, a novel centrifugal disc with a spiral microchannel is proposed for automatic distribution and metering of the sample to all the parallel reactions at one time. The reported lab-on-a-disc scheme with PEDD detection may offer a solution for high-throughput assays, such as protein density calibration, drug screening and drug solubility measurement that require the handling of a large number of reactions in parallel. PMID:27531134

  4. An in-line spectrophotometer on a centrifugal microfluidic platform for real-time protein determination and calibration.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhaoxiong; Zhang, Dongying; Wang, Guanghui; Tang, Minghui; Dong, Yumin; Zhang, Yixin; Ho, Ho-Pui; Zhang, Xuping

    2016-09-21

    In this paper, an in-line, low-cost, miniature and portable spectrophotometric detection system is presented and used for fast protein determination and calibration in centrifugal microfluidics. Our portable detection system is configured with paired emitter and detector diodes (PEDD), where the light beam between both LEDs is collimated with enhanced system tolerance. It is the first time that a physical model of PEDD is clearly presented, which could be modelled as a photosensitive RC oscillator. A portable centrifugal microfluidic system that contains a wireless port in real-time communication with a smartphone has been built to show that PEDD is an effective strategy for conducting rapid protein bioassays with detection performance comparable to that of a UV-vis spectrophotometer. The choice of centrifugal microfluidics offers the unique benefits of highly parallel fluidic actuation at high accuracy while there is no need for a pump, as inertial forces are present within the entire spinning disc and accurately controlled by varying the spinning speed. As a demonstration experiment, we have conducted the Bradford assay for bovine serum albumin (BSA) concentration calibration from 0 to 2 mg mL(-1). Moreover, a novel centrifugal disc with a spiral microchannel is proposed for automatic distribution and metering of the sample to all the parallel reactions at one time. The reported lab-on-a-disc scheme with PEDD detection may offer a solution for high-throughput assays, such as protein density calibration, drug screening and drug solubility measurement that require the handling of a large number of reactions in parallel.

  5. Image-based ELISA on an activated polypropylene microtest plate--a spectrophotometer-free low cost assay technique.

    PubMed

    Parween, Shahila; Nahar, Pradip

    2013-10-15

    In this communication, we report ELISA technique on an activated polypropylene microtest plate (APPµTP) as an illustrative example of a low cost diagnostic assay. Activated test zone in APPµTP binds a capture biomolecule through covalent linkage thereby, eliminating non-specific binding often prevalent in absorption based techniques. Efficacy of APPµTP is demonstrated by detecting human immunoglobulin G (IgG), human immunoglobulin E (IgE) and Aspergillus fumigatus antibody in patient's sera. Detection is done by taking the image of the assay solution by a desktop scanner and analyzing the color of the image. Human IgE quantification by color saturation in the image-based assay shows excellent correlation with absorbance-based assay (Pearson correlation coefficient, r=0.992). Significance of the relationship is seen from its p value which is 4.087e-11. Performance of APPµTP is also checked with respect to microtiter plate and paper-based ELISA. APPµTP can quantify an analyte as precisely as in microtiter plate with insignificant non-specific binding, a necessary prerequisite for ELISA assay. In contrast, paper-ELISA shows high non-specific binding in control sera (false positive). Finally, we have carried out ELISA steps on APPµTP by ultrasound waves on a sonicator bath and the results show that even in 8 min, it can convincingly differentiate a test sample from a control sample. In short, spectrophotometer-free image-based miniaturized ELISA on APPµTP is precise, reliable, rapid, and sensitive and could be a good substitute for conventional immunoassay procedures widely used in clinical and research laboratories.

  6. Automatic gonio-spectrophotometer for the absolute measurement of the spectral BRDF at in- and out-of-plane and retroreflection geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabal, A. M.; Ferrero, A.; Campos, J.; Fontecha, J. L.; Pons, A.; Rubiño, A. M.; Corróns, A.

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents the description and the characterization of the gonio-spectrophotometer GEFE (the acronym for 'Gonio-EspectroFotómetro Español'). This device has been designed and built for the low-uncertainty absolute measurement of the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). It comprises a fixed, collimated and uniform light source, a six-axis robot-arm to rotate the sample and a spectroradiometer that may revolve around the sample to be able to vary the source-to-detector angular separation. This gonio-spectrophotometer makes it possible to perform spectral measurements in the visible range, both inside and outside the incidence plane, as well as measurements in retroreflection conditions. This fully automated system is able to measure autonomously a sample's complete spectral BRDF (comprising around 1000 different angular configurations) in less than 4 h.

  7. Support Vector Machine and Artificial Neural Network Models for the Classification of Grapevine Varieties Using a Portable NIR Spectrophotometer

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Salvador; Tardaguila, Javier; Fernández-Novales, Juan; Diago, María P.

    2015-01-01

    The identification of different grapevine varieties, currently attended using visual ampelometry, DNA analysis and very recently, by hyperspectral analysis under laboratory conditions, is an issue of great importance in the wine industry. This work presents support vector machine and artificial neural network’s modelling for grapevine varietal classification from in-field leaf spectroscopy. Modelling was attempted at two scales: site-specific and a global scale. Spectral measurements were obtained on the near-infrared (NIR) spectral range between 1600 to 2400 nm under field conditions in a non-destructive way using a portable spectrophotometer. For the site specific approach, spectra were collected from the adaxial side of 400 individual leaves of 20 grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) varieties one week after veraison. For the global model, two additional sets of spectra were collected one week before harvest from two different vineyards in another vintage, each one consisting on 48 measurement from individual leaves of six varieties. Several combinations of spectra scatter correction and smoothing filtering were studied. For the training of the models, support vector machines and artificial neural networks were employed using the pre-processed spectra as input and the varieties as the classes of the models. The results from the pre-processing study showed that there was no influence whether using scatter correction or not. Also, a second-degree derivative with a window size of 5 Savitzky-Golay filtering yielded the highest outcomes. For the site-specific model, with 20 classes, the best results from the classifiers thrown an overall score of 87.25% of correctly classified samples. These results were compared under the same conditions with a model trained using partial least squares discriminant analysis, which showed a worse performance in every case. For the global model, a 6-class dataset involving samples from three different vineyards, two years and leaves

  8. Support Vector Machine and Artificial Neural Network Models for the Classification of Grapevine Varieties Using a Portable NIR Spectrophotometer.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Salvador; Tardaguila, Javier; Fernández-Novales, Juan; Diago, María P

    2015-01-01

    The identification of different grapevine varieties, currently attended using visual ampelometry, DNA analysis and very recently, by hyperspectral analysis under laboratory conditions, is an issue of great importance in the wine industry. This work presents support vector machine and artificial neural network's modelling for grapevine varietal classification from in-field leaf spectroscopy. Modelling was attempted at two scales: site-specific and a global scale. Spectral measurements were obtained on the near-infrared (NIR) spectral range between 1600 to 2400 nm under field conditions in a non-destructive way using a portable spectrophotometer. For the site specific approach, spectra were collected from the adaxial side of 400 individual leaves of 20 grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) varieties one week after veraison. For the global model, two additional sets of spectra were collected one week before harvest from two different vineyards in another vintage, each one consisting on 48 measurement from individual leaves of six varieties. Several combinations of spectra scatter correction and smoothing filtering were studied. For the training of the models, support vector machines and artificial neural networks were employed using the pre-processed spectra as input and the varieties as the classes of the models. The results from the pre-processing study showed that there was no influence whether using scatter correction or not. Also, a second-degree derivative with a window size of 5 Savitzky-Golay filtering yielded the highest outcomes. For the site-specific model, with 20 classes, the best results from the classifiers thrown an overall score of 87.25% of correctly classified samples. These results were compared under the same conditions with a model trained using partial least squares discriminant analysis, which showed a worse performance in every case. For the global model, a 6-class dataset involving samples from three different vineyards, two years and leaves

  9. An enzymatic method for the rapid measurement of the hemoglobin A1c by a flow-injection system comprised of an electrochemical detector with a specific enzyme-reactor and a spectrophotometer.

    PubMed

    Nanjo, Yoko; Hayashi, Ryuzo; Yao, Toshio

    2007-01-30

    A flow-injection analytical (FIA) system, comprised of an electrochemical detector with a fructosyl-peptide oxidase (FPOX-CET) reactor and a flow-type spectrophotometer, was proposed for the simultaneous measurement of glycohemoglobin and total hemoglobin in blood cell. The blood cell samples were hemolyzed with a surfactant and then treated with protease. In the first stage of operation, total hemoglobin in digested sample was determined spectrophotometrically. In the second stage, fructosyl valyl histidine (FVH) released from glycohemoglobin by the selective proteolysis was determined specifically using the electrochemical detector with the FPOX-CET reactor. The FIA system could be automatically processed at an analytical speed of 40 samples per hour. The proposed assay method could determine selectively only the glycated N-terminal residue of beta-chain in glycohemoglobin and total hemoglobin in blood cell. The enzymatic hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) value calculated by the concentration ratio of the FVH to total hemoglobin, was closely correlated with the HbA1c values certified by the Japan Diabetic Society (JDS) and the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC).

  10. Calibration Transfer Between a Bench Scanning and a Submersible Diode Array Spectrophotometer for In Situ Wastewater Quality Monitoring in Sewer Systems.

    PubMed

    Brito, Rita S; Pinheiro, Helena M; Ferreira, Filipa; Matos, José S; Pinheiro, Alexandre; Lourenço, Nídia D

    2016-03-01

    Online monitoring programs based on spectroscopy have a high application potential for the detection of hazardous wastewater discharges in sewer systems. Wastewater hydraulics poses a challenge for in situ spectroscopy, especially when the system includes storm water connections leading to rapid changes in water depth, velocity, and in the water quality matrix. Thus, there is a need to optimize and fix the location of in situ instruments, limiting their availability for calibration. In this context, the development of calibration models on bench spectrophotometers to estimate wastewater quality parameters from spectra acquired with in situ instruments could be very useful. However, spectra contain information not only from the samples, but also from the spectrophotometer generally invalidating this approach. The use of calibration transfer methods is a promising solution to this problem. In this study, calibration models were developed using interval partial least squares (iPLS), for the estimation of total suspended solids (TSS) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in sewage from Ultraviolet-visible spectra acquired in a bench scanning spectrophotometer. The feasibility of calibration transfer to a submersible, diode array equipment, to be subsequently operated in situ, was assessed using three procedures: slope and bias correction (SBC); single wavelength standardization (SWS) on mean spectra; and local centering (LC). The results showed that SBC was the most adequate for the available data, adding insignificant error to the base model estimates. Single wavelength standardization was a close second best, potentially more robust, and independent of the base iPLS model. Local centering was shown to be inadequate for the samples and instruments used.

  11. Calibration Transfer Between a Bench Scanning and a Submersible Diode Array Spectrophotometer for In Situ Wastewater Quality Monitoring in Sewer Systems.

    PubMed

    Brito, Rita S; Pinheiro, Helena M; Ferreira, Filipa; Matos, José S; Pinheiro, Alexandre; Lourenço, Nídia D

    2016-03-01

    Online monitoring programs based on spectroscopy have a high application potential for the detection of hazardous wastewater discharges in sewer systems. Wastewater hydraulics poses a challenge for in situ spectroscopy, especially when the system includes storm water connections leading to rapid changes in water depth, velocity, and in the water quality matrix. Thus, there is a need to optimize and fix the location of in situ instruments, limiting their availability for calibration. In this context, the development of calibration models on bench spectrophotometers to estimate wastewater quality parameters from spectra acquired with in situ instruments could be very useful. However, spectra contain information not only from the samples, but also from the spectrophotometer generally invalidating this approach. The use of calibration transfer methods is a promising solution to this problem. In this study, calibration models were developed using interval partial least squares (iPLS), for the estimation of total suspended solids (TSS) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in sewage from Ultraviolet-visible spectra acquired in a bench scanning spectrophotometer. The feasibility of calibration transfer to a submersible, diode array equipment, to be subsequently operated in situ, was assessed using three procedures: slope and bias correction (SBC); single wavelength standardization (SWS) on mean spectra; and local centering (LC). The results showed that SBC was the most adequate for the available data, adding insignificant error to the base model estimates. Single wavelength standardization was a close second best, potentially more robust, and independent of the base iPLS model. Local centering was shown to be inadequate for the samples and instruments used. PMID:26798079

  12. Internal Gravity Wave Activity Hotspot and Implications for the Middle Atmospheric Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacha, Petr; Pisoft, Petr; Lilienthal, Friederike; Jacobi, Christoph

    2015-06-01

    Internal gravity waves are widely recognized to contribute significantly to the energy and angular momentum transport. They play a significant role in affecting many of the middle atmospheric phenomena (like the QBO or Brewer-Dobson circulation). Using GPS RO density profiles, we have discovered a localized area of enhanced IGW activity and breaking in the lower stratosphere of Eastern Asia/North-western Pacific region. With a 3D primitive equation model of the middle atmosphere we studied the effects of such a localized breaking region on large-scale dynamics and transport. Possible forcing and propagation directions of planetary waves caused by such a localized IGW forcing were investigated and consequences for the polar vortex stability and stratosphere-troposphere exchange in the tropical region were discussed. Finally, applying 3D EP flux and 3D residual circulation diagnostics, we investigated the possible role of this area in the longitudinal variability of the Brewer-Dobson circulation with a hypothesis of its enhanced downwelling branch in this region. In the proces, model results were compared with the ozone and tracer distribution data from GOME, GOMOS, MIPAS and SCIAMACHY further confirming the importance of the Eastern Asia/North-western Pacific region for middle atmospheric dynamics.

  13. Impact of energy-related pollutants on chromosome structure. Progress report, January 1-December 31, 1980. IQUID COLUMN CHROMATOGRAPHY; ABSORPTION SPECTRA; COMPUTER CODES; DICHROISM; EQUIPMENT INTERFACES; MICROPROCESSORS; SPECTROPHOTOMETERS; ; CARBON 13; COMPLEXES; NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Methods for rapidly analyzing methylated and ethylated nucleosides and bases by high pressure liquid chromatography were investigated. Deoxyribonucleotides were alkylated with alkyl iodides and dialkyl sulfates. Several unreported products of the reactions of methyl and ethyl iodide in dimethylsulfoxide were found and are being characterized. The Cary 219 UV-Vis spectrophotometer was interfaced to a microcomputer and several utility programs were written. Preliminary absorption and circular dichroism studies of the binding of ethidium to DNA and nucleosome cores showed binding to cores to be quite different from binding to DNA. Free radical and additional reactions of bisulfite with DNA in chromatin were examined. Free radical attack was minimal. Some conversion of cytosine to uracil was noted, but protein crosslinking to DNA was not detected. The first valid natural abundance /sup 13/C nmr spectra of double-stranded DNA and double-stranded DNA complexed with ethidium were obtained. These spectra suggested that DNA undergoes considerable internal motion. The data show that 13-C nmr studies of the conformational and motional properties of native DNA and of complexes of native DNA with small molecules are practical and promising. Studies of subnucleosomes derived from nucleosomes were completed. Based on these studies, a model of the linear arrangement of histone C-terminal and N-terminal chain regions along nucleosome DNA was proposed. The use of staphylococcal protease to probe histone conformations in nucleosomes was explored. Preliminary data indicate that H3 is much more susceptible to protease than other core histones, and is cleaved in its hydrophobic domain. A procedure for fractionating chromatin was alos developed. (ERB)

  14. Defense meteorological satellite measurements of total ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovill, J. E.; Ellis, J. S.; Luther, F. M.; Sullivan, T. J.; Weichel, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    A multichannel filter radiometer (MFR) on Defense Meteorological Satellites (DMS) that measured total ozone on a global-scale from March 1977 - February 1980 is described. The total ozone data measured by the MFR were compared with total ozone data taken by surfaced-based Dobson spectrophotometers. When comparisons were made for five months, the Dobson spectrophotometer measured 2-5% more total ozone than the MFR. Comparisons between the Dobson spectrophotometer and the MFR showed a reduced RMS difference as the comparisons were made at closer proximity. A Northern Hemisphere total ozone distribution obtained from MFR data is presented.

  15. Imaging Grating SpectroPhotometer (I-GRASP) for Solar Soft X-Ray Spectra and Images from a Cube Sat Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didkovsky, Leonid V.; Wieman, Seth; Woods, Thomas N.; Jones, Andrew; Chao, Weilun

    2016-05-01

    We describe the Soft X-ray Imaging Grating SpectroPhotometer (I-GRASP), a novel spectrophotometer with four times narrower transmission grating period (about 50 nm) compared to the MIT-designed 200 nm gratings successfully used for the SOHO/SEM, the SDO/EVE/ESP, and the Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM) onboard the EVE sounding rocket suite of instruments. The new grating is based on technology developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and provides four to five time greater diffraction dispersion than the 200 nm period gratings. Such new technology will provide detection of both 0.1 nm - resolved solar spectra in about 1.0 to 7.0 nm spectral range and a soft X-ray pin-hole solar image from the I-GRASP instrument that is appropriately sized for a CubeSat platform. The solar observations of this soft X-ray range do not currently have spectral resolution, so I-GRASP concurrent spectral and imaging X-ray observations will be important for:Improvements in modeling of coronal dynamics and heating by comparing measured and modeled spectra through identifying changes in abundances from different active regions- Resolving some differences in certain iron spectral line intensity ratios observed with SAM, identifying key emission lines, and comparing to those modeled with the CHIANTI atomic database- Studying SXR spectral variability for different solar activity periods including solar flares and the 27-day solar rotation- Studying of the Earth’s ionosphere, thermosphere and mesosphere responses using as input the detailed soft X-ray spectra from I-GRASP- Improving solar soft X-ray reference spectra for accurate calculations of absolute solar irradiance from the SDO/EVE/ESP, SDO/EVE/SAM, TIMED/SEE/XPS, and SORCE/XPS channels that have broadband measurements of the 1-7 nm band- Providing validation for the soft X-Ray observations from the MinXSS CubeSat X123 spectrometer (0.04 to 2.5 nm) with the I-GRASP spectral observations from 1.0 to 7.0 nm- Comparing I

  16. Calibration of UV/Vis spectrophotometers: A review and comparison of different methods to estimate TSS and total and dissolved COD concentrations in sewers, WWTPs and rivers.

    PubMed

    Lepot, Mathieu; Torres, Andres; Hofer, Thomas; Caradot, Nicolas; Gruber, Günter; Aubin, Jean-Baptiste; Bertrand-Krajewski, Jean-Luc

    2016-09-15

    UV/Vis spectrophotometers have been used for one decade to monitor water quality in various locations: sewers, rivers, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), tap water networks, etc. Resulting equivalent concentrations of interest can be estimated by three ways: i) by manufacturer global calibration; ii) by local calibration based on the provided global calibration and grab sampling; iii) by advanced calibration looking for relations between UV/Vis spectra and corresponding concentrations from grab sampling. However, no study has compared the applied methods so far. This collaborative work presents a comparison between five different methods. A Linear Regression (LR), Support Vector Machine (SVM), EVOlutionary algorithm method (EVO) and Partial Least Squares (PLS) have been applied on various data sets (sewers, rivers, WWTPs under dry, wet and all weather conditions) and for three water quality parameters: TSS, COD total and dissolved. Two criteria (r(2) and Root Mean Square Error RMSE) have been calculated - on calibration and verification data subsets - to evaluate accuracy and robustness of the applied methods. Values of criteria have then been statistically analysed for all and separated data sets. Non-consistent outcomes come through this study. According to the Kruskal-Wallis test and RMSEs, PLS and SVM seem to be the best methods. According to uncertainties in laboratory analysis and ranking of methods, LR and EVO appear more robust and sustainable for concentration estimations. Conclusions are mostly independent of water matrices, weather conditions or concentrations investigated.

  17. Assessing Single Particle Soot Photometer and Integrating Sphere/Integrating Sandwich Spectrophotometer measurement techniques for quantifying black carbon concentration in snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, J. P.; Doherty, S. J.; Li, F.; Ruggiero, S. T.; Tanner, C. E.; Perring, A. E.; Gao, R. S.; Fahey, D. W.

    2012-11-01

    We evaluate the performance of the Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) and the Integrating Sphere/Integrating Sandwich Spectrophotometer (ISSW) in quantifying the concentration of refractory black carbon (BC) in snow samples. We find that the SP2 can be used to measure BC mass concentration in snow with substantially larger uncertainty (60%) than for atmospheric sampling (<30%). Achieving this level of accuracy requires careful assessment of nebulizer performance and SP2 calibration with consideration of the fact that BC in snow can exist in larger sizes than typically observed in the atmosphere. Once these issues are addressed, the SP2 is able to measure the size distribution and mass concentration of BC in the snow. Laboratory comparison of the SP2 and the ISSW revealed significant biases in the estimate of BC concentration from the ISSW when test samples contained dust or non-absorbing particulates. These results suggest that current estimates of BC mass concentration in snow or ice formed from fallen snow using either the SP2 or the ISSW may be associated with significant underestimates of uncertainty.

  18. Calibration of UV/Vis spectrophotometers: A review and comparison of different methods to estimate TSS and total and dissolved COD concentrations in sewers, WWTPs and rivers.

    PubMed

    Lepot, Mathieu; Torres, Andres; Hofer, Thomas; Caradot, Nicolas; Gruber, Günter; Aubin, Jean-Baptiste; Bertrand-Krajewski, Jean-Luc

    2016-09-15

    UV/Vis spectrophotometers have been used for one decade to monitor water quality in various locations: sewers, rivers, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), tap water networks, etc. Resulting equivalent concentrations of interest can be estimated by three ways: i) by manufacturer global calibration; ii) by local calibration based on the provided global calibration and grab sampling; iii) by advanced calibration looking for relations between UV/Vis spectra and corresponding concentrations from grab sampling. However, no study has compared the applied methods so far. This collaborative work presents a comparison between five different methods. A Linear Regression (LR), Support Vector Machine (SVM), EVOlutionary algorithm method (EVO) and Partial Least Squares (PLS) have been applied on various data sets (sewers, rivers, WWTPs under dry, wet and all weather conditions) and for three water quality parameters: TSS, COD total and dissolved. Two criteria (r(2) and Root Mean Square Error RMSE) have been calculated - on calibration and verification data subsets - to evaluate accuracy and robustness of the applied methods. Values of criteria have then been statistically analysed for all and separated data sets. Non-consistent outcomes come through this study. According to the Kruskal-Wallis test and RMSEs, PLS and SVM seem to be the best methods. According to uncertainties in laboratory analysis and ranking of methods, LR and EVO appear more robust and sustainable for concentration estimations. Conclusions are mostly independent of water matrices, weather conditions or concentrations investigated. PMID:27295626

  19. iHWG-μNIR: a miniaturised near-infrared gas sensor based on substrate-integrated hollow waveguides coupled to a micro-NIR-spectrophotometer.

    PubMed

    Rohwedder, J J R; Pasquini, C; Fortes, P R; Raimundo, I M; Wilk, A; Mizaikoff, B

    2014-07-21

    A miniaturised gas analyser is described and evaluated based on the use of a substrate-integrated hollow waveguide (iHWG) coupled to a microsized near-infrared spectrophotometer comprising a linear variable filter and an array of InGaAs detectors. This gas sensing system was applied to analyse surrogate samples of natural fuel gas containing methane, ethane, propane and butane, quantified by using multivariate regression models based on partial least square (PLS) algorithms and Savitzky-Golay 1(st) derivative data preprocessing. The external validation of the obtained models reveals root mean square errors of prediction of 0.37, 0.36, 0.67 and 0.37% (v/v), for methane, ethane, propane and butane, respectively. The developed sensing system provides particularly rapid response times upon composition changes of the gaseous sample (approximately 2 s) due the minute volume of the iHWG-based measurement cell. The sensing system developed in this study is fully portable with a hand-held sized analyser footprint, and thus ideally suited for field analysis. Last but not least, the obtained results corroborate the potential of NIR-iHWG analysers for monitoring the quality of natural gas and petrochemical gaseous products. PMID:24867650

  20. A Portable Diode Array Spectrophotometer.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, David

    2016-05-01

    A cheap portable visible light spectrometer is presented. The spectrometer uses readily sourced items and could be constructed by anyone with a knowledge of electronics. The spectrometer covers the wavelength range 450-725 nm with a resolution better than 5 nm. The spectrometer uses a diffraction grating to separate wavelengths, which are detected using a 128-element diode array, the output of which is analyzed using a microprocessor. The spectrum is displayed on a small liquid crystal display screen and can be saved to a micro SD card for later analysis. Battery life (2 × AAA) is estimated to be 200 hours. The overall dimensions of the unit are 120 × 65 × 60 mm, and it weighs about 200 g. PMID:27036399

  1. U.S. EPA Brewer spectrophotometer network and the USDA UVB monitoring and research program: data comparison from co-located instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimlin, Michael G.; Slusser, James R.; Schallhorn, Kathryn A.; Meltzer, Richard S.

    2003-11-01

    Several ground based ultraviolet (UV) monitoring networks exist in the United States, each of which is unique in the instrumentation employed for measurements. Two of these UV networks are the US EPA"s Brewer Spectrophotometer network and the USDA"s UVB Monitoring network, with a combined instrument total of 52 sites throughout the mainland USA, US territories and some overseas locations. The Brewer records full sky spectra from 287-363nm with 0.5nm resolution whereas the USDA instrument is a broadband device that measures broadband erythemally weighted UV data over a number of bands in the UV. To date, limited comparisons of data collected from these networks have been analyzed for comparative and quality assurance (QA) purposes. The data used in this paper is taken from sites where instruments from each program are co-located, namely, BigBend National Park, Texas and Everglades National Park, Florida. In order to reduce the contribution of errors in the Brewer-based instruments, the raw data has been corrected for stray light rejection, the angular response of the full sky diffuser, the temperature dependence of the instruments and the temporal variation. This reduces the estimated errors of the absolute irradiance values of each Brewer spectral measurement to approximately +/-5%. The estimated uncertainty of the USDA instruments is also +/-5%. Uncertainty is comprised of (1) standard lamp measurement errors, (2) spectral response determination and (3) the angular response of the diffuser. In this paper, we perform spectrally resolved comparisons between the Brewer UV irradiance measurements and the data collected by the broadband erythemal UV meters at co-located sites between 1997 through to 2002.

  2. International Space Station Columbus Payload SoLACES Degradation Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, William A.; Schmidl, William D.; Mikatarian, Ron; Soares, Carlos; Schmidtke, Gerhard; Erhardt, Christian

    2016-01-01

    SOLAR is a European Space Agency (ESA) payload deployed on the International Space Station (ISS) and located on the Columbus Laboratory. It is located on the Columbus External Payload Facility in a zenith location. The objective of the SOLAR payload is to study the Sun. The SOLAR payload consists of three instruments that allow for measurement of virtually the entire electromagnetic spectrum (17 nm to 2900 nm). The three payload instruments are SOVIM (SOlar Variable and Irradiance Monitor), SOLSPEC (SOLar SPECctral Irradiance measurements), and SolACES (SOLar Auto-Calibrating Extreme UV/UV Spectrophotometers).

  3. [The content of mineral elements in Camellia olei fera ovary at pollination and fertilization stages determined by auto discrete analyzers and atomic absorption spectrophotometer].

    PubMed

    Zou, Feng; Yuan, De-Yi; Gao, Chao; Liao, Ting; Chen, Wen-Tao; Han, Zhi-Qiang; Zhang, Lin

    2014-04-01

    In order to elucidate the nutrition of Camellia olei fera at pollination and fertilization stages, the contents of mineral elements were determined by auto discrete analyzers and atomic absorption spectrophotometer, and the change in the contents of mineral elements was studied and analysed under the condition of self- and cross-pollination. The results are showed that nine kinds of mineral elements contents were of "S" or "W" type curve changes at the pollination and fertilization stages of Camellia olei fera. N, K, Zn, Cu, Ca, Mn element content changes showed "S" curve under the self- and out-crossing, the content of N reaching the highest was 3.445 8 mg x g(-1) in self-pollination of 20 d; K content reaching the highest at the cross-pollination 20 d was 6.275 5 mg x g(-1); Zn content in self-pollination of 10 d reaching the highest was 0.070 5 mg x g(-1); Cu content in the cross-pollination of 5 d up to the highest was 0.061 0 mg x g(-1); Ca content in the cross-pollination of 15 d up to the highest was 3.714 5 mg x g(-1); the content of Mn reaching the highest in self-pollination 30 d was 2. 161 5 mg x g(-1). Fe, P, Mg element content changes was of "S" type curve in selfing and was of "W" type curve in outcrossing, Fe content in the self-pollination 10 d up to the highest was 0.453 0 mg x g(-1); P content in self-pollination of 20 d reaching the highest was 6.731 8 mg x g(-1); the content of Mg up to the highest in self-pollination 25 d was 2.724 0 mg x g(-1). The results can be used as a reference for spraying foliar fertilizer, and improving seed setting rate and yield in Camellia olei fera.

  4. Design of the detector to observe the energetic charged particles: a part of the solar X-ray spectrophotometer ChemiX onboard Interhelio-Probe mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudnik, Oleksiy; Sylwester, Janusz; Kowalinski, Miroslaw; Bakala, Jaroslaw; Siarkowski, Marek; Evgen Kurbatov, mgr..

    2016-07-01

    -layer detector stack: first two layers consist of silicon detectors; the third one is based on the p-terphenyl scintillation detector coupled with pixelated silicon photomultiplier. Coincidence logic allows collecting systematic data on particle variety and their energy with 1 and/or 10 s time resolutions. Digital processing unit is constructed based on FPGA Actel ProAsic M1A3PE1500, and contains each event processing logic, forms telemetry data and housekeeping frames, communicates with ChemiX digital processing unit and executes received telecommands. In order to increase the reliability and time resource of the BPM its digital processing unit and secondary power supply unit has backup sets. Switching between backup sets is commanded by externally orders. The BPM is capable to sort out in situ abundances of individual particle constituents from electrons up to oxygen nuclei. 1. O.V.Dudnik, E.V.Kurbatov, V.O.Tarasov, L.A.Andryushenko, I.L.Zajtsevsky, J.Sylwester, J.Bąkala, M.Kowaliński. Background particle detector for the solar X-ray photometer ChemiX of space mission "Interhelioprobe": an adjustment of breadboard model modules (in Russian) / ISSN 1561-8889: Kosmichna Nauka I Tekhnologiya, 2015, Vol.21, No.2, P.3-14. 2. O.V.Dudnik, E.V.Kurbatov, J.Sylwester, M.Siarkowski, P.Podgórski, M.Kowaliński. Background Particle Monitor - a part of the solar X-ray spectrophotometer ChemiX: principles of the operation and construction / in: Abstracts of 15th Ukrainian conference on space research, Odesa, Ukraine, August 24-28, 2015, P.80, doi:10.13140/RG.2.1.2284.2649. 3. O.V.Dudnik, E.V.Kurbatov, M.Kowaliński, M.Siarkowski, P.Podgórski, J.Sylwester. Operational features of Background Particle Monitor, a vital part of the solar X-ray spectrophotometer ChemiX / in: Abstract book of the Conference "Progress on EUV&X-ray spectroscopy and imaging II", Wroclaw, Poland, November 17 19, 2015, P.9, doi:10.13140/RG.2.1.1184.3604.

  5. International Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valauskas, Edward J.; Crosby, John, IV; Haycock, Ken; Oh, Mary

    1999-01-01

    Includes the following international reports: International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions; Special Libraries Association; and Trends and Issues in Library and Information Services in Canada, 1998. (AEF)

  6. Simple and Versatile Turbidimetric Monitoring of Bacterial Growth in Liquid Cultures Using a Customized 3D Printed Culture Tube Holder and a Miniaturized Spectrophotometer: Application to Facultative and Strictly Anaerobic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Maia, Margarida R. G.; Marques, Sara; Cabrita, Ana R. J.; Wallace, R. John; Thompson, Gertrude; Fonseca, António J. M.; Oliveira, Hugo M.

    2016-01-01

    Here we introduce a novel strategy for turbidimetric monitoring of bacterial growth in liquid culture. The instrumentation comprises a light source, a customized 3D printed culture tube holder and a miniaturized spectrophotometer, connected through optical cables. Due to its small footprint and the possibility to operate with external light, bacterial growth was directly monitored from culture tubes in a simple and versatile fashion. This new portable measurement technique was used to monitor the growth of facultative (Escherichia coli ATCC/25922, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC/29213) and strictly (Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens JW11, Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus P18, and Propionibacterium acnes DSMZ 1897) anaerobic bacteria. For E. coli and S. aureus, the growth rates calculated from normalized optical density values were compared with those ones obtained using a benchtop spectrophotometer without significant differences (P = 0.256). For the strictly anaerobic species, a high precision (relative standard deviation < 3.5%) was observed between replicates up to 48 h. Regarding its potential for customization, this manifold could accommodate further developments for customized turbidimetric monitoring, such as the use of light-emitting diodes as a light source or flow cells.

  7. Simple and Versatile Turbidimetric Monitoring of Bacterial Growth in Liquid Cultures Using a Customized 3D Printed Culture Tube Holder and a Miniaturized Spectrophotometer: Application to Facultative and Strictly Anaerobic Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Maia, Margarida R G; Marques, Sara; Cabrita, Ana R J; Wallace, R John; Thompson, Gertrude; Fonseca, António J M; Oliveira, Hugo M

    2016-01-01

    Here we introduce a novel strategy for turbidimetric monitoring of bacterial growth in liquid culture. The instrumentation comprises a light source, a customized 3D printed culture tube holder and a miniaturized spectrophotometer, connected through optical cables. Due to its small footprint and the possibility to operate with external light, bacterial growth was directly monitored from culture tubes in a simple and versatile fashion. This new portable measurement technique was used to monitor the growth of facultative (Escherichia coli ATCC/25922, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC/29213) and strictly (Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens JW11, Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus P18, and Propionibacterium acnes DSMZ 1897) anaerobic bacteria. For E. coli and S. aureus, the growth rates calculated from normalized optical density values were compared with those ones obtained using a benchtop spectrophotometer without significant differences (P = 0.256). For the strictly anaerobic species, a high precision (relative standard deviation < 3.5%) was observed between replicates up to 48 h. Regarding its potential for customization, this manifold could accommodate further developments for customized turbidimetric monitoring, such as the use of light-emitting diodes as a light source or flow cells.

  8. Simple and Versatile Turbidimetric Monitoring of Bacterial Growth in Liquid Cultures Using a Customized 3D Printed Culture Tube Holder and a Miniaturized Spectrophotometer: Application to Facultative and Strictly Anaerobic Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Maia, Margarida R G; Marques, Sara; Cabrita, Ana R J; Wallace, R John; Thompson, Gertrude; Fonseca, António J M; Oliveira, Hugo M

    2016-01-01

    Here we introduce a novel strategy for turbidimetric monitoring of bacterial growth in liquid culture. The instrumentation comprises a light source, a customized 3D printed culture tube holder and a miniaturized spectrophotometer, connected through optical cables. Due to its small footprint and the possibility to operate with external light, bacterial growth was directly monitored from culture tubes in a simple and versatile fashion. This new portable measurement technique was used to monitor the growth of facultative (Escherichia coli ATCC/25922, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC/29213) and strictly (Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens JW11, Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus P18, and Propionibacterium acnes DSMZ 1897) anaerobic bacteria. For E. coli and S. aureus, the growth rates calculated from normalized optical density values were compared with those ones obtained using a benchtop spectrophotometer without significant differences (P = 0.256). For the strictly anaerobic species, a high precision (relative standard deviation < 3.5%) was observed between replicates up to 48 h. Regarding its potential for customization, this manifold could accommodate further developments for customized turbidimetric monitoring, such as the use of light-emitting diodes as a light source or flow cells. PMID:27630632

  9. Simple and Versatile Turbidimetric Monitoring of Bacterial Growth in Liquid Cultures Using a Customized 3D Printed Culture Tube Holder and a Miniaturized Spectrophotometer: Application to Facultative and Strictly Anaerobic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Maia, Margarida R. G.; Marques, Sara; Cabrita, Ana R. J.; Wallace, R. John; Thompson, Gertrude; Fonseca, António J. M.; Oliveira, Hugo M.

    2016-01-01

    Here we introduce a novel strategy for turbidimetric monitoring of bacterial growth in liquid culture. The instrumentation comprises a light source, a customized 3D printed culture tube holder and a miniaturized spectrophotometer, connected through optical cables. Due to its small footprint and the possibility to operate with external light, bacterial growth was directly monitored from culture tubes in a simple and versatile fashion. This new portable measurement technique was used to monitor the growth of facultative (Escherichia coli ATCC/25922, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC/29213) and strictly (Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens JW11, Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus P18, and Propionibacterium acnes DSMZ 1897) anaerobic bacteria. For E. coli and S. aureus, the growth rates calculated from normalized optical density values were compared with those ones obtained using a benchtop spectrophotometer without significant differences (P = 0.256). For the strictly anaerobic species, a high precision (relative standard deviation < 3.5%) was observed between replicates up to 48 h. Regarding its potential for customization, this manifold could accommodate further developments for customized turbidimetric monitoring, such as the use of light-emitting diodes as a light source or flow cells. PMID:27630632

  10. International Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Kenn; Habermann, Ulla; Chowdhury, Omar Faruque; Guerra, Iraida Manzanilla

    1998-01-01

    Includes "Introduction to International Perspectives" (Allen); "Volunteerism in the Welfare State: The Case of Denmark" (Habermann); "Grassroots Organizing in Bangladesh" (Chowdhury); and "Volunteerism in Latin America" (Guerra). (SK)

  11. A Comparison of the First Solar EUV Irradiance Measurements from the SDO/EVE EUV Spectrophotometer (ESP) with the SOHO/CELIAS Solar EUV Monitor (SEM) Absolute Solar EUV Irradiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didkovsky, Leonid; Judge, Darrell; Wieman, Seth; Woods, Thomas; Eparvier, Francis; Jones, Andrew

    First light measurements from the SDO/EVE EUV Spectrophotometer (ESP) are calibrated based on both ESP pre-flight radiometric calibration and the SDO EVE calibration rocket un-derflight (5 May 2010) measurements obtained with the ESP and Multiple EUV Grating Spec-trometers (MEGS), which are clones of the SDO EVE onboard instruments. SDO/EVE/ESP absolute solar EUV irradiances are compared with the SOHO/CELIAS Solar EUV Monitor (SEM) data to provide uninterrupted EUV measurements of solar irradiances since 1996. The continuing EUV measurements from SDO/EVE/ESP will advance our study of long-and short-term solar EUV variability, improve existing solar EUV irradiance models, and use as input for improving ionosphere and thermosphere model results.

  12. Comparison of the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometer and the Miniature Infrared Analyzer (MIRAN) for the determination of trichloroethylene (TCE) in the presence of Freon-113 in workplace air

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, H.K.; Levine, S.P.; D'Arcy, J.B.; Kinnes, G.; Almaguer, D. )

    1990-07-01

    Results obtained using the Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR) and the Miniature Infrared Analyzer (MIRAN) for samples of workplace air containing trichloroethylene (TCE) were evaluated through comparison with results obtained when using a gas chromatography (GC). The effects of instrument resolution, relative humidity, and sample storage stability were studied. Relative humidity was found to have no effect on the performance of the FTIR over the range studied. The effect of changing resolution is complex but is explained. The linear range of the FTIR is more than adequate for the concentrations encountered in the samples reported in this study. Interference from Freon caused the TCE values to be high when the MIRAN was operated in the single-wavelength mode.

  13. International Curriculums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Larry L.

    This workshop presentation on international curriculums in the field of parks, recreation, leisure, cultural services, and travel/tourism comments that the literature is replete with articles addressing what the field is about, but not about curriculum issues, models, and structure. It reports an international survey of 12 college educators…

  14. International Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... create refugee populations with immediate and long-term health problems. Some of the major diseases currently affecting ... also an international problem which can affect people's health. Many countries and health organizations are working together ...

  15. International Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valauskas, Edward J.; Stowe, Jennifer L.; Haycock, Ken; Dodd, Frances

    1998-01-01

    Presents three reports: International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions; Special Libraries Association; and Canadian library trends, focusing on information technology and access to information and rights and examining provincial libraries and library education. (PEN)

  16. International Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Linn

    1977-01-01

    Briefly discusses recent international programs in various areas of geology, including land-use problems, coping with geological hazards, and conserving the environment while searching for energy and mineral resources. (MLH)

  17. Internal shim

    DOEpatents

    Barth, Clyde H.; Blizinski, Theodore W.

    2003-05-13

    An internal shim used to accurately measure spaces in conjunction with a standard small probe has a shim top and a chassis. The internal shim is adjustably fixed within the space to be measured using grippers that emerge from the chassis and which are controlled by an arm pivotably attached to the shim top. A standard small probe passes through the shim along guides on the chassis and measures the distance between the exterior of the chassis and the boundary. By summing the measurements on each side of the chassis and the width of the chassis, the dimension of the space can be determined to within 0.001 inches.

  18. International Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Nancy D.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Three reports discuss the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions; the Frankfurt Book Fair, focusing on electronics; and Canadian library trends, including resource sharing, technology projects, information policy, censorship, services for persons with disabilities, construction projects, and library education and…

  19. International Marketplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Donald A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This issue begins with a conceptual introduction to economic specialization, exports and imports, and the importance of international trade. Four instructional units follow this introduction, beginning with a preschool and kindergarten unit called "Traders and Travelers," which involves young students in five activities that illustrate our…

  20. Total ozone, ozone vertical distributions, and stratospheric temperatures at South Pole, Antarctica, in 1986 and 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komhyr, W. D.; Grass, R. D.; Reitelbach, P. J.; Franchois, P. R.; Kuester, S. E.

    1988-01-01

    Seventy-six electrochemical cell (ECC) ozonesondes were flown at South Pole, Antarctica, during 1987 in a continuing program to document year-round changes in Antarctica ozone that are dynamically and photochemically induced. Dobson spectrophotometer total ozone observations were also made. For the twilight months of March and September when Dobson instrument observations cannot be made at South Pole, total ozone amounts were deduced from the ECC ozonesonde soundings. ECC sonde total ozone data obtained during the polar night (April to August), supplemented the sparse total ozone data obtained from Dobson instrument moon observations. Similar ozone profile and total ozone observations were made at South Pole in 1986.

  1. Method development for the determination of fluorine in toothpaste via molecular absorption of aluminum mono fluoride using a high-resolution continuum source nitrous oxide/acetylene flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer.

    PubMed

    Ozbek, Nil; Akman, Suleyman

    2012-05-30

    Fluorine was determined via the rotational molecular absorption line of aluminum mono fluoride (AlF) generated in C(2)H(2)/N(2)O flame at 227.4613 nm using a high-resolution continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (HR-CS-FAAS). The effects of AlF wavelength, burner height, fuel rate (C(2)H(2)/N(2)O) and amount of Al on the accuracy, precision and sensitivity were investigated and optimized. The Al-F absorption band at 227.4613 nm was found to be the most suitable analytical line with respect to sensitivity and spectral interferences. Maximum sensitivity and a good linearity were obtained in acetylene-nitrous oxide flame at a flow rate of 210 L h(-1) and a burner height of 8mm using 3000 mg L(-1) of Al for 10-1000 mg L(-1)of F. The accuracy and precision of the method were tested by analyzing spiked samples and waste water certified reference material. The results were in good agreement with the certified and spiked amounts as well as the precision of several days during this study was satisfactory (RSD<10%). The limit of detection and characteristic concentration of the method were 5.5 mg L(-1) and 72.8 mg L(-1), respectively. Finally, the fluorine concentrations in several toothpaste samples were determined. The results found and given by the producers were not significantly different. The method was simple, fast, accurate and sensitive.

  2. OBSERVATIONS OF FIVE-MINUTE SOLAR OSCILLATIONS IN THE CORONA USING THE EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET SPECTROPHOTOMETER (ESP) ON BOARD THE SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET VARIABILITY EXPERIMENT (SDO/EVE)

    SciTech Connect

    Didkovsky, L.; Judge, D.; Wieman, S.; Kosovichev, A. G.; Woods, T.

    2011-09-01

    We report on the detection of oscillations in the corona in the frequency range corresponding to five-minute acoustic modes of the Sun. The oscillations have been observed using soft X-ray measurements from the Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrophotometer (ESP) of the Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The ESP zeroth-order channel observes the Sun as a star without spatial resolution in the wavelength range of 0.1-7.0 nm (the energy range is 0.18-12.4 keV). The amplitude spectrum of the oscillations calculated from six-day time series shows a significant increase in the frequency range of 2-4 mHz. We interpret this increase as a response of the corona to solar acoustic (p) modes and attempt to identify p-mode frequencies among the strongest peaks. Due to strong variability of the amplitudes and frequencies of the five-minute oscillations in the corona, we study how the spectrum from two adjacent six-day time series combined together affects the number of peaks associated with the p-mode frequencies and their amplitudes. This study shows that five-minute oscillations of the Sun can be observed in the corona in variations of the soft X-ray emission. Further investigations of these oscillations may improve our understanding of the interaction of the oscillation modes with the solar atmosphere, and the interior-corona coupling, in general.

  3. Teaching International Law: Concepts in International Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starbird, Caroline; Pettit, Jenny; Singleton, Laurel

    2004-01-01

    This book is designed to introduce students to public international law. Topics covered include international public organizations, such as the United Nations and World Trade Organization, international courts, international human rights law, international trade law, and international environmental law. The goal of each study is to examine how…

  4. Healthcare international.

    PubMed

    Hensley, S; Jaklevic, M C; Rauber, C; Weissenstein, E; Moore, J D; Shinkman, R; Pallarito, K; Katzman, C N; Hallam, K; Morrissey, J

    1998-11-01

    How people are treated when they need medical care depends on where in the world they are. In deciding which tools of the medical trade are used to treat disease and when they're used, location is paramount. A country's social policy, healthcare payment systems and cultural factors bear heavily on the utilization of medical technology. The cover story kicks off the magazine's third international healthcare section. PMID:10186352

  5. Rotary International.

    PubMed

    Young, Janis

    2008-01-01

    Rotary International is the oldest United States service organization and one of the largest volunteer groups in the world. There are hundreds of educational, health, and humanitarian activities, almost all of which are conducted locally in order to ensure that Rotary clubs meet the needs of the communities they serve. Club membership requires regular active participation and offers Rotarians multiple opportunities for involvement. PMID:18551844

  6. International cooperation.

    PubMed

    1999-04-01

    As the most densely populated country in the world, China actively conducts international exchanges and cooperation. It takes every opportunity to publicize its family planning policies and practices during international forums. Moreover, the country's State Family Planning Commission has been collaborating with the United Nations Population Fund in implementing health and family planning programs. This program covers public awareness campaigns, technical services, sex education for the youth, and social marketing. For years, China has also been cooperating with WHO in the area of family planning and reproductive health, and has established partnership with the Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning. In addition, the State Family Planning Commission has worked with the Public Media Center of the US as well as with the Rockefeller Foundation and Ford Foundation in introducing "contraceptive methods by informed choice" and "male participation in family planning" in the rural areas of the country. China has also worked closely with many other developing countries on population issues. In October 1998, China collaborated with the Partners in Population and Development for a reporting mission that was attended by journalists from 11 countries.

  7. [Internal migration].

    PubMed

    Borisovna, L

    1991-06-01

    Very few studies have been conducted that truly permit explanation of internal migration and it repercussions on social and economic structure. It is clear however that a profound knowledge of the determinants and consequences of internal migration will be required as a basis for economic policy decisions that advance the goal of improving the level of living of the population. the basic supposition of most studies of the relationship of population and development is that socioeconomic development conditions demographic dynamics. The process of development in Mexico, which can be characterized by great heterogeneity, consequently produces great regional disparities. At the national level various studies have estimated the volume of internal migration in Mexico, but they have usually been limited to interstate migration because the main source of data, the census, is classified by states. But given the great heterogeneity within states in all the elements related to internal migration, it is clear that studies of internal migration within states are also needed. Such studies are almost nonexistent because of their technical difficulty. National level studies show that interstate migration increased significantly between 1940-80. The proportion of Mexicans living outside their states of birth increased by 558% in those years, compared to the 342% increase in the total Mexican population. Although Puebla has a high rate of increase, migration has kept it below Mexico's national growth rate. Migration between Puebla and other states and within Puebla has led to an increasing unevenness of spatial distribution. Between 1970-80, 57 of Puebla's municipios had growth rates above the state average of 2.8%/year, 6 had growth rates equal to the average, and 129 had growth rates that were below the average but not negative. 25 states with negative growth rates that were considered strongly expulsive. In 1980, 51.7% of the population was concentrated in the 57 municipios

  8. SphinX x-ray spectrophotometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowaliński, Mirosław

    2012-05-01

    This paper presents assumptions to a PhD thesis. The thesis will be based on the construction of Solar Photometer in X-rays (SphinX). SphinX was an instrument developed to detect the soft X-rays from the Sun. It was flown on board the Russian CORONAS-Photon satellite from January 30, 2009 to the end of November, 2009. During 9 months in orbit SphinX provided an excellent and unique set of observations. It revealed about 750 flares and brightenings. The instrument observed in energy range 1.0 - 15.0 keV with resolution below ~0.5 keV. Here, the SphinX instrument objectives, design, performance and operation principle are described. Below results of mechanical and thermal - vacuum tests necessary to qualify the instrument to use in space environment are presented. Also the calibration results of the instrument are discussed. In particular detail it is described the Electrical Ground Support Equipment (EGSE) for SphinX. The EGSE was used for all tests of the instrument. At the end of the paper results obtained from the instrument during operation in orbit are discussed. These results are compared with the other similar measurements performed from the separate spacecraft instruments. It is suggested design changes in future versions of SphinX.

  9. Operating internationally

    SciTech Connect

    Seeley, R.S.

    1994-02-01

    When Enron Power Corp. took over a 28 MW power facility at the former US Naval base in Subic Bay, the Philippines, the company was required to employ 139 people to run the plant. This large labor force was necessary not because of the plant's operational needs, but because of local labor practices and unemployment pressures. Independent power companies have become all too familiar with the high cost and complexity of developing projects in emerging international markets. Some of the most significant issues involve taxation, unfamiliar legal systems, changing regulations, and foreign investment restrictions. In addition, questions about currency exchange, national credit worthiness, and political stability add to the difficulty of international development. However, one of the most daunting challenges centers not on development, but on long-term operations and maintenance (O M). A key concern is finding qualified labor. Most developers and O M companies agree that local people should run the plant, with the top person, or persons, thoroughly trained in the developer's company philosophy.

  10. Comparison of ultraviolet data from colocated instruments from the U.S. EPA Brewer Spectrophotometer Network and the U.S. Department of Agriculture UV-B Monitoring and Research Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimlin, Michael G.; Slusser, James R.; Schallhorn, Kathryn A.; Lantz, Kathleen O.; Meltzer, Richard S.

    2005-04-01

    Several ground-based ultraviolet (UV) monitoring networks exist in the United States, each of which is unique in the instrumentation employed for measurements. Two of these UV networks are the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Brewer Spectrophotometer Network and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) UV-B monitoring network, with a combined instrument total of 52 sites, with 32 sites located in the mainland United States. The Brewer records full sky spectra from 287 to 363 nm with 0.55-nm resolution, whereas the USDA instrument is a broadband device that measures broadband erythemally weighted UV data. To date, limited comparisons of data collected from these networks have been analyzed for comparative and quality assurance (QA) purposes. The data we use is taken from sites where instruments from each program are colocated, namely, Big Bend National Park, Texas, and Everglades National Park, Florida. To reduce the contribution of errors in the Brewer-based instruments, the raw data is corrected for stray light rejection, the angular response of the full sky diffuser, the temperature dependence of the instruments, and the temporal variation. This reduces the estimated errors of the absolute irradiance values of each Brewer spectral measurement to approximately +/-5%. The estimated uncertainty of the USDA instruments is approximately +/-6% with a systematic bias of (-13 to 5% depending on the total ozone) and is comprised of (1) standard lamp measurement errors, (2) spectral response determination, and (3) the angular response of the diffuser. We perform comparisons between the Brewer spectrally integrated and erythemally weighted UV irradiance measurements and the data collected by the broadband erythemal UV meters at colocated sites between 1997 through to 2002.

  11. Column internals

    SciTech Connect

    Bravo, J.L.

    1998-02-01

    In the fields of distillation, absorption, stripping and extraction, theory and technology go hand in hand. The thermodynamic principles of phase equilibrium and the concepts of mass transfer and fluid flow are of primary importance in all of these operations. The engineer must understand these phenomena to select equipment effectively. This article discusses the latest in commercial technology in column internals for gas-liquid and liquid-liquid contacting. The principles of operation are explained vis-a-vis the characteristics of the applications in which they are used. The focus is on moderate-to-large columns for refining and chemical applications. Guidelines for selecting the most appropriate type of device are presented, and examples of typical applications are described.

  12. International Education for Wisconsin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moebius, Barbara

    1990-01-01

    Describes an international trade education program offered by Waukesha (WI) County Technical College. The program includes international business principles, international marketing, cultural awareness, business Spanish, international documentation, transportation, and finance. (JOW)

  13. Ultraviolet spectrophotometry of Comet Giacobini-Zinner during the ICE encounter. [International Cometary Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfadden, Lucy A.; Ahearn, Michael F.; Feldman, Paul D.; Boehnhardt, Hermann; Rahe, Juergen; Festou, Michel C.; Brandt, John C.; Maran, Stephen P.; Niedner, Malcolm B.; Smith, Andrew M.

    1987-01-01

    The IUE's UV spectrophotometer was used to monitor Comet Giacobini-Zinner's H2O production rate from June to October, 1985, in support of the International Cometary Explorer (ICE) mission. Observation results for the spatial and temporal variation and the abundance or upper limits of C, CO, CO(+), CO2(+), CS, H, Mg(+), O, OH, and S, between September 9 and 12, included the time of the ICE encounter: at this time, the H2O production rate obtained was consistent with a number of gas production rates derived indirectly from the ICE experiments. A comparison of the CO2(+) ion abundance with the total electron density measured by the plasma electron and radio science experiments on ICE implies an ion deficiency relative to electrons, so that the satisfaction of charge balance criteria requires the presence of a major ion population not detected by remote sensing.

  14. Community College Internal Auditors: Internal Audit Guidebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ronna; And Others

    This guidebook includes information compiled by the "Audit Manual" committee of Community College Internal Auditors (CCIA) from several California community college districts regarding their internal auditing practices. The first section of the guidebook discusses the purpose of internal audits, indicating that audits assist members of the…

  15. Reviews Book: The Babylonian Theorem Video Game: BrainBox360 (Physics Edition) Book: Teaching and Learning Science: Towards a Personalized Approach Book: Good Practice in Science Teaching: What Research Has to Say Equipment: PAPERSHOW Equipment: SEP Steady State Bottle Kit Equipment: Sciencescope Datalogging Balance Equipment: USB Robot Arm Equipment: Sciencescope Spectrophotometer Web Watch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-07-01

    WE RECOMMEND Good Practice in Science Teaching: What Research Has to Say Book explores and summarizes the research Steady State Bottle Kit Another gem from SEP Sciencescope Datalogging Balance Balance suits everyday use Sciencescope Spectrophotometer Device displays clear spectrum WORTH A LOOK The Babylonian Theorem Text explains ancient Egyptian mathematics BrainBox360 (Physics Edition) Video game tests your knowledge Teaching and Learning Science: Towards a Personalized Approach Book reveals how useful physics teachers really are PAPERSHOW Gadget kit is useful but has limitations Robotic Arm Kit with USB PC Interface Robot arm teaches programming WEB WATCH Simple applets teach complex topics

  16. Meteorological and constituent data for January and February 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Balloon data consisting of a plot showing the mixing ratio of ozone partial pressure in micromillibors and temperature in degrees centigrade versus pressure altitude in millibars is presented. An accompanying tabulation of meteorological and constituent data is also presented. The total overburden was aquired by Dobson Spectrophotometer 72.

  17. Procedure for measuring simultaneously the solar and visible properties of glazing with complex internal or external structures.

    PubMed

    Gentle, A R; Smith, G B

    2014-10-20

    Accurate solar and visual transmittances of materials in which surfaces or internal structures are complex are often not easily amenable to standard procedures with laboratory-based spectrophotometers and integrating spheres. Localized "hot spots" of intensity are common in such materials, so data on small samples is unreliable. A novel device and simple protocols have been developed and undergone validation testing. Simultaneous solar and visible transmittance and reflectance data have been acquired for skylight components and multilayer polycarbonate roof panels. The pyranometer and lux sensor setups also directly yield "light coolness" in lumens/watt. Sample areas must be large, and, although mainly in sheet form, some testing has been done on curved panels. The instrument, its operation, and the simple calculations used are described. Results on a subset of diffuse and partially diffuse materials with no hot spots have been cross checked using 150 mm integrating spheres with a spectrophotometer and the Air Mass 1.5 spectrum. Indications are that results are as good or better than with such spheres for transmittance, but reflectance techniques need refinement for some sample types.

  18. Procedure for measuring simultaneously the solar and visible properties of glazing with complex internal or external structures.

    PubMed

    Gentle, A R; Smith, G B

    2014-10-20

    Accurate solar and visual transmittances of materials in which surfaces or internal structures are complex are often not easily amenable to standard procedures with laboratory-based spectrophotometers and integrating spheres. Localized "hot spots" of intensity are common in such materials, so data on small samples is unreliable. A novel device and simple protocols have been developed and undergone validation testing. Simultaneous solar and visible transmittance and reflectance data have been acquired for skylight components and multilayer polycarbonate roof panels. The pyranometer and lux sensor setups also directly yield "light coolness" in lumens/watt. Sample areas must be large, and, although mainly in sheet form, some testing has been done on curved panels. The instrument, its operation, and the simple calculations used are described. Results on a subset of diffuse and partially diffuse materials with no hot spots have been cross checked using 150 mm integrating spheres with a spectrophotometer and the Air Mass 1.5 spectrum. Indications are that results are as good or better than with such spheres for transmittance, but reflectance techniques need refinement for some sample types. PMID:25402807

  19. The internal dynamics of international migration systems.

    PubMed

    Waldorf, B

    1996-04-01

    "In this paper I provide a conceptualization of international migration networks, which can be used to identify and integrate the internal components of migration systems, and formalize the relationships in an analytic model of the internal network dynamic. With the use of the operationalized model, and microlevel and macrolevel data for guestworkers in Germany during the period 1970 to 1989, we can empirically test the relative influence of internal network variables versus external forces on the attraction of immigrants over time. The empirical results suggest that--as the system matures--network variables have an increasing impact on the attraction of immigrants, while the impact of economic factors declines. The research is concluded with a series of simulations that further highlight the internal dynamic of international migration systems."

  20. Theme: International Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Robert A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Consists of seven articles focusing on international agricultural education. Topics discussed include (1) international curriculum development, (2) programs for rural youth, (3) experiential training in international agriculture, (4) university/high school global exchange, (5) international development, and (5) the Association of International…

  1. Improving Internal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonus, Thaddeus, Ed.

    Guidelines for developing the internal communications of colleges and universities, researching internal communication needs, and increasing information flow through traditional and nontraditional media are provided in 11 articles. Titles and authors include the following: "Work for an Open Internal Communication Policy" (Thaddeus Bonus); "Five…

  2. Fishbone and internal kinks

    SciTech Connect

    Strauss, H.; Park, W.; Monticello, D.; Izzo, R.; White, R.; McGuire, K.; Manickam, J.; Goldston, R.

    1983-07-01

    The internal-kink mode, combined with neutral-beam heating and beam losses, appears to be responsible for the fishbone soft x-ray oscillations in PDX. Nonlinear simulations of both ideal and resistive kinks are presented and shown to be consistent with experimental observations. The internal kink may also be important in low-beta internal disruptions.

  3. Children and International Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Childhood Education International, Washington, DC.

    Developed as a plan of action in international education for teachers and students, this portfolio emphasizes the importance of developing a knowledge and appreciation of others, the acquaintance of resources for planning experiences of international understanding, and the participation in international programs to encourage an understanding of…

  4. Neurology and international organizations.

    PubMed

    Mateen, Farrah J

    2013-07-23

    A growing number of international stakeholders are engaged with neurologic diseases. This article provides a brief overview of important international stakeholders in the practice of neurology, including global disease-specific programs, United Nations agencies, governmental agencies with international influence, nongovernmental organizations, international professional organizations, large private donors, private-public partnerships, commercial interests, armed forces, and universities and colleges. The continued engagement of neurologists is essential for the growing number of international organizations that can and should incorporate neurologic disease into their global agendas.

  5. Reviews Equipment: Vibration detector Equipment: SPARK Science Learning System PS-2008 Equipment: Pelton wheel water turbine Book: Atomic: The First War of Physics and the Secret History of the Atom Bomb 1939-49 Book: Outliers: The Story of Success Book: T-Minus: The Race to the Moon Equipment: Fridge Rover Equipment: Red Tide School Spectrophotometer Web Watch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-03-01

    WE RECOMMEND Vibration detector SEP equipment measures minor tremors in the classroom SPARK Science Learning System PS-2008 Datalogger is easy to use and has lots of added possibilities Atomic: The First War of Physics and the Secret History of the Atom Bomb 1939-49 Book is crammed with the latest on the atom bomb T-Minus: The Race to the Moon Graphic novel depicts the politics as well as the science Fridge Rover Toy car can teach magnetics and energy, and is great fun Red Tide School Spectrophotometer Professional standard equipment for the classroom WORTH A LOOK Pelton wheel water turbine Classroom-sized version of the classic has advantages Outliers: The Story of Success Study of why maths is unpopular is relevant to physics teaching WEB WATCH IOP webcasts are improving but are still not as impressive as Jodrell Bank's Chromoscope website

  6. Absolute Solar EUV Irradiance Measurements Obtained on NASA Sounding Rocket Flights 36.286 (23 June 2012) and 36.263 (24 July 2012) For Comparison with Solar EUV Irradiance Measurements from the EUV Spectrophotometer (ESP) Onboard the SDO/EVE and with the Solar EUV Monitor (SEM) Onboard the SOHO/CELIAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didkovsky, L. V.; Wieman, S. R.; Judge, D. L.; Woods, T. N.

    2012-12-01

    Two sounding rocket flights, SDO/EVE under-flight NASA 36.286 (23 June 2012) and Degradation-Free solar Spectrometers NASA 36.263 (24 July 2012) provided high-quality EUV data for comparison with the SDO/EVE EUV Spectrophotometer (ESP) and SOHO/CELIAS/SEM Solar Irradiance Measurements. These two rocket flights allowed us to compare flight and rocket solar EUV irradiances during relatively quiet solar conditions (36.286) and during a C4 solar flare (36.263). The results of these comparisons are presented and discussed using two types of solar reference spectra, a time independent SOLERS-22 spectrum built for moderate solar activity, and currently available EVE spectra representing spectral variability of the dynamical Sun.

  7. Internal auditing in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Don; Kusel, Jim; Oxner, Tom

    2003-01-01

    The authors analyzed two national surveys to determine answers for two basic questions: How do the roles of internal auditors compare with those of their counterparts in other industries and to what extent over the past 6 years have the activities of internal auditors changed? Internal auditors in hospitals allocate their time primarily to financial/compliance and operational types of audits, as do their counterparts. The current trend is toward more operational types of audits. In the early years of employment, staff turnover in hospitals is significantly higher than in all combined industries, often leading to internal auditors' filling other positions in the organization. Hospital staff salaries are higher than are salaries in other industries combined. Staff composition continues to reflect the growing presence of women in the field. The majority of internal auditing directors believe that their salaries are fair, would recommend internal auditing as a career position, and are treated as valued consultants in the organization.

  8. International Heliophysical Year

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, J. M.; Harrison, R.; Poland, A.; St.Cyr, O. C.; Thompson, B. J.; Rabin, Douglas (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In 1957 a program of international research, inspired by the International Polar Years of 1882-83 and 1932-33, was organized as the International Geophysical Year (IGY) to study global phenomena of the Earth and geospace. The IGY involved about 60,000 scientists from 66 nations, working at thousands of stations, from pole to pole to obtain simultaneous, global observations on Earth and in space. There had never been anything like it before. The fiftieth anniversary of the International Geophysical Year will occur in 2007. We propose to organize an international program of scientific collaboration for this time period called the International Heliophysical Year (IHY). Like it predecessors, the IHY will focus on fundamental global questions of Earth science.

  9. The International Heliophysical Year

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Barbara J.

    2007-01-01

    In 1957 a program of international research, inspired by the International Polar Years of 1882 and 1932, was organized as the International Geophysical Year (IGY) to study global phenomena of the Earth and geospace. Fifty years later, the world s space science community will again come together for international programs of scientific collaboration: the International Heliophysical Year (IHY), the Electronic Geophysical Year (eGY), and the International Polar Year (IPY) 2007. This time, research will extend out into the Heliosphere to focus on solar-terrestrial-planetary interactions. The ambitious plans for the IHY, eGY and IPY incorporate the activities of scientists in 191 nations, as well as the IGY Gold Historical Preservation initiative, plus a series of coordinated campaigns involving more than 100 instruments and models, education and public outreach programs, a developing nations instrument development program, and opportunities for supported research worldwide. The presentation will focus on the efforts and operations which will make these activities possible.

  10. Use of computer-simulated radiances to retrieve total atmospheric ozone data from satellite-mounted infrared multifilter radiometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidhaas, P. P.

    1980-10-01

    Four satellites equipped with multichannel filter radiometer (MFR) sensors supplied infrared radiance data at various spectral channels. An ozone retrieval model was developed in order to derive total ozone values from the radiance data. Statistical comparison against a network of ground observatories which measure total ozone with a Dobson spectrophotometer showed good agreement between MFR derived ozone data and Dobson measurements. Thus, the scientific feasibility of the ozone retrieval model was established. Currently, SOAC has begun to automate the processing and archiving of the MFR data.

  11. Ozone measurement systems improvements studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. W.; Guard, K.; Holland, A. C.; Spurling, J. F.

    1974-01-01

    Results are summarized of an initial study of techniques for measuring atmospheric ozone, carried out as the first phase of a program to improve ozone measurement techniques. The study concentrated on two measurement systems, the electro chemical cell (ECC) ozonesonde and the Dobson ozone spectrophotometer, and consisted of two tasks. The first task consisted of error modeling and system error analysis of the two measurement systems. Under the second task a Monte-Carlo model of the Dobson ozone measurement technique was developed and programmed for computer operation.

  12. International safeguards data authentication

    SciTech Connect

    Melton, R.B.; Smith, C.E.; DeLand, S.M.; Manatt, D.R.

    1996-07-01

    The International Safeguards community is becoming increasingly reliant on information stored in electronic form. In international monitoring and related activities it must be possible to verify and maintain the integrity of this electronic information. This paper discusses the use of data authentication technology to assist in accomplishing this task. The paper provides background information, identifies the relevance to international safeguards, discusses issues related to export controls, algorithm patents, key management and the use of commercial vs. custom software.

  13. International environmental policy

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, L.K.

    1990-01-01

    This report presents a survey of the global international movement for protection of the human environment. It describes the expanding dimensions of international environmental policy, clarifies that policy's present status, and provides a record of events of continuing historical significance. The author calls attention to the need for international agreements and proposals for such vital global environmental issues as climate change, disintegration of the stratospheric ozone layer, and long-range trans-boundary air pollution.

  14. The International Space University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elaerts, Roger; Peeters, Walter

    2006-05-01

    The International Space University (ISU) offers, with the support of the world space community and within an international and intercultural environment, interdisciplinary post-graduate programmes in space studies. These graduate programmes prepare professionals from all sectors to meet the challenges of international space cooperation and the restructuring of the space sector. Although it was created as recently as 1987, the ISU is remarkably successful: by 2005 it had around 2400 alumni, forming a strong network in the space community.

  15. Ethics of international collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Jharna; Dinoop, KP; Parija, Subhash Chandra

    2015-01-01

    Education and research together are vital components of academic institutions and globalization has improved health care education and research in numerous ways, one of which is multinational/transnational research/international collaboration. Usually academic institutions of high-income countries and institutions in low-income countries participate in collaboration. These collaborative research are guided by international ethics codes proposed by the international ethics committee to avoid stringent follow/unethical practices. PMID:25709946

  16. International Comparisions Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    International Comparisions Database (Web, free access)   The International Comparisons Database (ICDB) serves the U.S. and the Inter-American System of Metrology (SIM) with information based on Appendices B (International Comparisons), C (Calibration and Measurement Capabilities) and D (List of Participating Countries) of the Comit� International des Poids et Mesures (CIPM) Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA). The official source of the data is The BIPM key comparison database. The ICDB provides access to results of comparisons of measurements and standards organized by the consultative committees of the CIPM and the Regional Metrology Organizations.

  17. EM International. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    It is the intent of EM International to describe the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) various roles and responsibilities within the international community. Cooperative agreements and programs, descriptions of projects and technologies, and synopses of visits to international sites are all highlighted in this semiannual journal. Focus on EM programs in this issue is on international collaboration in vitrification projects. Technology highlights covers: in situ sealing for contaminated sites; and remote sensors for toxic pollutants. Section on profiles of countries includes: Arctic contamination by the former Soviet Union, and EM activities with Germany--cooperative arrangements.

  18. International migration, international relations and foreign policy.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, C

    1989-01-01

    Recent literature on migration, international relations, and foreign policy is reviewed in this article, stressing applications of global systems paradigms, studies of state entry and exit rules, and anatomies of domestic policy-setting processes on migration. After a concise assessment of the contemporary theory of global political economy, the paper argues for seeking mid-range generalizations on the international relations of migration. It also suggests that analysis begin with the policy-setting processes of the state. Especially through the use of comparative perspectives available from domestic policy making studies and from the field of international comparative public policy, this approach offers the opportunity to fix empirically the political roles of transnational social forces, which often present themselves as participants in domestic policy contests. Promising future directions in the study of state-to-state relations are also evaluated, with the anticipation that verifying regional or other intermediate patterns of world migration politics may contribute to more general theories of international political economy.

  19. International Cooperation at NASA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawney, Timothy; Feldstein, Karen

    International cooperation is a cornerstone principle of NASA’s activities, especially within the activities of the Science Mission Directorate. Nearly two thirds of the flight missions in which NASA leads or participates involve international cooperation. Numerous ground based activities also rely on international cooperation, whether because of unique expertise, unique geography, or the need for a global response. Going forward, in an era of tighter budgets and a more integrated global perspective, NASA and the rest of the space agencies around the world will be forced to work more closely together, in a broader array of activities than ever before, in order to be able to afford to push the boundaries of space exploration. The goal of this presentation is to provide an overview of NASA’s current international science cooperative activities. It will include a discussion of why NASA conducts international cooperation and look at the mechanisms through which international cooperation can occur at NASA, including peer-to-peer development of relationships. It will also discuss some of the limiting factors of international cooperation, such as export control, and ways in which to manage those constraints. Finally, the presentation would look at some of the present examples where NASA is working to increase international cooperation and improve coordination. Case studies will be used to demonstrate these mechanisms and concepts. For example, NASA continues to participate in international coordination groups such as the International Mars Exploration Working Group (IMEWG) and International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG), but is expanding into new areas as well. NASA is one of the leaders in expanding and improving international coordination in the area of Near-Earth Object detection, characterization, and mitigation. Having participated in the first meetings of such groups as the International Asteroid Warning Network (IAWN) and Space Missions Planning

  20. The international lithosphere program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flinn, Edward A.

    The International Lithosphere Program is a new international interdisciplinary research program in the solid earth sciences that has been established by the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) at the joint request of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG) and the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS). Its goal is a better understanding of the development of the earth, particularly those aspects upon which human society depends for its well-being.The International Lithosphere Program (ILP) is a natural sequel to a series of international cooperative projects in the geosciences that began with the International Geophysical Year in 1957-58 and continued with the Upper Mantle Project in the 1960's and the International Geodynamics Project (IGP) in the 1970's. In 1977, IUGG and IUGS established an inter-union task group to consider the possibility of a successor to the IGP for the 1980's. The task group, under cochairmen Carl Kisslinger (Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado), foreign secretary of the American Geophysical Union, and J. Henning Illies (Geophysical Institute, University of Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany), invited suggestions and comments from the two unions and the national committees in the member countries. Their report, which was completed late in 1978, proposed a new project on the dynamics, origin, and evolution of the lithosphere. This proposal was approved by the IUGS Executive Committee in December 1979 and by the IUGS Council in June 1980. An inter-union steering committee, established in 1979 under the joint chairmanship of Kisslinger and Illies, developed the organizational framework and constitution of the new program. These were approved by resolution of the ICSU Governing Board in September 1980, and the Inter-Union Commission on the Lithosphere (ICL) was established to implement the program. National members of ICSU were urged to establish

  1. Publishing International Counseling Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohenshil, Thomas H.; Amundson, Norman E.

    2011-01-01

    This article begins with a rationale for including international articles in the "Journal of Counseling & Development." Then, 2 general categories of international articles are described. First are articles that provide a general overview of counseling in a particular country. The 2nd category is more general and might involve international…

  2. International Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, Richard F.

    In response to global changes and a growing focus on international affairs, Foothill and De Anza Colleges have developed a number of international education programs. Since their beginnings, both colleges have hosted full-time students from other countries under the F-1 Visa Program. Another program, Campus Abroad, is a partnership arrangement…

  3. International Education (Working Paper).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruson, Edward S.

    The history, objectives, and funding patterns for international education are discussed. Attention is directed toward the language and area study centers of the U.S. Office of Education, undergraduate/graduate and scholarly exchange programs, and the support of advanced research in international studies. The main source of funds for language and…

  4. Discipline and Internalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Martin L.

    1994-01-01

    Although Grusec and Goodnow make interesting suggestions concerning discipline variables that may affect internalization, their ideas are not integrated into a theory, and their definition of internalization is limited because parent-child similarity may result from children's attributing their values to parents. A theory linking discipline and…

  5. Teaching International Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, James M.

    The accelerated pace of society suggests that social education be clearly formulated from a conceptual golobal framework, recognizing the oneness of earth and man's sharing of a common fate, and that the curriculum be designed from a point of view toward improving international understanding. Effective approaches in international relations…

  6. BWR internal cracking issues

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, C.E. Jr.; Lund, A.L.

    1999-07-01

    The regulatory issues associated with cracking of boiling water reactor (BWR) internals is being addressed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and is the subject of a voluntary industry initiative. The lessons learned from this effort will be applied to pressurized water reactor (PWR) internals cracking issues.

  7. Internal Evaluation, Historically Speaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathison, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    The author analyzes the growth and nature of internal evaluation from the 1960s to the present and suggests that internal evaluation has been on the increase because of its perceived importance. Although the 1960s were characterized by a rich intellectual development of evaluation theory and practice, the fiscal conservatism of the 1980s ushered…

  8. International. [SITE 2002 Section].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Dee Anna, Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on international issues from the SITE (Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education) 2002 conference: (1) "The Management of Technological Change within Faculties in International American Schools" (Martine Audeoud); (2) "Going Global: Using a Website Development Project To Teach Technology…

  9. Alberta's International Education Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Learning and Teaching Resources Branch.

    Globalization is driving rapid change in knowledge, skills, and innovation. The economic well-being of future generations of Albertans depends on investment in education today to ensure that the knowledge and skills acquired continues to be in demand in international communities. International student recruitment in both the basic education and…

  10. The International Assembly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerlach, Jeanne Marcum, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    Looks at the missions and goals of the International Assembly of the National Council of Teachers of English, a global multicultural network promoting communication and cooperation for international exchange of teaching practices, literature, literacy, curriculum development, and research in English. Suggests some criteria to look at when…

  11. Cancer from internal emitters

    SciTech Connect

    Boecker, B.B.; Griffith, W.C. Jr.

    1995-10-01

    Irradiation from internal emitters, or internally deposited radionuclides, is an important component of radiation exposures encountered in the workplace, home, or general environment. Long-term studies of human populations exposed to various internal emitters by different routes of exposure are producing critical information for the protection of workers and members of the general public. The purpose of this report is to examine recent developments and discuss their potential importance for understanding lifetime cancer risks from internal emitters. The major populations of persons being studied for lifetime health effects from internally deposited radionuclides are well known: Lung cancer in underground miners who inhaled Rn progeny, liver cancer from persons injected with the Th-containing radiographic contrast medium Thorotrast, bone cancer from occupational or medical intakes of {sup 226}Ra or medical injections of {sup 224}Ra, and thyroid cancer from exposures to iodine radionuclides in the environment or for medical purposes.

  12. Application of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to non-destructive internal quality inspection of tomatoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Xuemei; He, Yong

    2006-09-01

    The internal quality of tomato such as acidity and sugar content is important to its taste thus influences the market. The objective of this paper was to demonstrate the feasibility of using a near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to investigate the relationship between sugar content and acidity of tomato and absorption spectra. The N1RS reflectance of nondestructive tomatoes was measured with a Visible/NJR spectrophotometer in 325-1075 nm range. The sugar content and acidity of tomato were obtained with a handhold sugar content meter and a PH meter. The reflectance data set was recorded and analyzed with some mathematic methods. The PLS (Partial least squares) calibration method was developed for converting the NIRS reflectance of tomato into the data which determined the acidity value. BP (Back propagation) neural network was used to set up the relationship between the NIRS reflectance of tomato and sugar content. The acidity values were detected with an accuracy of 9O% and the sugar contents determined by the BP network were also very close to the measurements (coefficient of correlation r2=0.8764). NW spectra analysis would be very useful in the nondestructive internal quality inspecting of tomato.

  13. International Space Station Columbus Payload SoLACES Degradation Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harman, William; Schmidl, William; Mikatarian, Ron; Soares, Carlos; Schmidtke, Gerhard; Erhardt, Christian

    2014-01-01

    SOLAR is a European Space Agency (ESA) payload deployed on the International Space Station (ISS) and located on the Columbus Laboratory. It is located on the Columbus External Payload Facility in a zenith location. The objective of the SOLAR payload is to study the Sun. The SOLAR payload consists of three instruments that allow for measurement of virtually the entire electromagnetic spectrum (17 nm to 100 um). The three payload instruments are SOVIM (SOlar Variable and Irradiance Monitor), SOLSPEC (SOLar SPECctral Irradiance measurements), and SolACES (SOLar Auto-Calibrating Extreme UV/UV Spectrophotometers). The SolACES payload includes a set of 4 spectrometers that measure the solar EUV flux from 17 nm to 220 nm. One of these 4 spectrometers failed early on (before deployment). EUV data is important in understanding the solar dynamo. Also, EUV flux is the source of most of the ionization that produces the ionosphere plasma. Plasma production is important in understanding the ionosphere environment. The ionosphere conditions affect many subjects including spacecraft charging, dynamo processes, instabilities, and communications. The 3 remaining spectrometers have collected valuable data during the historically low solar cycle 24. Some of this data will be presented. A significant trend in degradation of the remaining SolACES spectrometers was observed towards the end of CY2010 (GMT 310) through mid CY 2011 (GMT 132). The Principle Investigators of SolACES initiated a Mission Evaluation Room (MER) Chit to request an investigation of the degradation in CY 2011 (GMT 230). The Boeing Space Environments team was asked to respond to the ESA initiated MER Chit request to investigate the cause of the degradation. This paper will discuss the findings of that investigation.

  14. Waves: Internal Tides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard D.

    1999-01-01

    Oceanic internal tides are internal waves with tidal periodicities. They are ubiquitous throughout the ocean, although generally more pronounced near large bathymetric features such as mid-ocean ridges and continental slopes. The internal vertical displacements associated with these waves can be extraordinarily large. Near some shelf breaks where the surface tides are strong, internal displacements (e.g., of an isothermal surface) can exceed 200 meters. Displacements of 10 meters in the open ocean are not uncommon. The associated current velocities are usually comparable to or larger than the currents of the surface tide. On continental shelves internal tides can occasionally generate packets of internal solitons, which are detectable in remote sensing imagery. Other common nonlinear features are generation of higher harmonics (e.g., 6-hr waves) and wave breaking. Internal tides are known to be an important energy source for mixing of shelf waters. Recent research suggests that they may also be a significant energy source for deep-ocean mixing.

  15. NASA International Environmental Partnerships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Pattie; Valek, Susan

    2010-01-01

    For nearly five decades, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been preeminent in space exploration. NASA has landed Americans on the moon, robotic rovers on Mars, and led cooperative scientific endeavors among nations aboard the International Space Station. But as Earth's population increases, the environment is subject to increasing challenges and requires more efficient use of resources. International partnerships give NASA the opportunity to share its scientific and engineering expertise. They also enable NASA to stay aware of continually changing international environmental regulations and global markets for materials that NASA uses to accomplish its mission. Through international partnerships, NASA and this nation have taken the opportunity to look globally for solutions to challenges we face here on Earth. Working with other nations provides NASA with collaborative opportunities with the global science/engineering community to explore ways in which to protect our natural resources, conserve energy, reduce the use of hazardous materials in space and earthly applications, and reduce greenhouse gases that potentially affect all of Earth's inhabitants. NASA is working with an ever-expanding list of international partners including the European Union, the European Space Agency and, especially, the nation of Portugal. Our common goal is to foster a sustainable future in which partners continue to explore the universe while protecting our home planet's resources for future generations. This brochure highlights past, current, and future initiatives in several important areas of international collaboration that can bring environmental, economic, and other benefits to NASA and the wider international space community.

  16. Internal tide oceanic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhongxiang

    2016-09-01

    A concept of internal tide oceanic tomography (ITOT) is proposed to monitor ocean warming on a global scale. ITOT is similar to acoustic tomography, but that work waves are internal tides. ITOT detects ocean temperature changes by precisely measuring travel time changes of long-range propagating internal tides. The underlying principle is that upper ocean warming strengthens ocean stratification and thus increases the propagation speed of internal tides. This concept is inspired by recent advances in observing internal tides by satellite altimetry. In particular, a plane wave fit method can separately resolve multiple internal tidal waves and thus accurately determines the phase of each wave. Two examples are presented to demonstrate the feasibility and usefulness of ITOT. In the eastern tropical Pacific, the yearly time series of travel time changes of the M2 internal tide is closely correlated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation index. In the North Atlantic, significant interannual variations and bidecadal trends are observed and consistent with the changes in ocean heat content measured by Argo floats. ITOT offers a long-term, cost-effective, environmentally friendly technique for monitoring global ocean warming. Future work is needed to quantify the accuracy of this technique.

  17. International energy annual 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    The International Energy Annual presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 220 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy reported in the International Energy Annual includes hydroelectric power, geothermal, solar, and wind electric power, biofuels energy for the US, and biofuels electric power for Brazil. New in the 1996 edition are estimates of carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of petroleum and coal, and the consumption and flaring of natural gas. 72 tabs.

  18. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world, in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  19. International Perspectives on Fieldcourses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nairn, Karen; Higgitt, David; Vanneste, Dominique

    2000-01-01

    Considers the context of internationalism for the enhancement of fieldwork practices. Discusses whether fieldcourses are valuable experiences. Addresses specific issues affecting internationalisation of fieldcourses, such as financial considerations, sharing courses (staff and resources), overseas fieldtrips and expeditions, safety, and student…

  20. The Internal Audit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Robert H.

    1981-01-01

    Internal control comprises the plan of organization and all the coordinate methods and measures adopted within a school system to safeguard its assets, check the reliability of its accounting data, promote operational efficiency, and encourage adherence to prescribed policies. (Author)

  1. International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    The InterLymph Consortium, or formally the International Consortium of Investigators Working on Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Epidemiologic Studies, is an open scientific forum for epidemiologic research in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  2. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; stocks from 1973 through 1995, and trade from 1985 through 1995.

  3. Globalisation of international health.

    PubMed

    Walt, G

    1998-02-01

    40 years ago, activities in international health were the domain of WHO, governments (based on bilateral agreements), and non-governmental organisations. This has changed. Today, new players (such as the World Bank and, increasingly, the World Trade Organisation) have an influence on international health. As globalisation of trade and markets takes hold, new coalitions and alliances are forming to examine and deal with the direct and indirect consequences on health. This paper examines the changing context of cooperation in international health, and voices concerns about rising potential inequalities in health, both within and between countries. The question of how such changes will affect the actions of organisations working in international health is also addressed.

  4. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994.

  5. International Higher Education Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lulat, Y. G-M.

    1988-01-01

    One in a series of bibliographies of articles in international higher education journals lists items on a variety of administrative, financial, faculty, student, curricular, and related issues. Articles on specific geographic regions are categorized separately. (MSE)

  6. Geoscientists for international development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hastings, David A.

    1980-01-01

    Professional societies are usually concerned with the advancement of scientific knowledge, but a relative newcomer to the international scene has a different focus - geoscience development in the Third World. David Hastings, a member of AGID, explains.

  7. (International meetings on ecology)

    SciTech Connect

    DeAngelis, D.L.; Garten, C.T. Jr.; Turner, M.G.

    1990-09-25

    the travelers attended the Fifth International Congress of Ecology (INTECOL) in Yokohama, Japan, and two presented invited papers and chaired symposia. One traveler also attended the OJI International Seminar in Gifu, Japan and the Fukuoka Symposium on Theoretical Ecology in Fukuoka, Japan and presented invited papers. At these scientific gatherings, a large number of symposia and specific presentations were relevant to current research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), especially in the areas of landscape dynamics, plant physiology, and aquatic ecosystems.

  8. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This monthly publication provides current international oil data. The Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the OECD. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  9. Criteria for internal auditing.

    PubMed

    Holder, W W; Clay, R J

    1979-01-01

    An effective, inclusive internal auditing endeavor should help assure hospital managements that (1) an adequate system of internal control exists to assure the safeguarding of assets and the reliability of data produced by the financial information system, (2) uneconomic operating practices are detected promptly so they can be remedied, and (3) program results and effectiveness levels are of sufficiently high quality to demonstrate managerial competence.

  10. The international uranium market

    SciTech Connect

    Neff, T.

    1984-01-01

    Shortages, glut, political manipulation and worries about security have all marked the international trade in uranium. In this book, the director of the International Energy Studies Program of the MIT Energy Laboratory sorts out these factors, looks closely at the position of a number of countries, and speculates on the future of a market in which supply will exceed demand, costs will vary widely, and governments will continue to be directly involved for as far ahead as anyone can see.

  11. An evaluation of electrochemical concentration cell sonde measurements of atmospheric ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geraci, M. J.; Luers, J. K.

    1978-01-01

    Using Dobson spectrophotometer measurements of total ozone as a comparison, an analysis of the Electrochemical Concentration Cell (ECC) ozonesonde's measurement accuracy is presented. Days of conjunctive ECC-Dobson observations (from 1970 to 1976 at Wallops Flight Center) provide a set of 123 pairs of total ozone values. Sample set statistics are generated with means and standard deviations of total ozone values and differences being noted. An in-depth study of factors such as time differences between associated observations, integration techniques used, assumptions used in calculating residual ozone and other possible sources of errors are examined. Short-period changes in total ozone using Dobson data during the observational period are also described.

  12. An evaluation of electrochemical concentration Cell (ECC) sonde measurements of atmospheric ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geraci, M. J.; Luers, J. K.

    1978-01-01

    Using Dobson spectrophotometer measurements of total ozone as a comparison, an analysis of the electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesonde's measurement accuracy is presented. Days of conjunctive ECC-Dobson observations (from 1970 to 1976 at Wallops Flight Center) provide a set of 123 pairs of total ozone values. Sample set statistics are generated with means and standard deviations of total ozone values and differences being noted. An in-depth study of factors such as time assumptions used in calculating residual ozone, and other possible sources of errors are examined. A study of ECC ozone profiles is also presented with an evaluation of sonde measurement of seasonal trends, altitude or peak ozone concentration, and other important ozone parameters. Short-period changes in total ozone using Dobson data during the observational period are also described.

  13. Temporary internal pacing.

    PubMed

    Ortiz Díaz-Miguel, R; Gómez Grande, M L

    2014-12-01

    Technology and insertion techniques for cardiac temporary internal pacing have experienced a remarkable development over the last few years. Despite this fact, the procedure continues to have potentially fatal associated complications. Temporary internal pacing is indicated for the treatment of bradyarrhythmias or tachyarrhythmias refractory to conventional treatment, or arrhythmias causing cardiovascular or clinical instability of the patient. On the other hand, the indications of temporary cardiac pacing are far less well defined than those of permanent pacing. Since the decision of implementing temporary pacing is complex and delicate, it should always be carefully considered, and over-indication should be avoided. We must base these decisions on robust knowledge of the arrhythmias that may benefit from temporary internal pacing, and should also acquire the habit of considering external temporary pacing among other less aggressive treatments, and to make the best use of new technologies such as echocardiography that add accuracy to the procedure. PMID:24786750

  14. The International Space University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidian, Kenneth J.

    1990-01-01

    The International Space University (ISU) was founded on the premise that any major space program in the future would require international cooperation as a necessary first step toward its successful completion. ISU is devoted to being a leading center for educating future authorities in the world space industry. ISU's background, goals, current form, and future plans are described. The results and benefits of the type of education and experience gained from ISU include technical reports describing the design projects undertaken by the students, an exposure to the many different disciplines which are a part of a large space project, an awareness of the existing activities from around the world in the space community, and an international professional network which spans all aspects of space activities and covers the globe.

  15. International energy annual 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    The International Energy Annual presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 220 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy reported in the International Energy Annual includes hydroelectric power and geothermal, solar, and wind electric power. Also included are biomass electric power for Brazil and the US, and biomass, geothermal, and solar energy produced in the US and not used for electricity generation. This report is published to keep the public and other interested parties fully informed of primary energy supplies on a global basis. The data presented have been largely derived from published sources. The data have been converted to units of measurement and thermal values (Appendices E and F) familiar to the American public. 93 tabs.

  16. International energy outlook 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The International Energy Outlook 1994 (IEO94) presents an assessment by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the outlook for international energy markets between 1990 and 2010. The report is provided as a statistical service to assist energy managers and analysts, both in government and in the private sector. These forecasts are used by international agencies, Federal and State governments, trade associations, and other planners and decisionmakers. They are published pursuant to the Depart. of Energy Organization Act of 1977 (Public Law 95-91), Section 205(c). The IEO94 projections are based on US and foreign government policies in effect on October 1, 1993-which means that provisions of the Climate Change Action Plan unveiled by the Administration in mid-October are not reflected by the US projections.

  17. [International malpractice law].

    PubMed

    Stellpflug, M H

    2001-10-01

    According to German Civil Law the liability of a physician in telemedicine can be based on the breach of contractual duties or tort. In telemedicine doctor and patient are separated by distance. In the case of cross border telemedicine Medical Malpractice Law becomes an international issue with many new questions arising. The rules and regulations of "private international law" determine which law has to be applied. The German private international law allows the patient to choose either the law of the state in which the doctor acts or that state in which the therapeutical damage is being suffered. Another important question arises in determining the jurisdiction (of a court). The European agreements give the patient the right to choose. A "choice of jurisdiction clause" or a "choice of law clause" can help to decide with binding force which law and what jurisdiction has to be applied. However, various regulations concerned with consumer protection restrict the permission of such agreements.

  18. [International malpractice law].

    PubMed

    Stellpflug, M H

    2001-10-01

    According to German Civil Law the liability of a physician in telemedicine can be based on the breach of contractual duties or tort. In telemedicine doctor and patient are separated by distance. In the case of cross border telemedicine Medical Malpractice Law becomes an international issue with many new questions arising. The rules and regulations of "private international law" determine which law has to be applied. The German private international law allows the patient to choose either the law of the state in which the doctor acts or that state in which the therapeutical damage is being suffered. Another important question arises in determining the jurisdiction (of a court). The European agreements give the patient the right to choose. A "choice of jurisdiction clause" or a "choice of law clause" can help to decide with binding force which law and what jurisdiction has to be applied. However, various regulations concerned with consumer protection restrict the permission of such agreements. PMID:11688223

  19. ILO - International Migration Programme.

    PubMed

    Boudraa, Miriam

    2011-01-01

    In a wide International Context characterised not only by the economical development but also by the social, cultural, political and individual development, we witness more and more to a exchange between the developed and the developing countries, which can be translated especially in the migration of the work force. In theory, all countries are either countries of origin either countries of transit or destination, and they are all responsible for the rights of migrant workers by promoting the rights, by monitoring and by preventing the abusive conditions. The process of migration of the workforce can be divided into three stages: the first coincides with the period prior to departure, the second is represented by the aftermath of the departure and the period of stay in the country of destination, the third stage corresponds to the return in the country of origin. The workers must be protected throughout this process by the international organizations that perform the catalytic role of communication and exchange between countries, for the only purpose of protecting the rights of immigrant and/or immigrants workers. The responsibility for the protection of workers is divided among the various players in the International Labour Organisation. Every country has to apply measures according to the international standards regarding workers' rights, standards that guide the various countries in the formulation and implementation of their policies and legislation. These standards are suggested by International Conventions, the ILO Conventions and other international instruments such as the human rights instrument. There has been a big step forward once the ILO Fundamental Conventions and Conventions on Migrant Workers where implemented and this implementation represented the use of the Guidelines "ILO Multilateral Framework on Labour Migration".

  20. ILO - International Migration Programme.

    PubMed

    Boudraa, Miriam

    2011-01-01

    In a wide International Context characterised not only by the economical development but also by the social, cultural, political and individual development, we witness more and more to a exchange between the developed and the developing countries, which can be translated especially in the migration of the work force. In theory, all countries are either countries of origin either countries of transit or destination, and they are all responsible for the rights of migrant workers by promoting the rights, by monitoring and by preventing the abusive conditions. The process of migration of the workforce can be divided into three stages: the first coincides with the period prior to departure, the second is represented by the aftermath of the departure and the period of stay in the country of destination, the third stage corresponds to the return in the country of origin. The workers must be protected throughout this process by the international organizations that perform the catalytic role of communication and exchange between countries, for the only purpose of protecting the rights of immigrant and/or immigrants workers. The responsibility for the protection of workers is divided among the various players in the International Labour Organisation. Every country has to apply measures according to the international standards regarding workers' rights, standards that guide the various countries in the formulation and implementation of their policies and legislation. These standards are suggested by International Conventions, the ILO Conventions and other international instruments such as the human rights instrument. There has been a big step forward once the ILO Fundamental Conventions and Conventions on Migrant Workers where implemented and this implementation represented the use of the Guidelines "ILO Multilateral Framework on Labour Migration". PMID:22073693

  1. The international RESPO network

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    Winrock International, with sponsorship from the Center for Environment of the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and the U.S. Export Council for Renewable Energy (US/ECRE), is building a global network of non-governmental organizations to help catalyze the use of renewable energy technologies for rural energy supply in developing countries. Known as the Renewable Energy Project Support Offices (REPSOs), these in-country facilities are managed by local institutions in coordination with Winrock. REPSOs provide an array of technical and financial support services to help developers identify and evaluate opportunities for renewable energy projects.

  2. (International seminar on limnology)

    SciTech Connect

    Kimmel, B.L.

    1991-03-05

    The traveler attended the Second Week on Limnology, the second of a four-part series of week-long conferences, which collectively will comprise the International Seminar on Limnology. These conferences are being organized and sponsored by the National Water Commission of Mexico for the purpose of upgrading the limnological knowledge, experience, and international contacts of limnologists, water resources scientists, and engineers in Mexico. This particular meeting focused on limnological research, water resources development, water resources problems, and lake restoration efforts occurring throughout the world. The traveler presented an invited lecture entitled Understanding Reservoirs as Aquatic Ecosystems'' and served as the moderator of a day-long session on Selected Topics.''

  3. INTERNAL CUTTING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Russell, W.H. Jr.

    1959-06-30

    A device is described for removing material from the interior of a hollow workpiece so as to form a true spherical internal surface in a workpiece, or to cut radial slots of an adjustable constant depth in an already established spherical internal surface. This is accomplished by a spring loaded cutting tool adapted to move axially wherein the entire force urging the tool against the workpiece is derived from the spring. Further features of importance involve the provision of a seal between the workpiece and the cutting device and a suction device for carrying away particles of removed material.

  4. International occupational health.

    PubMed

    LaDou, Joseph

    2003-08-01

    Working conditions for the majority of the world's workers do not meet the minimum standards and guidelines set by international agencies. Occupational health and safety laws cover only about 10 percent of the population in developing countries, omitting many major hazardous industries and occupations. With rare exception, most countries defer to the United Nations the responsibility for international occupational health. The UN's international agencies have had limited success in bringing occupational health to the industrializing countries. The International Labor Organization (ILO) conventions are intended to guide all countries in the promotion of workplace safety and in managing occupational health and safety programs. ILO conventions and recommendations on occupational safety and health are international agreements that have legal force only if they are ratified by ILO member states. The most important ILO Convention on Occupational Safety and Health has been ratified by only 37 of the 175 ILO member states. Only 23 countries have ratified the ILO Employment Injury Benefits Convention that lists occupational diseases for which compensation should be paid. The World Health Organization (WHO) is responsible for the technical aspects of occupational health and safety, the promotion of medical services and hygienic standards. Limited WHO and ILO funding severely impedes the development of international occupational health. The U.S. reliance on international agencies to promote health and safety in the industrializing countries is not nearly adequate. This is particularly true if occupational health continues to be regarded primarily as an academic exercise by the developed countries, and a budgetary triviality by the international agencies. Occupational health is not a goal achievable in isolation. It should be part of a major institutional development that touches and reforms every level of government in an industrializing country. Occupational health and safety

  5. Internal combustion chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitz, D.L.

    1988-03-08

    In combination with a high-powered reciprocating piston internal combustion engine, an internal combustion cylinder assembly is described comprising: a cylinder head made of weldable material; a cylinder liner for containing and guiding a reciprocating piston of the engine, a coolant jacket adapted to receive a cooling fluid, mounted on and surrounding the cylinder liner, the jacket being attached to the cylinder head and detachably supported by the cylinder liner, and forming a cooling chamber around the cylinder liner; means to supply the cooling fluid to the cooling chamber and to discharge the cooling fluid therefrom.

  6. Internationalism and Globalization as Contexts for International Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cambridge, James; Thompson, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    A problem with the construction of an inclusive definition of international education is that the word 'international' has a variety of connotations. It is proposed that the term 'international education' is ambiguous because it appears to refer to contrasting usages in educational studies. International education is frequently discussed in the…

  7. International Ultraviolet Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This report is the November 6, 1996 - October 9, 1997, IUE Final Report for the International Ultraviolet Explorer Final Archive contract. The ultimate objective of this contract is the completion of the archival reprocessing of all IUE data obtained at GSFC between 1978 and 1995.

  8. International Summer Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, June

    1979-01-01

    The article describes five summer programs for gifted and talented students offered internationally. The programs outlined are workshops in the publication arts, a study of humanistic development; computer science, writing, and photography workshops; a language study; a historical/social study of English history; and a workshop on photography,…

  9. Simulation in International Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Social scientists have long worked to replicate real-world phenomena in their research and teaching environments. Unlike our biophysical science colleagues, we are faced with an area of study that is not governed by the laws of physics and other more predictable relationships. As a result, social scientists, and international studies scholars more…

  10. International Student Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Anne

    In an effort to augment the information needed for decisions regarding policy, funding, programs, and services, Miami-Dade Community College (M-DCC) conducts periodic studies of its foreign student population. This report profiles international students at M-DCC for closing fall term 1990-91, and provides national data comparisons among…

  11. Requirements for Xenon International

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, James C.; Ely, James H.; Haas, Derek A.; Harper, Warren W.; Heimbigner, Tom R.; Hubbard, Charles W.; Humble, Paul H.; Madison, Jill C.; Morris, Scott J.; Panisko, Mark E.; Ripplinger, Mike D.; Stewart, Timothy L.

    2015-12-30

    This document defines the requirements for the new Xenon International radioxenon system. The output of this project will be a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) developed prototype and a manufacturer-developed production prototype. The two prototypes are intended to be as close to matching as possible; this will be facilitated by overlapping development cycles and open communication between PNNL and the manufacturer.

  12. Introduction to International Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crummett, Dan M.; Crummett, Jerrie

    This set of student and teacher guides is intended for use in a course to prepare students for entry-level employment in such occupational areas in international trade as business/finance, communications, logistics, and marketing. The following topics are covered in the course's five instructional units: introduction to careers in international…

  13. Internal Leadership Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurber, Christopher A.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how camps can cultivate staff from among the camper ranks. Outlines questions to consider in deciding whether internal leadership development (ILD) is appropriate and feasible. Describes elements of successful ILD programs and six training techniques to maximize ILD: leadership by example, delegation of responsibility, role-playing,…

  14. International waste management conference

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the international waste management conference. Topics covered include: Quality assurance in the OCR WM program; Leading the spirit of quality; Dept. of Energy hazardous waste remedial actions program; management of hazardous waste projects; and System management and quality assurance.

  15. The International System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, Maurice A.

    Designed as a unit for an international relations course, this systems approach paper outlines a learning method which contributes to the student's awareness that the United States is only one of many actors in the world. It also makes the student aware that there are limitations on the U. S. individual actions because of this interdependence and…

  16. Fall 2013 International Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Evaluation Association, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This Fall report is an aggregated statistical analysis of Measures of Academic Progress® (MAP®) data from international schools. The report provides a consistent means of comparisons of specific sub-groups by subject and grade, which allows partners to compare their MAP® results with other schools within their region or membership organization.…

  17. Internal displacement in Burma.

    PubMed

    Lanjouw, S; Mortimer, G; Bamforth, V

    2000-09-01

    The internal displacement of populations in Burma is not a new phenomenon. Displacement is caused by numerous factors. Not all of it is due to outright violence, but much is a consequence of misguided social and economic development initiatives. Efforts to consolidate the state by assimilating populations in government-controlled areas by military authorities on the one hand, while brokering cease-fires with non-state actors on the other, has uprooted civilian populations throughout the country. Very few areas in which internally displaced persons (IDPs) are found are not facing social turmoil within a climate of impunity. Humanitarian access to IDP populations remains extremely problematic. While relatively little information has been collected, assistance has been focused on targeting accessible groups. International concern within Burma has couched the problems of displacement within general development modalities, while international attention along its borders has sought to contain displacement. With the exception of several recent initiatives, few approaches have gone beyond assistance and engaged in the prevention or protection of the displaced.

  18. International HRD Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on international perspectives on human resource development (HRD). The first paper, "Human Resource Development Practices in American and Chinese High-technology Companies in Taiwan" (Hsin-yi Chen), uses quantitative and qualitative data on HRD practices in high-technology companies in the…

  19. Requirements for Xenon International

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, James C.; Ely, James H.

    2013-09-26

    This document defines the requirements for the new Xenon International radioxenon system. The output of this project will be a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) developed prototype and a manufacturer-developed production prototype. The two prototypes are intended to be as close to matching as possible; this will be facilitated by overlapping development cycles and open communication between PNNL and the manufacturer.

  20. International. [SITE 2001 Section].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Dee Anna, Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on international issues from the SITE (Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education) 2001 conference: (1) "Attitudes of Malaysian Vocational Trainee Teachers towards the Integration of Computer in Teaching" (Ab. Rahim Bakar and Shamsiah Mohamed); (2) "Views from an Asian Bridge: How…

  1. International Study Tour Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Frances L.; Matt, John J.; McCaw, William P.; Kero, Patty; Stewart, Courtney; Haddouch, Reda

    2014-01-01

    Using the context of international study tour groups, this study examined the personal and professional transformation that occurred among host faculty and staff at The University of Montana-Missoula as a result of their interactions with traveling academics from other countries. Data were collected from participant responses (n = 27) using a…

  2. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report is published for the use of Members of Congress, Federal agencies, State agencies, industry, and the general public. Publication of this report is in keeping with responsibilities given the Energy Information Administration in Public Law 95-91. The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995.

  3. International Space University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kassler, Maggie (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The International Space University (ISU) is described in this video, hosted by Marina Sirtis from the 'Star Trek' television show's Starship Enterprise. A complete explanation of what ISU is, how the university functions, and the benefits that the university provides are described. Included are brief comments from former ISU graduates.

  4. International energy outlook 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This International Energy Outlook presents historical data from 1970 to 1993 and EIA`s projections of energy consumption and carbon emissions through 2015 for 6 country groups. Prospects for individual fuels are discussed. Summary tables of the IEO96 world energy consumption, oil production, and carbon emissions projections are provided in Appendix A. The reference case projections of total foreign energy consumption and of natural gas, coal, and renewable energy were prepared using EIA`s World Energy Projection System (WEPS) model. Reference case projections of foreign oil production and consumption were prepared using the International Energy Module of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). Nuclear consumption projections were derived from the International Nuclear Model, PC Version (PC-INM). Alternatively, nuclear capacity projections were developed using two methods: the lower reference case projections were based on analysts` knowledge of the nuclear programs in different countries; the upper reference case was generated by the World Integrated Nuclear Evaluation System (WINES)--a demand-driven model. In addition, the NEMS Coal Export Submodule (CES) was used to derive flows in international coal trade. As noted above, foreign projections of electricity demand are now projected as part of the WEPS. 64 figs., 62 tabs.

  5. Internal split field generator

    DOEpatents

    Thundat; ,Thomas George; Van Neste, Charles W.; Vass, Arpad Alexander

    2012-01-03

    A generator includes a coil of conductive material. A stationary magnetic field source applies a stationary magnetic field to the coil. An internal magnetic field source is disposed within a cavity of the coil to apply a moving magnetic field to the coil. The stationary magnetic field interacts with the moving magnetic field to generate an electrical energy in the coil.

  6. ETV International Brief

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. ETV Program has been active internationally for more than 10 years. Initially these efforts focused on sharing information about the U.S. program. Over the last four years, ETV has formalized working relationships with other countries with the objective of developing a...

  7. Requiem for Cultural Internationalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ninkovich, Frank

    1986-01-01

    Reviews Mary Brown Bullock's 1980 book,"An American Transplant: The Rockefeller Foundation and Peking Union Medical College." Far more than a narrow, scholarly history, this book is a case study of the far-reaching cultural impact of international educational exchange efforts. (JDH)

  8. Independence of Internal Auditors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montondon, Lucille; Meixner, Wilda F.

    1993-01-01

    A survey of 288 college and university auditors investigated patterns in their appointment, reporting, and supervisory practices as indicators of independence and objectivity. Results indicate a weakness in the positioning of internal auditing within institutions, possibly compromising auditor independence. Because the auditing function is…

  9. International Air Transport Policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, C.

    1972-01-01

    The actions of the Civil Aviation Board in providing assistance and advice to the State Department regarding international air transport policy are discussed. The policies and guidelines of the Civil Aviation Board are defined. The relationship with the policies of the Executive Branch of the Government and the interpretations of the Department of Transportation are reported.

  10. International reference ionosphere 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilitza, Dieter; Rawer, K.; Bossy, L.; Kutiev, I.; Oyama, K.-I.; Leitinger, R.; Kazimirovsky, E.

    1990-01-01

    The International Reference Ionosphere 1990 (IRI-90) is described. IRI described monthly averages of the electron density, electron temperature, ion temperature, and ion composition in the altitude range from 50 to 1000 km for magnetically quiet conditions in the non-auroral ionosphere. The most important improvements and new developments are summarized.

  11. Merit Pay International

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woessmann, Ludger

    2011-01-01

    American 15-year-olds continue to perform no better than at the industrial-world average in reading and science, and below that in mathematics. According to the results of the 2009 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) tests, released in December 2010 by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the United…

  12. International Perspectives on Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwandt, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past year, the Board of Directors of the American Evaluation Association (AEA) has been discussing ways in which AEA can strengthen its relationships and build collaborative partnerships within the international evaluation community as well as increase AEA members' awareness of and capacity to engage issues that shape evaluation…

  13. Spring 2013 International Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Evaluation Association, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This report is an aggregated statistical analysis of Measures of Academic Progress® (MAP®) data from international schools. The report provides a consistent means of comparisons of specific sub-groups by subject and grade, which allows partners to compare their MAP® results with other schools within their region or membership organization. There…

  14. Internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Beaudsin, N.

    1984-05-22

    An internal combustion engine wherein the rod connecting the piston to the crankshaft has an enlarged portion defining a track which a crankshaft element cooperatingly engages; the track is topologically shaped so that the effect exerted by the crankshaft element on the connecting rod is reduced and/or cancelled for a given travel distance of the crankshaft element in the track.

  15. International Activities of ASE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symonds, Lynne; Jackson, Graham

    2013-01-01

    The Association for Science Education (ASE) has been involved in exchanges with various countries in a number of ways. Teachers from all over the world visit the Annual Conference and their own associations have often used ASE methods in developing their own programmes. The responsibilities of the International Committee of ASE range from…

  16. FFA International Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Future Farmers of America, Washington, DC.

    The document provides a list of 10 of the international agriculture activities available for the Future Farmers of America (FFA) chapters' participation: Work Experience Abroad (WEA); Development Projects; FFA Study Seminars; Care, Inc.; Walk for Development; Agriculutural Seminars; Heifer Project; CROP; World Neighbors; and Meals for Millions.…

  17. Internalism, Externalism and Coding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Philip

    2007-01-01

    I examine some of the issues connected with the internalist/externalist distinction in work on the ontology of language. I note that Chomskyan radical internalism necessarily leads to a passive conception of child language acquisition. I reject that passive conception, and support current versions of constructivism [Tomasello, M., 2001. "The…

  18. Technology in International Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    In a relatively short time, technology applications have become an essential feature of the admissions business. They make the jobs of international admissions professionals easier in many ways, allowing for more robust communication with applicants and counselors, a streamlined application process, and quicker access to information about…

  19. GNU debugger internal architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, P.; Nessett, D.; Pizzi, R.

    1993-12-16

    This document describes the internal and architecture and implementation of the GNU debugger, gdb. Topics include inferior process management, command execution, symbol table management and remote debugging. Call graphs for specific functions are supplied. This document is not a complete description but offers a developer an overview which is the place to start before modification.

  20. Intel International Interim Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Wendy; Mandinach, Ellen; Kanaya, Tomoe; Culp, Katie McMillan

    2004-01-01

    This interim report presents preliminary data and observations from evaluations of Intel Teach to the Future being conducted around the world, and recommendations for building and refining this evaluation portfolio to ensure that findings will be instructive at the local, national and international level. The data presented here reflect the…

  1. Occupational Standards: International Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Joao, Ed.

    These nine papers from a conference of the International Research Network for Training and Development focus on occupational classification, standards, and certification. "Introduction" (Joao Oliveria) presents synopses with highlights from the papers. Part I offers an overview of recent developments in the United States in "Occupational Standards…

  2. International energy indicators. [International and US statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, E.K.

    1980-03-01

    For the international sector, a table of data is first presented followed by corresponding graph of the data for the following: (1) Iran: crude oil capacity, production, and shut-in, 1974 to February 1980; (2) Saudi Arabia (same as Iran); (3) OPEC (ex-Iran and Saudi Arabia); capacity, production, and shut-in, 1974 to January 1980; (4) non-OPEC Free World and US production of crude oil, 1973 to January 1980; (5) oil stocks: Free World, US, Japan, and Europe (landed), 1973 to 1979; (6) petroleum consumption by industrial countries, 1973 to October 1979; (7) USSR crude oil production, 1974 to February 1980; (8) Free World and US nuclear generation capacity, 1973 to January 1980. For the United States, the same data format is used for the following: (a) US imports of crude oil and products 1973 to January 1980; (b) landed cost of Saudi Arabia crude oil in current and 1974 dollars, 1974 to October 1979; (c) US trade in coal, 1973 to 1979; (d) summary of US merchandise trade, 1976 to January 1980; and (e) US energy/GNP ratio (in 1972 dollars), 1947 to 1979.

  3. The melanosome: threshold temperature for explosive vaporization and internal absorption coefficient during pulsed laser irradiation.

    PubMed

    Jacques, S L; McAuliffe, D J

    1991-06-01

    The explosive vaporization of melanosomes in situ in skin during pulsed laser irradiation (pulse duration less than 1 microsecond) is observed as a visible whitening of the superficial epidermal layer due to stratum corneum disruption. In this study, the ruby laser (694 nm) was used to determine the threshold radiant exposure, H0 (J/cm2), required to elicit whitening for in vitro black (Negroid) human skin samples which were pre-equilibrated at an initial temperature, Ti, of 0, 20, or 50 degrees C. A plot of H0 vs Ti yields a straight line whose x-intercept indicates the threshold temperature of explosive vaporization to be 112 +/- 7 degrees C (SD, N = 3). The slope, delta H0/delta Ti, specifies the internal absorption coefficient, mua, within the melanosome: mua = -rho C/(slope(1 + 7.1 Rd)), where rho C is the product of density and specific heat, and Rd is the total diffuse reflectance from the skin. A summary of the absorption spectrum (mua) for the melanosome interior (351-1064 nm) is presented based on H0 data from this study and the literature. The in vivo absorption spectrum (380-820 nm) for human epidermal melanin was measured by an optical fiber spectrophotometer and is compared with the melanosome spectrum. PMID:1886936

  4. The melanosome: threshold temperature for explosive vaporization and internal absorption coefficient during pulsed laser irradiation.

    PubMed

    Jacques, S L; McAuliffe, D J

    1991-06-01

    The explosive vaporization of melanosomes in situ in skin during pulsed laser irradiation (pulse duration less than 1 microsecond) is observed as a visible whitening of the superficial epidermal layer due to stratum corneum disruption. In this study, the ruby laser (694 nm) was used to determine the threshold radiant exposure, H0 (J/cm2), required to elicit whitening for in vitro black (Negroid) human skin samples which were pre-equilibrated at an initial temperature, Ti, of 0, 20, or 50 degrees C. A plot of H0 vs Ti yields a straight line whose x-intercept indicates the threshold temperature of explosive vaporization to be 112 +/- 7 degrees C (SD, N = 3). The slope, delta H0/delta Ti, specifies the internal absorption coefficient, mua, within the melanosome: mua = -rho C/(slope(1 + 7.1 Rd)), where rho C is the product of density and specific heat, and Rd is the total diffuse reflectance from the skin. A summary of the absorption spectrum (mua) for the melanosome interior (351-1064 nm) is presented based on H0 data from this study and the literature. The in vivo absorption spectrum (380-820 nm) for human epidermal melanin was measured by an optical fiber spectrophotometer and is compared with the melanosome spectrum.

  5. Internal audit consider the implications.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Grant D; Hamilton, Angela

    2004-06-01

    Internal audit can not only allay external and internal concerns about appropriateness of business operations, but also help improve efficiency and the bottom line. To get an internal audit function under way, healthcare organizations need to obtain board buy-in, form an audit committee of the board, determine resources needed, perform a risk assessment, and develop an internal audit plan.

  6. Internal Auditing for School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuzzetto, Charles

    This book provides guidelines for conducting internal audits of school districts. The first five chapters provide an overview of internal auditing and describe techniques that can be used to improve or implement internal audits in school districts. They offer information on the definition and benefits of internal auditing, the role of internal…

  7. Aerosol Optical Depth: A study using Thailand based Brewer Spectrophotometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumharn, Wilawan; Sudhibrabha, Sumridh; Hanprasert, Kesrin

    2015-12-01

    The Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) was retrieved from the direct-sun Brewer observation by the application of the Beer's law for the years 1997-2011 at two monitoring sites in Thailand (Bangkok and Songkhla). AOD values measured in Bangkok exhibited higher values than Songkhla. In addition, AOD values were higher in the morning and evening in Bangkok. In contrast, the AOD values in Songkhla were slightly lower during the mornings and late afternoons. The variation of AOD was seasonal in Bangkok, with the higher values found in summer (from Mid-February to Mid-May) compared with rainy season (Mid-May to Mid-October), whilst there was no clear seasonal pattern of AOD in Songkhla.

  8. Spec UV-Vis: An Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrophotometer Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, N.; Limniou, Maria; Koklamanis, Giannis; Tsarouxas, Apostolos; Roilidis, Mpampis; Bigger, Stephen W.

    2001-11-01

    The software and its accompanying manual can be used to illustrate the recording of an absorption spectrum and the Beer-Lambert law (5-7) as well as various aspects of acid-base indicators such as the spectrophotometric determination of pKa (8), the isosbestic point (6, 9), and distribution diagrams (10, 11).

    Literature Cited

    1. Shiowatana, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 730.
    2. Altemose, I. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, A216, A262.
    3. Piepmeier, E. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 640.
    4. Lott, P. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A89, A169, A182, A273.
    5. Skoog, D. A.; West, D. M.; Holler, F. J. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry, 7th ed.; Saunders College Publishing: Fort Worth, TX, 1996, Chapters 22-24.
    6. Christian, G. D. Analytical Chemistry, 5th ed.; Wiley: New York, 1994; Chapter 14.
    7. Kennedy, J. H. Analytical Chemistry--Principles, 2nd ed.; Saunders College Publishing: New York, 1990; Chapters 11,12.
    8. Patterson, G. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 395.
    9. Harris, D. C. Quantitative Chemical Analysis, 5th ed.; Freeman: New York, 1997; Chapters 19, 20.
    10. Butler, J. N. Ionic Equilibrium--A Mathematical Approach; Addison-Wesley: Reading, MA, 1964; Chapter 5.
    11. Sawyer, C. A.; McCarty, P. L.; Parkin, G. F. Chemistry for Environmental Engineering, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill: Singapore, 1994; Chapter 4.

  9. At-line cotton color measurements by portable color spectrophotometers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a result of reports of cotton bales that had significant color changes from their initial Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI™) color measurements, a program was implemented to measure cotton fiber color (Rd, +b) at-line in remote locations (warehouse, mill, etc.). The measurement of cotton fiber...

  10. The international petrochemical industry

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, K.

    1991-01-01

    The petrochemical industry occupies a crucial place in economic, strategic and political terms in the twentieth century. The author explains its growth and international distribution from the 1920s tot he present, relating the particular experience of petrochemicals to the processes that have shaped the long-term evolution of industry in general. The geographical coverage of this book extends from the regional to international scale, and its historical scope embraces one hundred years from the laboratory origins of polymer science and petrochemistry to the massive operations of modern industry. It represents the result of twenty years of research, and reflects the author's privileged access to company sources in both the U.S. and Europe.

  11. Internal core tightener

    DOEpatents

    Brynsvold, Glen V.; Snyder, Jr., Harold J.

    1976-06-22

    An internal core tightener which is a linear actuated (vertical actuation motion) expanding device utilizing a minimum of moving parts to perform the lateral tightening function. The key features are: (1) large contact areas to transmit loads during reactor operation; (2) actuation cam surfaces loaded only during clamping and unclamping operation; (3) separation of the parts and internal operation involved in the holding function from those involved in the actuation function; and (4) preloaded pads with compliant travel at each face of the hexagonal assembly at the two clamping planes to accommodate thermal expansion and irradiation induced swelling. The latter feature enables use of a "fixed" outer core boundary, and thus eliminates the uncertainty in gross core dimensions, and potential for rapid core reactivity changes as a result of core dimensional change.

  12. First International Microgravity Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahan, Tracy; Shea, Charlotte; Wiginton, Margaret; Neal, Valerie; Gately, Michele; Hunt, Lila; Graben, Jean; Tiderman, Julie; Accardi, Denise

    This colorful booklet presents capsule information on every aspect of the International Microgravity Laboratory (IML). As part of Spacelab, IML is divided into Life Science Experiments and Materials Science Experiments. Because the life and materials sciences use different Spacelab resources, they are logically paired on the IML missions. Life science investigations generally require significant crew involvement, and crew members often participate as test subjects or operators. Materials missions capitalize on these complementary experiments. International cooperation consists in participation by the European Space Agency, Canada, France, Germany, and Japan who are all partners in developing hardware and experiments of IML missions. IML experiments are crucial to future space ventures, like the development of Space Station Freedom, the establishment of lunar colonies, and the exploration of other planets. Principal investigators are identified for each experiment.

  13. First International Microgravity Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmahan, Tracy; Shea, Charlotte; Wiginton, Margaret; Neal, Valerie; Gately, Michele; Hunt, Lila; Graben, Jean; Tiderman, Julie; Accardi, Denise

    1990-01-01

    This colorful booklet presents capsule information on every aspect of the International Microgravity Laboratory (IML). As part of Spacelab, IML is divided into Life Science Experiments and Materials Science Experiments. Because the life and materials sciences use different Spacelab resources, they are logically paired on the IML missions. Life science investigations generally require significant crew involvement, and crew members often participate as test subjects or operators. Materials missions capitalize on these complementary experiments. International cooperation consists in participation by the European Space Agency, Canada, France, Germany, and Japan who are all partners in developing hardware and experiments of IML missions. IML experiments are crucial to future space ventures, like the development of Space Station Freedom, the establishment of lunar colonies, and the exploration of other planets. Principal investigators are identified for each experiment.

  14. [Vaccination for international travelers].

    PubMed

    Arrazola, M Pilar; Serrano, Almudena; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2016-05-01

    Traveler's vaccination is one of the key strategies for the prevention of infectious diseases during international travel. The risk of acquiring an infectious disease is determined in each case by the characteristics of the traveler and the travel, so the pre-departure medical advice of the traveler must be individualized. The World Health Organization classifies travelerś vaccines into three groups. - Vaccines for routine use in national immunization programs: Haemophilus influenzae type b, hepatitis B, polio, measles-mumps-rubella, tetanus-diphtheria-whooping a cough, and chickenpox. - Vaccinations required by law in certain countries before to enter them: yellow fever, meningococcal disease and poliomyelitis. - Vaccines recommended depending on the circumstances: cholera, japanese encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis, meningococcal disease, typhoid fever, influenza, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, rabies and BCG. This review is intended to introduce the reader to the field of international vaccination.

  15. Frontiers in Internal Medicine.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Jimenez, F; Luna-Jimenez, M A; Polanczyk, C A; Rohde, L E; Rivera-Moscoso, R; Reza-Albarran, A A; Macias-Hernandez, A E; Obrador, G T; Levey, A S; Mora, R

    1997-01-01

    Clinical research in Internal Medicine has provided many scientific advances during the past few years. However, the newly generated information overrides the time available to read all of the medical literature regarding advances in Internal Medicine. The goal of this review is to summarize some of the most relevant improvements in clinical practice published over the last few years. From Cardiology to Pulmonology, the authors of this review expose in a succinct way what they and many of their peers consider to be the most transcendental information gathered from thousands of publications. The authors of this review article have attempted to avoid sensationalism by including facts instead of just simply optimistic preliminary findings that can mislead clinicians' decision making. The review is focused on information obtained through well-designed, prospective clinical trials and cohorts where the effectiveness of medical interventions and diagnostic procedures were tested. PMID:9428570

  16. International Water Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The urban district of Nancy and the Town of Nancy, France, have taken the initiative of creating an International Center of Water (Centre International de l'Eau à Nancy—NAN.C.I.E.) in association with two universities, six engineering colleges, the Research Centers of Nancy, the Rhine-Meuse Basin Agency, and the Chamber of Commerce and Industry. The aim of this center is to promote research and technology transfer in the areas of water and sanitation. In 1985 it will initiate a research program drawing on the experience of 350 researchers and engineers of various disciplines who have already been assigned to research in these fields. The research themes, the majority of which will be multidisciplinary, concern aspects of hygiene and health, the engineering of industrial processes, water resources, and the environment and agriculture. A specialist training program offering five types of training aimed at university graduates, graduates of engineering colleges, or experts, will start in October 1984.

  17. International Nuclear Security

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, James E.

    2012-08-14

    This presentation discusses: (1) Definitions of international nuclear security; (2) What degree of security do we have now; (3) Limitations of a nuclear security strategy focused on national lock-downs of fissile materials and weapons; (4) What do current trends say about the future; and (5) How can nuclear security be strengthened? Nuclear security can be strengthened by: (1) More accurate baseline inventories; (2) Better physical protection, control and accounting; (3) Effective personnel reliability programs; (4) Minimize weapons-usable materials and consolidate to fewer locations; (5) Consider local threat environment when siting facilities; (6) Implement pledges made in the NSS process; and (7) More robust interdiction, emergency response and special operations capabilities. International cooperation is desirable, but not always possible.

  18. International energy outlook, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-08

    This report presents the current Energy Information Administration (EIA) assessment of the long-term outlook for international energy markets. The historic political and economic changes occurring in Easter Europe and the former Soviet Union will, no doubt, transform regional markets and world trade. This report pays particular attention to energy markets and resources in those countries that were once a part of the Centrally Planned Economies (CPE's) and how prospective changes in these countries might influence the energy outlook for the rest of the world. Several major EIA estimates determine, in large part, the resulting energy projections presented here. These include estimates of the energy intensity of economic activity; oil and natural gas production capacities; nuclear and hydroelectric generation capacities; international coal trade; and the rate of incremental energy requirements met by alternatives to oil.

  19. International energy outlook, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-08

    This report presents the current Energy Information Administration (EIA) assessment of the long-term outlook for international energy markets. The historic political and economic changes occurring in Easter Europe and the former Soviet Union will, no doubt, transform regional markets and world trade. This report pays particular attention to energy markets and resources in those countries that were once a part of the Centrally Planned Economies (CPE`s) and how prospective changes in these countries might influence the energy outlook for the rest of the world. Several major EIA estimates determine, in large part, the resulting energy projections presented here. These include estimates of the energy intensity of economic activity; oil and natural gas production capacities; nuclear and hydroelectric generation capacities; international coal trade; and the rate of incremental energy requirements met by alternatives to oil.

  20. [Vaccination for international travelers].

    PubMed

    Arrazola, M Pilar; Serrano, Almudena; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2016-05-01

    Traveler's vaccination is one of the key strategies for the prevention of infectious diseases during international travel. The risk of acquiring an infectious disease is determined in each case by the characteristics of the traveler and the travel, so the pre-departure medical advice of the traveler must be individualized. The World Health Organization classifies travelerś vaccines into three groups. - Vaccines for routine use in national immunization programs: Haemophilus influenzae type b, hepatitis B, polio, measles-mumps-rubella, tetanus-diphtheria-whooping a cough, and chickenpox. - Vaccinations required by law in certain countries before to enter them: yellow fever, meningococcal disease and poliomyelitis. - Vaccines recommended depending on the circumstances: cholera, japanese encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis, meningococcal disease, typhoid fever, influenza, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, rabies and BCG. This review is intended to introduce the reader to the field of international vaccination. PMID:26920587

  1. Genetic discrimination: international perspectives.

    PubMed

    Otlowski, M; Taylor, S; Bombard, Y

    2012-01-01

    Genetic discrimination (GD) is a complex, multifaceted ethical, psychosocial, and legal phenomenon. It is defined as the differential treatment of asymptomatic individuals or their relatives on the basis of their real or assumed genetic characteristics. This article presents an overview of GD within the contemporary international context. It describes the concept of GD and its contextual features, reviews research evidence regarding people's experiences of GD and the impact of GD within a range of domains, and provides an overview of legal and policy responses to GD that have emerged globally. We argue that GD is a significant and internationally established phenomenon that requires multilevel responses to ensure social justice and equitable outcomes for all citizens. Future research should monitor GD and its impacts within the community as well as institutions and should evaluate the effectiveness of legislative, policy, community education, and systemic responses. PMID:22607273

  2. International markets for CCTs

    SciTech Connect

    Ferriter, J.P.

    1997-12-31

    The paper begins by describing the role of the International Energy Agency, the importance of coal, what the IEA is doing in the area of clean coal technology, and the role of the IEA Coal Industry Advisory Board. The paper then discusses which coal technologies will be chosen, what the problem areas are, and what can be done to accelerate the take-up of clean coal technologies.

  3. INTERNATIONAL ENGLISH MANUAL

    SciTech Connect

    AMADOR, MABLE; KELLER, YVONNE KELLER

    2002-02-22

    This document presents a set of guidelines for authors who wish to express themselves more clearly to foreign readers, or readers whose first language is not American English. Topics include idioms, technical terms, jargon, word meaning, acronyms, and international conventions of measurement. The guidelines will help writers of technical documents present their ideas more effectively to audiences that may include individuals whose first language is not American English, including audiences with individuals from other English-speaking countries.

  4. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    This monthly publication provides current data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the OECD. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  5. Internal Waves, Indian Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This photograph, taken in sunglint conditions, captures open ocean internal waves which are diffracting around shoals south of the Seychelle islands (4.5S, 55.5E) and recombining to form interference patterns. The clouds to the north of the waves cover two of the Seychelle islands: Silhouette and Mahe. Mahe is the main island of the archipelago. The small rocky island surrounded by reef around which the waves diffract is Platte Island.

  6. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the OECD. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world, presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production, oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  7. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    This document is a monthly publication which provides current data on international oil production,demand,imports and stocks. This report has four sections which contain time series data on world oil production and oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Also included is oil supply/demand balance information for the world, and data on oil imports and trade by OECD countries.

  8. The International Halley Watch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    In preparation for the 1985 to 1986 apparition of Halley's Comet, the International Halley Watch (IHW) has initiated a comprehensive program to simulate, encourage, and coordinate scientific observation of the apparition. The observing groups with which the IHW plans to interact are discussed and the ground based observing nets are described in detail. An outline of the history of observations of Halley's Comet and a synopsis of comet properties and physics are included.

  9. International Seismological Centre

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spall, H.; Hughes, A.

    1979-01-01

    The International Seismological Centre had its origins when the British seismologist Professor John Milne returned to England from Japan in 1895 to retire at Shide on the Isle of Eight. In cooperation with the British Association for the Advancement of Science, Milne had set up a number of seismographic stations around the world and, while Tokyo, had published a Catalogue of 8,33 Earthquakes Recorded in Japan, 1885-1892. 

  10. The International Lunar Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    A new lunar science flight projects line has been introduced within NASA s Science Mission Directorate's (SMDs) proposed 2009 budget, including two new robotic missions designed to accomplish key scientific objectives and, when possible, provide results useful to the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) and the Space Operations Mission Directorate (SOMD) as those organizations grapple with the challenges of returning humans to the Moon. The first mission in this line will be the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, an ESMD mission that will acquire key information for human return to the moon activities, which will transition after one year of operations to the SMD Lunar Science Program for a 2-year nominal science mission. The second mission, the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) will be launch in 2011 along with the GRAIL Discovery mission to the moon. The third is delivery of two landed payloads as part of the International Lunar Network (ILN). This flight projects line provides a robust robotic lunar science program for the next 8 years and beyond, complements SMD s initiatives to build a robust lunar science community through R&A lines, and increases international participation in NASA s robotic exploration plans. The International Lunar Network is envisioned as a global lunar geophysical network, which fulfills many of the stated recommendations of the recent National Research Council report on The Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon [2], but is difficult for any single space agency to accomplish on its own. The ILN would provide the necessary global coverage by involving US and international landed missions as individual nodes working together. Ultimately, this network could comprise 8-10 or more nodes operating simultaneously, while minimizing the required contribution from each space agency. Indian, Russian, Japanese, and British landed missions are currently being formulated and SMD is actively seeking partnership with

  11. Polarized internal target apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Holt, Roy J.

    1986-01-01

    A polarized internal target apparatus with a polarized gas target of improved polarization and density achieved by mixing target gas atoms with a small amount of alkali metal gas atoms, and passing a high intensity polarized light source into the mixture to cause the alkali metal gas atoms to become polarized which interact in spin exchange collisions with target gas atoms yielding polarized target gas atoms.

  12. Polarized internal target apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Holt, R.J.

    1984-10-10

    A polarized internal target apparatus with a polarized gas target of improved polarization and density (achieved by mixing target gas atoms with a small amount of alkali metal gas atoms, and passing a high intensity polarized light source into the mixture to cause the alkali metal gas atoms to become polarized which interact in spin exchange collisions with target gas atoms yielding polarized target gas atoms) is described.

  13. Project: Internal communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, Lydia

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the perceived information needs of NASA Langley employees. One hundred and twelve face-to-face interviews were conducted with a representative sample of aero-space technologists, administrative professionals, technicians. and secretarial/clerical personnel. Results of employee perceptions are analyzed and summarized using affinity diagramming. Particular strategies to maximize use of existing internal communication networks are discussed.

  14. Internationally educated health professionals.

    PubMed

    Leatt, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    Even as recently as a decade ago, it was not uncommon for many Canadian decision- and policy makers in healthcare and government to ignore the matter of internationally educated healthcare professional (IEHP) integration and retention. With all the talk in the past few years, however, of employee shortages in nearly every healthcare profession and a rapidly aging population that requires more and more care, nobody can afford to neglect this potentially large and highly skilled talent pool. PMID:20523134

  15. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international data. The report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent 12 months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1996; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1996; and OECD trade from 1986 through 1996.

  16. English as an International Language: International Student and Identity Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Phan Le

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on the literature on Asian international students, current debates surrounding English as an international language (EIL), and the conceptual tools of appropriation, this article reports the findings of a qualitative research study with eight Asian international students studying at a university in Thailand to explore their taking…

  17. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-04-12

    The two broad categories of deposited weld metal repair and fiber-reinforced composite liner repair technologies were reviewed for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Preliminary test programs were developed for both deposited weld metal repair and for fiber-reinforced composite liner repair. Evaluation trials have been conducted using a modified fiber-reinforced composite liner provided by RolaTube and pipe sections without liners. All pipe section specimens failed in areas of simulated damage. Pipe sections containing fiber-reinforced composite liners failed at pressures marginally greater than the pipe sections without liners. The next step is to evaluate a liner material with a modulus of elasticity approximately 95% of the modulus of elasticity for steel. Preliminary welding parameters were developed for deposited weld metal repair in preparation of the receipt of Pacific Gas & Electric's internal pipeline welding repair system (that was designed specifically for 559 mm (22 in.) diameter pipe) and the receipt of 559 mm (22 in.) pipe sections from Panhandle Eastern. The next steps are to transfer welding parameters to the PG&E system and to pressure test repaired pipe sections to failure. A survey of pipeline operators was conducted to better understand the needs and performance requirements of the natural gas transmission industry regarding internal repair. Completed surveys contained the following principal conclusions: (1) Use of internal weld repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling (HDD) when a new bore must be created to

  18. Internal absorber solar collector

    DOEpatents

    Sletten, Carlyle J.; Herskovitz, Sheldon B.; Holt, F. S.; Sletten, E. J.

    1981-01-01

    Thin solar collecting panels are described made from arrays of small rod collectors consisting of a refracting dielectric rod lens with an absorber imbedded within it and a reflecting mirror coated on the back side of the dielectric rod. Non-tracking collector panels on vertical walls or roof tops receive approximately 90% of solar radiation within an acceptance zone 60.degree. in elevation angle by 120.degree. or more in the azimuth sectors with a collector concentration ratio of approximately 3.0. Miniaturized construction of the circular dielectric rods with internal absorbers reduces the weight per area of glass, plastic and metal used in the collector panels. No external parts or insulation are needed as heat losses are low due to partial vacuum or low conductivity gas surrounding heated portions of the collector. The miniature internal absorbers are generally made of solid copper with black selective surface and the collected solar heat is extracted at the collector ends by thermal conductivity along the absorber rods. Heat is removed from end fittings by use of liquid circulants. Several alternate constructions are provided for simplifying collector panel fabrication and for preventing the thermal expansion and contraction of the heated absorber or circulant tubes from damaging vacuum seals. In a modified version of the internal absorber collector, oil with temperature dependent viscosity is pumped through a segmented absorber which is now composed of closely spaced insulated metal tubes. In this way the circulant is automatically diverted through heated portions of the absorber giving higher collector concentration ratios than theoretically possible for an unsegmented absorber.

  19. Internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, H.G.; Speer, S.

    1991-12-31

    This patent describes improvement in a 2-cycle, diesel cycle internal combustion engine comprising a single in-line engine block, internal wall surfaces defining at least one cylinder within the engine block, the central longitudinal axis of each cylinder being within a common plane extending longitudinally of the engine block, the axially extending internal wall surface of each cylinder being closed at one end and having at least one air intake port therethrough, a piston axially and reciprocally movable within each cylinder over a permitted stroke distance, so as to alternately cover and expose each air intake port for a finite time period; an exhaust port at the closed end of the cylinder above the piston, and a mechanically operated valve for opening and closing such exhaust port located immediately adjacent such port, a substantially rigid connecting rod pivotably connected at one end of each piston, and a crankshaft, rotatably connected to the second end of each connecting rod, such that the crankshaft is caused to rotate connecting means between the piston and the connecting rod. The improvement comprises the diameter of the cylinder is greater than the permitted stroke distance of the piston within the cylinder, and the axis of the crankshaft is parallel to and laterally offset from the common plane by a distance sufficient to form an angle alpha between the connecting rod and the axis of the cylinder, when the piston is at top-dead center, of at least about 12 degrees, such that the time during which each air intake port is exposed is increased when the direction of crankshaft rotation is opposite to the direction of the crankshaft offset from the common plane.

  20. Threats to international science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisslinger, Carl

    The role of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) as effective agents for promoting world science is seriously threatened. It is ironic that the threat comes from Norway and Denmark, two countries that have demonstrated a deep commitment to individual freedom and human rights. Motivated by a sincere desire to express their strongest disapproval of the “apartheid” policies of the government of the Republic of South Africa, these countries have passed laws that have the effect of rejecting the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) principles of nondiscrimination and free circulation of scientists.

  1. Linearly Adjustable International Portfolios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, R. J.; Kuhn, D.; Rustem, B.

    2010-09-01

    We present an approach to multi-stage international portfolio optimization based on the imposition of a linear structure on the recourse decisions. Multiperiod decision problems are traditionally formulated as stochastic programs. Scenario tree based solutions however can become intractable as the number of stages increases. By restricting the space of decision policies to linear rules, we obtain a conservative tractable approximation to the original problem. Local asset prices and foreign exchange rates are modelled separately, which allows for a direct measure of their impact on the final portfolio value.

  2. International energy annual, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-08

    This document presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 200 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy includes hydroelectric, geothermal, solar and wind electric power and alcohol for fuel. The data were largely derived from published sources and reports from US Embassy personnel in foreign posts. EIA also used data from reputable secondary sources, industry reports, etc.

  3. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This monthly publication provides international oil data for January 1998. The report presents data on oil production, demand, imports, and stocks in four sections. Section 1 containes time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 containes annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  4. International energy annual 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    The International Energy Annual presents information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu). Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Data are provided on crude oil refining capacity and electricity installed capacity by type. Prices are included for selected crude oils and for refined petroleum products in selected countries. Population and Gross Domestic Product data are also provided.

  5. International data base.

    PubMed

    Quick, S

    1984-12-01

    The concept of the International Data Base (IDB) grew from recognition of the need for timely, high quality information on the demographic, social and economic characteristics of foreign countries. During the past 2 decades, the Bureau of the Census, US Department of Commerce, has been compiling, analyzing and evaluating international demographic data and, to a lesser extent, socioeconomic data with particular emphasis on developing countries. In 1979, at the request of the Office of Women in Development at the Agency for International Development, a computerized data base of demographic and socioeconomic statistics that could be used to assess the status of women in developing countries was established. The major categories of data now being included in IDB are as follows: population by age and sex; vital rates, infant mortality and life tables; health and nutrition; fertility and child survivorship; migration; provinces and cities; family planning; ethnic, religious and language groups; literacy and education; labor force, employment, income and gross national product; and household size and housing indicators. The Bureau, through its Center for International Reserch (CIR), developed a computerized central depository of demographic, social and economic data for all countries of the world to serve the needs of the public and private sectors. The initial emphasis was on demographic and social data, since these subject areas are those for which a vast amount of data has already been compiled, analyzed and evaluated by CIR staff. However, meetings are being planned with users to determine the additional types of data that are desired, particularly in the economic and health-related areas. IDB includes data for all countries of the world, by urban and rural residence. The time coverage is from 1950 to the present. Data sources include: population and industrial censuses and surveys, administrative records, population registers, statistical publications, research

  6. Internal insulation system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gille, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    The development of an internal insulation system for cryogenic liquids is described. The insulation system is based on a gas layer concept in which capillary or surface tension effects are used to maintain a stable gas layer within a cellular core structure between the tank wall and the contained cryogen. In this work, a 1.8 meter diameter tank was insulated and tested with liquid hydrogen. Ability to withstand cycling of the aluminum tank wall to 450 K was a design and test condition.

  7. Factors Affecting Internal Blast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granholm, R. H.; Sandusky, H. W.; Felts, J. E.

    2007-12-01

    Internal blast refers to explosion effects in confined spaces, which are dominated by the heat output of the explosive. Theoretical temperatures and pressures may not be reached due to heat losses and incomplete gas mixing. Gas mixing can have the largest effect, potentially reducing peak quasi-static pressure by a factor of two due to lack of thermal equilibrium between products and atmosphere in the space, separate from the effect of incomplete combustion of excess fuel when that atmosphere is air. Chamber and test geometry affect gas mixing, which has been inferred through temperature and pressure measurements and compared to calculations. Late-time combustion is observed for TNT compared to HMX.

  8. International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wahlberg, Jennifer; Gordon, Randy

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the research on the International Space Station (ISS), including the sponsorship of payloads by country and within NASA. Included is a description of the space available for research, the Laboratory "Rack" facilities, the external research facilities and those available from the Japanese Experiment Module (i.e., Kibo), and highlights the investigations that JAXA has maintained. There is also a review of the launch vehicles and spacecraft that are available for payload transportation to the ISS, including cargo capabilities of the spacecraft.

  9. Decentralization Calls for Internal Audits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiCello, Jim

    1995-01-01

    Outlines internal-auditing strategies necessitated by decentralization. Describes the following areas of concern: the student activities account, student attendance, and funding delegated to the site level. Guidelines for conducting an internal audit are also included. (LMI)

  10. Learning Activities for International Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    The National Standards for Business Education include nine areas relating to international business: awareness, communication, environmental factors, ethics, finance, management, marketing, import/export, and organizational structure of international business. (SK)

  11. INTERNATIONAL LAW: HINDRANCE OR HELP?

    EPA Science Inventory

    As international Remote Sensing/Geographic Information Systems (RS/GIS)
    organizations develop, legal issues are becoming an important factor in promoting or limiting international cooperation. We must keep legal considerations in mind during the creation, implementation, and ...

  12. Goddard Summer Interns: Danielle Wood

    NASA Video Gallery

    Profile of Goddard intern Danielle Wood. Danielle is interning at Goddard in the Innovative Partnerships Program and at NASA Headquarters in the Office of the Chief Technologist in the summer of 20...

  13. Editor's Shelf: International Juvenile Titles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell-Powell, Brenda

    1994-01-01

    Provides an annotated list of international juvenile picture books and notes those that emphasize text over pictures. The 49 titles present international perspectives for educators, librarians, and parents seeking materials with alternative cultural content. The majority are folk tales. (SLD)

  14. SETI and International Radio Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyall, F.

    2010-04-01

    The use of radio in SETI is subject to international rules agreed through the International Telecommunication Union. These are summarised. An opportunity for their revision will arise in 2012. Suggestions may be made.

  15. Reflections on international medical law.

    PubMed

    Wattad, Mohammed S; Hrevtsova, Radmyla Yu

    2011-12-01

    Does international medical law exist, in the first place, as an independent area of study? If so, is it urgently required in an era of comparative studies? Namely, to what extent, if at all, international studies differ from comparative ones? Besides, what are the particular characteristics of such international discipline? Namely, what are the particular features of this field that elaborate on our legal and scientific understanding in sketching possible definition for this notion of "international medical law?" In addition, how does international medical law correlate with health, ethics and health policies in our globalized world? And finally, what are the challenges that might face the international community, once the concept of "international medical law" is acknowledged? This papers aims at establishing the conceptual grounds for these questions, thus calling for the acknowledgment of a new field of study described as "international medical law".

  16. CCD Sparse Field CTE Internal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Svea

    2012-10-01

    CTE measurements are made using the "internal sparse field test", along the parallelaxis. The "POS=" optional parameter, introduced during cycle 11, is used to provideoff-center MSM positioning of some slits. All exposures are internals.

  17. CCD Sparse Field CTE Internal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, Michael

    2011-10-01

    CTE measurements are made using the "internal sparse field test", along the parallelaxis. The "POS=" optional parameter, introduced during cycle 11, is used to provideoff-center MSM positionings of some slits. All exposures are internals.

  18. CCD Sparse Field CTE Internal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, Michael

    2010-09-01

    CTE measurements are made using the "internal sparse field test", along the parallelaxis. The "POS=" optional parameter, introduced during cycle 11, is used to provideoff-center MSM positionings of some slits. All exposures are internals.

  19. CCD Sparse Field CTE Internal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Svea

    2013-10-01

    CTE measurements are made using the "internal sparse field test", along the parallelaxis. The "POS=" optional parameter, introduced during cycle 11, is used to provideoff-center MSM positioning of some slits. All exposures are internals.

  20. CCD Sparse Field CTE Internal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, Michael

    2009-07-01

    CTE measurements are made using the "internal sparse field test", along the parallelaxis. The "POS=" optional parameter, introduced during cycle 11, is used to provideoff-center MSM positionings of some slits. All exposures are internals.

  1. Hanford internal dosimetry program manual

    SciTech Connect

    Carbaugh, E.H.; Sula, M.J.; Bihl, D.E.; Aldridge, T.L.

    1989-10-01

    This document describes the Hanford Internal Dosimetry program. Program Services include administrating the bioassay monitoring program, evaluating and documenting assessments of internal exposure and dose, ensuring that analytical laboratories conform to requirements, selecting and applying appropriate models and procedures for evaluating internal radionuclide deposition and the resulting dose, and technically guiding and supporting Hanford contractors in matters regarding internal dosimetry. 13 refs., 16 figs., 42 tabs.

  2. International Cooperation in Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Magnus

    This paper addresses some of the general issues of international cooperation within the context of distance education. Examples of the types of international cooperation are introduced in order to explain some of the pitfalls that can occur when coordinating organizations on an international level. Extensive discussion is undertaken concerning…

  3. Simulation in International Relations Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkey, Brigid A.; Blake, Elizabeth L.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the educational implications of simulations in international relations. Highlights include the development of international relations simulations; the role of technology; the International Communication and Negotiation Simulations (ICONS) project at the University of Maryland; evolving information technology; and simulating real-world…

  4. The Internal-Candidate Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barden, Dennis M.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author explains the complications involved when an internal candidate is included in an open search for a leadership position in an academic institution. Internal-candidate syndrome is a dilemma faced by institutions when they have to choose between an internal candidate and an external one. There are two reasons why…

  5. Affect Control in International Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heise, David R.; Lerner, Steven J.

    2006-01-01

    This research tests the proposition that national leaders generate international interactions in the process of maintaining sentiments about nations and international actions. The analysis deals with 1,934 international incidents in which one of 25 Middle Eastern nations responded twice within four weeks to an instigation by another of the 25…

  6. (International meeting of ecology)

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, K.O.

    1990-09-14

    This report, dated September 14, 1990, covers the trip to Japan of Dr. Kimiko O. Bowman, Senior Research Member in the Mathematical Sciences Section. Engineering Physics and Mathematics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The trip was supported by the Center for Indoor Air Research (CIAR). The purpose of the trip was to attend and present an invited talk at the Fifth International Congress of Ecology held at the Yokohama Prince Hotel in Yokohama, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, August 23--30, 1990. The presented talk Testing the Mutagenicity of Components'' described two papers on research conducted under contract to the CIAR. The only other site visited was Tokyo Science University by invitation of Dr. T. Okuno,Provost of the University. The main activities consisted of attending the meeting, contributing to the discussion, and presenting an invited talk at the conference. The discussion with Dr. Okuno was on general biometric research topics. The main benefit was to gain greater international exposure for our work and to discover new applications for it.

  7. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1084 through 1994.

  8. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994.

  9. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-27

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994.

  10. Hospitals' Internal Accountability

    PubMed Central

    Kraetschmer, Nancy; Jass, Janak; Woodman, Cheryl; Koo, Irene; Kromm, Seija K.; Deber, Raisa B.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to enhance understanding of the dimensions of accountability captured and not captured in acute care hospitals in Ontario, Canada. Based on an Ontario-wide survey and follow-up interviews with three acute care hospitals in the Greater Toronto Area, we found that the two dominant dimensions of hospital accountability being reported are financial and quality performance. These two dimensions drove both internal and external reporting. Hospitals' internal reports typically included performance measures that were required or mandated in external reports. Although respondents saw reporting as a valuable mechanism for hospitals and the health system to monitor and track progress against desired outcomes, multiple challenges with current reporting requirements were communicated, including the following: 58% of survey respondents indicated that performance-reporting resources were insufficient; manual data capture and performance reporting were prevalent, with the majority of hospitals lacking sophisticated tools or technology to effectively capture, analyze and report performance data; hospitals tended to focus on those processes and outcomes with high measurability; and 53% of respondents indicated that valuable cross-system accountability, performance measures or both were not captured by current reporting requirements. PMID:25305387

  11. Understanding Lustre Internals

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Feiyi; Oral, H Sarp; Shipman, Galen M; Drokin, Oleg; Wang, Di; Huang, He

    2009-04-01

    Lustre was initiated and funded, almost a decade ago, by the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) Office of Science and National Nuclear Security Administration laboratories to address the need for an open source, highly-scalable, high-performance parallel filesystem on by then present and future supercomputing platforms. Throughout the last decade, it was deployed over numerous medium-to-large-scale supercomputing platforms and clusters, and it performed and met the expectations of the Lustre user community. As it stands at the time of writing this document, according to the Top500 list, 15 of the top 30 supercomputers in the world use Lustre filesystem. This report aims to present a streamlined overview on how Lustre works internally at reasonable details including relevant data structures, APIs, protocols and algorithms involved for Lustre version 1.6 source code base. More importantly, it tries to explain how various components interconnect with each other and function as a system. Portions of this report are based on discussions with Oak Ridge National Laboratory Lustre Center of Excellence team members and portions of it are based on our own understanding of how the code works. We, as the authors team bare all responsibilities for all errors and omissions in this document. We can only hope it helps current and future Lustre users and Lustre code developers as much as it helped us understanding the Lustre source code and its internal workings.

  12. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. Word oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995.

  13. International energy outlook 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    The International Energy Outlook 1998 (IEO98) presents an assessment by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the outlook for international energy markets through 2020. Projections in IEO98 are displaced according to six basic country groupings. The industrialized region includes projections for four individual countries -- the United States, Canada, Mexico, and Japan -- along with the subgroups Western Europe and Australasia (defined as Australia, New Zealand, and the US Territories). The developing countries are represented by four separate regional subgroups: developing Asia, Africa, Middle East, and Central and South America. China and India are represented in developing Asia. New to this year`s report, country-level projections are provided for Brazil -- which is represented in Central and South America. Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union (EE/FSU) are considered as a separate country grouping. The report begins with a review of world trends in energy demand. Regional consumption projections for oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear power, and renewable energy (hydroelectricity, geothermal, wind, solar, and other renewables) are presented in five fuel chapters, with a review of the current status of each fuel on a worldwide basis. Summary tables of the IEO98 projections for world energy consumption, carbon emissions, oil production, and nuclear power generating capacity are provided in Appendix A. 88 figs., 77 tabs.

  14. International communications via satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLucas, J. L.

    The evolution of communications satellite systems is traced in terms of technical capabilities and technological advances. The Communications Act of 1962 led to the establishment of INTELSAT on an international basis in 1964. The original 19 signatory nations has grown to over 100, and over 800 ground relay stations have been built. The INTELSAT system comprises spacecraft over the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans and handles 2/3 of the world's international electronic communications and all transoceanic television. The 1965 Early Bird satellite had a 240 two-way telephone link capacity and weighed 38 kg, while the Intelsat V satellites, of which there will be nine, have increased the capacity to 20,000 voice circuits and Intelsat VI will double the number by 1993. Increasing demand for satellite communications links is driving the design and development of space platforms for multiple missions of communications, meteorological studies, and on-board switching and data processing in excess of current multiple satellite systems.

  15. Hospitals' internal accountability.

    PubMed

    Kraetschmer, Nancy; Jass, Janak; Woodman, Cheryl; Koo, Irene; Kromm, Seija K; Deber, Raisa B

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to enhance understanding of the dimensions of accountability captured and not captured in acute care hospitals in Ontario, Canada. Based on an Ontario-wide survey and follow-up interviews with three acute care hospitals in the Greater Toronto Area, we found that the two dominant dimensions of hospital accountability being reported are financial and quality performance. These two dimensions drove both internal and external reporting. Hospitals' internal reports typically included performance measures that were required or mandated in external reports. Although respondents saw reporting as a valuable mechanism for hospitals and the health system to monitor and track progress against desired outcomes, multiple challenges with current reporting requirements were communicated, including the following: 58% of survey respondents indicated that performance-reporting resources were insufficient; manual data capture and performance reporting were prevalent, with the majority of hospitals lacking sophisticated tools or technology to effectively capture, analyze and report performance data; hospitals tended to focus on those processes and outcomes with high measurability; and 53% of respondents indicated that valuable cross-system accountability, performance measures or both were not captured by current reporting requirements. PMID:25305387

  16. [Vaccinations for international travelers].

    PubMed

    Berens-Riha, N; Alberer, M; Löscher, T

    2014-03-01

    Vaccinations are a prominent part of health preparations before international travel. They can avoid or significantly reduce the risk of numerous infectious diseases. Until recently, vaccination against yellow fever was the only obligatory vaccination. However, according to updated international health regulations, other vaccinations and prophylactic measures may be required at entry from certain countries. For all routine vaccinations as recommended in Germany, necessary revaccination and catch-up of missed vaccinations should be administered before travel. At most destinations the risk of infection is higher than in Germany. Hepatitis A vaccine is generally recommended for travelers to areas of increased risk, polio vaccine for all destinations where eradication is not yet confirmed (Asia and Africa). The indications for other travel vaccines must take into consideration travel destination and itinerary, type and duration of travel, individual risk of exposure as well as the epidemiology of the disease to be prevented. Several vaccines of potential interest for travel medicine, e.g., new vaccines against malaria and dengue fever, are under development.

  17. International Clean Energy Coalition

    SciTech Connect

    Erin Skootsky; Matt Gardner; Bevan Flansburgh

    2010-09-28

    In 2003, the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) and National Energy Technology Laboratories (NETL) collaboratively established the International Clean Energy Coalition (ICEC). The coalition consisting of energy policy-makers, technologists, and financial institutions was designed to assist developing countries in forming and supporting local approaches to greenhouse gas mitigation within the energy sector. ICEC's work focused on capacity building and clean energy deployment in countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation. Under ICEC, the coalition formed a steering committee consisting of NARUC members and held a series of meetings to develop and manage the workplan and define successful outcomes for the projects. ICEC identified India as a target country for their work and completed a country assessment that helped ICEC build a framework for discussion with Indian energy decisionmakers including two follow-on in-country workshops. As of the conclusion of the project in 2010, ICEC had also conducted outreach activities conducted during United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Ninth Conference of Parties (COP 9) and COP 10. The broad goal of this project was to develop a coalition of decision-makers, technologists, and financial institutions to assist developing countries in implementing affordable, effective and resource appropriate technology and policy strategies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Project goals were met through international forums, a country assessment, and in-country workshops. This project focused on countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation.

  18. Country watch: international.

    PubMed

    Dionne, P

    1998-01-01

    The International Tribunal for Children's Rights (ITCR) was established to conduct individual and public inquiries and propose concrete solutions to violations of children's rights. This article reports on the efforts of the ITCR to enforce extraterritorial laws in response to the international dimension of child sex exploitation. The primary message being advocated is that travelers cannot go to foreign countries to engage in sexual crimes against children, evade criminal prosecution in the countries where the crimes are committed and then expect to return home without any consequences. In its first public hearings held in Paris, France to the address the effectiveness of extraterritorial legislation, governments and nongovernmental organizations informed the ITCR about their attempts to halt child sexual exploitation. Several changes needed to make extraterritorial laws more effective were cited. These include public awareness-raising; supporting existing instruments; application of preventive approaches to child abuse; and sensitizing and motivating judicial, police and administrative authorities to provide for the needs to fight child sex tourism. PMID:12348687

  19. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Bill Bruce; Nancy Porter; George Ritter; Matt Boring; Mark Lozev; Ian Harris; Bill Mohr; Dennis Harwig; Robin Gordon; Chris Neary; Mike Sullivan

    2005-07-20

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without

  20. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-08-17

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners

  1. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-12-31

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without

  2. Relationships among Brewer-Dobson circulation, double tropopauses, ozone and lower-stratospheric water vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castanheira, J. M.; Peevey, T. R.; Marques, C. A. F.; Olsen, M. A.

    2012-04-01

    This communication will discuss the statistical relationships between the variability of the area covered by double tropopause events and the variabilities of total column ozone and of lower-stratospheric water vapor. The QBO signal in double tropopause events statistics and the relationship between tropical upwelling and the near global (50oS - 50oN) lower stratospheric water vapour will be also presented. The analysis is based on both reanalysis data (ERA-Interim) and satellite data. Significant correlations were found between the area covered by double tropopause events in the latitudinal band 20 - 65oN and the gradient of total column ozone in the subtropical Northern Hemisphere. Significant correlations were also found between de global area of double tropopause events and the near global (50oS - 50oN) water vapour in the lower stratosphere. The relationship between double tropopause events and lower stratospheric ozone is detailed by a correlation analysis between the frequencies of ozone laminae and double tropopause events as found in the HIRDLS data. The correlations of DT variables with total column ozone and ozone laminae are both consistent with intrusion events of tropospheric tropical air into the lower extratropical stratosphere, with the tropical tropopause overlaying the extratropical one. The poleward excursions of the tropical tropopause are also consistent with the found negative correlation between the area extension of DTs and the near global lower stratospheric water vapour. Finally, we will show the existence of a significant negative correlation between the tropical upwelling, determined using the "downward control principle", and the near global lower stratospheric water vapor.

  3. Control Techtronics International

    SciTech Connect

    West, J.

    1995-12-31

    Polish graded coal can be burned in existing stoker boilers and meet the 1998 Air Quality standard. This is accomplished with the Control Techtronics microprocessor-based combustion controller accurately and repeatedly: (a) matching the combustion air to the coal firing rate, with continuous stack sensor feedback; (b) continuously varying the boiler`s firing rate based on output water temperature or steam pressure; (c) continuously varying the exhaust fan`s speed to maintain minimum negative pressure in the boiler`s combustion chamber; and recirculating a portion of the flue gas, at varying amounts throughout the boiler`s firing rate. Systems for five boilers have been installed and are operating on MPEC`s Balicka plant in Krakow. Control Techtronics International has $10 million of U.S. Export-Import Bank funds available for similar projects throughout Poland.

  4. International energy indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, E. K.

    1981-02-01

    Extensive data are compiled for energy on the international scene and for the US. Data included are: world crude oil production, 1975 to date; Iran: crude oil capacity, production, and shut-in, 1974 to date; Saudi Arabia: crude oil capacity, production, and shut-in, 1974 to date; OPEC (Ex-Iran and Saudi Arabia): capacity, production, and shut-in, 1974 to date; oil stocks: Free World, US, Japan, and Europe (landed), 1973 to date; petroleum consumption by industrial countries, 1973 to date; USSR crude oil production, 1974 to date; Free World and US nuclear generation capacity, 1973 to date. Data are supplied specifically for the US on US gross imports of crude oil and products, 1973 to date; landed cost of Saudi crude in current and 1974 dollars; US trade in bituminous coal, 1973 to date; summary of US merchandise trade, 1976 to date; and energy/GNP ratio.

  5. Second International Lygus Symposium

    PubMed Central

    Goodell, P. B.; Ellsworth, Peter C.

    2008-01-01

    The Second International Lygus Symposium brought together 52 entomologists from six nations and 11 states representing universities, public agencies, and private entities to discuss the latest research on Lygus species and their relatives. Symposium topics included Lygus biology, behavior and ecology, IPM, insecticides and resistance, and biological control. Papers and posters dealt with Lygus as a pest of several crops, including cotton, strawberries, seed alfalfa, canola, dry beans, cucumbers, cereals, peaches, and new crops guayule and lesquerella. Intercrop movement of Lygus2008200820082008 species was another important topic of many presentations. In the capstone session, participants identified needs and priorities for ongoing Lygus research and education (available at http://ag.arizona.edu/apmc/Arid_SWPMC_RAMP.html). The conference was sponsored in part by FMC Corporation, the University of Arizona Arizona Pest Management Center, the University of California Statewide IPM Program, and a grant to Ellsworth et al. (CRIS# 0207436) from the USDA-CSREES, Risk Avoidance and Mitigation Program (RAMP).

  6. Aureolegraph internal scattering correction.

    PubMed

    DeVore, John; Villanucci, Dennis; LePage, Andrew

    2012-11-20

    Two methods of determining instrumental scattering for correcting aureolegraph measurements of particulate solar scattering are presented. One involves subtracting measurements made with and without an external occluding ball and the other is a modification of the Langley Plot method and involves extrapolating aureolegraph measurements collected through a large range of solar zenith angles. Examples of internal scattering correction determinations using the latter method show similar power-law dependencies on scattering, but vary by roughly a factor of 8 and suggest that changing aerosol conditions during the determinations render this method problematic. Examples of corrections of scattering profiles using the former method are presented for a range of atmospheric particulate layers from aerosols to cumulus and cirrus clouds.

  7. Aureolegraph internal scattering correction.

    PubMed

    DeVore, John; Villanucci, Dennis; LePage, Andrew

    2012-11-20

    Two methods of determining instrumental scattering for correcting aureolegraph measurements of particulate solar scattering are presented. One involves subtracting measurements made with and without an external occluding ball and the other is a modification of the Langley Plot method and involves extrapolating aureolegraph measurements collected through a large range of solar zenith angles. Examples of internal scattering correction determinations using the latter method show similar power-law dependencies on scattering, but vary by roughly a factor of 8 and suggest that changing aerosol conditions during the determinations render this method problematic. Examples of corrections of scattering profiles using the former method are presented for a range of atmospheric particulate layers from aerosols to cumulus and cirrus clouds. PMID:23207299

  8. International energy indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, E., Jr.

    1981-12-01

    Data on international energy indicators were tabulated and graphically represented. The following data are presented: world crude oil production, 1974 to October 1981; OPEC crude oil productive capacity; world crude oil and refined product inventory levels, 1975 to October, 1981; oil consumption in OECD countries, 1975 to October 1981; USSR crude oil production and exports, 1975 to October 1981; free world and US nuclear electricity generation, 1973 to December, 1981 and current capacity. Specific US data presented are: US domestic oil supply, 1977 to June, 1981; US gross imports of crude oil and products, 1973 to October, 1981; landed cost of Saudi crude current and 1974 dollars; US coal trade, 1975 to September, 1981; US natural gas trade, 1981; and energy/GNP ratio.

  9. Internal constitution of Mars.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.

    1972-01-01

    Models of the internal structure of Mars consistent with the mass, radius and moment of inertia of the planet are constructed. The models assume that the radius of the core is between 0.36 and 0.60 of the radius of the planet, that the zero-pressure density of the mantle is between 3.54 and 3.49 g/cu cm, and that the planet contains 25 to 28% iron. Meteorite models of Mars containing 25 wt % iron and 12 wt % core are also proposed. It is maintained that Mars in contrast to the earth is an incompletely differentiated planet with a core substantially richer in sulfur than the core of the earth. The absence of a magnetic field on Mars is possibly linked with lack of lunar precessional torque and the small size and high resistivity of the Martian core.

  10. Internationally Comparable Health Indices

    PubMed Central

    Meijer, Erik; Kapteyn, Arie; Andreyeva, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    One of the most intractable problems in international health research is the lack of comparability of health measures across countries or cultures. We develop a cross-country measurement model for health in which functional limitations, self-reports of health, and a physical measure are interrelated to construct health indices. To establish comparability across countries, we define the measurement scales by the physical measure while other parameters vary by country to reflect cultural and linguistic differences in response patterns. We find significant cross-country variation in response styles of health reports along with variability in genuine health that is related to differences in national income. Our health indices achieve satisfactory reliability of about 80% and their gradients by age, income, and wealth for the most part show the expected patterns. Moreover, the health indices correlate much more strongly with income and net worth than self reported health measures. PMID:20572201

  11. INTERNATIONAL DECOMMISSIONING SYMPOSIUM 2000

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of IDS 2000 was to deliver a world-class conference on applicable global environmental issues. The objective of this conference was to publicize environmental progress of individual countries, to provide a forum for technology developer and problem-holder interaction, to facilitate environmental and technology discussions between the commercial and financial communities, and to accommodate information and education exchange between governments, industries, universities, and scientists. The scope of this project included the planning and execution of an international conference on the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, and the providing of a business forum for vendors and participants sufficient to attract service providers, technology developers, and the business and financial communities. These groups, when working together with attendees from regulatory organizations and government decision-maker groups, provide an opportunity to more effectively and efficiently expedite the decommissioning projects.

  12. Chromosome 19 International Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Pericak-Vance, M.A. . Medical Center); Ropers, H.H. . Dept. of Human Genetics); Carrano, A.J. )

    1993-01-04

    The Second International Workshop on Human Chromosome 19 was hosted on January 25 and 26, 1992, by the Department of Human Genetics, University Hospital Nijmegen, The Netherlands, at the 'Meerdal Conference Center'. The workshop was supported by a grant from the European Community obtained through HUGO, the Dutch Research Organization (NWO) and the Muscular Dystrophy Association (MDA). Travel support for American participants was provided by the Department of Energy. The goals of this workshop were to produce genetic, physical and integrated maps of chromosome 19, to identify inconsistencies and gaps, and to discuss and exchange resources and techniques available for the completion of these maps. The second day of the meeting was largely devoted to region or disease specific efforts. In particular, the meeting served as a platform for assessing and discussing the recent progress made into the molecular elucidation of myotonic dystrophy.

  13. Progress Towards International Repositories

    SciTech Connect

    McCombie, C.; Chapman, N.

    2002-02-27

    The nuclear fuel cycle is designed to be very international, with some specialist activities (e.g. fuel fabrication, reprocessing, etc.) being confined to a few countries. Nevertheless, political and public opposition has in the past been faced by proposals to internationalise the back-end of the cycle, in particular waste disposal. Attitudes, however, have been changing recently and there is now more acceptance of the general concept of shared repositories and of specific proposals such as that of Pangea. However, as for national facilities, progress towards implementation of shared repositories will be gradual. Moreover, the best vehicle for promoting the concept may not be a commercial type of organization. Consequently the Pangea project team are currently establishing a widely based Association for this purpose.

  14. Internal Ocean Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Internal waves are waves that travel within the interior of a fluid. The waves propagate at the interface or boundary between two layers with sharp density differences, such as temperature. They occur wherever strong tides or currents and stratification occur in the neighborhood of irregular topography. They can propagate for several hundred kilometers. The ASTER false-color VNIR image off the island of Tsushima in the Korea Strait shows the signatures of several internal wave packets, indicating a northern propagation direction.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 60 by 120 kilometers (37.2 by 74.4 miles) Location: 34.6 degrees North latitude, 129.5 degrees East longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 3, 2, and 1

  15. Impacts of Culture on International Negotiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodin, James Ronald

    2010-09-01

    This paper provides practical suggestions for developing a healthy and complete working relationship between the system safety practitioner and international business partners, international vendors and international customers.

  16. International red meat trade.

    PubMed

    Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L

    2003-07-01

    The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a

  17. International red meat trade.

    PubMed

    Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L

    2003-07-01

    The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a

  18. International dimensions of Colombian violence.

    PubMed

    Franco, S

    2000-01-01

    Violence is the main public health problem in Colombia, as demonstrated by current homicide rates (the highest in the world), the strong effect of violence on the health care sector, and the forceful displacement of citizens, among other factors. This violence has international dimensions and consequences: inequity resulting from the political-economic system and increased by the neoliberal adjustments; the international traffic of drugs and weapons; exile and forceful displacement of persons into bordering countries; and frequent violations of human rights and humanitarian international rights. The international community can play a role in the search for a solution to this problem, as the author discusses in terms of contributions made in the past and those that could be made in the near future. Colombian violence can be viewed as a problem, a message, and a challenge for international public health, and the author suggests specific areas in which international public health could contribute to the study and solution of this complex situation.

  19. Update in Internal Medicine

    PubMed Central

    López-Jiménez, Francisco; Brito, Máximo; Aude, Y. Wady; Scheinberg, Phillip; Kaplan, Mariana; Dixon, Denise A.; Schneiderman, Neil; Trejo, Jorge F.; López-Salazar, Luis Humberto; Ramírez-Barba, Ector Jaime; Kalil, Roberto; Ortiz, Carmen; Goyos, José; Buenaño, Alvaro; Kottiech, Samer; Lamas, Gervasio A.

    2009-01-01

    More than 500,000 new medical articles are published every year and available time to keep updated is scarcer every day. Nowadays, the task of selecting useful, consistent, and relevant information for clinicians is a priority in many major medical journals. This review has the aim of gathering the results of the most important findings in clinical medicine in the last few years. It is focused on results from randomized clinical trials and well-designed observational research. Findings were included preferentially if they showed solid results, and we avoided as much as possible including only preliminary data, or results that included only non-clinical outcomes. Some of the most relevant findings reported here include the significant benefit of statins in patients with coronary artery disease even with mean cholesterol level. It also provides a substantial review of the most significant trials assessing the effectiveness of IIb/IIIa receptor blockers. In gastroenterology many advances have been made in the H. pylori eradication, and the finding that the cure of H. pylori infection may be followed by gastroesophageal reflux disease. Some new antivirals have shown encouraging results in patients with chronic hepatitis. In the infectious disease arena, the late breaking trials in anti-retroviral disease are discussed, as well as the new trends regarding antibiotic resistance. This review approaches also the role of leukotriene modifiers in the treatment of asthma and discusses the benefit of using methylprednisolone in patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome, among many other advances in internal medicine. PMID:11068074

  20. Biometrics and international migration.

    PubMed

    Redpath, Jillyanne

    2007-01-01

    This paper will focus on the impact of the rapid expansion in the use of biometric systems in migration management on the rights of individuals; it seeks to highlight legal issues for consideration in implementing such systems, taking as the starting point that the security interests of the state and the rights of the individual are not, and should not be, mutually exclusive. The first part of this paper briefly describes the type of biometric applications available, how biometric systems function, and those used in migration management. The second part examines the potential offered by biometrics for greater security in migration management, and focuses on developments in the use of biometrics as a result of September 11. The third part discusses the impact of the use of biometrics in the management of migration on the individual's right to privacy and ability to move freely and lawfully. The paper highlights the increasing need for domestic and international frameworks to govern the use of biometric applications in the migration/security context, and proposes a number of issues that such frameworks could address. PMID:17536151

  1. International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boehm, Karl-Heinz

    1992-01-01

    The observation, data reduction, and interpretation of ultraviolet spectra (obtained with the International Ultraviolet Explorer) of Herbig-Haro objects, stellar jets, and (in a few cases) reflection nebulae in star-forming regions is discussed. Intermediate results have been reported in the required semi-annual reports. The observations for this research were obtained in 23 (US1) IUE shifts. The spectra were taken in the low resolution mode with the large aperture. The following topics were investigated: (1) detection of UV spectra of high excitation Herbig-Haro (HH) objects, identification of emission lines, and a preliminary study of the energy distribution of the ultraviolet continuum; (2) details of the continuum energy distribution of these spectra and their possible interpretation; (3) the properties of the reddening (extinction) of HH objects; (4) the possible time variation of strong emission lines in high excitation HH objects; (5) the ultraviolet emission of low excitation HH objects, especially in the fluorescent lines of the H2 molecule; (6) the ultraviolet emission in the peculiar object HH24; (7) the spatial emission distribution of different lines and different parts of the continuum in different HH objects; and (8) some properties of reflection nebula, in the environment of Herbig-Haro objects. Each topic is discussed.

  2. The International Heliophysical Year

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, Joseph M.; Gopalswamy, Nat; Thompson, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    It is now widely recognized that evolution in the solar system proceeds through a set of Universal Processes, i.e. reconnection, particle acceleration, plasma wave generation and propagation, etc. By studying these Universal Processes together, in diverse environments, and in a comparative way, new scientific insights will be gained. This is perhaps best understood by citing a few examples: (I) Shocks are observed in situ in the interplanetary medium, shocks are believed to play a role in the acceleration of particles in the solar corona, and standing bow shocks and termination shocks separate the major regions in the heliosphere. Shock formation, and particle acceleration are universal processes. (2) Aurorae are observed on Earth, Saturn, and Jupiter, and Jovian auroral "footprints" have been observed on 10, Ganymede and Europa. The formation of aurorae is observed to be the universal response of a magnetized body in the solar wind. The International Heliophysical Year (IHY) specifically highlights the cross-disciplinary study of universal physical processes in the solar system, observed in a variety of settings. The study of these processes will provide new insights that will lead to a better understanding of the universal processes in the solar system that affect the interplanetary and planetary environments, and pave the way for safe human space travel to the Moon and planets in the future, and it will serve to inspire the next generation of space physicists.

  3. International energy outlook 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    This report presents international energy projections through 2020, prepared by the Energy Information Administration. The outlooks for major energy fuels are discussed, along with electricity, transportation, and environmental issues. The report begins with a review of world trends in energy demand. The historical time frame begins with data from 1970 and extends to 1996, providing readers with a 26-year historical view of energy demand. The IEO99 projections covers a 24-year period. The next part of the report is organized by energy source. Regional consumption projections for oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear power, and renewable energy (hydroelectricity, geothermal, wind, solar, and other renewables) are presented in the five fuel chapters, along with a review of the current status of each fuel on a worldwide basis. The third part of the report looks at energy consumption in the end-use sectors, beginning with a chapter on energy use for electricity generation. New to this year`s outlook are chapters on energy use in the transportation sector and on environmental issues related to energy consumption. 104 figs., 87 tabs.

  4. International energy indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, E. K.

    1980-03-01

    For the international sector, a table of data is first presented followed by corresponding graphs of the data for the following: (1) Iran: crude oil capacity, production, and shut in, 1974 to February 1980; (2) Saudi Arabia (same as Iran); (3) OPEC (ex-Iran and Saudi Arabia); capacity, production, and shutin, 1974 to January 1980; (4) non-OPEC Free World and US production of crude oil, 1973 to January 1980; (5) oil stocks: Free World, US, Japan, and Europe (landed), 1973 to 1979; (6) petroleum consumption by industrial countries, 1973 to October 1979; (7) USSR crude oil production, 1974 to February 1980; (8) Free World and US nuclear generation capacity, 1973 to January 1980. For the United States, the same data format is used for the following: US imports of crude oil and products 1973 to January 1980; landed cost of Saudi Arabia crude oil in current and 1974 dollars, 1974 to October 1979; US trade in coal, 1973 to 1979; summary of US merchandise trade, 1976 to January 1980; and US energy/GNP ratio (in 1972 dollars), 1947 to 1979.

  5. Internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Breckenfeld, P.W.; Broughton, G.L.; Forquer, D.W.

    1990-02-19

    This patent describes a two-stroke internal combustion engine. It comprises: an engine block including an exterior planar surface portion having therein a pair of spaced bearing surfaces and a crankcase-defining cavity which includes a pair of spaced semi-cylindrical surfaces, a crankshaft including a pair of spaced bearing portions and a central part which is located between the bearing portions and which includes a pair of spaced and enlarged cylindrical surfaces, a pair of bearing blocks respectively including bearing surfaces, means fixing the bearing blocks to the exterior planar surface portion with each of the crankshaft bearing portions retained between a respective one of the bearing surfaces of the engine block and a respective one of the bearing surfaces of the bearing blocks and with each of the crankshaft cylindrical surfaces in coplanar relation to a respective one of the semi-cylindrical surfaces of the engine block, a crankcase cover including a mounting surface having therein a crankcase-defining cavity including a pair of spaced semi-cylindrical surfaces, and means fixedly connecting the mounting surface of the crankcase cover to the exterior planar surface portion of block with each of the semi-cylindrical surfaces of the crankcase cover in generally coplanar relation to a respective one of the semi-cylindrical surfaces of the engine block.

  6. International exploration by independents

    SciTech Connect

    Bertagne, R.G. )

    1991-03-01

    Recent industry trends indicate that the smaller US independents are looking at foreign exploration opportunities as one of the alternatives for growth in the new age of exploration. It is usually accepted that foreign finding costs per barrel are substantially lower than domestic because of the large reserve potential of international plays. To get involved overseas requires, however, an adaptation to different cultural, financial, legal, operational, and political conditions. Generally foreign exploration proceeds at a slower pace than domestic because concessions are granted by the government, or are explored in partnership with the national oil company. First, a mid- to long-term strategy, tailored to the goals and the financial capabilities of the company, must be prepared; it must be followed by an ongoing evaluation of quality prospects in various sedimentary basins, and a careful planning and conduct of the operations. To successfully explore overseas also requires the presence on the team of a minimum number of explorationists and engineers thoroughly familiar with the various exploratory and operational aspects of foreign work, having had a considerable amount of onsite experience in various geographical and climatic environments. Independents that are best suited for foreign expansion are those that have been financially successful domestically, and have a good discovery track record. When properly approached foreign exploration is well within the reach of smaller US independents and presents essentially no greater risk than domestic exploration; the reward, however, can be much larger and can catapult the company into the big leagues.

  7. International exploration by independent

    SciTech Connect

    Bertragne, R.G.

    1992-04-01

    Recent industry trends indicate that the smaller U.S. independents are looking at foreign exploration opportunities as one of the alternatives for growth in the new age of exploration. Foreign finding costs per barrel usually are accepted to be substantially lower than domestic costs because of the large reserve potential of international plays. To get involved in overseas exploration, however, requires the explorationist to adapt to different cultural, financial, legal, operational, and political conditions. Generally, foreign exploration proceeds at a slower pace than domestic exploration because concessions are granted by a country's government, or are explored in partnership with a national oil company. First, the explorationist must prepare a mid- to long-term strategy, tailored to the goals and the financial capabilities of the company; next, is an ongoing evaluation of quality prospects in various sedimentary basins, and careful planning and conduct of the operations. To successfully explore overseas also requires the presence of a minimum number of explorationists and engineers thoroughly familiar with the various exploratory and operational aspects of foreign work. Ideally, these team members will have had a considerable amount of on-site experience in various countries and climates. Independents best suited for foreign expansion are those who have been financially successful in domestic exploration. When properly approached, foreign exploration is well within the reach of smaller U.S. independents, and presents essentially no greater risk than domestic exploration; however, the reward can be much larger and can catapult the company into the 'big leagues.'

  8. Internal Surface Water Flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murray, Mitchell H.

    1999-01-01

    Introduction The South Florida Ecosystem Restoration Program is an intergovernmental effort to reestablish and maintain the ecosystem of south Florida. One element of the restoration effort is the development of a firm scientific basis for resource decision making.The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides scientitic information as part of the South Florida Ecosystem Restoration Program. The USGS began its own project, called the South Florida Ecosystem Project in fiscal year 1995 for the purpose of gathering hydrologic, cartographic, and geologic data that relate to the mainland of south Florida, Florida Bay, and the Florida Keys and Reef ecosystems. Historical changes in water-management practices to accommodate a large and rapidly growing urban population along the Atlantic coast, as well as intensive agricultural activities, have resulted in a highly managed hydrologic system with canals, levees, and pumping stations. These structures have altered the hydology of the Everglades ecosystem on both coastal and interior lands. Surface-water flows in a direction south of Lake Okeechobee have been regulated by an extensive canal network, begun in the 1940's, to provide for drainage, flood control, saltwater intrusion control, agricultural requirements, and various environmental needs. Much of the development and subsequent monitoring of canal and river discharge south of Lake Okeechobee has traditionally emphasized the eastern coastal areas of Florida. Recently, more emphasis has been placed on providing a more accurate water budget for internal canal flows.

  9. Solid rocket motor internal insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Twichell, S. E. (Editor); Keller, R. B., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Internal insulation in a solid rocket motor is defined as a layer of heat barrier material placed between the internal surface of the case propellant. The primary purpose is to prevent the case from reaching temperatures that endanger its structural integrity. Secondary functions of the insulation are listed and guidelines for avoiding critical problems in the development of internal insulation for rocket motors are presented.

  10. International Energy Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Summarizes the overall structure of the International Energy Model and its interface with other NEMS modules, mathematical specifications of behavioral relationships, and data sources and estimation methods.

  11. International Space Station Research Racks

    NASA Video Gallery

    The International Space Station has a variety of multidisciplinary laboratory facilities and equipment available for scientists to use. This video highlights the capabilities of select facilities. ...

  12. Comparing International Curriculum Systems: The International Instructional Systems Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creese, Brian; Gonzalez, Alvaro; Isaacs, Tina

    2016-01-01

    This paper sets out the main findings of the International Instructional Systems Study (IISS), conducted by the UCL Institute of Education and funded by the Center on International Education Benchmarking (CIEB). The study examined the instructional systems and intended curricula of six "high performing" countries and two US states. The…

  13. Teaching International Economics and Trade--Concepts in International Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starbird, Caroline; DeBoer, Dale; Pettit, Jenny

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to introduce students to real-life issues in international economics. The sections of the book are: (1) The Advantages of Trade; (2) Judging NAFTA; (3) Does Globalization Benefit Poor Countries?; (4) Pocket Guide to International Financial Institutions; (5) What Do You Know about the WTO?; (6) Free Trade and Shifting…

  14. International Relations. International Perspectives on Higher Education Research. Volume 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tight, Malcolm, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This is the third volume of International Perspectives on Higher Education Research, a series which aims to feature something of the variety of research being undertaken into higher education systems and issues outside of North America. The theme of this volume is International Relations, or how students, academics, universities and higher…

  15. International Women's Day speech.

    PubMed

    Kazibwe, S W

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of the International Women's Day are: 1) to celebrate the struggle for women's rights in the economic, social, political, and cultural domain; 2) to reaffirm women's solidarity in the struggle for peace; 3) and to show what women have achieved. In 1988, Uganda's government of the National Resistance Movement created the Ministry of Women in Development. The period 1988-1990 was one of consultations, needs assessment, planning, and recruiting staff for the Ministry. From 1990 to 1993, measurable results have been achieved. The Ministry's gender concerns pertained to the sector policies of the Ministries of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries, Education, Health, Water, Energy, Minerals, and Environment Protection. Under the Umbrella Project for Women in Development, gender sensitization has been achieved with policy makers in ministries, at district level, and in the media. Gender issues have also been incorporated in the National Political School Curriculum. The Ministry has also trained a corps of 73 women trainers from 38 districts. The Ministry, with funding from DANIDA, collected women's views on the constitution through meetings and seminars in all the districts in the country. Recommendations were submitted in a consolidated report to the Constitution Commission. A pilot para-legal scheme is successfully being implemented in Kamuli district. A community-based pool of legal advisors has been developed. Legal matters that affect both women and men are undertaken at the community level. The economic emancipation of women is a crucial part of the Ministry's mandate. In conjunction with NGOs, pilot credit programs are being run in Mukono, Jinja, Mbale, and Kapchorwa districts. Cross-sectoral programs are in close collaboration with the rural water and sanitation program, the Northern Uganda rehabilitation program, and the integrated Basic Education Pilot Project to be implemented in 8 districts. PMID:12345405

  16. Internal rotor friction instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, J.; Artiles, A.; Lund, J.; Dill, J.; Zorzi, E.

    1990-01-01

    The analytical developments and experimental investigations performed in assessing the effect of internal friction on rotor systems dynamic performance are documented. Analytical component models for axial splines, Curvic splines, and interference fit joints commonly found in modern high speed turbomachinery were developed. Rotor systems operating above a bending critical speed were shown to exhibit unstable subsynchronous vibrations at the first natural frequency. The effect of speed, bearing stiffness, joint stiffness, external damping, torque, and coefficient of friction, was evaluated. Testing included material coefficient of friction evaluations, component joint quantity and form of damping determinations, and rotordynamic stability assessments. Under conditions similar to those in the SSME turbopumps, material interfaces experienced a coefficient of friction of approx. 0.2 for lubricated and 0.8 for unlubricated conditions. The damping observed in the component joints displayed nearly linear behavior with increasing amplitude. Thus, the measured damping, as a function of amplitude, is not represented by either linear or Coulomb friction damper models. Rotordynamic testing of an axial spline joint under 5000 in.-lb of static torque, demonstrated the presence of an extremely severe instability when the rotor was operated above its first flexible natural frequency. The presence of this instability was predicted by nonlinear rotordynamic time-transient analysis using the nonlinear component model developed under this program. Corresponding rotordynamic testing of a shaft with an interference fit joint demonstrated the presence of subsynchronous vibrations at the first natural frequency. While subsynchronous vibrations were observed, they were bounded and significantly lower in amplitude than the synchronous vibrations.

  17. The internationally educated nurse.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Marion; Murphy, Sandra

    2005-01-01

    Internationally educated nurses (IENs) come from a wide range of educational programs around the world and bring a variety of skills and abilities to Canada. This article highlights what is known about this group of diverse individuals, includingdemographic information, in an effort to help nursing colleagues understand and acknowledgethe challengesthat IENs face, as well as the contributions they can make to our healthcare system. There are many IENs already resident in Canada whose skills and experience are not being used to their potential. They face a number of challenges as they prepare for licensure. Language and cultural differences often complicate this process. However, studies show that IENs, on the whole, tend to be an experienced group of nurses with good retention and job satisfaction rates, which ultimately contribute to their success as employees. Balanced against our obligations to these nurses to smooth the path to licensure is the important commitment that our professional colleges and associations have to ensure that practitioners of nursing are in the best position to practise safely. The process of integration and transition into practice in a new culture can be overwhelming for the IEN. Unfamiliar technology differences in cultural behaviours, attitudes and roles, as well as the often significant differences in healthcare systems, and adjustments to language expectations and the specialized language of nursing make the process of integration and adjustment difficult. Programs are needed that introduce IENs to the culture of nursing in Canada, incorporate well-integrated language training satisfy theory and practice deficiencies and bridge, where necessary, to the baccalaureate entry to practice requirement. In addition, important psychosocial, economic and personal supports, aswell as links to educational and employment opportunities, are important components of any program.

  18. Landsat's international partners

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byrnes, Raymond A.

    2012-01-01

    Since the launch of the first Landsat satellite 40 years ago, International Cooperators (ICs) have formed a key strategic alliance with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to not only engage in Landsat data downlink services but also to enable a foundation for scientific and technical collaboration. The map below shows the locations of all ground stations operated by the United States and IC ground station network for the direct downlink and distribution of Landsat 5 (L5) and Landsat 7 (L7) image data. The circles show the approximate area over which each station has the capability for direct reception of Landsat data. The red circles show the components of the L5 ground station network, the green circles show components of the L7 station network, and the dashed circles show stations with dual (L5 and L7) status. The yellow circles show L5 short-term ("campaign") stations that contribute to the USGS Landsat archive. Ground stations in South Dakota and Australia currently serve as the primary data capture facilities for the USGS Landsat Ground Network (LGN). The Landsat Ground Station (LGS) is located at the USGS Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota. The Alice Springs (ASN) ground station is located at the Geoscience Australia facility in Alice Springs, Australia. These sites receive the image data, via X-band Radio Frequency (RF) link, and the spacecraft housekeeping data, via S-band RF link. LGS also provides tracking services and a command link to the spacecrafts.

  19. International Women's Day speech.

    PubMed

    Kazibwe, S W

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of the International Women's Day are: 1) to celebrate the struggle for women's rights in the economic, social, political, and cultural domain; 2) to reaffirm women's solidarity in the struggle for peace; 3) and to show what women have achieved. In 1988, Uganda's government of the National Resistance Movement created the Ministry of Women in Development. The period 1988-1990 was one of consultations, needs assessment, planning, and recruiting staff for the Ministry. From 1990 to 1993, measurable results have been achieved. The Ministry's gender concerns pertained to the sector policies of the Ministries of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries, Education, Health, Water, Energy, Minerals, and Environment Protection. Under the Umbrella Project for Women in Development, gender sensitization has been achieved with policy makers in ministries, at district level, and in the media. Gender issues have also been incorporated in the National Political School Curriculum. The Ministry has also trained a corps of 73 women trainers from 38 districts. The Ministry, with funding from DANIDA, collected women's views on the constitution through meetings and seminars in all the districts in the country. Recommendations were submitted in a consolidated report to the Constitution Commission. A pilot para-legal scheme is successfully being implemented in Kamuli district. A community-based pool of legal advisors has been developed. Legal matters that affect both women and men are undertaken at the community level. The economic emancipation of women is a crucial part of the Ministry's mandate. In conjunction with NGOs, pilot credit programs are being run in Mukono, Jinja, Mbale, and Kapchorwa districts. Cross-sectoral programs are in close collaboration with the rural water and sanitation program, the Northern Uganda rehabilitation program, and the integrated Basic Education Pilot Project to be implemented in 8 districts.

  20. International. Go8 Backgrounder 17

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    International education, particularly study in Australia, provides significant economic benefits for Australia. It is both a major export industry and a source of domestic economic growth. If Australia can attract talented international students through scholarships and a reputation for quality, they will return to their home countries to become…

  1. International Comparisons and Educational Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purves, Alan C., Ed.

    Increasingly over the past decade there have appeared in the press bar graphs comparing the performance of U.S. students with their counterparts in other countries. Usually these graphs have been accompanied by dire warnings and pointing fingers. The main source of the data on international comparisons has been the International Association for…

  2. Australian University International Student Finances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Marginson, Simon; Nyland, Chris; Ramia, Gaby; Sawir, Erlenawati

    2009-01-01

    The omission of international students from the Australian Vice-Chancellor's Committee (AVCC) 2007 national study on student finances is indicative of a pattern of exclusion. The exclusion is unacceptable from a humane perspective and feeds the belief that Australians perceive international students primarily as "cash cows". This study partially…

  3. Business and International Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Postsecondary Education, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Business and International Education Program of the International Education Programs Service (IEPS). This program provides funds to institutions of higher education that enter into an agreement with a trade association, a business, or both for the purpose of improving business curriculum and as a means of…

  4. IP Internal Movement and Topicalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Pei-Jung

    2009-01-01

    In this dissertation, I investigate the phenomenon of internal topicalization cross-linguistically, using Chinese as a starting point. Internal topicalization refers to constructions in which a topic phrase is placed between the subject and the verb (in contrast to external topicalization, which involves a topic in the CP domain). I argue that…

  5. Sharing International Culture at Kingsmont.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyman, Kim Houston

    1987-01-01

    Camp Kingsmont, a weight reduction and fitness facility for boys and girls located near West Stockbridge, Massachusetts, traditionally celebrates International Day each July. Campers design costumes, prepare native dances and songs, enjoy an outdoor feast, stage an "International Beautyless Contest," and gather around a bonfire to view a fireworks…

  6. International Business Program Needs Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakland Community Coll., Farmington, MI. Office of Institutional Planning and Analysis.

    In 1991, a study was conducted by Oakland Community College to evaluate the need for a proposed International Business program. General information was obtained from a literature search, various governmental and public interest agencies involved in international business, and other southeast Michigan community colleges. In addition, a survey was…

  7. Diary of a poultry intern.

    PubMed

    Garton, William

    2015-05-16

    In his post as poultry intern, William Garton is finding that CPD takes up a large proportion of his time. This, he says, can be quite enjoyable, particularly when events are sponsored by international pharmaceutical companies. This month, he has been on two training courses, one in Spain and the other in Belgium.

  8. Factor Analysis of Intern Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Womack, Sid T.; Hannah, Shellie Louise; Bell, Columbus David

    2012-01-01

    Four factors in teaching intern effectiveness, as measured by a Praxis III-similar instrument, were found among observational data of teaching interns during the 2010 spring semester. Those factors were lesson planning, teacher/student reflection, fairness & safe environment, and professionalism/efficacy. This factor analysis was as much of a…

  9. Internal Benchmarking for Institutional Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronco, Sharron L.

    2012-01-01

    Internal benchmarking is an established practice in business and industry for identifying best in-house practices and disseminating the knowledge about those practices to other groups in the organization. Internal benchmarking can be done with structures, processes, outcomes, or even individuals. In colleges or universities with multicampuses or a…

  10. The International Project. Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutimann, Hans

    The International Project of the Commission on Preservation and Access was begun in June 1988 to explore the feasibility of creating an international database of preserved materials. Its main goals are to: (1) determine the extent to which preservation records exist in other countries; (2) identify the difficulties in converting records to…

  11. Discussion of internal erosion modeling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Internal erosion is one common mode of dam failure. Internal erosion occurs when water flows through a cavity, crack, and/or other continuous opening within the embankment, detaching material. The detachment of material (erosion) results in expansion of the continuous flow path, increased discharg...

  12. International Evaluation and American Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purves, Alan C.; Travers, Kenneth J.

    1982-01-01

    For over two decades the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement has administered achievement tests internationally. Results of past and future tests can not only indicate where U.S. students rank in achievement, but also broaden curriculum makers' visions of what is desirable for students. (Author/JM)

  13. International Developments in Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Franklin D.

    Review of the history and characteristics of international organizations in educational administration suggests that the time may be right for a worldwide organization. Five international organizations have formed since 1959, when the University Council for Educational Administration linked U.S. and Canadian educators. A chronological chart…

  14. An Accounting International Experience Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Leigh Redd; Rudolph, Holly R.; Seay, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    Accounting students need practical opportunities to personally experience other cultures and international business practices if they are to effectively compete in today's global marketplace. In order to address this need, the Department of Accounting at Murray State University offers an international experience course which includes a short-term…

  15. The Theory of International Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuchelli, Lisa

    Noting that the theory of international development is a paradigm, a model by which researchers guide their studies, this paper reviews various concepts of international development theory and proposes a research study that would examine mass media use in Georgia, one of the new republics born out of the death of the Soviet Union. The paper begins…

  16. Educating Engineers for International Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Russel C.

    1995-01-01

    The era for international practice for engineers has arrived, and each engineering education system must revise its programs to prepare graduates for practice in the global marketplace. This includes foreign-language instruction, education in cultural awareness, opportunities for international work experience, and greater emphasis on history,…

  17. International Education and the University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calleja, James, Ed.

    This collection of 15 essays discusses the integration of international education into higher education, focusing on the role of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and specific international education programs and activities at various institutions. Essays include: (1) "UNESCO's Approaches to Prompting…

  18. International Experiential Learning Course Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmore, Andrew Curtis

    2006-01-01

    International experiential learning projects have increased in popularity over recent years, and many of these projects focus on environmental topics in the developing world. An experimental course in International Groundwater Studies was developed to bridge the gap between extracurricular service type programs and academically-based study abroad…

  19. International Cooperation: A Positive Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soria, Oscar

    Conditions for developing international university cooperation are identified, along with stages of international cooperation in education. Guidelines to promote cooperation are provided. The dominant focus and new role of universities has become problem-solving and community development, as distinct from the previous institutional-building…

  20. Report on International Education Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Advanced Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Ministry of Advanced Education (Ministry) provides overall funding and policy direction for British Columbia's public post-secondary education system. The Student and Strategic Services Division, Ministry of Advanced Education requested Internal Audit & Advisory Services to conduct a review of the international education programs at…

  1. International Space Station Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Propp, Timothy William

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives a general overview of the International Space Station Power Systems. The topics include: 1) The Basics of Power; 2) Space Power Systems Design Constraints; 3) Solar Photovoltaic Power Systems; 4) Energy Storage for Space Power Systems; 5) Challenges of Operating Power Systems in Earth Orbit; 6) and International Space Station Electrical Power System.

  2. [Core competencies in internal medicine].

    PubMed

    Porcel, J M; Casademont, J; Conthe, P; Pinilla, B; Pujol, R; García-Alegría, J

    2011-06-01

    The working group of the Spanish Society of Internal Medicine (SEMI) on "Competencies of the Internist" has defined the basic medical knowledge, skills and attitudes that all internists in Spain should have. This list of competencies represents the Internal Medicine core curriculum within the context of the future educational framework of medical specialties in Health Sciences.

  3. International Cell Exchange: 1992.

    PubMed

    Lau, M; Terasaki, P I; Park, M S

    1992-01-01

    1. This is a review of 1992 typing of 40 cells for Class I antigens and 18 cultured cell lines for Class II antigens through the International Cell Exchange. Serological typings were compared with DNA typing reports for Class II specificities. Presently, 290 laboratories participate in the monthly Class I exchange. Class II results were received monthly from 166 serology laboratories and from 36 DNA laboratories. 2. In 1992, 11 of the 16 A-locus antigens attained 95% or greater average detection. Nine of the 27 B-locus antigens showed 95% or better mean agreement levels. Antigens such as B46 and B70 continued to show improvement in detection in a 5-year period. 3. We compared discrepancy rates of 7 A-locus and 8 B-locus antigens typed 3 times or more. The rates for the B-locus specificities, especially for percentages of false negatives (ie, how often the antigen assignment was missed), continued to be greater than those for the A-locus antigens. Nevertheless, the discrepancy rates of B35 and B70 decreased dramatically during the last 5 years. 4. We showed the number of laboratories with the total of false negatives and false positives. Nine laboratories achieved perfect records (0 false negatives and false positives) for all analyzed antigens in 1992. 5. Results of retyping of 3 donors over several years were shown to indicate improved antigen detection. 6. Recently recognized HLA-specificities, such as A2403 and B5102, were shown as cell variants studied in previous cell exchanges. Variants of B15, B16, and B40 families were presented, as well as several new A-locus antigens. 7. The low and high rates, in addition to the average detection levels, were indicated for a total of 27 (18 DR and 9 DQ) Class II specificities by serology and by DNA typings. Eight of the 15 DR/DRB1 specificities attained 90% or better average agreement by both serology and DNA. Three of the 9 DQ antigens achieved 90% or better average detection by both methods. 8. Confirmation by DNA

  4. International law and communicable diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Aginam, Obijiofor

    2002-01-01

    Historically, international law has played a key role in global communicable disease surveillance. Throughout the nineteenth century, international law played a dominant role in harmonizing the inconsistent national quarantine regulations of European nation-states; facilitating the exchange of epidemiological information on infectious diseases; establishing international health organizations; and standardization of surveillance. Today, communicable diseases have continued to re-shape the boundaries of global health governance through legally binding and "soft-law" regimes negotiated and adopted within the mandate of multilateral institutions - the World Health Organization, the World Trade Organization, the Food and Agriculture Organization, and the Office International des Epizooties. The globalization of public health has employed international law as an indispensable tool in global health governance aimed at diminishing human vulnerability to the mortality and morbidity burdens of communicable diseases. PMID:12571722

  5. Putting 'international' back in IPEC.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.

    2000-10-27

    During the previous six annual sessions of the International Petroleum Environmental Conference (IPEC), little attention has been given to international issues. Although the US is clearly a leader in oil field research and regulatory development information is available on interesting projects throughout the world Many participants in IPEC have little exposure to international oil and gas environmental problems and solutions. Beginning with the 7th IPEC, a stronger effort is being made to include international issues in the confidence. This paper describes some of the author's experiences in working with international oil and gas environmental issues in North America, Latin America, Europe, and Asia. Among the topics to be discussed are the issues that developing oil and gas-producing nations face and the need for sensitivity to other nation's cultures and legal systems.

  6. International law and communicable diseases.

    PubMed

    Aginam, Obijiofor

    2002-01-01

    Historically, international law has played a key role in global communicable disease surveillance. Throughout the nineteenth century, international law played a dominant role in harmonizing the inconsistent national quarantine regulations of European nation-states; facilitating the exchange of epidemiological information on infectious diseases; establishing international health organizations; and standardization of surveillance. Today, communicable diseases have continued to re-shape the boundaries of global health governance through legally binding and "soft-law" regimes negotiated and adopted within the mandate of multilateral institutions - the World Health Organization, the World Trade Organization, the Food and Agriculture Organization, and the Office International des Epizooties. The globalization of public health has employed international law as an indispensable tool in global health governance aimed at diminishing human vulnerability to the mortality and morbidity burdens of communicable diseases.

  7. International Perspectives on Plagiarism and Considerations for Teaching International Trainees

    PubMed Central

    Heitman, Elizabeth; Litewka, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    In the increasingly global community of biomedical science and graduate science education, many US academic researchers work with international trainees whose views on scientific writing and plagiarism can be strikingly different from US norms. Although a growing number of countries and international professional organizations identify plagiarism as research misconduct, many international trainees come from research environments where plagiarism is ill-defined and even commonly practiced. Two research-ethics educators consider current perspectives on plagiarism around the world and contend that US research-training programs should focus on trainees’ scientific writing skills and acculturation, not simply on preventing plagiarism. PMID:21194646

  8. International perspectives on plagiarism and considerations for teaching international trainees.

    PubMed

    Heitman, Elizabeth; Litewka, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    In the increasingly global community of biomedical science and graduate science education, many US academic researchers work with international trainees whose views on scientific writing and plagiarism can be strikingly different from US norms. Although a growing number of countries and international professional organizations identify plagiarism as research misconduct, many international trainees come from research environments where plagiarism is ill-defined and even commonly practiced. Two research-ethics educators consider current perspectives on plagiarism around the world and contend that US research-training programs should focus on trainees' scientific writing skills and acculturation, not simply on preventing plagiarism.

  9. Lab-on-a-Chip: From Astrobiology to the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maule, Jake; Wainwright, Nor; Steele, Andrew; Gunter, Dan; Monaco, Lisa A.; Wells, Mark E.; Morris, Heather C.; Boudreaux, Mark E.

    2008-01-01

    The continual and long-term habitation of enclosed environments, such as Antarctic stations, nuclear submarines and space stations, raises unique engineering, medical and operational challenges. There is no easy way out and no easy way to get supplies in. This situation elevates the importance of monitoring technology that can rapidly detect events within the habitat that affect crew safety such as fire, release of toxic chemicals and hazardous microorganisms. Traditional methods to monitor microorganisms on the International Space Station (ISS) have consisted of culturing samples for 3-5 days and eventual sample return to Earth. To augment these culture methods with new, rapid molecular techniques, we developed the Lab-on-a-Chip Application Development - Portable Test System (LOCAD-PTS). The system consists of a hand-held spectrophotometer, a series of interchangeable cartridges and a surface sampling/dilution kit that enables crew to collect samples and detect a range of biological molecules, all within 15 minutes. LOCAD-PTS was launched to the ISS aboard Space Shuttle Discovery in December 2006, where it was operated for the first time during March-May 2007. The surfaces of five separate sites in the US Lab and Node 1 of ISS were analyzed for endotoxin, using cartridges that employ the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay; results of these tests will be presented. LOCAD-PTS will remain permanently onboard ISS with new cartridges scheduled for launch in February and October of 2008 for the detection of fungi (Beta-glucan) and Gram-positive bacteria (lipoteichoic acid), respectively.

  10. International Telecommunication Control: International Law and the Ordering of Satellite and Other Forms of International Broadcasting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Delbert D.

    The need for and the available alternatives for international telecommunication controls are examined, and a functional approach to this area of law is offered. Information from a number of areas is collected and examined as it relates to the basic problem. These areas include general principles of international law, the activities of the…

  11. Continental Drift: International Students Become International Alumni and Create International Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulley, John

    2009-01-01

    No nation would entrust its foreign relations to ambassadors bereft of international experience. Nor would a global conglomerate ignore overseas markets and expect to prosper. Yet colleges and universities have frequently taken a remarkably unsophisticated and laissez faire approach to advancing their international interests--if they have bothered…

  12. International Cell Exchange, 1994.

    PubMed

    Lau, M; Terasaki, P I; Park, M S

    1994-01-01

    1. We summarize typings of 40 cells for Class I antigens and 20 cultured cell lines for Class II antigens through the International Cell Exchange in 1994. Serologic Class II typings were compared with DNA typings for the same 20 cells. Two hundred eighty-one laboratories participated in the monthly Class I Serum Exchange. One hundred nineteen serology laboratories and 74 DNA laboratories reported Class II specificities on a monthly basis. 2. The average detection levels, as well as the high detection levels, were determined for 16 A-locus and 27 B-locus antigens. Mean detection rates of 95% or greater average detection were obtained for 12 A-locus and 10 B-locus antigens. Lower than 80% agreement was calculated for one A-locus antigen (A74) and 7 B-locus (B46, B48, B61, B67, B73, B75, B77) antigens. 3. We compared discrepancy rates of 10 A-locus and 7 B-locus antigens typed 3 times or more. The false-negative discrepancy rates, i.e. how often the antigen was missed, were greater for more of the B-locus specificities than for the A-locus antigens. B62, having the highest false-positive rate, tended to be overassigned. The discrepancy rates, especially the false-negative rate, for B70 were shown to decrease over a 7-year period. 4. In 1994, 8 laboratories attained records of total no misses for all analyzed antigens. Twelve laboratories had final records of only one discrepancy, and 5 laboratories had impressive perfect records (zero false negatives and false positives) for their yearly antigen reports. 5. Retyping of 12 Class I and 8 Class II reference cells showed improved detection of antigens. Results of a donor typed 4 times over 11 years demonstrated marked improvement, nearly doubling for A33, B38, and B75. Two cells first typed in 1991, then retyped in 1994, showed improved detection for Class II splits by serology and DNA typing. 6. We updated the list of sequenced Class I Exchange cells. Seven new cells were added as well as confirmatory sequence data for A

  13. International cooperation in water resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, J.R.; Beall, R.M.; Giusti, E.V.

    1979-01-01

    Advancements in hydrology proceeded slowly until the late 1800's when new ventures created a surge of interest and accomplishment. Progress waned again until the middle 20th century when an International Hydrological Decade was conceived, eventually receiving wide multinational support from governmental agencies and nongovernmental institutions. Organized by UNESCO, the Decade program was launched January 1, 1965. Participation included 107 nations, six United Nations agencies, and more than a dozen international scientific organizations. The initial program emphasized scientific research, and international cooperation; the second half of the Decade, emphasized technical assistance and technology transfer, largerly through education, training and demonstration. The success of the Decade led to the establishment of the International Hydrological Program, again under the aegis of UNESCO, to continue the work of the Decade indefinitely. The five major program activities, now involving about 90 countries and several international organizations, include: the scientific program, the promotion of education and training, the enhancement of information exchange, support of technical assistance, and the enlargement of regional cooperation. A significant amount of activity related to hydrological data networks and forecasting is carried on in an Operational Hydrology Programme by the WMO, chiefly through its Commission for Hydrology. Other international governmental organizations with a strong interest in water include the UN, the UN Development Programme, the FAO, the WHO, the International Atomic Energy Agency, the UN Environment Programme, the International Standardization Organization, and developmental institutions such as the World Bank. The specialized interests of researchers outside of the governmental structure, are met through association in various scientific and technical organizations which are world wide in scope and membership. Notwithstanding a sometimes

  14. International energy-investment dilemma

    SciTech Connect

    Tempest, P.

    1983-07-01

    The idea of a unified international energy market is dispelled, and the problems that exist in finding stable investors for the uncertain projects are approached. It is shown how the current contracting techniques are inappropriate for the emerging large-scale energy projects, and suggestions are made for new approaches that emphasize clauses for reviews, penalties, supply terms, inflation and oil price escalations, and currency; financing arrangements; government and international agency guarantees; and jurisdiction of national regulatory bodies. The efficiency of the world's human resources will be responsible for establishing investor confidence which will enable major financers to become involved in international energy megaprojects.

  15. Internal dissipation of a polymer.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, J M

    2010-06-01

    The dynamics of flexible polymer molecules are often assumed to be governed by hydrodynamics of the solvent. However there is considerable evidence that internal dissipation of a polymer contributes as well. Here we investigate the dynamics of a single chain in the absence of solvent to characterize the nature of this internal friction. We model the chains as freely hinged but with localized bond angles and threefold symmetric dihedral angles. We show that the damping is close but not identical to Kelvin damping, which depends on the first temporal and second spatial derivative of monomer position. With no internal potential between monomers, the magnitude of the damping is small for long wavelengths and weakly damped oscillatory time dependent behavior is seen for a large range of spatial modes. When the size of the internal potential is increased, such oscillations persist, but the damping becomes larger. However underdamped motion is present even with quite strong dihedral barriers for long enough wavelengths. PMID:20866433

  16. Zika virus: An international emergency?

    PubMed

    Palomo, Adolfo Martinez

    2016-05-01

    This Viewpoint discusses the World Health Organization's Declaration on 1 February 2016 that the epidemic infection caused by the Zika virus is a public health emergency of international concern - the basis of the decision and controversy surrounding it.

  17. International Reporting Requires Care, Fortitude.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irby, Janet

    1988-01-01

    Discusses problems faced when interviewing people from different cultures. Describes several situations encountered when student journalists traveled to the Dominican Republic. Presents seven guidelines for international reporting, developed from the author's experiences in developing nations. (MM)

  18. International Year of Astronomy 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesarsky, Catherine

    2008-05-01

    Following an unanimous resolution at the 2003 General Assembly, the International Astronomical Union (IAU) has launched 2009 as the International Year of Astronomy (IYA2009) under the theme "The Universe, yours to discover." IAU is associated with UNESCO for this endeavor. On 20 December 2007 the International Year of Astronomy 2009 was proclaimed by the United Nations 62nd General Assembly. IYA2009 marks the four hundredth anniversary of the first astronomical observation through a telescope by Galileo Galilei. It will be a global celebration of astronomy and its contributions to society and culture, with a strong emphasis on education, public engagement and involvement of young people. There will be events at national, regional, and global levels throughout the whole of 2009. IYA 2009 will also highlight for the general public the on going explosion of knowledge on the universe. I will describe the main activities foreseen and emphasize the importance of this celebration for international astronomy .

  19. Diary of a parliamentary intern.

    PubMed

    Ridge, Anthony

    2016-02-27

    Parliamentary intern Anthony Ridge has been researching neglected tropical diseases and uses rabies control as an example of how veterinary services can benefit the health and welfare of animals and people.

  20. Diary of a parliamentary intern.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Hannah

    2014-12-01

    Hannah Jordan, parliamentary intern to Lord Trees, learns that, if it turned out the UK were no longer able to import food, she wouldn't starve in the short term, so long as she could cope without avocados.

  1. Robots Aboard International Space Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    Ames Research Center, MIT and Johnson Space Center have two new robotics projects aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Robonaut 2, a two-armed humanoid robot with astronaut-like dexterity,...

  2. International Megan's Law of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Smith, Christopher H. [R-NJ-4

    2009-03-19

    04/27/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Nat; Davila, Joseph M.

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI) is an international scientific program to understand the external drivers of space weather. The science and applications of space weather has been brought to prominence because of the rapid development of space based technology that is useful for all human beings. The ISWI program has its roots in the successful International Heliophysical Year (IHY) program that ran during 2007 - 2009. The primary objective of the ISWI program is to advance the space weather science by a combination of instrument deployment, analysis and interpretation of space weather data from the deployed instruments in conjunction with space data, and communicate the results to the public and students. Like the IHY, the ISWI will be a grass roots organization with key participation from national coordinators in cooperation with an international steering committee. This talk outlines the ISWI program including its organization and proposed activities.

  4. The International Space Weather Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nat, Gopalswamy; Joseph, Davila; Barbara, Thompson

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI) is a program of international cooperation aimed at understanding the external drivers of space weather. The ISWI program has its roots in the successful International Heliophysical Year (IHY) program that ran during 2007 - 2009 and will continue with those aspects that directly affect life on Earth. The primary objective of the ISWI program is to advance the space weather science by a combination of instrument deployment, analysis and interpretation of space weather data from the deployed instruments in conjunction with space data, and communicate the results to the public and students. Like the IHY, the ISWI will be a grass roots organization with key participation from national coordinators in cooperation with an international steering committee. This presentation outlines the ISWI program including its organizational aspects and proposed activities. The ISWI observatory deployment and outreach activities are highly complementary to the CAWSES II activities of SCOSTEP.

  5. International reference standards in coagulation.

    PubMed

    Raut, Sanj; Hubbard, Anthony R

    2010-07-01

    Measurement of coagulation factor activity using absolute physico-chemical techniques is not possible and estimation therefore relies on comparative bioassay relative to a reference standard with a known or assigned potency. However the inherent variability of locally prepared and calibrated reference standards can give rise to poor agreement between laboratories and methods. Harmonisation of measurement between laboratories at the international level relies on the availability of a common source of calibration for local reference standards and this is provided by the World Health Organization (WHO) International Standards which define the International Unit for the analyte. This article describes the principles, practices and problems of biological standardisation and the development and use of reference standards for assays of coagulation factors, with particular emphasis on WHO International Standards for both concentrates and plasma.

  6. Goddard Summer Interns: Alejandro Arambula

    NASA Video Gallery

    Alejandro Arambula is an aerospace engineering student at M.I.T. and a 2011 summer intern in Goddard's Propulsion Lab. This summer he is working with his mentor Khary Parker in building a test asse...

  7. Safe Minimum Internal Temperature Chart

    MedlinePlus

    ... JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Safe Minimum Internal Temperature Chart Safe steps in food handling, cooking, and ... from other foods. Cook —Cook to the right temperature. Chill —Refrigerate food promptly. Cook all food to ...

  8. Internal dosimetry technical basis manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-20

    The internal dosimetry program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) consists of radiation protection programs and activities used to detect and evaluate intakes of radioactive material by radiation workers. Examples of such programs are: air monitoring; surface contamination monitoring; personal contamination surveys; radiobioassay; and dose assessment. The objectives of the internal dosimetry program are to demonstrate that the workplace is under control and that workers are not being exposed to radioactive material, and to detect and assess inadvertent intakes in the workplace. The Savannah River Site Internal Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual (TBM) is intended to provide a technical and philosophical discussion of the radiobioassay and dose assessment aspects of the internal dosimetry program. Detailed information on air, surface, and personal contamination surveillance programs is not given in this manual except for how these programs interface with routine and special bioassay programs.

  9. Safety Training in Reed International

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridley, J.

    1974-01-01

    The safety training provided within Reed International Limited and its relationship to production operations are outlined, demonstrating that safety works when management is committed to it on both humanitarian and economic grounds. (MW)

  10. The International Space Station Habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Patricia Mendoza; Engle, Mike

    2003-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is an engineering project unlike any other. The vehicle is inhabited and operational as it is constructed. The habitability resources available to the crew are the sleep quarters, the galley, the waste and hygiene compartment, and exercise equipment. These items are mainly in the Russian Service Module and their placement is awkward for the crew to use and work around. ISS assembly will continue with the truss build and the addition of the International Partner Laboratories. Prior to the addition of the International Partner Laboratories. Node 2 will be added. The Node 2 module will provide additional stowage volume and room for more crew sleep quarters. The purpose of the ISS is to perform research and a major area of emphasis is on the effects of long duration space flight on humans, as result of this research the habitability requirements for the International Space Station crews will be determined.

  11. EBM in practice: internal medicine.

    PubMed

    Phillips, P A

    2001-04-16

    Specialists in internal medicine have a strong research and evidence culture, and there is a large evidence base, particularly for diagnostic tests and therapeutics. Deficiencies in evidence exist in the area of clinical diagnosis, including the sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values of clinical signs. The practice of evidence-based medicine (EBM) by internal medicine specialists is hindered by lack of clinical information support systems for ongoing practice evaluation, benchmarking and improvement. Many internal medicine practitioners are moving towards the use of clinical practice guidelines to aid the EBM process. A greater acceptance of EBM processes, including evaluation and guidelines, and resolving issues of distrust of bureaucracies, practitioner protection and consumer privacy, would increase the use of EBM in internal medicine.

  12. Goddard Summer Interns: Andy Ryan

    NASA Video Gallery

    Andy Ryan is an intern staff assistant with the Lunar and Planetary Science Academy. This summer the LPSA traveled to the Channeled Scablands of eastern Washington to study and map the geology of t...

  13. An international biodiversity observation year.

    PubMed

    Wall; Adams; Mooney; Boxshall; Dobson; Nakashizuka

    2001-01-01

    The International Geophysical Year (IGY), which took place between July 1957 and December 1958, helped us to rethink the world. At a time when there was a major paradigm shift in our understanding of the physical world, the international collaboration of the IGY helped to reset the discipline. The International Biodiversity Observation Year (IBOY) is now occurring at a time when our dependence on, and understanding of, biodiversity is being acknowledged as a paradigm shift in our present view of the world. Although the benefits of IGY were initially intellectual with practical effects remaining unknown until many years later, the benefits of greater knowledge of biodiversity will support efforts towards sustainability and affect the quality of life, both now and in the future. By providing the framework for international collaborations between scientists involved in every aspect of life on Earth, IBOY has the potential to redefine our current understanding of biodiversity in a manner similar to how IGY helped redefine the geophysical world.

  14. Astronomy and international science diplomacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, Claus

    2015-08-01

    Since WW2, science has played an important, if sometimes overlooked, role in international relations and international diplomacy. The founding of CERN in 1954 and the more recent establishment of SESAME as a major research infrastructure in the Middle East are examples of this. The IAU has played its own role in the field of science diplomacy ranging from quietly fostering interaction between the antagonists of the Cold War period to the world-uniting initiative of the International Year of Astronomy. Beyond the IAU, yet still with clear links to it, we have seen ESO as an example as well as the more recent one of SKA as a vehicle for development and for strengthening international relations.

  15. International Collaboration for Venus Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutts, James; Limaye, Sanjay; Zasova, Ludmila; Wilson, Colin; Ocampo, Adriana; Glaze, Lori; Svedhem, H.; Nakamura, Masato; Widemann, Thomas

    The Venus Exploration Analysis Group (VEXAG) was established by NASA in July 2005 to identify scientific priorities and strategy for exploration of Venus. From the outset, VEXAG has been open to the international community participation and has followed the progress of the ESA Venus Express Mission and the JAXA Akasuki mission as well exploring potential broad international partnerships for Venus exploration through coordinated science and missions. This paper discussed three mechanisms through which these collaborations are being explored in which VEXAG members participate One pathway for international collaboration has been through COSPAR. The International Venus Exploration Working Group (IVEWG) was formed during the 2012 COSPAR general assembly in Mysore, India. Another potentially significant outcome has been the IVEWG’s efforts to foster a formal dialog between IKI and NASA/PSD on the proposed Venera D mission resulting in a meeting in June 2013 to be followed by a discussion at the 4MS3 conference in October 2013. This has now resulted in an agreement between NASA/PSD and IKI to form a joint Science Definition Team for Venera D. A second pathway has been through an international focus on comparative climatology. Scientists from the established space faring nations participated in a first international conference on Comparative Climatology for Terrestrial Planet (CCTP) in Boulder Colorado in June 2012 sponsored by several international scientific organizations. A second conference is planned for 2015. The Planetary Robotics Exploration Coordinating Group (PRECG) of International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) the IAA has been focusing on exploring affordable contributions to the robotic exploration by non-space-faring nations wishing to get involved in planetary exploration. PRECG has sponsored a two year study of Comparative Climatology for which Venus is the focal point and focused on engaging nations without deep space exploration capabilities. A third

  16. Finding international Landsat data online

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1997-01-01

    The Global Land Information System (GLIS) lists Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) and thematic mapper (TM) data available from the participating international ground stations shown below. These databases of the Landsat Ground Station Operations Working Group (LGSOWG) can be searched, but not ordered, using GLIS. To order Landsat scenes identified on the GLIS data search, contact the international ground station where those scenes are available, indicated by the second character of the Entity ID.

  17. Population biobanking and international collaboration.

    PubMed

    Zawati, Ma'n H; Knoppers, Bartha; Thorogood, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Population-based biobanks promise to be important resources for genetic research. However, the study of normal genomic variation across populations requires the collection of data and biological samples from individuals on a large scale. While international collaboration has become both a scientific and an ethical imperative, international sharing of data and samples poses many challenges. Significant variation persists among the legal and ethical norms governing population biobanks in different jurisdictions. Many of these norms do not clearly provide for international access. To illustrate these problems, we collected and compared applicable legislative instruments, as well as ethical guidelines issued by national, regional, and international bodies. In addition, harmonization is faced with important limitations and may not be sufficient to ensure effective international sharing. Population biobanks are therefore looking for new ways to promote sharing and improve interoperability. The formation of biobank networks and the development of common governance tools are two approaches that are setting the groundwork for international collaboration in genetic research. PMID:25792216

  18. International migration: a global challenge.

    PubMed

    Martin, P; Widgren, J

    1996-04-01

    Trends in international migration are presented in this multiregional analysis. Seven of the world's wealthiest countries have about 33% of the world's migrant population, but under 16% of the total world population. Population growth in these countries is substantially affected by the migrant population. The migration challenge is external and internal. The external challenge is to balance the need for foreign labor and the commitment to human rights for those migrants seeking economic opportunity and political freedom. The internal challenge is to assure the social adjustment of immigrants and their children and to integrate them into society as citizens and future leaders. Why people cross national borders and how migration flows are likely to evolve over the next decades are explained. This report also presents some ways that countries can manage migration or reduce the pressures which force people to migrate. It is recommended that receiving nations control immigration by accelerating global economic growth and reducing wars and human rights violations. This report examines the impact of immigration on international trade, aid, and direct intervention policies. Although migration is one of the most important international economic issues, it is not coordinated by an international group. The European experience indicates that it is not easy to secure international cooperation on issues that affect national sovereignty. It is suggested that countries desiring control of their borders should remember that most people never cross national borders to live or work in another country, that 50% of the world's migrants move among developing countries, and that countries can shift from being emigration to immigration countries. The author suggests that sustained reductions in migration pressure are a better alternative than the "quick fixes" that may invite the very much feared mass and unpredictable movements.

  19. The International Lunar Decade Declaration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beldavs, V.; Foing, B.; Bland, D.; Crisafulli, J.

    2015-10-01

    The International Lunar Decade Declaration was discussed at the conference held November 9-13, 2014 in Hawaii "The Next Giant Leap: Leveraging Lunar Assets for Sustainable Pathways to Space" - http://2014giantleap.aerospacehawaii.info/ and accepted by a core group that forms the International Lunar Decade Working Group (ILDWG) that is seeking to make the proposed global event and decade long process a reality. The Declaration will be updated from time to time by members of the ILDWreflecting new knowledge and fresh perspectives that bear on building a global consortium with a mission to progress from lunar exploration to the transformation of the Moon into a wealth gene rating platform for the expansion of humankind into the solar system. When key organizations have endorsed the idea and joined the effort the text of the Declaration will be considered final. An earlier International Lunar Decade proposal was issued at the 8th ICEUM Conference in 2006 in Beijing together with 13 specific initiatives for lunar exploration[1,2,3]. These initiatives have been largely implemented with coordination among the different space agencies involved provided by the International Lunar Exploration Working Group[2,3]. The Second International Lunar Decade from 2015 reflects current trends towards increasing involvement of commercial firms in space, particularly seeking opportunities beyond low Earth orbit. The central vision of the International Lunar Decade is to build the foundations for a sustainable space economy through international collaboration concurrently addressing Lunar exploration and building a shared knowledge base;Policy development that enables collabo rative research and development leading to lunar mining and industrial and commercial development;Infrastructure on the Moon and in cislunar space (communications, transport, energy systems, way-stations, other) that reduces costs, lowers risks and speeds up the time to profitable operations;Enabling technologies

  20. International migration: a global challenge.

    PubMed

    Martin, P; Widgren, J

    1996-04-01

    Trends in international migration are presented in this multiregional analysis. Seven of the world's wealthiest countries have about 33% of the world's migrant population, but under 16% of the total world population. Population growth in these countries is substantially affected by the migrant population. The migration challenge is external and internal. The external challenge is to balance the need for foreign labor and the commitment to human rights for those migrants seeking economic opportunity and political freedom. The internal challenge is to assure the social adjustment of immigrants and their children and to integrate them into society as citizens and future leaders. Why people cross national borders and how migration flows are likely to evolve over the next decades are explained. This report also presents some ways that countries can manage migration or reduce the pressures which force people to migrate. It is recommended that receiving nations control immigration by accelerating global economic growth and reducing wars and human rights violations. This report examines the impact of immigration on international trade, aid, and direct intervention policies. Although migration is one of the most important international economic issues, it is not coordinated by an international group. The European experience indicates that it is not easy to secure international cooperation on issues that affect national sovereignty. It is suggested that countries desiring control of their borders should remember that most people never cross national borders to live or work in another country, that 50% of the world's migrants move among developing countries, and that countries can shift from being emigration to immigration countries. The author suggests that sustained reductions in migration pressure are a better alternative than the "quick fixes" that may invite the very much feared mass and unpredictable movements. PMID:12320315